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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 105, November 1, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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[Transcriber's note: Original spelling variations have not been
standardized. Underscores have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts.
Tentative expansions of Latin scribal abbreviations include dimi[d=] for
dimidio, ann' for anno, Dñs for Dominus, Dñi for Domini, Dño for Domino,
[p=] for pro, [=p] for pre, and [q=] for que. Greek letters have been
retained as printed. The spelling of νόμεσθαι, as taken over from
Stolbergius, seems to be a typographical error for νέμεσθαι.]



NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

Vol. IV.--No. 105. SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 1. 1851.

Price Threepence. Stamped Edition, 4_d._



CONTENTS.

                                                                Page


      The Claims of Literature                                   337

      NOTES:--

      Daniel Defoe and the "Mercator," by James Crossley         388

      Punishment of Edward Prince of Wales, by King
      Edward I., for Disrespect to a Judge, by William
      Sidney Gibson                                              338

      Notes on the Word: "Αδελφος," by
      T. R. Brown                                                339

      Lambert, the "Arch-Rebell," by
      Richard John King                                          339

      The Caxton Coffer, by Bolton Corney                        340

      Minor Notes:--A Hint to Catalogue Makers--Virgil
      and Goldsmith--Mental Almanac--Merlin and the
      Electric Telegraph                                         340

      QUERIES:--

      Bishop Bramhall and Milton                                 341

      The Sempills of Beltrus: Robert Sempill                    343

      Descendants of John of Gaunt                               343

      Minor Queries:--Rocky Chasm near Gaëta: Earthquake
      at the Crucifixion--Cavalcade--A Sept of
      Hibernians--Yankee Doodle--Seventeenth of November:
      Custom--Chatter-box--Printing in 1449, and
      Shakspeare--Texts before Sermons--Paradyse, Hell,
      Purgatory--Dead Letter--Dominus Bathurst, &c.--Grammar
      Schools--Fermilodum--Lord Hungerford--Consecration
      of Bishops in Sweden                                       343

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Effigy of a Pilgrim--"Modern
      Universal History"--Origin of Evil--Nolo
      Episcopari--Authors of the Homilies--Family of Hotham
      of Yorkshire--Vogelweide--Meaning of Skeatta               345

      REPLIES:--

      Marriage of Ecclesiastics, by Henry Walter, &c.            346

      Lord Strafford and Archbishop Ussher                       349

      Sculptured Stones in the North of Scotland                 350

      Anagrams                                                   350

      The Locusts of the New Testament                           351

      The Soul's Errand, by Dr. Edward F. Rimbault               353

      The Two Drs. Abercrombie                                   353

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Dacre Monument at
      Hurstmonceux--Book-plates--Sermon of Bishop Jeremy
      Taylor--Moonlight--Flatman and Pope--Berlin Time--Ruined
      Churches--Italian Writer on Political Economy--Death
      of Carli, &c.                                              354

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                     357

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               357

      Notices to Correspondents                                  358

      Advertisements                                             359



THE CLAIMS OF LITERATURE.

This day two years, on presenting to the public, and to the Literary Men
of England the first number of NOTES AND QUERIES, as "a medium by which
much valuable information might become a sort of common property among
those who can appreciate and use it," we ventured to say, "We do not
anticipate any holding back by those whose 'Notes' are most worth
having, or any want of 'Queries' from those best able to answer them.
Whatever may be the case in other things, it is certain that those who
are best informed are generally the most ready to communicate knowledge
and to confess ignorance, to feel the value of such a work as we are
attempting, and to understand that, if it is to be well done, they might
help to do it. Some cheap and frequent means for the interchange of
thought is certainly wanted by those who are engaged in Literature, Art,
and Science; and we only hope to persuade the best men in all, that we
offer them the best medium of communication with each other."

How fully these anticipations have been realised, how all the "best men"
_have_ come forward, we acknowledge with feelings of gratitude and
pride. May we now hope that, in thus forming one fresh bond of union
among the lovers and professors of Literature in this country, we have
contributed towards a recognition of Literature as an honorable
profession, and hastened the time when the claims of Literature,
Science, and Art to some of those honorary distinctions hitherto
exclusively conferred upon the Naval, Military, or Civil Servants of the
Crown, will be admitted and acted upon. For as we hold with Chaucer:

      "That he is gentil who doth gentil dedes;"

so we would have those men especially honoured, whose "gentil dedes" in
Literature, Science, and Art tend to elevate the minds, and thereby
promote the happiness of their fellow-men.

That gallant gentleman, Captain Sword, whose good services we readily
acknowledge, has hitherto monopolized all the honours which the
sovereign has thought proper to distribute. We would fain see good
Master Pen now take his fair share of them;[1] and the present moment,
when Peace has just celebrated her Jubilee in the presence of admiring
millions, is surely the fittest moment that could be selected for the
establishment of some Order (call it of Victoria, or Civil Merit, or
what you will) to honour those followers of the Arts of Peace to whose
genius, learning, and skill the great event of the year 1851 owes its
brilliant conception, its happy execution, its triumphant success.

  [Footnote 1: We are glad to find that the views we have here
  advocated, have the support of the leading journal of Europe. Vide
  _The Times_ of Wednesday last.]

The reign of the Illustrious Lady who now fills with so much dignity the
Throne of these Realms, has happily been pre-eminently distinguished
(and long may it be so!) by all unexampled progress made in all the Arts
of Peace. Her Majesty has been pre-eminently a Patron of all such Arts.
How graceful then, on the part of Her Majesty, would be the immediate
institution of an Order of Civil Merit! How gratifying to those
accomplished and worthy men on whom Her Majesty might be pleased to
confer it!



Notes.


DANIEL DEFOE AND THE "MERCATOR."

Wilson, in his _Life of Defoe_, vol. iii. p. 334., gives an account from
Tindal, Oldmixon, Boyer, and Chalmers, of the _Mercator_ and its
antagonist, the _British Merchant_. He commences by observing that Defoe
"had but little to do with this work" (the _Mercator_), and quotes
Chalmers, who seems totally to mistake the passage in Defoe's _Appeal to
Honour and Justice_, pp. 47-50., in which the _Mercator_ is mentioned,
and to consider it as a denial on his part of having had any share in
the work. Defoe's words are--

  "What part I had in the _Mercator_ is well known, and would men
  answer with argument and not with personal abuse, I would at any
  time defend any part of the _Mercator_ which was of my writing.
  But to say the _Mercator_ is mine is false. I never was the author
  of it, nor had the property, printing, or profit of it. I had
  never any payment or reward for writing any part of it, nor had I
  the power of putting what I would into it, yet the whole clamour
  fell upon me."

Defoe evidently means only to deny that he was the originator and
proprietor of the _Mercator_, not that he was not the principal writer
in it. The _Mercator_ was a government paper set on foot by Harley to
support the proposed measure of the Treaty of Commerce with France; and
the _Review_, which Defoe had so long and so ably conducted, being
brought to a close in the beginning of May, 1713, he was retained to
follow up the opinions he had maintained in the _Review_ as to the
treaty in this new periodical. He had not the control of the work
undoubtedly, otherwise, cautiously abstaining as he does himself from
all personal attacks upon his opponents, the remarks on Henry Martin
would not have appeared, which led to a severe and very unjust
retaliation in the _British Merchant_, in which Defoe's misfortunes are
unfeelingly introduced. There cannot, however, be the slightest doubt to
any one at all acquainted with Defoe's style, or who compares the
_Mercator_ with the commercial articles in the Review, that the whole of
the _Mercator_, except such portion as appears in the shape of letters,
and which constitutes only a small part of the work, was written by
Defoe. The principal of these letters were probably written by William
Brown.

The excessive rarity of the _Mercator_, which Wilson could never obtain,
and of which probably very few copies exist, has rendered it the least
known of Defoe's publications. Even Mr. M'Culloch, from the mode in
which he speaks of it (_Literature of Political Economy_, p. 142.),
would appear not to have seen it. And therefore, whilst the _British
Merchant_, "the shallow sophisms and misstatements" of which we now
treat with contempt, is one of the most common of commercial books,
having gone through at least three editions, besides the original folio,
the _Mercator_, replete as it is with the vigour, the life and
animation, the various and felicitous power of illustration, which this
great and truly English author could impart to any subject, still exists
only in probably four or five copies of the original folio numbers. How
many of the advocates for free trade are acquainted with a production in
which one of the most gifted minds that the country ever produced,
exerts his delightful powers and most effectual "unadorned eloquence" in
the support of their favourite doctrine?

I do not see any copy of the _Mercator_ noticed in the printed catalogue
of the British Museum. I owe my own to the kindness of MR. BOLTON
CORNEY, who allowed me to possess it, having purchased it, I believe, at
Mr. Heber's sale.

    JAS. CROSSLEY.


PUNISHMENT OF EDWARD PRINCE OF WALES, BY KING EDWARD I., FOR DISRESPECT
TO A JUDGE.

MR. FOSS has lately shown, in his valuable lives of _The Judges of
England_, that historical accuracy has been sacrificed in representing
Henry V., on his accession, to have re-invested Sir William Gascoigne
with "the balance and the sword." Lord Campbell, warned that
chroniclers, historians, moralists, and poets had, without historical
warrant, taken for true the story which Shakspeare has made so familiar
to us, has, in his _Lives of the Chief Justices_, examined the evidence
for attributing to the young king the act of magnanimity, and has
affirmed (vol. i. p. 131.) not only that Sir William committed the
prince, but that he actually filled the office of Chief Justice under
him when he became Henry V. The noble and learned lord has been at some
pains to authenticate the story of the commital of the prince, and has
shown that there is no sufficient reason for disbelieving that the
dauntless judge did make "princely power submit" to justice; and he has
brought forward also the probable sources of Shakspeare's information.
But these are silent as to the reinstatement of the illustrious judge;
and MR. FOSS has established that the young king lost no time in
dispensing with the "well-practised wise directions" of Sir William
Gascoigne. One is really sorry to be obliged to relinquish belief in the
historical foundation of the scene to which Shakspeare has given such
fine dramatic effect in his noble lines. My object, however, in now
writing is to point out a circumstance in some respects parallel, which
occurred in the reign of Edward I. In looking thorough the _Abbreviatio
Placitorum_ to-day, I find the record of a judgment in Michaelmas Term,
33 Edw. I. (1305), in which a curious illustration is given of the
character of that sovereign; for it appears that Edward Prince of Wales
having spoken words insulting to one of the king's ministers (when and
to whom I wish I could ascertain), the monarch himself firmly vindicated
the respect due to the royal dignity in the person of its servants, by
banishing the prince from his house and presence for a considerable
time. This anecdote occurs in the record of a complaint made to the king
in council, by Roger de Hecham (in Madox the name occurs as Hegham or
Heigham), a Baron of the Exchequer, of gross and upbraiding language
having been contemptuously addressed to him by William de Brewes,
because of his judgment in favour of the delinquent's adversary. The
record recites that such contempt and disrespect towards as well the
king's ministers as himself or his courts are very odious to the king,
and proceeds---- but I will give the original:

  "Que quidem (videlicet) contemptus et inobediencia tam ministris
  ipsius Domini Regi quam sibi ipsi aut cur' suæ facta ipsi Regi
  valde sunt odiosa, et hoc expresse nuper apparuit idem Dñs Rex
  filium suum primogenitum et carissimum Edwardum Principem Walliæ
  [p=] eo quod quedam verba grossa et acerba cuidam ministro suo
  dixerat ab hospicio suo fere [p=] dimi[d=] ann' amovit, nec ipsum
  filium suum in conspectu suo venire [p=]misit quous[q=] dicto
  ministro de [=p]dicta transgress' satisfecerat. Et quia sicut
  honor et reverencia qui ministris ipsius Dñi Regi ratione officii
  sui fiunt ipsi Regi attribuuntur sic dedecus et contemptus
  ministris suis facta eidem Dño Regi inferuntur."

And accordingly the said Edward was adjudged to go in full court in
Westminster Hall, and ask pardon of the judge whom he had insulted; and
for the contempt done to the king and his court was then to stand
committed to the Tower, there to remain during the king's pleasure.
(_Abb. Plac._ lib. impres. p. 257.)

Roger de Hegham occurs as a Baron of the Exchequer in 26 Edw. I., and
died 2 Edw. II. (Madox, ii. 58.)

    WILLIAM SIDNEY GIBSON.

  Newcastle-upon-Tyne.


NOTE ON THE WORD "Αδελφος."

I have attempted to ascertain the _primary_ signification of the word
"αδελφος," for the purpose of laying down a rule for its right
interpretation in the sacred scriptures. If I have succeeded, we may be
enabled to understand rightly one or two disputed passages in the New
Testament, of which I hope to treat in a subsequent number.

Thus says Scapula on the word:

  "Αδελφος, frater propriè, frater uterinus; fit enim a
  dictione δελφυς, uterus; et α significante
  ομου, pro ομοδελφος."

His etymology, as far as it goes, is quite correct: but still, we must
trace its different parts up to the fountain-head, in order to
understand the word aright. Let us then first take away its prefix
α, and its constructive affix ος, and the remaining
δελφ will be found to be a compound word, derived from the
Sanscrit language, proving its identity therewith by means of the
intermediate Semitic dialects.

Chaldee _dul_, situla, urna, _a vessel_ for holding liquor. Arabic
_dal_, a fat _woman_. These primary steps lead us to a passage in Isaiah
li. 1., "the _hole_ of the _pit_:" where the _idea_ (not the word) is
contained, and forms a connecting link between the Chaldee and Sanscrit;
where, by taking _t_ for _d_ (a letter of the same organ), we have
Sanscrit _tal_, a _hole_, _pit_, cause, origin, &c.; _talla_, a young
woman, _reservoir_, _pit_, &c.; Greek (from the Syriac)
ταλιθα, a damsel, Mark v. 41.; and by affixing the Sanscrit _pha_, or
_pa_, _fruitfulness_, nourishment, drink, &c., we get _talpa_, a wife,
bed, &c. Hebrew _dalaph_, stillavit. Syriac _dalpha_, conjunctio
venerea. Delilah, a proper name, Judges xvi. 4. We thus ascertain that
δελ-φ relates to the fruit or fruitfulness, &c. of the womb:
and by putting the constructive affix υς = the Sanscrit _as_ or
_us_, we have δελφυς, uterus, &c.

We now come to the most important part of the compound
αδελφος, viz. the Sanscrit ā = ομου, simul, at the same
time; and we find that this ā refers us to "a limit conclusive" (to
_that_ place, to that time), and also to a "limit inceptive" (_from_
THAT _place_, from that time); consequently, the _primary_ meaning of
α-δελ-φ-ος, is what Scapula has defined it to be, "frater
uterinus," a brother _to_, or _from the_ SAME _womb_.

My deduction from hence is, that where the context, or history, does
_not_ point us to a more general sense of the word, _i.e._ to relatives
such as cousins, or to the whole _human_ race adopting the same term;
_correct_ criticism seems to demand the signification of the word in its
_primary_ meaning.

    T. R. BROWN.

  Vicarage, Southwick, near Oundle.


LAMBERT, THE "ARCH-REBELL."

Mr. Hallam (_Const. Hist._, vol. ii. p. 26. ed. 1850), after some
remarks on the execution of Vane, who was brought to trial together with
Lambert in 1661, asserts that the latter, "whose submissive behaviour
had furnished a contrast with that of Vane, was sent to Guernsey, and
remained a prisoner for thirty years." Mr. Hallam does not quote his
authority for this statement, which I also find in the older
biographical dictionaries. There exists, however, in the library of the
Plymouth Athenæum, a MS. record which apparently contradicts it. This is
a volume called _Plimmouth Memoirs, collected by James Yonge_, 1684. It
contains "a Catalogue of all the Mayors, together with the memorable
occurrences in their respective years," beginning in 1440. Yonge himself
lived in Plymouth, and the later entries are therefore made from his own
knowledge. There are two concerning Lambert:

  "1667. _Lambert, the arch-rebell, brought prisoner to this
  Iland."_

[The Island of St. Nicholas at the entrance of the harbour, fortified
from a very early period.]

  "1683, Easter day. My Lord Dartmouth arrived in Plimmo. from
  Tangier. In March, Sir G. Jeffry, the famously [Query,
  _infamously_] loyal Lord Chief Justice, came hither from
  Launceston assize: lay at the Mayor's: viewed ye citadells, Mt.
  Edgecumbe, &c.

  "The winter of this yeare proved very seveare. East wind, frost,
  and snow, continued three moneths: so that ships were starved in
  the mouth of the channell, and almost all the cattel famisht. Ye
  fish left ye coast almost 5 moneths. All provisions excessive
  deare; and had we not had a frequent supply from ye East, corne
  would have been at 30s. per bushell,--above 130,000 bushells being
  imported hither, besides what went to Dartmo., Fowy, &c.

  "The Thames was frozen up some moneths, so that it became a small
  citty, with boothes, coffee houses, taverns, glasse houses,
  printing, bull-baiting, shops of all sorts, and whole streetes
  made on it. The birdes of the aire died numerously. _Lambert, that
  olde rebell, dyed this winter on Plimmo. Island, where he had been
  prisoner 15 years and mo._"

The trial of Lambert took place in 1661. He may have been sent at first
to Guernsey, but could only have remained there until removed in 1667 to
Plymouth. His imprisonment altogether lasted twenty-one years.

Lambert's removal to Plymouth has, I believe, been hitherto unnoticed.
Probably it was thought a safer (and certainly, if he were confined in
the little island of St. Nicholas, it was a severer) prison than
Guernsey.

    RICHARD JOHN KING.


THE CAXTON COFFER.

An opinion prevails that biographers who lived nearest the times of the
individuals whom they commemorate are most entitled to belief, as having
at command the best sources of information. To this rule, however, there
are numerous exceptions; for time, which casts some facts into oblivion,
also produces fresh materials for historians and biographers.

It is certainly advisable to _consult_ the earliest memoir of an
individual in whose fate we take an interest, and even each successive
memoir, in order that we may trace the more important historical
particulars, and such critical opinions as seem to require discussion,
to their true source. The result of some comparisons of this
description, on former occasions, has almost led me to consider
biographers as mere copyists--or, at the best, artists in patch-work. I
shall now compare, on one point, the earlier biographers of Caxton:--

  "Gvilhelmus Caxton, Anglus--habitavit interim in Flandria 30 annis
  cum domina Margareta Burgundiæ ducissa regis Edwardi
  sorore."--Joannes BALE, 1559.

  "Gvilhelmvs Caxtonus, natione Anglus. Vir pius, doctus, etc. In
  Flandria quidem triginta annis vixit cum Margareta Burgundiæ duce,
  regis Edwardi quarti sorore."--Joannes PITSEUS, 1619.

  "William Caxton, born in that town [sc. Caxton!]. He had most of
  his _education_ beyond the seas, living 30 years in the court of
  Margaret dutchesse of Burgundy, sister to king Edward the Fourth,
  whence I conclude him an Anti-Lancastrian in his
  affection."--Thomas FULLER, 1662.

  "William Caxton--was a menial servant, for thirty years together,
  to Margaret dutchess of Burgundy, sister to our king Edward IV.,
  in Flanders."--William NICOLSON, 1714.

  "Gulielmus Caxton natus in sylvestri regione Cantiae; in Flandria,
  Brabantia, Hollandia, Zelandia xxx annis cum domina Margareta,
  Burgundiae ducissa, regis Edwardi IV. sorore vixit."--Thomas
  TANNERUS, 1748.

Now, according to Fabian, Stow, and others, Margaret of York was married
to Charles duke of Burgundy in 1468; and if Caxton did not return to
England about the year 1471, as Stow asserts, he was certainly
established at Westminster in 1477. The _thirty_ years of the learned
writers must therefore be reduced to less than _ten_ years!

The discrepancy between these writers, on another important point, is
not less remarkable than their agreement in error, as above-described.
Pits says Caxton flourished in 1483; Fuller, that he died in 1486; and
Tanner, that he _flourished_ about 1483, and _died_ in 1491. Shakspere
died in 1616: in what year did he flourish?

    BOLTON CORNEY.


Minor Notes.

_A Hint to Catalogue Makers._--Among the many excellent schemes proposed
for the arrangement and diffusion of common means of information, one
simple one appears to have been passed over by your many and excellent
correspondents. I will briefly illustrate an existing deficiency by an
example.

While collecting materials for a projected critical commentary on the
_Timæus_ of Plato, I was surprised to find the commentary of
_Chalcidius_ wholly wanting in our library at Christ Church.
Subsequently (when I did not want it, having secured a better edition at
the end of Fabricius' _Hippolytus_) I discovered a fine copy of Badius
Ascensius' editio princeps, bound up with Aulus Gellius and Macrobius,
but utterly ignored in the Christ Church catalogue.

This instance shows the necessity of carefully examining the _insides_
of books, as well as the backs and title-pages, during the operation of
cataloguing. Our public libraries are rich in instances of a similar
oversight, and many an important and _recherché_ work is unknown, or
acquires a conventional rarity, through its concealment at the end of a
less valuable, but more bulky, treatise.

I have been aroused to the propriety of publishing this suggestion, by
purchasing, "dog cheap", a volume labelled _Petrus Crinitus_, but
containing _Hegesippus_ (_i.e._ the pseudo-Ambrosian translation from
Josephus) and the Latin grammarians at the end, all by the
afore-mentioned printer.

    THEODORE ALOIS BUCKLEY.

_Virgil and Goldsmith._--The same beautiful thought is traceable in both
Virgil and Goldsmith. In book iii. of the _Æneid_, lines 495-6. we read:

      "Vobis parta quies; nullum maris æquor arandum;
      Arva neque Ausoniæ, _semper cedentia retro_,
      _Quærenda_."

In the _Traveller_ these lines occur:

      "But me, not destined such delights to share,
      My prime of life in wandering spent and care;
      Impell'd, with steps unceasing, to pursue
      Some fleeting good, that mocks me with the view;
      That, like the circle bounding earth and skies,
      Allures from far, yet, as I follow, flies ----"

    ALFRED GATTY.

_Mental Almanac_ (Vol. iv., p. 203.).--MEM. The additive number for this
present November is 1. Hence next Wednesday is 4 + 1, that is, the 5th.
The Sunday following, is 1 + 1 + 7, that is, the 9th. And similarly for
any other day or week in this month.

    A. E. B

  Leeds, Nov. 1. 1851.

_Merlin and the Electric Telegraph._--The following extract from the
prophecy of Merlin in Geoffrey of Monmouth's _British History_, book
vii. ch. 4., reads rather curiously in these days of railways and of
electric telegraph communication between France and England:--

  "Eric shall hide his apples within it, and _shall make
  subterraneous passages_. At that time _shall the stones speak_,
  and the sea towards the Gallic Coast be contracted into a narrow
  space. _On each bank shall one man hear another_, and the soil of
  the isle shall be enlarged. The secrets of the deep shall be
  revealed, and Gaul shall tremble for fear."

I should like to be informed if there have ever been any detailed and
systematic attempts made at interpreting the whole of this curious
prophecy of Merlin's.

    W. FRASER.



Queries.


BISHOP BRAMHALL AND MILTON.

Perhaps I am convicting myself of the most benighted ignorance by asking
some of your learned correspondents to elucidate for me a letter of
Bramhall's, which I extract from his works. It was written to his son
from Antwerp, and relates to the early years of our great Milton at
Cambridge, dated:

  "Antwerpe, May 9/19, 1654.

  "That lying abusive book [viz., the _Def. Pop. Ang._] was written
  by Milton himself, one who was sometime Bishopp Chappell's pupil
  in Christ Church in Cambridge, but turned away by him, as he well
  deserved to have been, out of the University, and out of the
  society of men. If Salmasius his friends knew as much of him as I,
  they would make him go near to hang himself. But I desire not to
  wound the nation through his sides, yet I have written to him long
  since about it roundly. It seems he desires not to touch upon this
  subject."--_Works_, vol. i. p. 94, Oxford, 1842.

That Milton was _rusticated_ from Cambridge, and besides flogged by Dr.
Chappell, there seems little reason to doubt, but it is equally clear
that the punishment was only a temporary one, as he again went into
residence, and took the degrees of bachelor and master of arts in due
course. Whence, then, this sweeping accusation of the great and good
Bramhall's, whose character is a sufficient safeguard that he at all
events _believed_ what he said? Aubrey relates the story of Milton's
being whipped by Dr. Chappell, and afterwards being "transferred to the
tuition of one Dr. Tovell, who dyed parson of Lutterworth."[2] Milton
himself (_Elegiarum Liber, Eleg. I. ad Carolum Deodatum_) speaks of his
residence in London, and alludes, rather gratefully, to his "exilium"
from Cambridge, which he heartily disliked. He also alludes to his being
flogged, as there seems a whole world of meaning in _Cæteraque_:

      "Nec duri libet usque minas perferre magistri,
        _Cæteraque ingenio non subeunda meo_.
      Si sit hoc _exilium_ patrios adiisse penates,
        Et vacuum curis otia grata sequi,
      Non ego vel _profugi_ nomen, sortemve recuso,
        Lætus et _exilii_ conditione fruor."--Ver. 15. &c.

  [Footnote 2: Dr. Warton has given a long note on the word
  _Cæteraque_ in his edition of Milton's _Poems_, 1791, p. 421. He
  suggests that probably "Dr. Tovell" should read "Dr. _Tovey_,
  parson of _Kegworth_, in Leicestershire."]

We then get a short sketch of his employments and amusements in London;
and his return to Cambridge is mentioned in the palinode to the last of
his elegies:

      "Donec Socraticos umbrosa academia rivos
        Præbuit, admissum dedocuitque jugum.
      Protinus extinctis ex illo tempore flammis,
        Cincta rigent multo pectora nostra gelu."

Having now cleared my way in as brief a manner as possible, I must
profess my utter disbelief in the enormities of Milton's life at
Cambridge. He was certainly flogged, but then he was only eighteen years
old at the time, and we know that flogging was permitted by the statutes
of many colleges, and was a favorite recreation amongst the deans,
tutors, and censors of the day. Bramhall's letter has indeed been a
marvellous stumbling-block in my way, ever since the appearance of the
last edition of his works; but I do hope that some of your learned
correspondents will dispel the clouds and shadows that surround me, and
prove that, at all events, Milton was not worse than his neighbours.

Dr. South and Cowley were never flogged at college, but certainly they
were often flogged at school, or they could not speak so feelingly on
the subject:

  "Those 'plagosi Orbilii' (writes South), those executioners,
  rather than instructors of youth; persons fitted to lay about them
  in a coach or cart, or to discipline boys before a Spartan altar,
  or rather upon it, than to have anything to do in a Christian
  school. I would give these pedagogical _Jehus_, those furious
  school-drivers, the same advice which the poet says Phoebus gave
  his son Phaëton (just such another driver as themselves), that he
  should _parcere stimulis_ (the stimulus in driving being of the
  same use formerly that the lash is now). Stripes and blows are the
  last and basest remedy, and scarce ever fit to be used but upon
  such as carry their brains in their backs, and have souls so dull
  and stupid as to serve for little else but to keep their bodies
  from putrefaction."--_Sermon upon Proverbs, xxii. 6._

And Cowley, in describing the _Betula_ (Angl. birch-tree), how he does
paint from nature!

      "Mollis et alba cutim, formosam vertice fundens
      Cæsariem, sed mens tetrica est, sed nulla nec arbor
      Nec fera sylvarum crudelior incolit umbras:
      Nam simul atque urbes concessum intrare domosque
      Plagosum _Orbilium_ sævumque imitata _Draconem_
      Illa furit, non ulla viris delicta, nec ullum
      Indulgens ludum pueris; inscribere membra
      Discentum, teneroque rubescere sanguine gaudet."

      _Plantarum_, lib. vi. pag. 323. Londini, 1668.

That Milton's character was notorious or infamous at Cambridge has
never, to my knowledge, been proved; and there is in his favour this
most overwhelming testimony, that he never forfeited the esteem and
friendship of the great and good. Was Sir Henry Wotton writing to a man
of blighted and blasted reputation when he sent the kind and
complimentary letter prefixed to _Comus_? In that he not merely
eulogises the "Dorique delicacy" of Milton's songs and odes, but gives
him much kind and considerate advice upon the course he was to pursue in
his travels, as well as some introductions to his own friends, and
promises to keep up a regular correspondence with him during his
absence. Milton was very proud of this letter, and speaks of it in his
_Defensio Secunda_. Again, Milton's associates at Cambridge must have
known all about the misdemeanour (whatever it was) that caused his
rustication, and yet they permitted him to take a part in, and perhaps
to write the preface of, the ever memorable volume which contained the
first edition of _Lycidas_.

The person commemorated was Edward King, a Fellow of Christ's College,
Cambridge (Milton's own college); and I need not adduce Milton's
affecting allusions to their close and intimate friendship. It was for
another of the _Fellows_ of Christ's College that Milton at the age of
nineteen (the very year after his rustication) wrote the academic
exercise _Naturam non pati Senium_, found amongst his Latin poems. But I
will omit a great many arguments of a similar kind, and ask this
question, Why has Milton's college career escaped the lash of three of
the most sarcastic of writers, Cleveland, Butler, and South, who were
his contemporaries? Cleveland must have known him well, as he, as well
as Milton, had contributed some memorial verses to King, and party
feeling would perhaps have overcome collegiate associations. Nor could
their mutual connexion with _Golden Grove_ have saved him from the
aspersions of Butler. After the Restoration, Richard Lord Vaughan, Earl
of Carbery, appointed the author of _Hudibras_ to the stewardship of
Ludlow Castle; and his second wife was the Lady Alice Egerton, who, at
the age of thirteen, had acted the Lady in Milton's _Comus_. It was to
her likewise that Bishop Jeremy Taylor dedicated the third edition of
the third part of the _Life of Christ_, as he had dedicated the first
edition to Lord Carbery's former wife, whose funeral sermon he preached.
I do not remember that Cleveland or Butler have on any occasion
satirised Milton; but I do remember that Dr. South has done so, and I
cannot understand his silence on the matter if Milton's private
character had been notorious. Of course I do not believe the anonymous
invective ascribed to a son of Bishop Hall's. Dr. South was not the man
to "mince matters," and yet Milton's college life has escaped his
sarcasms. What his opinion of Milton was we may learn from his sermon
preached before King Charles II. upon Judges xix. 30.

  "The Latin advocate (Mr. Milton) who, like a blind adder, has spit
  so much poison upon the king's person and cause," &c.

  "In præfat. ad defensionem pro populo Anglicano (as his Latin
  is)."--Vol. ii. pp. 201-2. Dublin, 1720. fol.

Any one who can help me out of my difficulty will much oblige me, as
Bramhall's letter is a painful mystery, and truth of any kind is always
less distressing than vague and shadowy surmises.

    RT.

  Warmington, Oct. 16, 1851.


THE SEMPILLS OF BELTRUS: ROBERT SEMPILL.

Some few months ago there was published in Edinburgh the first collected
and only complete edition of the _Poems_ by the three brothers "Sir
James, Robert, and Francis Sempill of Beltrus," better known as the
authors of "The Pack-Man's Paternoster; or, a Picktooth for the Pope,"
"The Life and Death of Habbie Simson, Piper of Kilbarchum," "The
Blythsome Wedding," "Maggie Lauder," &c., with biographical notices of
their lives. I am now anxious to know if any of your numerous
correspondents can inform me if copies of the original editions of the
_Poems_ by "Robert Sempill" can be procured, or if they are in any of
the public or private libraries in England? The following are what I am
in quest of, viz.:

1. _The Regentis Tragedie_, 1570.

2. _The Bischoppis Lyfe and Testament_, 1571.

3. _My Lorde Methwenis Tragedie_, 1572.

4. _The Sege of the Castel of Edinburgh_, 1573.

Also where any notice as to his family, life, and character can be
found.

A collection of Sempill's _Poems_, with some authentic account of the
author, is certainly a desideratum in Scottish literature.

    T. G. S.

  Edinburgh, Oct. 18. 1851.


DESCENDANTS OF JOHN OF GAUNT.

John of Gaunt, by his third wife Katharine Swynford, left four children,
born before his marriage with her, but legitimated by act of parliament.
Of these the eldest is thus mentioned in Burke's "Introduction" to the
_Peerage_, p. xxi.:--

  "John de Beaufort, _Marquess_ of Somerset and Dorset, who married
  Margaret, daughter of Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, and had a son
  John, _Duke_ of Somerset, whose _only daughter and heir_,
  Margaret, married Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, and was mother
  of Henry VII."

Query, Was Margaret "only child," as well as only daughter of John Duke
of Somerset? or was she not sister to Henry, Edmund, and John,
successively Dukes of Somerset? (See Burke's _Peerage_, "Duke of
Beaufort.")

In that case, after the death of this last-named Duke John issueless,
she would become "sole heir," as she had always been "sole daughter," of
Duke John the First.

Or was she in fact _the daughter of this second and last Duke John_? At
his death the male line of Lancaster became extinct; the royal branch
having already failed at the death of Henry VI.

There appears some little confusion in Burke's excellent work, as may be
seen by comparing p. xxi. of the Introduction, &c., with the genealogy
of the Beaufort family.

    A. B.

  Clifton.


Minor Queries.

246. _Rocky Chasm near Gaëta: Earthquake at the Crucifixion._--Dr.
Basire (who was archdeacon of Northumberland, prebendary of Durham, and
chaplain to King Charles the Martyr and King Charles II.), in his
account of a tour made by himself and companions in 1649, says:

  "Wee landed to see Gaëta, a pleasant, strong, and very antient
  citty. In it we saw some wonders, especially the thorow rupture of
  a rocky mountain by an earthquake, which tradition sayes, and
  Cardinal Baronius publishes to have happened at our Savior's
  passion: a stupendous sight it is however, and well worth our
  digression."--_Correspondence, &c., of Basire_, edited by the Rev.
  W. N. Darnell, p. 90.

I cannot here consult Baronius, to see whether he gives any references,
and should be very glad to be referred to any ancient historian who has
noticed the event to which this remarkable chasm is attributed, and to
know whether the tradition is preserved by any classical writer. I do
not find the chasm in question described by any naturalist, or other
traveller, whose writings I have been able to refer to. It is in a
locality which abounds with indications of volcanic action. It is said
that the Monte Somma was probably not distinct from the present cone of
Vesuvius prior to the great eruption in A.D. 79. In Dr. Daubeny's
_Description of Active and Extinct Volcanos_, mention is made of an
ancient town beneath the town of Sessa, where a chamber with antique
frescoes and the remains of an amphitheatre were disinterred, of the
overwhelming of which there is no record, nor is there even a tradition
of any eruption having occurred near it in the memory of man.

    W. S. G.

  Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

247. _Cavalcade._--Your correspondent MR. W. H. HESLEDEN, in his
description of "A Funeral in Hamburgh" (Vol. iv., p. 269.), has twice
made use of the word _cavalcade_ in reference to that which would
otherwise appear to be a walking procession. He will oblige me (and I
dare say others of your readers) by explaining whether the procession
was really equestrian, or whether he has any authority for the
application of the term to pedestrians. The use of the word cannot have
been a mere oversight, since it is repeated. The relation in which it
stands makes it very doubtful whether it can, by any possibility, be
intended to describe a riding party. If, by any latitude, the word may
be otherwise applied, an authority would be interesting. If it is an
error, it certainly should not go uncorrected in "NOTES AND QUERIES."

    NOCAB.

  Harley Street.

248. _A Sept of Hibernians._--Is _sept_ a word of Erse etymology; and,
if not, of what other? Has it a specific sense; or is it a general
equivalent to _clann_ or _treubh_?

    A. N.

249. _Yankee Doodle._--Can any of your correspondents explain the origin
of this song, or state in what book a correct version of it can be
found? Likewise, whether the tune is of older date than the song. To
some these may appear trite questions; but I can assure you that I have
been unable to obtain the information I require elsewhere, and my
applications for the song at several music shops, when I was last in
London, were unsuccessful.

    SAMPSON WALKER.

  Cambridge.

250. _Seventeenth of November: Custom._--When at school at Christ's
Hospital, many years ago, a curious custom prevailed on the 17th
November respecting which I had not then sufficient curiosity to
inquire.

Two or more boys would take one against whom they had any spite or
grudge, and having lifted him by the arms and legs would bump him on the
hard stones of the cloisters.

I have often, since I left the school, wondered what could be the origin
of this practice, and more especially as the day was recognised as
having some connexion with Queen Elizabeth.

In reading, "Sir Roger de Coverley" with notes by Willis, published in
the _Traveller's Library_, I find at p. 134. what I consider a fair
explanation. A full account is there given of the manner in which the
citizens of London intended to celebrate, in 1711, the anniversary of
Queen Elizabeth's accession on 17th November; some parts of which would
almost seem to have been copied during the excitement against the papal
bull in November 1850.

I have little doubt that originally the unfortunate boy who had to
endure the rude bumping by his schoolfellows was intended to represent
the pope or one of his emissaries, and that those who inflicted the
punishment were looked upon as good Protestants.

Is there any other school where this day is celebrated; and if so, what
particular custom prevails there?

The boys always attended morning service at Christ Church on this day.

    F. B. RELTON.

251. _Chatter-box._--The derivation of this word would seem very plain,
and yet I have some doubts about it. I used to think that we called a
person a "chatter-box" because he or she was, metaphorically speaking, a
box full of chatter, as we should call another person a _bag-of-bones_.
And this seemed confirmed by the German _plaudertasche_, or a
_chatter-bag_, till I learnt from Wackernagel, _Glossar_, that in the
Middle High German _Tasche_ = _a woman_. (See under "Flattertasche.") I
believe we meet with the word again in the epithet _Maultasche_ applied
to the celebrated Margaret Maultasche, the wife of Louis the Elder;
_i.e._ Margaret, the woman with the large mouth. The word also occurs in
the Danish _Taske_ = _a girl_, _a wench_. Hence, I conclude that there
is no doubt but that the German _plaudertasche_ means a chattering
woman. Has our _chatter-box_ the same meaning--_i.e._ is there a word
for _woman_ or _female_ in any of our ancient languages from which _box_
might arise? The only word which occurs to me just now as confirming
such a supposition is _buxom_ ("to be bonere and buxom, in bedde and at
borde." Ancient Matrimony Service), which is thus = _womanly_.

    J. M. (4)

  St. Mary Tavy, Tavistock.

252. _Printing in 1449, and Shakspeare._--As the _Esil_ controversy
seems now, if not settled, to be at least lulled, at the risk of
stirring up another Shakspearean discussion, I venture to set down a
passage in the _Second Part of Henry VI._, which I have never yet seen
satisfactorily explained. It is--

  "Act IV. Scene 7.--_Cade._ ... Thou has most traitorously
  corrupted the youth of the realm, in erecting a grammar-school;
  and whereas, before, our forefathers had no other books but the
  score and the tally, _thou hast caused printing to be used_; and
  contrary to the king, his crown and dignity, _thou hast built a
  paper-mill_."

Is this a mere wilful anachronism on Shakspeare's part; or had "that
misunderstood politician" Mr. John Cade any ground for this particular
accusation against the Lord Treasurer Say? Perhaps some of your
correspondents who have contributed the very interesting Notes on Caxton
and Printing will elucidate the matter.

    W. FRASER.

253. _Texts before Sermons._--What is the origin of, and the authority
for our present use of texts of Holy Scripture before sermons? In the
Roman Catholic church the custom, I believe, is not the same. The
homilies used in the Church of England have no texts. In the ancient
Postils, was the gospel for the day again read from the pulpit, or were
the hearers supposed to carry it in their minds? It is quite clear that
texts are now in most cases merely the pegs whereon the sermon is hung,
so to speak, and are not read as passages of Holy Scripture to be
expounded to an audience ignorant of the meaning of the sacred volume.
Perhaps this Query may draw forth some remarks on the subject.

    G. R. M.

254. _Paradyse, Hell, Purgatory._--Can any of your correspondents favour
me with the history and uses of three Chambers or Houses in Westminster
 Hall, which in the reigns of Henry VII. and VIII. bore these
portentous names? The custody of them was evidently a source of profit;
as there are several grants of it to "squires of the king's body" and
others. (See _Rymer_, xii. 275., xiii. 34.; _Rot. Parl._ vi. 372.)

    Φ.

255. _Dead Letter._--"If the editor of 'NOTES AND QUERIES' will accept
an indirect suggestion, we should be glad if he, or some of his learned
correspondents, would inform the public of the origin or antiquity of
the popular saying by which a thing, under certain circumstances, is
designated as a 'dead letter.'"

  [Being unwilling that the foregoing Query, which we have taken
  from an admirable article on the Dead Letters of the Post Office,
  which appeared in _The Times_ of Tuesday last, should itself
  become a _dead letter_, we have transferred it to our columns in
  hopes that some of our learned correspondents will explain the
  origin, and show the antiquity of the phrase by instances of its
  earliest use. We do not believe that it is a Post Office
  technicality transferred to the vocabulary of every-day life, but
  that it is in some way connected with "the letter" that
  "killeth."]

256. _Dominus Bathurst, &c._--Who was "Dominus Bathurst," a Commoner of
Winchester in 1688? "Dominus Anvers" and "Dominus Modyford" occur in
1694; who were they?

    MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.

257. _Grammar Schools._--The Editor of the _Family Almanack_ would be
glad if any of the readers of the "NOTES AND QUERIES" could inform him
whether the Grammar Schools founded in the following places are still
open to scholars:--

Neale's School, March, Cambridgeshire; Dilborne, Staffordshire; Kirton
in Lindsay, Lincolnshire; Kirton in Holland, Lincolnshire; Nuneaton,
Warwickshire; Pilkington School, Prestwich, Lancashire; Royston,
Yorkshire; Bolton School, Scorton, Yorkshire; Lovel's School, Stickney,
Lincolnshire; Stourbridge, Worcestershire; Tottenham, Middlesex.

Any letter on the subject can be forwarded to the publisher, 377.
Strand.

258. _Fermilodum._--I have an antique metal seal in my possession, which
is about two inches and a quarter in diameter, having on its exterior
circle in small capitals SIGILLVM + CIVITATIS + FERMILODVM. I wish to
know if a place with such a seal could be called a _City_, and want a
literal translation of it. My native town was originated by a monastic
establishment, and several of the names of the streets have long puzzled
the learned, such as _May-gate_, _Colorow_ (Collicrow), _Pill_ or Peel
Muir: a place called the Rhodes is also in the vicinity. Would any of
your antiquarian correspondents give derivations of those streets?

    H. E.

259. _Lord Hungerford._--Who was the Lord Hungerford who was hanged and
degraded (and for what crime?), and who is said in Defoe's _Tour_ (cited
in Southey's _Commonplace Book_, 4th series, p. 429.) to have had a toad
put into his coat of arms? Where can such coat of arms be seen?

    J. R. RELTON.

260. _Consecration of Bishops in Sweden._--As I see "NOTES AND QUERIES"
attracts notice in Sweden, may I ask whether any record exists of the
consecration of Bothvidus Sermonis, who was appointed to the see of
Strengness by King Gustavus Vasa in 1536?

    E. H. A.


Minor Queries Answered.

_Effigy of a Pilgrim._--There is in the parish church of
Ashby-de-la-Zouch an effigy, which is very interesting from its extreme
rarity; it is placed under a depressed arch in the north wall of the
interior of the edifice, and consists of a recumbent figure of a pilgrim
habited in a cloak and short boots, which lace in front with six holes
just above the instep: his legs are bare, and so is his head, but his
cockle hat lies under his right shoulder; his scrip, hanging from his
right shoulder to his left side, is tolerably perfect; but his row of
beads, suspended from his left shoulder to his right side, is mutilated,
as is also his staff; the hands, which were probably raised in prayer,
are gone; a collar of SS. hangs from his neck (will this be of any use
to MR. E. FOSS, Vol. iv., p. 147.?); the feet of the pilgrim rest
against a curious looking animal, which is said to be a dog.

Nothing is known as to whom the effigy represents, and I have not
Nichols's _Leicestershire_ by me, to see if he hazards an opinion on the
subject. I shall feel much obliged by any of your numerous readers
kindly informing me where other effigies of pilgrims are to be found,
because if anything is known of them it may possibly help to elucidate
this present case of obscurity.

    THOS. LAURENCE.

  Ashby-de-la-Zouch.

  [Nichols, in his _Leicestershire_, vol. iii. p 623., has given
  some account of this effigy from Carter and Burton, together with
  two sketches of the monument. Carter says, "There is no tradition
  to determine whom this figure represents; but Mr. Gough thinks
  that it was some person of authority, perhaps a keeper of the
  castle, or a bailiff of the town." This monument had been noticed
  by Mr. Burton, subsequent to the publication of his _History_; for
  in the margin of his volume is this MS. note, and a slight sketch
  of the tomb, when the scrip and staff were more perfect than they
  are at present:--"On the north side of the church, near to the
  great north door, lieth in the wall an ancient monument of a
  Palmer in alabaster, which I guess to be of some of the family of
  Zouch; which, for the expressing of the manner of the habit, I
  caused to be cut and inserted." This sketch is also engraved in
  plate lxxvi. of Nichols's _Leicestershire_.]

"_Modern Universal History._"--At the conclusion of the preface of this
History, in vol. xvi. of the first edition, it is stated, "this work is
illustrated by the most complete set of maps that modern geography
furnishes." My copy is a very fine one, but I do not find any maps
whatever in it. Can any of your readers inform me whether such maps
exist; and if so, in what volumes, and at what pages, they ought to be?
Are they to be obtained separately?

    S. QUARTO.

  [The maps and charts, thirty-seven in number, to the _Modern_ part
  of the _Universal History_, were published separately, in folio,
  1766: the volume and page where they are to be inserted are given
  on each plate.]

_Origin of Evil._--Where shall I find this problem fully discussed?

    A. A. D.

  [In Abp. King's _Essay on the Origin of Evil_, translated by
  Bishop Law, which has passed through several editions.]

_Nolo Episcopari._--Why is this phrase applied to a _feigned reluctance_
in accepting an offer?

    A. A. D.

  [From a note in Blackstone's _Commentaries_, vol. i. p. 380.,
  edit. Christian, we learn that "it is a prevailing vulgar error,
  that every bishop, before he accepts the bishoprick which is
  offered him, affects a maiden coyness, and answers _Nolo
  episcopari_. The origin of these words and the notion I have not
  been able to discover; the bishops certainly give no such refusal
  at present, and I am inclined to think they never did at any time
  in this country."]

_Authors of the Homilies._--Presuming that the authors of the Church
Homilies are well known, their writings having been adopted by our
church, and set forth and enjoined by authority to be read in all
churches, I fear I am only showing great ignorance by asking where I can
meet with a list of the writers of those discourses, distinguishing
which of the Homilies were written by each author; and if the writers of
some of them be unknown, then I should be glad to have the names of such
as are known, and the particular Homilies which were written by them.

    G. R. C.

  [Carwithen, in his _History of the Church of England_, vol. i. p.
  221. note _g_, speaking of the first book of Homilies, says,
  "These Homilies were the work of Cranmer, Ridley, Latimer,
  Hopkins, and Becon, one of Cranmer's chaplains. There is little
  but internal evidence by which the author of any particular Homily
  can be ascertained. The Homily 'Of the Salvation of Mankind,'
  being the third as they are now placed, was ascribed by Gardiner
  to Cranmer; and Cranmer never denied that it was his. The
  eleventh, in three parts, is by Becon; and it is printed among his
  works published by himself in three volumes folio. It is in the
  second volume." Consult also Le Bas' _Life of Cranmer_, vol. i. p.
  284., and Soames' _Hist. of the Reformation_, vol. iii. p. 56.]

_Family of Hotham of Yorkshire._--The family of Hotham, or Hothum, of
Boudeby in Yorkshire, acquired large possessions in Kilkenny at an early
period, apparently in consequence of an intermarriage with the Le
Despencers, lords of a third of the liberty of Kilkenny. Can any reader
of "NOTES AND QUERIES" supply me with a pedigree of that family,
especially as connecting therewith Sir John Hotham, Bishop of Ossory,
1779-1782? Any particulars respecting the life of that prelate will also
be thankfully acknowledged: he is said to have been a member of an old
Yorkshire family. (Cotton's _Fasti Ecclesiæ Hibernicæ_, vol. ii. p.
288.)

    JAMES GRAVES.

  Kilkenny, Oct. 11. 1851.

  [There are several references to the Hotham family in Sims' _Index
  to all the Pedigrees and Arms in the Heralds' Visitations and
  other Genealogical MSS. in the British Museum_, under Yorkshire.
  Granger (_Biographical Hist._, vol. ii. p. 217.) has given a short
  account of Sir John Hotham, Governor of Hull _temp._ Charles I.
  See also _Gentleman's Mag._, vol. lxiv. p. 182., for a notice of
  Sir Charles; and vol. lxviii. p. 633. for an account of the death
  of Lady Dorothy Hotham.]

_Vogelweide._--What authority has Longfellow for his legend of _Walter
of the Bird Meadow_? I find this epitaph given as his in Hone:

      "Pascua qui volucrum vivus, Walthere, fuisti,
      Qui flos eloquii, qui Palladis os, obiisti!
      Ergo quod aureolam probitas tua possit habere,
      Qui legit, hic dicat--'Deus istius miserere!'"

Has Julius Mosen's _Legend of the Crossbill_, translated by Longfellow,
any more ancient foundation?

    MORTIMER COLLINS.

  [The epitaph, and a very interesting sketch of the life of _Walter
  Vogelweide_, with some ably translated specimens of his poetical
  compositions, will be found in the late Edgar Taylor's _Lays of
  the Minnisingers_, 8vo. London, 1825.]

_Meaning of Skeatta._--What is a silver Skeatta? See _Gent. Mag._, May,
1851, p. 537.

    J. R. RELTON.

  [Mr. Akerman, in his very useful _Numismatic Manual_, p. 227.,
  says, "The word _sceatta_ is by some derived from _sceat_, a
  _part_ or _portion_. Professor White, in a paper read to the
  Ashmolean Society, remarks, that it is of Moeso-Gothic origin,
  _scatt_ signifying in the Gospels of Uphilas a _pound_, a _penny_,
  and, indeed, money in general." Ruding observes that, "Whatever
  might have been the precise value of the _sceatta_, it was
  undoubtedly the smallest coin known among the Saxons at the latter
  end of the seventh century, as appears from its forming part of a
  proverb: Ne sceat ne scilling, _From the least to the greatest_."]



Replies.


MARRIAGE OF ECCLESIASTICS.

(Vol. iv. pp. 57. 125. 193. 196. 298.)

Your general readers have reason to be as much obliged as myself to your
correspondents CEPHAS and K. S. for the information contained in the
former's criticisms, and the latter's addition to what you had inserted
in my name on the subject of clerical marriages.

CEPHAS is very fair, for he does not find fault with other persons'
versions of the first part of Heb. xiii. 4. without giving his own
version to be compared; and he states the ground of his criticisms on my
reference to it. He has kindly told your readers, what they might have
conjectured from the Italics in our authorized version, that in
rendering Τίμιος ὁ γάμος ἐν πᾶσι, "Marriage _is_ honourable in
all," they inserted _is_; and to show your readers an example of keeping
closer to the original, he himself renders it as follows: "Let (the laws
of) marriage be revered in all _things_, and the marriage bed be
undefiled."

Then comes his exposure of my unhappy mistake: "H. WALTER mistakes the
adjective _feminine_ ἐν πᾶσι as meaning _all men_." Really, had
I known that πᾶσι was an adjective feminine, I could scarcely
have fallen into the mistake of supposing it to mean _all men_. But many
of your readers will be likely to feel some sympathy for my error, while
they learn from CEPHAS that the ordinary Greek grammars, in which they
can have proceeded but a very few pages before they read and were called
upon to repeat the cases of πας, πασα, παν, were quite wrong in
teaching us that though πᾶσι might be either masculine or
neuter, it must not be taken for a feminine form. But before we correct
this error in one of the first pages of our grammar, I presume that we
should all like to know from what recondite source CEPHAS has discovered
that πασι, and not πασαις, is the feminine form of this
constantly-recurring adjective.

But farther, p. 193. will show that I did not give him a right to assume
that I should construe πασι "all _men_." For under my
_mistaken_ view of its being masculine, I thought the weaker sex was
included; and being myself a married man, I knew that marriage
comprehends women as well as men.

But there is still more to be learnt from the criticisms of CEPHAS,
which the learned world never knew before. For, having told us that
πᾶσι is an adjective feminine, he adds, "it signifies here _in
all things_;" whereas the grammars have long taught that _things_ must
not be understood unless the adjective be neuter. Perhaps he had better
concede that the grammars have not been wrong in allowing that πᾶσι
may be neuter; and then, as we know that it is also masculine, and
he knows it to be feminine, it must be admitted to be of all genders,
and so young learners will be spared all the trouble of distinguishing
between them. If it be admitted that πᾶσι is neuter here, it
may signify _all things_.

My other mistake, he says, has been that of not perceiving that the
imperative _let_ should be supplied, instead of the indicative _be_.
This must be allowed to be open to debate; but as the proper meaning of
τίμιος is "to be esteemed honourable," "had in reputation"
(Acts v. 34.), will it be a mistake to say, that the primitive
Christians would properly respect marriage, in their clergy as well as
in others, on the ground of the Scriptures saying, "Let marriage be
esteemed honourably in every respect?" Could they properly want ground
for allowing it to the clergy, when they could also read 1 Tim. iii. 2.
11., and Titus i. 6.? As CEPHAS quotes the Vulgate for authority in
favour of _enim_ in the next clause, he might have told your readers to
respect its authority in rendering the first clause, "Honorabile
connubium in omnibus." And if he has no new rules for correcting Syriac
as well as Greek, that very ancient version, though the gender of the
adjective be ambiguous in the equivalent to πᾶσι, renders the
next clause, "and _their_ couch _is_ pure," showing that _persons_ were
understood.

Next comes K. S., who tells your readers that Whiston quotes the
well-known _Doctor_ Wall for evidence as to the prohibition of second
marriages among the Greek clergy, before the Council of Nice. I should
like to know something of this _well-known Doctor_. There was a
well-known Mr. Wall, who wrote on baptism; and there was a Don Ricardo
Wall, a Spanish minister of state, well known in his day, and there was
a Governor Wall, too well known from his being hanged; but I cannot find
that any of these was a Doctor, so as to be the well-known Doctor Wall,
whose "authority no one would willingly undervalue," (p. 299.) As for
poor Whiston, his name was well known too, as a bye-word for a person
somewhat crazy, when he quitted those mathematical studies which
compelled him to fix his mind on his subject with steadiness whilst
pursuing them. K. S. has told us that he terms "the _Apostolic
Constitutions_ the most sacred of the canonical books of the New
Testament." Such an opinion is quite enough as a test of Whiston's power
of judging in such questions. After much discussion, the most learned of
modern investigators assigns the compilation of the first six books of
those _Constitutions_ to the end of the third century, and the eighth to
the middle of the fourth.

In the remarks to which CEPHAS has thus adverted, I gave some evidence
of marriages among ecclesiastics, at later dates than your correspondent
supposes such to have been allowed. Can he disprove that evidence? (See
Vol. iv., p. 194.)

    HENRY WALTER.

Your correspondent CEPHAS attacks the authorised version of Heb. xiii.
4., and favours your readers with another. I venture to offer a few
remarks on both these points.

I. He thinks--

  "The authors of the authorised version advisedly inserted _is_
  instead of _let_, to forward their own new (?) doctrines."

Doubtless whatever the translators did was done "_advisedly_;" but what
proof has CEPHAS that they adopted the present version _merely_ to serve
their own "interest?" Some verb _must_ be supplied, and either form will
suit the passage. It is true that Hammond prefers _let_ to _is_, but
there is as great authority on the other side.

1. St. Chrysostom:

  "_For marriage is honourable, and the bed undefiled_: why art thou
  ashamed of the honourable; why blushest thou at the
  undefiled?"--_Hom. XII._ (Colos. vi.) Oxf. Trans., vol. xiv. p.
  330.

  "_For marriage is honourable._"--_Hom. X._ (1 Tim. i.), Oxf.
  Trans., vol. xii. p. 77.

  "And this I say, not as accusing marriage; _for it is honourable_:
  but those who have used it amiss."--_Hom. IX._ (2 Corin. iii.),
  Oxf. T., vol. xxvii. p. 120.

  "And the blessed Paul says, '_Marriage is honourable in all, and
  the bed undefiled_;' but he has nowhere said, that the care of
  riches is honourable, but the reverse."--_Hom. V._ (Tit. ii.),
  Oxf. T., vol. xii. p. 313.

  "Thus marriage is accounted an honourable thing both by us and by
  those without; and _it is honourable_."--_Hom. XII._ (1 Cor. ii.),
  Oxf. T., vol. iv. p. 160.

2. St. Augustine:

  "Hear what God saith; not what thine own mind, in indulgence to
  thine own sins, may say, or what thy friend, thine enemy rather
  and his own too, bound in the same bond of iniquity with thee, may
  say. Hear then what the Apostle saith: '_Marriage is honourable in
  all, and the bed undefiled. But whoremongers and adulterers God
  will judge._'"--_Hom. on N.T._, Serm. xxxii. [82 B], Oxf. T., vol.
  xvi. p. 263.

  "'_Honourable, therefore, is marriage in all_, [he had just before
  been speaking of married persons] _and the bed undefiled._' And
  this we do not so call a good, as that it is a good in comparison
  of fornication," &c.--_Short Treat. de Bono Conjug._, Oxf. T.,
  vol. xxii. p. 283.

3. St. Jerome, to whose authority perhaps CEPHAS will sooner bow on a
version of Holy Scripture than to Hammond's:

  "Illi scriptum est: 'Honorabiles nuptiæ, et cubile immaculatum:'
  Tibi legitur, 'Fornicatores _autem_ et adulteros judicabit
  Deus.'"--69. _Epist. ad Ocean. Hier. Op._, vol. i. f. 325.
  Basileæ. Ed. Erasm. 1526.

In all these passages the words are quoted _affirmatively_, as is
evident from the context; and it seems more likely, as well as more
charitable, to believe that our translators were induced to adopt the
present version in deference to such authorities, than to impute to them
paltry motives of party purposes, which at the same time they have
themselves taken the surest means to get exposed, by printing the
inserted word in Italics. Can CEPHAS adduce any Father who quotes the
text as he would read it, in the imperative mood, and with the sense of
"all things," not "all persons?" There may be such, but they require to
be alleged in the face of positive and adverse testimony. It is evident
that the mere substitution of ἔστω for ἐστι, without an
entire change of the rest of the passage, will make no difference;
for that which was an assertion before will then have become a command.

II. CEPHAS proposes another version, and observes, "H. WALTER mistakes
the adjective feminine ἐν πᾶσι as meaning 'all men,' whereas it
signifies here 'in all things.'" Probably this is the first time that
MR. H. WALTER and your other readers ever heard that ἐν πᾶσι
was a _feminine_ adjective. Your learned critic must surely have either
forgotten his Greek grammar, in his haste to correct the translators of
the Bible, or else is not strong in the genders; for he has unluckily
hit upon the very gender which πᾶσι cannot be, by any
possibility. But let it pass for a "lapsus memoriæ." However, he
supports his version of "all things" by one other passage, 2 Cor. xi.
6., where yet it _may_ be translated, as Hammond himself does in the
margin, "among all men" (cf. v. 8.): and I will offer him one other:

  ἵνα ἐν πᾶσι δοξάζηται ὁ Θεὸς διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.--1 Pet.
  iv. 11.

  [Scil. χαρίσμασιν.]

But does CEPHAS mean to say that ἐν πᾶσι is _always_ to be thus
rendered, when found without a substantive? Here are five passages from
St. Paul's Epistles, in which, with one possible exception, it
_evidently_ means "persons," not "things."

  1. ὁ δὲ αὐτός ἐστι Θεὸς, ὁ ἐνεργῶν τὰ πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν.--1 Cor.
  xii. 6.

  2. ἵνα ᾖ ὁ Θεὸς τὰ πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν.--1 Cor. xv. 28.

  3. βάρβαρος, Σκύθης, δοῦλος, ἐλεύθερος, ἀλλὰ τὰ πάντα καὶ ἐν πᾶσι
  Χριστός.--Col. iii. 11.

  4. ταῦτα μελέτα, ἐν τούτοις ἴσθι· ἵνα σοῦ ἡ προκοπὴ φανερὰ ᾖ ἐν
  πᾶσιν.--1 Tim. iv. 15.

  5. ἀλλ' οὐκ ἐν πᾶσιν ἡ γνῶσις.--1 Cor. viii. 7.

Upon the whole, then, I imagine that if any one will take the trouble to
compare the passages above cited, and others in which the phrase
ἐν πᾶσι is used, he will find that _generally_ it refers to "persons,"
and requires to be limited by the context before it bears the sense of
"_things_:"--in other words, that the former meaning is to be considered
the rule, the latter the exception.

    E. A. D.

Is not this somewhat dangerous ground for "NOTES AND QUERIES" to venture
upon, bearing in mind "the depths profound" of disputatious polemics by
which it is bounded? As, however, A. B. C. has, to a certain extent, led
you forward, it were well for you to offer a more sufficient direction
to the intricacies of the way, than can be found in the only
half-informed "Replies" which have hitherto been given to his inquiry.
This is the more necessary, as we now are accustomed to turn to you for
the resolution of many of our doubts; and, under these circumstances, it
were better that you spake not at all, than that your language be
incomplete or uncertain. But the present question, from the very nature
of the case, is involved in some difficulty; and, to set about the proof
of individual instances of the non-celibate _as a rule_ of the bishops
of the primitive Church, or to discuss probabilities, which have already
formed the subject of much παραδιατριβή, would fill more of
your pages than you would be ready to devote to such a purpose. It would
best then subserve the intentions of your publication, upon such a
matter as the present, to direct the attention of your correspondents to
accredited sources of information, and leave them to work out the
results for themselves. Voluminous are these authorities, but it will be
found that the following contain the entire subject in dispute, as
presented by the combatants on both sides; namely, _The Defense of the
Apologie_, edit. fol. 1571, pp. 194-231, 540-545.; Wharton's _Treatise
of the Celibacy of the Clergy_, in Gibson's _Preservative against
Popery_, fol. 1738, vol. i. pp. 278-339.; and Preby. Payne's _Texts
Examin'd_, &c., in _the same_, pp. 340-359. Previously, however, to
commencing the study of these authorities, I would recommend a perusal
of the statement made by Messrs. Berington and Kirk, on the celibacy of
the clergy, in _The Faith of Catholics_, &c., edit. 1830, p. 384.

    COWGILL.

  [COWGILL is right: the question of the Marriage of Ecclesiastics
  is not calculated for our pages. But our correspondent CEPHAS
  having impugned the scholarship of H. WALTER, and the honesty of
  the translators of the authorized version, justice required that
  we should insert MR. WALTER'S answer, and one of the many replies
  we have received in defence of the translators. With these, and
  COWGILL'S references to authorities which may be consulted upon
  the question, the discussion in our columns must terminate.]


LORD STRAFFORD AND ARCHBISHOP USSHER.

(Vol. iv., p. 290.)

The question raised by PEREGRINUS is one of interest, which a comparison
of original and trustworthy writers enables us soon to settle. It is no
vulgar calumny which implicates Ussher in the advice which induced
Charles I. to consent to the murder of Lord Strafford; and though it
seems not unlikely that from timidity Ussher avoided giving any advice,
but allowed it to be inferred that he coincided in the counsel of
Williams; after weighing the evidence on this subject it is, to say the
least, impossible for us to believe for an instant that he acted in the
same noble manner as Bishop Juxon. Thus far is clear, that Bishop Juxon,
knowing that the king was satisfied of the innocence of Lord Strafford,
besought him to refuse to allow of the execution, and to "trust God with
the rest." Neither is it denied that Bishops Williams, Potter, and
Morton advised the king to assent to the bill of attainder, on the
ground that he was only assenting to the deeds of others, and was not
himself acting responsibly. And assuredly the same evidence which
carries us thus far, will not allow of our supposing that Ussher joined
with Juxon, though, as I have said before, he may, when summoned, have
avoided giving any advice. The facts seem simply these: when it was
known that the king, satisfied of the innocence of Lord Strafford,
hesitated about affixing his signature to the bill, or granting a
commission to others to do so, the London rabble, lord mayor, and
prentice lads were next called up, and the safety of the royal family
menaced. This led to the queen's solicitation, that Charles would regard
the lives of his family and sacrifice Strafford. Still the king could
not be moved. He had scruples of conscience, as well he might. This the
peers knowing, they _selected_ four bishops who should satisfy these
scruples: the four thus selected were Ussher, Williams, Morton, and
Potter. On Sunday morning, the 9th of May, the _four_ should have
proceeded to Whitehall: the _three_ latter did so; but Ussher preferred
the safer course of going and preaching at St. Paul's, Covent Garden,
leaving to his brother bishops the task of distinguishing between the
king's private conscience and his corporate one. The king, not satisfied
to leave the matter in the hands of those specially selected to urge his
consent, summoned the Privy Council. Juxon was present as Lord
Treasurer, and gave that noble and truly Christian advice: "Sir, you
know the judgment of your own conscience; I beseech you follow that, and
trust God with the rest." Moved by this, and by his own conviction of
Strafford's innocence, the king still refused assent; and it was needful
to hold another meeting, which was done in the evening of the same day.
As evening service had not been introduced into churches, Ussher was
present at the palace, and by his silence acquiesced in the advice
tendered by Bishop Williams. After the bill was signed, he broke silence
in useless regrets. But it was then too late to benefit Strafford, and
quite safe to utter his own opinions. In opposition to this, which rests
upon indisputable evidence, and with which Ussher's own statement
entirely accords, PEREGRINUS adduces the fact that Ussher attended
Strafford on the scaffold. But what does this prove? Merely that the
faction which would not tolerate that Laud or Juxon should minister the
last offices of the Church to their dying friend, did not object to
Ussher's presence; and that Strafford, who could have known nothing of
what had passed on Sunday in the interior of Whitehall, gladly accepted
the consolations of religion from the hands of the timid Primate of all
Ireland.

The substance of what appears in Elrington's _Life of Ussher_ had been
long before stated by Dr. Thomas Smith in his _Vita Jacobi Usserii_,
apud _Vitæ quorundam Erudit. et Illust. Virorum_; but if, in addition,
PEREGRINUS would consult May's _History of the Long Parliament_;
Echard's _History of England_, bk. ii. ch. i.; Whitelocke's _Memorials_,
p. 45.; Rushworth; Collier's _Ecclesiastical History_, t. ii. p. 801.;
Dr. Knowler, in Preface to _The Earl of Strafford's Letters and
Dispatches_; Dr. South, in _Sermon on Rom_. xi. 33.; and Sir George
Radcliffe's Essay in Appendix to _Letters, &c. of Lord Strafford_, t.
ii. p. 432., I doubt not but that he will come to the conclusion that
the above sketch is only consistent with stern fact.

    W. DN.


SCULPTURED STONES IN THE NORTH OF SCOTLAND.

(Vol. iv., p. 86.)

ABERDONIENSIS tells us that Mr. Chalmers, of Auldbar, had got drawings
of the sculptured stone obelisks in Angus lithographed for the Bannatyne
Club, and that the work had excited considerable interest, and that the
Spalding Club of Aberdeen are now obtaining drawings of the stones of
this description in the north of Scotland. Circulars from the Spalding
Club desiring information had been sent to a large number of the clergy,
to which answers had been received only from a small portion, and he
desired further information. These monuments, he states, are not to be
found south of the Forth, and I am told not further north than
Sutherlandshire. It would be desirable to know what these sculptured
obelisks and the sculptures on them are; if symbolical, of what, or what
they serve to illustrate; the supposed race and date to which they are
referable. What the Veronese antiquarians, Maffei and Bianchini, did
from the nation's ancient remains to throw light on history, shows what
may be done. In Orkney no sculptured stone, or stone with a runic
inscription, has been noticed among its circles of standing stones, or
single bantasteins; and though it is right to admit that attention has
not been directed to seeking them, yet I do not believe they could have
escaped observation had there been any such. The absence of runic stones
in Orkney appears singular in a country certainly Scandinavian from its
conquest by Harald Harfager, king of Norway, A.D. 895 (or perhaps
earlier), till its transfer to Scotland in 1468 in mortgage for a part
of the marriage portion of the Danish princess who became the queen of
James III. of Scotland by treaty between the countries of Denmark and
Norway and Scotland. In Zetland Dr. Hibbert noticed a few ruins, and
within these few days the peregrinations of the Spalding Club have
brought to notice, in the Island of Bruray, a stone of runic state,
having inscribed on it letters like runic characters, and sculptures in
relief, but decayed. A drawing is being made of it, to satisfy
antiquarian curiosity. It may merit notice that _no_ runic stones have
been found in Orkney, nor circles of standing stones in Zetland. The
sculptures of classic antiquity have been made use of to elucidate
history, and it is equally to be desired that those Scottish sculptured
remains should, if possible, be rescued from what Sir Francis Palgrave
calls the "speechless past," and made to tell their tale in illustration
of the earlier period of Scottish or Caledonian story.

    W. H. F.


ANAGRAMS.

(Vol. iv., pp. 226, 297.)

As anagrams have been admitted into your pages, perhaps the following,
on the merits of your publication, may find a place.

(1.) Every one will allow that "NOTES AND QUERIES" is _a
Question-Sender_, and a very efficient one too.

(2.) Always ready to furnish information, it says to all, _O send in a
Request_.

(3.) Its principles are loyal and constitutional, for its very name, in
other words, is _Queens and Tories_.

(4.) It is suited to all classes, for while it instructs the people, it
_tires no sad queen_.

(5.) It promotes peaceful studies so much that it _ends a queen's riot_.

(6.) The new subscriber finds it so interesting that on his bookseller's
asking if he wishes to continue it, he is sure to say, _No end as I
request_.

(7.) Lastly, its pages are only too absorbing; for I often observe
(after dinner) my friend _A--n's nose quite red_.

Hoping the editor, who must be accustomed, from the variety of his
contributions, to (8) _stand queer noise_, will excuse this trifling, I
beg to subscribe myself,

    (9) DAN. STONE, ESQUIRE.

As some of your readers feel an interest in anagrams, I venture to make
an additional contribution. Polemics apart, it will strike most persons
as remarkably happy:

      "But, holie father, I am certifyed
      That they youre power and policye deride;
      And how of you they make an anagram,
      The best and bitterest that the wits could frame.
                        As thus:
              _Supremus Pontifex Romanus._
                      Annagramma:
              _O non sum super petram fixus._"

It occurs in Taylor's _Suddaine Turne of Fortune's Wheele_, lately
printed for private circulation, under the care of Mr. Halliwell.

    C. H.

I am surprised not one of your correspondents has noticed the anagram by
George Herbert on _Roma_. As it is a good specimen of what may be
called "learned trifling" I subjoin a copy of it:--

      "Roma dabit oram, Maro,
      Ramo, armo, mora, et amor.

      "Roma tuum nomen quam non pertransiit _Oram_
        Cum Latium ferrent sæcula prisca jugum?
      Non deerat vel fama tibi, vel carmina famæ,
        Unde _Maro_ laudes duxit ad astra tuas.
      At nunc exsucco similis tua gloria _Ramo_
        A veteri trunco et nobilitate cadit.
      Laus antiqua et honor perierunt, te velut _Armo_
        Jam deturbârunt tempora longa suo.
      Quin tibi jam desperatæ _Mora_ nulla medetur;
        Qua Fabio quondam sub duce nata salus.
      Hinc te olim gentes miratæ odêre vicissim;
        Et cum sublata laude recedit _Amor_."

    H. C. K.

Amongst George Herbert's _Poems_ is an anagram, which I shall only
allude to, as it is upon a sacred subject; and Fulke Greville, Lord
Brooke, has left us a play upon his own name, which would scarcely
satisfy the requirements of MR. BREEN. However, I am glad of any
opportunity of referring to our great English Lucretius, and will
transcribe it:--

      "Let no man aske my name,
      Nor what else I should be;
      For _Greiv-Ill_, paine, forlorne estate
      Doe best decipher me."

      "Cælica," sonnet lxxxiii. _Works_, p. 233. Lond. 1633.

To me the most satisfactory anagram in the English language is that by
the witty satirist Cleveland upon Oliver Cromwell:

      _Protector. O Portet C. R._

      Cleveland's _Works_, p. 343. Lond. 1687.

    RT.

  Warmington, Oct. 18. 1851.


THE LOCUSTS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT.

(Vol. iv., p. 255.)

The Romaic version of Matt. iv. 4. is almost verbally taken from the
Greek, "ἡ δὲ τροφὴ αὐτοῦ ἦν ἀκρίδες καὶ μέλι ἄγριον." In Mark
i. 6., the expression is ἐσθίων ἀκρίδας. The only other place
in the New Testament were the word ἀκρὶς is found, is in Rev.
ix. 3. 7., where it plainly means a locust.

In the Septuagint version the word is commonly used for the Hebrew
אַרְבֶּה, locust, of the meaning of which there is no dispute; as
in Exodus, x. 4. 12, 13, 14.; Deut. xxviii. 38.; Joel, i. 4., ii. 25.;
Ps. cv. 34., &c.

In other places the word ἀκρὶς in the Septuagint corresponds to
חָגַב, in the Hebrew, as in Numb. xiii. 33.; Is. xl. 22.; and
that this was a species of locust which was eatable, appears from Lev.
xi. 21, 22.:

  "Yet there may ye eat of every _flying_ creeping thing that goeth
  upon all fours, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal
  upon the earth; even those of them ye may eat, the locust
  (אֶת הָאַרְבֶּה, τὸν βροῦχον) after his kind, and
  the bald locust after his kind, and the beetle after his kind, and
  the grasshopper (אֶת הֶחָגַב, τὴν ἀκρίδα) after his kind."

That locusts were eaten in the East is plain from Pliny, who in xi. 29.
relates this of the Parthians; and in vi. 30. of the Ethiopians, among
whom was a tribe called the Acridophagi, from their use of the
ἀκρὶς for food.

There seems, then, no reason to suppose that in Matt. iv. 4., Mark i.
6., the word ἀκρίδες should be taken to mean anything but
locusts.

It was, however, a very ancient opinion that the word ἀκρίδες
here means ἀκρόδρυα, or ἄκρα δρύων, or ἀκρέμονες, or ἀκρίσματα,
the ends of the branches of trees;
although the word ἀκρίδες is never used in this sense by pure
Greek writers.

    T. C.

  Durham.

The interpretation of ἀκρίδες (Matt. iii. 4.) suggested to
Βορέας is not new. Isidorus Pelusiota (Epist. i. 132.) says:

  "αἱ ἀκρίδες, αἷς Ἰωάννης ἐτρέφετο, οὐ ζῶά εἰσιν, ὥς
  τινες οἴονται ἀμαθῶς, κανθάροις ἀπεοίκοτἀπεοικότα· μὴ γένοιτο· ἀλλ'
  ἀκρέμονες βοτανῶν ἢ φυτῶν."

Chrysostom, Theophylact, and others, either adopt or quote the same
interpretation, as may be seen by referring to Suicer, _Thes. Eccl._,
under the word Ἀκρίς.

But in the absence of any direct proof that the word was ever used in
this sense, I do not think it safe to adopt interpretations which
possibly rested only on some tradition.

There is positive proof that locusts were eaten by some people. In Lev.
xi. 22. we have,

  "These of them ye may eat; the locust after his kind, and the bald
  locust after his kind, and the beetle after his kind, and the
  grasshopper after his kind."

In this passage we find ἀκρίδα used by the LXX. for the Hebrew
חָגַב, the last of the four kinds specified. I find in
several commentators whom I have consulted, reference to Bochart's
_Hierozoicon_, ii. 4. 7., but as I have not the book by me, I must be
content with referring your correspondent to it; and if he will look at
the commentaries of Elsner and Kuinoel, and Schleusner's _Lexicon_, he
will find references to so many authors in confirmation of the fact in
question, that I think he will not disagree with me in concluding that
where the balance of learned opinion, as well as of evidence, is so
great in favour of one interpretation, we ought not rashly to take up
another, however intelligent the party may be by whom it was suggested.

I have just looked into Wolfius on the New Testament, and there find a
list of writers who have adopted the interpretations of the Father
above mentioned, and also a host of others who defend the received
explanation. If they should be within the reach of Βορέας (as
most of them are not in mine), he will be able to balance their
arguments for himself.

    ב.

  L---- Rectory, Somerset.

Perhaps the following may be useful to your correspondent
Βορέας on the word ἀκρίδες, St. Matt. iii. 4.

Lev. xi. 22., we have an enumeration of the various kinds of locusts
known to the Jews, viz. the locust proper, the bald locust, beetle,
grasshopper; rendered in the Vulgate respectively, _bruchus_, _attacus_,
_ophiomachus_, _locusta_, the latter by the Septuagint,
ἀκρίδες. The Hebrew אַרְבֶּה, the locust proper, from רָבָה, to
multiply, is used chiefly for the ravaging locust, as Exod.
x. 12., probably a larger kind; while חָגַב, which is
translated _grasshopper_ in our version above, Vulg. _locusta_, Sept.
ἀκρίδες, rendered by Fuerstius (_Heb. Conc._) _locusta
gregaria_, is mostly used as implying diminutiveness, as Numbers, xiii.
33., and but once as a devouring insect, 2 Chro. vii. 13. It is
translated indiscriminately, in our version, _locust_ and _grasshopper_;
all these were edible and permitted to the Jews. Singularly enough,
there is one passage in which this word חָגַב is used, viz.
Eccl. xii. 5., in which it is doubted by some whether it may not mean a
vegetable; but this is not the opinion of the best authorities. The
observation of Grotius, by-the-bye, on the place is extremely curious,
differing from all the other commentators.

What we learn from the Old Testament, then is the probability that
ἀκρίδες meant a smaller kind of locust; and that they were
edible and permitted to the Jews. We have abundant evidence, moreover,
from other quarters, that these locusts were prized as food by
frequenters of the desert. Joh. Leo (_Descript. Africæ_, book ix.,
quoted by Drusius, _Crit. Sac._) says:

  "Arabiæ desertæ et Libyæ populi locustarum adventum pro felici
  habent omine; nam vel elixas, vel ad solem desiccatas, in farinam
  tundunt atque edunt."

Again, _Mercurialis, de Morb. Puerorum_, i. 3. ap. eun.:

  "Refert Agatharchides, in libro de Mare Rubro,
  ἀκριδοφάγους, i.e. eos qui vescuntur locustis, corpora habere
  maxime extenuata et macilenta."

Fit food, therefore, of the ascetic. Theophylact understood by
ἀκρίδες a wild herb or fruit; but all the most trustworthy commentators
besides were of opinion that an animal was intended.

The modern Greek interpretation of ἀκρίδες, "the young and
tender shoots of plants," may perhaps be traced in what Balth.
Stolbergius (see his essay on this passage, the most copious of any)
says; maintaining it to be an animal, he adds,--

  "Insectum, infirmis pennis alatum, ac proinde altius non evolans,
  sic dictum ab uredine locorum quæ attingit; quasi loca usta.
  Græcè, ἀκρὶς, παρὰ τὰς ἄκρας τῶν ἀσταχύων καὶ τῶν φυτῶν νόμεσθαι."

The following from _Hieron. adv. Jovinian_, ii. 6., quoted by Drusius,
while it asserts that locusts were esteemed as food in some countries,
will, perhaps, account for the unwillingness of the Greek friend of your
correspondent Βορέας to recognise an animal in the ἀκρίδες of John
the Baptist:

  "Apud orientales et Libyæ populos, quia per desertum et calidam
  eremi vastitatem locustarum nubes reperiuntur, locustis vesci
  moris est; hoc verum esse Johannes quoque Baptista probat.
  Compelle Phrygem et Ponticum ut locustas comedat, nefas putabit."

    H. C. K.

  ---- Rectory, Hereford.

Will you permit me to observe that the proper word is _locusts_? For I
remember when I was at Constantinople in the year 1809, that passing
through the fruit and vegetable bazaar, I observed some dried fruits,
resembling a large French bean pod; they appeared dry, and were of a
brown colour. I inquired the name of "the fruit;" I was told they were
"locusts." I was struck with the name, for I remembered the passage in
the New Testament, and I could not reconcile my mind to St. John living
upon locusts (the insects) and wild honey. I immediately tasted some of
the fruit, and found it sweet and good, something similar to the date,
but not so good, although nutritious. I was thus instantly convinced of
the possibility of St. John living upon "locusts and wild honey" in the
desert. I have related to you this fact as it occurred to me. The locust
tree must be well known amongst horticulturists. I do not pretend to
enter into the question whether the translation is right or wrong, as I
am no "scollard," as the old woman said.

    J. BL.

There is in Malta, the north of Africa, and Syria, a tree called the
locust tree; it bears a pod resembling the bean, and affords in those
countries food for both man and horse, which I have no doubt in my own
mind is the locust of the New Testament. If your correspondent feels
curious on the subject, I would search the bottom of my portmanteau, and
perhaps might be able to forward him a specimen.

    J. W.

Relative to the meaning of Ἀκρίδες  in Matt. iii., I beg to
refer your correspondent Βορέας to the note in Dr. Burton's
_Gr. Test._, where he will find reference to the authors who have
discussed the question.

    DX.


THE SOUL'S ERRAND.

(Vol. iv., p. 274.)

This beautiful little poem is assigned by Bishop Percy to Sir Walter
Raleigh, by whom it is said to have been written the night before his
execution; this assertion is, however, proved to be unfounded, from the
fact that Raleigh was not executed until 1618, and the poem in question
was printed in the second edition of Francis Davidson's _Poetical
Rhapsody_, in 1608. "It is nevertheless possible," observes Sir Harris
Nicolas (Introduction to _Poetical Rhapsody_, p. ci.), "that it was
written by Raleigh the night before he _expected_ to have been executed
at Winchester, November, 1603, a circumstance which is perfectly
reconcileable to dates, and in some degree accounts for the tradition
alluded to." This ground must be now abandoned, as it is certain that
MS. copies of the poem exist of a still earlier date. Malone had a MS.
copy of it dated 1595 (_Shakspeare by Boswell_, vol. ii. p. 579.);
Brydges speaks of one in the British Museum dated 1596 (_Lee Priory
edit. of Raleigh's Works_, vol. viii. p. 725.); and Campbell says, "it
can be traced to a MS. of a date as early as 1593" (_Specimens_, p. 57.
second edit.).

"The Soul's Errand" is found in the folio edition of Joshua Sylvester's
_Works_, and also in the poems of Lord Pembroke. Ritson, whose authority
merits some attention, peremptorily attributes it to Francis Davison.
"_The Answer to the Lye_," he observes, "usually ascribed to Raleigh,
and pretended to have been written the night before his execution, was
in fact by Francis Davison" (_Bib. Poet._ p. 308.).

The evidence in favour of these three claimants has been well examined
by the Rev. John Hannah (see _Poems by Sir Henry Wotton, Sir Walter
Raleigh, and others_, 12mo. 1845, pp. 89-99.), and completely set aside.
The same gentleman has printed a curious poetical piece, from an old MS.
Miscellany in the Chetham Library at Manchester (8012. p. 107), which
does something to establish Raleigh's claim. It commences as follows:--

      "Go, Eccho of the minde;
      A careles troth protest;
      Make answere yt _rude Rawly_
      No stomack can disgest."

  "In these verses (remarks Mr. Hannah) three points especially
  deserve attention; first, that they assign the disputed poem to
  Raleigh _by name_; next, that they were written _when he was still
  alive_, as is plain from the concluding stanza; and lastly, that
  they give the reason why it has been found so difficult to
  discover its true author, for the 13th stanza intimates that 'The
  Lie' was anonymous, though its writer was not altogether unknown."

Many MS. copies of "The Soul's Errand" exist. Two of them have been
printed at the end of Sir Harris Nicolas's edition of Davison's
_Poetical Rhapsody_; the one from Harl. MS. 2296., the other from a
manuscript in the same collection, No. 6910.; the readings of which not
only differ materially from each other, but in a slight degree also from
the printed copies. The title in Davison is "The Lie," which is retained
by Percy; that of "The Soul's Errand" was taken by Ellis from
Sylvester's _Works_. In some copies it is called "The Farewell."

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

The lines reported to have been written by Sir Walter Raleigh the night
before his execution were _not_, I think, those alluded to by ÆGROTUS.
In the _Reliquiæ Wottonianæ_ are some few "poems found amongst the
papers of Sir Henry Wotton," one of which is headed "Sir Walter Raleigh
the Night before his Death," and is this:

      "Even such is _time_ that takes on trust
        Our _youth_, our _joyes_, our all we have,
      And pays us but with _age_ and _dust_;
        Who in the dark and silent grave
      (When we have wandered all our ways)
      Shuts up the story of our days.
      But from this _earth_, this _grave_, this _dust_,
      My God shall raise me up, I trust."--W. R.

       P. 396, 3d edition, London, 1672.

In the _Collection of Sacred Poetry_, edited for the Parker Society by
Mr. Farr (vol. i. p. 236.), the lines I have adduced are headed "An
Epitaph" and attributed to Sir W. Raleigh on the above melancholy
occasion.

"The Soul's Errand," which ÆGROTUS quotes from, is entitled "The
Farewell" in the same collection; but so much ambiguity rests upon Sir
Walter's poetry that I shall merely add my conviction that the "Epitaph"
is only a fragment--"judicent peritiores."

    RT.

  Warmington, Oct. 14. 1851.

  [BARTANUS, JOHN ALGOR, H. E. H. have also kindly replied to this
  Query.]


THE TWO DRS. ABERCROMBIE.

(Vol. iii., p. 209.)

It does not appear that David and Patrick Abercromby either studied or
graduated at the University of Leyden. Their names are not found in the
alphabetic registers of the students matriculated in the University.[3]
For this reason the academic dissertations of these two physicians will
be sought in vain in the University library. Three works of David
Abercromby are, however, here:

      1. "Tuta ac Efficax
      Luis Venereæ, sæpe absque
      Mercurio, ac semper absque
      Salivatione Mercuriali
      Curandæ Methodus.
      Authore Davide Abercromby, M.D.
      Londini, impensis Samuel Smith ad
      insigne principis in Coemiterio Divi
      Pauli. MDCLXXXIV."
      Dedicated to Dr. Whistlero
      (Dubam, Londini, 7th Apr. 1684).

      2. "Davidis Abercromby, M.D.
      De variatione, ac varietate Pulsus Observationes
      accessit ejusdem authoris
      Nova Medicinæ
      tum Speculativæ,
      Tum Practicæ Clavis
      Sive ars
      Explorandi Medicæ Plantarum ac Corporum
      quorum--cumque Facultatis
      ex solo sapore.--Imp. Samuel Smith.
      Londini, MDCLXXXV. in 8vo."
      Dedicated to Robert Boyle.

      3. "Davidis Abercrombii,
      Scoto-Britanni
      Philosoph. ac Med. Doct.
      Fur Academicus.
      Amstelodami, apud Abrahamum
      Wolfgang, 1689."
      Dedicated to Jacobus Cuperus
      (classis ex Indiá nuper
      reducis archithalasso.)

  [Footnote 3: These are now under the care of Professor N. C. Kist
  of Leyden. It is to be regretted that they are not printed.]

Here is a list of the Abercrombys who have studied at Leyden, with the
dates of their matriculation:--

  "6. Oct. 1713. Alexander Abercromby, Scotus, an. 21. Stud. Juris."

  "25. Oct. 1724. Georgius Abercromby, an. 21, et Jacobus
  Abercromby, an. 20, Scoto-Britanni, Stud. Juris. Residing with
  Beeck in the Brustraet."

  "18. Nov. 1724. Jacobus Abercromby, Scotus, an. 24. Stud. Juris.
  Resides with S. Rosier, in the Moorstug."

  "3. Aug. 1725. Georgius Abercromby, Scoto-Britannus, an. 22. Stud.
  Juris. Apud J. Boudar, in the Brustraet."

  "3. Aug. 1725. Jacobus Abercromby, Scoto-Brit., an. 20. Stud.
  Juris. Apud eundem."

There is no other dissertation or work of the Abercrombys in the library
or the university here.

    ELSEVIR.

  Leyden.

  [We are indebted to the kindness of the Editor of the _Navorscher_
  for this extract from his forthcoming number.]


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Dacre Monument at Hurstmonceux_ (Vol. ii., p. 478.)--E. V. asks for the
names of the bearers of the following coats of arms on the monument to
the Dacre family in Hurstmonceux church. I beg to supply them:

1. Sab. a cross or. Havenell.

2. Barry of six arg. and az. a bend gules. Grey.

3. Arg. a fess gules. Doddingsells.

4. Quarterly or and gules an escarbuncle of eight rays floratty sab.
Mandeville, first Earl of Essex. Granted 1139.

5. Barry of six arg. and gules. Bayouse.

6. Az. an inescocheon in an orle of martlets or. Schatterset and
Walcott.

I cannot find one with the inescocheon charged.

In the following page, 479., J. D. S. asks the name of the bearer of a
coat in the great east window of the choir of Exeter cathedral, viz.
argent, a cross between four crescents gules. I beg to inform him that
arg. a cross _engrailed_ between four crescents gules belongs to
Bernham. Also, that arg. a cross _flory_ between four crescents gules,
belongs to the name of Tylly, or Tyllet, or Tillegh, of Dorsetshire.

    H. C. K.

  ---- Rectory, Hereford.

_Book-plates_ (Vol. iii., p. 495.; Vol. iv., pp. 46. 93.).--An instance
of what may be considered as an early example of a book-plate, occurs
pasted upon the fly-leaf of a MS. in the College amongst Philpot's
_Collections_ (marked P. e. 15.), being an engraving of a blank shield,
with a helmet and lambrequin, and a compartment for the motto; the whole
surrounded by a border ornamented with flowers; altogether well
engraved. The shield contains six quarterings, very neatly sketched with
pen and ink; and the helmet is surmounted by a crest, also neatly
sketched. In the upper part of the border, occupying a space evidently
intended to be filled up, is the autograph of "Joseph Holand;" while a
similar space in the lower part contains the date of "1585" in the same
hand, in which also the motto "Fortitudo mea Deus," is written within
the compartment above mentioned. The following, which is a collateral
proof of the age of the book-plate, is likewise an autograph title to
the MS.:

  "In this booke are conteyned the armes of the nobylytye of Ireland
  and of certeyne gentilmen of the same countrye. Joseph Holand,
  1585."

This Joseph Holand was father of Philip Holand, who was Portcullis
_tempore_ James I., and Gibbon, Bluemantle, says he was a "collector of
rarities."

By the kindness of an antiquarian friend I have three impressions of
different book-plates of the celebrated Pepys. I am not aware that they
are rare; but one is curious, as consisting merely of his initials "S.
P." in ornamented Roman capitals, elegantly and tastefully interlaced
with two anchors and cables, with his motto in a scroll above them.

    THOMAS WILLIAM KING, York Herald.

  College of Arms.

_Sermon of Bishop Jeremy Taylor_ (Vol. iv., p. 251.).--I beg to
acknowledge the favor of MR. CROSSLEY'S communication (which, from an
accident, I have only just seen) respecting a sermon of Bishop Taylor's,
and to inform him that I have been intending to produce it in the
concluding volume (vol. i. of the series), which will contain several
small pieces. I have been aware of the existence of it from the first,
the volume in question being in the Bodleian Catalogue.

May I take the opportunity of adding, how much I feel obliged by any
communication respecting Bishop Taylor's Works.

    C. PAGE EDEN.

_Moonlight_ (Vol. iv., p. 273.).--The effects of the moonlight on animal
matter is well known to the inhabitants of warm climates. I remember
that when I resided in Bermuda, if the meat (which was usually hung out
at night) was exposed to the rays of the moon it putrified directly. I
was frequently cautioned by the inhabitants to beware of the moon
shining upon me when asleep, as it caused the most dangerous and
virulent fevers. Another curious power of the moonlight was that of
developing temporary blindness, caused by the glare of the sun on bright
objects. I have often seen persons stumbling and walking as quite blind,
in a moonlight so bright I could see to read by; these were principally
soldiers who had been employed during the day working on the fort and on
the white stone. On hearing the surgeon of the regiment mention that
two-thirds of the men were troubled with it, causing a greater amount of
night-work as sentries to the few who were able to see at night, I
suggested to him the following plan mentioned in a story I had read many
years before in _Blackwood_:--

  "A pirate ship in those latitudes was several times nearly
  captured, owing to all the men being moon-blind at night; the
  captain ordered all his men to bind up one eye during the day, and
  by this means they could see with that eye to navigate the ship at
  night."

My friend the surgeon tried the experiment, and found bandaging the eyes
at night, and giving them complete rest, restored in time their sight at
moonlight.

    M. E. C. T.

That the light of the moon accelerates putrefaction is more than an
unfounded popular opinion. I have heard it repeatedly asserted by
observant and sober-minded naval officers as a fact, established by
experience in tropical climates. Their constant testimony was, that when
there is no moon the fresh meat is hung over the stern of the ship at
night for coolness; but if this is done when the moon shines, the meat
becomes unfit to eat.

The Query will probably elicit an answer from some one able to speak
more directly upon the subject. It well deserves further inquiry.

    T. C.

  Durham, Oct. 15.

_Flatman and Pope_ (Vol. iv., pp. 209. 283.).--"The Thought on Death,"
by Flatman, is referred to by Wharton, Bowles, and other editors of
Pope. Flatman's _Poems_ were first printed in 1674; 2ndly, 1676; 3rdly,
1682; and 4thly and lastly, 1686. The above occurs in the first edition.

For an account of Flatman, see Walpole's _Anecdotes of Painters_, vol.
iii. p. 20., ed. 1765; Granger's _Biog. Hist._; and Wood's _Athenæ_.

Some verses by him on his son, who died 1682, aged ten years, and
inscribed on his monument in St. Bride's Church, will be found in Stow
by Strype, vol. i. p. 740. ed. 1754.

Flatman wrote a preface to Shipman's _Poems_, and verses to Sanderson's
_Graphice_, fol.; also to Walton in Chalkhill's _Thealma and Clearchus_,
and Johnson's (Wm.) _Narrative of Deliverance at Sea_, 18mo. 3d edit.
1672.

    π.

_Berlin Time_ (Vol. iv., p. 256.).--Is your correspondent very sure that
the astronomers of France, Germany, Italy, and Spain begin the day at
midnight? I turn to Herschel's _Outlines of Astronomy_ (p. 86.), and I
find that astronomers (without any limitation) commenced their day at
noon. Sir John Herschel is inclined to think that it would be better to
commence at midnight with the world at large. Surely if the foreign
astronomers _already did this_, he would not have failed to cite their
example, and to remind the English astronomers that they stood alone;
but of this he does not give the smallest hint.

    A LEARNER.

Your correspondent DX. is mistaken in supposing that "foreigners
ordinarily commence the astronomical day at midnight."

With respect to France, in the _Explication et Usage des Articles de la
Connaissance des Temps_ it is expressly stated: "Le jour astronomique
_commence à midi_."

And in the explanation appended to the _Berlin Jahrbuch_, it is in like
manner distinctly laid down:

  "The time which must be always understood, unless it is otherwise
  particularly expressed, is the mean time of the meridian of the
  New Berlin Observatory, which is taken to be 44m 14·0s eastward of
  Paris, and 53m 35·5s eastward of Greenwich. _The beginning of the
  day is at noon._"

The _civil_ day always commences at the midnight preceding this
_astronomical_ day.

It follows that Sept. 17, 3h 40m 30s Greenwich mean time, is simply
Sept. 17, 4h 34m 5·5s Berlin mean time.

    T. C.

  Durham.

_Ruined Churches_ (Vol. iv., p. 261.).--The old church of St. John
in the Wilderness, near Exmouth, can hardly be said to be _in
ruins_, in the sense before implied with regard to marriages, &c.
It is _dilapidated_, and almost deserted; but on visiting it a few
days since, I found it securely locked, the nave weather tight,
and sufficiently furnished for baptisms, marriages, and burials,
with surplice, two Prayer Books, Bible, table, font, bier, and
bell. They had certainly all seen their best days; but on that
account perhaps they are supposed to be more in keeping with the
general state of the venerable fabric.

It is, in fact, the mother church of others in the vicinity, which are
only chapels of ease; but as the population increased around them, and
fell away, from some cause or other, from the precincts of the old
church, it seems to have been deserted and dismantled of everything but
what is barely necessary for burials, and an occasional wedding and
baptism. It is the south aisle only which has been removed, and that by
authority, many years ago; but certainly, it has on that side, and from
the want of glass in the fine tower window, a desolate and ruinous
appearance. In the churchyard there is a most venerable specimen of a
noble yew-tree.

    H. T. E.

  Clyst St. George, Oct. 10. 1851.

_Italian Writer on Political Economy--Death of Carli_ (Vol. iv., p.
175.).--It is inquired, "What was the first work by an Italian writer on
any element of political economy? and in what year did Carli, the
celebrated economist, die?" The latter question I at once answer by
stating that it was on the 22d of February, 1795, in his seventy-fifth
year, having been born at Cape d'Istria, an episcopal town of Illyria,
April, 1720, of a noble family. His collected works, embracing almost
the _omne scibile_, were published in 1784-1794, nineteen octavo
volumes, at Milan, _Delle Opere del Signor Gianrinaldo Conte Carli,
Presidente Emerito del Supremo Conciglio di Pubblica Economia, &c._ The
first publication, confined to fifteen volumes, was extended to nineteen
by him, _Delle Antichità Italiche, con Appendice, de' Documenti, &c._,
1793-1795. Few writers have exceeded him in the variety of his subjects,
which combined the drama, poetry, translations, history, philosophy, the
monetary system, political economy, &c. As to your correspondent ALPHA'S
first inquiry, it will be satisfactorily answered by consulting the
collection printed at Milan in 1803, _Scrittori Classici Italiani_,
first volume of the fifty in 8vo., to which the entire extend up to that
period, since when several have appeared.

    J. R.

  Cork.

_Epigram ascribed to Mary Queen of Scots_ (Vol. iv., p. 316.).--The four
lines inscribed in the copy of Sallust mentioned by C., and which have
been _supposed_ to be the composition of the Queen of Scots, will be
found in the second book of Ovid's _Amores_, Elegia 18, ll. 5-8.

    C. W. G.

_Surplices_ (Vol. iv., p. 192.).--In reference to the origin, use, &c.
of this and other ecclesiastical vestments, let J. Y. consult the
following authorities:--Bona, _Rerum Liturgicarum_, lib. i. cap. 24.;
Gerberti _Vetus Liturgia Alemannica_, tom. i. disquisit. iii. cap 3.;
Goar, _Rituale Græcum_; Du Cange's _Glossary_; and, _Ferrarius de Re
Vestiaria_. The information on the subject, hence to be obtained, is
briefly epitomised in the appendix to Palmer's _Antiq. of the English
Liturgy_. Let J. Y. also look at Hawkins' _Hist. Music_, vol. ii. p.
432.; vol. iii. p. 71.; likewise at Bishop Challoner's _Garden of the
Soul_, pp. x. 123. (edit. 1824); and, if he have a full abundance of
leisure, with sufficient resolution to abandon it to an undertaking so
pregnant with instructiveness, let him too, by all means, "explore with
curious search" the controversial writings of the early periods of
Puritanism, on the sadly vexed question of the habits of the clergy, to
which he will find abundant reference in all our Anglican church
histories.

    COWGILL.

_Continental Watchmen and their Songs_ (Vol. iv., p. 206.).--

      THE MANNER OF WATCHMEN INTIMATING THE
      TIME AT HERRNHUTH, GERMANY.

      Past eight o'clock! O Herrnhuth, do thou ponder:
      Eight souls in Noah's ark were living yonder.
      'Tis nine o'clock: ye brethren, hear it striking;
      Keep hearts and houses clean, to our Saviour's liking.
      Now brethren, hear, the clock is ten and passing:
      None rest but such as wait for Christ embracing.
      Eleven is past! still at this hour of eleven,
      The Lord is calling us from earth to heaven.
      Ye, brethren, hear, the midnight clock is humming:
      At midnight our great Bridegroom will be coming.
      Past one o'clock! the day breaks out of darkness;
      Great morning star appear, and break our hardness!
      'Tis two! on Jesus wait this silent season,
      Ye two so near related, Will and Reason.
      The clock is three! the blessed Three doth merit
      The best of praise, from body, soul, and spirit.
      'Tis four o'clock, when three make supplication
      The Lord will be the fourth on that occasion.
      Five is the clock! five virgins were discarded,
      When five with wedding garments were rewarded.
      The clock is six, and I go off my station;
      Now, brethren, _watch yourselves for your salvation_.

    F. B. RELTON.

_Horology_ (Vol. iv., p. 175.).--H. C. K. inquires for the best
_scientific_ work on horology. In my searches after the history of time
keeping in all ages, I found none more useful than a little tract, the
production of a watchmaker, and to be had at 81. Fleet Street. The
_Mirror_ of 1824 contains some interesting notes on this subject.

    C. R.

  Paternoster Row.

_The Aneroid Barometer_ (Vol. iv., p. 295.).--The intended signification
of this name, "aneroid," can of course be only determined by the person
who conferred it; upon any less direct authority the derivation quoted
from Mr. Dent's description can scarcely be received. The meaning of
νηρὸς is _moist_, rather than _fluid_; but even admitting the
latter signification, then the last syllable ought surely to be
referred, not to εἰδος, but to its root εἰδω (scio); _perceivable
without fluid_ being a much better characteristic than _a form
without fluid_.

But taking into consideration the peculiar construction of this sort of
barometer, its flexible diaphragm supported from within against the
pressure of the atmosphere, may not its name have been derived from
ἀνὰ (adversus), ἀὴρ (aer), and οἶδος (tumor)?

    A. E. B.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

_The Chronological New Testament, in which the Text of the Authorised
Version is newly divided into Paragraphs and Sections, with the Dates
and Places of Transactions marked, the Marginal Renderings of the
Translators, many Parallel Illustrative Passages printed at length,
brief Introductions to each Book, and a Running Analysis of the
Epistles_, is another and most praiseworthy attempt "to make our
invaluable English version more intelligible to devout students of the
Word of God," by the various helps in arrangement and printing set forth
in the ample title-page which we have just transcribed. All such
endeavors to increase that "knowledge which maketh wise unto salvation"
carry within themselves the elements of success; and we shall be the
more glad to find that the present work meets with the patronage it
deserves, as we may then look for the Old Testament on the same plan.

Those of our readers who remember the parallel which Bishop Ken drew
between himself and

      Bless'd Gregory, whose patriarchal height
      Shed on the Eastern sphere celestial light,

and who may desire to read the life of him whom that great ornament of
our Church chose for his model, will thank us for drawing their
attention to _Gregory of Nazianzum--a Contribution to the Ecclesiastical
History of the Fourth Century_, by Professor Ullman of Heidelberg, which
has just been translated by Mr. G. V. Cox. The translator has for the
present confined himself to that part of Dr. Ullman's volume which
relates to the life of Gregory, and is therefore more attractive to the
general reader; the dogmatic part, or the statements and examination of
Gregory's theological opinions, being for the present withheld. In this
we think Mr. Cox has done wisely, since we have no doubt that the
present volume will be read with great interest by many who will gladly
dwell upon the life and practice of this distinguished Father of the
Church, but who would be turned aside from its perusal, from their
unwillingness or inability to enter upon any such investigation as is
implied in the critical examination of Gregory's theological opinions.

We have again to thank Dr. Latham for an important contribution towards
a proper knowledge of our own tongue; and it would be difficult to point
out a more successful combination of ethnological and philological
knowledge than is exhibited in his newly-published _Hand-book of the
English Language, for the Use of Students of the Universities and Higher
Classes of Schools_. We cannot of course enter into any analysis of a
work which is as replete with interest and amusement as it is with
instruction; but we may point out as peculiarly deserving of attention
the first part, which treats of the Germanic origin of the English
language; and the second, which treats of its history and analysis. We
are glad to see Dr. Latham's view of the Frisian share in the invasion
of this country.

The commendations so universally bestowed upon Mr. Grant for the
research, accuracy, and picturesque interest displayed in his _Memorials
of the Castle of Edinburgh_, and his _Memoirs of Sir W. Kirkaldy of
Grange_, may be extended to him for his _Memoirs and Adventures of Sir
John Hepburn, Knight, Governor of Munich, Marshal of France under Louis
XIII., and Commander of the Scots Brigade under Gustavus Adolphus_. He
has on this, as on former occasions, the advantage of a new and
interesting subject; and by grouping round his hero--whose conduct and
bravery won for him the reputation of being esteemed the best of that
warlike age, next to Gustavus himself--all the great leaders in that
struggle for the liberties of Germany, the Thirty Years' War--he has
produced a volume which will be read with great interest, not only for
the picture it exhibits of the distinguished soldier of fortune who
forms its immediate subject, but also for its record of the services of
the Scottish troops who served in the German wars under Gustavus
Adolphus.

_A Little Earnest Book upon a Great Old Subject_, in which Mr. Wilson
endeavors to pourtray the thoughts and feelings of the poet, will be
read with pleasure by all who agree with him that poetry rightly
understood is associated with everything that is eternal and just, true
and elevating, tender and loving. It is a little book of quaint and
pleasant thoughts, quaintly got up, and beautifully illustrated.

Mr. Mitchell, of Bond Street, announces a beautifully illustrated work
on _The Parables of our Saviour_, to be engraved in the line manner by
the best artists from the designs of Franklin.

The Sales of Books, &c., those heralds of the coming winter, are
beginning. Messrs. Puttick and Simpson commence this day a six days'
sale of valuable books removed from the country, including many curious
and rare works. On Monday Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson will commence
their season by selling a portion of the valuable library of a gentleman
deceased, which will occupy them for four days; and on Monday and the
fifteen following days Messrs. Foster and Son will be engaged in the
disposal of that matchless series of examples of Mediæval Architecture,
and of other objects of decorative art, remarkable alike for their
beauty, rarity, and historical value, so long known as the _Cottingham
Museum_.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--J. Miller's (43. Chandos Street) Catalogue No. 30.
of Books Old and New; W. Brown's (130. and 131. Old Street) List of
Miscellaneous English Books.


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

WILLIS'S ARCHITECTURE OF THE MIDDLE AGES. (10_s._ 6_d._ will be paid for
a copy in good condition.)

CARPENTER'S DEPUTY DIVINITY; a Discourse of Conscience. 12mo. 1657.

A TRUE AND LIVELY REPRESENTATION OF POPERY, SHEWING THAT POPERY IS ONLY
NEW MODELLED PAGANISM, &c., 1679. 4to.

ROBERT WILSON'S SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF HAWICK. Small 8vo. Printed in
1825.

JAMES WILSON'S ANNALS OF HAWICK. Small 8vo. Printed in 1850.

BARRINGTON'S SKETCHES OF HIS OWN TIME. Vol. III. London, 1830.

BRITISH POETS (CHALMERS', Vol. X.) London, 1810.

CHESTERFIELD'S LETTERS TO HIS SON. Vol. III. London, 1774.

CONSTABLE'S MISCELLANY. Vol. LXXV.

D'ARBLAY'S DIARY. Vol. III. London, 1842.

ERSKINE'S SPEECHES. Vol. II. London, 1810.

HARE'S MISSION OF THE COMFORTER. Vol. I. London, 1846.

HOPE'S ESSAY ON ARCHITECTURE. Vol. I. London, 1835. 2nd Edition.

MULLER'S HISTORY OF GREECE. Vol. II. (Library of Useful Knowledge, Vol.
XVII.)

ROMILLY'S (SIR SAMUEL) MEMOIRS. Vol. II. London, 1840.

SCOTT'S (SIR W.) LIFE OF NAPOLEON. Vol. I. Edinburgh, 1837. 9 Vol.
Edition.

SCOTT'S NOVELS. Vol. XXXVI. (Redgauntlet, II.); Vols. XLIV. XLV. (Ann of
Grerstein, I. & II.) 48 Vol. Edition.

SMOLLETT'S WORKS. Vols. II. & IV. Edinburgh, 1800. 2nd Edition.

SOUTHEY'S POETICAL WORKS. Vol. III. London, 1837.

CRABBE'S WORKS. Vol. V. London, 1831.

Four letters on several subjects to persons of quality, the fourth being
an answer to the Bishop of Lincoln's book, entitled POPERY, &c., by
Peter Walsh. 1686. 8vo.

A CONFUTATION OF THE CHIEF DOCTRINES OF POPERY. A Sermon preached before
the King, 1678, by William Lloyd, D.D. 1679. 4to.

A SERMON PREACHED AT ST. MARGARET'S, WESTMINSTER, BEFORE THE HOUSE OF
COMMONS, MAY 29, 1685, by W. Sherlock, D.D. 4to. London, 1685.

POPE'S LITERARY CORRESPONDENCE. Vol. III. Curll. 1735.

ALMANACS, any for the year 1752.

MATTHIAS' OBSERVATIONS ON GRAY. 8vo. 1815.

SHAKSPEARE, JOHNSON, AND STEVENS, WITH REED'S ADDITIONS. 3rd Edition,
1785. Vol. V.

SWIFT'S WORKS, Faulkner's Edition. 8 Vols. 12mo. Dublin, 1747. Vol. III.

SOUTHEY'S PENINSULAR WAR. Vols. V. VI. 8vo.

JOURNAL OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF DUBLIN. Vol. I. Part I. (One or
more copies.)

THE ANTIQUARY. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1816. Vols. I. and II.

HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF TWICKENHAM, being the First Part of Parochial
Collections for the County of Middlesex, begun in 1780 by E. Ironside,
Esq., London, 1797. (This work forms 1 vol. of Miscell. Antiquities in
continuation of the Bib. Topographica, and is usually bound in the 10th
Volume.)

[Star symbol] Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage
free_, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186.
Fleet Street.


Notices to Correspondents.

_Although we have this week again enlarged our Paper to 24 pages, we
have to apologise for the omission of many interesting articles._ DR.
LOTSKY'S "Panslavic Literature and the British Museum," _and the
communication of a Subscriber to the Anglo-Catholic Library on Bishop
Overall's_ Convocation Book, _shall appear next week. Where may we send
the latter a proof?_

C. (Jamaica) _will find the history of the line from Philip Gualtier's_
"Alexandreis,"--

      "Incidis in Scyllam, cupiens vitare Charybdim,"

_in our_ 2nd Vol. pp. 85. 136. 141.

A LIVERPOOL CORRESPONDENT. _Yes, as many as he takes the box for. Neat
wines means pure wines._

W. F.'s _very valuable suggestion shall not be lost sight of._

ÆGROTUS. _The Moonlight reply was in type for last Number, but omitted
from want of room. The parallel was a very fair one; but those to whom
it was not obvious might have misconstrued the allusion._

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Grimsdyke--Pasquinade--Charles II. and Written
Sermons--Welwood Memoirs--Sheridan's MS. Drama--Execution at
Durham--Caxton Memorial--The Rev. Mr. Gay--Duke of Monmouth's Pocket
Book--Serpent with Human Head--Childe Harold--Peter Wilkins,
&c.--Meaning of Dray--Pauper's Badge--Burke's Mighty Boar of the
Forest--Godfrey Higgins' Works, &c.--Poetic Imitations--Cognation of the
Jews and Lacedæmonians--Bourchier Family--Curious Monumental
Inscription--A little Bird told me--Colonies in England--Pharetram de
Tutesbit--Coleridge's Christabel--Cagots--Touching for the Evil--Three
Estates of the Realm--Wat the Hare--Flemish account--Mary Queen of
Scots--Termination "-aster"--Medical Use of Pigeons--Bess of Hardwicke._

_Copies of our Prospectus, according to the suggestions of_ T. E. H.,
_will be forwarded to any correspondent willing to assist us by
circulating them._

VOLS. I., II., _and_ III., _with very copious Indices, may still be had,
price_ 9_s._ 6_d. each, neatly bound in cloth._

NOTES AND QUERIES _is published at noon on Friday, so that our country
Subscribers may receive it on Saturday. The subscription for the Stamped
Edition is 10s. 2d. for Six Months, which may be paid by Post-office
Order drawn in favour of our Publisher,_ MR. GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet
Street; _to whose care all communications for the Editor should be
addressed._

_Errata._--In the article "_Panslavic_ Sketches," l. 2. for "late_nt_"
read "late_st_;" l. 6. for "T_i_ssalonichi" read "T_e_ssalonichi;" and
l. 9. for "historical" read "_ante-historical_." Page 313. col. 2. l.
46. for "repent_i_" read "repent_e_."



MISS STRICKLAND'S NEW SERIES OF ROYAL BIOGRAPHIES.

  LIVES OF THE QUEENS OF SCOTLAND, and English Princesses connected
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  Two Volumes are published, containing the Lives of Margaret Tudor,
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  Vol. III. will contain the first part of the Life of Mary Queen of
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  To be completed in 6 vols., price 10_s._ 6_d._ each, with
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  WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London.


CRABB'S TECHNICAL DICTIONARY.

  This day is published, in 1 vol. foolscap 8vo., price 7_s._ 6_d._
  extra cloth, with numerous woodcut illustrations,

  A TECHNICAL DICTIONARY; or, a Dictionary explaining all terms of
  Art and Science. By GEORGE CRABB, Esq., M.A., Author of the
  "Universal Technological Dictionary," "Dictionary of Synonymes,"
  &c.

  London: W. MAXWELL, 32. Bell Yard, Lincoln's Inn.


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  A CATALOGUE OF STANDARD WORKS, which are approved by the most
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PROVENÇAL AND OLD FRENCH DIALECTS.--Honnorat, Dictionnaire Provençal et
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  Communications as to terms, &c. to be addressed to the Honorary
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  London, 24th October, 1851.


Vols. I. and II. now ready.

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EVERY READER OF NOTES AND QUERIES should possess a Copy of TODD'S INDEX
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  VASARI'S LIVES of the PAINTERS, SCULPTORS, and ARCHITECTS,
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  Of this work the Westminster and Foreign Quarterly says, "The
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  HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6, York Street, Covent Garden.


BOHN'S CLASSICAL LIBRARY FOR NOVEMBER.

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  HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6, York Street, Covent Garden.


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  DR. MANTELL'S PETRIFACTIONS and their TEACHINGS; an illustrated
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  HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6, York Street, Covent Garden.


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  REDDING'S HISTORY and DESCRIPTION of WINES. New and revised
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  HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6, York Street, Covent Garden.


Cloth, One Shilling, pp. 160.

  WELSH SKETCHES, chiefly ECCLESIASTICAL, to the Close of the
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  CONTENTS:--1. Bardism. 2. The Kings of Wales. 3. The Welsh Church.
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  JAMES DARLING, Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields.


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The late MR. COTTINGHAM'S Museum of Mediæval Art.

  MESSRS. FOSTER & SON are directed by the Executors of the Late L.
  N. Cottingham, Esq., F.S.A., to SELL by AUCTION, on the Premises,
  43. Waterloo-bridge Road, on MONDAY, November 3, and about 15
  following days (Saturdays and Sundays excepted), the COTTINGHAM
  MUSEUM; comprising a most ample and varied Series of Examples of
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  Fac-similes of some of the finest Monuments of the 13th, 14th, and
  15th Centuries. In Furniture, Metal Work, Stained Glass, and
  various other Departments of Decorative Art, this Collection is
  rich in objects remarkable for their Beauty, Rarity, and Historic
  Value.

  Illustrated Catalogues, at 1_s._ each, may be had of MESSRS.
  FOSTER, 54. Pall Mall, 14 days before the Sale. The view will be
  on and after the 27th of October.


On 1st November, price 2_s._

  NO. LXXI. OF THE ECCLESIASTIC.

  Contents:

      1. ELEMENTARY THEOLOGY--WESTCOTT AND CHRETIEN.
      2. BIRK'S LIFE OF BICKERSTETH.
      3. ERASTIANISM.
      4. ANTICHRIST, AND THE BABYLON OF THE APOCALYPSE.
      5. SYNODICAL ACTION.

  Reviews and Notices.

  London: J. MASTERS, Aldersgate Street and New Bond Street.


This day, No. 13., Imperial 4to. price 2_s._ 6_d._, (continued monthly),

  DETAILS OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE,

  Measured and drawn from existing examples, by J. K. COLLING, Architect.

  Contents:

       E.E.   Exterior of Clerestory, West Walton Church, Norfolk,
        "     South Porch         ditto    ditto.
        "     Plan and Details    ditto    ditto.
      DEC.   Window from St. Stephen's Church, near Canterbury.
        "     Parclose Screen, Geddington Church, Northamptonshire.
       PER.   Lectern from Hawstead Church, Suffolk.

  London: DAVID BOGUE and GEORGE BELL, Fleet Street.



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London: and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, November 1. 1851.



      [List of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries", Vol. I-IV]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 88  | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No. 89  | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No. 90  | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No. 91  | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 92  | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No. 93  | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No. 94  | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No. 95  | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No. 96  | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      | Vol. IV No. 104 | Oct. 25, 1851      | 305-333 | PG # 38926 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      +------------------------------------------------+------------+





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