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Title: Mending and Repair of Books
Author: Brown, Margaret Wright
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Compiled by


Fourth Edition


Supervisor of Binding, Cleveland Public Library

American Library Association Publishing Board



  INTRODUCTORY NOTE                                                7

  WHEN TO BIND OR WHEN TO MEND                                     9

  THE MENDING TABLE: ITS SUPPLIES                                 11

  PASTE, THE MENDING MEDIUM                                       12

  WAYS TO MEND                                                    13

  WAYS TO CLEAN                                                   19

  BINDING RECORD                                                  21

  TEMPORARY BINDERS                                               23

                           INTRODUCTORY NOTE

The task of mending demands so much of the time and energy of library
workers and is a factor of such economic importance in every public
library that it cannot be put aside as incidental.

It is hoped that these suggestions may give definite aid in this homely
task which is ever present in all libraries.

No attempt has been made to give instruction in the advanced processes
of mending, as this at once encroaches on the art of binding.

The best mending can be done only where an acquaintance with the
construction of the book has been acquired through a study of the
various processes of binding. Librarians are urged to visit binderies to
see the various processes; and to study the art of binding under
personal instruction of experienced binders whenever this is feasible.

It is not probable that any one librarian will use all of the processes
suggested, and some of these will apply only to exceptional cases; but
the directions cover diversified conditions in order that the librarian
may have the necessary information whenever required.

THE EXPERIENCED MENDER. This handbook has not been prepared for the use
of the larger libraries where a bindery is a part of the equipment, or
where there are members of the staff trained in binding and hence
experienced menders.

THE INEXPERIENCED MENDER. The purpose of this handbook is to give
practical aid and guidance to librarians who are entirely inexperienced
in the work of mending and repair of books and whose knowledge must be
gained through self-instruction.

The compilers have drawn upon many sources and have endeavored to make
available the suggestions received and methods used by many librarians
and practical binders, and grateful acknowledgment is herewith made for
the co-operation and helpful suggestions received from them.

                      Mending and Repair of Books

                               * * * * *

                          WHEN TO BIND OR WHEN
                                TO MEND

The question when to bind or when to mend is of daily recurrence, and a
decision must be made upon the examination of every circulating book
returned, before placing it on the shelves. The answer will depend
largely on the policy of the library regarding the binding question.

No library can afford to circulate shabby, soiled or ragged books,

    (1) From an economic standpoint, a book's ultimate usefulness, or
    life, is materially shortened by neglect to bind at first sign of

    (2) When books are given proper care by the library, standards are
    set which insure a like treatment on the part of the reading public.

    (3) The reading public has a right to expect that its books shall be
    clean and whole, and that its property shall be in proper condition
    for satisfactory use.


When the stitches break and a section or a few leaves fall out, the book
should be sent to the bindery immediately.

    This is happening daily with the original publishers' bindings. If
    the book is removed from the shelves the librarian is at once
    confronted by the problem of being unable to answer the unceasing
    cry for the last new novel, as it is the fiction which is usually in
    this condition. However, if the book is allowed to circulate a few
    more times there are "pages missing" and the book has become

    No book should be rebound with pages missing.

When the stitches have not broken, but either a few or
all the sections have become loose:

    There is no excuse for the librarian to leave upon her shelves or
    permit to circulate books that are held together only by the slender
    threads with which they are sewed and threatening at any moment to
    come tumbling forth from the cover. Such books speak in no uncertain
    terms for rebinding or permanent withdrawal from the shelves.

_Shall books be sent to the bindery when in greatest demand?_

YES, when they cannot be circulated further without permanent injury to

    Such books should be hastened through the bindery by statement to
    binder regarding immediate need. If your present binder cannot bind
    promptly, find one who will.

    The prompt rebinding of a book more than doubles its life. If the
    book has been reinforced at first sign of giving way (see page 16)
    all the temporary assistance that can safely be given has been
    rendered and if the book is of permanent value to the library it
    must be rebound.


When the stitches are not broken or loosened, and still hold sections
firmly together.

When the joints are loose.

When the book has once been rebound.

The tendency among librarians is to mend too much before rebinding.
Mending makes rebinding more difficult and jeopardizes the life of the

It is only in rare cases, as for example when a book is out of print,
and yet valuable to the library, that a second rebinding is justified.


_Will it be cheaper to mend a book and, when its short life is done,
withdraw and replace with a new copy?_

YES, when the original cost is less than rebinding.

    NOTE--In the decision to replace, the labor of accessioning and
    withdrawal must always be taken into account.

    The fresh, clean copies of the "easy books" and other good,
    inexpensive juvenile books are to be preferred to rebound copies. If
    the original binding is so poor that a second copy would shortly be
    in the same condition as the first, it is then advisable to send the
    book promptly to the bindery for recasing, preferably before

    Greater durability is thus insured. If the book has an attractive
    original cover it is preserved and the value of the book enhanced

YES, when the paper is of such poor quality that the leaves break away
from the stitching.

YES, when the book is extremely soiled; replace, even if it costs more
than rebinding.

YES, when a new edition, or better books on the same subject have been

    In replacing fiction, inexpensive editions are available for many
    popular titles in the Grosset & Dunlap edition, Burt Home Library,
    Everyman's Library, etc.

    Some inexpensive editions rebind and wear as well as the first
    editions. Others because of narrow margins or quality of paper do
    not pay to rebind. A little observation and experience will soon
    prove what titles can be rebound to advantage.

                           THE MENDING TABLE:
                              ITS SUPPLIES

A piece of glass or white oil cloth, cut to fit the size of the table,
will be found most conducive to cleanliness, as it can be quickly and
easily washed.

    PASTE. Mixed paste or powder form. See page 12.

    CLOTH. White outing flannel, cheese cloth and cheap grade of canton
      flannel, purchased by the yard at any dry goods store.

    Art Vellum in assorted colors, cut in strips.

    Muslin cut in strips.

    PAPER. Onion skin bond, cockle finish, 9 lb. weight cut into strips
      for use; tissue paper.

    BRUSHES. Flat, rubber-set photographer's brush, about 1 inch wide;
      also artist's round bristle 1/2 inch thick.

    SCISSORS. Slender, six-inch blade, good quality.

    KNIFE. Shoemaker's long blade, square at end, or common paring-knife
      purchased at hardware store.

    FOLDER. Bone, purchased at stationer's.

    NEEDLES. Sharps, No. 1, or any strong and not too coarse darning

    THREAD. Hayes' linen, No. 25; Barbour's linen, No. 40.

    PRESSING TINS. 6 × 8 in., obtained at tin shop. Zinc is pleasanter
      to use and will not rust.

    CLEANSERS. Wash for pages; wash for book covers; powdered pumice
      stone; art gum, sponge rubber.

    SHELLAC. Consult local druggist or paint dealer regarding the best
      white shellac.

    PRESS. An old letter-press can usually be purchased locally for a
      small sum. Prices on new copying press 10 × 12 in. obtained of
      local stationer. If press is not secured, old pieces of marble
      can be used. Bricks covered with paper make good pressing weights.

A local bindery or any binder's supply house will furnish mending
materials; also price list and samples of materials may be obtained from
the following:

  Democrat Printing Co., Madison, Wisconsin.

  Gaylord Bros., Syracuse, New York.

                       PASTE, THE MENDING MEDIUM

Paste may be used with less danger of injury to the book than glue, and
is the only mending medium which should be used on books that are to be
rebound. Under no condition should mucilage be used on any book which is
to be rebound. Some librarians persist in doing this and then expect the
binder to do good work. Glue should be used only by experienced menders.

    USE. Paste for small surfaces is more evenly spread with the finger,
      and there is less waste than with a brush. Spread thinly, using
      only enough paste to make paper stick securely.

      Thick paste spreads more smoothly than thin and is not taken up
      quickly by the paper. This is an important point, for if the paper
      stretches or expands the work can not be done in a satisfactory

      Provide cheese cloth cut in small pieces for use in rubbing down
      the pasted parts, and for keeping the fingers clean, etc. These
      should be used only a few times.

      Cleanliness and neatness are absolutely essential to good mending.

There are various powdered pastes on the market used by book-binders,
bill-posters, paper-hangers and others. Spon Tem or Steko, manufactured
by Clark Paper & Twine Co., Rochester, N. Y., and Rex Dry Paste, Geneva,
N. Y., are both excellent in adhesive qualities and easily prepared,
mixing with either hot or cold water and without cooking.

An excellent mixed paste is made by the Commercial Paste Co., Columbus,
Ohio, called Gleich's "Gluey" Paste. This, as its name implies, has some
glue mixed with it and is quick drying and strongly adhesive. Arabol
Book Glue, Arabol Mnfg. Co., 100 William St., N. Y. City, is highly
recommended. Purchase in large or small quantities. The various pastes
used in the school "hand work" are good, and come under the general name
of school pastes.

RECIPE FOR FLOUR PASTE. Mix a thin batter of flour and water, cook
and as it thickens add hot water until right consistency and until
thoroughly cooked. It will be well cooked when all milky appearance of
the flour and water has disappeared and when bubbles of air begin to
explode through the mixture. After taking from the fire a preservative
may be added if desired, such as a half teaspoonful of oil of
wintergreen to a pint of paste.

At times it is desirable to do some simple pasting, such as tipping in a
single leaf or label, and for such work any good library paste is a
great convenience.

                              WAYS TO MEND

Avoid too much mending.

Paper used for mending should be cut lengthwise with the grain of the

Cloth should be cut the long way of the material.

In mending always use paper of lighter weight than the book. For books
printed on heavily coated paper, tissue or bond is too light, but paper
cut from margins of advertising pages of magazines is a suitable weight.


TORN THROUGH THE PRINTING may be mended as follows:

    (1) Use ungummed, transparent mending paper, cutting it the size and
    shape of the tear, and about one-half inch wide. Apply a thin coat
    of paste to the strip and fit it carefully over the tear, having
    first placed a strip of waste paper under the torn leaf to absorb
    extra paste.

    (2) For finer or better class of books, upon which more time and
    care may profitably be spent, rub a very little paste on the torn
    edges, place torn edges together, then take a rather large piece of
    ordinary tissue paper and rub it gently along the tear so that the
    tissue paper will adhere to the torn edges.

    Put under press, and when dry the superfluous tissue paper should be
    torn off, using care to pull always toward the tear and from both
    sides at the same time. The delicate fibre of the tissue paper acts
    as an adhesive and it is almost impossible to discern the way in
    which the mending has been done.


    Use thin, firm mending paper, preferably a tint to match paper of
    the book.

    Cut a strip one-half inch wide corresponding to the size and shape
    of the tear, apply paste and trim even with the edge of the leaf.

When these processes are used, place books in press or under a weight,
until thoroughly dry.

There are gummed papers for this purpose but care should be taken in
their selection as some are likely to darken and discolor.


When loose leaves are replaced the greatest care should be taken to make
sure that they do not extend beyond the edge of the book. If this
occurs, it shows careless or inexperienced mending.

LOOSE LEAVES may be inserted in several ways:

    (1) If the leaf fits exactly into the book, it may be tipped in by
    applying paste to one-eighth inch of its inner margin.

    Place the loose leaf in the book, the outer edge even with the book,
    and rub down the pasted inner margin against the next leaf with bone

    Put the book in press until dry.

Illustrations may be tipped-in in this way when it is desirable to
preserve them.

    (2) If it is found by measuring that the leaf when inserted, will
    extend beyond the edge of the book, fold the leaf at the inner
    margin over a ruler edge, or other straight edge, slightly more than
    one-eighth of an inch, thus making a hinge. Apply paste to this
    hinge with the finger. Place leaf in the book and push well back;
    rub the little pasted hinge down with bone folder, being careful to
    leave no free paste.

    (3) In case the quality of the paper of the leaf to be inserted will
    not stand the tipping-in process, or is badly worn at the inner
    margin, it may be inserted by a guard. Fold a half-inch strip of
    onion skin paper, lengthwise. Apply a thin coat of paste to the
    outside of this strip. Attach half of the strip to the inner edge of
    the loose leaf, and the other half to the adjoining page in the
    book, close in by the fold. Trim edge of leaf if it projects. Put in
    press until dry.

Do not use gummed muslin for this work. It destroys the chance of proper
rebinding and detracts from the appearance of the rebound book.


When _more_ than one section, sometimes called signature, is loose in a
book which is worth rebinding, it should be rebound at once.

When the thread in one section only is broken, or one section only is
loose in a rebound book and the rest of the binding is intact, the
section should be inserted. To avoid further ravelling, it is necessary
to secure the broken threads of the book either by fastening them
together, or attaching to new threads; also that the loose section is
sewed or tied through the super on the back of the book.

LOOSE SECTIONS may be inserted as follows:

    If the folds of the leaves in the loose section are torn or thin,
    they should be mended before replacing the section. Take a half-inch
    strip of thin, firm paper, the length of the page; fold through the
    middle lengthwise and paste down through the center fold of the
    leaves. A touch of paste along the fold of each will hold all the
    sheets together.

    Open the book at the place where the section is loose.

    (When the book is open the back of the book separates from the

    Open the loose section and place it in the proper position in the
    book. Near the top and bottom in the center fold of the section will
    be seen the holes which were made by the binder.

    Thread a needle with Barbour's linen thread No. 40, or Hayes' linen
    thread No. 25, and tie new thread to broken end of thread in book.

    Pass the needle through the hole at the top of the loose section and
    out between the book and its loose back. Do not pull the thread
    clear through.

    Drop the needle and thread down between the back of the book and the
    loose back to the bottom.

    Run the needle and thread from the outside in through the hole at
    the bottom of the loose section.

    Pass the needle and thread around again in the same way. Draw tight
    and tie with a hard knot at the point of beginning.


Books in the ordinary case or publishers' binding will, after a short
period of use, show signs of weakness in the joints (where the book and
cover are attached). The paper cracks and both it and the super on the
back of the book loosen and unless immediate attention is given the
stitching breaks and the book must go to the bindery.

This super is a loosely woven cotton cloth which is glued on the backs
of books to help hold the sections together, and extends from the back
of the book to the inside of the cover to help hold the book and cover
together. In the publishers' bindings, this super is usually all that
holds a book in the cover.


    REINFORCED by tightening and stripping.

      Hold the book open in an upright position on the table. The back
      will separate in a curve from body of book; with the round brush
      apply paste between the loose back and the book, along the joints
      only. If too much paste is used it will spread over the back,
      causing the cloth cover to become wrinkled and title illegible.
      Close the book, care being taken to push book well back in cover,
      and with bone folder rub well along the joints, squeezing out any
      extra paste at head and foot. Dry under weight for a half-day at

      Then with knife clean off the ragged edges of torn paper along the
      joint inside the cover. Place the book flat upon the table, the
      front cover open, take book of similar thickness and place under
      open cover.

      Take a strip of muslin or paper. Cut this strip the exact length
      of the book, and apply thick paste so that the paper or cloth will
      not stretch.

      Paste one-half of this strip to the fly-leaf and the other half of
      the strip on the cover of the book. Make sure that the strip is
      smoothly laid, not stretched too tightly from book to cover, or it
      will pull up first pages when book is used; if too loosely
      stretched it is unsightly and fails of its purpose; allow the book
      to remain open until the strip is dry. Repeat this process for the
      back cover.


When the stitching has not broken, and the paper is of good quality a
book may be removed entirely from its cover and recased.

In recasing, painstaking care is required and books must be in condition
specified to obtain satisfactory results.

    Take a sharp knife and cut through the super at both joints. This
    super is easily lifted from the inside of the book cover. Pull it
    off the back of the book, taking great care in this, and remove all
    particles of dried glue.

    Take white outing flannel, which is light in weight and
    double-faced, or canton flannel (downy side towards the book), or
    cheesecloth. Cut a strip as long as the back of the book and two
    inches wider; paste this over the back only, allowing an inch
    extension on each side. Do not, in this first process, put paste on
    the extensions. Draw the cloth over the rounded edges of the back
    (or joints); rub the back well with bone folder and also over the
    rounded edges, but do not paste the cloth down beyond the rounded
    edges. During this process hold the back of the book so that the
    sections, or signatures, will not separate. After thorough rubbing
    let dry.

    Apply paste to inside of book covers one inch next to the joints; do
    not put paste on back of book. Place book in cover, pushing well
    back, making sure that it is correctly placed. Paste down the
    one-inch extension of cloth, laying waste paper between it and book;
    close book, rub joints well with bone folder and allow to dry

    Strip joints, following instructions for re-inforcing; paste clean
    paper lining on book covers, press and dry. The book should then be
    opened as carefully as a new book.


This adds greatly to the appearance of the mended or repaired books. Do
not place weights over the rounded back of a book.

Place the pressing boards or tins over the covers of the book only, even
with, but not extending over, the joints.

Pressure on the rounded back will weaken a book in the most vital part.


    use too much paste.

    use Lepage's glue or any mucilage.

    use cloth strips in a book except at the joint.

    paste heavily up the back unless a very old and not valuable book.

    overmend on a book which will ultimately be bound.

    allow loose pages to be slipped up in the book above the top of

    use heavier paper for patching than paper of book.


    handle books carefully.

    allow sufficient drying.

    have plenty of waste papers and discard when soiled.

    wash brushes well each day.

    pile up books alternating the backs with the foredges. They will
    stand erect and not slip or slide.


When a page is missing and it is impossible to replace the book with a
new copy, the page may be typewritten and tipped in.

When it is necessary to rebind the book, the margin of the typewritten
page should be left an inch wider on each side than the regular margin.
This is for the convenience of the binder, who will trim down the margin
in process of rebinding.

Make typewritten page conform to size and shape of printed page.


When there is an injury to a book which is allowed to remain in
circulation, the reading public should be made aware that the damage is
known to the library by a notation, with date, near the injury, e.g.,

    "Damage noted 1 Mr. '20, Free Public Library."

                             WAYS TO CLEAN

The book should be cleaned as well as mended. Careful attention should
be given to the cleanliness of the books in circulation. There is
nothing that more quickly creates a distaste for the use of a public
library than the handling of soiled and grimy books.

Careful study of the paper upon which books are printed is
necessary, and in cleaning the fact that different papers and
finishes require different treatment must be taken into account. The
spongy feather-weight paper upon which much of the fiction is printed is
difficult to clean. Pencil marks may be erased with art gum used gently;
soil of any other kind is almost impossible to remove. Heavily
clay-coated paper may be cleaned with powdered pumice or a hard eraser.
Highly calendered paper and any hand made paper may be cleaned with a
damp cloth; cleaning but a few pages at a time and allowing book to
remain open until dry.


Soiled pages may be cleaned in the following ways:

    With art gum, rub gently and slowly, holding the page flat with the
    left hand to prevent tearing.

    With powdered pumice stone, rub on with a clean cloth. With damp
    cloth, be careful that cloth is not too wet.

    Rub always from inner margin of the page outward, to prevent

    Brush off carefully all particles of rubber, or pumice stone,
    allowing none to remain in the folds between the leaves.

Mud stains may be removed by using a soft brush or sponge, with a
preparation of the following proportions: One cup water, one teaspoon
ammonia, four drops carbolic acid. Avoid too much rubbing or print will
blur. Slip the pressing tin under the page, and after washing, place
white blotting paper on each side of the leaf.

Ink stains may be removed by one of the standard ink eradicators to be
obtained of local stationer or druggist.

Edges of the leaves may be cleaned by sandpapering, holding the leaves
of the book very firmly together, or putting book into press.


SOILED COVERS may be cleaned by using a hard eraser, pumice stone or
soap and water. The best results are obtained by the use of the
following wash:

    Two parts good vinegar and one part water. Apply with a clean cloth
    and rub hard until dirt is removed, then place upright to dry. This
    should not be used on leather.

    The book should then be shellacked.

SHELLACKED COVERS. New books may receive preliminary care by shellacking
before placing in circulation. Shellacking the covers, especially those
in light colors, provides great protection from dirt, and they are then
easily washed with the vinegar and water. Another coat of shellac is
advisable after washing.

    To shellac, hold the book by the printed matter and apply the
    shellac, which may be diluted with a little wood alcohol, taking
    care to shellac the edges well. Give two coats; between coats
    suspend on a cord over night to dry. After the last coat, rub with
    soft cloth slightly oiled with olive oil. This prevents sticking.

    If the books are labeled before shellacking, the ink must be allowed
    to dry thoroughly or it may run; in removing the labels, use wood
    alcohol first to cut the shellac and then soak off with blotting
    paper and water.

Care should be taken in the selection of the shellac; if not, the books
will be gummy and hard.

The leather on bound magazines and books often becomes very dry and will
split and crack. This is especially true of books not greatly used, as
the oil of the hands acts as a great preservative. To prevent this
cracking and splitting, some oil is necessary. Vaseline is good for
this, applied with a cotton pad covered with a soft cloth, and should
remain on the leather for a day to permit absorption of the oil. Some
leathers will absorb a second application, after which books may be
rubbed down and returned to shelves. The oil or vaseline does not harm
the gilding. This may be done once a year, depending upon the condition
of heat in library and upon age and condition of leather bound books.

WORN COVERS may be replaced on books with leather backs by removing
cloth from the boards dry, and using this as a pattern from which to cut
new cloth or paper. Reline inside of boards with paper.

COVERS SPLIT AT JOINT. Strips of cloth in assorted colors may be
obtained with other mending supplies to reinforce covers split at the

This cloth may be obtained gummed or ungummed; if ungummed, use paste;
if gummed, moisten with thin paste.

                             BINDING RECORD

PREPARATION OF BOOKS FOR THE BINDERY. Closely related to the work of
mending and repair of books is the preparation of books for the bindery.
Binders have complained of the careless and unbusiness-like methods of
some librarians in this matter. Attention should always be given to the

    Handle a book to be bound with more care than when the binding is

    Collate every book to make sure that no pages are missing, unless it
    is ascertained that the binder includes this process in his work.

    Many librarians have ceased to make bindery slips, except in the
    case of important books requiring complicated titles or for
    magazines. When slip is not made, an excellent way to indicate the
    lettering for the back of book is to underscore lightly in lead
    pencil on title page, the specific words in title desired; for
    author underscore twice.

    The material to be used for binding is generally decided upon in
    advance by conference or correspondence with binder.

    Magazines should be carefully examined to make sure that each volume
    is complete, including title page and index. The librarian should
    write to the publisher for these, if they are not received within a
    reasonable time after the volume is completed. If missing, instruct
    binder to bind in stubs so that they may be inserted when obtained.

    In giving directions for magazines to be bound with stubs, state
    whether stubs are to be at the beginning or end of the volume. Look
    over previous volumes of set that your volumes may be uniform in the
    placing of the index, and follow the printer's arrangement.

    Send an alphabetical list of the books to the bindery for checking
    purposes. Keep a duplicate copy.

    File alphabetically in charging tray the book cards that have been
    removed from the books; charge these to the bindery.

    Magazines should have a bindery slip made and a sample volume
    already bound sent that each set may be uniform as to color of
    cover, lettering, etc. A rubbing of a bound volume can easily be
    made and sent in place of the volume. If the binder has previously
    bound magazines for you he has doubtless made sample backs for his
    own convenience. The slip should show definitely the placing and
    abbreviations of volume numbers, dates, etc.

flexibility--should not be too stiff and hard to open; evenness of
cover; compactness; correct and even lettering; reasonably wide margins.

Check books with duplicate list.

Pay no bills until all mistakes are rectified. Mistakes in lettering can
be corrected, and when this occurs return to the bindery.

Enter in accession book under "remarks," opposite the entry of each book
the date when the book was rebound: e. g., "reb'd 1 Jc., '20"; also on
inside of lower front cover near the joint. A rubber stamp at small
expense may be ordered from any stamp works, with the word "reb'd" to be
inserted in the pencil date holder with the date. This saves writing.

Enter on the monthly report blank the total number of books rebound.
(This gives data for yearly total and obviates the necessity of keeping
binding book.)

                           TEMPORARY BINDERS

The Gaylord Bros.' red rope binder provides an inexpensive magazine
binder, both for the current periodicals in use in the reading room and
those in circulation. The cover of the magazine may be pasted on the
outside of the binder, and after the current month the magazine may be
circulated just as a book, without damage for future binding. A good
quality of wrapping paper may be used in place of the red rope paper. It
is less expensive and wears fairly well.

Information as to terms used in binding and mending and illustrations of
the structure of a book may be found in the following:

    A. L. A. Committee--Binding for libraries
                                             A. L. A. Publishing Board

    Bailey, A. L.--Library Bookbinding                      Wilson Co.

    Cockrell, Douglass--Book binding and the care of books

    Coutts, H. T., and Stephens, G. A.--Manual of library book binding
                                                       Libraco, London

    Dana, J. C.--Book binding for libraries             Library Bureau

      *      *      *      *      *

Transcriber's note:

Errors in punctuations and inconsistent hyphenation were not corrected
unless otherwise noted.

On page 17, "next the" was replaced with "next to the".

On page 20, a period was added after "crumpling".

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