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Title: Norman's New Orleans and Environs - Containing a Brief Historical Sketch of the Territory and - State of Louisiana and the City of New Orleans, from the - Earliest Period to the Present Time
Author: Norman, B. M.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Norman's New Orleans and Environs - Containing a Brief Historical Sketch of the Territory and - State of Louisiana and the City of New Orleans, from the - Earliest Period to the Present Time" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[Transcriber's Note: The use of chapter, section, and page headers in
this book was inconsistent. There are two chapters titled "Public
Buildings" (starting P. 86 and P. 127). The chapters "Public Squares"
(P. 181) and "Excursions" (P. 199) switched from a titled paragraph
format used in the rest of the book to small cap beginnings for
paragraphs (retained).

In some cases, there were changes in topics with no corresponding change
in section headings. To mark these topic changes, the transcriber placed
additional thought breaks, not present in the original, at the following
locations: P. 137 (Hotels); P. 144 (Works, Armories, Fire Department);
P. 157 (Exchanges); and P. 169 (Galleries).

The abbreviation "do" (used primarily in the index and routing tables)
means "ditto."

The Table of Contents at the beginning has been added by the
transcriber; it was not present in the original.

Remaining transcriber's notes are at the end of the text.]


    Preface                                                v
        HISTORY OF LOUISIANA                               7
    THE STATE OF LOUISIANA                                28
    NEW ORLEANS                                           58
    PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                      86
    CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS                              110
    HOSPITALS                                            117
    PUBLIC BUILDINGS                                     127
    MANUFACTURES                                         150
    AMUSEMENTS                                           176
    PUBLIC SQUARES                                       181
    THE OLDEN TIME                                       184
    EXCURSIONS                                           191
    TRAVELLING ROUTES                                    201
    GENERAL INDEX                                        207
    ADVERTISEMENTS                                       225


    OF THE


    WITH A





       *       *       *       *       *

    Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1845, by

    B. M. NORMAN,

    in the Clerk's office of the District Court of the Southern
    District of New York.

    Wm. Van Norden, Printer, 39 William street.

       *       *       *       *       *

    TO THE


    True Sentiments of Respect,


    The Publisher.

    NEW ORLEANS, October, 1845.

       *       *       *       *       *


To the stranger visiting New Orleans, and to those abroad who may feel
an interest in the metropolis of the great South-West, no apology may
be urged for the present work. Curiosity, in the one case, and
necessity, in the other, will prove a sufficient plea, and prepare the
way for that favorable reception, which it has been the aim of the
publisher it should deserve. And, judging from the interest he has
taken in compiling it, he flatters himself it will be found a
communicative and agreeable companion to both the above classes of
readers, and to the public in general.

The tables and index have been prepared with great care, and will be
found highly convenient to those who wish to consult the work with
reference to any particular subject of which it treats. All such
subjects are there so arranged and classified, that the reader may
see, at a glance, where they are to be found.

The engravings were executed by Messrs. Shields & Hammond, after
original drawings, made expressly for this work, by Mr. Cowell. The
plan of the city was engraved by the same artists, after an original
draught by Mr. Mullhausen.

To several gentlemen, who have kindly aided the publisher in gathering
materials for the work, he would here express his grateful
acknowledgements. For the historical facts embodied in the volume, he
is indebted to several works on the history of Louisiana, and the
discovery and early settlement of our country.



[Illustration: TOMOWEN. PINXT.
De Soto's discovery of the Mississippi]

Louisiana is the name given by the French, to all that extensive tract
of land, lying West of the Mississippi River, which was ceded by them
to the United States in 1803. The line of its western boundary follows
the Sabine River to the 32d degree of north latitude; thence, due
north to the Red River; along that stream westerly to the meridian of
100 west longitude; thence due north to the Arkansas River, ascending
that to its source; thence due north to the 42d degree of latitude;
and along that, parallel to the Pacific Ocean. Its northern boundary
is a matter of dispute between the United States and Great Britain,
and the discussion, at the present moment is somewhat exciting and
ominous. It is the only question in relation to any part of our
border, which has not been amicably adjusted by treaty. _We_ claim the
boundary formed by a line drawn from the Lake of the Woods, in the
49th degree of latitude, due west to the Rocky Mountains, thence to
the parallel of 54, and on that to the Pacific. The British, on the
other hand, claim that part, lying west of the Rocky Mountains, and
north of the 46th parallel, or the latitude of the Columbia River. Our
claim to the whole of this Territory, the part in dispute being called
the Oregon, is based upon priority of discovery, and purchase. The
British claim the northern portion by right of possession. The
question has been held in suspense for several years, under a treaty
of joint occupancy, which is now about to terminate. The question of
ownership and jurisdiction, will probably be adjusted definitely in
the course of a few years. We trust it may be done without the
necessity of an appeal to arms.

The vast domain, included within the above named boundaries, contains
more than twelve hundred thousand square miles. It is about six times
the size of France, and nearly twice as large as the whole territory
embraced in the thirteen original States of the Union--an empire, in
itself sufficiently extensive to satisfy the ambition of any ordinary

The discoveries of Columbus, and his immediate successors, were
confined to the islands in and about the Gulf of Mexico, and a part of
the adjacent coast of the two Continents. The immense tracts that lay
inland, stretching thousands of miles towards the setting sun, were
unknown and unexplored for nearly half a century after the landing of
the Europeans on this coast. Those of North America were first visited
in 1512, by Juan Ponce de Leon, a Spanish adventurer in quest of the
FOUNTAIN OF IMMORTAL YOUTH, which the Indians represented as gushing
up in one of the Elysian Valleys of the West;--but, unfortunately for
him and for posterity, death overtook him before he reached the
_Fountain_, and the directions for finding it perished with him.
Having made the first land on Pascha _Florida_, or Palm Sunday, he
gave the name of Florida to all the country lying to the North and

In consequence of the premature death of Ponce de Leon, the expedition
was given up, and little more was known of these regions until 1538,
when Hernandez de Soto, having been made Governor of Cuba, and
Adelantado of Florida, undertook, with a company of six hundred men,
to explore these his western dominions. He penetrated Florida,
Georgia, Tennessee and Kentucky, and struck the Mississippi not far
from the place now known as the Chickasaw Bluffs. Thence he passed
over to the Red River, and descending that, had nearly reached its
mouth, when he was seized with a sudden fever, and died. To prevent
his body from falling into the hands of the Indians, it was sunk in
the stream at the mouth of Red River, near its junction with "_the
father of waters_."

The expedition of de Soto consumed four years, during which, his
adventures, among the various tribes and nations then teeming in these
quiet regions, were diversified and full of the most romantic
interest. He was succeeded in 1542 by Lewis de Moscoso, or Mucoso,
who, with none of the address or enterprise of de Soto, found himself
and his small company, now reduced by disease and constant warfare
with the natives, to about three hundred men, encompassed with
difficulty, and in danger of being entirely cut off. They built seven
brigantines, probably the first specimens of scientific ship building
on the Mississippi, and then dropped down the river. Pursued by
thousands of exasperated Indians in their canoes, harrassed, wounded,
and some of them slain, the miserable remnant at length found their
way out of the river, about the middle of July.

No sooner had they put to sea, than a violent tempest arose; when
another calamity befell them, which will be feelingly understood by
many of the navigators of these waters, in our own day. I will give it
in the language of the historian, who was one of the party. "While
they were in this tempest, in great fear of being cast away, they
endured an intolerable torment of an infinite swarm of musketoes,
which fell upon them, which, as soon as they had stung the flesh, it
so infected it, as though they had been venomous. In the morning, the
sea was assuaged, and the wind slacked, but not the musketoes; for the
sails, which were white, seemed black with them in the morning. Those
which rowed, unless others kept them away, were not able to row.
Having passed the fear and danger of the storm, beholding the
deformities of their faces, and the blows which they gave themselves
to drive them away, one of them laughed at another."

It is manifest from the narrative of de Soto's expedition, that a
dense population once covered this whole territory. It is equally
manifest that they were a race infinitely superior to the almost
exterminated tribes which still remain. In the arts of what we term
civilization, in the comforts and conveniences of social life, in the
organization of society, in works of taste, in a knowledge of the
principles, and an appreciation of the beauties of architecture, and
in the application of the various mechanical powers requisite to the
construction of buildings on a grand and magnificent scale, they may
challenge comparison with some of the proudest nations of antiquity,
in the old world. What has become of those mysterious nations, we are
at a loss to conjecture; but their works remain, though in ruins,
eternal monuments of their genius and power. As far as they have been
explored, they afford ample evidence that the appellation "New World"
is an entire misnomer. As the eloquent Mr. Wirt once said--"_This is
the old World_," and the day may come, when the antiquarian will find
as much that is attractive and interesting in the time hallowed ruins
and the almost buried cities, of America, as those of Pompeii and
Herculaneum, of Thebes and Palmyra.

Changed as the whole country has been, in the lapse of three
centuries, in respect to most of those things which must have struck
the original discoverers with wonder, admiration, and awe--there is
one feature, as described by de Soto, that still remains, so distinct
and characteristic, that, if the brave old Adelantado should suddenly
rise from his watery grave, he would immediately recognize the place
of his burial.

The Mississippi is still the same as when those bold adventurers first
beheld it. The historian describes it as "a river so broad, that if a
man stood still on the other side, it could not be discerned whether
he was a man or no. The channel was very deep, the current strong, the
water muddy and filled with floating trees."

Of all the great rivers of this continent, it is a distinction which
is probably peculiar to the Mississippi, that it was discovered, not
by navigators entering it from the ocean, but by a band of adventurous
explorers, striking it in their march, at some thousand miles from its

For more than a century after the expedition of de Soto, these mighty
regions were suffered to remain in the quiet possession of their
original owners, undisturbed by the visits of white men. In 1654, the
adventurous Col. Woods, from the infant colony of Virginia, wandered
into these then remote regions, and crossed "the great river," after
which it lay forgotten for twenty years longer.

In 1673, Marquette, a French monk, and Joliet, a trader, starting from
Quebec, traversed the great northern Lakes, ascended the Fox River to
its source, made a small portage west to the Wisconsin, and descended
that river to the Mississippi, where they arrived on the 7th of July.
Committing themselves to the current, the two solitary travellers
reached a village of the Illinois, near the mouth of the Missouri,
where they were kindly received and hospitably entertained. After a
brief stay, they proceeded down to a settlement of the Arkansas, near
the river of that name. They did not proceed farther at this time, but
returned to Quebec, by the same route, fully impressed with the belief
that they could reach the Gulf of Mexico, by continuing their course
on the great river. There was immense rejoicing in Quebec at the
result of this adventure. _Te deum_ was sung in the Churches, on the
occasion, and the great Western Valley set down as belonging to France
by right of discovery. They were little aware how brief their dominion
in that land would be, or how soon the fruits of all their toils would
fall into the hands of a nation then unborn, that in one little
century, should leap to independence and power, and claim an honorable
place among the hoary empires of the earth.

Six years after the return of Marquette and Joliet, Robert, Chevalier
de la Salle, commenced operations for a further exploration of the
Mississippi. With seventeen men, he proceeded to the Little Miami,
near the mouth of which he built a fort. From thence he traversed the
country, till he came to the Falls of St. Anthony. Descending the
Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, he returned by land to Quebec
during the year 1681. He then proceeded to France, procured a vessel,
and sailed in 1685, with the intention of entering the river through
the Gulf, but was unable to find its mouth.

In his next voyage, having met with the same disappointment, he
erected a fort in the Bay of St. Bernard, near the mouth of the
Colorado. Ascending that river, about sixteen miles, he established
another fort, which, however, he soon destroyed, and returned to the
first settlement. Here he built houses, erected another fort, which he
called St. Louis, and prepared the ground for cultivation. He made
many abortive attempts to find the entrance to the Mississippi. At
length, a conspiracy was formed among his own party, and he was
cruelly murdered by Dehault, on the 19th of March, 1687, near the
western branch of Trinity River. Thus fell, in the midst of his toils,
and in the prime of his years, by the hand of an assassin, one of the
most renowned adventurers of the 17th century--a man who may be justly
claimed as an honor to the country that gave him birth. He deserved a
better fate. In cool courage, in hardy enterprise, and in fertility of
resources, he was second only to Columbus. And in the power of
subduing the wild spirits of his men, and bending all their energies
to the one object before him, he displayed much of the sagacity and
tact of that great navigator. In vigor, decision and promptitude, he
much resembled the renowned Cortes, without any of the bigotry or
cruelty, that tarnished the reputation of the Conqueror of Mexico.

In 1699, eighteen years after La Salle had demonstrated the connection
of the Mississippi with the Gulf of Mexico, by passing out at its
mouth, Iberville succeeded in entering it from the Gulf. Ascending as
far as the junction of Red River, he returned, and proceeded, by way
of the Gulf, into Lake Pontchartrain. He formed a settlement and
erected a fort, at Biloxi, which he left under the command of his
brother Bienville, while he returned to France, to induce others to
join the colony. Soon after he left, the new commander ascended the
Mississippi as far as the present site of New Orleans. In returning,
he met a British vessel of sixteen guns, under the command of Capt.
Bard, who enquired the bearings of the great river, intimating that it
was his intention to establish a colony upon its banks. Bienville, in
reply, directed him to go farther west, and thus induced him to turn
about; from which circumstance, the place of their meeting was called
"The English Turn," a name which it retains to this day.

Iberville accompanied by a considerable accession of force, comprising
hardy settlers, and scientific men, soon returned to the colony.
Finding things in a promising condition, he proceeded up the river as
far as Natchez, and planted a settlement there. Leaving Bienville and
St. Denys in command, he again took leave, and sailed for France. He
was indefatigable in his exertions to establish and render permanent
his little colony. It was the first attempt in this section; and
Iberville may be well regarded as the father of Louisiana. But he did
not survive to enjoy its growth and prosperity. He died in one of the
West India Islands, a victim to the yellow fever, in 1708. About this
time, one Sauville was elected Governor. He survived the appointment,
however, but a short time. Bienville then succeeded him, and retained
the office till 1710, when he was superseded by De Muys and Diron

Finding that they derived no immediate advantage from this new
accession of territory, the French Government, in 1712, granted to
Antonio Crozat, a rich merchant of Paris, the monopoly of the trade of
Louisiana, which he surrendered back in 1717. What a fortune a man
might make now, out of a five years monopoly of the trade of that
luxuriant region!

In 1717, a new charter was issued, under the style of "The Western
Company," with the exclusive privilege of the trade of Louisiana for
twenty-five years. Bienville was again chosen Governor, and in the
following year, 1718, he laid the foundation of New Orleans. Hitherto
the pursuits of agriculture had been entirely neglected. Whether this
neglect was attributable to the hostility of the Indians, compelling
them to concentrate their little force in one spot, or to the
flattering promises of trade, or to the illusive hope of discovering
mines of gold, which occupied all their time, or to all these causes
combined, we cannot now determine. We only know, that, up to this
period, they had depended almost entirely upon supplies sent from
France, for the common necessaries of life. But now, the cultivation
of the soil began to be an object of considerable attention, tobacco
and rice being the principal articles from which a profit was

The chief personage in this "Western Company," was the notorious John
Law, a Scotch financier, one of those universal speculators, who
experiment upon every thing, human and divine, who revel only in
change, and to whom mere innovation becomes the professional business
of a life. As is usual in such cases, he managed so as to draw down
ruin upon himself and his duped associates in France, while at the
same time, he had the singular tact to place the colony in a condition
for the time. The result of his schemes, however, was ultimately
disastrous. The finances of the colony were thrown into inextricable
confusion. The French Ministry, instead of applying an efficient
remedy, or leaving the evil to cure itself, only tampered with it, by
changing the values of the coins, and thus deranging all the money
transactions of the colony. The effect was ruinous to some, and
embarrassing to all. And when was it otherwise? Never. History and
experience utter but one voice on the subject of governmental
experiments, and arbitrary legislative innovations, upon ordinary
fiscal operations, and the course of trade. And that voice is--"_hands

In the mean time war was declared between France and Spain. The
colonists, sympathizing with the mother country, commenced offensive
operations against their neighbors in Florida, and took possession of
Pensacola; which, however, the Spaniards soon recovered. The trade of
war was never very profitable, even to conquerors. No sooner were the
different colonies of pale faces at loggerheads among themselves, than
their natural enemies, the Indians, began to take advantage of their
divisions, and to endeavor to exterminate them both. A horrible
massacre took place at Natchez, in 1729. This was but part of a plan
which had been formed among the Mississippi tribes, for a general
butchery throughout the colony. The Natchez tribe, mistaking the day
appointed for the sacrifice, commenced their work of blood too soon,
and thus gave timely warning of the plot to all the other settlements.
The war which followed was a destructive one, but the Indians were
ultimately defeated.

Bienville, having returned to France in 1727, was succeeded by
Perrier. Under his administration, the agricultural enterprise of the
colony was considerably advanced. The cultivation of indigo was
commenced in 1728. The fig tree and the orange were introduced at the
same time.

In 1732, ten years before the legal expiration of their monopoly, the
"Western Company" returned their charter to the King. The colony was
then scarcely more than thirty years old, yet, notwithstanding their
many and severe trials, by war and by disease, the population numbered
five thousand whites, and two thousand blacks. Bienville was, the
third time, appointed Governor, having the entire confidence both of
the government and of the people. He continued to exercise this office
till 1741, when he again resigned, carrying with him into private life
the regrets and affectionate regards of the inhabitants. He was
succeeded by the Marquis de Vaudreuil.

In the winter of 1747-8, the orange plantations were visited by a
severe frost, such as had never been known before, which not only cut
off the crop for the season, but almost destroyed the prospects of
that branch of business in the colony.

The cultivation of the sugar cane, now so extensive and lucrative a
branch of business, did not begin to attract the attention of
agriculturalists till 1751. It was then introduced by the Jesuits of
St. Domingo, who sent some of the plants, as a present to their
brethren in Louisiana, accompanied by negroes, well acquainted with
its cultivation, and with the process then in use for manufacturing it
into sugar. The lower part of the Fauxbourg of St. Mary was devoted to
this experiment. That it was a happy experiment for the colony, and
the country, the waving fields and princely estates on every side, and
the annually increasing supply of this great staple, bear ample

A large accession was made to the population of the colony in 1754, by
the arrival of emigrants from Acadia, (Nova Scotia) which they were
compelled to leave, owing to the oppressive measures of the British
Government, by which that province had just been conquered. A few
years afterwards, great numbers of Canadians, fleeing from the same
oppressions, found refuge in the sunny valleys of the south, and
brought a very considerable acquisition of strength and wealth to the

"The seven years' war" between France and England, ended in the
cession, to the latter power, of all the French possessions in North
America, except Louisiana. It was stipulated, between the two crowns,
that the boundary line of their respective dominions, in the New
World, should run along the middle of the Mississippi, from its source
as far as the Iberville, and along the middle of that river, and of
Lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain. This was in 1763. In the course of
the same year, Louisiana was transferred by treaty to the crown of
Spain. The tidings of this unexpected cession, which were not
promulgated until two years after the execution of the treaty, spread
dismay through the colony. The idea of being passed over, _nolens
volens_, to the domination of Spaniards, was revolting to the
thousands of true hearted and loyal Frenchmen, who had acquired and
defended the territory, and claimed it as their own. They resolved, as
one man, to resist this unceremonious change of masters, apparently
determined, if their old mother, France, persisted in casting them
off, to set up for themselves.

In pursuance of this resolution, they refused to receive Don Ulloa,
whom the King of Spain despatched in 1766, to take possession of the
Province, and to assume the Government, as his representative. The
point was disputed at the cannon's mouth, but the colony prevailed,
and Don Ulloa returned with his dishonored commission, to his master.
Charles was as indignant as his crest-fallen servant, at this
unexpected repulse. But he was too busy with his own troubles at
home, to pursue the matter at that moment.

A fit instrument of Royal vengeance was at length found, in the person
of Don O'Reilly, a renegade Irishman, who, in 1769, was appointed to
subdue and rule over the refractory province. A more perfect
exemplification of the remark, that the most depraved unprincipled man
may gain the confidence and regard of Kings, can scarcely be found. In
the execution of his trust, he showed himself a very fiend incarnate.
First, by fair promises, cautiously mingled with just as much of
intimidation, as would give an air of candor and courtly conciliation
to his promises, he induced the too credulous Louisianians to abandon
their purpose of resistance, and surrender without striking a blow.
This artful guise he continued to wear, till he had obtained
possession of all the insignia of government, and the sinews of power,
and placed his own chosen tools in all the chief places of trust. Then
the mask of hypocrisy was boldly thrown off, and the cloven foot
uncovered. His fair promises were immediately shown to be only a
master stroke of policy, to gain an end. In the face of his solemn
stipulations, he caused those who had been foremost in refusing
submission to his authority, to be seized and put to death. Five of
them, principal citizens of New Orleans, he caused to be publicly
shot. Five more he consigned to the dungeons of the Moro, at Havana,
and one he procured to be assassinated. Other acts of cold-blooded
cruelty, and false-hearted tyranny followed, till he became the
execration and abhorrence of the whole colony. He introduced the
Spanish colonial system, and subjected the inhabitants to every
species of indignity and abuse. At length, the extravagance of his
measures, and his unprincipled abuse of power, wrought its own ruin.
He was recalled by his King, and disgraced--if one already so infamous
could by any means be rendered more so. His successor was Unzoga, who
was shortly after superseded by Galvez.

The colony now enjoyed a brief season of comparative quiet. But the
war between England and Spain, which broke out in 1779, afforded an
opportunity for Governor Galvez to show his loyal zeal, and exercise
his military talents. With the troops under his command, he invaded
Florida, took possession of Baton Rouge, and Fort Charlotte, near
Mobile, and proceeded to Pensacola, which, after an obstinate
resistance, also submitted to his authority. Thus was the Spanish
dominion completely established in Florida.

Governor Miro, who succeeded Galvez, carried into full effect the
colonial system of Spain, which was by no means relished by the French
inhabitants of the colony.

In 1785, a new firebrand was thrown into the midst of these
combustible elements. An attempt was made to establish an office of
the Inquisition in Louisiana. It was fearlessly opposed, and
fortunately crushed without bloodshed. The agent, to whom the
obnoxious business was entrusted, was seized in his bed, conveyed
forcibly on board a vessel, and sent home to Spain.

A census of the province, taken in 1788, just ninety years from the
date of the first settlement, showed a population of 42,611. Of these,
19,445 were whites, 21,465 slaves, and 1701 colored freemen. New
Orleans, then 70 years old, contained 5,338 inhabitants.

The Baron de Carondelet was appointed Governor in 1792. During his
administration, in the year 1794, the first newspaper, called "Le
Moniteur," was published in Louisiana. At the same period the Canal
Carondelet was commenced; and the cultivation of indigo and the sugar
cane, which had hitherto been the great staples of the colony, was

In 1795, by the treaty of St. Lorenzo, the navigation of the
Mississippi was opened to the western States of the Union, and the
great impulse given to the commercial prosperity of New Orleans, which
secured forever the pre-eminence of the Crescent City. The same treaty
defined the boundaries, as they now exist, between Florida and
Mississippi. But Carondelet, being rather more tardy in yielding
possession, than suited the active, enterprising spirit of the
Americans, the territory was seized by an armed force, under Andrew

Two years after this, a plan set on foot by Carondelet, to dismember
the American Union, by drawing the Western States into a separate
compact, was detected and defeated by the address of General
Wilkinson. Whether Aaron Burr was in the plot, or only took a hint
from it a few years later, does not appear of record. Carondelet was
succeeded by Gayosa de Lamor, Casa Calvo, and Salvado, who,
successively, but for a very brief period, wielded the chief
magistracy of the colony.

In 1803, Louisiana was re-transferred to France, and immediately sold
to the United States for 15,000,000 of dollars. The treaty which
accomplished this important object was entered into on the 30th of
April. Possession was taken, in behalf of the United States, by
General Wilkinson and William C. Claiborne, amid the rejoicings of a
people attached to liberty, and eager to grasp at any opportunity to
shake off the yoke of Spain.

The population of Louisiana, at the time of the purchase, did not
exceed fifty thousand, exclusive of the Indians, and these were
scattered over every part of its immense territory. Seven years after,
the population had nearly trebled, and her prosperity had advanced in
equal proportion.

The year 1812 was a memorable era in the history of Louisiana, and
marked with incidents never to be forgotten by her citizens. It was in
this year, that the first Steam Boat was seen on the bosom of "the
great river," now alive with hundreds of these winged messengers,
plying to and fro. In the same year war was declared with Great
Britain, and Louisiana, as now constituted, was admitted, as an
independent State, into the great American Confederacy.

[Illustration: The Cotton Plant]


[Illustration: Plantation House and Works]

The State of Louisiana is bounded on the north by the states of
Arkansas, and Mississippi; on the east by the latter and the Gulf of
Mexico; on the south by the Gulf of Mexico, and on the west by Mexico
and Texas. It is a well watered garden, the soil being rich, and
intersected by the Mississippi, Red, and Wachita Rivers, and many
inferior streams, and washed, on its western limit, by the Sabine.

The face of the country is exceedingly level, so much so, that in a
portion equal to three fourths of the State, there is scarcely a hill
to be found. Those parts that are covered with pine woods are usually
uneven, sometimes rising into fine swells, with broad table summits,
intersected with valleys from thirty to forty feet deep. They do not
lie in any particular range, but, like the ocean in a high and regular
swell, present a uniform undulated surface. The alluvial soil is, of
course level, and the swamps, which are only inundated alluvions, are
dead flats.

A range of gentle elevations commences in Opelousas, and gradually
increasing in height as it advances, diverges toward the Sabine. In the
vicinity of Natchitoches, this range holds its way northwestwardly;
about half way between the Red and the Sabine Rivers, and continues to
increase in altitude, till it reaches the western border of the State.
Seen from the pine hills above Natchitoches, it has the blue outline
and general aspect of a range of mountains.

Another line of hills, commencing not far from Alexandria, on the
northern side of the Red River, and separating the waters of that
stream from those of the Dudgemony, extends northwardly, till it
approaches, and runs into, the mammillæ, or bluffs, that bound the
alluvions of the Wachita, diverging gradually from the line of that
stream, as it passes beyond the western limits of the State.

That remote part of Natchitoches called Allen's settlement, is a high
rolling country. There are also hills of considerable magnitude on the
east side of the Mississippi, beyond the alluvions. But generally
speaking, Louisiana may be considered as one immense plain, divided
into pine woods, prairies, alluvions, swamps, and hickory and oak

The pine-wood lands, as I have already said, are usually rolling.
There are some exceptions, but they are very few. They have almost
invariably a poor soil. Some of those west of Opelousas, and those
between the Wachita and Red Rivers, are even sterile, answering well
to the name by which they are called in some other parts of the
country, Pine Barrens.

Some parts of the prairies of Opelousas are of great fertility, and
those of Attakapas are still more so. As a general feature, they are
more level than those of the upper country. An extensive belt of these
prairies, bordering on the Gulf of Mexico, is low and marshy, and
subject to be wholly inundated in any extraordinary swell of the
river. A considerable portion of them have a cold clayey soil, the
surface of which, under the influence of a warm sun, hardens into a
stiff crust. In other portions, the soil is of an inky blackness, and
often, in the hot and dry season, cracks in long fissures some inches
in width.

The bottoms are generally rich, but in very different degrees. Those
of the Mississippi and Red Rivers, and the bayous connected with these
streams, are more fertile than those on the western border of the
State. The quality of the richer bottoms of the Mississippi, as well
as those of the Red River, is sufficiently attested by the prodigious
growth of timber in those parts, the luxuriance of the cane and the
cotton, the tangles of vines and creepers, the astonishing size of the
weeds--which, however, find it difficult to over-top the better
products of the soil--and the universal strength of the vegetation.

The most productive district of this State, is a belt of land, called
"_the Coast_," lying along the Mississippi, in the neighborhood of New
Orleans. It consists of that part of the bottom, or alluvion, of the
Great River, which commences with the first cultivation above the
Balize, about forty miles below the capital, and extends about one
hundred and fifty miles above it. This belt on each side of the river,
is secured from an overflow by an embankment, called "_the levee_,"
from six to eight feet in height, and sufficiently broad, for the most
part, to furnish an excellent highway. The river, in an ordinary rise,
would cover the greater part of these beautiful bottoms, to a depth of
from two to six feet, if they were not thus protected. This belt is
from one to two miles in width; a richer tract of land, of the same
extent, cannot probably be found on the face of the globe.

On the east side of the river the levee extends to Baton Rouge, where
it meets the highlands; on the west side, it continues, with little
interruption, to the Arkansas line. On the east, above the levee, are
the parishes of Baton Rogue and West Feliciana. This latter received
its appropriate and expressive name from its beautifully variegated
surface of fertile hills and valleys, and its rare combination of all
the qualities that are most to be desired in a planting country. It is
a region of almost fairy beauty and wealth. The soil literally teems
with the most luxuriant productions of this favored clime. The hills
are covered with laurel, and forest trees of magnificent growth and
foliage, indicating a soil of the richest and most productive
character. Here are some of the wealthiest and most intelligent
planters, and the finest plantations in the state, the region of
princely taste and luxury, and more than patriarchal hospitality. The
mouth of Bayou Sara, which is the point of shipment for this
productive region, transmits immense quantities of cotton to New
Orleans. Some of the plantations on this bayou have from five to eight
hundred acres under cultivation.

On the western side of the Mississippi, are the Bayous Lafourche and
Plaquemine, outlets, or arms of the Great River, and subject, of
course, to all its fluctuations. The bottoms bordering on these bayous
are of the same luxuriant soil, as those on the parent stream, and are
guarded from inundation in the same manner, by levees. In this region,
the sugar cane is exceedingly productive. It is estimated that, within
a compass of seven miles from Thibadeauxville, in the vicinity of the
Bayous Black and Terre Bonne, about one tenth of the sugar crop of
Louisiana is produced.

A considerable part of Attakapas is also very productive, as well as
portions of Opelousas. The latter, however, is better adapted to
grazing. The Teche, which meanders through the former, and the eastern
part of the latter, of these two parishes, never overflows its banks.
The land rises from the river, in a regularly inclined plane towards
the woods, affording free courses for the streams, which discharge
themselves into the bayou. The soil, therefore, cannot be called
alluvial, though in the most essential quality of productiveness, it
is scarcely inferior to the best of them. It is a lovely region, the
most beautiful, perhaps, in the whole Union, for agricultural
purposes. But it has one great drawback, especially for the
cultivation of sugar; there is a deficiency of ordinary fire-wood;
though the live-oak abounds there to such an extent, that Judge Porter
once remarked in Congress, that "there was enough of it in Attakapas,
to supply the navies of the whole world with ship timber."

The lands on the Atchafalaya are of an excellent quality, and would
afford a desirable opening for enterprising cultivators, if they were
not liable to frequent inundations, an evil which will doubtless be
remedied, as the population and wealth of that section advances. Those
on the Courtableau, which runs through Opelousas, are equal in point
of fertility, to any in that parish. From thence, proceeding
northward, by Bayou Boeuf, we find, on that bayou, a soil which is
regarded by many as the best in the State for the cultivation of
cotton. There is also land of an excellent quality on Bayou Rouge,
though it is, as yet, for the most part, in the state of nature. The
banks of the Bayou Robert, still further north, are of extraordinary
fertility, the cane brake, a sure evidence of a very rich soil,
flourishing with astonishing luxuriance. Bayou Rapid, which gives its
name to the parish through which it runs, intersects one of the most
beautiful tracts in the state, which is laid out, on both sides of the
bayou, through the whole length of its course, into the finest cotton

The bottoms of the Red River are well known for their fertility. Those
which lie about its lower courses are justly esteemed the paradise of
cotton planters. The soil is of a darkish red color, occasioned by
the presence of the red oxide of iron. It is thought to derive its
character of luxuriant productiveness from a portion of salt
intimately blended with its constituents, which, from its tendency to
effloresce in a warm sun, renders the compound peculiarly friable.
This soil is deep, and has been accumulating for unknown ages, from
the spoils of the Mexican mountains, (a species of natural annexation
which the laws of nations have no power to regulate,) and the vast
prairies which are washed by its upper courses.

The rich valley of the Red River is of a magnificent breadth, and for
the most part, where it has not been cleared for cultivation, covered
with a dense growth of forest trees. All the bayous of this river,
which are very numerous, branching off in every direction, and
intersecting every part of this luxuriant valley, partake of the
fertilizing character of the main stream.[1]

There are few things among the works of nature, more remarkable than
the _floating prairies_, which are found upon the lakes bordering upon
the coast of the Gulf. They seem to have been formed by the natural
aggregation of such vegetable matter as lay suspended upon the
surface of the water, supplied with a light substratum of soil, partly
by its own decay and disintegration, and partly by attracting around
its roots and fibres the alluvial treasures with which all these
waters abound. From this, various kinds of grass and weeds have sprung
up, the roots of which have become firmly interwoven with the
subjacent mass, matting it completely together, and giving it all the
appearance of a substantial island. It is often several inches in
thickness, and so nearly resembles terra firma, that not only the
sagacity of man, but even animal instinct has been deceived by it.
These floating prairies are sometimes of great extent, and are by no
means confined to waters comparatively shoal. They literally cover the
deeps in some cases, and a great deal of precaution is necessary to
avoid them, for, stable as they look at a distance, they are as
unsubstantial as shadows, so that boats may oftentimes be forced
through them. They are less trustworthy than quicksands, for the
unlucky wight who should adventure himself upon their deceitful
appearances, would find himself entangled in a net of interminable
extent, from which it would be impossible to extricate himself.

It may not be deemed presumption, perhaps, to suggest, that the great
Raft on the Red River may be a formation upon the same principle,
though upon a more enlarged scale. The stream being sluggish, and the
alluvial deposit exceedingly heavy and rich, the accumulation of a
productive soil, and the consequent growth and entanglement of roots
would be very rapid; and a foundation would ultimately be formed
sufficiently stable and permanent, to be travelled with safety.
Floating trees from the upper courses, arrested by this obstruction,
would imbed themselves in the mass, until, by continual accretions, it
should become what it now is, an impassable and almost irremovable
barrier to navigation.

The Delta of the Mississippi is a region of extensive marshes. For
many leagues, the lakes, inlets and sounds, which dissect and
diversify that amphibious wilderness, are connected by an inextricable
tissue of communications and passes, accessible only by small vessels
and bay craft, and impossible to be navigated except by the most
experienced pilots. It is a perfect labyrinth of waters, more
difficult to unravel than those of Crete and Lemnos. The shore is
indented by numberless small bays, or coves, few of which have
sufficient depth of water, to afford a shelter for vessels. Berwick
and Barritaria Bays are the only ones of any considerable magnitude.

The prairies which cover so large a portion of this State, are, for
the most part, connected together, as if the waters from which they
were originally deposited had been an immense chain of lakes, all fed
from the same great source. And this was undoubtedly the fact. They
were all supplied from the Mississippi, and their wonderful fertility
is derived from the alluvial riches of those interminable regions,
which are washed by the father of rivers and his countless
tributaries. Those included under the general name of Attakapas, are
the first which occur on the west of the Mississippi. It is an almost
immeasurable plain of grass, extending from the Atchafalaya on the
north, to the Gulf of Mexico, on the south. Its contents are stated to
be about five thousand square miles. Being open to the Gulf, it is
generally fanned by its refreshing breezes. To the traveller in those
regions, who may have been toiling on his weary way through tangle,
and swamp, and forest, there is something indescribably agreeable in
this smooth and boundless sea of unrivalled fertility, whose dim
outline mingles with the blue of the far off Gulf--the whole vast
plain covered with tall grass, waving and rippling in the breeze,
sprinkled with neat white houses, the abodes of wealth, comfort and
hospitality, and dotted with innumerable cattle and horses grazing in
the fields, or reposing here and there under the shade of the wooded
points. The sudden transition from the rank cane, the annoying
nettles, the stifling air, and the pestilent mosquitoes, to this open
expanse, and the cool salubrious breath of the ocean, is as delightful
and reviving as an oasis in the desert.

In the midst of this immense prairie, is situated the parish of
Attakapas. This word, in the language of the Aborigines, from whom it
is derived, signified "man-eater," the region having been occupied by
Cannibals. Strange indeed, that the inhabitants of a climate so bland,
and a soil so fertile, should possess the taste, or feel the necessity
for so revolting and unnatural a species of barbarism.

Opelousas prairie is still more extensive than Attakapas, being
computed to contain nearly eight thousand square miles. It is divided
by bayous, wooded grounds, points, and bends, and other natural
boundaries, into a number of smaller prairies, which have separate
names, and characteristics more or less distinctive. Taken in its
whole extent, it is bounded by the Attakapas prairie on the east, pine
woods and hill on the north, the Sabine on the west, and the Gulf of
Mexico on the south. The soil though in many places extremely fertile,
is generally less so than that of Attakapas. It has, however, a
compensating advantage, being deemed the healthiest region in the
State. It embraces several large cotton plantations, and a
considerable region devoted to the cultivation of the sugar cane. The
parish which bears its name is one of the most populous in Louisiana.
It is the centre of the land of shepherds, the very Arcadia of those
who deal in domestic animals. To that employment, the greater part of
the inhabitants are devoted, and they number their flocks and herds by
thousands. On one estate five thousand calves were branded in the
spring of 1845.

The people of this district are distinguished for that quiet, easy,
unostentatious hospitality, which assures the visitor of his welcome,
and makes him so much at home, that he finds it difficult to realize
that he is only a guest.

Bellevue prairie lies partly in Opelousas, and partly in Attakapas.
Calcasieu and Sabine prairies are only parts of the great plain, those
names being given to designate some of the varied forms and openings
it assumes in its ample sweep from the Plaquemine to the Sabine. They
are, however, though but parts of a larger prairie, of immense extent.
The Sabine, seen from any point near its centre, seems, like the
mid-ocean, boundless to the view. The Calcasieu is seventy miles long,
by twenty wide. Though, for the most part, so level as to have the
aspect of a perfect plain, the surface is slightly undulated, with
such a general, though imperceptible declination towards the streams
and bayous by which it is intersected, as easily to carry off the
water, and prevent those unhealthy stagnations which are so fatal in
this climate. There is also a gentle slope towards the Gulf, along the
shore of which the vast plain terminates in low marshes often
entirely covered with the sea. These marshes are overspread with a
luxuriant growth of tall reedy cane grass.

One of the most striking and peculiar features of these prairies is
found in the occasional patches of timbered land, with which their
monotonous surface is diversified and relieved. They are like islands
in the bosom of the ocean, but are for the most part so regular and
symmetrical in their forms, that one is with difficulty convinced that
they are not artificial, planted by the hand of man, in circles,
squares, or triangles, for mere ornament. It is impossible for one who
has not seen them, to conceive of the effect produced by them, rising
like towers of various forms, but each regular in itself, from the
midst of an ocean of grass. Wherever a bayou or a stream crosses the
prairie, its course is marked with a fringe of timber, the effect of
which upon the eye of the observer is exceedingly picturesque, making
a background to the view in many instances, like lines of trees in
landscape painting.

All the rivers, bayous, and lakes of this State abound with
alligators. On Red River, before it was navigated by steamboats, it
was not uncommon to see hundreds in a group along the banks, or
covering the immense masses of floating and stranded timber, bellowing
like angry bulls, and huddled so closely together, that the smaller
ones were obliged to get upon the backs of the larger. At one period,
great numbers were killed for their skins, which were made into
leather for boots and shoes, but not proving sufficiently close
grained to keep out the water, the experiment was abandoned.
Alligators average from eight to twelve feet in length. Some have been
caught, measuring twenty feet.

The fear is often entertained, and sometimes expressed, that the
levees of the Mississippi are not sufficient to resist the great body
of water that is continually bearing and wearing upon them; and these
fears have, in several cases, been realized, though never to any very
great extent. In May 1816 the river broke through, about nine miles
above New Orleans, destroyed several plantations, and inundated the
back part of the city to the depth of three or four feet. The crevasse
was finally closed, by sinking a vessel in the breach, for the
suggestion and accomplishment of which, the public was chiefly
indebted to Governor Claiborne.

In June, 1844, the river rose higher than it had done for many years,
marking its whole course, for more than two thousand miles, with wide
spread destruction to property and life. It crept over the levee in
some places near New Orleans, but caused no actual breach in that
vicinity. At Bonnet Carre it forced a crevasse, doing considerable
damage and causing great alarm in the neighborhood; but the mischief
was not so serious as might have been anticipated, and the embankment
has been so increased and strengthened, as to leave but little
apprehension for the future.

The interests of Education in Louisiana, though hitherto too much
neglected, are now decidedly and perceptibly advancing. In the higher
departments, are the College of Louisiana, at Jackson, in East
Feliciana; and Jefferson College in St. James parish, on the
coast--the former incorporated in 1825, the later in 1831. Both have
at various times, received generous donations from the treasury of the
state. Franklin College, in Opelousas was also incorporated in 1831,
under the same favorable auspices.[2]

There are also several Academies acting under the legal sanction of
the State, although not endowed by it. The Ursuline Nuns' School and
that of the Sisters of Charity--the latter in the parish of St. James,
afford instruction in all the polite branches of female education. The
Convent at Grand Coteau near Opelousas, has an average of about two
hundred scholars; and efficient persons from France have the control
and direction of their education.

The public schools, designed for the general and gratuitous
dissemination of knowledge among all classes, have not only increased
in number but have generally outstripped those of the higher order, by
seizing at once upon all the improvements which the experience of
teachers in other parts of the country, and the world, has from time
to time suggested. Mere innovations rather hinder than advance the
progress of education. But the simplest suggestion of an enlightened
experience and a sound judgment, such as are brought to bear upon this
great interest throughout the whole of the northern and eastern
States, is entitled to the profound regard of the Southern
philanthropist, whose aim and ambition it should be, to make the most
of every facility and to be no whit behind the older, but not more
wealthy sections, in any thing that can promote the moral and
intellectual power of the masses of the people.

The climate of Louisiana is hot and moist. In the neighborhood of the
marshes, and in the summer season, it partakes of the unhealthy
character of nearly all tropical climates. Diseases of the lungs,
however, and other complaints so prevalent at the north, are scarcely
known; and to many, the quick consuming fever which finishes its work
in a few days, may be considered but a fair offset to the slow but
sure consumption, which flatters its victims with the semblance of
life and hope, while dragging them through its long and dreary
labyrinths, to the chambers of death.

This climate is favorable to almost all the productions of the
tropics. The sugar, the cotton plant, the orange, the lemon, the
grape, the mulberry, tobacco, rice, maize, sweet potato, &c., &c.,
flourish in rich abundance, and some of them attain to a luxuriance of
growth scarcely known in any other part of the world. Sugar and Cotton
are the two great staples. The former is confined chiefly to that
tract, which, by way of distinction, is called "the coast," lying
along the shores of the Gulf, and the bayous of the Mississippi.

The average sugar crop of the whole state, is now about 180,000
hogsheads. That of cotton, for the last year is not ascertained, but
the amount produced in the whole valley of the Mississippi, sent to
New Orleans for export in 1843, was 1,088,000 bales. Owing to the
large extension of the cotton growing districts, and excessive
competition in its manufacture, the cultivation of cotton yields less
profit than it formerly did, and there seems to be no substantial
reason why it should not, in some degree, give place to sugar, at
least until the latter can be furnished in sufficient quantity to
supply the domestic consumption. Under the ordinary increase of
population, the utmost exertions of the cane planters will hardly
arrive at such a result, in half a century to come.

While on this subject, it will not, I trust, be deemed irrelevant or
officious, to place before the reader the suggestions of an
intelligent gentleman of New Orleans, in regard to the present mode of
cultivating and manufacturing sugar. He observes that in order to
carry on the business to advantage, and compete favorably with those
already established, a large capital is required, since in addition to
the ground to be cultivated, and the hands to be employed in the
field, expensive mills and machinery must be set up, and kept in
motion, with a large number of laborers in attendance. Consequently no
man in moderate circumstances can undertake this branch of business,
as it is now conducted. To obviate this difficulty, and extend the
cultivation and manufacture of this important staple, he proposes a
division of labor and profit, like that which prevails in the grain
growing and milling regions of the north. The farmer sells his wheat,
at a fair market value, to the miller, or pays him a stipulated
percentage for grinding and bolting. In the same manner might the
business here be divided into two distinct branches. The planter might
sell his cane to the miller, or pay him the established price for
converting it into sugar and molasses. This would enable men of
comparatively small means to undertake the cultivation of the cane,
who now confine themselves to cotton, and thus relieve the larger
cultivators of the latter staple from the dangers of over production.

Casting our eyes back to no very distant period, and noticing the
small beginnings of our early planters of cotton, the reader will
pardon the introduction of a trifling anecdote. During the year 1784,
only sixty years since, and therefore within the memory of many now
living, an American vessel, having _eighty bales_ of cotton on board,
was seized at Liverpool, on the plea that _so large_ an amount of
cotton could not have been produced in the United States. The shipment
in 1785 amounted to 14 bales, in 1786 to 6, in 1787 to 109, 1788 to
389, in 1789 to 842. An old Carolina planter, having gathered his crop
of five acres, was so surprised and alarmed at the immense amount they
yielded, which was fifteen bales, that he exclaimed "well, well--I
have done with cotton--here is enough to make stockings for all the
people in America!" The cotton crop of the United States for 1844 was
2,300,000 bales.

The fluctuations in the foreign cotton market, within a few years
past, have produced, among scientific agriculturalists and experienced
planters, no little speculation upon the course which a due regard to
their own interests requires them to pursue. It is not to be wondered
at, that in a country so vast, so luxuriantly fertile as ours, and
teeming with the most enterprising and industrious population on the
face of the earth, the strict relations of supply and demand should be
occasionally disturbed in some of the many abundant productions of the
soil. It is always a difficult problem to solve, especially where the
field is very large, and the producers many, and constantly
increasing. In attempting to meet it, the first question to be
answered is, does the present supply greatly overreach the present

An intelligent writer in Hunt's Merchant's Magazine for October, 1844,
Henry Lee, Esq., has placed this subject, so far as he has there
pursued it, in a very clear light. He commences by stating that "the
consumption of cotton in Europe, other than the production of America
and India, is too insignificant to have any important bearing upon
prices." He goes on to show that the value placed upon the article at
present, is quite sufficient, and that the advantage it gives to the
manufacturer of New England, whose operations are vastly increasing,
renders him a successful competitor to those of Great Britain; and
nothing but an inflated currency, or imprudent speculations can
produce an advance. And any advance so procured must inevitably be
followed by a ruinous reaction. He shows that, through the agency of
the British manufacturers, and the exporters of their goods to
countries beyond the Cape of Good Hope, a considerable quantity of
American grown cotton had been sent to those regions, in the form of
manufactures and twist, over and above the amount of Indian grown
cotton consumed in the factories of England. This simple fact, which
is demonstrated as clearly as figures can speak, completely nullifies
the importation of cotton from that quarter.

The proportion of raw cotton, other than the produce of the United
States and India, used in the manufactures of Great Britain, is very
small, and constantly diminishing in quantity. After producing
statistical evidence, Mr. Lee arrives at the satisfactory result that
the consumption of cotton from the United States and India, is as
ninety-four to one hundred, leaving, for all other sources of supply,
only six per cent. With such a ratio as this, and the competition
constantly declining, it is manifest that we have nothing to fear from
rival producers.

The delicate enquiry now arises, can the American planter sustain
himself under existing prices? Or, can he, by the exercise of better
economy, make his labors more productive? It seems to me, if it will
not be presuming too far to offer the suggestion, that there should be
an understanding between the larger and more intelligent planters, in
relation to these points, and that they should, for their own
individual and collective interests, consider, whether it would not be
better partially to restrain the cultivation of this staple, rather
than permit it to increase beyond the known and certain demands of
commerce. The question increases in importance, as the cotton growing
region enlarges, by the admission of "the lone star" into the
constellation of Freedom. While it secures to the United States
forever almost the entire monopoly of production, it puts it in her
power, by a judicious combination among her great producers, to
command a fair compensating price for cotton. Without some such
combination, or, which is equivalent to the same thing, a prevailing
disposition on the part of the planters, rather to wait for a demand
than to anticipate, or endeavor to create it, there will always be a
surplus stock in the market, which, however insignificant, will affect
the price of the whole crop.

The luxuriant soil of Louisiana is capable of of producing many
articles even more lucrative than cotton, of which there is no
immediate danger of creating an over supply. For some of them, there
is a very large and increasing home consumption, as well as an active
demand in other parts of the world that are open to our commerce. Of
sugar, I have spoken already. Madder, silk, hemp, tobacco, may also be
mentioned, as promising sure results to any who are disposed to try
them. Under the impression that, in view of what I have already
presented, the subject will be interesting to my readers, I shall
venture to add a few words in relation to some of the above-mentioned

Madder,[3] (_rubia tinctorum_,) the roots of a plant, which consist of
several varieties. They are long and slender; varying from the
thickness of a goose quill, to that of the little finger. They are
semi-transparent, of a reddish color, have a strong smell, and a
smooth bark. Madder is very extensively used in dying red; and, though
the color which it imparts be less bright and beautiful than that of
cochineal, it has the advantage of being cheaper and more durable. It
is a native of the south of Europe, Asia Minor, and India; but has
long since been introduced into, and successfully cultivated in
Holland, Alsace, Provence, &c. The attempt to cultivate it in England,
like that of Indian corn, has proved a complete failure. The English,
for a long time, depended upon Holland for their supplies; but now
large quantities are imported from France and Turkey, under a duty of
two shillings sterling on the manufactured, and sixpence on the roots.
The duties, formerly, were much higher.

The plant is raised from seed, and requires three years to come to
maturity. It is, however, often pulled in eighteen months, without
injury to the quality, the quantity only being smaller. It requires a
light vegetable mould, that retains the greatest quantity of water and
adheres the least to the tools. When the soil is impregnated with an
alkaline matter, the root acquires a red color, in other cases it is
yellow. The latter is preferred in England, from the long habit of
using Dutch madder, which is of this color; but in France, the red
sells at a higher price, being used for Turkey red die.

The Zealand or Dutch madder is prepared for market in a manufactured
state; and is known in trade by the terms, _mull_, _gamene_, _ombro_,
and _crops_. In some other countries, the roots are packed up
promiscuously, and the article is sold by the quintal. The price of
madder, like every thing else, is affected by the quantity in market,
and ranges in France from its minimum 22, to 100 francs a quintal. It
does not deteriorate by age. The quantity used in this country is very
considerable--but nothing equal to that required in Great Britain. For
the particular manner of cultivating madder, the reader is referred to
an excellent essay upon that subject, from the pen of M. De Casparin,
which was laid before the Academy of Sciences at Paris, and a prize
awarded to its author.

The _mulberry_ is grown with little difficulty in these latitudes, and
therefore, silk may be produced in abundance, and rendered an article
of domestic and commercial consequence. Plantations have already been
commenced in several of the parishes, which will soon test the
feasibility of the undertaking. A gentleman by the name of Vasseur,
recently from France, has purchased land and made preparations to
enter into that business, under many years of experience. In the
parish of St. James, particularly, considerable attention is being
paid to the culture of silk. It would be extremely gratifying to be
able to lay the result of these experiments before the reader; but the
necessary information is not at hand.

_Hemp_ is raised in Missouri and Kentucky to some extent, as the
quantities annually landed on the levee in New Orleans afford ample
evidence. The demand for it will be good for many years, and the hint
should not be neglected by the citizens of Louisiana, who possess the
higher grounds, which are calculated for its production. When it is
considered that this is a raw material of vast demand, which has
heretofore been furnished from abroad, there can scarcely be any
excuse for neglecting the culture, provided the profits be equal to
those on sugar and cotton. The time may come, when even foreign
nations will look to this republic for cordage and duck; at all
events, we should not depend upon them for articles necessary for
domestic purposes, and especially for those which may with propriety
be classed "among the sinews of war."

Specimens of _tobacco_, the produce of seed imported from Cuba, have
been exhibited in this market, which are very little, if any, inferior
to the best from that island. These samples were raised by a gentleman
who resides near Jackson, who took no extraordinary pains in the
cultivation. The segars manufactured from them would pass, among good
judges, for the best Havana. This planter is of opinion that he can
very much improve the crops, by bestowing as much care upon them as is
given to the same pursuit in Cuba, and there can be little reason to
question his assertion.

The Natchitoches tobacco stands higher abroad, particularly for snuff,
than any other. This article is so well known in France, and many
other places, that those who are engaged in planting it, boast that
it requires no protective duties, as it will be quite able to take
care of itself.

The only drawback upon the cultivation of tobacco, in this state, is
the worm, which begins its depredations in early summer. But much loss
by this annoyance might be avoided, by forcing the plants in their
early stage, in a hot-house, so that they might sooner be brought to
maturity, and two clippings be made before the advent of the worm.

The thin soil on lake Pontchartrain is found to be well adapted to the
_vine_. Already, considerable progress has been made in its
cultivation in that neighborhood, and grapes are abundantly furnished
for the New Orleans market. There is no doubt that wine might be
produced in abundance.

_Indigo_, one of the oldest products of this state, has been
superseded by the sugar cane. Whether the planter has found more
advantage in the latter than in the former cultivation, can only be
inferred from his continuing to pursue it; for the maxim, that trade
will regulate itself, is nearly as applicable to agriculture as to

_Grazing_, although it has been carried to a great extent in Attakapas
and Opelousas, has never proved so lucrative as might be supposed.
Many of the cattle perish there during winter, for the want of proper
nourishment. There is a grass, however, known by the name of
_muskeet_, an ever-green, which flourishes abundantly in Texas,
spreads rapidly, is exceedingly nutritious, and much sought for by
animals, and might easily be introduced into these prairies. This
improvement would make this section of country the best for grazing in
the United States. More attention is being paid to breeding cattle,
and the improvement of stock, than formerly. Sheep may be raised among
the hills, in and about Natchitoches, in almost any numbers. In
Lafourche, also, although they are of small size, they are fat and of
fine flavor. This is a business which is yet in its infancy here. The
capabilities for its extension are immense, and there is no doubt that
the enterprise of the inhabitants will soon find means to make it
profitable. The mutton of this state is already superior to any
produced in the Union; good judges in these matters have even
pronounced it to be equal to the best English.

The minerals of Louisiana, so far as known, are very limited. Lead has
only been found in fragments; and none of these have proved to be
rich. Valuable beds of gypseous marl exist in the vicinity of the
Wachita, which admit of being worked to great advantage. Lignite coal
has been discovered in tertiary formations, which never present any
article of this kind beyond an ordinary quality, the better being
always confined to the secondary strata. On the lands north of lake
Pontchartrain, clay exists of an excellent quality and very pure,
suitable for manufacturing not only the best bricks, but pottery of
all kinds. It is to be hoped that this will remedy the great evil that
New Orleans has hitherto experienced, by the use of a bad material for
buildings. This has arisen from the employment of a substance too near
the surface of the earth; whereas, by going a little deeper, a prime
clay is obtained, that would bid defiance, when well burnt, to the
humidity peculiar to this southern atmosphere.


[1] Many of the preceding statements are the result of an extensive
personal observation; for others, the work is indebted to McCulloch, a
compilation of considerable value, but, unfortunately, not always to
be relied on as authority. In some points, he is glaringly incorrect.

[2] The new constitution of Louisiana prescribes that the legislature
shall establish free schools throughout the state, appoint a
superintendent of education, and provide means for defraying the
expense by taxation. The proceeds from the sale of all public lands
granted by the United States, the estates of deceased persons
escheating to the state, as well as certain other named emoluments,
are to remain a perpetual fund, sacredly to be applied to the support
of such schools. A provision is also to be made for establishing a
college in the city of New Orleans, to be called _the University of
Louisiana_, to consist of four faculties, viz. law, medicine, the
natural sciences and letters--of which the Medical College of
Louisiana, as now organized, is to constitute the faculty of medicine.
The legislature is to be under no obligations to contribute to the
support of this institution by appropriations.

[3] For many satisfactory particulars, see McCulloch's Commercial
Dictionary, under article _Madder_.


[Illustration: Mouth of the Mississippi]

New Orleans, the capital of Louisiana, stands on the right side of the
Mississippi, in ascending, ninety-two miles from its mouth. The river
here makes a considerable bend to the northeast, and the city occupies
the northwestern side, although its situation is east of the general
course of the stream. It is in latitude 29° 57' north, longitude 90°
8' west; by the river 301 miles below Natchez; 1220 miles below St.
Louis; 1040 below Cairo, at the mouth of the Ohio; 2004 below
Pittsburgh; and 1244 south-west from Washington city.

In 1718, Bienville, then governor of the province, explored the banks
of the Mississippi, in order to choose a spot for the chief
settlement, which had hitherto been at Biloxi. He selected the present
site, and left fifty men to clear the ground, and erect the necessary
buildings. Much opposition was made, both by the military and the
directors of the Western Company, to removing the seat of government
to this place. Another obstacle, for a while, threatened almost
insurmountable difficulties to his design. In 1719, the Mississippi
rose to an extraordinary height; and, as the company did not possess
sufficient force to protect the spot from inundation, by dykes and
levees, it was for a time abandoned. In the November of 1722, however,
in pursuance of orders, Delorme removed the principal establishment to
New Orleans. In the following year, agreeably to Charlevoix, it
consisted only of one hundred cabins, placed with little order, a
large wooden warehouse, two or three dwelling-houses, and a miserable
store-house, which had been used as a chapel, a mere shed being then
the only accommodation afforded for a house of prayer. The population
did not exceed two hundred. Thus commenced what is now called the
"Crescent City;" which, in a commercial point of view, and in
proportion to the number of its inhabitants, has not an equal upon the
face of the globe.

During the same year, a party of German emigrants, who had been
disappointed by the financier, Law, of settling on lands granted to
him in Arkansas, descended the river to New Orleans, in the hope of
obtaining passage to France; but the government being either unwilling
or unable to grant it, small allotments of land were apportioned them,
on what is now called the German Coast. These people supplied the city
with garden stuffs; and most of their descendants, with large
accessions from the old country, still cultivate the same land, upon a
much improved scale.

In September of this year, the capital was visited by a terrible
hurricane, which levelled to the ground the church, if such it might
be called, the hospital, and thirty houses; and three vessels that lay
in the river were driven ashore. So destructive was it to the crops
and gardens, that a scarcity of provisions was the consequence; and
such was the distress, that several of the inhabitants seriously
thought of abandoning the colony.

In the summer of 1727, the Jesuits and Ursuline nuns arrived. The
fathers were placed on a tract of land now forming the lowest part of
the fauxbourg St. Mary. The nuns were temporarily lodged in a house in
the corner of Chartres and Bienville streets--but, soon after, the
company laid the foundation of the edifice in Conde and Ursuline
streets, to which they were removed in 1730; this place was occupied
by them until the great value of the land induced them to divide the
larger portion of it into lots. Their new convent was erected about
two miles below the city, and there they removed in 1824. At this
period, the council house and jail were built, on the upper side of
the Cathedral.

In 1763, Clement XIII expelled the Jesuits from the dominions of the
kings of France, Spain and Naples. They were, consequently, obliged to
leave Louisiana. Their property in New Orleans was seized, and sold
for about one hundred and eighty thousand dollars. It is now estimated
to be worth upwards of fifteen millions. At the time of the expulsion
of this order, they owned the grounds which are now occupied by the
second municipality. The valuable buildings in which they dwelt, were
situated in Gravier and Magazine streets. Some of them were pulled
down to make room for the late banking house of the Canal bank, on the
corner of those streets. It is computed, that more than one half of
the real estate in this city, is derived from the confiscation of the
property of the Jesuits, under legal proceedings had by order of the
French government. The archives of the first municipality contain many
interesting and curious documents in relation to these proceedings,
that are well worth examination.

The first visitation of the yellow fever was in 1769. Since that time
it has continued to be almost an annual scourge. It was introduced
into this continent, in the above named year, _by a British vessel_,
from the coast of Africa, _with a cargo of slaves_. In addition to
this affliction, (the yellow fever above alluded to,) the colony was,
during the year 1769, transferred to Spain, and the capital was taken
possession of by O'Reilly, with a show of military power, and an
individual disposition to oppress, that brought equal disgrace upon
himself, and upon the government that commissioned him. The commerce
of this city suffered very much from the restrictive colonial system
of Spain. This, however, was removed in 1778, (a year memorable for a
fire that burnt nine hundred houses at one time) and, in 1782, the
mercantile interest of the place was benefited by still further
extended privileges of trade.

The census of 1785 gives to the city a population of 4,780, exclusive
of the settlements in the immediate vicinity.

In consequence of the commercial advantages above alluded to, a number
of merchants from France established themselves here, and British
trading vessels navigated the Mississippi. They were a species of
marine pedlars, stopping to trade at any house, by making fast to a
tree, and receiving in payment for merchandise, whatever the planter
had to spare, or giving him long credits. The Americans, at that time,
commenced the establishment of that trade from the west to New
Orleans, which has been steadily increasing ever since. The idea of
this traffic was first conceived by General Wilkinson. A lucrative
business was also conducted by the Philadelphians, which the colonial
authorities winked at for a while; but the Spanish minister, finding
that he did not participate in the profits of it, as the Americans
refused to comply with his hints to consign to his friends, put a stop
to it. He procured a list of the names of the vessels, severely
reprimanded the intendant, Navarro, and so worked upon his fears that
he began to prosecute all infringements of the revenue laws, seizing
the vessels, confiscating the goods and imprisoning the owners,
captains and crews. The venal minister, perceiving that he had
rendered himself extremely unpopular by his intermeddling with the
commerce between Philadelphia and New Orleans, finally released all
the individuals he had imprisoned, restoring the confiscated property,
and discontinuing any further interference. The trade immediately
received a new impulse and was greatly increased. General Wilkinson at
the same time obtained permission to send one or more launches loaded
with tobacco, from Kentucky.

Soon after, many Americans availed themselves of a privilege which
was granted, of settling in the country.

The first company of French comedians arrived here in 1791. They came
from Cape Francois, whence they made their escape from the revolted
slaves. Others from the same quarter opened academies--the education
of youth having hitherto been confined to the priests and nuns.

The baron Carondelet, in 1792, divided the city into four wards. He
recommended lighting it, and employing watchmen. The revenue did not
amount to seven thousand dollars, and to meet the charges for the
purchase of lamps and oil, and to to pay watchmen, a tax of one dollar
and an eighth was levied upon chimneys.

He also commenced new fortifications around the capital. A fort was
erected where the mint now stands, and another at the foot of Canal
street. A strong redoubt was built in Rampart street, and at each of
the angles of the now city proper. The Baron also paid some attention
to training the militia. In the city, there were four companies of
volunteers, one of artillery, and two of riflemen, consisting of one
hundred men each, making an aggregate force of 700 men.

A great extension was given to business in February of this year. The
inhabitants were now permitted to trade freely in Europe and America,
wherever Spain had formed treaties for the regulation of commerce.
The merchandise thus imported, was subject to a duty of fifteen per
cent; and exports to six per cent. With the Peninsula it was free.

In 1795 permission was granted by the king to citizens of the United
States, during a period of ten years, to deposit merchandise at New
Orleans. The succeeding year, the city was visited by another
conflagration, which destroyed many houses. This reduced the tax upon
chimneys so much, that recourse was had to assessing wheat, bread and
meat, to defray the expense of the city light and watch.

At the time of the transfer to the United States, the public property
consisted of two large brick stores, running from the levee on each
side of Main street, (which were burnt in 1822,)--a government house,
at the corner of Levee and Toulouse streets, (which also suffered a
similar fate in 1826,)--a military hospital, and a powder magazine, on
the opposite side of the river, which was abandoned a few years
since--an old frame custom house--extensive barracks below those now
remaining--five miserable redoubts, a town house, market house,
assembly room and prison, a cathedral and presbytery, and a charity
hospital. At this memorable era, the grounds which now constitute that
thriving portion of the city, known as the second municipality, were
mostly used as a plantation. It was the property of a wealthy citizen
named Gravier, after whom one of the principal streets that runs
through the property has been called. How has the scene changed? At
this moment it contains a population of nearly fifty thousand, and has
become the centre of the business, and enterprise, and beauty of the

In 1804 New Orleans was made a port of entry and delivery, and Bayou
St. John a port of delivery. The first act of incorporation was
granted to the city, by the legislative council of the territory, in
1805, under the style of "the Mayor, Aldermen and inhabitants of the
city of New Orleans." The officers were a mayor, recorder, fourteen
aldermen, and a treasurer. This year, a branch of the United States
bank was established in this capital.

The population of the city and suburbs, in 1810, amounted to 24,552;
having been trebled in seven years, under the administration of its
new government. The prosperity of its trade increased in an equal

At that time, the city extended no further down than Esplanade street,
with the exception of here and there a villa scattered along the
levee; nor above, further than Canal street, unless occasionally a
house occupying a square of ground. A few dwellings had been erected
on Canal and Magazine streets, but it was considered to be getting
quite into the country, to go beyond the _Polar Star Lodge_, which was
at the corner of Camp and Gravier streets. [The progress of this
municipality has been greatly increased by the act for the division of
the city, passed by the Legislature in 1836, by which the second
municipality acquired the exclusive control of its own affairs.]

There was not then a paved street in the city. The late Benjamin
Morgan, who, some time after, made the first attempt, was looked upon
as a visionary. The circumstance which gave an impulse to improvements
in the second municipality, was the erection of the American theatre,
on Camp street, by James H. Caldwell, Esq., the only access to which,
for long a time, was over flat-boat gunwales. This was in 1823-4. He
was ridiculed for his folly, and derided as a madman--but time proved
his foresight. He was soon followed by a crowd that gave life and
energy to that section; and, in a few years, through the enterprise of
others of a similar spirit, the suburb of St. Mary has reached to its
present advanced state of elegance and prosperity.

The block where the Merchants' Exchange has since been built, was then
occupied by a row of frail wooden shanties; and the corner of Royal
and Custom house streets, where the bank now stands, was tenanted by
Scot, who now furnishes food for his hundreds a day directly opposite,
and who laid the foundation of his fortune, in the tenement that was
removed to make room for the present beautiful edifice.

Some of the old Frenchmen in the city proper, who have rarely trusted
themselves three squares beyond their favorite cabaret, are very
incredulous of the reported progress and improvement in the fauxbourg
St. Mary. A few years since, a gentleman of the second municipality
asked the old cabaret keeper, who has made himself illustrious and
wealthy by vending, to the habitués of the lower market, a drink of
his own compounding, called _pig and whistle_--why he did not come up
into the fauxbourg St. Mary, and see the buildings?--at the same time
describing the St. Charles Exchange, the Theatre, the Verandah, Banks'
Arcade, the magnificent stores, &c. The old Frenchman, listened in
doubting wonder for some time; at last, however, his faith and his
gravity both gave way, and he burst into a laugh, exclaiming, "ah
Monsieur B. dat is too much! You von varry funny fellow--I no believe
vat you say--its only von grand--vot you call it--vere de mud, de
alligator, and de bull frog live?--von grand--grand--mud swamp, vere
you say is von grand city, I no believe it!"

The city proper is bounded by Canal, Rampart, and Esplanade streets,
and on the river by the levee, on which it extended about thirteen
hundred yards, and back about seven hundred--in the form of a

This portion is traversed by twenty-two streets, forming eighty-four
principal and fourteen minor squares. The whole extent of the city,
including the incorporated fauxbourgs and Lafayette, is not less than
five miles on a line with the river, and running an average of half a
mile in width.

The houses are chiefly constructed with bricks, except a few ancient
and dilapidated dwellings in the heart of the city, and some new ones
in the outskirts. Wooden buildings are not permitted to be built,
under present regulations, within what are denominated the fire
limits. The modern structures, particularly in the second
municipality, are generally three and four stories high, and are
embellished with handsome and substantial granite or marble fronts.
The public buildings are numerous; and many of them will vie with any
of the kind in our sister cities. A particular description of these
will be found in the ensuing pages.

The view of New Orleans from the river, in ascending or descending, is
beautiful and imposing--seen from the dome of the St. Charles
Exchange, it presents a panorama at once magnificent and surprising.
In taking a lounge through the lower part of the city, the stranger
finds a difficulty in believing himself to be in an American city. The
older buildings are of ancient and foreign construction, and the
manners, customs and language are various--the population being
composed, in nearly equal proportions, of American, French, Creoles,
and Spaniards, together with a large portion of Germans, and a good
sprinkling from almost every other nation upon the globe.

The Water Works constantly supply the people with water forced from
the Mississippi, by the agency of steam, into a reservoir, whence by
pipes it is sent all over the city. This water is wholesome and

Gas was introduced into New Orleans, through the enterprise of James
H. Caldwell, Esq., in 1834; he having lighted his theatre with it
several years previous. The dense part of the city is now lighted by
it; and the hotels, stores, shops, and many dwelling-houses within
reach, have availed themselves of the advantages it offers.

In the summer of 1844, a fire destroyed about seven blocks of
buildings between Common and Canal streets, near the charity Hospital.
The ground has since been occupied with much better buildings, and
presents a very improved appearance.

The population of New Orleans, after it was ceded to the United
States, increased very rapidly. At the time of the transfer, there
were not eight thousand inhabitants, and, at the present period,
there are probably one hundred and thirty thousand. During 1844 there
were more buildings erected than any previous year--notwithstanding
which, tenements are in great demand, and rents continue high. It will
not be a matter of surprise, if the number of inhabitants at the next
census, 1850, should be over one hundred and sixty thousand.

                 _Blacks._        _Whites._         _Total._

    In 1810          8001           16,551           24,552
       1815          ----             ----           32,947
       1820        19,737           21,614           41,350
       1825          ----             ----           45,336
       1830        21,280           28,530           49,826
       1840          ----             ----          102,191

The first ordinance for the establishment of a board of health in this
city, (so far as known,) was passed by the general council in June, of
1841.[4] The board consisted of nine members--three aldermen, three
physicians, and three private citizens. It was invested with ample
powers to adopt and enforce such sanitary regulations as were thought
conducive to the health of the city. This board performed all its
functions well during the first year of its existence. The second year
there was a falling off; but a dissolution did not take place till
1843. In 1844, the board of health having ceased to officiate, the
general council invited the medico-chirurgical society to take charge
of this duty. This proposition was accepted, and a committee of nine
members appointed, with full power to act as a board of health. If
this body do their duty, as there is no reason to doubt they will,
much benefit may be expected to result. Their advice to citizens, and
strangers who were unaclimated, on the approach of the warm weather of
1844, was certainly marked with a great degree of good sense and
seasonable caution. They will now be looked up to as the great
conservators of the health of the city; and, it is to be hoped that
public expectation will not be disappointed.

The following abstract of a Meteorological Journal for 1844 was
obligingly furnished by D. T. Lillie, Esq., of New Orleans, a
gentleman, whose scientific acquirements are a sure guaranty for its
accuracy. The thermometer (a self registering one) used for these
observations, is not attached to the barometer, and is placed in a
fair exposure. Hours of observation, 8 A. M., 2 P. M., and 8 P. M. The
barometer is located at an elevation of 28 feet above the level of the
ocean; and is suspended clear of the wall of the building. The rain
gauge is graduated to the thousandth part of an inch, and the receiver
of it is elevated 40 feet from the ground.


                     Thermometer.                   Barometer.
                 --------------------------     ------------------------
      1844.      Max.      Min.      Range,     Max.     Min.     Range,
                 0 tenths  0 tenths  0 tenths   0 hund.  0 hund.  0 hund.
     Months.       |         |         |          |        |        |
                   |         |         |          |        |        |
    January,     79.5      36.5      43.0       30.38    29.73     0.65
    February,    81.0      40.0      41.0       30.40    29.91     0.49
    March,       83.0      38.0      45.0       30.40    29.83     0.57
    April,       85.0      40.0      45.0       30.46    29.98     0.48
    May,         88.5      66.0      22.5       30.31    29.83     0.48
    June,        91.0      69.0      22.0       30.18    30.03     0.15
    July,        92.5      73.0      19.5       30.22    30.01     0.21
    August,      92.5      69.0      23.5       30.26    29.93     0.33
    September,   91.5      61.0      30.5       30.23    29.95     0.28
    October,     85.5      46.0      39.5       30.31    29.89     0.42
    November,    74.0      40.0      34.0       30.34    29.94     0.40
    December,    74.5      32.5      42.0       30.44    29.83     0.61

    Ann'l Mean,  84.9      50.9      33.9       30.33    29.90     0.42

      1844.   Rainy days.  Prevailing  Force of Winds,  Quan. of Rain.
                  |        Winds.      ratio 1 to 10.   --------------
     Months.      |           |           |           Inches.  Thousands.
                  |           |           |              |        |
    January,     11         S. E.        2.4             4       966
    February,     5         S. E.        2.4             0       879
    March,        9         N. W.        3.0             3       031
    April,        3         S. E.        2.5             1       797
    May,          9         S. W.        2.7             4       847
    June,        12          S.          2.3             5       789
    July,        16         S. W.        2.2             9       801
    August,      14         S. W.        2.4             5       199
    September,    8          E.          2.5             1       080
    October,      4         N. E.        2.5             2       180
    November,     9          N.          2.2             7       754
    December,     4          N.          2.4             1       077

    Ann'l Mean, 104                      2.5            48       400

    Annual range of the thermometer 60 degrees 0 minutes--of the
    barometer 00. degrees 73 hundreths.

Society, as at present constituted in New Orleans, has very little
resemblance to that of any other city in the Union. It is made up of a
heterogeneous mixture of almost all nations. First, and foremost, is
the Creole population. All who are born here, come under this
designation, without reference to the birth place of their parents.
They form the foundation, on which the superstructure of what is
termed "society," is erected. They are remarkably exclusive in their
intercourse with others, and, with strangers, enter into business
arrangements with extreme caution. They were once, and very properly,
considered as the patricians of the land. But they are not more
distinguished for their exclusiveness, and pride of family, than for
their habits of punctuality, temperance, and good faith.

Till about the commencement of the present century, the period of the
transfer of Louisiana to the United States, the Creoles were almost
entirely of French and Spanish parentage. Now, the industrious
Germans, the shrewd and persevering Irishmen, are beginning to be
quite numerous, and many of them have advanced to a condition of
wealth and respectability.

Next come the emigrants from the sister States, from the mighty west,
from the older sections of the south, and (last not least) from the
colder regions of the north, the enterprising, calculating, hardy
Yankee. To the latter class this emporium is indebted, for many of
those vast improvements which, as if by magic, have risen to the
astonishment and confusion of those of the ancient regime, who live in
a kind of seclusion within the limits of the _city proper_--to whom
beautiful and extensive blocks of buildings have appeared in the
morning, as though they had sprung up by enchantment during the night.

Then come the nondescript watermen. Our river steam navigation,
averaging, during half the year, some three hundred arrivals per
month, furnishes a class of ten thousand men, who have few if any
parallels in the world. The numberless flat-boats that throng the
levees for an immense distance, are peopled and managed by an
amphibious race of human beings, whose mode of living is much like
that of the alligator, with whom they ironically claim relationship,
but who carry under their rough exterior and uncouth manners, a heart
as generous and noble, as beats in any human breast. They are the
children of the Mississippi, as the Arabs are of the great desert,
and, like them, accustomed to encounter danger in every shape.
Combining all the most striking peculiarities of the common sailor,
the whaleman, the backwoodsman, and the Yankee, without imitating, or
particularly resembling any one of them, they are a class entirely by
themselves, unique, eccentric, original, a distinct and unmistakeable
feature in the floating mass that swarms on the levees, and threads
the streets, of the Crescent City.

Among them may be found the representatives of nearly all the states.
Some are descendants of the Pilgrims, and have carried with them the
industrious habits, and the strict moral principles, of their Puritan
forefathers, into the wilds of the West. They are all active,
enterprising, fearless, shrewd, independent, and self-sufficient, and
often aspiring and ambitious, as our halls of legislation, and our
highest business circles can testify. They are just the stuff to lay
the broad foundations of freedom in a new country--able to clear the
forest, and till the soil, in time of peace, to defend it in war, and
to govern it at all times.

Of the one hundred and thirty thousand souls, who now occupy this
capital, about twenty thousand may be estimated as migratory. These
are principally males, engaged in the various departments of business.
Some of them have families at the North, where they pass the summer.
Many are bachelors, who have no home for one half the year, and, if
the poets are to be believed, less than half a home for the remainder.
As these two classes of migratory citizens, who live at the hotels and
boarding houses, embrace nearly, if not quite, one half the business
men of the city, it may serve to some extent, to account for the
seemingly severe restrictions by which the avenues to good native
society are protected. Unexceptionable character, certified beyond
mistake, is the only passport to the domestic circle of the Creole.
With such credentials their hospitality knows no limits. The resident
Americans are less suspicious in admitting you to their hospitality,
though not more liberal than their Creole neighbors, when once their
confidence is secured.

The restrictions thus thrown around society, and the great difficulty
which the new comer experiences in securing a share in those social
enjoyments to which he has been accustomed in other places, have had
an unfavorable effect upon the morals of the place. Having no other
resource for pastime, when the hours of business are over, he flies to
such public entertainments as the city affords. And if these are not
always what they should be, it behooves us to provide better. Public
libraries, reading rooms, galleries for the exhibition of the fine
arts, lyceums for lectures, and other kindred rational amusements,
would do much to establish a new and better order, and to break down
those artificial barriers, which separate so many refined and pure
minded men from the pleasures and advantages of general society,
condemning them to live alone and secluded, in the midst of all that
is lovely and attractive in the social relations of life.

The character of New Orleans, in respect to health, has been much and
unjustly abused. At the north, in ratio to their population, the
consumption annually destroys more than the yellow fever of the south.
The city of New York averages about thirty a week. Patients with
pulmonary complaints, resort to these latitudes for relief, where such
diseases are otherwise rarely known. In truth, this capital shows a
more favorable bill of mortality, than any seaport town in the United
States, except Charleston and Baltimore.

There is little to be said in favor of the morals of New Orleans,
during the first few years after its cession. Report made them much
worse than they were. As the community was composed of some of the
worst classes of society, gathered from every region under the sun,
nothing very good was to be expected. But circumstances have changed.
A system of wholesome police regulations has been introduced and
enforced, which has either brought the desperate and the lawless under
subjection, or expelled them from the community. By reference to the
statistics of crime, in other commercial cities in proportion to the
number of inhabitants, the stranger will be convinced that this City
has reason to be proud of her standing. Riots here are unknown,
robberies seldom occur. Personal security in the public streets, at
all hours, is never endangered--and females may venture out after
dark, without a protector, and be free from insult and molestation.
Foreign influence has entailed upon society here a _code of honor_
which, in some measure, has had a tendency to injure it, but the false
notion is fast falling into disrepute.

The new state constitution, if adopted, will put an effectual stop to
this barbarous practice. Article 130, reads,

     "Any Citizen of this State who shall, after the adoption of
     this constitution, fight a duel with deadly weapons, or send
     a challenge to fight a duel, either within the state, or out
     of it, or who shall act as second, or knowingly aid and
     assist in any manner those thus offending, shall be deprived
     of holding any office of trust or profit, and of enjoying the
     right of suffrage under this Constitution."

The learned professions here, generally, stand preeminently high. The
science of medicine may boast of a talent, and a skill, that would
confer honor upon any city in the Union--and the few empirics who
disgrace the practice, are so well known, that the evil is circumscribed
within very narrow limits. The clergy are proverbial for their learning
and eloquence--and the same remarks will apply with equal force to the
members of the bar.

This city, at the present time, possesses no public library.
Considering the population, and their ability, this must be regarded
as a blot upon the intelligence of its citizens. This is completely a
commercial community, however, and money is the universal ambition.
Thence springs that acknowledged deficiency in literature and the fine
arts, observable to the stranger. But shall it still remain? Is there
no Girard--no Astor--among our millionaires, who will leave behind
them a monument which shall make their names dearer and more honored
in all coming time, than those of heroes and conquerors?

After several attempts to establish a library, an association of young
men, some years ago, at last succeeded in organizing one; but, for
want of proper aid and support from the rich, it lingered on for some
time, and was finally sold out by the sheriff! It then consisted of
four or five thousand volumes of well selected books. It was purchased
by a private gentleman, B. F. French, Esq. for a mere nominal sum.
Thus has a work intended for the honor of the city, become, in an evil
hour, the monument of its shame! It is soothing however, to learn
that, at length, a love of letters and the fine arts is springing up
in our midst. Under the head of Lyceums, National Gallery of
Paintings, and Public Schools, in this volume, facts illustrative of
this assertion may be seen.

The Masonic fraternity in New Orleans appear to enjoy all their
ancient privileges. There are some ten lodges, besides a grand lodge,
and an encampment. Here is a large number of the order of Odd Fellows,
as one of Equal Fellows--a Typographical Association, and Mechanics,
Hibernian, St. Andrews, German, and Swiss societies. These are all,
more or less, of a benevolent nature; and within their own circles,
have all been extremely serviceable.

The navigation of the Mississippi, even by steam boats, in 1818, was
extremely tedious. The Etna is recorded as arriving at Shipping port,
a few miles below Louisville, in _thirty two_ days. The Governor
Shelby in _twenty two_ days, was considered as a remarkably short
passage. An hermaphrodite brig was _seventy one_ days from New
Orleans--and a keel boat _one hundred and one_; the latter to
Louisville. Now, the time occupied is _five to six_ days.

During the business season, which continues from the first of November
to July, the levee, for an extent of five miles, is crowded with
vessels of all sizes, but more especially ships, from every part of
the world--with hundreds of immense floating castles and palaces,
called steamboats; and barges and flat-boats innumerable. No place can
present a more busy, bustling scene. The loading and unloading of
vessels and steamboats--the transportation, by some three thousand
drays, of cotton, sugar, tobacco, and the various and extensive
produce of the great west, strikes the stranger with wonder and
admiration. The levee and piers that range along the whole length of
the city, extending back on an average of some two hundred feet, are
continually covered with moving merchandise. This was once a pleasant
promenade, where the citizen enjoyed his delightful morning and
evening walk; but now there is scarcely room, amid hogsheads, bales
and boxes, for the business man to crowd along, without a sharp look
out for his personal safety.

The position of New Orleans, as a vast commercial emporium, is
unrivalled--as will be seen by a single glance at the map of the
United States. As the depot of the west, and the half-way-house of
foreign trade, it is almost impossible to anticipate its future

Take a view, for instance, of the immense regions known under the name
of the Mississippi valley. Its boundaries on the west are the Rocky
Mountains, and Mexico; on the south, the Gulf of Mexico; on the east
the Alleghany mountains; and, on the north, the lakes and the British
possessions. It contains nearly as many square miles, and more
tillable ground, than all continental Europe, and, if peopled as
densely as England, would sustain a population of five hundred
millions--more than half of the present inhabitants of the earth. Its
surface is generally cultivable, and its soil rich, with a climate
varying to suit all products, for home consumption or a foreign
market. The Mississippi is navigable twenty one hundred miles--passing
a small portage, three thousand may be achieved. It embraces the
productions of many climates, and a mining country abounding in coal,
lead, iron and copper ore, all found in veins of wonderful richness.
The Missouri stretches thirty nine hundred miles to the Great Falls,
among the Flat Foot Indians, and five thousand from New Orleans. The
Yellow Stone, navigable for eleven hundred miles, the Platte for
sixteen hundred, and the Kanzas for twelve hundred, are only
tributaries to the latter river. The Ohio is two thousand miles to
Pittsburgh, receiving into her bosom from numerous streams, the
products of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, Western Virginia,
Tennessee, Indiana and Illinois. The Arkansas, Big Black, Yazoo, Red
River, and many others, all pouring their wealth into the main artery,
the Mississippi, upon whose mighty current it floats down to the grand
reservoir, New Orleans.

The Mississippi valley contained over eight millions of inhabitants in
1840, having gained eighty per cent., during the last ten years. The
present number cannot be less than ten millions.

The last year, the Mississippi was navigated by four hundred and fifty
steamboats, many of which are capable of carrying 2,500 bales of
cotton, making an aggregate tonnage of ninety thousand. They cost
above seven millions of dollars; and to navigate them, required nearly
fifteen thousand persons--the estimated expense of their navigation is
over thirteen millions of dollars. The increase since, may be
calculated at fifty additional boats--which would make an advance in
all these items in a ratio of ten per cent.

Such statements as these, large as they seem, convey to the reader but
a partial idea of the great valley, and of the wide extent of country
upon which this city leans, and which guaranties her present and
future prosperity. To form a full estimate, he must, besides all
this, see her mountains of iron, and her inexhaustible veins of lead
and copper ore, and almost boundless regions of coal. The first
article mentioned (and the phrase in which it is expressed is no
figure of speech) has been pronounced, by the most scientific assayer
of France, to be superior to the best Swedish iron. These, and a
thousand unenumerated products, beside the well known staples,
constitute its wealth; all of which by a necessity of nature, must
flow through our Crescent City, to find an outlet into the great world
of commerce. With such resources nothing short of some dreadful
convulsion of nature, or the more dreadful calamity of war, can
prevent New Orleans from becoming, if not the first, next in
commercial importance to the first city in the United States--perhaps,
in the world. The flourishing towns upon the Mississippi and her
tributaries, are merely the depositories for this great mart. In
twenty years she must, according to her present increase, contain a
population of three hundred thousand, with a trade proportionably

With such views, it may be deemed folly to attempt to look forward to
the end of the nineteenth century, when this metropolis will in all
probability extend back to lake Pontchartrain, and to Carrolton on the
course of the river. The swamps, that now only echo to the hoarse
bellowing of the alligator, will then be densely built upon, and
rendered cheerful by the gay voices of its inhabitants, numbering at
least _a million of human beings_. If, like Rip Van Winkle, we may be
permitted to come back after the lapse of half a century, with what
surprise and astonishment shall we witness the change which the
enterprise of man will have wrought. But let us not waste a moment in
dreaming about it. Let us be up and doing, to fulfil our part of the
mighty achievement. It would not be strange, however, if the present
map, which is given to show the rapid growth of the city, by
comparison with one drawn in 1728, should then be republished with a
similar design, to exhibit the insignificance of New Orleans in 1845!
We ask the kindness of the critics of that period, should they deign
to turn over these pages, begging them to consider that our humble
work was produced as far back as the benighted age of steam!


[4] See New Orleans Medical Journal, vol. 1, part 2, July, 1844.


Having noticed, in the preceding sketch, the most prominent features
in the history of this interesting section of country, it becomes a
duty now to present to the intelligent reader, and more especially to
the inquiring traveller, a description of such of the public
institutions, buildings, and places of resort, for business and
amusement, as may be deemed worthy of his attention. In attaining this
object, it was necessary to have recourse to the most carefully
digested statements of facts now existing, as well as to collect
others from personal inspection.


The buildings formerly used for the accommodation of the troops
garrisoned in New Orleans, were erected by the French about a century
since. These were directed to be sold in 1828, and ten years after
were demolished. The act was soon discovered to be an error, and in
1833, the government determined to replace them. A plan was
accordingly forwarded to the seat of government and approved. On
account of the difficulty of obtaining a suitable site within the
incorporated limits, a location was selected, by assistant quarter
master Drane, about three miles below the city. The works were begun
the 24th of February, 1834, and completed on the 1st of December,
1835, at a cost, including the enclosure of the public grounds, of
$182,000. The late Assistant quarter master J. Clark, superintended
the operation, aided by Lieutenant J. Wilkinson, who had furnished the

The Barracks occupy a parallelogram of about three hundred feet on the
river, by nine hundred in depth. The ground in the rear belongs to the
general government, to the depth of forty arpents, and can be used for
the benefit of the troops. The garrison was intended to consist of
four companies of infantry, but ample accommodation exists for a much
larger number. The quarters of the commandant occupy the middle of the
front; those of the staff and company officers being on either flank.
The companies are quartered in a hollow square, which is thrown back
far enough to give space for a handsome parade ground. In the rear of
these quarters are the hospital, store-house, and corps des garde, and
still in rear, and beyond the walls, is the post magazine, as well as
other buildings necessary for the comfort and convenience of the
troops. In front of the whole is a commodious wharf for the landing of



Is situated on what was once called Jackson Square, being nearly the
former site of fort St. Charles. It is an edifice of the Ionic order,
of brick plastered to imitate granite, having a centre building
projecting, with two wings; is strongly built, with very thick walls,
and well finished. Our limits will not permit us to go into a detailed
description of its interior arrangements; which, however, may be
generally spoken of as such as not to discredit the distinguished
engineer who planned it. The total length of the edifice is 282 feet,
and the depth about 108--the wings being 29 by 81, and the whole three
stories in height. It was begun in September, 1835; and the building
was perfectly completed at a cost of $182,000. The machinery is
elegant and highly finished, and, when in operation, proves an
interesting sight to visitors; which, from the gentlemanly urbanity of
the officers of the establishment, may be easily enjoyed. The square
is surrounded by a neat iron railing on a granite basement. The
coinage of 1844--gold, $3,010,000--silver, $1,198,500--making in all


This establishment is conducted in an old building, quite too small,
even if the United States Courts did not occupy a considerable portion
of it. The square, in the centre of which it stands, is about 300 feet
each on Old Levee, Custom-House, Front-Levee and Canal streets; and,
from its peculiarly happy location, is well calculated for public
improvement. Considering the great commercial importance of New
Orleans, as being scarcely second to any city in the Union, it is a
matter of congratulation that the government are now disposed to place
her upon a more respectable footing, in regard to offices of this
nature; which have been furnished in a princely style to some of the
sea-ports that had less need of them. The immense revenue that flows
into the treasury department here, demands a suitable edifice for the
transaction of the business it creates. The site is the most eligible
that can be imagined. The Post-Office, United States Courts, and
warehouses for the storage of bonded merchandise, can all have ample
accommodation within its limits; and a more desirable location for
them cannot be found. An appropriation of $500 was made at the last
session of Congress, to secure a suitable plan for the buildings to
cover this spot. The plan has been prepared by Mr. Gallier, and is
highly approved by those who have examined it. It is to be hoped there
will be no unnecessary delay in completing a work, in which the public
convenience and economy, as well the accommodation of the mercantile
community, is so deeply interested. If Mr. Gallier's plan is adopted,
all the above departments will be clustered together in one central
spot, with ample room for each, and in a structure that will be at the
same time a durable ornament to the city, and an honor to the nation.


Is located in the Merchants' Exchange. It has two business fronts,
besides a passage way through the building, where letters and packages
are received for mailing. The private boxes have their delivery here,
where also the publishers of newspapers receive their exchanges and
communications. The general delivery for English letters is in
Exchange Place, those for letters in the foreign languages, and for
the ladies, are on Royal street. The edifice seems to answer the
purpose well; and, considering the extent of the establishment, the
duties of the office have been managed much to the satisfaction of the
public. But we look for something more worthy of the place, when the
new Custom House shall rear its noble front to the _father of rivers_.


Formerly the Charity Hospital, and purchased by the state in 1834, is
a plain structure, composed of a centre and two detached wings; and is
finely situated on the square enclosed by Canal, Baronne, Common and
Philippa streets. The main entrance to the square, which is laid off
as a pleasure ground, and well kept, is from Canal street. The
principal building is occupied by chambers for the senate, and the
house--that for the latter being recently constructed. There are also
suitable rooms for the different clerks, and offices required by the
public business. The chamber for the house of representatives is
handsome, but, like some others in more conspicuous places, badly
adapted to public speaking.

In the right wing of the building is the office of the adjutant
general of Louisiana; it is also used as a temporary armory, until the
law for the erection of a new one is carried into execution. The left
room is occupied by offices for the governor, secretary of state,
state treasurer, and civil engineer.

The whole was built in 1815. It is in contemplation to erect an
edifice more worthy of the state, but when this will be done, or where
located, is as yet undetermined. It will probably not be within the
precincts of our city, as the late convention provides that the
Legislature shall not hold its sessions hereafter within sixty miles
of New Orleans. It is doubtless intended that the public servants
shall do more work, and less eating, drinking and carousing, than they
have heretofore done.

[Illustration: THE CATHEDRAL]


Or _Church of St. Louis_, is the principal and centre of three
buildings which stand on Chartres street, immediately opposite to the
_Place d'Armes_, or Parade Ground. This edifice forcibly strikes the
stranger by its venerable and antique appearance. There is perhaps,
none in the Union which is on this account more impressive. The
foundation of the building was laid in 1792, and it was, to a certain
extent, completed in 1794, at the expense of Don Andre Almonaster,
perpetual regidor, and Alvarez Real.

The architecture of the Cathedral is by no means pure, but is not
wanting in effect on this account. The lower story is of the rustic
order, flanked at each of the front angles by hexagonal towers,
projecting one half of their diameter, showing below Tuscan antes at
each angle, and above pilastres of plain mason-work, in the same
style, with antique wreaths on the frieze of the entablatures. These
towers are crowned by low spires, erected after Latrobe's designs,
about 1814.

The grand entrance to the Cathedral is in the middle of the front,
being a semi-circular arched door, with two clustered Tuscan columns
on either side. This entrance is flanked by two smaller doors, similar
to the principal one.

The second story of the front has the same general appearance, as to
the number of columns &c. as the lower one, but is of the Roman Doric
order. Above, and corresponding to the main entrance, is a circular
window, with niches on either side, above the flanking doors below. On
the apex of the pediment of this story rises the chief turret, being
in the Tuscan style, and in two parts--the lower being square, about
twenty feet in height, with circular apertures on each side; the upper
hexagonal, having a belfry, with apertures at the sides for letting
out the sound, flanked by antes. The proportions of the order are not
observed in this belfry, which was erected about 1824, by Le Riche.

The Cathedral has a tenure, to speak in legal phrase, of every
Saturday evening offering masses for the soul of its founder, Don
Andre. The requirement is faithfully observed, for as the day returns,
at set of sun, the mournful sound of the tolling bell recalls the
memory of the departed. This building is almost inseparably connected,
in the minds of the old residents, with the memory of the venerable
Pere Antonio de Sedella, curate of the parish for nearly fifty years.
This excellent old man, adored for his universal benevolence, came to
Louisiana, then a province, in 1779, and is supposed to have performed
nearly one half of the marriage and funeral ceremonies of its
inhabitants, until the period of his death, at the ripe age of nearly
ninety years, in 1837. This venerated relic of by gone days lies
buried at the foot of the altar.

[Illustration: ST. PATRICK'S CHURCH]


Is situated in Camp street, near Lafayette square. The design is a
triumph worthy of the genius of Gothic architecture, whether the
dimensions, or the splendor of the structure be considered.

The measurement is 93 feet by 164 on the ground; and from the side
walk to the summit of the tower, 190. The style is taken from the
famous York Minster Cathedral, and executed agreeably to the designs
of Messrs. Dakin & Dakin, which were adopted by the trustees of the
church. It surpasses every attempt at a similar order on this side of
the Atlantic, and when completed, may proudly challenge comparison
with any modern parochial edifice in Europe. It cost about $100,000.


This structure, erected in 1841, stands on St. Claude street, corner
of Bayou road. It is about 50 feet front by 90 deep. The architect,
Mr. Depouilly, has displayed an excellent taste in its construction.
The style is of a mixed order, but extremely neat--and in such good
keeping, that the interior has the appearance of being much smaller
than it actually measures. The decorations are worthy of the
sacredness of the place. The colored glass of the windows throws a
beautiful mellowed light across the aisles, producing a chastened
effect suited to the solemnity of the place. Immediately over the
altar is a full length painting of the tutelar saint, which is
executed with the bold hand of a master. At the right of this is the
Virgin Mary, little inferior to the first, but finished with much
greater delicacy of touch. Our Saviour is conspicuously represented in
the ceiling, over the centre--around which, on the gallery below, and
between the windows, are portraits of the saints, arranged in the
panel-work. Take this church altogether, it is one of the neatest
houses of devotion in this city.


On account of the great increase in the population of the city, and
consequent greater number of interments, objection was made, about the
year 1822, to the performance of services for the dead in the
Cathedral, it being in a very prominent and public situation. Under
these circumstances, the city made a grant of a piece of land at the
corner of Conti and Rampart streets, to the foundation of the Church
of St. Louis, on condition of their erecting upon the same, a chapel,
as a place for the performance of the funeral ceremonies, in
conformity to the catholic ritual. In pursuance of this intention, a
cross, marking the present site of the altar of the chapel, was placed
there with proper ceremonies, on the 10th of October, 1826, and on the
following morning the building was begun. Its erection was prosecuted
at the expense of the catholic foundation, and completed within a year
after its commencement, at a cost of about $16,000.

It is a plain but very neat edifice, of the Gothic composite order;
and was dedicated to the most holy St. Antony of Padua, as its
guardian. All funeral ceremonies of catholics are performed there.



An edifice strongly characteristic of our city, and well calculated to
cause reflection on the many and sudden changes of dynasty to which
New Orleans has been subjected. This building, of a quaint old style
of architecture, was erected, according to a Spanish inscription on a
marble tablet in the middle of the façade, in 1787, during the reign
of Carlos III, (Don Estevan Miro being governor of the province,) by
Don Andre Almonaster Y Roxas. It is exceedingly plain and unpretending
in its exterior, and chiefly interesting from its associations, and
extremely antiquated appearance.



A fine Ionic building, situated on Canal, at the corner of Bourbon
street, was designed by Gallier and Dakin, architects, and its
erection begun in the autumn of 1835, under the direction of Mr. D. H.
Toogood. It was completed in the summer of 1837, and consecrated
during the same year. The cost of the edifice was about $70,000. The
form of the ceiling, being a flat dome, is much admired. The Rev. Dr.
Hawkes is pastor of this church.


This is a neat frame structure, located on the corner of Camp and
Bartholomew streets. The Rev. Mr. Goodrich officiates in this church.


Is to occupy a conspicuous place near Annunciation Square. The
location was selected with good taste, both in regard to the beauty of
the position, and to the great improvements of the neighborhood. The
church is to be placed under the pastoral charge of the Rev. Mr.



Is an edifice of the Grecian Doric order, finely situated, fronting on
Lafayette square--the handsomest public ground in the city. The
basement story is of granite; the superstructure being brick,
plastered to imitate stone. The building was commenced in November,
1834, and opened for public worship in July, of the following year. It
was finished by subscription, at a cost of $55,000. In 1844, this
building was considerably enlarged. In the court, in front, a neat
obelisk has been erected, as a monument to the memory of the Rev.
Sylvester Larned, first Presbyterian pastor of this city, who died
31st August, 1820, at the early age of 24, much and deservedly
regretted. Rev. Mr. Scott, is the present pastor.


This is a plain and unpretending structure, on the corner of Calliope
and Phytanee streets; and like its near neighbor, St. Paul's,
evidently erected more for utility than for external display. It is a
neat frame building, with only sufficient ornament to give to it the
appearance of a place of public worship. Rev. Mr. Stanton is the


Is an edifice of brick, in the plain Gothic style of architecture. It
was erected in 1817, on St. Charles street at the corner of Gravier,
where formerly stood the store-houses of the Jesuits, and upon a part
of the foundations of those buildings. Rev. Mr. Clapp, is the pastor.



At the corner of Poydras and Carondelet streets, is of the Grecian
Doric order, the details of which are copied from the temple of
Theseus, at Athens. The height of the steeple is 170 feet from the
side walk. This edifice was erected in the year 1836-7, by Messrs.
Dakin, and Dakin, architects, at an expense of $50,000. Rev. Mr.
Nicholson officiating as pastor.


Is under the pastoral care of Rev. Mr. Hinton.


This is a plain frame building, on St. Paul near Poydras street, and
is devoted to the colored portion of the community.


Situated in Conde street, was completed by the French government, in
1733; and is therefore, probably, the most ancient edifice in
Louisiana. The architecture is plain, being Tuscan composite, and the
smallness of the windows, and the peculiar form of the roof and
chimneys, together with the general venerable and time worn aspect of
the building, render it, independent of its history, an object of
interest to both citizens and strangers.

It was occupied by the Ursuline nuns for nearly a century; and only
abandoned by them, when, on account of the great rise in the value of
real estate around it, they disposed of a part of their property, and
removed, in 1824, to the new convent, two miles below the city. It was
then used by the state legislature, as a place for their sessions,
until their present accommodations were prepared for their reception,
in 1834. Since that period it has been inhabited by the Right Rev.
Bishop Blanc, and several other of the higher clergy of the diocess.
From its great solidity of construction, there is no reason to doubt
but that it may stand many years longer, as a monument of "the olden


This richly endowed establishment was founded in 1826, and the chapel
was completed in 1829. The main building is about 100 feet long, of
brick, two stories high, and has two wings, running from the rear, at
each end. It is principally occupied as a seminary for the education
of young ladies. The average price for instruction and board is $200
per annum. The number of scholars at present is 120. On a line with
this building is the nunnery, containing 40 sisters of the Ursuline
order. Annexed to the latter edifice is the chapel, a remarkably neat
and plain structure. Immediately in front of the latter building is
the residence of the priests. There are eighty acres of land, three of
which are enclosed and beautifully embellished. The position is
pleasant and healthy. It fronts upon the river, two miles below the
city, and embraces a charming view of the Mississippi.


Is a frame building, which stands upon ground adjoining the church of
St. Augustine, and is occupied by the nuns of this order. They have an
excellent school under their care, divided into two apartments--one
of which is appropriated to white and the other to free colored
children, many of the latter class, have wealthy parents, and pay a
high price for their education.



This resting place for the dead is about four miles from the centre of
the city upon the right of the upper Shell Road, that leads to lake
Pontchartrain, and occupies a ridge, which is supposed once to have
been the embankment of the Mississippi.

The plat of ground devoted to the cemetery, measures 244 by 2700 feet.
The spot was purchased and improved at an expense of $35,000, by the
Firemen's Charitable Association. The revenue that arises from
interments is exclusively devoted to benevolent purposes--all the
business of the association being conducted by its members without any
compensation. The front wall and lodges are built in pure Egyptian
style, and cost $8,000. The grounds are divided into avenues, and
arranged and embellished with an effect appropriate to the solemn
associations of the place.

The simple and striking motto over the entrance is selected from

    "Here to thy bosom, mother earth,
      Take back in peace, what thou hast given;
    And, all that is of heavenly birth,
      O God, in peace recall to heaven."

Some of the tombs are very richly wrought--and, one in particular,
erected by a fire company, a memento to a brother who was killed in
the performance of his duty, is a specimen of superior skill and
workmanship. The nature of the soil admits graves to be sunk six feet
without approaching water. They are laid with brick and securely
cemented. The tombs above ground (here called ovens, which they
somewhat resemble) are faced with marble, built in the best manner.
There are four hundred of them, which cost an average of twenty-five
dollars each. These are sold at fifty dollars, and the surplus goes
into the funds of the society, for charitable purposes.

A central avenue, twenty-eight feet in width, called Live Oak Avenue,
traverses the whole length of the ground. Cedar and Magnolia avenues,
on either side of this, are each twenty feet wide. Next the outer
walls, are those named Cypress and Willow, of eighteen feet each. At
a distance of every two hundred feet, are transverse avenues. The
spaces between these are reserved for the erection of tombs, and may
be purchased at a stipulated price, according to the location. These
privileges are sold in fee for ever, and the title is held sacred in
the eye of the law.


Of these there are two. The larger ranges between Robertson and
Claiborne, and extends from St. Louis to Canal streets, occupying four
full squares. The square on St. Louis street is principally
appropriated to natives of France and their descendants. There is a
great deal of refined sentiment and delicate fancy in some of their
memorials of the departed. Tombs are often embellished with fresh
flowers, that look as if they received daily attentions. This is a
custom not peculiar to the French, but seems to be the natural
language of that refined affection, which cherishes the memory and the
virtues of the dead, among the dearest and most sacred treasures of
the heart. The smaller of these grounds lies on Basin and St. Louis
streets. It presents, like the other, many tasteful monuments, that
show us where repose the honored and the wealthy of the land. These
necessarily attract the notice of strangers--but there is one among
them less conspicuous than the rest, the eloquence of whose simple and
touching memorial has rarely been surpassed. It is in the side wall,
near the northwest corner of the cemetery, surrounded by many more of
a similar construction. There is no display--only a simple record,
that tells it is occupied by a female fifteen years of age. Beneath
this is quite a plain stone, with the inscription "_Ma pauvre fille!_"
What an affecting history in those three brief words! It was
undoubtedly placed there by an affectionate mother, deploring the
untimely death of a beloved daughter. It contains more pathos, and
speaks to the heart with more effect, than volumes of labored eulogy,
or frantic grief. The proud mausoleum, and the turgid epitaph, sink
into insignificance beside this humble burst of maternal love--"_My
poor child!_"

Illustrative of the false pride with which the Creole population
still, unfortunately, regard the practice of duelling, nearly opposite
is the following inscription:--

    "_Victime de l'honneur._
           Aet. 24."


This burial place fronts on St. Paul street, and occupies about two
city squares. The inscriptions do not date back beyond 1810. It is a
spot, however, where the northern and eastern traveller will often
recognize familiar names of those who have found graves far from
endeared friends and connexions. There is little of the display here
that is observed in other grounds. Tombs that, apparently, were
commenced with a resolution to show honor to the departed, have been
left without a stone to record the name of the neglected tenant.

In one of the side walls, is a tomb stone of plain white marble, with
only the words, "MY HUSBAND!" engraven upon it. In this vault were
deposited the remains of a distinguished tragedian, who fell a victim
to the yellow fever, some years since, in this city. It is a delicate
souvenir, that bespeaks the true feeling and affection of a desolate
widow. On another is the emphatic inscription, "_Poor Caroline!_"


Is situated within sight of the Cypress Grove Cemetery, and having
been but recently commenced, has not yet become an object of much

There is quite a spacious Catholic burying ground near Bayou road,
more than a mile back of the city, that seems to have been
considerably used, but has few monuments of any interest.

Besides these, there is a general burying ground at Lafayette. The
Jews have a place of interment, also, in that city.


There is probably no city in the United States that has so many
benevolent institutions as New Orleans, in proportion to its
population. Certainly it has not an equal in those voluntary
contributions, which are sometimes required to answer the immediate
calls of distress. Here are assembled a mixed multitude, composed of
almost every nation and tongue, from the frozen to the torrid zone,
and, whether it be the sympathy of strangers, or the influence of the
sunny south, their purses open and their hearts respond, like those of
brothers, to the demands of charity. To illustrate these assertions
and to carry out the plan of this work, a description of the most
prominent of these establishments is annexed.


Stands at the intersection of Camp and Phytanee streets, on an angular
lot, widening to the rear on Erato street. It has a northerly front on
the junction of the two first named streets, and occupies all the
grounds that are contained in this irregular space--the rear, however,
being reserved as a site for a church, to be erected at some future
period. The land was a liberal donation from Madame Foucher, and her
brother, Francis Soulet. Previous to the erection of this building,
the establishment was conducted in rented tenements, under the
direction of the Sisters of Charity; in whose hands it still continues
to present a praiseworthy example of neatness and parental care. It
commenced in 1836 with _six_ children; and, in 1839, with great
exertions, it accommodated _ninety_.


The history of this charity seems to trespass on the region of
romance. In its struggle, it received an important impulse from the
suggestions of a benevolent lady, Mrs. Pogue. In conversation with a
female friend of similar feelings, she remarked, "if a fair could be
organized for its benefit, and the opulent induced to patronise it,
money might be raised to erect the necessary buildings." That friend
told the Bishop; who, taking up the hint, announced it from the
pulpit. This led to the call of a meeting--where, instead of a small
assemblage, the rooms were crowded with the wealth and beauty of the
city. It resulted in the collection of over _sixteen thousand
dollars_! Thus, to almost a chance expression from the kind heart of
woman, New Orleans is mainly indebted for the prosperity of one of the
noblest of her humane institutions.

From this moment, the Asylum assumed a firm standing. A suitable house
was at once commenced. The second municipality gave a thousand
dollars, and the legislature at different periods, twelve thousand
dollars. In 1840 the whole was completed, and the children, to the
number of about one hundred, took possession. Since that time they
have averaged one hundred and forty-five annually. They receive the
rudiments of a good education. At a suitable age they are apprenticed
to persons of character and responsibility; and a vigilance is
continued, that guaranties to them the kind treatment, which their
isolated position seems to demand.

The edifice, built by D. Hayden, cost over forty-two thousand dollars.
Though conducted _with the utmost prudence_, the institution is some
twenty-five hundred dollars in debt. In a capital like this, where so
many of the citizens have princely revenues, and with them a princely
liberality, there is little doubt that arrangements will soon be made
to relieve it of this embarrassment. It has now about one hundred and
sixty children, of whom over thirty are in the nursery.


The Society for the Relief of Destitute Orphan Boys have their
establishment in Lafayette. It went into operation in 1824, and was
incorporated the year after. By a calculation of the first sixteen
years, it appears that an average of thirty-five have annually
participated in its benefits. Although its title would seem to imply,
that orphans only are admitted, yet the board are authorized to
receive any boy, whose destitute condition requires their protection.


This is one of the oldest establishments of the kind in New Orleans.
It was endowed by Julien Poydras, and possesses an immense revenue
from valuable improved real estate. They occupy on Julia, from St.
Charles to Carondelet streets, and extend back about two-thirds of an
immense square. It has for several years had an average of one hundred
and twenty children. The excellent system and regulations, in regard
both to instruction and health, will not be disparaged by comparison
with the best institutions in the world. Possessing so much property
and such beautiful grounds, it is to be regretted that more spacious
and comfortable buildings are not erected for the accommodation of the


This institution is supported by an association, and by private
donations. The establishment occupies a large building fronting the
river, and a few squares above the New Convent. About one hundred and
seventy children receive the benefits of this charity.


This association was formed in 1839. It consists of about one hundred
ladies, who each contribute a certain sum monthly as a charitable
fund. Its object is to render aid to the sick, the poor and the
infirm. The institution was put into operation by the benevolent
French ladies of New Orleans; and, were its resources equal to the
kind feelings of its members, it would be rendered a means of
alleviating much distress among the sick and destitute.


This institution was founded during the epidemic of 1837, for the
purpose of alleviating the wants of the poor and the sick. They
established an office at that period, where some of the members, day
and night, were always in readiness to attend the bed-side of disease,
and to administer aid to the indigent. The late mayor, and many of the
most wealthy citizens are members; and, in time of need, the
association is liberally endowed by the spontaneous donations of the
generous public.


Was incorporated in 1835, and managed by a board of directors chosen
from each company, subject to certain restrictions. The officers, (a
president, vice president, secretary and treasurer,) are elected by
the board from members of the association, on the first Monday of
January, of each year. The object of this society is the relief of its
members, who are incapacitated from attending to business from
sickness or misfortunes not arising from improper causes. It makes
provision also for the benefit of their families--particularly widows
and orphans. This is a very laudable association, and every way
deserving of the excellent fire department from which it originated.


This benevolent institution was established in 1837; and its object is
the relief of the indigent and sick. Its resources depend entirely
upon public contributions--and appeals for aid have always been
responded to with alacrity. During the prevalence of the epidemic of
1841, this society collected and distributed over five thousand
dollars among the sufferers on that dreadful occasion. It is a noble
charity that waits not for calls upon its benevolence; but its members
seek for worthy objects in the hidden recesses of misery, and soothe
and administer to their wants, with a brotherly solicitude that does
honor to the name they have assumed.


Although but a short time in existence, has accomplished much good;
diffusing charity, not in mere accordance with sectional prejudices,
but in that catholic spirit of genuine benevolence, which freely
dispenses its benefits alike upon Jew and Christian, and recognizes
but one brotherhood in the family of man.


This institution was endowed in 1839, by Alexander Milne, a liberal
Scotch gentleman, from whom it takes its name. It was established for
the education and protection of helpless orphan children of both


No city in the United States is so well provided with establishments
of this kind as New Orleans. Here, the only passport required for
admission to the best attendance, is sickness, or an injury. No cold
formalities are thrown in the way of the suffering patient. Indeed, it
has become a subject of complaint, that access is so easy, and the
position so agreeable, that the improvident and the indolent take
undue advantage of its benefits.



The first hospital for indigent persons erected in the city of New
Orleans, appears to have been built on the site formed by the west
side of Rampart street, between Toulouse and St. Peter streets. It was
blown down in 1779; and, being of wood, was entirely destroyed.

In 1784, Dr. N. Y. Roxas commenced one of brick on the same position,
which he completed at an expense of $114,000 in 1786, and called it
the New Charity Hospital of St. Charles. He endowed it with a
perpetual revenue of $1500 per annum, by appropriating the rents of
the stores at the corner of St. Peter and Levee streets. It continued
under the patronage and direction of the family, until March 1811,
when it was relinquished to the city by authority of the legislature,
the edifice having been previously consumed by fire. It was now
subjected to a council of administration, appointed by the governor
and city council--(the first six, the latter three.) Since 1813 the
council has been appointed by the governor and senate. It consists of
eight members, and the governor. Its support has been derived from
several sources. A most liberal legacy was left it by that public
benefactor Julien Poydras, of real estate, valued at $35,000. Several
smaller sums have been received from other benevolent individuals. It
has also received aid from the state, directly and indirectly.
Pennsylvania made a liberal grant of $10,000, in 18--.

In 1812, the council of administration sold to the state the square
now occupied by the state house, with the buildings, for $125,000, and
purchased the present site, and built their large and commodious
structure at the foot of Common street, at an expense of $150,000,
containing sufficient room to accommodate four or five hundred
patients. This is the building particularly referred to in the heading
of this article. Besides being under the charge of the ablest of the
medical faculty, the institution has the assistance of the Sisters of
Charity, as nurses to the sick, who cannot be excelled in kindness and
careful attention.

The edifice itself is very imposing, from its immense size. It is
substantially built with brick. Suitable supplementary out-buildings
for lunatics, and lying-in apartments, are on the same grounds; and
the whole is encompassed by a permanent brick wall.

To show the great usefulness of this establishment, it is only
necessary to state that, during 1844, there were five thousand eight
hundred and forty-six patients admitted, seven hundred and thirteen of
whom died, and five thousand and fifty-nine were dismissed. Of this
number, only one thousand three hundred and sixteen were natives of
the United States, and four thousand five hundred and thirty
foreigners. This year the yellow fever was not epidemic.

The following table, taken from the New Orleans Medical Journal, shows
the number of cases of yellow fever admitted into this hospital from
Jan. 1, 1822, to Jan. 1, 1844, with the dates of the first and last
cases each year, with the discharges and deaths, constituting a term
of twenty-two years.


    Year.   First Case.   Last Case.   Adm'd.  Dis'g'd.  Died.

    1822    Sept. 3.      Dec. 31.       349      98      239
    1823    Sept. 11.                      1                1
    1824    Aug. 4.       Nov. 13.       167      59      108
    1825    June 23.      Dec. 19.        94      40       59
    1826    May 18.       Nov. 18.        26      19        5
    1827    July 17.      Dec. 5.        372     263      109
    1828    June 19.      Dec. 10.       290     160      130
    1829    May 23.       Nov. 29.       435     220      215
    1830    July 24.      Nov. 29.       256     139      117
    1831    June 9.       Oct. 7.          3       1        2
    1832    Aug. 15.      Oct. 25.        26       8       18
    1833    July 17.      Nov. 17.       422     212      210
    1834    Aug. 28.      Nov. 22.       150      55       95
    1835    Aug. 24.      Nov. 27.       505     221      284
    1836    Aug. 24.      Oct. 25.         6       1        5
    1837    July 13.      Nov. 28.       998     556      442
    1838    Aug. 25.      Nov. 1.         22       5       17
    1839    July 23.      Nov. 17.      1086     634      452
    1840    July 9.                        3                3
    1841    Aug. 2.       Dec. 8.       1113     520      594
    1842    Aug. 4.       Nov. 26.       410     214      211
    1843    July 10.      Dec. 31.      1053     609      487
                                        ----    ----     ----
          Total Number,                 7787    4034     3803

          A discrepancy of                50             4034
                                        ----             ----
                                        7837             7837

"This discrepancy between the number of admittances, discharges, and
deaths," say the editors, "arises from the fact that a good many cases
of yellow fever occur, after the patients are admitted into the
hospital for other diseases--and some remain to be treated for other
diseases, long after having been cured of yellow fever; and, it may
be, that some cases are not noted upon the hospital books at all." The
proportion of deaths is accounted for by the exposed state of the
patient before admission. In private practice they do not average one
death to ten.

The absence of quarantine regulations in New Orleans, is often
remarked by strangers. Acts of legislation have been passed at
different times, establishing laws for the protection of the city,
which proved of but little service, owing, it is generally admitted,
to their not being carried out as it is now known they should have
been to test their efficacy, consequently they soon fell into disuse.

Much able, and it would seem unanswerable argument has been employed,
to prove that this scourge of tropical climates is not contagious;
yet, Dr. Carpenter, an eminent and learned member of the medical
profession of this city, with great research, has tracked it through
all its secret channels of communication, by which at different
periods it has been introduced.

The recent able essay of Dr. Hort, read before the Physico-Medical
Society of this city, and the proceedings and resolutions of that
body, had in reference to it, with equal conclusiveness show it to be
endemic, or of local origin, and not an imported or contagious

When such eminent "doctors disagree" what shall the unlearned and
uninitiated do?--we are surely in a dilemma, and hardly know on which
horn to hang our own humble judgment--but it would really appear that
with a sanitary system, commending itself to the more cautious views
of the Atlantic cities, an advantage would be gained, that would far
more than balance any diminished trade of our neighbors in the Gulf.
Are there not also, many hundreds of active, intelligent, business
making citizens, who now fly to the North on the first approach of the
sickly season, who, with such guards faithfully maintained about them,
would remain through the summer? and are there not thousands more in
various parts of the country, who, inspired with confidence by the
existence and maintenance of a system of measures which _they_ deem
essential to the preservation of the health and lives of the citizens,
would throng to our metropolis as the most inviting field of
enterprise, and thus multiply our numbers and enlarge our business far
more rapidly than it can, or will be done under the present system?

If in making these suggestions it should be supposed that we have
"defined our position," we shall shelter ourselves under "the
generally received opinion," "the prevailing fears of the
community"--and the prudential measures of other cities.

[Illustration: MAISON DE SANTE]


This noble edifice, emphatically the house of the stranger, was built
in 1839, and opened in August of the same year. The full and complete
success of the enterprise is written in the grateful memories of the
thousands of patients who have resorted to it in the hour of sickness
and danger. The prices required secure to every sick person more than
the attention and comforts of the house of his childhood. Not a doubt
need to cross his mind but that all which science, and the most
devoted care can effect, will be done for him; he only goes there to
get well, if it be possible in the nature of his case. The names of
the attending physicians, Doctors Stone, Kennedy and Carpenter, are a
sufficient guaranty for the respectability of this establishment.


This institution, situated between Poydras and Perdido streets, was
established by Doctors Campbell and Mackie, in July, 1841. It is
neatly furnished, and offers all the comforts and advantages of a
private house to the invalid. No contagious diseases are admitted, and
kind and skilful nurses are furnished.


Is situated in the Fauxbourg Franklin, in Champs Elysees street,
fronting the Pontchartrain rail-road, and about two miles from the
city. It is a private hospital, founded by Dr. C. A. Luzemburg. The
building, although not large, is accommodated with several out houses,
and the grounds are spacious and pleasant.



Situated at Macdonough, opposite New Orleans, occupies a square,
measuring three hundred and fifty feet each way, which is enclosed by
a good substantial fence, intended, eventually, to give place to an
iron railing. The edifice measures, in front, one hundred and sixty
feet, by seventy eight deep--from the rear of which two adjuncts
extend fifty feet further back, leaving sufficient room between them
for a spacious court, immediately behind the centre of the main

The whole is laid off into three stories. It is fifty feet from the
ground to the eaves, and one hundred and thirty-five to the top of the
flag-staff, which surmounts the belvidere. It is built in the Gothic
style; and was designed by Mondele and Reynolds, who were the original
contractors. It was commenced in 1834, but for want of the necessary
appropriations by the government, the work was suspended, and has gone
so much to ruin, that it will require $20,000 to repair the damage.

James H. Caldwell, Esq., has contracted for the completion of this
work. The building, when finished and furnished for receiving
patients, will cost $130,000. It will accommodate two hundred and
sixty nine persons. The grounds, tastefully laid out, are to be
embellished with shrubbery. As seen from the Mississippi, or from a
distance, this structure presents a very majestic appearance. It
stands in a healthy position, elevated and dry; and from its great
height, commands a complete view of the river, city, surrounding
country, and a whole forest of masts--affording to poor Jack at once a
delightful and a busy prospect, that must have a great tendency to
cheer the hours of his convalescence.


[Illustration: THE MUNICIPAL HALL]


This edifice, when completed, will be one of the noblest public
buildings of the Second Municipality. It is to occupy the corner of
Hevia and St. Charles streets, facing the westerly side of Lafayette
Square, a site selected particularly on account of its conspicuous and
airy position. Its grand entrance ranges along the latter thoroughfare
90 feet, running back upon the former 208, and presenting an altitude
of 54 feet to the eaves, displaying two bold stories above a basement
of 11 feet ceiling. This lower apartment is intended for the
accommodation of the military, and the police and watch departments.
It is intersected from end to end by a corridor twelve, and across, in
the centre, by one of fourteen feet wide, the latter giving room for a
double flight of stairs, which ascend to the upper story. The same
division of passage ways is observed on each floor.

The grand entrance from St. Charles street, is by a flight of eighteen
blue Quincy-granite steps, of which material the principal front is
constructed. At the top of these, at an elevation of fourteen feet, is
a platform extending along the whole front, twenty-five feet deep,
sustaining, by a range of six pillars in front, and four in the rear,
a massy pediment, all of which is of Ionic Grecian construction, and
in good keeping with the main fabric. On entering the corridor through
this portico, on the right hand, is an apartment seventy-five by
thirty-five feet, and, like all the others on this floor, eighteen
feet in the ceiling, appropriated to the library of the School Lyceum.
In the rear of this, on the same side, are four others for public
offices and courts, as are also those on the opposite direction.

Ascending to the third story, in front is the great hall, sixty-one by
eighty-four feet, and twenty-nine in the ceiling, set apart for the
School Lyceum. Immediately in front of this, is a central platform,
advancing between two side rooms, over which are two others, similar,
all four of which are intended for the accommodation of the apparatus,
necessary for this new institution.

The main room is furnished with galleries on three sides, arranged in
the best manner for the convenience of scholars and spectators. The
rooms in the rear, like those in the story below, are devoted to
public offices.

The walls of this building are to be based upon granite, and the
residue of white marble, after the Grecian Ionic order. The whole will
cost about $120,000.


These edifices are built of brick, and plastered to imitate granite,
they are three stories in height, occupying one hundred and twenty
three feet on Orleans and St. Ann streets, by one hundred and
thirty-eight feet nine inches between them. They are two in number,
and divided by a passage way that is closed to the public. The
principal building has its main entrance from Orleans street, through
a circular vestibule, closed by strong iron doors. The lower story
contains the offices and apartments of the jailor. The second story is
divided into large halls for such prisoners as require to be less
strictly guarded. The plan of the third story is similar. The whole is
surmounted by a belvidere, with an alarm bell. The cost is estimated
at $200,000.


This institution was formed in obedience to legislative enactment,
under date of the 5th of March, 1841. The buildings were completed and
occupied the same year. The site is a portion detached from the
northern extremity of the Protestant Episcopal Burying Ground, and the
centre of the front is directly facing St. Mary street. The plot is
two hundred and ninety feet, front and rear, and two hundred and
fifty-five deep--the whole being enclosed by a wall twenty-one feet
high, twenty-six inches thick at the base, and eighteen at the top,
externally supported throughout by abutments at a distance of every
fourteen feet.

The entrance is by a strong and well secured gate, into a public
passage flanked by offices, over which are rooms assigned to the use
of the keepers, for the accommodation of the guard, and such
_materiel_ as good order, and the safety of the establishment require.
This structure is partially separated from the prison by well
constructed gates and partition walls. Within, on each side,
engrossing the residue of the immediate front of the grounds, are two
buildings. The one on the right is for white females, and that on the
left for blacks of both sexes. These tenements are divided from the
other parts of the prison by high fences of frame work. Going thence
into the principal yard, the building for the male whites is seen on
the extreme right. This is of one story, measuring eighty by thirty
feet, and is the largest one on the premises. Arranged along near the
rear wall, extending to the left, are the work shops.

The average number of white prisoners is eighty, not one-seventh of
whom are females; and one hundred blacks, a third of these also being
females. The prison discipline seems to be of a first rate order; and
it is seldom necessary to punish for offences against the rules.
Religious service is performed on Sundays, and a physician is in
attendance every day. It is a singular fact, that only five persons
have died there since it was opened, notwithstanding their former
irregular habits. The prisoners are kept at constant labor; and their
food, though not luxurious, is of a wholesome nature, which may, when
their abstinence from intemperate habits is taken into consideration,
account for the excellent state of their health. It would not be
hazarding much to say that many here were never before accustomed to
so many of the comforts of life--"in all, save these bonds;" for they
lodge upon clean and comfortable bedding, surrounded by moscheto bars;
and, once a week, at least, can enjoy the luxury of a bath.

This is the receptacle of that class of society, both white and black,
who are denominated vagrants. They embrace two sorts of
individuals--those who have no visible means of obtaining a
livelihood, and those who live by committing unlawful depredations
upon others. Besides these, colored seamen, while in port, not being
suffered by the laws to go at large, are accommodated, for the time
being, with an apartment in the Work-house. Slaves are placed here by
their masters, for punishment, for safe keeping, and for refusing to
perform labor, as well as for the commission of crimes. These last are
sent out in gangs, under keepers, to clean the streets, and to perform
certain other menial services within the control of the municipal

Nothing could render this establishment more complete, except a
classification of its inmates; so that the hardened offenders should
be prevented from drawing the young, the thoughtless, and the
incipient transgressor, into the vortex of their own viciousness. To
the philanthropist, this must be a consideration of the utmost
importance. The saying, that "evil communications corrupt good
manners," is illustrated even in this place--and here, many who seem
upon the very verge of destruction, might be saved from ultimate and
utter ruin, by the judicious care and protection of the humane and
reflecting magistrate.


This new establishment stands on Moreau street, running from Louisa to
Piety streets, and taking within its limits the building formerly used
as the Washington market, which has been altered to suit its present
purpose. The buildings were prepared under the superintendence of
Charles K. Wise, and are well arranged. The prisoners average about
one hundred--thirty of whom are females. The regulations are


This edifice stands on Chartres street, and to the right of the
Cathedral, as it is seen from the Place d'Armes, opposite to which it
is situated. The lower story is of the Tuscan order, with a wide
portico along the front of the edifice, supported by ten antes,
between semi-circular arches. The four in the middle are strengthened
in front by Tuscan columns, and those at the angles by two clustered
pilastres. The ascent to the second story is through the principal
entrance, which is composed of a semi-circular arched door, with antes
at the sides, and Doric entablature. It opens into a spacious lobby,
through which, by a stone stair-way, of a single flight below, and a
double one above, the second floor is reached. The front of the upper
story is of the Ionic order, but generally similar to the lower. The
entablature is surmounted by a denticulated cornice, and the pediment
is relieved by an oblong shield.



This building stands on the upper side of the Cathedral, on a line
with the Court-House described above, both of which were erected the
latter part of the preceding century, through the liberality of Don
Andre Almonaster. This edifice in all general respects, much resembles
the Court-House on the right of the Cathedral, except that the main
entrance, under the portico, is of the Tuscan order; and that the
stair within is a winding one, leading to the upper story by three
flights; also, that the pediment of the front bears the American
eagle, with cannon and piles of balls.

       *       *       *       *       *


The markets are a prominent feature in a description of New Orleans.
They are numerous, and dispersed, to suit the convenience of the
citizens. The prices of many articles they offer are very fluctuating.
Not dearer, however, on an average, than in New York. Stall-fatted
meats are not so usual here as at the North, preference being given to
the grass-fed. The mutton has no equal in America. Poultry and fish
are fine; and vegetables, except potatoes, are abundant, and speak
well for the soil that produced them. Fruit, from the West Indies and
our own West, is not only plenty, but of the best kind. The
regulations are excellent, and are strictly enforced by officers
appointed for that purpose.

The greatest market day is Sunday, during the morning. At break of
day the gathering commences--youth and age, beauty and the
not-so-beautiful--all colors, nations and tongues are commingled in
one heterogeneous mass of delightful confusion; and, he must be a
stranger indeed, who elbows his way through the dense crowd, without
hearing the welcome music of his own native language. The traveller,
who leaves the city without visiting one of the popular markets on
Sunday morning, has suffered a rare treat to escape him. Annexed is a
brief descriptive account of them.


Is designed for the accommodation of the inhabitants in the rear
portion of the second municipality. It covers a space of ground in
Poydras street forty-two feet wide by four hundred and two
long--extending from near Baronne to Circus street. It was built in
1837, and cost $40,000.


The ground plan of this building is irregular; having been constructed
at different periods. It approaches the Roman Doric order--is
supported by brick columns plastered, and covered with a wooden frame
roof tiled. It fronts on Old Levee, St. Philip and Ursuline streets,
and the river. The design was by J. Pilié, who superintended the work.
It was completed in 1830, at an expense of $25,800.


Built in the rusticated Doric order, was completed in 1813, after the
designs of J. Piernas, city surveyor. The building is of brick
plastered, with a wooden frame roof, covered with slate. It is
situated on the Levee, and extends from St. Ann to Main streets; and,
from its favorable location, and neat simplicity of architecture, is a
striking object to those who approach the city by water. It cost about


This building fronts on Tchoupitoulas street, and runs to New Levee, a
distance of four hundred and eighty-six feet by a width of forty-two
feet. It was completed in 1836, in the rusticated Doric order, at a
cost of about $48,000. In the vicinity, on the first named street, is
a vegetable market--a very neat edifice.

       *       *       *       *       *

Besides these, there is a very respectable market at the head of
Elysian Fields street, near the Levee; and another in Orleans, between
Marais and Villeré streets, near the City Prison.

       *       *       *       *       *



This magnificent establishment, which, for size and architectural
beauty, stands unrivalled, was commenced in the summer of 1835, and
finished in the May of 1838, by an incorporated company. The building
was designed by, and erected under the superintendence of J. Gallier,
architect, at an expense of $600,000, including the ground it stands
on, which cost $100,000. It presents fronts on three streets. The
principal one on St. Charles street, consists of a projecting portico
of six Corinthian columns, which stand upon a granite basement
fourteen feet high, with a pediment on the top, and four similar
columns on each side of the portico, placed in a range with the front
wall; behind which is formed a recess fifteen feet wide and one
hundred and thirty-nine long, and floored over with large granite
slabs, which, supported on iron beams, serve as a ceiling to that
portion of the basement story standing under the portico; and on top
affords a delightful promenade under the shade of the portico and side
columns. The entrance to the bar room is under this; and the outside
steps, leading from the street to the portico, are placed on each side
thereof, between it and the front range of the building. In one of the
rear angles of the basement is a bathing establishment, consisting of
fourteen rooms, elegantly fitted up, with every convenience for hot or
cold bathing. On the opposite angle are placed the wine cellars,
store-house, and other domestic apartments. All the remaining parts of
the basement are divided into stores, which are rented out to various
trades-people. The bar room is in the basement, near the centre of the
edifice; and is octangular in the plan, seventy feet in diameter, and
twenty high; having an interior circular range of Ionic columns,
distributed so as to support the weight of the floors and partitions
of the upper stories. The architecture of this room is Ionic. That of
the saloon, which is immediately over the bar room, is of the
Corinthian order, and eighteen feet ceiling. A grand spiral stair-case
commences upon the centre of the saloon floor, and is continued up to
the dome. Around this stair-case, on each side of the upper stories, a
gallery is formed, which gives access to six bedrooms within the
octagon, on each of the six upper stories. As the bar room is six feet
higher than the other parts of the basement, the entrance to the
saloon from the portico is by a flight of marble steps, twelve in
number, and thirty-five feet long. On the top of these steps is
placed a beautiful marble statue of Washington, presented to the
company by John Hagan, Esq.

The gentlemen's dining and sitting rooms occupy the whole side of the
building on Gravier street. The dining room, with a pantry at the end,
is one hundred and twenty-nine feet long by fifty wide, and twenty-two
feet high, tastefully finished in the Corinthian order, with two
inside ranges of columns, so placed that there is abundant space for
four ranges of dining tables, sufficient to accommodate five hundred
persons. The ladies' dining room is placed over the bathing
apartments, and is fifty-two by thirty-six feet. The kitchen,
fifty-eight by twenty-nine feet, is placed in the rear wing of the
building, on the same story with, and in the centre between the two
dining rooms. The two angles of the principal front contain the
ladies' drawing room, and the gentlemen's sitting room, the former
forty by thirty-two feet, the latter thirty-eight feet square. There
are nine private parlors on the second story, to some of which are
attached adjoining bedrooms; and the same number on the upper stories.
There are four stories of elegantly furnished and well lighted
bedrooms, all around the four sides of the building, with central
passages, or corridors, which communicate with the centre and with
each other, having three stair-cases opening to the corridors, besides
the grand stair-case in the octagon. There are, in the edifice, three
hundred and fifty rooms.

A dome, of beautiful proportions, after a plan of Dakin, forty-six
feet in diameter, surmounts the octagon building, elevated upon an
order of fluted columns, which stand eleven feet from the dome, around
the outside, and on the dome is elevated an elegant little Corinthian
turret. There is a large circular room under the dome, on the floor of
which the spiral stair-case terminates, and around the outside of
which the circular colonade forms a beautiful gallery eleven feet
wide, from whence can be seen the whole city, and all the windings of
the river for several miles in each direction. The effect of the dome
upon the sight of the visitor, as he approaches the city, is similar
to that of St. Paul's, London.

No better evidence can be adduced--nor more flattering encomiums
presented to the architects, than the fact of the indescribable effect
of the sublime and matchless proportions of this building upon all
spectators--even the stoical Indian and the cold and strange
backwoodsman, when they first view it, are struck with wonder and
delight. The view of this structure by moonlight is a sight not easily
described. The furnishing of this establishment cost $150,000.



So called from being covered on its front toward the streets, to a
certain height, by a projecting roof and balcony, is situated at the
corner of St. Charles and Common streets, diagonally opposite the
Exchange Hotel. The building was intended for a family hotel, by its
enterprising projector and builder, the late R. O. Pritchard.

The great dining room, is, probably, one of the most highly finished
apartments in America. The ceiling, especially, is a model; being
composed of three elliptic domes for chandeliers. This room measures
eighty-five by thirty-two feet, and twenty-seven high. The chimney
pieces of the ladies' parlors are fine specimens of sculpture, and the
rooms are otherwise handsome. The sleeping apartments are not
excelled. The whole was designed and constructed by Dakin & Dakin,
architects, in 1836-8, at a cost of $300,000, including the ground.


This building, as a hotel, may be considered as one of the most
respectable in New Orleans. It stands nearly in the centre of the
French portion of the population; and, in the combination of its
brilliant and business-like appearance, is not an inappropriate
representative of their national character. In this establishment the
_utile et dulci_ are so happily blended, that the accomplished guest
can find no cause of complaint. A more particular description of this
superb edifice is omitted here, in consequence of its being given
under the head of the City Exchange, to which the reader is
respectfully referred.


This is a large and well-constructed building, on the corner of Camp
and Common streets. It has been long known as a hotel, but, during the
last year, has been opened, under new auspices, by the gentleman whose
name has become associated with that of the house. The position is
airy, healthy and central, and the table is said to be unexcelled.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Planters' Hotel, in Canal street, and the National Hotel, in
Tchoupitoulas street, are both good houses; and the prices being less,
they are sought after by those who wish to economise their expenses.
There are several other respectable establishments, of which, like
those last named, the limits of these pages will not permit a
particular description.

       *       *       *       *       *


Occupy a square fronting on St. Mary street four hundred and
sixty-seven feet, with a depth of two hundred and thirty-five feet on
Gravier and Perdido streets; which is enclosed by a substantial brick
wall fourteen feet high. The site was selected by James H. Caldwell,
Esq., to whom New Orleans is mainly indebted for this great
undertaking, as well as for many others which stand as lasting
eulogiums to his memory. In 1834, the original works were put in
operation. Mr. Caldwell, at this time, had the exclusive privilege of
lighting the city for thirty years. His were the fourth gas works in
the Union, and the first west of the mountains. The first wrought-iron
roof in this country, was erected over the retort house by Mr. C., and
has served as a model for all since built. The largest cast iron tank
ever constructed was also put up by him. It is fifty-one feet diameter
and eighteen deep, and contains over two hundred thousand gallons of
water. In 1835 Mr. Caldwell disposed of this property to the Gas Light
and Banking Company; who, finding the buildings insufficient,
constructed them anew. The present establishment was planned and
erected under the superintendence of David John Rogers, in whose care
it still continues to prosper. The works, finished in 1837, cost
$150,000. The whole present value is $650,000.

These consist of a retort house on Gravier street, one hundred and
seventeen by eighty feet, and parallel to which is the purifying
house, one hundred and seventeen by fifty-two feet. On the rear is the
chimney, constructed to resemble Trajan's pillar, one hundred and
seven feet high; and presents a chaste specimen of classical
architecture. There are three fifty feet gasometers, arranged along in
the centre of the premises, capable of containing thirty thousand
cubic feet each, built after the most approved workmanship, and
considered to be superior to any others in this country. On Perdido
street is a three story dwelling, thirty by seventy-five feet, for the
workmen. The coal shed is one hundred and ninety by fifty-two feet. In
addition to these are the blacksmith, carpenter, and other shops,
necessary for advantageously conducting so extensive a business. The
structures are all fire-proof, and every thing is kept in the neatest
possible condition.

In addition to the works already described, and immediately in front
of them, embracing nearly another square, two more gasometers, of
equal dimensions, together with the accompanying buildings, have been
constructed during 1844-5. These will enable the company to transmit
the gas through a distance of one hundred and fifty miles of pipe,
sufficient for the accommodation of a half million of persons.

The gas is extracted from Pittsburgh coal--after which the coke is
sold for fuel, at about half the price that is asked for the original



In 1833, a company was incorporated under the title of the "Commercial
Bank of New Orleans," the principal object of which was to supply the
city with pure water from the Mississippi river. To effect this
object, an artificial mound was constructed on the square comprised
within Richard, Market, John the Baptist and Religious streets,
consisting of seventy thousand cubic yards of earth, taken from the
batture (deposit) of the river. The work was completed during 1834-5.
The reservoir is constructed on the top of this mound. It is two
hundred and fifty feet square, built of brick, and divided into four
compartments, measuring each one hundred and eighteen feet in the
clear. The walls and bottoms forming the reservoir, are built with
brick, and plastered with hydraulic cement. A pavilion of an octagonal
form has been erected on the intersection of the partition walls,
supported by eight pillars. It is about fifteen feet wide and ten
high, and affords quite a commanding and pleasant prospect.

The reservoir is supplied with water from the Mississippi river, by
plunge pumps, worked by a condensing engine, acting expansively on
Bolton and Watt's plan. These pumps were adopted as the most
efficacious, on account of the great quantity of matter held in
suspension by the water. They are connected to a suction pipe sixteen
inches in diameter, and about eight hundred feet long; and to the
main, descending into the reservoir, sixteen inches in diameter and
six hundred feet long. The cylinder is twenty-five inches in diameter
and six feet stroke, and is calculated to raise three millions gallons
of water in twenty-four hours. The engine and pump houses are built of
brick, and are situated on the lot forming the corner of Tchoupitoulas
and Richard streets.

The water is distributed through cast iron pipes, capable of
sustaining a pressure of water of three hundred feet head. They vary
from eighteen to six inches in diameter for the mains--but the
greater part of them consist of the larger sizes, which have numerous
ramifications of less dimensions. There are two mains from the
reservoir; one of eighteen, the other of twelve inches bore, which are
gradually reduced in size as the distance becomes greater from the
source, or as circumstances may require. In 1836, water was first
pumped into the reservoir. It can be delivered in the upper part of
the city twenty-one feet, and in the lower sections, twenty-seven feet
above the level of the soil.

The daily average consumption of water, during the year 1844, was one
million gallons; and, from the comparative great capacity of the
reservoir, sufficient time is allowed for the water to settle, in one
of the four compartments, before it is drawn for the use of the city.

Much good might be achieved by a more enlarged operation of these
works. The water is capable of being made fit for all domestic
purposes, thus obviating the necessity for cisterns, the birthplace of
millions of moschetoes, and, possibly the source of much sickness. For
the purposes of bathing it is almost indispensable; and, for forming
fountains, to cleanse the streets and to purify and cool the air, it
may be rendered equally a convenience, a luxury, and an


A room has been fitted up in Camp street, for which the substantial
and well constructed walls of the old Camp street Theatre have been
used--a building erected by James H. Caldwell, Esq., in 1822. This
apartment, used as an armory for the Washington Battalion, is sixty by
one hundred and twenty feet, and twenty-two feet high, and is
decidedly one of the largest in New Orleans.

Another armory is located at the corner of Perdido and Baronne
streets, in the upper part of the Carrolton Rail-Road depôt. Both of
these armories are the depositories of arms, all kept in the best
order, and disposed in various tasteful forms.


There are in New Orleans, fifteen engine, three hose, and one hook and
ladder--in all nineteen companies. The city may justly boast of the
energy and efficiency of this arm of safety. The members are exempt
from military and jury duty; and, after a certain term, are enrolled
as honorary members, who are free from the performance of further
service. The expenses of the department are defrayed by appropriations
from the municipalities, and from fines imposed upon delinquent

The courage and bearing of these companies during a conflagration, are
much to be admired. They proceed with that cool and determined spirit
that shows a consciousness of their power in subduing the destructive
element. An excellent and convenient supply of water, which is always
at command, enables them promptly to extinguish the most dangerous


In New Orleans, have, until recently been but little known. There are
now however, several actively employed and well patronised branches of
the manufacturing business; which, if not calculated to compete with
those in other markets, answer a very good purpose for its own.


Of Messrs. Leeds & Co. produces every variety of machinery, that
steamboats and manufactories require for extensive operations. It has
been established many years, at the corner of Foucher and Delord
streets, occupies nearly a whole square, and is on as extensive a
scale as any in the country. The business-like and prompt system
practiced by the conductors, is known to all who require their aid
upon the whole line of the Mississippi and its tributaries.


Upon Carondelet Walk, has been in successful operation over four
years. Lumber is landed from Carondelet Canal, which passes in front
of the building.


Of these there are two; one located in the third municipality, the
other five miles below the city, and both upon the banks of the river.
They can furnish lumber of almost any description in abundance.


There are several of these, in different parts of the city, where
cordage may be manufactured, to any extent, demanded by the business
of the place.

Besides these there are several Flour Mills, a Paper Mill, Sugar
Refinery, Cotton Factories, &c., all in successful operation.

       *       *       *       *       *


This is the place of all others, for these extensive buildings, which,
generally, occupy a square, and sometimes more. They are numerous and
extensive establishments. A brief description of two of the most
prominent, will serve for the whole, as they very much resemble each
other in their construction.


Erected by a company under that name, was completed in 1832, at a cost
of $500,000. No architectural effect was aimed at in the façade, which
is, however, neat and plain. This establishment can press about
200,000 bales per annum.



This vast establishment fronts on the Mississippi, running back on
Roffignac and New Levee streets. The ground occupied is six hundred
and thirty-two by three hundred and eight feet, and is nearly covered
by the buildings. The whole was built according to designs made by
Charles F. Zimpel, begun in 1833, and completed in 1835, at a cost,
including the site, of $753,558. The front on the river, although
having no pretensions to architectural effect, is still, from its
location and extent, quite impressive. This press can store
twenty-five thousand bales of cotton; and compresses, on an average,
one hundred and fifty thousand bales per annum; but its capacity is
much greater.

       *       *       *       *       *



This building was erected in 1822, at a cost, including the ground, of
$55,000. The plan was from Latrobe, and Benjamin Fox the architect. It
stands on the corner of Royal and Bienville streets, and presents
rather a plain but neat external appearance. It is most substantially
built; the lower story is heavily arched, and the banking apartments
are completely fire-proof. Capital, $2,000,000.


Is situated on Canal street, occupying only an ordinary house,
compared to some others, and requires no particular description.
Capital, $2,000,000.



Is a building of the Ionic order, situated in Camp, near Canal street,
and designed by W. L. Atkinson, architect. Its construction was
commenced in 1837, and finished in 1838, under the superintendence of
J. Gallier, at a cost of about $50,000. The banking room is admired
for its elegant simplicity. Capital, $2,000,000.


This building, in St. Charles street, between Canal and Common
streets, is so closely squeezed in among others, that it has little
opportunity to show off the beauty it possesses. It was erected in
1839, under the superintendence of Sidel & Stewart, at an expense of
about $25,000, ground $25,000, making $50,000, and is every way well
calculated for a banking house. The original capital was $4,000,000,
but it was reduced to $180,000, and by request of the stockholders,
the banking privileges have been withdrawn by an act of the
Legislature of 1845.


Has its entrance in the centre of the front on Magazine street, of a
substantial granite building which stands on that and the corner of
Gravier street. That portion of the edifice is very tastefully
arranged after the designs of Dakin, the architect. It was erected in
1845. The residue of the structure is used for stores. Capital,



Is a fine Ionic building at the south-west corner of Royal and Conti
streets, surrounded by a handsome court. The whole edifice is well
arranged, the banking room in particular, is admired for its good
architectural effect, being 60 feet square, and of a proportionate
height, with a fine gallery above. It was commenced by Bickle, Hamlet
and Fox, builders, in 1826, and finished the following year, at a
cost of $80,000. Capital, $4,000,000.


Occupies the front of a square on Magazine street, between Gravier and
Natchez streets, having a main entrance, from each of those last
named, to the Arcade, which divides the building through the whole
length--being three stories high, and covered in with glass, to
exclude rain and admit the light. In the lower and second stories, are
offices of almost all descriptions--and the third is appropriated
mostly to sleeping rooms.

The bar room, opening on Magazine street, is 100 by 60 feet, and 35 in
height. It is handsomely embellished, has a gallery surrounding the
upper story, and is a popular place for public meetings. It will
accommodate 5,000 people on such occasions. This building stands in
the centre of business, and, consequently, is a place of great resort
for merchants and others. Erected by Thomas Banks in 1833, Charles
Zimple, architect.

       *       *       *       *       *



This magnificent edifice, which is one of the greatest ornaments of
the city, fronts on three streets--about 300 feet on St. Louis, and
120 each on Royal and Chartres street--the building being intended by
the projectors to combine the convenience of a city exchange, hotel,
bank, large ball rooms, and private stores.

The principal façade, on St. Louis street, may be generally described
as being composed of the Tuscan and Doric orders. The main entrance is
formed by six columns of the composite Doric order. Through this
portico, access is had to the vestibule of the Exchange, a handsome,
though simple hall, 127 by 40 feet. This room is appropriated to
general business, and constantly open during waking hours. You pass
through this into one of the most beautiful rotundas in America, which
is devoted exclusively to business, and is open from noon to three
o'clock P. M. This fine room is surrounded by arcades and galleries,
always open to the public, (Sundays excepted,) and its general
appearance cannot fail to impress upon the mind a most favorable idea
of its grandeur and beauty. The dome is most tastefully laid off in
compartments, within which the magic pencils of Canova and Pinoli have
portrayed allegorical scenes and the busts of eminent Americans, in
rich fresco--a style of painting comparatively new in the United
States. The floors of the gallery which engird the rotunda, and the
winding stairs leading to them, are of iron.

By a side entrance on St. Louis street, access is obtained to the
second story; the front of which, on this street, is occupied by a
suite of ball rooms and their dependencies. The great ball room is
magnificent in its size and decorations. The building also has a
capacious entrance on Royal street, as a hotel that can accommodate
200 persons. At the corner of Chartres street are the public baths. In
the spring of 1840 this building was nearly burnt down--but, in less
than two years, it was completely restored to its original splendor.



This edifice is now being erected upon the south west corner of St.
Charles and Perdido streets, fronting one hundred and three feet upon
the former, and running one hundred upon the latter. The main part of
the building is to be constructed of brick and stuccoed; the upper
portion is purely Corinthian the lower entirely Tuscan. The principal
entrance on St. Charles street, is by a portico supported by two Ionic
pillars, and the same number of pilastres, composed of granite. The
vestibule is eleven feet deep, which admits visitors by three separate
doors into the exchange saloon, the most spacious apartment of the
kind in the United States; it being seventy by one hundred feet, and
twenty seven to the ceiling, which is supported by twelve well
arranged and substantial pillars. At the rear of this public room are
two others, intended for the accommodation of auctioneers, leaving
only sufficient space on the left for the necessary offices and access
to the second floor.

The structure shows three stories in front--on the second of which is
the news room, expressly arranged for the occupation of the New
Orleans Reading Room. This apartment is fifty-five by eighty-three
feet, and thirty-seven to the ceiling; and is lighted by thirty-six
windows. A portico, with a recess of eleven feet, occupies the
immediate front, supporting the pediment by two Corinthian pillars,
and an equal number of pilastres. Two rooms are set apart in
connection with this establishment, one for the accommodation of
captains of vessels, and one for that of sugar-brokers. On each side
of the news-room are ranges of offices, to which admission is obtained
by corridors on the inner side. Immediately over these, the third
floor is arranged in the same manner. The intention of the company,
under whose auspices this exchange is building, is, to furnish to the
mercantile community a place solely for the transaction of business,
similar to Lloyd's of London. There are to be no liquors sold on the
premises. Mr. Gallier is the architect, and builder, and the building
and land cost $90,000.



Fronting on Royal street and Exchange Place, was erected by a joint
stock company in 1835-6, from the designs and under the
superintendence of Mr. Dakin, architect. Both fronts are of marble, in
a plain and bold style. The cost of the erection was $100,000.


Entrance from Royal street and Exchange Place. This reading room
occupied a spacious apartment in the second story of the Merchants'
Exchange, and is under the patronage and control of the company
interested in that building. It is generally supplied with most of the
newspapers of the country, and has received a patronage quite equal to
the extent of its accommodations.


Occupy the second story of a spacious building on the corner of Common
and St. Charles streets, opposite the Exchange and Verandah hotels.
This is an enterprise started upon the plan of Galignani's, in Paris,
and Lloyd's, in London--professing to supply the earliest commercial
and general information. The fixtures are arranged with a degree of
neatness and convenience that is extremely gratifying to the stranger,
who has a spare hour to devote to reading. Here he can peruse the
latest papers, not only from almost every section of the United
States, but English, French, German, Mexican, Irish, Scotch, and
Colonial, together with all the periodicals, to his heart's content.
The merchant can see the prices current from nearly every part of the
world; arrivals and departures of vessels and of travellers--sales of
the great staples and merchandise and their prices, and many such
matters of interest to the business man.

       *       *       *       *       *


In each parish, have heretofore been placed under the management of a
board of five administrators, who reported annually to the secretary
of state the condition of those under their direction. This system has
been adhered to, till very recently, in the first and third
municipalities. In the second a change took place in 1841, which has
proved to be so complete a revolution, is attended with such important
results to this large portion of the city, and so extended its
influence even to the neighboring parishes, that it is referred to
with a degree of pleasure which can only be surpassed by our pride in
its success.

In accordance with an act of the legislature, approved the 14th of
February, 1841, authorizing the municipalities of New Orleans to
establish public schools, the authorities of the second municipality
set themselves at work with a will. They selected twelve of their
fellow-citizens as a board of directors for public schools, together
with a standing committee on public education, to whom were granted
almost unlimited powers.

Zealous of acquitting themselves with honor, they at once looked to
the fountain head, to New England, where the best schools in the
country existed, and secured the aid of Mr. J. A. Shaw, who was
perfectly conversant with all the improvements, and placed this
efficient gentleman at the head of the department as superintendent.
From a despairing beginning, in less than one year, the prospect
seemed to be most cheering. Commencing with only thirteen children of
each sex, it increased, in two years, to ten hundred and sixty-one in
actual attendance--and nearly double that number enrolled.

Thus far these schools occupied rooms under the Methodist church in
Poydras street, and a new building, called the Washington school, on
Magazine, at the corner of Basin street; but since that, the
undertaking has been continually extending, until it was found
necessary to erect another structure, the Franklin school, on St.
Charles street--all of which are now scarcely sufficient to answer the
increasing demand for admission.

That, which at first was tested as an experiment, has proved to be a
successful enterprise, producing an example which promises to have a
beneficial influence over the southern method of education. It found
strong opposition and prejudice to contend against, but these have
subsided--and the children of the rich and the poor are seated side by
side, sharing advantages and striving intellectually--the only
distinction recognized among them--"teaching one, as well as informing
the other, that adventitious wealth confers no superiority over the
fortunate competitor, when engaged in a contest of the mind."

The third municipality school is under the charge of Mr. Geo. W.
Harby. All the branches of a good education are taught here in the
English, French and Spanish languages. Although this school is under
excellent discipline, and has all the advantages of a classical and
gentlemanly teacher, it still has labored under the old régime, and
could have educated double the number that have attended it. That
nothing stands still is as applicable to the intellectual as to the
physical world. Already the spirit of improvement, that has done so
much for the second municipality, is busy in the first and third--and
though slowly, it is as sure, eventually, to push its way into them as
water is to find its own level. Beside the public schools, there are
many private seminaries of a high order, and conducted by teachers of
ability, where the wealthy, who have objections to those above
designated, may send their children for instruction.

The education of youth is of the utmost importance to a
country--especially to one like this, that should be governed by the
intelligence of its citizens. The portals to learning should be thrown
wide open, equally to all--for upon knowledge is based the beautiful
temple of liberty. Tear away this foundation and the fair edifice must
fall. Cherish and support it, and freedom will become as permanent as
our rocks, as ever-lasting as our hills.


The intention of this undertaking, is to establish a library for the
benefit of the juvenile class of the second municipality, by the
voluntary subscriptions and contributions of the scholars attached to
the public schools, and by private donations. To advance this
important object, the common council passed an ordinance organizing
the establishment, regulating and directing its proceedings, and
tendering liberal advantages to encourage success in its operations.
When $5000 are subscribed they are pledged to furnish rooms to
accommodate the library--and, as soon as it amounts to $15,000, to
purchase ground and erect suitable buildings. It also provides that,
at a certain period, a chemical and philosophical apparatus shall be
purchased, and lectures delivered once a week, during eight months of
the year, by the most competent men in the country, on astronomy,
geology, chemistry, natural and moral philosophy, navigation,
book-keeping, engineering, civil architecture and design, and such
other useful branches as may be determined by the directors--who are
the same as those of the public schools, with the mayor, recorder and
aldermen as _ex-officio_ members. The scholar paying twenty-five
cents a month, or three dollars a year, for three years, is
constituted a life member, and for ever after may have access to this
excellent institution. Such has been the success of this undertaking
that a building will soon be provided, and very little time will
transpire before it will realize all the advantages that its beginning
promised. To Samuel J. Peters, Esq., particularly, is this city
indebted for introducing and maturing this measure--and for generous
presents, to many other citizens and strangers, who have not permitted
their names to come before the world.

       *       *       *       *       *

The growing popularity of the "_People's Lyceum_," and of the "_Young
Men's Literary Association_," is noticed with no ordinary feelings of
gratification. These, commenced and continued by the young, fostered
and cherished by all--have become a cheering sight to the eye of the
christian, the patriot, and the philanthropist. Established upon
judicious principles, tending to give a wholesome direction and
salutary stimulus to the mind of their members, the moral influence
may be deemed of incalculable consequence to this growing metropolis.
History and science are the leading objects of their inquiry,
facilitated and encouraged by the delivery of lectures, affording not
only instruction but recreation--creating a taste for the rapid
acquirement of knowledge--giving a new impulse to the intellectual
powers, and to the advancement of literature--all nobly contributing
to the refinement and happiness of mankind. These, and others in the
course of being established under the auspices of our most eloquent
and learned literati, the city may class among the brightest of her



This building is erected on a fine lot of ground, on the corner of
Common and Philippa streets, granted to the college by a recent act of
the legislature. It was designed by, and completed under the direction
of Mr. Dakin, architect, whose reputation is a guaranty for its taste
and elegance. The location is retired, and yet near all the public
buildings and thoroughfares. The faculty of this institution are
gentlemen of superior qualifications, enthusiastic in their zeal to
give it the first place among the kindred establishments of the
country. The advantages of New Orleans, for acquiring a practical
knowledge of medicine and surgery, are superior to any city in the
United States, especially for the study of all diseases peculiar to a
southern climate. The facilities for prosecuting the study of anatomy
and surgery are unrivalled. The school is well furnished with models,
plates, casts, and every thing necessary for illustrations. The
requisitions for graduation are those adopted by the best colleges.
With these advantages presented to southern students, they will see
the benefits resulting from an institution built up among them,
conducted by gentlemen acquainted by experience with the wants of the

       *       *       *       *       *


This establishment occupies rooms, expressly built for its
accommodation, at 13 St. Charles street, and was opened in 1844, under
the personal inspection of the proprietor, Mr. G. Cooke, who is
himself an artist of taste, and well known among the profession. The
principal object was, to form a rallying point for the exhibition of
the works of celebrated artists, both of foreign and American origin,
and to dispose of such as might please the fancy of the public, at a
certain fixed price. Here, visitors will have an opportunity of
selecting copies and originals from a quarter that may be relied
upon, works both of the old masters, and of the best of the modern

The proprietor is under obligations to a number of the gentlemen of
this city, connoisseurs of painting, for the exhibition of some of the
most prominent pieces. From R. D. Shepherd, Esq., he has a picture by
Rothmel, representing De Soto discovering the Mississippi. If this
artist should leave no other work, his reputation, as a genius of no
ordinary ability, will remain as durable as the canvas on which he has
portrayed the Spaniard and the "Father of Waters."

From James Robb, Esq., whose magnificent collection of modern
paintings is better known in other cities than our own, the gallery
has received its richest treasures, and most valuable contributions.
The chef d'oeuvre is from the pencil of a native artist now at Rome,
Leutze; and illustrates this sentence in our Lord's prayer--"deliver
us from evil." To speak of this gem in terms equal to its merits,
would place it immeasurably above the estimation of the age in which
we live. Aware that it may be considered presumption to compare living
genius with the justly venerated names of the immortal dead, whose
works, on account of their antiquity and intrinsic worth, are doubly
valued--yet, at the risk of losing our little reputation in such
matters, we venture the assertion that this picture of Leutze's will
compare with the most beautiful of the Italian school, and is
excelled by none in America, not excepting those of our lamented and
talented Alston. This picture alone would make any gallery in Europe
attractive, and the public are greatly indebted to Mr. Robb for the
opportunity he has afforded them of seeing not only this, but many
other brilliant productions.

Here, also, is a landscape of no ordinary excellence, by Boddington,
an English artist, who has most successfully represented one of his
native scenes, in a style of handling peculiarly true and free. Here
may be seen four of Doughty's best landscapes, and several fine
specimens from the pencils of Cole and Chapman. The portrait of Col.
David Crocket, as large as life, in his forest costume, by Chapman,
and two large altar pieces, copied from celebrated works in the
Vatican--The Entombing of Christ, after Corregio--and The Crucifixion
of St. Peter, after Guido--comprise a portion of the more recent
additions to the gallery.

Among the most attractive performances, are The Wreck of the Medusa,
The Roman Forum, and a Sketch of Rome--from the pencil of the
proprietor. The first of these is very much admired--but, to the
classical visitor, the last two are far more fascinating; calling up,
as they do, with all their endearing associations, our happy
school-day remembrances.

Much more might be said respecting this establishment, but the brevity
of these pages will not permit an indulgence of our wishes in a more
minute detail.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is probably the general impression of strangers, suggested by the
limited number and extent of the public galleries of paintings in this
city, that there is, among us, an entire deficiency of a proper taste
for the fine arts. And we may, ourselves, inadvertently have
contributed to such an impression, by representing our citizens as
exclusively absorbed in commercial pursuits. It must be received,
however, with many abatements. We have our artists, and not a few of
them, who are highly talented, and deservedly patronised.

There are choice collections of paintings in the possession of several
private gentlemen, other than those already alluded to; among which
are many valuable productions, not only of the modern but ancient
masters, purchased at enormous prices.

Among others, those owned by our highly esteemed fellow-citizens,
Glendy Burke, H. R. W. Hill, and Joseph M. Kennedy, Esqs., are well
worth a visit of the connoisseur and admirer of fine specimens of the
arts, to which the known courtesy of the proprietors will cheerfully
afford ready access. The only original painting of the famous Wilkie
in this country, is in the splendid collection of Mr. Burke.

Several fine specimens of original statues are in the possession of
James Dick, and John Hagan, Esqs., which are not excelled by any
collection in this country.

       *       *       *       *       *


    "What is it but a map of busy life,
    Its fluctuations, and its vast concerns?"

The diurnal press of this country, is not only a mighty political
engine, but one of the utmost importance in a commercial and literary
point of view. Its increase, within a few years past, like its
extending liberty, is without a parallel, and almost beyond belief.
Junius, in his peculiar manner, observes, that "they who conceive that
our newspapers are no restraint upon bad men, or impediment to the
execution of bad measures, know nothing of this country." The force of
this remark applies nowhere better than to the Press of the United

Every enlightened American, who loves the constitution of his country,
and correctly estimates its lofty principles, will lend his aid to
preserve these invaluable privileges from the violation of power on
the one hand, and the equally injurious outrages of popular
licentiousness on the other.

The press of this city comes in for a portion of the credit that is
attached to that of the country--more particularly for its elaborate
commercial details and general literature. To embody the spirit of the
age; to relieve the grave by the gay; and to embellish the useful by
the amusing, is its daily task. The choicest of home and foreign
literature is found in the leading issues from the New Orleans press.
It is equally interesting to the merchant and the general reader; and
it preserves, above all its cotemporaries of other cities, a
self-respect that does infinite credit to the gentlemen to whose hands
the important trust is confided.

There are eight daily papers published in New Orleans--three of which
may be rated as of the "mammoth" size; the other five are smaller, but
of sufficient dimensions to furnish the ordinary news of the day. They
are as follows:

The Louisiana Courier is the only evening paper of the city, and is
published in French and English. This is the pioneer, before referred
to in this work, under the name of "La Moniteur." The Bee, also in
French and English, and the Commercial Bulletin, in English, make up
the three mammoth sheets. The Picayune, the Tropic, the Jeffersonian
Republican, the Native American, and the New Orleans Times, are all
in English. The New Orleans Price Current is a very useful
publication, issued twice a week.

In addition to these, the Catholics and Protestants each have their
weekly Journals, and the Medical faculty their bi-monthly Periodicals,
edited by the most prominent members of the profession, and devoted to
Medicine, and Collateral Sciences. They are intended to bring forth
the industry and talents of the profession in the South, and to
furnish the most recent information of its progress generally.

The subject of Organic Chemistry is that to which, at the present day,
the eyes of all thinking members of the profession are directed, and
upon which their hope of progress mainly depends,--the relations of
chemical action to the functions of organized matter, the application
of chemistry to physiology and pathology, are to be treated of as
fully as present knowledge extends.

Such contributions to the noble science, in which these gentlemen have
long been successful laborers, cannot fail to be properly estimated
throughout the scientific world.


At the commencement of the holidays, the city begins to put on a gay
aspect. Visitors, from all parts of the habitable globe, have arrived,
either on business or pleasure. A general round of balls, masquerades,
soirées and parties begin, and are continued without intermission
during the season. Theatres and operas, with their _stars_ and _prima
donnas_, circuses and menageries, bell-ringers and serenaders, are in
full success--and New Orleans, filled with every description of
amusement, from the top of the drama down to Judy and Punch. Strangers
are surprised and delighted at the splendor that is carried out in
these circles of pleasure. Our present object, however, is merely to
describe the most conspicuous places of public resort.


The site of this building was occupied by an edifice erected for
dramatic performances in 1813, somewhat on the plan of the one now
existing. This, which was built by a joint stock company, was burnt to
the ground in 1816. Mr. John Davis afterwards became the sole
proprietor, and began the erection of the present theatre.


The building was opened by the first dramatic corps, ever in Louisiana
directly from France, in November, 1819. The total cost of the edifice
was about $180,000. The lower story is of the Roman Doric order,
certainly not a pure specimen. The upper is what may be called the
Corinthian composite. The interior and scenic arrangements of the
house are excellent for seeing and hearing, having a pit, or
parquette, quite elevated and commodious, with grated boxes at the
side for persons in mourning; two tiers of boxes, and one of galleries
above; the whole being of such a form as to afford the greatest
accommodation to the spectators.

Nothing can exceed the decorum of the audience, except the brilliancy
of the dress circle, which, on certain occasions, is completely
filled with the beautiful ladies of our city, in full evening
costume. The performances are in the French language, and the stock
company always respectable. The orchestra is excellent. Melodramas and
operas are perfectly got up at this house. The strict adherence to
nature and history, in costume and manners, will never fail to please
the man of taste who visits the Orleans theatre.


Like the phoenix, literally arose from the ashes of its predecessor.
The first house was erected by the sole exertions of James H.
Caldwell, Esq., in 1835, at the cost of $250,000, exclusive of the
ground. It occupied one hundred and twenty-nine feet front by one
hundred and eighty-six deep, and was seventy-six high. It held four
thousand people, and was the fourth in size in the world--one at St.
Petersburg, in Russia, another at Pescala, in Milan, and the third at
San Carlos, in Naples, were those only which excelled it in size. It
was destroyed by fire in 1842. That structure was styled "the Temple
of the Drama," and the city had good reason to be proud of such an

The present building has a front of seventy-nine feet on St. Charles
street, extends back one hundred and forty-nine, and is fifty-three
high. The main entrance and front wall are remains of the former
establishment; which, from the substantial workmanship, resisted the
conflagration so effectually as to be made available the second time.
Passing this memento, the spectator finds himself in the vestibule,
thirty-four by twenty-three feet, from which a double flight of
geometrically formed stairs ascend to the first tier. Here the pit is
seen in a semi-circular shape. The centre box is but fifty-one feet
from the foot lights, which brings the audience within a convenient
distance of the stage. The depth of the front boxes to the rear is
twenty-one feet. The proscenium presents an elevation of thirty-nine
feet in the clear, by fifty in width. The upper circles of boxes
possess the like advantage of the first, in respect to a distinct view
of the performances.

The fronts of the boxes consist of an open balustrade, producing a
novel, and agreeable effect. The dome is ornamented with sunken
panels, suitably embellished with emblematic devices. A golden-fringed
national drapery falls from the proscenium, displaying an ingeniously
contrived allegory in the centre. Four columns sustain an ornamented
entablature above, composed of a mixed style of architecture, and
copied after those of the celebrated temple of Benares.


Burnt on the 30th of July, 1842, was rebuilt and reopened on the 5th
of December following, at a cost of $28,000. The building is ninety by
one hundred and fifty feet, and sufficiently elevated for all the
purposes of the drama, but irregular in its altitude. The depth of the
stage is sixty feet, and the width of the proscenium thirty-eight. The
house will accommodate over fifteen hundred persons. It stands near
Lafayette square, on Poydras street; and, from its isolated position,
presents quite an imposing appearance.


The company have fitted up the old depôt of the Carrolton rail-road,
situated on the corner of Poydras and Baronne streets, as a place for
exhibiting feats of horsemanship. As the buildings possess no especial
interest beyond these performances, they require no particular
description--but as this amusement has an attraction for almost every
class of visitors, not to have referred to it might have been deemed
an inexcusable oversight. There is a stage attached to this
establishment; and farces and the ballet relieve the monotony of the
sports of the ring.


Although the public squares in New Orleans are neither numerous, nor
upon a very extended scale, they are located with good taste, and are
exceedingly convenient. The centres of Canal, Esplanade, Rampart and
Basin streets have a very considerable space set apart for
embellishments. Shrubbery, and other ornaments, are in progress, and
they already begin to assume a beauty that does much credit to the
city authorities. Nothing is more conducive to health than these
pleasant resorts for wholesome exercise. Here the toil-worn citizen,
the wearied scholar, and the confined artizan, may breathe the fresh
air, enjoy a delightful morning or evening promenade, and catch an
imaginary enjoyment, in miniature, of the blessed country.

WASHINGTON SQUARE is in the third municipality; is bounded by the
Elysian Fields, Great-Men's, Casa Calvo and Frenchmen streets.--Though
admirably situated, owing to the distance it stands from the denser
portion of the city, it has not yet received those attentions which,
at some future day, will render it a beautiful promenade.

PLACE D'ARMES, or _Parade Square_, is still more prominent, and is
embellished with fine trees; but, as it is in the centre of the first
municipality, with the public buildings on one front and the levee on
the other, it is a matter of surprise that it has not been improved in
a style worthy of the inhabitants; who, certainly are capable of
appreciating the advantages of such delightful grounds.

CIRCUS PLACE is below Rampart street, with St. Claude on the rear, and
St. Ann and St. Peter streets on its sides. This is the square once
known as _Congo Park_; and is the place where the negroes, in olden
times, were accustomed to meet to while away the cares of servitude.
Many an old inhabitant can remember when he beheld these thoughtless
beings dancing "Old Virginia never tire," or some other favorite air,
with such a hearty gusto, upon the green sward, that the very ground
trembled beneath their feet. Though the loud laugh, and the
unsophisticated break-down, and double-shuffle of these primitive days
have ceased, the spot yet remains, with all its reminiscences, as
original as ever, with its capabilities of improvement still

LAFAYETTE SQUARE is decidedly the handsomest in the city. It is in the
second municipality, and has St. Charles and Camp streets in front
and rear, and several public buildings in its immediate neighborhood.
It has a handsome and substantial iron railing around it, based upon
well laid blocks of granite; is well laid off in regular walks, and is
ornamented with beautiful and rare shrubbery, set out with geometrical
accuracy on a raised surface, calculated to make it dry and pleasant.

ANNUNCIATION SQUARE, in the same municipality, is the largest, and,
consequently, may some day become the most elegant in the city. Orange
and Race streets are on its front and rear--and facing are some very
tasteful private residences.

TIVOLI CIRCLE, as its name would imply, is a circular piece of land
laid off as a public ground in Nyade, at the head of St. Charles
street, and is intended to be ornamented.


Antiquity! the olden time! the hoary, venerable past! there is
something sacred and soul subduing in the very sound of the words.
Like the dying echo of the last tones of the departed, it is full of
hallowed memories, and cherished associations, that haunt the inner
chambers of the imagination, and linger with a mournful tenderness
about the better feelings of the heart.

But what have _we_ to do with Antiquity! They of the old World, who
were grey with time and tottering with decay when, but yesterday, they
saw us spring into being, laugh at our sometime boast of Antiquity;
and well they may, for it is hardly as well substantiated as that of
the simple boy who conceived himself the oldest person in the world,
because he could not remember when he was born. Yet even we, in the
New World, we, of its second or third generation, whose fathers were
present at its birth and baptism, even _we_ begin to talk gravely of
the olden time, and to sigh and look sad over the melancholy grandeur
of the past!

[Illustration: New Orleans in 1728]

Well, be it so. In these stirring times, an age is shorter, and sooner
achieved, than in those of "the sluggish eld." Time is measured by
events, and not by revolutions of the sun--by the progress of the
mind, not by the slow sifting sands of the hour glass, and the amazing
precocity of these latter days makes many ages out of a single

But what a vandal spirit is innovation! what a ruthless destroyer is
this boasted modern improvement! It sweeps over the land with the
energy of a new creation, demolishing and scattering whatever lies in
its way, for the mere pleasure of reproducing it in a new and better
form. It removes the ancient land marks, obliterates the last traces
of ancient power and grandeur, levels mountains, fills up valleys,
turns the courses of rivers, and makes all things bend to its iron

It works such rapid and magical changes in its headlong career, that
few of us are able to point out what _has been_, or to predict with
certainty what _will be_ to morrow. Let us cherish then, with deeper
veneration, the few relics that remain of the days of our fathers. Let
us reverence Antiquity such as it is. Let the street commissioner, and
the _improver_ of old estates--

    Spare that ancient house,
    Touch not a single brick--

It is almost alone in its sombre dignity, in the midst of younger and
gayer edifices, that have swept New Orleans _as it was_, into the
shade of oblivion. Antiquity--I mean, if I may be allowed the Irish
figure of speech--modern Antiquity, her countenance grave with sorrow,
with here and there a furrow upon her yet ample brow, protests against
the desecration of all that _was_ dear and sacred. Standing on the
verge of annihilation, with "one foot in the grave," and conscious
that her days are numbered, her dissolution nigh at hand, she
commands, she implores us to save one memento of the past, one legible
souvenir of "the days of auld lang syne." And here it is.



At the corner of Royal and St. Anne streets, is delineated in the
above engraving as it now stands--and long may it remain as a memorial
of other times.

Thirty years ago--which, comparatively would take us back three
centuries in any European city--thirty years ago, one might have seen
from that spot, then the centre of the city, long perspective
street-scenes of a similar character. INNOVATION has now done her
work--has absolutely trodden the city of the last century under her

The Casa Blanca, at the corner of Bienville and Old Levee Streets, has
also escaped the general demolition. It was once the courtly residence
of Bienville, the first governor of Louisiana--the seat of power, and
the centre of wealth, beauty and fashion in the province. It is still
on its old foundation, standing "alone in its glory," and the spirit
of innovation has so far respected its ancient uses, that it is still
a treasury of wealth, and a conservatory of the _sweetness_ of our
favored clime--a store house of sugar and molasses!

[Illustration: Environs of New Orleans]


In consequence of the level surface of the country in the environs of
New Orleans, a great variety of scenery cannot be expected--yet, on
the northern shore of lake Pontchartrain, the ground is somewhat
higher and rolling, and affords very pleasant positions. Although not
formed like the prolific north and west, in hill and dale, cliffs and
cascades, alternately varying and beautifying the landscape, yet there
are charming rides and rambles in the neighborhood of this city, of
which a more minute account will be given under their respective
heads, which follow.

CARROLTON, a distance of six miles by the rail-road, is an exceedingly
pleasant resort. The line, for nearly a third of the way, passes
through the suburbs of the city, and is dotted on either side with
beautiful residences--the remainder passes through cultivated fields,
pleasant pastures, and delightful wood-lands. The road, like the
country, is perfectly level, and kept in the finest condition. At the
end of the route is situated the village; which is principally
composed of tastefully built cottages, constructed in every variety
of architecture that suited the individual fancy of the owner.
Opposite the rail-road depôt, is one of the handsomest and most
extensive public gardens, that is to be found in the vicinity of New
Orleans. A race course is near by; and the strolls around are quite
cheering to those who fly from the turmoil and dust of the metropolis.

THE SHELL ROAD of the Canal and Banking Company, affords an agreeable
ride to lake Pontchartrain, also a distance of six miles. The highway
runs on the margin of the canal, and is not excelled by any road in
the United States. It is the great resort for every species of
pleasure vehicle that the city furnishes; and here may be seen, on an
afternoon, all grades of society, from the gay sportsman, mounted on
his fast trotter, to the sober citizen, who sallies forth on his
ambling poney, all of whom appear to realize an equal share of
enjoyment. A line of comfortably arranged barges also ply on the canal
from the lake, at which place a convenient hotel is established. Half
way on this road, between the city and the lake, is the highly
celebrated Metairie race track.

THE PONTCHARTRAIN RAIL-ROAD, runs to the lake from which it derives
its name, from the head of Elysian Fields street, a distance of five
miles. It is a very pretty ride. This route communicates with the
great northern mail line, which goes by the way of Mobile--and all the
steamboats, that traverse the lakes to the various villages and
landings that surround it, make this their general starting point.
From here, a passage is obtained to Biloxi, which, the reader will
recollect, was the first spot settled by the French in this portion of
the world; and, from that circumstance, will naturally excite the
curiosity of the intelligent wayfarer. At the termination of this
rail-road is a first-rate hotel for the accommodation of visitors.
Here is good bathing, fishing and shooting; and, beneath the shade of
the trees, the breeze from the water is delightfully refreshing.

THE MEXICAN GULF RAIL-ROAD, runs from Elysian Fields street, on Good
Children street, towards Lake Borgne. There are twenty eight miles of
this road now in operation. When finished, it will afford considerable
facilities to commerce, besides great benefit to the citizens,
conveying them, in about one and a half hours, to the refreshing
breeze of the ocean--where fish, oysters and game may be found in
abundance. No doubt it will compete with the most favored watering
places of Bay St. Louis, Pass Christian, Biloxi, &c. It will also be a
great accommodation to the planters in the neighborhood--who already,
so far as it goes, have given it good encouragement. This road has
recently been purchased of the State, by A. Gordon and Co., who,
availing themselves of about 22 miles of the Nashville rail-road
iron, are bringing this work to a rapid completion.

THE ROAD OF BAYOU ST. JOHN, which follows the sinuosities of that
stream, and reaches lake Pontchartrain at the site of the old fort St.
John, after travelling the distance of about six miles, presents a
very pleasant drive. Returning by the new Shell road before mentioned,
it varies the route without adding much to the distance.

MACDONOUGH stands on the banks of the river opposite to New Orleans;
and the crossing, in the hottest weather, is generally accompanied by
a slight breeze, rendered cool and pleasant by the mighty current of
the river, which comes from the icy springs of the Alleghanies and the
Rocky mountains. The village, of itself, possesses no great
beauty--but the country, the beautiful country is all around--and the
noise and confusion of the city no longer annoy you. The great
attraction at this spot is in visiting the United States marine
hospital, one of the handsomest structures in Louisiana, which stands
a little above.

ALGIERS adjoins, and seems a part of Macdonough. This is the great
work-shop of New Orleans, for the building and repairing of vessels.
It has its dry docks, and other facilities for the most extensive
operations. In business times, it presents a scene of activity that is
seldom observed in any other part of these regions, and reminds one
of the bustling and enterprise of the North. The period has been when
Algiers prescribed the law, _vi et armis_, to the city itself--but the
day and the disposition, have happily long since passed away.

GRETNA, on the same shore, is nearly two miles further up the river,
and stands opposite Lafayette. The whole distance is spotted with
comfortable residences, principally inhabited by the owners of the
adjoining grounds, and the walk from Algiers to this village is very
gratifying to one partial to such exercise. There is a steamboat
constantly plying from here to the city, which affords a desirable
excursion of nearly three miles, touching at Lafayette in its passage
each way. The village has a rural appearance, is regularly laid out,
and exhibits some neat tenements. The forest approaches quite near;
and, the idea that one may so easily lose himself in the neighboring
woods, gives to the place a touch of romance which only the denizens
of a crowded city know how to appreciate. From the great number of
cattle observed along the shore, it would seem as if there was no
necessity of diluting the milk for the New Orleans market, unless the
milkmen be tea-total temperance men, and take this method to introduce
the inhabitants gradually to a taste for water.

THE RACE COURSES. There are three of these in the vicinity of this
city. The _Louisiana_, near lake Pontchartrain; the _Metairie_, near
the Shell road; and the one at Carrolton. These are as well patronised
as any in the country, and, in the racing season, the inhabitants of
the neighboring states, from a great distance, flock hither to
participate in the sports of the turf. Much praise has been bestowed
upon the arrangements on these occasions. Even here, as in many other
countries, the ladies, by their presence, have given them countenance
and encouragement--and the course usually is "gemmed by the rich
beauty of the sunny south."

THE BATTLE GROUND, (formerly known as "the Plains of Chalmette,") the
very naming of which causes the bosom of an American to swell with
patriotic pride, lies five miles below the city. It may be approached
either by the Grand Gulf rail-road, or by a good highway along the
levee, the new Convent and United States barracks being within full
view. But first it may be necessary to look briefly at the historical
facts which give celebrity to the spot.

Early in December, 1814, the British approached New Orleans, about
8000 strong, by the way of the lakes Borgne and Pontchartrain. Their
passage into the lake was opposed by a squadron of gun-boats under
Lieut. Jones. After a spirited conflict, in which the killed (500)
and the wounded of the enemy exceeded the whole American force, he
was compelled to surrender to superior numbers.

On the 21st of Dec. four thousand militia arrived from Kentucky and
Tennessee, under General Jackson. On the 22nd, the enemy having
previously landed, took a position near the Mississippi, eight miles
below the city. On the evening of the 23d, the Americans made a
furious attack upon their camp, and threw them into disorder, with
five hundred of their men killed. The enemy rallied; and Gen. Jackson
withdrew his troops, and fortified a strong position six miles below
the city, supported by batteries on the west side of the river. Here
he was unsuccessfully assailed on the 28th of Dec. and 1st of Jan.,
the enemy losing two hundred to three hundred men. In the mean time
both armies received reinforcements.

The decisive battle was fought on the 8th day of Jan. 1815. The
American right was on the river, running in a right angle to the wood.
A redoubt was raised (which is still visible) strengthened by bales of
cotton along the whole line. The enemy were about a half mile lower
down, on a parallel line, their head quarters resting on the river,
near three large oaks which still mark the spot. The scene is
distinct, and this is _the battle ground_.

The British commenced the assault at day light. As they approached
the works, sixty deep, many were killed by grape shot; but, when they
came within musket range, a destructive stream of fire burst forth
from the American lines. Our troops were placed in two ranks, the rear
loading while the front fired, thus pouring an incessant peal--which,
from Kentucky and Tennessee riflemen, was most deadly. While leading
on the troops of the enemy, Gen. Pakenham, the chief in command, was
killed; Gen. Gibbs, the second in command, was wounded mortally; and
Gen. Keene severely. Without officers to direct them, the troops
halted, fell back, and soon fled in confusion to their camp. In a
little over an hour, two thousand out of eight thousand veterans lay
dead upon the field, while the Americans had but seven killed and six
wounded--a disproportion unparalleled in the history of warfare. Gen.
Lambert, upon whom the command then devolved, after one more
unsuccessful attempt to assault, availed himself of a truce of
twenty-four hours to bury the dead, made good his retreat--which Gen.
Jackson felt no disposition to molest, as he was resolved to hazard
none of his advantages. Thus was New Orleans saved from the hands of
an invading enemy whose War cry was--"Beauty and Booty."

The British lost during the month they were in Louisiana, more than
three thousand three hundred and fifty in killed, while the loss of
the Americans was not two hundred. The wounded of the enemy must have
been much less, on account of the sure aim of the backwoodsmen. The
greater portion of our army were plain honest farmers--who knew
nothing of battle--they heard that their country was in danger--the
country which gave a home to them, and their children, and they flew
to its defence,--drove the invaders from their shores, and then
returned to their homes to till the ground.

It is not a matter of surprise--though the battle is without a
parallel in the history of the world--that even "invincibles," were so
dreadfully routed by undisciplined backwoodsmen defending their native
soil, with their wives and children behind them.

A jaunt to these grounds is a sort of pilgrimage, that no stranger
will, that no citizen can neglect. Not to have seen the field of this
great victory, would be a reflection upon the taste, not to say the
patriotism of any who should visit our city. The ground it is true,
presents few memorials to remind the patriotic visitor of the deadly
strife. There is no proud monument, towering to the sky, to mark the
place where the great victory was won. But he beholds the consequences
wherever he turns his eye, and he feels them--deeply feels them in
every throb of his heart. Those born upon the soil, and those who
participated in the struggle, have reason to be proud of the spot,
and to cherish the memory of that eventful day. If there is no lofty
structure of granite or marble, to perpetuate the glorious
achievement, it has a holier, a more enduring memorial in the heart of
every true American, which thrills with lofty pride at every allusion
to it, as did the ancient Greek at the name of Marathon, or the
Spartan at that of Thermopylæ.


The facilities which this metropolis affords for reaching any
accessible portion of the world, particularly all sections of the
union, are not excelled. Steam and sailing ships of the first class,
hold commercial intercourse with almost every nation. Steamboats, with
accommodations equal to the best regulated hotels, are plying through
every river and bayou. Four to five thousand miles can be achieved, in
those floating palaces, with perfect ease, and comparative safety.

The principal routes between the north and the south are here given,
as also the intermediate places, together with those inland most
frequented by the traveller and the man of business, and the distances
carefully noted as they diverge, in their various directions. Beside
the four annexed routes to New York, there are several that lead to
favorite watering places, and other points attractive to travellers of
leisure, which it would be quite impracticable to lay down in a work
of this kind. They can always obtain information of these resorts,
from intelligent companions on the road, that will prevent their
deviating much from the point they wish to attain. The distances on
the river have been corrected agreeably to the latest survey. The
other routes conform to the most approved authorities; and,
frequently, have been corrected by personal observation, with the
utmost care and attention.

ROUTE 1.--_From New Orleans to New York, via Pittsburgh, Pa., by

    New Orleans to Carrolton,                          6 |
    Red Church,                                       20 |   26
    Bonne Carre Church,                               16 |   42
    Jefferson College,                                22 |   64
    Donaldsonsville,                                  19 |   83
    Louisiana Institute,                              12 |   95
    St. Gabriel Church,                               12 |  107
    Plaquemine,                                       10 |  117
    Baton Rouge,                                      23 |  140
    Port Hudson,                                      25 |  165
    Bayou Sara,                                       11 |  176
    Tunica Bend,                                      27 |  203
    Red River, cut off,                               33 |  236
    Fort Adams, Miss.,                                11 |  247
    Homo Chitta River, Miss.,                         10 |  257
    Ellise Cliffs, Miss.,                             26 |  283
    Natchez, Miss.,                                   18 |  301
    Rodney, Miss.,                                    31 |  332
    Bruinsburg, Miss.,                                12 |  344
    Grand Gulf, (big black) Miss.,                    10 |  354
    Carthage, Miss.,                                  25 |  379
    Warrenton, Miss.,                                 19 |  398
    Vicksburg, Miss.,                                 10 |  408
    Old River, (Yazoo,) Miss.,                        12 |  420
    Tompkins' Bend,                                   46 |  466
    Providence, La.,                                  15 |  481
    Bunch Bend,                                       19 |  500
    Princeton, Miss.,                                 10 |  510
    Columbia, Ark.,                                   45 |  555
    Bolivar, Miss.,                                   53 |  608
    Napoleon, (Arkansas,)                             12 |  620
    Victoria,                                         20 |  640
    Delta,                                            66 |  706
    Helena,                                           10 |  716
    Sterling,                                         10 |  726
    Peyton, Miss.,                                    12 |  738
    Commerce,                                         33 |  771
    Buck Island,                                       6 |  777
    Memphis, Tenn.,                                   21 |  798
    Devil's Race Ground,                              34 |  832
    Randolph, Tenn.,                                  33 |  865
    Fulton, Tenn.,                                    11 |  876
    Plumb Point,                                      10 |  886
    Ashport,                                          12 |  898
    Needham's Cut-off,                                 8 |  906
    Walker's Bend,                                    31 |  937
    Riddel's Point,                                   18 |  955
    New Madrid, Mo.,                                  10 |  965
    Mills' Point,                                     42 | 1007
    Columbus, K.,                                     15 | 1022
    Cairo, (Mo'th Ohio R'r.) Il.,                     18 | 1040
    Trinity,                                           6 | 1046
    America, Il.,                                      5 | 1051
    Caledonia, Il.,                                    3 | 1054
    Fort Massac, Il.,                                 23 | 1077
    Paducah, (M. Tenn R'r) K.,                         8 | 1085
    Smithfield, (M. Cum'd) K.,                         1 | 1097
    Golconda, Il.,                                    18 | 1115
    Tower Rock,                                       15 | 1130
    Cave in the Rock,                                  5 | 1135
    Battery Rock,                                      9 | 1144
    Shawneetown, Il.,                                 12 | 1156
    Raleigh, K.,                                       6 | 1162
    Wabash River,                                      6 | 1168
    Carthage, K.,                                      7 | 1175
    Mount Vernon, Ia.,                                13 | 1188
    Henderson, K.,                                    28 | 1216
    Evanville, Ia.,                                   12 | 1228
    Owensboro, K.,                                    36 | 1264
    Rockport,                                         12 | 1276
    Troy, Ia.,                                        16 | 1292
    Cloverport,                                       21 | 1313
    Stephensport, K., and Rome, Ia.,                  10 | 1323
    Fredonia,                                         34 | 1357
    Leavenworth,                                       2 | 1359
    Mauckport, Ia.,                                   14 | 1373
    Brandenburg,                                       3 | 1376
    West Point, K.,                                   18 | 1394
    Portland, K., and New Albany, Ia.,                20 | 1414
    Shippingport,                                      1 | 1415
    Louisville, K.,                                    3 | 1418
    Jeffersonville, Ia.,                               1 | 1419
    Westport, K.,                                     19 | 1438
    Bethlehem,                                         6 | 1444
    New London,                                        6 | 1450
    Madison, Ia.,                                      7 | 1457
    Port William, K.,                                 14 | 1471
    Vevay, Ia., and Ghent K.,                          8 | 1479
    Warsaw, K.,                                       11 | 1490
    Rising Sun, Ia.,                                  20 | 1510
    Bellevue,                                          2 | 1512
    Petersburg,                                        7 | 1519
    Aurora,                                            2 | 1521
    Lawrenceburg,                                      3 | 1524
    North Bend,                                        7 | 1531
    Cincinnati, O., and Covington and Newport, K.,    17 | 1548
    Columbia,                                          8 | 1556
    Richmond,                                         13 | 1569
    Point Pleasant,                                    4 | 1573
    Macon,                                             4 | 1577
    Neville,                                           3 | 1580
    Mechanicsburg, O.,                                 3 | 1583
    Augusta,                                           7 | 1590
    Levana, O., and Dover, K.,                         2 | 1592
    Ripley, O.,                                        3 | 1595
    Charleston, K.,                                    5 | 1600
    Maysville, K., and Aberdeen, O.,                   7 | 1607
    Manchester, O.,                                   11 | 1618
    Vanceburg, K.,                                    16 | 1634
    Alexandria,                                       18 | 1652
    Portsmouth, O.,                                    2 | 1654
    Concord, O.,                                       8 | 1662
    Greenupsburg, K.,                                 13 | 1674
    Burlington, O.,                                   23 | 1697
    Guyandot, Va.,                                     7 | 1704
    Galliopolis, O.,                                  35 | 1739
    Point Pleasant,                                    3 | 1742
    Letart's Rapids,                                  30 | 1772
    Belleville, Va.,                                  28 | 1800
    Troy, O.,                                          5 | 1805
    Belpie and Blennerhassett's Island,               12 | 1817
    Parkersburg, Va.,                                  2 | 1819
    Vienna, Va.,                                       5 | 1824
    Marietta, O.,                                      6 | 1830
    Newport, O.,                                      15 | 1845
    Sistersville,                                     27 | 1872
    Wheeling, Va.,                                    40 | 1912
    Warren,                                            9 | 1921
    Wellsburg, Va.,                                    6 | 1927
    Steubenville,                                      7 | 1934
    Welleville, O.,                                   20 | 1954
    Georgetown,                                        7 | 1962
    Beaver,                                           13 | 1974
    Economy,                                          12 | 1986
    Middletown, Pa.,                                   8 | 1994
    Pittsburgh, Pa.,                                  10 | 2004
    Warrenton, by Canal,                              47 | 2051
    Blairsville,    do                                28 | 2079
    Johnstown,      do                                29 | 2108
    Hollidaysburg, by rail-road,                      37 | 2145
    Alexandria, by Canal,                             26 | 2171
    Lewiston,       do                                57 | 2228
    Newport,        do                                36 | 2264
    Harrisburg,     do                                26 | 2290
    Philadelphia, by rail-road,                      101 | 2391
    Trenton,            do                            28 | 2419
    Brunswick,          do                            27 | 2446
    Jersey City,        do                            31 | 2477
    New York, by steamboat,                            1 | 2478

ROUTE 2.--_New Orleans to New York, via St. Louis, Chicago and Buffalo,
(see route 1.) to Mouth of the Ohio, Steamboat to St. Joseph._

    Mouth of Ohio,                                       | 1040
    Elk Island,                                        8 | 1048
    Dogtooth Island,                                   8 | 1056
    English Island,                                   15 | 1071
    Cape Girardeau, Mo.,                              12 | 1083
    Bainbridge, Mo., and Hamburg, Il.,                10 | 1093
    Lacouse's Island,                                 31 | 1124
    Kaskaskia River,                                  15 | 1139
    River au Vases,                                   10 | 1149
    St. Genevieve, Mo.,                                9 | 1158
    Fort Chartres Island,                             10 | 1168
    Rush Island,                                      10 | 1178
    Herculaneum, Mo.,                                 10 | 1188
    Harrison, Il.,                                     1 | 1189
    Merrimack River,                                  11 | 1200
    Carondelet, Mo.,                                  13 | 1213
    St. Louis, Mo.,                                    7 | 1220
    Alton, Il.,                                       22 | 1242
    Illinois River,                                   15 | 1257
    Monroe,                                            5 | 1262
    Guilford,                                         10 | 1272
    Montezuma,                                        20 | 1292
    Augusta,                                          15 | 1307
    Meridosia,                                        23 | 1330
    Beardstown,                                       16 | 1346
    Havana,                                           27 | 1373
    Pekin,                                            34 | 1407
    Peoria,                                            7 | 1414
    Henry,                                            10 | 1424
    Columbia,                                         10 | 1434
    Lacon,                                             4 | 1438
    Hennepin,                                         18 | 1456
    Chippeway,                                        16 | 1472
    Shippingport,                                      2 | 1474
    Dresden,                                          46 | 1520
    Mount Joliet,                                     15 | 1535
    Lockport,                                          6 | 1541
    Chicago, Il.,                                     29 | 1570
    Michigan City, Ind.,                              52 | 1622
    New Buffalo, M.,                                  12 | 1634
    St. Joseph, M.,                                   28 | 1662
    Detroit, by rail-road,                           200 | 1862
    Fighting Island, by steamboat                     12 | 1874
    Amhurstsburg, U. C.,   do                          6 | 1880
    Middle Sister Island,  do                         20 | 1900
    North Bass Island,     do                         10 | 1910
    Cunningham's Island,   do                         10 | 1920
    Sandusky, O.,          do                         12 | 1932
    Cleaveland, O.,        do                         54 | 1986
    Fairport, O.,          do                         30 | 2016
    Ashtabula, O.,         do                         32 | 2048
    Fairview, Pa.,         do                         28 | 2076
    Erie, Pa.,             do                         11 | 2087
    Bugett's Town, Pa.,    do                         17 | 2104
    Portland, N. Y.,       do                         18 | 2122
    Dunkirk, N. Y.,        do                         18 | 2140
    Cattaraugus, N. Y.,    do                         13 | 2153
    Sturgeon Point, N. Y., do                         10 | 2163
    Buffalo, N. Y.,        do                         16 | 2179
    Williamsville, by rail-road,                      10 | 2189
    Pembroke,            do                           16 | 2205
    Batavia,             do                           14 | 2219
    Rochester,           do                           25 | 2244
    Canandagua,          do                           25 | 2269
    Geneva,              do                           16 | 2285
    Waterloo,            do                            7 | 2292
    Seneca Falls,        do                            4 | 2296
    Cayuga,              do                            3 | 2299
    Auburn,              do                            9 | 2308
    Skaneatelas          do                            7 | 2315
    Marcellus,           do                            6 | 2321
    Onondaga,            do                            8 | 2329
    Manlius,             do                           12 | 2341
    Oneida,              do                           18 | 2359
    Utica,               do                           22 | 2381
    Herkimer,            do                           16 | 2397
    Little Falls,        do                            7 | 2404
    Caughnawaga,         do                           33 | 2437
    Amsterdam,           do                           10 | 2447
    Schenectady,         do                           15 | 2462
    Albany,              do                           15 | 2477
    New Baltimore, steamboat,                         15 | 2492
    Kinderhook Landing, do                             4 | 2496
    Hudson,             do                             9 | 2505
    Catskill,           do                             5 | 2510
    Clermont,           do                             9 | 2519
    Redhook, upper landing,                            2 | 2521
    Redhook, lower      do                             3 | 2524
    Rhinebeck,          do                             7 | 2531
    Esopus,             do                             1 | 2532
    Hyde Park,          do                             9 | 2541
    Poughkeepsie,       do                             5 | 2546
    New Hamburg,        do                             8 | 2554
    Newburg,            do                             7 | 2561
    Fishkill,           do                             1 | 2562
    New Windsor,        do                             1 | 2563
    Cold Spring, by steamboat,                         3 | 2566
    West Point,         do                             3 | 2569
    St. Anthony's Nose, do                             7 | 2576
    Fort Fayette,       do                             5 | 2581
    Stony Point,        do                             1 | 2582
    Haverstraw,         do                             4 | 2586
    Sing Sing,          do                             3 | 2589
    Tarrytown,          do                             6 | 2595
    Phillipstown,       do                            10 | 2605
    Fort Independence,  do                             4 | 2609
    Fort Washington,    do                             2 | 2611
    Fort Lee,           do                             1 | 2612
    Manhattanville,     do                             2 | 2614
    New York,           do                             8 | 2622

ROUTE 3.--_New Orleans to New York, via Wheeling and Baltimore._

    To Wheeling, by steamboat, (see route 1.)            | 1912
    Cumberland, by stage,                            131 | 2043
    Hancocktown, Md., rail-road                       39 | 2082
    Williamsport, Md.,    do                          27 | 2109
    Frederickstown, Md.,  do                          27 | 2136
    Poplar, Md.,          do                          20 | 2156
    Ellicott's, Md.,      do                          17 | 2173
    Baltimore, Md.,       do                          10 | 2183
    Havre de Grace, Del., do                          31 | 2214
    Wilmington, Del.,     do                          36 | 2250
    Philadelphia, Pa.,    do                          26 | 2276
    New York, (see route 2.)                          88 | 2364

ROUTE 4.--_New Orleans to New York, Mail line._

    Point Pontchartrain, by rail-road,                 5 |
    Fort Pike, by steamboat                           21 |   26
    Bay St. Louis,     do                             33 |   59
    Biloxi,            do                             31 |   90
    Pascagoula, Miss., do                             20 |  110
    Cedar Point, Al.,  do                             26 |  136
    Mobile, Al.,       do                             28 |  164
    Junction of Alabama and Tombigbee river, do       65 |  229
    Claiborne,         do                             72 |  301
    Black Bluff,       do                             46 |  347
    Dale Town,         do                             35 |  382
    Canton,            do                             14 |  396
    Portland,          do                             29 |  425
    Cahaba,            do                             21 |  446
    Selma,             do                             18 |  464
    Benton,            do                             35 |  499
    Vernon,            do                             39 |  538
    Loch Ranza,        do                              6 |  544
    Washington,        do                             16 |  560
    Montgomery,        do                             12 |  572
    Chehaw, Al., by rail-road,                        40 |  612
    Covington, Ga., by stage,                        155 |  767
    Augusta, Ga., by rail-road,                      121 |  888
    Charleston, S. C.,  do                           136 | 1024
    Wilmington, N. C., by steamboat,                 220 | 1244
    Weldon, N. C., rail-road,                        170 | 1414
    Richmond, Va.,     do                            124 | 1538
    Washington City,   do                            122 | 1660
    Baltimore, Md.,    do                             40 | 1700
    New York, (see route 3.)                         181 | 1881

ROUTE 5.--_New Orleans to Fort Gibson by steamboat._

    Arkansas river, (see route 1.)                   620 |
    Arkansas,                                         62 |  682
    New Gascony,                                      71 |  753
    Pine Bluff,                                       25 |  778
    Little Rock,                                     150 |  928
    Lewisburg,                                        66 |  994
    Scotia,                                           50 | 1044
    Morrison's Bluff,                                 33 | 1077
    Van Buren,                                        72 | 1149
    Fort Smith,                                        8 | 1157
    Fort Coffee, Mo.,                                 10 | 1167
    Fort Gibson,                                      84 | 1251

ROUTE 6.--_New Orleans to Balize, and Gulf of Mexico, by Steamboat._

    Battle Ground,                                     5 |
    English Turn,                                      6 |   11
    Fort St. Leon,                                     5 |   16
    Poverty Point,                                    18 |   34
    Grand Prairie,                                    27 |   61
    Fort St. Philip,                                   9 |   70
    South West Pass,                                   9 |   79
    South Pass,                                        2 |   81
    Pass a' l'Outre,                                   2 |   83
    Balize,                                            4 |   87
    Gulf,                                              5 |   92

ROUTE 7.--_New Orleans to the Raft on Red River, by Steamboat._

    Mouth of Red River,                              236 |
    Black River,                                      28 |  264
    Bayou Saline,                                     20 |  284
    Alexandria,                                       56 |  340
    Regolet de Bondieu,                               18 |  358
    Bayou Cane,                                       36 |  394
    Natchitoches,                                     24 |  418
    Bastian's Landing,                                40 |  458
    The Raft,                                         40 |  498

ROUTE 8.--_New Orleans to Pittsburg, Miss., by Steamboat._

    Mouth of Yazoo River, Miss.,                     420 |
    Satartia,                                         66 |  486
    Liverpool,                                         5 |  491
    Manchester,                                       25 |  516
    Tchula,                                           88 |  604
    Marion,                                           37 |  641
    Mouth of Yalo Busha river,                        33 |  674
    Cochuma,                                          38 |  712
    Pittsburg,                                        27 |  739

ROUTE 9.--_New Orleans to Nashville, Tenn., by Steamboat._

    Cumberland river,                               1097 |
    Eddyville, K.,                                    56 | 1153
    Canton,                                           20 | 1173
    Dover, Tenn.,                                     30 | 1203
    Palmyra,                                          31 | 1234
    Red River,                                         6 | 1240
    Harpeth River,                                    20 | 1260
    Nashville,                                        40 | 1300

ROUTE 10.--_New Orleans to Florence, Al., by Steamboat._

    Tennessee River,                                1085 |
    Petersville, Tenn.,                               71 | 1156
    Reynoldsburg,                                     36 | 1192
    Perryville,                                       42 | 1234
    Carrollville,                                     27 | 1261
    Coffee,                                           26 | 1287
    Savannah,                                          9 | 1296
    Waterloo,                                         25 | 1321
    Bear Creek,                                       12 | 1333
    Colbert's Ferry, Tenn.,                           14 | 1347
    Florence, Al.,                                    24 | 1371


    Academies for Females, 44

    Algiers, a description of, 194

    Alligators, killed for their skins, 42

    American Theatre, erected in 1823, 67
      description of, 180

    Amusements, 176

    Ancient Settlements supposed to have existed, 11

    Anecdote of an old Frenchman, 68
      early cotton growing, 47

    Annunciation Square, 183
      Church, 100

    Armories, 149

    Association, Young Men's Howard, 115

    Associations for charitable and other purposes, 110

    Asylums of New Orleans, their excellence, ib.

    Asylum, Catholic Male Orphan, 114
      Female do, 110
      Male do, 113
      Milne do, 116
      Poydras Female do, 113
      Les dames de la Providence, 114

    Attakapas Prairie, 38
      Parish, 39
      produces abundance of live oak, 33

    Atchafalaya lands, 34

    Bank of Louisiana, 155
      Louisiana State, 153
      Canal, 155
      City, 154
      Mechanics' and Traders', 153
      Gas, 154

    Banks' Arcade, 156

    Bard, Captain, Return of, 16

    Bar of New Orleans, 79

    Barracks, the United States, 86

    Baton Rouge taken, 24

    Battle Ground, 196

    Bayou St. John Road, 194

    Beautiful land bordering the Teche, 33

    Bellevue Prairie, 40

    Benevolent Society, Hebrew, 116

    Best lands, 31

    Bienville, made governor,  17
      is superseded in 1710,  ib.
      deceives the English captain, 16
      is reappointed governor in 1717, 17
      founds New Orleans, 1718, 18
      sails for France in 1727, 20
      is succeeded by Perrier, ib.
      governor for the third time, ib.
      resigns in 1741, ib.

    Biloxi settled by Iberville, 16

    Board of Health established in 1841, 71

    Boatmen of the Mississippi, 75

    Bottom lands, their luxuriance, 30

    Boundaries of the State of Louisiana, 28
      Territory of Louisiana, 7

    Branch Mint of the United States, 88

    Branch Bank of the United States, established 1805, 66

    Breed of cattle improving, 56

    Bricks, why they are not well made, 57

    Buildings, the public, 86

    Burr, Aaron, 26

    Business season, appearance of the levee in the, 81

    Calcasieu prairie, 40

    Caldwell, James H., his great enterprise, 67

    Carmelite Convent, 104

    Carondelet appointed governor in 1792, 25
      fortifies New Orleans in 1792, 64
      his schemes defeated by Gen. Wilkinson, 26

    Casa Blanca, 189

    Carrolton, 191

    Casa Calvo succeeds governor Gayosa de Lemor, 26
      is succeeded by Salado, ib.

    Catholic Cemeteries, 107

    Cathedral, 92

    Cattle, improvement in the breed, 56

    Ceded to the United States, Louisiana, 26

    Cemetery, Cypress Grove, 105
      Catholic, 107
      Protestant, 108
      St. Patrick's, 109

    Chapel of the Ursulines, 98
      St. Antoine's, or the Mortuary, 97
      Wesleyan, 103

    Charitable Association, the Samaritan, 114
      the Firemen's, 115

    Charitable institutions, 110

    Charity Hospital, 117

    Church, Annunciation, 100
      St. Augustine, 96
      Christ, 99
      St. Paul's, 95
      St. Patrick's, 95
      First Presbyterian, 100
      Second do, 101
      First Congregational, ib.
      Methodist Episcopal, 102
      First Baptist, ib.

    Circus, the, 180

    Circus Place, 182

    Circus street Infirmity, 124

    City Exchange, (St. Louis,) 157
      Bank, 154
      Hall, 134
      Improvements, an anecdote, 68
      Proper, its extent, ib.
      Prisons, 129

    Clay, of a very pure kind, 57

    Clergy, of New Orleans, 79

    Climate of Louisiana, 45

    College of Louisiana, 43
      Jefferson, ib.
      Franklin, ib.
      Medical, 168

    Colonial system introduced, 17
      carried out, 21

    Colony transferred to France in 1803, 24

    Colorado ascended by La Salle, 15

    Comedians first arrived in 1791, 64
      become teachers, ib.

    Commercial advantages of New Orleans, 81

    Commercial exchange, 159
      prosperity commences in 1795, 25

    Comparative speed of navigating the Mississippi, 80

    Congregational Church, first, 101

    Convent of Ursuline nuns, erected in 1730, 61
      its description, 103

    Convent, new one erected in 1824, 61
      its description, 104

    Coast, the, 31

    Convent, the Carmelite, 104
      at Grand Coteau, 44

    Cotton, when first exported, an anecdote, 47
      the quantity estimated for 1844, 45
      opinions on the fluctuating price of, 48
      its consumption in New England, 49
        in England, ib.
      will present prices sustain the planter? 50
      the produce of Texas, ib.
      lands, where the best, 34
      Factories, 151
      Presses, 152

    Court-house, 133

    Creoles their character, 73

    Crevasse, in 1816, 42
      in 1844, at Bonne Carre, ib.

    Crozat, Antonio, obtains an exclusive privilege, 17

    Cuba tobacco seed does well in Louisiana, 54

    Cultivation of sugar, 21
      of Cotton, 47
      of madder, 51
      of silk, 53
      of hemp, ib.
      of the vine, 55
      of tobacco, 54
      of indigo, 55
      of orange and fig do, 20

    Currency, evil of its depreciation, 19

    Custom house, description of it, 89

    Custom House, a new one contemplated, 90

    Cypress Grove Cemetery, 105

    Death of Iberville, 17
      de Soto, 10

    Delta of the Mississippi, 37

    Deposit of red river, 34

    Description of United States Barracks, 86
      Branch Mint, 88

    Description of the Custom House, 89
      Post Office, 90
      State House, 91
      Cathedral, 92
      St. Patrick's Church, 95
      St. Augustine do, 96
      Mortuary Chapel, 97
      Annunciation Church, 100
      Chapel of the Ursulines, 98
      Christ Church, 99
      St. Paul's do, ib.
      First Presbyterian do, 100
      Second do    do, 101
      Methodist Episcopal do, 102
      Wesleyan Chapel, 103
      old Ursuline Convent, ib.
      new do, 104
      Court-House, 133
      City Hall, 134
      St. Charles Exchange, 137
      Verandah, 141
      City Exchange, (St. Louis,) 157

    Discovery of the Mississippi, 7

    Disputed Territory, 8

    Division of the city in 1836, 67

    Don Ulloa driven away, 22

    Don O'Reilly takes possession, 23

    Duelling punished by disfranchise, 78

    Education in Louisiana, 43

    Elliot, Andrew, 26

    "English Turn," whence derived, 16

    Exchange Hotel, (St. Charles,) 137
      Merchants', 161
      (St. Louis,) City, 157
      Commercial, 159

    Excursions, 191

    Extent of the territory of Louisiana, 9
      New Orleans, in 1810, 66
      the City Proper, 68

    Feliciana, West, parish of, 32

    Female Orphan Asylum, 110

    Fig trees introduced, 20

    Fire consumes nine hundred houses in 1778, 62
      many buildings in 1796, 65
      seven blocks of houses in 1844, 70

    Fire department, 149

    Firemen's Charitable Association, 115

    First steamboat arrives at New Orleans,  27

    First Presbyterian Church, 100
      Congregational do, 101

    Florida invaded by Gov. Galvez, in 1779, 24

    Floating Prairies, a great natural curiosity, 35

    Flour mill, 151

    Fort Charlotte taken, 24

    Fountain of Health, 9

    Franklin College, 43
      Infirmary, 124

    Gas Works, a description of them, 144
      the city lighted with it in 1834, 70

    Gayosa de Lemor made governor, 26

    Gayosa de Lemor succeeded by Casa Calvo, 26

    German emigrants settle along the coast in 1723, 60
      supply the city with vegetables, ib.

    Grape vines, where to be cultivated, 55

    Grazing, the very best lands for it, ib.

    Gretna, 195

    Gypsum, valuable beds found, 56

    Health of New Orleans, 77

    Hebrew Benevolent Society, 116

    Hemp suited to the higher grounds, 53
      an immense article of consumption, ib.
      necessary in time of war, 54

    Hernandez de Soto, first discovery of Louisiana, 7
      his death, 10

    Historical Sketch of New Orleans, 58

    Hospitality of the inhabitants of Opelousas, 40

    Hospitals, easy access to them, 117
      the Charity, ib.

    Hotel, Exchange, (St. Charles,) 137
      the Verandah, 141
      St. Louis Exchange, 143
      Hewlett's, ib.
      Planters', ib.
      National, ib.

    Hall of Second Municipality, 127

    Hurricane devastates New Orleans 1723, 60

    Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, article, 48

    Iberville enters the Mississippi, 16
      establishes the first settlement at Biloxi, ib.
      founds Natchez, 17
      his death, ib.

    Improvement in New Orleans in 1824, 66

    Incorporation of New Orleans in 1805, ib.

    Indian massacre of the whites at Natchez, 19

    Indigo cultivated in 1728, 20
      cultivation now much neglected, 55

    Infirmary, Circus street, 124
      Franklin, ib.

    Inquisition, its establishment frustrated in 1785, 25

    Iron foundry, 150

    Jefferson College, 43

    Jesuits and Ursuline Nuns arrived in 1727, 60
      expelled by Clement XIII., in 1763, 61
      their property confiscated, ib.
      their immense wealth, ib.
      curious documents of them in archives of first municipality, ib.

    La Dames de la Providence, 114

    Lafayette Square, 182

    Lafourche, Bayou, 32

    Lakes, inlets, and sounds, 37

    La Salle descends the Mississippi to the Gulf, 14
      builds a fort at the mouth of Little Miami, ib.
      sails for France, 15
      goes into the bay of St. Bernard, ib.
      ascends the Colorado, ib.
      forms a settlement on St. Bernard's bay, ib.
      is murdered by Dehault, ib.
      his character and enterprise, ib.

    Law, John, the Scotch financier, 18

    Learned professions, divinity, law, and medicine, 79

    Le Moniteur, first paper published in New Orleans, 25

    Levee, its extent, 31
      crevasse in 1816 and 1844, 42
      its appearance in the business season, 81
      Cotton Press, 152

    Literary Association, Young Men's, 167

    Live oak of Attakapas, its abundance, 33

    Louisiana, territory of, its discovery, 7
      its boundaries, ib.
      transferred to Spain, 22
      retransferred to France in 1803, 26
      sold to the United States in 1803, ib.
      the State of, admitted to the union in 1812, 27
      its boundaries, surface and soil, 28
      its vast prairies, 30
      its improvement in education, 43
      College of, ib.
      mutton unsurpassed, 56
      the climate of, 45
      State Bank, 153
      Medical College, 168

    Luxuriance of the bottom lands, 34

    Lyceum, Public School, 166
      the People's, 167

    Madder described, how cultivated, 51
      price, duties, and demand for it, ib.

    Maison de Sante, 123

    Male Orphan Asylum, 113

    Manufactures, 150

    Marine Hospital, United States, 125

    Markets of New Orleans, 135

    Market, Poydras street, 136
      the Vegetable, ib.
      the Meat, ib.

    Market, St. Mary's, 137

    Marquette descends the Mississippi, 13

    Marshes, extensive near the ocean, 38

    Masonic Fraternities, 80

    Massacre at Natchez, 19

    Meat Market, 136

    Mechanics' and Traders' Bank, 153

    Medical Science, 79

    Medical College of Louisiana, 168

    Merchants' Exchange, 161
      Reading Room, ib.

    Meteorological Journal, an abstract from the, 72

    Methodist Episcopal Church, 102

    Mexican Gulf Rail-road, 193

    Military strength of New Orleans in 1792, 64

    Milne Orphan Asylum, 116

    Minerals of Louisiana, 56

    Mint, Branch of the United States, 88

    Miro succeeds Galvez as governor, 25
      carries the colonial system into effect, ib.

    Mississippi River discovered by De Soto, 10
      River made free in 1795, 25
      Valley, its vast extent, 83
      boatmen, description of them, 74
      immensity of its produce, 82-84
      Delta of, 37

    Moral character of New Orleans, 78

    Moscoso's Adventures, 10

    Mulberry trees prolific in Louisiana, 53

    Municipal Hall, 127

    Muskeet grass, excellent for cattle, 55

    Mutton, 56

    Natchez massacre of the whites, 19
      tribe defeated, ib.
      founded by Iberville, 17

    National Hotel, 143
      Gallery of Paintings, 169

    Natchitoches tobacco, very superior, 54

    Nature of the soil of Louisiana, 29

    New Orleans founded by Bienville in 1718, 59
      a historical sketch of, 58

    New Orleans, view of, 58
      inundated and abandoned in 1719, 59
      again occupied in 1722, ib.
      visited by a hurricane in 1723, 60
        by yellow fever in 1769, 62
      divided into wards and lighted in 1792, 64
      fortified by Carondelet, ib.
      its military strength, ib.
      opened to the United States in 1795, 65
      a port of entry and delivery in 1804, 66
      incorporated in 1805, ib.
      its extent in 1810, ib.
      its appearance from various points, 69
      lighted with gas in 1834, 70
      state of its morals, 78
      its commercial advantages, 81
      its anticipated greatness, 84
      Reading Rooms, 161-2
      Police, 78
      travelling routes, 201

    Newspaper Press, 173
      first published in 1794, 25

    Olden Time, 184

    Old Ursuline Convent, 103

    Opelousas Prairie, 39
      hospitality of the inhabitants, 40

    Opposition to founding New Orleans, 59

    Orange trees introduced, 20
      destroyed by frost in 1748, ib.

    O'Reilly, the Spanish governor, 23
      his tyrannical conduct, ib.
      succeeded by Unzoga, 24

    Orleans Cotton Press, 152
      Theatre, 176

    Orphan Asylums, their excellence, 110

    Paintings, National Gallery of, 169
      individual collections of, 170

    Paving of streets first began, 67

    Pensacola taken by the French, 19

    People's Lyceum, 167

    Physic, Law and Divinity, their progress, 79

    Pine woodlands, 30

    Place d'Armes, 182

    Planing Mill, steam, 151

    Plaquemine, 32

    Planters' Hotel, 143

    Ponce de Leon, 9

    Pontchartrain Rail-road, 192

    Population in 1732, 20
      in 1788, 25
      in 1803, 26
      of New Orleans in 1723, 59
        in 1785, 62
        in 1803, 70
        in 1810, 66
        in 1844, 71
        comparative, ib.

    Police of New Orleans, 78

    Post Office, 90

    Pottery may be made of Louisiana clay, 57

    Poydras Female Orphan Asylum, 113
      street Market, 136

    Prairies of the State, 30
      particularly described, ib.

    Prairie, Attakapas, 33 38
      Opelousas, 39
      Bellevue, 40

    Prairie, Calcasieu, 40

    Prairie, Sabine, 40

    Press of New Orleans, 173

    Presbyterian Church, First, 100
      Second, 101

    Project of supplying wholesome water, 148

    Prospects of New Orleans, 82

    Prosperity of trade in 1810, 66

    Protestant Cemetery, 108

    Public buildings, 86
      libraries much wanted, 79
      property transferred to the United States, 65

    Public School system, 163
      how introduced, ib.

    Public School Lyceum, 166
      Squares, 181

    Race Courses, 195

    Raft in Red River, 36

    Rail-road, Pontchartrain, 192
      Carrolton, 191
      Mexican Gulf, 193

    Reading Room, Merchants', 161
      New Orleans, 162

    Red River deposit, its nature, 34
      raft, 36

    Residence of Governor Bienville, 189

    Road of Bayou St. John, 194

    Rope Walks, 151

    Sabine Prairies, 40

    Salvado, last Spanish governor, 26

    Samaritan Charitable Association, 114

    Sauville, the Governor, dies, 17

    Saw Mills, steam, 151

    School, Convent, 44
      Sisters of Charity, ib.

    School, Ursuline Nuns', 44

    Schools, the Public, ib.

    Second Presbyterian Church, 101
      Municipality Work-House, 130
        Hall, 127

    Sheep of Louisiana, very superior, 56
      Lafourche, ib.

    Shell Road, 192

    Silk may be produced in abundance, 53

    Society in New Orleans, 73

    Soil of Louisiana, 29

    State of Louisiana described, 28

    State Legislature to be removed, 92
      House, 91

    Steamboat first arrives from Pittsburgh, 27

    Steamboats, early, their trips, 80
      extent of present navigation, 83

    Steam Planing Mill, 151
      Saw Mills, ib.

    Streets and sidewalks first paved, 67

    St. Augustine Church, 96

    St. Patrick's do, 95
      Cemetery, 109

    St. Paul's Church, 99

    St. Antoine's, or Mortuary Chapel, 97

    St. Charles Exchange Hotel, 137

    St. Louis Exchange Hotel, 143

    St. Mary's Market, 137

    (St. Louis,) City Exchange, 157

    St. Charles Theatre, 178

    St. Lorenzo, treaty of, 25

    St. Bernard bay occupied by La Salle, 15

    Sugar introduced by the Jesuits in 1751, 21
      crops their present average, ib.

    Sugar lands, 46
      refinery, 151

    Suggestion to sugar planters, 46

    Surface of Louisiana, 29

    Tax upon chimneys to light New Orleans, 64

    Teche, excellent lands upon its borders, 33

    Territory of Louisiana, its boundaries, 7
      its discovery by de Soto, 10
      its immense extent, 8
      transferred to Spain in 1763, 22

    Theatre American 1823, 67
      Orleans, 176
      St. Charles, 178

    "The Coast," its extent and luxuriance, 31

    Third Municipality Work-house, 133

    Tobacco Cuba, cultivated, 54
      from Cuba, fine specimens of seed, ib.
      raised at Natchitoches, ib.
      worm how to prevent it, 55

    Transfer of Louisiana to Spain, 22

    Transfer of Louisiana to the United States in 1803,  26

    Travelling Routes, 201

    Tyrannical conduct of O'Reilly, 23

    United States Marine Hospital, 125
      Barracks, 86
      Branch Bank, established in 1805, 66
      Mint, 88

    University of Louisiana, see note, 43

    Unzoga succeeds O'Reilly as governor, 24
      succeeded by Galvez, ib.

    Ursuline Convent, the old, 103

    Ursuline Chapel, 98
      nuns arrived in 1730, 60
      erect a new convent in 1824, 104

    Vaudreuil marquis de, 20

    Variety of the population of New Orleans, 73

    Vegetable Market, 136

    Verandah, 141

    View of New Orleans from various points, 69

    Vine, cultivation of the, 55

    War between France and Spain, 19
      England and France, in 1756, 21
      do and Spain, in 1779, 24
      do and the United States, 27

    Watchmen first established in 1792, 64

    Water, a project to supply it without charge, 148

    Water Works, supply water from the Mississippi, 70
      a description of them, 146

    Washington Square, 181

    Wesleyan Chapel, 103

    Western Company, chartered in 1717, 17
      fail, in 1732, 20

    West Feliciana, its excellent soil, 32

    Wilkinson, Gen., 26

    Woods, Col. crosses the Mississippi, 13

    Work-house of the Second Municipality, 130
      Third do, 133

    Yellow fever first introduced in 1769, 62

    Yellow Fever, opinions of its transmissibility, 121
      No. of cases in Hospital from 1822, to 1844, 120

    Young Men's, Howard Association, 115
      Literary do, 167




       *       *       *       *       *

  For 1845-6.

  Containing the names, residences and occupations of Merchants and
  Bankers, Mechanics and Professional men. Classed and arranged

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

  No. 16

       *       *       *       *       *

  Comprising the works of the best standard authors in the various
  departments of literature,



  Bibles, Prayer Books, Psalm and Hymn Books.




  Also Public and Private Libraries, at Publishers' Prices.


       *       *       *       *       *

  Consisting of the most approved kinds; adapted to the use of


  All descriptions of ACCOUNT BOOKS made to order.


  Custom House and Commercial Blanks.



       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Typographical errors in spelling and punctuation repaired; variant
spellings changed when there was a clear majority.

The following variant spellings were retained: "depot" (used for New
Orleans) and "depôt" (used for rail-road); "moschetoes" and
"mosquitoes"; "enquir" and "inquir" roots (used equally);
"Pittsburg" (Miss.) and "Pittsburgh" (Pa.); "Cleaveland" (Ohio) (per
Columbia Gazetteer of the World, this was the original name, after its
founder Moses Cleaveland); "Zimple" and "Zimpel"; "regime" and

Hyphenation variants changed to majority use (with priority on usage
in headings and text, over usage in index or tables); retained when
equal (wood-lands and woodlands, re-transferred and retransferred,
pre-eminence and preeminently). "steam-boat" and "steam boat" changed
to "steamboat" except on p. 27, where "Steam Boat" is used for the
first appearance of a new technology.

Punctuation after chapter and section headings, and illustration
captions (periods, commas, no punctuation) was inconsistent;
standardized to no punctuation. Brackets around "see Route" references
changed to more frequent parentheses.

P. 20, "Vandreuil" corrected to "Vaudreuil."

P. 73, Meteorological table has been split for better displaying (text

P. 84, "inexaustible" changed to "inexhaustible."

P. 103, "Diocess" retained; per Oxford English Dictionary (OED) correct
for time period.

P. 147, "Tchapitoulas" corrected to "Tchoupitoulas."

P. 174, "cotemporaries" retained; per OED, this was a common period
variant for contemporaries.

P. 205, Route 4; "Tombigkbe" changed to "Tombigbee."

P. 206, Savannah. Original shows cumulative miles 2196. Transposition

P. 206, Route 10 heading, "Ala." changed to more frequent "Al."

P. 213, index; originally left justified "Seven blocks" now indented
under "Fire consumes."

P. 222, index; originally left justified "Branch Bank" now indented
under "United States."

The following discrepancies in route tables were retained as shown in
the original:

P. 202, Smithfield, "1" in original would add up to 1086 cumulative
(11 mile discrepancy).

P. 203, Greenupsburg, "13" in original would add up to 1675 cumulative
(1 mile discrepancy). Georgetown "7" and Beaver "13" appear to be
averaged, since each addition does not add up, but their cumulative
addition (20 miles from Welleville to Beaver) does add up.

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