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Title: Ciphers For the Little Folks - A Method of Teaching the Greatest Work of Sir Francis Bacon
Author: Crain, Dorothy
Language: English
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  THE DOROTHY CRAIN SERIES


  Ciphers
  For the Little Folks

  A Method of Teaching
  The Greatest Work of Sir Francis Bacon
  Baron of Verulam, Viscount St. Alban


  Designed to Stimulate Interest in Reading, Writing and Number Work,
  by Cultivating the Use of an Observant Eye


  With an
  Appendix on the Origin, History and Designing of the Alphabet
  _By_ Helen Louise Ricketts


  RIVERBANK LABORATORIES
  EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENT
  DOROTHY CRAIN, _Director of Kindergarten_
  GENEVA, ILLINOIS



  Copyright, 1916
  GEORGE FABYAN



INTRODUCTION


These lessons are presented as suggestions with the idea that the teacher
or parent will adapt, lengthen, shorten, or remake, as the needs of the
little folk demand. Their value will depend on the way in which they are
brought before the children.

The aim is not to impose on children adult knowledge and accomplishments,
but to afford them experiences that on their own account appeal to them,
and at the same time have educational value and significance.

Children should have a great deal of handwork; they do their best thinking
when they are planning something to do with their hands. Their attention
is much more easily focused upon something they are doing with their hands
than upon something which they hear or read. Building with the blocks,
paper folding and cutting, painting and drawing, and what is known as
constructive work, are all means of self-expression.

An explanatory paragraph will accompany each lesson. In order that the
workings of the Biliteral Cipher, from which these lessons were derived,
may be more readily understood, a short explanation will follow for the
guidance of the teacher or parent, to whom it is left to choose the best
methods of explaining the Cipher to the children, step by step.

The Biliteral Cipher devised by Francis Bacon and explained in detail in
his Advancement of Learning (see Spedding's English edition of Bacon's
Works, Vol. IV, pages 444-447) is based upon the mathematical fact that
the transposition of two objects (blocks, letters, etc.) will yield 32
dissimilar combinations, of which only 24 would be necessary to represent
all the letters in our alphabet (_i_ and _j_, _u_ and _v_ being used
interchangeably in the 16th Century). Lesson I of this series shows the 24
combinations used by Bacon, and constitutes the "Code" or "Key."

By reference to Lesson I it will be seen that variations in the grouping
of _a_'s and _b_'s, five at a time, are made to represent each letter of
the alphabet, except that _i_ and _j_ and _u_ and _v_ are regarded as
interchangeable. In all the succeeding lessons, objects are chosen to
represent _a_ or _b_, and the order or succession of their grouping, when
compared with the code (Lesson I), will determine the letter they
represent.

Words in a language being made up simply of combinations of letters, it is
clear that as long as only two differences are available, words can be
built up by making the proper combinations according to the code. Any
differences will do, and to this fact are due the possibilities for the
exercise of the thinking powers, imagination, and skill on the part of
children in this work. Lesson VI, for example, combines elements of
instruction and play in an interesting manner. The transmission of words
and sentences can be accomplished even without the use of objects, for two
different motions of the fingers or hands will do; likewise two different
sounds--in fact any differences perceptible to any of the five senses can
be used. "Wig-wagging" as used by the U. S. Army Signal Service is based
upon this Cipher. Thus many games can be planned which will have an
educational value in training to a higher efficiency every faculty the
child possesses.

The lessons have been arranged in a sequence according to their increasing
order of complexity, leading up gradually to the presentation of the
possibility of sending hidden messages in an open communication without
arousing any suspicion as to the presence of anything secret. In Lesson
XIV the phrase "Biliteral Cipher" is made to contain the hidden word "Key"
by the use of a capital letter for the _a_ form and a small letter for the
_b_ form. Of course the differences between the _a_ form and the _b_ form
can be made much less apparent than the differences between capital and
small letters; in fact the differences can be made so small that they
would be imperceptible to the casual observer, but it still would be
possible to distinguish them. It is in this phase of the work that
accuracy and care in the formation of letters may be taught, not only in
script or handwriting, but also in printing, both of which are now fast
becoming lost arts. Cipher writing, if properly taught, will give practice
in penmanship that will be interesting and not onerous to children.

The adaptability of the Biliteral Cipher to the manifold uses to which it
can be put makes its pedagogical possibilities far-reaching; and the field
for the exercise of the faculties of both teacher and pupil, parent and
child, is one of the broadest, most instructive and entertaining that has
ever been opened to the little folks of primary age.

Any further information which the instructor may care to secure will be
furnished on application to the Riverbank Laboratories.

Dorothy Crain



TRAINING THE EYE TO SEE


That the faculty of sight needs training will be admitted by every
reasonable person, but how best to give the eye this advantage is a
question which has never been settled. An English hunter, the author of a
book on Norway, gives some interesting hints upon the matter:

    The reason that the different characteristics of tracks are not
    observed by the untrained eye is not because they are so very small as
    to be invisible, but because they are--to that eye--so inconspicuous
    as to escape notice. In the same way the townsman will stare straight
    at a grouse in the heather, or a trout poised above the gravel in the
    brook, and will not see them; not because they are too small, but
    because he does not know what they look like in those positions. He
    does not know, in fact, what he is looking for, and a magnifying glass
    would in no wise help him. To the man who does not know what to look
    for, the lens may be a hindrance, because it alters the proportions to
    which his mind is accustomed, and still more because its field is too
    limited.--Youth's Companion.


LESSON I

This lesson is intended to teach the code or key. Attention is called to
the mathematical regularity of its construction, which will enable the
teacher to demonstrate it in a very simple manner. First write the column
of numbers from 1 to 24. Then opposite number 1 place five red circles in
a row. Under the last one in this row, and on a line with number 2 place a
blue circle, and continue alternating red and blue down the column. Then
under the 4th red circle in the 1st row place another red one, then two
blue ones, alternating 2 reds with 2 blues down the column. In the 3rd
column the reds and blues alternate in sets of four; in the 2nd column, in
sets of eight, and in the 1st column, in sets of 16. Since only 24
combinations are necessary, the last eight of the possible 32 have been
omitted. Now opposite these 24 combinations place the letters of the
alphabet in regular order, remembering that I and J, U and V are used
interchangeably.

To facilitate the use of the code the red and the blue circles may be
designated by small _a_ and small _b_ respectively. The right hand section
of this lesson gives the code worked out on this plan and makes future
reference easy. In all the succeeding lessons one form (whether it be
blocks, beads, yarn or what not) will be called the _a_ form, and the
other will be called the _b_ form. On account of the nature of the code,
the _a_ forms always predominate; and in getting together materials for
this work, the teacher should be guided accordingly.

[Illustration:

   1  o  o  o  o  o   A  = a a a a a
   2  o  o  o  o  o   B  = a a a a b
   3  o  o  o  o  o   C  = a a a b a
   4  o  o  o  o  o   D  = a a a b b
   5  o  o  o  o  o   E  = a a b a a
   6  o  o  o  o  o   F  = a a b a b
   7  o  o  o  o  o   G  = a a b b a
   8  o  o  o  o  o   H  = a a b b b
   9  o  o  o  o  o  I-J = a b a a a
  10  o  o  o  o  o   K  = a b a a b
  11  o  o  o  o  o   L  = a b a b a
  12  o  o  o  o  o   M  = a b a b b
  13  o  o  o  o  o   N  = a b b a a
  14  o  o  o  o  o   O  = a b b a b
  15  o  o  o  o  o   P  = a b b b a
  16  o  o  o  o  o   Q  = a b b b b
  17  o  o  o  o  o   R  = b a a a a
  18  o  o  o  o  o   S  = b a a a b
  19  o  o  o  o  o   T  = b a a b a
  20  o  o  o  o  o  U-V = b a a b b
  21  o  o  o  o  o   W  = b a b a a
  22  o  o  o  o  o   X  = b a b a b
  23  o  o  o  o  o   Y  = b a b b a
  24  o  o  o  o  o   Z  = b a b b b
]


LESSON II

[Illustration]

Short lines represent the _a_ form, long lines, the _b_ form. The cipher
word is "the." Various forms of sewing cards, or yarns of different colors
may be used.


LESSON III

[Illustration]

In this weaving mat the light squares represent the _a_ form, the dark
ones, the _b_ form. The arrow marks the starting point, and the reading
proceeds from left to right in each line. The cipher message is "Mary had
a little lamb." Any sentence containing the requisite number of letters
can be inserted on the same principle.


LESSON IV

[Illustration]

This lesson embodies what may be designated as a symbolic cipher design.
This design conveys the idea of the setting sun, and hence the cipher word
contained within is "sunset." Red sticks represent the _b_ form, orange
sticks, the _a_ form. The arrow marks the starting point, and the reading
proceeds in a clockwise direction.


LESSON V

[Illustration]

This is another symbolic cipher design picturing "Humpty-Dumpty." The blue
squares represent the _a_ form, the red squares the _b_ form. The cipher
message is "sat on a wall." The blank squares can be filled by colored
crayons or blocks, and the children can thus practice the building of the
message by referring to the code in Lesson I.


LESSON VI

[Illustration]

Another symbolic cipher design in which the hens represent the _b_ form,
the chicks the _a_ form. The cipher word is "egg," reading from left to
right.

This sort of symbolic cipher designing is susceptible of endless
variation, and gives a hint of the possibility of drawing cipher pictures.

A sufficient supply is furnished so that when cut out, the hens and chicks
may be utilized to spell out various words under the direction of the
teacher.


LESSON VII--THE TIME-TEACHING CLOCK

In this clock the movable colored dots indicating the minutes are used to
spell out the time in cipher. In the working cards to be provided for the
child the colored dots are to be inserted in the holes made for the
purpose around the face of the clock. There being sixty dots, any phrase
expressive of time not exceeding twelve letters in length (that is, twelve
times five dots for each letter equals 60) is available for indicating the
time in cipher. That is to say, any phrase such as "half-past ten,"
"nine-thirty," etc., can be indicated on the clock by using five times as
many dots as there are letters in the phrase selected. Should there be
less than twelve letters in the phrase, the holes remaining are to be left
blank.

This lesson is extremely flexible in respect to the many combinations
which it makes possible. The teacher or parent should bear in mind that
the most effective use of the clock is to be attained by first choosing a
phrase designating some time of the day which is significant in the daily
experience of the child--such as the opening or closing hour of school,
the play hour, the dinner hour, or "bed-time." This phrase is converted
into cipher by having the child place the dots representing the letters of
the phrase, beginning at the figure twelve, around the clock face. After
this has been done the child should be asked to "decipher" the phrase by
naming the letter which each group of five dots stands for. When this is
accomplished, the ability to read the time becomes an unconscious
achievement, since the hands of the clock are then placed by the parent or
teacher, or by the child under her direction, in the proper position to
indicate the deciphered phrase. If, for example, the phrase "half-past
nine" is selected and the child has extracted this from the colored dot
combination, the hands of the clock are moved to nine-thirty. The child,
with the phrase fresh in his mind, learns from this the position of the
hands of the clock representing the time, since the mental image of the
clock face with the hands in the required position establishes an
association which becomes indelibly impressed on the child's mind.

The method here described is the best for young children. With children of
more advanced age and greater ability to use their own minds, the reverse
practice may be followed. The teacher may name the phrase designating the
time, and direct the child to put in place the colored dots representing
the letters of the phrase by referring for each letter to the code. This
requires an intelligence of a higher order than the method first
described.

[Illustration]

By reference to the code the arrangement of the dots on the clock will be
found to spell the time indicated by the hands, i. e., "five past four."
The red dots represent the _a_, the blues the _b_.


LESSON VIII

[Illustration]

On this cipher necklace the square beads represent the _a_ form, the round
beads the _b_ form. The cipher words are "Yankee Doodle." For working this
or any other appropriate phrase, the child should string the beads on one
of the laces provided.


LESSON IX

[Illustration]

This is similar to the preceding lesson except that in this case the blue
beads represent the _a_ form, the orange beads, the _b_ form. The cipher
words are "A Cipher Chain."


LESSON X

[Illustration]

This cipher necklace combines both Lessons VIII and IX, and shows how two
ciphers may be infolded at once. Reading the beads first as regards their
shape and using the same system as in Lesson VIII, the necklace still
spells out the word "Yankee Doodle." Then reading the beads as regards
color, the words "A Cipher Chain" are deciphered, as in Lesson IX. This
lesson gives a hint of the possibility of enfolding three, four, or five
cipher messages at once.


LESSON XI

[Illustration]

In this lesson comes the first step in showing how a cipher message may be
hidden within an ordinary architectural example. The red circles represent
the _a_ form, the blue ones the _b_ form; the reading proceeds in exactly
the same way in which the figure is written. The cipher phrase is "United
States." Any figures can be selected for the children to form, provided,
when formed, they contain the requisite number of circles of each color.


LESSON XII

[Illustration]

The cipher word is "pasture," the red circles being the _a_ form, the blue
ones the _b_ form.


LESSON XIII

[Illustration]

The cipher word is "Barking," the red circles being the _a_ form, the blue
ones the _b_ form.


LESSON XIV

[Illustration]

The word "CIPHER" contains the hidden name "Sir Francis Bacon," the red
circles being the _a_ form, the blue ones, the _b_ form. The reading
proceeds in the same manner as the strokes of the letters would be made by
the hand. The design in the margin contains a double cipher, similar in
construction to the necklace in Lesson X. The red and blue pieces still
represent the _a_ and the _b_ forms respectively, as before, and the
cipher word is "alphabet." This constitutes the first cipher. The second
cipher is based upon the difference in shape of these pieces, the long
ones being the _a_ form, the circles, the _b_ form. The cipher word is
"decipher."


LESSON XV

[Illustration]

The phrase "Biliteral Cipher" is made to contain the hidden word "key" by
the use of a capital letter for the _a_ form, and a small letter for the
_b_ form. The borders to the lines contain the cipher word "letter," the
blue sticks being the _a_ form, the red ones the _b_ form. The reading
proceeds from left to right in each line, beginning with the line at the
top. The children may be directed to cut out any set of letters of
appropriate size to form any desired phrase, using capital and small
letters on the same principle as in the example.


LESSON XVI

[Illustration: Design for Peacock Lodge. For Col. George Fabyan.]

  CIPHER CODE

  a a a a a =  A
  a a a a b =  B
  a a a b a =  C
  a a a b b =  D
  a a b a a =  E
  a a b a b =  F
  a a b b a =  G
  a a b b b =  H
  a b a a a = I-J
  a b a a b =  K
  a b a b a =  L
  a b a b b =  M
  a b b a a =  N
  a b b a b =  O
  a b b b a =  P
  a b b b b =  Q
  b a a a a =  R
  b a a a b =  S
  b a a b a =  T
  b a a b b = U-V
  b a b a a =  W
  b a b a b =  X
  b a b b a =  Y
  b a b b b =  Z

Explanation

This architect's sketch presents an interesting method of making use of
the Biliteral Cipher. The white bricks are supposed to represent the _a_
form letters, the shaded bricks the _b_ form. Begin with the top of the
wall, at the left-hand, below the tower, read the lines from left to
right, and assign an _a_ or _b_ to each brick on that principle, dividing
off the resultant _a_'s and _b_'s into groups of five. Then refer to the
accompanying cipher code which will show you for which letter of the
alphabet each group stands. The result will be amusing as well as
interesting and instructive.



The Origin, History and Designing of the Alphabet

By HELEN LOUISE RICKETTS



THE STORY OF THE ALPHABET



CHAPTER I


I want to tell you a story about something you use every day, something
you could not get along without, and yet that you never think about or are
glad to have. I do not believe that even after I tell you several things
about it you can guess what it is.

It is one of the oldest things in the world, so old that no one knows when
it was first used.

It is a more wonderful thing, a great many people think, than the
invention of steamboats and steamcars, or of airships and submarines.

It is so important that you could not have any books without it, and if
there were no books, you would not go to school, and then how could you
learn all the things you want to know?

It is so common that you see it and hear it and use it almost every minute
of the day.

It is made of twenty-six different parts. You can make me know what these
are with a pencil or crayon. With them you speak and write and read. There
are machines which hold these parts separately or form them in groups, and
then leaving their likeness on paper give us books and stories to read.

Now I am afraid that I have told you too much! Have you guessed what these
twenty-six little tools are called? We call them, and so did your
grandfather and greatgrandfather and all the people that lived hundreds
and hundreds of years ago--the _Alphabet_.

You never knew before that the Alphabet was such a wonderful thing, did
you? Would you like now to hear the story about it?

Long, long ago in a country called Egypt, which is far across the sea (you
may find it on your map, and that will make it more interesting for you)
they had a very curious way of writing. They had no letters like our A, B,
C's, but did what we call picture writing; that is, they drew pictures
instead of writing letters and words as we do today. Their writing looked
like this--

[Illustration]

That does not look much like writing, does it? You do not know what it
means, either, do you? Yet the people at that time could read their
picture writing just as easily as we can the Alphabet writing. This is the
way they sent messages to each other and wrote down the things they wanted
to remember. Do you know that they did not have any paper in those days
long ago, either? What do you think they used? They cut their pictures on
stone, on walls of buildings, and sometimes on wood and the bark of trees.
They also had a material called papyrus, which was made from reeds growing
in the swamps of Egypt. Think what a long time it must have taken them to
write in this way, and how much easier and quicker it is for you and me
today!

To the north of Egypt there is a small country called Phoenicia. If you
will look on your map you will find that the sea comes to the very shores
of this country. In Phoenicia there were many beautiful things that
people in other countries wanted to buy. So the Phoenicians built big
ships and filled them full of the beautiful things and sailed away. Across
the water they came to a land by the name of Greece, the country you know
about where Hercules and Ulysses lived, and here they unloaded their
ships. Of course the Phoenicians brought the picture writing they had
learned from the Egyptians with them. By this time they were beginning to
think pictures took too long to draw, and they gradually changed the
pictures into signs so that they could write easier and quicker. So the
writing they brought to Greece was quite different from the picture
writing they had learned from the Egyptians. It looked like this--

[Illustration]

We cannot understand this either, can we? But you can see it is much
better than the way they wrote before.

The Greek people were very happy that the Phoenicians brought such a
wonderful way of writing with them and soon began to copy it, and use it
in their country, too. When the Phoenicians went back to their own
country the Greeks continued to use the sign writing, but changed it and
made it more beautiful. They gave it a name, too, and called it by the
names of the first two signs, _Alpha_ which means "ox," and _Beta_ which
means "house." If you put these two words, _Alpha_ and _Beta_, together,
what do you have? ALPHA-BET--the word we use today.

Now the Greeks were an adventurous people, and one day they set sail in
their ships, and went to the land of the Romans, which is now called
Italy. They liked this new country, and some of them settled there. Like
the Phoenicians long ago, they brought their new Alphabet with them. The
Romans were a great and wonderful people, but they did not know the easy
way of writing by signs that the Greeks used. They saw right away what a
fine thing this Alphabet was, and began to use it for their writing, too.
At first they wrote the signs exactly the way the Greeks did, but soon
they changed them, and made them simpler and better.



CHAPTER II


You know the story of the Alphabet from its beginning so long ago in far
Egypt to the time when it came to the Romans and how it changed from
pictures to signs and from signs at last to the letters of the Alphabet.
You know, too, how hard it was for the people to write in those days when
they had no better material than papyrus, wood and stone. That was a long,
long time ago. Would you like to hear a story about what has happened to
writing since the time of the Romans and the changes that have taken place
in the Alphabet in its travels through the countries of Europe?

The first great thing of importance was the discovery of a new material to
write on. What do you think it was?--the skins of sheep and calves! That
seems strange to us and we like the paper we use today better, but think
what a great improvement this discovery was then and how much easier
writing could be done on the smooth surface of the skin with a pen and
ink. In all of the countries except Italy this change of writing material
brought about a change in the style of lettering too. The Romans alone
kept to the simple form of lettering they had always used and did not
change it when writing on the skins. The other European countries
gradually came to vary this style and make the letters more pointed,
heavier and blacker and in some cases more elaborate. This style of
lettering was called the Gothic. Do you see the difference between these
two alphabets?

[Illustration]

The Alphabet had not been in these countries long enough yet for all the
people to have learned to write. Only a very few knew the letters, and as
all the writing was done by hand, it took a long time to write a whole
book. The few books that were written were so precious that they were
chained in the churches and monasteries and the people were only allowed
to read them there. At last in the country of Germany a man by the name
of Gutenberg thought of a way to make more books and make them faster. And
this way was by printing. Just as the Alphabet spread to the different
countries so this new way of writing spread, until all of the people of
Europe were using printing machines and making many books.

In Germany the Gothic lettering had been used when the writing was done by
hand and Gutenberg copied this style in printing the first book. When the
art of printing spread to the different countries the Gothic alphabet, of
course, came with it and was accepted as the correct style of letter. The
Romans, however, still believed their Alphabet to be the better and cut
their printing type after the Roman model. So a great quarrel sprang up
between the different countries as to which Alphabet should be used, the
Roman or the Gothic. In Italy a man called Manutius tried to settle the
quarrel by making a letter which all the printers would use and he called
his style of lettering the Italic. The printers who used the Gothic and
Roman letters also used these Italic letters, but were not willing to give
up their own style and use the Italic entirely.

We are so used to seeing and using the Alphabet today that we never ask
ourselves how the letters came to look the way they do now. Look at Plate
I, which shows a beautiful Alphabet of Gothic letters made by a famous
German artist, Albert Dürer. There are twenty-nine of them, all entirely
different, but still you can see that they are all brothers and sisters in
one big family. Do you wonder how this came about? Look at Plate II and
you will learn. The first letter _i_ is made by putting together a number
of small squares in a certain way. Can you see the way the other letters
are made from this letter _i_?--the _n_ is made by putting two _i_'s
together; the _m_, three _i_'s, and the _r_, one _i_ and an extra square
at the top. Go through the rest of the Alphabet and see if you can find
out the way it is made.

Now look at Plates III, IV, V, VI, and VII showing another Alphabet by the
same artist, which he patterned after the Roman letters. He found that
they were made according to a certain rule and proportion, and it was
these he worked out in making his Alphabet. Here you see the pattern is a
large square, and the letters are drawn very carefully in them. Did you
know before there was as much figuring and measuring done in the making of
the Alphabet as there is in building a house? Look at the letter _E_, for
example, and all the circles and squares that have been measured and drawn
to make it. You will find that every letter is made just as carefully.

Here are the three _A_'s that you see in Plate III. You will find that
they are not exactly alike. Can you see the difference between them?--_A_,
1, is cut off in a curve at the top, _A_, 2, goes straight up in a sharp
point, and _A_, 3, is cut off flat. Do you notice, too, the difference in
the thickness of the letters?

[Illustration]

Look at the other letters in this Alphabet (Plates III, IV, V, VI, and
VII) and see if you can tell me about them in the way I have told you
about the _A_'s.

For many, many years, the printers in the different countries used
Alphabets the artists had made for them, without being able to decide
which they liked the best, the Roman, Gothic or Italic. On Plate VIII you
will find a little poem by Shakespeare printed in these three Alphabets.
Which one do you like the best? I am sure you will choose the one that is
the simplest, the easiest to read and at the same time the most
beautiful--the Roman. In the quarrel which had been going on for so many
years, the Roman alphabet won the victory, and that is how it came about
that the Roman is used in printing all our newspapers and books today. At
last after so many hundreds of years it has traveled through the other
countries to us. Many times you cannot recognize the letters, and they
look very different from the Roman models from which they were patterned,
but that is because we are not as careful with the measurements and
proportions as were Albert Dürer and the other Masters in that time long
ago.



CHAPTER III


You know now the beginning of the Alphabet, the careful way it was planned
and made, and how finally after so many years it has come to be used in
the form in which we have it today. Do you remember that when Albert Dürer
made his Alphabet of Roman letters he made more than one form of each
letter--there were three _A_'s, for example. Would you like to know why he
did this? Plate IX shows you two other kinds of Alphabets made long ago by
a Spanish artist, Francisco Lucas. Look at the Italic capital letters in
the upper part of this Plate. You can easily see that there are two
different forms of the same letters, can you not? But now look at the
small letters. You still see that there are two examples of each letter,
but they are so much alike that you will have to look very carefully to
see the difference between the two forms. Why do you suppose this artist
went to the trouble to make these letters so much alike, and yet
different? Do you not think that this would be a very strange thing to do
unless there was a good reason for it? Look at the lower part of the Plate
and you will see that there are two different forms of the small Roman
letters also. Now turn back to Lesson XV. You see that by using a capital
letter for the _a_ form and a small letter for the _b_ form you were able
to hide within the phrase "_Biliteral Cipher_" the word, "_key_." You can
easily see that this would not be a good way to hide a secret, for the
difference between the large and small letters is not only easy to see,
but looks so strange that it is the first thing you notice. Now suppose
that instead of using a capital letter for the _a_ form and a small letter
for the _b_ form you use for each letter of the Alphabet, both capital and
small, two forms which were very much alike but still were different. In
the following line--

[Illustration]

you see the same phrase "_Biliteral Cipher_," but it does not look strange
to you, does it? Still, if you will study it carefully you will see that
the first _i_ is different from the second, and that the first _l_ in
"_Biliteral_" is different from the second _l_. You have guessed by this
time that the phrase "_Biliteral Cipher_," as it stands here, also
contains a hidden word. The word is "_the_." This phrase was made to
contain the word "_the_" by using the two forms of letters which you see
in the upper part of Plate IX and which were called "_doubles_" by the
printers who used them several hundred years ago. Now do you begin to see
how important these two forms are?

Look again at the little Shakespeare poem in the Italic alphabet on Plate
VIII. Now that you know about _doubles_ you can see, if you have learned
to use your eyes, that we have hidden a secret within this poem too. Would
you like to know what it is? We will help you to work it out by giving you
what is called a _Classifier_ which will make it easy to _decipher_ the
verse. On this Classifier, which you will find on Plate X, the very same
Italic letters that you saw in Plate IX have been arranged so that all the
_a_ form letters are above the shaded part and all the _b_ form letters
below. Now if you will tear out this whole page and carefully cut out
these shaded parts you can place this page over the lines of the poem in
italic letters. This will help you to decide to which form the letters of
the poem belong. Place the Classifier over the poem so that the first
letter, the capital =H= of _Have_, is between the _a_ form and the _b_
form capital =H= on the Classifier. You will see that this capital =H= of
_Have_ is the _a_ form. Now below the Classifier has been placed something
which will help you still more. All the words of the poem have been
divided and have been placed into groups of five letters. As we decided
that the =H= of _Have_ belongs to the _a_ form, we have placed an _a_
beneath the =H= in the first group of five letters. Now move the
Classifier so that the =a= in _Have_ comes between the _a_ form =a= and
the _b_ form =a= on the Classifier. You will see that this letter also
belongs to the _a_ form. If you will do the same to the rest of the
letters of this first group you will find that they are all _a_ form
letters. Now what letter of the Alphabet does a group of five _a_'s stand
for?--=A=, does it not? So the first letter in our secret is =A=. Now
place the Classifier over the rest of the letters of the poem and see to
what form they belong, just as we have done for you in the first group. If
you do your work carefully you will find the hidden secret.

If we can hide one word in "_Biliteral Cipher_" and a sentence in a short
poem, do you not see how a whole story could be hidden so carefully within
a book that it might not be discovered for many, many years?

Helen Louise Ricketts



[Illustration: PLATE I

ALPHABET by ALBERT DÜRER (A. D. 1525)]


[Illustration: PLATE II

CONSTRUCTION OF ALPHABET]


[Illustration: PLATE III

ALPHABET, with construction: A. DÜRER (A. D. 1525)]


[Illustration: PLATE IV

ALPHABET, with construction: A. DÜRER (A. D. 1525)]


[Illustration: PLATE V

ALPHABET, with construction: A. DÜRER (A. D. 1525)]


[Illustration: PLATE VI

ALPHABET, with construction: A. DÜRER (A. D. 1525)]


[Illustration: PLATE VII

ALPHABET, with construction: A. DÜRER (A. D. 1525)]


[Illustration: PLATE VIII

  Have more than thou showest,
  Speak less than thou knowest,
  Lend less than thou owest,
  Learn more than thou trowest,
  Set less than thou throwest.
                    --SHAKESPEARE.
]


[Illustration: PLATE IX

ITALIC ALPHABET, BY FRANCISCO LUCAS

ROMAN ALPHABET, BY FRANCISCO LUCAS]


[Illustration: PLATE X

THE BI-FORMED ALPHABET CLASSIFIER

For Use with the Lucas Alphabets, 1577

_a_ forms above the shaded parts, _b_ forms below

COPYRIGHTED, 1916. GEORGE FABYAN

CUT OUT SHADED PART WITH SHARP KNIFE


TRANSCRIPTION

  Havem oreth antho ushow estSp eakle sstha nthou knowe
  aaaaa
    A

  stLen dless thant houow estLe arnmo retha nthou trowe

  stSet lesst hanth outhr owest Shake spear e]



Transcriber's Notes:

Passages in italics are indicated by _italics_.

Passages in bold are indicated by =bold=.





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