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Title: A Racial Study of the Fijians
Author: Gabel, Norman E.
Language: English
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[Illustration: Simplified map of Fiji showing four regional divisions of
population made by the author.]

  A RACIAL STUDY OF THE FIJIANS

    BY
  NORMAN E. GABEL

  ANTHROPOLOGICAL RECORDS

  Vol. 20, No. I

  UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

  ANTHROPOLOGICAL RECORDS

  Editors: C. W. Meighan, Harry Hoijer. Eshref Shevky
  Volume 20, No. 1. pp. 1-44, plates 1-15

  Submitted by editors April 11, 1957
  Issued March 27, 1958
  Price. $1.00

  University of California Press
  Berkeley and Los Angeles
  California

  Cambridge University Press
  London, England

  Manufactured in the United States of America



CONTENTS


                                 _Page_
  Introduction                        1
    The problem and procedure         1
    The habitat                       2
    History                           3
    Population                        3
    Racial background                 4
    Acknowledgments                   4

  Measurements and indices            5
    General                           5
      Weight                          5
      Stature                         5
      Span                            5
      Span-stature index              5
    The trunk                         5
      Sitting height                  5
      Relative sitting height         5
      Biacromial                      6
      Relative shoulder breadth       6
      Bi-iliac                        6
      Shoulder-hip                    6
      Chest breadth                   6
      Chest depth                     6
      Thoracic                        6
    Arms and legs                     6
      Arm length                      6
      Humeral length                  6
      Radial length                   7
      Radial-humeral                  7
      Leg length                      7
      Tibial length                   7
      Calf circumference              7
    The head                          7
      Head circumference              7
      Head length                     7
      Head breadth                    7
      Cephalic index                  7
      Head height                     8
      Length-height                   8
      Breadth-height                  8
      Cranial module                  8
      Minimum frontal                 8
      Fronto-parietal                 8
    The face                          8
      Bizygomatic                     8
      Cephalo-facial                  9
      Zygo-frontal                    9
      Total face height               9
      Total facial index              9
      Upper face height               9
      Upper facial index              9
      Bigonial                        9
      Fronto-gonial                   9
      Zygo-gonial                    10
      Nasal height                   10
      Nasal breadth                  10
      Nasal index                    10
      Nasal depth                    10
      Nasal-depth index              10
      Mouth breadth                  10
      Lip thickness                  10
      Ear length                     10
      Ear breadth                    11
      Ear index                      11
      Bicanine breadth               11

  Morphological observations         12
    Pigmentation                     12
      Skin color: exposed            12
      Skin color: unexposed          12
      Hair color                     13
      Eye color                      13
    Hair                             13
      Hair form                      13
      Hair texture                   14
      Head hair quantity             14
      Hair length                    14
      Baldness                       14
      Beard quantity                 14
      Body hair                      15
      Grayness: head                 15
      Grayness: beard                16
    The face                         16
      Prognathism: total             16
      Prognathism: mid-facial        16
      Prognathism: alveolar          16
      Malar projection: lateral      16
      Malar projection: frontal      16
      Gonial angles                  16
      Palate shape                   16
      Chin prominence                17
      Chin type                      17
    The head                         17
      Temporal fullness              17
      Occipital protrusion           17
      Lambdoidal flattening          17
      Occipital flattening           17
      Median sagittal crest          17
      Parietal bosses                17
      Cranial asymmetry              17
      Facial asymmetry               18
    Eyes                             18
      Eye folds: external            18
      Eye fold: median               18
      Eye folds: internal            18
      Eye obliquity                  18
      Eye opening                    18
    Forehead                         18
      Brow ridges                    18
      Forehead height                19
      Forehead slope                 19
    Nose                             19
      Nasion depression              19
      Root height                    19
      Root breadth                   19
      Nasal septum                   19
      Bridge height                  19
      Bridge breadth                 19
      Nasal profile                  19
      Nasal-tip thickness            20
      Nasal-tip inclination          20
      Nasal wings                    20
    Mouth                            20
      Lip thickness: membranous      20
      Lip thickness: integumental    20
      Lip eversion                   20
      Lip seam                       20
    Teeth                            21
      Bite                           21
      Caries                         21
      Crowding                       21
      Tooth eruption                 21
      Wear                           21
    Ears                             21
      Ear helix                      21
      Darwin's point                 21
      Ear-lobe type                  22
      Ear-lobe size                  22
      Ear protrusion                 22
      Ear slant                      22
    Body build                       22
      Body build: endomorph          22
      Body build: mesomorph          22
      Body build: ectomorph          22
    Summary                          23

  Conclusions                        25

  Literature cited                   26

  Plates                             27


MAP

  Simplified map of Fiji showing four regional divisions of population
  made by the author ... frontispiece



A RACIAL STUDY OF THE FIJIANS
BY
NORMAN E. GABEL



INTRODUCTION

This paper concerns itself with a physical survey of the native male
population of Fiji. The main objective is a description of these people
by means of anthropometric procedure.[1] The treatment includes, first,
a description of the Fijians as a whole, second, a comparison with
neighboring people, and third, regional differences among the Fijians
themselves.


THE PROBLEM AND PROCEDURE

The data used in this survey were secured in 1954 during a stay of seven
months in Fiji. My plan was to obtain anthropometric samples from
several parts of the archipelago; this plan was only slightly altered as
time and transportation facilities directed. Each of the three main
administrative districts into which the islands are divided were visited
and within each district samples were secured from most of the
constituent provinces. The original sample consisted of 880 subjects.
Later, 65 subjects were excluded for various reasons: some were part
Samoan or Tongan, a few were Rotumans, and others were immature. The
number finally used stands at 815.

A limited amount of comparative material has been included in order to
help locate the Fijians in the overall Pacific picture. These data were
drawn from W. W. Howells, "Anthropometry and Blood Types in Fiji and the
Solomon Islands" in The American Museum of Natural History,
Anthropological Papers, volume 33, part 4, 1933, and from L. R.
Sullivan, "A Contribution to Tongan Somatology" based on the field
studies of E. W. Gifford and W. C. McKern, in Memoires of the Bernice P.
Bishop Museum, volume 8, number 4, 1922. The latter report provides
comparison with what may be termed western Polynesians who are also the
nearest Polynesians to the Fijians. The Fijian data in Howell's paper
make it possible for me to check some of my own Fijian material, and the
Solomon Island data in the same report provide a Melanesian measuring
stick.

Since an over-all description of the Fijians is the initial concern of
this paper, each physical trait measured or derived from measurement is
tabulated according to range, average, and deviation. Traits observed
but not measured are presented according to degree of development, e.g.,
absent, medium, and pronounced, and according to percentage of
occurrence. Further statistical manipulation is not deemed necessary for
the writer's purposes.

It is well established that the Fijians are a mixed people. They are
regarded, and with good reason, as a hybrid of, mainly, Melanesian and
Polynesian components. Their geographical location, their history, and
their physical appearance bear this out.

The proportions of Polynesian and Melanesian elements are, of course,
not evenly distributed throughout Fiji. Even superficial observation
indicates that the natives range from strongly Melanesian to markedly
Polynesian. To demonstrate how this variability follows certain regional
trends, the data have been broken down into four geographical areas.
This subdivision rests on several considerations and merits further
comment.

One of the subgroups represents the people of the mountainous interior
of Viti Levu, the main island of Fiji (see accompanying map). This
region may be regarded as something of a refuge area. Fijians from this
relatively isolated locality might reasonably be expected to exhibit
more of the earlier racial elements of the total composition. It should
be pointed out, however, that the degree of isolation associated with
this; interior; group is not extreme. Fiji tradition and history
indicate extensive interregional movement. Particularly in early
historic times, when the advent of firearms and other Western culture
greatly stimulated intergroup warfare and cannibalism, there was much
moving about from one region to another. With all this, the interior
people still remained, as indeed they are today, more apart from the
rest of the population and less subject to outside influence.

The second segment chosen for interregional comparison is in the central
Lau Islands and is designated in this paper as the "eastern" group.
Lying as they do, at the eastern end of Fiji, they are closest to Tonga,
the nearest Polynesian neighbors. Tongan contact with Fiji in
prehistoric as well as more recent times is well established.[2] It is
in the Lau Islands that Polynesian cultural affinities are most marked.
Hence, it seems a logical choice for a second and separate glance in the
racial history.

The third comparative sample might be termed an intermediate group. It
is taken from the coastal villages of eastern Viti Levu, largely from
the provinces of Rewa and Tailevu. This area is geographically between
the "interior" and "eastern" groups and is referred to in this paper as
the "coastal" group.

The final regional division represents the northwestern parts of Viti
Levu. This is the place where, according to Fiji tradition, their
ancestors first landed after migrating from the west.[3] Fijian legend,
which gives this hint of their ancestry, does not include a physical
description of these immigrants. Nor does it define the physical
appearance of the earlier people whom the newcomers encountered and with
whom they mingled. On the rather slim hope that anthropometry might shed
a little light on this questionable phase of Fijian history, this area,
along with the first three, has received separate treatment.


THE HABITAT

The islands of Fiji are centrally located in the southwest Pacific. Over
three hundred islands and islets make up the archipelago, which spreads
between latitudes 15' and 22' south of the equator for 300 miles. The
international date line runs through Fiji at the Koro Sea and the Moala
Island group.

The total land area of the islands is about the equivalent of the state
of Delaware, somewhat over 7,000 square miles. Two great islands account
for nearly 95 per cent of the total area: Viti Levu, the largest, is
over 4,000 square miles, and Vanua Levu, about half as large. Over 90
per cent of the native population lives on these two islands although
nearly a hundred other islands are inhabited.

Most of the islands are made up of volcanic and sedimentary rocks. The
largest islands rest on a submerged portion of an ancient land mass,
sometimes called the Melanesian continent, which goes back in time to
the Paleozoic and, in its prime, intermittently connected Fiji with
southeastern Asia and Australia. Subsequent submergence, followed by
cycles of volcanic upbuilding, erosion, and more submergence over eons
of time, gave the big islands their upper foundations. The last
extensive volcanic activity and land uplift occurred in the Pleistocene
and accounts for many of the present mountain masses. The final touches
to the Fiji profile have been wrought by more recent weathering and
erosion. Sedimentation is still going on at river mouths and along the
coasts, where deltas are being built and mangrove thickets flourish.

Many of the smaller islands are old limestone masses that were pushed up
from the sea. Unlike the high craggy volcanic islands, these are lower
and flat-topped. Typically, they contain a basin-shaped depressed area
that is surrounded by a rim. These depressions are usually fertile and
heavily forested.

Coral islands make up the third variety of land forms. These are always
small and low. Their small size, thinner soil, and lack of fresh water
make them much less suitable for human habitation. But even a thin layer
of soil produces a luxurious vegetation.

Fringing and barrier reefs are abundant throughout the archipelago,
surrounding nearly every island. The most striking of these formations
is the Great Sea Reef, which forms an arc of nearly 300 miles along the
western fringe of Fiji and encloses large areas of coral-infested sea.

Moderately high mountains give to the larger islands a generally rugged
terrain. The more extensive ranges lie across the path of the prevailing
south and easterly winds producing windward and leeward climatic areas.
On the windward side rainfall is heavy and rather evenly distributed
over the year. Here the valleys and mountain slopes support a typical
dense tropical growth. The leeward side, however, receives much less
moisture and has wet and dry seasons. Scattered patches of trees and
grasses cover the ground, whereas heavy stands of forest are confined to
valley bottoms and higher mountain slopes. The mountainous interior of
Viti Levu contains a number of peaks over 3,000 feet, the highest of
which is Mt. Victoria, 4,341 feet.

Surface water is abundant on the bigger islands. Several large and
navigable rivers drain Viti Levu and Vanua Levu. The Rewa River, on the
east side of Viti Levu is the largest and is navigable for small craft
for 70 miles. Smaller rivers and hundreds of streams are important
sources of food and drink for the people of the interior.

Great flood plains are formed at the mouths of the larger rivers. These
and the fertile flats that run back along the valleys contain the
greatest population densities.

The climate is generally pleasant and healthful. Tropical extremes of
heat and humidity are moderated by the prevailing trades, which usually
supply cool and pleasant breezes from the east. Still, days of
uncomfortable heat and oppressive humidity are not unknown; however,
such periods are protracted only in the interior. The climate is far
from uniform throughout the islands. The windward sides, where rainfall
often exceeds a hundred inches, have a more even temperature and
sunshine is more moderate. On the leeward sides there is less general
cloudiness and more sunshine, especially during the dry season. The
smaller islands generally resemble the leeward areas in climate.

Native plant and animal life, like much of the southwest Pacific, is
southeastern Asiatic in type and in origin. In the more profuse and
varied windward sides there are several general vegetation zones. Along
the coasts and in the larger river basins occur alluvial vegetation
largely dominated by several kinds of mangrove, which is densest in mud
flats washed by the tide. In this zone trees are scattered, and many of
them bear useful nuts and fruits. On the slopes and ridges behind the
coastal belts are the great tropical rain forests. They make up a dense
cover of evergreen trees interwoven with wild creepers and vines. Thick
stands of shrubs and smaller trees add to the tropical profusion. Above
2,000 feet the forests thin out and become more heavily coated with moss
and lichens, and ferns and orchids attach themselves to the branches.
Beyond 3,000 feet is the cloud belt, and above this trees become stunted
and are finally replaced by hardy shrubs that cling to the rocks and
crags.

On the leeward sides, patches of rain forest are found only in the
moister areas. More typical of this zone are thin-leaved trees
interspersed in large expanses of meadow and grassland.

A number of native plants are very vital to the Fijian livelihood and
some have modern economic importance. Several timber trees are essential
to house building, canoe construction, and wood carving. The ubiquitous
palms, here as elsewhere in the Pacific, are vital sources of food,
drink, building, and weaving materials and cordage. The mangrove
provides firewood, house poles, fishing fences, and traps, laths for
bows and black dye for their hair and tapa. Valuable starch is secured
from the sago palm, which is cut just before flowering, and the leaves
are a common thatching material. Various reeds, canes, and bamboos and
lianas are useful to Fiji economy. In the drier areas reeds and grasses
provide material for house walls, thatch, fish fences, and arrow shafts.
Several kinds of trees yield edible nuts and fruits.

Like other central-Pacific island groups, Fiji is poorly provided with
indigenous mammals. A small gray rat is a considerable pest in gardens
and homes, and a large nocturnal bat, which is called a flying fox,
lives in tree colonies and is often seen at dusk in banana groves or
other feeding places. All the economically important animals of Fiji
have been introduced, such as pigs, fowl, dogs, cattle, horses, sheep,
and goats.

Bird life is diverse and interesting, although in a number of places
introduced forms, like mynahs and turtle doves, have forced the native
varieties back into the jungle. Several game birds such as doves,
pigeons, and ducks are occasionally hunted.

Snakes and lizards are fairly common on the islands; none is poisonous.
Some are eaten, but the practice is not usual. Snakes had a more
important place in the former religious and totemic practices.

Much more vital to the native economy is the abundant and varied marine
life. This, with gardening, provides the foundation of Fijian
subsistence. Turtles, crabs, prawns, eels, to say nothing of scores of
fishes, are hunted, trapped, poisoned, speared, and netted. The cycle of
the balolo worm has here the same importance as in other Pacific
islands.


HISTORY

The first western contact with Fiji was made in 1643 when Captain Abel
Tasman entered Fijian waters and sighted several islands and reefs
without realizing the nature of his discovery. Over a hundred years
later, Captain Cook made a second contact by stopping at one of the
southern Lau Islands. Real knowledge of the area began in 1792 when
Captain Bligh sailed through the archipelago from the southeast to the
northwest, following the famous mutiny of the _Bounty_. Bligh made an
attempt to land, was attacked by natives, and continued through the
islands with no more landings. He did, however, make a record of most of
the islands he passed.

In the nineteenth century, commercial contacts began in the form of
sandalwood trade. This profitable commodity brought Europeans and
Americans first to the Sandalwood Coast on the west side of Vanua Levu.
During this period the first systematic survey of Fijian waters was
made by the U.S. Exploring Expedition in 1840. After little more
than a decade the sandalwood supply was depleted to the point where
trade virtually ceased.

As a result of this initial commercial contact, which was mainly around
western Vanua Levu and eastern Viti Levu, some marked changes were
effected in Fijian culture. After the sandalwood traders abandoned Fiji
for more profitable fields, a number of deserters and ship-wrecked men
remained. These beachcombers, along with firearms that had been
introduced by trade or salvaged from wrecks, brought about the first
striking alterations. Rival chiefs competed for the acquisition of
muskets, gunpowder, and beachcombers. The latter in some instances
became attached to royal households as dubious advisors and instructors
in the use of guns, powder, and shot. Some of these coaches enjoyed a
status resembling that of household pets.

The introduction of firearms changed the native political scene and
increased the scope and destructiveness of warfare. For a time the
rulers of Mbau in eastern Viti nearly monopolized the supply of muskets
and white men. This established their political supremacy over rival
leaders. Larger and stronger political and military alliances, some
resembling small kingdoms, developed for purposes of defense or
aggression. As warfare grew more frequent, new diseases entered the
islands and trade in liquor advanced.

After the third decade of the nineteenth century better elements began
to enter Fiji and ensuing culture contact was not so consistently
deplorable. _Bêche-de-mer_ traders and whalers began to visit the islands
for trade goods and supplies. Some began to settle at the east end of
Viti Levu. Missionaries came in the 1830's and the Christianization of
Fiji began.

Internal conflict between rival chiefs, attacks on French, British, and
American ships, with subsequent reprisals, continued and intensified. By
mid-century, rivalry between the local kingdoms of Mbau and Rewa reached
a peak. At this time the powerful ruler of Mbau, Thakombau, who
dominated a large segment of eastern Viti Levu, had become hard pressed
by his Rewa enemies. Thakombau submitted to the missionaries who had
been pressing his conversion. With his support of the missionaries, the
native struggles became a religious war between Christianity and
paganism as well as between nativism and westernism. Thakombau's cause
was rescued in 1855 when King George of Tonga brought an army of 2,000
warriors to Fiji and combined his strength with that of the kingdom of
Mbau. Thenceforth Thakombau remained the paramount chief in eastern Fiji
and for some twenty ensuing years ruled under the dominance of Tongan
princes. Another Tongan chief, Ma'afu, arrived in 1848 and set up a
political domain that rivaled the kingdom of Thakombau.

Throughout these struggles and particularly with the conversion of
Thakombau and the leadership of the already Christianized Tongan chiefs,
native religion, including cannibalism, rapidly declined. Meanwhile,
English, Australian, and New Zealand settlers were augmenting earlier
trade contacts. Plantations and trade centers developed, and in 1857 a
British consul was appointed and set up at Levuka on the east coast of
Viti Levu. A few years later Thakombau sought relief from the payment of
indemnities to foreign powers and from internal harassments by an offer
to cede his dominions to Great Britain. The initial offer was declined
and the British consul was recalled in 1860.

The next ten years saw a continuation of political and military turmoil
stemming from rival interests of native rulers, Tongan interlopers, and
European immigrants. A second appeal to the British government resulted
in an unconditional deed of cession on October 10, 1874, which marks the
beginning of Fiji's status as a British Crown Colony.


POPULATION

Over 300,000 people live in the Fiji Islands. Of these about 140,000 are
native Fijians. The others are arranged in the following divisions:[4]

  Indians            154,803
  Europeans            6,500
  Part European        7,496
  Polynesians   }
  Melanesians   }      4,133
  Micronesians  }
  Rotumans             3,990
  Chinese              3,857
  Others                 649

When Fiji became a British Crown Colony in 1874 the population was
entirely native except for a handful of outsiders. At that time the
population has been variously estimated at approximately 200,000.
Shortly thereafter a measles epidemic reduced their number severely.
This, with other epidemics and maladies for which they had little or no
immunity or resistence, continued the decimation until by 1905 there
were only 87,000. During the next decade they held their own, until in
1919 the influenza scourge brought them to their lowest level of 83,000.
This was the last serious setback to their number; since that time the
population has been on the upgrade.

A present threat to Fijian population, in the opinion of many, stems not
from disease but from the Indian presence. This began in the latter part
of the nineteenth century when Indian immigration of indentured laborers
began. The influx went on until 1916 by which time some 40,000 to 50,000
Indians had come to Fiji and very few had returned to India. Since then,
the Indians have increased more rapidly than the Fijians until they now
outnumber them. This situation has, of course, created numerous problems
beyond the scope of this paper.

It is significant to point out that intermarriage or interbreeding
between Fijians and Indians is relatively slight. The amount of mingling
of Fijians with Europeans or Orientals cannot be demonstrated
statistically, but it has not been extensive. The Fijians, on the whole,
retain pretty much of their prehistoric racial make-up.


RACIAL BACKGROUND

It is well established that the Fijians are a mixed people, derived
mainly from Melanesian and Polynesian sources. Both of these parental
strains in turn are commonly believed to be racial blends. Hooton
describes the Melanesians as Oceanic Negroes whose composition includes
Negrito, Australoid, "plus convex-nosed Mediterranean plus minor
fractions of Malay and Polynesian."[5] Birdsell sees the same three
strains in Melanesia which he believes contribute to the Australians,
namely Negrito, Murrayan, and Carpentarian, plus a small amount of
Mongoloid. He believes they differ from Australians in being "basically
negritic in their genetic composition as a result of the rain forest
environment."[6] Polynesians, however, are usually thought to be derived
from Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and Negroid strains in which the Caucasoid
component is more often the strongest.

The composite character of the Fijians has been variously explained as
far as order and time of the contributing elements are concerned. One
theory regards a Negroid stock as aboriginal to which a Polynesian
strain was later added. An early explanation of this sort is that of
Fornander who held that the ancestors of the modern Polynesians coming
from southeastern Asia via Indonesia in the early centuries A.D. made a
prolonged stopover in Fiji as they moved eastward. This left a
Polynesian imprint on the native Fijian physical appearance as well as
on their language and culture.[7] Later on, Churchill added a second
movement of Polynesians from the west about a thousand years later. This
was used to explain a certain amount of Mongoloid elements that needed
accounting for in western Polynesia.[8]

A differing interpretation brings the Polynesian influence into Fiji
from the east in relatively recent times. Thomson, for example, regards
it as mainly Tongan. There are many references in the eighteenth and
nineteenth centuries to Tongan presence in Fiji; they came to trade, to
fight, and merely to visit.

Hocart believes the Polynesians at one time occupied most of Fiji until
they were driven eastward to Tonga and Samoa by native Melanesians.[9]
Howells tentatively suggests another possibility: originally all of Fiji
was occupied by Polynesians except perhaps for some Melanesian tribes in
the mountainous interior of Viti Levu. Around the eleventh century a
wave of immigrants from the west reached Fiji. "The newcomers, taking
possession of the archipelago, partly amalgamated with and partly pushed
out the Polynesian tenants, just as did the hill tribes of Hocart's
theory, the refugees fleeing to Somoa and Tonga."[10] Howells associates
this immigration with the Fijian tradition of an arrival of ancestral
families from across the western sea.

This Fijian tradition of their own origin includes a landing on the west
coast of Viti Levu at Nandi by an ancestral chief and his sons who came
across the sea from the west. Several of his sons moved eastward and
eventually founded families with native wives in various parts of the
archipelago. These families ultimately became consolidated into
present-day tribes or federations. Most Fijian social units derive their
origin from this or similar legendary immigrations. These eposodes
occurred eight or ten and, in one case, fifteen generations ago.[11]
Where these ancestors came from or what their racial affiliations were
is not described in the stories. On the basis of supposed similarities
of place-names, claims have been made for Africa as the place of origin,
but the validity of them is dubious. It is likely that these traditions
refer only to the more recent immigrations from the west. As to the
racial make-up of the ancestors, it is commonly believed that they were
Polynesians who, after settling in various parts of Fiji, took native
wives, presumably Melanesian, and originated many of the existing family
lines. This assumption does not rest on any actual physical reference to
their appearance but on such cultural data as their patrilineal
succession and their tradition of strong hereditary chieftainship.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am indebted to a number of people of Fiji whose assistance and
coöperation were helpful. Thanks are due to Sir Ronald Garvey, governor
of Fiji, whose approval of my project gave administrative sanction. Mr.
G. Kingsley Roth, the Secretary for Fijian Affairs, secured for me the
coöperation of the Fijian Affairs Department, which in turn gave me
access to the proper native officers and leaders, furnished me with
necessary transportation; he also gave me some sound advice. Also of the
Fijian Affairs Office, Ratu Dr. Dobi helped me make the necessary
contacts as my work took me from one area to another. Mr. Robbin H.
Yarrow, safety officer of the Emperor Gold Mining Company, was most
helpful during my stay at Vatukoula, where I secured an excellent sample
of the northern provinces.

The young Fijian who acted as my interpreter, guide, and recorder was
Joji Qalelawe; my especial thanks to him for his intelligent and
cheerful coöperation.



MEASUREMENTS AND INDICES


GENERAL

_Weight_[12]

                No.     Range   Mean    S.D.    C.V.

  Total sample  814    105-300  163.0   20.3    12.5
  Interior        0          0      0      0       0
  East           73    130-245  168.1   19.3    11.5
  Coast         210    118-300  160.7   22.8    14.2
  N.W.           79    120-212  161.9   16.9    10.4

The average weight of 163 pounds, coupled with their rather tall
stature, describes the Fijian as a large person, on the whole. Their
generous weight does not reflect excessive obesity; the body build, as
will be pointed out later, is prevailingly muscular and athletic.
Variation among the regional samples is not significant; all the groups
average more than 160 pounds.

_Stature_

                      No.    Range      Mean   S.D.   C.V.

  Total sample        815  150.1-195.0  172.5  6.1    3.5
  Interior            154  150.1-183.7  169.6  6.0    3.5
  East                120  160.2-190.5  173.3  6.0    3.5
  Coast               210  156.1-195.0  173.4  5.8    3.4
  N.W.                 79  159.8-186.0  172.7  5.8    3.3
  Fiji (Howells)      133  158-190      170.8  6.1    3.6
  Solomons (Howells)   85  146-181      160.2  6.8    4.2
  Tonga (Sullivan)     92  160-188      173.0  5.2    3.0

The stature of the Fijians is moderately tall. Howells' series of
Fijians, as well as mine, indicate this category. In this measurement,
the Fijians are similar to the Tongans. They are 12 cm. taller than the
Melanesians.

Among the Fijian themselves, the interior people of the highlands are
definitely shorter than the rest of the population.

Rumors still persist of remnants of pygmoid people in the interior
mountains of Viti Levu. I found no evidence of them either in my travels
in the interior or by extensive inquiries among natives and Europeans
who had thorough knowledge of the whole island.

_Span_

            No.      Range      Mean    S.D.   C.V.

  Total sample    815   155.0-208.0   180.0   15.1    8.8
  Interior        154   155.0-201.0   179.5    7.5    4.2
  East            120   166.4-200.5   178.1   24.3   13.6
  Coast           210   160.1-208.0   181.2   14.6    8.1
  N.W.             79   165.1-202.0   180.0   21.6   11.9

Span of the arms also reflects the generous proportions of the Fijians.
Regional difference is not marked. Relative to stature, the hill people
have the longer arms and the eastern natives the shortest. The greater
relative arm length of the hill tribes seems to be owing more to
deficiency of stature than to excessive arm length or shoulder breadth.

_Span-Stature Index_

                No.       Range     Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample  815     96.1-116.3  104.3   8.5   8.15
  Interior      154     99.4-115.1  105.2   2.3   2.2
  East          120     99.1-108.5  102.7  13.5  13.14
  Coast         210     97.9-116.3  104.4   7.7   7.4
  N.W.           79    100.2-109.7  104.1  12.0  11.5


THE TRUNK

_Sitting Height_

                      No.    Range   Mean  S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample        815  75.1-100  87.0  3.5    3.9
  Interior            154  75.1-94   84.4  9.4   11.0
  East                120  81-100    88.5  3.5    3.9
  Coast               210  80-99     87.7  3.2    3.6
  N.W.                 79  80-94     86.0  2.9    3.3
  Fiji (Howells)      132  78-101    88.3  3.06   3.46
  Solomons (Howells)   85  69-95     83.6  3.8    4.5

A total sitting height average of 87 cm. attests the generous general
body length. A regional trend follows the same curve as that for
stature. The eastern body length is greatest; it exceeds the over-all
average by 1-1/2 cm. and is more than 4 cm. larger than the interior
people who fall at the bottom of the scale of sitting height. Howells'
Fijian series is close to my eastern average. Compared with the Solomon
Islands natives, the Fijians are much more elongated.

_Relative Sitting Height_

                     No.   Range   Mean   S.D.   C.V.

  Total sample       815   45-58   50.4   1.5    3.0
  Interior           154   46-56   49.8   1.4    2.8
  East               120   48-54   51.0   1.3    2.5
  Coast              210   46-56   50.5   1.4    2.8
  N.W.                79   47-54   50.2   1.4    2.8
  Fiji (Howells)     132   46-57   51.7   1.36   2.63
  Solomons (Howells)  85   46-57   52.1   1.64   2.92

The relative sitting height ratio for all Fijians is 50.4 per cent. The
eastern average of 51 per cent indicates a little more legginess,
whereas the interior groups tend somewhat to longer trunks.

_Biacromial_

                 No.   Range   Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample   815   28-47   39.7   8.2   6.2
  Interior       154   29-43   39.0   6.2   4.7
  East           120   35-45   39.9   6.1   4.0
  Coast          210   28-45   39.7   7.6   4.9
  N.W.            79   35-47   40.5   6.6   3.9

The Fijians are generally a broad-shouldered people. The inhabitants of
Ra and Ba have the highest average and the interior people are least
broad-shouldered.

_Relative Shoulder Breadth_

                 No.   Range   Mean   S.D.   C.V.

  Total sample   815   18-27   22.3   1.3    5.8
  Interior       154   19-25   22.9   1.0    3.9
  East           120   20-26   23.0   1.0    3.9
  Coast          210   18-26   22.9   1.0    4.4
  N.W.            79   20-27   23.4   3.1   13.2

Relative to total stature, shoulder breadth averages 22.3 per cent. No
significant regional differences are indicated.

_Bi-Iliac_

                No.  Range  Mean  S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample  815  23-40  29.2  5.6   5.3
  Interior      154  25-38  29.0  5.1   5.2
  East          120  27-34  29.5  4.1   4.8
  Coast         210  23-37  29.2  5.9   5.5
  N.W.           79  26-32  29.3  4.6   5.0

The Fijians, as a whole, are fairly broad-hipped; this condition holds
with little variation in all the provinces.

_Shoulder-Hip_

                 No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample   815   58-101   73.7   4.3   5.8
  Interior       154   65-100   74.6   4.2   5.6
  East           120   67-82    73.8   3.2   4.3
  Coast          210   58-99    73.5   4.3   5.9
  N.W.            79   62-86    72.8   5.9   8.1

The total shoulder-hip ratio describes the shoulders as 73.7 per cent as
wide as the hips. These ratios do not vary greatly in different parts of
Fiji. The somewhat higher index of the hill groups is owing largely to
their narrower shoulders, whereas the superior shoulder breadth of the
northwest provinces contributes mostly to the lower hip-shoulder index.

_Chest Breadth_

                  No.   Range   Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample    815   24-39   28.6   6.4   5.7
  Interior        154   25-33   28.6   3.3   4.7
  East            120   26-39   29.4   7.2   5.8
  Coast           210   25-37   28.7   7.8   6.2
  N.W.             79   25-32   28.9   4.3   4.9

Broad chests are also characteristic in Fiji. The eastern men surpass
the Viti Levu males, and the interior groups have the narrowest chests,
but the regional variations are small.

_Chest Depth_

                 No.    Range    Mean    S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample   815   184-308   22.9    5.5   7.0
  Interior       154   195-263   22.4    3.2   5.8
  East           120   189-295   22.5    4.9   6.6
  Coast          210   184-300   21.7    5.7   7.2
  N.W.            79   192-250   21.8    3.3   6.0

The chests of the Fijians are also fairly deep. The close similarity in
chest depth of the interior group and the eastern sample is rather
striking inasmuch as the former are nearly 4 cm. shorter in stature.
This would indicate that the interior group, for their size, are
relatively deep-chested.

_Thoracic_

                  No.   Range   Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample    815   59-96   76.4   4.6   6.0
  Interior        154   69-88   78.5   3.9   5.0
  East            120   65-85   76.3   4.3   5.6
  Coast           210   56-89   75.5   4.7   6.2
  N.W.             79   65-85   75.7   4.4   5.8

The thoracic index shows that the Fijians are deep-chested relative to
thoracic breadth as well as in absolute values. Again the interior
people stand out for their deeper chests.


ARMS AND LEGS

_Arm Length_

                 No.   Range   Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample   815   45-87   75.2   5.0   6.6
  Interior       154   45-83   73.6   4.8   6.1
  East           120   52-84   75.1   3.9   5.2
  Coast          210   57-87   76.0   4.9   6.4
  N.W.            79   55-86   75.3   6.6   8.8

The over-all arm length is 75.2 cm. Shorter arms seem to be
characteristic of the interior population where the average is nearly 2
cm. less than the over-all average. The eastern group has the longest
arms; the other samples are intermediate.

_Humeral Length_

                 No.   Range   Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample   815   26-39   32.8   8.6   5.7
  Interior       154   28-38   32.8   7.1   5.2
  East           120   28-39   32.9   8.3   5.6
  Coast          210   26-38   32.9   9.1   5.8
  N.W.            79   28-38   33.0   7.9   5.4

Length of the upper arm averages 33 cm. for all Fijians; the several
provinces are closely similar in this trait.

_Radial Length_

                 No.    Range   Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample   815    23-35   27.6   4.1   5.1
  Interior       154    24-33   27.3   2.4   4.5
  East           120    23-34   27.5   6.9   6.1
  Coast          210    24-35   27.9   3.5   4.8
  N.W.            79    25-32   27.9   3.4   4.8

Lower arm length is 27.6 cm. and also varies but little among the
regional samples.

_Radial-Humeral_

                 No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample   815   65-113   84.0   4.2   5.0
  Interior       154   77-104   83.0   3.8   4.6
  East           120   65-95    83.5   4.7   5.6
  Coast          210   75-113   84.7   4.2   4.9
  N.W.            79   77-94    82.2   3.6   4.3

The radial-humeral ratio indicates that the lower arm of Fijians is 84
per cent as long as the upper arm. None of the subgroups deviates
markedly from this average.

_Leg Length_[13]

                 No.   Range   Mean   S.D.   C.V.

  Total sample   815   61-98   84.3   10.5   12.5
  Interior       154   74-96   81.1    8.6   12.9
  East           120   73-96   84.1    8.6   10.3
  Coast          210   68-97   85.3    7.2    8.5
  N.W.            79   75-95   85.7    4.4    5.2

Average leg length is 84.3 cm., and some regional differences are
manifest. The legs of the hill people are shorter by 3 cm. than are the
other groups. Their neighbors to the northwest and east have the longest
legs, and the eastern are intermediate.

_Tibial Length_

                 No.   Range   Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample   815   34-49   40.9   8.3    6.9
  Interior       154   35-45   40.3  13.4   10.8
  East           120   35-47   40.7   6.2    5.2
  Coast          210   35-47   41.2   6.8    5.1
  N.W.            79   36-47   40.9   6.1    5.9

Lower leg length is around 40 cm. for all Fijians. The regional pattern
is similar to that of total leg length: shortest in the highlands,
intermediate in the east, and longest in the coastal and northwestern
districts.

_Calf Circumference_

                 No.   Range   Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample   815   29-57   37.6   6.7   7.1
  Interior       154   31-51   37.0   6.4   7.1
  East           120   33-50   38.1   4.7   6.5
  Coast          210   29-48   37.2   9.4   7.9
  N.W.            79   30-43   37.7   7.6   6.3

The generous girth of the calf of the Fijians reflects their sturdily
muscled legs. The eastern groups excel the other Fijians in this
respect, whereas the interior groups have the lowest average for calf
circumference.


THE HEAD

_Head Circumference_

                 No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample   815  410-630  562.4   7.8   6.7
  Interior       154  537-613  565.3   4.1   2.5
  East           120  528-630  566.3   4.9   2.9
  Coast          210  410-630  563.5   4.6   3.5
  N.W.            79  537-597  557.7  14.3  11.5

The head circumference average of 562.4 mm. Probably is a little on the
large size because of the thick wiry hair of most Fijians; the eastern
groups appear to have the largest heads and the northwestern groups show
a rather abrupt drop.

_Head Length_[14]

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815  162-215  187.9   9.4   5.0
  Interior           154  170-210  190.1   7.6   4.0
  East               120  172-209  188.6   6.6   3.5
  Coast              210  162-215  187.4  13.5   7.2
  N.W.                79  165-214  187.2   7.9   4.2
  Fiji (Howells)     133  164-208  188.8   7.29  3.86
  Solomons (Howells)  85  170-208  188.5   6.5   3.5
  Tonga (Sullivan)   117  173-213  191.0   6.6   3.5

Total head length for all Fijians is 187.9 mm; longest heads occur in
the interior. Both Howells' Fijian average and the Solomon Islands
series are close to the above value. Gifford's Tongan head length of 191
mm. Somewhat exceeds the Fijian.

_Head Breadth_

                     No.   Range   Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815  122-186  155.9  6.8   7.7
  Interior           154  135-170  152.1  6.6   4.3
  East               120  144-172  157.2  5.2   3.3
  Coast              210  141-186  158.3  9.3   8.5
  N.W.                79  122-185  152.9  8.6   8.2
  Fiji (Howells)     133  135-170  153.7  6.1   3.9
  Solomons (Howells)  85  126-158  144.7  5.2   3.6
  Tonga (Sullivan)   117  145-167  154.8  4.3   2.8

General head breadth is 155.9 mm., and considerable regional variation
is shown. Fijians of the interior have the narrowest heads, whereas the
coastal and eastern people have appreciably wider heads. Howells' series
of Fijians are closest to my highland groups.

The Solomon Islanders are markedly narrower headed than the Fijians,
whereas Sullivan's Tongan series is nearer the Fijian average.

_Cephalic Index_

                     No.  Range  Mean  S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815  68-99  83.0   6.4   7.7
  Interior           154  68-96  80.0   6.0   7.3
  East               120  72-92  83.9   3.8   4.5
  Coast              210  72-99  84.2   7.2   8.6
  N.W.                79  71-95  81.6  10.3  12.6
  Fiji (Howells)     133  68-94  81.54  4.7   5.7
  Solomons (Howells)  85  65-88  76.8   3.9   5.1
  Tonga (Sullivan)   117  73-89  81.1   3.1   3.9

Most Fijians tend to brachycephaly. The eastern natives and those of the
coastal series have the broadest heads. The interior people show
definitely lesser values in this ratio than do the other groups.
Howells' Fijian series is close to the northwestern Fijians in their
mesocephaly, and so is the Tongan mean. The Solomon series borders on
dolicocephaly.

_Head Height_

                No.   Range   Mean   S.D. C.V.

  Total sample  815  110-154  129.5  6.8  7.9
  Interior      154  114-140  127.7  4.8  3.8
  East          120  114-148  129.6  5.0  3.9
  Coast         210  112-154  120.0  7.0  5.4
  N.W.           79  117-142  127.6  9.2  8.9

Head height averages do not differ greatly among the provinces. The
interior and northwestern people have somewhat lower heads; the coastal
and eastern people show slight superiority.

_Length-Height_

                No.  Range  Mean  S.D. C.V.

  Total sample  815  55-84  69.0  3.4  3.6
  Interior      154  59-77  67.2  3.9  5.8
  East          120  61-78  68.7  3.2  4.7
  Coast         210  55-84  69.4  3.7  4.3
  N.W.           79  58-84  68.1  4.5  3.5

Relative to head length, the cranial vault of Fijians is high. The
mountain people show the lowest relative head height, whereas the other
provinces are nearer to the over-all average.

_Breadth-Height_

                 No.    Range   Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample   815   66-102   83.0   3.0   3.3
  Interior       154   75-96    84.0   3.9   4.6
  East           120   75-91    82.4   3.4   4.1
  Coast          210   66-97    82.8   5.3   8.4
  N.W.            79   73-92    81.2   8.6   9.7

Head height relative to total breadth is 83 per cent. In this ratio the
interior groups have the highest index, a condition owing more to
deficiency in cranial breadth than to superior head height.

_Cranial Module_

                No.   Range   Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample  815  141-176  157.7  10.5  6.7
  Interior      154  147-166  156.6  11.5  7.3
  East          120  148-172  158.4   4.4  2.7
  Coast         210  143-176  158.5  15.5  9.7
  N.W.           79  141-171  155.9  10.7  6.7

Head size as expressed by the cranial module averages 157.7 mm. for all
Fijians. Regional fluctuation is unimportant.

_Minimum Frontal_

                No.   Range    Mean  S.D. C.V.

  Total sample  815   99-125  109.9  4.0  2.7
  Interior      154  100-121  109.8  3.6  3.3
  East          120   99-122  110.8  3.8  3.4
  Coast         210  100-125  109.7  4.7  4.3
  N.W.           79  101-120  109.4  3.7  3.4

A minimum frontal diameter of 109.9 mm. indicates a fairly ample
forehead breadth for the total sample. None of the subgroups depart much
from this value.

_Fronto-Parietal_

                No.  Range  Mean  S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample  815  58-89  70.6  4.3   6.1
  Interior      154  63-82  72.2  3.3   4.6
  East          120  64-79  70.5  3.0   4.3
  Coast         210  58-77  69.9  4.1   5.9
  N.W.           79  61-89  69.7  8.7  12.5

Forehead breadth relative to total cranial width is 70.6 per cent. The
greatest deviation from this average occurs in the interior where the
fronto-parietal ratio is 72.2 per cent and lesser head breadth more than
greater forehead width causes the higher index.


THE FACE

_Bizygomatic_

                     No.   Range   Mean    S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815  110-164  145.7   5.0   3.4
  Interior           154  110-163  145.8   6.3   4.3
  East               120  137-161  146.7   4.3   2.9
  Coast              210  128-164  145.2   4.9   3.4
  N.W.                79  136-156  145.1   4.3   3.0
  Fiji (Howells)     132  130-159  144.05  5.05  3.5
  Solomons (Howells)  84  115-149  138.0   5.5   4.0
  Tonga (Sullivan)   116  131-159  143.5   5.9   4.1

Broad faces are the rule among most of these people, as the total
average of 145.7 mm. shows. Regional values for this criterion are
closely alike in all parts of Fiji, the eastern showing a slight
superiority in bizygomatic breadth.

Howells' Fiji series is slightly lower in this diameter as is the Tongan
average. The Solomon Islands natives have definitely narrower faces.

_Cephalo-Facial_

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815   82-108   93.5   5.7   6.1
  Interior           154   84-108   96.0   4.8   5.0
  East               120   82-102   93.3   3.2   3.4
  Coast              210   85-103   92.5   5.7   6.2
  N.W.                79   80-104   92.6   6.4   7.3
  Fiji (Howells)     132   85-111   93.7   3.5   3.7
  Solomons (Howells)  84   85-111   95.4   3.8   4.0
  Tonga (Sullivan)   116   85-103   92.8   3.5   3.7

Face breadth relative to head width averages 93.5 per cent for all
Fijians; Howell's series is much the same. The narrower heads of the
interior people largely account for their higher index; otherwise there
is general similarity in the several provinces.

_Zygo-Frontal_

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815   64-100   75.5   3.0   3.9
  Interior           154   64-98    75.4   3.2   4.2
  East               120   68-99    75.5   2.5   3.3
  Coast              210   66-100   75.5   3.1   4.1
  N.W.                79   66-93    75.4   2.9   3.8
  Tonga (Sullivan)   116   63-84    73.1   4.2   5.8

The ratio of forehead width to face breadth is 75.5. All of the regional
averages for the zygo-frontal index are strikingly alike among the
Fijians in every instance; the forehead is about three-quarters the
breadth of the face. The Tongan ratio is a little lower.

_Total Face Height_

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815  100-147  122.5   6.0   4.9
  Interior           154  103-137  121.3   5.6   4.6
  East               120  110-147  124.7   5.8   4.7
  Coast              210  107-142  122.6   6.1   5.0
  N.W.                79  100-143  121.7   6.8   5.6
  Fiji (Howells)     133  105-159  121.8   6.9   5.7
  Solomons (Howells)  85  100-129  116.4   6.6   5.7
  Tonga (Sullivan)   116  112-147  128.2   6.8   5.3

Fijian faces have the moderate average height of 122.5 mm. Slightly
shorter faces occur in the interior people, whereas the greatest total
face height average occurs in the east. The Fijian of Howells' series is
close to mine. The Tongan value for face height describes them as
definitely longer faced. The Solomon Islanders depart in the other
direction with decidedly shorter faces.

_Total Facial Index_

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815   68-104   84.1   4.6   5.5
  Interior           154   73-96    83.2   4.4   5.3
  East               120   75-101   85.0   4.4   5.2
  Coast              210   73-97    84.5   4.6   5.4
  N.W.                79   68-104   83.9   5.6   6.7
  Fiji (Howells)     132   74-105   84.7   5.0   6.0
  Solomons (Howells)  84   74-97    84.5   4.4   5.2
  Tonga (Sullivan)   116   78-102   89.3   4.4   5.0

Relative to maximum breadth, the Fijian face tends to shortness,
although this is due largely to their generous facial breadth rather
than absolute deficiency of height. The interior groups have the lowest
values and the eastern groups show relatively broad faces.

The Tongan average is much higher than any of the Fijian values, whereas
the Solomon Islanders show similarity to the Fijians in this feature.

_Upper Face Height_

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815   56-84    70.2   5.1   7.3
  Interior           154   59-79    69.1   3.9   5.6
  East               120   64-83    71.7   4.0   5.6
  Coast              210   59-84    70.4   6.6   9.4
  N.W.                79   58-80    69.4   4.8   6.9

The ratio of the upper face height to maximum facial breadth shows the
Fijians of the interior to be relatively shorter faced and the eastern
people longest. The coastal and northwestern series are intermediate.

_Upper Facial Index_

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815   37-65    48.2   3.7   7.7
  Interior           154   41-65    47.4   3.3   7.0
  East               120   42-59    48.9   2.9   5.9
  Coast              210   40-59    48.5   4.8   9.9
  N.W.                79   39-56    47.8   3.5   7.3

The ratio of the upper face height to maximum facial breadth shows the
Fijians of the interior to be relatively shorter faced and the eastern
people longest. The coastal and northwestern series are intermediate.

_Bigonial_

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815   95-146  109.7   5.1   4.6
  Interior           154   95-146  109.8   6.0   3.6
  East               120   97-125  110.6   5.1   4.6
  Coast              210   95-129  109.9   5.3   4.8
  N.W.                79   99-119  109.1   4.5   4.1
  Tonga (Sullivan)   116   92-119  104.8   5.8   5.5

Lower jaw breadth as expressed by the bigonial diameter indicates a
tendency to broadness shared with little variation among all the
subgroups. The Tongan value is considerably smaller.

_Fronto-Gonial_

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815   80-122   99.9   5.5   5.5
  Interior           154   84-122  100.0   6.0   6.0
  East               120   86-115   99.9   5.3   5.3
  Coast              210   80-114  100.3   6.0   6.0
  N.W.                79   85-113   99.8   4.8   4.8

Similarly the bigonial diameter in relation to forehead breadth is much
the same in all groups, the general average nearly 100 per cent.

_Zygo-Gonial_

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample      815    65-86    75.3   4.1   5.4
  Interior          154    67-86    75.4   6.0   8.0
  East              120    65-82    75.4   3.5   4.6
  Coast             210    66-83    75.7   3.4   4.5
  N.W.               79    68-83    75.2   3.4   4.5
  Tonga (Sullivan)  116    63-87    73.2   4.6   6.2

Relative to face breadth, jaw width is 75.3 per cent with very little
geographic variation.

_Nasal Height_

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815   42-65    53.9   3.4   6.3
  Interior           154   45-65    53.2   3.5   6.6
  East               120   48-62    54.7   3.1   5.7
  Coast              210   46-63    54.1   3.4   6.3
  N.W.                79   45-61    52.9   3.5   6.6
  Fiji (Howells)     133   44-63    52.4   3.9   7.4
  Solomons (Howells)  85   40-59    49.9   3.8   7.7
  Tonga (Sullivan)   117   47-65    57.4   3.9   6.8

The Fijian nose may be called medium long. Greatest nasal heights occur
in the eastern and in the coastal series. The interior and northwestern
groups have shorter noses. The Fijians of Howells' series fall near the
short end of my averages. Natives of the Solomons are definitely lower
in nasal height, whereas the Tongan's average is so much higher that one
suspects a difference in the location of the nasion.

_Nasal Breadth_

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815   31-62    46.7   3.4   7.3
  Interior           154   40-61    47.6   3.4   7.1
  East               120   38-53    45.5   3.0   6.6
  Coast              210   38-62    46.4   3.3   7.1
  N.W.                79   31-57    47.4   3.6   7.6
  Fiji (Howells)     133   37-54    46.19  3.0   6.0
  Solomons (Howells)  85   34-51    44.6   2.8   6.3
  Tonga (Sullivan)   117   38-55    44.4   3.0   6.8

Broad noses are common to most Fijians. The greatest contrast is between
the narrower-nosed eastern people and the interior people, among whom
the widest noses occur. The nose of the Solomon Islanders is somewhat
narrower, according to Howells' data, and the Tongan average is also
lower.

_Nasal Index_

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815   61-112   87.1   8.2   9.4
  Interior           154   69-109   89.7   8.1   9.0
  East               120   61-100   83.2   7.6   9.1
  Coast              210   63-111   86.0   7.1   8.7
  N.W.                79   63-110   89.9   8.6   9.6
  Fiji (Howells)     133   68-123   88.8   8.3   9.3
  Solomons (Howells)  85   68-119   87.1   8.9  10.2
  Tonga (Sullivan)   117   61-98    77.6   7.6   9.8

Platyrrhini is the rule in Fiji, but individual and regional variations
are great. There are some leptorrine subjects in every province, and
there are some whose noses are broader than long. The interior people
and the northwestern groups have the relatively broadest noses, whereas
the eastern index is more moderate. The noses of Sullivan's Tongans are
relatively longer than the Lauans. The Solomon Island average is
identical with the Fijian.

_Nasal Depth_

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815   16-32    22.0   2.9   3.2
  Interior           154   17-32    22.5   2.1   9.3
  East               120   17-28    21.9   1.8   8.2
  Coast              210   17-32    21.8   3.6   6.5
  N.W.                79   16-29    22.3   1.9   8.5

Nasal depth averages 22 mm.; the regional variation is very small.

_Nasal-Depth Index_

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815   32-60    47.2   6.8   6.8
  Interior           154   34-59    47.4   5.1   6.6
  East               120   35-60    48.4   4.6   9.5
  Coast              210   32-58    47.0   8.1   7.2
  N.W.                79   34-58    47.2   5.5   6.7

_Mouth Breadth_

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815   29-72    57.6   4.7   8.2
  Interior           154   34-72    59.6   4.4   7.4
  East               120   33-66    56.5   3.9   6.9
  Coast              210   29-67    57.3   4.0   7.0
  N.W.                79   36-65    57.3   4.4   7.8

Mouth breadth averages show the interior groups to have widest mouths,
the eastern people least wide, and the coastal and northwestern people
intermediate.

_Lip Thickness_

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815    9-45    22.4   3.8   6.9
  Interior           154   12-31    23.4   3.6   5.4
  East               120   12-29    21.7   3.4   5.7
  Coast              210   16-45    20.8   3.6   5.3
  N.W.                79   10-29    22.0   3.9   5.7

Thick lips are characteristic of most Fijians. The interior average is
highest for this diameter, whereas the northwestern Fijians have
least-thick lips.

_Ear Length_

                     No.   Range    Mean   S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample       815   55-83    66.6   4.5   6.8
  Interior           154   53-83    66.0   4.8   7.3
  East               120   55-80    67.2   5.0   7.4
  Coast              210   55-77    66.7   4.9   7.3
  N.W.                79   57-75    66.5   3.7   5.6
  Tonga (Sullivan)   117   56-81    66.0   4.6   6.9

Fijian ears on the whole tend to be long, as the average 66.6 mm.
indicates. Regional differences are slight. Tongans closely resemble
Fijians.

_Ear Breadth_

                    No.  Range  Mean  S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample      815  24-55  34.3  3.2   9.3
  Interior          154  27-41  33.7  2.5   7.4
  East              120  29-40  34.1  4.0  11.7
  Coast             210  29-55  34.7  3.9  11.2
  N.W.               79  25-42  33.8  2.9   8.6
  Tonga (Sullivan)  116  25-42  34.5  2.6   7.6

Ear breadth is also generous, and regional differences hardly exceed 1.5
mm., including the Tongans.

_Ear Index_

                    No.  Range  Mean  S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample      815  38-62  51.6  5.0   9.7
  Interior          154  40-61  51.1  3.6   7.0
  East              120  41-59  50.6  5.8  11.5
  Coast             210  42-62  52.1  6.7  12.9
  N.W.               79  38-59  50.9  4.0   7.9
  Tonga (Sullivan)  116  41-62  52.4  3.9   7.5

Length-breadth ear ratios indicate that coastal groups have somewhat
broader, and the northwestern people the relative longest, ears.

_Bicanine Breadth_

                    No.  Range  Mean  S.D.  C.V.

  Total sample      815  24-72  39.8  11.7  19.4
  Interior          154  37-49  39.9  10.7  16.8
  East              120  36-68  41.8   7.4   7.7
  Coast             210  24-72  39.0  13.4  14.3
  N.W.               79  38-49  38.6  14.0  16.3

Bicanine breadth is characteristically great among Fijians, reflecting
the ample jaws and teeth. Widest diameters are seen in the east,
followed by the hill people of the interior. The northwestern groups
have the least bicanine diameter.



MORPHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS

PIGMENTATION

_Skin Color: Exposed_

              Brunet Swarthy  Lt. Brn  Med. Brn  Dk. Brn  Black    Total

               No. %   No. %    No. %    No.  %    No. %   No. %

  Total sample 1 .01    5 .6    30  4   400  48   377 46   0  0      813
  Interior     0   0    0  0     1  1    55  36    97 63   0  0      153
  East         0   0    3  2    12 10    99  83     6  6   0  0      120
  Coast        0   0    1  0     7  3    85  41   116 56   0  0      209
  N.W.         0   0    0  0     1  1    42  53    36 46   0  0       79
  Fiji II      0   0    0  0     0  0   128  96     5  4   0  0      133
  Solomons     0   0    0  0     0  0     4   5    79 93   2  3       85
  Tonga               (Range from Lt. Brown to Dk. Brown.)

Color of skin includes exposed and unexposed areas. The former was
observed on the face, since the Fijians do not use any kind of face or
head covering. This condition in the total series divides itself quite
evenly between medium brown and dark brown. A few have light-brown skin;
only six individuals are classified as swarthy and brunet. None was
judged to be completely black. The Fijians of Howells' series are
described as 96 per cent medium brown[15] and 5 per cent dark brown, a
discrepancy I would attribute to personal judgment difference. The
Solomon Islanders are markedly darker than the Fijians, the majority
have dark-brown skin and 3 per cent are black, whereas 5 per cent have
medium-brown complexions.

Tongan data on skin color cannot be directly adjusted to my statistics.
Sullivan's comment on their skin color states that it is "a medium
yellowish-brown where it is unexposed to the sun. Exposed parts of the
skin of a few of the persons were a very dark chocolate" (Sullivan,
1922, p. 248).

Among the Fijians themselves, the greatest contrasts occur between the
eastern and the interior groups of Viti Levu. Where 63 per cent of the
latter have dark-brown skin, only 5 per cent of eastern fall into this
category. The bulk of eastern (83 per cent) have medium-brown skin as
against 36 per cent of hill people. The coastal and northwestern
provinces are, like the total series, more evenly divided between medium
and dark brown.

_Skin Color: Unexposed_

              Brunet  Swarthy  Lt. Brn  Med. Brn  Dk. Brn  Black  Total
              No. %   No. %   No.   %    No.   %   No.  %   No. %

  Total sample 6  1    9  1   242  30    545  66    11  1   0  0    813
  Interior     0  0    0  0    20  13    133  87     0  0   0  0    153
  East         3  3    4  3    77  64     36  30     0  0   0  0    120
  Coast        1  1    2  1    56  27    148  71     2  1   0  0    209
  N.W.         0  0    1  1    20  25     57  72     1  1   0  0     79
  Fiji II      0  0    0  0     0   0    127  96     5  4   0  0    132
  Solomons     0  0    0  0     0   0      9  11    74 87   2  2     85

Unexposed skin color was observed on the under surface of the upper arm
near the armpit. The anticipated shift in color range results in a
reduction of dark-skin incidence to a mere 1 per cent, and an increase
in medium brown to 60 per cent and of light brown to 30 per cent.

Howells' describes 96 per cent of his Fijians as medium brown, 4 per
cent dark brown, and none light brown. The Solomon Islanders seem
definitely darker than the Fijians whether they are compared with
Howells' or my series.

The eastern groups continues to contrast with the interior people. The
former show a majority of 64 per cent in the light-brown category as
compared with 13 per cent among the interior groups; the latter have a
medium-brown incidence of 87 per cent against 30 per cent among Lauans.

_Hair Color_

                Black   Dk. Brn  Med. Brn  Lt. Brn  Red-Brown    Total
                No. %   No.  %   No.   %    No.  %   No.  %

  Total sample 757 93   31   5     1   0      0  0   18   2         807
  Interior     145 95    8   5     0   0      0  0    0   0         153
  East         114 95    6   5     0   0      0  0    0   0         120
  Coast        193 92   11   5     0   0      0  0    5   2         204
  N.W.         70  89   5   6     0   0      0  0     4  5           75
  Fiji II     118  91   9   7     0   0      0  0     3  2          130
  Solomons     55  65  26  31     0   0      3  4     0  0           84
  Tonga         0  94   0   4     0   0      0  0     0  0            0

Black hair is the usual color, although 5 per cent are described as dark
brown and a few red-brown. This latter variation is a rufous color
(reddish-brown) and it may be a little more frequent than the data
indicate because the Fijians frequently dye their hair with a substance
extracted from mangrove bark. This intensifies the usual blackness of
the hair and adds a satisfying gloss. More sophisticated natives have
access to modern hair dye and lacking this, some have been known to
resort to black shoe polish.

Hair bleaching is no longer practiced in Fiji.

The hair of the Solomons Islands is not so uniformly black, nearly a
third have dark-brown hair and a few are light brown.

_Eye Color_

               Black   Dk. Brown  Med. Brown  Lt. Brown  Total
               No.  %   No.  %      No.  %      No.  %

  Fiji I        2   0   550  68     257  31     4   1      813
  Interior      0   0   131  86      22  14     0   0      153
  East          0   0    71  59      48  40     1   1      120
  Coast         0   0   127  61      81  39     1   0      209
  N.W.          1   1    53  67      25  32     0   0       79
  Fiji II       0   0   130  98       0   0     2   2      132
  Solomons      0   0    85 100       0   0     0   0       85
  Tonga         0   3     0  94       0   0     0   3

A little more than two-thirds of Fijians' eyes are described as dark
brown. The remaining third have medium-brown eyes. There were four
individuals who were light brown. Howells, with his Fijian series, is
more generous with the darker designation; he designated 98 per cent as
dark brown and 2 per cent light brown. His Solomons sample is described
as dark brown without exception. The Tongan data also is recorded as
more uniformly dark brown than my Fijians.

The Fijians of the interior of Viti Levu have more deeply pigmented eyes
than the others; 86 per cent are classed as dark brown and only 14 per
cent medium brown.


HAIR

_Hair Form_

            Straight  Low Wave   Deep Wave  Curl    Frizz   Wool   Total
              No.  %   No.  %    No.  %     No. %   No.  %   No. %

  Total sample  0  0   7  0.1    13  0.2   91 11.0  702 862  0  0    813
  Interior      0  0   0  0      0   0      4  3    149  97  0  0    153
  East          0  0   1  1     10   8     37 31     72  60  0  0    120
  Coast         0  0   0  1      3   0     18  9    188  90  0  0    209
  N.W.          0  0   2  3      0   0      7  9     70  89  0  0     79
  Fiji II       0  0   0  0      0   0     19 16     38  33 59 51    116
  Solomons      2  3.3 1  1.6    0   0     16 26     17  28 25 41     61

Frizzly hair is the condition of over 85 per cent of Fijians; 11 per
cent are curly-haired, whereas over twenty individuals have wavy hair.
Straight hair is absent. The Fiji II series of Howell distinguishes
between frizzly and wooly hair, which I do not. Their combined incidence
is 83 per cent, quite close to my frequency of frizzly. Whether one does
or does not distinguish between frizzly and wooly hair, there is no
doubt that most Fijians have Negroid hair form. The Solomon Islanders
are surprising with somewhat less Negroid hair form than the Fijians.
Their combined percentage of frizzly and wooly is 69, which is nearly 20
per cent less than that of the Fijians. Twenty per cent have curly hair
against 11 per cent among Fijians. Also, the only instances of straight
hair occur in the Solomons.

In the Fijian breakdown, the interior groups have the most Negroid hair;
97 per cent have frizzly hair and 3 per cent have curly hair. The
eastern people are the least Negroid in this respect; frizzly hair drops
to 60 per cent, whereas curly hair advances to 30 per cent and wavy hair
to 9 per cent. The coastal and northwestern series are closer to the
interior groups with about 90 per cent frizzly hair.

_Hair Texture_

                Course     Medium    Fine    Total
                No.    %   No.  %    No.  %

  Total sample  804   99    9   1    0   0    813
  Interior      153  100    0   0    0   0    153
  East          116   97    4   3    0   0    120
  Coast         208  100    1   0    0   0    209
  N.W.           78   99    1   1    0   0     79

Hair texture is prevailingly coarse; only 1 per cent of the total series
shows medium coarseness and none have fine hair. This preponderance of
coarse hair is much the same in all the provinces, although the eastern
people do depart slightly with a 3 per cent incidence of medium-coarse
hair.

It might be added that Fijian hair is quite stiff or wiry. For example,
when the hair is unshorn, it stands out like a mop. A Fijian can insert
a long stemmed flower in his hair and it will stay in place with no
additional fastening.

_Head Hair Quantity_

               Absent   Subm.     +[16]     ++      +++   Total
               No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Total sample  0   0   61   7  219  27  533  65    0   0   813
  Interior      0   0   26  17   27  18  100  65    0   0   153
  East          0   0    5   4   24  20   91  76    0   0   120
  Coast         0   0   11   5   63  30  135  65    0   0   209
  N.W.          0   0    7   9   21  27   51  65    0   0    79
  Fiji II       0   0    0   0    0   0    1   1  132  92   133
  Solomons      0   0    0   0    0   0    5   6   80  94    85

Head hair quantity is pronounced in the majority of Fijians (65 per
cent); it is moderate in 27 per cent and submedium in 7 per cent.
Howells describes nearly all the Fijians as having very pronounced head
hair--99 per cent, which would appear to be a personal difference in
appraisal. In any case, the two series agree that Fijians have hair of
more than moderate quantity. The Melanesians of the Solomons are also
characterized by much head hair.

Regionally, the only significant variation in this trait is shown in the
east, where more individuals have a submedium designation. In the
absence of age data, this contrast cannot be fairly interpreted.

_Hair Length_

It might be observed here that although hair length was not included in
this survey, on the basis of personal but unrecorded observation, the
Fijians conform to the Melanesian pattern. Most Fijian men now cut their
hair short in the Western style, but some still do not. Women generally
trim their hair but not short. The natural length of head hair is
intermediate between the short-haired African Negroes and the
long-haired Caucasians and Mongolians.

_Baldness_

                  Subm.       +       ++      +++   Total
               No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Total sample 731 90   40   3   30   4   12   1    0   0   813
  Interior     122 80   12   8   12   8    7   5    0   0   153
  East         112 93    3   3    4   3    1   1    0   0   120
  Coast        194 93   10   5    4   2    1   0    0   0   209
  N.W.          72 91    1   1    3   4    3   4    0   0    79

The lack of age correlations also limits the value of data on baldness,
but some meaning can nevertheless be extracted. Regardless of age, with
an incidence of pronounced baldness of 1 per cent among all adult males
and of 4 per cent for a moderate condition, it is a clear indication
that Fijians are not prone to loss of head hair.

_Beard Quantity_

               Absent   Subm.       +       ++      +++    Total
               No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Total sample  0   0   234 29   370 44   208 26    1  .01  813
  Interior      0   0    22 14    67 44    64 42    0 0     153
  East          0   0    45 38    59 49    16 13    0 0     120
  Coast         0   0    60 29    94 45    54 26    1 0     209
  N.W.          0   0    22 28    30 38    27 34    0 0      79
  Fiji II
    cheeks     27  21     2  2    44 34    46 35   12  9    131
    skin        9   7     0  0    52 40    56 43   14 10    131
  Solomons
    cheeks     21  25     0  0    42 49    22 26    0  0     85
    chin        7   8     0  0    53 62    25 29    0  0     85
  Tonga
    chin        0   0     0 19     0 31    50  0    0  0      0
    lower chk.  0   4     0 37     0 18    40  0    0  0      0

Moderate beard quantity is shown by 44 per cent of Fijians; the
remainder are fairly evenly divided between the submedium and pronounced
categories. Howells' series, which records beard quantity for the cheeks
and chin separately, shows a higher frequency of pronounced and very
pronounced designations. However, his data includes many individuals who
have no beards at all. Both series are doubtless influenced by the fact
that they contain a preponderance of young adult; a greater proportion
of older men would have greatly raised the incidence of the pronounced
categories.

Nearly all modern Fijians have adopted the Western practice of shaving.
Examination of earlier pictures and written description of Fijians
leaves no doubt that the majority of mature men possess luxurious beards
when nature is unrestrained.

The natives of the Solomon Islands, according to Howells, are a little
less bearded than the Fijians.

The Tongans are a little more heavily bearded than the Fijians.

Some geographical variation is indicated by my data. The interior people
of Fiji have the highest incidence of face hair; 42 per cent are
recorded as pronounced. Least endowed are the eastern Fijians, where 13
per cent have pronounced beards and 38 per cent are submedium. The
coastal and northwestern series conform more closely to the overall
distribution.

_Body Hair_[17]

               Absent   Subm.       +        ++       +++   Total
               No.  %   No.  %    No.  %   No.  %    No.  %

  Total sample  0   0   243  30   328 40   162 20    80 10    813
  Interior      0   0    31  20    56 37    41 27    25 16    153
  East          0   0    55  46    45 38    14 12     6  5    120
  Coast         0   0    57  27    82 39    46 22    24 11    209
  N.W.          0   0    16  20    36 46    19 24     8  8     79
  Tonga         0   0    23  29     0 26     0 22     0  0      0

The body hair endowment is also not unimpressive. Forty per cent show a
moderate condition, 20 per cent are pronounced, and 10 per cent very
pronounced; none are totally devoid of body hair; 30 per cent are
submedium. Chest hair among the Tongans is somewhat less in evidence;
although the majority range from submedium to pronounced, 23 per cent
are described as hairless.

The provincial distribution in Fiji follows that of face hair: the
interior groups are hairiest and the eastern people least so.

The anatomical distribution of body hair deserves some comment, even
though specific observations were made on the chest. Not infrequently
the hair is heavier on the upper legs than on the chest. Occasionally,
too, the back of the shoulders is quite hairy as well as the belly.

_Grayness: Head_

               Absent   Subm.       +       ++      +++    Total
               No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Total sample 621 76    82 10    82 10    28  3     3  3   813
  Interior      80 52    37 24    19 12    17 11     0  0   153
  East          91 76    13 11    16 13     0  0     0  0   120
  Coast        176 84    14  7    17  8     2  1     0  0   209
  N.W.          60 76     8 10     9 11     2  3     0  0    79

_Grayness: Beard_

               Absent   Subm.       +       ++      +++    Total
               No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Total sample 610 75   61   8   90  11   52   6    0   0   813
  Interior      72 47   30  20   20  13   31  20    0   0   153
  East          89 74    9   8   18  15    4   3    0   0   120
  Coast        178 85    8   4   21  10    2   1    0   0   209
  N.W.          60 76    6   8   11  14    2   3    0   0    79

Grayness of the hair data without corresponding age incidence is not
particularly significant. It is clear, nevertheless, that premature
grayness is not common. I would hazard the judgment that on the whole
the Fijians show less tendency to grayness than do Caucasians.

The higher incidence of grayness of the interior sample of Fijians is
likely due to a larger number of older men in that series.


THE FACE

_Prognathism: Total_

               Absent   Subm.       +       ++     Total
               No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Fiji I       206 25   306 38   288 35   13   2    813
  Interior      40 26    59 39    52 34    2   1    153
  East          54 45    55 46    11  9    0   0    120
  Coast         47 22    84 40    73 35    5   2    209
  N.W.          18 23    29 37    32 41    0   0     79
  Tonga         63 53    26 22    29 25    0   0    118

_Prognathism: Mid-Facial_

               Absent   Subm.       +       ++     Total
               No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Fiji I       517 64   184 23   109 13     3 1/2   813
  Interior     133 87    15 10     5  3     0  0    153
  East         100 83    17 14     3  3     0  0    120
  Coast        122 58    49 23    37 18     1  1    209
  N.W.          48 61    20 25    11 14     0  0     79

_Prognathism: Alveolar_

               Absent   Subm.       +       ++     Total
               No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Fiji I       798  98    9  1    4 1/2    2   0    813
  Interior     153 100    0  0    0  0     0   0    153
  East         120 100    0  0    0  0     0   0    120
  Coast        207  99    0  0    1 1/2    1  1/2   209
  N.W.          76 {96}   2  3    0  0     1   1     79

Slight and moderate total prognathism characterizes most Fijians but it
is pronounced in only 13 of the 813 subjects. A quarter of the series
show no prognathism. The eastern people are least prognathic with a zero
incidence of 45 per cent. The other regional sample are close to the
general condition.

Mid-facial prognathism has a submedium incidence of 23 per cent and a
medium of 13 per cent; the remainder lack the condition, except three
individuals who are pronounced.

The coastal and northwestern groups have more frequent medium
designations. Alveolar prognathism is almost entirely lacking in all
groups.

_Malar Projection: Lateral_

               Absent   Subm.       +       ++      +++    Total
               No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Fiji I         1  0    2   0   264 32   543 67    3   0   813
  Interior       0  0    0   0    62 41    91 59    0   0   153
  East           0  0    0   0    25 21    95 79    0   0   120
  Coast          0  0    0   0    68 33   141 67    0   0   209
  N.W.           0  0    0   0    28 35    50 63    1   1    79

_Malar Projection: Frontal_

               Absent   Subm.       +       ++     Total
               No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Fiji I        4  1/2   0   0   709 87   100 12    809
  Interior      0   0    0   0   139 91    14  9    153
  East          0   0    0   0   103 86    17 14    120
  Coast         1   0    0   0   181 87    27 13    209
  N.W.          0   0    0   0    67 85    12 15     79

The facial contours generally include lateral malar projection;
two-thirds show a pronounced condition and the balance are medium. The
eastern people have high cheek bones oftener than do the others.

Frontal malar projection is also common but more often moderately so; 87
per cent show medium projection and 12 per cent are pronounced.

_Gonial Angles_

               Subm.       +       ++      +++    Total
               No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Fiji I        24  3   459 56   325 40    5   1    813
  Interior       0  0    97 63    55 36    1   1    153
  East           1  1    65 54    54 45    0   0    120
  Coast          7  3   110 53    90 43    2   1    209
  N.W.           3  4    49 62    27 34    0   0     79

_Palate Shape_

               Parabolic  Sm. U    Lg. U    Square  Total
               No.  %     No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Fiji I       493 61     2   0   303 37    15  2    813
  Interior      94 61     0   0    59 39     0  0    153
  East          81 68     0   0    38 32     1  1    120
  Coast        131 63     0   0    71 34     7  3    209
  N.W.          50 63     1   1    27 34     1  1     79

A fairly strong tendency to well-developed gonial angles is indicated;
40 per cent show pronounced angles and nearly all the rest are medium.
These proportions hold pretty much for all groups.

Palate shape also attests to the well-developed jaws of Fijians; it is a
large U in 37 per cent of the subjects; 2 per cent are square and the
remainder parabolic.

_Chin Prominence_

               Absent   Subm.       +       ++     Total
               No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Fiji I        2   0   164 20   593 73    54  7    813
  Interior      0   0    36 24   110 72     7  5    153
  East          0   0    25 21    89 74     6  5    120
  Coast         0   0    41 20   153 73    13  6    207
  N.W.          1   1    11 14    55 70     9 11     76

_Chin Type_

               Median   Bilateral  Total
               No.  %    No.  %

  Fiji I       673  83   140  17     813
  Interior     130  85    23  15     153
  East         112  93     8   7     120
  Coast        162  78    45  22     207
  N.W.          62  82    14  18      76

A well-developed chin further typifies most Fijian faces; nearly
three-quarters have a moderate chin prominence, 7 per cent are
pronounced, and the remainder are submedium. This range is much the same
in the subgroups.

The chin is commonly median although 17 per cent have the bilateral
type. The bilateral chin is least frequent in Lau (7 per cent).


THE HEAD

_Temporal Fullness_

               Absent   Subm.       +     Total
               No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Fiji I        1   0   563 69   249 31   813
  Interior      0   0   113 74    40 26   153
  East          0   0    70 58    50 42   120
  Coast         1   0   148 71    60 29   208
  N.W.          0   0    59 75    20 25    79

_Occipital Protrusion_

               Absent   Subm.       +     Total
               No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Fiji I        13  2   775  95   25  3    813
  Interior       4  3   149  97    0  0    153
  East           0  0   116  97    4  3    120
  Coast          3  1   193  92   13  6    209
  N.W.           0  0    79 100    0  0     79

A narrowness in the temporal part of the head is indicated. Sixty-nine
per cent of the subject show submedium temporal fullness, whereas the
remainder are moderate. This condition is not marked and may best be
described as a discernable tendency.

The back of the head is generally rather flat as the 95 per cent
incidence of occipital protrusion indicates. This is a natural
condition; no intentional flattening is practiced by Fijians.

_Lambdoidal Flattening_

              Absent    Subm.       +       Total
              No.   %   No.  %   No.  %

  Fiji I     754   93   32   4   27   3     813
  Interior   153  100    0   0    0   0     153
  East       113   94    5   4    2   2     120
  Coast      188   90   13   6    8   4     209
  N.W.        72   91    3   4    4   5      79

_Occipital Flattening_

              Absent    Subm.       +       Total
              No.   %   No.  %   No.  %

  Fiji I     809  100    2   0    2   0     813
  Interior   153  100    0   0    0   0     153
  East       120  100    0   0    0   0     120
  Coast      209  100    0   0    0   0     209
  N.W.        79   99    0   0    1   1      79

_Median Sagittal Crest_

             Absent    Subm.        +       Total
             No.   %   No.   %   No.  %

  Fiji I    600   74   177  22   36   4     813
  Interior   96   63    46  30   11   7     153
  East      109   91    10   8    1   1     120
  Coast     160   77    43  21    6   3     209
  N.W.       53   57    24  30    2   3      79

_Parietal Bosses_

             Absent   Subm.        +         ++     Total
             No. %   No.   %    No.   %    No. %

  Fiji I    17   2   413   51   381   47   2   0    813
  Interior   1   1   130   85    22   14   0   0    153
  East       4   3    66   55    50   42   0   0    120
  Coast      6   3    82   39   120   57   1   0    209
  N.W.       1   1    40   51    38   48   0   0     79

A median sagittal crest though not striking is recorded in a number of
cases. It has a submedium incidence of 22 per cent and pronounced 4 per
cent. Among the interior people, the crest is more common. Because of
the heavy, bushy, and wiry hair of Fijians it is probable that some
instances of this feature were not detected by simple palpation, and the
incidence may be higher than the data indicate.

Submedium development of the parietal bosses is rather common occurring
in 51 per cent of the series. It is very common in the interior (85 per
cent).

_Cranial Asymmetry_

              Absent     Left   Right     Total
             No.   %    No. %   No. %

  Fiji      813   100   0   0   0   0     813
  Interior  153   100   0   0   0   0     153
  East      119   100   0   0   0   0     119
  Coast     208   100   0   0   0   0     208
  N.W.       79   100   0   0   0   0      79

_Facial Asymmetry_

             Absent     Left    Right  Total
            No.   %    No.  %   No. %

  Fiji      806   100   1   0   0   0    807
  Interior  153   100   0   0   0   0    153
  East      117    98   0   0   2   2    119
  Coast     206    99   0   0   2   1    208
  N.W.       78    99   1   0   0   0     79

Cranial and facial assymetry are generally lacking, at least in any
marked degree. Normal asymmetries of the face and head were ignored in
this description.


EYES

_Eye Folds: External_

             Absent    Subm.     +      ++    Total
            No.   %    No. %   No. %   No. %

  Fiji      804   98   5   1   4   1   0   0    813
  Interior  152   99   0   0   1   1   0   0    153
  East      119   99   0   0   1   1   0   0    120
  Coast     209   99   1   1   1   1   0   0    208
  N.W.       78   99   0   0   1   1   0   0     79

_Eye Fold: Median_

            Absent     Subm.      +        ++    Total
            No.   %    No. %    No. %    No. %

  Fiji I    782   96   3   1/2  25   3   3   1/2   813
  Interior  152   99   0   0     1   1   0   0     153
  East      108   90   1   1    10   8   1   1     120
  Coast     202   97   1   0     5   2   1   0     209
  N.W.       78   99   0   0     0   0   1   1      79

_Eye Folds: Internal_

            Absent    Subm.        +         ++   Total
            No.  %   No.  %     No.  %     No.  %

  Fiji I   778   96   4   0     30   4      1   0   813
  Interior 151   99   0   0      2   1      0   0   153
  East     102   85   1   1     17  14      1   0   120
  Coast    203   97   0   0      6   3      0   0   209
  N.W.      78   99   0   0      1   1      0   0    79
  Fiji II  116   89   7   5-1/2  7   5-1/2  0   0   130
  Solomons  80   94   2   2-1/2  3   3-1/2  0   0    85
  Tonga     63   57  33  30      9   8      6   5   111

Eye folds are not a feature of the Fijian facial make-up. The external
fold is present in only 2 per cent of the total series. The median fold
shows a 96 per cent absence. The eastern groups exceed the other
provinces with a 10 per cent occurrence. The internal eye fold has a
total presence of 4 per cent and is also commoner in the east (14 per
cent).

_Eye Obliquity_

            Absent     Subm.        +      ++    Total
           No.   %    No.   %    No.  %  No.  %

  Fiji I   251   31   358   43   201  25   3   1   813
  Interior  92   60    46   30    14   9   1   1   153
  East      33   28    52   35    45  38   0   0   120
  Coast     47   22   102   49    58  28   2   1   209
  N.W.      27   34    32   41    20  25   0   0    79

_Eye Opening_

            Absent   Subm.           +       ++     Total
            No.  %   No.  %      No.   %   No.  %

  Fiji I     0   0   75   9-1/2  737   91   1   1/2   813
  Interior   0   0   24  16      128   84   1   1     153
  East       0   0   13  11      107   89   0   0     120
  Coast      0   0    9   4      200   96   0   0     209
  N.W.       0   0    7   9       72   91   0   0      79

Some degree of eye obliquity is present in the majority of cases; 43 per
cent show a submedium condition; 25 per cent are medium and three
individuals have pronouncedly oblique eyes. The remainder, or 31 per
cent, have no obliquity. In the east, the natives depart from this total
distribution in opposite directions. The interior groups have much less
eye obliquity; the eastern people, a great deal more. The other
provinces are quite close to the total frequencies.

Eye opening height is preponderately moderate (91 per cent). The
remaining 10 per cent with one exception show submedium eye opening.
Regional variation is not great. The eastern and interior groups have a
little higher frequency in the submedium class.


FOREHEAD

_Brow Ridges_

            Absent    Subm.      +        ++       +++  Total
            No.  %   No.  %   No.  %   No.   %   No.  %

  Fiji I     0   0   148  19  364  44  295   36   6   1   813
  Interior   0   0    16  10   69  45   64   42   4   3   153
  East       0   0    28  23   42  35   50   42   0   0   120
  Coast      0   0    42  20   99  47   67   32   1   0   209
  N.W.       0   0    19  24   40  51   19   24   1   1    79

Brow ridges are a marked feature of Fijians in general. None of them
lack some supraorbital development. Forty-four per cent have medium brow
ridges, 36 per cent are pronounced, and 1 per cent are very pronounced.
The other 19 per cent are small. The interior and eastern groups share a
little higher incidence of pronounced brow ridges; the other regions are
nearer the total distribution of variations.

_Forehead Height_

           Absent     Subm.       +      ++    Total
            No. %    No.  %    No.  %   No. %

  Fiji I     0  0    444  55   369 45   0  0    813
  Interior   0  0     90  59    63 41   0  0    153
  East       0  0     68  57    52 43   0  0    120
  Coast      0  0    110  53    99 47   0  0    209
  N.W.       0  0     46  58    33 42   0  0     79

_Forehead Slope_

           Absent   Subm.     +        ++    Total
           No. %   No.  %   No.  %    No. %

  Fiji I    8  1   280 34   460  56   65  8   813
  Interior  0  0    53 35    87  57   13  8   153
  East      0  0    38 32    72  60   10  8   120
  Coast     4  2    78 37   113  54   14  7   209
  N.W.      2  3    27 34    47  59    4  4    79
  Tonga     1  1    70 60    45  39    0  0   116

Forehead height is submedium in more than half the cases (55 per cent);
the others are all medium. There is no significant variation among the
subgroups.

A sloping forehead is quite characteristic of the Fijian head; 56 per
cent are moderately sloping, 8 per cent are pronounced, and 34 per cent
are submedium. Only 1 per cent have foreheads with no recession.
Regional differences are very slight.


NOSE

_Nasion Depression_

          Absent   Subm.      +       ++   Total
           No. %  No.  %   No.  %   No. %

  Fiji I    1  0  170  21  579  71  63   8   813
  Interior  0  0   41  27  103  67   9   6   153
  East      1  1   32  27   85  71   2   2   120
  Coast     0  0   45  22  144  69  10  10   209
  N.W.      0  0   18  23   56  71   6   6    79

_Root Height_

          Absent   Subm.      +       ++   Total
           No. %  No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Fiji I    1  0  63   8   555 67   194 24   813
  Interior  0  0  16  10    96 63    41 27   153
  East      1  1   3   3    77 64    39 33   120
  Coast     0  0  10   5   157 75    42 20   209
  N.W.      0  0   4   5    57 72    18 23    79

_Root Breadth_

          Absent   Subm.      +       ++   Total
           No. %  No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Fiji I    0  0   1  0    258 32   554 68   813
  Interior  0  0   0  0     38 25   115 75   153
  East      0  0   1  1     53 44   66  55   120
  Coast     0  0   0  0     67 32  142  68   209
  N.W.      0  0   0  0     24 30   55  70    79

_Nasal Septum_

           Straight  Concave Convex Total
            No.   %   No. %   No. %

  Fiji I    777  99    0  0   36  4   813
  Interior  153 100    0  0    0  0   153
  East      118  98    0  0    2  2   120
  Coast     196  94    0  0   13  6   199
  N.W.       78  99    0  0    1  1    79

_Bridge Height_

           Absent  Subm.      +      ++   Total
            No. %  No.  %  No.  %  No.  %

  Fiji I     0  0   54  7  644 79  115 14   813
  Interior   0  0   13  8  124 81   16 10   153
  East       0  0    1  1   98 82   21 18   120
  Coast      0  0   10  5  173 83   26 12   209
  N.W.       0  0    7  9   60 76   12 15    79
  Tonga      0  0   21 22   81 70    9  8   111

_Bridge Breadth_

           Absent  Subm.     +      ++   Total
           No. %  No. %   No.  %  No.  %

  Fiji I    0  0   0  0   265 33  546 67   813
  Interior  0  0   0  0    29 19  124 81   153
  East      0  0   0  0    72 60   48 40   120
  Coast     0  0   0  0    62 30  147 70   209
  N.W.      0  0   0  0    23 29   56 71    79

_Nasal Profile_

          Concave Straight Convex    Total
           No. %   No. %    No. %

  Fiji I   14  2  625 77   173 21      812
  Interior  0  0  123 80    30 20      153
  East      1  1   88 73    31 26      120
  Coast     4  2  171 82    34 16      209
  N.W.      1  1   59 75    19 24       79

Moderate nasion depression characterizes the majority of noses (71 per
cent). Pronounced depression is recorded for 8 per cent, and submedium
occurrence in 21 per cent. Only one individual lacks any depression.
This distribution does not vary much among the provinces.

A well-elevated nasal root is also characteristic; 67 per cent show
moderate elevation and 24 per cent pronounced, whereas 8 per cent are
submedium; one individual is without any elevation. The interior Fijians
have a little higher frequency of low nasal root (10 per cent), whereas
the eastern people, with a 30 per cent incidence, excel in the
pronounced category.

More striking is the breadth of the Fijian nasal root. It is pronounced
in 68 per cent and moderate in the remainder of the series. Pronounced
breadth is commoner among the interior people (75 per cent) and least
preponderant in the east (55 per cent).

The nasal septum is nearly always straight; the only departure from this
condition is a 4 per cent incidence of convexity. Regional differences
are not significant.

Nasal bridge height is commonly medium (79 per cent) in the totality of
noses. Fourteen percent are pronouncedly high and 7 per cent are
submedium. The several provinces do not depart very far from this
distribution.

The Fijian nose shows a strong tendency to broadness of the bridge.
Two-thirds show pronounced breadth of bridge and the remainder are
medium. Pronounced broadness increases in the interior groups (81 per
cent) and shows a marked decline in the east (40 per cent).

Nasal profiles are most often straight (77 per cent), but convex noses
are not uncommon (21 per cent). Convexity is slightly more frequent in
the east (26 percent), whereas in the coastal people its incidence drops
to 16 per cent.

_Nasal-Tip Thickness_

           Subm.       +      ++    +++  Total
           No. %   No.  %  No.  %  No. %

  Fiji I    1  0   344 42  461 58   1  0   812
  Interior  0  0    55 36   98 64   0  0   153
  East      1  1    80 67   39 33   0  0   120
  Coast     0  0    94 45  114 55   1  1   209
  N.W.      0  0    27 34   52 66   0  0    79

_Nasal-Tip Inclination_

           Absent  Subm.    +     ++   Total
           No.  %  No. %  No. %  No. %

  Fiji I   731 90   57 7   24 3   0  0   812
  Interior 147 96    6 4    0 0   0  0   153
  East     109 91    6 5    5 4   0  0   120
  Coast    186 89   16 8    7 3   0  0   209
  N.W.      71 90    6 8    2 3   0  0    79

_Nasal Wings_

       Compressed  Medium  Flaring  Total
           No. %   No.  %  No.  %

  Fiji I    0  0   198 24  615 76     813
  Interior  0  0    25 16  128 84     153
  East      0  0    70 58   50 42     120
  Coast     0  0    42 20  167 80     209
  N.W.      0  0    16 20   63 80      79

The nasal tip is pronounced more often than not, 58 per cent showing
this condition. The remaining 42 per cent have tips of medium thickness.
Thicker tips occur more often in the interior (64 per cent) and in the
northwest (66 per cent), least often in the east (33 per cent).

Usually the nasal tip is not inclined downward. Slight and moderate
inclination has a combined incidence of only 10 per cent.

Flaring nasal wings are a common condition (76 per cent). This incidence
rises to 84 per cent in the interior and drops to 42 per cent in the
east.


MOUTH

_Lip Thickness: Membranous_

               Subm.    +       ++      +++   Total
            No. %    No.  %   No.  %   No. %

  Fiji I    19  2   428  53   364  45   2  0    813
  Interior  10  7    43  28   100  65   0  0    153
  East       1  1    83  69    36  30   0  0    120
  Coast      1  1/2  88  42   119  57   1  1/2  209
  N.W.       4  5    39  49    36  46   0  0     79
  Tonga     12 10    97  84     7   6   0  0    116

_Lip Thickness: Integumental_

               Subm.         +        ++      +++  Total
               No. %     No.   %    No. %   No. %

  Fiji I        4  1/2   608  75  201  25    0  0    813
  Interior      1  1/2   114  75   38  25    0  0    153
  East          1  1     100  83   19  16    0  0    120
  Coast         2  1     164  78   43  21    0  0    209
  N.W.          0  0      55  70   24  30    0  0     79
  Fiji II       0  0       1  1/2  26  20  106 80    133
  Solomons      0  0       0  0    12  14   73 86     85

_Lip Eversion_

               Absent   Subm.     +      ++  Total
               No. %   No.  %  No.  %  No. %

  Fiji I       12  1   333 41  444 55  24 3    813
  Interior      0  0    63 41   88 58   2 1    153
  East          8  7    77 64   35 29   0 0    120
  Coast         0  0    63 30  138 66   8 4    209
  N.W.          1  1    26 33   51 65   1 1     79

_Lip Seam_

               Absent   Subm.      +      ++  Total
               No. %   No.  %   No.  %  No. %

  Fiji I       33  4   429 53   343 42   8  1   813
  Interior      1  1    79 52    73 48   0  0   153
  East         14 12    77 64    29 24   0  0   120
  Coast         6  3   105 50    94 45   4  2   209
  N.W.          3  4    44 56    32 41   0  0    79

Fijian lips are Negroid in thickness in many instances. Membranous lips
are thick in 45 per cent of the series, medium in 53 per cent, and
submedium in 25 per cent. Thickest lips occur in the interior and
coastal areas where the pronounced type registers 65 per cent and 57 per
cent, respectively. In the east, lips are more moderate in thickness,
and the pronounced category drops to 30 per cent.

Integumental lips also tend to be heavy but not so much as the mucous
parts. Twenty-five per cent of the total Fijians have thick integumental
lips and the remainder are moderate. Howells' Fiji II series classes 80
per cent as very pronounced and the remainder as pronounced. The Solomon
Islanders, with an 86 per cent incidence of very pronounced, have the
heaviest lips of all.

Lip eversion varies largely between moderate and submedium, 55 percent
and 41 per cent, respectively. The interior and coastal Fijians show
this trait a little more often than the others, whereas the eastern
people have least lip eversion. The lip seam is present in nearly all
cases, but not to a pronounced degree. Fifty-three per cent are
submedium and 42 per cent are moderate. The eastern groups are
definitely less endowed with this trait. The other provinces vary but
little from the total distribution.


TEETH

_Bite_

            Under    E-E   Subm. over  + over  Total
            No. %   No.  %   No.  %     No. %

  Fiji I     2  0   518 64   274 34     13  2    807
  Interior   0  0    94 61    59 39      0  0    153
  East       0  0    73 61    45 38      2  2    120
  Coast      1  0   130 62    76 36      0  0    207
  N.W.       1  1    49 62    23 29      3  4     76
  Fiji II    4  3    50 38    77 59      0  0    131
  Solomons   1  1    37 45    45 54      0  0     83

_Caries_

           Absent  Subm.(1-4)  + (5-8)  ++ (9-16)  +++ (17-x) Total
           No.  %   No.  %      No. %     No. %      No. %

  Fiji I   645 78    80 10      58  7     22  3       8  1      813
  Interior 130 84    16 10       3  2      1  1       3  2      153
  East     100 83    10 12       4  3      2  1       4  3      120
  Coast    153 73    29 14      16  8      8  4       3  1      209
  N.W.      62 80     9 11       6  8      1  1       0  0       78

_Crowding_

           Absent  Subm.     +      ++   Total
           No.  %  No. %   No. %  No. %

  Fiji I   685 84  115 14  13  2   0  0   813
  Interior 134 88   19 12   0  0   0  0   153
  East     100 83   17 14   3  3   0  0   120
  Coast    180 86   25 12   4  2   0  0   209
  N.W.      64 81   14 18   0  0   0  0    78

_Tooth Eruption_

            Complete  Incomplete  Total
             No.  %     No. %

  Fiji I     796  98    15  2      811
  Interior   153 100     0  0      153
  East       119  99     1  1      120
  Coast      199  95     8  4      207
  N.W.        74  94     2  3       76

_Wear_

            Absent     Subm.    +        ++     Total
            No.  %    No.  %   No. %    No. %

  Fiji I   184  23   443  54  144  18  42   5    813
  Interior  27 {18}   58 {38}  37 {24} 31 {20}   153
  East      26 {22}   69 {57}  24 {20}  1  {1}   120
  Coast     60 {29}  120 {57}  28 {13}  1  {1/2} 209
  N.W.      12 {15}   47 {60}  17 {22}  2  {3}    78

The jaws of Fijians have a rather distinctive frequency of edge-to-edge
bite. I recorded this as 64 per cent, but Howells' series indicates a 38
per cent incidence.

The quality of Fijian teeth as reflected by frequency of caries is
excellent. Nearly 80 per cent of the total show no tooth decay. The
soundest teeth from this standpoint occur in the interior, the east, and
the northwest. The coastal people show the highest incidence of caries,
an interesting point since many of this sample come from around Suva and
have more access to the Western processed foods.

Tooth crowding is quite uncommon to Fijians, a condition consistent with
their generous jaw conformation. Crowding is noted in only 16 per cent
of the series, and most of it is slight.

Tooth eruption is complete in nearly all the subjects. A 2 per cent
incidence of incomplete eruption is entirely due to the immaturity of
some of the young adults. No pathological suppression was noted.

Some wear of the teeth is recorded for more than three-quarters of the
series, but lacking age incidence, the data has limited meaning. The
Fijian diet is not abrasive the way, for instance, it is for the Indians
of our Southwest, where the staple food is ground in stone mills.


EARS

_Ear Helix_

            Subm.     +      ++     +++     Total
            No. %   No. %  No. %    No. %

  Fiji I   230 28  511 63  72  9    0  0     813
  Interior  45 29   99 65   9  6    0  0     153
  East      29 24   74 62  17 14    0  0     120
  Coast     58 28  128 61  23 11    0  0     209
  N.W.      24 30   51 65   4  5    0  0      79

_Darwin's Point_

            Absent   Subm.     +      ++   Total
            No.  %   No. %   No. %  No. %

  Fiji I    761 94   36  4   15  2   1  0   813
  Interior  150 98    3  2    0  0   0  0   153
  East      112 93    6  5    2  2   0  0   120
  Coast     187 89   13  6    4  4   1  0   209
  N.W.       77 97    2  3    0  0   0  0    79

_Ear-Lobe Type_

          Soldered  Attached   Free   Total
           No.  %    No.  %   No.  %

  Fiji I   80 10     531 65   202 25   813
  Interior 47 31     74  48    32 21   153
  East      3  3     85  71    32 27   120
  Coast     9  4    141  67    59 28   209
  N.W.      5  6     52  66    22 28    79

_Ear-Lobe Size_

            Subm.       +     ++     +++  Total
            No.  %  No.  %  No.  %  No. %

  Fiji I    176 22  457 56  178 22   2  0   813
  Interior   49 32   66 43   38 25   0  0   153
  East       16 13   76 63   27 23   1  1   120
  Coast      31 15  123 59   55 26   0  0   209
  N.W.       20 25   47 59   12 15   0  0    79

_Ear Protrusion_

           Absent   Subm.     +      ++  Total
           No. %   No.  %  No.  %  No. %

  Fiji I    2  0   262 32  463 57  86 11   813
  Interior  1  1    47 31   90 59  15 10   153
  East      0  0    31 26   77 64  12 10   120
  Coast     1  0    75 36  114 55  19  9   209
  N.W.      0  0    26 33   49 62   4  5    79

_Ear Slant_

            Absent   Subm.    +    Total
            No.  %  No.  %  No. %

  Fiji I    416 51  332 41  65  8   813
  Interior   78 51   67 44   8  5   153
  East       55 46   52 43  13 11   120
  Coast     118 56   74 35  17  8   209
  N.W.       38 48   39 49   2  3    79

The Fijian ear is a moderately distinctive appendage from a racial
standpoint. The helix shows moderate development on the whole and is
submedium otherwise except for a 9 per cent incidence of pronounced
appearance. Regional variation is small.

The Darwin's point is noted in a number of cases: 4 per cent to a
submedium degree and 2 per cent medium.

The ear lobe is somewhat distinctive with a 65 per cent incidence of the
attached condition and 10 per cent soldered. The remaining 25 per cent
is free. This distinctiveness is more marked among the interior groups
where the soldered type of lobe increases to 31 percent.

Ear-lobe size is moderate in more than half the series, pronounced in 22
per cent, and submedium in 22 per cent. Small lobes are commoner in the
interior province.

Moderate ear protrusion is the commonest form followed by submedium.
Marked projection is recorded as 11 per cent.

Ear slant either is lacking or slight in most instances; the series is
rather evenly divided between these two categories, the zero category
having a small majority. Moderate slant is noted for 8 per cent.


BODY BUILD

_Body Build: Endomorph_

              1       2       3       4       5       6    Total
           No.  %  No.  %  No.  %  No.  %  No.  %  No.  %

  Fiji I   260 32  334 42  126 15   46  6   33  4   12  1   811
  Interior  49 32   66 43   26 17    5  3    6  4    1  1   153
  East      30 25   54 45   21 18    5  4    8  7    1  1   119
  Coast     77 37   82 39   28 13   10  5    8  4    3  1   209
  N.W.      26 33   34 43    9 11    6  8    2  3    2  3    79

_Body Build: Mesomorph_

              1       2       3       4       5       6    Total
           No.  %  No.  %  No.  %  No.  %  No.  %  No.  %

  Fiji I    1 {0.1} 2 {0.2} 33  4  131 16  227 28  419 52   813
  Interior  0  0    1  1    11  7   27 18   41 27   73 48   153
  East      1  1    0  0     2  2   14 12   38 32   65 54   120
  Coast     0  0    0  0     9  4   29 14   67 32  104 50   209
  N.W.      0  0    1  1     2  3   15 19   14 18   47 59    79

_Body Build: Ectomorph_

              1       2       3       4       5        6    Total
           No.  %  No.  %  No.  %  No.  %   No.  %   No.  %

  Fiji I   351 43  195 24  110 14   88 11   68  8    1 {0.1} 813
  Interior  54 35   56 37   13  8   15 10   15 10    0  0    153
  East      49 41   33 28   15 13   12 10   11  9    0  0    120
  Coast     84 40   51 24   36 17   18  9   19  9    1  1    209
  N.W.      39 49   19 24   11 14    6  8    4  5    0  0     79

Variations in body build have been expressed with the Sheldon method of
somatotyping.[18] Accordingly, the Fijians are primarily and definitely
mesomorphic, with endomorphy the second strongest component, and
ectomorphy, third. About 80 per cent of the total series had a
mesomorphic rating of 5 and 6 which leaves no doubt as to the
prevailingly athletic physique. Endomorphy is seldom pronounced so that
obesity may be described as no more than occasional. A pronounced linear
build is likewise relatively infrequent.

The Fijian subgroups do not vary markedly from the over-all pattern.


SUMMARY

The preceding data may be summarized from three points of view. The
first will emphasize the physical features that are common to most
Fijians. At the outset it should be pointed out that a "typical" Fijian
does not exist, except as a statistical abstraction. The racial
composition of the Fijian is complex and far from being homogeneous.
There is no doubt, from the physical and cultural evidence, as well as
the geographical location, that Fijians are related to both Melanesians
and Polynesians. The second point is to give a precise indication of
these affinities with Melanesia and Polynesia. A third concern of this
analysis is the geographical variability within Fiji. This consists of a
regional breakdown of the Fijian data into interior, eastern, coastal,
and northwestern divisions, in order to demonstrate some of the local
variation of the Melanesian-Polynesian ingredients and their possible
meaning.

_Body (pl. 1)._--In general size and appearance, the Fijian is tall and
well proportioned. His body is fairly tall and well muscled, that is,
predominately athletic in build. Obesity is relatively uncommon except
in moderate degrees. This rather tall stature allies the Fijians more
closely with the Polynesians. Shoulder, chest, and hip diameters also
indicate that Fijians are generously endowed.

The Fijians who occupy the mountainous interior of the main island are
less tall than the coastal and eastern people; they also have narrower
shoulders, relatively deeper and narrower chests, whereas their arms and
legs are somewhat shorter. The eastern Fijians are tallest of all
subgroups.

_Skin Color._--Most Fijians have either medium- or dark-brown skin on the
exposed facial surfaces. The more protected body areas show higher
frequencies of medium brown and light brown. The Fijians are definitely
less dark than the Melanesians but are darker, on the whole, than the
Polynesians.

The interior hill tribes are darker than the eastern and coastal groups.
The lightest average skin shade occurs in the east.

_Hair (pls. 6 and 7)._--In several respects the hair is the most
consistent endowment of the Fijians. In nearly all instances it is
black, frizzly, and coarse. The only departure from this condition is an
occasional instance of dark brown and a few instances of rufous shade.
Curly hair is a more common exception in the east. The coastal and
northwestern people are nearer to the interior condition of frizzly
hair. All in all, the hair form is definitely Melanesian. Hair length
conforms to the general Melanesian condition, that is, intermediate
between short Negroid and long Caucasiod or Mongoloid.

Considerable beard and body hair is common to Fijians (pls. 8 and 9).
Moderate to pronounced beard is shown by nearly three-quarters of the
total series, and body hair is even more prevelant. General hairiness is
also exhibited by the Solomon Islanders and the Tongans in the
comparative data. The interior tribes of Fiji are more hairy than the
other groups. This prevelence of body and face hair seems to conform to
parts of Melanesia where it may be regarded as an Australoid element.
Its presence in the Tongan data does not seem to be representative of
other Polynesians, who are generally described as more glabrous.

_Head (pl. 2)._--Moderate brachycephaly is the commonest head form of
Fijians, although the total range is great. In this respect the Fijians
resemble the broad-headed Tongans, and are quite distinct from the
longer-headed Melanesians. The Fijian head, despite its general
brachycephaly, is rather compressed in the temporal area and submedium
in parietal elevation. The back of the cranium is characteristically
flattened, a natural conformation as no deformation is practiced.

The interior mountain tribes of Fiji have narrower heads and lower
cranial indices than do the coastal and eastern groups. The interior
people also have lesser head heights and a higher breadth-height index.

_Forehead (pl. 10)._--Moderate to strongly developed supraorbital ridges
are a common Fijian endowment. Similarly are low and sloping foreheads.
These features have been observed in western Melanesia, where, like
hairiness, they suggest Australoid of archaic Caucasoid elements.

_Face._--Broadness characterizes the Fijian face. Bizygomatic breadth
locates them nearer to the Polynesians than to the narrower-faced
Melanesians. Strongly developed malars are common, and they tend to
project laterally more than frontally. Widest faces appear among the
eastern people.

Bigonial and bicanine widths show that generous breadth includes the
lower parts of the face, a condition born out by strong gonial angles.

Face length falls between the long-faced Tongans and the definitely
shorter-faced Melanesians (pls. 3 and 4).

Some prognathism is common among Fijians, both total and mid-facial, but
the condition is not universal nor pronounced. The eastern Fijians are
the least prognathic (pl. 10).

_Eyes._--Dark brown is the prevailing eye color, although many subjects
have medium-brown eyes. Eye folds are only occasional and eye-opening
height is usually moderate. Slight eye obliquity is common, more so in
the eastern sample.

_Nose (pl. 4)._--Great variability marks the nasal area. The commonest
condition is a broad and moderately long nose. Medium nasion depression
is frequent; the root is wide and moderately elevated. Bridge breadth is
often pronounced and the nasal profile is straight to convex. The nasal
tip is characteristically thickened and nasal wings are usually flaring.
On the whole, there is a great deal of Melanesian in the Fijian nose; it
is Negroid, but not pronouncedly. Those aspects of the nose which may be
termed Negroid are commoner in the interior hill people and the
northwest and least evident in the east.

_Lips (pl. 5)._--Thick and moderately everted lips occur in nearly half
the series. This Negroid combination is more manifest in the interior
and least in the east. Integumental lips tend to be heavy.

_Teeth._--The condition of the teeth is generally excellent. Most Fijians
have broad, roomy jaws that permit complete and uncrowded tooth
development. Dental caries are very infrequent. A rather high incidence
of edge-to-edge bite is interesting.

_Ears (pl. 5)._--The ears are usually moderate in length and tend to
protrude. Ear lobes are commonly large and are more often attached or
soldered than free.



CONCLUSIONS


On the whole the Fijians are predominately Melanesian but with numerous
Polynesian affinities that vary with locality. The Melanesian qualities
are in part Negroid or Negritoid and in part Australoid. The Negroid
resemblances are best illustrated by frizzly black hair, broad noses
with depressed nasion and flaring nostrils, thick lips, and dark
pigmentation (pls. 11 and 12). Australoid elements are general
hairiness, strong brow ridges, low, sloping foreheads, compressed
parietal and temporal areas, and some prognathism (pl. 13). The presence
of Australoid suggestions need not mean that they come from Australia,
but that they form a part of the Melanesian make-up. This interpretation
of the Melanesians as a hybrid people conforms with similar designations
by such students as Birdsell[19] and Hooton.[20] Polynesian influence in
Fiji is most clearly demonstrated by lighter pigmentation, tall and
muscular body build, moderate brachycephaly, broad faces and jaws, high
and fairly long noses and strong chins. I found much the same
resemblances between Fijians and Polynesians as did Howells;[21]
however, in my comparisons the Polynesian similarities are outweighed
and outnumbered by a greater array of Melanesian characters. The
essential Melanesian character of the Fijian population is further
demonstrated by recent blood-analysis comparisons; the conclusions of
Simmons _et al._, identify the Fijians as Melanesian.[22]

The Fijians who live in the interior of Viti Levu show the most frequent
Melanesian traits (pls. 11 and 14). These people are shorter, have
narrower shoulders and chests; their heads are narrower and lower
vaulted; they have broader noses, thicker lips, are hairier, and have
darker skins. This condition, occurring as it does in the mountainous
interior, which may be regarded as a refuge area, supports the theory
that the Melanesian is the earlier component in Fiji.

The eastern Fijians stand in considerable contrast to the interior
tribes and are the most Polynesian in appearance (pl. 15). They have
lighter skins, greater stature, and heavier musculature. Their heads are
broader, as are their faces and jaws; their noses are larger, narrower,
and higher bridged, and their chins are more pronounced.

The coastal sample might be called intermediate or a more even blend of
Melanesian and Polynesian.

The northwestern people resemble the coastal tribes. This means they
show fewer departures in either a Melanesian or Polynesian direction.
This also means they do not tell us whether the legendary ancestors, who
are supposed to have first landed in Fiji on the northwest coast of Viti
Levu,[23] were Melanesian or Polynesian. These data may mean one of
three things: (1) the Fijian tradition of a landing at this place eight
or ten generations ago is groundless, (2) the immigration did take place
but whatever racial traits predominated, whether Melanesian or
Polynesian, have been homogenized and obscured by subsequent
intermixture and by movements back and forth on Viti Levu, (3) the
landing did occur but the ancestors were already a
Melanesian-Polynesian blend when they arrived.



LITERATURE CITED


Birdsell. J. B.
  1948. Racial Origin of the Extinct Tasmanians. Records of the Queen
        Victoria Museum, Tasmania, Vol. II, No. 3.

Churchill, W.
  1911. The Polynesian Wanderings. Carnegie Institute of Washington,
        Publ. No. 134, Washington.

Derrick, R. A.
  1951. History of Fiji. Printing and Stationery Dept., Suva, Fiji.

Fornander, A.
  1878. The Polynesian Race. London.

Hocart, A. M.
  1929. Lau Islands, Fiji. Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Bull. 62,
        Honolulu.

Hooton, E. A.
  1946. Up From the Ape. Macmillan Co., New York.

Howells. W. W.
  1933. Anthropometry and Blood Types in Fiji and the Solomon Islands.
        American Museum of Natural History. Anthropological Papers,
        Vol. 33, Pt. 4.

Roth, G. K.
  1953. The Fijian Way of Life. Oxford University Press, London.

Simmon, R. T., J. J. Graydon, and G. Barnes
  1945.  The Medical Journal of Australia, May 26.

Sullivan, L. R.
  1922.  A Contribution to Tongan Somotology. Bernice P. Bishop Museum,
         Vol. VIII, No. 4.

Thomson, B.
  1908.  The Fijians: A Study of the Decay of Custom. Wm. Heinemann,
         London.



PLATES


[Illustration: PLATE 1. NEAR-AVERAGE BODY FEATURES
  Stature: 173.3 cm.
  Weight: 172.1 lbs.
  Arm length: 75.1 cm.
  Leg length: 82.2 cm.
  Shoulder breadth: 41 cm.
  Hip breadth: 29.1 cm.
  Shoulder-hip index: 71.0
  Chest breadth: 28.8 cm.
  Chest depth: 22.8 cm.
  Thoracic index: 75.7
  Sitting height: 86.3 cm.
  Sitting height-stature index: 50.0
  Body build: Strongly mesomorphic]

[Illustration: PLATE 2. NEAR-AVERAGE CRANIAL FEATURES
  Head length: 187.2 mm.
  Head breadth: 156.9 mm.
  Cephalic index: 83.9
  Head height: 128.6 mm.
  Length-height index: 68.7
  Length-breadth index: 81.1
  Minimum frontal diameter: 109.8 mm.
  Fronto-parietal index: 70.0]

[Illustration: PLATE 3. NEAR-AVERAGE FACIAL FEATURES
  Bizygomatic breadth: 146.7 mm.
  Cephalo-facial index: 93.2
  Zygo-frontal index: 75.3
  Bigonial breadth: 109.6 mm.
  Fronto-gonial index: 100.1
  Zygo-gonial index: 74.7
  Bicanine breadth: 39.8
  Total facial height: 122.3 mm.
  Total facial index: 84.1
  Upper facial height: 71.3
  Upper facial index: 48.9
  Nasal height: 53.1
  Nasal breadth: 45.5
  Nasal index: 85.6]

[Illustration: PLATE 4. NEAR-AVERAGE FACE AND NOSE FEATURES

_FACE_
  Pronounced malars
  Moderately long face
  Wide gonia
  Moderate chin
  Moderate prognathism

_NOSE_
  Broad bridge
  Wide root
  Moderate length
  Thick tip
  Flaring nostrils
  Straight profile]

[Illustration: PLATE 5. NEAR-AVERAGE LIP AND EAR FEATURES

_LIPS_
  Moderately thick
  Pronounced lip seam
  Moderate eversion

_EARS_
  Moderate size
  Small lobe
  Attached lobe
  Moderate protrusion]

[Illustration: PLATE 6. NEAR-AVERAGE HAIR FEATURES
  Black color
  Frizzly form
  Pronounced quantity
  Coarse texture
  Intermediate length]

[Illustration: PLATE 7. HAIR FORM VARIANTS
  CURLY HAIR        WAVY HAIR]

[Illustration: PLATE 8. PRONOUNCED BODY HAIR
  20 per cent occurrence]

[Illustration: PLATE 9. PRONOUNCED BEARD
  26 per cent occurrence]

[Illustration: PLATE 10. FACIAL VARIATIONS

  No prognathism
  High forehead
  Moderate browridges

  Moderate prognathism
  Low, receding forehead
  Pronounced browridges

  Pronounced prognathism
  Low, receding forehead
  Very pronounced browridges]

[Illustration: PLATE 11. INTERIOR SUBJECT (MORE NEGROID)
  Shorter stature
  Narrower shoulders
  Deeper chest
  Darker skin
  Narrower head
  Broader nose
  Thicker lips]

[Illustration: PLATE 12. "NEGROID" FIJIAN]

[Illustration: PLATE 13. INTERIOR SUBJECT (MORE AUSTRALOID)
  Heavier beard and body hair
  Lower, more sloping forehead
  More compressed parietals
  More pronounced brow ridges
  More prognathic]

[Illustration: PLATE 14. "AUSTRALOID" FIJIANS]

[Illustration: PLATE 15. EASTERN SUBJECT (MORE POLYNESIAN)
  Lighter skin
  Less beard and body hair
  Wavy hair
  Wider head
  Higher, steeper forehead
  Less prognathic
  Higher, narrower nose
  Moderately thick lips]

[Illustration: PLATE 16. "POLYNESIAN" FIJIANS]


[Footnote 1: Hooton, 1946, pp. 735-763.]

[Footnote 2: Derrick, 1946, pp. 5-6.]

[Footnote 3: Ibid., pp. 7-8.]

[Footnote 4: Population statistics from "Fiji Information," of 1954,
issued by Public Relations Office, Suva, Fiji.]

[Footnote 5: Hooton, 1946, p. 621.]

[Footnote 6: Birdsell, 1949, p. 120.]

[Footnote 7: Fornander, 1878.]

[Footnote 8: Churchill, 1911.]

[Footnote 9: Hocart, 1929, p. 236.]

[Footnote 10: Howells, 1933, p. 335.]

[Footnote 11: Roth, 1953, pp. 54, 55.]

[Footnote 12: One pound deducted for dress (usually shorts only).]

[Footnote 13: By subtracting sitting height from total stature.]

[Footnote 14: Cranial measurements are not distorted by cradling
practice or other causes of deformation.]

[Footnote 15: Howells records skin color with the von Luschan scale. I
have adjusted this scale to my own.]

[Footnote 16: + means medium or moderate; ++ means pronounced; +++ means
very pronounced.]

[Footnote 17: Observation taken on the chest.]

[Footnote 18: W. H. Sheldon, _The Variation of Human Physique_, Harper and
Bros., 1940.]

[Footnote 19: Birdsell, 1949, p. 120.]

[Footnote 20: Hooton, 1946, p. 621.]

[Footnote 21: Howells, 1933, p. 332.]

[Footnote 22: Simmons _et al._, 1945, pp. 3-4]

[Footnote 23: See pp. 1 and 4 of Introduction.]

[Transcriber's Note: Figures incorrectly entered as zero have been calculated
and inserted in {}.]





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Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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