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Title: Guide to West Point, and the U.S. Military Academy
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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    | Transcriber's Note:                                       |
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    | Obvious typographical errors have been corrected. For     |
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Fifty-one miles above New York, on the west bank of the Hudson river,
in the midst of scenery of the most picturesque and impressive
character, and on a bold shelving plateau, formed by the crossing of a
range of the Alleghany Mountains, which here assume almost Alpine
proportions, is a name dear to every lover of his country--a name
replete with memories of the struggle for Independence, and clustering
with historic associations.

WEST POINT, the property of the United States by purchase, possesses a
primary interest from its military importance during the period of the
American Revolution, and a secondary one from its being the seat of
the National Military Academy. The creative hand of natural
beauty--the romance of war--the distinguished career of those who
have gone forth from this locality in the defense of American Liberty,
and the spectacle presented by those preparing for future public
usefulness, have united to inspire the visitor with emotions unlike
those excited at any place of popular resort within the limits of the
United States.

Ninety years ago, when West Point possessed no attraction beyond that
presented by similar adjoining wild and uncultivated woodland tracts
in the Highlands, a band of Commissioners, appointed by the Provincial
Congress of the Colony of New York, instituted an undertaking which
first imparted a public interest to this favored spot. The war for
American Independence was in progress, and then, as now, the Hudson
river afforded the principal channel of communication between the
theatre of the strife and the country lying northward to Canada and
the west.

Nor was its importance thus limited. As a strategic line, separating
the New England Colonies from the more productive region south-west
of them, the control of the Hudson became, early in the war, one of
the principal objects toward which the attention of the military
authorities directing the contending parties was attracted.

Between abrupt and lofty mountains above West Point, the gorge through
which the river flows, yet bearing its ancient name of Wey Gat, or
Wind Gate, is partially obstructed at its lower entrance, by a long
and narrow island, once named Martelaer's Rock, but now known as
Constitution Island. In pursuance of their instructions, made with
singular lack of judgment, upon this island the Commissioners landed,
and under the direction of an engineer, appointed by the Colony, a
work named Fort Constitution was commenced in August, 1775, and
completed at a heavy expense, designed to defend, with a powerful
armament of artillery, the approach up the river. Thus unfortunately
located, and easily destroyed by an overlooking battery at West Point,
or by a land approach on the east side of the river, the fort was
abandoned and fired on the first appearance of a British force, on
the 8th of October, 1777, immediately following the assault and
capture by Sir Henry Clinton, of Forts Montgomery and Clinton, four
miles below.

Notwithstanding this early recognition of the necessity for
obstructing and controling the Hudson, no attempt was made to occupy
West Point until after the urgent recommendations of Washington,
Governor Clinton and Lord Stirling--the latter of whom had thoroughly
examined and reported upon the immediate necessity for defending this
most important point.

Operations were commenced by a brigade of Continental troops, under
the command of General Parsons, on January 20, 1778, and before June
in the same year, the work yet preserved, was thrown up on the
north-east angle of the plateau, and named FORT ARNOLD. To cover the
work, early in April, a body of Massachusetts troops, under Colonel
Rufus Putnam, began to erect a fort constructed of earth and logs, on
Mount Independence, overlooking the plain, which was named, in honor
of their commander, FORT PUTNAM. The old fort yet in existence,
bearing the same name, is a relic built, for the most part, in 1794.
Forts Webb and Wyllis, lying to the south and named after regimental
commanders, were commenced at the same time with Fort Putnam, and were
designed to protect West Point from an approach southward by land. All
these operations were conducted under the direction of Major-General
McDougall, commanding in the Highlands; and in 1779, they were further
strengthened and improved, while additional works were thrown up known
as redoubts Nos. 1, 2 and 3, covering the Eagle Valley road to the
west; redoubt No. 4, on Rocky Hill, in rear of Fort Putnam, and
redoubts Nos. 5, 6 and 7, on Constitution Island, by Kosciuszko as the
engineer, acting under the general direction of Washington, whose
headquarters were established at West Point during a portion of the
same year.

The works known as the North and South redoubts, in rear of Garrison's
Station, were erected to defend the land approach on the east side of
the river.

An interesting letter and accompanying map, from Kosciuszko, relating
to these works, is here published for the first time:

                                   "WEST POINT, 25TH APRIL, 1779.

    "SIR: I send you a ruff map of West Point, with indication as
    you desire from me, about the Public Buildings, and the Works.

    "The Carpenters Compliend about the provision, that he have not
    enof; he beg your honor to allow them more bred.

      a House full of Ammunition.
      b The Barracks.
      c The Carpenter's House.
      d The Commissary House.
      e For the Fourage.
      f The Huts.
      g The Read House.
      h Baker's House.
      i Provision House.
      k Small Commissary House.
      l Smock House.
      m The Barracks.
      n The Steble,
      o Of the Artellery Officer's House
      p Artellery Barracks.
      q Greaton's Battery.
      r Chain Battery begun last summer.
      s Redoubt for fivety men begun last Summer.
      t Redoubt for fivety men begun last Summer.
      u Guard House.
      w Guard House not covered.
      x Point of (Projected) Block House with Bumprove for
        fivety men.
      y Swamps.

                          Your Most Humble Servant
                                   (Signed)    THAD KOSCIUSZKO

    The Honorable
      Major General MCDOUGALL,

    [Illustration: MAP OF WEST POINT]

While these land defenses were planned and situated to aid in
controling the passage of the Hudson, a formidable obstruction was
made by stretching across the river at its narrowest point, a boom of
huge short logs, united at the ends by chains so as to resemble a rope
ladder, and a few yards higher up, an immense chain was buoyed up on
logs, extending across from one shore to the other. This chain was
made by Noble, Townsend & Company, at the Stirling Iron Works, yet in
operation near the Sloatsburg Station, on the Erie Railroad, about
twenty-five miles from West Point. It was carried in pieces to New
Windsor on wagons, put together there, and floated down the river into
its position, in April, 1778. A portion of the chain is preserved, and
is to be seen lying in a grove on the north side of the Plain. The
links are made of two-inch bar iron, and each weighs about 120 pounds.
The entire chain weighed 186 tons.

Thus it will be seen, from its natural advantages, its defenses, and
its obstructions, West Point was the key to the passage of the
Hudson, and as matters stood in 1780, it was in fact an American
Gibraltar. The British, then in possession of the city of New York,
and thus prevented from the employment of vessels to maintain
communication with the Northern Provinces, and unable to penetrate the
country amid the desolate wildernesses which covered its face, found
themselves restricted to surprising detached points, or raids, from
which the patriots speedily recovered, and no northern campaign, save
that of Burgoyne, which ended in defeat and surrender, was attempted,
chiefly from their inability to control the passage of the Hudson.

The winter of 1779 and 1780 was one of unexampled severity for the
patriot army in the North, while in the South the surrender of
Charleston and the disaster at Camden, had inspired universal gloom. A
cloud of witnesses of the best authority bear testimony that at that
period the majority of the American people manifested a willingness
to cease further resistance, and return to their allegiance under the
British King.

In the midst of these forebodings there burst upon the nation the
knowledge of a plot so comprehensive and momentous in all the
circumstances attending it, and in the results designed to be
accomplished, that even in its failure it struck terror and dismay to
the hearts of all true lovers of American independence. This mighty
plot comprehended not only the surrender of West Point, with all its
garrison and armament, but had also for its object the betrayal of
Washington and his staff into the hands of Sir Henry Clinton, the
British Commander of the King's forces in America.

Major General BENEDICT ARNOLD, an officer of the patriot army, who had
risen from the grade of Captain for gallant and perilous services in
the contest, sought and received an assignment to command at West
Point and its dependencies in August, 1780. Embittered by a few real,
and many imaginary grievances, this officer had long but secretly
become disaffected towards the American cause. After evidence has
established the fact, that he deliberately bargained with the British
Commander to become a traitor to the land of his birth--to sell for a
stipulated price the trust confided to him, and to betray his command
into the hands of the enemy. To accomplish this object he entered into
negotiations secretly with Sir Henry Clinton, by which it was agreed
that he should make such a disposition of his forces as would enable
the British Commander effectually to surprise West Point.

John Anderson and Colonel Beverly Robinson were the agents on the part
of the British, and with them Arnold opened "a regular channel of
communication." The correspondence becoming protracted, a personal
interview was demanded by Arnold to bring the matter to a final
settlement, at which he was to furnish plans of West Point, and
returns of its armament and garrison. With this object in view, John
Anderson left New York on horseback, and proceeded up the river with
the intention of holding the proposed interview on board the British
sloop-of-war "Vulture," anchored off Teller's, now called Croton
Point. Difficulties having been thrown in the way of this arrangement,
Anderson was induced to leave the vessel and go ashore at midnight, in
a boat sent by Arnold, and meet the latter on the west bank of the
Hudson, a little below the village of Haverstraw. He had been directed
by Sir Henry Clinton not to enter the American lines, and not to
assume any disguise, but under a pressure of circumstances, he did
both, and thus became exposed to the character of a spy, violating the
laws of war. The meeting between Anderson and Arnold, while discussing
their infamous plans, was prolonged until the dawn of day, when the
state of the tide and the risk of being discovered by the American
pickets, so alarmed the boatmen, that neither the threats nor
entreaties of the two principals could induce them to return to the

In the hope of making a successful return to the vessel on the next
night, both parties sought refuge in the house of a noted Tory, living
in Haverstraw, named Joshua Hett Smith. They had scarcely found
themselves safe within the house, when an event occurred which
seriously threatened the whole object of the interview. The proximity
of the "Vulture" to the American lines was such, that a fire was
opened upon her by a battery on shore, and she was compelled to drop
down the river, thus preventing Anderson from returning to New York by
that opportunity. In the afternoon Arnold returned in his barge to his
headquarters, while Anderson, filled with thoughts of the great
advantage the arrangement must confer upon his King and country, and
with the glory and promotion awaiting himself, could not avoid
reflecting upon the great personal danger to which he was exposed,
surrounded by enemies, and having concealed about his person the
proofs of his character as a spy. He had been furnished by Arnold with
two passports, one to return by water in case that method again became
practicable, and the other by a land route on the east side of the
river, authorized him "to go to the lines at White Plains, or lower if
he thought proper, being on public business." Choosing the latter
mode, in the evening Anderson, accompanied by Smith, crossed the
Hudson at Stony Point, and commenced his hazardous journey.

The party proceeded with little or no interruption, and once beyond
the sight of patroling parties, Anderson's naturally buoyant spirit
resumed its wonted cheerfulness, and he astonished his companion by
the sudden change from taciturn despondency to unusual hilarity.
Poetry, art and literature, formed alternate themes of discourse, and
already he seemed to behold the reduction of the Colonies and the end
of the war--a consummation to which his own sagacity and personal
daring would so largely have contributed. Near Pine's Bridge, a few
miles above Tarrytown, Smith parted from him to return to Fishkill,
while Anderson pursued his way onward, until three armed militia-men,
lying in wait for suspicious men and cattle going to New York, brought
him to a stand. Under the impression that they were adherents of the
British from their replies to his inquiries, he announced himself a
British officer, and exhibited his passport, but it was too late, the
fatal admission was made. The men took him into the bushes and
searched him, when six papers, mostly in Arnold's handwriting, were
found inside of his stockings and beneath his feet, filled with
details of the state of the forces, ordnance, and defenses at West
Point. Patriotically disdaining the proffered bribe of a purse of gold
and permanent support and promotion on condition of suffering him to
proceed, the captors conveyed him to Colonel Jameson, who commanded
the nearest American outpost at North Castle. This officer,
unaccountably bewildered, resolved to dispatch the captive to Arnold,
to whose command he belonged, in spite of the damning proof of the
former's treachery. Major Tallmadge, the second officer in command at
the post, was absent when Anderson was brought in, and did not return
until evening. When Jameson told him what had occurred, he was filled
with amazement, and openly declared that Arnold was a traitor,
offering to take upon himself the responsibility of acting on that
conviction. To this Jameson would not listen, but he finally yielded
to the entreaties of Tallmadge to recall Anderson, while he persisted
in sending a note to Arnold, informing him of the suspicious arrest of
the prisoner. The six papers he had already dispatched to be delivered
to Washington. The messenger sent to recall Anderson overtook the
party and returned with them to North Castle. Conscious that his fate
was sealed, exposure inevitable, and proofs of his own and Arnold's
crime more than ample, Anderson paced up and down the apartment with
measured step, pondering on the gloomy prospect which awaited him,
while Tallmadge sat watching him, more and more convinced that the
indifferently dressed prisoner before him had been bred to the
profession of arms. On the next morning the captive wrote a letter to
Washington, describing the manner in which he came within the American
lines, and announced himself to be Major JOHN ANDRE, the
Adjutant-General of the British army.

The state of inactivity of the patriot forces had impelled Count
Rochambeau, the Commander of the Allied French army, to request an
interview with Washington at Hartford, Conn. Two days before the
conference between Arnold and Andre, Washington wrote Arnold to meet
him at Peekskill with a guard of fifty men, and forage for forty
horses. Arnold came down from West Point in his barge, and crossed
over with Washington at King's Ferry, plying between Verplank's and
Stony Point. The "Vulture" was then anchored off in full view, and
Washington observed her through a telescope for a long time,
conversing with his staff in a low tone. Arnold witnessed the scene
with more than ordinary feelings of alarm, and was startled by a
playful remark of Lafayette, who said, "General, as you have secret
correspondence with the enemy, you must tell us what has become of
Guichen." Thrown off his guard, Arnold sharply demanded what the
Marquis alluded to, but almost immediately the boat arrived at the
landing, and the retort passed unnoticed. The night was passed at
Peekskill, and when next morning Washington proceeded on his way,
Arnold returned to his headquarters at the Robinson House, opposite
West Point. In returning, after the meeting with Rochambeau,
Washington pursued the upper route to the Hudson, arriving at
Fishkill, so as to enable him to visit West Point before returning to
his camp in New Jersey. This change in his route caused him to miss
the papers sent after him by Jameson, which had been found on the
person of Andre, and during his brief visit the plot had matured,
ripened, and Andre had been captured.

Two days after the latter occurrence, Washington left Fishkill and
pushed on down to the Robinson House, only some ten miles distant,
intending to breakfast with Arnold. On arriving opposite West Point,
instead of continuing on to Arnold's quarters, he rode toward the
North and South redoubts. "General," said Lafayette, "you are going in
the wrong direction, and you know Mrs. Arnold is waiting breakfast for
us." "Ah!" said Washington, "you young men are all in love with Mrs.
Arnold, and wish to get where she is as soon as possible; go, and take
your breakfast with her, and tell her not to wait for me; I must first
examine the redoubts on this side of the river."

As most of the staff officers proposed to accompany him, only two went
forward to tell the Arnolds not to wait, and finding breakfast ready,
they sat down with the family at the table. During the repast a note
was brought to Arnold, who opened it and read it; the note was from
Jameson, as before mentioned, and announced the capture of Anderson,
conveying, of course, to Arnold, the failure of the whole conspiracy.
Betraying but slight outward emotion, although his life was in
imminent peril, he merely remarked that his presence was required
across the river at West Point, and with a slight apology, he left the
room followed by his wife. In the privacy of their own chamber he told
her they must part--possibly forever--and that his life depended on
his reaching the British lines; then pressing a kiss upon his sleeping
infant boy,[A] he passed down stairs, mounted a horse, and dashed down
a narrow rocky path leading to the landing, where his barge was lying,
just on the south side of the point through which the Hudson River
Railroad now cuts its way. Pretending that he was going with a flag of
truce, he excited the boatmen to powerful efforts by promised
rewards, and the boat sped through the water, carrying the panting
renegade to the "Vulture" below, passing Verplank's Point batteries
under cover of a white handkerchief raised upon a stick.

Meanwhile, Washington having completed his inspection, arrived at the
Robinson House, where he was informed that Arnold had been called
across the river. After a hasty breakfast, he concluded not to await
Arnold's return, but to follow him to West Point. As the barge swept
over the water, amid the majestic scenery of the Hudson, Washington
remarked, "Well, gentlemen, I am glad General Arnold has gone before
us, for we shall now receive a salute, and the roaring of the guns
will have a fine effect among these mountains." But no salute boomed
upon their expectant ears, and no preparations were visible for
tendering one. As the boat drew near the shore, an officer was seen
coming down the hill, who proved to be Colonel Lamb, the temporary
commander. Astounded at seeing the Commander-in-Chief, he commenced
an apology, which was interrupted by Washington. "How is this, sir, is
not General Arnold here?" "No, sir," replied the Colonel, "he has not
been here these two days, nor have I heard from him in that time."
"This is extraordinary," replied Washington, "he left word that he had
crossed over here; however, the object of our visit must not be
defeated, and since we are here we will look around and see in what
state things are with you." He then ascended to Fort Putnam, examined
it and the various redoubts, and returned to Arnold's house, where
Hamilton gave him the dispatch, which had arrived during his absence
from Jameson, containing the papers found on Andre, and the letter
from the latter to himself. The treason of Arnold was now fully
exposed, but as some hours had elapsed he was already beyond pursuit.
Calling in Generals Knox and Lafayette, Washington explained what had
occurred, showing the proofs of the treachery, and, pathetically
appealing to them, he exclaimed, "Whom can we trust now?"

Standing on a mine which might explode at any instant, he was
outwardly as calm as ever; he even sought Mrs. Arnold, and kindly
attempted to soothe her frenzied excitement which found vent in
alternate wailings and reproaches that would have pierced
insensibility itself. Although Washington seemed unchanged, he was
fully alive to his danger. He rapidly wrote his commands, and hastily
dispatched couriers in every direction to arouse the camps, till at
length, having done all in his power to avert the threatened evil, he
retired to rest late at night, fully expecting to be aroused before
daylight by the roar of British artillery.

We now know the happy result, and that, under the providence of God,
much of it was due to the promptitude and foresight of Washington. We
now see the momentous consequences which would have followed the
consummation of Arnold's baseness; how, and by what a singular change
of events, Washington's visit was delayed, and Arnold's escape
effected, while even now, we recoil as we learn how a single
expression dropped by Andre, prevented the springing of a mine which
would have inevitably insured a failure to achieve our independence,
and have left us colonial dependents upon the British Government.
Andre was conveyed to the Robinson House, and thence to West Point,
from which place he was removed to the village of Tappan, opposite
Irvington, on the Hudson River Railroad, where a Board of General
Officers, presided over by Major General Greene, was assembled to
inquire into the facts of his case, and report their opinion. The
Board found him acting in the character of a spy, and were of the
opinion that, agreeably to the laws and usages of war, he ought to
suffer death. In spite of every possible exertion of Sir Henry
Clinton, the universal sympathy of the American officers, and the
grief of Washington, whose heart was wrung with anguish when he gave
the death-warrant, Andre was executed at Tappan, on the 2d of
October, 1780, and died, in truth, "lamented even by his foes."

The miserable and unhappy career of Arnold need not be pursued.
Rewarded by the British Government with a Brigadier-General's
commission and a grant of £10,000, he died in London in 1801.[B]

    [Illustration: CONSTITUTION ISLAND]

To the visitor at West Point, the objective spot of the stirring
scenes described, each wooded height and rocky bluff recalls the times
when our fathers, regardless of personal hardship, suffering and
death, labored to secure the priceless boon of freedom.

    "There's not a verdant blade, nor mountain hoary,
    But treasures up the memories of freedom's story."

One hundred and fifty-seven feet above the river, on a plateau,
embracing about fifty acres of level ground, stands the UNITED STATES
MILITARY ACADEMY, established by an Act of Congress in 1802. The
approach to this plateau from the steam-ferry landing, is up a
carriage road, excavated in the almost perpendicular rocky bank,
conveying the visitor past the Riding-hall, the Cavalry stables, and
the Library building, to the crest of the plain, where the natural
beauty of the latter, and its wonderful adaptation for locating a
great military educational institution, first excites admiration. The
plateau, which affords ample space for all military evolutions
appertaining to artillery, infantry, and cavalry, is bounded on the
west by lofty and rugged hills, at the base of which are situated the
various Academic buildings, the Cadet Barracks, and the residences of
the officers and professors.

Proceeding on to the West Point Hotel, an old fort is seen on the
north-east angle of the plain, known as FORT ARNOLD, until the treason
of the apostate became exposed, when the name, thenceforth unknown in
American history, was changed to FORT CLINTON. From the Hotel,
situated on the north side of the plain, the lake-like river view is
unobstructed for nearly ten miles, and presents in its constantly
varying aspect of sunlight and shadow on the rugged mountain sides, in
its periods of storm and repose on the water, and in its ever changing
variety of steamers and river craft, a scene which for boldness and
beauty stands unrivalled even in America, and is elsewhere unknown
throughout the world. The pencil of the artist, the skill of the
photographer, and the depths of language, have striven to portray the
exceeding loveliness of the vista presented from this spot, while
tourists fresh from the Alpine beauties of Switzerland and the Rhine,
from Italy, Scotland and Wales, and from the overland wilds of the
Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, alike render homage to the
glorious landscape here spread before them.

Immediately to the north, and almost at the feet of the spectator,
lies Constitution Island, with the exposed ruins of old Fort
Constitution near the water's edge, and a little below which the end
of the great chain was attached; while beyond may be seen the forge
and furnace stacks of the Foundry, and the spires and dwellings in the
village of Cold Spring. To the right, and farther up, Bull Hill and
Breakneck Mountains, rise respectively 1,580 and 1,187 feet, the
latter bearing Pollopel's Island, nearly opposite, while the city of
Newburg, with the Shawangunk Mountain range for a background, fades
away almost imperceptibly in the distance. On the left, the Crow Nest
towers 1,428 feet above the water, with Washington's Valley nestling
between it and the Cemetery. "Moore's House," from which the orders of
Washington emanated in 1779, was situated in the valley bearing his

Leaving the Hotel by a pathway to the west, the visitor is conducted
to the siege battery of rifled guns, exhibiting the form and structure
of a field work, and from thence to a grove of elms, where a variety
of trophy guns are to be seen, taken during the Revolution, in the war
of 1812, in Mexico, and in the late rebellion. A portion of the great
chain surrounds the beautiful gun "Le Monarque," presented by Congress
to Lafayette, and one or two mortars captured by General Wayne at
Stony Point. Beside the antique mortars and guns from Mexico,
inscribed with the names of the places from which they came, there are
two English rifled Blakely guns, from Fort Pulaski, two carronades, or
ship's pivot guns, from Hilton Head, one 8-inch rifled Blakely, from
Fort Morgan, all captured from the rebels; and the fragments of Gen.
Gilmore's famous 30-pound Parrott gun, from Morris Island, which
hurled 4,606 projectiles at Charleston before it assumed its present
condition. These trophies, scarred and bruised by shot, and many other
large guns made for experimental purposes, cannot fail to afford an
interesting subject for contemplation. The large granite ball was
brought by Gen. Delafield from the Crimea, where it is said such
projectiles were thrown from mortars by the Russians, to crush the
decks of the blockading fleet. The spot is further interesting from
its having been dedicated as the site of the proposed Battle Monument,
designed to be erected by subscription among the surviving officers
and soldiers, to the memory of the officers of the regular army who
fell during the rebellion.

A little to the westward, a walled enclosure, embracing the Ordnance
Laboratory, is situated, and there may be seen a great variety of
trophy guns from Cedar Creek and from Vicksburg, among which is the
famous "Whistling Dick," an English rifled breech-loading Whitworth
gun, captured on Morris Island, and the formidable Armstrong gun,
captured at Fort Fisher, off Wilmington. Here, also, may be seen the
gun from Elder's Battery, which fired the last shot previous to the
surrender of Lee's Army. These, and a great variety of torpedoes,
shot, shells and other Rebel implements of warfare, will well repay
the visitor by the variety of design they exhibit. Pursuing the road
down the hill, to the North wharf, the Sea-coast battery, with its
armament of rifled monsters, consisting of 30-pound, 100, 200, and
300-pound Parrots, the 15-inch gun, and the 13-inch mortar, all
capable of hurling projectiles as far as Pollopel's Island, or beyond,
arrests the attention of the observer, and furnishes tangible
evidences of the triumphant progress of manufacturing skill in weapons
of war.

Returning by the road to the crest of the Plain, and proceeding west,
a road to the left leads up the hill to Fort Putnam. The old fort,
long neglected, and subject to the assaults of wintry blasts and
beating storms, rises high above the Plain, and there, in grim
majesty, it patiently awaits the silent march of disintegration and
general decay. Approached in the mellow light of an evening sunset,
when a single pencil of rays lingers and illuminates the crests of the
mountains in the east, and a few scattered clouds, tinged with
scarlet, gold and silver tints, fading and blending in perfect harmony
with the deep blue of the firmament, indicate the close of the day; a
single drum breaks upon the solemn stillness around, and directly
after, a full chorus of music from the Band on the Plain below,
proclaims the arrival of the hour for evening parade. Immediately echo
takes up the strain, and repeats them in tones softer and sweeter, and
fainter, until mountain, river and plain, all resound with notes of
exquisite melody. Then the pulse quickens even in those habitually
insensible to the beautiful spectacle here unfolded, and the visitor
seems to breathe a new existence in an ideal world, until the
reverberations of the evening gun announce the passage of another day,
and the nearer approach of that period when the mighty Angel shall
proclaim that "time was, but time shall be no more."

Were the same scene to be presented daily from this spot for all time,
it would never cease to be a delight to make a pilgrimage to the
glorious old Fort, while the vivid memories of its former patriot
occupants, and their labors are treasured up and remembered. But a
constant change is going on, and the same object presents itself to
the eye in many different aspects. The beautiful river, from small
beginnings, flowing down shelving rocks and flowering banks, is
swollen in mighty grandeur until it bursts asunder the mountain
barriers, and sweeps along, bearing on its broad bosom the wealth of
two hemispheres, to lose itself in the limitless ocean, and become a
part of the eternity of waters. The never-ceasing progress of the
seasons, beginning with the first born bud of Spring, and so
proceeding through each varying phase, to the period when the
snow-capped mountains and the ice-bound river are ready to expose anew
their surfaces to the reviving and gladdening warmth of showery April.
The very rising and setting of the sun; the clear, blue sky, speckled
with snowy fleece; the hurry and rush of the mountain storm through
the gorge, unite to keep up an ever-changing panorama of all that is
lovely and grand in nature.

Prominent among the many objects of interest which claim the attention
of the observer from this point, may be seen Redoubt No. 4, on Rocky
Hill, immediately in rear of the fort; the ruined parapets of Forts
Wyllis and Webb lying southward, each enveloped in a cluster of
cedars; and to the east, on the opposite side of the river, the North
and South redoubts on the hill, in rear of Garrisons, environed by
similar groups of the same beautiful vine-clad evergreen. The entire
vicinity, rising as it does abruptly from the river to the terrace
above, with wooded uplands, and bright green slopes beyond, is adorned
with sumptuous country seats, gleaming through the tufts of foliage
that surround them, and the lordly Hudson, with its furrowing keels
and snowy sails, all unite to present a landscape, the beauty of which
the pencil of the artist has vainly striven to portray.

The buildings appropriated to the occupation and education of the
Cadets, are not without attractive interest to the visitor. The
CADETS' BARRACK, from its magnitude, symmetrical proportions,
durability, and castellated structure, seldom fails to elicit
commendation from all lovers of architecture who are drawn to its
vicinity. The building contains eight divisions, of which two are
assigned to each of the four companies of Cadets. Two occupants only
are found in a room, each uniformly furnished with an iron bedstead,
an iron table, chair, books, and wearing apparel; all other furniture
being carefully excluded as unnecessary or unworthy of the student
soldier. Warmed by furnaces, lighted by gas, with daily access to
bath-rooms, and invigorated by their military exercises, the Cadets
present an appearance of health and contentment seldom seen in other
collegiate institutions.

THE ACADEMIC BUILDING contains, on the first floor, a gymnasium, with
bowling-alleys, an apartment for fencing and sword exercise, and the
Chemical laboratory. The second floor contains recitation rooms, and
the models and collections pertaining to the departments of
Engineering and Mineralogy and Geology. Besides the models of bridges,
buildings, engines, and arches, illustrative of the progress of civil
engineering, others relating to field works, fortifications, their
system of attack and defense, and the models of Fort Wagner, before
Charleston, and San Juan d'Ulloa, off Vera Cruz, will claim attention.
The third floor is occupied by recitation and lecture rooms, the
Picture gallery, Drawing Academy, and the Museum of ordnance and
trophies. The Picture gallery contains specimens selected from the
productions of the most proficient Cadets in the classes which have
gone forth since 1838, and among them the names of many prominent army
officers will be recognized. Regarded as an evidence of skill and
cultivated taste, on the part of those who were first made aware of
their power to acquire the art of sketching and coloring after
entering the Military Academy, and as the result of a few months'
instruction, no one can view this collection without experiencing the
liveliest feelings of satisfaction and pleasure.

The MUSEUM OF ORDNANCE AND TROPHIES exhibits all the various
progressive stages in the manufacture of swords, muskets, cartridges,
powder, and shot; models of field and siege guns, and the anatomical
structure of horses for instruction in the department of cavalry. The
collection of ancient and experimental weapons; of Rebel torpedoes,
and Rebel shot from many battle-fields; of flag-staffs and flags from
Mexico; Indian trophies and curious projectiles, and the numerous
flags borne by the regular army in the last war with England, in the
Florida war, in Mexico, and in the Rebellion, with their inscriptions,
excites a degree of interest which cannot be overcome by a momentary

The colors of the FOURTH REGIMENT OF U.S. INFANTRY bear the following
historical inscriptions:

  The first Flag Carried           1794.
  Retained at Reorganization       1808.
  Tippecanoe                       1811.


  Gaines's Pen                     1836.
  Thlonalosassa                    1836.
  Okeechobee                       1837.


  Palo Alto                        1846.
  Resaca de la Palma               1846.
  Monterey                         1816.
  Vera Cruz                        1847.
  Churubusco                       1847.
  Molino del Rey                   1847.
  Chapultepec                      1847.
  City of Mexico                   1847.


  Yorktown                         1862.
  Gaines's Mill                    1862.
  Malvern Hill                     1862.
  Bull Run No. 2                   1862.
  Antietam                         1862.
  Fredericksburg                   1862.
  Chancellorsville                 1863.
  Gettysburg                       1863.
  Wapping Heights                  1863.
  Wilderness                       1864.
  Spottsylvania                    1864.
  North Anna River                 1864.
  Po-Potmail Creek                 1864.
  Coal Harbor                      1864.
  Petersburg                       1864.
  Lee's Surrender                  1865.

The colors of some other regiments and batteries bear even a greater
number of inscriptions, but none date as far back in the past.

A pedestal and shell, brought from South Carolina, is inscribed on
its four sides by Rebel and Union hands, as follows:

                     FIRST FACE.

        Fifteen Inch Hollow Shot, fired by the
    Abolition Fleet of Iron Clads, at Fort Sumter,
                    April 7, 1863.

                     SECOND FACE.

          Presented to the Citadel Academy,
             By General G.T. Beauregard,
          Charleston, S.C., April 27, 1863.

                     THIRD FACE.

       Taken at Columbia, S.C., Feb. 17, 1865,
      By the troops of the United States, under
             Major-General W.T. Sherman.

                     FOURTH FACE.

       Presented to the U.S. Military Academy,
            By Major-General Wm. B. Hazen,
                    April 1, 1865.

The centre of the room is occupied by a model of the Silver Mine of
Valenciana, in Mexico, purchased in the City of Mexico in 1847, by
subscription among the officers of the army, whose names are affixed.
The upper surface represents the operatives, made of silver amalgam,
practising their several divisions of labor, while the sides exhibit
the galleries of the mine, with the miners at work. The case contains,
besides, many mineral specimens, and models of Aztec idols. The whole
is surmounted by an eagle and a portion of drapery taken from over the
Vice-President's Chair in the Mexican Senate Chamber.

In the CHAPEL, east of the Academic building, may be seen a fine
picture over the chancel, by Professor Weir, typical of Mars and
Minerva. On the west side, the walls present memorial tablets of the
general officers of the Revolution, and the guns presented by Congress
to Major-General Greene, implanted beside a niche of trophy colors
taken from English and Hessian regiments. On the east side are
memorial tablets of all the officers of our army who fell in the
Mexican War, and trophy guns and colors taken by Generals Scott and
Taylor, during their campaigns in the same war.

The LIBRARY BUILDING contains temporarily the offices of the
Superintendent, Adjutant, Quartermaster, and Treasurer. On the second
floor, which is not usually open to visitors, is situated the
Lecture-room and apparatus of the department of Philosophy and
Astronomy. The dome contains an equatorial telescope, and the flank
towers a transit instrument and mural circle. The Library occupies the
east end of the building. It contains about 20,000 volumes, chiefly on
professional and scientific subjects, and several fine portraits of
former Superintendents and Chiefs of the Engineer Department.

The capacious RIDING HALL stands on the bank of the river, a little
below the Library; and from the interesting exercises therein, it is
deservedly regarded as one of the most attractive points at the
Military Academy. The hours for riding are from 11 A.M. to 1 P.M.,
except during the period of the Cadets' encampment, with occasional
interruptions, when the evolutions of a squadron are practised on the
Plain. The course of instruction embodies running at the heads,
running at the ring with poised sabre, exercises with pistols,
leaping bars and hurdles, and many other feats which afford little
room for monotony or wearisome interest, even among those accustomed
to witnessing equestrian displays.

Northward from the Library a path leads down the bank to KOSCIUSZKO'S
GARDEN--a shelving terrace overhung with shrubbery, and rendered
inviting by a cool spring of water, and a tradition that the patriot
Pole, whose name the spot bears, here sought retirement and seclusion.
The Monument to "Dade and his Command" tells its own story, and
American history has yet to furnish an example of devotion to duty
similar to that exhibited by those whose names are here inscribed. A
little beyond is seen Battery Knox, whose armament proclaims the
tidings on all occasions of national joy or sadness. From this point,
the lower pathway, called the "Chain Battery Walk," conducts the
visitor through a delightful ramble to Gee's Point and the North
Wharf, or by a branch, to the Hotel above. The upper path returns to
the road along the crest of the bank, and a few steps brings the
tourist to FORT CLINTON.

Within the latter, on the extreme angle nearest the river, stands a
marble column, sacred to military virtue in the person of Kosciuszko,
and forming in itself by reason of the ideas it evokes, a striking
contrast to the dark halo of despite and shame that hovers around the
name of Arnold, whose apostasy is inseparably connected with the very
name of West Point. THADDEUS KOSCIUSZKO was a native of Poland, whose
education began at Warsaw and was completed at Paris. Having
determined to cast his lot with the Americans, then struggling for
liberty, he was furnished by Franklin with letters to Washington, and
came to America. He was appointed Aide-de-Camp to Washington, and
subsequently commissioned as Colonel of Engineers. Highly
distinguished for his courage and skill in the campaign against
Burgoyne, and as the directing Engineer at West Point, he returned to
Poland at the close of the Revolution, rewarded by the thanks of
Congress and the commission of Brevet Brigadier-General, to serve as a
General of Division under Poniatowski. In the Polish Insurrection of
1793 he was chosen Generalissimo, with the powers of a Roman Dictator.
He immediately issued a decree, authorizing the insurrection, and at
once proceeded to unite the Polish divisions, and in a few days the
Russians were driven from the Palatinate. Meantime, the Prussians
having joined Russia, the rest of the struggle was a continuous
resistance against superior forces, until at last, at Maciejowice, on
the 10th of October, 1794, he was completely defeated and overwhelmed
by the Russians. He fell wounded from his horse, with the bitter wail
on his lips, "Finis Polonie." Taken prisoner, and conveyed to a
fortress near St. Petersburg, he underwent a long confinement until
the accession of Paul I., who, feeling an admiration for his
character, restored him to freedom, and presented him with his sword.

"I have no longer occasion for a sword," sadly replied Kosciuszko,
"since I have no longer a country." He visited America in 1797, and
was triumphantly and warmly welcomed by the grateful people. He
returned to Switzerland and resided at Solothurn, where he died on
October 15, 1817. His body was interred at Cracow with great pomp in
the funeral vaults of the Kings of Poland, between the coffins of
Poniatowski and Sobieski. The Senate decreed in his honor the erection
of an enormous mound on the Heights of Bronislawad. The gratuitous
labor of all classes succeeded in raising this "Mound of Kosciuszko"
to the height of 300 feet in three years, and it will remain for ages
a noble monument of his country's gratitude. Kosciuszko was never
married, and the simple column at West Point, in full view of
thousands of travelers, will long serve as a memorial of gratitude
from the American nation, and an enduring protest against the
destruction of Poland, and the ruin and death of many freedom lovers
as noble and virtuous as Kosciuszko himself.

The "DRIVES" at West Point and its vicinity, although limited in
extent by the rugged character of the region, are possessed of
infinite variety and beauty, from the constantly changing aspect of
river, mountain, and valley. Besides the routes on the Post itself,
the road South, along the riverbank to Fort Montgomery, about four
miles distant, from its smoothness, easy grades, and the numerous
attractive residences by the wayside, affords many present and
pleasing after reminiscences of a sojourn at this delightful retreat.

Prominent among these attractions, and scarcely a mile distant from
West Point, on the very brink of a precipice towering over the Hudson,
stands COZZENS' HOTEL, the name of which is inseparably associated
with the name of its founder, whose benevolence, geniality, and
hospitality is so intimately connected with West Point and the
traveling public.

    [Illustration: 1866. West Point AND ITS VICINITY.]

Directly west of the Hotel stands the picturesque little church of the
"Holy Innocents," erected by Professor Weir, to commemorate the
early decease of two of his children. A little distance below, the
village of Highland Falls is situated, on both sides of a mountain
stream bearing the name of Buttermilk Falls, derived from the foaming
passage of the water over steep rocks into the Hudson below. From this
point onward to Fort Montgomery, the occasional expanse of the river,
the charming country seats dotting the bank, and the magnificence of
the mountains, continually inspires a feeling of happiness and

FORT MONTGOMERY is situated on the north bank of Pooplopen's Creek, at
its junction with the Hudson. It is elevated about 130 feet above the
water, and the view from its ruined parapet covers an extent, and
surpasses if possible in wildness, the landscape seen from the West
Point Hotel. FORT CLINTON, similarly elevated, stood directly opposite
on the south side of the creek, and both works possess more than
ordinary interest from having been the scene of a bloody assault and
capture by a British force, under the command of Sir Henry Clinton,
in October 1777. The forts were simultaneously carried at the point of
the bayonet by overwhelming numbers; the last named, by a column
moving up the bank of the river, and the former, by one moving down
the valley, between the Dunderberg and Bear Mountain, through which
the creek makes its way.

From West Point westward, the road diverges to the CEMETERY,
overlooking Camptown, where the soldiers are quartered, Washington's
Valley, a little beyond, Constitution Island, the Foundry, and the
village of Cold Spring. The tasteful monuments, with their military
insignia and mournful inscriptions, unveil the attachment of many who
fell in Florida, Mexico, Oregon, and in the Rebellion, for the spot
protected and consecrated by their Alma Mater. The branch road south,
immediately without the first West gate, leads to Fort Putnam, and
intersects the river route a little above Cozzens' Hotel. The main
road west, known as the "Canterbury Road," leads to Turner's Station,
on the Erie Railroad, about fourteen miles distant, passing Long Pond,
and the vicinity of many other ponds indicated on the map, most of
which afford fine resorts for angling and hunting in the appropriate
season. Three miles from West Point a branch from this road leads
across the mountain to Canterbury, Cornwall, and Newburg, but the
route is so rough as to render it unsuitable for pleasure driving.
Just before reaching this point a road extends south through Eagle
Valley to Highland Falls, affording a circuit of about seven miles,
through a region abounding with new beauties at every turn. The road
is in good condition, and the proposed intention of the Cozzens'
Brothers to add to the attractions of their Hotel by erecting a
mountain retreat at the Round Pond, will doubtless lead to further

The "Drives" on the east side of the Hudson are easy of access by the
steam ferry, and are possessed of even stronger attractions. From the
landing the road rises to the "Highland House," and from thence
southward as far as Anthony's Nose, the route is one of exquisite
beauty. Besides the numerous country seats, nowhere surpassed in
elegance, and the thriving farms along the way, the Robinson House,
situated at the base of Sugar Loaf Mountain, about one mile below,
presents an object of deep and attractive interest. Preserved with all
its original features, and as far as possible in the same condition as
when it was made the scene of Arnold's treachery--hallowed by the
footsteps of Washington and almost every general officer of the
Revolution, and rendered impressive from its antiquity and the absence
of all evidences of the progress of modern architecture and comfort,
the Robinson House has survived, with its umbrageous foliage, for
nearly a century, and remains at this day almost the only relic of its
former princely proprietor.

From the Highland House northward the road, remarkable for its
smoothness and delightful sheltering trees, extends to INDIAN FALLS,
some three miles distant. Passing a deep ravine, through which a
sequestered tributary of the Hudson flows deep in the forest glade--so
deep that, scarce even the Summer's noon-tide sun can force a single
ray through the dense shade--the mountain stream after meandering
through miles of untrodden woods, and chafing over its rocky bed,
suddenly leaps the rocks fifty feet in height into a deep and glassy
pool, forming a scene of surpassing beauty. Beyond, the road continues
to Cold Spring, passing the Foundry and affording landscape views
north and south, all capable of exciting the most pleasurable

The MILITARY EXERCISES, everywhere an attractive spectacle to the
American public, are at West Point productive of the most lasting and
gratifying impressions, from the unrivaled excellence of the Band, the
uniform neatness of the Cadets, and the precision with which the most
difficult maneuvers are executed by them. The European traveler,
accustomed to schools of instruction separate and apart for the
education of Engineers, Artillery, Infantry, and Cavalry Officers,
witnesses here with astonishment the perfection and familiarity which
the Cadets exhibit in the performance of all the duties pertaining to
these four branches of military organization. Some of these exercises
are daily and continuous throughout the year, others, owing to the
severity of the climate, are restricted to the period between the 15th
of March and the 1st of November; and during the Encampment, which
includes a part of June and the months of July and August, all studies
are suspended, while daily practical instruction prevails as in actual
field service.

Commencing on the 1st of September and extending over a term of nine
months and a half, during which time the Cadets occupy the Barracks
and pursue their Academic studies, their military exercises are as

  Revéille   { April 1 to Sept. 30                   5, A.M.
  Roll-call. { March and Oct.                     5:30, A.M.
             { Nov., Dec., Jan. and Feb.             6, A.M.
  Breakfast Roll-call                                7, A.M.
  Guard-mounting                                  7:30, A.M.
  Riding                                11, A.M., to 1, P.M.
  Dinner Roll-call                                   1, P.M.
  Company Drill              March 15 to April 1, 4:10, P.M.
  Battalion Drill               May 16 to May 31, 4:10, P.M.
  Skirmish Drill              Oct. 15 to Oct. 31, 4:10, P.M.
  Light Artillery Drill, }
  Heavy Artillery Drill, }     April 1 to May 15, 4:10, P.M.
  Mortar Practice,       }
  Evening Dress Parade                               Sunset.
  Tattoo                                          9:30, P.M.
  Taps                                              10, P.M.

During the Encampment the hours are changed, and are as follows:

  Revéille                                           5, A.M.
  Infantry Drill                                  5:30, A.M.
  Infantry Drill                  Aug. 1 to Aug. 31, 5, P.M.
  Breakfast Roll-call                                7, A.M.
  Morning Dress Parade                               8, A.M.
  Guard-mounting                                  8:30, A.M.
  Artillery Drill                                    9, A.M.
  Engineering Drill                              10:30, A.M.
  Band Practice                                     10, A.M.
  Drill of New Cadets                  11, A.M., and 5, P.M.
  Evening Dress Parade                               Sunset.
  Tattoo                                          9:30, P.M.
  Tattoo on Party Evenings                        9:50, P.M.
  Taps                                              10, P.M.

For the purpose of military instruction, the Cadets are organized into
a battalion of four companies, called A, B, C, and D Companies. These
are arranged with reference to stature, and they contain the four
Academic or collegiate classes indiscriminately mingled. The companies
are officered in the usual way, by selecting the Captains and
Lieutenants from the class longest at the Academy; the Sergeants from
the next lowest class, and the Corporals from the next in order.
"Chevrons," or badges of gold lace, are worn on each arm by these
officers to denote their rank, as follows:

    1st Sergeant.
    Color Corporal. (Below the elbow.)
    Corporal. (Below the elbow.)]

These appointments are conferred by the Superintendent as honorary
distinctions, and are continuous for one year unless forfeited by
misconduct. The discipline and spirit of the Corps is in a great
degree dependent upon the Cadet Officers, and while they promptly and
cheerfully obey their commands, "off duty" they are equals.

In the exercise of their appointments they are required to report to
the authorities infractions of the Regulations on the part of their
comrades, but all domineering and captious inclinations are
restrained, by what may be termed a popular opinion among the Cadets.

The Corps of Cadets usually numbers about 250, and they are organized
as already stated into four companies. Immediately intrusted with
their supervision and military instruction is the Commandant of
Cadets, who is a Lieutenant-Colonel, and he is assisted by six
officers, like himself detailed from the army. This organization
prevails for all infantry instruction, and for the maintenance of
discipline in camp and barracks. In other branches of military
instruction, special arrangements are ordered on the basis of class
standing in the several classes.

The ENCAMPMENT commences at the close of the Annual Examination, about
the 20th of June, and the camp is located on the Northeast portion of
the Plain. This period, affording as it does the only relaxation from
study during the year, and as the time for the realization of the
long-cherished expectations of the graduating and furlough classes, to
enjoy the pleasures of home and early friendships, is one of unusual
interest and hilarity. With the disappearance of these two classes,
orders are promulgated to pitch the tents, and march into camp at a
stated hour. The latter is preceded by a general stampedeing force of
Cadets, conveying from the barracks to the now unoccupied recitation
rooms all unnecessary articles of furniture. Gray forms are seen with
heads crowned with washstands, chairs, mattresses, and other
camp-prohibited articles, working with such vigor that, in two or
three hours, the barracks are cleared of all Cadet property save their
military accoutrements. Before breakfast the camp is laid out and the
tents pitched, and at the appointed hour the battalion, with the Band
and with colors unfurled, marches to its Summer home.

    [Illustration: The Cadet's Encampment]

The Encampment consists of eight rows of tents, two to each company,
opening on four streets parallel to each other, and a broad avenue
runs through the centre of the camp. The tents of the Company Officers
and of the Army Instructors of Tactics, are situated opposite their
respective companies, while the tent of the Commandant of Cadets is
placed centrally at the East end of the broad avenue. The Guard tents,
five or six in number, are situated in a line a little distance in
front of the whole camp. A chain of six or eight sentinels surrounds
the camp day and night. The guard consists of three reliefs, which
walk post in turn, during the twenty-four hours for which each
guard is detailed. This detail is drawn as equitably as possible from
the four companies, and guard duty recurs once in from three to five
days, making the duty a real hardship to those not inured to it. The
subdivisions of the guard require each relief to walk two hours, and
then wait four hours before it is again posted. The operation of
changing is as follows: When the relief is duly formed and inspected
by the Officer of the Guard, it is marched by its Corporal around the
line of posts, and after "Taps," each sentinel challenges the
longed-for delegation with a fierce, "Who comes there?" as though the
enemy were upon him. The reply of the Corporal leads to a further
demand for a cabalistic word which, when whispered, so elevates the
party in the estimation of the sentinel, that he quickly abandons his
vigilant, defiant manner, and quietly yields his post to his
successor, whose place in the ranks of the relief is then most
cheerfully accepted.

The camp is governed by the same regulations that accompany an army
in the field, except in the preparation of meals, which are supplied
at the Cadets' Mess throughout the year.

The presence of visitors contributes much to enliven this period of
hardship in Cadet life, and the tri-weekly dancing parties on Monday,
Wednesday, and Friday evenings, notwithstanding their abrupt
termination at 10 P.M., affords never to be forgotten reminiscences in
after life, of social enjoyment and enlightened intercourse with the
fair daughters of America, not a few of whom date back their after
career to the bewitching influence which marks this season. The
Encampment usually terminates on the 29th of August, when the Cadets
return to Barrack-life, and recommence their studies. An illumination
of the camp usually takes place on the evening before it is broken up,
and the convolutions of a "stag dance" are performed on the
Parade-ground, with a fervor and vivacity worthy of imitation in a
Camanche war-dance. This curious cross in the terpsichorean art,
between the pigeon wing, double shuffle, hoe-down, and the quadrille,
is a frequent diversion in the Cadet camp. It is performed by twenty
or more Cadets, who gyrate between two rows of candles stuck in the
ground, cadencing their movements by the very uncertain sounds of a
plebeian fiddle and the low muffled rattle of a drum, accompanied by
whimsicalities and contortions unknown save at West Point.

The scene presented during the striking of the tents is quite lively
and picturesque. In the early hours of the day all the property of the
Cadets, such as blankets, clothing, etc., is carried by them to the
rooms they are assigned to in the barracks, leaving in camp only their
rifles and their accoutrements. At the appointed hour the "general"

    "Don't you hear the General say,
    Strike your tents and march away?"

when all spring to their posts, awaiting three taps on the bass drum.
At the first tap, all except the corner tent cords are cast loose and
the pins are withdrawn; at the second, the corner cords and pins are
cast loose, and the tent is gathered around the tent-poles and
steadied in an upright position, so that at the third tap all the
tents instantly go down in concert, and woe to the "gross" one who
fails to complete the prostration at the moment. While the tents are
folded and piled by one party, a group enliven the scene by songs
descriptive of their eagerness

    "To join the army of the brave," etc.

Then the companies are formed, and taking their stacked arms march to
the front on the Parade; the Commandant then, with Band and colors
unfurled, marches the battalion to the general Parade, in front of the
Superintendent's quarters, and the Encampment is no more.

The ACADEMIC EXERCISES of the Cadets are not devoid of interest even
to those who are attracted to the spot by the glittering displays of
military life; while to those interested in the progress of
education, the peculiarities of the system pursued at West Point
seldom fails to increase their belief, that the method here followed
might be more generally introduced into the great American collegiate

The Corps of Cadets, in accordance with the usual custom, is divided
into four classes, and the course of study extends through four years
in duration. The classes are numbered inversely according to their
entrance into the Academy, as the FIRST, SECOND, THIRD, and FOURTH
Classes, corresponding to the Senior, Junior, Sophomore, and Freshman
Classes in other institutions. Each class is divided into convenient
sections of from twelve to fifteen Cadets, for instruction in its
special branches of study, the first Cadet on each section roll being
its squad-marcher, and being responsible for its punctual attendance
and deportment. The recitation hours are sounded on a bugle, when the
sections for the hour are formed at the Barracks, their rolls are
called, and they are marched to the Recitation-rooms by their several
squad-marchers. The instructor is there waiting their attendance, and
after receiving the squad-marcher's report of the absentees, he sends
three or more Cadets to the black-board, to discuss the propositions
he announces to each; for which purpose they proceed to place their
diagrams or analyses on the board. Another is called up on the floor
and questioned on the lesson for the day, until one of those at the
board is ready. The latter being called on, first enunciates the
proposition to be discussed, then gives a condensed analysis of how it
should be solved, and then gives the full discussion, delineation, or
demonstration with reference to his diagram or analysis. Last of all,
and reaching the termination of his subject, the instructor proceeds
to question him on the parts slighted or omitted, and upon topics
connected with the subject-matter under consideration. It will be seen
that the recitation proceeds upon the supposition that the Cadet
understands his lesson beforehand, and that the instructor's province
is to make sure of the Cadet's thorough and accurate knowledge; to
amplify his conceptions, and supply his deficiencies, rather than
teach him the subject of the lesson. He also enforces that orderly and
lucid exposition and arrangement of the matter, which carries the
conviction that the Cadet not only knows his topic, but is able to
communicate it to others. He requires accuracy of language, the
observance of certain recitation forms, and proprieties in decorum, to
a degree far higher than is usually demanded in other institutions.
Three sides of the section-room are provided with wall slates or
black-boards, and a tray for chalk, wipers, and pointers, extends
across the bottom of each. Every Cadet writes his name over his work,
and when called upon to recite, assumes the "position of a soldier,"
until he wishes to refer to his work, when he does so with his
pointer. It is a matter of no small magnitude to secure a becoming
personal deportment and style in recitation, and to suppress the
unmeaning, nervous turnings, rockings, and fumblings, which too often
deform the manners of undisciplined students.

The instructor marks each recitation according to his estimate of its
quality as referred to a scale of valuation ranging from zero to
three, the maximum for a perfect and satisfactory exhibition of
knowledge. A weekly report of these daily marks is made to the
Superintendent, and exhibited to the Cadets who crowd the hall leading
to the Adjutant's office every Monday, to see the official estimate of
their performances during the past week. The recitation marks are
aggregated for the semi-annual examination in January, and for the
annual examination in June, and are mainly decisive of the numerical
standing of each Cadet in the different courses of study. Frequent and
thorough reviews occur, in which each individual's success is
critically observed and considered in making out the standing--a
greater weight justly belonging to the final and permanent conquest of
a course, than to the earlier recitations. The final examination on
the subject also has a material weight.

By combining all these elements, a definite order of arrangement of
the members of each class, in each branch of study, is obtained, and
from these combined special standings, a general class rank, or order
of arrangement according to each individual's merit, is deduced at the
close of each annual examination. In determining the standing of the
graduating class the special standing of each Cadet in all the
branches of study for the four years, including proficiency in
discipline, is considered, and possesses a relative weight in deciding
the position of each member.

The Annual Examination in June is conducted in the presence of a
"Board of Visitors," selected for the purpose by the Secretary of War,
and the reports of these Boards, composed of intelligent men of all
professions and all political parties, have, for more than forty
years, borne favorable testimony to the thoroughness and efficiency of
the system of instruction pursued at West Point. The assignment and
promotion of the graduating class to corps and regiments in the army,
is regulated by the recommendation of the Academic Board, based upon
class standing. The highest members only are recommended for the Corps
of Engineers, and as the recommendations are almost uniformly adhered
to, each Cadet becomes the arbiter of his own destiny, so far as his
capacity makes success practicable. He is thus stimulated to good
conduct, and the diligent employment of all his mental faculties, by
the hope of a choice in the assignments, and of securing after rank,
by commission, over his comrades.

How to become a Cadet, is a question not unlikely to arise in the
minds of some of the young readers of this volume. The martial
aspirant should consider well, before taking any steps toward securing
a Cadet appointment, that Cadet life is no mere holiday training--no
refined dandyism, but a four years' devotion of mind, body, and heart
to discipline and study; more severe, by far, than is required at any
other educational institution in the land. But if possessed of an
aptitude for mathematical study, of a vigorous realization of the
attributes of manhood, and the courage to endure patiently present
trials for future good, and finally, if possessed of an ardent desire
for intellectual culture, with a view to after usefulness, nowhere can
a youth become so well qualified by an educational course to be a man,
as by becoming a Cadet at the National Military Academy. The method of
procedure to secure an appointment is briefly as follows:

The District of Columbia, and each District of Country entitled to a
Member of the House of Representatives in Congress, may secure through
him one Cadet appointment. The Cadet so selected should remain four
years, but in case he fails to do so, a vacancy arises which the
Representative is called upon to fill with a new appointee. Of course,
the same thing occurs when the Cadet graduates, and thus the number of
Cadets is made equal to the number of Representatives and Delegates
in Congress. In addition, every year the President of the United
States appoints TEN Cadets, selected at his pleasure from any portion
of the country. The appointments by Districts are really made by the
Secretary of War, but only on the recommendation of the Member of
Congress. An application made to the latter will show whether a
vacancy exists--if so, the applicant must plead with him for it. The
only other alternative is to secure the favor of being one of the TEN
appointed by the President. The official qualifications are herewith


I.--As frequent inquiries are made in regard to the mode of procuring
admission into the Military Academy, persons interested in the subject
are hereby informed that application may be made at any time (by
letter to the Secretary of War) by the applicant himself, his parent,
guardian, or any of his friends, that his name may be placed on the
register in the office of the Inspector at Washington. The precise age
and permanent abode of the applicant, as, also, the number of the
Congressional District in which he resides, must be stated, and no
application will be considered wherein these instructions are not
complied with. No preference is given to applications on account of
priority, nor can any information be communicated as to the probable
success of an applicant before the appointments are made.

By an act of Congress, the appointment of a person who has served in
any capacity in the military or naval service of the so-called
Confederate States is prohibited, and, as a general rule, no person
will be appointed who has had a brother educated at the Academy.

By provision of law, each Congressional and Territorial District and
the District of Columbia is entitled to have one Cadet at the Military
Academy, and no more. In addition to these, the appointment _annually_
of a number, not exceeding _ten_, "at large," not confined to a
selection by Congressional Districts, is authorized. The District and
Territorial appointments are made upon the nomination of the member of
Congress or Delegate representing the District or Territory at the
date of appointment, and the law requires that the individual selected
shall be an _actual resident_ of the District or Territory, or
District of Columbia, from which the appointment purports to be made.
The selections "at large" and from the District of Columbia are made
by the President.

Appointments are required by law to be made one year in advance of the
date of admission--that is to say, about the 1st of July in each year,
except in instances where it may be impracticable, from any cause, so
to make them. Persons, therefore, receiving appointments have ample
time afforded them in which to prepare for a successful examination
prior to their admission.

II.--To prevent the disappointment, mortification, and useless expense
that might attend the acceptance of a Cadet appointment by a person
not possessing the necessary qualifications for admission, and for the
instruction and aid of others, the following information is

Candidates must be over seventeen and under twenty-two years of age at
the time of entrance into the Military Academy; no modification of the
law in this respect can be made; but any person who has served
honorably and faithfully not less than one year as an officer or
enlisted man in the army of the United States, either as a Volunteer,
or in the Regular service, during the war for the suppression of the
Rebellion, shall be eligible for appointment up to the age of
twenty-four years. They must be at least five feet in height, and free
from any deformity, disease, or infirmity, which would render them
unfit for the military service, and from any disorder of an infectious
or immoral character. They must be able to read and write well, and
perform with facility and accuracy the various operations of the four
ground rules of Arithmetic, of reduction, of simple and compound
proportion, and of vulgar and decimal fractions. The Arithmetic is to
be studied understandingly, and not merely committed to memory. They
will also be required to have a knowledge of the elements of English
Grammar, of Descriptive Geography, particularly of our own country,
and of the history of the United States.

III.--It must be understood that a full compliance with the above
conditions will be insisted on; that is to say, the candidate must
write a fair and legible hand, and without any material mistakes in
spelling such sentences as shall be dictated by the examiners; and he
must answer promptly and without errors all their questions in the
above-mentioned rules of Arithmetic and in the other branches: failing
in any of these particulars, he will be rejected.

IV.--Every candidate will, soon after his arrival at West Point, be
subject to a rigid examination by an experienced Medical Board, and
should there be found to exist in him any of the following causes of
disqualification, to such a degree as will immediately, or in all
probability may, at no very distant period, impair his efficiency, he
will be rejected:

1. Feeble constitution and muscular tenuity; unsound health from
whatever cause; indications of former disease; glandular swellings, or
other symptoms of scrofula.

2. Chronic cutaneous affections, especially of the scalp, or any
disorder of an infectious character.

3. Severe injuries of the bones of the head; convulsions.

4. Impaired vision from whatever cause; inflammatory affections of the
eyelids; immobility or irregularity of the iris; fistula lachrymalis,
etc., etc.

5. Deafness; copious discharge from the ears.

6. Loss of many teeth, or the teeth generally unsound.

7. Impediment of speech.

8. Want of due capacity of the chest, and any other indication of a
liability to a pulmonic disease.

9. Impaired or inadequate efficiency of one or both of the superior
extremities on account of fractures, especially of the clavicle,
contraction of a joint, extenuation, deformity, etc., etc.

10. An unusual excurvature or incurvature of the spine.

11. Hernia.

12. A varicose state of the veins of the scrotum or spermatic cord
(when large), sarcocele, hydrocele, hemorrhoids, fistulas.

13. Impaired or inadequate efficiency of one or of both of the
inferior extremities on account of varicose veins, fractures,
malformation (flat feet, etc.), lameness, contraction, unequal length,
bunions, overlying or supernumerary toes, etc., etc.

14. Ulcers, or unsound cicatrices of ulcers likely to break out

V.--During the months of July and August the Cadets are engaged in
military duties and exercises, living in camp. The academic exercises
commence the beginning of September. The semi-annual examination takes
place in January. At this time the Cadets are rigidly examined in the
subjects they have studied, and the new Cadets, if found proficient
therein (their conduct having been correct in all respects), will
receive the warrant of Cadet, and take such a station in their class
as their respective merits, as determined at the examination, may
entitle them to. If any have been unable to master the course, they
will be pronounced deficient by the Academic Board, and their
connection with the Academy will cease.

VI.--It is important that it be clearly understood that this
examination, like all subsequent ones, is very thorough--does not
permit any evasion or slighting of the course, and exacts a very close
and persevering attention to study. The examining officers have no
option; they _must_ reject the deficient. The nation sends these young
men to the Military Academy, supports and pays them adequately, and
opens to them an honorable profession, in the expectation that their
best efforts will be given to qualify themselves for the higher duties
of the military service. Those who will not, or can not, profit by
these generous provisions, should not occupy the places of those who
will and can.

VII.--In June there is held the "Annual Examination," which, in its
character of searching scrutiny, is like the semi-annual examination
in January. Cadets who have failed to make the requisite proficiency,
and are not likely to succeed in future, are discharged.

VIII.--It will thus be seen that a person must carry to the Academy a
certain degree of preparation; good natural parts; an aptitude for
study; industrious habits; perseverance; a disposition to conform to
discipline, and correct moral deportment. If deficient in any of these
respects, it will be best for young men not to enter the Military
Academy, as they will thus avoid the probabilities of disappointment
and mortification. Many of those who receive appointments fail,
through deficiency in the above particulars, to graduate. But it must
not be understood that those who fail to master the scientific course
taught at the Military Academy, necessarily incur thereby discredit as
regards mental ability, since it is by no means rare for intellects
otherwise strong to be averse to mathematical investigation, or study
of language.

IX.--The pay of a Cadet is $41.66 per month, with one ration per day,
and is considered sufficient, with proper economy, for his support.



Candidates must be able to read with facility from any book, giving
the proper intonation and pauses, and to write portions that are read
aloud for that purpose, spelling the words, and punctuating the
sentences properly.

In ARITHMETIC they must be able to perform with facility examples
under the four ground rules, and hence must be familiar with the
tables of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division; and
must be able to perform examples in reduction and vulgar fractions,
such as:--

  Add 2/3 to 3/4; subtract 2/5 from 5/6.
  Multiply 3/4 by 7/8; divide 2/5 by 3/8.

Add together two hundred and thirty-four thousandths (.234),
twenty-six thousandths (.026), and three thousandths (.003).

Subtract one hundred and sixty-one ten thousandths (.0161) from
twenty-five hundredths (.25).

Multiply or divide twenty-six hundredths (.26) by sixteen thousandths

They must also be able to change vulgar fractions into decimal
fractions, and _vice versâ_, with examples like the following:--

Change 15/16 into a decimal fraction of the same value.

Change one hundred and two thousandths (.102) into a vulgar fraction
of the same value.

In Simple and Compound Proportion, examples of various kinds will be
given, and candidates will be expected to understand the principles of
the rules which they follow.

In ENGLISH GRAMMAR candidates will be required to exhibit a
familiarity with the nine parts of speech and the rules in relation
thereto, and must be able to parse any ordinary sentence which may be
given them, and generally they must understand those portions of the
subject usually taught in the higher academies and schools throughout
the country, comprehended under the heads of Orthography, Etymology,
Syntax, and Prosody.

In DESCRIPTIVE GEOGRAPHY they are to name, locate, and describe the
natural grand and political divisions of the earth, and be able to
delineate any one of the States or Territories of the American Union,
with its principal cities, rivers, lakes, seaports, and mountains.

In HISTORY they must be able to name the periods of the discovery and
settlement of the North American continent, of the rise and progress
of the United States, and of the successive wars and political
administrations through which the country has passed.




[Books marked thus * are for Reference.]



                       { Davies' Bourdon's Algebra.
  Mathematics.         { Davies' Legendre's Geometry and Trigonometry.
                       { Church's Descriptive Geometry.

                       { Bolmar's Levizac's Grammar, and Verb Book.
  French               { Agnel's Tabular System.
  Language.            { Berard's Leçons Françaises.
                       { *Spier's and Surenne's Dictionary.

  Tactics of Artillery { Practical Instruction in the Schools of the
  and Infantry.        { Soldier, Company, and Battalion.
                       { Practical Instruction in Artillery.

  Use of Small Arms    { Instruction in Fencing and Bayonet Exercise.



                       { Church's Descriptive Geometry, with its
                       { application to Spherical Projections.
  Mathematics.         { Church's Shades, Shadows, and Perspective.
                       { Davies' Surveying.
                       { Church's Analytical Geometry.
                       { Church's Calculus.

                       { Bolmar's Levizac's Grammar and Verb Book.
                       { Berard's Leçons Françaises. Chapsal's Leçons
  French               { et Modeles de Literature Française.
  Language.            { Agnel's Tabular System. Rowan's Morceaux
                       { Choises des Auteurs Modernes.
                       { *Spier's and Surenne's Dictionary.

                       { Josse's Grammar. Morale's Progressive Reader.
  Spanish.             { Ollendorf's Oral Method applied to the
                       { Spanish application by Velasquez and Simonne.
                       { *Seoane's Neuman and Barretti's Dictionary.

  Drawing.             { Topography, &c.

  Tactics of Infantry  { Practical Instruction in the Schools of the
  Artillery,           { Soldier, Company, and Battalion.
  and Cavalry.         { Practical Instruction in Artillery and
                       { Cavalry.



  Natural and          { Bartlett's Mechanics.
  Experimental         { Bartlett's Acoustics and Optics.
  Philosophy.          { Bartlett's Astronomy.

  Chemistry.           { Fowne's Chemistry. Chemical Physics from
                       { Miller.

  Drawing.             { Landscape. Pencil and Colors.

                       { United States Tactics for Garrison, Siege, and
  Tactics--Artillery,  { Field Artillery. United States Tactics for
  Cavalry,             { Infantry. Practical Instruction in the Schools
  and Infantry.        { of the Soldier, Company, and Battalion.
                       { Practical Instruction in Artillery and Cavalry.



                       { Mahan's Field Fortifications.
  Military and         { Mahan's Outlines of Permanent Fortification.
  Civil Engineering    { Mahan's Civil Engineering.
  and Science          { Mahan's Fortification and Stereotomy.
  of War.              { Mahan's Advanced Guard and Out Post, etc.
                       { *Moseley's Mechanics of Engineering.

  Mineralogy and       { Dana's Mineralogy.
  Geology.             { Hitchcock's Geology.

                       { French's Practical Ethics.
  Law and Literature.  { Halleck's International Law. Law and Military
                       { Law, by Prof. French.
                       { Benet's Military Law and the Practice of
                       { Courts-Martial.

                       { Practical Instruction in fabricating Fascines,
                       { Sap Faggots, Gabions, Hurdles, Sap Rollers,
  Practical Military   { etc.; manner of laying out and constructing
  Engineering.         { Gun and Mortar Batteries, Field
                       { Fortifications, and Works of Siege; formation
                       { of Stockades, Abatis, and other military
                       { obstacles; and throwing and dismantling
                       { Ponton Bridges.

                       { United States Tactics for Cavalry.
  Tactics--Artillery,  { Practical Instruction in the Schools of the
  Cavalry              { Soldier, Company, and Battalion. Practical
  and Infantry.        { Instruction in Artillery and Cavalry.

  Ordnance and         { Benton's Ordnance and Gunnery.
  Gunnery.             { Practical Pyrotechny.

For the information of visitors, the "Police Regulations" of the Post
of West Point, and the "Regulations of the Encampment," are appended:





1. "Police Limits" include all territory lying north and east of a
line running west from the South Gate to its intersection with the
Fort Putnam road, and thence by the road to the cemetery.

2. To prevent interruption to the duties of the Academy, carriages
will not be allowed to pass on the road leading by the Academic Hall
and Cadets' Barrack, during the hours devoted to study; and at no time
by the Hospital, except when required for the accommodation of
residents or their visitors, and then at a slow pace.

3. Carriages will be allowed to pass to the West Point Hotel, through
the South Gate, by the road below the Hospital, or through the West

4. On Sundays the gates will be closed, and no vehicle allowed to
drive on the Plain without the permission of the Superintendent,
except for the purpose of conveying persons to and from Divine
Service, to the ferry landings, to obtain medical assistance, or for
the private benefit of Officers residing on the Post. Officers will
not pass public conveyances through the gates on Sunday.

5. Carts and wagons will use the main road, across the Plain, except
when necessity requires them to go upon the private road passing in
front of the Quarters, Barrack, and Hospital.

6. Carriages and horses are not permitted to pass, or remain on the
road in front of the parade-ground, nor to move about in its vicinity
during parade and reviews.

7. Racing, fast driving, and unnecessary noise at all times is

8. It is strictly forbidden to drive or ride over any of the
sidewalks or paths at West Point, or any part of the Plain or grounds
except the carriage roads.

9. All persons are directed to close the gates after them on entering
or leaving the public grounds.

10. Officers and citizens may smoke on the Plain; but during the
performance of any military duty thereon, no smoking will be allowed
on, or in the vicinity of, that part of the Plain which may be
occupied for such duty.

11. All persons are prohibited from bathing in the river, during the
day, anywhere within police limits.

12. All persons whatever, residing or serving at West Point, are
prohibited from hunting or shooting, or using fire-arms for any
purpose, within police limits, during week days, and within the limits
of the public lands on Sundays.

       *       *       *       *       *

15. Boats are not permitted to land, except at the public wharves.

16. Every boat, cart, wagon, or vehicle laden with articles, except
for officers, may be searched by the officers and non-commissioned
officers of the Guard, or members of the Police.

17. All persons are forbidden to receive or transport across the Post
any article for excluded individuals.

18. All persons are prohibited from selling any kind of intoxicating
liquors, beer, cakes, etc., on the Post, without the permission of the

19. All enlisted men are prohibited from bringing on the Post, or
having in their possession, any intoxicating liquor, beer, etc.,
without the permission of the Superintendent.

20. Persons not connected with the Post, bringing prohibited articles
thereon, will be promptly removed by the guard or police, and reported
to the Superintendent, to the end that they may be prosecuted for

21. Pedlers and all improper persons are prohibited from coming on the

22. Excursion or Pleasure Parties, etc., are not allowed to land on
the Post, unless specially authorized by the Superintendent.

       *       *       *       *       *

26. Cadets will not be allowed to cross the ferries without the
written permission of the Superintendent. All such permits will be
returned as soon as practicable by the ferrymen to the Adjutant's

       *       *       *       *       *

29. No person will be allowed to cut wood on the public lands, break
the branches of the trees on the Plain, at the Cemetery, or in the
vicinity of Camptown, or to throw stones or sticks into them. Parents
will be held responsible for the acts of their children violating this

       *       *       *       *       *

34. No citizen will be allowed to wear the uniform, or parts thereof,
of officers, cadets, or soldiers.

       *       *       *       *       *

36. The iron seats in front of the Superintendent's quarters must not
be occupied by servants and children when required for visitors.






1. All Cadets, with the exception hereinafter mentioned, will confine
themselves to the Encampment. Cadets will always hold themselves in
readiness for such extra roll calls as the Officer in Charge may be
directed to have during his tours. On these occasions, the Assembly
will be sounded on the drum, when each man for duty in each company
will appear promptly on the company Parade Ground. The companies will
be formed without further signal by command of the Sergeants, the
rolls called, and the results immediately reported through the proper
channels to the Officer of the Day.

2. Cadets will be permitted to wear their fatigue jackets, and their
coats unbuttoned, in the body of the Encampment. When the Guard are in
fatigue jackets the Battalion will wear the same to meals.

3. There will be one corporal and four privates detailed daily from
each company for company Police. A separate Roster for this purpose
will be kept, and this detail made from the Third and Fourth Classes.
The company Police party will be formed by the corporal on the company
ground, at morning and evening Police roll calls, when the company
ground, and the ground behind the tents, including the company
Officer's Tents, will be thoroughly policed. The corporal of the
company Police will be held responsible for the proper police of the
company grounds at all Inspections, and also that the Tent Walls of
the Tents, when all the occupants are necessarily absent, are raised
and lowered at the proper times. He has authority to call on his
party at any time, for purposes connected with the Police of his

4. The Guard, on the day succeeding that on which it marched off, will
constitute the General Police, and will be formed by the Junior
Officer of the Guard, on the General Parade Ground, at morning and
evening Police calls, and will police those parts of Camp not policed
by the company Police party.

5. The Senior Officer of the Guard, on the day succeeding that on
which he marched off, will be Camp Officer of the Police for that day,
and will report his presence to the Officer of the Day at all roll
calls of companies. He will have general charge of the Police of Camp,
will inspect the Police parties when at work, see that they are all
present, and that they perform their duties properly.

6. The Officers of the Police will not dismiss their parties until
after their work has been inspected by the Camp Officer of the Police,
and not until he has expressed his satisfaction at the manner in which
it has been done. Should he deem it necessary, at any time during his
tour, to turn out the Police parties for duty, they will promptly obey
his orders.

7. All Details for Guard, company Police, etc., will be posted on a
Bulletin Board, at the Tents of the 1st Sergeants of the companies.

8. The Members of the First Class, between REVÉILLE and RETREAT, will
be permitted to have the limits of the Plain, included within the Main
Road, passing in rear of Camp, in front of the Hotel Yard, the
Quarters of the Superintendent, the Barracks, and the Library. Cadets
can visit the Library during Library hours, but the Barracks and the
confectioner's can be visited only by special permission.

9. The permission to walk on Public Lands on Saturday afternoons,
granted to Cadets in Barracks, is withdrawn.

10. Cadets will be allowed to bathe at or near Gee's Point, between
Revéille and Breakfast, and between Retreat and Tattoo. Cadets wishing
to bathe, will be formed in the company Parade Ground, and be marched
to and from the place of bathing, by the Senior Non-commissioned
Officer present. The members of the Old Guard, during the morning
after marching off, will be permitted to walk on Public Lands until 1
o'clock, and bathe at Washington's Valley during the same time, except
on Sundays, when they will be excused from Divine Service.

11. All Cadets, except Officers of the First Class, will pass in and
out of Camp by crossing Post No. 1, reporting their departure and
return to the Officer of the Guard, who will keep a correct list of
the same, and note the time. Cadets will visit the Commissary's only
between the hours of 8-1/2 and 9-1/2 A.M., and 1-1/2 and 3 P.M., and
the Confectioner's between 1 and 4 P.M.

12. Permission to walk on Public Lands, does not include the
Commissary store out of hours, the Hotel, the Hospital, Wharfs, public
or private buildings, or any other place on the Point, forbidden by

13. At Taps, all lights will be extinguished in Camp, except those in
Tents of Officers of the First Class, of the 1st Sergeants, and the
Officers and Sergeant of the Guard.

14. Immediately after Taps, the company Officers will inspect their
companies, and see that all Cadets are properly undressed and in bed;
they will remain in their company grounds long enough to insure
quietness and order in their companies, and will report all Cadets who
leave their Tents for any purpose whatever.

15. Visiting in Camp after Taps is prohibited, and the Officers in the
performance of their duty will confine themselves to the limits of
their company grounds.

16. The Officer of the Guard will allow no Cadet, except members of
his guard, to pace the Posts of Nos. 2 and 6 after Taps, except by
permission of the Commanding Officer, or the Officer in charge; and he
will, at all times, preserve proper order and quiet at the Guard

17. Citizens will not be allowed in the body of the Encampment except
when accompanied by an Officer, or for the purpose of visiting an
Officer. For the latter purposes, they will be permitted to cross all
sentinels' posts except those of Nos. 3 and 5. The Officer of the Day,
and the Officer and Non-commissioned Officers of the Guard, together
with the sentinels, will, when they observe citizens in camp for any
other purpose, politely notify them of this order.

18. The Color Guard will remain with the Guard until Retreat, when the
members will be permitted to go to their own tents. At Revéille, they
will again join the Guard.

19. All Prisoners and Cadets in arrest, will march to and from meals
with the Guard, which will be marched both to and from same by an
officer of the Guard.

20. All Cadets passing within fifteen paces of the Color Line, will
salute the colors.

21. On Saturday afternoons until Tattoo, the Officer of the Day will
inspect and verify the presence and behavior of all Cadets in
confinement, making his rounds for that purpose every hour.

22. Cadets receiving permits will present them to the Officer of the
Guard, who will register them; and the Cadet taking advantage of it,
is required to notify the Officer of the Guard of his departure and
return. All the permits will then be left with the Officer of the
Guard, who will transmit them, with his report, to the Officer of the
Day, who will in turn transmit them to the Commandant. Cadets visiting
the Hotel, will register their permits immediately in the book kept at
the office for that purpose.

23. No Cadet will be permitted to visit the Hotel before Guard
Mounting, nor between 1 and 3 P.M., and 7 and 8 P.M.

24. Cadets who are excused from Divine Service, will remain in their
quarters during the continuance of same. This applies also to those
who attend either the Catholic or Methodist service.

25. Members of the Guard will not leave the Guard Tents without
permission from the Officer of the Guard, who will see that their
absence is not unnecessarily long.

26. Cadets will not be permitted to smoke outside the body of the

27. All official communications from Cadets will be made in proper
forms, and must pass through the hands of their company Commanders.

28. It is requested of Officers and citizens that they will not smoke
on the General Parade Ground, or when crossing a sentinel's post.

29. The Guard will permit no person except Cadets, Officers, their
servants, or Orderlies, to enter camp during the absence of the

30. The Guard will be formed and inspected at Revéille, Retreat, and
Tattoo, and during Parades will remain formed.

31. Cadets in arrest or confinement, wishing to bathe, will apply to
the Commandant for permission, and be marched from and back in charge
of a guard.

32. Cadets performing extra tours of punishment, will not be put on
the Color Line.

33. No Cadet will employ another to do any duty for which he has been
detailed, without permission.

34. Cadets on sick report will not apply for permission to visit.

35. The body of the Encampment is defined to be that portion of the
Encampment included between the company Officers' Tents and the Front
Line of company Tents.


[A] EDWARD SHIPPEN ARNOLD was born at Philadelphia, March 19th, 1780;
he entered the East India Company's service, and became a Lieutenant
of Cavalry and Paymaster of Mattra. He died in India in 1813.

[B] BENEDICT ARNOLD was twice married, and had three sons by his first
wife. BENEDICT, the eldest, was an Officer of Artillery in the British
Army, and died young in the West Indies. HENRY and RICHARD both
entered the King's Service after their father's defection, as
Lieutenants of a Cavalry Legion, commanded by their father.

By his second marriage (April 8th, 1779), General ARNOLD became the
father of four sons and one daughter.

EDWARD SHIPPEN ARNOLD, the eldest already mentioned; JAMES ROBERTSON
ARNOLD, the second son entered the Royal Engineers in 1798, and served
at Bermuda, Nova Scotia, and in New Brunswick. In 1841 he was
appointed a Major-General in the British Army, and rose to be a
Lieutenant-General in 1851. He was a Knight of the Hanoverian Order of
the Guelph, also a Knight of the Turkish Order of the Crescent. He
died in service in 1854.

GEORGE ARNOLD, the third son, was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Bengal
Cavalry, and died in India in 1828. WILLIAM FITCH ARNOLD, the fourth
son, became a Captain of Lancers in the British Army. SOPHIA MATILDA
ARNOLD married a Colonel in the East India Company's Service.

General ARNOLD died in London, June 14th, 1801. The following notice
appeared in the _Gentleman's Magazine_. "At his house in Gloucester
Place, Brigadier-General ARNOLD. His remains were interred at Brompton
on the 21st. Seven mourning coaches and four State coaches formed the
cavalcade."--_Loyalists of the American Revolution_--SABINE--_British
Army Register_.

  A Standard Work for every Public and Private Library.



  Military Importance During the American Revolution,








  Printed on Tinted Paper, beautifully Illustrated with Maps and
  Fine Engravings, chiefly from Photographs taken on the
  spot by the Author; bound in blue cloth,
  bevelled boards, $6.00.
  D. VAN NOSTRAND, Publisher,


  Copies sent free by mail on receipt of Price.

Part First

Relates to the early acquisition of West Point by the United States,
and the military importance of the Post during the period of the
American Revolution; embracing the rise and progress of the
fortifications, and the purchase and arrangement of the Great Chain,
designed to obstruct the navigation of the Hudson River, drawn from
authentic documents, and illustrated by Maps and Engravings never
before published.

The perfidious designs of Benedict Arnold, and his connection with
Major John André, Adjutant-General of the British Army in America, are
succinctly described, together with the "Proceedings of the Board of
General Officers," in the case of Major André, in a _fac-simile_ form
as published at the time by the authority of the Continental Congress.

The grand _feu de joie_ at West Point on the occasion of the birth of
the Dauphin of France, in 1782, with all the changes in the Garrison
prior to the beginning of the present century, and many of the Orders
of Washington from this spot, are now for the first time given to the

Part Second

Describes the origin of the Military Academy, and its progress down to
the present date; the recognition of the necessity for such an
institution at the very commencement of the Revolution, and the
accumulated opinions in its favor upon the restoration of peace, as
pronounced by the leading minds in the country, are given.

The Constitutionality of the institution, its alleged aristocratic
tendencies, and the services of its graduates in and without the
military profession, are treated at length.

The progress of the institution under each successive Superintendent,
the erection and removal of the Early Public Buildings, illustrated by
accurate Engravings and Descriptions, together with those of modern
date, will be found to constitute an interesting feature in the work.

To those who seek admission into the Military Academy, or who desire
to know the manner of selecting Cadets and making appointments, the
course of life, the employment of time, and the duties of instruction
afterward, full and complete information has been carefully prepared
and imparted to the reader.

To the visitor or tourist, the work points out and describes (with the
aid of a Map) all the objects of interest connected with the old
Forts, and the Public Buildings, as they exist, and the method of
obtaining access to all such is given.

The Appendix

Contains the roll of the Academic Staff, from the commencement of the
institution; the five most distinguished Cadets in each class from
1817 to the present date, as published by the War Department; a
numerical list of all the Cadets who have been _admitted_ into the
Military Academy, and the States and Territories whence appointed; a
similar list of all the _graduates_ of the institution, together with
a synopsis of all the laws of the United States relative to the
Military Academy, and a sketch of military education and the military
schools in Europe.

       *       *       *       *       *

These are a few only of the subjects of interest to be found in the
work. No efforts has been spared to encompass and exhaust the whole
subject, with the view to render the work _an authority_.

List of Maps and Illustrations.

         (_Fac-simile._) A perspective view, by Major L'Enfant,
         Engineer, of the west side of the Highlands, above and
         below the Point, twelve miles in extent, with the camps of
         the army and the fortifications plainly indicated.

         (_Fac-simile._) This map of Maj. Villefranche, Engineer, is
         said to have been used at the interview between Arnold and


    4. MAP OF FORT ARNOLD. 1780. (_Fac-simile._)

         WEST POINT. 1780.

    6. MARTELAER'S ROCK (Constitution Island).

         (_Fac-simile._) From Haverstraw to West Point, illustrating
         the capture of Forts Montgomery and Clinton.




         (_Fac-simile._) _Colored._


    13. RUINS OF FORT CONSTITUTION. _From the West Point Hotel._

    14. RUINS OF FORT PUTNAM (_interior view_).



    17. MAP OF WEST POINT IN 1863, _with all the details_.

    18. FORT PUTNAM, _from the West Point Hotel_. 1863.

    19. THE OLD ACADEMIC BUILDING, _looking south-east_.

    20. THE OLD MESS-HALL, _looking south-west_.

    21. THE OLD NORTH BARRACKS, _looking north-east_.

    22. THE OLD SOUTH BARRACKS, _looking south-east_.

    23. THE NEW MESS-HALL, _looking south-west_.

    24. THE NEW ACADEMIC BUILDING, _looking south-west_.

    25. THE NEW CADET BARRACKS, _looking south-east_.

    26. THE LIBRARY AND OBSERVATORY, _looking south-east_.

    27. THE WEST POINT HOTEL, _looking north-west_.

    28. THE CHAPEL, _north front_.










"The author has, with painstaking industry, gathered into one view
whatever could be gleaned from our annals, not only in regard to the
origin and progress of the Military Academy, but in reference to the
previous history of West Point as an important Military Station during
the American Revolution.

"This work is a valuable addition to our historical literature, and
will furnish to the thousands of graduates from the West Point Academy
a most valuable _souvenir_ of their _alma mater_."--_Army and Navy

       *       *       *       *       *

"The associations of West Point, the seat of the United States
Military Academy, are in this respect remarkable, that they derive
their interest exclusively from the circumstances incidental to the
birth and progress of the nation. The history of the place is an
important part of the nation's history. It was the objective point in
that drama of Arnold's treason, which, by involving the fate of André,
is remembered as one of the most romantic incidents in the story of
the war. The aspect of the place in connection with the events of that
time is given by that method of description which always leaves the
sense of historic verity. The author has presented his subject not so
much in his own narrative as by a judicious combination of extracts
from documents and papers of original authority; although his own
observations, by way of correction and explanation, are given in good
taste, and indicate a candid judgment. Capt. Boynton's book should
command the interest of those who know most of West Point, and of
those who know nothing about it."--_Atlantic Monthly._

       *       *       *       *       *

"It records the earliest attempt at instituting a Military School by
the Continental Congress in 1776. It conducts us through the life of
the institution, arguing with terseness its constitutionality,
defending its educational principles, and explaining the necessity for
its preservation. We commend this volume to our readers with perfect
confidence, believing that they will be more than amply repaid by its
careful perusal. We ourselves have lingered with pleasure over its
pages, and predict for the work great success, as one of the most
valuable and interesting additions that has of late years been made to
our historical literature."--_United Service Magazine._

       *       *       *       *       *

"Aside from its value as an historical record, the volume under notice
is _an entertaining guide-book to the Military Academy and its
surroundings_. We have full details of Cadet life from the day of
entrance to that of graduation, together with descriptions of the
buildings, grounds, and monuments. To the multitude of those who have
enjoyed at West Point the combined attractions, this book will give in
its descriptive and illustrated portion especial pleasure; while the
critical reader will be quite ready to agree fully with the modest
author, that a 'nucleus of truth' has been established as a basis for
a more minute history, if such should ever be needed."--_New York
Evening Post._

       *       *       *       *       *

"The second part of the book gives the history of the Military Academy
from its foundation in 1802, a description of the Academic buildings,
and the appearance to-day of this always beautiful spot, with the
manner of appointment of the Cadets, course of study, pay, time of
service, and much other information yearly becoming of greater value,
for West Point has not yet reached its palmiest days.

"The book is beautifully printed on thick tinted paper, with excellent
illustrations and an abundance of those fine clear-cut maps in which
your true West Pointer so much delights."--_Boston Daily Advertiser._

       *       *       *       *       *

"We cannot close without thanking Capt. BOYNTON for the vast amount of
information so well collated in his book, and for his clear statement
of the history and condition of the Academy from the beginning to the
present time."--_North American Review._

       *       *       *       *       *

    | Typographical errors corrected in text:                   |
    |                                                           |
    | Page 71: acccording replaced with according               |
    | page 99: Reveille replaced with Revéille                  |
    |                                                           |
    | Reader should note that Thlonalosassa, Florida listed on  |
    | page 41, is likely Thonotosassa, Florida. The spelling has|
    | been retained.                                            |
    |                                                           |

       *       *       *       *       *

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