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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 104, October 25, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 104, October 25, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



[Transcriber's note: Original spelling varieties have not been
standardized. Old English-style letters have been marked with braces
{d}; characters with macrons have been marked in brackets with an equal
sign, as [=e] for a letter e with a macron on top, or [q=] for a letter
q with a horizontal bar in the descender. Underscores have been
used to indicate _italic_ fonts.]



NOTES and QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. IV.--No. 104. Saturday, October 25. 1851.

Price Sixpence. Stamped Edition, 7_d._



CONTENTS.

                                                                Page


      NOTES:--

      The Old Countess of Desmond, No. 1.                        305

      Panslavic Sketches, by Dr. J. Lotsky                       306

      Monumental Bust of Shakspeare, by J. O. Halliwell          307

      Notes on Passages in Virgil, by Dr. Henry                  307

      Folk Lore:--Superstitions respecting Bees--Bees invited
      to Funerals--North Side of Churchyards--Ashton
      Faggot: a Devonshire Custom--Offerings
      to the Apple-trees: Devonshire Superstition                308

      Poetical Imitations                                        310

      Gloucestershire Ballads:--A Gloucester Ditty; George
      Ridler's Oven                                              311

      The Caxton Coffer, by Bolton Corney                        312

      Minor Notes:--Note on the Duration of Reigns--Cock
      and Bull Story--"Multa renascentur," &c.--Corruptions
      recognised as acknowledged Words                           312

      QUERIES:--

      Mary Queen of Scots and Bothwell's Confession              313

      Minor Queries:--"'Tis Twopence now"--Scythians
      blind their Slaves--The "Gododin"--Frontispiece to
      Hobbes's Leviathan--Broad Arrow or Arrow Head--Deep
      Well near Bansted Downs--Upton Court--Derivation of
      Prog--Metrical History of England--Finger Pillories
      in Churches--Stallenge Queries--Ancient MS. History
      of Scotland--Pharetram de Tutesbit--Inundation at
      Deptford--Butler's Sermons--Coleridge's
      Christabel--Epigram ascribed to Mary Queen of Scots        314

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Meaning of Farlieu--"History
      of Anglesey"--The Word "Rile"                              317

      REPLIES:--

      Winchester Execution                                       317

      Cockney                                                    318

      Sir Edmund Plowden or Ployden                              319

      General James Wolfe                                        322

      Stanzas in Childe Harold                                   323

      Replies to Minor Queries:--MS. Note in a Copy of Liber
      Sententiarum--Naturalis Proles--Print cleaning--Story
      referred to by Jeremy Taylor--Anagrams--Battle of
      Brunanburgh--Praed's Works--Sir J. Davies--Coins
      of Constantius Gallus--Passage in Sedley--Buxtorf's
      Translation of Elias Levita's "Tub Taam"--Stonehenge--Glass
      in Windows formerly not a Fixture--Fortune, infortune,
      fort une--Matthew Paris's "Historia Minor"--Sanford's
      "Descensus"--Death of Pitt--History of Hawick--"Prophecies
      of Nostradamus"--Bourchier Family--William III. at
      Exeter--Passage in George Herbert--Suicides buried in
      Cross Roads--Armorial Bearing--"Life of Cromwell"--Harris,
      Painter in Water Colours--"Son of the Morning"--Grimsdyke
      or Grimesditch--Cagots--The Serpent represented with
      a human Head--Fire Unknown--Plant in Texas--Copying
      Inscriptions--Chantrey's Statue of Mrs. Jordan--Portraits
      of Burke--Martial's Distribution of Hours                  326

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                     332

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               333

      Notices to Correspondents                                  333

      Advertisements                                             333



Notes.


THE OLD COUNTESS OF DESMOND, NO. 1.

The various notices and inquiries at times in your publication
respecting this lady, including, as they do, some sceptical doubts of
her existence, induce me to trouble you with several particulars upon
this subject, of which I have at sundry times, according to the
admirable suggestion of your motto, "when found, made a note." Some of
them, derived from local antiquarian opportunities, will be new; of all
I shall endeavour to make an intelligible arrangement; and as the
subject will probably extend itself too much for a single article suited
to your pages, I propose to place it under these distinct headings:--Was
there an _old_ Countess of Desmond? Is there _really_ a portrait of her?
And, Who was she?

In reference to the first inquiry, I would observe that the _fact_ of
the existence of such a personage rests upon no modern or uncertain
tradition. This aged lady, according to an account I shall mention
presently, is supposed to have lived to the latter end of the reign of
James I. or beginning of that of Charles I.; and mention is made of her
by Sir Walter Raleigh, in his _History of the World_ (bk. i. p. i. c.
5.), as "personally known to him" as having been married in the reign of
Edward IV. (who died A.D. 1485); and who was living in 1589, and "many
years afterwards, as all the noblemen and gentlemen of Munster can
witness."

Lord Bacon, in his _Natural History_ (cent. viii. sect. 755.) refers to
her thus:

  "They tell a tale of the old Countess of Desmond, who lived until
  she was seven score years old; that she did _dentize_ twice or
  thrice, casting her old teeth, and others coming in their place."

Horace Walpole, in his _Historic Doubts respecting Richard III._ (p.
102.), correcting the "misrepresentations regarding his person," says:

  "The _old_ Countess of Desmond, who had danced with Richard,
  declared he was the handsomest man in the room except his brother
  Edward, and was very well made."

This last anecdote of Walpole's is taken from an account which I
certainly have _seen_ and read, but the name of the authority I cannot
now recollect, which stated that the Countess actually outlived the
"trust term for securing her jointure" (a period generally of
ninety-nine years from the date of marriage), "and was obliged in her
old age to appear in a court of justice to establish her rights; and
that it was _there_ and _then_ she delivered Walpole's anecdote to the
judge and audience." All these different yet concurring testimonies seem
satisfactorily to establish the fact that there _was_ a Countess of
Desmond "passing old."

Then, as to her celebrated _picture_, of which I have frequently seen
the original on _wood_, in possession of the "Right Hon. Maurice
Fitzgerald, Knight of Kerry," and have now a print before me, there are
some particulars and questions which may interest your readers.

The print (same size as the original) is a mezzo-tint, ten inches by
seven inches and a half, and has under it the following inscription:

  "CATHERINE FITZGERALD (the long-lived) COUNTESS OF DESMOND, from
  an original Family Picture of the same size, painted on Board, in
  the possession of the Right Honorable Maurice Fitzgerald, Knight
  of Kerry, &c. &c. &c., to whom this plate is most respectfully
  dedicated by her very obedient and much obliged humble servant,
  HENRY PELHAM.

  "This illustrious lady was born about the year 1464, and was
  married in the reign of Edward IV., lived during the reigns of
  Edward V., Richard III., Henry VII., Henry VIII., Edward VI.,
  Mary, and Elizabeth, and died in the latter end of James I., or
  beginning of Charles I.'s reign, at the great age (as is generally
  supposed) of 162 years. Published as the Act directs, at Bear
  Island, June 4, 1806. By Henry Pelham, Esq."

In this print the features are large and strongly marked; the forehead
and upper part of the nose deeply wrinkled, the head covered with a
large full black hood, showing no hair whatever about the face; the
person wrapped in a dark cloak, held by a single button over the breast.
As some of your correspondents speak of portraits of this lady at Knowle
(Vol. iii., p. 341.), Bedgebury, and Penshurst, it may be useful to
compare them with this description, for the following reason.

Horace Walpole, whose "mission" seems to have been to raise "Historic
Doubts," in a letter to Rev. Mr. Cole, dated May 28, 1774, has the
following sentence:

  "Mr. Pennant has given a new edition of his former _Tour_, with
  more cuts: among others is the _vulgar_ head called the Countess
  of Desmond. I told him I had discovered, and proved past
  contradiction, _that it is Rembrandt's mother_. He owned it, and
  said he would correct it by a note: but he has not. _This is a
  brave way of being an antiquary_: as if there could be any merit
  in giving for genuine what one knows to be spurious."

This is a very _teasing_ passage. I have no copy of Pennant's _Tour_ by
me; nor do I recollect ever to have seen one with the print here
referred to. Probably some of your numerous correspondents will find
one, and inform us, whether the print in it resembles the description I
have given. It is not at all probable that Pennant's "cut" was copied
from the Knight of Kerry's picture: but _if_ it was copied from any of
those mentioned by your correspondents; and _if_ these be duplicates of
the Knight of Kerry's "family portrait;" and _if_ Horace Walpole's cruel
criticism on Mr. Pennant be correct--then have we all been _shamed with
a sham_. These are a considerable number of _ifs_, upon which this
conclusion depends; but in one thing Walpole is correct: "there is no
merit in giving for genuine what one knows to be spurious."

Of the Mr. Pelham who published the print I have described, there are
some particulars which may interest your readers. He will be found among
the correspondents of the late General Vallancey, whose interest in
Irish antiquities is well known. Mr. Pelham was an ingenious gentleman,
who came to Kerry in the end of the last century, in the character of
agent to the Marquis of Lansdowne; which engagement, after a few years,
he resigned, but continued in the county, a zealous studier of its
antiquities, and intending, as I have heard, either a new County History
or a reprint of Smith's work. He was a good civil engineer, and executed
a great part of a large county and baronial map, afterwards finished by
another hand. Mr. Pelham, who perished prematurely by sudden death, in
his boat, while superintending the building of a Martello tower on Bear
Island, in the River Kenmare, in the very year he published this print,
is said to have been an uncle by half-blood to the present Lord
Lyndhurst, whose grandmother, Sarah Singleton, is said to have married
to her second husband, ---- Pelham, an American--Henry Pelham being the
only issue of her second marriage, as John Singleton Copley, father to
the ex-chancellor, was of her first. In my next I propose to consider
the question, Who was the old Countess of Desmond?

    A. B. R.


PANSLAVIC SKETCHES.

The idea and conception of _Panslavism_ are the produce of the
latent political events on the Continent, viz. the idea of a
_re-crystallisation_ of a race of people comprising even now sixty
millions, and which in former epochs extended from Archangelsk to
Tissalonichi, where it bordered on the abodes of the Hellenic race.
Having lost their primeval (Indian) civilisation by migrations which
extend to times historical, the only monuments testifying to their most
ancient origin are the languages of these various tribes,--the Russians,
Czechs, Poles, &c. But these languages have all acquired a more modern
type, by a great susception of Greek, Tartarian, Latin, Turkish, and
German phrases and constructions. Fortunately, however, there have been
other branches of this huge nation-tree, which, settled on the shores of
the German ocean, afar from the tracts of migration and the stations of
war, have escaped the influence of the changes contingent on the
contentions and intercourse of men. And thus, the _Old Prussian_, the
_Lithuanian_, and the _Lettish_ tongues (dialects) have escaped, as it
were, the changes of improvement, and have remained, in the mouth of
aboriginal inhabitants, such as they were many centuries ago. If the
mythology of the Slavian nations, and their universal complex of
languages, are undoubtedly _Indian_ (Sanscrit), the above-named three
dialects have retained _most_ of their primordial type. I subjoin the
Lord's Prayer, written in these three ancient Slavonic dialects, now
hardly understood by any other save those very same tribes. The
approximation to Sanscrit is most striking, and deserves the notice of
philologists. As a number of persons conversant with Sanscrit, and even
the dialects spoken in India, are to be met with in the British capital,
their attention is most respectfully called to these venerable remains
of old _Panslavic_ tongues.

    DR. J. LOTSKY, Panslave.

  8. Robert Street, Hampstead Road.


THE LORD'S PRAYER.

_Old Prussian._

Tava nuson, kas tu essei en dangon, svintints virst tvais emnes; pereit
tvais ryks; tvais quaits audasin kagi en dandon tyt deigi no semien,
nuson deinennin geitien dais numans [=s]an deinan; bhe etverpeis numas
nusons ausautins, kaimes etverpimai nusons au[=s]autenikamans; bhe ni
veddeis mans em perbandasnan, [=s]lait isrankeis mans esse vissan
vargan.

_Lithuanian._

Tive musû, kurs essi danguie, te essie [=s]venē amas tavo vardas; te
ateinie tavo karaliste; te nusidŭdie tavo vale, kaip danguie taip ir
ant [=z]èmês; dŭna musû diesni[=s]ka dûk mums ir sa diena; ir attèisk
mums musû kattes, kaip mes attèidsam savo kattiemus; ir ne vesk mus i
pagundima, bet gèlbèk mus nŭ pikto.

_Letton (Lettish.)_

Mûsu têvs debbesîs, svêtîts lai tôp tavs vârds, lai nâk tava valstiba;
tavs prâts lai noteek, ka debbesîs ta arridzan zemmes virzû; mûsû
deeni[=s]ku maiz dôd mums [=s]odeen; un pametti mums mûsu parradus, ka
arrimês pamettam saveem parradneekeem; un ne ceveddi mûs eek[=s]
kârdina[=s]anas, bet atpesti mûs no ta launa.


MONUMENTAL BUST OF SHAKSPEARE.

Mr. T. Kite, the parish clerk of Stratford-on-Avon, has recently
completed a copy in imitation stone from a cast of the monumental bust
of Shakspeare, which appears to me, after a very close and minute
comparison, to be a far more faithful transcript of the original than
any of the kind hitherto accessible to the public. It gives in detail
most accurately those peculiarities which led Sir F. Chantrey to the
opinion that the artist worked from a cast made after death; and if you
would kindly spare a few lines of your paper for a paragraph to that
effect, I feel sure you would not only confer a benefit on Shakspearian
collectors, but at the same time pay a just tribute to Mr. Kite, for the
intelligent pains he has bestowed upon the work. It is scarcely
necessary to say an accurate copy of the Stratford bust is the best
memorial of Shakspeare the public can possess, it being so much superior
in authenticity to any other resemblance.

    J. O. HALLIWELL.

  Stratford on Avon, Oct. 15.


NOTES ON PASSAGES IN VIRGIL.

      I. "Acti Fatis."--_Virg. Æn. I. 36._

  "Si _fatis_, nulla Junonis invidia est. Si Junonis invidiâ
  fatigabantur quomodo dicit _acti fatis_? Sed hoc ipsum Junonis
  odium fatale est. Agebantur _fatis_ Junonis, i.e. _voluntate_; vel
  _fatis_, pro _malis_, ut iii. 182."--SERVIUS.

  "Non tam quoniam hoc Junonis odium fatale erat, ut Servius; sed
  potius, quoniam hi ipsi Trojanorum, errores fatales
  erant."--HEYNE.

Not only these two, but all other commentators and translators, as far
as I know, have wholly mistaken the meaning of this passage, which is
not _that the Trojans were_ jactati, fatigati, or agitati, _harassed, or
driven hither and thither by the fates_, (_actus_ being never used in
the sense assigned to it in such interpretation), but simply that they
were _driven onward, or toward Latium, by the fates_ (acti fatis); while
at the same time they were _driven backward, or from Latium, by Juno_,
(arcebat longe Latio). The result was "multos per annos errabant maria
omnia circum:" words could not more clearly express the opposition of
the forces between which the Trojans were placed; an opposition on which
hangs the whole action of the poem. The _invidia_ of Juno, concerning
which Servius queries, was manifested by her using her utmost exertions
to prevent the Trojans from arriving at the place toward which they were
impelled by the fates, _i.e._ at which it was fated they should arrive.

As "acti fatis" here, so "fato profugus venit," verse 6; "sedes ubi fata
quietas ostendunt," verse 209; "data fata secutus," verse 386; "fata
deum vestras exquirere terras imperiis _egere_ suis" (_Æn._ VII. 239.);
"fatisque vocantia regna" (_Æn._ v. 656.); &c.; through all which
expressions runs the one constant idea of the fates _calling_,
_forcing_, _driving_ (agentia) the Trojans toward Latium.

      II. "Sævus ubi Æacidæ telo jacet Hector ubi ingens
         Sarpedon."--_Virg. Æn._ I. 103.[1]

Observe how the poet surmounts the obvious difficulty of uniting Hector,
the principal champion of Troy, and Sarpedon, the son of Jove, in one
and the same sentence, without implying a preference for either, without
exalting one at the expense of the other; viz., by counterbalancing, by
an inferior position towards the end of a line, that advantage of
priority of mention, which he must necessarily give to one of them; and
by compensating the other for the disadvantage of being placed second in
order, by the double advantage of first place in a line, and separation
from the rest of the line by a sudden pause.

      III. "Ubi tot Simois correpta sub undis
           Scuta virum galeasque et fortia corpora volvit."

      _Virg. Æn._ I. 104.

  "Contendit cum Homero (_Il._ μ. 22. _seq._). Potest sane
  oratio nimis ornata videri ex Æneæ persona; sed innumeris locis
  poetæ cum epici, tum tragici, ac lyrici, sibi indulgent in ornatu,
  etiam ubi alios loquentes inducunt."--HEYNE.

  [Footnote 1: The numbering of the lines is that of the Delphin edition.]

This stricture, very seasonable in a commentary on Statius or Lucan, is
wholly inapplicable to Virgil; a poet remarkable, above all others, for
his abstinence from gaudy ornament, and singularly careful to adapt the
sentiment to the character and circumstances of the speaker. The words
in the text, or some similar words, were indispensable to give full
expression to the idea of Æneas; very imperfectly understood either by
the annotators, or, with the exception of Caro, by the translators:
_Happy those who died on the plains of Troy, in the sight of their
sires? Oh! that I, too, had perished there by the hand of Tydides, or
been swept away along with so many of my friends by the Simois!_

    JAMES HENRY.

  34. Westland Row, Dublin.


FOLK LORE.

_Superstitions respecting Bees._--It is a subject for painful
reflection, that beings of so great skill and useful industry should be
so liable to take affront, as is proved by the anecdotes related of bees
by L. L. L. Who would not grieve, that bees--who have been said to
partake of the Divine nature,

      "Esse apibus partem divinæ mentis et haustus
      Ætherios dixêre"--

should reduce themselves, by this susceptibility of offence at (in most
cases imaginary) neglect, to a level with the weakness and folly of
human creatures,--I say human creatures; for in the country I have known
feuds caused by omitting to bid to the funeral of a deceased neighbour,
or to send black gloves. It was to be hoped that these "offensiones
muliebres" (we may add "viriles" also) were peculiar to the human race;
but that, it is apparent, is not so. The custom of giving a piece of the
funeral cake is new to me; though it looks like want of feeling to be
greedy of cake in the hour of affliction, yet there is a sort of
retributive fitness in presenting to these busy people

      "_Melle_ soporatam et medicatis frugibus offam."

It is a grateful acknowledgment of past favours conferred upon the
deceased head of the family, and a retainer for future services to the
survivors.

With regard to the custom of informing the bees of a death in the
family, and the penalty of omitting to do so, I can add to the proof of
it. I find among some memoranda I made more than five-and-twenty years
ago, the following note:

  "In Buckinghamshire it is common, on the death of any one of the
  family, for the nurse to go to all the bee-hives in the garden,
  and tap gently three times, each time repeating three times these
  words, 'Little brownie, little brownie, your master's dead;' when
  the bees, beginning to _hum_, show their consent to remain. The
  omission of this ceremony, it is believed, would occasion the loss
  of the bees by flight, or otherwise."

To show that a similar custom and belief, though varying in some
particulars, are found upon the continent of Europe, I give the
following extract:

  "In Lithuania, when the master or mistress of the house dies, it
  is considered necessary to give notice of the fact to the bees,
  horses, and cows, by rattling a bunch of keys; and it is believed,
  that if this were omitted the bees and cattle would die."--See the
  _Journal of Agriculture. Highland and Agricultural Society of
  Scotland_, Oct. 1848, p. 538.

One word more of bees: "His head is full of bees" is a Scotch proverb,
said of a drunkard. (Ray's _Proverbs_, p. 198.) "He has a bee in his
head" is an English proverb. So, "He has a bee in his bonnet." What is
the meaning? As I was writing the last lines I said to a friend who was
lounging in his arm-chair by our fireside, "Why is a drunkard's head
said to be full of bees?" "I don't know," he answered, "unless it is on
account of their _humming_. You remember," he added,

      "With a pudding on Sundays, with stout _humming_ liquor,
      And remnants of Latin to welcome the vicar."

The half-hour bell rang before we had done talking of and repeating
parts of V. Bourne's "The Wish." Many a time has "NOTES AND QUERIES"
given subjects for talk in our family before and after dinner.

    F. W. T.

Oliver, in his account of Cherry-Burton (_History of Beverley_, p.
499.), speaks thus on the superstitious practice of informing bees, and
putting them in mourning on the occasion of a death in the family:

  "The inhabitants entertain a superstitious belief, that when the
  head of a family dies, it is necessary to clothe the bees in
  mourning on the funeral day to ensure the future prosperity of the
  hive."

He then refers to an instance, and says:

  "A scarf of black crape was formally applied to each bee-hive; and
  an offering of pounded funeral biscuit, soaked in wine, was placed
  at its entrance."

In a note, he accounts for the ceremony's origin by a quotation from
Porph. _De Ant. Nymp._, p. 261., in which honey is spoken of as being
"anciently a symbol of death." For other notices of superstitions in
reference to bees, see Hone's _Mysteries_, pp. 220. 222. 283.

    R. W. ELLIOT.

I was lately informed by a native of Monmouthshire, that the belief
relative to bees is entertained in that and some of the adjacent
counties even by educated persons. My informant gravely assured me that
though the bees are aware of the approaching event, from the acuteness
of their organs of smell, they require to be duly and timely
communicated with on the subject, to induce them to remain with the
survivors; but if this be neglected, they will desert their hives, and
disappear. The propriety or necessity of offering them any refreshment
was not stated.

    YUNAF.

The custom mentioned by L. L. L. still prevails in the Weald of Surrey
and Sussex; probably through all the southern counties; but certainly in
the Isle of Wight, where the writer only the other day, on noticing an
empty apiary in the grounds of a villa, was told that the country people
attributed its desertion to the bees not having had this formal notice
of their master's death.

The same superstition is practised in some parts of France, when a
mistress of the house dies; the formula being much like our English one,
_i.e._ to tap thrice on the hive, repeating these words, "Petits
abeilles, votre maîtresse est morte."

    A. D.

_Bees invited to Funerals.--North Side of Churchyards._--At Bradfield, a
primitive village on the edge of the moors, in the parish of
Ecclesfield, I was informed by a person of much intelligence, that a
custom has obtained in the district from time immemorial--"for hundreds
of years" was the expression used--of inviting bees to funerals; and
that an instance could be produced of the superstition having been
practised even within the last year. What is done is this. When a death
occurs, a person is appointed to call the neighbours to the funeral, who
delivers the invitations in one form of words: "You are invited to the
funeral of A. B., which is to take place at such an hour, on such a day;
and there will be dinner on table at----o'clock." And if it should
happen that bees were kept in the garden of the house where the corpse
lies (not an unlikely thing near moors), the messenger is instructed to
address the same invitation to the bees in their hives; because it is
considered that, if this compliment be omitted, the bees will die.

I asked the sexton of Bradfield why, in a churchyard that was rather
crowded with graves, there was no appearance of either mound or
tombstone on the north side? His only answer was, "It's mostly them 'at
died i' t' workhus is buried at t' backside o' t' church." An instance,
but no explanation of the prejudice entertained against the north side
of churchyards.

    ALFRED GATTY.

In answer to your correspondent L. L. L. respecting bee etiquette, I can
inform him, from my personal observation, that the ceremony of informing
the bees of their owner's death is in full force in Ashborne,
Derbyshire, Hinton, Wilts, and even in the highly intellectual city of
Oxford. The ceremony is the same in all these places. Three taps are
made on the hives with the house-key, while the informant repeats:
"Bees, bees, bees, your master is dead, and you must work for ----,"
naming the future owner. A piece of black crape is then fastened to the
hive. Many bee owners think it is politic to inform the bees of the
death of a relation: but in this case they never give the name, but the
degree of relationship; as "your master's brother, sister, aunt, &c. is
dead." On weddings the bees always expect to be informed of the
auspicious event, and to have their hive decorated with a wedding
favour.

    J. G. WOOD.

  Oxford.

_Ashton Faggot: A Devonshire Custom._--The ashton faggot is burned on
Christmas eve. The faggot is composed entirely of ash timber, and the
separate sticks or branches are securely bound together with ash bands.
The faggot is made as large as can conveniently be burned in the
fireplace, or rather upon the floor, grates not being in use. A numerous
company is generally assembled to spend the evening in games and
amusement, the diversion being heightened as the faggot blazes on the
hearth, as a quart of cider is considered due, and is called for, and
served upon the bursting of every hoop or band bound round the faggot.
The timber being green and elastic, each band generally bursts open with
a smart report when the individual stick or hoop has been partially
burned through.

_Offerings to the Apple-trees: Devonshire Superstition._--It was a
custom in Devonshire, and probably in some of the adjoining counties
also, to perform the following ceremonial on Old Christmas Eve, or
Twelfth Day, namely: In the evening the farmer's family and friends
being assembled, hot wheat-flour cakes were introduced, with cider; and
this was served round to the company, the cake being dipped in the
cider, and then eaten. As the evening wore on, the assembled company
adjourned into the orchard, some one bearing hot cake and cider as an
offering to the principal tree in the orchard; the cake was deposited on
a fork of the tree, and the cider was then thrown over it, the men
firing off muskets, fowling-pieces, pistols, &c., the women, girls, and
boys shouting and screaming to the trees with all the excitement of
young Indians the following rhyme:--

      "Bear blue, apples and pears enoug';
      Barn fulls, bag fulls, sack fulls. Hurrah! hurrah! hurrah!"

Query, Do these customs prevail to this day either in Devonshire or in
other European countries?

    R. R.


POETICAL IMITATION.

It has always been a pleasing office of criticism, to observe how often
an excellent thought, having sprung from some master mind, or from some
inferior mind in a happy moment, has been used by succeeding writers.

Homer,

          "à quo, ceu fonte perenni,
      Vatum Pieriis ora rigantur aquis,"

has, in _Il._ v. 406. _et seq._, the following lines:

      "Νήπιος, οὐδὲ τὸ οἶδε κατὰ φρένα Τυδέος υἱὸς
      Ὅττι μάλ' οὐ δηναιὸς, ὃς ἀθανάτοισι μάχοιτο,
      Οὐδέ τί μιν παῖδες ποτὶ γούνασι παππάζουσιν,
      Ἐλθόντ' ἐκ πολέμοιο καὶ αἰνῆς δηϊοτῆτος."

"The son of Tydeus is foolish and rash, nor is aware that he who fights
with the immortals is not long-lived, and that _no children, as he
returns from war and strife, gather round his knees to call him
father_."

The idea of children saluting their parent at his knees, has been
adopted, and accompanied with various additions, by several subsequent
authors. Among the writers in Homer's language, however, we find no
imitation of it, unless the following lines of Callimachus can be
regarded as taken from it:

      "Πατρὸς ἐφεζομένη γονάτεσσι
      Παῖς ἔτι κουρίζουσα, τάδε προσέειπε γονῆα,
      Δός μοι παρθενίην αἰώνιον, ἄππα, φυλάσσειν."

"She (_Diana_), yet a child, sitting sportively on the knees of her
father, said to him, Allow me, dear parent, to preserve a perpetual
virginity."

In the Latin writers the thought occurs several times. The first in whom
it is found is Lucretius:

      "At jam non domus adcipiet te læta, neque uxor
      Optuma, nec dulces obcurrent oscula natei
      Præripere, et tacitâ pectus dulcedine tangent."

      III. 907.

"But thy cheerful home shall no more receive thee, nor thy excellent
wife; nor shall thy sweet children run to snatch kisses from thee, and
touch thy breast with secret delight."

In whose steps Virgil treads:

      "Interea _dulces pendent circum oscula nati_;
      Casta pudicitiam servat domus."--_Geo._ II. 523.

      "His cares are eased with intervals of bliss;
      His little children climbing for a kiss,
      Welcome their father's late return at night;
      His faithful bed is crown'd with chaste delight."

      Dryden.

(Virgil liked the expression _dulces nati_. He has

      "Nec mihi jam patriam antiquam spes ulla videndi,
      Nec _dulces natos_ exoptatumque parentem."

      _Æn._ II. 137.

      "Nec _dulces natos_, Veneris nec præmia nôris?"

      _Æn._ IV. 33.

      "Sed tota in _dulces_ consument ubera _natos_."

      _Geo._ III. 178.)

Statius, doubtless, had both Lucretius and Virgil in his view, when he
wrote,

      "Rursus et ex illis soboles nova; grexque protervus
      Nunc _humeris irreptet avi_, nunc agmine blando
      Certatim placidæ _concurrat ad oscula_ Pollæ."

      _Silv._ III. i. 179.

"Again from them springs a new race; a forward little troop, which
sometimes climb on the shoulders of their grandfather, and sometimes, in
pleasing congress, run to catch a kiss from the gentle Polla."

Seneca, _Thyest._ I. 145., has another imitation:

      "Exceptus gladio parvulus impio,
      Dum _currit patrium natus ad osculum_,
      Immatura focis victima concidit."

"The little Pelops, met by the impious sword, while he was running to
receive his father's kiss, fell a premature victim on the hearth."

Claudian, _Rapt. Proserp._ III. 173., has another:

                "Hæc post cunabula dulci
      Ferre sinu, summoque Jovi deducere parvam
      Sueverat, _et genibus ludentem aptare paternis_."

"She was accustomed to bear the little infant, after it had slept in its
cradle, in her fragrant bosom, to present it to almighty Jove, and to
place it sporting on its father's knees."

But the best adaptations and expansions of the thought have been among
the writers of our own country. The earliest allusion to it, I believe,
occurs in Thomson's description of the traveller lost in the snow:

      "In vain for him th' officious wife prepares
      The fire fair-blazing, and the vestment warm;
      In vain his little children, peeping out
      Into the mingling storm, demand their sire
      With tears of artless innocence! Alas!
      Nor wife, nor children, more shall he behold,
      Nor friends, nor sacred home."--_Winter_, 311.

But this is a less pointed imitation than that of Gray, which succeeded
it. Gray had his eye on Lucretius:

      "For them no more the blazing hearth shall burn,
        Or busy housewife ply her evening care;
      No children run to lisp their sire's return,
        Or climb his knees the envied kiss to share."

Next followed Collins, in his Ode on the Superstitions of the Highlands,
who, however, seems to have had Thomson chiefly in view:

      "For him, in vain, his anxious wife shall wait,
        Or wander forth to meet him on his way;
      For him, in vain, at to-fall of the day,
        His babes shall linger at th' unclosing gate:
      Ah! ne'er shall he return."

To him succeeded Dyer:

      "The little smiling cottage, when at eve
      He meets his rosy children at the door,
      Prattling their welcomes, and his honest wife,
      -------------------------------- intent
      To cheer his hunger after labour hard."

      __Fleece_, Book I. 120._

Burns has a picture equal to any of these:

      "At length his lonely cot appears in view
          Beneath the shelter of an aged tree:
        _Th' expectant wee things, todlin', stacher through
          To meet their dad with flichterin' noise and glee:_
          His wee-bit ingle blinkin' bonnilie,
        His clean hearth-stane, his thrifty wifie's smile,
          _The lisping infant prattling on his knee_,
        Does a' his weary carking cares beguile,
      And makes him quite forget his labour and his toil."

      _Cotter's Saturday Night._

Burns may have taken the thought from Gray, or some other English
source. But he has not disgraced it by his mode of treating it.

Allen Ramsay, in his _Gentle Shepherd_, has a very pretty allusion to
children, which I have not at hand to consult, but which concludes with,

      "While all they ettle at, their greatest wis',
      Is to be made o', and obtain a kiss."

    J. S. W.

  Stockwell.


A GLOUCESTER DITTY.

(_From an Old Broadside without date._)

      Come, my very merry gentle people, only list a minute,
      For tho' my song may not be long there's something comic in
          it;
      A stranger I, yet, by the bye, I've ventured in my ditty,
      To say a word at parting, just in praise of Gloucester city.

      The Romans they this city built, and many folks came down
          here,
      Kings Richard, Henry, John, and Ned, did visit Glo'ster town
          here;
      King William dined each Christmas here, and Glo'ster folks it
          pleases,
      To know the food he relished most was double Berkeley cheeses.

      The ladies, Heaven bless 'em all! as sure as I've a nose on,
      In former times had only thorns and skewers to stick their
          clothes on;
      No damsel then was worth a pin, whate'er it might have cost
          her,
      Till gentle Johnny Tilsby came, and invented pins in Glo'ster.

      Your fine cathedral when I saw, tho' much I was delighted,
      Yet in the whisp'ring gallery I got most sadly frighted;
      Some question there I asked myself, when not a soul was near
          me,
      And suddenly an answer came, as if the walls could hear me.

      The Severn full of salmon fine enriches low and high land,
      And then, for more variety, you've got a little island;
      Of which I've read a Taylor's Tale, a dozen verses long, sirs,
      And may I go to Old Harry, if it's not a clever song, sirs.

      George Ridler's oven, I've been told, contains some curious
          jokes, sirs,
      And much of it is said by many Glo'ster folks, sirs;
      But ovens now are serious things, and from my soul I wish,
          sirs,
      Your ovens here many ne'er want bread to fill the poor man's
          dish, sirs.

      Now if you will but all forgive this slight attempt at rhyme,
          sirs,
      I'll promise, like the little boys, to mend another time,
          sirs;
      May health, with every blessing, join this company to foster,
      Till, with your leave, some future time I come again to
          Glo'ster.


GEORGE RIDLER'S OVEN.

(_From a Broadside._)

      The stwons that built George Ridler's oven,
      And thauy keum from the Bleakeley's Quaar;
      And George he wur a jolly old mon,
      And his yead it grawed above his yare.

      One thing of George Ridler I must commend,
      And that wur vur a notable theng;
      He meud his braags avoore he died,
      Wi' ony dree brothers his zons should zeng.

      There's Dick the Treble and John the Mean,
      (Let ev'ry mon zeng in his auwn pleace)
      And George he wur the elder brother,
      And therevoore he would zeng the Beass.

      Mine Hostess' moid (and her neaum 'twur Nell),
      A pretty wench, and I loved her well;
      I loved her well, good reazun whoy,
      Because zhe loved my dog and I.

      My dog is good to catch a hen,
      A duck or goose is vood vor men;
      And where good company I spy,
      O thether gwoes my dog and I.

      My mother told I when I wur young,
      If I did vollow the strong beer pwoot,
      That drenk would pruv my auverdrow,
      And meaak me vear the thread bare cwoart.

      My dog has gotten sich a troick,
      To visit moids when thoiy be zick;
      When thoiy be zick and loik to die,
      O, thether gwoes my dog and I.

      When I have dree zixpences under my thumb,
      O, then I be welcome wherever I keum;
      But when I have none, O then I pass by,
      'Tis poverty pearts good company.

      If I should die as it may hap,
      My greauve shall be under the green yeal tap;
      In voulded earmes there wool us lie,
      Cheek by jowl, my dog and I.

The foregoing is a very famous old Gloucestershire ballad, corrected
according to the fragments of a MS. found in the Speech-house of Dean
several centuries ago, and used to be sung at the meetings of the
Gloucestershire Society, a charitable institution held at the Crown and
Anchor in the Strand.

Both these ballads are literally copied from the Broadsides.

    H. G. D.


THE CAXTON COFFER.

The biographers of Caxton may be divided into two classes; those who
wrote before the publication of the _Typographical antiquities_, A.D.
1749, and those who wrote after that date. The same distinction may be
made with regard to those who have incidentally noticed his life or
publications.

The principal writers of the first period are Leland, Bale, Stow, Pits,
Fuller, Nicolson, Middleton, Birch, Oldys, Lewis and Tanner. At the
present moment, I must content myself with a critical remark on the mode
in which Leland has been so often quoted. The first passage contains the
expression to which I allude.

  (1.) "Gulielmus Caxodunus, _Angliæ prototypographus_, hæc, aut
  similia his, Anglice refert" etc.

  (2.) "Quanquam priusquam id, quod modo sum pollicitus,
  præstitero, non alienum meo erit instituto palam facere
  _Gulielmum Caxodunum_, hominem nec indiligentem, nec indoctum,
  _et quem constat primum_ LONDINI _artem exercuisse
  typographicam_, Chauceri opera, quotquot vel pretio vel precibus
  comparare potuit, in unum volumen collegisse."

The incidental expression _Angliæ prototypographus_ has been considered
as a proof that Leland discredited the typographical claims of Oxford.
The second quotation conveys an opposite notion. I tax no one, however,
with unfairness, but ascribe the oversight to reliance on the _Index
scriptorum à Joanne Lelando laudatorum_, which refers only to the first
quotation.

    BOLTON CORNEY.


Minor Notes.

_Note on the Duration of Reigns._--As Mr. Clinton and others have
endeavoured to invalidate Newton's conclusions with respect to the
length of reigns, by examples from modern history, I have made a Note on
that subject which may be of use. Taking in the times which may be
supposed most to resemble those to which the question refers, we find in
England, from Alfred to the Conquest, 13 kings in 166 years:

      From 1066 to 1272     8 kings      206 yrs.
      From 1272 to 1837    27   "        565  "

An average on the whole of 19-1/2 years.

If we add the time from Egbert, 5 kings, 73 yrs., the average becomes 19
yrs.

The average from 1272 is only 21.

      In France 559 to 814   18 kings    255 yrs.
           "    814   1830   47   "     1016  "

Average 19-1/2.

Average from 814 only 21-1/2.

In Germany 840 to 1835 50 emper. 995 yrs. Average not 20.

Turks 1299 to 1808, 30 sover. 509 yrs. Average 17.

Scotland 1057 to 1567, 20 kings 510 yrs. Average 25-1/2

Spain 1479 to 1833, 14 kings 354 yrs. Average 25.

Portugal 1102 to 1826, 27 kings 724 yrs. Average not 21.

Denmark 1157 to 1839, 28 kings 672 yrs. Average 25.

Russia 1722 to 1825, 9 sover. 103 yrs. Average 11-1/2 yrs.

Total: 294 sovereigns, 6085 years; being an average of about 20-2/3,
although including the latest times. It is evidently unfair to take
recent times only, as Hales, Clinton, &c. do.

    ALTRON.

_Cock and Bull Story._--One of your correspondents, in a late reply
(Vol. iv., p. 243.), alludes to "a marvellous or _cock and bull_ story."
Query, as to the origin of this saying. From an early number of the
_Phonetic Journal_ made the following Note.

Dr. Burgess, a Methodist preacher, who often indulged in pointed
remarks, perceiving some young men attending his preaching, whose
behaviour plainly showed that amusement was their only object, turned
his discourse, and addressed himself particularly to them as follows:--

  "Young men, I know you are come to hear a story, and I will tell
  you one. There was once a man, a cock, and a bull, who, being
  intimate, agreed to travel together. They had not gone far on
  their journey when they found themselves on the brink of a river,
  which they had determined to cross, but could discover neither
  bridge nor ferry. After a consultation it was agreed the cock
  should first make the attempt of crossing the water, which he did
  without much difficulty; the bull afterwards plunged into the
  stream, and by mere strength waded through. The man, not being
  able to swim, was afraid to follow his companions; and while they
  were encouraging him from the other side to get over, he was
  observed to cut some osiers which grew by the water-side. Perhaps
  you imagine these were intended to form a vehicle for conveying
  him across the river? No such thing, I assure you. What other
  purpose could he design them for? I will tell you, young men; it
  was to lash the backs of those fools who chose to hear a story of
  a cock and a bull, rather than the word of God."

    PHILIP S. KING.

"_Multa renascentur_," _&c._--To show how stories are made standing
dishes with what we may call _current sauce_ (no pun intended), take the
following:--If we believe anything to have happened in our own day, that
is, in Liverpool or Castlereagh time, it is the anecdote of the
borough-monger who would answer nothing to the excuses of the minister,
except "There are five of us." This story was told as an old one in the
_Telegraph_ in 1798; and a long dialogue was given between Lord
Falmouth, who wanted the Captaincy of the Yeomen of the Guard, and Henry
Pelham, who had promised it elsewhere. To all the poor minister could
say, the peer could only answer, "There are _seven_ of us." I hope that,
in an age when coincidences are sought for, Wordsworth will not be
suspected of plagiarism.

Again, what reader of gossip does not know that when George III. went to
Weymouth, the Mayor, in making his address, mistook the private
directions of his prompter for parts of his address, and gave it the
King as follows:--"Hold up your head, and look like a man--what the ----
do you mean?... By ----, Sir, you'll ruin us all." This story was told
in a newspaper in 1797, as having happened between James II. and the
Mayor of Winchester.

In the _Monthly Magazine_ in 1798, is a paper on peculiarities of
expression, among which are several which we flatter ourselves belong to
our own time. For instance, "to _cut_ a person," which was then current:
some tried to change it into _spear_, but failed. Also, to _vote_, as in
"he voted it a bad lounge;" and the words _bore_, _done up_, _dished_,
&c.; not forgetting _spilt_ for "upset" in a carriage.

The parliamentary phrases of "catching the speaker's eye," "being upon
his legs," "meeting the ideas of the house," "committing himself,"
"taking shame to himself," "being free to confess," "putting a question
roundly," "answering it fairly," "pushing an investigation," are all
noted as then worthy of remark. And, if we are to trust the article
cited, the word _truism_ was born and bred in the House of Commons, in
the sense of a forcible and undeniable truth. And the same origin is
given to the idiom "in my own mind" as in "I feel no doubt, in my own
mind,..."

    M.

_Corruptions recognised as acknowledged Words._--I recollect two curious
historical instances of mere vulgar mis-pronunciation, which have
established themselves in use; perhaps others of your readers may
mention more, which it would be interesting to trace to their origin.

_Massaniello_ is universally recognised as the name of the celebrated
Neapolitan insurrectionist, who at one time nearly overturned the
government of that kingdom. How few who use the word are aware that
"Mas-Aniello" is but a corruption of _Thomas Aniello_, so pronounced by
his vulgar companions, and now raised to the dignity of an historical
name.

_Hougoumont_ is a conspicuous feature of the great field of Waterloo,
and a name familiarly used in speaking of the famous battle; in course
of time it will be forgotten that this is a mere mistake, said to have
originated with the great general who achieved the victory, catching up
from the peasantry around, the sound of _Chateau Goumont_, the real name
of the little rural demesne in question. Nobody doubts, however, the
right of the "Great Duke" to call a place he has made so famous by any
name he might please to apply, and so _Hougoumont_ it will remain while
history lasts.

    A. B. R.



Queries.


MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS AND BOTHWELL'S CONFESSION.

Although Mr. Cosh, at p. 248. of his admirable work on _The Method of
Divine Government_, observes on the rapidity with which females descend
to the depths of sin, the old apothegm, "Nemo repenti turpissimus fuit,"
recurs when thinking of Mary Queen of Scots, and leads me to ask the
following question. Permit me to preface it with a remark. Mary is
represented by all contemporary and subsequent writers to have been,
from her earliest years to the death of Darnley, worthily beloved for
her amiable qualities of heart and her superiority of intellect, and
then to have fallen suddenly into an abyss of sin and wickedness,
comprising domestic treason, murder, perjury, the subornation of
perjurers, adultery, the conniving at divorce without adequate grounds,
and all the other crimes connected with such proceedings; and then,
after fifteen months of such a desperate course, to have risen to her
former elevation, and have passed the remainder of her life with
dignity, calmness, resignation, and in the habitual exercise of sincere
piety, and to have met her death with a degree of heroism which has
secured the admiration of posterity, and strengthened the doubts of her
being guilty of the crimes imputed to her. The whole controversy, from
Buchanan to Bell, is, I take for granted, known to your readers. Your
publication is not the place suited to an examination of such mental
operations, which are without a historical prototype, and without a
known parallel. If any light can be thrown on any part of this subject,
it becomes an act of historical justice, a work of Christian charity to
Mary, and an illustration of the workings of the mind in a great
emergency.

The late Chevalier Bronsted, of whose learning and accuracy his
archæological works bear record, and whose straightforward simplicity of
mind was highly estimated by all who knew him, had read in manuscript
the second part of the confession of Bothwell, made previous to his
death. I think the manuscript was in the private cabinet of the King of
Denmark. In that confession he owned to have _violated_ the person of
Mary, and that she became enceinte; that she miscarried, and immediately
took measures to rid herself of him. Concluding that event to have
transpired, there seems to be some clue to her forwarding the discussion
of her council, and acquiescing in their request to marry Bothwell. A
young queen, surrounded by ruffians, barbarians, and selfish and
unprincipled leaders of factions, placed in a situation in which every
feeling of the woman was outraged, every sentiment lacerated, her
honour, her station, her life in jeopardy, her memory liable to
degradation and disgrace, in terror, having in such extremity no friend
to whom she could apply for advice and succour, she may have been
induced to adopt means for her safety which, if injudicious, were
excusable. My request is, to learn if any of your correspondents have
seen or are cognisant of this very curious and important document.

    ÆGROTUS.


Minor Queries.

229. "_'Tis Twopence now," &c._--Can any of your correspondents tell me
where the following lines are to be found?--

      "At length in an unearthly tone I heard these accents drop,
      'Sarvice is done, 'tis tuppence now for them as wants to stop.'"

I met with them in a newspaper (I think the _Morning Herald_) between
twenty and thirty years ago, but I believe they have been transferred to
that sheet from the pages of some periodical. The lines above given are
the concluding lines of the piece; the preceding lines were devoted to
the description of the dying away of the tones of the organ, and the
musings of the poet amongst the tombs in Westminster Abbey.

    REMIGIUS.

230. _Scythians blind their Slaves._--Can any of your correspondents
explain to me the reason why, according to Herodotus, the Scythians used
to blind their slaves? The passage is in chapter ii. book iv. I believe
the reasoning to be hopelessly unreasonable, and have always been told
that it is so, though I have met with many who have read the chapter
again and again without even noticing the difficulty. The question is
this:--What are we to supply in thought in order to connect the practice
of blinding the slaves with the process of milking the mares, and
stirring the milk to separate the cream or butter from it? Is it thus?
The Scythians only feed cattle, and have no other use for slaves than to
stir the milk, which they can do when blinded, at the same time that
they are unable to escape, having been deprived of sight, and so their
masters have not the trouble of watching them. This does not satisfy me;
nor will it, I think, satisfy any one else.

    THEOPHYLACT.

  Blackheath.

231. _The "Gododin."_--In the Note on "The Antiquity of Kilts," MR.
STEPHENS quotes the _Gododin_, an ancient poem, or poems, on which there
is great diversity of opinion regarding its contents. The _Gododin_ was
written or composed by Aneurin, in the dialect of the Northumbrian
Britons, about the year 510, according to Llwyd. It is evident that a
work of this description, with the usual accidents attending on
transmission, must necessarily be somewhat obscure at the present day.
Indeed, it appears to be so much so, that there are two very different
versions; one giving it as the description of a battle, in which the
intoxicated Britons were easy victims to the swords of the "stranger;"
the other version, by the Rev. E. Davies, refers it to the "Brad y
Cyllyll Hirion," (or, Plot of the Long Knives), or massacre of the
British chiefs at Stonehenge, during a feast. Now as this event is
stated to have occurred in 472, the Dinogat of Aneurin is not the
Dinogat of 577. Moreover Davies describes him as Octa, a son of the
Saxon Hengist. As MR. STEPHENS does not follow this version, and as he
has given considerable attention to those subjects, perhaps he is
enabled to decide this _questio vexata_. It should be observed that
Davies accompanies his version with reasons that give it much weight.

    GOMER.

232. _Frontispiece to Hobbes's Leviathan._--There are curious
circumstances about this frontispiece which some of your readers may
explain. The figure of Leviathan represents the upper part of a man with
a crown on his head, a sword in his right hand, and a crozier in his
left, the body and arms being made up of small human figures in various
dresses. In the common editions the face has a manifest resemblance to
Cromwell (the work was published in 1651), although it wears, as I have
said, a regal crown. But in the copy belonging to Trinity College
Library, the face appears to be intended for Charles I. The engraving of
this copy is very much worse than the other, and is not worked into the
same careful detail by the artist, though the outline is the same: and
the text of the book is a separate and worse impression, though the
errata are the same with the other copies, as well as the date. How
Hobbes himself, or any other person, should come to print the Leviathan
in this manner, it seems difficult to explain.

I have also a small French translation of Hobbes, _De Corpore Politico_,
dated 1652, which has a similar figure for a frontispiece, but with an
upright sword in the right, and a balance in the left, hand.

    W. W.

  Cambridge.

233. _Broad Arrow or Arrow Head._--What is the origin of the arrow head
as a government mark?

    [Arrow symbol]

234. _Deep Well near Bansted Downs._--Mr. Robert Hooke, professor at
Gresham College, writing in 1674, says he has--

  "seen at a gentleman's house, not far from Bansted-Downs in
  Surrey, a well which is dug through a body of chalk, and is near
  360 feet deep, and yet dry almost to the very bottom."

Is this well still known, and can any of your correspondents vindicate
its situation, and give any particulars relating to it? The pamphlet in
which it is mentioned is curious, for it is "an attempt to prove the
motion of the earth [in its orbit] from observations." It will be
observed that the work was written in the year 1674.

    W. S. G.

  Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

235. _Upton Court._--About nine miles from Reading, on the road to
Newbury, and removed about two miles from the high road, is an ancient
manor house called Upton Court. It is most curious as to architecture,
and is a most interesting specimen of the houses of the gentry of former
days. It belonged to a Catholic family of the name of Perkins. The
chapel, in the house, and the hiding-place for priests, can still be
seen. It is said that Pope wrote the _Rape of the Lock_ there. I should
be glad to know if any of your correspondents can confirm this fact from
authentic evidence.

    A. E.

236. _Derivation of Prog._--In Vol. iv., p. 175., _Pirog_ is stated to
be the Russian custom of the mistress of a family distributing on
certain occasions bread or cake to her guests.

Query, Is this the origin of our slang word _prog_, meaning provisions?

    J. SS.

237. _Metrical History of England._--I am nearly an octogenarian,
consequently I ought to have something better, and humbly hope I have
something better, to employ my thoughts than relics of old ditties and
forgotten rhymes. Still the recurring questions of numerous
grandchildren compel one to resort to long forgotten lore, and to
request those whose memory still survives to compensate for the
deficiencies of my own. I am particularly anxious to recover my lapsis
in the following metrical, yet _logical_, history of England, which I
have long ago forgotten:

      "William and William, and Henry and Stephen,
      And Henry the Second, _to make the First even_."

If either MR. HALLIWELL, or DR. RIMBAULT, will favour me, they will
confer a great obligation, and add much to the hilarity of my ensuing
Christmas table.

    MÆRIS.

238. _Finger Pillories in Churches._--Besides some interesting
monuments, &c., to be found in the church of Ashby-de-la-Zouch, there
stands under the western gallery a _finger pillory_, or stocks to
confine the fingers only: it is fastened at its right-hand extremity
into the wall, and consists of two pieces of oak; the bottom and fixed
piece is three feet eight inches long; the width of the whole is four
and a half inches, and when closed it is five inches deep: the left-hand
extremity is supported by a leg of the same width as the top, and two
feet six inches in length; the upper piece is joined to the lower by a
hinge, and in this lower and fixed horizontal part are thirteen
perpendicular holes, varying in size; the largest are towards the right
hand: these holes are sufficiently deep to admit the finger to the
second joint, and a slight hollow is made to receive the third one,
which lies flat; there is of course a corresponding hollow in the top or
movable part, which, when shut down, incloses the whole finger.

Its use is stated to have been for the punishment of persons guilty of
mal-practices during divine service: truly, a mischievous urchin, or a
lout of a farm servant, dragged off to the stocks, must have been a
scene extremely edifying to the congregation, particularly if the
offenders were obstreperous, and had no inclination whatever to be in a
fix.

Query, Is there another known instance of stocks for the fingers alone,
and applied to similar purposes?

    THOS. LAWRENCE.

  Ashby-de-la-Zouch.

239. _Stallenge Queries._--1. What was the christian name, birth, and
parentage of the Stallenge who planted the mulberry trees at Sion House
at the commencement of the seventeenth century?

2. What was the name of the _first wife_ of that Sir Nicholas Stallenge
who, towards the close of the sixteenth century, married as his _second
wife_ Florence Kenn, widow of Sir Christopher Kenn, of Kenn, in the
county of Somerset?

3. What city or castle in England was Sir Thomas Stallenge his son
governor of?

4. What was the name of the wife of the said Sir Thomas Stallenge?

    M. C. U.

240. _Ancient MS. History of Scotland._--In the year 1796, there was in
the possession of the Rev. Robert Rennie, minister of Kilsyth,
Stirlingshire, an old MS. which that gentleman (in Sir John Sinclair's
_Statistical Account_) thus describes:--

  "It seems to be a chronicle of Scotland. The most of it is
  legible. It takes up the history of Scotland at the Christian era,
  and contains a regular series of all the remarkable events in
  every king's reign, with the name of the kings, down to the year
  1565. I have compared it with many histories and annals of
  Scotland, but am of opinion that it is an original, and not a
  copy."

Can any of your correspondents give any additional information regarding
it?

    ABERDONIENSIS.

241. _Pharetram de Tutesbit._--Can you tell me the meaning of _Pharetram
de Tutesbit_ and _sagittas flectatas_ in the following?

  "William de Gresely tenet manerium de Drakelow in Com. Derby in
  Capite, et reddit unum arcum sine corda, et unum Pharetram de
  Tutesbit, et duodecim Sagittas flectatas, et unum
  buzonem."--Blount's _Tenures_.

    H. N. E.

  Bitton Vicarage, Oct. 1851.

242. _Inundation at Deptford._--In Lysons' _Environs of London_, vol.
iv. p. 359., it is stated that in the year 1671 a great inundation
happened at and near Deptford, which did much mischief, so that the
inhabitants were obliged to retire in boats to the upper town, and that
an account of it was extant in a small pamphlet published at the time.
If any of your correspondents could inform me where a copy of this is to
be met with, or give me any further particulars concerning the
occurrence, I should feel very much obliged.

    W. H. HART.

  New Cross.

243. _Butler's Sermons._--In the account of Bishop Butler, attached to
his works, mention is made of MS. sermons, from which those which have
been published were selected. Is it known if there are any writings of
his in existence, and where they are? His executor was Dr. Nathaniel
Foster.

    L.

244. _Coleridge's Christabel._--Can any one familiar with the _Coleridge
Papers_ inform me whether the following is a veritable fragment of the
poet's own continuation of _Christabel_, or perhaps of one of those
conclusions (some serious, some jocose) which we owe to Tupper, Moir,
and Maginn?

      "This was the lovely lady's cry--
      'Holy One! who camest to die,
      Camest, yea, to die for me
      Who have despite done to Thee--
      And didst feel the proud man's scorn,
      And the woe of one forlorn--
      Whose heavenly eyes were brimmed with tears
      For the sorrows of human years;
      Whose holy hands were pierced through,
      Whose feet long toil and travel knew,
      Who felt all grief, all wild despair,
      That the race of man may ever bear.
      O look down from thy placid sky,
        Upon a maiden worn with woe,
      Who in snowy chastity,
        Has passed the years of life below!
      O let no spirit of affright,
      Visit me this ghastly night!'

      "So she prayed: and listening,
      Stood beside the magic spring,
      But only heard the brookless plash,
      And the berries fall from the mountain ash,
      And the cry of birds in the woods away,
      And the step of the roe over lichens gray."

    MORTIMER COLLINS.

245. _Epigram ascribed to Mary Queen of Scots._--When the Queen visited
the library of Trinity College, Dublin, in 1849, she was shown an early
edition of Sallust, which had belonged to Mary Queen of Scots, and has
her autograph signature, and many MS. notes and a MS. Latin epigram,
_supposed_ to be her Majesty's composition. The volume is a small
quarto, title _Opera Sallustiana_, with the date 1523, and a colophon:

  "Impressus per Antonium Blanchard anno domini M. quingentessimo
  xxiii. pridie Kalend. Sextilis."

But on a page following the title there appears--

  "Ex officina nostra caleographa Parrhisiis pridie Kalendas
  Novembris anni hujus M. CCCCC quarti."

The volume was presented to the College library by Mr. Croker, as
appears by a _dono dedit_ in his handwriting, and by the following note
in that of the learned Dr. Barrett:--

  "This book, which formerly belonged to Mary Queen of Scots, was
  presented by James I. to Bishop Hall (fol. 90.), and presented to
  this library, July 26, 1800, by John Wilson Croker, F.C., A.B."

The presentation by James to the Bishop is thus recorded:--

  "Hunk [sic] librum Jacobus rex dono dedit amico suo reverendo
  Doctori Hall."

These details may interest bibliographers, as I do not find any notice
of this edition in Dibdin, or any other work within my reach[2] but the
main object of my curiosity is the Latin epigram in the Queen's hand,
and supposed (I suspect erroneously) to be her composition. The lines
are:

      "Sæpe meæ dixi 'tandem discede' puellæ--
        In gremio sedit protinus illa meo;
       Sæpe 'pudet' dixi; Lacrimis vix illa retentis
        'Me miseram cur te,' dixit 'amare pudet?'"

  [Footnote 2: [See Panzer's _Annales Typog._, vol. vii. p. 335.]]

The obvious reason for doubting _ex facie_ that this is the Queen's
composition, is its masculine character; but some of your many learned
correspondents may be able to say whether the verses are to be found
elsewhere, and attributed to any other author?

I myself have not seen the volume for above fifty years; but the
foregoing extracts have been furnished me by a friend who lately
examined it. One curious particular, however, I remember. The capital
letters at the head of the several divisions of the work are, after the
manner of the time, ornamented with _devices_, and one of these, which
Queen Mary _must_ have seen (if _she_, indeed, wrote the MS. notes), is
of a most grotesque character, totally unfit for a lady's, or indeed for
any body's eye; and I dare say _that_ page was not exhibited in 1849.

    C.


Minor Queries Answered.

_Meaning of Farlieu._--Devonshire leases for lives often reserve a money
payment on the death of each life as a "heriot" or "farlieu." Can you
inform me of the etymology and meaning of the latter word? it appears
almost synonymous with "heriot."

    CLERICUS.

  [Bailey, in his _Dictionary_, says "_Farleu_ or _Farley_ is a duty
  of sixpence paid to the lord of the manor of West Slapton in
  Devonshire, in the western parts; _farleu_ being distinguished as
  the best good thing from _heriot_ the best beast."]

"_History of Anglesey._"--I would be glad if any of your readers can
afford me any information regarding the writer of a work bearing the
following title:--

  "A History of the Island of Anglesey, from its first Invasion by
  the Romans, until finally acceded to the Crown of England, &c.
  Serving as a Supplement to Rowlands' Mona Antiqua Restaurata. To
  which are also added, Memoirs of Owen Glendower, 4to. Lond. 1775,
  pp. 88."

Watt, in his _Bibliotheca Britannica_, ascribes to Dr. John Campbell,
author of a _Political Survey of Great Britain_, &c., &c., the
authorship of a little world entitled--

  "A true and exact Description of the Island of Shetland, &c.
  Together with an account of the Great White Herring Fishery of
  that place, 12 mo. Lond. 1750, and 2d ed. 1753."

In the preface the writer states that he spent five years in Shetland.
Now I want to know if Dr. Campbell ever spent five years in Shetland;
for if not, he could not be the author, though it would appear from vol.
i. p. 679. of the _Political Survey_ that he had at least visited
Shetland more than once. Also, as I have only the second edition, if any
one would be so kind as to give me a copy of the title-page of the first
edition, and the number of pages, I would feel obliged, as I suspect
that in both these respects the editions differ.

    Βορεας.

  [The following is a copy of the title-page of the first edition of
  the latter work:--"An Exact and Authentic Account of the greatest
  White Herring Fishery in Scotland, carried on yearly in the Island
  of Zetland, by the Dutch only. The Method the Dutch use in
  catching the Herrings, and an exact account of their way of
  curing, and lasting, or casking them. And a Method laid down
  whereby we may easily engross that profitable branch of trade into
  our own hands. To which is prefixed a Description of the Island,
  its situation, produce, the manners and customs of the
  inhabitants, and their method of trading with the Dutch. By a
  Gentleman who resided Five Years on the Island. London: Printed
  for Joseph Davidson, at the Angel, in the Poultry, 1750." Pp. 34,
  and a Preface to the Candid Reader of three pages.]

_The Word "Rile."_--May I add to the _East-Anglian Vocabulary_ the
adjective _rile_ = muddy? "The water is too _rile_ to drink" was the
remark of a servant the other day. The verb _to rile_ is given in
Forby's _Vocabulary_.

    CHARLES THIRIOLD.

  [Is not _rile_ a corruption of the American colloquialism _royle_
  or _roil_, to make turbid by stirring up the sediment, or to make
  angry? Theodore de la Guard, in _The Simple Cobler of Aggawam_, p.
  2. A.D. 1647, says: "Sathan is now in his passions, he feeles his
  passion approaching: he loves to fish in _royled_ waters."]



Replies.


WINCHESTER EXECUTION.

(Vol. iv., pp. 191. 243. 284.)

The pathetic story of a person sentenced to death for sheep-stealing,
winning the heart of the gaoler by a long course of good conduct, and
executed at last on the "death-warrant" being found in the office, is
utterly apocryphal. There has not been such a thing as a death-warrant
in England for centuries, except in London and Middlesex (where the
recorder communicated the pleasure of the crown to _spare_ certain
prisoners, and leave others to their fate, in an instrument improperly
so called), and in the special case referred to hereafter. It was
necessary, when sentence was pronounced by Commissioners of Oyer and
Terminer, that a precept under their hands and seals should be made out;
but in the case of Commissioners of Gaol Delivery the entry on record of
the judgement of the court is sufficient; and though a calendar is now
made out, and delivered to the sheriff, specifying the several
sentences or acquittals of all the prisoners in gaol, yet it is not
necessary. Lord Hale says:

  "_Rolle_ would never subscribe any such calendar, but would
  command the sheriff openly in court to take notice of the
  judgments and orders of what kind soever, and command the sheriff
  to execute them at his peril."

And, until a few years ago (when the law requiring murderers to be
executed the day next but one after sentence was repealed), murderers
were executed on verbal authority only, as no calendar was made out
until the close of the assizes, some time after the execution. The
special case above referred to is, when a person was tried by the Court
of Peers before the Lord High Steward, in which case that officer issued
a precept for execution. But if the trial be in parliament, a writ for
execution issues under the Great Seal, as in the case of Lord William
Russell.

Having demolished one story, I feel bound to give you another.

The Crown never directs execution, but respites it either to a day
fixed, or during her Majesty's pleasure, which last is what is commonly
called a _reprieve_. A late learned Baron is said to have respited an
unlucky criminal on whose fate he hesitated, once, twice, thrice, till,
having lost his reckoning, he wrote to this effect:

  "I do not know whether John Smith's respite has expired; if it
  has, it is no matter; if not, let the execution be further
  respited until the ---- day of ---- next."

    A. B.

I have seen in an Exeter paper an article taken from "NOTES AND
QUERIES," entitled "Execution under singular Circumstances," the writer
of which is in manifest error. There is no such thing as a warrant for
execution; I will venture to say it could not have happened as is
therein stated. I have been repeatedly undersheriff of Devon, and
therefore beg to state the mode in which executions take place.

At the end of the assizes the crown-bar judge and the clerk of assize
sit down quietly together, and go over the sentences of the prisoners,
after which they are classed, and a fair copy signed by the clerk of the
assize--not the judge--is delivered to the undersheriff, which is his
only authority for carrying the different sentences into execution. If a
man is to be hung, opposite his name is written, "Let him be hanged by
the neck," and an asterisk is added to draw the undersheriff's
attention. Should the man afterwards be respited, the judge, or the
clerk of assize, writes to the undersheriff, and also (_ex abundanti
cautelâ_) to the gaoler, to say so. Should the undersheriff hear nothing
further, he hangs the man at the end of the respite, as a matter of
course. A reprieve comes from the secretary of state's office. At the
end of the shrievalty this list of sentences is sent to the Court of
Exchequer, as forming part of what is called the Bill of Cravings, and
in which the sheriff is allowed a certain sum towards the expenses of
the execution. What may be the practice in _London_ I do not know, but
the above would be the practice at Winchester.

    P. J.

  Exeter, Sept. 15. 1851.


COCKNEY.

(Vol. iv., p. 237.)

Halliwell illustrates this word by a quotation from Nash's _Pierce
Penilesse_, 1592:

  "A young heyre or _cockney_, that is his mother's darling, if hee
  playde the waste-good at the innes of the court, or about London,
  falles in a quarrelling humor with his fortune, because she made
  him not king of the Indies."

Richardson gives the following quotation from Fuller's _Worthies_:

  "I meet with a double sense of this word _cockeney_.... 1st, One
  coaks'd or cockered, made a wanton or nestle-cock of.... 2nd, One
  utterly ignorant of husbandry and housewifery, such as is
  practised in the country...."

Webster gives the following derivation, &c.:

  "COCKNEY, _n._ [Most probably from L. _coquina_, a kitchin, or
  _coquino_, to cook; Fr. _coquin_, idle; Fr. _cocagne_, It.
  _cuccagna_, an imaginary country of idleness and luxury....
  Hence, a citizen who leads an idle life, or never leaves the
  city.]

  "1. A native of London, by way of contempt. _Watts. Shak._

      "'And yet I say by my soul I have no salt bacon
      Ne no _cokeney_ by Christe coloppes to make.'

      "'At that feast were they served in rich array;
      Every five and five had a _cokeney_.'"

Chaucer, in the above lines quoted by Webster, probably refers to any
substantial dish of fresh meat, which might be cut in collops; possibly,
however, to young roasted pigs, which, as every one knows, are
continually running about, all over the land of cockaigne, with knives
and forks stuck into them, crying, "Come eat me, come eat me."

Whether the word cockney be derived from the the land of cockaigne, or
the legend of cockaigne arise from cockney, it appears probable that
both words have their origin in the same root with the verb _to cook_,
and that the epithet originally conveyed the imputation to citizens, of
a superfluous consumption of cooked meat; inasmuch as the inhabitants of
large cities generally consider the daily use of fresh meat almost as a
necessary of life, while the provincial population is content to exist
on less nutritious food.

Whatever may be the original import of the epithet, the modern
application of it is, I believe, confined to the natives of the
metropolis, and it corresponds in use and signification with the terms
_rustic_ and _chaw-bacon_, which distinguish the natives of the
provinces; the latter term being exclusively appropriated to
agriculturalists. Epithets, apparently of similar origin, exist in the
seaman's _land-lubber_, the landsman's _jack-tar_, the Englishman's
_froggy_, and the Frenchman's _ros-bif_.

Londoners themselves appear to have a theoretical notion that the
inhabitants of Belgravia, and other enlightened metropolitan districts,
are strictly entitled to the designation _cockney_, in virtue of their
birth and residence within the sound of Bow-bells; but practically limit
its application to those members of the lower, and more ignorant classes
of the community, who traditionally retain some of the obsolete idioms,
and other peculiarities of speech, of our Anglo-Saxon forefathers.

    A LONDONER.


SIR EDMUND PLOWDEN OR PLOYDEN.

(Vol. iv., p. 58.)

For the information of your correspondent A TRANSATLANTIC READER, I beg
to inform him that Sir Edmund Plowden or Ployden was 2nd son of Francis
Plowden of Plowden, Salop, and Shiplake in Berks: a family which can
claim its descent from the Saxon kings of England; and by a Saxon
charter, granting lands in Salop to the family, that the family had
large estates in that remote period. The Saxon derivation of the name
(from the Saxon _Plean deen_, or kill the Dane) alone shows the great
antiquity of the family; and there are few, if any, families in England
who have retained their ancestral property so direct in the male line as
this family. It is also connected with some of the oldest and noblest
families in England--the Howards and Staffords are allied to this family
by intermarriages. In the reign of Richard I. Sir Roger de Plowden was a
crusader; and for his heroic conduct at the siege of Acre, was knighted,
and also permitted by the king to bear on his shield the royal arms, the
_fleur de lis_, which is retained to this day. In 9 Edward II., John de
Plowden was by parliamentary writ, signed at Clopstow 5th March, called
to parliament as one of the lords of the township of Plowden, Salop.
Edmund Plowden, the great lawyer in Edw. VI. and Elizabeth's reigns, who
was in those times called the oracle of the law, was enrolled among
Fuller's _Worthies of England_, with Camden's Latin verses on him: "Vitæ
integritati inter homines suæ professionis nulli secundus."

He was offered by Elizabeth, whose autograph letter was until recently
in the possession of the family, the Lord Chancellorship of England,
with a peerage, if he would give up his creed as Catholic and turn
Protestant; which he declined, preferring to abide by his moral
convictions of the truthfulness of what he deemed his faith to worldly
honour and aggrandisement. Sir Edmund died at Wanstead, county of
Southampton, in 1659; and in possession of large estates in eleven
parishes in England, besides his American province of New Albion. To
each of these parishes he leaves by his will of 1655 a sum of money to
be paid "eight days after his demise, and directs to be buried in the
chapel of the Plowdens at Lydbury, in Salop; a stone monument, with an
inscription in brass bearing the names of his children, and another with
his _correct pedigree_ as drawn out at his house in Wanstead." He
appears to have gone to America about the year 1620, and remained there,
in Virginia and New England, till about 1630. While there, his sister
Ann was married to Sir Arthur Lake, son of Sir Thomas Lake, then
Secretary of State to James I.; and through whose influence, we presume,
on his return to England he was introduced to the great Lord Strafford,
with whom it is believed he proceeded to Ireland; for in the Heralds'
Visitation of Salop, 1632, (_vide_ Sims' _H. Vist._, Brit. Mus.), he is
entered in the Plowden pedigree as being then in Ireland. By the
Strafford State Papers it appears that in this year he made petition to
Charles I. through Lord Strafford, then Lieut. and Capt.-General of
Ireland, for the colonising of New Albion:--

  "Near the continent of Virginia, sixty leagues N. from James City,
  without the Bay of Chesapeake, there is a habitable and fruitful
  island, named Isle Plowden, otherwise Long Isle, with other small
  isles between 30° and 40° of lat., about sixty leagues from the
  main, near De la Warre Bay, where Your Majesty, nor any of your
  Progenitors, were ever possessed of any estate, &c ... to enable
  the petitioners, their heirs and assigns, for ever to enjoy the
  said Isle, and forty leagues square of the adjoining continent, as
  in the nature of a County Palatine or Body Politick, by the name
  of New Albion, to be held of your Majesty's Crown of Ireland,
  exempt from all appeal to the Governor of Virginia, and with such
  other additions, privileges, and dignities therein, to be given to
  Sir Edmund Plowden, like has been heretofore granted to Sir George
  Calvert, Knight, late Lord Calvert, in Newfoundland, together with
  the usual grants and privileges that other Colonies have for
  governing, &c., and we agree to settle with 500 inhabitants."

The king's warrant was given at Oatlands 24th July, 1632, granting the
whole asked for, under the Great Seal of Ireland, signed by John Coke.
Between this period and 1634, Sir Edmund was engaged in fulfilling the
conditions of the warrant by carrying out the colonisation by
indentures, which were executed and enrolled in Dublin, and St. Mary's
in Maryland in America. In Dublin the parties were Viscount Musherry,
100 planters; Lord Monson, 100 planters; Sir Thomas Denby, 100 planters;
Captain Clayborne (of American notoriety) 50; Captain Balls; and
amounting in all to 540 colonisers, beside others in Maryland,
Virginia, and New England. The parties who joined in the petition were
Sir John Lawrence, Knight and Baronet, who died in America; Sir Bowyer
Worstley, Knight, and Charles Barrett, Esq.,--both died there in 1634;
George Noble, Gent., Thomas Ribread, Roger Packe, William Inwood, and
John Trustler. Having completed the conditions he was granted a charter,
bearing date Oatlands, 21st June, 1634; and enrolled in Dublin in 17
pages folio; and confirmed 24th July, 1634, in the eighth year of the
reign of Charles I., running thus:

  "And according to the tenour and effect of certain of our letters,
  signed with our proper hand, and sealed with our seal now enrolled
  in the Rolls of our Chancery of the said Kingdom of Ireland, We
  have given, granted, and confirmed, and by this our present
  Charter, for Us, our heirs, and successors, do give, grant, and
  confirm such the before said Sir Edmund Plowden, Knight, his heirs
  and assigns, for ever, all that entire island near the continent
  of Terra Firma of North Virginia, called the Island of Plowden, or
  Long Island, and lying near and between the 39° and 40° of N.
  lat.; together with part of the continent or Terra Firma aforesaid
  near adjoining, described to begin from the point of an angle of a
  certain promontory called Cape Cod, from thence to the westward
  for the space of 40°, running by the river Delaware, closely
  following its course by the N. lat. into a certain rivulet there
  arising from a spring of Lord Baltimore in the lands of Maryland,
  and the summit aforesaid to the south, where it touches, joins,
  and determines in all its breadth, from thence takes its course
  into a square leading to the north by a right line for the space
  of 40° to the river and port of Reachu Cod, and descends to a
  savannah, touching and including the top of Sand Bay, where it
  determines, and from thence towards the south by a square,
  stretching to a savannah which passes by and washes the shores of
  the Plowden aforesaid to the point of the promontory of Cape May
  above mentioned, and determines where it begins." And p. 4.
  continues: "Therefore We, for Us, our heirs, and successors, do
  give unto the aforesaid Sir Edmund Plowden, and his heirs and
  assigns, free and full power graciously to confer favours and
  honours upon the well-deserving citizens and inhabitants within
  the _province aforesaid with whatever titles and dignities_ he
  shall choose to decorate them with (in such a manner as they may
  but now be usurped in England), and to cut and stamp different
  pieces of gold such as shall be lawful, current, and acceptable to
  all the inhabitants; and We command all, and enjoin other things
  to be done in the premises which to him or them shall be seen to
  be proper, in as free and ample a manner and form as by the
  Society of Newfoundland and East Indies, Island of Bermuda, Bishop
  of Durham within the Bishoprick or County Palatine of Durham; or
  Lord Baltimore within his lands and premises of Maryland and
  Glastonbury; or James Earl of Carlisle within the island of St.
  Christopher and Barbadoes; or any other Governor or Founder of a
  Colony."

In fact, the powers granted were never exceeded by any former charter of
the Crown: they were all but regal. Under this charter a lease, enrolled
in Dublin, was granted by Lord Plowden in 1634 to Sir Thomas Danby for
10,000 acres, and a release, dated 20th Dec. 1634, sealed and signed at
St. Mary's, Maryland, and witnessed by Vall Havord and Richard Benham,
by R. Packe for 200 acres; T. Ribread, 100; W. Inwood, 100; and John
Trustler, 100; segregating 500 acres in trust for the "Earl of Albion,
when they deliver up their claims or trusts in consideration for this
grant of land; and confirmed unto Lord Francis Plowden, son and heir of
Sir Edmund Plowden, Earl Palatine, and George and Thomas Plowden, two of
the sons of the said Sir Edmund, Earl Palatine." Sir Edmund Plowden
resided with his wife and family as Governor of New Albion six years;
his eldest son, Francis, and Lady Plowden, returned to England to look
after his father's estates in his absence: but Francis so abused the
confidence reposed in him, as to oblige the Governor to return to
England (leaving his sons George and Thomas as his _locum tenens_). On
his arrival he was incarcerated in the Fleet Prison on a base charge
emanating from his son, from which he was released by order of the
_Peers Committee_, House of Lords; and likewise involved in a lawsuit to
recover certain estates sold by his son, which cost him 15,000_l._
before he was clear. This unnatural and illegal conduct induced him to
disinherit his son Francis; for, in the 15th of Charles I., 1st June,
1646, Sir Edmund obtained license from the Crown to alienate from his
son the manors of Wanstead, Southwick, and many others in the county of
Southampton, as is enrolled in the Rolls Chapel. By his will, in the
Prerogative Court of Canterbury, London, Sir Wm. Mason was in trust for
Sir Edmund's second son and heir, Thomas Plowden; and also for the New
Albion colony. And the will proceeds:

  "And I think it fit that my English lands and estates shall be
  settled and united to my Honor, County Palatine, and Province of
  New Albion, for the maintenance of the same; and again, that all
  my lease lands in England be sold with all convenient speed by my
  executors and overseers herein named, and with the money arising
  therefrom to buy good freehold, to be settled and entailed as the
  rest of my lands are settled on my second son Thomas Plowden, and
  the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, or to be begotten;
  also my County Palatine of New Albion, and Peerage as a Peer of
  Ireland, as aforesaid, unto Thomas Plowden my son during his
  natural life, and after his decease, to the heirs male of my son
  Thomas, begotten or to be begotten; and again, I do enter and will
  that my son Thomas Plowden, and, after his decease _his eldest
  heir_ in male, and, if he be under age, then his guardian, with
  all speed after my decease do employ by consent of Sir William
  Mason of Gray's Inn, Knight, whom I make a trustee of this my
  plantation of New Albion; and if my son Thomas shall by fail,
  defence, loose, agree, give, or alien any part of my estates,
  lands, or rents in England to Francis my son, or his issue, then
  my son shall forfeit and lose to _his eldest_ son all lands and
  estates and rents in England herein settled, entailed, or given
  him, and to be forfeited during his life."

George either died, or was killed, in the massacres by the Indians; as
was also Francis, third son of Thomas, along with his wife and family,
as alluded to in his father's will, dated 1698.

These attacks on the infant colony were instigated by the Dutch and
Swedes of the New Netherlands, as they called New Albion, and who did
all they could to obstruct and thwart the Earl Palatine's plans, as is
alluded to in _The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain_: Speed and
Basset, 1676, dedicated to James I.; and recommended as a most authentic
work by Sir Richard St. George, Norroy King of Arms.

  "Moreover these proceedings, upon complaint made to his late
  Majesty, and by whom represented to the State of Holland, were
  absolutely disowned by them, and wholly laid upon the East India
  Company of Amsterdam. The most northerly part towards New England
  was by his Majesty granted by patent to Sir Edmund Plowden, by the
  name of New Albion. The most southerly towards Virginia to Sir
  George Calvert, now Lord Baltimore, by the name of Maryland. The
  Dutch, upon some consideration agreed on, were forthwith to have
  quitted the place; yet, for all this, as the custom of this people
  is never to let go any opportunity that serves their turn, whether
  by right or wrong, they took advantage of the unhappy dissentions
  and cruel wars that soon after happened within this nation: they
  not only stood upon higher demands than was at first agreed on,
  but also contrived to stir up the natives against the English,
  that they might have the better opportunity of fixing themselves.
  In this state things remained till his present Majesty, after his
  restoration, resolved to send three ships of war."

Charles II. most tyrannically, privately, without sanction from
Parliament, and without even alluding to his father's charter to Sir
Edmund Plowden, gave a charter of the Province to his brother James, at
the same time creating him Duke of Albany. Before James was duly clothed
with the powers of Governor, he sold a large portion of it to Lord
Berkely for 65,000_l._ For years afterwards, the Duke of York's title
was disputed, and many disturbances arose, and Chancery suits, as
entered in the American chancery suits of that period. Lord Sutherland,
as the colonial officer, disputed the validity of the Duke's claim. A
greater act of injustice could hardly be perpetrated than this virtual
abrogation of the original charter, after so many years of labour had
been expended, charges incurred, loss of estates and relations, and the
other evils attending planting this colony which absence from England
gave rise to. Sir Edmund Plowden was not inferior to any of his
co-governors in ability, fortune, position, or family. Though he made a
greater sacrifice than any, he never received the slightest compensation
like the other early colonisers. We conclude that family dissentions
connected with the disinheritance of Francis Plowden, must have tended
to facilitate Charles II.'s illegal conduct; for, in Thomas Plowden's
Will, 1698, in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, he alludes to his
son-in-law, Walter Hall, illegally and forcibly retaining papers
connected with the estates: Province of New Albion Charter, the Patent
for the Peerage of Ireland. The first cousin of the disinherited son was
a Col. Plowden of the Life Guards, who followed James II.'s fortunes,
and accompanied him on his leaving England, and died as his chamberlain
at St. Germains in France. These documents may have come into his hands,
and have been lost in France. It is quite clear that the only estate
which came to Thomas's eldest son James of Ewhurst was Lassam in
Southampton, and his son James also held it; he was married to Sarah
Chichely, daughter of Sir John Chichely, son of Sir Henry Chichely,
formerly Governor of Virginia, the lineal descendant of Thomas, Lord
Mayor of London, and brother of Archbishop Chichely, founder of All
Souls, Oxford. This family is now extinct in the male, but still exist
in the female line in the Plowden family, which is the nearest of kin of
any family, and consequently has a stronger claim to the Fellowships of
that college as founder's kin. There can be no question but that the
family have a legal claim against the government for the unjust
alienation of that province to James II.; but the loss of the charter,
and the ignorance of the family that it was enrolled in Ireland (now
found), prevented the heir and representative of Sir Edmund from
claiming compensation. Nothing but an act of parliament can nullify the
sacred rights of a charter; if it were not so, no public or private
right would be safe a day. As to his peerage, it was litigated at the
time, and decided in his favour; but the Commonwealth did not favour the
restoration of titles granted by Charles I., and on the Restoration, Sir
Edmund's papers were lost to those to whom they would have been useful.
Notwithstanding the sarcastic and bad spirit in which Beauchamp
Plantagenet's _New Albion_ of 1648 was reviewed by Mr. Pennington of
Philadelphia, I trust that the Americans will treat the early pioneer of
one of the best portions of America in a more liberal spirit, and do
justice to his memory. We have now no new worlds to discover; and the
present race of men can hardly appreciate the labours, dangers, and
hardships our first colonisers had to endure--but they however know the
value of their exertions. They have secured for America one of the
finest countries in the world, which may one day be an empire of vast
power. Its separation from the mother country was the greatest national
calamity that ever befell her. How fatal has it been to France; first
for abetting clandestinely the Americans against England, and at last
throwing away the mask, openly assisting her with her arms. Since then,
what calamities have befallen her, and may even yet befall her. Had we
then, as Macaulay says, had a Clive at the head of our armies, and a
Hastings in council, that separation might either have been deferred, or
we might have parted friendly, instead of in enmity. Had I time to glean
it, I have no doubt I could furnish much important matter connected with
New Albion, derived from sources within my reach.

    ALBION.

P.S. There are two seals attached to Sir Edmund Plowden's Will; his
private seal of the Plowdens, and his Earl's with supporters, signed
"Albion:" the same as is given in Beauchamp Plantagenet's _New Albion_,
1648 (King's Lib. B. Mus.).


GENERAL JAMES WOLFE.

(Vol. iv., p. 271.)

He was born in a house now inhabited by the vicar, at Westerham, Kent,
on the 2d of January, 1727, and not, as the various notices of his life
state, the 15th of January, 1726 (see _Penny Cyclopædia_ and other
works). His mother's Christian name was Henrietta, and she, I believe,
came from or near Deptford, to which place in the latter years of her
life, she again went to reside. Wolfe was an only child; the name is
still to be found in the neighbourhood of Westerham. Shortly after his
birth, his parents removed to a house at the extreme end of the town,--a
picturesque mansion it is, and is named after him Quebec House. Under
this roof Wolfe's happiest hours were spent.

Sir Jeffrey Amherst (a native of the same valley, Holmsdale), patronised
him, but where first engaged I never could discover. His body was
brought to England, and interred at Greenwich; monuments were erected to
him in Westminster Abbey, Squerries Park, Westerham, and Westerham
Church. The inscription on the marble tablet, erected in the latter, I
subjoin:--

                            JAMES,
      Son of Colonel Edward Wolfe, and Henrietta his Wife,
              Was born in this parish, January 2d,
                          MDCCXXVII.
                And died in America, Sept. 19th,
                          MDCCLIX.
                    Conqueror of Quebec!

      "Whilst George in sorrow bows his laurelled head,
      And bids the artist grace the soldier dead;
      We raise no sculptured trophy to thy name,
      Brave youth! the fairest in the list of fame.
      Proud of thy birth, we boast th' auspicious year,
      Struck with thy fall, we shed a general tear,
      With humble grief, inscribe one artless stone,
      And from thy matchless honours date our own."

His sword is preserved in the United Service Museum, and was engraved
about two years since in the _Illustrated London News_. An old professed
portrait of him dangles as the sign of a beer-shop in Westerham. Wolfe
was ardently attached to Colonel Barré, whose portrait is introduced in
West's celebrated picture of the Death of Wolfe; another head in the
picture is, I have been told, a likeness of a person who had been
captured by the Indians, and was about to be scalped, when his life was
saved by the intercession of a chief Wolfe had formerly pardoned.

Wolfe was the youngest general ever entrusted with such a responsible
command; but his bravery, his great humanity, his love to his troops,
and above all, his glorious death, will render his name immortal in the
page of British history.

    H. G. D.

The inclosed lines were given to me some years since by an old lady, who
stated that they came into her possession through some relatives of the
lady to whom they were addressed. I now much regret that I did not hear
(or if I heard it have forgotten) the lady's name. Perhaps in the last
letter of the series now in the hands of [Ezh], some allusion may be
found to one in whom the parting hero felt so deep an interest; at all
events the lines may be acceptable to [Ezh] or others of your readers
desirous for some further knowledge of the private life of this
"faithful soldier." Might not the parish register of Westerham in Kent,
the birthplace of Wolfe, _possibly_ supply his mother's maiden name, or
some other particular as to his family connexions? His father, also
_General_ Wolfe, may perhaps have distinguished himself in "the 45," but
James Wolfe was then barely nineteen years of age, and I have never met
with any allusion to his taking part in that campaign. His appointment
to the American service is said to have been the result of his display
of military talent in Germany.

  LINES WRITTEN AT PORTSMOUTH BY GENERAL WOLFE, AND PRESENTED TO HIS
  LADY THE EVENING BEFORE HIS EMBARKATION FOR THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC.

      "At length too soon, dear creature,
        Receive my fond adieu,
      Thy pangs, oh Love, how bitter!
        Thy joys how short, how few!
      No more those eyes so killing,
        The melting glance repeat,
      Nor bosom gently swelling,
        With love's soft tumults beat.

      "I go where glory leads me,
        And dangers point the way,
      Though coward love upbraids me,
        Stern honour bids obey.
      'Tis honour's boasting stories,
        My anxious fears reprove,
      And point to wealth, fame, glories,
        Ah, what are these to love?

      "Two passions vainly pleading,
        My beating heart divide,
      Lo, there my country bleeding,
        And _here_ my weeping bride.
      But ah, thy faithful soldier,
        Can true to either prove,
      Fame fires my soul all over,
        While every pulse beats love.

      "Then think where'er I wander,
        The sport of seas and wind,
      No distance hearts can sunder,
        Whom mutual truth has joined.
      Kind heaven the brave requiting,
        Shall safe thy love restore,
      With raptures crown our meeting,
        And joys ne'er felt before."

        Poor Wolfe, but poorer bride!

    YUNAF.

I am enabled to reply to the third Query of [Ezh] from papers in my
possession. Wolfe's commission as second lieutenant in his father's
(Col. Edward Wolfe's) regiment of marines[3], is dated 3d November,
1741; as ensign in Col. Scipio Duroure's regiment, 27th March, 1742; as
lieutenant in the same regiment, 14th July, 1743; as adjutant in the
same regiment, 22d July, 1743; as captain in Barrell's regiment, 23d
June, 1744; as major in Lord George Sackville's regiment[4], 5th
January, 1748-49; as lieut.-col. of the same regiment, 20th March,
1749-50, and colonel by brevet, 21st Oct. 1757; colonel of the 67th
regiment, 21st April, 1758; brigadier in America, 23d July, 1758; killed
at siege of Quebec.

  [Footnote 3: This regiment was afterwards numbered the 1st regiment.]

  [Footnote 4: This regiment was afterwards numbered the 20th, and
  then the 67th.]

Wolfe's father, Edward Wolfe, was appointed brigadier-general, 25th
April, 1745; major-general, 27th May, 1745, and lieut.-general, 30th
Sept. 1747.

If [Ezh] will communicate with me personally, I may be able to furnish
him with some other information relating to Wolfe.

    ROBERT COLE.

The following memoranda from MSS. in my care, relative to this
distinguished man, may, perhaps, be of use to your correspondent [Ezh].

Feb. 1746, a petition (dated Feb. 1746) to the Duke of Bedford for his
interference relative to the pay due to him as Inspector of Marines.

Another letter, dated July 7, 1746, printed in the first volume of the
_Bedford Correspondence_.

Another letter, dated Feb. 16, 1747, on the same subject as the first.

Another letter, dated Feb. 19, 1757, also printed in the _Bedford
Correspondence_.

Another letter, dated July 22, 1767, relative to his embarkation of a
regiment in which he was lieut.-col.

Another letter, dated Jan. 26, 1788, printed in the _Bedford
Correspondence_.

Copy of a letter to Lord George Sackville, dated Halifax, May 12.

    W. A.

Major-General Edward Wolfe resided in one of the villas in Montague
Walk, on the west side of Greenwich Park; afterwards the residence of
the Hon. Mr. Lyttelton, Henry Drax, Esq., Mr. Scott, and his widow.

In the register book of St. Alphege in Greenwich occurs this entry:

      "Major-Gen'l James Wolfe, buried Nov. 20th 1759."

His body was brought to England from Quebec, and laid by the side of his
father, Major-Gen. E. Wolfe, who was buried there on April 2, 1759.

His mother's Christian name was Henrietta; she bequeathed 500_l_. to
Bromley College at her death in 1765.

The short sword worn by General Wolfe at the time of his death is in the
United Service Institution in Scotland Yard. His military cloak is, I
believe, kept in the Tower.

    MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.

In the church of Westerham, the place of Wolfe's birth, as well as in
Westminster Abbey, is a cenotaph. Is it well known who was the author of
the pleasing lines inscribed at Westerham?

      "While George in sorrow bows his laurel'd head."

May I also ask whether the packet of autograph letters in the possession
of your correspondent was ever shown to Southey, and whether an
intention was not entertained by him, at one period, of writing a memoir
of Wolfe? If these letters were unknown to Southey, I have strong
reasons for believing that another collection of General Wolfe's letters
exists. Would not your correspondent's collection or a selection from
it, form a very interesting publication?

    J. H. M.


STANZAS IN CHILDE HAROLD.

(Vol. iv., pp. 223. 285.)

I am much obliged to your correspondents who have taken the trouble to
answer my Query respecting the lines in _Childe Harold_; but I am sorry
that you did not print one of the replies "at considerable length" to
which you allude in your note to MR. CROSSLEY'S brief one: for MR.
CROSSLEY'S settlement of the question will hardly, I think, appear so
satisfactory to all readers as it evidently does to him. Will you allow
me to explain the reasons for thinking so?

In his opinion it is quite transparent that Lord Byron meant to say,
speaking to the Ocean of its shores:

      "Thy waters wasted them when they were free,
      And many a tyrant since" (has wasted them).

But in my former letter I quoted a German translator's version of the
lines, and he did not understand them thus; and I have just referred to
a French translator's, and he also differs from MR. CROSSLEY. In fact,
his view of the matter so completely tallies with mine, that I will,
with your permission, quote his words:

  "Tes rivages sont des empires, où tout est changé, excepté toi.
  Que sont devenus l'Assyrie, la Grèce, Rome, Carthage? Tes flots
  battaient leurs frontières aux jours de la liberté, comme depuis
  sous le règne de plus d'un tyran."

This passage is taken from the complete translation of Lord Byron's
Works, published at Paris in 1836, by M. Benjamin de Laroche, vol. i. p.
754.

M. de Laroche was no doubt led to form his opinion of the real meaning
of these two lines from a careful consideration of those which
immediately precede and immediately follow. The theme of the poet is the
proud superiority of the ocean to human authority, and its insensibility
to human vicissitude. He rebukes the haughty assumption that "Britannia
rules the waves;" he refers in proof to the striking fact, that of the
two most memorable tempests recorded in the naval history of Spain and
England, the one aided our triumph, and the other tore the fruits of a
triumph from us.

      "The oak leviathans, whose huge ribs make
      Their clay creator the proud title take
      Of lord of thee, and arbiter of war,
      These are thy toys, and, as the snowy flake,
      They melt into thy yeast of waves, which mar
      Alike the Armada's pride, or spoils of Trafalgar."

And then he proceeds, according to my view of the passage, and according
to the French translator's view, to point out, that while the shores of
the ocean are changed, the action of the ocean continues the same; that
it wasted the empires of the ancient world when they were free, and
wasted them when they fell under the sway of tyrants:

      "Thy shores are empires, changed in all save thee--
      Assyria, Greece, Rome, Carthage, what are they?
      Thy waters wasted them while they were free,
      And many a tyrant since their shores obey."

Here there seems to be a logical sequence, which is surely not to be
found if the semicolon is kept, as MR. CROSSLEY wishes to keep it, after
the word "since."

      "Thy waters wasted them while they were free,
      And many a tyrant since;"

meaning, as he declares, that many a tyrant since has wasted them. There
may be grammatical construction here, but what becomes of the meaning?
The direct force of the words would surely be, that the ocean was in the
habit of ravaging its shores in times of liberty, but that it left off
when the tyrants began. I suppose it will be admitted that this is not
exactly what the poet wished to convey. To his real meaning it will, I
hope, be allowed to be essential that the statement should be made, that
the ocean's ravages continue; and if this is not done in the fourth
line, it is done nowhere,--the chain of reasoning is left without a
link. To say that the ocean wasted empires once, and tyrants did it
afterwards, is as little to the purpose as it would have been to say, in
the preceding stanza, that the ocean destroyed the Armada, but that
Nelson won Trafalgar. The lines become incoherent.

I beg pardon for trespassing so long on your attention; but the question
seems to have excited some interest, and I think the occasion may plead
my excuse.

    T. W.

There is no occasion to say any more on the subject of T. W.'s doubts
(Vol. iv., p. 223.) as to the construction of certain lines in the 182nd
stanza: but his remarks on the substitution of the word _gush'd_ for
_rush'd_, in the 141st stanza, induce me to offer a suggestion, or
rather ask a Query, with respect to a word in another stanza (180th) of
the same canto, which I shall quote entire.

      "His steps are not upon thy paths--thy fields
      Are not a spoil for him,--thou dost arise
      And shake him from thee; the vile strength he wields
      For earth's destruction thou dost all despise,
      Spurning him from thy bosom to the skies;
      And send'st him, shivering in thy playful spray
      And howling, to his Gods, where haply lies
      His petty hope in some near port or bay,
      And dashest him again to earth:--there let him lay."

The blot which disfigures the last line of this fine stanza, in the use
of the word _lay_ for _lie_, has, I believe, been often observed; but
the question I wish to throw out for the consideration of your readers
is, whether it is quite certain that Lord Byron really wrote, or
intended to write, the word _lay_. The following reasons appear to me to
render it improbable that he did. 1. His lordship is admittedly, I
believe, a great master of the English language, and would therefore be
very unlikely to commit the somewhat vulgar blunder of writing _lay_ for
_lie_, whatever might be the requirements of the rhyme. 2. This
improbability is rendered much stronger by his having used the word
_lies_ in the line next but one preceding; and therefore his attention
could hardly have been averted from the distinction between the two
words. 3. Though not professing to be a critic, it does appear to me
that the sense itself of the line (taking the word _lay_ in the sense of
_lie_) is weak and unmeaning, or at least far from worthy of the former
part of the stanza.

I am not perhaps bound to offer any emendation of the line, but in
default of anything better I will venture to suggest that his lordship
may have written, or intended to write, the word _pray_ as the
concluding word of the stanza. The sense, with _pray_ instead of _lay_,
would not, in my judgment, be inferior to that of the line in its
present form; nor would it be in itself inappropriate, as allusion has
just been made to man being sent "howling to his gods;" and, at all
events, by the adoption of _pray_, an almost unpardonable grammatical
error is avoided.

    PRISCIAN.

I cannot agree with T. W. as to the stanza quoted from the Hymn to the
Ocean.

      "Thy waters wasted them while they were free,
      And many a tyrant since" (has wasted them),

is very good sense, and much more Byronic than the cacophonous inversion
T. W. proposes.

_Blackwood's_ criticism of this hymn (probably by the Professor) is not
at all too severe. Noble as are some parts of it, it is full of
cockneyisms and platitudes. What can be worse than

      "There let him _lay_."

Again:

      "Roll on, thou deep and dark blue ocean, roll!"

is most magnificent in its sonorous march: but the next line is equally
absurd:

      "Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee _in vain_!"

_In vain!_ Why, did not Columbus discover a world? Did not Nelson make
England's fame eternal? Do not our tea, coffee, wine, and cotton cross
the surging seas?

As to the "Gladiator" stanza, nobody can doubt that _rushed_ is the
right and most poetic reading. _Rush_ is a strong word: _gush_ a weak
one, much hackneyed by neoteric poetasters. Byron never used _gush_ in
such a sense. Thoughts do not _gush_, though blood and water may. I
therefore venture to differ from T. W. and his two illustrious friends.

    MORTIMER COLLINS.

The difficulty which your correspondent T. W. finds in Lord Byron's
celebrated Address to the Ocean is occasioned by his having taken up a
wrong notion of the construction at the first reading; and the solution
of his perplexity is so obvious, when this is once pointed out, that it
must have already occurred to many of your readers, and very probably,
by this time, to T. W. himself. The lines that puzzle him are--

      "Thy waters wasted them while they were free,
      And many a tyrant since; their shores obey
      The stranger, slave, or savage."

"What!" exclaims T. W., "The waters wasted many a tyrant? How, in the
name of wonder?" How indeed! Probably more readers at once caught the
sense:--

      "_Thy waters_ wasted them while they were free
      And many _a tyrant_ since--_has wasted them_."

The word "wasted" is used in a somewhat different sense in the two
cases, but this is the price of the antithesis; and the result follows,
that their shores _now_ obey the stranger, the slave, or the savage, as
exemplified in Greece, Asia and Africa respectively. And here we may
observe, that the writer in _Blackwood's Magazine_, whom T. W. quotes,
and who thinks the ocean appealed to is the world's ocean, and not the
Mediterranean, has been just as blind to the train of thought in the
other part as T. W. in this.

But in the way of doing something beyond the solution of this particular
obscurity, so far as there is any, I would remark, that Byron's efforts
at concentration and point not unfrequently give rise to an obscurity of
this kind; which for a moment produces a perplexity that seems laughable
as soon as the true sense occurs to us. For instance, on first reading
these verses in the _Corsair_,--

      "Be the edge sharpen'd of my boarding brand,
      And give its guard more room to fix my hand.
      This let the armourer with speed dispose;
      Last time, it more fatigued my arm than foes:"

I exclaimed, like T. W., "What! his sword _fatigued_ his foes? What a
most absurd expression! To be sure, one may imagine that when Conrad was
killing his enemies one after another without stopping, they would say,
What a _tiresome_ man he is! but this does not seem to be in the vein of
the narration." And then, reading the passage again, and considering
that the pirate complains of the guard of his sword being too narrow, I
saw plainly that, with whatever damage to the rhythm, the verse was to
be read--

      "Last time, _it_ more fatigued my arm than _foes_" (did).

My sword, by its not fitting to my hand, fatigued my arm more than all
the resistance that foes could offer.

I will give another example of the same kind, again taken from the
Pirate. In the enthusiastic description of a ship, he says:

      "Who would not brave the battle-fire--the wreck--
      To move the monarch of her peopled deck?"

"Who?" I exclaimed; "but who wants to move him? This monarch is, I
suppose, the captain; but why should men in general wish to move _him_?"
I suppose most of your readers see at the first what I saw at the second
glance, that Byron meant "to move _as_ the monarch of this deck," that
is, to be the captain.

If I have satisfied T. W. and the rest of your readers of the
construction of the first passage, I have, I think, also shown that the
tendency to such transient mistakes in reading Byron is not uncommon.

    W. W.

  Cambridge, Oct. 10. 1851.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_MS. Note in a Copy of Liber Sententiarum_ (Vol. iv., pp. 188.
282.).--For the information of W. S. W. I beg to notify that the
"mundane era" quoted by him is the Septuagint era of Venerable Bede,
who, in his chronology of the world, uses two eras; one of which he
calls "juxta Hebraicam veritatem," the other, "juxta septuaginta
interpretes."

He makes the concurrence of these with A.D. 1, at the birth of Christ,
to be respectively as follows:--

      A.M. 3952.      A.M. Sep. 5300.      A.D. 1.

The two latter, as W. S. W. will perceive, are exactly in the same
relation as those in the MS. note.

I should also suggest that "S" may be the initial in the writer's name,
and not "T": in which case "[q=]. T." probably signifies "quam tribuit."

    A. E. B.

P.S.--Upon a second reference to the communication of W. S. W. I find
that the above dates _are not_ consistent with those quoted by him, but
differ by exactly a hundred years: that this should be the exact
difference is very singular, and would lead me to suspect that there
might have been a mistake in transcription, were it not that in his
smaller work Bede has this sentence:

  "Hujus anno Dominus nascitur, completis ab Adam annis
  3952.--_Juxta alios_, 5199."

_Naturalis proles_ (Vol. iv., p. 161.).--Undoubtedly in Latin
_naturalis_ is opposed to "adopted;" _e.g._ "P. Scipio ... _naturalis_
consulis Paulli, _adoptione_ Africani nepos." (Livy, xliv. 44.) I
stumbled some time ago upon the following:

  "The Act of Settlement by which Napoleon, Emperor of France, was
  declared King of Italy, with the right of succession to his sons
  _natural_ or _adopted_, and male heirs.... He declared that he
  accepted, and would defend, the iron crown; and that even during
  his lifetime he would consent to separate the two crowns, and
  place one of his _natural_ or _adopted_ sons upon the
  throne."--Alison's _History_, chap. xxxix. §§ 38, 39.

I have no means of ascertaining whether this is a literal rendering from
the French document. If I may trust my _Dictionnaire de l'Académie_,
this sense of the word is unknown to the French language, as well as to
ours.

    CHARLES THIRIOLD.

_Print cleaning_ (Vol. iv., p. 175.).--The following method is given as
infallible by Mr. Stannard in the _Art-Union_ for 1847, pp. 179. 261.:

  "Immerse the print for an hour or so in a lye made by adding to
  the strongest muriatic acid its own weight in water, and to three
  parts of this mixture adding one of red oxide of lead, or black
  oxide of manganese. A print, if not quickly cleaned, may remain in
  the liquid twenty-four hours without harm. Indian ink stains
  should in the first instance be assisted out with hot water.
  Pencil marks, if carefully done, should be partially rubbed out
  with India rubber or day-old bread; that is, if it can be safely
  done, as rubbing an engraving is always hazardous. If the print
  had been mounted, the paste on the back should be thoroughly
  removed with warm water. The saline crystals left by the solution
  may be removed by repeated rinsings with warm water."

    ALTRON.

_Story referred to by Jeremy Taylor_ (Vol. iv., pp. 208. 262.).--My copy
of _Don Quixote_ has the following note on the passage referred to by
Mr. C. H. COOPER:--

  "_Two old men appeared before Sancho_, etc.--I believe this story
  is told, for the first time, in some of the Talmudic writings; but
  Cervantes, in all probability, took it from the _Legenda Aurea
  Jacobi de Voragine_, in which monkish collection it occurs in
  these words:

  "'Vir quidam ab uno Judæo quamdam summam pecuniæ mutuo accepit,
  jurans super altare Sancti Nicolai quod quam citius posset sibi
  redderet. Tenente autem illo diu pecuniam Judæus expostulavit: sed
  eam sibi reddidisse affirmat. Trahit ergo eum ad judicem et
  juramentum indicitur debitori: Ille baculum cavatum quem auro
  minuto impleverat secum detulerat, ac si ejus adminiculo
  indigeret: Volens igitur facere juramentum Judæo baculum tradidit
  servandum. Juravit quod plus sibi reddiderat etiam quam debet; et
  facto juramento baculum repetiit. Et Judæus ignorans astutiæ eum
  sibi reddidit. Rediens autem qui fraudem fecerat in quodam bivio
  oppressus corruit somno: Currusque eum, cum impetu veniens,
  necuit, et baculum plenum auro fregit, et aurum effudit.'

  "The conclusion of the story is, that the Jew having received his
  money, was earnestly entreated to acknowledge his sense of the
  Divine interposition in his favour, by receiving baptism. He said
  he would do so if Saint Nicholas would, at his prayer, restore the
  dead man to life. The saint was, without much difficulty, induced
  to do this, and the Jew became an edifying specimen of conversion.
  See the chapter de Sancto Nicolao."--_The History of the Ingenious
  Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha; translated from the Spanish by
  Motteux. A new Edition, with copious Notes, &c._ Edinburgh, 1822,
  vol. v. p. 334.

May not Jeremy Taylor, in the passage cited from the _Ductor
Dubitantium_ ("NOTES AND QUERIES," Vol. iv., p. 208.), have been quoting
_from memory_, and confused the Talmudic(?) legend with a well-known
passage in Juvenal, _Sat._ xiii. 199-207.? Compare--

  "The _Greek_ that denied the _depositum_ of his friend, and
  offered to swear at the altar,"

with

      "_Spartano_ cuidam respondit Pythia vates;
      Haud impunitum quondam fore, quod dubitaret
      _Depositum_ retinere et fraudem _jure_ tueri
      _Jurando_."

The Spartan's name was Glaucus. The story is told at large in Herodot.
vi. 86. See Stocker's note on Juv. _Sat._ xiii. 199. The use of "sibi,"
in the extract from the _Legenda Aurea_, is new to me. Is it common in
monkish Latin?

    C. FORBES.

  Temple.

_Anagrams_ (Vol. iv., pp. 226. 297.).--MR. BREEN put another Query
besides "Where shall we find six good anagrams?" He asked, "How comes it
that a species of composition once so popular should have become
extinct?"

Let me venture to refer MR. BREEN to _The Spectator_ for an answer
to this inquiry; where, in Addison's brilliant papers on "False
Wit" (Nos. 58. &c.), he will find the whole family of ingenious
quibblings,--anagrams, acrostics, chronograms, puns, bouts-rimes,
&c.,--mown down to their just level. And MR. BREEN cannot, I am sure, as
a man of taste, fail to be delighted, even although he may think the
following passage (which I quote chiefly as a warning against the rise
of an anagrammatric epidemic among your correspondents) a little severe
on his old friends:

  "The acrostic was probably invented about the same time with the
  anagram, though it is impossible to decide whether the inventor of
  the one or the other were the greater blockhead."

It is a tempting folly I admit for an idle hour, and I must plead guilty
to having (in consequence of MR. BREEN'S letter) wasted nearly a whole
evening in discovering that

      "NOTES AND QUERIES"
      "Enquires on Dates!"

and also offers the following warning to its contributors--

      "Send quite Reason;"

while as an encouragement it observes (so an ingenious friend informs
us)--

      "O send in a Request."

    HERMES.

_Battle of Brunanburgh_ (Vol. iv., p. 249.).--The _Egils Saga_ describes
the duel between the armies of Olaf and Athelstan to have been fought in
a _champ clos_, inclosed with branches of hazel, upon a space called the
Vinheidi, or _heidi_ of _Vin_, situate _near_ (vid) or _in_ (á) the
Vinskogr, or forest of Vin. _Heidi_ is a rough open space, with scrubs
or bushes, such as furze, juniper, broom, &c. The _heidi_ and the
_skogr_ were distinct, the latter affording shelter to the fugitives
from the former, p. 290. The text, both Norse and Latin, says, "Then he
brought his army to the Vin-heidi. _A certain_ town stood towards the
north of the heidi." But a various reading in the note says, "to the
town of Vinheidi, which was to the north of the heidi." But it seems as
unreasonable for the town to be called Vinheidi, as Vinskogr. _Vin_
should be taken for the name of the town, and the root of the other
phrases. The downs or brakes called Vinheidi were inclosed with hazel,
and lay between the forest, or skogr, and some river. The town, being
Olaf's head quarters, lay north of them. Athelstan occupied the nearest
town to the south of the heidi. [Query, whether south of the river?] The
northern town Vin is no doubt the Weon from which the Weon-dune (downs
of Weon, or heidi of Vin) was called. The other name given by Simeon
Dunelmensis to that space is curious, as showing how well the spot was
adapted for attack and pursuit, "eth-runnan-werc," that is,
"facilis-ad-opus-currendi." The name Brunanburg, probably signifying
"the town of bourns," or watercourses, is unequivocally that of a town.
Since Olaf or Arlaf had his quarters at Vin, it was probably at that
place where Athelstan was stationed. Find these two places, Vin the
northern-most of the two, and find the river. The heidi and the skogr
are probably grubbed and ploughed up.

    A. N.

_Praed's Works_ (Vol. iv., p. 256.).--Some three years ago I saw a
prospectus announcing that they would be published by Mr. Parker of
Oxford, under the direction of Mrs. Praed; but I believe nothing has
been done in the matter since.

    W. J.

_Sir J. Davies_ (Vol. iv., p. 256.).--Messrs. Puttick and Simpson, 191.
Piccadilly, have, or had recently, an original MS. of this eminent
lawyer and poet. Perhaps L. GYFFES would learn something of it by
communication with them, and, if curious, oblige your readers with an
account of it.

    R.

_Coins of Constantius Gallus_ (Vol. iv., p. 238.).--MR. TAYLOR appears
to me not altogether correct in his distinctions of these coins. The
name VAL. certainly generally denotes Constantius Chlorus, but there are
coins of Constantius II. also with VAL. It is impossible for a practised
numismatist to confound the coins of these emperors, not only from the
difference of lettering and workmanship, but from the change in the
size, thickness, &c. of the coins. I have coins of Constantius II. with
VAL. bearing the same reverse as others with IVL. (PROVIDENTIAE CAESS)
in my cabinet. I have also several coins of Constantius II. with
P.F.AVG., which have A. behind the head. I refer above only to coins of
bronze, second and third sizes; but I should suppose the rules would
apply also to the gold coins. I see "NOTES AND QUERIES" only monthly, or
I should have written sooner, but I hope not to be too late.

    W. H. S.

  Edinburgh.

_Passage in Sedley_ (Vol. iii., p. 476.).--

      "Let fools the name of loyalty divide
      Wise men and gods are on the strongest side."

I much fear your correspondent HENRY H. BREEN suggests an alteration in
Sir Charles Sedley's couplet more favourable to the witty baronet's
principles than facts will admit. It is too probable that he conceived
the sentiment just as it stands; for we must remember that he belonged
to that school of loose wits of the Restoration, who, "Regis ad
exemplar," made a mock of all which tended to place "virtue" above
"interest," or to make men "too fond of the right to pursue the
expedient."

Charles II. and his long train of licentious courtiers now stand at the
bar of history, and the verdict on him must be, that if he had a
principle in latter life it was this,--that he would never endanger
himself for any abstract rule of right; or as Sir W. Scott, in
_Peveril_, accurately says: "he had sworn never to kiss the block on
which his father suffered," when yielding to the current would save him
from it; hence, there is too good reason to think that, in his
estimation, and in the judgment of the school he formed, "loyalty" was
"folly," and to take the strongest side "wisdom."

The reference in Sedley's couplet to the line--

      "Victrix causa Diis placuit, sed victa Catoni"--

is too obvious to need notice; and it is but too certain that in the
estimation of a courtier of Charles II., Cato dying for his country
would be but "a fool for his pains." It is painful to be obliged to
remind MR. BREEN that, in order to understand Sedley's meaning, we are
not to look for what would be "most consistent with truth," but for what
was most probably accordant with the lax morality of the author.

    A. B. R.

  Belmont, Oct. 6. 1851.

_Buxtorf's Translation of Elias Levita's "Tub Taam"_ (Vol. iv., p.
272.).--This work was printed at Venice in 1538, in 4to. Münster
republished it in the next following year, with an epitome of its
contents in Latin. (G. B. de' Rossi, _Dizionario Storico, &c._, art.
"Levita.").

    T. T.

  Manchester.

_Stonehenge_ (Vol. iv., p. 57.).--P. P.'s objection to Sir R. C. Hoare's
derivation of _Stonehenge_ seems hardly justifiable. Surely the
horizontal stones there may be said to hang, μετέωροι, or
μετάρσιοι, sublime: as in the case of "Rocq Pendant" of
Alderney, the term "hanging" is loosely applied. That leans forth from
the cliff at a considerable angle out of the perpendicular, and is
"hanging," in another sense of the word, like the Leaning Tower of Pisa,
and as, in another acceptation, the famous terrace gardens of Babylon
are called the Hanging Gardens.

    THEOPHYLACT.

_Glass in Windows formerly not a Fixture_ (Vol. iv., p. 99.).--Referring
to this subject, allow me to add a Note I have from the will of Robert
Birkes, of Doncaster, alderman, proved at York, July 30, 1590, in
further illustration. The testator gives to his son Robert all "the
seeling work and portalls" in and about the house where he dwelt, "with
all doors, _glass windows_," &c., in full of his child's portion of his
goods; and then his _house_ he gave to his wife for her life. If by
"seeling work and portalls" are meant what we now understand by those
terms, the above extract shows that other essential parts of a house
besides glass windows were formerly considered as moveable chattels.

    C. J.

_Fortune, infortune, fort une_ (Vol. iv., pp. 57. 142.).--The
explanation offered by a writer in the _Magasin Pittoresque_ for 1850,
seems perfectly clear without the proposed transposition of the adverb
_fort_ into _fait_ of your correspondent D. C.

If the sentence be read according to the French explanation D. C. has
quoted, viz. by reading _infortune_ as a verb, _fort_ the adverb to it,
it must be plain that the reading of the sentence must be:

  "Fortune fort infortune une."

  (Fortune very much afflicts one.)

If we turned _fort_ into _fait_, it would entirely spoil the sentence.

Query, But _is_ "infortuner" to be found as a verb in any old
dictionary? We have the adjective "infortuné," which looks much like a
participle.

    J. C. W.

  Francis Terrace, Kentish Town.

_Matthew Paris's "Historia Minor"_ (Vol. iv., p. 209.).--MR. SANSOM will
find the desired MS. in the British Museum, 14 C. vii. (Macray's _Manual
of Brit. Hist._, p. 26. Lond. 1845.)

    R. G.

In the Cottonian library, Claudius D. vi. 9., will be found "Abbreviatio
compendiosa Chronicorum Angliæ, ab A'o 1000, ad A. 1255. Scripsit quidam
ad calcem, 'Hic desinit Mat. Paris Historia Minor, quæ est epitome
Majoris, quæ ad A.D. 1258 continuatur.'"

_The Bibliothecæ Regiæ_, 14 C. vii., contains "Historiæ M. Paris.
Continuatio ad A.D. 1273, alia manu. De possessione hujus Codicis multa
fuit altercatio." (See Warton's _History of English Poetry_, vol. i. p.
lxxxviii. edit. 1840.) There are also MSS. at Corpus Christi College
(No. 56.) and Ben'et College, Cambridge (No. 31.). Macray states, that
the _Historia Minor_ was made out of the _Historia Major_ by Paris, both
from Wendover to 1235, and his own large additions after that period.

    J. Y.

  Hoxton.

_Sanford's "Descensus"_ (Vol. iv., p. 232.).--The work of Hugo
Sanfordus, _De Descensu Domini nostri Jesu Christi ad inferos_, was
published as a separate work at Amsterdam in 1611, and its title is
inserted in the printed catalogue of the Bodleian Library. Can ÆGROTUS
give a specific reference to the book, page, and edition of Gale's
_Court of the Gentiles_ in which it is spoken of, and also his authority
for the statement that it was published in the works of a bishop who
survived him?

    TYRO.

_Death of Pitt_ (Vol. iv., p. 232.).--MR. NATHANIEL ELLISON will find in
the _Memoirs of Lady Hester Stanhope_, vol. iii. p. 141., a passage
which pretty nearly confirms the account of _the desertion of Pitt's
death-bed_. She said that James, a servant, was the only person present
with Pitt when he died, and that she herself was the last person who saw
him alive except James. She also stated that Dr. Pretyman, who seems to
have been in the house, was fast asleep at the time; and that Sir Walter
Farquhar, the physician, was absent. The account of Pitt's last moments
in Gifford's life of him, where a prayer for forgiveness, &c. is put
into his mouth, she pronounced to be _all a lie_.

    J. S. W.

  Stockwell.

_History of Hawick_ (Vol iv., p. 233.).--In reply to the Query of your
correspondent H. L., I have to inform him that there have been published
two histories of Hawick, viz.,--

1. Robert Wilson's _Sketch of the History of Hawick_, a small 8vo.
printed in 1825. It contains a notice of the altercations between the
Abbot of Melrose and Langlands the Baron of Wilton, relative to the
arrear of tithes due to the abbacy of Melrose. A copy of this work can
be procured for about 5_s._

2. James Wilson's _Annals of Hawick, 1214-1814_, a small 8vo. printed in
1850. This work, under date 1494-5, has a notice of the murder of the
chaplain by Langlands. This book can be had for 6_s._ 6_d._

A notice of the trial of Langlands for the murder will also be found in
Pitcairn's _Criminal Trials_, vol. i. p. 20.

    T. G. S.

  Edinburgh, Oct. 6. 1851.

"_Prophecies of Nostradamus_" (Vol. iv., pp. 86. 140. 258.).--J. R. says
that "the first edition of the _Prophecies of Nostradamus_ is not only
in the National Library, but in several others, both in Paris and
elsewhere." Does J. R. speak from personal observation or at
second-hand? When I was in Paris I spent some hours in searching the
catalogue and shelves of both the National Library and that of St.
Geneviève, but I could find no edition of Nostradamus dated 1555 in
either. To convince myself that my search had been accurate, I turned to
_Nostradamus_, par Eugène Bareste, Paris, 1840, and there found it
distinctly asserted that there is no copy of the first edition of the
book (viz. that of 1555) _in any public library_ in Paris, and that the
copy used in compiling that edition of 1840 was borrowed from a private
collection. I cannot give the exact words of M. Bareste, as I only made
a "Note" of their purport; but if J. R. will say upon what authority his
statement as to this rare little book is based, I will certainly some
day renew my search for it at the National Library.

    H. C. DE ST. CROIX.

_Bourchier Family_ (Vol. iv., p. 233.).--Monuments, with inscriptions,
to William Bourchier, Earl of Bath, 1623; Henry Bourchier, Earl of Bath;
many of the family of Bourchier-Wrey, and others allied to them, are in
the church of Tavistock, in the county of Devon; and the whole of them
have been carefully transcribed with notes of the heraldry.

    S. S. S.

_William III. at Exeter_ (Vol. iv., p. 233.).--Jenkins, the historian of
Exeter, in relating the prince's public entry into that city, states
that he was preceded by the Earl of Macclesfield and two hundred
horsemen, _most of whom_ were English nobles and gentlemen. There is in
the Bodleian Library a fo. broadsheet entitled, _A True and Exact
Relation of the Prince of Orange, his Publick Entrance into Exeter_,
which, if I remember right, was reprinted in Somers' _Tracts_, but I do
not think any names of those gentlemen are therein mentioned.

    S. S. S.

_Passage in George Herbert_ (Vol. iv., p. 231.).--Does not Herbert imply
in these lines--

      "Take one from ten, and what remains?
      Ten still, if sermons go for gains."

that the payer of _tithes_ receives an equivalent in the ministrations
of the priest?

    S. C. C.

  Corfe Castle.

This passage alludes doubtless to the tithe of the parson, and maintains
that the tithe-payer is no loser if the sermons for which tithe is paid
produce their effects. In fact, it is a paraphrase of _Proverbs_, iii.
9, 10.:

  "Honour the Lord with all thy substance, and with the first
  fruits of all thine increase: so shall thy barns be filled with
  plenty, and thy presses shall burst out with new wine."

    J. A. PICTON.

  Liverpool.

_Suicides buried in Cross Roads_ (Vol. iv., pp. 116. 212.).--This was
formerly the general practice in the South of England, and it has
occasionally been resorted to within the last thirty years. At
Chalvington, in Sussex, there once resided, according to a popular
tradition, the _only honest miller ever known_. About a century since,
this person, finding it impossible to succeed in business, hanged
himself in his own mill, and was buried in a neighbouring "crossways."
An oaken stake, driven through his body, taking root, grew into a tree,
and threw a singular shrivelled branch, the only one it ever produced,
across the road. It was the most singular tree I ever saw, and had
something extremely hag-like and ghostly in its look. The spot was of
course haunted, and many a rustic received a severe shock to his
feelings on passing it after nightfall. The tradition was of course
received by the intelligent as a piece of superstitious _folk-lore_, and
the story of the "only honest miller" was regarded as a mere _myth_,
until about twenty-five years ago, when a labourer employed in digging
sand near the roots of the scraggy oak tree, discovered a human
skeleton. This part of the history I can vouch for, having seen, when a
schoolboy, some of the bones. I must not omit to mention that the honest
miller of Chalvington owned the remarkable peculiarity of a "tot" or
tuft of hair growing in the palm of each hand!

    MARK ANTONY LOWER.

_Armorial Bearings_ (Vol. iv., p. 58.).--The coat of arms described by
F. I. B. is given by Robson and by Burke to the family of Kelley of
Terrington, co. Devon, and the crests are similar, but I can find no
authority for the coat in any work relating to that county. The ancient
family, Kelly of Kelly, in Devon, bore a very different coat and crest.
There is no such place as Terrington in that county, unless Torrington
be meant, but no family of note bearing the name of Kelley had
possessions there. I conclude, therefore, that there must be a mistake
as to the county.

    S. S. S.

"_Life of Cromwell_" (Vol. iv., p. 117.).--No life of Cromwell was ever
written by "_one Kember_;" there is a _Life of Oliver Cromwell, Lord
Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland_, the
second edition (London, 1725) of which, greatly enlarged from the first,
is now before me, and which has the autograph of Malone, who has on the
fly-leaf asserted it to have been "written by Isaac Kimber, a Dissenting
minister, who was born at Vantage in Berkshire, Dec. 1, 1692. His son,
Edward Kimber, refers to it as the work of his father, in a history of
England in ten volumes, which he published."

Kimber's life is a much better one than Carlyle's; but the best
biography of that most extraordinary man is by Thomas Cromwell,
published some twenty or thirty years since, and of which there was a
second edition.

    J. MT.

_Harris, Painter in Water Colours_ (Vol. iii., p. 329.).--In answer to
the inquiry of T. C. W., relative to a Bible (Reeves, 1802) in the
possession of his friend, I beg leave to state that the said Bible was
illustrated with original drawings by my father, J. Harris of Walworth,
who died seventeen years since, and that I am his only son surviving him
in his profession. Any further communication relative to him I shall be
most happy to give on a personal interview.

    J. HARRIS.

  40. Sidmouth Street. Regent Square, Sept. 27. 1851.

"_Son of the Morning_" (Vol. iv., p. 209.).--AN OLD BENGAL CIVILIAN is
informed that, no matter whom Byron may have intended to designate by
the above glorious appellation, there is but ONE to whom it properly
belongs. If your correspondent will consult the 110th Psalm, he will
find David representing God the Father as thus addressing God the Son,
the Lord Jesus Christ: "The dew of Thy birth is of the _womb of the
morning_."

    G. L. S.

  Pemb. Coll. Oxon., Sept. 20. 1851.

This seems to be an invocation to the personification of Light, Lucifer,
or φωσφορος, the "son of the morning," by which intellectual
light is indicated, through whose assistance we are enabled to discover
the true faith.

The poet enters a caveat that the latter do not act the part of an
Iconoclast, as has too often been her wont. At least this appears to me
to be the interpretation.

    E. I. U. S. Club.

_Grimsdyke or Grimesditch_ (Vol. iv., p. 192.).--Your Querist NAUTICUS
describes the vallum or ditch called "Grimsdyke, or Grimesditch, or the
Devil's Ditch," running from Great Berkhampstead, Hants, to Bradenham,
Bucks, and then puts two Queries.

NAUTICUS assumes that this ditch had, at some distant day, been an
artificial earthwork; but at the same time he points out that, "from its
total want of flank defence, it could hardly hold an enemy in check for
long; and that it does not seem to have been a military way." He asks,
"Are there other earthworks of the same name (Grimsdyke) in England?" I
find no trace of any other _earthworks_ of that name in England; and it
may be very questionable whether this ditch be of ancient earthwork, or
of its original natural formation.

But there is, in _Cheshire_, a brook or rivulet in its pristine state,
called _Grimsditch_. This brook or rivulet is one of the contributory
streams of Cheshire to the great rivers, the Mersey and the Weaver; and
is described by the author of _King's Vale Royal of England, or the
County Palatine of Chester illustrated_, published in 1656, as follows:

  "The Grimsditch cometh from the Hall of Grimsditch, by Preston,
  Daresbury, Keckwith, and so falleth into the Marsey."

Here then we have the name of a place which gives the name of
_Grimsditch_ to the brook or rivulet; and it is, moreover, shown by the
County History that the place (the hamlet or lands of Grimsditch) has
been in the possession of a family of the name of Grimsditch from the
time of Henry III.

From the words of the original grant this hamlet, by which Thomas
Tuschet, in 10 Hen. III. 1226, grants to Hugo de Grimsditch "totam
terram de Grimsdich pertinentem ad villam de Witeleigh" (Ormerod's
_Chesh._ i. 488.), it may be inferred that the place went by the name of
Grimsditch prior to the Norman Conquest. There can therefore be but
little doubt that the name is of Anglo-Saxon origin.

The present possessor of the property is Thomas Grimsditch, Esq., late
M.P. for the borough of Macclesfield.

The second Query of NAUTICUS applies to the _etymology_ of the word
Grimsditch.

This is a very difficult question to solve. Take the first syllable:
_Grim_, _grime_, dirt, sullying blackness.

  "She sweats; a man may go over shoes in the _grime_ of
  it."--Shakspeare.

Then the word _ditch_: this is derived from dic (Saxon), dük (Erse); but
whatever may be the true etymology of the word, it can scarcely be
doubted that it is of Anglo-Saxon origin.

I may however add that there is a tradition in the Grimsditch family of
Cheshire, said to have been handed down for many ages, as to the origin
of the name, to the following effect:

That in remote ages their first parents were warriors; that one of these
warriors was attacked by a griffin; that a fierce contest ensued; and
that the man was the conqueror of that fabulous bird or beast, the
battle-ground being a _dyke_ or _ditch_.

Hence, says the tradition, emanated the family coat of arms, which are
certainly very singular, viz. Azure, a griffin or, about to tear, and
ramping upon, a warrior, completely armed in plate armour, in bend
dexter, across the lower part of the shield. Crest, a _Talbot_.

    WILLIAM BEAUMONT.

In reply to your correspondent NAUTICUS, who inquires whether there are
any ancient entrenchments in England known by the name of _Grimsdyke_,
besides the one he mentions in Hants, I beg to remind him that the Roman
wall (or ditch and rampart) executed between the Firths of Forth and
Clyde during the reign of the Emperor Antoninus Pius, is popularly
called by the above name. To account for the name, it has been said that
it originated in the circumstance of a chieftain of the name of _Graham_
having been the first to force his way through it; but those who gave
such a derivation of the word could scarcely have been aware that it
bears this name in common with at least two others, viz., that mentioned
by NAUTICUS as existing at Great Berkhampstead, Hants; and the other
pointed out by W. S. G. as near Salisbury.

    L. D. L.

_Cagots_ (Vol. iv., p. 190.).--In reply to the inquiry of RUSTICUS, I
rather imagine the _Cagots_ are the remains of the Paulician "Churches"
of Thoulouse Albi and _Cahors_ (_Charhagensis_) of Maitland's _Albigenes
and Waldenses_, p. 428.; and that the Cretins are no other than
_credentes_ (cf. Maitland passim), probably remnants of the same body of
heretics.

    AJAX.

Is there any resemblance between them and Cretins? Are there any
families or races of Cretins ever heard of?

    C. B.

_The Serpent represented with a human Head_ (Vol. iv., p. 191.).--I send
you two instances of the serpent being represented with a human head;
the first occurs in the Arundel MS. No. 23., in this College, containing
the genealogical descent of King Edward IV., and apparently coeval with
that sovereign. The other is a beautifully executed sketch of Adam and
Eve in a MS., also in this College, of the time of Henry VII., at the
commencement of _The Genealogy of the Saxon Kings from Adam_. They are
both female heads, the latter, however, being the entire bust.

    THOMAS W. KING (York Herald).

  College of Arms.

In the stained glass of the east window in the Lady Chapel, Wells
Cathedral (temp. Edw. III.), the serpent, which is entwined round a
tree, and holds an apple, has not only the head but the upper half of a
human figure. On a scroll is written in uncial letters, "Si comederitis
de ligno vitæ eritis sicut Dii scientis bonis et malis;" and in a
straight line below the subject, "Arbor cum Serpente."

    T. WT.

_Fire Unknown_ (Vol. iv., pp. 209. 283.).--At the time when Leibnitz
wrote, curious references to accounts of savages were not infrequent.
All your readers will remember Locke's reference to some account of
savages who had neither idea of God nor of being superior to man. It may
be that narratives of tribes who did not use fire, who lived on dried
flesh or fish, for instance, may have given rise to an idea of their not
knowing fire. I think I remember to have seen it stated that some of the
savages of Australia did not know fire. On this, five-and-twenty years
ago, I made a note from Mr. Barron Field's _Collection of Geographical
Memoirs of New South Wales_. Two wrecked Englishmen passed some time
among the natives, and found they had no knowledge that water could be
heated; but the very story seems to show that they knew of fire. On
boiling some in a tin pot,

  "The whole tribe gathered round them, and watched the pot till it
  began to boil, when they all took to their heels, shouting and
  screaming, nor could they be persuaded to return till they saw
  them pour the water out and clean the pot, when they slowly
  ventured back and carefully covered the place where the water was
  spilt with sand."

These two Englishmen were treated with great attention by the natives,
they were painted twice a day, and it was quite their own faults that
they did not have their noses bored and their bodies scarified.

    M.

_Plant in Texas_ (Vol. iv., p. 208.).--The following is an extract from
a periodical of 1848 or 1849:

  "According to the _Medical Times_, Major Alvord has discovered on
  the American prairies a plant possessing the property of pointing
  north and south, and has given it the name of _Sylphium
  laciniatum_."

    G. P***.

_Copying Inscriptions_ (Vol. iv., p. 266.).--M. Lottin de Laval, "by a
new process," has produced the most accurate copies of cuneatic
inscriptions that have yet been published. It is said that he has copied
by his process (which must, I think, be some kind of heliography) 1200
inscriptions from the Sinaitic peninsula, the publication of which may
be speedily expected, so that MR. BUCKTON'S wishes on this point are
anticipated. These inscriptions have been already deciphered.

    E. H. D. D.

_Chantrey's Statue of Mrs. Jordan_ (Vol. iv., p. 58.).--MR. CORNISH will
find this statue at Mapledurham in Oxon, the living of the lady's son.
It remains there, it is stated, until an appropriate site can be
obtained.

    W. A.

_Portraits of Burke_ (Vol. iv., p. 271.).--I doubt that Sir Joshua
Reynolds ever painted a miniature, and I should say certainly not after
Mr. Burke "had passed the meridian of life." His sister, Miss Reynolds,
was a professed _miniature painter_, and I have little doubt must have
painted Mr. Burke, as she certainly did Johnson; but the description
given of this miniature is very unlike Mr. Burke. The name of the
possessor might, in some degree, enable us to ascertain whether the
portraits mentioned are really of the great statesman.

    C.

_Martial's Distribution of Hours_ (Vol. iv., p. 273.).--Martial's
distribution of hours and employments seems to me to be as
follows:--From 6 till 8 the visits of the "salutantes" are received;
from 8 till 9 the law tribunals are attended; from 9 till 11 the "varii
labores" occupy; from 11 till 12 the "quies." The expression "in
quintam" must bring us to the end of the 5th hour; and the "sexta hora"
must be that which concludes at 12.

Your inquirer A. E. B. might have further asked what is the difference
between the "quies" of the "sexta," and the "finis" of the "septima." To
understand this is to understand the difficulty which he propounds. I
apprehend the "quies" not to mean the "siesta," but that gradual and
perhaps irregular cessation or suspension of employments which precedes
the close of business for the day. The "siesta" is the "finis" of
Martial, which would thus fall between 12 and 1; that time of the day at
which A. E. B. fixes it rightly. I think he errs in identifying the
"siesta" with the "sexta hora."

To question 214 I may be allowed to reply, that the effect of moonlight
upon the face of those who sleep exposed to it in hot climates is very
severe indeed, producing an appearance not very unlike that of a swollen
and putrescent corpse. The Psalmist refers to it Ps. cxxi. 6.; and all
who have lived in the East Indies are well acquainted with the
phenomenon.

    THEOPHYLACT.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

The _Antiquarian Gleanings in the North of England, being Examples of
Antique Furniture, Plate, Church Decorations, Objects of Historical
Interest, &c., drawn and etched by William B. Scott, Government School
of Design, Newcastle_, which has just been completed, is a valuable
addition to the numerous works which have been published of late years
illustrative of archæology in its most picturesque aspect. It will be
seen from the title that Mr. Scott has not confined himself to any one
class of objects; in some cases historical associations having
determined his choice; in others, the rarity of examples of the object
illustrated; in others, their intrinsic beauty. The Chair of the
Venerable Bede, and the Swords of Cromwell, Fairfax, and Lambert, belong
to the first of these divisions; as the Nautilus Cup set in gold, and
the Ivory Cup, both the property of Mr. Howard of Corby, belong to the
last: and so much taste and skill has Mr. Scott shown in the whole of
the thirty-eight plates, as quite to justify the hope expressed by him,
that in all of them the connoisseur and the artist will find something
worthy attention.

We have before us two books to which we desire to direct the attention
of our readers. The first is _A Manual of Ecclesiastical History, from
the First to the Twelfth Century_, by the Rev. E. S. Foulkes, M.A., the
main plan of which has been borrowed from Spanheim, and the materials
principally compiled from that writer, Spondanus, Mosheim and Fleury,
Gieseler, Döllinger, and others, respecting whom, however, Mr. Foulkes
states, "I believe I have never once trusted to them on a point
involving controversy without examining their authorities." "Let
nobody," he elsewhere observes, "think that he can fairly know Church
History from reading a single modern historian, whether Protestant or
Roman Catholic; the only way of getting a correct view, unless a person
should have time to consult the originals, is to read two opposite
writers, side by side, and balance one set of facts against the other.
Yet even so it is hopeless to get a true appreciation of past times
except through cotemporary writings; I have therefore appended to the
catalogue of modern historians a few of the principal cotemporary works,
disciplinary, doctrinal, and historical, from age to age down to the end
of the twelfth century, which would be a far more trustworthy clue to
the real sentiments of the times than could be gained from a more modern
source, and could not, I think, fail to be a corrective to narrow
misapprehensions, and a great help to the student whose wish it is to be
fair and candid." These extracts from Mr. Foulke's preface (which
contains brief notices of the principal modern writers on the subject)
sufficiently explain the nature of his very useful and carefully
compiled volume.

The other, Calmet's _Dictionary of the Bible, Abridged, Modernized, and
Re-edited, according to the most recent Biblical Researches_, by T. A.
Buckley, B.A., is addressed to a wider class of readers, and in its
preparation general utility has been the main object; while in the
remodelling which this popular and useful work of Calmet has here
undergone, care has been taken to purify it from the Rationalism with
which all the later editions have been charged, and to supply its place
by such copious additions and alterations from the most recent biblical
researches, so as to make the present edition rather a new book than a
reprint of an old one; and deserving of that extensive circulation which
its extremely moderate price is calculated to procure for it.

_The Principles of Chemistry illustrated by Simple Experiments_, by Dr.
J. A. Stöckhardt, Professor in the Royal Academy of Agriculture at
Tharaud, having been extensively adopted as an introductory work in the
Schools of Germany, in consequence of its convenient classification and
its clear and concise elucidation of principles, and explanation of
chemical phenomena, it was translated into English at the recommendation
of Professor Horsford; and a reprint of it from the American edition
forms the new volume of Bohn's _Standard Library_. It is illustrated
with numerous engravings, and as the necessary apparatus for performing
most of the experiments in it is extremely small, the book will no doubt
soon become a popular one.

The Chetham Library, Manchester, will shortly receive a valuable
addition to its literary treasures by Mr. Halliwell's donation of his
extensive collection of Proclamations, Ballads, and Broadsides, which,
we are informed, extends to upwards of 2500 articles, including many of
great rarity, and a few probably unique. Amongst the latter are two
curious black-letter ballads, printed in the year 1570, unnoticed by all
bibliographers, and not to be found in the useful and interesting
_Extracts from the Registers of the Stationers' Company_, recently
published by Mr. Collier; but the greater portion of the collection
belongs to the latter half of the seventeenth, and commencement of the
eighteenth century, most of the ballads being reprints of much older
copies.

We are requested to remind such of our readers as are members of the
Archæological Institute that the Salisbury volume will be ready next
week.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--J. Petheram's (94. High Holborn) Catalogue 127.,
being 8. for 1851, of Old and New Books; J. Gray Bell's (17. Bedford
Street, Covent Garden) Catalogue Part 27. of Valuable and Interesting
Books, Manuscripts, Prints, Drawings, &c.; W. Pedder's (10. Holywell
Street) Catalogue Part 7. for 1851 of Ancient and Modern Books; B.
Quaritch's (16. Castle Street, Leicester Square) Catalogue No. 35. of
Books in European Languages, Dialects, Classics, &c.


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

POPE'S LITERARY CORRESPONDENCE. Vol. III. Curll. 1735.

ALMANACS, any for the year 1752.

MATTHIAS' OBSERVATIONS ON GRAY. 8vo. 1815.

SHAKSPEARE, JOHNSON, AND STEVENS, WITH REED'S ADDITIONS. 3rd Edition,
1785. Vol. V.

SWIFT'S WORKS, Faulkner's Edition. 8 Vols. 12mo. Dublin, 1747. Vol. III.

SOUTHEY'S PENINSULAR WAR. Vols. V. VI. 8vo.

JOURNAL OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF DUBLIN. Vol. I. Part I. (One or
more copies.)

THE ANTIQUARY. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1816. Vols. I. and II.

HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF TWICKENHAM, being the First Part of Parochial
Collections for the County of Middlesex, begun in 1780 by E. Ironside,
Esq., London, 1797. (This work forms 1 vol. of Miscell. Antiquities in
continuation of the Bib. Topographica, and is usually bound in the 10th
Volume.)

RITSON'S ROBIN HOOD. 12mo. London, 1795. Vol. II. (10_s._ will be given
for a clean copy in _boards_, or 7_s._ 6_d._ for a clean copy _bound_.)

DR. JOHNSON'S PRAYERS AND MEDITATIONS.

ANNUAL OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHY. Vol. XXXI.

THEOPHILUS AND PHILODOXUS, or Several Conferences, &c., by Gilbert
Giles, D.D., Oxon, 1674; or the same work republished 1679, under the
title of a "Dialogue between a Protestant and a Papist."

PECK'S COMPLETE CATALOGUE OF ALL THE DISCOURSES WRITTEN BOTH FOR AND
AGAINST PAPACY IN THE TIME OF KING JAMES II. 1735. 4to.

  [Star symbol] Letters, stating particulars and lowest price,
  _carriage free_, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND
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Notices to Correspondents.

A. B. R. _will find the passage he refers to_--

              "Spirits are not finely touch'd,
      But to fine issues ----"

_in the opening scene of_ "Measure for Measure."

NOVUS. "The Three Treatises by Wickliffe," _edited by Dr. Todd, have not
actually been published as yet. Copies will, however, soon be on sale at
Messrs. Hamilton and Adams', Paternoster Row._

E. A. D.'s _communication did not reach us in time to enable us to do as
he wished._

THEOPHYLACT _will find the most important point in his letter treated in
our next Number. Would he in future oblige us by separating his various
communications?_

א.ת. _is thanked for his very kind letter, which we have
availed ourselves of his permission to forward._

DAN. STONE, ESQUIRE'S "Anagrams" _reached us at too late a period for
insertion in the present Number._

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Ash Sap--Anagrams--Marriage of
Ecclesiastics--Horology--Bourchier Family--Pauper's Badge--Carling
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sancta Regum Majestas--The Soul's Errand--Middleton's Epigrams--Man is
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Churches, &c.--Crowns have their Compass--Aneroid Barometer--Eyre
Family--Baxtorf's Translation of Levita--Wylecop--Equestrian Figure of
Elizabeth--Nao for Ship--Medical Use of Pigeons, and others which are in
type._

_Copies of our Prospectus, according to the suggestion of_ T. E. H.,
_will be forwarded to any correspondent willing to assist us by
circulating them._

VOLS. I., II., _and_ III., _with very copious Indices, may still be had,
prices 9s. 6d. each, neatly bound in cloth._

NOTES AND QUERIES _is published at noon on Friday, so that our country
Subscribers may receive it on Saturday. The subscription for the Stamped
Edition is 10s. 2d. for Six Months, which may be paid by Post-office
Order drawn in favour of our Publisher,_ MR. GEORGE BELL. 186. Fleet
Street; _to whose care all communications for the Editor should be
addressed._



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ANGLO-SAXON BOOKS CHEAP.--Bosworth's Dictionary, first edition, with the
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1849, cloth, 10_s._--Ettmülleri Lexicon Anglo-Saxonicum, 8vo. 840 pp.
ed. 1851, 12_s._ 6_d._--Thorpe, Analecta Anglo-Saxonica, a Selection in
Prose and Verse, with a Glossary, 8vo. 2nd edition. 1846, cloth,
7_s._--Richthofen's Alt-Friesisches Wörterbuch, stout 4to. Goett. 1840,
sd. 6_s._ 6_d._

  Catalogues of Rare and Cheap Books in all the Dialects of Europe
  GRATIS.

  BERNARD QUARITCH, Foreign Second-hand Bookseller, 16. Castle
  Street, Leicester Square.


PROVIDENT LIFE OFFICE, 50. REGENT STREET. CITY BRANCH: 2. ROYAL EXCHANGE
BUILDINGS.

      Established 1806.
      Policy Holders' Capital, 1,192,818_l._
      Annual Income, 150,000_l._--Bonuses Declared, 743,000_l._
      Claims paid since the Establishment of the Office, 2,001,450_l._

      _President._
      The Right Honourable EARL GREY.

      _Directors._
      The Rev. James Sherman, _Chairman_.
      Henry Blencowe Churchill, Esq., _Deputy-Chairman_.
      Henry B. Alexander, Esq.
      George Dacre, Esq.
      William Judd, Esq.
      Sir Richard D. King, Bart.
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      Thomas Maugham, Esq.
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      George Round, Esq.
      Frederick Squire, Esq.
      William Henry Stone, Esq.
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      J. A. Beaumont, Esq., _Managing Director_.

      _Physician_--John Maclean, M.D. F.S.S., 29. Upper Montague
      Street, Montague Square.

  NINETEEN-TWENTIETHS OF THE PROFITS ARE DIVIDED AMONG THE INSURED.

  Examples of the Extinction of Premiums by the Surrender of Bonuses.

      Date of Policy. 1806
      Sum Insured. £2500
      Original Premium. £79  10  10 Extinguished
      Bonuses added subsequently, to be further interested annually.
          £1222   2   0

      Date of Policy. 1811
      Sum Insured. £1000
      Original Premium. £ 33  19   2 Ditto [Extinguished]
      Bonuses added subsequently, to be further interested annually.
           £231  17   8

      Date of Policy. 1818
      Sum Insured. £1000
      Original Premium. £ 34  16  10 Ditto [Extinguished]
      Bonuses added subsequently, to be further interested annually.
           £114  18  10

  Examples of Bonuses added to other Policies.

       Policy No.  521
       Date. 1807
       Sum Insured.  £900
       Bonus added. £982  12  1
       Total with Additions to be further increased. £1882  12  1

       Policy No. 1174
       Date. 1810
       Sum Insured. £1200
       Bonus added. £1160   5  6
       Total with Additions to be further increased. £2360   5  6

       Policy No. 3392
       Date. 1820
       Sum Insured. £5000
       Bonus added. £3558  17  8
       Total with Additions to be further increased. £8558  17  8

  Prospectuses and full particulars may be obtained upon application
  to the Agents of the Office, in all the principal Towns of the
  United Kingdom, at the City Branch, and at the Head Office, No.
  50. Regent Street.


WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY,

  3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

      Founded A.D. 1842.

      _Directors._

      H. Edgeworth Bicknell, Esq.
      William Cabell, Esq.
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      G. Henry Drew, Esq.
      William Evans, Esq.
      William Freeman, Esq.
      F. Fuller, Esq.
      J. Henry Goodhart, Esq.
      T. Grissell, Esq.
      James Hunt, Esq.
      J. Arscott Lethbridge, Esq.
      E. Lucas, Esq.
      James Lys Seager, Esq.
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      Joseph Carter Wood, Esq.

      _Trustees._

      W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.
      L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.
      George Drew, Esq.

      _Consulting Counsel._--Sir William P. Wood, M.P., Solicitor-General.
      _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
      _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

  VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

  Policies effected in this Office do not become void through
  temporary difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given
  upon application to suspend the payment at interest, according to
  the conditions detailed in the Prospectus.

  Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100_l._, with a Share
  in three-fourths of the Profits:--

      Age    £    _s._    _d._
      17     1     14      4
      22     1     18      8
      27     2      4      5
      32     2     10      8
      37     2     18      6
      42     3      8      2

      ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

  Now ready, price 10_s._ 6_d._, Second Edition, with material
  additions, INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION; being a TREATISE
  on BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of
  Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of Freehold Land
  Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a Mathematical Appendix on
  Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A.,
  Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parliament
  Street, London.


MESSRS. PUTTICK AND SIMPSON beg to announce that their season for SALES
of LITERARY PROPERTY will COMMENCE on NOVEMBER 1st, and would call
attention to the ensuing List of Sales in preparation by them. In
addressing Executors and others entrusted with the disposal of
Libraries, and collections (however limited or extensive) of
Manuscripts, Autographs, Prints, Pictures, Music, Musical Instruments,
Objects of Art and Virtu, and Works connected with Literature, and the
Arts generally, would suggest a Sale by Auction as the readiest and
surest method of obtaining their full value; and conceive that the
central situation of their premises (near St. James's Church), their
extensive connexion of more than half a century's standing, and their
prompt settlement of the sale accounts in cash, are advantages that will
not be unappreciated. Messrs. P. & S. will also receive small Parcels of
Books or other Literary Property, and insert them in occasional Sales
with property of a kindred description, thus giving the same advantages
to the possessor of a few Lots as to the owner of a large Collection.

  [Star symbol] Libraries Catalogued, Arranged, and Valued for the
  Probate or Legacy Duty, or for Public or Private Sale.

  On Saturday, Nov. 1, a large Collection of VALUABLE BOOKS, removed
  from the Country, including many curious and rare Works, and a
  good selection of Modern Literature. Six days' sale.

  On Wednesday, Nov. 12, EFFECTS of the late STANESBY ALCHORNE,
  Esq., of the Tower, including his Numismatic Library, very
  important MSS. relating to Mint Affairs, Royal and other
  Autographs (30 of Sir Isaac Newton), the celebrated Hydrostatic
  Balance made for the adjustment of the Standard in 1758, a most
  important series of weights, including the original and unique
  Troy Pound, the Collection of Coins and Medals in gold and silver,
  in the finest condition, many patterns and proofs, and a
  well-known and very important picture by Murillo.

  On Saturday, Nov. 15, a very extensive and important Collection of
  MANUSCRIPTS, CHARTERS, DEEDS, and other DOCUMENTS, chiefly
  relating to English County and Family History.

  On Monday, Nov. 17, the LIBRARY of the late RICHARD JONES, Esq.,
  removed from his residence, Chapel Street, Belgrave Square,
  including an excellent Collection of Dramatic and General
  Literature. Four days' sale.

  A Selection of CURIOUS BOOKS and MANUSCRIPTS of an eminent
  Collector, deceased. Two days' sale.

  A Collection of AUTOGRAPH LETTERS and Documents of considerable
  interest, the property of a well-known Collector relinquishing
  that part of his Collection.

  The concluding portion of the Collection of AUTOGRAPH LETTERS of
  Mons. A. DONNADIEU, comprising, mainly, the period of the first
  French Revolution. Three days' sale.

  The MUSICAL COLLECTIONS of a Gentleman recently deceased,
  including some engraved plates of Copyright Works, Musical
  Instruments, &c.

  The very important and extensive LIBRARY of the COUNT MONDIDIER,
  recently imported, especially rich in Foreign Literature, and
  comprising an extraordinary Collection of Books relating to
  America, Voyages, Travels, and Itineraries, including some of the
  rarest Works in these classics, and many which have been hitherto
  unknown to Bibliographers. Ten days' sale.

  [Star symbol] Catalogues of any of the before named Collections
  will be sent on application to the Auctioneers, 191. Piccadilly.


Price 2_s._ 6_d._; by Post 3_s._

  ILLUSTRATION AND ENQUIRIES RELATING TO MESMERISM. Part I. By the
  Rev. S. R. MAITLAND, D.D., F.R.S., F.S.A. Sometime Librarian to
  the late Archbishop of Canterbury, and Keeper of the MSS. at
  Lambeth.

  "One of the most valuable and interesting pamphlets we ever
  read."--_Morning Herald._

  "This publication, which promises to be the commencement of a
  larger work, will well repay serious perusal."--_Ir. Eccl. Journ._

  "A small pamphlet in which he throws a startling light on the
  practices of modern Mesmerism."--_Nottingham Journal._

  "Dr. Maitland, we consider, has here brought Mesmerism to the
  'touchstone of truth,' to the test of the standard of right or
  wrong. We thank him for this first instalment of his inquiry, and
  hope that he will not long delay the remaining portions."--_London
  Medical Gazette._

  "The Enquiries are extremely curious, we should indeed say
  important. That relating to the Witch of Endor is one of the most
  successful we ever read. We cannot enter into particulars in this
  brief notice; but we would strongly recommend the pamphlet even to
  those who care nothing about Mesmerism, or _angry_ (for it has
  come to this at last) with the subject."--_Dublin Evening Post._

  "We recommend its general perusal as being really an endeavour, by
  one whose position gives him the best facilities, to ascertain the
  genuine character of Mesmerism, which is so much
  disputed."--_Woolmer's Exeter Gazette._

  "Dr. Maitland has bestowed a vast deal of attention on the subject
  for many years past, and the present pamphlet is in part the
  result of his thoughts and inquiries. There is a good deal in it
  which we should have been glad to quote ... but we content
  ourselves with referring our readers to the pamphlet
  itself."--_Brit. Mag._

  PIPER, BROTHERS, & CO., 23. Paternoster Row.


BOOKS PUBLISHED BY

  JOHN RUSSELL SMITH,

  4. OLD COMPTON STREET, SOHO SQUARE, LONDON.

  A DELECTUS IN ANGLO-SAXON, intended as a First Class-book in the
  Language. By the Rev. W. BARNES, of St. John's College, Cambridge,
  author of the Poems and Glossary in the Dorset dialect. 12mo.
  cloth, 2_s._ 6_d._

  "To those who wish to possess a critical knowledge of their own
  native English, some acquaintance with Anglo-Saxon is
  indispensable; and we have never seen an introduction better
  calculated than the present to supply the wants of a beginner in a
  short space of time. The declensions and conjugations are well
  stated, and illustrated by references to the Greek, Latin, French,
  and other languages. A philosophical spirit pervades every part.
  The Delectus consists of short pieces on various subjects, with
  extracts from Anglo-Saxon History and the Saxon Chronicle. There
  is a good Glossary at the end."--_Athenæum, Oct. 20, 1849._

  GUIDE TO THE ANGLO-SAXON TONGUE, with Lessons in Verse and Prose,
  for the Use of Learners. By E. J. VERNON, B.A., Oxon. 12mo. cloth,
  5_s._ 6_d._

  [Star symbol] This will be found useful as a Second Class-book, or
  to those well versed in other languages.

  BOSWORTH'S (REV. DR.) COMPENDIOUS ANGLO-SAXON AND ENGLISH
  DICTIONARY. 8vo. closely printed in treble columns, cloth, 12_s._

  "This is not a mere abridgment of the large Dictionary, but almost
  an entirely new work. In this compendious one will be found, at a
  very moderate price, all that is most practical and valuable in
  the former expensive edition, with a great accession of new words
  and matter."--_Author's Preface._

  ANALECTA ANGLO-SAXONICA. Selections in Prose and Verse from
  Anglo-Saxon Literature, with an Introductory Ethnological Essay,
  and Notes, critical and explanatory. By LOUIS F. KLIPSTEIN, of the
  University of Giessen, 2 thick vols. post 8vo. cloth, 12_s._
  (original price 18_s._)

  CONSUETUDINES KANCIÆ. A History of GAVELKIND, and other remarkable
  Customs in the County of KENT, by CHARLES SANDYS, Esq., F.S.A.
  (Cantianus), illustrated with fac-similes, a very handsome volume,
  8vo. cloth, 15_s._

  FACTS AND SPECULATIONS ON THE ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF PLAYING CARDS.
  By W. A. CHATTO, Author of "Jackson's History of Wood Engraving,"
  in one handsome vol. 8vo. illustrated with many Engravings, both
  plain and coloured, cloth, 1_l._ 1_s._

  "It is exceedingly amusing."--_Atlas._

  "A curious, entertaining, and really learned book."--_Rambler._

  "Indeed the entire production deserves our warmest
  approbation."--_Literary Gazette._

  "A perfect fund of Antiquarian research, and most interesting even
  to persons who never play at cards."--_Tait's Mag._

  A DICTIONARY OF ARCHAIC AND PROVINCIAL WORDS, Obsolete Phrases,
  Proverbs, and Ancient Customs, from the reign of Edward I. By
  JAMES ORCHARD HALLIWELL, F.R.S., F.S.A., &c. 2 vols. 8vo.
  containing upwards of 1,000 pages, closely printed in double
  columns, cloth 1_l._ 1_s._

  It contains above 50,000 Words (embodying all the known scattered
  Glossaries of the English language), forming a complete key to the
  reading of the works of our old Poets, Dramatists, Theologians,
  and other authors, whose works abound with allusions, of which
  explanations are not to be found in ordinary Dictionaries and
  books of reference. Most of the principal Archaisms are
  illustrated by examples selected from early inedited MSS. and rare
  books, and by far the greater portion will be found to be original
  authorities.

  BRUCE'S (REV. J. C.) HISTORICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT OF THE
  ROMAN WALL FROM THE TYNE TO THE SOLWAY. Thick 8vo. 35 plates and
  194 woodcuts, half morocco, 1_l._ 1_s._

  GUIDE TO ARCHÆOLOGY. An Archæological Index to Remains of
  Antiquity of the Celtic, Romano-British, and Anglo-Saxon periods.
  By JOHN YONGE AKERMAN, fellow and secretary to the Society of
  Antiquaries. 1 vol. 8vo. illustrated with numerous engravings,
  comprising upwards of 500 objects, cloth, 15_s._

  "One of the first wants of an incipient antiquary is the facility
  of comparison, and here it is furnished him at one glance. The
  plates, indeed, form the most valuable part of the book, both by
  their number and the judicious selection of types and examples
  which they contain. It is a book which we can, on this account,
  safely and warmly recommend to all who are interested in the
  antiquities of their native land."--_Literary Gazette._

  "A book of such utility--so concise, so clear, so well condensed
  from such varied and voluminous sources--cannot fail to be
  generally acceptable."--_Art Union._

  COINS. An Introduction to the Study of Ancient and Modern Coins.
  By J. Y. AKERMAN. Fcp. 8vo. with numerous wood engravings, from
  the original coins, 6_s._ 6_d._

  COINS OF THE ROMANS RELATING TO BRITAIN, described and
  illustrated. By J. Y. AKERMAN, F.S.A. Second edition, 8vo. greatly
  enlarged with plates and woodcuts, 10_s._ 6_d._ cloth.

  SMITH'S (C. ROACH) ANTIQUITIES OF RICHBOROUGH, RECULVER, AND
  LYMNE, IN KENT. Small 4to. many plates, cloth, 1_l._ 1_s._

  A LITTLE BOOK OF SONGS AND BALLADS, gathered from Ancient Musick
  Books, MS. and Printed. By E. F. RIMBAULT, LL.D., &c. Post 8vo.
  pp. 240, half-bound in morocco, 6_s._

  ---- Antique Ballads, sung to crowds of old, Now cheaply bought
  for thrice their weight in gold.

  BIBLIOTHECA MADRIGALIANA; a Bibliographical Account of the Music
  and Poetical Works published in England in the Sixteenth and
  Seventeenth Centuries, under the Titles of Madrigals, Ballets,
  Ayres, Canzonets, &c. By DR. RIMBAULT. 8vo. cloth, 5_s._

  HERALDS' VISITATIONS. An Index to all the Pedigrees and Arms in
  the Heraldic Visitations and other Genealogical MSS. in the
  British Museum. By G. SIMS, of the Manuscript Department. 8vo.
  closely printed in double columns, cloth, 15_s._

  [Star symbol] An indispensable book to those engaged in
  genealogical or topographical pursuits, affording a ready clue to
  the pedigrees and arms of above 30,000 of the gentry of England,
  their residences, &c. (distinguishing the different families of
  the same name, in every county), as recorded by the Heralds in
  their Visitations, with Indexes to other genealogical MSS. in the
  British Museum. It has been the work of immense labour. No public
  library ought to be without it.

  THE NURSERY RHYMES OF ENGLAND, collected chiefly from oral
  tradition. Edited by J. O. HALLIWELL. Fourth edition, 12mo. with
  38 Designs by W. B. Scott. 4_s._ 6_d._ cloth.

  POPULAR RHYMES AND NURSERY TALES, with Historical Elucidations; a
  Sequel to "The Nursery Rhymes of England." Edited by J. O.
  HALLIWELL. Royal 18mo. 4_s._ 6_d._

  HOLBEIN'S DANCE OF DEATH, with an Historical and Literary
  Introduction by an Antiquary. Square post 8vo. with 54 Engravings,
  being the most accurate copies ever executed of these gems of Art,
  and a Frontispiece of an Ancient Bedstead at Aix-la-Chapelle, with
  a Dance of Death carved on it, engraved by Fairholt, cloth, 9_s._

  "The designs are executed with a spirit and fidelity quite
  extraordinary. They are indeed most truthful."--_Athenæum._



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, October 25. 1851.



      [List of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries", Vol. I-IV]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 88  | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No. 89  | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No. 90  | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No. 91  | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 92  | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No. 93  | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No. 94  | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No. 95  | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No. 96  | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      +------------------------------------------------+------------+





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