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Title: Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians
Author: Jackson, W. H.
Language: English
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            DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR.
  UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE TERRITORIES.
          F. V. HAYDEN, U. S. GEOLOGIST.


  MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS, No. 9.


  DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE

  OF

  PHOTOGRAPHS

  OF

  NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS.

  BY

  W. H. JACKSON,
  PHOTOGRAPHER OF THE SURVEY.


  WASHINGTON:
  GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
  1877.



PREFATORY NOTE.


  OFFICE OF UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL AND
  GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY OF THE TERRITORIES,

  _Washington, D. C., November 1, 1877._


The collection of photographic portraits of North American Indians
described in the following "Catalogue" is undoubtedly the largest and
most valuable one extant. It has been made at great labor and expense,
during a period of about twenty-five years, and now embraces over one
thousand negatives, representing no less than twenty-five tribes. Many
of the individuals portrayed have meanwhile died; others, from various
causes, are not now accessible; the opportunity of securing many of the
subjects, such as scenes and incidents, has of course passed away. The
collection being thus unique, and not to be reproduced at any
expenditure of money, time, or labor, its value for ethnological
purposes cannot easily be over-estimated.

Now that the tribal relations of these Indians are fast being
successively sundered by the process of removal to reservations, which
so greatly modifies the habits and particularly the style of dress of
the aborigines, the value of such a graphic record of the past increases
year by year; and there will remain no more trustworthy evidence of what
the Indians have been than that afforded by these faithful sun-pictures,
many of which represent the villages, dwellings, and modes of life of
these most interesting people, and historical incidents of the
respective tribes, as well as the faces, dresses, and accoutrements of
many prominent individuals.

Those who have never attempted to secure photographs and measurements or
other details of the physique of Indians, in short, any reliable
statistics of individuals or bands, can hardly realize the obstacles to
be overcome. The American Indian is extremely superstitious, and every
attempt to take his picture is rendered difficult if not entirely
frustrated by his deeply-rooted belief that the process places some
portion of himself in the power of the white man, and his suspicion that
such control may be used to his injury. No prescribed regulations for
the taking of photographs, therefore, are likely to be fully carried
out. As a rule, front and profile views have been secured whenever
practicable. Usually it is only when an Indian is subjected to
confinement that those measurements of his person which are suitable for
anthropological purposes can be secured. In most cases the Indian will
not allow his person to be handled at all, nor submit to any
inconvenience whatever. Much tact and perseverance are required to
overcome his superstitious notions, and in many cases, even of the most
noted chiefs of several tribes, no portrait can be obtained by any
inducement whatever. If, therefore, the collection fails to meet the
full requirements of the anthropologist, it must be remembered that the
obstacles in the way of realizing his ideal of a perfect collection are
insurmountable.

About two hundred of the portraits, or one-fifth of the whole
collection, have been derived from various sources, and most of these
are pictures of Indians composing the several delegations that have
visited Washington from time to time during the past ten years. Such
individuals are usually among the most prominent and influential members
of the respective tribes, of which they consequently furnish the best
samples. The greater portion of the whole collection is derived from the
munificent liberality of William Blackmore, esq., of London, England,
the eminent anthropologist who has for many years studied closely the
history, habits, and manners of the North American Indians. The
Blackmore portion of the collection consists of a number of smaller lots
from various sources; and it is Mr. Blackmore's intention to enlarge it
to include, if possible, all the tribes of the North American continent.

The entire collection, at the present time consisting of upward of a
thousand negatives, represents ten leading "families" of Indians,
besides seven independent tribes, the families being divisible into
fifty-four "tribes," subdivision of which gives forty-three "bands." The
collection continues to increase as opportunity offers.

The present "Catalogue" prepared by Mr. W. H. Jackson, the well-known
and skilful photographer of the Survey, is far more than a mere
enumeration of the negatives. It gives in full, yet in concise and
convenient form, the information which the Survey has acquired
respecting the subjects of the pictures, and is believed to represent an
acceptable contribution to anthropological literature.

  F. V. HAYDEN,
  _United States Geologist_.



PREFACE.


The following Descriptive Catalogue is intended to systematize the
collection of Photographic Portraits of Indians now in the possession of
the United States Geological Survey of the Territories, and to place on
record all the information we have been able to obtain of the various
individuals and scenes represented. It is of course far from complete;
but it is a beginning, and every new fact that comes to light will be
added to what has already been secured. This information has been
gathered from many sources, principally from Indian delegates visiting
Washington, and by correspondence with agents and others living in the
Indian country.

Particular attention has been paid to proving the authenticity of the
portraits of the various individuals represented, and it is believed
that few, if any, mistakes occur in that respect.

The historical notices are mainly compilations from standard works on
the subject.

All of the following portraits and views are photographed direct from
nature, and are in nearly every case from the original plates, the
exceptions being good copies from original daguerreotypes or photographs
that are not now accessible.

The portraits made under the supervision of the Survey are generally
accompanied by measurements that are as nearly accurate as it has been
possible to make them.

The pictures vary in size from the ordinary small card to groups on
plates 16 by 20 inches square. The majority, however, are on plates
6-1/2 by 8-1/2 inches square; these are usually trimmed to 4 by 5-1/2
inches, and mounted on cabinet cards.

All the photographs are numbered upon their faces, and as these numbers
do not occur in regular order in the text a Numerical Index is appended,
by means of which the name of any picture, and the page on which the
subject is treated, may be readily found.

  W. H. J.



ADVERTISEMENT.


Miscellaneous Publications No. 5, entitled "Descriptive Catalogue of the
Photographs of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories
for the years 1869 to 1873, inclusive," published in 1874, contains, on
pages 67-83, a "Catalogue of Photographs of Indians, [etc.]" This,
however, is a mere enumeration of the negatives then in the possession
of the survey, and is now superseded by the present independent
publication.



  CATALOGUE OF PHOTOGRAPHS OF NORTH
  AMERICAN INDIANS.



LIST OF FAMILIES, TRIBES, AND BANDS.


I. ALGONKINS.

  CHEYENNES.
  CHIPPEWAS.
        _Pembina._
        _Red Lake._
        _Rabbit Lake._
        _Mille Lac._
        _Wisconsin._

  DELAWARES.
  MENOMONEES.
  MIAMIS.
  OTTAWAS.
  POTTAWATOMIES.
  SACS AND FOXES.
  SHAWNEES.
  PEQUODS.
        _Stockbridge._
        _Brotherton._


II. ATHABASCAS.

  APACHES.
        _Coyotero._
        _Essa-queta._
        _Jicarilla._
        _Mohave._
        _Pinal._
        _Yuma._
        _Chiricahua._
  NAVAJOS.


III. DAKOTAS.

  CROWS.
  DAKOTAS.
        _Blackfeet._
        _Brulé._
        _Cut Head._
        _Mdewakanton._
        _Ogalalla._
        _Oncpapa._
        _Sans Arc._
        _Santee._
        _Sisseton._
        _Two Kettle._
        _Wahpeton._
        _Yankton._
        _Upper Yanktonais._
        _Lower Yanktonais._
  IOWAS.
  KAWS OR KANSAS.
  MANDANS.
  MISSOURIAS.
  OMAHAS.
  OSAGES.
  OTOES.
  PONCAS.
  WINNEBAGOES.


IV. PAWNEES.

  ARICKAREES OR REES.
  KEECHIES.
  PAWNEES.
        _Chowee._
        _Kit-ka-hoct._
        _Petahowerat._
        _Skeedee._
  WACOS.
  WICHITAS.


V. SHOSHONES.

  BANNACKS.
  COMANCHES.
  KIOWAS.
  SHOSHONES.
  UTAHS.
        _Capote._
        _Muache._
        _Tabeguache._
        _Yampa._
        _Uinta._


VI. SAHAPTINS.

  NEZ-PERCÉS.
  WARM SPRINGS.
  WASCOS.


VII. KLAMATHS.

  KLAMATHS.
  MODOCS.
  ROGUE RIVER.


VIII. PIMAS.

  PAPAGOS.
  PIMAS.


IX. IROQUOIS.

  SENECAS.
  WYANDOTS OR HURONS.


X. MUSKOGEES.

  CREEKS.
  SEMINOLES.
  CHICKASAWS.
  CHOCTAWS.


XI. INDEPENDENT TRIBES.

  ARAPAHOES.
  CADDOS.
  CHEROKEES.
  MOQUIS.
  PUEBLOS.
  TAWACANIES.
  TONKAWAYS.



HISTORY OF FAMILIES, TRIBES, AND INDIVIDUALS.


I. ALGONKINS.

Early in the seventeenth century, the Algonkins were the largest family
of North American Indians within the present limits of the United
States, extending from Newfoundland to the Mississippi, and from the
waters of the Ohio to Hudson's Bay and Lake Winnipeg. Northeast and
northwest of them were the Eskimos and the Athabascas; the Dakotas
bounded them on the west, and the Mobilian tribes, Catawbas, Natchez,
&c., on the south. Within this region also dwelt the Iroquois and many
detached tribes from other families. All the tribes of the Algonkins
were nomadic, shifting from place to place as the fishing and hunting
upon which they depended required. There has been some difficulty in
properly locating the tribe from which the family has taken its name,
but it is generally believed they lived on the Ottawa River, in Canada,
where they were nearly exterminated by their enemies, the Iroquois. The
only remnant of the tribe at this time is at the Lake of the Two
Mountains.

Of the large number of tribes forming this family, many are now extinct,
others so reduced and merged into neighboring tribes as to be lost,
while nearly all of the rest have been removed far from their original
hunting-grounds. The Lenni Lenape, from the Delaware, are now leading a
civilized life far out on the great plains west of the Missouri, and
with them are the Shawnees from the south and the once powerful
Pottawatamies, Ottawas, and Miamis from the Ohio Valley. Of the many
nations forming this great family, we have a very full representation in
the following catalogue, about equally divided between the wild hunters
and the civilized agriculturists.


1. CHEYENNES.

"This nation has received a variety of names from travellers and the
neighboring tribes, as Shyennes, Shiennes, Cheyennes, Chayennes,
Sharas, Shawhays, Sharshas, and by the different bands of Dakotas,
Shaí-en-a or Shai-é-la. With the Blackfeet, they are the most western
branch of the great Algonkin family. When first known, they were living
on the Chayenne or Cayenne River, a branch of the Red River of the
North, but were driven west of the Mississippi by the Sioux, and about
the close of the last century still farther west across the Missouri,
where they were found by those enterprising travelers Lewis and Clark in
1803. On their map attached to their report they locate them near the
eastern face of the Black Hills, in the valley of the great Sheyenne
River, and state their number at 1,500 souls." Their first treaty with
the United States was made in 1825, at the mouth of the Teton River.
They were then at peace with the Dakotas, but warring against the
Pawnees and others. Were then estimated, by Drake, to number 3,250.

During the time of Long's expedition to the Rocky Mountains, in 1819 and
1820, a small portion of the Cheyennes seem to have separated themselves
from the rest of their nation on the Missouri, and to have associated
themselves with the Arapahoes who wandered about the tributaries of the
Platte and Arkansas, while those who remained affiliated with the
Ogalallas, these two divisions remaining separated until the present
time. Steps are now being taken, however, to bring them together on a
new reservation in the Indian Territory.

Up to 1862, they were generally friendly to the white settlers, when
outbreaks occurred, and then for three or four years a costly and bloody
war was carried on against them, a notable feature of which was the Sand
Creek or Chivington massacre, November 29, 1864. "Since that time there
has been constant trouble. * * * In '67, General Hancock burned the
village of the Dog Soldiers, on Pawnee Fork, and another war began, in
which General Custer defeated them at Washita, killing Black Kettle and
37 others." The northern bands have been generally at peace with the
whites, resisting many overtures to join their southern brethren.


_List of illustrations._

  118, 120. HAH-KET-HOME-MAH. _Little Robe._ (Front.)   SOUTHERN CHEYENNE.
  119, 121. HAH-KET-HOME-MAH. _Little Robe._ (Profile.) SOUTHERN CHEYENNE.
  109. HAH-KET-HOME-MAH.      _Little Robe._            SOUTHERN CHEYENNE.
  110. MIN-NIN-NE-WAH.        _Whirlwind._              SOUTHERN CHEYENNE.
  111. WHOAK-POO-NO-BATS.     _White Shield._           SOUTHERN CHEYENNE.
  112. WO-PO-HAM.             _White Horse._            SOUTHERN CHEYENNE.
  113. BAH-TA-CHE.            _Medicine Man._           SOUTHERN CHEYENNE.
  114. PAWNEE.                                          SOUTHERN CHEYENNE.
  115. ED. GUERRIER.          _Interpreter._            SOUTHERN CHEYENNE.
   26. LAME WHITE MAN.                                  NORTHERN CHEYENNE.
       WILD HOG.                                        NORTHERN CHEYENNE.
   27. BALD BEAR.                                       NORTHERN CHEYENNE.
       CUT FOOT.                                        NORTHERN CHEYENNE.
   28. DULL KNIFE.                                      NORTHERN CHEYENNE.
       LITTLE WOLF.                                     NORTHERN CHEYENNE.
   29. CRAZY HEAD.                                      NORTHERN CHEYENNE.
       SPOTTED WOLF.                                    NORTHERN CHEYENNE.
  30, 31. STONE CALF AND WIFE.                          SOUTHERN CHEYENNE.
  116. WHIRLWIND AND PAWNEE.                            SOUTHERN CHEYENNE.
  117. LITTLE ROBE AND WHITE HORSE.                     SOUTHERN CHEYENNE.
  122. HIGH TOE.
  123-4. GROUPS AT AGENCY.


2. CHIPPEWAS.

Migrating from the East late in the sixteenth or early in the
seventeenth century, the Chippewas, or Ojibwas, settled first about the
Falls of Saint Mary, from which point they pushed still farther
westward, and eventually compelled the Dakotas to relinquish their
ancient hunting-grounds about the headwaters of the Mississippi and of
the Red River of the North. Were first known to the French, about 1640,
who called them _Sauteux_, from the place of their residence about Sault
Ste. Marie, a name still applied to them by the Canadian French. They
were then living in scattered bands on the banks of Lake Superior and
Lake Huron, and at war with the Foxes, Iroquois, and Dakotas, becoming
thereby much reduced in numbers. Were firm allies of the French in all
of their operations against the English, and took a prominent part in
Pontiac's uprising. During the revolutionary war they were hostile to
the colonists, but made a treaty of peace with them at its close. They
again sided with the English in the war of 1812, but joined in a general
pacification with a number of other tribes in 1816. Like other tribes,
they gradually ceded their lands to the Government, receiving in return
annuities and goods, until in 1851 all but a few bands, retaining but
moderate reservations, had removed west of the Mississippi.

"The Chippewas, now numbering 19,606, formerly ranged over Michigan,
Wisconsin, and Minnesota, and with common interests, and acknowledging
more or less the leadership of one controlling mind, formed a
homogeneous and powerful nation; a formidable foe to the Sioux, with
whom they waged incessant warfare, which was checked only by the removal
of the Minnesota Sioux to Dakota after the outbreak of 1863."

The collecting of the Chippewas upon thirteen reservations, scattered
over the above-named States, under five different agencies, has so
modified the _esprit du corps_ of the tribe that, though speaking the
same language and holding the same traditions and customs, the bands
located in different sections of the country have few interests and no
property in common, and little influence or intercourse with each other.
The agency has taken the place of the nation, and is in turn developing
the individual man, who, owning house, stock, and farm, has learned to
look solely to his own exertions for support. No tribe by unswerving
loyalty deserves more of the Government, or is making, under favorable
conditions, more gratifying progress; 9,850 of the tribe live in houses,
9,345 are engaged in agriculture and other civilized occupations; and
13,202 wear citizen's dress. Fifty-seven per cent. of their subsistence
is obtained by their own labor, mainly in farming; for the rest, they
depend on game and fish, especially the latter, of which they readily
obtain large quantities.

The Chippewas are extensively intermarried with the Ottawas, and are
thrifty and worthy citizens of the United States, as are also those of
Saginaw, and of Keewenaw Bay in Michigan. The Bad River, Red Cliff, Red
Lake, and Mississippi bands are likewise making rapid progress in
civilization. Of those which have made but little or no progress are the
Leech Lake, White Earth, Mille Lac, and other scattered bands in remote
and inaccessible regions of Minnesota and Wisconsin, the older chiefs
resolutely opposing any attempt on the part of the younger men to begin
a civilized life.

_List of Illustrations._

  1001. ES-EN-CE. _Little Shell._                               PEMBINA.

    Head chief of the Pembinas, residing at Turtle Mountain, in Dakota.
    His father and grandfather were chiefs of the same band before him.
    Took an active part against the Sioux in the Minnesota massacres in
    1863. Visited Washington in 1874, at the head of a delegation in
    behalf of their bands, to protest against being removed from their
    old homes about Turtle Mountain.

  1002. MIS-TO-YA-BE. _Little Bull._                            PEMBINA.

    Head brave of the Pembinas, and resides at Pembina. Is a man of
    considerable influence, his word being law with his band. Has good
    common sense and fine executive ability. Was removed by the
    Government to White Earth reservation, but refuses to live there,
    and has gone back to his old home. Has fought the Sioux frequently,
    and has been quite successful in stealing horses from them. Has two
    wives. Does no farming.

  1003. KA-EES-PA. _Something Blown Up by the Wind._            PEMBINA.

    A half-breed, but lives and dresses like an Indian. His father was
    made a chief of the Pembinas by the English and Americans, and upon
    his death succeeded him. Is a very successful hunter, and is looked
    upon as a representative man of the tribe.

  1004. KE-WOE-SAIS-WE-RO. _The Man Who Knows How to Hunt._     PEMBINA.

    A half-breed and third brave of the band. Always joined the
    Chippewas in fighting the Sioux--the Pembinas fighting on
    horseback--and counts four scalps. Is a trader. Is thought very much
    of by his tribe, and has a reputation for moral worth and
    straightforward dealing.

  851. LARGE GROUP of the proceeding four numbers.

  1068. SHAY-WI-ZICK. _Sour Spittle._                          RED LAKE.

    A brave of the Red Lake band of Chippewas and younger brother of the
    head chief. His wife and children were killed by the Sioux, and he
    fought them frequently in return, killing two. Was a good speaker
    and farmed a good deal. Died last winter, aged about 70.

  80, 1069. QUI-WI-ZHEN-SHISH. _Bad Boy._                      RED LAKE.

    Foremost brave of the Red Lake band. His father was chief, which
    office is now held by his older brother. Was ranked as one of the
    bravest of the Chippewas in their battles with the Sioux, and took
    many scalps. Was a fine speaker and a man of much influence. Farmed
    very successfully and raised considerable corn, and was also a good
    hunter. Had two wives. Died in 1872.

  1070. QUI-WI-ZENS. _The Boy._                                RED LAKE.

    A brave and a leading warrior in the battles of his tribe with the
    Sioux. A good speaker, hunter, and farmer, although the farming is
    done almost entirely by his wife and children, as is the case with
    all these Indians. Is now dead.

  1071. AUGUSTE.                                                PEMBINA.

    A brave of the Pembinas, formerly residing near the British line,
    but now removed, with his band, to the White Earth reservation. Has
    the reputation of being a miserable, worthless Indian, unwilling to
    work, and adhering with great tenacity to the heathenish customs of
    his tribe. Was baptized in his infancy by the Roman Catholics, but
    has renounced his Christianity. Has had his skull broken three times
    in quarrels with his own people, and has been twice wounded in
    fights with the Sioux.

  1072. MOOZOMO. _Moose's Dung._                               RED LAKE.

    A petty chief of the Red Lake band. Died some years ago at a very
    old age. Was a great hunter, and farmed considerably also. Was much
    respected by the Red Lake bands, and especially so by the whites.

  1073. ME-JAW-KEY-OSH. _Something in the Air Gradually Falling to
        the Earth._                                            RED LAKE.

    A brave but recently made a chief of the Red Lake Chippewas, and is
    ranked as the very bravest of all his tribe. Had always been
    accustomed to fight the Sioux, but after the massacre of 1862-'63
    re-organized and led a small party of from six to ten of his bravest
    men against them every summer for some time, killing with his own
    hand fifteen of their enemies and bringing home their scalps. Was a
    crafty warrior and knew well how to slay his foe without losing his
    own life. He still lives, farming and hunting for a living, and is a
    man of great influence in his band.

  1074. ESSINIWUB OGWISSUN. _The Son of Essiniwub._            RED LAKE.

    A quiet, peaceable young man, never on the war-path, peace having
    been declared with the Sioux before he came of age.

  1075. MAIADJIAUSH. _Something Beginning to Sail Off._        RED LAKE.

    A brave residing at Red Lake. His father was a chief and his younger
    brother the present head chief of the Red Lake band. Ten years ago
    had the reputation of being a bad man, and has the same suspicion
    still hanging about him; is ill-natured, cross-grained, and always
    striking and quarrelling with his fellow-Indians.

  1076. NABONIQUEAUSH. _A Yellow-haired One Sailing Along._    RED LAKE.

  1077. TIBISHKO-BINESS. _Like a Bird._                        RED LAKE.

    A petty chief and brother of Bad Boy. Has often fought the Sioux as
    a leading brave. Hunts for a living, while his family cultivates corn
    and potatoes. Is a good speaker and much respected by the Red Lakes.

  78, 79. PO-GO-NAY-GE-SHICK. _Hole in the Day._

  81. AH-AH-SHAW-WE-KE-SHICK. _Crossing Sky._               RABBIT LAKE.

  82. NAH-GUN-A-GOW-BOW. _Standing Forward._                RABBIT LAKE.

  83. KISH-KA-NA-CUT. _Stump._                                MILLE LAC.

  84. MIS-KO-PE-NEN-SHA. _Red Bird._                      LAKE WINNIPEG.

  85. NAW-YAW-NAB. _The Foremost Sitter._                     WISCONSIN.

  86. NOW-WE-GE-SHICK. _Noon Day._


3. DELAWARES.

When first discovered by the whites, the Delawares were living on the
banks of the Delaware, in detached bands under separate sachems, and
called themselves Renappi--a collective term for men--or, as it is now
written, Lenno Lenape. In 1616 the Dutch began trading with them,
maintaining friendly relations most of the time, and buying so much of
their land that they had to move inland for game and furs. Penn and his
followers, succeeding, kept up the trade and bought large tracts of
land, but the Indians claimed to have been defrauded and showed a
reluctance to move. They then numbered about 6,000. With the assistance
of the Indians of the Six Nations the authorities compelled the
Delawares to retire. At the beginning of the Revolution there were none
east of the Alleghanies. By treaty in 1789 lands were reserved to them
between the Miami and Cuyahoga, and on the Muskingum. In 1818 the
Delawares ceded all their lands to the Government and removed to White
River, Missouri, to the number of 1,800, leaving a small number in Ohio.
Another change followed eleven years after, when 1,000 settled by treaty
on the Kansas and Missouri Rivers, the rest going south to Red River.

During the late civil war they furnished 170 soldiers out of an
able-bodied male population of 201.

In 1866 sold their land to the railroad which ran across it, and buying
land of the Cherokees, settled where the main body now resides, small
bands being scattered about among the Wichitas and Kiowas.

In 1866, by a special treaty, they received and divided the funds held
for their benefit, took lands in severalty, and ceased to be regarded as
a tribe. They have given up their Indian ways and live in comfortable
houses. Many of them are efficient farmers and good citizens. They are
becoming so incorporated with other tribes that there has been no late
enumeration made of them as a whole. During the late war they numbered
1,085.

_List of illustrations._

  181-2. BLACK BEAVER.

    Is a full-blood Delaware. Has travelled very extensively through the
    mountains, serving at one time as a captain in the United States
    Army. Has a large farm under cultivation, and lives in a very
    comfortable manner, having good, substantial frontier buildings. He
    commenced life as a wild Indian trapper, until, becoming familiar
    with almost all of the unexplored region of the West, and being a
    remarkably truthful and reliable man, he was much sought after as a
    guide, and accompanied several expeditions in that capacity. His
    life has been one of bold adventure, fraught with many interesting
    incidents, which, if properly written out, would form an interesting
    and entertaining volume.--_Batty._

  186. GREAT BEAR.


4. MENOMONEES.

Were known to the French as early as 1640, and were then living on the
Menomonee River, emptying into Green Bay, Wisconsin. Their name is that
of the wild rice upon which they largely depend for their subsistence.
This is one of the few tribes in the United States who have never been
removed from their old home, and are still residing on the same spot
where they were first known. Served with the French against the Foxes in
1712, and against the English up to 1763, participating in Braddock's
defeat, battles of Fort William Henry and the Plains of Abraham. Were
allies of the English during the Revolution, and also in the second war
with Great Britain. In 1831 commenced ceding their lands to the
Government for money payments, until they were finally located in 1854
in their present reservation in Shawano County, Wisconsin, consisting of
231,680 acres of very poor land. They are declining rapidly in numbers.
In 1822 were estimated at 3,900; the present count makes them 1,522. Are
now living in a civilized way, with a large proportion of their children
attending school regularly. Their main dependence is upon the lumber
trade, cutting during the last winter over 5,000,000 feet of logs,
netting them $4 per 1,000.

_List of illustrations._

  852. MOSES LADD.

    An intelligent and influential man in the tribe, a grandson of
    Corrow and nephew of Shu-na-ma-shu-na-ne, noted chiefs of the
    Menomonees. In 1876 Mr. Ladd was sent as a delegate from his tribe
    to Washington to settle various complications before the Departments
    and Congress. Was born at Green Bay, Wis., in 1828. Is of mixed
    blood.


5. MIAMIES.

In 1658 were found on Green Bay, Wisconsin, and in 1670 near the head of
Fox River, and were then said to number 8,000 warriors, living in mat
houses within a palisade. Their early history is full of their many
engagements with Iroquois, Sioux, and the French, in all of which they
lost heavily. Sided with the English in the revolutionary war,
continuing hostile to the United States until 1815. They then numbered
3,000, but their wars had left them in a badly demoralized condition,
leading to broils among themselves, in which nearly 500 perished in
eighteen years. In 1835 a portion, numbering 384, were removed from
Indiana to the south side of the Kansas River. By 1838 the Miamies
remaining in Indiana, then numbering 1,100, sold the rest of their
lands; and in 1846 500 of them removed to Kansas, where in twenty-two
years they were reduced to 92. In 1873 their lands were sold, when most
of the tribe confederated with the Peorias, a few remaining in Kansas as
citizens. Are now very much scattered, with no agency of their own, and
number, as near as can be ascertained, less than 100. The subjects of
the following photographs are of mixed blood:

_List of illustrations._

  419. LUM-KI-KOM.

  420. THOS. MILLER.

  421. JOE DICK.

  422-4. ROUBIDEAUX.

  425. THOS. RICHARDWELL.

  426. ROUBIDEAUX AND RICHARDWELL.


6. OTTAWAS.

When first discovered by the early French explorers were residing on the
northwest shore of the peninsula of Michigan. After the defeat of the
Hurons in 1649, they fled before the Iroquois to beyond the Mississippi,
but were soon compelled to retrace their steps by the Dakotas, and
finally settled at Mackinaw, where they joined the French in many of
their operations and in their contest for Canada. At its close, Pontiac,
head chief of the Detroit Ottawas, organized a great conspiracy for the
destruction of the English, which was only partially successful. During
the Revolution were with the English. At its close a long series of
treaties followed, until, in 1833, those in Michigan ceded their lands
and removed south of the Missouri River. In 1836 those in Ohio sold
their lands and removed to the Indian Territory and prospered, becoming
citizens of the United States in 1867. In 1870 made another move to a
new reservation of 25,000 acres near the Shawnees, where they are now
living, reduced to 140. A large number of Ottawas are now living on the
shore of Lake Superior, so intermarried and confederated with the
Chippewas that there is no attempt at any distinction between them, the
two combined numbering over 6,000. In Canada there are about 1,000 more,
all self-supporting.

_List of illustrations._

  504. SUCKER.

  505. CHE-PO-QUA. _Lightning._

    English name, Henry Clay. Full-blood Ottawa. Uneducated, but of
    considerable executive ability. Is a councilman and an energetic,
    unselfish worker for the advancement of the tribe. Was born in 1830,
    and this photograph taken in 1868.

  506. PARTEE. _John Wilson._

    Chief of the tribe from 1867 to 1869, dying before the expiration of
    his term of office, aged about 60 years. Was but little versed in
    English, but was well educated in his own language. Was noted for
    amiability and hospitality, and made one of the very best of chiefs.

  507. SHA-PON-DA. _Passing Through._ (James Wind.)

    Succeeded John Wilson as chief for two years. Is a half-blood. Is
    well educated in native language, and an ordained minister in the
    Baptist church. Died in 1875.

  1040. JOSEPH KING.

    Successor of James Wind as chief of the Ottawas. Is well educated in
    both native and English languages. Age, 50 years.

  1041. L. S. DAGNET.

    Born as a Peoria, but was expelled from the tribe, and the Ottawas
    adopted him as one of their own.

  1039. FRANK KING.

    Also an adopted member of the tribe, being originally a Chippewa.
    Has been a counsellor, and also judge of the council.


7. POTTAWATOMIES.

Early in 1600 were occupying the lower peninsula of Michigan in
scattered bands, whence they were finally driven westward by the
Iroquois, and settled about Green Bay. The French acquired much
influence over them, whom they joined in their wars with the Iroquois.
Joined Pontiac in his uprising in 1763. Hostile to colonists during the
Revolution, but made a peace in 1795, joining the English again,
however, in 1812. New treaties followed by which their lands were almost
entirely conveyed away, until in 1838 a reserve was allotted them on the
Missouri, to which 800 were removed. The whole tribe then numbered about
4,000, some bands of which had made considerable progress in
civilization, while a part, called the Pottawatomies of the Prairie,
were roving and pagan. Those in Kansas made rapid progress in
civilization. In 1867, 1,400 out of 2,180 elected to become citizens and
take their lands in severalty; the others held to their tribal
organization, but disintegration set in and many became wanderers, some
even going to Mexico. It is difficult at the present time to estimate
their whole number, owing to their scattered condition. There are only
450 in the Indian Territory, under the care of the Indian Bureau, and in
Michigan 60. The others are citizens or roaming in Mexico. Of this once
numerous and powerful nation we have but a single illustration, viz:

_List of illustrations._

  522. MZHIK-KI-AN. _Thunder Coming Down to the Ground._


8. SACS AND FOXES.

The Sacs, Sauks, or Saukies, as it has been variously written--a word
meaning white clay--and the Foxes, or Outagamies, or more properly the
Musquakkink, (Red Clay), are now as one tribe. They were first
discovered settled about Green Bay, Wis., but their possessions extended
westward, so that the larger part was beyond the Mississippi. They
partly subdued and admitted into their alliance the Iowas, a Dakota
tribe. By 1804 they had ceded all their lands east of the Mississippi,
and settled on the Des Moines River, moving subsequently to the Osage,
and most of these finally to the Indian Territory. In 1822 the united
bands numbered 8,000, but are now reduced to a little more than 1,000,
of whom 341 are still in Iowa, 430 in the Indian Territory, 98 in
Nebraska, and about 200 in Kansas. The Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi
in the Indian Territory have a reservation of 483,840 acres.
Unsuccessful attempts have been made lately to induce those in Kansas to
join them. Those in Iowa are living on a section of land purchased by
themselves. The Sacs and Foxes of the Missouri have 4,863 acres of land
in Nebraska, but it is proposed to remove them soon to the Indian
Territory.

_List of illustrations._

  677. KEOKUK. _Watchful Fox._

    A chief of the Kiscoquah band of Sacs or Sauks, and head chief of
    the combined Sacs and Foxes.

    "The entire absence of records by which the chronology of events
    might be ascertained, renders it impossible to trace, in the order
    of their date, the steps by which this remarkable man rose to the
    chief place of his nation, and acquired a commanding and permanent
    influence over his people.

    "Keokuk is in all respects a magnificent savage. Bold, enterprising,
    and impulsive, he is also politic, and possesses an intimate
    knowledge of human nature, and a tact which enables him to bring the
    resources of his mind into prompt operation. His talents as a
    military chief and civil ruler are evident from the discipline which
    exists among his people."--_McKinney._

  678, 681-2, 705. KEOKUK, JR.

    Son of the preceding, and succeeded him in the chieftainship.

  679, 684. CHARLES KEOKUK.

    Grandson of Keokuk, sr.

  683. KEOKUK, JR., and CHARLES KEOKUK.

  685-6. MO-LESS.

  687-8. SAC-A-PE.

  689. MO-LESS and SAC-A-PE.

  692. QUA-QUA-OUF-PE-KA, or _Dead Indian_.

  693. THE SEA.

  694. BIG BEAR.

  695-9. MO-KO-HO-KO.

  700. MANO-TO-WA.

  400. WAH-COM-MO.

  401. NE-QUAW-HO-KO. _Grey Eyes._

  396, 691, 701. WAH-PAH-NAH-KA-NA KAH. _Bear Eating Acorns Up a Tree_,
        or _Geo. Gomez_.

    A Mexican by birth, and interpreter for the Sacs and Foxes since
    1858. Was sold to the Comanches when thirteen years of age, but ran
    away and joined the Kickapoos. Was captured again by the Comanches
    while he was out with the Kickapoos hunting, but was allowed to
    escape and rejoin his Indian friends. Drove Government teams for a
    while between Forts Leavenworth and Kearney. In 1852 joined the Sacs
    and Foxes, and participated in some of their battles on the plains.

    He has been married into the following tribes: Caddoes, Kickapoos,
    Pawnees, Seminoles, Shawnees, Pottawatomies, Winnebagoes, Iowas, and
    Sacs and Foxes of Missouri; and speaks the languages of the Creeks,
    Caddo, Comanche, Pottawatomie, Kick-a-poo, Sac and Fox, Pawnee,
    Iowa, and Winnebago, besides English and Spanish.

  708. SAC CHIEF.

  709. GROUP OF SAC AND FOX CHIEFS.

  805. GROUP OF FOX CHIEFS.

  806. COMMISSIONER BOGY READING TREATY.

  710. COMMISSIONER AND DELEGATION OF CHIEFS.

  706-7. GROUPS OF DELEGATIONS.


9. SHAWNEE.

The Shawnees or Shawanoes are an erratic tribe of Algonkin stock,
supposed to have been one primarily with the Kickapoos. Were first
discovered in Wisconsin, but moved eastwardly, and, coming in contact
with the Iroquois south of Lake Erie, were driven to the banks of the
Cumberland. Some passed thence into South Carolina and Florida, and, by
the early part of the eighteenth century, had spread into Pennsylvania
and New York. At the close of the Spanish and English war those in
Florida emigrated and joined the northern bands, and, again coming into
contact with the Iroquois, were driven westward into Ohio. Joined in
Pontiac's uprising in 1763, and rallied under the English flag during
the Revolution. In 1795 the main body of the tribe were on the Scioto,
but some had already crossed the Mississippi and others south. Those in
Missouri ceded their lands to the Government in 1825, and those in Ohio
in 1831, for new homes in the Indian Territory. In 1854 the main body in
the Indian Territory disbanded their tribal organization and divided
their lands in severalty.

The _Eastern Shawnees_ are those who emigrated direct from Ohio to the
Indian Territory, where they now are. They number 97, and are successful
agriculturists.

The _Absentee Shawnees_ are those who, thirty-five years since, seceded
from the main portion of the tribe in Kansas and located in the northern
part of the Indian Territory, where they have received no aid from
Government, but are now in a highly prosperous condition. They number
563 at the present time.

_List of illustrations._

  711. WA-WA-SI-SI-MO.

  712. F. A. ROGERS.

  713. CHARLES TUCKER.

  716. BERTRAM.


10. Pequod.

Of the five principal nations of New England in 1674, the Pequods or
Mohegans, the two being considered as one, were tribes of considerable
influence and strength of numbers, claiming authority over all the
Indians of the Connecticut Valley. Jonathan Edwards states that the
language of the Stockbridge or Muhhekanew (Mohegan) was spoken
throughout New England. Nearly every tribe had a different dialect, but
the language was radically the same. Elliot's translation of the Bible
is in a particular dialect of this language. The Stockbridges, so named
from the place of their residence, was originally a part of the
Housatonic tribe of Massachusetts, to whom the legislature of that State
granted a section of land in 1736. They were subsequently removed to New
Stockbridge and Brotherton, in Western New York, many other tribes of
New England and also of New York joining them. They had good lands and
fine farms, and were rapidly becoming worthy of citizenship, when, in
1857, they were removed to a reservation near Green Bay, Wisconsin, on
which, their agent reported, no white man could obtain a comfortable
livelihood by farming. They have been divided for some time into two
bands, known as the "citizen" and "Indian" factions, the former having
lived off from the reservation for the past twelve years. In 1875, 134
of the "citizens" received their per capita share of the tribal
property, and became private citizens of the United States. The tribe
has 118 members remaining.

  1050. NA-UN-NAUP-TAUK. _Jacob Jacobs._      STOCKBRIDGE.

    A delegate from the Stockbridge Indians to Washington in 1875, and
    again in 1876. Born in Wisconsin in 1834. Belongs to the "citizen"
    band, and participated in the late division of the tribal property
    and separation from the tribe.

  1049. WAUN-NAUN-CON. _J. C. W. Adams._      STOCKBRIDGE.

    Born on the Seneca reservation in New York in 1843, and removed to
    Wisconsin in 1853. Received a collegiate education at the Lawrence
    University. In 1876 represented the Stockbridges and Munsees as a
    delegate in Washington.

  1065. LYMAN P. FOWLER.      BROTHERTON.

    A member of the Brotherton branch of the Pequod Nation. Born in
    Oneida County, New York, in 1823, but emigrated with some of the
    Stockbridges to Wisconsin in 1836. Chosen as a delegate to
    Washington on behalf of the Stockbridges and Munsees.



II. ATHABASCAS.

A family of North American Indians, comprising two large divisions, one
living in the British Possessions, between Hudson's Bay and the Pacific,
and the other along the southern boundary of the United States, in
Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, with some smaller bands along the
western coast, north of Oregon.

The name of the family is derived from Lake Athabasca, a Cree word,
meaning "cords of hay." They are supposed by many to be of Tartar
descent, and their language has been found to be somewhat analogous to
that of Thibet. Their traditions point to an emigration from the West,
over a series of islands, and amid much snow and ice. The southern
branch includes the nomadic Apaches, the industrious Navajos, and a
small remnant of Lipans in Texas, numbering, in all, over 20,000.


1. APACHES.

One of the most numerous branches of Athabascan stock are the _Apaches_,
a fierce, nomadic nation, roaming over the Territories of New Mexico and
Arizona, and Sonora and Chihuahua. Always a scourge and a terror to
settlers, they have held in check for many years the civilization of the
country covered by their depredations. In 1831 Gregg wrote of them:
"They are the most extensive and powerful, and yet the most vagrant, of
all the savage nations that inhabit the interior of Northern Mexico.
They are supposed to number 15,000 souls, although they are subdivided
into various petty bands and are scattered over an immense tract of
country. They never construct houses, but live in the ordinary wigwam or
tent of skins and blankets. They manufacture nothing, cultivate nothing.
They seldom resort to the chase, as their country is destitute of game,
but seem to depend entirely upon pillage for the support of their
immense population, at least 2,000 of which are warriors."

Steadily resisting all attempts at conversion by the missionaries, they
gathered about them many of the disaffected tribes and made frequent
descents upon missions and towns, ravaging, destroying, and completely
depopulating many of them. Since the annexation of their territory to
the United States they have caused much trouble, and an almost constant
warfare has been kept up against them until quite recently. Successful
military campaigns broke up their predatory habits, and since then the
efforts which have been made to gather them upon reservations, where
they could be cared for until capable of self-sustenance, are proving
entirely successful. At the present time more than half the whole nation
are on the San Carlos reservation in Arizona, where they have nearly
4,000 square miles, or over 2,500,000 acres, situated upon both sides of
the Rio Gila, between the one hundred and ninth and one hundred and
eleventh meridians, 400 acres of which are now under cultivation by
Indian labor entirely, producing 10,000 bushels of potatoes, 2,000
bushels of corn, and large quantities of other vegetables. They draw
their entire subsistence from the Government, but only in return for
labor performed, and under this law are doing much good in the way of
making and repairing irrigating-ditches, clearing and fencing land, &c.
Are now occupying 223 comfortable houses, built for them. "When it is
considered that only 2,000 of these Indians have been on the reservation
two years, most of whom were participants in the outbreaks of last year
(1874); that the 1,400 Ponto, Yuma, and Mohave Apaches from Verde
arrived in March last; and that the 1,800 Coyoteros from White Mountain
agency arrived July last, after harvest, the above figures will be found
a most striking exhibit of the results of the application of a firm
control and common-sense treatment for one year."

Besides the San Carlos reservation in Arizona, there are two others in
New Mexico, upon which are gathered most of the rest of the Apaches,
with the exception of about 650 in the Indian Territory.

The Mescalero reservation, midway between the Rio Grande and the Pecos,
contains some 570,000 acres, upon which are the Mescaleros and some
other smaller bands, to the number of about 1,100. But little has been
done in the way of civilizing them, and they depend almost entirely upon
the Government for their subsistence.

The Jicarilla reservation, intended for the sub-tribe of that name, is
of about the same dimensions as that of the Mescaleros, and lies between
the San Juan River and the northern boundary-line of New Mexico. The
Jicarillas, who number about 1,000, have not as yet been placed upon
this reserve, but roam at will over the surrounding country, spending
much of their time with the southern Utes, with whom they have
intermarried to a considerable extent. They draw a portion of their
subsistence from the Government and depend upon their own resources for
the rest.

The Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1875
subdivides and enumerates the Apaches as follows:

  Apaches proper                                      463
  Aribaipais                                          389
  Coyoteros                                         1,784
  Chiricahuas                                         475
  Essa-queta                                          180
  Gila                                                800
  Jicarilla                                           950
  Mescalero                                         1,100
  Miembre                                             800
  Mohave                                              588
  Mogollon                                            400
  Pinal                                               435
  Tonto                                               661
  Yuma                                                376
  Miembre, Mogollon, and Coyoteros classed together   490
                                                    -----
  Total                                             9,891

_List of illustrations._

  853. ESKIMINZIN.                                                PINAL.

    Height, 5 feet 8 inches; circumference of head, 22-1/4 inches;
    circumference of chest, 37 inches; age, 38 years. Head chief of San
    Carlos reservation and of the Pinal Apaches. His family was among
    those slain at the Camp Grant massacre in 1871. Is now taking the
    lead in living a civilized life, having taken up a farm on the San
    Carlos River.

  854. ESKIMINZIN AND WIFE.                                       PINAL.

  855. CASSADORA. _A hunter._                                     PINAL.

    Height, 5 feet 8-1/2 inches; circumference of head, 23 inches;
    circumference of chest, 40 inches. Petty chief; was one of the most
    lawless and intractable of the tribe. Took part in the assault on a
    wagon-train in the Cañon Dolores in 1872.

  856. CASSADORA AND WIFE.                                        PINAL.

  857. ESKINILAY.                                                 PINAL.

    Height, 5 feet 2 inches; circumference of head, 22 inches;
    circumference of chest, 35 inches. A captain of the reservation
    police.

  858. ESKINILAY AND WIFE.                                        PINAL.

  860. CHIQUITO.                                                  PINAL.

    Height, 5 feet 3/4 inches; circumference of head, 23 inches;
    circumference of chest, 36 inches. A petty chief.

  861. CHIQUITO AND WIFE.                                         PINAL.

  862. SAYGULLY.                                                  PINAL.

    Height, 5 feet 7-1/4 inches; circumference of head, 22-1/4 inches;
    circumference of chest, 36 inches.

  863. ESKAYELAH.                                              COYOTERO.

    Height, 5 feet 11 inches; circumference of head, 23 inches;
    circumference of chest, 36-1/2 inches. An hereditary head chief of
    the Coyotero Apaches.

  864. SKELLEGUNNEY.                                           COYOTERO.

    Height, 5 feet 8-1/2 inches; circumference of head, 22-1/2 inches;
    circumference of chest, 36-1/2 inches. Is looked upon as being a
    hard case, and has the reputation of being a great horse-stealer.

  865. CULLAH.                                               CHIRICAHUA.

    Height, 5 feet 6-1/4 inches; circumference of head, 22 inches;
    circumference of chest, 35-1/2 inches.

  866. HAUTUSHNEHAY.                                              PINAL.

    Height, 5 feet 9 inches; circumference of head, 23 inches;
    circumference of chest, 36-1/2 inches. One of the reservation
    policemen appointed by the agent.

  867. NAPASHGINGUSH.                                             PINAL.

    Height, 5 feet 6-1/2 inches; circumference of head, 21-1/2 inches;
    circumference of chest, 34-1/2 inches.

  868. CUSHSHASHADO.                                              PINAL.

    Height, 5 feet 3-1/4 inches; circumference of head, 22 inches;
    circumference of chest, 33 inches. A clerk in the trader's store on
    the San Carlos reservation; speaks English fluently.

  869. PINAL.                                                  COYOTERO.

    Height, 5 feet 3-1/4 inches; circumference of head, 21-3/4 inches;
    circumference of chest, 37 inches. A sub-chief.

  870. PASSALAH.                                                  PINAL.

    Height, 5 feet 11-1/2 inches; circumference of head, 23 inches;
    circumference of chest, 37-1/2 inches. A reservation policeman.

  871. MARIJILDO GRIJALVA.

    Interpreter. A native of Sonora, Mexico. Was captured when quite
    young by the Coyotero Apaches, and held by them in captivity until
    looked upon as one of the tribe.

  1. ESKEL-TA-SALA. (Front.)                                   COYOTERO.

  2. ESKEL-TA-SALA. (Side.)                                    COYOTERO.

  3. SANTO. (Front.)                                           COYOTERO.

  4. SANTO. (Side.)                                            COYOTERO.

  5. TA-HO. _Equestrian._ (Front.)                           ESSA-QUETA.

  6. TA-HO. _Equestrian._ (Side.)                            ESSA-QUETA.

    A sub-chief of his band. Age, about 50 years; height, 5 feet, 11
    inches; circumference of head, 23 inches; chest, 45 inches.

  7. GRAY EAGLE. (Front.)                                    ESSA-QUETA.

  8. GRAY EAGLE. (Side.)                                     ESSA-QUETA.

  9. CAPITAN. (Front.)                                       ESSA-QUETA.

  10. CAPITAN. (Side.)                                       ESSA-QUETA.

    Age, about 56 years; height, 5 feet 8 inches; circumference of head,
    24 inches; chest, 37 inches.

  11. PACER. (Front.)                                        ESSA-QUETA.

  12. PACER. (Side.)                                         ESSA-QUETA.

    Was the acknowledged leader of the Apaches in the Indian Territory,
    and at the same time friendly to the whites. He and his squaw are
    now both dead.

  13. PACER'S SQUAW. (Front.)                                ESSA-QUETA.

  14. PACER'S SQUAW. (Side.)                                 ESSA-QUETA.

  451. KLE-ZHEH.                                              JICARILLA.

  449. GUACHINITO. _One who Dresses in Indian Clothes._       JICARILLA.

  753, 442. GUERITO. _The Man with Yellow Hair._              JICARILLA.

    A young chief of the Jicarilla Apaches, and a son of old Guero,
    their principal chief. This tribe is intermarried with the Utes, and
    has always been on friendly terms with them. Young Guerito was sent
    to Washington in 1873, joining the Ute delegation, for the purpose
    of effecting some treaty whereby these Apaches might have set apart
    for them a piece of land of their own to cultivate, as now they roam
    on Ute land and have no home they can call their own. He is a
    relative of Ouray, the great chief of the Utes, and through the
    latter's influence some such arrangement was effected. Guerito is a
    quiet and peaceable young man, a representative of his tribe, who
    prefer farming, and shrink from all wars against either Indians or
    white men.

  444. SON OF GUERITO.                                        JICARILLA.

  443, 5, 6, 8. YOUNG BRAVES.                                    JICARILLA.

  447. Pah-yeh, or _Hosea Martin_.                            JICARILLA.

  18. SON OF VICENTI.                                         JICARILLA.

  125. PEDRO SCRADILICTO. (Front.)                             COYOTERO.

  126. PEDRO SCRADILICTO. (Side.)                              COYOTERO.

  127. ES-CHA-PA. _The One-eyed._ (Front.)                     COYOTERO.

  652. ES-CHA-PA. _The One-eyed._ (Side.)                      COYOTERO.

  414. JOSÉ POCATI. (Front.)                                       YUMA.

  415. JOSÉ POCATI. (Side.)                                        YUMA.

  749. CHARLIE ARRIWAWA. (Front.)                                MOHAVE.

  750. CHARLIE ARRIWAWA. (Side.)                                 MOHAVE.

  872-3. GROUPS comprising all the above included within the
          Nos. 853-871.


2. NAVAJOS.

A very numerous band of the Apache Nation inhabiting the mountains and
plateaus of Arizona and New Mexico, between the San Juan and Little
Colorado Rivers, ever since our first knowledge of them. The Spaniards
early recognized their relation to the Apaches, although they differ
totally from them in their industrious habits, being by far the most
civilized of any tribe of Athabascan descent. They have evidently been
quick to take advantage of their contact with the semi-civilized Pueblos
and Moquis, and from them have acquired many useful arts--chiefly in
learning to spin and weave. Their blankets, woven in looms, are of great
excellence, and frequently bring from $25 to $100. They cultivate the
soil extensively, raising large quantities of corn, squashes, melons,
&c. Colonel Baker, in 1859, estimated their farms at 20,000 acres,
evidently too large an estimate, as their agent's report for 1875 places
the cultivated lands at only 6,000 acres. Their principal wealth,
however, is in horses, sheep, and goats, having acquired them at an
early day and fostered their growth, so that they now count their horses
by the thousand, and their sheep by hundreds of thousands.
Notwithstanding the excellence of their manufactures, their houses are
rude affairs, called by the Spaniards _jackals_, and by themselves
_hogans_--small conical huts of poles, covered with branches, and in
winter with earth. Like the Apaches, they have made incessant war on the
Mexicans, who have made many unsuccessful attempts to subjugate them.
The expeditions against them on the part of the United States by
Doniphan in 1846, Wilkes in 1847, Newby in 1848, and Washington in
1849, were practically failures. Colonel Sumner established Fort
Defiance in 1851, but was forced to retreat, and all other attempts to
subdue them were defeated until the winter campaign in 1863, when
Colonel Carson compelled them to remove to the Bosque Redondo, on the
Pecos River, where 7,000 were held prisoners by the Government for
several years. In 1868 a treaty was made with them under which they were
removed to Fort Wingate, and the following year back to their old home
around Fort Defiance and the cañon De Chelly, where a reservation of
5,200 square miles was assigned them. The latest count puts their number
at 11,768--3,000 of whom are said to come directly under the civilizing
influences of the agency. Schools are not well established yet, but few
of their children attending, and then very irregularly. Although they
produce largely, yet they are dependent upon the Government for
two-thirds of their subsistence. They dress well, chiefly in materials
of their own make, and covering the whole body.

_List of illustrations._

  1027. MANULITO.

    The great war-chief of the Navajos. Has been engaged in many
    combats, and his breast shows the scars of a number of wounds
    received in battle; was in command of the Indians during their siege
    of Fort Defiance.

  1028. JUANITA.

    The favorite one of five wives of Manulito, the chief.

  1029. MANULITO SEGUNDO.

    Son of Manulito and Juanita.

  1030. CAYATANITA.

    A brother of Manulito's, and captain of a band of warriors.

  1031. BARBAS HUERO. _Light Beard._

    Chief councillor of the tribe, and an earnest advocate of a settled
    peace policy.

  1032. CABRA NEGRA.

    A captain, and a sub-chief.

  1033. NARBONA PRIMERO.

    A sub-chief, noted as being a consistent total abstinence advocate,
    and who exerts himself to save his tribe from the curse of
    intemperance.

  1034. CARNERO MUCHO. A captain of a band.

        { GRANADA MUCHO. A captain of a band.
  1035. { TIENE-SU-SE. Third war-chief.
        { MARIANA. Second war-chief.

  1038. JUANITA AND GOV. ARNY. Showing Navajo blanket and weaving
          implements.

  1036. GROUP of the preceding, members of a delegation to Washington
          in 1874.

  786. BARBAN CITO. _Little Beard._

  452-5. Miscellaneous men and boys.



III. DAKOTAS.

A large family of North American Indians, embracing the Assinaboins or
Stone Sioux, the Dakotas proper, or, as they are called by the
Algonkins, Nadowesioux, from which is derived the word Sioux; Omahas,
Otoes, Osages, Poncas, Iowas, Kansas, Missourias, Minatarees, and Crows.
Until quite recently they occupied the larger portion of the country
bounded on the east by the great lakes, on the north by the British
Possessions, on the west by the Rocky Mountains, and on the south by the
Platte River. According to their traditions they came eastward from the
Pacific, and encountered the Algonkins about the headwaters of the
Mississippi, where the mass of them were held in check. One of the
tribes of this great family, called by the Chippewas Winnebagook (men
from the fetid or salt water), pushed through their enemies and secured
a foothold on the shores of Lake Michigan. The Quapaws, called by their
Algonkin foes the Alkansas or Arkansas, settled on the Ohio, but were
ultimately driven down the river by the Illinois to the region now
bearing their name. A few of the tribes retain very nearly their
original hunting-grounds; the principal migrations of those who have
moved having been southwestwardly, from the headwaters of the
Mississippi to the Missouri.

In 1875 the Indians of this family residing within the limits of the
United States numbered nearly 68,000, with about 1,000 more within the
British Possessions. If the estimates of early explorers are to be
relied upon, they must have lost heavily in population within the last
one hundred years--intestine wars, the aggressions of the whites, and
the vices of civilization reducing many once powerful tribes to
demoralized remnants that are fast fading out of our knowledge by
absorption into the ranks of more powerful neighbors. The majority of
the tribes of this family are settled on reservations under the direct
care and support of the Government, and are fairly on the road to a
civilized future. The exceptions are some of the wild bands of the
Sioux, the Minatarees or Gros Ventres, and the Crows. At the present
writing most of the first-named are at war with the United States
forces, while the two latter are friendly.


1. CROWS.

The Crows, or, as they call themselves, _Absaroka_, meaning something
or anything that flies, when first known occupied the Lower Yellowstone
and the valleys of the Big Horn and Tongue Rivers, but roamed over much
of the surrounding country, carrying their incursions even to the plains
of Snake River and to the valley of the Green. Were originally one with
the Minatarees or Gros Ventres, but separated from them, and were
afterward driven from their territory by the Ogalallas and Cheyennes,
settling finally about the head of the Yellowstone, dispossessing in
their turn the Blackfeet and Flatheads. Are divided into three bands,
with a dialect peculiar to each, viz: the Kikatsa or Crows proper, the
Ahnahaways, and the Allakaweah, numbering in all, as estimated in 1820,
3,250 souls. Obtaining horses at an early day, they became great
marauders. Irving writes of them in "Astoria:" "They are in fact
notorious marauders and horse-stealers, crossing and recrossing the
mountains (the Big Horn), robbing on one side and conveying their spoils
to the other." Hence, we are told, is derived their name, given them on
account of their unsettled and predatory habits, winging their flight,
like the crows, from one side of the mountains to the other, and making
free booty of everything that lies in their way. In 1851, joined in a
treaty with the United States giving a right of way for roads to be
built through their country. In 1868 a treaty was made, and an attempt
made to place all the Crows on one reservation, but without success
until 1875. They have been much exposed to incursions from some parties
of Sioux at their new agency on the Rosebud as well as at their former
one on the Yellowstone. "The Indians, full of war and revenge, have no
thought to bestow upon farming or other peaceful employment, especially
as the best farming lands of the reservation are most exposed to these
hostile incursions. Six families, however, have been induced to tend
small farms, and have succeeded well. A mile and a half of ditch,
sufficient to irrigate several hundred acres, has been dug, and it is
hoped that another season will see at least a beginning made toward the
civilization of these 4,000 wild but always loyal Crows."

_List of illustrations._

  940. KAM-NE-BUT-SE. _Blackfoot and squaw._

  946. KAM-NE-BUT-SE. _Blackfoot._

    The principal chief of the Mountain Crows; a splendid specimen of
    manhood, standing 6 feet 2 inches in height and of very heavy frame;
    owes his position to his bravery and success in fighting the Sioux,
    their inveterate enemies. He also ranks high as an orator and
    councillor in the nation. The first picture, in which he is
    represented in an elaborate dress of buckskin, was made while on a
    visit, with a delegation of his tribe, to Washington, in 1873; the
    other represents him as he appears at his home on the Yellowstone,
    or in his natural every-day garb.

  941. CHE-VE-TE-PU-MA-TA. _Iron Bull and squaw._

    One of the principal chiefs of the Mountain Crows.

  942. SE-TA-PIT-SE. _Bear Wolf and squaw._

  943. PERITS-HAR-STS. _Old Crow and squaw._

       { KAM-NE-BUT-SE. _Blackfoot._
  944. { ECHE-HAS-KA. _Long Horse._
       { TE-SHU-NZT. _White Calf._

       { MO-MUKH-PI-TCHE.
  945. { ELLA-CAUSS-SE. _Thin Belly._
       { PISH-KI-HA-DI-RI-KY-ISH. _The One that Leads the Old Dog._

  859. GROUP OF CROW DELEGATION to Washington in 1872, including Agent
          Pease and the interpreters.

  947. IN-TEE-US. _He Shows His Face._

  948. MIT-CHOO-ASH. _Old Onion._

  949. GROUP OF CHIEFS and headmen.

  950. GROUP OF SQUAWS.

    The last four pictures were made at the old agency of the Crows, on
    the Yellowstone, near Shields River, in 1871. The following were
    also made at the same place and time, and represent the old mission
    buildings (lately destroyed by fire), in which the agent had his
    headquarters; their tents and manner of living, and their mode of
    burial.

  953. THE MISSION, or agency buildings.

  952. VILLAGE SCENE, showing new adobe houses built for the Indians.

  951. INSIDE VIEW OF A SKIN LODGE.

  954. MODE OF BURIAL.


2. DAKOTAS, OR SIOUX.

The word Dakota means united, confederated, or many in one, and
designates the tribe from which the family takes its name. They seldom
or never willingly acknowledge the title _Sioux_, first given them by
the French, and now by all whites. There are many theories as to the
origin of this latter name, the most acceptable of which is that it is a
corruption of the word _Nadouessioux_--a general Chippewa designation
for enemies--which was gradually applied by missionaries and traders,
through an imperfect understanding of the language, to the tribes thus
designated. Governor Ramsey, of Minnesota, thought that the word
"originated upon the Upper Missouri, among the early French traders,
hunters, and trappers, they deriving it, in all probability, from the
name of a sub-band of the Ti-t'-wan (Teton), Dakotas, called _Sioune_,
who hunted over the plains of that river, and with whom, consequently,
they came most frequently in contact.

"In Lewis and Clark's travels in 1803, they are called the _Teton
Saone_, and their villages are located on the Missouri, near Cannonball
River.

"At least we find the term _Sioux_ first used in the early maps to
designate a large tribe, with various subdivisions, upon the Upper
Missouri only."

Dakota traditions go back but a comparatively short time, and are vague
and obscure in regard to their origin and early residence, which place
it, however, in the Northwest, above the great lakes. In their progress
eastward they early possessed themselves of the country about the
headwaters of the Mississippi and the Red River of the North, where they
remained as late as 1868, when they were in part dispossessed by the
Chippewas, who were eventually the cause of their removal to the
Missouri.

Up to 1860, the Dakotas were divided into two principal divisions, those
east of the Missouri, who were known as the Minnesota or Mississippi
Dakotas, composed of four bands, viz: The M'dewakantons, or those of the
Village of the Spirit Lake; the Wa-pe-kutes, or Leaf-Shooters; the
Wahpetons, or Village in the Leaves; and the Sissetons, or those of the
Village of the Marsh. Most of these have been long in contact with the
whites, and, having disposed of the greater portion of their lands to
the Government, have abandoned most of their old habits, and devote
themselves to farming. Others of them, however, are restless and devoted
to old prejudices, and cause much trouble to the settlers. The massacre
of the whites in 1862 was inaugurated by the M'dewakantons, the
Wahpetons and Sissetons afterwards joining them.

Along the Missouri, but living mostly on its eastern side, were the
Shauktonwans (Yanktons), or the People of Village at the End, inhabiting
originally the Sioux, Desmoines, and Jacques Rivers, and living now
principally about the mouth of the Vermillion.

The Yanktonais, a diminutive of the preceding name, and meaning the
lesser or the little people of the End Village. Lewis and Clark
described them as the Yanktons of the Plains, or Big Devils, who were on
the heads of the Sioux, Jacques, and Red Rivers. Their present range is
on the Missouri, above the Yanktons. From one branch of this band the
Assiniboines are said to have sprung.

Pabóksa, or Cutheads, a branch of the Yanktons, and ranging above them.

The I-san-teis, or Santees, another sub-band of the Yanktons, living
originally in Minnesota and Iowa, but since lately on the Missouri, near
the Yanktons.

West of the Missouri, occupying the greater portion of Dakota, Wyoming,
and portions of Montana and Nebraska, the general name of Tetons, or
Tetonwans ("Village of the Prairie") has been given to the seven
principal bands of the Dakotas inhabiting that region. Lewis and Clark
placed them on their map in only two principal divisions, viz: as the
"Tetans of the Burnt Woods" (Brulés), and the "Tetans Saone," from
which some suppose the word Sioux has been derived for the whole Dakota
nation. The seven subdivisions as now recognized are the--

1. _Siha-sa-pas_ or _Blackfeet_, on the Missouri in the neighborhood of
the Cannonball River.

2. The _Si-chan-koo_ or _Burnt Thighs_, (Brulés,) ranging on the
Niobrara and White Rivers, from the Platte to the Cheyenne.

3. _Oncpapas_, or "those who camp by themselves," who roam over the
country between the Cheyenne and Yellowstone Rivers.

4. _Minnekonjous_, "those who plant by the water," south of the Black
Hills.

5. _Itá-zip-cho_, or _Sans Arcs_, "without bows," affiliating with the
Oncpapas and Blackfeet, and ranging over much the same country.

6. _Ogalallas_, occupy the country between Fort Laramie and the Platte,
although they are now confined to a reservation in the northwestern
corner of Nebraska. Have the reputation of being the most friendly
disposed toward the whites of all the Titonwans. Red Cloud, so well
known as an Indian diplomat, is chief of this band.

7. _O-he-nom-pas_, or _Two Kettles_. Live principally about Fort Pierre;
against whom it is said very few complaints have ever been made, they
having always observed faithfully the stipulations of their treaties
with the United States.

In the Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1875, there are
twenty-one sub-bands of Dakotas enumerated, numbering, in the aggregate,
53,044. Of these, there are fourteen represented by portraits of their
leading men, viz:

  Blackfeet, numbering at the present time about       1,750
  Brulés, numbering at the present time about          8,420
  Cut Heads, numbering at the present time about         200
  Mdewakanton, numbering at the present time about     -----
  Ogalallas, numbering at the present time about       9,136
  Oncpapas                                             2,100
  Sans Arc                                             1,778
  Santee                                                 800
  Sisseton                                               903
  Santee and Sisseton at Fort Peck                     1,000
  Two Kettles                                          2,261
  Wahpeton                                             1,300
  Yanktons                                             2,500
  Yanktonais, Upper and Lower                          8,129

"The Sioux are included under twelve agencies, nine in Dakota, two in
Montana, and one in Nebraska, at all of which, except at Fort Belknap, a
beginning in Indian farming has been made in spite of all
discouragements by reason of unsuitable location and the demoralizing
influence of 'the hostiles.'"

The Ogalallas at Red Cloud agency, who have almost entirely abandoned
the chase on account of scarcity of game, depend almost entirely upon
the Government for their support. Their small beginnings in cultivating
the soil came to naught through the grasshoppers. The Brulés at Spotted
Tail agency have a thriving school with 75 pupils, and cultivated some
lands. At the Upper Missouri agencies but little has been done beyond
feeding the Indians who report to them for that purpose, their attempts
at farming resulting in failures on account of the grasshopper pest. The
Yanktons, Santees, Sissetons, Wahpetons, and other Sioux on the Lower
Missouri and in Eastern Dakota have made more substantial progress in
civilization, many of them having permanently discarded their Indian
habits and dress, and live in houses, and are nearly self-supporting.
The Santees in Nebraska especially have entirely renounced their old
form of life; have churches and sabbath-schools, which are regularly
attended. They have a monthly paper, printed in their native language,
with an edition of 1,200 copies.

_List of illustrations._

  252. PE-JI'. _Grass._ (Front.)                              BLACKFEET.

  253. PE-JI'. _Grass._ (Profile.)                            BLACKFEET.

  254. PE-JI'. _Grass._ (Full-length.)                        BLACKFEET.

  255. KAN-GI'-I-YO'-TAN-KA. _Sitting Crow._ (Front.)         BLACKFEET.

  256. KAN-GI'-I-YO'-TAN-KA. _Sitting Crow._ (Profile.)       BLACKFEET.

  257. MA'-YA-WA-NA-PE-YA. _Iron Scare._ (Front.)             BLACKFEET.

  258. MA'-YA-WA-NA-PE-YA. _Iron Scare._ (Profile.)           BLACKFEET.

  259. WI'-YA-KA-SHA. _Red Plume._ (Copy.)                    BLACKFEET.

  920. MA-GA'-SHA-PA. _Goose._ (Copy.)                        BLACKFEET.

With the exception of the last two numbers the above represent a portion
of a delegation of prominent Sioux chiefs and warriors who visited
Washington in 1872. The portraits were made in Washington, and represent
them in their best attire.

  336. CIN-TE-GI-LE-SKA. _Spotted Tail._ (Front.)                 BRULÉ.

  337. CIN-TE-GI-LE-SKA. _Spotted Tail._ (Profile.)               BRULÉ.

    Spotted Tail has long been the chief of the Brulé Sioux, and since
    his conversion from an intense hostility to an unswerving friendship
    for the white people has by them been looked upon and considered as
    the great chief of all the Sioux. The honors of this position are
    equally divided between Red Cloud and Spotted Tail; each is chief of
    his band only, the Indians themselves not recognizing any one man as
    chief of the whole nation; but their great executive abilities,
    oratorical powers, and popularity with both whites and Indians, have
    been the means of putting them forward as the champions of their
    people.

    In his younger days Spotted Tail was a daring and audacious chief,
    murdering and massacreing wherever he went. In 1854, he and his band
    attacked a coach, murdered all the passengers, and perpetrated
    horrible enormities on the dead. He was eventually captured, and
    imprisoned for about six mouths in the guardhouse at Fort
    Leavenworth, during which time his feelings underwent a great
    change. Instead of a determined foe of the pale-faces, he became
    their earnest friend and coadjutor in the work of pacification. It
    has been well said of him that "he is worth more to the Government
    than a dozen major-generals, with their armies to back them."

    The following extract from a speech by Spotted Tail, before a board
    of Indian Commissioners at Fort Laramie in 1867, will be read with
    interest as showing his ability as an orator: "My father and
    friends, your Great Father has sent you here to learn what was going
    on. You have come. Your Great Father has sent you to listen. Will
    you listen well, or only listen to half that is good and to half
    that is bad, and not take the whole to our Great Father? He has sent
    you here to hear and talk. We know you have not come with presents,
    but you may have a little money in your pockets that you could give
    them. They are poor and need help. These men here, and the old men,
    women, and children, have not had much to eat since they have been
    here, and if you could give them something it would make my heart
    glad. Yesterday my friends hit me a good deal; but it does not
    matter. I have spoken."

    Spotted Tail is of a large, commanding figure, and his face
    generally wears a pleasant, smiling expression. It is a difficult
    matter to arrive at the exact age of any Indian, and in this case it
    is uncertain, but is probably about 45 years. He has been to
    Washington four times, each time as a delegate representing the
    Sioux nation.

  338. SPOTTED TAIL AND SQUAW.                                    BRULÉ.

  339. SQUAW OF SPOTTED TAIL. (Front.)                            BRULÉ.

  340. SQUAW OF SPOTTED TAIL. (Profile.)                          BRULÉ.

  341. I-API-OTAH. _Gassy._ (Front.)                              BRULÉ.

  342. I-API-OTAH. _Gassy._ (Profile.)                            BRULÉ.

  343. I-TE'-SAN-YAN. _Whitewash his Face._ (Front.)              BRULÉ.

  344. I-TE'-SAN-YAN. _Whitewash his Face._ (Profile.)            BRULÉ.

  345. CHE-TAN'-TA'-KPI'. _Charge on the Hawk._ (Front.)          BRULÉ.

  346. CHE-TAN'-TA'-KPI'. _Charge on the Hawk._ (Profile.)        BRULÉ.

  347. NOM-PA-AP'A. _Two Strikes._ (Front.)                       BRULÉ.

  348. NOM-PA-AP'A. _Two Strikes._ (Profile.)                     BRULÉ.

  349. SQUAW OF TWO STRIKES. (Front.)                             BRULÉ.

  350. SQUAW OF TWO STRIKES. (Profile.)                           BRULÉ.

  351. KAN-GI'-SHA'-PA. _Black Crow._ (Front.)                    BRULÉ.

  352. KAN GI'-SHA'-PA. _Black Crow._ (Profile.)                  BRULÉ.

  353. HE-GMA-WA-KU-WA. _One who Runs the Tiger._ (Front.)        BRULÉ.

  354. HE-GMA-WA-KU-WA. _One who Runs the Tiger._ (Profile.)      BRULÉ.

  355. WANMBLE'-SHDA. _Bald Eagle._ (Front.)                      BRULÉ.

  356. WANMBLE'-SHDA. _Bald Eagle._ (Profile.)                    BRULÉ.

  357. CHE-CHA'-LU. _Thigh._ (Front.)                             BRULÉ.

  358. CHE-CHA'-LU. _Thigh._ (Profile.)                           BRULÉ.

  359. SQUAW OF THIGH. (Front.)                                   BRULÉ.

  360. SQUAW OF THIGH. (Profile.)                                 BRULÉ.

  361. TA-TAN'-KA-SHA'-PA. _Black Bull._ (Front.)                 BRULÉ.

  362. TA-TAN'-KA-SHA'-PA. _Black Bull._ (Profile.)               BRULÉ.

  363. CHO-NI'-CHA-WA-NI'-CHA. _No Flesh._ (Front.)               BRULÉ.

  364. CHO-NI'-CHA-WA-NI'-CHA. _No Flesh._ (Profile.)             BRULÉ.

  365. MA'-ZA-PON-KIS'-KA. _Iron Shell._ (Front.)                 BRULÉ.

  366. MA'-ZA-PON-KIS'-KA. _Iron Shell._ (Profile.)               BRULÉ.

  367. MA'-ZA-PON-KIS'-KA. _Iron Shell._ (Full length.)           BRULÉ.

  368. MA-TO'-SHI'-CHA. _Wicked Bear._ (Front.)                   BRULÉ.

  369. MA-TO'-SHI'-CHA. _Wicked Bear._ (Profile.)                 BRULÉ.

  370. PA'-HUI-ZI-ZI. _Yellow Hairs._ (Front.)                    BRULÉ.

  371. PA'-HUI-ZI-ZI. _Yellow Hairs._ (Profile.)                  BRULÉ.

  372. I-SHTA'-SKA. _White Eyes._ (Front.)                        BRULÉ.

  373. I-SHTA'-SKA. _White Eyes._ (Profile.)                      BRULÉ.

  374. MA-TO'-DUSA. _Swift Bear._ (Front.)                        BRULÉ.

  375. MA-TO'-DUSA. _Swift Bear._ (Profile.)                      BRULÉ.

  376. WA-KIN'-YAN-SKA. _White Thunder._ (Front.)                 BRULÉ.

  377. WA-KIN'-YAN-SKA. _White Thunder._ (Profile.)               BRULÉ.

  378. MA'-ZU-O-YA'-TE. _Iron Nation._ (Front.)                   BRULÉ.

  379. MA'-ZU-O-YA'-TE. _Iron Nation._ (Profile.)                 BRULÉ.

  380. MA'-ZU-O-YA'-TE. _Iron Nation._ (Full length.)             BRULÉ.

    All of the above, under the famous chief Spotted Tail, were members
    of a delegation who visited Washington in 1872, and were
    photographed while there.

  282. MA-TO'-WA-KAN'. _Medicine Bear._ (Front.)               CUT HEAD.

  283. MA-TO'-WA-KAN'. _Medicine Bear._ (Profile.)             CUT HEAD.

  284. MA-TO'-KO-KI'-PA. _Afraid of the Bear._ (Front.)        CUT HEAD.

  285. MA-TO'-KO-KI'-PA. _Afraid of the Bear._ (Profile.)      CUT HEAD.

  286. MA-TO'-PO'-ZHE. _Bear's Nose._ (Front.)                 CUT HEAD.

  287. MA-TO'-PO'-ZHE. _Bear's Nose._ (Profile.)               CUT HEAD.

  288. CHAN-TE'-HA. _Skin of the Heart._ (Front.)              CUT HEAD.

  289. CHAN-TE'-HA. _Skin of the Heart._ (Profile.)            CUT HEAD.

  290. PI'-PI-SHA. _Red Lodge._ (Front.)                       CUT HEAD.

  291. PI'-PI-SHA. _Red Lodge._ (Profile.)                     CUT HEAD.

  292. WI-CHA-WANMBLE'. _Man Who packs the Eagle._ (Front.)    CUT HEAD.

  293. WI-CHA-WANMBLE'. _Man Who packs the Eagle._ (Profile.)  CUT HEAD.

  294. SQUAW OF THE MAN WHO PACKS THE EAGLE. (Front.)          CUT HEAD.

  295. SQUAW OF THE MAN WHO PACKS THE EAGLE. (Profile.)        CUT HEAD.

  197-8. CHE-TAN'-WA-KU-TE-A-MA'-NI. _The Hawk that hunts
          Walking._                                         MDEWAKANTON.

    Generally known as _Little Crow_. Leader of the hostile bands in the
    Sioux massacre of the whites in Minnesota in 1862. He had not only
    visited Washington, and was supposed to be friendly to the whites,
    but had promised to have his hair cut and become civilized; and at
    the time of the massacre the Government was engaged in building him
    a house. Upon the defeat of the Indians, Little Crow escaped into
    the British Territory, where he was killed the following year.

  199. MEDICINE BOTTLE. Son of _Little Crow._               MDEWAKANTON.

  200. SHA-KPE. _Six._                                      MDEWAKANTON.

    The massacre spoken of in connection with No. 197 was inaugurated by
    _Sha-kpe_ and his band; some of his young men killed some white men
    while intoxicated, and then, through fear of retaliation, resolved
    upon an uprising and the extermination of all the whites at the
    agency. Sha-kpe's band was re-enforced by the principal warriors
    from the Mdewakanton and Wahpeton bands, Little Crow taking the
    leadership. Before they were subdued, 644 men, women, and children
    were massacred, and 93 soldiers killed in battle.

  296. MA-HPI'-YA-LU'-TA. _Red Cloud._ (Front.)                OGALALLA.

  297. MA-HPI'-YA-LU'-TA. _Red Cloud._ (Profile.)              OGALALLA.

    Red Cloud, who with Spotted Tail stands pre-eminently forward as the
    exponents of the peace-policy, is the great chief of the Ogalalla
    Sioux, and generally recognized by the military and civil
    authorities as the head chief of all the Sioux. Before he buried the
    tomahawk, Red Cloud was undoubtedly the most celebrated warrior of
    all the Indians now living on the American continent. He had over
    10,000 people in his camps, and could put in the field 3,000
    warriors. When he marched against the settlements he always went in
    force. He takes his name from the number of his warriors, and their
    red blankets and paints; it was said that his soldiers covered the
    hills like a red cloud.

    He is now about 45 years of age, six feet in height, and straight as
    an arrow; his face, which is of a dark red, is indicative of
    indomitable courage and firmness, and his full, piercing eyes seem
    to take in at a glance the character of friend or foe.

    Red Cloud has probably participated in more conventions, treaties,
    and large assemblies of his own and the white people, in which the
    greatest interests were involved, than any other living Indian. "A
    man of brains, a good ruler, an eloquent speaker, an able general,
    and a fair diplomat, the friendship of Red Cloud is of more
    importance than that of all the other chiefs combined." While
    Spotted Tail has a lively vein of humor in his character, and loves
    to indulge in a little joke, Red Cloud is all dignity and
    seriousness.

    The following, clipped from the report of the proceedings of the
    Board of Indian Commissioners at Fort Laramie, in 1870, is
    indicative of his earnest and impressive manner:

    "Red Cloud then arose, and walking toward the outside group, raised
    his hands toward the skies, and then touched the ground. Then all
    the Indians rose to their feet, as with uplifted hands Red Cloud
    uttered the following prayer:

     "THE PRAYER OF RED CLOUD.

    "'O Great Spirit, I pray you to look at us. We are your children,
    and you placed us first in this land. We pray you to look down on
    us, so nothing but the truth will be spoken in this council. We
    don't ask for anything but what is right and just. When you made
    your red children, O Great Spirit, you made them to have mercy upon
    them. Now, we are before you to-day, praying you to look down on us,
    and take pity on your poor red children. We pray you to have nothing
    but the truth spoken here. We hope these things will be settled up
    right. You are the Protector of the people who use the bow and
    arrow, as well as of the people who wear hats and garments, and I
    hope we don't pray in vain. We are poor and ignorant. Our
    forefathers told us we would not be in misery if we asked you for
    assistance. O Great Spirit, look down on your children and take pity
    on them.'"

  298. RED CLOUD and MR. BLACKMORE.                            OGALALLA.

  299. SHUN'-KA-LU'-TA. _Red Dog._ (Front.)                    OGALALLA.

  300. SHUN'-KA-LU'-TA. _Red Dog._ (Profile.)                  OGALALLA.

  301. SHUN-TO'-KE-CHA-ISH-NA-NA. _Lone Wolf._ (Front.)        OGALALLA.

  302. SHUN-TO'-KE-CHA-ISH-NA-NA. _Lone Wolf._ (Profile.)      OGALALLA.

  303. WA-HU'-WA-PA. _Ear of Corn._ (Squaw of Lone Wolf.
          Front.)                                              OGALALLA.

  304. WA-HU'-WA-PA. _Ear of Corn._ (Squaw of Lone Wolf.
          Profile.)                                            OGALALLA.

  305. SI-HA'-TAN'-KA. _Big Foot._ (Front.)                    OGALALLA.

  306. SI-HA'-TAN'-KA. _Big Foot._ (Profile.)                  OGALALLA.

  307. CHE'-TAN-SKA. _White Hawk._ (Front.)                    OGALALLA.

  308. CHE'-TAN-SKA. _White Hawk._ (Profile.)                  OGALALLA.

  309. WANMB'LE-KO-KI'-PA. _Afraid of the Eagle._ (Front.)     OGALALLA.

  310. WANMB'LE-KO-KI'-PA. _Afraid of the Eagle._ (Profile.)   OGALALLA.

  311. SHUN'-KA-WA-KAN-TO. _Blue Horse._ (Front.)              OGALALLA.

  312. SHUN'-KA-WA-KAN-TO. _Blue Horse._ (Profile.)            OGALALLA.

  313. WA-CHA-PA. _Stabber._ (Front.)                          OGALALLA.

  314. WA-CHA-PA. _Stabber._ (Profile.)                        OGALALLA.

  315. I-TE'-SHA'-PA. _Dirty Face._ (Front.)                   OGALALLA.

  316. I-TE'-SHA'-PA. _Dirty Face._ (Profile.)                 OGALALLA.

  317. TA-TAN'-KA-WAS-TE'. _Good Buffalo._ (Front.)            OGALALLA.

  318. TA-TAN'-KA-WAS-TE'. _Good Buffalo._ (Profile.)          OGALALLA.

  319. HE-HA'-KA-TA'-MA-KA. _Poor Elk._ (Front.)               OGALALLA.

  320. HE-HA'-KA-TA'-MA-KA. _Poor Elk._ (Profile.)             OGALALLA.

  321. HE-HA'-KA-NO'M-PA. _Two Elks._ (Front.)                 OGALALLA.

  322. HE-HA'-KA-NO'M-PA. _Two Elks._ (Profile.)               OGALALLA.

  323. SHUN-TO'-KE-CHA-ISH-HAN-SKA. _High Wolf._ (Front.)      OGALALLA.

  324. SHUN-TO'-KE-CHA-ISH-HAN-SKA. _High Wolf._ (Profile.)    OGALALLA.

  325. SHUN'-KA-A-MA'-NA. _Coyote._ (Front.)                   OGALALLA.

  326. SHUN'-KA-A-MA'-NA. _Coyote._ (Profile.)                 OGALALLA.

  327. CHAU-TE'-SU-TA'. _Hard Heart._ (Front.)                 OGALALLA.

  328. CHAU-TE'-SU-TA'. _Hard Heart._ (Profile.)               OGALALLA.

  329. TA-TAN'-KA-HUN'-KE-SNI. _Slow Bull._ (Front.)           OGALALLA.

  330. TA-TAN'-KA-HUN'-KE-SNI. _Slow Bull._ (Profile.)         OGALALLA.

  331. HE-HA'-KA-HE-WAN'-ZHI. _One Horned Elk._ (Copy.)        OGALALLA.

  332. CHU-TU'-HU-TAN'-KA. _Big Rib._ (Copy.)                  OGALALLA.

  333. WANMBLE'-KI-CHI-ZU-PI. _War Eagle._ (Copy.)             OGALALLA.

  334. TA-SHUN'-KA-KO-KI-PA. _Old Man Afraid of his Horses
          and his Chiefs._                                     OGALALLA.

  874. CHA-SA-TONGA. _Little Big Man._                         OGALALLA.

  875. TA-SHUN'-KA-KO-KI'-PA. _Young Man Afraid of his
          Horses._                                             OGALALLA.

  876. WASHI-TA-TONGA. _American Horse._                       OGALALLA.

  877. TA-OOP-CHE-KA. _Little Wound._                          OGALALLA.

  878. SHUNKA-LA-LO-KA. _He Dog._                              OGALALLA.

  879. MATO'-ZI. _Yellow Bear._                                OGALALLA.

  880. MATO'-YU-MNI. _Three Bears._                            OGALALLA.

  881. MA-WA-KA-YU-NA. _Sword._                                OGALALLA.

  882. WM. GARNET, Interpreter.

  883. GROUP of the preceding eight numbers.

  260. MA-TO'-CHU-TU'-HU. _Bear's Rib._ (Front.)                ONCPAPA.

  261. MA-TO'-CHU-TU'-HU. _Bear's Rib._ (Profile.)              ONCPAPA.

  262. TA-TO'-KA-IN'-YAN-KA. _Running Antelope._ (Front.)       ONCPAPA.

  263. TA-TO'-KA-IN'-YAN-KA. _Running Antelope._  (Profile.)    ONCPAPA.

  264. HE-MA'-ZA. _Iron Horn._ (Front.)                         ONCPAPA.

  265. HE-MA'-ZA. _Iron Horn._ (Profile.)                       ONCPAPA.

  266. WA-KU'-TA-A-MA'-NI. _Walking Shooter._ (Front.)          ONCPAPA.

  267. WA-KU'-TA-A-MA'-NI. _Walking Shooter._ (Profile.)        ONCPAPA.

  268. WA-KIN'-YAN-CHI'-TAN. _Thunder Hawk._ (Front.)           ONCPAPA.

  269. WA-KIN'-YAN-CHI'-TAN. _Thunder Hawk._ (Profile.)         ONCPAPA.

  797. WI-CHA'-I-WE. _Bloody Mouth._ (Front.)                   ONCPAPA.

  798. WI-CHA'-I-WE. _Bloody Mouth._ (Profile.)                 ONCPAPA.

  799. WA-KAN-TA-I-SHNI. _Lost Medicine._ (Front.)              ONCPAPA.

  800. WA-KAN-TA-I-SHNI. _Lost Medicine._ (Profile.)            ONCPAPA.

  801. HE-SHA'-PA. _Black Horn._ (Front.)                       ONCPAPA.

  802. HE-SHA'-PA. _Black Horn._ (Profile.)                     ONCPAPA.

  803. P'SA. _Bull Rushes._ (Front.)                            ONCPAPA.

  804. P'SA. _Bull Rushes._ (Profile.)                          ONCPAPA.

  194-6. CHE-TAN-ZHI. _Yellow Hawk._                           SANS ARC.

  201-2. WA-KU'-TA. _The Shooter._                               SANTEE.

  203, 209. WA'-PA-HA-SHA. _Red Ensign._                         SANTEE.

  204. WA-KAN'-HDI-SHA'-PA. _Black Lightning._                   SANTEE.

  205. O'-WAN-CHA-DU'-TA. _Scarlet all Over._                    SANTEE.

  206. CHO'-TAN-KA-SHKA'-TA. _Flute-Player._                     SANTEE.

  207. A-KI'-CHI-TA-NA-ZIN. _Standing Soldier._                  SANTEE.

  208. WAN-M'DI-TA-PA'-A-MA'-NI. _Walks following the Eagle._    SANTEE.

  210. TA'-SHUN-KA-WA-KAN'-WI-CHA. _His Man Horse._              SANTEE.

  211. MA-HP'I-YA-I-HUA-N. _Coming among the Clouds._            SANTEE.

  212. ZI-TKA'-DA-TO. _Bluebird._                                SANTEE.

  213. MA-HPI'-YA-NA'-ZIN. _Standing Cloud._                     SANTEE.

  214. HAN-YA'-TA-DU'-TU. _Scarlet Night._                       SANTEE.

  215. HU-SHA-SHA. _Red Legs._                                   SANTEE.

  249. PE-HUI-UZA-TAN-KA. _Great Scalper._                       SANTEE.

  250. TA-TAN'KA-NA'-ZIN. _Standing Buffalo._                    SANTEE.

  381. WA-KAN'-DA. _Medicine._                                   SANTEE.

  248. YOUNG BRAVE.                                              SANTEE.

  251. OLD BETTS. (Squaw.)                                       SANTEE.

  216. SERAPHINE RENVILLE. (Interpreter.)                        SANTEE.

  382-4. GROUPS with Rev. Mr. Hinman.                            SANTEE.

  192. HE-PTE'-CHE'-CHI-KA-LA. _Little Short Horn._            SISSETON.

  187-190. MA-WA'-TAN'-NA-HAN'-SKA. _Long Mandan._           TWO KETTLE.

  191. SUK-TAN'-KA-GE-LE-SKA. _Spotted Horse._               TWO KETTLE.

  193. AU-PE'-TO'-KE-CHA. _Other Day._                         WAHPETON.

  217-239. PA-DA'-NI-A-PA'-A-PA'. _Struck by the Ree._          YANKTON.

  218, 219. PSI-CHA-WA-KIN-YAN. _Jumping Thunder._               YANKTON.

  220, 906-7. SI-HA'-HAN'-SKA. _Long Foot._                     YANKTON.

  222-4. PTE-WA-KAN'. _Medicine Cow._                           YANKTON.

  221. MA-GA'-SKA. _White Swan._                                YANKTON.

  225-8. WA-HU'-KE-ZI-NOM'-PA. _Two Lance._                     YANKTON.

  725. LIGHT FOOT.                                              YANKTON.

  229. WI'-YA-KA-NO-GE. _Feather in the Ear._                   YANKTON.

  230-1. ZIN-TKA'-CHI-STIN. _Little Bird._                      YANKTON.

  232-3. WAN-M'DI-SHA'-PA. _Black Eagle._                       YANKTON.

  234. MA-TO'-I-WAN-KA'. _Bear Lying Down._                     YANKTON.

  235. TA-TAN-KA-IN'-YAN-KA. _Running Bull._                    YANKTON.

  236. HE-HA'-KA-A-MA'-NA. _Walking Elk._                       YANKTON.

  237. HE-HA'-KA-A-NA'-ZIN. _Standing Elk._                     YANKTON.

  238. MA-TO'-SA-BI-CHA. _Smutty Bear._                         YANKTON.

  240-1. SMUTTY BEAR AND STRUCK BY THE REE.                     YANKTON.

  890. ZIN-TKA-SHA'-PA-MA'ZA. _Iron Black Bird._                YANKTON.

  891. CHON-NOM'-PA-KIN-YAN. _Flying Pipe._                     YANKTON.

  892. WA-KIN-YAN-CHIN-STIN. _Little Thunder._                  YANKTON.

  893. TA-TAN'-KA-WA-KAN'. _Sacred Bull._                       YANKTON.

  894. ZIN-TKA'-KIN-YAN. _Flying Bird._                         YANKTON.

  896. TO-KI'-YA-KTE. _He Kills First._                         YANKTON.

  897. NA-GI'-WA-KAN'. _Sacred Ghost._                          YANKTON.

  898-9. MA-TO'-HO-TAN'-KA. _Bear with Big Voice._              YANKTON.

  900. IN'-YAN-WAS-TE'. _Pretty Rock._                          YANKTON.

  901. TO'-KA-YA-YU'-ZA. _One who Catches the Enemy._           YANKTON.

  902. KU-WA'S-CHIN-A-NIA-NI. _One who Walks Home._             YANKTON.

  903. MA-TO'-I-WAN-KA'-A-MA'-NI. _Bear that Walks Lying Down._ YANKTON.

  904-5. MA-TO'-WA-YU-MNI. _The Bear that Turns Around._        YANKTON.

  908. TA-TAN'-KA-WA'-KAN. _Medicine Bull._                     YANKTON.

  276. TA-TAN'-KA-WA-NA'-GI. _Bull's Ghost._ (Front.)  LOWER YANKTONAIS.

  277. TA-TAN'-KA-WA-NA'-GI. _Bull's Ghost._
          (Profile.)                                   LOWER YANKTONAIS.

  278. MA-TO'-WI-TKO-TKO. _Foolish Bear._ (Front.)     LOWER YANKTONAIS.

  279. MA-TO'-WI-TKO-TKO. _Foolish Bear._ (Profile.)   LOWER YANKTONAIS.

  280. MA-TO'-NOM'-PA. _Two Bears._ (Front.)           LOWER YANKTONAIS.

  281. MA-TO'-NOM'-PA. _Two Bears._ (Profile.)         LOWER YANKTONAIS.

  270. NA-ZU-LA-TAN'-KA. _Big Head._ (Front.)          UPPER YANKTONAIS.

  271. NA-ZU-LA-TAN'-KA. _Big Head._ (Profile.)        UPPER YANKTONAIS.

  272. I'-STA-SHA'-PA. _Black Eye._ (Front.)           UPPER YANKTONAIS.

  273. I'-STA-SHA'-PA. _Black Eye._ (Profile.)         UPPER YANKTONAIS.

  274. I-CHA'-SAN-TAN'-KA. _Big Razor._ (Front.)       UPPER YANKTONAIS.

  275. I-CHA'-SAN-TAN'-KA. _Big Razor._ (Profile.)     UPPER YANKTONAIS.

  170. WA-KAN'-DU'-TA. _Red Thunder._ (Front.)

  171. WA-KAN'-DU'-TA. _Red Thunder._ (Profile.)

  172. HAV-KA-WASH-TI. _Good Hawk._ (Front.)

  173. HAV-KA-WASH-TI. _Good Hawk._ (Profile.)

  174. PE-HAN'-SA-A-MA'NI. _Walking Crane._ (Front.)

  175. PE-HAN'-SA-A-MA'NI. _Walking Crane._ (Profile.)

  176. WANMDI-ZI. _Yellow Eagle._ (Front.)

  177. WANMDI-ZI. _Yellow Eagle._ (Profile.)

  732. HATONA. _Many Horns._ (Front.)

  733. HATONA. _Many Horns._ (Profile.)

  734. I-STE-SA'-PA. _Black Eye._ (Front.)

  735. I-STE-SA'-PA. _Black Eye._ (Profile.)

  736. TA-TAN-KA-HAN-SKA. _Long Fox._ (Front.)

  737. TA-TAN-KA-HAN-SKA. _Long Fox._ (Profile.)

  908. TA-TAN'-KA-WA-KAN'. _Medicine Bull._

  916. MA-ZA'-O-ZAN-ZAN.

  917. HE-HA'-KA-MA-ZU'. _Iron Elk._

  919. WANMDI-YAN'-KA. _Great Eagle._

  923. HIN-KAN-DU'-TA. _Red Owl._

  925. CUT NOSE.

  927. MA-ZU'-KU'-TA. _Iron Shooter._

  931. TALL FEATHER JOINING.

  932. WA-KAN'-O-ZAN-ZAN. _Medicine Bottle._

  933. O-TA-DAN. _Plenty._

  895. CHIEF WITH THE BIG WAR BONNET.

  244. WAR DANCE.

  815. GENERAL SHERMAN AND COMMISSIONERS at Fort Laramie.

  816. COMMISSIONERS IN COUNCIL, Fort Laramie.

  817. OLD MAN AFRAID OF HIS HORSES, AND GROUP.

  818-830. MISCELLANEOUS GROUPS ABOUT FORT LARAMIE.

  831. SIOUX BURIAL.

  832-5. GROUPS ABOUT FORT LARAMIE.

  838. INDIAN DELEGATION AT THE WHITE HOUSE.

  839-41. ST. MARY'S MISSION, KANSAS.

  845. THE SERGEANT OF THE GUARD.


3. IOWAS.

A tribe of Indians of Dakota stock, inhabiting originally the interior
of the State of the same name. Marquette in 1673 placed them on his map
as the Pa-houtet. Some of the neighboring Algonkins called them Iowas--a
name originally applied to a river, and said to mean "the beautiful
land"--and others Mascoutin or Prairie Nadouessi. In their own tongue
their name is Pahucha, meaning "Dusty Nose." They were famous as great
pedestrians, being able to walk twenty-five or thirty leagues a day,
and the names of many of their chiefs show that they prided themselves
on their walking.

In 1700 they were on the Mankato, and constantly roaming with the
Western Algonkins. Early in the present century they numbered about
1,500, and were involved in wars with the Osages, Omahas, and the Sioux,
losing heavily. Later they became much decimated through the ravages of
the small-pox and other diseases.

First treaty was made with them in 1815. In 1836 the tribe, numbering
992, were removed to the west bank of the Missouri, and from this time
rapidly declined in numbers, many of them becoming vagrants in other
tribes, and others killed themselves by intemperance. By 1846 had
decreased to 700. In 1861 the tribe, now reduced to 305, ceded all their
lands except 16,000 acres, which they subsequently, in 1869, shared with
some of the Sacs and Foxes, their old friends.

Since the tribe has been placed under the charge of the Society of
Friends they have improved somewhat, so that at the present time (1875),
although reduced to 219 souls, they are all living in good houses on
their fertile reservation in Southern Nebraska, and are raising much
more than is needed for their own consumption. They have good schools,
at which nearly one-fourth of the tribe attend, and nearly one-half of
the whole number can read. They stand in the front rank of civilized
Indian tribes.

_List of illustrations._

  385-6. NAG A-RASH. _British._

    Became first chief of the Iowas in 1862, upon the death of
    Nan-chee-ning-a. Has always taken a prominent place in favor of
    civilization and the advancement of his tribe by education and work.
    Has made four visits to Washington and two to New York, the first
    being in 1847, when he travelled from Saint Joseph, Mo., to
    Baltimore in a wagon. Took part once in a great battle between the
    Otoes, Pawnees, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, and Sacs and Foxes on one
    side, and the Snakes, Crows, Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Comanches, and
    Kiowas on the other, lasting from early dawn until dark. British
    shot 160 balls; 150 of the enemy were left on the field. Age, 68;
    height, 5.8-1/2; head, 22-7/8; chest, 47-1/2; weight, 193.

  388-9. MAH-HEE. _Knife._

    Third chief of the Iowas. When young, lived in Missouri, but
    afterward removed to Kansas. Enjoyed the confidence of the whites to
    a marked degree, and was mail-carrier for some time between the
    frontier posts and the agency. Was among the first to take the lead
    in settling down to an agricultural life. Has always been a
    hard-working man, but at one time was dissipated, and once, when
    under the influence of liquor, killed his father. Is a strictly
    temperate man now, but his rapidly-failing health will soon unfit
    him for his usual labor, and his example in the tribe as an
    industrious man will soon be lost. Age, 56; height, 5.10; head,
    22-3/4; chest, 39-1/2; weight, 172.

  391, 395. TAH-RA-KEE. _Deer Ham._

    Was fourth chief of the tribe until October, 1876, when he was
    deposed for persistent interference with the business of the agency.
    He had been suspended before, but was re-instated by another agent.
    Age, 50 years; height, 5.8-1/2; head, 22; chest, 41-1/2; weight,
    179.

  390. KI-HE-GA-ING-A. _Little Chief._

    Fifth chief of the Iowas. Enlisted in the Northern Army and
    participated in the late war of the rebellion, serving two years.
    Was promised the position of a chief if he enlisted, and upon his
    return the promise was made good. Age, 43; height, 5.10; head,
    22-3/4; chest, 43; weight, 192.

  387. KRA-TEN-THA-WAH. _Blade Hawk._

    Was sixth chief of the Iowas. Died January 1, 1871, aged about 30
    years; height, 6 feet; weight, 170 pounds.

  392-4. NAN-CHEE-NING-A. _No Heart._

    Was first chief of the Iowas. Died in 1862, aged 65; height, 5.10;
    weight, 170.

  921. A CHIEF.

  922. GROUP, comprising most of the above numbers.


4. KAW OR KANSAS.

The Kansas are an offshoot of the Osages, whom they resemble in many
respects. In 1673 they were placed on Marquette's map as on the
Missouri, above the Osages. After the cession of Louisiana, a treaty
was made with them by the United States. They were then on the river
Kansas at the mouth of the Saline, having been forced back from the
Missouri by the Sioux, and numbered about 1,500 in 130 earthen lodges.
Some of their chiefs visited Washington as early as 1820. In 1825 ceded
their lands on the Missouri, retaining a reservation on the Kansas,
where they were constantly subjected to attacks from the Pawnees, and on
their hunts from other tribes, so that they lost rapidly in numbers. In
1846 they again ceded their lands, and a new reservation of 80,000 acres
on the Neosho in Kansas assigned them; but this also soon becoming
overrun by settlers, and as they would not cultivate it themselves, it
was sold, and the proceeds invested for their benefit and for providing
a new home among the Osages. The tribe in 1850 numbered 1,300; in 1860,
800; and in 1875 had dwindled to 516. Under the guidance of Orthodox
Friends they are now cultivating 460 acres, and have broken more than as
much again. They raised among other things 12,000 bushels of corn; 70 of
them are regular church attendants, and 54 of their children attend
school.

_List of illustrations._

  397. LITTLE BEAR.

  398. KA-KE-GA-SHA. (Standing.)

  399. KA-KE-GA-SHA. (Sitting.)


5. MANDANS.

The Mandans, or Mi-ah'-ta-nees, "people on the bank," have resided on
the Upper Missouri for a long time, occupying successively several
different places along the river. In 1772 resided 1,500 miles above the
mouth of the Missouri, in nine villages located on both sides of the
river. Lewis and Clarke found them in 1804 100 miles farther up in only
two villages, one on each side of the river; near them were three other
villages belonging to the Minnitarees and Ahnahaways.

In the year 1833 these Indians were in their most prosperous state,
industrious, well armed, good hunters and good warriors, in the midst of
herds of buffalo mostly within sight of the village, with large
corn-fields, and a trading-post from which they could at all times
obtain supplies, and consequently at that time they might have been
considered a happy people. In their personal appearance, prior to the
ravages of the small-pox, they were not surpassed by any nation in the
Northwest. The men were tall and well made, with regular features and a
mild expression of countenance not usually seen among Indians. The
complexion, also, was a shade lighter than that of other tribes, often
approaching very near to some European nations, as the Spaniards.
Another peculiarity was that some of them had fair hair, and some gray
or blue eyes, which are very rarely met with among other tribes. A
majority of the women, particularly the young, were quite handsome, with
fair complexions, and modest in their deportment. They were also noted
for their virtue. This was regarded as an honorable and most valuable
quality among the young women, and each year a ceremony was performed,
in the presence of the whole village, at which time all the females who
had preserved their virginity came forward, struck a post, and
challenged the world to say aught derogatory of their character.

In these palmy days of their prosperity much time and attention was
given to dress, upon which they lavished much of their wealth. They were
also very fond of dances, games, races, and other manly and athletic
exercises. They are also a very devotional people, having many rites and
ceremonies for propitiating the Great Spirit, practising upon themselves
a self-torture but little less severe than that of Hindoo devotees.

In the spring of 1838 that dreaded scourge of the Indians, small-pox,
made its appearance among the Mandans, brought among them by the
employés of the fur company. All the tribes along the river suffered
more or less, but none approached so near extinction as the Mandans.
When the disease had abated, and when the remnant of this once powerful
nation had recovered sufficiently to remove the decaying bodies from
their cabins, the total number of grown men was twenty-three, of women
forty, and of young persons sixty or seventy. These were all that were
left of the eighteen hundred souls that composed the nation prior to the
advent of that terrific disease.

The survivors took refuge with the Arickarees, who occupied one of their
deserted villages, but retained their former tribal laws and customs,
preserving their nationality intact, refusing any alliances with
surrounding tribes. The two tribes have lived together since then upon
terms of excellent friendship. They now number 420, living in
dome-shaped earthen houses, like the Pawnees, which are, however, being
gradually replaced by log houses.

The following representatives of the tribe were part of a joint
delegation of Arickarees and Mandans to Washington in 1874:

_List of illustrations._

  1006. WA-SHÚ-NA-KOO-RÁ. _Rushing War Eagle._

    The present head chief of the Mandans, a man noted for kindliness
    and benevolence. Age, 43; height, 5.7-3/4; head, 24-1/4; chest, 38.

  1005. ME-RA-PA-RA-PA. _Lance._

    Head soldier or brave. Age, 38; height, 5.8-1/2; head, 22-3/4;
    chest, 38-1/2.

  1007. E-STA-POO-STA. _Running Face._

    Young warrior, son of Red Cow, a "big chief," who was too old to
    travel, and this son sent in his place. Age, 23; height, 5.6; head,
    21-1/2; chest, 37-3/4.

  884. CHARLES PAPINEAU. _Interpreter._

    Born in Montreal in 1820. Has lived in the Mandan country since
    1839. Speaks Arickaree, Crow, Sioux, Gros Ventres, Mandan, French,
    and English.


6. MISSOURIAS.

The Missourias are a tribe of Dakota descent, living on the Missouri
River, their name being one given them by the Illinois, and means the
people living by the muddy water. They style themselves _Nudarcha_. Were
first heard of in 1673, as the first tribe up the river which bears
their name. Became allies of the French at an early day, and assisted
them in some of their operations against other tribes. Were hostile to
the Spanish and also opposed to the ascendency of English influence. In
1805, when Lewis and Clarke passed through their country, they numbered
only 300 in all, living in villages south of the Platte, and at war with
most of the neighboring tribes. They were affiliated with the Otoes,
having deserted their own villages near the mouth of the Grand some time
previously in consequence of their almost entire destruction by
small-pox. The two have ever since been classed as one tribe. In 1862
the combined tribes numbered 708, and in 1876 only 454. Since their
consolidation with the Otoes their history has been the same as of that
tribe.

_List of illustrations._

  481. THRACH-TCHE. _True Eagle._

    A full-blood Missouria, and nephew of Ah-ho-che-ka-thocka (Quapaw
    Indian Striker), a title gained by his bravery in battle against the
    Quapaws, and who was head chief. At his (Ah-ho-che-ka-thocka's)
    death, the hereditary successor, Good Talker, was assassinated by
    Shungech-hoy and others, when the line of descent fell on True
    Eagle, who became chief in 1860, and held the position of Missouria
    chief in the confederated Otoes and Missourias until 1874, when he
    resigned in favor of his nephew. Is now about 80 years of age, 6
    feet in height, with a stout, well-proportioned frame.


  503. NOCH-PE-WORA. _The One they are Afraid of._

    Is a cousin of True Eagle, and chief of the Eagle band of
    Missourias. Is of a mild, genial disposition, with but little force
    of character. Age, 45; height, 5.8-1/2; weight, 155; head, 22-1/2;
    chest, 35.


  484-5. WA-THOCK-A-RUCHY. _One who eats his Food Raw._

    His father was of the Bear band of Otoes, and his mother of the
    Eagle band of Missourias. He inherited a chieftaincy among the
    Missourias, and succeeded to that position upon the death of his
    uncle, White Water, in 1868, when he took the name of
    LOD-NOO-WAH-HOO-WA, or _Pipe-Stem_. Lacks force of character, but is
    of a mild disposition and well disposed. Is about 5 feet in height,
    and of a well-developed physical organization.


  486. MUNCHA-HUNCHA. _Big Bear_, or _Joseph Powell_.

    Is a full-blooded Missouria. Succeeded his grandfather,
    Cow-he-pa-ha, as chief of the Bear band, in 1870. When a young man
    he lived much of his time among the whites. Possessing more than
    ordinary intelligence, he is at present the leading spirit of the
    Otoes and Missourias in the industrial pursuits of civilized life.
    These qualities have engendered much jealousy in the breasts of the
    older chiefs, who throw many obstacles in his way. Besides his good
    mental qualities he possesses a splendid physique. Height, 5.11;
    weight, 225; head, 23-1/2; chest, 42.

  498. BLACK ELK.


7. OMAHAS.

The Omahas were one of the tribes noticed by Marquette in 1673, and by
Carver in 1766, who found them located on the Saint Peter's River. They
were divided into two bands, the Istasunda, or Grey Eyes, and the
Hongashans, and cultivated corn, melons, beans, &c. In 1802, from a
tribe numbering about 3,500, they were reduced to less than a tenth of
that number by small-pox, when they burned their village and became
wanderers, pursued by their relentless enemy, the Sioux. Lewis and
Clarke found them on the L'Eau qui Court, numbering about 600. Since
1815 many treaties have been made with them, always accompanied by a
cession of lands on their part in return for annuities and farming
implements. In 1843 they returned to their village, between the Elkhorn
and the Missouri, and made a peace with some of the Sioux, but their
great chief, Logan Fontanelle, was killed by them not long after. Since
then they have devoted themselves mainly to agriculture, and, under the
fostering care of the Friends, are very much improved in their
condition. In 1875 they numbered 1,005, depending entirely upon their
crops for their subsistence, of which they have considerably more than
enough for their own use. They have three good schools, which are
largely and regularly attended. The older Indians are also abandoning
their old habits and assisting in building for themselves upon
forty-acre allotments of their lands.

_List of illustrations._

  885. SHU-DTHE-NUZHE. _Yellow Smoke._

    A leading and influential chief among the Omahas, and a man of more
    than ordinary intelligence and executive ability. Holds his position
    by hereditary descent. Is well off, possessing a large number of
    horses and a very well furnished house.

  465. GRE-DTHE-NUZHE. _Standing Hawk and squaw._

    The oldest chief in the tribe, and consequently one whose words
    always command attention in their councils. This view represents him
    leading his pony, followed by his faithful squaw.

  467. O-HUN-GA-NUZHE. _Standing at the End._

    A brave, nearly nude, decorated with "war-paint" and astride a
    characteristic Indian pony.

  468. MO-HA-NUZHE. _Standing Bent._

    A policeman, or one appointed by the chiefs to preserve order in the
    village.

  463. GI-HE-GA. _Chief._

    One of the nine chiefs who govern the tribe, holding their positions
    by hereditary descent.

  469-470. BETSY.

    A noted character among the Omahas, an exponent of women's rights.
    Has always accompanied the tribe on their annual buffalo-hunts, and
    participates in the chase with the men. Speaks three Indian
    languages, besides French and English.

  457. AGENCY BUILDINGS.

  462. THE VILLAGE OF THE OMAHAS. (1871.)

  461. THE VILLAGE. Near view, showing lodges.

  464. GI-HE-GA'S LODGE.

  459-460. VIEW FROM BLACKBIRD HILL.

    In Irving's Astoria is a short sketch of some of the romantic deeds
    of Wa-shinga-sah-ba, or Blackbird, a famous chief of the Omahas, who
    died in 1802, which concludes as follows: "His dominant spirit and
    his love for the white man were evinced in his latest breath with
    which he designated his place of sepulture. It was to be on a hill,
    or promontory, upward of 400 feet in height, overlooking a great
    extent of the Missouri, from which he had been accustomed to watch
    for the barks of the white men. The Missouri washes the base of the
    promontory, and after winding and doubling in many links and mazes
    in the plains below, returns to within 900 yards of its
    starting-place, so that for thirty miles, navigating with sail and
    oar, the voyager finds himself continually near to this singular
    promontory, as if spell-bound.

    "It was the dying command of the Blackbird that his tomb should be
    upon the summit of this hill, in which he should be interred, seated
    on his favorite horse, that he might overlook his ancient domain,
    and behold the barks of the white men as they came up the river to
    trade with his people."

    The river has now changed its course, running far to the eastward,
    leaving at the foot of the hill a lake in the old bed of the river.
    The mound which was raised over the chief and his horse is now
    nearly obliterated, "yet the hill of the Blackbird continues an
    object of veneration to the wandering savage, and a landmark to the
    voyager of the Missouri."

  472-476. GROUPS OF SCHOOL-CHILDREN.

  478. EBA-HOM-BA'S LODGE.

  479. VILLAGE SCENE.

  477. A BRAVE.

  471. INDIAN CARPENTERS BUILDING HOUSES FOR THE TRIBE.


8. OSAGES.

The Osages were placed on the Missouri in 1673 by Marquette, who called
them the Wasashe; were allies of the Illinois, and near the last of the
past century had been driven down to the Arkansas. Coming in contact
with the French, they became their firm allies, and joined them in many
of their operations against Spanish and English and other Indians; in
1804, made peace with the Sacs and Foxes, with whom they had been at
war, and settled on the Great Osage River. Their numbers were estimated
then at 6,300. The usual succession of treaties ceding lands, and wars
with neighboring Indians followed, reducing them very much in numbers,
until the breaking out of the civil war, when 1,000 of them went South
and joined the Confederacy. Treaties of 1865, 1866, and 1870 provided
for the conveying of their lands in trust to the United States, and for
their removal to the Indian Territory, where they have been placed under
the care of the Society of Friends, and are now making rapid progress
toward a self-supporting condition. They now number 3,001, of whom 323
are civilized, self-supporting mixed-bloods.

_List of illustrations._

  511. JOSEPH, PAW-NE-NO-PA-ZHE. _Not Afraid of the Pawnees._

    Governor or chief of the tribe. Was born on the Osage reservation
    when in Kansas, and when 12 years of age was placed in a Catholic
    mission, where he received a good English education. He still
    retains the old customs and habits of his tribe, however. Is a brave
    and warlike chief, but yet exerts all his influence to secure peace
    between his people and the whites. Is about 40 years of age, 6 feet
    in height, with a large and commanding physique; head, 22-1/4;
    chest, 41.

  886. SHONGA-SA-PA. _Black Dog._

    The youngest of the six principal chiefs of the tribe. Is 28 years
    of age, and was born on the present reservation. Is the descendant
    of a long line of chiefs, one of whom was principal in establishing
    peace between the Government and the wild tribes. With the governor,
    Joseph, he visited Washington in 1876 to adjust various business
    matters in connection with his tribe. Age, 28; height, 5.11-1/2;
    head, 22-3/4; chest, 38.

  887. GROUP representing the governor and some of the headmen
        or councillors of the nation, as follows:

  JOSEPH PAW-NE-NO-PA-ZHE. See No. 511.


  CHETOPAH.

    Died in 1876, aged 38. Was among the first to commence farming and
    to live in the white man's way.

  PA-TSA-LUN-KAH. _Strike Axe._

    Born on the Osage reservation in Kansas 45 years ago. Is one of the
    principal "peace chiefs," and also chief of one of the largest bands
    of the Osages, over whom he has unbounded influence.

  CHE-ZHE-LUN-KAH. _Big Chief._

    Chief councillor of the nation, a man of good sense and much
    influence. Is the son of a chief; 45 years of age, and was born in
    Kansas.

  HARD ROPE.

    Head war chief of the nation, and a man of considerable ability as
    an orator. Served as a scout under General Custer during the Indian
    war in the Indian Territory. Is now 50 years old.

  513. KAH-HE-KA-WAH-TI-AN-KA. _Saucy Chief._

  509. NOM-PA-WA-LE. _A Savage._

  510. KE-SI-SI-GRE. _A Distant Land._

  512. MAH-KEA-PU-AT-SEE. _One Who Reaches to the Sky._

  888. JOSEPH AND BLACK DOG.

  889. JOSEPH, BLACK DOG, OGEAS CAPTAIN, AND J. N. FLORER.


9. OTOES.

The Otoes, calling themselves Watoohtahtah, were known to the French as
early as 1673, under the name of Otontanta; were originally part of the
Missourias, and, with the Iowas, claim to have migrated to the Missouri
with the Winnebagoes. They have long resided on the south side of the
Platte River, in mud lodges, confederated with the Missourias, who
formed one village with them. The two tribes now number 457 souls. Under
the care of the Friends, many are laying aside their Indian dress and
habits, and learning to labor. In common with many other tribes, their
annuities are payable only in return for labor performed, which
exercises a most beneficial effect.

_List of illustrations._

  480. AR-KE-KE-TAH. _Stand by It._

    Is a full-blooded Otoe Indian. He was a leading warrior in his
    tribe, and during the early settlement of Nebraska, when an emigrant
    train had been attacked on Big Sandy Creek, and robbed of all they
    had by a party of Pawnees, Ar-ke-ke-tah, leading a band of Otoes,
    fell on them, and, killing the entire party, restored the goods back
    to the emigrants, for which he gained notoriety, and received papers
    commendatory of this and other valuable services rendered the
    whites. By being a man of deep scheming and cunning, he succeeded in
    gaining the position of head chief of the tribe, while on a visit to
    Washington, in 1854, when the treaty was concluded, in which the
    Otoes ceded to the Government the southeastern part of Nebraska. He
    was deposed from his chiefship in 1872, re-instated in 1873, but has
    been inactive as a chief since, and has lost his influence in the
    tribe. He is still living, about 65 years of age, and 5 feet 8
    inches high, with square, well-built frame.

  482, 492-4, 502. SHUN-GECH-HOY. _Medicine Horse._

    His father was an Otoe, and his mother a Missouria Indian. By
    hereditary descent he became, in 1854, head chief of the Bear band
    of Otoes, and being ambitious, worked himself finally into the
    position of head chief of the Otoes and Missourias. In 1874 he led a
    portion of the tribe away from their reservation, in violation of
    law and agency regulations, for which he, with five others, was
    arrested and confined for a time at Fort Wallace. In consequence, he
    became alienated from the agency and main part of the tribe, and
    lost his position as chief. Has features remarkably coarse; has a
    very stern, fierce disposition; is a deep schemer; would be willing
    to sacrifice almost any interest of his tribe in order to maintain a
    supremacy over them, and has been engaged in many stratagems of the
    kind. He is tenacious of old Indian customs, opposed to improvement
    that makes innovations thereon, and is a heavy clog on the tribe in
    their endeavors to advance in civilized pursuits. In stature, he is
    about 5 feet 9 inches, with a heavy-set, well-developed muscular
    frame; about 60 years of age.

  487, 489, 490. LOD-NOO-WA-INGA. _Little Pipe._

    Is a son of Hick-a-poo or Kick-a-poo, formerly a prominent chief of
    the tribe. The chiefship had been hereditary through many
    successors, and after the death of Hick-a-poo, the present Little
    Pipe, in 1858, took his place. He was one of the followers of
    Shungech-hoy in 1874; was arrested and imprisoned with him, and has
    not since been recognized as a chief. He is of a mild disposition,
    well disposed toward improvement, but quiet and without much
    individual force of character. Has been under unfavorable
    influences, and therefore makes but little progress. He is about 50
    years of age, 5 feet 7-1/2 inches in stature, head 23 inches, chest
    36, and weighs 155.

  488. PAH-HO-CHA-INGA. _Little Iowa._

    Generally known by his more proper name of Baptiste Devoin, is a son
    of John Devoin, who is half French and half Missouria Indian. His
    mother is half Omaha, one-quarter French, and one-quarter Iowa
    Indian. He was partially educated at the Pawnee Mission, at
    Belleview, Nebr.; can read, write, and speak the English language
    tolerably well; also speaks Pawnee, Omaha, and French. He married
    into the Otoe tribe, and has been employed at Otoe agency in the
    several positions of teamster, farmer, interpreter, and miller,
    under former agents. In 1869, he was employed as interpreter for the
    tribe, and has continued in that office until the present. In height
    he is 5 feet 9-3/4 inches, head measurement 23-1/2 inches, chest 44
    inches, and weighs 220 pounds. He is about 40 years of age, and
    quite corpulent.

  495. TCHA-WAN-NA-GA-HE. _Buffalo Chief._

    Is an Otoe Indian, though his grandfather belonged to the Iowa
    tribe. He was, when a young man, a self-constituted chief, leading a
    portion of the Buffalo band of Otoes, at a time when Sack-a-pie was
    chief, and at whose death he became the recognized head chief of the
    band, which position he held until 1874. He is still living; is
    about 80 years of age, in stature 5 feet 6 inches, and weighs about
    160 pounds. He is of rather a mild disposition, though decided in
    his ways; concilitory to the whites, and has gained many friends
    among them.

  497. BAPTISTE DEVOIN AND TCHA-WAN-NA-GA-HE.

    The same as given and described in Nos. 488 and 495.

  500. { E'EN-BRICK-TO. _Blackbird._
       { OP-PO-HOM-MON-NE. _Buck Elk Walking._

    The first is half Otoe and half Omaha; the second, who is
    represented sitting, is a full-blood Missouria.

  501.  { INSTA-MUNTHA. _Iron Eagle._
        { KO-INGA. _Little Thunder._
        { OP-PO-HOM-MON-NE.
        { E'EN-BRICK-TO.

  491.--LITTLE PIPE, with Missouria chief and interpreter.

  496.--MEDICINE HORSE, BAPTISTE DEVOIN, and interpreter.


10. PONCAS.

The Poncas were originally part of the Omaha tribe, to whom they are
related. Lived originally on the Red River of the North, but were driven
southwestwardly across the Missouri by the Sioux, and fortified
themselves on the Ponca River. United for a time with the Omahas for
protection, but have generally lived apart. Were so exposed to the
forays of the savage Sioux that they were almost exterminated at one
time, but after the treaties of 1817 and 1825 rallied and began to
increase. Were estimated then at 750, which has remained their average
number ever since. In 1858 sold their lands and went on a reservation
near the Yanktons, but being too near their old foes, and not being able
to raise any crops, were in 1865 removed down to the mouth of the
Niobrara, where they now have three villages. Are still exposed to raids
from the Sioux, retarding very much their progress toward a
self-supporting condition. Efforts are being made to have them join
their relatives, the Omahas.

_List of illustrations._

  517-518. { ASH-NOM-E-KAH-GA-HE. _Lone Chief._
           { TA-TONKA-NUZHE. _Standing Buffalo._
           { WA-GA-SA-PI. _Iron Whip._
           { WASTE-CO-MANI. _Fast Walker._

  519. WA-GA-SA-PI. _Iron Whip._

  521. NATIVE DRAWING.


11. WINNEBAGOES.

The Winnebagoes are a branch of the great Dakota family, calling
themselves O-tchun-gu-rah, and by the Sioux, Hotanke, or the Big-voiced
People; by the Chippeways, Winnebagonk--whence their common English
name--a word meaning men from the fetid waters. The French knew them as
La Puans (the Stinkers), supposed to have been given them in consequence
of the great quantity of decaying and putrid fish in their camps when
first visited by white men. With some others they formed the van of the
eastward migration of the Dakotas, penetrating apparently some distance,
but were forced back to Green Bay. This was some time previous to 1670,
as the map of the French Jesuit missionaries, dated 1671, styles Green
Bay the "Bayo des Puans," and the map accompanying Marquette's journal,
dated 1681, notes a village of the "Puans" as near the north end of
Winnebago Lake, on the west side.[A]

[Footnote A: Alexander Ramsey.]

They were then numerous and powerful, holding in check the neighboring
Algonkin tribes, but soon after an alliance of tribes attacked and very
nearly exterminated them. Became firm friends of the French until the
Revolution, when they joined the English; made peace with the colonists
afterward, but sided with the English again in 1812.

In 1820 they numbered about 4,500, and were living in five villages on
Winnebago Lake and fourteen on Rock River. By a treaty in 1832 they
ceded all their lands south of the Wisconsin and Fox Rivers, for a
reservation on the Mississippi, above the Upper Iowa, but here they
became unsettled, wasteful, and scattered. In 1846 they surrendered this
reservation for another above the Saint Peter's. This proved unfit, and
they became badly demoralized, losing many of their number by disease,
but were kept on it by force. In 1853 they were removed to Crow River,
and in 1856 to Blue Earth, Minnesota, where they were just getting a
start in civilized pursuits when the Sioux war broke out, and the people
of Minnesota demanded their removal. Thus again they were put on the
march, and this time landed at Crow Creek, on the Missouri, near Fort
Randall, a place so utterly unfit, that the troops could not retain them
on it. Out of 2,000 when taken there, only 1,200 reached the Omaha
reserve, to which place they had fled for protection. They were then
assigned a new reservation on the Omaha lands, and placed under the care
of the Friends, and since then have prospered. At the time of their
removal, in 1863, from Minnesota, many of the tribe who had taken up
farms remained, receiving their share of the tribal funds. There were
also last year 860 in Wisconsin, of whom 204 have lately joined those
in Nebraska, swelling their numbers to 1,667. Nearly all of these now
dress in civilized attire, and many of them have taken farms, their
lands being divided into 40-acre allotments for the purpose, upon which
they are building neat and comfortable cottages. There is an industrial
and three day schools on the reserve, which are attended by one-sixth of
their whole number. Their chiefs are now elected annually by the tribe,
who in turn appoints a force of twelve policemen from the Indians to
preserve order.

  1080. JNO. M. ST. CYR.

    A delegate representing the Wisconsin Winnebagoes. Has been to
    Washington three times. His mother was a relative of Little Priest,
    one of the most prominent chiefs of the tribe, and his father a
    Frenchman.

  808. { NAW-CHER-CHOO-NU-KAW.
       { BAD THUNDER.

  812. WAH-KUNK-SCHA-KAW, and daughter.

    Wife of "Martin Van Buren," a former prominent chief of the tribe.

  814. KA-RA-CHO-WE-KAW. _A Blue Cloud Passing By._

  809, 813. WINNEBAGO CHILDREN.



IV. PAWNEES.


1. ARICKAREES.

The Arickarees, Ricarees, or Rees, as variously written, call themselves
Sa-nish, or Tanish, meaning "the people," a common form of expression
among Indians to indicate their superiority. They were originally the
same people as the Pawnees of the Platte River, their language being
nearly the same. That they migrated upwards along the Missouri from
their friends below is established by the remains of their
dirt-villages, which are yet seen along that river, though at this time
mostly overgrown with grass. At what time they separated from the parent
stock is not correctly known, though some of their locations appear to
have been of very ancient date, at least previous to the commencement of
the fur-trade on the Upper Missouri. At the time when the old French and
Spanish traders began their dealings with the Indians of the Upper
Missouri, the Arickaree village was situated a little above the mouth of
Grand River, since which time they have made several removals, and are
now located at Fort Clark, in a former village of the Mandans.

The cabins or huts of the Arickarees and other stationary tribes are
built by planting four posts in the ground in the form of a square, the
posts being forked at the top to receive transverse beams. Against the
beams other timbers are inclined the lower extremities of which describe
a circle, or nearly so, the interstices being filled with small twigs,
the whole thickly overlaid with willows, rushes, and grass, and
plastered over with mud laid on very thick. A hole is left in the top
for smoke to pass out, and another at the side for a door. The door
opens a few steps distant from the main building on the surface of the
ground, from which, by a gradual descent through a covered passage, the
interior of the hut is reached. The door is of wood, and the aperture
large enough to admit a favorite horse to the family circle, which is
often done. These buildings are located within fifteen or twenty feet of
each other without any regard to regularity.

They cultivate considerable land, each family separating its little farm
from their neighbors' by rush fences. Corn is their principal
dependence, of which they raise considerable quantities. The work is
done entirely by the women, the primitive hoe being their only
implement. They generally have quite a surplus, which they trade to the
Dakotas and to the fur companies.

The Arickarees are quite expert in manufacturing a very serviceable kind
of pottery, neatly shaped, and well adapted for cooking purposes. They
are of clay, hand wrought, but not glazed.

At the present time they number 900, and are associated with 600 Gros
Ventres and 420 Mandans at the Fort Berthold agency on the Upper
Missouri, where 13,000 square miles has been set apart for them as their
reservation. They have 500 acres under cultivation, and are receiving
considerable assistance from the Government in the way of improved
implements. Many houses are being built, and the more progressive
Indians are abandoning the old mud-lodges for them.

_List of illustrations._

  1042. KU-NUGH-NA-GIVE-NUK. _Rushing Bear._

    Head chief; age, 56; height, 5.8-1/2; head, 22-3/4; chest, 39-1/2.

  1044. E-GUS-PAH. _Bull Head._

    Age, 57; height, 5.4-1/2; head, 23-1/4; chest, 42-1/2.

  1043. CHE-WA-KOO-KA-TI. _Black Fox._

    Son of Black Bear, a great chief of the tribe. Age, 23; height, 5.5;
    head, 24; chest, 36-1/4.

  717. BLACK BUFFALO.

  718. LONG KNIFE.


2. KEECHIES.

The Keechies, of whom there are now only a small remnant of about 90 in
the Indian Territory, affiliated with the Wichitas, Wacos, and
Tawacanies; were originally from Texas, and are supposed to be the
Quitzies of the Spanish authorities of 1780. Even at that time they were
a small tribe, numbering about 100 warriors. After the admission of
Texas, were placed on a State reservation, where they remained
undisturbed until 1859, when their presence became so distasteful to the
settlers that it became necessary to remove them. Land was leased from
the Choctaws and Chickasaws, and the Keechies settled on it, building
their villages of grass houses along the Canadian River. The breaking
out of the civil war set them back, just as they were beginning to
prosper, compelling another remove for safety. In 1867 they were
restored to their lands again, and since then have progressed rapidly in
civilized pursuits. Like the Wichitas and Wacos, they are of the same
stock as the Pawnees.

_List of illustrations._

  411. KNEE-WAR-WAR, (front.)

  412. KNEE-WAR-WAR, (profile.)


3. PAWNEES.

There is but little definite knowledge of the early history of the
Pawnees, although they are among the longest known to the whites west of
the Mississippi. Marquette notes them in his map, 1673, as divided into
various bands. They are supposed to be the Panimaha of La Salle's
voyage in 1688. At the time of Lewis and Clarke's visit, in 1803, their
principal village was on the south side of the Platte. Pike, in 1806,
estimated the population of three of their villages at 6,233, with
nearly 2,000 warriors, engaged in fierce combats with neighboring
tribes. In 1820, three of the four bands into which they have been for a
long time divided resided on the banks of the Platte and its
tributaries, with a reservation on Loup Fork, on the ninety-eighth
meridian. Were then estimated at about 10,000 souls, living in
earth-covered lodges, and much devoted to the cultivation of the soil,
but engaging regularly every season in a grand buffalo-hunt. The
Delawares, in 1823, burnt the Great Pawnee village on the Republican,
and these Pawnees, becoming much reduced in numbers by small-pox soon
after, sold all their lands south of the Platte, and removed to the
reservation on Lou Fork. The means were provided, and many exertions
made to place them on the high road to prosperity; but their inveterate
foe, the Sioux, harassed them continually; drove them repeatedly off
their reservation, and despoiled their villages. This warfare and
disease soon reduced them to half their former number. In 1861, they
raised a company of scouts for service against the Sioux, and a much
larger force under the volunteer organization, incurring in consequence
an increased hostility from their enemies, who harassed them so
continuously, that in 1874 the chiefs in general council determined upon
removing to a new reservation in the Indian Territory, lying between the
forks of the Arkansas and Cimarron, east of the ninety-seventh meridian.
Their removal was almost entirely effected during the winter of
1874-'75.

The Pawnees now number in all 2,026, and yet retain the subdivision into
bands, as follows: The Skeedee (Pawnee Mahas, or Loups), Kit-ka-hoct, or
Republican Pawnees, Petahoweret, and the Chowee or Grand Pawnees. There
are also living on the Washita, a small band of affiliated Wacos and
Wichitas, sometimes called Pawnee Picts, who are undoubtedly an offshoot
of the Grand Pawnees. They are under the care of the Friends; have
well-organized day and industrial schools, and are well supplied with
implements and means to carry forward a systematic cultivation of the
soil.

_List of illustrations._

  530-2. PETA-LA-SHA-RA. _Man and Chief._                        CHOWEE.

    Reputed head chief of the Pawnees, though really chief only of his
    own band, the _Chowee_. His claim was based partly on the fact of
    having been the first signer of their treaty of 1857. Being a good
    Indian orator, and of dignified bearing, he was generally awarded
    the first place in their councils, and led off in speech. In 1820,
    it is said that he put a stop to the custom, then prevalent among
    the Pawnees, of offering human sacrifices, but only by a display of
    great courage. In 1825 he visited Washington with a delegation of
    his tribe, and attracted much attention by his fine presence. Has
    always been friendly to the whites and in favor of the advancement
    of his tribe in civilized habits, although very slow himself to
    adopt new ideas. He died in the summer of 1874 from an accidental
    pistol-shot. Had but one wife, and she survives him.

  533. LA-TA-CUTS-LA-SHAR. _Eagle Chief._                       SKEEDEE.

    At present the oldest, and consequently the head chief of the tribe.

  534. LA-ROO-CHUK-A-LA-SHAR. _Sun Chief._                       CHOWEE.

    A son of Peta-la-sha-ra and head chief of the Chowee band; also a
    leader in the councils. Height, 5.9; head, 22; chest, 36-1/2.

  535. TUH-COD-IX-TE-CAH-WAH. _Brings Herds._                   SKEEDEE.

    Height, 5.10; head, 22; chest, 42.

  543. TU-TUC-A-PICISH-TE-RUK. _Gives to the Poor._             SKEEDEE.

    A soldier or policeman of the Skeedees. Height, 5.9; head, 22-1/2;
    chest, 42.

  545. SQUAW OF TU-TUC-A-PICISH-TE-RUK.                         SKEEDEE.

  548. LA-HIC-TA-HA-LA-SHA. _Pipe Chief._                        CHOWEE.

    One of the signers of the treaty of 1858.

       { LA-ROO-CHUK-A-LA-SHAR. _Sun Chief._ See No. 534.        CHOWEE.
       {
       { ARU-SAW-LA-KIT-TOWY. _A Fine Horse._                   SKEEDEE.
       {
  528. { SKI-AR-RA-RA-SHAR. _Lone Chief._                        CHOWEE.
       {
       { SE-TED-E-ROW-WEET. _One Aimed At._                     SKEEDEE.
       {
       { COT-TA-RA-TET-GOOTS. _Struck with a Tomahawk._         SKEEDEE.

       { TE-RAR-A-WEET. _Stopped with the Horses._          KIT-KA-HOCT.
       {
       {   Height, 5.7; head, 21-1/2; chest, 37. A soldier of his
       {   band.
       {
       { LA-SHARA-CHI-EKS. _Humane Chief._                  KIT-KA-HOCT.
       {
       {   One of the four chiefs of his band, dresses well; is
       {   pleasant in manner, and of progressive tendencies.
       {   Height, 5.10; head, 22-1/2; chest, 36.
  529. {
       { AS-SON-OO-COT-TUK. _As a Dog, but yet a High
       {  Chief._                                           KIT-KA-HOCT.
       {
       {   One of the four chiefs of his band. Height, 5.8;
       {   head, 22; chest, 35.
       {
       { LA-SHARA-TU-RA-HA. _Good Chief._                   KIT-KA-HOCT.
       {
       {   Head chief of the band. Height, 5.7; head, 22-1/2;
       {   chest, 39.
       {
       { LA-SHAROO-TOO-ROW-OO-TOWY. _Difficult Chief._      KIT-KA-HOCT.
       {
       {   One of the soldiers and head men of this band.

  552-3. GROUP OF FOUR BROTHERS OF THE KIT-KA-HOCT BAND, viz:

  LA-ROO-RUTK-A-HAW-LA-SHAR. _Night Chief._

  LA-ROO-RA-SHAR-ROO-COSH. _A Man that left his Enemy lying in the Water._

    A noted brave. Height, 5.10; head, 23; chest, 39.

  TEC-TA-SHA-COD-DIC. _One who strikes the Chiefs first._

    Second chief of his band, and one of four noted brothers (see No.
    552), pre-eminent in their tribe for bravery in war and wisdom in
    council. Height, 5.8; head, 23; chest, 39.

  TE-LOW-A-LUT-LA-SHA. _Sky Chief._

    A chief, and a brave leader of his band, taking the first place in
    war or peace. Was killed by the Sioux in the massacre of the Pawnees
    in 1873, while hunting buffalo in the valley of the Republican.

  BAPTISTE BAYHYLLE, or LA-SHARA-SE-RE-TER-REK. _One whom the Great
          Spirit smiles upon._

    United States interpreter, French half-breed.

  550-1. NIGHT CHIEF AND THE MAN THAT LEFT HIS ENEMY LYING IN THE WATER.

  554-5. BAPTISTE BAYHYLLE.

  560. TE-LOW-A-LUT-LA-SHA. _Sky Chief._

    The same as in No. 552, No. 4.

        { COO-TOWY-GOOTS-OO-TER-A-OOS. _Blue Hawk._         PETAHOWERAT.
        {
  558-9.{ TUC-CA-RIX-TE-TA-RU-PE-ROW. _Coming around with
        {  the Herd._                                       PETAHOWERAT.
        {

  556-7. PERRUS-KITTY-BUSK. _Small Boy._                        SKEEDEE.

  575. LOO-KIT-TOWY-HOO-RA. _On a fine Horse._              PETAHOWERAT.

  576. LUH-SA-COO-RE-CULLA-HA. _Particular in the Time
          of Day._                                          KIT-KA-HOCT.

  577. LA-ROO-CHUK-A-RAR-OO. _The Sun Coming in._                CHOWEE.

  578. SE-RAR-WOT-COWY. _Behind the one that strikes first._    SKEEDEE.

  579, 585, 607. CAW-CAW-KITTY-BUSK. _Little Raven._            SKEEDEE.

  580. AS-SAU-TAW-KA. _White Horse._                        PETAHOWERAT.

  581. LOOTS-TOW-OOTS. _Rattlesnake._                           SKEEDEE.

  582. KE-WUK. _Fox._                                       KIT-KA-HOCT.

  583. KE-WUK-O-WE-TE-RAH-ROOK. _Acting a Fox._                 SKEEDEE.

  584. KIT-TOOX. _Beaver._                                  KIT-KA-HOCT.

  586. AS-SOW-WEET.

  592. AS-SOW-WEET AND SAWKA. _White._                           CHOWEE.

  589. TER-RA-RE-CAW-WAH.                                   PETAHOWERAT.

    Died in 1875; the oldest chief in the tribe. Very prominent in his
    day as a brave warrior.

  591. CAW-HEEK. _An Old Man._                              KIT-KA-HOCT.

      { LOO-KIT-TOWY-HIS-SA. _On a Fine Horse._                 SKEEDEE.
  593.{
      { ARE-WAUKS. _A Male Calf._                                CHOWEE.

  594. LOOTS-TOW-OOS. _Rattlesnake_, and squaw.                 SKEEDEE.

  595. E-RAH-COT-TA-HOT. _In the Front of Battle_, and squaw.   SKEEDEE.

    Alias Jim Curoux. A steady worker, and wearing citizens' dress.

  596. A-RUS-SAW-E-ROOT-COWY. _A Nice Horse._                   SKEEDEE.

  597. CU-ROOX-TA-RI-HA. _Good Bear._                           SKEEDEE.

  598. TIT-TOWY-OOT-SE. _Beginning to go to War._               SKEEDEE.

    Alias Johnson Wright. A civilized Indian.

  599. KE-WUK-O-CAR-WAR-RY. _Fox on the War-path._              SKEEDEE.

     Alias Fat George. Assistant carpenter at the agency.

  600. CAW-CAW-KE-REEK. _Crow Eyes._                        PETAHOWERAT.

  601. KEE-WEEK-O-WAR-UXTY. _Medicine Bull._                    SKEEDEE.

  602. TEC-TA-SHA-COD-DIC. _One who strikes the Chiefs
          first._                                           KIT-KA-HOCT.

  603. LE-TA-CUTS-A-WAR-UXTY. _Medicine Eagle._                 SKEEDEE.

  604. TA-CAW-DEEX-TAW-SEE-UX. _Driving a Herd._                SKEEDEE.

  605. US-CAW-DA-WAR-UXTY. _Medicine Antelope._             KIT-KA-HOCT.

  606. TER-RA-HA-TU-RIHA. _Good Buffalo._                   PETAHOWERAT.

  608. SIT-TE-ROW-E-HOO-RA-REEK. _Seen by All._                 SKEEDEE.

  609. LOO-KIT-TOWY-HIS-SA. _On a Fine Horse._                  SKEEDEE.

  610. PAW-HOO-CUT-TAW-WAH. _Knee-mark on the Ground on
          Stooping to Drink._                                   SKEEDEE.

  611. SQUAW AND PAPPOOSE.

  523, 567-8. THE VILLAGE OF THE PAWNEES.

    Situated on the Loupe Fork of the Platte River, about 100 miles west
    of Omaha. It was divided into two parts, the Skeedees occupying one
    part by themselves, and the other three bands jointly in the other.
    The entire village accommodated about 2,500 people. Each lodge was
    capable of holding several families; they were formed by erecting
    several stout posts in a circle, forked at the top, into which cross
    beams were laid, and against these long poles were inclined from the
    outside toward the centre; all was then covered with brush, and
    finally with earth, leaving a hole at the apex for the escape of
    smoke, and a long tunnel-like entrance at the base. This village is
    now (1876) entirely destroyed, and the Indians removed to the Indian
    Territory.

  524, 569. A MUD LODGE.

    In the Pawnee village, showing the tunnel-like entrance. (See No.
    523.)

  537-9. SCHOOL BUILDING on the Pawnee reserve, on the Loupe Fork,
          Nebraska.

  573-4. GROUPS OF THE HEAD MEN of the tribe.

  525-7. GROUPS OF INDIAN CHILDREN (attending the boarding-school on the
           reservation).

    The first shows the younger children of the primary classes, and the
    two latter numbers the older and more advanced scholars.

  570-2. GROUPS OF CHILDREN in their every-day attire, which consists
          principally of the covering with which nature first clothed
          them.

  536. A GROUP OF YOUNG SQUAWS in the village.

  541-2. AGENCY BUILDINGS.

  540. NATIVE PAINTING ON A BUFFALO-SKIN.

    A biography, or narration of the principal events in the life of a
    prominent chief, by the means of picture-writing.

  547-9; 561-6; 587-90; 612. MISCELLANEOUS PORTRAITS OF PAWNEES without
          information as to name or history.


4. WACOS.

  742. LONG SOLDIER. (Front.)

  743. LONG SOLDIER. (Profile.)


5. WICHITAS.

  744. ASSADAWA. (Front.)

  745. ASSADAWA. (Profile.)

  746. ESQUITZCHEW. (Front.)

  747. ESQUITZCHEW. (Profile.)

  748. BLACK HORSE.

  165, 167. BUFFALO GOAD. (Front.)

  166, 168. BUFFALO GOAD. (Profile.)

    Was one of the great delegation of chiefs from the Indian Territory
    in 1872, among whom were Little Raven, Little Robe, Bird Chief, &c.
    He impressed all as being a man of more than usual ability and
    dignity.



V. SHOSHONES.


1. BANNACKS.

The Bannacks, Bonnacks, or Pannaques, a small, scattered tribe of
Shoshone stock, roaming over the desert plains of Idaho and portions of
the surrounding Territories, were first found about the Blue Mountains.
In 1833 Bonneville met them on the Snake River, near the mouth of the
Portneuf, "numbering about 120 lodges. They are brave and cunning
warriors, and deadly foes of the Blackfeet, whom they easily overcome in
battle when their forces are equal. They are not vengeful and
enterprising in warfare, however, seldom sending parties to attack the
Blackfeet towns, but contenting themselves with defending their own
territories and houses." They frequent the headwaters of the Snake and
Yellowstone countries to hunt and fish.

They have generally enjoyed a reputation for friendliness, although, in
1866, all but the Eastern Bannacks under Tahgee engaged in hostilities
against the whites.

At the present time there are 600 Bannacks associated with 900
Shoshonees at the Fort Hall reservation on Snake River, where the
attempt is being made to civilize them. There are 200 more at the Lemhi
reservation, where there are also 340 Sheep-eaters, a band of the
Bannacks living a retired life in the mountains dividing Idaho from
Montana, and 500 Shoshonees.

_List of illustrations._

  46. GROUP of eight of the leading chiefs and braves; photographed
        at the Snake River agency in 1872, among whom are PAQUITS, or
        _Bannock Jim_, a prominent chief; TOTSE-CABE-NATSY, _The
        White-faced Boy_, and _Major Jim_.

  47. GROUP of a miscellaneous crowd at the agency.

  48. FAMILY GROUP.

    In 1871, while returning from the exploration of the Yellowstone
    region, and while encamped near the head of the Medicine Lodge
    Creek, the camp of a family of the Sheep-eater band of Bannacks was
    accidentally discovered near by, almost completely hidden in a grove
    of willows. Their tent or tepee is made of a few boughs of willow,
    about which are thrown an old canvas picked up in some of the
    settlements. The present of a handful of sugar and some coffee
    reconciled them to having their photographs taken. In the group are
    the father and mother and five children. The Sheep-eaters are a band
    of the Bannacks, running in the mountains north of the Kamas
    prairies, and are so shy and timid that they are but rarely seen.

  51-61. GROUPS AND SCENES about the agency.

    Eleven views, showing the various operations of the agency, some of
    the idlers, and a few groups of squaws and pappooses.


2. COMANCHES.

A roving, warlike, and predatory tribe of Shoshone descent, roaming over
much of the great prairie country from the Platte to Mexico. Their
traditions and early history are vague, but they claim to have come from
the west. They call themselves _Naüni_ (live people), but the Spanish
called them Comanches or Camanches (_Les Serpents_), the name adopted by
the Americans. Procuring horses from the Spaniards at an early day they
became expert riders, which, united with their daring and
aggressiveness, made them noted and feared throughout the Southwest.
Engaged in long and bloody wars with the Spaniards, but were subdued by
them in 1783. Were estimated about that time at 5,000 warriors. In 1816
lost heavily by small-pox. Up to 1847 were variously estimated at from
9,000 to 12,000 in all. Were at one time on a reservation in Texas, but
were driven out of the State, and since then have been unrelenting
enemies of the people of that State. The General Government has set
apart a new reservation for them in the western part of the Indian
Territory and are gradually drawing them all on to it, though not
without much trouble. They now number 1,570 in all, and are divided into
eight bands. Have made a commencement in farming, and have been induced
to send a few of their children to an industrial school.

W. Blackmore, esq., in an article on the North American Indians, thus
describes the Comanche:

"These fierce, untamed savages roam over an immense region, eating the
raw flesh of the buffalo, drinking its warm blood, and plundering
Mexicans, Indians, and whites with judicial impartiality. Arabs and
Tartars of the desert, they remove their villages (pitching their
lodges in regular streets and squares) hundreds of miles at the shortest
notice. The men are short and stout, with bright copper faces and long
hair, which they ornament with glass beads and silver gewgaws."

Catlin says of them:

"In their movements they are heavy and ungraceful, and on their feet one
of the most unattractive and slovenly races I have ever seen; but the
moment they mount their horses they seem at once metamorphosed, and
surprise the spectator with the ease and grace of their movements. A
Comanche on his feet is out of his element, and comparatively almost as
awkward as a monkey on the ground without a limb or branch to cling to;
but the moment he lays his hand upon his horse his _face_ even becomes
handsome, and he gracefully flies away, a different being."

_List of illustrations._

  128. ASA HAVIE. _The Milky Way._ (Front.)                  PENETATHKA.

  129. ASA HAVIE. _The Milky Way._ (Profile.)

    Is one of the head men of his band, dividing the office of chief
    with Toshoway. (No. 134.) Has been one of the most noted raiders
    into Texas, leading many bands of the restless young men of his
    tribe, until about ten years since, when he was badly wounded in an
    encounter and left for dead upon the field. Is now endeavoring to
    live in the white man's ways, having had a comfortable log house
    built for himself, and a few acres of ground enclosed, which he is
    successfully cultivating. This portrait of _Asa havie_ was made in
    1872, while on a visit to Washington with a delegation of his tribe.
    Age, about 45; height, 5.9-1/2; head, 23-1/2; chest, 44-1/2; weight,
    about 200 pounds.

  130. WIFE OF ASA HAVIE. (Front.)

  131. WIFE OF ASA HAVIE. (Profile.)

    Age, about 40; height, 5.4; head, 23; chest, 38; weight, 170 pounds.

  132. TIMBER BLUFF. (Front.)

  133. TIMBER BLUFF. (Profile.)

  134. TOSHOWAY. _Silver Knife._ (Front.)                    PENETATHKA.

  135. TOSHOWAY. _Silver Knife._ (Profile.)                  PENETATHKA.

    One of the chiefs of his band, sharing the position with _Asa
    havie_. Is noted for good sense and fair dealing, and has long been
    friendly to the whites. In youth, however, was not behind the other
    adventurous spirits of his tribe in predatory exploits and raids
    into Texas. Age, about 55; height, 5.6; head, 22-1/4; chest, 41;
    weight, 168.

  136. WIFE OF TOSHOWAY. (Front.)

  137. WIFE OF TOSHOWAY. (Profile.)

    Age, 55; height, 4.10; head, 21; chest, 34; weight, 120.

  138-9, 140. ASA-TO-YET. _Gray Leggings._ (Front.)          PENETATHKA.

    One of the leading men of his tribe, taking an active interest in
    their advancement. Lives in a house, cultivates the ground, and has
    a good lot of stock. Speaks English fluently. Age, 45; height, 5.10;
    head, 34; chest, 42.

  141-2. CHEEVERS. _He Goat._                               TAMPARETHKA.

    A prominent and influential man in his tribe, and chief of his band.

  143-4. WIFE OF CHEEVERS.                                  TAMPARETHKA.

    One of the three wives of Cheevers. She accompanied him to
    Washington with the delegation in 1872. None of his wives have any
    children.

  145-6. MOTHER OF CHEEVERS.                                TAMPARETHKA.

  147-8. QUIRTS-QUIP. _Chewing Elk._                        TAMPARETHKA.

    One of the chiefs of the tribe; a shrewd and able person, with
    considerable executive and financial ability. Age, 45; height,
    5.6-3/4; head, 23; chest, 39.

  149, 150. HO-WE-OH. _Gap in the Salt._                     TAMPARETHKA.

    A chief who is doing his best to lead his tribe in civilized ways,
    as well as to walk in that way himself. Age, --; height, 5.11-1/2;
    head, 23; chest, 43.

  151-2. DAUGHTER OF GAP IN THE SALT.                       TAMPARETHKA.

  153-4. PARRY-WAH-SA-MEN. _Ten Bears._                     TAMPARETHKA.

    Formerly head chief of the Tamparethkas band of Comanches. He died
    in November, 1872, just after his return from Washington with a
    visiting delegation from his tribe. Was friendly to the whites, and
    a man of influence among his people, maintaining this influence and
    his chieftainship to the unusual age of 80 years.

  155-6. BUFFALO HUMP.                                      TAMPARETHKA.

  157-8. JIM.                                               TAMPARETHKA.

  178-9. NATIVE DRAWINGS.


3. KIOWAS.

The Kiowas, or prairie men, are one of the tribes that compose the
Shoshone family. They are a wild and roving people, occupying the
country about the headwaters of the Arkansas, but also formerly ranging
over all of the country between the Platte and the Rio Grande. They had
the reputation of being the most rapacious, cruel, and treacherous of
all the Indians on the plains, and had a great deal of influence over
the Comanches and other neighboring Indians. Our first knowledge of them
was through Lewis and Clarke, who found them on the Paducah. They were
at war with many of the northern tribes, but carried on a large trade in
horses with some other tribes. Little intercourse was had with them
until 1853, when they made a treaty and agreed to go on a reservation,
but soon broke it and went raiding into Texas. The citizens of that
State drove them out, but in revenge for the stoppage of their
annuities, they retaliated upon the Texans, and until recently the
warfare was kept up between them. In 1869, were placed on a reservation
of over three and a half millions of acres with some Comanches and
Apaches, but were restive and unsettled. In 1871, under their great
chief Satanta, raided Texas again, but it resulted in the capture of
himself and Big Tree, and their imprisonment soon after. Were afterwards
pardoned by the governor of Texas, in whose custody they were, through
interposition from Washington, and restored to their tribe; but this did
not seem to lessen their hostility, and new disturbances arose, chiefly
in consequence of raiding parties of whites from Texas, that led finally
to the re-arrest of Satanta and his imprisonment in Texas.

_List of illustrations._

  402. LONE WOLF. (Front.)

  403. LONE WOLF. (Profile.)

  404. SQUAW OF LONE WOLF. (Front.)

  405. SQUAW OF LONE WOLF. (Profile.)

  406. SQUAW OF LONE WOLF. (Standing.)

  407. SLEEPING WOLF.

  408. Son OF THE SUN. (Front.)

  409. SON OF THE SUN. (Profile.)

  410. NATIVE DRAWING.


4. SHOSHONES.

The Shoshones, or Snakes, are a tribe inhabiting the country about the
headwaters of the Green and Snake Rivers, and a part of a great family
of the same name, including the Comanches, Utahs, and Kiowas. They
occupy nearly all of the great Salt Lake Basin, to the eastern base of
the Sierra Nevada, and extend also easterly to Texas. The Shoshonees
proper are divided into many bands under various names, the most
important being the Buffalo-Eaters, of Wind River; the Mountain
Sheep-Eaters, of Salmon River, and the Western Shoshonees, near Boise,
separated from the rest of the tribe by the kindred Bannacks, numbering
in the aggregate, with some lesser tribes on the Humboldt, between five
and six thousand souls. Our first knowledge of them was through Lewis
and Clarke, who found them west of the Rocky Mountains on the waters of
the Columbia, but are supposed to have at one time inhabited the
plain-country east of the mountains. James Irwin, United States Indian
agent, in his report to the Commissioner, says: "They emigrated north
about 1781, and proceeded to the upper waters of Green River under a
leader or chief called Shoshone, or Snake. At this point they divided,
one party going over on the Oregon slope, who are now called Western
Shoshones, and have an agency in common with the Bannacks at Fort Hall.
The other party constitute the eastern band of Shoshones, and have
roamed around the Wind River Mountains from the time mentioned until
1868, when a treaty was made at Fort Bridger, that provided a
reservation for them embracing the Wind River Valley. Recently they
entered into a contract with the Government by which they ceded a
portion of their reservation, leaving them a district perhaps 50 miles
in length, and 30 in breadth, embracing a beautiful valley on the east
side of the Wind River Mountains. They now number about 1,800 souls, and
must have diminished greatly since the time of Lewis and Clarke. Their
life was a continued warfare; at first with the Crows and Blackfeet, and
since then with the Cheyennes, Arapahoes, and Sioux, and all this time
contending almost naked with the elements and struggling for
subsistence."

_List of illustration._

  657-8. VILLAGE IN SOUTH PASS.

    During the expedition of 1870, the United States Geological Survey
    of the Territories came across the above village of Shoshones,
    numbering nearly one hundred lodges, encamped among the southern
    foot-hills of the Wind River Mountains, where the above and some of
    the following views were secured. They were under the well-known
    chief Washakie, and were on their way to the Wind River Valley to
    hunt buffalo for the winter's supply of food and clothing. Although
    the village had all the appearance of being a permanent
    abiding-place, yet the following morning, before the sun was an hour
    high, there was not a tent in sight, and the last pack-pony with
    trailing lodge-poles had passed out of sight over the hills to the
    eastward.

  659-660. WAR CHIEF'S TENT.

    The war chief is generally a man of more importance in the village,
    especially when in the neighborhood of enemies, than the chief
    himself. In this instance his tent, situated in the centre of the
    encampment, is adorned with broad bands of black, yellow, and white,
    rendering it quite conspicuous. The war chief, or his lieutenant,
    issues forth frequently to announce, in the far-reaching voice
    peculiar to Indians, the orders which are to govern their actions,
    while within is an almost uninterrupted thumping on drums.

  661-2. WASHAKIE AND HIS WARRIORS.

    A group in front of the tent of the head chief Washakie. About him
    are gathered all the chief men of the encampment.

  663-4. WASHAKIE.

    This well-known chief is a man of more than ordinary ability, and
    his record as a steadfast friend of the white people has come down
    to the present time without a blemish. He is now well advanced in
    years, but still retains his vigor, and his influence over the
    tribe. One of the above portraits was made in the South Pass
    encampment, and the other is a copy of one made in Salt Lake City.

  665-6. VIEWS IN THE VILLAGE.

  667-676. GROUPS of in-door and out-door subjects, copied from small
          card views made in Salt Lake City, and which formed a part of
          the first Blackmore collection.


5. UTAHS.

The Utahs, Yutas, or Utes, as the name is variously written, are a large
tribe belonging to the great Shoshone family, and who occupy the
mountainous portion of Colorado, with portions of Utah, New Mexico, and
Nevada. Those living in the mountains where game abounds have a fine
physical development, are brave and hardy, and comparatively well to do;
while those who inhabit the sterile plains of the Salt Lake Basin are
miserably poor, and spiritless. We derive our first knowledge of the
Utahs from the early Spanish explorers, who came in contact with them on
the upper waters of the Rio Grande del Norte, and who gave them the
reputation of being a brave and warlike tribe. Their country bordered
that of the Navajos on the south (the Rio San Juan now dividing them),
who formerly ranged as far north as the waters of the Grand, but were
crowded back by the Utahs. A continuous warfare was kept up between the
tribes, in which the Navajos were worsted. The Utahs were employed
against them by the Government at the time of their expulsion from their
country in 1863. The tribe is divided into many bands, which are
continually changing, but as now recognized are as follows: Capotes,
Weeminuches, Tabeguaches, Muaches, Grand River, Yampas, Uintahs, Peahs,
Goships, and Mouaches. The tribe now numbers in the aggregate 5,260. The
Pi-Utes, Pi-Edes, Timpanagos, San-pitches, and others in Utah are
kindred tribes.

The Utahs have generally been friendly to the whites, although there was
some fighting in 1859 and 1860 about Pike's Peak, many emigrants
plundered at various times, and stray miners cut off by disaffected
bands. The Capotes, Weeminuches, and others in the southern portion of
the Territory have been more troublesome than those of the north.

Treaties were made in 1863 and 1868, giving them 18,320 square miles of
reservation in the western part of the Territory. The southern portion
of it, known as the San Juan region, was found to be rich in precious
metals, and as it was already attracting a large influx of miners,
additional treaties were made in 1872 for the cession of that part of
their reservation. In 1874 the tribe consented to the sale of about
6,000 square miles for $25,000 a year forever. Much dissatisfaction
ensued from the failure of the Government to promptly carry out the
provisions of the treaty, and from the fact that much of their most
valuable agricultural lands were unwittingly included in the purchase.

"Though holding a hereditary friendship for the white people and
acknowledging the supremacy of the Government, and for the most part
included under agencies and receiving Government rations to a greater or
less extent, no tribe in the country is more averse to manual labor, or
has yielded less to civilizing influences, partly because of the
abundance of game and partly because of their remoteness from
settlements."

_List of illustrations._

  765-7. OURAY. _Arrow._                                     TABEGUACHE.

    Ouray was born in 1834, in Taos, N. Mex., his father being a Ute,
    and his mother a Jicarilla Apache. He attended the Mexican school at
    Taos, under the tuition of Jesuit priests, and acquired there a
    perfect knowledge of the Spanish language. In 1850, he married, and
    joined his tribe as a warrior, it being then at war with the Navajos
    of New Mexico, and the Cheyennes and Arapahos of Colorado. Soon
    after, in a fight with the Arapahos, his only son was captured and
    carried off by the enemy, and since then he has never ceased, nor
    allowed his tribe to rest, from hostilities against these Indians.
    In 1856, his knowledge of the Spanish language and superior
    executive ability secured him the position of Government
    interpreter, which position he has held ever since, and through the
    same means he has gradually risen from a simple warrior to be the
    principal chief of the nation. In 1863, he accompanied, as
    interpreter, a delegation of his tribe to Washington, when their
    first treaty with the Government was made. In 1868, he again, as
    chief of the Tabeguaches, in company with the chiefs of the other
    tribes, visited Washington, and it was mainly through his influence
    and eloquence a treaty was made, whereby the Utes ceded a large
    portion of their country in Colorado. Soon after his return, the
    principal chief of Utes, Nevava, died, and he became the
    acknowledged leader. In 1873, when the discovery of rich mines upon
    their lands (the San Juan region) was very near involving the Utes
    in war with the miners, he avoided this by agreeing to a cession of
    the lands in dispute, and against a strong opposition from the
    greater portion of the nation. As a chief he is very strict with his
    people, punishing all crimes, and sometimes simple disobedience,
    with death; but he is very kind nevertheless, and has gained his
    influence more through moral suasion than command. He is a steadfast
    friend of the whites, and has never lifted his hand against any of
    them, though some of his people have at times been on the point of
    making war. Ouray is quite wealthy, owning a herd of several hundred
    horses, among which are some famous racers, and also large flocks of
    sheep. He lives at the Government agency in a comfortable house, in
    a somewhat civilized style, and has a carriage with driver, while
    his people live altogether in tents. The Government places great
    confidence in his ability and suggestions, and he has managed to
    keep the Utes at peace with the fast-encroaching people of Colorado.

  768. GUERO.

    Present chief of the Tabeguache Utes. Guero belongs to that class of
    chiefs among the Indians who generally succeed their fathers as
    leaders of a band which hunts and fights in a separate party. He has
    about 50 lodges in his band, and therefore has considerable
    influence. When younger he distinguished himself in the wars against
    the Navajos, but in later years has abandoned his warlike
    proclivities. He is a staunch supporter of Ouray's peace policy with
    the Government, and generally lives at the agency, assisting the
    agent in the distribution of the annuity goods and provisions.

  772-3, 781. SHAVANO.                                       TABEGUACHE.

    War chief of the Tabeguaches, and the most prominent warrior among
    the Utes. The Arapahoes and Cheyennes fear and hate him; he never
    goes on the war-path but brings back a scalp of his enemies. Has
    distinguished himself often by the fierceness of his attack,
    generally going into a fight naked, and has been wounded several
    times in such encounters. In the council he is always for peace with
    the whites, and has used his influence to make those treaties
    whereby all difficulties were obviated. He is an eloquent orator,
    and when speaking is often applauded by his people.

  751. TAPUCHE.                                                  CAPOTE.

    A young chief of the Capote band of Utes, son of Sobita, their
    principal chief. The latter is now very old, and does not attend to
    the duties of his office, his son taking his place. Both are strong
    supporters of Ouray and his peace-policy. Tapuche was the delegate
    of his tribe to visit Washington and confirm the treaty of 1873.

  752. MAUTCHICK.                                                MUACHE.

    A young chief of the Muache Utes, who has during the last few years
    gained considerable influence, and is now considered the war chief
    of his band in place of Curacanto. Was also delegate to Washington
    in 1873.

  754. CO-HO. _The lame man._                                    MUACHE.

  756-758. ANTERO. _Graceful Walker._

  759-760. WA-NE-RO. _Yellow Flower._

  761-762. TABIYUNA. _One Who Wins the Race._

  763-764. KO-MUS.

    An intelligent young Indian of the Uinta band, who was brought east
    by Major Powell, of the Colorado exploring expedition, who educated
    him, and then employed him as a clerk in his office in Washington,
    but died suddenly a short time since.

  769. JOHN.                                                     YAMPAH.

    A young warrior of the Yampah Utes, well known among the people of
    Colorado by the soubriquet of "John," and as a particularly good
    friend of the white settlers. Died suddenly at the Hot Springs in
    Middle Park in 1873.

  770. KWA-KO-NUT. _A King_, and MOSE.                           MUACHE.

  771. CU-RA-CAN-TE.                                             MUACHE.
    The old war chief of his band, and in former days quite noted for
    his independent raids into the country of the Cheyennes and their
    allies. In the winter of 1868-'69 he organized a body of 100
    warriors, and, as leader of these, was attached to the column under
    Colonel Evans, operating against the Kiowas and Comanches, which
    campaign ended in the surrender of these Indians. He is now quite
    old and has lost much of his influence, his son Maut chick
    succeeding him.

  774. WA-RETS and SHAVANO.                                  TABEGUACHE.

  775. GROUP representing--
       OURAY.
       SHAVANO.
       GUERO.
       ANKATOSH.
       WA-RETS.

  776. GROUP of seven, representing--
       "JOHN."
       MA-KU-TCHA-WO or SA-PE-A.
       CU-RA-CAN-TE.
       TO-SHI-MY, or _Black Bear_.
       KWA-KO-NUT, or _A King_.
       "MOSE."
       MEXICANO.

  777. SURIAP.                                                   YAMPAH.

    A son of Lodge Pole, a prominent chief and a warrior in his band.
    Was one of a delegation to visit Washington in 1868 to make the
    treaty with the Government. He has not, however, come up to the
    expectations of his people, as, although a young man, he has not
    distinguished himself in any way, so that he remains a simple
    warrior to this day.

  778. CHIPPIN. _Always Riding._

  779. LITTLE SOLDIER.

  780. SQUAW OF LITTLE SOLDIER.

  782. LOVO. _The Wolf._

    Lovo was noted among the Utes for his ability in following the trail
    of man or beast, hunting, or on the war-path, and had gained the
    name of being the best scout. Was frequently employed as "runner" by
    the Government in carrying dispatches, and was noted for his
    promptness in executing these commissions. Is a brother of the chief
    Guero, and died in October, 1874, while hunting on the Republican
    River.

  783. RAINBOW.

  784. NICK-A-A-GOD. _Green Leaf._                               YAMPAH.

    A chief of the Yampahs and formerly a man of considerable influence,
    which he has lost, however, through several petty thieving
    excursions which he has led against the whites. He has but few
    followers left, and is one of the few mischievous Utes. In 1868, was
    delegated to go to Washington, and while there was considered to
    have equal influence with Ouray, both being in favor of the treaty
    made that year. Speaks English well, has considerable intelligence,
    and a good knowledge of the customs of the whites, but since his
    repudiation by his tribe he has not come in contact with them much.

  785. PE-AH, or _Black-Tail Deer_.

    A young chief of the Grand River band of Utes. As a delegate of his
    tribe, he helped to make the treaty of 1868 in Washington, and
    signed it; but since then he has never acknowledged it, and, with
    his band, has kept off the present reservation, camping generally
    near Denver. He has about 35 lodges, or 250 people, with him. He is
    a nephew of the late principal chief Nevava, who died in 1868. He is
    quite a young man, very adroit and ambitious, and possessed of
    considerable ability. Has distinguished himself as a warrior in
    contests with the Arapahoes. He has many enemies among the Utes on
    account of his overbearing disposition and pride of birth and
    position, but manages to gain in influence, so that the Government
    has been obliged to establish a special agency for his band at
    Denver.

  935. COLORADO.

  787. SAPPIX and SON.

  788. CHU.

  789. KANOSH.

  790-6, 965-74. Miscellaneous groups, all copies; a portion of the
          original Blackmore collection.

  955-9. UTE ENCAMPMENT on the plains near Denver.

  960-3. CAMP SCENES among the Utes at Los Pinos.

  520. GROUP of Pe-ah and his head men.



VI. SAHAPTINS.

The Sahaptin family inhabit the country south of the Salish, between the
Cascade and Bitter Root Mountains, reaching southward, in general terms,
to the forty-fifth parallel, but very irregularly bounded by the
Shoshone tribes of the California group. Of its nations, the Nez Percés,
or Sahaptins proper, dwell on the Clearwater and its branches, and on
the Snake about the forks. The Palouse occupy the region north of the
Snake, about the mouth of the Palouse; the south banks of the Columbia
and Snake, near their confluence, and the banks of the Lower Walla
Walla, are occupied by the Walla Wallas. The Yakimas and Klikelats
inhabit the region north of the Dalles, between the Cascade Range and
the Columbia. The natives of Oregon, east of the Cascade Range, who have
not usually been included in the Sahaptin family, are divided somewhat
arbitrarily into the Wascoes, extending from the mountains eastward to
John Day River, and the Cayuses from this river across the Blue
Mountains to the Grande Ronde.


1. NEZ PERCÉS.

The Nez Percés, or the Sahaptin proper, inhabit Idaho and portions of
Oregon and Washington. They style themselves Numepo, but Lewis and
Clarke called them the Chopunnish. The origin of their present name is
buried in obscurity. Early in the present century they were estimated to
number 8,000; and in 1836, when a mission was established among them,
about 4,000. In the Oregon Indian war most of the tribe remained
friendly and did effective service for the whites on a number of
occasions. In 1854 a treaty was made ceding part of their lands, but
only a portion of the tribe recognizing it, led to a separation, one
party becoming wandering hunters, while the other remained on the
reservations.

"Of the 2,800 Nez Percés now living, nearly half located on the Kamiah
and Lapwai reservations in northern Idaho, and a few others settled on
lands outside the reserve, are prosperous farmers and stock-growers. The
rest are 'non-treaties,' who, with other non-treaty Indians in that
region, make every exertion to induce the reservation Indians to lease
their farms and join them in their annual hunting and root-gathering
expeditions."

Early in the summer of the present year troubles arose in regard to the
occupancy of the Wallowa Valley by white settlers, it having been
withdrawn in 1875 from the reservation assigned them by treaty in 1873,
from a failure on their part to permanently occupy it. An Indian,
belonging to a band of malcontents or non-treaties under the Chief
Joseph, was killed by some settlers, when they insisted upon the removal
of all the whites and the restitution of the valley to them. Upon the
refusal of the Government to this demand, and further attempts to compel
all the non-treaty Indians to come into the reservation at Lapwai, an
outbreak occurred under the leadership of Joseph, which resulted in a
number of pitched battles, with great loss of life, but were compelled
to retreat, the forces under General Howard pursuing them eastwardly
across the headwaters of the Snake River and through the Yellowstone
National Park, where the pursuit was taken up by the forces under
General Terry, resulting finally in the capture of Joseph and the
remainder of hi s force by General Miles.

_List of illustrations._

  427-8. KAL-KAL-SHU-A-TASH, or _Jason_.

  429-431. TA-MA-SON, or _Timothy_.

  433-4. ENCAMPMENT ON THE YELLOWSTONE RIVER.

    The temporary camp of a small hunting party, who were visiting their
    friends the Crows at the old agency, near the mouth of Shields
    River. This and the following views were made in 1871:

  435-6. LODGES IN THE VILLAGE.

  437. THE CHIEF OF THE VILLAGE.

  438. This man has long yellow hair and blue eyes, but is in
        every other respect a thorough Indian. Is said to be a
        son of one of the expedition under Lewis and Clarke,
        who visited their country early in this century.

  439-441. VILLAGE VIEWS.


2. WARM SPRINGS.

The Warm Springs Indians, so named from their location about the thermal
springs in Northern Oregon, are related to the Walla Wallas, and number
187, on a reservation of some 725 square miles, on which are also some
300 Wascoes and Teninoes. The combined tribes cultivate about 800 acres
of the land. They are very well off in live stock and derive some of
their income by lumbering. All wear citizen's dress, many have good
comfortable houses, and support two schools, with an attendance of about
50 scholars. They assisted in the operations against the Modocs in 1872,
raising a company of scouts for that purpose, who rendered good service.

_List of illustrations._

  1058. CAPPOLAS. _A Boney Man._

    Took a prominent part in the Modoc war, and distinguished himself by
    the capture of Captain Jack in the lava-beds. Height, 5.5-1/2;
    circumference of head, 22-3/4.

  1061. SHAKA. _Little Beaver._

    A sergeant in the company that captured Captain Jack. Height, 5.8;
    circumference of head, 22-5/8.

  1056. SKE-METZE. _Chopped up._

    Familiarly known as "Billy." Height, 5.4-1/2; circumference of head,
    22-3/8.

  1054. KE-HEY-A-KIN. _Crooked Stick._

    Height, 5.6-1/2; circumference of head, 21-3/4.

  1063. HISTO. _Clam Fish._

    _Height, 5.7-3/4; circumference of head, 22-7/8._

  1059. WEY-A-TAT-HAN. _Owl._

    The married man of the party, his wife accompanying him on his
    travels. Was wounded in the lava-beds, and with five others were the
    scouts who first discovered Captain Jack's hiding-place in the cave.

  1064. CHIN-CHIN-WET. _Alone._

    Wife of Wey-a-tat-han. A very comely and intelligent Indian woman,
    of whom but very few are found among the far western tribes. Height,
    4.11-1/2; circumference of head, 21-1/2.

  1057. SEMEO, or _Umatilla Jim_.


3. WASCOS.

The Wascos, like the Warm Springs Indians, are related to the Walla
Wallas, and through them to the Sahaptin family. The name signifies
"basin," and the tribe derives its name, traditionally, from the fact
that formerly one of their chiefs, his wife having died, spent much of
his time in making cavities or basins in the soft rock for his children
to fill with water and pebbles, and thereby amuse themselves. They came
originally from around the Dalles. Are associated with the Warm Springs
and Teninoes on a reservation in Oregon just south of the Columbia. Now
number 263, profess the Christian religion, and are more advanced in
civilization than any tribe in the State. All the tribes of this
reservation are self-supporting, deriving about half their subsistence
by agriculture and the rest by fishing and hunting.

_List of illustrations._

  1062. KLE-MAT-CHOSNY. _Agate Arrow-Point._

    Is a chief and a member of the Presbyterian Church, and a zealous
    worker for the spiritual welfare of his people. Height, 5.6-3/4;
    circumference of head, 21-3/4.

  1060. STAT-TLA-KA. _Pole Cat._

    Height, 5.4; circumference of head, 20-5/8.

  1055. OSCAR MARK, or _Little Vessel_.

    Height, 5.5; circumference of head, 23-1/4.



VII. KLAMATHS.


1. KLAMATHS.

A comprehensive name applied to this as well as to several tribes on the
Klamath River, differing in language and type. Live mainly by fishing
and root-digging. By treaty in 1864 the Klamaths and Modocs ceded all
their lands, reserving a small tract on Klamath Lake, in Oregon, of
1,600 square miles, the Government to pay $8,000 in fifteen years, as
well as other large sums for subsistence. Much of their reservation is
mountainous, only a small portion being fit for cultivation. The
Klamaths did not like the introduction of the Modocs on their
reservation, and it eventually led to the Modoc war. They now number
676, and are quite prosperous. Have a large number of horses and cattle,
but derive their chief support by lumbering.

_List of illustrations._

  975-6. WAL-AIKS-SKI-DAT.

    Known as David Hill, cousin of Captain Jack, is the war chief of the
    Klamaths (the parent tribe of the Modocs), and is recognized as the
    leader in civilization of all the Indians of the Lake country. He is
    33 years of age. He distinguished himself, before the Indians were
    gathered into reservations, as the leader of the young braves of the
    Klamaths in their wars with surrounding tribes, and his military
    record shows that he has never known defeat. He has always been the
    friend of the white man. In the long protracted fight with the Snake
    tribe, lasting over eight years, he was our ally as the leader of
    the Klamath warriors. He commanded the Klamath scouts during the war
    with Captain Jack. Mr. Hill is a christianized Indian, and is a
    member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. His father was the first
    chief who became friendly with the white man. This was in 1843, when
    he met Frémont and acted as his guide.

  977. YUM-NIS-POC-TIS.

    (Chief without beads), better known as Tecumseh, is the "medicine
    man" of the Klamaths, and is the descendant of a long line of
    "medicine men." He has had a Damon and Pythias friendship with David
    Hill since his childhood. In his native tongue he is famous as an
    orator. He won great distinction in the Snake war, as Hill's
    comrade; and, with him, is the earnest champion of civilization in
    his tribe. He is also a Methodist and lives a civilized life in the
    reservation. Both Tecumseh and Hill are covered with scars that they
    have received in their desperate conflicts.


2. MODOCS.

The Modocs were originally part of the Klamaths, but recently hostile to
them. Their name is an Indian word meaning _enemies_. Their original
territory was on the south side of Klamath Lake, including some 4,000
square miles. Were early known as a treacherous and cruel people, and up
to 1850 had cut off more than 50 whites. Engagements followed between
them and the whites in 1851--when Wright massacred 41 out of a total of
46--which were kept up until 1864, when they agreed to go on a reserve.
The treaty to that effect was not ratified for seven years, and in the
mean time were induced to go on the Klamath reserve. Were harassed and
dissatisfied, and afterwards put on Yaniax reservation, but most of the
tribe left under two rival chiefs, Schonchin and Captain Jack. The
former settled peaceably near the settlements, while the latter went
back to their old home and became troublesome. In 1872, were ordered
back to the reserve, and upon their refusing to go troops were called on
to enforce the order, the citizens joining in an attack on their
entrenched camps, but were repulsed. The Modocs then retreated to the
"lava-beds," a volcanic region so broken up into great caves and
fissures as to serve as a natural fortification. After several
engagements a commission was organized to enquire into the trouble, and
while holding a conference with the leaders were attacked, and General
Canby and Dr. Thomas were killed, (April 11, 1873.) After two months'
further operations, the hostiles were reduced, their leaders hung, and
the rest removed to the Indian Territory. About 100 who took no part in
the trouble remained at the Klamath agency.

_List of illustrations._

  1008. SCAR-FACED CHARLEY.

    The famous war chief of the lava-bed warriors, and the greatest of
    their soldiers. He was the most trusted of Captain Jack's braves,
    and the most desperate of his fighters. Rev. Dr. Thomas; who was
    slain at the peace-commission massacre, on the day before his death
    called Scar-Faced Charley the "Leonidas of the lava-beds." He was
    never known to be guilty of any act not authorized by the laws of
    legitimate warfare, and entered his earnest protest against the
    assassination of General Canby and Dr. Thomas. He led the Modocs
    against Major Thomas and Colonel Wright when the United States
    troops were so disastrously repulsed and when two-thirds of our men
    were killed and wounded. Wearied of the slaughter, he shouted to the
    survivors, "You fellows that are not dead had better go home; we
    don't want to kill you all in one day." He has said since, "My heart
    was sick of seeing so many men killed."

  1009. SHACK-NASTY JIM.

    The sub-chief of the tribe and chief of the Hot Creek band of the
    Modocs; although hardly twenty-one years of age, is known throughout
    Christendom as one of the most fearless warriors that the red men
    ever sent to fight the pale-faces. He led the tribal forces that
    suffered most severely. After the massacre he quarrelled with
    Captain Jack; and, with "Bogus Charley," "Hooker Jim," and
    "Steamboat Frank," became scout for General Jeff. C. Davis--which
    led to the capture of the remnants of the Modoc army.

  1010. STEAMBOAT FRANK.

    One of the participators in the Modoc war, but after the massacre of
    General Canby's party, left his tribe, and as a scout under General
    Davis, did good service in securing the capture of the remnants of
    Captain Jack's forces.

  1011. WI-NE-MA, or _Tobey Riddle_.

    The modern Pocahontas, who, at the risk of her own life, saved the
    life of Col. A. B. Meacham, chairman of the Modoc peace commission,
    at the Modoc massacre. The Oregon Statesman truly says: "A truer
    heroine was never born in the American forest than the poor Indian
    woman, Tobey Riddle, whose exertions to save one who had befriended
    herself and people were no less daring and resolute than the
    devotion of Pocahontas. We have nowhere read of a woman, white,
    black, or red, performing an act of sublimer heroism than Tobey
    Riddle, when, under suspicions of treachery, she returned to her
    people in the rocks, with an almost absolute certainty of being
    flayed alive. The description of that event is one of the finest
    passages in Mr. Meacham's speech, and is a fitting tribute to the
    courage and fidelity of his dusky, lion-hearted friend. The
    gratitude, fidelity, and devotion of that poor squaw ought to
    forever put to silence and shame those heartless savages who, in the
    midst of a Christian civilization, are clamoring for the extinction
    of a people whom God had planted where they were found." Tobey is 28
    years of age, and the wife of Frank Riddle. She is honored by all
    who know her.


3. ROGUE RIVERS.

The Rogue Rivers, so called from the stream upon which they have lived
for a long time, have also been known by the names Lototen or Tototutna.
As a general rule the coast tribes are inferior in physique and
character to the inland tribes, but an exception must be made in favor
of the Rogue Rivers. "The men are tall, muscular, and well made, the
women are short and some of them quite handsome, even in the Caucasian
sense of the word." They are associated with some 15 or 20 tribes or
bands at the Siletz agency, the whole numbering less than 1,500 souls.

_List of illustrations._

  978. OL-HA-THE, or _George Harvey_.

    Chief of the confederated tribes of Indians of Siletz reservation,
    Oregon, lineal descendant of a long line of Rogue River chiefs, was
    captured when a small boy at the Rogue River war between the United
    States forces and the Rogue River tribes of Southern Oregon, and
    carried to the Siletz reservation, where he has lived ever since. He
    is a fine speaker, and has acted many years as an interpreter. This
    office having brought him into close and constant contact with
    American civilization, he long ago abandoned his aboriginal habits
    and religion, and adopted the customs and faith of the whites. He is
    well known throughout Oregon, and is held in the highest esteem. He
    has been complimented by the judges everywhere for his integrity and
    intelligence, and both by his loyalty and education is a living
    proof of the folly and wickedness of the theory that the Indian can
    neither be civilized nor be made the friend of the white race.



VIII. PIMAS.


1. PAPAGOS.

The Papapootans, as they style themselves, belong to the Pima family,
and have long resided in the country south of the Gila. Have always been
at enmity with the Apaches until within the last year, but were friendly
to the Spaniards, who, with a few exceptions, have maintained missions
among them continuously up to the present time. At the close of the
Mexican war were Mexican citizens, and partly civilized, but were not
recognized as such by the United States, and were left without an agency
or reservation until 1874, when they were settled on the Santa Cruz
River, a tributary of the Gila, on a tract of 70,400 acres. They now
number between 5,000 and 6,000 souls. Have well-cultivated farms, and
live in houses of their own construction.

  650. ASCENCION RIOS. (Front.)

  651. ASCENCION RIOS. (Profile.)


2. PIMAS.

The Pimas, calling themselves Ohotama, are a portion of a family of
Indians of the same name, comprising, besides themselves, the Opates,
Eudevis, and Joves, occupying much of Southern Arizona, Sonora, and
Sinaloa. Missions were established among them at an early day by the
Spaniards, but they revolted many times, killing several of the
missionaries. They have long been divided into the Upper and Lower
Pimas, the former living on the Gila, in mud-covered huts, and
cultivating the soil extensively. Have been long associated with the
Maricopas, the two tribes now living together as one on a reservation of
64,000 acres. The Pimas now number 4,100; are self-supporting, wear
civilized dress, and are ready for the privileges of citizenship.

  653. LUIG MORAGUE. (Front.)

  654. LUIG MORAGUE. (Profile.)

  655. ANTONIO AZUL. (Front.)

  656. ANTONIO AZUL. (Profile.)



IX. IROQUOIS.


1. SENECAS.

One of the Five Iroquois Nations in Western New York, comprising,
originally, the Sinnekaas, as the Dutch called them, (hence the word
Senecas,) Onondagas, Mohawks, Cayugas, and Oneidas. When first known to
the French, were living on the south side of Lake Ontario, and engaged
in a fierce war with their Algonkin neighbors. By conquest several other
tribes became incorporated with them. Missions were established among
them by the French as early as 1657. In 1763 the Senecas alone, of the
Six Nations, joined in Pontiac's league to extirpate the English. During
the Revolution sided with the English, but made a peace in 1784, and
during the second war remained loyal. Early in the century part of the
tribe settled in Ohio, afterwards removing to the Indian Territory,
where they now are to the number of 240. The New York Senecas still
occupy the Alleghany, Cattaraugus, and Tonawanda reserve of 66,000
acres, where they all live in good houses and have large,
well-cultivated farms, and are in every way a civilized and
well-regulated class of people.

  1048. DYAR-YO-NAÄ-DAR-GA-DAH. _One who Carries Hemlock Boughs on his
           Back._

    English name, Caster Redeye. Was born on the Alleghany reservation;
    belongs to the traditionary Bear clan. Is now President of the New
    York Senecas. Does not speak English, but is an eloquent speaker in
    his native tongue. Has been a councillor three terms. Is a farmer
    and lumberman, and has also been a pilot for several years on the
    Alleghany River. Caster is a grandson of Governor Blacksnake, the
    famous chief of the Senecas, who died in 1859 at the age of 120
    years. Age, 46; height, 5.9; head, 22-1/2; chest, 43.

  1045. DAR-GAR-SWEN-GAR-ANT. _Dropping the Stock of the Gun._

    Commonly known as Harrison Halftown; belongs to the Snipe clan. Was
    born on the Alleghauy reservation. Is the clerk of the nation, which
    position he has held for the last eight years. Was well educated at
    a Quaker school adjoining the reservation, and speaks English
    fluently. Is a fine speaker, and is quite noted as an orator. Age,
    47; height, 5.8; head, 23-1/4; chest, 42.

  1046. HOH-HO-I-YO. _Splendid Doer._

    Samuel Jimson, as he is ordinarily known, is one of a family of
    thirty-one children, and was born on the Alleghany reservation in
    1837. Is a descendant of Mary Jimson, a white captive among the
    Senecas, whose descendants now number 111. Is a farmer, but also a
    fine orator, and of more than ordinary ability. Has been a
    councillor for eleven terms in succession. Height, 6.1; head, 23;
    chest, 43.

  1047. JOHN IRVING.

    President of the peacemakers' court. Is a grandson of Governor
    Blacksnake. Age, 50; height, 5.9-1/2; head, 22; chest, 44.

  979. MYRON SILVERHEELS.

  980. GROUPS COMPRISING 1045-46-47.

  715. A DAUGHTER OF GENERAL PARKER.

    Copy from an old daguerreotype.


2. WYANDOTS.

The Wyandots, or Hurons, a western Iroquois tribe, lived originally on
the shores of Lake Huron, where they raised tobacco to such an extent
that they were called Petem, or Tobacco Indians. Were driven west to
Wisconsin and to the shores of Lake Superior, and by the Sioux back
again to the neighborhood of Detroit, where they remained up to the
close of the wars between the United States and England. In 1832 ceded
all their lands in Ohio to the Government, and 687 were removed to
Kansas, where they have since resided, at the junction of the Kansas and
Missouri Rivers. In 1855 many became citizens, and had their lands
divided among them, the others being removed to the Indian Territory,
where they now are, numbering 258 souls. Some of the Wyandots remained
near Detroit, and by treaty with the English government were assigned a
reservation on the Detroit River of 23,600 acres, where they yet remain,
but have declined within the present century from 200 to 72. Their
hereditary king remained with the Canadian band.

_List of illustrations._

  981. MATHEW MUDEATER.

    Head chief of the Wyandots, and a delegate in 1875 to Washington,
    with power to settle all complications between his tribe and the
    Government growing out of sundry treaties. Was born in 1813, in
    Canada.

  982. NICHOLAS COTTER.

    A councillor in his tribe, and delegate to Washington with Mudeater,
    1875. Was born in Canada in 1822.



X. MUSKOGEES.


1. CREEKS.

The Creeks are known in their own language as the Muskokee or Muskogee
and occupied originally the greater part of Georgia, Alabama, and
Florida. Their traditions say that they emigrated from the Northwest
until they reached Florida, when they fell back to the country between
the headwaters of the Alabama and Savannah rivers. As this was full of
small rivers and creeks it was called by the early settlers the creek
country, hence the name of the Creek Indians, who, when first known to
the whites, were living there. Those remaining in Florida were called
the Seminoles or Isti-semole (wild men). The nation became a confederacy
of tribes speaking other languages, modifying somewhat the original
Muskogee, but who, nevertheless, numbered seven-eighths of their whole
number. Before a dominant power was established in the South they were
courted by the Spanish, French, and English, and were about equally
divided in their allegiance to these nations, but the final success of
the English brought them entirely under their influence. "They took an
active part in the war of the Revolution against the Americans, and
continued their hostilities till the treaty concluded at Philadelphia in
1795. They then remained at peace eighteen years; but at the beginning
of the last war with Great Britain a considerable portion of the nation,
excited, it is said, by Tecumseh, and probably receiving encouragement
from other sources, took arms without the slightest provocation, and at
first committed great ravages in the vicinity of their western frontier.
They received a severe chastisement, and the decisive victories of
General Jackson at that time, and some years later over the Seminoles,
who had renewed the war, have not only secured a permanent peace with
the southern Indians, but, together with the progress of the
settlements, have placed them all under the absolute control of the
United States. The Creeks and Seminoles, after some struggles among
themselves, have ceded the whole of their territory and accepted in
exchange other lands beyond the Mississippi."--_Gallatin._

Twenty-four thousand five hundred and ninety-four were removed west of
the Mississippi, only 744 remaining on their old hunting-grounds. At the
breaking out of the civil war the western Creeks numbered less that
15,000. The tribe divided and engaged in pitched battles against each
other, the Unionists suffering badly, many fleeing to Kansas. They were
brought together again after the war, and in 1872 numbered 13,000, on a
reservation of over 3,000,000 acres in the Indian Territory.

By the report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1876, they were
numbered at 14,000, including 3,000 mixed-bloods, and all wearing
citizens' dress and living in good houses. They have 36 school
buildings, with an attendance of about 750 pupils; over $24,000 was
expended upon their education. There are 20 churches on the reserve,
with a membership among the Creeks of over 3,000. They rank among the
first of civilized tribes.

_List of illustrations._

  97. LO-CHA-HA-JO. _The Drunken Terrapin._

    Served as a first lieutenant in the Union Army during the rebellion,
    and was at that time and is now the leading spirit of the loyal
    Creeks. Is the treaty-making chief. Age, about 35.

  98. TAL-WA-MI-KO. _Town King._

    Commonly known as John McGilvry. Is a brother-in-law of
    Oporthleyoholo, a famous chief of the last generation, and stood by
    him during their struggles with and flight from the rebel Creeks. Is
    at the present time the second leading spirit of the loyal Creeks.
    Age, about 30.

  99. TAM-SI-PEL-MAN. _Thompson Perryman._

    First organizer of the loyal Creeks that came north during the
    rebellion. Was a councillor of Oporthleyoholo, and a steadfast
    adherent to the treaties made with the Government. Age, about 40.

  100. HO-TUL-KO-MI-KO. _Chief of the Whirlwind._

    English name, Silas Jefferson; is of mixed African and Creek
    parentage; born in Alabama and raised among the Creeks in that
    State, removing with them to their present home in the Indian
    Territory. Is to all intents and purposes one of the tribe, taking a
    wife from among them, and sharing all their troubles. Was
    interpreter for the loyal Creeks during the war, and is now the
    official interpreter of the nation. Age, 45.

  102. GROUP OF THE PRECEDING CHIEFS.

  103. KOT-CO-CU, or _Tiger_.

    Served in the Union Army as a lieutenant. Was one of the council in
    framing the treaty of 1866. In 1871 was a candidate for chief, but
    was defeated, and died shortly after.

  104. OK-TA-HA-SAS-HAJO, or _Sand_.

    The predecessor of Lo-cha-ha-jo as the treaty-making chief of the
    nation, and second chief under Oporthleyoholo. Was among the first
    to join the Union forces during the rebellion. Was chief of the
    council that framed the new constitution in 1866. Has not been
    educated, but has great natural ability, and is of an extremely
    sensitive and kindly disposition.

  105-107. FAMILY OF GEORGE STEADMAN. (Half-bloods.)

  108. A CREEK BRAVE.


2. SEMINOLES.

"The Isti-Semole (wild men) who inhabit the peninsula of Florida (1836)
are pure Muskogees, who have gradually detached themselves from the
confederacy, but were still considered members of it till the United
States treated with them as with an independent nation. The name of
Seminoles was given to them on account of their being principally
hunters and attending but little to farming."

Were very hostile to the Americans up to the cession of Florida in 1819,
but a treaty was finally made with them in 1823. Other treaties followed
looking to their removal westward, in attempting to carry out which a
war ensued, lasting from 1835 until 1842. Nearly 2,000 had then been
removed, leaving about 300 in Florida, and 145 of these, under Billy
Bowlegs, joined the western band in the Indian Territory in 1858. Had
much trouble in getting settled upon a reservation, locating finally
upon a tract of 200,000 acres bought of the Creeks, where they now
number 2,553--a prosperous and civilized tribe.

_List of illustrations._

  714. O-LAC-TO-MI-CO. _Billy Bowlegs._

    The well-known and famous leader of the Seminoles in the Florida
    war, 1835-'42, but was finally compelled to remove with the remnants
    of his tribe to the Indian Territory.


3. CHICKASAWS.

When first known the Chickasaws were located north of Mississippi on the
Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers. Were mixed up in the early French and
English wars, remaining loyal to the English up to 1783. Operated with
the Americans against the Creeks in 1793. Commenced to migrate west of
the Mississippi early in the present century. Sold their lands to good
advantage and amassed considerable wealth, and were in every way a
prosperous, progressive nation. They purchased a large tract of land
from the Choctaws, a tribe speaking the same language, and affiliated
with them in all tribal affairs. In 1855, on payment of $150,000 to the
Choctaws, they effected a political separation. Like the Choctaws, they
first went south with the confederates during the civil war, but
returned to the northern army afterwards. They lost very much property,
besides a large number of slaves.

Their numbers have not undergone any material change, the latest census
placing their numbers at 5,800. Nearly 2,000 of these are mixed bloods.
Two weekly papers are supported between the Choctaws and themselves.
They are also well supplied with churches, schools, and other appliances
of an industrious, civilized, and prosperous people. They have
intermarried to a great extent with the whites, some of the following
portraits being of subjects having a large proportion of white blood in
their veins.

_List of illustrations._

  73. J. D. JAMES.

  74. ASH-KE-HE-NA-NIEW.

  75. SHO-NI-ON.

  76. ANNIE GUY.

  77. A YOUNG BRAVE.


4. CHOCTAWS.

The Choctaws, or Chahtas, at the time of De Soto's visit in 1540, were
living south of the Chickasaws, and west of the Creeks. Unlike the
surrounding tribes, they were peaceably disposed, and a nation of
farmers, and much farther advanced in civilization than any of their
neighbors. Coming in contact with the French, Spanish, English, and
Americans, they have never been at war with any of them. Commenced
moving west of the Mississippi in 1801, and by 1830 had exchanged all
their lands for other in the Indian Territory. By 1861 had advanced far
in civilization, numbering with the Chickasaws 25,000, with 5,000
slaves. In the civil war they joined first the South and then the North,
losing a great deal in property, and a reduction to 17,000 of their
population. They now number 16,000, of whom two-thirds are of mixed
blood. Are governed by a written constitution; elect their chief every
four years; have a council, consisting of 40 members, and a judiciary,
and trial by jury.

Of the following subjects, nearly all are of mixed blood.

_List of illustrations._

  88. ISRAEL FOLSOM.

  89. PETER FOLSOM.

  90. SAMUEL FOLSOM.

  91. ---- FOLSOM.

  92. FAUNCEWAY BAPTISTE.

  93. B. L. LE FLORE.

  94. SAMUEL GARLAND.

  95. COLONEL PYTCHLYNN.

  96. ALLEN WRIGHT.

  936-7. SQUAWS.

  938-9. YOUNG BOYS.



XI. INDEPENDENT AND UNCLASSIFIED TRIBES.


1. ARAPAHOS.

"Very little is known of the early history of the Arapahos, but are
supposed by some to be the Querechos of the early Spanish explorers.
They called themselves Atsinas, of whom, however, they are but a branch.
The early English knew them as the Fall Indians, and the French as the
Gros Ventres of the south. They were then roaming over the plain country
about the heads of the Platte and Arkansas. Gallatin speaks of them as a
detached tribe of the Rapid Indians, which has wandered as far south as
the Platte and Arkansas and formed a temporary union with the Kaskasias
and some other erratic tribes. At the present time (1862) the Arapahos
are divided into two portions or bands. The first portion call
themselves Na-ka-si-nin, 'People of the Sage,' and number one hundred
and eighty lodges. They wander about the sources of the South Platte and
the region of Pike's Peak; also northward to the Red Buttes on the North
Platte. Sometimes they extend their journeyings in search of buffalo
along the foot of the Big Horn Mountains in the Crow country. The second
band call themselves Na-wuth-i-ni-hau, the meaning of which is obscure.
It implies a mixture of different kinds of people of different bands.
They number 200 lodges, and range along the Arkansas River and its
tributaries."--_Hayden._

In 1820 Morse estimated them at 10,000, and speaks of them as a warlike
people and often making predatory and murderous excursions on their
eastern and northern neighbors.

The Arapahos affiliate with the Cheyennes, with whom they have been on
friendly terms for many years. Lately, however, an antipathy seems to be
growing up between the two tribes in the Indian Territory, and the
Commissioner of Indian Affairs advises a separation. They are divided
into two principal divisions, known respectively as the Northern and
Southern Arapahos. Those of the north, numbering 1,562, affiliate with
the Cheyennes and Ogalallas at the Red Cloud agency. They have been
ordered to join their southern brethren, and at the present time the
necessary preparations are under way. The Southern Apaches, who number
1,664, with the Southern Cheyennes and a small band of Apaches, are
temporarily occupying a large reservation in the western portion of the
Territory. The new reservation assigned them lies along the northern
border of the Territory west of the Creek and Cherokee countries, and
was purchased from them. It comprises nearly 5,000,000 acres.

But little has been done by them looking toward civilization, beyond
signifying their willingness to have farms apportioned to them and in
sending their children to school.

  21. YELLOW BEAR.                                    NORTHERN ARAPAHOS.
      LITTLE WOLF.                                    NORTHERN ARAPAHOS.

  22. POWDER FACE AND SQUAW.                          NORTHERN ARAPAHOS.

  23. MEDICINE PIPE.                                  NORTHERN ARAPAHOS.
      FOOL DOG.                                       NORTHERN ARAPAHOS.

  24. CRAZY BULL.                                     NORTHERN ARAPAHOS.
      FRIDAY.                                         NORTHERN ARAPAHOS.

  25. PLENTY BEARS.                                   NORTHERN ARAPAHOS.
      OLD EAGLE.                                      NORTHERN ARAPAHOS.

  32-35. BI-NAN-SET. _Big Mouth._                     SOUTHERN ARAPAHOS.

  36-37. WHITE CROW.                                  SOUTHERN ARAPAHOS.

  38-39. BLACK CROW.                                  SOUTHERN ARAPAHOS.

  40-41. LEFT HAND.                                   SOUTHERN ARAPAHOS.

  42-43. YELLOW HORSE.                                SOUTHERN ARAPAHOS.

  44-45. HEAP O' BEARS.                               SOUTHERN ARAPAHOS.

  62-65. OHASTE. _Little Raven._                      SOUTHERN ARAPAHOS.

    In 1865, Richardson described him as follows: "The savage, like
    Falstaff, is a coward on instinct; also treacherous, filthy, and
    cruel. But our chief, The Little Raven, was the nearest
    approximation I ever met to the ideal Indian. He had a fine manly
    form, and a human, trustworthy face."

  909, 911. BIRD CHIEF. (Bust, front and profile.)

  910, 912. BIRD CHIEF. (Standing, front and profile.)

  984, 5. FRIDAY.

    The well-known chief of the Northern Arapahos and one who has had a
    prominent position for the last twenty-five years. Speaks English
    fluently and always acts as his own interpreter.

  755. A YOUNG MAN.

    Living with and brought up with the Southern Arapahos, but claimed
    by Ouray, chief of the Utes, to be his son, captured in battle
    several years since. Ouray has made an appeal to the Government for
    his restitution, but the young man prefers his present home.


2. CADDOS.

The Caddos, or Cadodaquious, at present a small remnant of a tribe that
once ranged over the Red River country, where they were first met with
in 1687 by Jontel and other survivors of the La Salle expedition. They
are now consolidated with Wacos, Wichitas, Keechies, Tawacanies, Ionies,
and Delawares, and number 552, occupying the Wichita reservation of
about 1,200 square miles in extent between the branches of the--

They have now well-managed farms, and are noted for industry and general
intelligence.

  159-160. SHO-E-TAT. _Little Boy._

    English name, Geo. Washington. Born in Louisiana in 1816. Is
    probably the most progressive Indian on the reservation; has long
    since adopted the dress and customs of the whites; owns a
    trading-store, and has a well-cultivated farm of 113 acres, with
    good houses and improvements. Was captain during the rebellion of a
    company of Indian scouts and rangers in the service of the
    Confederate States army, and engaged in three battles, one on Cache
    Creek, Indian Territory, with Kiowas and Apaches; one with
    Cheyennes, in the Wichita Mountains; and one on the Little Washita,
    with renegade Caddos.

  161-162. NAH-AH-SA-NAH. _Indian._                            ANADARKO.

    Commonly known as War-loupe; probably a corruption of Guadeloupe.
    Was born near Nacitoches about 1825. Is now chief of the Caddos, and
    considered in advance of most of his people. Is doing his utmost to
    elevate his tribe to the standard of the white man. Height, 5.6-1/2;
    chest, inspiration, 37; expiration, 34-1/2; circumference of head
    over ears, 21-1/2; diameter of head from ear to ear, 14-1/2.

  163-4. ANTELOPE.

    With the preceding was a delegate to Washington in 1872, but died
    shortly after his return.


3. CHEROKEES.

When first discovered, the Cherokees were occupying the mountainous
country about the headwaters of the Tennessee River and portions of
Georgia and South Carolina, up to 1830. They form a family by
themselves, supposed, however, to be somewhat remotely connected with
the Great Iroquois family. They call themselves in their language
Tsaraghee. According to their traditions, they came to this country
before the Creeks, dispossessing a people of whom there is now no
record. Before and during the Revolution they were friendly to and aided
the English. A treaty of peace was made with them, by which they
acknowledged the sovereignty of the United States November 28, 1785, and
were confirmed in the possession of their lands, occupying a
considerable portion of Tennessee and parts of North Carolina, Georgia,
Alabama, and Mississippi. Commenced migrating to the trans-Mississippi
country as early as 1790, consequent upon the encroachments of
civilization, and in 1818 3,000 more emigrated. As frequent cessions of
their lands had reduced their territory to less than 8,000 square miles
in extent, and also in consequence of the hostility of the Georgians,
they were all removed in 1838 to their present reservation in the Indian
Territory, excepting about 1,000, who remained in North Carolina. At the
opening of the civil war they had progressed to a high degree of
prosperity, but suffered great injury from both parties ravaging their
country, and also in the emancipation of their slaves. Nearly all the
Cherokees at first joined the Confederacy, but after the fight at Pea
Ridge, seeing the result doubtful, 9,000, under Colonel Downing, with a
majority of the nation, abandoned the southern cause and joined the
Union forces; 6,500 adhered to the Confederacy to the end. At the time
of their removal west the Cherokees numbered about 27,000. In 1867 they
were reduced to 13,566, but since then have increased, so that they now
number about 18,000. There are about 1,700 yet in North Carolina, in a
prosperous condition, owning about 70,000 acres of land.

The reservation in the Indian Territory comprises about 5,000,000 acres,
only one-third of it capable of cultivation, and of which they are now
working some 90,000 acres. Their crops for 1875 aggregated 630,000
bushels corn, 70,000 bushels wheat, 35,000 bushels oats, 50,000 tons
hay, 500,000 feet of lumber, &c. They have 63 schools, attended by
nearly 2,000 children, that are supported by a fund of $1,580,000, held
by the United States. Under their present constitution they are governed
by a national committee and council elected for two years. The
executive, or chief, is elected for four years.

The following portraits show the effects of the civilizing influences
they have been living under, and also the extensive admixture of white
blood among them by intermarriage:

_List of illustrations._

  66. COLONEL DOWNING.

  67. RICHARDS.

  68. COLONEL ADAIR.

  69. SAMUEL SMITH.

  70. BORUM DAVIS.

  71. CAPTAIN SCRAPER.

  72. BINGO.


4. MOQUIS.

A tribe of semi-civilized Indians living in seven villages on the
plateau between the San Juan and Little Colorado Rivers. They were among
the Pueblos visited by the expedition under Coronado in 1540, who named
the region inhabited by them the Province of Tusayan. The Franciscans
established missions among them, but in the general uprising of 1680 all
were expelled or killed. Numerous attempts were afterward made to reduce
them, but without success, and they have remained independent to this
day. They have the reputation of being an extremely kind-hearted and
hospitable people; are exclusively agricultural, raising maize,
squashes, pumpkins, and peaches. They also have many sheep and goats.
Have suffered much by depredations from the Apaches and Navajos. Their
villages are perched upon the summits of mesas, from 400 to 600 feet in
height. Their houses are built of stone laid in adobe-mortar, in terrace
form, seldom exceeding three stories in height, and reached only by
ladders. The women knit, spin, and weave, making fine blankets, women's
robes, and other like articles, which they trade to the neighboring
tribes.

When they first came under the jurisdiction of the United States, were
estimated to number 8,000. Were almost destroyed by small-pox in 1855
and 1857, and lost many more by the famine in 1867. On both occasions
their villages were abandoned and the people scattered among the
mountains, or took refuge among the kindred Zuñis, and other pueblos.
Are now estimated at 1,500 souls. They use no intoxicating drink; are
industrious and virtuous. The men adopt the usual Mexican dress, while
the women wear a woven tunic and a small blanket tacked over the
shoulders. Before marriage the hair of the women is worn in two large
rosettes upon each side of the head, and after marriage, is worn loose
down the back or rolled up back of the head.

Being entirely self-supporting, they have had but few agents and very
little assistance from the General Government. Their remote and nearly
inaccessible location has also removed them beyond the reach of most
missionary enterprises. Within the last two or three years some efforts
have been made to establish schools among them, supported mainly by
Presbyterian enterprise.

_List of illustrations._

  416. DELEGATION TO BRIGHAM YOUNG.

    Copy of a photograph of three Moqui Indians from the Pueblo of
    Oraybi, delegated to visit the Mormon president for the purpose of
    encouraging trade.

  983. NUM-PAYU. _Harmless Snake._

    A comely young maiden of the pueblo of Téwa. The peculiar style in
    which the hair is worn, as shown in this picture, is a sign of
    maidenhood. After marriage the hair is allowed to hang down the
    back, or is gathered in a small knot at the back of the head. The
    Moquis dress themselves entirely in woolen goods of their own
    manufacture, in which they are quite expert, their women's dress and
    blankets forming their principal stock in trade.

  1019. TÉWA.

  1020. HOUSE OF THE CAPITAN OF TÉWA.

  986. STREET VIEW IN TÉWA.

  1021, 988. GUALPI or O-PEE-KI.

  1024. SHE-MÓ-PA-VE.

  1023. MOO-SHA-NA-VE.

  1022, 991. SHE-PAÚ-LA-VAY.

  1025. HOUSE OF THE CAPITAN OF SHE-MO-PA-VE.

    The above are four of seven towns which are collectively generally
    known as the Moquis Pueblos. By a census taken in the spring of
    1877, they were found to contain a population of 492 men, 440 women
    and 672 children, 1,604 in all; of which Téwa has 132, Gualpi 234,
    She-mo-pa-ve 189, and She-pau-la-vay 198. With the exception of
    Oraybi, all these villages are built upon the summits of sandstone
    mesas, 600 feet above the valleys below them, and from which has to
    be brought their water, wood, and everything they raise. They
    possess considerable flocks of goats and sheep, which are secured
    every night in pens along the sides and upon the summits of the
    mesa, as shown in No. 987. Although there is no running water within
    many miles, and consequently they cannot irrigate, yet they are
    quite successful in cultivating corn, melons, &c., usually raising
    much more than they consume.


5. PUEBLOS.

A general name applied by the Spaniards to several tribes of
semi-civilized Indians in what is now New Mexico. The term _pueblo_, in
Spanish, literally means the _people_ and their _towns_. They were first
visited by Cabeza de Vaca in 1537, who conveyed the first authentic
account of their villages to Mexico, which resulted, in 1540, in the
expedition of Coronado. As nearly as can be ascertained at the present
time, he visited and subdued the Pueblos in the neighborhood of Zuñi,
along the Rio Grande, and the Moqui of the province of Tusayan; but only
occupied the country two years. Were finally subdued in 1586, and the
Spanish retained uninterrupted control, with the exception of the period
of the insurrection of 1680, until the cession of the territory to the
United States in 1847. At the time of Coronado's visit they were as
advanced as now, raising grain, vegetables, and cotton, and
manufacturing fine blankets. Their houses are sometimes built of stone,
but generally of adobe; are several stories in height--three to five
usually--each one receding from the one below, leaving a terrace or
walk. The general plan is a hollow square, although in some cases they
are built in a solid mass, like a pyramid, six or eight stories in
height. In each pueblo there are large rooms, sometimes under ground,
for religious observances or councils, called in Spanish, _estufas_. The
towns are sometimes built upon the summits of high terraces or _mesas_,
extremely difficult of approach.

The Pueblos constitute several tribes, with different languages; some
are now extinct; but those existing are the Zuñis; Toltos in Taos, with
whom are classed the people of Picuris, the Sandia, and Isleta; the
Tiguas in San Juan, Santa Clara, Nambé, San Ildefonso, Pojuaque, and
Tesuque; (the Moquis of pueblo of Te'-wa are said to speak this
language); the Queres in Cochité, San Domingo, San Filipe, Santa Aña,
Zia, Laguna, and Acoma; the Jemez, in the pueblo of the same name. In
the 19 pueblos named there are now estimated to be 8,400 people, the
most populous being Zuñi, with some 1,500 souls, and the least,
Pojuaque, numbering only some 30 or 40 persons. Were recognized as
citizens under Mexican rule, but since the admission of New Mexico the
matter has been left in doubt. In 1858, Government confirmed to them the
old Spanish grants of the land the Pueblos cultivate, averaging about
twelve square leagues to each pueblo. They retain their own form of
government, each village electing a governor, and a council consisting
of three old men. Have been under Catholic influence since the Spanish
conquest; but in the division of the tribes among the religious
denominations, the Pueblos were first assigned to the Baptists, and
afterward to the Presbyterians, who are now actively engaged in
establishing schools among them.

_List of illustrations._

  1015. NA-NA-ÁN-YE. _A al Metor de la Sierra._

    Spanish name, Antonio José Atencio. Head chief of all the Pueblos.
    Can read and write Spanish. Age, 70; height, 5.4-1/2.

  1016. TSE-WA-ÁN-YE. _Tail of the Eagle Fluttering._

    Spanish name, Antonio al Churleta. Governor of the pueblo of San
    Juan, and is the bearer of a cane, the badge of his office, which is
    marked "A. Lincoln, á San Juan, 1863." Can read and write in the
    Spanish language. Age, 64; height, 5.6-1/2.

  1017. WA-SÓ-TO-YÁ-MIN. _Small Feathers of the Eagle._

    Spanish name, Juan Jesus Leo. Governor of the pueblo of Taos; which
    position is retained but for one year. Is the bearer of a cane
    marked "A. Lincol á Taos." Age, 45; height, 5.7-1/2.

  643. AMBROSIA ABEITA.

  644. ALEJANDRO PADILLO.

  645-6. GROUPS with ABEITA and PADILLO.

  992. GROUP OF ANTONIO JOSÉ ATENCIO, ANTONIA AL CHURLETA, and JUAN
          JESUS LEO.

  15-17. THE HERDER.

    One of the former governors of the pueblo of Taos.

  20. GROUP OF CORRIDORES.

    Young men who are selected to run foot-races during the "feasts" or
    religious holidays.

  618, 623. YOUNG MAIDEN.

    A very good-looking young woman of the pueblo of Taos, with her hair
    gathered over the ears, signifying her single state. This custom
    also obtains among the Moquis.

  614-617; 620, 626-7. YOUNG GIRLS AND WOMEN OF THE PUEBLO OF TAOS.

  19, 613, 625, 619, 621-2. VARIOUS INDIVIDUALS belonging to the pueblo
          of Taos.

  628-642. VIEWS OF THE PUEBLO OF TAOS.


6. TAWACANIES.

A small tribe in the Indian Territory associated with the Caddos,
Kiowas, and others on the Wichita agency. They are well advanced toward
civilization.

  738-739. DAVE.

  740-741. CAW-LAC-ITS-CA. _Son of Dave._


7. TEMICULSA.

A small band of Indians living in the southern portion of California,
who are extensively intermarried with the Mexicans. They are a thrifty,
prosperous people, fully able to take good care of themselves, and are
not under the care of any agent.

  993. KA-LEK. _Hanging._

    Chief of the Temiculas, and delegate recently to Washington, to seek
    from the General Government the restitution of some of their land,
    from which this tribe had been ejected by the State government. Is a
    man of marked intelligence, and speaks Spanish fluently. Age, 45;
    height, 5.10; head, 23-1/2; chest, 47-1/2; weight, 245.

  994. ANDREW MAGRAND.

    Temicula and Mexican half-breed. Age, 27.

  995. JOHN CLIFT.

    Temicula and Mexican half-breed. Age, 25.



NUMERICAL INDEX.


                                                                   Page.

  1-2. Es-kel-ta-sa-la, _Apache_,                                     25

  3-4. Santo, _Apache_,                                               25

  5-6. Ta-ho, _Apache_,                                               25

  7-8. Gray Eagle, _Apache_,                                          25

  9-10. Capitan, _Apache_,                                            25

  11-12. Pacer, _Apache_,                                             25

  13-14. Wife of Pacer, _Apache_,                                     25

  15-17. The Herder, governor of Taos, _Pueblo_,                     107

  18. Son of Vicenti, _Apache_,                                       26

  19. A Pueblo Indian,                                               107

  20. Corridores, or Runners, _Pueblo_,                              107

  21. Yellow Bear and Little Wolf, _Arapaho_,                        100

  22. Powder Face and squaw, _Arapaho_,                              100

  23. Medicine Pipe and Fool Dog, _Arapaho_,                         100

  24. Crazy Bull and Friday, _Arapaho_,                              100

  25. Plenty Bears and Old Eagle, _Arapaho_,                         100

  26. Lame White Man and Wild Hog, _Cheyenne_,                         7

  27. Bald Bear and Cut Foot, _Cheyenne_,                              7

  28. Dull Knife and Little Wolf, _Cheyenne_,                          7

  29. Crazy Head and Spotted Wolf, _Cheyenne_,                         7

  30-31. Stone Calf and squaw, _Cheyenne_,                             7

  33-35. Big Mouth, _Cheyenne_,                                        7

  36-37. White Crow, _Cheyenne_,                                       7

  38-39. Black Crow, _Cheyenne_,                                       7

  40-41. Left Hand, _Cheyenne_,                                        7

  42-43. Yellow Horse, _Cheyenne_,                                     7

  44-45. Heap o' Bears, _Cheyenne_,                                    7

  46-47. Groups of Bannacks,                                          70

  48. Family of Sheep-eater Bannacks,                                 70

  51-61. Groups about the Bannack Agency,                             70

  62-65. Little Raven, _Arapaho_,                                    100

  66. Colonel Downing, _Cherokee_,                                   103

  67. Richards, _Cherokee_,                                          103

  68. Colonel Adair, _Cherokee_,                                     103

  69. Samuel Smith, _Cherokee_,                                      103

  70. Borum Davis, _Cherokee_,                                       103

  71. Captain Scraper, _Cherokee_,                                   103

  72. Bingo, _Cherokee_,                                             103

  73. J. D. James, _Chickasaw_,                                       97

  74. Ash-ke-he-naw-niew, _Chickasaw_,                                97

  75. Sho-ni-on, _Chickasaw_,                                         98

  76. Annie Guy, _Chickasaw_,                                         98

  77. A young brave, _Chickasaw_,                                     98

  78-79. Hole in the Day, _Chippewa_,                                 11

  80. Bad Boy, _Chippewa_,                                            11

  81. Crossing Sky, _Chippewa_,                                       11

  82. Standing Forward, _Chippewa_,                                   11

  83. Stump, _Chippewa_,                                              11

  84. Red Bird, _Chippewa_,                                           11

  85. Foremost Sitter, _Chippewa_,                                    11

  86. Noon-Day, _Chippewa_,                                           11

  88. Israel Folsom, _Choctaw_,                                       98

  89. Peter , _Choctaw_,                                        98

  90. Samuel Folsom, _Choctaw_,                                       98

  91. ---- Folsom, _Choctaw_,                                         98

  92. Faunceway Batiste, _Choctaw_,                                   98

  93. B. L. Le Flore, _Choctaw_,                                      98

  94. Samuel Garland, _Choctaw_,                                      98

  95. Colonel Pytchlynn, _Choctaw_,                                   98

  96. Allen Wright, _Choctaw_,                                        98

  97. The Drunken Terrapin, _Creek_,                                  95

  98. Town King, _Creek_,                                             95

  99. Thompson Ferryman, _Creek_                                      95

  100. Chief of the Whirlwind, _Creek_                                96

  102. Group of Creeks,                                               96

  103. Tiger, _Creek_,                                                96

  104. Sand, _Creek_,                                                 96

  105-107. Family of George Stedman, _Creek_,                         96

  108. A Creek brave,                                                 96

  109. Little Robe, _Cheyenne_,                                        6

  110. Whirlwind, _Cheyenne_,                                          7

  111. White Shield, _Cheyenne_,                                       7

  112. White Horse, _Cheyenne_,                                        7

  113. Medicine Man, _Cheyenne_,                                       7

  114. Pawnee, _Cheyenne_,                                             7

  115. Edward Guerrer, interpreter, _Cheyenne_,                        7

  116. Whilwind and Pawnee, _Cheyenne_,                                7

  118-121. Little Robe, _Cheyenne_,                                    6

  122. High Toe, _Cheyenne_,                                           7

  123-124. Groups at Cheyenne Agency,                                  7

  125-126. Pedro Scradalicto, _Apache_,                               26

  127. Es-cha-pa, _Apache_,                                           26

  128-129. Asa-havie, _Comanche_,                                     72

  130-131. Wife of Asa-havie, _Comanche_,                             72

  132-133. Timber Bluff, _Comanche_,                                  72

  134-135. Silver Knife, _Comanche_,                               72-73

  136-137. Wife of Silver Knife, _Comanche_,                          73

  138-140. Gray Leggings, _Comanche_,                                 73

  141-142. Cheevers, _Comanche_,                                      73

  143-144. Wife of Cheevers, _Comanche_,                              73

  145-146. Mother of Cheevers, _Comanche_,                            73

  147-148. Chewing Elk, _Comanche_,                                   73

  149-150. Gap in the Salt, _Comanche_,                               73

  151-152. Daughter of Gap in the Salt, _Comanche_,                   73

  153-154. Ten Bears, _Comanche_,                                     73

  155-156. Buffalo Hump, _Comanche_,                                  74

  157-158. Jim, _Comanche_,                                           74

  159-160. George Washington, _Caddo_,                               101

  161-162. War-loupe, _Caddo_,                                       101

  163-164. Antelope, _Caddo_,                                        101

  165-168. Buffalo Goad, _Wichita_,                                   69

  170-171. Red Thunder, _Dakota_,                                     45

  172-173. Good Hawk, _Dakota_,                                       45

  174-175. Walking Crane, _Dakota_,                                   45

  176-177. Yellow Eagle, _Dakota_,                                    45

  178-179. Comanche drawings,                                         74

  181-182. Black Beaver, _Delaware_,                                  12

  186. Great Bear, _Delaware_,                                        12

  187-190. Long Mandan, _Two Kettle Dakota_,                          43

  191. Spotted Horse, _Two Kettle Dakota_,                            43

  192. Little Short Horn, _Sissiton Dakota_,                          43

  193. Other Day, _Wahpeton Dakota_,                                  43

  194-196. Yellow Hawk, _Sans-Arc Dakota_,                            42

  197-198. Little Crow, _M'dewakanton_,                               38

  199. Medicine Bottle, _M'dewakanton Dakota_,                        33

  200. Sha-kpe, _M'dewakanton Dakota_,                                38

  201-202. The Shooter, _Santee Dakota_,                              42

  203. Red Ensign, _Santee Dakota_,                                   42

  204. Black Lightning, _Santee Dakota_,                              42

  205. Scarlet all over, _Santee Dakota_,                             42

  206. Flute Player, _Santee Dakota_,                                 42

  207. Standing Soldier, _Santee Dakota_,                             42

  208. Walks Following the Eagle, _Santee Dakota_,                    42

  209. Red Ensign, _Santee Dakota_,                                   42

  210. His Man Horse, _Santee Dakota_,                                42

  211. Coming Among the Clouds, _Santee Dakota_,                      42

  212. Blue Bird, _Santee Dakota_,                                    42

  213. Standing Cloud, _Santee Dakota_,                               42

  214. Scarlet Night, _Santee Dakota_,                                42

  215. Red Legs, _Santee Dakota_,                                     42

  216. Seraphin Renville, interpreter, _Santee Dakota_,               43

  217. Struck by the Ree, _Yankton Dakota_,                           43

  218-219. Jumping Thunder, _Yankton Dakota_,                         43

  220. Long Foot, _Yankton Dakota_,                                   43

  221. White Swan, _Yankton Dakota_,                                  43

  222-224. Medicine Cow, _Yankton Dakota_,                            43

  225-228. Two Lance, _Yankton Dakota_,                               43

  229. Feather in the Ear, _Yankton Dakota_,                          43

  230-231. Little Bird, _Yankton Dakota_,                             43

  232-233. Black Eagle, _Yankton Dakota_,                             43

  234. Bear lying down, _Yankton Dakota_,                             43

  235. Running Bull, _Yankton Dakota_,                                43

  236. Walking Elk, _Yankton Dakota_,                                 43

  237. Standing Elk, _Yankton Dakota_,                                43

  238. Smutty Bear, _Yankton Dakota_,                                 43

  239. Struck by the Ree, _Yankton Dakota_,                           43

  240-241. Smutty Bear and Struck by the Ree, _Yankton Dakota_,       43

  244. Yankton war-dance,                                             45

  248. Santee brave,                                                  43

  249. Great Scalper, _Santee_,                                       42

  250. Standing Buffalo, _Santee_,                                    43

  251. Old Betts, _Santee_,                                           43

  252-254. Grass, _Blackfeet Dakota_,                                 34

  255-256. Sitting Crow, _Blackfeet Dakota_,                          34

  257-258. Iron Scare, _Blackfeet Dakota_,                            34

  259. Red Plume, _Blackfeet Dakota_,                                 34

  260-261. Bear's Rib, _Oncpapa Dakota_,                              41

  262-263. Running Antelope, _Oncpapa Dakota_,                    41, 42

  204-265. Iron Horn, _Oncpapa Dakota_,                               42

  266-267. Walking Shooter, _Oncpapa Dakota_,                         42

  268-269. Thunder Hawk, _Oncpapa Dakota_,                            42

  270-271. Big Head, _Upper Yanktonais Dakota_,                       44

  272-273. Black Eye, _Upper Yanktonais Dakota_,                      44

  274-275. Big Razor, _Upper Yanktonais Dakota_,                      44

  276-277. Bull's Ghost, _Lower Yanktonais Dakota_,                   44

  278-279. Foolish Bear, _Lower Yanktonais Dakota_,                   44

  280-281. Two Bears, _Lower Yanktonais Dakota_,                      44

  282-283. Medicine Bear, _Cut Head Dakota_,                          37

  284-285. Afraid of the Bear, _Cut Head Dakota_,                     37

  286-287. Bear's Nose, _Cut Head Dakota_,                            37

  288-289. Skin of the Heart, _Cut Head Dakota_,                      37

  290-291. Red Lodge, _Cut Head Dakota_,                              37

  292-293. Man who packs the Eagle, _Cut Head Dakota_,                37

  294-295. Squaw of the Man who packs the Eagle, _Cut Head Dakota_,   37

  296-297. Red Cloud, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                              38

  298. Red Cloud and Mr. Blackmore, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                40

  299-300. Red Dog, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                                40

  301-302. Lone Wolf, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                              40

  303-304. Ear of Corn, squaw of Lone Wolf, _Ogalalla Dakota_,        40

  305-306. Big Foot, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                               40

  307-308. White Hawk, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                             40

  309-310. Afraid of the Eagle, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                    40

  311-312. Blue Horse, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                             40

  313-314. Stabber, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                                40

  315-316. Dirt Face, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                              40

  317-318. Good Buffalo, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                           40

  319-320. Poor Elk, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                           40, 41

  321-222. Two Elks, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                               41

  323-324. High Wolf, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                              41

  325-326. Coyote, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                                 41

  327-328. Hard Heart, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                             41

  329-330. Slow Bull, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                              41

  331. One Horned Elk, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                             41

  332. Big Rib, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                                    41

  333. War Eagle, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                                  41

  334. Old Man Afraid of his Horses and Chiefs, _Ogalalla Dakota_,    41

  336-337. Spotted Tail, _Brulé Dakota_,                          34, 35

  338. Spotted Tail and squaw, _Brulé Dakota_,                        36

  339-340. Squaw of Spotted Tail, _Brulé Dakota_,                     36

  341-342. Gassy, _Brulé Dakota_,                                     36

  343-344. Whitewash his Face, _Brulé Dakota_,                        36

  345-346. Charge on the Hawk, _Brulé Dakota_,                        36

  347-348. Two Strikes, _Brulé Dakota_,                               36

  349-350. Squaw of Two Strikes, _Brulé Dakota_,                      36

  351-352. Black Crow, _Brulé Dakota_,                                36

  353-354. One who runs the Tiger, _Brulé Dakota_,                    36

  355-356. Bald Eagle, _Brulé Dakota_,                                36

  357-358. Thigh, _Brulé Dakota_,                                     36

  359-360. Squaw of Thigh, _Brulé Dakota_,                            35

  361-362. Black Bull, _Brulé Dakota_,                                36

  363-364. No Flesh, _Brulé Dakota_,                              36, 37

  365-367. Iron Shell, _Brulé Dakota_,                                37

  368-369. Wicked Bear, _Brulé Dakota_,                               37

  370-371. Yellow Hairs, _Brulé Dakota_,                              37

  372-373. White Eyes, _Brulé Dakota_,                                37

  374-375. Swift Bear, _Brulé Dakota_,                                37

  376-377. White Thunder, _Brulé Dakota_,                             37

  378-380. Iron Nation, _Brulé Dakota_,                               37

  382-384. Group of Santees with Mr. Hinman,                          43

  385-386. British, _Iowa_,                                           47

  387. Black Hawk, _Iowa_,                                            48

  388-389. Knife, _Iowa_,                                             47

  390. Little Chief, _Iowa_,                                          47

  391. Deer Ham, _Iowa_,                                              47

  392-394. No Heart, _Iowa_,                                          48

  395. Deer Ham, _Iowa_,                                              47

  396. George Gomez, _Sac and Fox_,                                   18

  397. Little Bear, _Kansas_,                                         48

  398, 399. Ka-ke-ga-sha, _Kansas_,                                   48

  400. Wahcoma, _Sac and Fox_,                                        18

  401. Grey Eyes, _Sac and Fox_,                                      18

  402, 403. Lone Wolf, _Kiowa_,                                       74

  404-406. Squaw of Lone Wolf, _Kiowa_,                               75

  407. Sleeping Wolf, _Kiowa_,                                        75

  408, 409. Son of the Sun, _Kiowa_,                                  75

  410. Drawing by a Kiowa Indian,                                     75

  411, 412. Knee-war-war, _Keechie_,                                  63

  414, 415. José Pocati, _Apache_,                                    26

  416. Moqui delegates,                                              104

  419. Lum-ki-kom, _Miami_,                                           14

  420. Thomas Miller, _Miami_,                                        14

  421. Joe Dick, _Miami_,                                             14

  422, 424. Roubideaux, _Miami_,                                      14

  425. Thomas Richardwell, _Miami_,                                   14

  426. Roubideaux and Richardwell, _Miami_,                           14

  427, 428. Jason, _Nez Percé_,                                       84

  429, 431. Timothy, _Nez Percé_,                                     84

  433, 434. A Nez Percé camp,                                         84

  435, 436. Nez Percé lodges,                                         84

  437. A Nez Percé chief,                                             84

  438. A Nez Percé half-breed,                                        85

  439-441. Views in a Nez Percé camp,                                 85

  442. Guerito, _Apache_,                                             25

  443. A young brave, _Apache_,                                       26

  444. Son of Guerito, _Apache_,                                      26

  445-446. Young braves, _Apache_,                                    26

  447. Pah-yeh, _Apache_,                                             26

  448. A young brave, _Apache_,                                       26

  449. Guachinito, _Apache_,                                          25

  450. A young brave,                                                 26

  451. Kle-zeh, _Apache_,                                             25

  452-555. Navajos,                                                   28

  457, 458. Omaha Indian Agency buildings,                            53

  459, 460. View from Black Bird Hill,                                53

  461, 462. Omaha Indian village,                                     53

  463. Gihiga, _Omaha_,                                               53

  464. Gihiga's lodge, _Omaha_,                                       53

  465, 466. Standing Hawk and squaw, _Omaha_,                         53

  467. Standing at the End, _Omaha_,                                  53

  468. Standing Bent, _Omaha_,                                        53

  469, 470. Betsy, _Omaha_,                                           53

  471. Indian carpenters at work, _Omaha_,                            54

  472-476. Groups of school-children, _Omaha_,                        54

  447. A brave, _Omaha_,                                              54

  478. Eba-hom-ba's lodge, _Omaha_,                                   54

  479. Village scene, _Omaha_,                                        54

  480. Standby it, _Otoe_,                                            56

  481. True Eagle, _Missouria_,                                       51

  482, 483. Medicine Horse, _Otoe_,                                   57

  484-485. One who eats his Food Raw, _Missouria_,                    51

  486. Big Bear, _Missouria_,                                         52

  487. Little Pipe, _Otoe_,                                           57

  488. Little Iowa, _Otoe_,                                           58

  489, 490. Little Pipe, _Otoe_,                                      57

  491. Little Pipe and group, _Otoe_,                                 59

  492-494. Medicine Horse, _Otoe_,                                    57

  495. Buffalo Chief, _Otoe_,                                         58

  496. Medicine Horse, Buffalo Chief, and interpreter, _Otoe_,        59

  497. Baptiste Devoin and Buffalo Chief, _Otoe_,                     58

  498. Black Elk, _Missouria_,                                        52

  499. Medicine Horse and Buffalo Chief, _Otoe_,                      59

  500. Blue Bird and Buck Elk Walking, _Otoe_,                        58

  501. Group of Otoes,                                                59

  502. Medicine Horse, _Otoe_,                                        57

  503. The One They are Afraid of, _Missouria_,                       51

  504. Sucker, _Ottawa_,                                              15

  505. Lightning, _Ottawa_,                                           15

  506. John Wilson, _Ottawa_,                                         15

  507. Passing Through, _Ottawa_,                                     15

  509. The Savage, _Osage_,                                           56

  510. The Distant Land, _Osage_,                                     56

  511. Joseph, _Osage_,                                               55

  512. One who reaches to the Sky, _Osage_,                           56

  513. Saucy Chief, _Osage_,                                          56

  517, 518. Group of four Ponca chiefs,                               59

  519. Iron Whip, _Ponca_,                                            59

  520. Pe-ah and other Ute chiefs,                                    83

  521. Native Ponca drawing,                                          59

  522. Thunder coming down to the Ground, _Pottawatomie_,             16

  523. Pawnee Indian village, _Nebraska_,                             68

  524. Pawnee mud lodge,                                              68

  525-527. Groups of Pawnee school-children,                          69

  528, 529. Groups of Pawnee chiefs and headmen,                  65, 66

  530-532. Peta-lashara, _Pawnee_,                                    65

  533. Eagle Chief, _Pawnee_,                                         65

  534. Sun Chief, _Pawnee_,                                           65

  535. One who brings Herds, _Pawnee_,                                65

  536. Group of Pawnee squaws,                                        69

  537-539. Pawnee school-buildings, _Nebraska_,                       69

  540. Pawnee decorative painting on buffalo-skin,                    69

  541, 542. Pawnee agency buildings,                                  69

  543. One who gives to the Poor, _Pawnee_,                           65

  545. Squaw of One who gives to the Poor, _Pawnee_,                  65

  547. A brave, _Pawnee_,                                             69

  548. Pipe Chief, _Pawnee_,                                          65

  549. A brave, _Pawnee_,                                             69

  550, 551. Group of two Pawnee chiefs,                               66

  552, 553. Group of four Pawnee chiefs,                              66

  554, 555. Baptiste Bahylle, _Pawnee_,                               67

  556, 557. Small Boy, _Pawnee_,                                      67

  558, 559. Blue Hawk and Coming with the Herd, _Pawnee_,             67

  560. Sky Chief, _Pawnee_,                                           67

  561-566. Miscellaneous groups of Pawnees,                           67

  567, 568. Pawnee Indian village,                                    68

  569. Pawnee mud lodge,                                              63

  570, 572. Pawnee pappooses,                                         69

  573, 574. Groups of Pawnee chiefs,                                  69

  575. On a Fine Horse, _Pawnee_,                                     67

  576. Particular as to Time of day, _Pawnee_,                        67

  577. The Sun Coming in, _Pawnee_,                                   67

  578. Behind the One who strikes first, _Pawnee_,                    67

  579. Little Raven, _Pawnee_,                                        67

  580. White Horse, _Pawnee_,                                         67

  581. Rattlesnake, _Pawnee_,                                         67

  582. Fox, _Pawnee_,                                                 67

  583. Acting like a Fox, _Pawnee_,                                   67

  584. Beaver, _Pawnee_,                                              67

  585. Little Raven, _Pawnee_,                                        67

  586. As-sow-weet, _Pawnee_,                                         67

  587, 588. Young braves, _Pawnee_,                                   69

  589. Ter-ra-re-caw-wah, _Pawnee_,                                   67

  590. Long Dog, _Pawnee_,                                            67

  591. An old man, _Pawnee_,                                          67

  592. As-sow-weet and Sawka, _Pawnee_,                               67

  593. Male Calf and On a Fine Horse, _Pawnee_,                       67

  594. Rattlesnake and squaw, _Pawnee_,                               67

  595. In the Front and squaw, _Pawnee_,                              67

  596. Nice Horse, _Pawnee_,                                          67

  597. Good Bear, _Pawnee_,                                           68

  598. Beginning to go to War, _Pawnee_,                              68

  599. Fox on the War-Path, _Pawnee_,                                 68

  600. Crow's Eyes, _Pawnee_,                                         68

  601. Medicine Bull, _Pawnee_,                                       68

  602. One who strikes the Chiefs first, _Pawnee_,                    68

  603. Medicine Eagle, _Pawnee_,                                      68

  604. Driving a Herd, _Pawnee_,                                      68

  605. Medicine Antelope, _Pawnee_,                                   68

  606. Good Buffalo, _Pawnee_,                                        68

  607. Little Raven, _Pawnee_,                                        67

  608. One Seen by All, _Pawnee_,                                     68

  609. On a Fine Horse, _Pawnee_,                                     68

  610. Knee-Mark on the Ground, &c., _Pawnee_,                        68

  611. Bad Man, _Pawnee_,                                             69

  612. Growling Bear, _Pawnee_,                                       69

  613. Pueblo Indian from Taos,                                      107

  614-617. Indian girls and women from the pueblo of Taos,           107

  618. A Pueblo girl,                                                107

  619. A Pueblo man,                                                 107

  620. A Pueblo girl,                                                107

  621, 622. Pueblo men,                                              107

  623-624. Pueblo women,                                             107

  625. A Pueblo man,                                                 107

  626, 627. Pueblo girls,                                            107

  628-642. Views in the Pueblo of Taos, New Mexico,                  107

  643. Ambrosia Abeita, _Pueblo_,                                    106

  644. Alejandro Padillo, _Pueblo_,                                  106

  645, 646. Abeita and Padillo, _Pueblo_,                            106

  647. Ambrosia Abeita, _Pueblo_,                                    106

  648. Alejandro Padillo, _Pueblo_,                                  106

  649. W. F. M. Arny, Pueblo agent, _Pueblo_,                        106

  650-651. Ascencion Rios, _Papago_,                                  91

  652. Es-cha-pa, _Apache_,                                           26

  653, 654. Luig Morague, _Pima_,                                     91

  655, 656. Antonio Azul, _Pima_,                                     91

  657, 658. Shoshone village in South Pass,                           76

  659, 660. War chief's tent, Shoshone village,                       76

  661, 662. Washakie and his warriors, _Shoshone_,                    76

  663, 664. Washakie, _Shoshone_,                                     76

  665, 666. Views in a Shoshone village,                              76

  667-676. Groups and miscellaneous portraits of Shoshones,           77

  677. Keokuk, sr., _Sac and Fox_,                                    17

  678. Keokuk, jr., _Sac and Fox_,                                    17

  679. Charles Keokuk, _Sac and Fox_,                                 17

  680-684. Keokuk, jr., and Charles Keokuk, _Sac and Fox_,            17

  685, 686. Mo-less, _Sac and Fox_,                                   17

  687-688. Sacapee, _Sac and Fox_,                                    17

  689-690. Mo-less and Sacapee, _Sac and Fox_,                        17

  691. George Gomez, _Sac and Fox_,                                   18

  692. Dead Indian, _Sac and Fox_,                                    17

  693. The Sea, _Sac and Fox_,                                        17

  694. Big Bear, _Sac and Fox_,                                       17

  695-699. Mo-ko-ho-ko, _Sac and Fox_,                                18

  700. Mano-to-wa, _Sac and Fox_,                                     18

  701. George Gomez, _Sac and Fox_,                                   18

  705. Keokuk, jr., _Sac and Fox_,                                    17

  706, 707. Group of delegates, _Sac and Fox_,                        18

  708. Sac chief, _Sac and Fox_,                                      18

  709. Group of Sac and Fox chiefs, _Sac and Fox_,                    18

  710. Commissioner and delegates, _Sac and Fox_,                     18

  711. Wa-wa-si-mo, _Shawnee_,                                        19

  712. F. A. Rogers, _Shawnee_,                                       19

  713. Charles Tucker, _Shawnee_,                                     19

  714. Billy Bowlegs, _Seminole_,                                     97

  715. A daughter of General Parker, _Seneca_,                        93

  716. Bertram, _Shawnee_,                                            19

  717. Black Buffalo, _Arickaree_,                                    63

  718. Long Knife, _Arickaree_,                                       63

  725. Light Foot, _Yankton Dakota_,                                  43

  732, 733. Many Horns, _Dakota_,                                     45

  734, 735. Black Eye, _Dakota_,                                      45

  736, 737. Long Fox, _Dakota_,                                       45

  738, 739. Dave, _Tawacanie_,                                       107

  740, 741. Caw-hac-its-ca, _Tawacanie_,                             107

  742, 743. Long Soldier, _Waco_,                                     69

  744, 745. Assadawa, _Wichita_,                                      69

  746, 747. Esquitzchew, _Wichita_,                                   69

  748. Black Horse, _Wichita_,                                        69

  749, 750. Charlie Arriwawa, _Apache_,                               26

  751. Tapuche, _Utah_,                                               80

  752. Mautchick, _Utah_,                                             80

  753. Guerito, _Apache_,                                             25

  754. Co-ho, _Utah_,                                                 80

  755. Utah-Arapaho,                                                 101

  756-758. Antero, _Utah_,                                            80

  759, 760. Wa-ne-ro, _Utah_,                                         80

  761, 762. Tabiyuna, _Utah_,                                         80

  763, 764. Ko-mus, _Utah_,                                           80

  765-767. Ouray, _Utah_,                                             78

  768. Guero, _Utah_,                                                 79

  769. John, _Utah_,                                                  80

  770. Kwa-ko-nut and Mose, _Utah_,                                   81

  771. Cu-ra-can-te, _Utah_,                                          81

  772, 773. Shavano, _Utah_,                                          79

  774. Wa-rets and Shavano, _Utah_,                                   81

  775. Group of Ouray and chiefs, _Utah_,                             81

  776. Group of chiefs, _Utah_,                                       81

  777. Shuriap, _Utah_,                                               81

  778. Chippin, _Utah_,                                               81

  779. Little Soldier, _Utah_,                                        81

  780. Squaw of Little Soldier, _Utah_,                               82

  781. Shavano, _Utah_,                                               79

  782. Lovo, _Utah_,                                                  82

  783. Rainbow, _Utah_,                                               82

  784. Nick-a-a-god, _Utah_,                                          82

  785. Pe-ah, _Utah_,                                                 82

  786. Barban-cito, _Navajo_,                                         28

  787. Sappix and son, _Utah_,                                        83

  788. Chu, _Utah_,                                                   83

  789. Kanosh, _Utah_,                                                83

  790-796. Miscellaneous groups, _Utah_,                              83

  797, 798. Bloody Mouth, _Oncpapa Dakota_,                           42

  799, 800. Lost Medicine, _Oncpapa Dakota_,                          42

  801, 802. Black-Horn, _Oncpapa Dakota_,                             42

  803, 804. Bull-Rushes, _Oncpapa Dakota_,                            42

  805. Group of Fox chiefs,                                           18

  806. Commissioner Bogy reading treaty,                              18

  808. Group of Winnebagoes,                                          61

  809-811. Winnebago children,                                        61

  812. Wife of Martin Van Buren, _Winnebago_,                         61

  813. Winnebago children,                                            61

  814. Blue Cloud Passing, _Winnebago_,                               61

  815. General Sherman and Indian commissioners at
       Fort Laramie, 1868,                                            45

  816. Commissioners in council at Laramie,                           45

  817. Old Man Afraid, and group,                                     45

  818-830. Miscellaneous groups about Laramie,                        45

  831. Sioux burial,                                                  46

  832-5. Groups about Larami,                                         46

  838. Sioux delegation at the White House,                           46

  839-811. Saint Mary's Mission, Kansas, (Pottawatomie school),       46

  845. The sergeant of the guard,                                     46

  851. Little Shell and chiefs, _Chippewas_,                           9

  852. Moses Ladd, _Menominee_,                                       13

  853. Eskiminzin, _Apache_,                                          23

  854. Eskiminzin and squaw, _Apache_,                                23

  855. Cassadora, _Apache_,                                           23

  856. Cassadora and squaw, _Apache_,                                 23

  857. Eskinilay, _Apache_,                                           24

  858. Eskinilay and squaw, _Apache_,                                 23

  859. Group of Crow delegates,                                       30

  860. Chiquito, _Apache_,                                            23

  861. Chiquito and squaw, _Apache_,                                  23

  862. Saygully, _Apache_,                                            23

  863. Eskayela, _Apache_,                                            24

  864. Skellegunny, _Apache_,                                         24

  865. Cullah, _Apache_,                                              24

  866. Hautushnehay, _Apache_,                                        24

  867. Napashgingush, _Apache_,                                       24

  868. Cushashado, _Apache_,                                          24

  869. Pinal, _Apache_,                                               24

  870. Passelah, _Apache_,                                            24

  871. Marijildo Grijalva, interpreter,                               24

  872, 873. Group of Apache delegates,                                26

  874. Little Big Man, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                             41

  875. Young Man Afraid of his Horses, _Ogalalla Dakota_,             41

  876. American Horse, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                             41

  877. Little Wound, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                               41

  878. He Dog, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                                     41

  879. Yellow Bear, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                                41

  880. Three Bears, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                                41

  881. Sword, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                                      41

  882. Garnet, interpreter, _Ogalalla Dakota_,                        41

  883. Group, including Nos. 874-882, _Ogalalla Dakota_,              41

  884. Charles Papinea, interpreter for Mandans,                      50

  885. Yellow Smoke, _Omaha_,                                         53

  886. Black Dog, _Osage_,                                            55

  887. Group of chiefs, _Osage_,                                      55

  888. Joseph and Black Dog, _Osage_,                                 56

  889. Joseph, Black Dog, and others, _Osage_,                        56

  890. Iron Black Bird, _Yankton Dakota_,                             43

  891. Flying Pipe, _Yankton Dakota_,                                 43

  892. Little Thunder, _Yankton Dakota_,                              44

  893. Sacred Ball, _Yankton Dakota_,                                 44

  894. Flying Bird, _Yankton Dakota_,                                 44

  895. Chief with Big War Bonnet, _Yankton Dakota_,                   45

  896. He Kills First, _Yankton Dakota_,                              44

  897. Sacred Ghost, _Yankton Dakota_,                                44

  898, 899. Bear with a Big Voice, _Yankton Dakota_,                  44

  900. Pretty Rock, _Yankton Dakota_,                                 44

  901. One who Catches the Enemy, _Yankton Dakota_,                   44

  902. One who Walks Home, _Yankton Dakota_,                          44

  903. Bear that Walks Lying Down, _Yankton Dakota_,                  44

  904, 905. The Bear that Tarns Around, _Yankton Dakota_,             44

  906, 907. Long Foot, _Yankton Dakota_,                              43

  908. Medicine Bull, _Yankton Dakota_,                               44

  909-912. Bird Chief, _Arapaho_,                                    100

  916. Maza-o-zau-zan, _Dakota_,                                      45

  917. Iron Elk, _Dakota_,                                            45

  920. Goose, _Blackfeet Dakota_,                                     34

  921. Iowa chief,                                                    48

  922. Group of Iowas,                                                48

  923. Red Owl, _Dakota_,                                             45

  925. Cut Nose, _Dakota_,                                            45

  927. Iron Shooter, _Dakota_,                                        45

  931. Tall Feather Joining, _Dakota_,                                45

  932. Medicine Bottle, _Dakota_,                                     45

  933. Plenty, _Dakota_,                                              45

  935. Colorado, _Utah_,                                              83

  936, 937. Choctaw boys,                                             98

  938, 939. Choctaw girls,                                            98

  940. Blackfoot and squaw, _Crow_,                                   30

  941. Iron Bull and squaw, _Crow_,                                   30

  942. Bear Wolf and squaw, _Crow_,                                   30

  943. Old Crow and squaw, _Crow_,                                    30

  944. Blackfoot, Long Horse, and White Calf, _Crow_,                 30

  945. Mo-mukh-pi-tche, Thin Belly, and The One that Leads
       the Old Dog, _Crow_,                                           30

  946. Blackfoot, _Crow_,                                             30

  947. He Shows his Face, _Crow_,                                     30

  948. Old Onion, _Crow_,                                             30

  949. Group of chiefs, _Crow_,                                       30

  950. Group of squaws, _Crow_,                                       31

  951. Inside view of a Crow lodge,                                   31

  952. Crow village, (adobe houses),                                  31

  953. The Old Mission, or Crow Agency,                               31

  954. Crow burial,                                                   31

  955-959. Encampment of Ute Indians, near Denver,                    83

  960-963. Ute Indians in camp at Los Pinos,                          83

  965-974. Miscellaneous groups of Ute Indians,                       83

  975-976. Wal-aiks-ski-dat, _Klamath_,                               87

  977. Yum-nis-poc-tis, _Klamath_,                                    87

  978. Ol-ha-the, _Rogue River_,                                      90

  979. Myron Silverheels, _Seneca_,                                   93

  980. Group of Senecas,                                              93

  981. Mathew Mudeater, _Wyandot_,                                    94

  982. Nicholas Cotter, _Wyandot_,                                    94

  983. Num-payu, _Moqui_,                                            103

  984-985. Friday, _Arapaho_,                                        100

  986. Street view in Tewa, _Moqui Pueblos_,                         104

  988. View of Gualpi, _Moqui Pueblos_,                              104

  991. View in Shepaulave, _Moqui Pueblos_,                          104

  992. Group of Pueblo governors,                                    106

  993. Ka-lek, or Oligario, _Temicula_,                              107

  994. Andrew Magrand, _Temicula_,                                   107

  995. John Clift, _Temicula_,                                       107

  1001. Little Shell, _Chippewa_,                                      9

  1002. Little Bull, _Chippewa_,                                       9

  1003. Something Blown up by the Wind, _Chippewa_,                    9

  1004. The Man who Knows how to Hunt, _Chippewa_,                     9

  1005. Lance, _Mandan_,                                              50

  1006. Bushing War Eagle, _Mandan_,                                  50

  1007. Running Face, _Mandan_,                                       50

  1008. Scar-faced Charley, _Modoc_,                                  88

  1009. Shack-nasty Jim, _Modoc_,                                     88

  1010. Steamboat Frank, _Modoc_,                                     88

  1011. Win-ne-ma, _Modoc_,                                           89

  1015. Antonio Josè Atencio, _Pueblo_,                              106

  1016. Antonio al Churleta, _Pueblo_,                               106

  1017. Juan Jesus Leo, _Pueblo_,                                    106

  1018. Group of Atencio, Churleta, and Leo, _Pueblo_,               106

  1019. Téwa, _Moqui Pueblos_,                                       104

  1020. House of the Capitan of Tewa, _Moqui Pueblos_,               104

  1021. Gualpi, _Moqui Pueblos_,                                     104

  1022. Shepaulave, _Moqui Pueblos_,                                 104

  1023. Moo-sha-na-ve, _Moqui Pueblos_,                              104

  1024. She-mo-pa-ve, _Moqui Pueblos_,                               104

  1025. House of the Capitan, She-mo-pa-ve, _Moqui Pueblos_,         104

  1027. Manulito, _Navajo_,                                           27

  1028. Juanita, _Navajo_,                                            27

  1029. Manulito Segundo, _Navajo_,                                   27

  1030. Cayatanito, _Navajo_,                                         27

  1031. Barbas Hueros, _Navajo_,                                      27

  1032. Cabra Negra, _Navajo_,                                        27

  1033. Narbona Primero, _Navajo_,                                    28

  1034. Carnero Mucho, _Navajo_,                                      28

  1035. Granada Mucho, Tienne-su-se, and Mariano, _Navajo_,           28

  1038. Juanita and Governor Arny,                                    28

  1039. Frank King, _Ottawa_,                                         15

  1040. Joseph King, _Ottawa_,                                        15

  1041. L. S. Dagnet, _Ottawa_,                                       15

  1042. Rushing War Eagle, _Arickaree_,                               63

  1043. Black Fox, _Arickaree_,                                       63

  1044. Bull Head, _Arickaree_,                                       63

  1045. Harrison Halftown, _Seneca_,                                  92

  1046. Samuel Jimson, _Seneca_,                                      93

  1047. John Irving, _Seneca_,                                        93

  1048. Caster Red Eye, _Seneca_,                                     92

  1049. J. C. W. Adams, _Stockbridge_,                                20

  1050. Jacob Jacobs, _Stockbridge_,                                  20

  1054. Ke-hey-a-kin, _Warm Spring_,                                  85

  1055. Oscar Mark, _Wasco_,                                          86

  1056. Ske-metze, _Warm Spring_,                                     85

  1057. Semeo, _Warm Spring_,                                         86

  1058. Cappolas, _Warm Spring_,                                      85

  1059. Wayatatkin, _Warm Spring_,                                    85

  1060. Stat-tla-ka, _Wasco_,                                         86

  1061. Shaka, _Warm Spring_,                                         85

  1662. Kle-mat-chosny, _Wasco_,                                      86

  1063. Histo, _Warm Spring_,                                         85

  1064. Chin-chin-wet, _Warm Spring_,                                 86

  1065. Lyman P. Fowler, _Brotherton_,                                20

  1068. Sour Spittle, _Chippewa_,                                      9

  1069. Bad Boy, _Chippewa_,                                          10

  1070. The Boy, _Chippewa_,                                          10

  1071. Auguste, _Chippewa_,                                          10

  1072. Moose's Dung, _Chippewa_,                                     10

  1073. Something in the air falling, _Chippewa_,                     10

  1074. The son of Essiniwub, _Chippewa_,                             11

  1075. Something beginning to sail off, _Chippewa_,                  11

  1076. A yellow-haired one sailing along, _Chippewa_,                11

  1077. Like a Bird, _Chippewa_,                                      11

  1080. John M. St. Cyr, _Winnebago_,                                 61



ADDENDUM.


_List of negatives taken during the printing of the catalogue._

  1081. HDE-DÁ-SKA. _White Eagle._                                PONCA.

    Head chief. Age, 41 years; height, 6 feet 2 inches; circumference of
    head, 22-1/4 inches; circumference of chest, 38-1/2 inches.

  1082. TA-TÁU-KA-NÚ-ZHE. _Standing Buffalo._                     PONCA.

    Age, 44 years; height, 5 feet 11-1/2 inches; circumference of head,
    23 inches, circumference of chest, 42-1/2 inches.

  1083. MA-CHÚ-NÚ-ZHE. _Standing Bear._                           PONCA.

    Age, 51 years; height, 5 feet 10-1/4 inches; circumference of head,
    23 inches; circumference of chest, 40 inches.

  1084. ÚMP-PA-TONGA. _Big Elk._                                  PONCA.

    Age, 36 years; height, 5 feet 9-3/4 inches; circumference of head,
    23 inches; circumference of chest, 40 inches.

  1085. KHÁ-KA-SÁPA. _Black Crow._                                PONCA.

    Age, 52 years; height, 5 feet 8-1/2 inches; circumference of head,
    22-1/2 inches; circumference of chest, 39-1/2 inches.

  1086. MA-GÁ-SKA. _White Swan._                                  PONCA.

    Age, 51 years; height, 5 feet 8 inches; circumference of head,
    22-1/2 inches; circumference of chest, 39 inches.

  1087. GI-HE-GA. _Big Chief._                                    PONCA.

    Age, 41 years; height, 5 feet 10-1/2 inches; circumference of head,
    23-1/2 inches; circumference of chest, 40 inches.

  1088. SHÚ-DA-GÁ-KA. _Smoke Maker._                              PONCA.

    Age, 51 years; height, 5 feet 9-3/8 inches; circumference of head,
    23-1/2 inches; circumference of chest, 42-1/2 inches.

  1089. MA-CHÚ-HINKTH-TÁ. _Hairy Bear._                           PONCA.

    Age, 40 years; height, 5 feet 11-3/4 inches; circumference of head,
    23-1/2 inches; circumference of chest, 38-1/2 inches.

  1090. WASE-Á-TOÚGA. _Big Snake._                                PONCA.

    Age, 45 years; height, 6 feet 1-1/4 inches; circumference of head,
    24-1/2 inches; circumference of chest, 43 inches.

  1091. CHARLES LE CLAIR. _Interpreter._
  French and Ponca half-breed.

  1092. BAPTISTE BUMABY. _Interpreter._

    Mother an Iowa and father an Otoe.

  1093. GROUP of four chiefs and two interpreters of the Ponca
          delegation.

  1094. GROUP of all the members of the Ponca delegation in Washington,
          November 14, 1877.

       *       *       *       *       *

TRANSCRIBER NOTES

    Punctuation has been corrected without note.

    Obvious typographical errors have been corrected without note.

    Inconsistent spelling of the same word in the original, with the
    exception of hyphens, has been retained except as listed below.

    Page iii: "measurememts" changed to "measurements" (photographs,
    measurements or other details).

    Page 11: "cultivate" changed to "cultivates" (while his family
    cultivates corn and potatoes).

    Page 22: "Miembro" changed to "Miembre" in listing of names for
    consistent spelling.

    Page 24: "Napasgingush" changed to "Napashgingush" for consistency.

    Page 51: "Ah-he-cho-ka-thocka" changed to "Ah-ho-che-ka-thocka" (At
    his (Ah-ho-che-ka-thocka's) death) for consistent spelling.

    Page 56: "callling" changed to "calling" (The Otoes, calling
    themselves).

    Page 57: "Hic-a-poo" changed to "Hick-a-poo" (and after the death of
    Hick-a-poo).

    Page 59: "Babtiste" changed to "Baptiste" (Baptiste Devoin).

    Page 61: "anually" changed to "annually" (are now elected annually).

    Page 78: "aboat" changed to "about" (consented to the sale of
    about).

    Page 101: "Tawaconies" changed to "Tawacanies" (Keechies,
    Tawacanies, Ionies).

    Page 101: The last sentence in the paragraph about the Caddos does
    not have an ending in the original book. The reservation was located
    between the Washita and Canadian Rivers.

    Page 116: "Ter-rer-e-caw-wah" changed to "Ter-ra-re-caw-wah" for
    consistency.





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