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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 107, November 15, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 107, November 15, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[Transcriber's note: Original spelling variations have not been
standardized. Equal signs indicate =bold= fonts in the original;
underscores have been used for _italic_ fonts. Characters with a
macron--if they are Latin scribal abbreviations--can be tentatively
expanded as in "nouā" for nouam, "recēter" for recenter, and
"continēt" for continent. A list of volumes and pages in "Notes and
Queries" has been added at the end.]





"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. IV.--No. 107. SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 15. 1851.

Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4_d._


      NOTES:--                                                  Page

      Perkin Warbeck, by Sir F. Madden                           377

      A Hebrew Sermon in English Stone, by Rev. Moses
      Margoliouth                                                378

      Value of Shakspeare's League--Meaning of Ship--Log-ship    379

      Donizetti                                                  380

      Folk Lore:--Ash Sap--The Ash--Souling                      380

      Minor Notes:--Pasquinade--Monk and Cromwell
      Families--D'Israeli and Byron                              381


      Roman Funeral Pile                                         381

      Dacres of the North                                        382

      Minor Queries:--Etymology of Salter--Chattes of
      Haselle--"Truth is that which a man troweth"--Religious
      Statistics--Cross-legged Effigies--Verses
      accidentally occur in Classical Prose often--Count
      Maurice Tanner de Lacy, &c.                                382

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Derivation of Æra--Tudur
      Aled--Tonges of Tonge--Robert Hues on the Use of
      the Globes                                                 383


      The Caxton Memorial, by Bolton Corney, &c.                 384

      Epigram ascribed to Mary Queen of Scots, by Rev. James
        H. Todd                                                  385

      Stanzas in Childe Harold, by Samuel Hickson, &c.           386

      Cagots                                                     387

      Texts before Sermons                                       387

      The Rev. ---- Gay                                          388

      Vermin, Payments for Destruction of, and Ancient
        Names                                                    389

      Claims of Literature                                       390

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Arbor Lowe--Stanton
        Moor--Ayre Family--The Duke of Monmouth's
        Pocket-books--Buxtorf's Translation of Elias Levita's
        "Tov Taam"--Burke's "Mighty Boar of the Forest"--"Son
        of the Morning"--"Perhaps it was right to
        dissemble your love"--Anecdote of Curran--Sibi--Cassek
        Gwenwyn--The Monumental Inscriptions of
        the Bourchier Family, &c.                                390


      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                     395

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               396

      Notices to Correspondents                                  396

      Advertisements                                             396



In the _Minutes of Evidence_ taken by the Select Committee on the
British Museum, in May, 1836, p. 308., mention is made of "a paper
giving an account of the landing of Perkin Warbeck, signed by Sir Henry
Wentworth, and dated 16th [17th] Sept. 1497," as of historical value.
This "paper" was at that time in the possession of the late Mr. Upcott;
and when I drew up for the society of Antiquaries the article on "Perkin
Warbeck's History," printed in the _Archæologia_, vol. xxvii. pp.
153-210., I had no opportunity of seeing it, and therefore merely made a
brief reference to it in a foot-note. The document subsequently passed,
together with a large and valuable portion of Upcott's collection, into
the hands of M. Donnadieu, and at the recent sale of that gentleman's
collection of autographs was purchased for the British Museum. It is a
letter from Sir Harry Wentworth of Nettlested, co. Suffolk (ancestor of
the Barons Wentworth), addressed to Sir William Calverley, of Calverley
in Yorkshire, from whom descended the extinct baronets of that name. The
letter is not of great historical importance, yet, as furnishing some
notices of the measures taken by the king, on learning that Perkin had
landed in Cornwall, on the 7th of September (only ten days previous), it
will not be read without interest. The letter is written on a strip of
paper measuring eleven inches by four inches, and is signed only by Sir
Harry Wentworth.

  "Right wourshipfulle cosin, I recommend me vnto you. And where[1]
  it fortuned me in my retourne home frome Westchestre, to meit my
  lord Darby, my lord Strange, and other at Whalley abbey, by whome
  I had the sight of suche lettres as were directed vnto theme frome
  the kinges grace; apperceyuing by the same that Perkin Warbeke is
  londid in the west parties, in Cornevelle, wherfore I wolle pray
  you, and allso in the kinges name aduertise you, to be in
  aredynes[2] in your owin persone, with suche company as you make,
  to serue his highnes, vpon an our[3] warnyng, whan his grace
  shalle calle vpone you. For the which I doubte not but his highnes
  shalle geve you thankes accordinge. As our lord knoith, who
  preserue you! Wretin in the kinges castelle of Knaresburght, the
  xvij dey of Septembre.

  "your [frend] and cosyne, syr

      "Harry Wentworth.

      To his wourshipfulle cosin syr William
      Caluerly, knight, in haste."

  [Footnote 1: whereas.]

  [Footnote 2: readiness.]

  [Footnote 3: hour's.]

The Lord Strange mentioned in the above letter was the third son of the
Earl of Derby, and died at Derby House, London, on the 5th Dec. 1497,
less than three months after the letter was written.

    F. MADDEN.


(_Alias, A Puzzle of long standing solved_).

Some of the readers of the "NOTES AND QUERIES" may have chanced, as was
the case with the writer, to have enjoyed a ramble through the park and
village of Wentworth, in Yorkshire, one of Earl Fitzwilliam's estates.
Should such be the case, the ramblers could not have failed to halt half
an hour, probably an hour, before a neat house, now inhabited by one of
his lordship's agents, and wonder and ponder over the intent and purport
of a curious inscription, on a stone sun-dial, which is placed over the
door of the house. Such I have learned to be the case with every new
passer-by. Having spent some time in musing over the hitherto
inexplicable puzzle, I think that I am enabled at last to offer a sort
of solution of the same. I shall therefore at first give a simple
description of the contents of the stone, and then my version of it.

In the centre of the slab, a dial plate is inserted; on its left are
carved three lines, running thus:

              "Bezaleel Benevent
      Sculptor Israelite. Isaiah xliv. 5.
          Maker. I am 58 years old.

On its right, eight lines are carved, and run thus:

            "1740 years of
          A stone of stumbling.
        See Isaiah viii. 14, 15.
      Ps. cxix. 165. Ezek. iii. 20
          A stumbling-block.
            Beware of Him.
              Mal. i. 11."

There is scarcely any difficulty as regards the inscription on the left;
the purport being a brief and clumsy account of the sculptor himself.
The reason of the reference at the end of the second line may be a sort
of justification for suffixing "Israelite" to his name; the following
being the passage referred to: "One shall say, I am the Lord's; and
another shall call himself by the name of Jacob; and another shall
subscribe with his hand unto the Lord, and _surname himself by the name
of Israel_." The principal perplexity is presented by the inscription on
the right, and especially in the second line; containing, as it does, a
group of five Hebrew letters, so arranged as to defy the ingenuity of
the most erudite lexicographer; there being no word of such construction
in the whole range of Hebrew literature.

I must premise, before I proceed any further, by stating that I
apprehend the sculptor to have been a zealous, though very eccentric,
Jewish convert to Christianity; to whom it seemed good to put up that
enigmatical sun-dial, with a view to attract the attention, and conduce
the inquiry of his Hebrew brethren; which would afford him an
opportunity of propounding his Christian views from his own design.

I take the Hebrew letters מ מ ש י ר to be the
initials of the following words:[4]

[Illustration: Hebrew letters]

  [Footnote 4: According to the first canon of cabbalistical
  interpretation, called _Notricon_. See _The Fundamental Principles
  of Modern Judaism Investigated_, pp. 13, 14.]

"The King Messiah, the Shiloh, the Lord my Shepherd." Hence those
characters follow the A.D. date of the first line, and are followed by
the appropriate words in the third line, viz. "A stone of stumbling."
The fourth line then comes as a sort of explanation of the preceding
one: "And He shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling, and
for a rock of offence, to both the houses of Israel; for a gin and for a
snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem. And many among them shall
stumble, and fall, and be broken, and be snared, and be taken." "See
Isaiah viii. 14, 15." The fifth line, "Ps. cxix. 165. Ezek. iii. 20."
consists of scriptural references as to the cause and effect of loving
the law, and _vice versâ_; the first reference being, "Great peace have
they which love thy law, and no stumbling-block for them" [according to
the original]. The second reference being, "Again, when a righteous man
doth turn from his righteousness, and commit iniquity, and I lay a
stumbling-block before him, he shall die; because thou hast not given
him warning, he shall die in his sin, and his righteousness which he
hath done shall not be remembered; but his blood will I require at thine
hand." The words in the sixth line, "A stumbling-block," evidently refer
to 1 Cor. i. 23.: "But we preach Christ crucified; unto the Jews a
stumbling-block." The "sculptor Israelite" may have feared that a
reference to the New Testament would betray his motive, and therefore
judged it prudent and expedient to omit it. The supposition that
Bezaleel had 1 Cor. i. 23. in view is supported by the seventh line,
"Beware of Him." The last line appears to be an appropriate conclusion;
as the passage referred to describes the extent of the Lord's kingdom,
as well as his reception by "all nations, tongues, and kindreds." "For
from the rising of the sun, even unto the going down of the same, my
name shall be great among the Gentiles; and in every place incense shall
be offered unto my name, and a peace offering; for my name shall be
great among the heathen, saith the Lord of hosts." Mal. i. 11.

One may well imagine an Israelite or two observing from the road the
Hebrew characters characters ר ש מ מ--for they are very
large, and are seen afar off--and after puzzling over their intent and
purport for some time, proceed to ask for an explanation from the
major-domo. The master, delighted that the bait caught, vouchsafes, in
his peculiarly eccentric style, to lecture on his own device, and thus
reads to his brethren A SERMON IN STONE.[5]


  [Footnote 5: The writer was anxious to obtain some information
  respecting that curious relic from the inhabitants of the place:
  he was induced, therefore, to address a note of query to the
  present resident, of the house in question, Mr. G. C. Hague; but
  the following was the extent of the reply received:--"All I know
  of the sun-dial is this: It is told that a Jew, who was a mason,
  and assisted in putting up the front of Wentworth House, the
  mansion of the Earl Fitzwilliam, made the thing, and put it up
  during his leisure hours. This is all that I ever learned about
  it. I should be greatly obliged to you If you would inform me what
  the translation of the Hebrew characters is.--I am, Sir, yours,
  &c.--G. C. HAGUE."]


So universal was Shakspeare's knowledge even of the arcana of other
men's pursuits, that his commentators, in their anxiety to reduce his
attainments to an ordinary standard, have attributed to him a sort of
ubiquitous apprenticeship to all manner of trades and callings,--now a
butcher,--now an attorney's clerk,--now a schoolmaster,--and anon a
holder of horses at the theatre door, where doubtless he acquired that
farrier-knowledge so profusely lavished upon Petruchio's charger in _The
Taming of the Shrew_. Dr. Farmer, amongst other atrocities which have
earned for him an unenviable immortality in connexion with Shakspeare's
name, had the incredible folly to recognise, in the splendid image--

      "There's a divinity that shapes our ends,
      Rough-hew them how we will,"

an allusion to _skewer making_! in which the rough-hewing was
Shakspeare's, while his more skilful sire _shaped the ends_! Even Dr.
Johnson cried "shop" at that passage of _The Winter's Tale_ where
Perdita, fearing lest Florizel's father might discover him "obscured
with a swain's wearing," exclaims--

      "How would he look to see his work so noble
      Vilely bound up."

Whereupon the great critic utters this sapient apothegm, "It is
impossible for any man to rid his mind of his profession"--meaning of
course Shakspeare's profession of _book making_!

It is therefore surprising that none of them should have discovered a
trace of Shakspeare in the occupation of _ship-boy_; since in no calling
has he shown a more accurate knowledge of technicalities; and his
seamanship has satisfied the strictest professional criticism. It is to
this circumstance my attention is more especially directed at present by
a singular blunder which I have observed in one of the illustrations to
Knight's _Illustrated Shakspeare_.

The artist, W. Dicks, professes to illustrate Ægeon's description of his
shipwreck, taking for his text these lines in the first scene of the
_Comedy of Errors_:

      "We were encounter'd by a mighty rock,
      Which being violently borne upon
      Our helpful ship was splitted in the midst."

But if he had studied the context he would have perceived that the
"helpful ship" was not a goodly argosy, as he has depicted it, but "a
small spare mast, such as seafaring men provide for storms."

Now, it must not be said that the inadvertence is Shakspeare's, because
the term _helpful_, indicative of sudden resource, and these lines
immediately following--

      "So, that in this unjust divorce of us
      Fortune had left to both of us alike
      What to delight in--what to sorrow for"--

prove that Shakspeare never for a moment lost sight of the circumstances
he was describing.

I was endeavouring to discover what particular nautical technicality
might justify this application of _ship_ in the sense of _raft_ or
_float_, when I recollected that sailors call the little float by which
the log-line is held stationary in the water, by the term _log-ship_;
and, by a rather singular coincidence, the origin of this very word
_log-ship_ is made the subject of comment in a recent number of "NOTES
AND QUERIES" (p. 254.), by a West Indian correspondent, A. L., who
thinks the term log-_chip_.

His story, however, if it be not altogether the offspring of his own
ingenuity, appears quite unsupported by evidence; nor, even if
authenticated, would it be conclusive of the inference he draws from it.
For, surely, the same origin might be attributed to _log_ itself, with
equal, or even with greater probability. The very nature of log is, not
only to float, but to remain sluggish or stationary in the water: and as
it might not be convenient to provide a fresh log (or chip) for every
occasion, there would be a clear advantage in tying a string to it, for
the purpose of hauling it inboard again, to serve another turn.
Moreover, I must remind A. L. that sailors do not say, "Heave the
_chip_," but "Heave the _log_."

This same passage in the _Comedy of Errors_ suggests another
consideration; which is, that Shakspeare appears to have used _league_
and _mile_ synonymously. When Ægeon's "helpful ship" was "splitted in
the midst," it was "ere the ships" (approaching to his rescue) "could
meet by thrice five leagues;" so that each ship must have been at least
five leagues distant when discovered. Now Shakspeare was too good a
sailor to suppose that a ship could be visible to a man on the surface
of the water a distance of _fifteen_ miles; but at _one-third_ of that
distance it might be so. Therefore it would be necessary to take
_league_ as synonymous with _mile_ in this instance, even if it were not
corroborated by the necessity for a similar understanding in other

But wherever Shakspeare uses the word _league_, its equivalence with
_mile_ is not only consistent with the sense, but, in some cases,
absolutely necessary to it.

Thus, in the opening scene of the _Midsummer Night's Dream_, Lysander
appoints to meet Hermia "in the wood, a _league_ without the town," but,
in the next scene, Quince appoints the same place for the rehearsal,
calling it "the palace wood, a _mile_ without the town."

Again, in the _Two Gentlemen of Verona_, when Silvia escapes with
Eglamour, the latter reassures her by reminding her that they will be
safe if they can "gain the forest, not three leagues off," which would
be but poor comfort if by three leagues the lady was to understand nine

By the way, this forest is described in all the "stage directions," upon
what authority I cannot guess, as "a forest near Mantua;" whereas all
the circumstances concur to place it in the immediate vicinity of Milan.
There is nothing to warrant the supposition that any of the characters
had journeyed far from Milan when they were seized upon by the outlaws;
and it is to the Duke of Milan that the outlaws apply for pardon for
misdeeds done in his territories.

    A. E. B.



The following very curious account of the ancestry of this very talented
individual is copied from the _Berwick Advertiser_--a paper confined to
the provinces, and not likely to reach the metropolis. It appeared
somewhere about four years ago; but in cutting the scrap from the paper
I incautiously omitted inserting the date.

  from authority not to be questioned, that the late Donizetti,
  whose great talents as a composer are now beginning to be
  appreciated, was of Scotch origin. His grandfather was a native of
  Perthshire, of the name of Izett (or rather, I should think,
  Izatt). He was a farmer under the Earl of Breadalbane, and his son
  Donald was born at the farm. When very young the sprightly Donald
  left his paternal home, having been enticed by the fascinating
  address of a recruiting serjeant to enlist in the united services
  of Mars and his Majesty, to the great grief of his mother, who did
  not survive his departure many months. Young Donald soon got
  discontented with his military duties; and having been taken
  prisoner by General La Hoche during his invasion of Ireland, was
  quite delighted with the easy mode which presented itself of
  liberation from the unpleasant thraldom which he had been
  suffering, and quickly embraced an offer made to him to enter the
  General's service. With him he remained as private secretary till
  his untimely death. Subsequently he married an Italian lady of
  some fortune, and his name of _Donald Izett_ was easily
  metamorphosed into _Donizetti_. The composer was the offspring of
  this marriage; and it is remarkable that evidence of his Scottish
  origin may be traced in many of his beautiful melodies. Thus, for
  instance, in 'Don Pasquale,' the exquisite air of 'O Summer Night'
  reminds us of some Highland strains sung to the bagpipe; and the
  entire score of 'Lucia di Lammermoor' is replete with snatches and
  fragments of the minstrelsy of Scotland."

There is then added a few lines relative to Rossini, whose family is
also alleged to be Scotch.

How far this legend is true I know not; but perhaps some of your
correspondents might throw light on the subject. But assuredly there
_did_ exist a Scotch family called _Izett_; and a lady of that name is
at present living in, or near, the romantic town of Stirling. What is
remarkable is this: that in the list of subscribers to the Edinburgh
Circus, afterwards better known as Corri's Rooms, and now the Adelphi
Theatre, occurs the name of _Izatt_ or _Izett_, who followed the calling
of a hatter. This was in 1790. On making inquiry, it has been
ascertained that he came from Perthshire; that his father was a farmer
there; and what is still more striking, that, having realised an ample
fortune, he retired from business and purchased an estate in that
county. It was also said, that he corresponded with some relative on the
Continent. All this is very inconclusive, but still it is worth

    J. G. S.


_Ash Sap--The Ash_ (Vol. iv., p. 273.).--The reason for giving ash sap
to new-born children in the Highlands of Scotland is, first, because it
acts as a powerful astringent, and, secondly, because the ash, in common
with the rowan, is supposed to possess the property of resisting the
attacks of witches, fairies, and other imps of darkness. Without some
precaution of this kind, they would change the child, or possibly steal
it away altogether. The herd boys in the district of Buchan, in
Aberdeenshire, always prefer a herding stick of ash to any other wood,
as in throwing it at their cattle, it is _sure_ not to strike on a vital
part, and so kill or injure the animal, which they say a stick of any
other wood _might_ do.

      "Rowan, ash, and red thread,
      Keep the devils frae their speed."

It is common practice with the housewives in the same district, to tie a
piece of red worsted thread round their cows' tails, previous to turning
them out to grass for the first time in the spring. It secures their
cattle, they say, from an evil eye, from being elf-shot by fairies, &c.


_Souling._--On the 2nd of November, All Souls' Day, it is in Shropshire
the custom for the village children to go round to all their neighbours
souling, as they call it, collecting small contributions, and singing
the following verses, which I took down from two of the children

      Soul! soul! for a soul-cake;
      Pray, good mistress, for a soul-cake.
      One for Peter, two for Paul,
      Three for Them who made us all.

      Soul! soul! for an apple or two;
      If you've got no apples, pears will do.
      Up with your kettle, and down with your pan;
      Give me a good big one, and I'll be gone.
                Soul! soul! for a soul-cake;
                Pray, good mistress, a soul-cake, &c.

      An apple or pear, a plum or a cherry,
      Is a very good thing to make us merry.
                Soul! soul! &c.

The soul-cake referred to in the verses is a sort of bun, which until
lately it was an almost general custom for persons to make, and to give
to one another on the 2nd of November. Perhaps some of your readers can
state whether this custom prevails in other counties in England. It
seems to be a remnant of the practice of collecting alms, to be applied
to the benefit of the souls of the departed, for which especial masses
and services were formerly sung on All Souls' Day.

    W. FRASER.

Minor Notes.

_Pasquinade._--To the "Pasquinades" adduced in Vol. iv., p. 292., I may
add one of a different character, though of older date, on a former
Cardinal. On the decease of Pope Clement IX. in 1669, Cardinal Bona was
named amongst those worthy of the tiara, when a French Jesuit (Père
Dangières), in reply to a line inscribed, as usual upon those occasions,
on the statue of Pasquin, "Papa Bona sarebbe un solecisma," made the
following epigram:

      "Grammaticæ leges plerumque Ecclesia spernit:
      Fors erit ut liceat dicere Papa Bona.
      Vana solæcismi ne te conturbet imago,
      Esset Papa bonus, si Bona Papa foret."

The successful candidate, however, was Cardinal Emilio Altieri, who
assumed the name of Clement X., in April, 1670: Bona (Giov.) died in
October, 1674.

    J. R. (Cork.)

_Monk and Cromwell Families._--It is a singular fact, that an estate
granted to George Monk, Duke of Albemarle, for _restoring the monarchy_,
was by intermarriage eventually vested in Oliver Cromwell, Esq., of
Cheshunt, who died in 1821; being then the last male descendant of the


_D'Israeli and Byron._--Lord Byron not only "deeply underscored," in
admiration, M. D'Israeli's sentence, as quoted Vol. iv., p. 99., but he
also reproduced the same idea in his Monody on Sheridan:

      "And Folly loves the martyrdom of Fame."




Did the Romans throw corn, pulse, or beans on the flames of the funeral
pile (_rogus_), or deposit them with the bones and ashes of the deceased
in their sepulchres? The Query is suggested by a quantity of, to all
appearance, calcined small field beans having recently been found by me,
in small heaps, among a deposit of ashes embedded in sand, in the
perpendicular cutting of a sand-pit at Comb Wood, near Kingston. The
deposit is black, reduced to a fine powder, and, with the exception of
the beans, homogeneous: it was perfectly distinct from the surrounding
sand, and was about two feet under the surface of the soil. For
centuries past Roman remains have been from time to time discovered at
Comb Wood, and it is known to have been a Roman station. The locality in
which I found the deposit is said to have been the sepulchre of the
station; and from an intelligent person, engaged in excavating the sand,
I learned that he occasionally came upon deposits similar to that in
question, containing baked, but unglazed, clay vessels; some, of an oval
form, about a yard in circumference and nearly a foot in depth, and
others of the size and somewhat of the form of a flower-pot. These
vessels fall to pieces after two or three days, through exposure to the
air. He had also found pieces of copper or brass about an inch square,
and of the thickness of a penny, as also coins.

Authorities (Virg. _Æn._ VI. 225.; _Stat. Theb._ VI. 126.; Lucan, IX.
175.) may be cited, showing that perfumes, cups of oil, ornaments,
clothes, dishes of food, and other things supposed to be agreeable to
the deceased, were thrown upon the flames; but I do not find corn or
beans specifically mentioned as having been used on these occasions.

I may add, that the field containing the sand-pit (which is the property
of His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge) is close to the road
leading by Putney Heath to Kingston, and on the brow of the declivity of
Comb Hill, overlooking that ancient Saxon seat of royalty which is
stated to have been built out of the remains of the adjoining Roman


  Inner Temple, Nov. 1. 1851.


William Lord Dacre, of the North, had four sons: 1. Thomas; 2. Leonard;
3. Edward; 4. Francis. The eldest son Thomas married, and died in his
father's lifetime; leaving a son George, and three daughters, all under
age. This George, on his grandfather's death, became Lord Dacre; and was
in ward to the Duke of Norfolk during his minority, and his mother
became the Duke's second wife. George Lord Dacre was accidentally killed
before he attained his majority, leaving his three sisters his
coheiresses-at-law. Two of the coheiresses were married to the Duke's
two sons, the Earl of Arundel and Lord William Howard. Can any of your
readers state what became of the third sister?

On the death of George Lord Dacre, the title and estates were claimed by
Leonard, the second son of William Lord Dacre, by virtue of an alleged
entail on the heirs male of William. Leonard, taking part in the
rebellion of 1569, was attainted and fled abroad; and soon afterwards
died, and is buried at Brussels, I think. The next brother, Edward, was
also implicated, and fled. Is it known when and where he died; and did
he leave any issue?

Francis, the fourth son of William Lord Dacre, carried on a long contest
at law with the Earl of Arundel and the Lord William Howard for the
Dacre's estates; claiming, under the entail of his father William Lord
Dacre on the male line. He married, and had a son and a daughter. He
fell under suspicion of the government, and retired abroad about the
year 1588, and died there. His son is stated to have compromised his
claims to the estates with the Howards.

I wish to ascertain, and possibly some of your readers may be able to
state, whom did Francis Dacre marry? What was the name of his son, and
was he married; and the name of his daughter, and whom did she marry;
and whether there are any descendants of this branch of the Dacre family
now in existence?


Minor Queries.

270. _Etymology of Salter._--I wish to ascertain the precise etymology
of the word _salter_ as applied to localities far removed from the sea,
and from those districts in which the making of salt is carried on. It
seems to be applied in the north of England to places adjoining ancient
roads, or where these pass: _e.g._ part of the old highway from Rochdale
to Burnley is called the Salter's Gate. The old road from Rochdale to
Hebden Bridge crosses Salter Edge, on Blackstone Edge. The road from
Rochdale to Middleton crosses Salter Edge in Hopwood. The road from
Ashton to Peniston passes Salter's Brook in the woodlands of Cheshire.
It is somewhat remarkable that all these roads lead in direct lines to
the Cheshire salt works.

    F. R. R.

271. _Chattes of Haselle._--Sir John Mandeville, in giving the account
of the growth of pepper in India, says:

  "The long Peper comethe first, whan the Lef begynnethe to come;
  and it is lyche the _Chattes_ of Haselle, that cometh before the
  Lef, and it hangethe lowe."

Is this old name for "catkins" retained in any part of England, or is it
the same word?

    H. N. E.

272. "_Truth is that which a man troweth._"--Would some one of your
correspondents furnish the authority for the saying, "Truth is that
which a man troweth?"


273. _Religious Statistics._--Is there any work published, on which
reliance may be placed, which would give me the numbers, or supposed
numbers, of persons professing the Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Protestant,
Episcopal, and other varieties of religious worship? The number of
professing members of the Greek Church is given in various works, but I
have never seen any complete list of the numbers professing other

    Q. E. D.

274. _Cross-legged Effigies._--What is the date of the _latest_
cross-legged effigy known, and is the person commemorated known to have
been connected with the Crusades? Is there any cross-legged memorial
effigy with the hands in the attitude of drawing the sword of so late a
date as the fourteenth century?

Dugdale and others say that persons pledged to join a crusade were
marked with the cross. How was this ceremony performed?

    W. H. K.

275. _Verses accidentally occur in Classical Prose often._--Has a
collection of these ever been made? (I have a "Note" on the subject, but
do not send it, feeling sure I must have been anticipated.)

    A. A. D.

276. _Count Maurice Tanner de Lacy._--From what family connexion did
"Count Maurice Tanner de Lacy," general in the Austrian service, and who
died in 1819, take the name of "Tanner?" What relative was General M. de
Lacy to Joseph Francis Maurice Count de Lacy, field marshal under Joseph
II., and who distinguished himself so highly during the Seven Years'
War; also who was mother of the latter?


277. _The Sinaitic Inscriptions._--Your correspondent E. H. D. D. (Vol.
iv., p. 332.) says that the Sinaitic inscriptions have been already
deciphered. May I ask, by whom?

    T. D.

278. _Portrait of Dr. Bray._--Is any authentic portrait in existence of
Dr. Bray, to whom the venerable Society for the Propagation of the
Gospel owes its origin?


279. _Peter Plancius' Map of the World._--In _M. Blundevill his
Exercises, containing Eight Treatises_, 6th edition, 4to., 1622, one of
the eight is described thus:

  Item. A plaine and full description of Peter Plancius his
  universall Mappe lately set forth in the yeare of our Lord 1592,
  containing more places newly found, as well in the East and West
  Indies, as also towards the North Pole, which no other Mappe
  heretofore hath."

Where is this Peter Plancius' map to be found?

    J. O. M.

280. _Derivation of Theodolite._--Can any of your correspondents give
the derivation of _theodolite_? I fear that θεάομαι δολος
might be considered a libel.

    J. S. WOOD.

281. _Lycian Inscriptions._--I should be glad to hear what attempts have
been made, and with what success, to decipher the inscriptions upon the
Lycian monuments in the British Museum. Col. Mure, in his _History of
Grecian Literature_, vol. i. p. 84., speaks of them as at present
unintelligible. The character, he says, is a variety of the
Græco-Phoenician. I find several, if not the greater part, of the
letters in Gesenius's _Monumenta Phoenicia_, especially Tab. 11. and 12.
What is the language in which they are written? And if an aboriginal
tongue, over what portion of Asia did the stock to which it belongs
extend in the historical period, and what is that stock? Is it to that
class of dialects that the language of the Gods, as Homer distinguishes
a certain tongue from the language of men, belongs: which called the
"night-jar" χαλκίς, named by men κήμινδις (_Il._ 14.
291.); and "the giant" Βριάρεως, instead of Ἀυγαίων
(_Il._ 2. 403.); and "the Xanthus, Χάνθος, instead of
Σκάμανδρος; and, which is more remarkable still, "the hillock" on the
plain of Troy, the σῆμα πολυσκάρθμοιο Μυρίνης, while men named
it Βατίεια (_Il._ 2. 813.) I have hitherto been accustomed to
consider these names which the gods use to be the old Pelasgian names,
assured as I feel that the Pelasgi occupied the north-west corner of
Asia Minor before the Greeks (Hellenes) took Troy, which event I have
looked upon as one of many in which the energies and [ ... ] of the
young and vigorous Hellenic family were successfully exerted against
their contemporaries of the other less powerful descendants of the old
Pelasgic settlers in that part of the world. But I shall be thankful for
the information which others wiser than I can give, even if it be but a
theory: accompanied with the _facts_ on which it is based, it will be
worth attention.


282. _Maltese Dialect._--Is it more reasonable to assign the Arabic
character of the Maltese dialect to the fact of its early occupation by
the Hebrew-speaking Phoenicians, or to the subsequent Saracen
occupation? or may its difference from Hebrew and from Arabic be
explained by the circumstances of its history, as having been twice, at
two very different periods, occupied by invaders belonging to two
branches of the same stock? Bochart, _Canaan_, i. 26., says that the
name "Melete" is Hebrew, meaning _refugium_; and Diodorus Siculus, v.
cap. 12., uses the term καταφυγή concerning it so pointedly,
that it would almost seem as though he knew that to be the reason why
the Phoenicians gave it its name.


283. _Hobbes's "Leviathan"_ (Vol. iv., p. 314.).--You have inserted my
inquiry respecting the frontispiece to Hobbes's _Leviathan_; I should
also be glad to know the interpretation put by any of your readers on
the various other symbols in that plate. They are, on one side of the
title, a castle, a crown, a cannon, a pile of arms, and a field of
battle, in compartments one below another; and on the other side, a
church, a mitre, a thunderbolt, a collection of implements marked
_syllogism_, _dilemma_, &c., and a tribunal.

I have my own view of the meaning of each part of this, which is at your
service when required.

    W. W.


284. _Wigtoun Peerage._--Can any of your legal correspondents inform me
whether there exist any reports of the addresses of the Lord Advocate
for Scotland, the king's Attorney-General, or the Lord Chancellor, on
the hearing or decision of this case in the year 1782?

The Lord Chancellor was Lord Thurlow; the Lord Advocate, Sir Henry
Dundas; the Attorney-General, Mr. Wallace.

    S. E. G.

285. _Sale by Candle._--Forty or fifty years ago goods were advertised
for public sale "by the candle." Can any of your readers inform me of
the origin of this?

I may remark that it was the custom then at some sales to have candles
marked with red circles; and the moment the candle burned down to the
mark, the lot put up was knocked down to the highest bidder; and, at
some sales, a common candle was burned during the sale.

    J. S. A.

  Old Broad Street.

Minor Queries Answered.

_Derivation of Æra._--Will any of your correspondents inform me of the
derivation of the word _æra_, as, if derived from the Latin word _æra_,
no classical authority that I know of can be adduced. In Ainsworth I
find _æra_ signifies a kind of weed amongst corn; a mark upon money to
show the value; a remarkable period of time.

    J. N. G. G.

  [In Andrews' _Latin-English Lexicon_ our correspondent will find
  the following as the second definition of _Æra_, "ÆRA, Æ, f. (from
  _Æra_, the plural of _Æs_), a word belonging to Later Latin. 1. In
  Mathem. _The given number, according to which a calculation is to
  be made._ Vitruvius (Vetrubius) Rufus in Salmas. Exerc. I. p. 483.
  2. _The item of an account_ for which in the class. _per æra_, as
  plur. of _æs_, came into use. Ruf. Fest. in Breviar. _in_. The
  passage of Lucil. cited by Nonius, 2, 42., _æra perversa_, is
  prob. also plur. 3. _The era or epoch_ from which time is

_Tudur Aled._--Can any of your Cambrian correspondents inform me when
Tudur Aled, a Welsh poet, flourished; and in what collection his works
are to be found?


  [Tudur Aled, so called on account of his residence on the banks of
  the Aled, in the county of Denbigh, flourished about the year
  1490, and was a friar of the Order of St. Francis. He wrote a
  poetical account of the miracles reported to have been performed
  at St. Winifred's Well, in the town of Holywell, as well as the
  life of that saint. He was also one of the followers of Sir Rhys
  ab Thomas, of Dinevor in Carmarthenshire, and wrote several poems
  in praise of his great achievements. Some of our Cambrian readers
  can probably state where his pieces are to be found.]

_Tonges of Tonge._--Can any of your Lancashire correspondents furnish me
with information respecting the genealogy and family history of the
Tonges of Tonge, near Middleton in that county? This family appears to
have been of some consideration at an early period, and to have become
extinct at the commencement of the last century.

    J. B. (Manchester.)

  [Some notices of this family will be found in Baines's _History of
  Lancaster_, vol. iii. p. 86.]

_Robert Hues on the Use of Globes._--Is there any edition of this book
in English or Latin as early as 1595?

    J. O. M.

  [The Bodleian contains a copy printed in 1594:--"Robertus Hues,
  Tractatus de globis et eorum usu, accommodatus iis qui Londini
  editi sunt anno 1593, sumptibus Gul. Sandersoni. 8vo. Lond. in æd
  Thomæ Dawson, 1594." Also another copy, "8vo. typ. G. Voegelini,



(Vol. iv., p. 283.)

In forming a literary project, whether extensive or otherwise, it is
advisable to keep in view the humble science of arithmetic. Without that
precaution, it may become a source of vexation both to its projector and
its promoters; and, in some cases, the non-completion of it may be a
real injury to literature.

When I proposed a typographic memorial of William Caxton, in preference
to an architectural memorial, and intimated that it might be compressed
into an octavo volume, and produced at a very moderate price, I
flattered myself with having made a more correct estimate than is
commonly made by designers and architects--Paxton, Cubitt, and Fox,
always excepted--and I venture to announce, on more mature reflection,
the same decided opinion.

With thanks to MR. BOTFIELD for his enumeration of the translated works
of Caxton, I must remind him that the proposal was a collection of his
_original compositions_, with _specimens of his translations_. To
reprint the entire works which proceeded from his press was never my
project. I could not have entertained such an idea for one moment; nor
should I think the realisation of it desirable, even if it could be
effected by magic. I readily admit, however, that I have a liking for
_Fayts of armes and chyvalrye_--that _Thystorye of Reynard the foxe_ is
very attractive--and that the _Boke for travellers_ would be a choice
_morçeau philologique_.

The publications of Caxton are about sixty in number, and I am sure that
more than six pages would seldom be required for any one work, and that
many articles might be properly treated in less than two pages each. A
short memoir of Caxton, a glossary of obsolete words and phrases, an
appendix of documents, and an index, are the only additions which I
should consider as essential to the completeness of the design. All this
might be comprised in an octavo volume of moderate extent.

The _Typographical antiquities_ of Ames, as augmented by Dibdin, being
the accredited source of information on Caxton, and having misled some
superior writers, I shall presume to deliver my opinion of the _first_
volume of that work--not having much acquaintance with the subsequent
volumes. Dibdin had formed, at the very outset, a most injudicious
resolution. Caxton was his hero; and he resolved, as he tells us in his
autobiography, to "devote the first volume entirely to the productions
of his press." In order to carry out this plan, he was led to introduce
much extraneous and useless matter. We have endless repetitions of what
_Lewis says_, and what _Ames says_, and what _Herbert says_, and even
what the dreamer _Bagford says_, instead of such information as should
have been derived from an examination of the books themselves. Moreover,
he is very deficient in the _logic of history_, in point of method, and
in point of accuracy; and the extracts, being in modern orthography, are
to philological students UTTERLY WORTHLESS.

This, and perhaps more than this, I may hereafter have occasion to
prove; and should it seem to others that I express myself harshly, due
consideration shall be given to their objections.

I must now assure MR. BOTFIELD that it gives me satisfaction to observe
him somewhat disposed to view my project with favour, and that I am not
less disposed to make such modifications of the conditions of
publication as may meet the wishes of himself and the other contributors
toward _The Caxton Testimonial_. Two modes of union suggest themselves,
which I submit to his consideration in the form of queries.

1. If the preparation and impression of the intended volume should be
undertaken by a certain literary society, honourably distinguished by
the substantial character of the works which have been edited under its
sanction, would the committee of _The Caxton Testimonial_ engage to take
a certain number of copies, in case the council of the society alluded
to should assent to such a deviation from its usual course?

2. If this arrangement should be objected to on either side, would the
committee of _The Caxton Testimonial_ undertake to produce a literary
memorial of Caxton on the plan before-described, or not much differing
from it, and under the editorship of persons to be named by themselves?

If neither plan should be approved, I shall not abate _one jot of hope_
as to the success of the project; but, by permission of the editor of
"NOTES AND QUERIES," proceed with my humble contributions to _The Caxton


Might not the purpose be attained by the establishment of a club (on the
same principles as the Bannatyne, Maitland, and Spalding Clubs), for the
republication of the works of the first English printer? His works are
of such excessive rarity that they are inaccessible even to the most
devoted antiquary, and indeed many of them are scarcely known even by
name. They are principally thin quartos, and the actual expense of
reprinting them could not be heavy. The only trouble would be in
collating them; and if the matter was once set on foot, we have many
able typographical antiquaries who, I have no doubt, would assist in
editing them. Such a plan appears preferable, because in making the Club
open to any party who chose to pay the agreed-on subscription, it would
thus become better known throughout the kingdom, and consequently stand
a much better chance of support and, of course, success.

The great object of the memorial, in addition to a just recognition of
the important services of Caxton, appears to be to revive his memory;
and this end can only be effectually gained by a republication of his
works, and the plan of a club appears to be the only way by which they
can be extensively circulated.


  [Our correspondent has, he will perceive, misapprehended MR.
  CORNEY'S suggestion; which is a far more practical one, than a
  reprint of all the works which issued from the press of Caxton. In
  the first of the modes which MR. CORNEY now suggests for carrying
  out his views he appears to us to have hit upon a very happy
  expedient; which we think may easily be accomplished in a way to
  do credit to all parties concerned in it, and really to do honour
  to the memory of William Caxton.]


(Vol. iv., pp. 316. 356.)

As your correspondent C. has noticed the copy of Sallust containing the
autograph of Mary Queen of Scots, which was presented to the library of
this University by our illustrious alumnus JOHN WILSON CROKER, I think
it right to send you the following account of it.

The full title is as follows:--

      _Opera Sallustiana._

      _Caij Crispi Sallustij inter historicos_
      nominatissimi, ac veri cum _Iodoci Badij
      Ascensij_ expositione perq[ue] familiari opera post nouā
      limam et nonnulla nuperrime addita recēter: et subjecta
      ¶ _Pomponij leti_ Sallustiana recognitio
          _et ejusdem
       vita_ et explanatis.
      _Historicq[ue]_ descriptio: species et utilitas _ac viginti
      styli historici precepta_.

The words here printed in Italics are in rubric in the original. Then
follows on the title-page a table of contents of the volume, with
reference to the folio in which each piece is to be found.

Then follows a small square woodcut, representing SS. Peter and Paul
holding the sacred handkerchief with the face of Christ impressed upon
it; and on each side of this is the date in rubric, thus,

                |        |
      M. CCCCC. |        | XXIII.
                |        |

The whole is surrounded with a framework formed of various woodcut
ornaments. One of these (on the left) represents Judas betraying our
Lord with a kiss; the other (on the right) our Lord bearing His cross.

On the reverse of the title is a dedicatory letter from Iodocus Badius
Ascensius to Franciscus de Roban, Archbishop of Lyons.

Then follows Tabula Alphabetica, occupying four pages.

Then (on fol. A. iiij) a letter, "Aug. Mapheo rerū Ro. Thesaur.
Pōp. letus. S." beginning "Marcus Valerius probus unice vetustatis

On the next page is 'Caij Crispi Sallustij vita per Pōpo. letū."

On the next page begins "De historia et ea concernentibus collecta per
ascensium;" and in the blanks round the heading of this page is one of
the autographs of the unfortunate queen, in her large bold hand,

      _Maria_      _Regina_.

On the next page begin "Viginti precepta pro historica lege," which are
continued on the next two pages. In the blank spaces left round the
titles of the ninth and tenth precepta, the queen has again written,

      _Ex libris_    _Mariæ_
      _Scotorum_     _Reginæ_

On the next leaf begin the works of Sallust, with the commentaries and
other apparatus. The sheets are in eights, so that the book is more
properly large 8o than 4o, signatures A--S(but S is only a half-sheet).
The prefatory matter (including the title) is contained on a single
sheet, sig. A, of six leaves only. This is expressed by the printer's
register at the end--

      "Regestum huius operis
      A . a . b . c . d . e . f . g . h . i . k . l . m . n . o . p .
          q . r . s .
      Oēs sunt quaterniones preter A [q]. est ternio . s . vero

The colophon has not been completely given by C.; it is as follows:

  "¶ Crispi Sallustii Catilina (_sic_) et Jugurthina cum reliquis
  collectaneis ab Ascensio: ut cum[que] explanatis: hic suum capit
  finem. Lugduni diligenti recognitione Impressus per Antoniū
  Blachard[6] anno domini M. quingētesimo. xxiii. pridie Calend.

  [Footnote 6: Not Blanchard, as C. has printed the name.]

These particulars may enable your readers to identify this edition,
which is, I believe, very rare.

After the colophon are two pages occupied by remarks on Sallust by
"Jacobus a cruce Bononiensis:" leaving the last page in the volume
blank, except that in the centre is a woodcut of larger size than that
already mentioned, which is on the title-page, but representing the same
subject, viz. SS. Peter and Paul holding the sacred handkerchief.

On the upper right-hand corner of this last page are the verses quoted
by C., and correctly quoted, except that _meæ_ and _puellæ_ in the first
line are _mee_ and _puelle_ in the original.

There is not the smallest shadow of probability for supposing these
verses, or any of the other MS. annotations which occur in the volume,
to be in the handwriting of Mary Queen of Scots. She wrote a large and
not by any means a scholarlike hand, which is very well known; whereas
these verses and the other annotations, are in a small and crampt
scholarlike hand of the sixteenth century, as unlike the handwriting of
Mary as any that can be imagined. In fact I was not aware, until I read
C.'s letter in "NOTES AND QUERIES," that anybody had ever supposed it to
be hers.

The note recording the donation of this book by James I. to Bishop Hall,
occurs fol. xc. It is in a large schoolboylike hand, and is correctly
quoted by C.

The book contains numerous woodcuts, which have no discoverable relation
to the text, and are inserted merely to mark the commencement of the
books, or different pieces of which the volume consists. Many of these
are repeated several times.

The ornamental letter to which C. refers is the letter O, the first in
the book. The grotesque character of it noticed by C. would not be
easily observed except it were specially pointed out. C. may be assured
that it was not particularly pointed out to Her Majesty when she did us
the honour of inspecting this and some other literary treasures of our
library in 1849.


  Trinity Coll. Dublin.


(Vol. iv., pp. 223. 285. 323.)

I trust that a few words more will not be deemed overmuch in pointing
out what I think will be found to be the source of T. W.'s difficulty.
We need not go to French or German translators, because it is reasonable
to suppose that where any sense can be made out of the text as it
stands, the last thing a foreigner would do would be to complete an
elliptical expression. I agree with MR. COLLINS, who says the expression
"is very good sense;" and from his adding "much more Byronic," I expect
he will agree with me in adding also, "but very bad taste." T. W. seems
to have felt this; and nothing can be more conclusive than his criticism
upon this point. I trust that there are few men of taste who have not as
utter an abhorrence of tyranny as Lord Byron; but I think that, strongly
as men of genius may be supposed to feel, few would have lugged in the
tyrants on such an occasion; as it seems to me it was just in the nature
of the noble poet, with or without cause, to do. What Byron says is
perfectly true; it is simply out of place: nevertheless, as the text
stands, it is said with force. But adopt T. W.'s variation, and can a
_flatter_ truism be conceived? And, after all, the objection not
removed; for the allusion would be equally out of place: unless, indeed,
your correspondent could make out of the text that

      "Thy waters wasted them while they were free,"
      And _wasted them_, _afterwards_, during their slavery,
      Or, has continued _to waste them since_.


I will not dwell on T. W.'s last remarks about Byron's "Address to the
Ocean," farther than to observe, that it is difficult to conceive how he
can understand the French translation which he quotes, in such a way
that it shall tally with the view which he has put forward. The
translation says, "the waves wasted their shores in the days of liberty,
as they have done since under many a tyrant." This is very different
from making the line mean either "the waves wasted the tyrants," as T.
W. thinks it means with Byron's punctuation, or "the shores obey the
tyrants," as T. W. would make it mean with his _amended_ punctuation.

In a recent number (p. 325.) MR. M. COLLINS objects to--

      "Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in _vain_!"

and exclaims, "_In vain!_" Why, did not Columbus, &c.? But this
criticism also overlooks the meaning of the passage. The fleets traverse
the ocean quite in vain, as to producing any permanent traces, as is
explained in the very next words:

      "Man marks _the earth_ with ruin: his control
      Stops with the shore," &c.

    W. W.



(Vol. iv., pp. 190. 331.)

A reference to Dr. Guggenbühl's _Letter to Lord Ashley on Cretinism_,
and to the reviews of the subject, of which I can name two in the
_Athenæum_, one in 1848, p. 1077., and another on June 21, 1851, will, I
think, show that there are no "races of Cretins," though the
disease--for it is nothing but a disease--will sometimes largely affect
even families. One of the principal characteristics of the disease is a
disgusting goître, enlarging the neck to such a size, that a part of it
becomes pendulous to the length of upwards of a foot, and can even be
flung over the shoulder, and is, indeed, often carried there. It is very
commonly accompanied by idiocy; and, in fact, the Cretin is one of the
most distressing objects that can be seen. The disease is very common in
some parts of Switzerland, especially, I believe, the Valais; some
attribute it to the water: and probably climatic influences, in
conjunction with the deleterious elements contained in the water, and
the frequent intermarriage of the villagers, and deficient or
unwholesome diet, are the chief sources to which it must be traced. It
is curable; at the institution on the Abendberg the treatment is very
successful. The disease never appears above a certain level, and
disappears when, under favourable circumstances, the patient is raised
to that level. Cases have been found in Lancashire, and at Chiselborough
in Somersetshire, and at other places which present predisposing causes
resembling those of Switzerland.

I do not think that AJAX'S suggestion "credentes" as the derivation of
Cretin can be substantiated. Is it a term at all connected with
diversity of religious opinion and consequent persecution? In the Alps,
Cretinism is regarded with pity and kindness, as RUSTICUS truly remarks.
The term _cagot_ is current in the French with the meaning of an
impostor, a hypocrite; "celui qui a une dévotion fausse ou
mal-entendue," is the meaning in the _Dictionnaire de l'Académie_; also
a bigot.

It is altogether a religious term. May I suggest that they are a relique
of the old population of the mountain vallies imperfectly Christianised,
therefore despised by the more enlightened population of the
neighbourhood,--half-civilised, perhaps, and physically degraded by the
same causes which have given the goître and the idiocy of the Cretin to
the inhabitants of the Valais. If so, they may be Iberian, or what is
commonly called Celtiberian, a term which I think there is reason for
abandoning. I shall be glad to hear more of these _Cagots_; about the
Cretins a good deal is known, and with much certainty, but nothing, as
far as I can learn, that tends to identify them historically with any
religious sect.

I am able to add further information concerning the _Cagots_. They are a
miserable race, mostly beggars, or employed only about the meanest and
filthiest work, abounding in leprosy and other cutaneous diseases, and
in the most loathsome vermin; houseless, half-clad, inhabiting stables,
barns, or any casual place of shelter, generally mutilated and lame,
outcasts from society, reputed to lead infamous lives, indulging in the
most horrible practices, even of cannibalism, and worse offences than
that. Their brand used to be an eggshell on their clothes, and the
custom was to pierce their feet with an iron. Scaliger derived their
name from "Canis Gottus," and their origin has been assigned to some one
of the northern nations which penetrated into the south of France and
north of Spain in the third and fourth centuries before our era.

On this may I be allowed to forward a Query or two? What is their
language? What are their own traditions concerning their origin? I am
confirmed in my opinion that they are no way analogous to the Cretins;
the latter being diseased, and Cretins because they are diseased; the
_Cagot_ being diseased and filthy, and despised because he is a _Cagot_,
an individual of a degraded and outcast race of men.



(Vol. iv., p. 344.)

In the early church the sermon was delivered immediately after the
reading of the Scriptures (_Const. Apost._ lib. viii. c. 5.), and
sometimes preached without any text; at other times, upon more texts
than one; but most commonly the text was taken out of some paragraph of
the Psalms or Lessons, as they were read. Origen expressly calls
Sermons, _explanations of the Lessons_ (Orig. _cont. Cels._, lib. iii.).
The Fathers sometimes so ordered the matter, as to preach upon the
Psalm, the Epistle, and the Gospel all together, when they happened to
be on the same subject. Thus St. Augustine (_Serm._ x. t. x. p. 112.)
preached upon the subject of praise and thanksgiving, out of the
Epistle, the Psalm, and the Gospel together, because they each had
something relating to his subject. (_Bingham_, book xiv. ch. iv. § 17.)
This may have given rise to the present plan of textual preaching.
During the middle ages we frequently meet with the terms _postilla_,
_postillæ_, _postillare_, and the like (from _post illa verba Scripturæ
sacræ_), denoting sometimes merely expositions of Scripture, and
sometimes popular discourses founded upon a passage just before read.

In England, about the year 957, Elfric, afterwards Archbishop of
Canterbury, required the priest in each parish to explain the Gospel of
the day, the Creed, and the Lord's Prayer, on Sundays and holydays.
(Canon XXIII. Ælfrica, Wilkins, _Concil._ tom. i. p. 253.) The same
person afterwards compiled Homilies in the Anglo-Saxon language, which
for some time continued to be read in the English Church. (Cave,
_Historia Literaria_, tom. ii.)

During the reign of King John, A.D. 1204, the custom of preaching from a
text appears to have originated with Stephen Langton, Archbishop of
Canterbury, and adopted by some of the divines of the University of
Oxford. The practice, however, met with some opposition by the sages and
seniors of that seat of learning, as related by the author [Sir John
Peshall] of _The History of the University of Oxford, from the Death of
William the Conqueror to the Demise of Queen Elizabeth_, 4to. 1773, p.

  "The ancient practice of explaining considerable portions of
  Scripture first showed itself openly in this University. This was
  to name a thesis or text from the Scripture, and make divisions
  upon it; which method is said to have been adopted by Stephen
  Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, who therefore divided the
  Scriptures into chapters. The people at their religious assemblies
  much approved of this way, in preference to the raw discourses of
  young and ignorant preachers. Yet others, rejecting new customs
  and innovations, chose to follow their old way, which was that of
  the Saints Austin, Jerome, Barnard, &c.; and Robert Grostest, D.D.
  (whose word was a law with the university), was among the
  opposers. This was _postillando_, i.e. by expounding the words of
  Scripture as they stood in order, by inferences drawn from them.
  They took no text, but began in this manner: 'I intend, by the
  grace of God, in my following discourse, to treat of certain
  matters; and in these matters I intend to draw certain and true
  conclusions, for I intend now to speak of the fear of God. First,
  concerning fear,' &c. And so far down as the fifteenth century
  this kind of preaching continued: for so Vascanius, doctor and
  chancellor of the university, relates of himself: 'Anno 1450, in
  the octaves of St. John the Evangelist, on the Lord's Day, I
  showed in my sermon, preached at Oxford, in St. Martin's Church at
  Carfax, that Dr. Augustine preached four hundred sermons to the
  clergy and people without any thesis, and without taking a text at
  the beginning of his discourse. And so I (says he) preached the
  day and year above mentioned, in Oxford, by taking no theme or
  text; but I administered to the people profitable matters, without
  repeating of any text, but only words pertinent to matters
  proposed or declared.'"

The ancient practice of explaining considerable portions of Scripture to
the people was revived by our reformers. Before them Colet had employed
many years in publicly expounding all the Epistles of St. Paul.
Archbishop Cranmer expounded Hebrews; as Bishops Hooper, Latimer, and
Jewel, did Jonah, the Lord's Prayer, many of the Epistles, and all the
Epistles and Gospels on Sundays and holydays.

  "From the practice of Ambrose, Origen, Chrysostom, and Austin,
  among the ancients, and of our reformers, and more modern divines,
  we may safely affirm (says Mr. Shepherd in his _Elucidation of the
  Morning and Evening Prayer_) that explaining and applying portions
  of Scripture read in the Lessons, is a very beneficial mode of
  preaching to ordinary congregations."

    J. Y.


THE REV. ---- GAY.

(Vol. iii., pp. 424. 508.)

Through the kindness of a friend, who takes an interest in the pedigree
of the _Gay_ family, I am enabled to offer the following information to

In Paley's Life of Law, prefixed to the _Theory of Religion_, mention is
made of Gay's dissertation; and the author is there stated to be of
"Sidney College." Inquiry was accordingly made in that quarter, and the
following answer was returned:--

  "I find there have been four persons of the name of Gay educated
  at Sidney College; three of them _certainly_--and in _all
  probability_ the fourth--members of the same family. As I shall
  have occasion to refer to them subsequently, I will give you their
  several entries in the College Register:

  "'1. _Johannes_, fil. Jacobi _Gay_, clerici, natus apud Meath in
  com. Devon. lit. gram. instit. per quinquennium apud Torrington
  sub M'ro Reynolds, deinde per biennium sub M'ro Rayner, apud
  Tiverton in com. prædicto. Adm. est Pens. min. anno æt. 18'mo sub
  tut. M'ro Nath. Popple, S.T.B., et M'ro Laur. Jackson, M.A., 7'mo
  Nov. 1717.'

  "'2. _Nicholas_, fil Jacobi _Gay_, clerici, natus apud Meath in
  com. Devon. lit. gram. instit. per quinquennium apud Torrington
  sub M'ro Reynolds, deinde per triennium sub M'ro Rayner apud
  Tiverton, in com. prædicto. Adm. est Sizator 20'mo Oct. 1718, anno
  æt. 17'mo, Tut. Laurentio Jackson, A.M.'

  "'3. _Jacobus_, fil. natû max. Rev'di Joannis _Gay_, hujus
  Coll'ii quondam Socii, posteà Vicarii de Wilshamstead, natus apud
  Wilshamstead, in com. Bedf. lit. gr. instructus apud Bampton in
  com. Devon. sub M'ro Wood. Adm. est Sizator 24'to Aug. 1752, annum
  agens 17'mo, Tut. J. Lawson et J. Cranwell.'

  "'4. _Johannes_, fil. natû max. Nicolai _Gay_, de Newton St. Cyres
  in com. Devon. Vicarii, ibidem natus, lit. verò gram. inst. apud
  South-Molton per sexennium, et apud Ottery St. Mary per triennium
  sub viro rev'do Joanne Colridge. Adm. est Sizator 15'to Junii
  1762, annum agens 19'mo, Tut. Gul. Elliston, M'ro C'i et Joh.

  "Gay (1.) was a scholar of Peter Blundell's foundation, and in
  1724 succeeded to a fellowship on the same foundation. This
  fellowship, of which there are two at this college, is tenable for
  ten years; and all our fellows are compelled to proceed regularly
  to the degree of B.D. (seven years after they have taken that of
  M.A.). Mr. Gay was M.A. in 1725, and might have proceeded to B.D.
  in 1732: but he never took any higher degree than M.A. He must
  therefore have vacated his fellowship before 1732. I find no
  mention of his name in our College Office-book later than 7th May,
  1730. He was probably presented during that year to the vicarage
  of Wilshamstead (which of course would render void his
  fellowship), and subsequently entered upon another kind of
  fellowship, one of the results of which was Gay (3.).

  "Of Gay (2.) I find it recorded that he was appointed Chapel Clerk
  in 1719; that he was B.A. 1722, and M.A. 1731. As far as dates are
  concerned, it might be questioned which of the brothers (1. or 2.)
  was the author of the 'Preliminary Dissertation.' In our
  University Library I can find only two editions of Law's
  translation of Archbishop King's work, viz. the 2nd edit., 1732,
  which contains the 'Preliminary Dissertation,' but no mention of
  its author; and the 4th edit., Camb. 1758, at the end of the
  Preface to which are these words: 'The following Dissertation was
  composed chiefly by the _late_ Rev. Mr. Gay.' The author of the
  Dissertation must therefore have died in or before 1758. But in
  the entry of Gay (4.) 1762 (who was without doubt nephew of 1.), I
  do not find 'defuncti' attached to his father's name, which it has
  always been usual to add, in the case of the father being

  "I am convinced in my own mind that the Mr. Gay of Sidney College,
  mentioned by Paley in his life of Bishop Law, was Gay (1.). There
  would be no difficulty, I should think, in ascertaining the time
  of Mr. John Gay's decease. The present vicar of Wilshamstead could
  no doubt readily inform you. If it should be found that Mr. John
  Gay died before 1758, then there can be no question but that he is
  Bishop Law's _late_ Mr. Gay.

  "Fellow of Sidney College."


(Vol. iv., p. 208.)

The 8 Eliz. c. 15. and 14 Eliz. c. 11. provide that in every parish the
churchwardens with six other parishioners shall yearly on one of the
holydays in Easter week, and at every other time when needful, tax and
assess every land and tithe-owner within the parish to pay such sums of
money as they shall think meet according to the quantity of such their
lands or tithes, and on nonpayment thereof within fourteen days after
demand to forfeit five shillings, which, together with the sum assessed
shall be levied by distress on the goods and chattels of such land or
tithe-owner; and as well the said sums as penalties shall be delivered
to two honest and substantial persons of the parish eligible by the
churchwardens, to be named "The distribution of the provisions for the
destruction of noisome fowl and vermin." Such is the authority required
by J. B. (Manchester), by which churchwardens in old times paid sums of
money for the destruction of vermin in the several parishes of England.
It will, however, be observed that their authority was not confined to
"vermin," but extended to the "fowls of the air;" and the "old volumes
of churchwardens' accounts," to which your correspondent has access,
amply testify to the fact that those churchwardens were fully alive to
their duty, powers, and authority, under the above-named statutes;
inasmuch as two, at least, of the _ancient names_ belong to the
_feathered tribe_; _glead_ being identical with _kite_, and _ringteal_
or _ringtail_ (_subbuteo_) with a species of _hawk_, in some districts
more commonly called the _hobby_. _Greas' head_ I must leave to some
other _head_ to determine, unless indeed is meant the _great-shrike_ or
_butcher-bird_ belonging to the same order (_accipitres_) as the _kite_
and _ringtail_ or _hobby_. Notwithstanding J. B.'s diffidence, I am much
inclined to adopt his surmise, that the worthy churchwarden really
intended _badger_ when he wrote _baggar_.


It is hardly so impossible to identify the animals mentioned by your
correspondent J. B. as he supposes. _Glead_ is the A.-S. _glida_ or
_kite_, though, in our version of Deut. xiv. 13., both _glede_ and
_kite_ are mentioned. _Ringteal_ or _ringtail_ is the female of the
_Circus cyaneus_ or hen-harrier, another species of falcon. _Greas'
head_ and _baggar_ refer to the same animal (the badger), for there is
no wonder that a scribe who writes _greas' head_ for _gray's head_
should write also _baggar_ for _badger_. This latter animal has a
variety of names by which he is known in one and the same district, e.g.
_gray_ or _graye_, _bawson_ or _bowson_, _brock_ and _badger_, and in
_our_ churchwardens' accounts these names occur indiscriminately. I hope
some one will be able to point out the origin of paying for the
destruction of these animals out of the parochial funds; I have
frequently searched without success such authorities as I have access
to. The earliest entry of the kind in the books of this parish (which
date from 1520) is in 1583.

I subjoin a few extracts, which afford a curious instance of the
respective prices put upon the heads of these animals at a time when
such entries occur; as,

      "1587 for ij dyverse p'achers for iij sermones iijs iiijd.

      1583 It[=m] for iiij fox heads                         xvjd
      1586  --        ij fox heads                           ijs
      1589  --        catte heades                           iiijd
      1590  --        xij bulspyncke (bulfinch) heades.      vjd
        "   --        vj crowe heades                        jd
        "   --        an urchen (hedghog) heade              ijd
      1596  --        a grayes head                          vjd
      1620  --        a bawson head                          xijd
      1621  --        tow fox cub heads                      xijd
        "   --        vij hedghoge heads                     xiiijd
      1626  --        a wylde catt head                      ijd
      1736  --        an otter head                          xijd
      1741  --        a fulmart's head                       iiijd
        "   --        a ffoomard's head                      iiijd
      1744  --        3 marts heads                          is"

These entries are very numerous in our books with every variety of
spelling, though the prices remain very much the same. I have found no
entries of the kind after 1744, but that may be owing to the accounts
being not entered fully in every case after that period; but I cannot
agree with J. B. in his assertion that these animals are now considered
innocuous; witness the vulgar error with regard to the hedgehog's
sucking the teats of cows, an error which no process of reasoning can
induce the farmers about here to renounce; moreover, I know for a fact
that not more than a dozen years ago the farmers near Wakefield used to
give a halfpenny per head for every unlucky sparrow (fledged or
unfledged) that was brought to them by any bird-nesting youngster.


  Ecclesfield, Sheffield.


(Vol. iv., p. 337.)

There is the more pressing need, in our day, of an _Order of Victoria_,
or _of Civil Merit_--such as you justly and feelingly contend for and
describe in the "NOTES AND QUERIES"--from the great and increasing
numbers of our literary and scientific men, who are acutely sensible of
the undeserved stigma and ban under which they lie, by being often
excluded from the intellectual society so congenial to them, owing to
their not possessing some recognised badge of honour and passport in
life, equivalent to the degrees or distinctions so justly conferred upon
those who have studied at our Universities, or are awarded to men who
have won eminence in the Naval, Military, or Civil Service of the Crown.
An honourable title, proceeding from the Sovereign herself, and bestowed
alike on _both sexes_ (for who would think--certainly not our beloved
Queen--of wounding the delicate female mind by excluding a Somerville, a
Hannah More, a Joanna Baillie, or a Felicia Hemans--the three latter not
needing now our poor applause--from the cheering honours due to their
genius, their talents, and their virtues?) would be a fitting tribute
from a British, a Christian Monarch to that intellectual superiority and
moral worth which are the immortal distinctions of our race. At present
many individuals who have raised themselves by their native force of
mind and acquirements to a position of honour and respectability as
literary and scientific men, are yet looked upon and treated as pariahs
by those who are the bestowers and guardians of national distinctions.
The just pride and self-respect of such men will forbid their courting,
by any unworthy advances, an introduction to society, from which, by
their position, they stand excluded; and it would be a truly royal
exercise of her sovereign rights, for Queen Victoria to extend, beyond
the present line of demarcation, the barriers that now prevent those
from meeting together, who, if they were better acquainted, would learn
to value and esteem each other: while society at large would be an
immense gainer in all its relations--scientific, literary, and
artistic--by the honours and distinctions thus conferred upon a most
worthy, but most contemned and neglected portion of the educated


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Arbor Lowe_--_Stanton Moor_--_Ayre Family_ (Vol. iv., p. 274.).--In
Rhodes's _Peak Scenery_, p. 228, it is said:

  "Near Middleton, by Youlgrave, we found the celebrated Druidical
  monument of Arbor Low, one of the most striking remains of
  antiquity in any part of Derbyshire. This circle includes an area
  of from forty to fifty yards diameter, formed by a series of large
  unhewn stones, not standing upright, but all laid on the ground,
  with an inclination towards the centre; round these the remains of
  a ditch, circumscribed by a high embankment, may be traced. Near
  the south entrance into this circle there is a mound, or
  burial-place, in which some fragments of an urn, some half-burnt
  bones, and the horns of a stag, were found."

In the same work, at pages 236, 237., is an account of the Druidical
remains at Stanton Moor. And at page 224. are the following remarks:--

  "The Eyres is one of the oldest families in Derbyshire, where they
  have continued to reside through the long lapse of more than seven
  hundred years, as appears from the following curious extract from
  an old pedigree which is preserved at Hassop. 'The first of the
  Eyres came in with King William the Conqueror, and his name was
  Truelove; but in the battle of Hastings (14 Oct. 1066) this
  Truelove, seeing the king unhorsed, and his helmet beat so close
  that he could not breathe, pulled off his helmet and horsed him
  again. The king said, Thou shalt hereafter from Truelove be called
  _Air_ or _Eyre_, because thou hast given me the air I breathe.
  After the battle the king called for him, and being found with his
  thigh cut off, he ordered him to be taken care of; and being
  recovered, he gave him lands in the county of Derby, in reward for
  his services, and the seat he lived at he called Hope, because he
  had hope in the greatest extremity; and the king gave the leg and
  thigh cut off in armour for his crest, and which is still the
  crest of all the Eyres in England.'"

A descendant of this person is the present Earl of Newburgh, of Hassop

At page 240. is an account of the village of Birchover, and also of the
Rowter Rocks, but no mention is made of the family of the Ayres, or of
the ruins of any house formerly belonging to them.



_The Duke of Monmouth's Pocket-books_ (Vol. iv., p. 3.).--The paragraph
quoted by SIR F. MADDEN out of _Prayers after the confession of sins,
and the sense of pardon obtained_, and well called by him "striking," is
a _verbatim_ copy of a passage in "A Guide for the Penitent," published
at the end of Jeremy Taylor's _Golden Grove_.

The short preface, by a nameless hand, which precedes this division of
the _Golden Grove_, would lead one to suppose that "A Guide for the
Penitent" was a posthumous work of Jeremy Taylor; but this is not
exactly stated. The prayers, however, have the same spirit and grandeur
of piety which characterise those which are the acknowledged
compositions of Bishop Taylor. Monmouth was beheaded eighteen years
after Taylor died. It would be interesting to identify the author of "A
Guide for the Penitent" (should there be any doubt on the subject):
also, to ascertain how far Monmouth _quoted_, in his "prayers," from
Taylor or any other divine.



_Buxtorf's Translation of Elias Levita's "Tov Taam._"--Your
correspondent T. T., in reply to my Query respecting this work, says
(Vol. iv., p. 328.) that it "was printed in Venice, 1538, in 4to." This
is impossible: for the elder Buxtorf was born in 1564; and it would be
singular if he had translated R. Elias' work, and printed it at Venice,
twenty-six years before he was born.

T. T. seems not to have observed that my inquiry related to Buxtorf's
_translation_, not to the original work of Elias Levita, which, although
now rare, is sufficiently well known to Rabbinical scholars. I must
therefore renew my inquiry (Vol. iv., p. 272.): has Buxtorf's
_translation_ ever been printed, or does it now exist in MS.?


  Trin. Coll. Dub.

_Burke's "Mighty Boar of the Forest"_ (Vol. iii., p. 493.).--Idomeneus
awaiting the attack of Æneas could hardly be compared with Junius
attacking every body in his way. Burke more probably borrowed his boar
from even a greater poet than Homer. See Psalm lxxx. verses 8 to 13
(Common Prayer Version), and the context before and following, which
contains perhaps the most picturesque and beautiful, as well as
practical, allegory in the compass even of sacred literature. "The wild
boar out of the wood doth root it up, and the wild beasts of the field
devour it."



"_Son of the Morning_" (Vol. iv., pp. 209. 330.).--I have always
understood Byron's apostrophe "Son of the morning, rise! approach you
here!" to be merely an appeal to one of the _Orientals_ who then ruled
in that region. And this appears to me to be confirmed by the suggestion
which follows that the creed of Mahomet shall pass away as that of Jove
has done. The words "Come--but molest not yon defenceless urn," did not
appear to me to have any reference to the iconoclastic propensities of
the person addressed. But this notice of your correspondent is



"_Perhaps it was right to dissemble your love_" (Vol. iv., p.
72.).--This quotation, the author of which was inquired for,--

      "When first I attempted your pity to move," &c.

is from a comedy in three acts called the _Panel_, altered from
Bickerstaff's comedy _'Tis well it's no worse_.


  Burges, Sept. 26. 1851.

_Anecdote of Curran_ (Vol. iv., p. 173.).--This anecdote, I beg to
observe, is incorrectly represented; and surely presents to the reader
no adequate provocation for the sharp retort on him attributed to the
hostess, on his offering her a glass of wine. But the fact is, that the
circumstance occurred, not at a small country inn, but in the city of
Galway; nor solely in company with a brother advocate, as stated by
M.W.B., but at the general bar-mess. The Connaught circuit was not
Curran's, who had been called there _specially_, and who, having heard
of the barmaid's ready wit, was determined to test it. Her name, I well
recollect, was Honor Slaven; and her quick repartee to the not very
delicate jokes constantly practised on her by the gentlemen (?) of the
bar, had spread her fame beyond the province. Curran, however, was far
superior to those whom she had foiled in these too often unseemly
combats, and was expected to prove that superiority in this contest.
Among the customary toasts of that time was a succession of three
alliterative ones, of which the last was of flagrant indecency; and this
Curran resolved should fall to Honor's turn to give in due rotation.
Making her take a seat, with one interposed between them, he began with
the first:--"Honor (directing himself to _her_) and Honesty," followed
by "Love and Loyalty" from his next neighbour; when, ordering a bumper,
he said, "Come Honor, you know the next toast; be not squeamish, and let
us have it." "No, Sir," replied she, with an arch smile, "but I will
pledge you in your own toast--'Honor and Honesty, or, _your absent
friends_.'" These last words were uttered with special emphasis, and, in
their provoked application, well sustained the barmaid's reported
character; as, indeed, promptly acknowledged by Curran himself. I have
more than once heard similar retorts from her when thus assailed.

    J. R.


_Sibi_ (Vol. iv., p. 327.).--The erroneous use of the reflective
pronoun, of which MR. FORBES gives an example in a quotation from the
_Legenda Aurea_, is common in monkish writings. I have an instance
before me, in a charter of Cnut (Kemble's _Codex Dipl. Anglo-Sax._, vol.
iv. p. 28.):

  "Eius (_i.e._ Christi) quippe largiflua bonitate regia dignitate
  subtronizatus, ego Knu[d] rex Angligenæ nationis, pro nauciscendo
  eius immensitatis misericordiæ dono, concedo _sibi_ de suo proprio
  quæ mihi gratuito concessit, villam," &c.

    C. W. G.

_Cassek Gwenwyn_ (Vol. iv., p. 269.).--I learn from the dictionaries of
Walters and Owen, that _casec gwanwyn_, mare of spring, means a
woodpecker. And the more curious part of the name is confirmed by Llwyd,
who calls a woodpecker _casec drychin_, mare of storms. But here I read
that _casec gwenwyn_, mare of poison, means a screech-owl. Of this I
have not elsewhere found anything. Therefore I ask for more information;
to save me from the heresy of thinking that that woman was turned into a
woodpecker. In what country and language does _mara_ mean a screech-owl?

    A. N.

_The Monumental Inscriptions of the Bourchier Family_ (Vol. iv., p.
233.).--Your inquirer L. M. M. will most probably meet with the
information he desires in the county of Essex, of which portion of the
kingdom they were Earls, and held immense possessions from the early
part of the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. Their principal estates
were in the parishes of Moreton, Tollesbury, Chingford, Little Laver,
Greensted, Ramsden, South Church, Wakering, Maldon, North Farnbridge,
Lachingdon, Mayland, Langford, Great Totham, Bentley, Wickes, Tendring,
Great Holland, Beaumont, Ramsey, Bromfield, Rivenhall, Halsted,
Hanningfield, Chicknall, Ulting, Messing, Hedingham Sibil, Ballington,
Foxearth, Belchamp, Toppesfield, Braintree, Little Easton, Chickney;
Broxted, Roding Aythorp, Little Hallingbury, Walden, and Farnham. In all
these parishes they held manors, with the advowsons of several of the
churches. Many of the manors are called after the family, _Bourchier's
Hall_; some members of the family were buried in Bilegh Abbey, which
stood in the west part of the town of Maldon. In Halsted they founded a
chantry for a master and eight priests; and adjoining Little Easton
church still remains a fine chapel, known as Bourchier's chapel, where
there are tombs to some of the family in fine preservation. By a visit
to the churches of the parishes above enumerated, much information may
probably be obtained, for there can be little doubt but so powerful a
family were great benefactors to the churches of the several parishes
where their estates and mansions were situated; and most probably many
members of the family were interred in them, and had tombs to their

    J. R. J.

_Test of the Strength of a Bow_ (Vol. iv., p. 56.).--TOXOPHILUS will
find all his Queries well answered in Hansard's _Book of Archery_. The
modern method of proving a bow is very different from that quoted by
PHILOSOPHUS from Ascham, p. 211. A bow is now, I believe, tested by
placing the bow across a piece of stout timber made for the purpose, and
hanging weights to the string till it reaches about twenty-seven or
twenty-eight inches. The weight necessary to do this determines the
power of the bow.

    H. N. E.

  Bitton Vicarage, Oct. 1851.

_Stillingfleet, Bishop of Worcester_ (Vol. iv., p. 274.).--Is it worth
while, in reference to SIGMA'S inquiry as to the name of the author of
one of the Bishop of Worcester's works, to tell you a droll mistake on
that point, which I have before my eyes? I have the work in a fine old
binding, which in the gilt _lettering_ on the back, states it to be by
_Ed. Wigorn_. This reminds me of another similar _naïveté_. When the
late Bishop Prettyman, then Bishop of Winchester, wrote to propose to
Mr. Murray to publish his life of Pitt, Mr. Murray, following the
signature too literally, addressed his answer to _George Winton, Esq._


_Yankee Doodle_ (Vol. iv., p. 344.).--During the attacks upon the French
outposts in 1755 in America, Governor Shirley and General Jackson led
the force directed against the enemy lying at Niagara and Frontenac. In
the early part of June, whilst these troops were stationed on the banks
of the Hudson, near Albany, the descendants of the "Pilgrim fathers"
flocked in from the eastern provinces; never was seen such a motley
regiment as took up its position on the left wing of the British army.
The band played music some two centuries of age, officers and privates
had adopted regimentals each man after his own fashion; one wore a
flowing wig, while his neighbour rejoiced in hair cropped closely to the
head; this one had a coat with wonderful long skirts, his fellow marched
without his upper garment; various as the colours of the rainbow were
the clothes worn by the gallant band. It so happened that there was a
certain Dr. Shuckburgh, wit, musician, and surgeon, and one evening
after mess he produced a tune, which he earnestly commended as a
well-known piece of military music, to the officers of the militia. The
joke succeeded, and Yankee Doodle was hailed by acclamation "their own
march." During the unhappy war between the American colonies and the
mother country, that quaint merry tune animated the soldiers of
Washington; it is now the national air of the United States.


_General Wolfe_ (Vol. iv., pp. 271. 323.).--Some of the inquiries made
at p. 271. respecting General Wolfe have been subsequently answered, I
find, in p. 323., but no mention appears of his family beyond his father
and mother; a deficiency which I can in some degree supply by ascending
to his great-grandfather, Captain George Wo_u_lfe (sic), of whom we are
told by Ferrar, in his _History of Limerick_, there printed by A.
Watson, in 1787,--

  "That on the capitulation of the city of Limerick in October,
  1651, to the Parliamentarian general Ireton, twenty of the most
  distinguished of its defenders were excepted from pardon, and
  reserved for execution. Amongst them were two brothers, George and
  Francis Woulfe: the former, a military officer; the latter, a
  friar, who was hanged,--but the captain made his escape. He fled,"
  says Ferrar (p. 350.), "to the north of England, where he settled;
  and his grandson, General Edward Woulfe, was appointed colonel of
  the 8th regiment of foot in the year 1745. He transmitted his
  virtues with additional lustre to his son Major-General James
  Woulfe, whose memory will be for ever dear to his country, and
  whose name will be immortalised in history."

Captain Woulfe married, and changed his religion; to which his brother
the friar fell a martyr, exhibiting on the scaffold, it is related, far
more intrepidity than many of his fellow sufferers of military rank.
Ireton, however, finally pardoned several of those originally excepted
from the capitulation. Woulfe's family was at that period one of the
most eminent in the county of Clare, where it still retains a
respectable rank; and one of its members was the late Chief Baron,
Stephen Woulfe, a gentleman equally beloved in society as respected on
the bench. Another was a chemist of some eminence in London, at the
close of the past century. They retained the _u_ in the name, which most
others, like the captain's descendants, laid aside; as Bonaparte did
during his triumphant campaign in Italy, in order to un-Italianise and
Frenchify his patronymic B_u_onaparte. The Chief Justice Wolfe, who was
so barbarously murdered in Dublin at the outbreak of young Emmet's
rebellion in 1803, was of a different branch. Edward, the general's
father, had distinguished himself under Marlborough, as did the son in
1747, at the battle of Lawfelst on the continent. My own family, I may
add, has been brought into close connexion with that of the subsisting
Irish branch of the general's stock by intermarriage.

    J. R. (Cork.)

_The Violin_ (Vol. iv., p. 101.).--This article reminds me of a distich
said to have been inscribed on the violin of Palestrina, the "Musicæ
Princeps" of the sixteenth century:--

      "Viva fui in sylvis; sum dura occisa securi;
      Dum vixi tacui; mortua dulce sona."

Thus translated into French:

      "La hache m'arracha mourant du ford des bois;
      Vivant, j'étais muet; mort, on vante ma voix."

Palestrina's violin was made by a great musical instrument maker at
Bologna, who had the same lines graven on his lutes, bass-viols, &c.

    J. R. (Cork.)

_Earwig_ (Vol. iv., p. 274.).--The allusion to the word "Earwig" induces
me to repeat a _charade_ on it, not without merit, though the last lines
appear more responsive to the rhyme than to the fact:--

      "My _first_, if lost, is a disgrace,
        Unless misfortunes bear the blame;
      My _second_, though it can't efface,
        The dreadful loss, yet hides the shame.

      "My _whole_ has life, and breathes the air,
        Delights in softness and repose;
      Oft, when unseen, attends the fair,
        And lives on honey, and the rose."

    J. R. (Cork.)

_Prophecies of Nostradamus_ (Vol. iv., pp. 86. 140. 258. 329.).--In
answer to MR. DE ST. CROIX'S fair inquiry of the source whence I derived
my assertion of the existence of the first edition of Nostradamus (at p.
329.), I have to say, that it was from the very intelligent
bibliographer, A. A. Renouard. I had known him in Paris at his dwelling
in the _Rue de Tournon_ (where my friend, the celebrated Arthur
O'Connor, with his wife, the daughter of Condorcat, had apartments), and
I afterwards had some interviews with him in London at my own house;
when, on observing in his _Catalogue d'un Amateur_ the Elzevir edition
of 1668, we entered into some conversation on the subject; and, in
reference to the original edition, not much valued indeed as very
imperfect, he said, that though now rare, because long, as not worth
preserving, neglected, it still may, and must be, in the Royal Library;
"il doit nécessairement s'y trouver, et non-seulement là, mais
ailleurs." I too certainly thought that the great national repository
must contain it, but I made no inquiry; and as MR. DE ST. CROIX so
diligently pursued the search without discovering it, I conclude, of
course, that it is not there; but if he authorises M. Renouard's son,
who resides in the _Rue Garancière_, or any respectable bookseller, to
provide the little volume for him, I feel confident of his success. Nor
do I apprehend that the price will correspond with its rarity, like the
works of so many other writers; such even as the prophecies of Merlin,
as stated in the article referred to by MR. DE ST. CROIX, without
recurring to our Shakspeare's early editions, or to those of Ariosto,
Cervantes, Boccacio, Molière, Froissart, Le Roman de la Rose, Amadis de
Gaule, the _Romances of Chivalry_ in various languages, and the
editiones principes of the classics, &c. &c., a comparison of the value
of which two centuries or less ago, as we find them in old catalogues,
with their present cost, so strikes the reader. Numerous books, on the
other hand, have experienced a proportionally equal depreciation:

      "Sic volvenda ætas commutat tempora rerum;
      Quod fuit in pretio, fit nullo denique honore," &c.

      _Lucretius_, lib. v. 1276.

    J. R. (Cork.)

_Expressions in Milton_ (Vol. iii., p. 241.).--If this Query has already
met with an answer, my apology for troubling you with this must be, that
it has escaped my notice.

R. is undoubtedly right in supposing that a "toothed sleck stone" means
a toothed or jagged whetstone; the word _sleck_ preserving a greater
resemblance to its Danish cousin _slecht_ than the modern _slick_.

For "bullish," Milton shall be his own interpreter. "I affirm it to be a
_bull, taking away the essence of that which it calls itself_."

The phrase "bid you the base" is apparently taken from the old game of
Prisoner's Base, for which, if necessary, reference may be made to the
_Boy's Own Book_. I am inclined to think that the very phrase was, in my
school days, used in the game; but if wrong in any remembrance, I may
still be right in my conjecture, and then the phrase would be equivalent
to, "I challenge you to follow me," as one boy follows another in
Prisoner's Base; and we should then have a curious illustration of the
antiquity of the game.


_The Termination "-ship"_ (Vol. iv., p. 153.).--A. W. H. is referred to
Dr. Latham's _English Language_, § 294. p. 372., ed. 2. The Dutch
termination _-schap_, e.g. _vriendschap_, may be added.


"_A little Bird told me_" (Vol. iv. p. 232.).--The following are merely
a few rough notes made from time to time on this saying. I have tried to
put them into some kind of order but they are too trivial, and too
easily verified by reference, to deserve more space in print than they
have hitherto had in writing:--

1. Last lines of _King Henry IV._ Part II., and Steevens's note.

2. The "pious lie" of Mahomet's pigeon. See Gibbon, _Decline and Fall_,
chap. 1. Marg. lemma--"His character," the note beginning--"The
Christians, rashly enough," &c. And--"Life of Mahomet" [_Library of
Useful Knowledge_] note on p. 19. For line from--_Dunciad_--[a slovenly
reference] see book iv. 358.

3. From the Greek? See Potter's _Gr. Antiquities_, book ii. chap.
xv.--or Robinson's _Antiq. Greece_, book iii. chap. xv. _ad init._ as
both refer to _Aristoph. Aves._ [600. 601. Bekker.]

4. _Ecclesiastes_, chap. x. 20.

To these I may add the origin assigned to the saying by Mr. Bellenden
Ker, in his _Essay on the Archæology of our Popular Phrases and Nursery
Rhymes_, 1837, vol. i. p. 63., viz.:--


  "A good humoured way of replying to, _who told you this story?_
  And imparting you don't mean to inform him, that you have a good
  reason for not letting him know. _Er lij t'el baerd_; q. e. _by so
  doing_ [telling] _I should betray_ [do wrong to] _another_," &c.

    C. FORBES.

_Mark of Reference in Bible_ (Vol. iv., p. 57.).--May not this originate
in the Hebrew Keri, used for the same purpose, and of nearly the same

    F. J.


For the purpose of expounding the law in the Jewish assemblies, the
Pentateuch was divided into fifty-four sections (on account of the
intercalary year), that the whole might be read over once annually. The
sections were distinguished, as they still continue to be, in the Hebrew
copies, by the letter _Pe_, or _Phe_, the initial of _Pharasha_, which
signifies separation or division. This probably was the original reason
for adopting the inverted black P [¶] which is retained in our
translation of the Bible to mark paragraphs or transitions. The division
of the Old and New Testament into chapters is a modern practice, and the
subdivision of chapters into verses still more modern. See Shepherd on
the _Morning and Evening Prayer_.

    J. Y.

_King Charles II. and Written Sermons_ (Vol. iv., p. 9.).--The document
inserted at this place is quoted with some variations, and the omission
of the part referring to periwigs by the late Mr. Grimshawe, in his
_Life of the Rev. Leigh Richmond_, p. 157. 4th edit. There is added the
date, "Oct. 8, 1674;" and the following foot-note is appended, "See
_Statute Book of the University of Cambridge_, p. 301." Car. II., Rex.
Mr. Grimshawe's version is printed without any break or asterisks, as if

    W. S. T.

_Walpole and Junius_ (Vol. iv., p. 161.).--CLERICUS quotes some
paragraphs from the letters of Horace Walpole, dated 1764, wherein
Walpole threatens vengeance for the dismissal of Conway; and CLERICUS
concludes by asking, "If these extracts do not _prove_ Horace Walpole to
be Junius, &c., &c., _what can_ he allude to?" Why, to the pamphlet
which he was then writing, and which he immediately published, entitled
_A Counter Address to the Public, on the late Dismission of a General

    W. J.

_Fermilodum_ (Vol. iv., p. 345).--I suspect H. E. has not read his seal
quite correctly. I surmise it is _Fermelioduni_. However, no doubt
Dunferline is meant; and the literal translation of the legend is, "Seal
of the city of Dunferline." This place was a royal burgh, with a palace;
and the word _civitas_ was not then confined to towns which were
Bishop's sees.

    W. S. W.

  Middle Temple.

_Finger Stocks_ (Vol. iv., p. 315.).--In Littlecote Hall, the fine old
seat of the Pophams, in Wiltshire, one of these machines was preserved,
and I doubt not but that it is still to be seen there.

It is of oak, and stands upon a pillar and base like those of a small
round table. I always understood that it was employed as an instrument
of domestic punishment.



_Lord Hungerford_ (Vol. iv., p. 345.).--The story of the device of a
toad having been introduced into the armorial bearings of the
Hungerfords, in memory of the degradation of some member of the family,
is, in every way, nonsensical. "Argent, three toads sable" is certainly
one of their old quarterings; as may be seen upon one of the monuments
in the chapel at Farleigh Castle near Bath. But it was borne by the
Hungerfords for a very different reason. Robert, the second Lord, who
died A.D. 1459, had married the wealthy heiress of the Cornish family of
_Botreaux_: and this has one of the shields used by _her_ family, being
in fact nothing more than an allusion, not uncommon in heraldry, to the
name. This was spelled variously, _Botreaux_ or _Boterelles_: and the
device was probably assumed from the similarity of the name of the old
French word _Botterol_, a toad: (see Cotgrave) or the old Latin word
_Botterella_. The marriage with the Botreaux heiress and the assumption
of her arms, having taken place _many years before_ any member of the
Hungerford family was attainted or executed (as some of them afterwards
were), Defoe's story falls to the ground.

I take this opportunity of adding, that, having been for many years a
collector of materials for a more methodical and accurate account of the
Hungerford family and their property, than has hitherto appeared, and
having completed the arrangement of what I have been able to collect, if
any of your readers or correspondents should have it in his power to
refer me to any sources of illustration, or to inform me of the
existence of anything that might throw light on the subject--such as old
deeds, seals, wills, entries in parish registers, family portraits, or
the like--they would be rendering a kind service.

    J. E. JACKSON.

  Rectory, Leigh-Delamere, Chippenham.



The _Salisbury Volume_ of the Archæological Institute, which has just
been issued, contains some extremely interesting communications, among
which we must particularise for its agreeable character Mr. Hunter's
Reminiscences of the _Topographical Gatherings at Stourhead_,--for its
learning and originality, Mr. Guest's Memoir on the _Early English
Settlements in South Britain_.[7] Mr. Smirke contributes a valuable
notice of the _Custumal of Bleadon_,--Mr. Newton, _Notes on the
Sculptures at Wilton_,--Mr. Hawkins on _The Mints of Wiltshire_; and not
the least interesting portion of the volume consists of notices
respecting _Silbury and Avebury_, by the late excellent and lamented
Dean of Hereford. The volume contains many other instructive memoirs,
and is well calculated to advance archæological knowledge.

  [Footnote 7: Mr. Guest's suggestion (p. 30.), that _Grimsditch_
  means a boundary, deserves the attention of our correspondents.]

The new volume of Bohn's _Standard Library_ is the fourth of Mrs.
Foster's excellent translations of _Vasari's Lives of the most Eminent
Painters, Sculptors, and Architects_. It contains no fewer than nineteen
lives, including, among many whose names are less familiar to English
amateurs, those of Sebastian del Piombo, and that admirable scholar of
Raphael, whom Shakespeare has helped to immortalise by designating him
that "rare Italian master Giulio Romano." All lovers of art are under
great obligations to the publisher for placing this translation within
their reach.--Mr. Cyrus Redding's _History and Description of Modern
Wines_ is the new volume of Bohn's _Illustrated Library_; and, as the
author describes "the art of taking wine" as "the science of exciting
agreeable conversation and eliciting brilliant thoughts," and discourses
learnedly upon the subject, his book may well find friends.--_Lucretius
on the Nature of Things, literally translated into English Prose_, by
the Rev. J. S. Watson, M.A., _to which is added the Poetical Version_,
by J. M. Good, is another volume of Bohn's _Classical Library_; and the
scholarship of Mr. Watson affords a sufficient justification for his
prefatory remark, "that he who wishes to know what is in Lucretius
without perusing the original, will learn it from this volume with
greater certainty than from any other previously offered to the English
reader." Every page bears evidence of the pains and ability displayed by
Mr. Watson in his endeavour to clothe Lucretius in an English garb.

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      [List of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries", Vol. I-IV]

      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      | Vol. IV No. 88  | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No. 89  | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No. 90  | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No. 91  | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      | Vol. IV No. 92  | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No. 93  | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No. 94  | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No. 95  | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No. 96  | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      | Vol. IV No. 104 | Oct. 25, 1851      | 305-333 | PG # 38926 |
      | Vol. IV No. 105 | Nov. 1, 1851       | 337-358 | PG # 39076 |
      | Vol. IV No. 106 | Nov. 8, 1851       | 361-374 | PG # 39091 |
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 107, November 15, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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