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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 108, November 22, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 108, November 22, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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[Transcriber's note: Original spelling variations have not been
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"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. IV.--No. 108. SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 22, 1851.

Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4_d._




      Age of Trees                                               401

      Lines attributed to Admiral Byng                           403

      A Chapter on Emblems                                       403

      Folk Lore:--Music at Funerals--Cheshire Folk Lore
      and Superstition                                           404

      Minor Notes:--Talented--Anagram--Dictionary of
      Hackneyed Quotations                                       405


      Masters and Marshals of the Ceremonies                     405

      Minor Queries:--Cause of Transparency--Gold Medal
      of the Late Duke of York--Compositions during the
      Protectorate--Bristol Tables--Macfarlane's Geographical
      Collection--"Acu tinali meridi"--Sir Joshua
      Reynolds--Great Plough at Castor Church--Church
      of St. Bene't Fink--Inscription on a Pair of
      Spectacles--Campbell--Family of Cordeux--Panelling
      Inscription--Infantry Firing                               406


      The Reverend Richard Farmer, by Bolton Corney              407

      Anglo-Catholic Library                                     408

      General James Wolfe                                        409

      Punishment of Edward of Caernarvon by his Father--Character
      of Edward I.                                               409

      Elizabeth Joceline's Legacy to an Unborne Child            410

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Coleridge's
      "Christabel"--Dryden; Illustrations by T. Holt
      White--Lofcop, Meaning of--Middleton's Epigrams
      and Satyres--Lord Edward Fitzgerald--Earwig--Sanderson
      and Taylor--Island of Ægina and the Temple of Jupiter
      Panhellinius--The Broad Arrow--Consecration of Bishops
      in Sweden--Meaning of Spon--Quaker Expurgated
      Bible--Cozens the Painter--Authors of the Homilies         410


      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                     413

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               413

      Notices to Correspondents                                  414

      Advertisements                                             414



Alexander von Humboldt, in his work entitled _Views of Nature_ (pp. 220.
268-276. ed. Bohn), has some interesting remarks on the age of trees.

  "In vegetable forms (he says) _massive size_ is indicative of age;
  and in the vegetable kingdom alone are age and the manifestation
  of an ever-renewed vigour linked together."

Following up this remark, he refers to specimens of the Baobab
(_Adansonia digitata_), with trunks measuring more than thirty feet in
diameter, the age of which is estimated by Adanson at 5150 years. All
calculations of the age of a tree, founded merely on the _size of its
trunk_, are, however, uncertain, unless the law of its growth, and the
limits of the variation producible by peculiar circumstances, are
ascertained, which, in the case of the Adansonia, have not been
determined. For the same reason, the calculation of 2,500 years for a
gigantic cypress in Persia, mentioned by Evelyn in his _Silva_, is of no

Humboldt afterwards refers to "the more certain estimations yielded by
_annular rings_, and by the relation found to exist between the
thickness of the layer of wood and the duration of growth;" which, he
adds, give us shorter periods for our temperate northern zone. The
calculation of the age of a tree, founded on its successive rings,
appears to be quite certain; and whenever these can be counted, the age
of a tree can be determined without risk of error. Humboldt quotes a
statement from Endlicher, that "in Lithuania linden (or lime) trees have
been felled which measured 87 feet round, and in which 815 annular rings
have been counted." The section of a trunk of a silver fir, which grew
near Barr, is preserved in the Museum at Strasburg: its diameter was
eight feet close to the ground, and the number of rings is said to
amount to several hundreds.

Unfortunately this mode of determining a tree's age cannot be applied to
a living tree; and it is only certain where the tree is sound at the
heart. Where a tree has become hollow from old age, the rings near the
centre, which constitute a part of the evidence of its duration, no
longer exist. Hence the age of the great oak of Saintes, in the
department of the Charente Inférieure, which measures twenty-three feet
in diameter five feet from the ground, and is large enough to contain a
small chamber, can only be estimated; and the antiquity of 1800 or 2000
years, which is assigned to it, must rest on an uncertain conjecture.

Decandolle lays it down that, of all European trees, the _yew_ attains
the greatest age; and he assigns an antiquity of thirty centuries to the
_Taxus baccata_ of Braburn in Kent; from twenty-five to thirty centuries
to the Scotch yew of Fortingal; and fourteen and a half and twelve
centuries respectively to those of Crowhurst in Surrey and Ripon
(Fountains Abbey) in Yorkshire. These ages are fixed by a conjecture
founded on the _size_, which can lead to no certain result.

Can any of your correspondents state what is the greatest number of
rings which have been actually counted in any yew, or other tree, which
has grown in the British Isles, or elsewhere? It Is only by actual
enumeration that vegetable chronology can be satisfactorily determined:
but if the rings in many trees were counted, some relation between the
number of rings and the diameter of the trunk, for each species, might
probably be laid down within certain limits. These rings, being annually
deposited, form a natural chronicle of time, by which the age of a tree
is determined with as much precision as the lapse of human events is
determined by the cotemporaneous registration of annalists. Hence Milton
speaks of "monumental oak." Evelyn, who has devoted a long chapter of
his _Silva_ to an investigation of the age of trees (b. iii. c. iii.),
founds his inferences chiefly on their _size_; but he cites the
following remark from Dr. Goddard:

  "It is commonly and very probably asserted, that a tree gains a
  new ring every year. In the body of a great oak in the New Forest,
  cut transversely even, (where many of the trees are accounted to
  be some hundreds of years old) three and four hundred have been
  distinguished."--Vol. ii. p. 202. ed. Hunter.

A delineation and description of the largest and most celebrated trees
of Great Britain may be seen in the interesting work of Jacob George
Strutt, entitled _Sylva Britannica, or Portraits of Forest Trees,
distinguished for their Antiquity, Magnitude, or Beauty_: London, 1822,

The age of some trees is determined by historical records, in the same
manner that we know the age of an ancient building, as the Parthenon,
the Colosseum, or the Tower of London. It is, however, important that
such historical evidence should be carefully scrutinised; for trees
which are known to be of great antiquity sometimes give rise to fabulous
legends, destitute of any foundation in fact. Such, for example, was the
plane-tree near Caphyæ, in Arcadia, seen by Pausanias in the second
century after Christ, which was reported by the inhabitants to have been
planted by Menelaus when he was collecting the army for the expedition
against Troy. (_Paus._ VIII. 23.) Such too, doubtless, was the oak of
Mamre, where the angels were said to have appeared to Abraham.
(_Sozomen_, ii. 3.) A rose-tree growing in the crypt of the cathedral of
Hildesheim is referred, by a church-legend, to a date anterior to 1061;
which would imply an age of more than 800 years, but the evidence
adduced seems scarcely sufficient to identify the existing rose-tree
with the rose-tree of 1061. (See _Humboldt_, p. 275.)

In other cases, however, the historical evidence extant, if not
altogether free from doubt, is sufficient to carry the age of a tree
back to a remote date. The Swilcar Lawn oak, in Needwood Forest,
Staffordshire, is stated by Strutt, p. 2., "to be known by historical
documents to be at this time [1822] six hundred years old; and it is
still far from being in the last stage of decay." Of a great elm growing
at Chipstead Place in Kent, he says: "Its appearance altogether savours
enough of antiquity to bear out the tradition annexed to it, that in the
time of Henry V. a fair was held annually under its branches; the high
road from Rye in Sussex to London then passing close by it." (P. 5.) If
this tradition be authentic, the elm in question must have been a large
and wide-spreading tree in the years 1413-22. A yew-tree at Ankerwyke
House, near Staines, is supposed to be of great antiquity. There is a
tradition that Henry VIII. occasionally met Anne Boleyn under its
branches: but it is not stated how high this tradition ascends. (_Ib._,
p. 8.) The Abbot's Oak, near Woburn Abbey, is stated to derive its name
from the fact that the abbot of the monastery was, by order of Henry
VIII., hung from its branches in 1537. (_Ib._, p. 10.) But Query, is
this an authentic fact?

There is a tradition respecting the Shelton Oak near Shrewsbury, that
before the battle of Shrewsbury between Henry IV. and Hotspur, in 1403,
Owen Glendower reconnoitred the field from its branches, and afterwards
drew off his men. Positive documentary evidence, in the possession of
Richard Hill Waring, Esq., is likewise cited, which shows that this tree
was called "the Great Oak" in the year 1543 (_Ib._ p. 17.). There is a
traditional account that the old yew-trees at Fountains Abbey existed at
the foundation of the abbey, in the year 1132; but the authority for
this tradition, and the time at which it was first recorded, is not
stated. (P. 21.) The Abbot's Willow, near Bury St. Edmund's, stands on a
part of the ancient demesne of the Abbot of Bury, and is hence
conjectured to be anterior to the dissolution of the monastery in the
reign of Henry VIII. (P. 23.) The Queen's Oak at Huntingfield, in
Suffolk, was situated in a park belonging to Lord Hunsdon, where he had
the honour of entertaining Queen Elizabeth. The queen is reported to
have shot a buck with her own hand from this oak. (P. 26.) Sir Philip
Sidney's Oak, near Penshurst, is said to have been planted at his birth,
in 1554: it has been celebrated by Ben Jonson and Waller. This oak is
above twenty-two feet in girth; it is hollow, and stag-headed; and, so
far as can be judged from the engraving, has an appearance of great
antiquity, though its age only reaches back to the sixteenth century.
(P. 27.) The Tortworth Chestnut is described as being not only the
largest, but the oldest tree in England: Evelyn alleges that "it
continued a signal boundary to that manor in King Stephen's time, as it
stands upon record;" but the date of the record is not mentioned. We
can hardly suppose that it was cotemporaneous. (_Ib._ p. 29.) An elm at
Chequers in Buckinghamshire is reported, by a tradition handed down in
the families of the successive owners, to have been planted in the reign
of Stephen. (_Ib._ p. 38.) Respecting the Wallace Oak, at Ellerslie near
Paisley, it is reported that Sir William Wallace, and three hundred of
his men, hid themselves among its branches from the English. This legend
is probably fabulous; if it were true, it would imply that the tree was
in its full vigour at the end of the thirteenth century. (_Ib._ p. 5.)
The ash at Carnock, in Stirlingshire, supposed to be the largest in
Scotland, and still a luxuriant tree, was planted about the year 1596,
by Sir Thomas Nicholson of Carnock, Lord Advocate of Scotland in the
reign of James VI. (_Ib._ p. 8.)

Marshall, in his Work on _Planting and Rural Ornament_ (2 vols. 1796)
refers to a paper on the age of trees, by Mr. Marsham, in the first
volume of the _Transactions of the Bath Agriculture Society_, in which
the Tortworth Chestnut is calculated to be not less than 1100 years old.
Marshall, who appears to have examined this tree with great care,
corrects the account given by Mr. Marsham, and states that it is not
one, but two trees. Sir Robert Atkins, in his _History of
Gloucestershire_, says: "By tradition this tree was growing in King
John's reign." Evelyn, however, as we have already seen, speaks of a
record that it served as a manor boundary in the reign of Stephen.
Query, on what authority do these statements rest? Marshall thinks that
a duration of nearly a thousand years may be fairly assigned to the
Tortworth tree; and he adds:

  "If we consider the quick growth of the chestnut, compared with
  that of the oak, and at the same time the inferior bulk of the
  Tortworth Chestnut to the Cowthorp, the Bentley, and the
  Boddington oaks, may we not venture to infer that the existence of
  these truly venerable trees commenced some centuries prior to the
  era of Christianity?"

The oaks here alluded to by Marshall are of immense size. The Cowthorp
Oak is near Wetherby; the Bentley Oak, in Holt Forest, near Bentley; the
Boddington Oak, between Cheltenham and Tewksbury (vol. ii. pp. 127.

Perhaps some of your correspondents may be able to point out authentic
evidence respecting the true dates of ancient trees. A large tree is a
subject of interest to the entire neighbourhood: it receives an
individual name, like a river, a mountain, or a building; and by its
permanence it affords a fixed point for a faithful local tradition to
rest upon. On the other hand, the infidelity of oral tradition is well
known; and the mere interest which attaches to a tree of unusual size is
likely to give birth to a romantic legend, when its true history has
been forgotten. The antiquary and the botanist may assist one another in
determining the age of trees. By the authentic evidence of their
duration which the former is able to furnish, the latter may establish
tests by which their longevity may be calculated.



The following lines are copied, _verbatim et literatim_, from a window
pane in an upstairs room of the Talbot Inn, Ripley. The tradition is
that they were written by Admiral Byng, who was confined in the room as
a prisoner when on his way to Portsmouth; that sentinels were placed on
the staircase outside; that during the night the admiral walked past the
sleeping guard, gathered some flowers from the inn garden, and returned
to his room; and that on leaving the following morning, he told the Inn
Lady he should see her on his way back to London, when he was acquitted.

      "Come all you true Britons, and listen to me;
      I'll tell you the truth, you'll then plainly see
      How Minorca was lost, why the kingdom doth ring,
      And lay the whole blame on Admiral Byng.
                  Sing tantararara, rogues all, rogues all.

      "Newcastle, and Hardwick, and Anson did now
      Preside at the helm, and to whom all must bow;
      Minorca besieged, who protection will bring;
      They know 'tis too late, let the victim be Byng.
                  Sing tantararara, rogues all.

      "With force insufficient he's ordered away;
      He obeys, and he sails without any delay;
      But alas! 'tis too late: who shall say to the king
      Minorca must fall, why, accuse Mr. Byng.
                  Sing tantararara, rogues all.

      "Minorca now falls, and the nation enraged;
      With justice they cry, let all who engaged
      In traterous deeds, with curst infamy swing:
      What! none to be found but poor Admiral Byng.
                  Sing tantararara, rogues all."

Is there any reason to doubt the truth of this tradition, or that the
verses were written by the unfortunate admiral?

    A. C. G.

  Ripley, Nov. 10, 1851.


"An history of emblems in all languages, with specimens of the poetry
and engravings, accompanied by some account of the authors, would be a
very interesting contribution to our literature." Thus speaks the author
of a work remarkable for interest, information, and elegance of taste,
viz., _Lives of Sacred Poets_, by Robert Willmott, Esq.; and truly such
a work would be a great _desideratum_ were the idea here suggested
efficiently carried out.

In our own, and in other languages, many beautiful poems--some of them
very gems--exist, attached to, and written on some of "the most
ridiculous prints that ever excited merriment." A tasteful collection of
the more beautiful poems, with some spirited woodcuts, or engravings to
accompany them, would form a beautiful volume. This, however, is a
suggestion different from, and secondary to, Mr. Willmott's.

Emblems, figures, symbols, &c., constitute a vast ocean of associations
which all enter on, all understand, all sympathise with more or less.
They enrich our language, enter into our commonest thoughts and
conversation, as well as our compositions in poetry and prose.

Often the clearest ideas we have on abstruse points are derived from
them, _e.g._ the _shamrock_ or _trefoil_ is an emblem of _the Blessed
Trinity_. Nothing perhaps helps us to comprehend the resurrection of the
body, and in a glorified state through preserving its identity, as the
apostle's illustration and emblem of the _growth of corn_.

In a work on the subject it would be desirable to keep the classical,
artistic, political, and other emblems apart from the sacred and moral,

I must now say a few words on a book of emblems, entitled _Schola
Cordis, sive Aversi a Deo Cordis, ad eumdem reductio et instructio,
Authore Benedicto Haefteno, Antv._ 1635. (This Benedict Haeften was also
the author of _Regia Via Crucis_, published at Antwerp the same year as
the above, in 2 vols. 8vo., I think, and afterwards translated into
French.) This work suggested _Schola Cordis, or the Heart of itself gone
away from God, brought back again to Him and instructed by Him, in XLVII
emblems_: London, printed for M. Blunder at the Castle in Cornhill,
1647, 12mo. pp. 196. The authorship of this English _Schola Cordis_ is
generally attributed to Christopher Harvie, the author of _The
Synagogue_. (Vide Lowndes, and a note in Pickering's edition of George
Herbert.) The second edition was printed in 1674, third in 1675, fourth
in 1676.

Now, Mr. Tegg in 1845 printed an edition of this _Schola Cordis_ as the
production of Francis Quarles; what was his authority I know not, he
certainly did not attempt to give any.

The last three books of Quarles's _Emblems_ contain forty-five prints,
all from Herman Hugo's _Pia Desideria_, which has that number of
emblems. Quarles sometimes translates, sometimes paraphrases Hugo, and
has a good deal of original matter. His first two books are not in
Hugo's work, and I do not know whence they are derived; nearly all the
cuts contain a globe and cross.

Herman Hugo had the talents and versatility which characterise his order
(the Order of Jesus), "he was a philosopher, a linguist, a theologian, a
poet, and a soldier, and under the command of Spinola is said to have
performed prodigies of valour." He was the author of _De prima Scribendi
Origine et Universa Rei Literariæ Antiquitate_, an excellent work; and
of _De Militia Equestri antiqua et nova_ amongst others. His _Book of
Emblems_ was first published at Antwerp, 1624. It is divided into
_three_ books, viz.,

              Pia Desideria.

      1. Gemitus   {A   }  Poenitentis.
      2. Vota      {n   }  Sanctæ.
      3. Suspiria  {imæ}  Amantis.

Each book contains fifteen emblems. The principal editions are, Antv.
1624, ed. princeps; Antv. 1628, 1632; Græcii, 1651; Lond. 1677,
sumptibus Roberti Pawlet, Chancery Lane. This London edition contains
only verse, whereas all the other editions contain metre and prose
before each picture, the prose being far the better of the two. The only
prose that Pawlet's edition has is a motto from one of the Fathers at
the back of each picture.

There are two or three English translations. I have seen but one, a
miserable translation of the verse part, I suppose from Pawlet's
edition. There are short notices of emblems in the _Retrospective
Review_, ix. 123-140.; _Critical Review_, Sept. 1801 (attributed to
Southey); see also Willmott's _Lives of Sacred Poets_ (Wither and
Quarles); Cæsar Ripa's _Iconologia_, Padua, 1627; and _Alciati
Emblemata_, Lugd. 1614. The Fagel Library, Trinity College, Dublin, has
a fine copy of the first edition of the _Pia Desideria_, and upwards of
sixty books of emblems, principally Dutch.

P.S.--When I penned the above I was not aware that any mention of the
_School of the Heart_ had been made in "NOTES AND QUERIES." I find in
Southey's fourth _Common-place Book_ that he quotes from the _School of
the Heart_ as Quarles's. He has the following note on Quarles's Emblems:
"Philips erroneously says that the emblems are a copy from Hermannus
Hugo." I know not what Philips exactly intended by the word "copy;" but
if any one doubts what I have before said respecting these Emblems, let
him compare Hugo and Quarles together. I forgot to give the title of the
first edition of Hugo: _Pia Desideria Emblematis, Elegiis et Affectibus,
SS. Patrum Illustrata, vulgavit Boetius a Bolswert_, Antv. 1624. Also
the title of our English translation: _Pia Desideria; or, Divine
Addresses_, in three books, written in Latin by Herm. Hugo, Englished by
Edm. Arwaker, M.A., Lond. 1686, 8vo., pp. 282., dedicated to the
Princess Anne of Denmark, with forty-seven plates by Sturt.



_Music at Funerals._--Pennant, in his MS. relating to North Wales, says,
"there is a custom of singing psalms on the way as the corpse is carried
to church" (Brand's _Pop. Ant._, ed. Ellis, vol. ii. p. 268.). In North
Devon the custom of singing is similar; but it is not a psalm it is a
dirge. I send you a copy of one in use at Lynton, sent to me by my

      Farewell all, my parents[1] dear,
        And all my friends, farewell!
      I hope I'm going to that place
        Where Christ and saints do dwell.

      Oppress'd with grief long time I've been,
        My bones cleave to my skin,
      My flesh is wasted quite away
        With pain that I was in,

      Till Christ his messenger did send,
        And took my life away,
      To mingle with my mother earth,
        And sleep with fellow clay.

      Into thy hands I give my soul,
        Oh! cast it not aside,
      But favor me and hear my prayer,
        And be my rest and guide.

      Affliction hath me sore oppress'd,
        Brought me to death in time;
      O Lord! as thou hast promised,
        Let me to life return.

      For when that Christ to judgment comes,
        He unto us will say,
      If we His laws observe and keep,
        "Ye blessed, come away."

      How blest is he who is prepar'd,
        He fears not at his death;
      Love fills his heart, and hope his breast,
        With joy he yields his breath.

      Vain world, farewell! I must be gone,
        I cannot longer stay;
      My time is spent, my glass is run,
        God's will I must obey.

  [Footnote 1: Sister or brother, as the case may be.]

Another dirge, ending with the sixth stanza of the foregoing, is used at
an infant's funeral, but the rhyme is not so well kept.


_Cheshire Folk Lore and Superstition._--There is in this town a little
girl, about thirteen years old, in great request among the poor as a
charmer in cases of burns or scalds. Immediately on the accident the
girl is fetched from her work in the mill; on her arrival she kneels
down by the side of the sufferer, mutters a few words, and touches the
individual, and the people believe and affirm that the sufferings
immediately cease, as she has charmed the fire out of the parts injured.
The surgeon's aid is then called in to heal the sores. The girl affirms
that she found it out herself by reading her Bible, of which the
wonder-working charm is a verse. She will take no reward, nor may any of
her relatives; if she or they were, her power would be at an end. She is
an ordinary, merry, playful girl; as a surgeon I often come across her
in such accidents.

I know some other such charmers in Cheshire, but none so young. One, an
old man, stops bleedings of all kinds by a similar charm, viz. a verse
from the Bible. But he does not require to be at the patient's side, his
power being equally efficacious at the distance of one hundred miles, as
close by.

    E. W. L.


Minor Notes.

_Talented._--Sterling, in a letter to Carlyle, objects to the use of
this word by his biographer in his _Sartor Resartus_, calling it a
hustings and newspaper word, brought in, as he had heard, by O'Connell.

    J. O'G.

_Anagram._--Sir J. Stephen, in his essay on _The French Benedictines_,
gives an anagram of Father Finavdis of the Latinized name of that great
bibliophagist Magliabechi:--Antonius Magliabechius--Is unus bibliotheca

In the same essay he says that Mabillon called Magliabechi "Museum
inambulans, et viva quædam bibliotheca." Possibly this is the origin of
our expression "a walking dictionary."

    J. O'G.

_Dictionary of Hackneyed Quotations._--I beg to inform your
correspondent who suggested such a publication as a _Dictionary of
Hackneyed Quotations_, that I commenced such a work some time ago, and
hope before long to have it ready for the press.

Every common quotation or familiar proverb from the poets will be ranged
with the _context_ under its respective author, while an alphabetical
index will facilitate reference to any particular passage. I doubt not
the readers of your valuable periodical will assist me whenever I am at
fault as to the authorship of any line or "household word;" and I should
feel at the present time much obliged if any one could tell me where

      "Though lost to sight, to memory dear," may be found?

    H. A. B.

  Trinity College, Cambridge.



How are these offices now held? By letters patent of the crown, or by
the lord chamberlain's nomination?

Where can any list of these offices be found? The office of Master of
the Ceremonies, whose duty it is to arrange the reception of all foreign
ministers, and their departures, was formerly an office of considerable
importance. In the reign of King Charles I. it was held seemingly by
grants from the crown. In 1627, Sir John Finett says he received news
of the death of Sir Lewis Lewknor, by which, in right of his Majesty's
grant of reversion by letters patent, he became sole Master of the
Ceremonies--an office which he before held jointly with Sir Lewis

    S. E. G.

Minor Queries.

286. _Cause of Transparency._--Seeing through the glass of my window a
landscape, and not knowing _why_ I see through the glass, and not
through the shutters, I will thank one of your philosophical
correspondents to tell me the _cause of transparency_.


287. _Gold Medal of late Duke of York._--I have a small gold medal,
three-quarter inch in diameter, a head with inscription--

      "Fredericus dux Eborac."

and Rev.:

      "Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit. Non. Ian. 1827."

Were many such struck at the duke's death, or what is the history of it?

    A. A. D.

288. _Composition's during the Protectorate._--Where is there any
account or list of these? In Oldfield's _History of Wainfleet_, p. 12.
Appendix, is a "List of Residents in the County of Lincoln who
compounded for their Estates during the Protectorate of Oliver
Cromwell;" but he gives no authority or reference. Where can this list
be checked, as I suspect an error?

    W. H. L.


289. _Bristol Tables._--Upon the pavement in front of the Exchange,
Bristol, there are four very handsome bronze tables standing, upon a
single pedestal each; the tops circular, about two feet in diameter,
with a slightly raised edge round them. It is said that they were
presented to the Bristol merchants for them to pay their money upon; but
when, or by whom, they were so given, I have not been able to learn. A
friend of mine who was lately examining them was told that they were
formerly called "Nails," and gave rise to the saying, "Pay down upon the
nail:" this I should think must be an error. "Solvere ad unguem" would
be found to be older than they are. If any of your correspondents can
give me any information respecting them, I shall be obliged.

    E. N. W.


290. _Macfarlane's Geographical Collection._--In almost every work
treating of the history and topographical antiquities of Scotland, we
are referred to _Macfarlane's Geographical Collection_, preserved in the
Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. This MS., and its author, are very little
known, except by name, _benorth the Tay_, notwithstanding they are so
often quoted. I should be glad if any of your correspondents would give
me any information regarding the extent of country embraced, _i.e._
parishes, counties, &c., and if any part of it has been published _per
se_, and when, and where.



291. "_Acu tinali meridi._"--At the head of an English metrical
discourse upon the administration of justice, in a MS. of the fourteenth
or fifteenth century, in the Public Library, Cambridge, is placed the
following obscure motto, upon which, perhaps, some correspondent can
throw light:--

      "O judex vi fervida hanc servabis artem,
      Acu tinali merida .i. audi alteram partem."

I have not seen the MS., but am told that the correctness of the reading
may be depended upon.

    C. W. G.

292. _Sir Joshua Reynolds._--Having the early catalogues of the Royal
Academy before me, I see that in 1773 and following years, Sir Joshua
exhibited twelve or thirteen works. You will find they stand as current
Nos. in the list. Can you inform me whether they hung on the line, that
is, in the space of privilege, or took their chance with the many? Had
they, under his own eye, been grouped together, what a treat it must
have been to see them! What an evidence of the industry of the man!
Though too late in the day to obtain these details from actual
observation, enough may be recorded or remembered through others, to
assist in throwing light on the rules and customs of past days, which
never can be deficient in interest while they tend to illustrate the
habits and character of great men.

You could touch no topic more interesting than this must prove to the
increasing curiosity seekers in your useful and amusing repertorium, and
your attention to it will be valued by


  Athenæum Club.

293. _Great Plough at Castor Church._--Can any of your correspondents
give me the history of, or afford me any intelligence about, the large
plough which Dibdin, in his _Northern Tour_, vol. i. p. 44., tells us is
about twenty feet in length, and suspended in Castor Church, extending
from one transept to the other? In a foot-note on the same church, he
speaks of a curious ceremony, as practised there every Palm Sunday,
respecting a peculiar tenure. I do not find it referred to in any other
account of Castor Church. Bourne, in his _Antiquities_, vol. i. p. 130.,
gives the history of it, but says it is practised at Caistor Church in
Lincolnshire. Is the doctor right in his statement? I would also be glad
to know whether it is still continued at Caistor Church, as some years
ago an act was tried for in the House to abolish it.

    R. W. ELLIOT.


294. _Church of St. Bene't Fink._--Is there any copy in existence of the
inscriptions on the gravestones and monuments of St. Bene't Fink in the
City, adjoining the Exchange, and which is now pulled down? If any of
your correspondents can direct me to any transcript of them, I shall be
much obliged by the communication.


295. _Spectacles, Inscription on a Pair of._--Will you oblige me by
inserting, as soon as possible, the following curious inscription round
the rim of a pair of spectacles found in a stone coffin in Ombersley
Church, Worcestershire, some years since, when the old church was being
pulled down. It is as follows:--


This occurs on each rim, and I should be glad of an explanation of the

    J. N. B. (A Subscriber.)

296 _Campbell._--Can any of your readers tell me what he supposes
Campbell to mean when he makes the sister, in delivering her curse on
her brother, say--

      "Go where the havoc of your kerne
      Shall float as high as mountain fern!"

Does havoc float? Does mountain fern float? What is the effect of either
floating _high_? The lines are in "The Flower of Love lies Bleeding."

Also can any one say who or what this is?

      "Fly, like the moon-eyed herald of dismay
      Chac'd on his night-steed by the star of day!"

The lines are near the end of _The Pleasures of Hope_.

    W. W.


297. _Family of Cordeux._--What is the origin of the name? When was it
introduced into England? What are the armorial bearings of the family?
What family or families bear gu. three stags' heads, on a chief arg. two
griffins' heads erased: Crest, a griffin's head erased? Any information
of the Cordeux family more than fifty years ago will confer an
obligation on the querist.

    W. H. K.

298. _Panelling Inscription._--I have recently discovered, in my
investigations for the _History and Antiquities of South Lynn_, an old
building in this town which bears the date 1605 on one of its gables;
and in the course of my peregrinations through, I find some old
panelling with the date 1676, and the following inscription in old
English (large) characters:

      "As nothinge is so absolutly blest
        But chance may crosse, and make it seeming ill,
      So nothinge cane a man so much molest,
        But God may chang, and seeing good he will."

It has been suggested to me that these lines form a quotation from some
of our English poets; if so, of whom? for it is of great importance to
me to know, as it will tend considerably to connect the date with the
building; and if the lines can be traced to a writer of the period, it
will establish what I require very much, and assist me in my researches.

    J. N. C.

299. _Infantry Firing._--Can any of your correspondents refer me to
authentic instances of the comparative numbers of rounds of cartridges
fired in action, with the number of men killed? I think I have read it
in Sir W. Napier's _History of the Peninsular War_, and also in _The
Times_, but omitted to make a note. I have some recollection of 60,000
rounds beings fired, and only one man killed! and another instance of
80,000, and twenty-five killed! Any remarkable instances of the
inefficiency of musketry fire will be acceptable.

    H. Y. W. N.



(Vol. iv., p. 379.)

Assuming that the principal ATROCITIES of the reverend Richard Farmer
are his _Essay on the learning of Shakespeare_, and the substance of a
note on _Hamlet_, Act V. Sc. 2., I shall transcribe, as a hint to the
lovers of manly criticism, a general character of that writer, a
character of his _Essay_, and the note in question:--

  1. "His knowledge is various, extensive, and recondite. With much
  seeming negligence, and perhaps in later years some real
  relaxation, he understands more and remembers more about common
  and uncommon subjects of literature, than many of those who would
  be thought to read all the day and meditate half the night. In
  quickness of apprehension and acuteness of discrimination I have
  not often seen his equal."--Samuel PARR.

  2. "It [the _Essay on the learning of Shakespeare_] may in truth
  be pointed out as a master-piece, whether considered with a view
  to the sprightliness and vivacity with which it is written, the
  clearness of the arrangement, the force and variety of the
  evidence, or the compression of scattered materials into a narrow
  compass; materials which inferior writers would have expanded into
  a large volume."--Isaac REED.

  3. "There's a divinity that _shapes our ends_, _Rough-hew_ [them
  how we will.] Dr. Farmer informs me, that these words are merely
  technical. A wool-man, butcher, and dealer in _skewers_, lately
  observed to him, that his nephew (an idle lad), could only
  _assist_ him in making them;"--'he could _rough-hew_ them, but I
  was obliged to _shape their ends_.' [To shape the ends of
  _wool-skewers_, i.e. to _point_ them, requires a degree of skill;
  any one can _rough-hew_ them.] Whoever recollects the profession
  of Shakespeare's father, will admit that his son might be no
  stranger to such a term [such terms]. I have [frequently] seen
  packages of wool pinn'd up with _skewers_.--STEEVENS.

This note was first printed by Malone in 1780, and was reprinted by him
in 1790; the portions within brackets having been added in 1793? It is
clear, from this statement, that it received the deliberate revision of
its author. Now, I cannot deny that Farmer related the anecdote of the
_wool-man_--suspicious as is the character of the witness, but I contend
that the observations on it should be ascribed to Steevens alone; and so
I shall leave your critic A. E. B. to his own reflections.



(Vol. iv., p. 365.)

A SUBSCRIBER TO THE ANGLO-CATHOLIC LIBRARY has discovered _one_ fault in
_one_ volume (published in 1844) of a series which now extends to
sixty-three volumes; and on this _one fault_ he builds a representation
which implies, in general, incompetency in the editors, and neglect of
proper supervision on the part of the committee of the Anglo-Catholic
Library. I believe the character of the editions of most of the volumes
sent out in this series is sufficiently known to theologians to render
such a charge as this of little importance as respects their judgment.
But it may not be so with many of the readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES."

The gravamen of the charge rests on the importance of a certain passage
of St. Jerome bearing on the Presbyterian controversy,--on the necessity
for a familiarity with that controversy in an editor of Overall's
_Convocation Book_,--and the consequent incompetency of a person not
thus familiar with it to edit that work without, not the assistance
merely, but the immediate supervision of the committee.

Now the subject of episcopacy is _not_, as the Subscriber alleges, "the
principal subject" of this Book; it occupies 30 pages out of 272: nor is
a familiarity with that controversy in any special way necessary for an
editor of the volume. The subjects of which the _Convocation Book_
treats are wide and varied, and such omnigenous knowledge as a familiar
acquaintance with them implies, is not, nor could be, required in any
editor, nor be expected by subscribers.

The committee of the Anglo-Catholic Library undertook to publish careful
reprints of the works of our old divines; and had they simply reprinted
with accuracy the _Convocation Book_, as published in 1690, they would
have fulfilled their covenant with the subscribers. They did, however,
much more.

It was known that the original MS. copy of this Book was preserved at
Durham. The edition of 1690 had been printed from a transcript made by
Archbishop Sancroft. The committee therefore engaged the services of a
gentleman whose name is well known as an accurate editor of works
existing in MS.

This gentlemen obtained access to all the known MSS. of the _Convocation
Book_; viz. 1. The original copy, and papers of alterations suggested as
it passed through the Upper House, preserved at Durham. 2. A cotemporary
MS. of part of the first book, also preserved at Durham. 3. Archbishop
Sancroft's Transcript, preserved at Emanuel College, Cambridge and 4. A
MS. of the first book belonging to Bishop Barlow, preserved at Queen's
College, Oxford. These MSS. were carefully collated, and the variations,
in many respects curious and interesting, were printed at the bottom of
the pages, and, as regards the 4th MS., at the end of the volume. The
result is a correct edition of the text of this book, with all that can
be learned of its variations--the book so highly extolled by your
correspondent. And I hear no objection alleged against the care and
faithfulness with which this part of the work has been executed: your
correspondent does not appear to be aware of anything of the kind having
been done.

But the editor went still further--he not only gave the subscribers so
much more than they had bargained for, he added full references to the
authorities quoted in the book; and when the passages were important, he
printed them in full, and even added references to works in which the
arguments were more largely handled. Now these references appear to me
to amount to many hundreds. They begin with Josephus, and run through
Fathers, councils, schoolmen, Roman Catholic controversialists,
ecclesiastical historians, and the chroniclers of the Middle Ages: and,
as far as I can judge in looking over the notes, not more than three or
four of these passages have been undiscovered by the editor, and he
honestly says he has not found them; one of these is the unlucky place
of St. Jerome, which your correspondent happens to know something about.

The remarks of your correspondent have led me to examine the book, and I
refer any one who has the least regard for candour or fairness, to do
the same. I would ask them to judge it as a whole, to see the number and
variety of the references, and the care which has been bestowed upon
them; and to say whether--because he missed one passage, and knew not
its importance--the editor can be fairly charged with incompetency; or
the committee of the Anglo-Catholic Library accused of neglect, in
leaving the work in his hands without exercising over him such
supervision as implies the reading every sheet as it passed through the
press; for _assistance_ the editor had, and amply acknowledges that he
received, at the hand of the superintending editor.




(Vol. iv., pp. 271. 322.)

Many letters of Wolfe's will be found published in the _Naval and
Military Gazette_ of the latter part of last and early part of this

By the statement of your correspondent MR. COLE, Wolfe was promoted as
captain in Burrell's regiment (at present the 4th, or king's own) in
1744. Now Burrell's regiment took the left of the first line at
Culloden, so that James Wolfe, unless absent on leave, or employed on
particular duty, must have been in that action. The left of the second
line was occupied by "Colonel Wolfe's" regiment (now the 8th or
"king's"). See the "Rebellion of 1745," by Robert Chambers, in
Constable's _Miscellany_, vol. xvi. p. 86. Captains of _nineteen_ were
common enough at that period, but Wolfe is the only one whose name has
excited attention.

As to Wolfe's having been "the youngest general ever intrusted with such
a responsible command" as that at Quebec, your correspondent surely
forgets Napoleon in modern, and the Black Prince in more remote times.

I have seen at Mr. Scott's, of Cahircon, in the co. Clare, an engraving
of Wolfe: he is designated as the "Hero of Louisburgh," and is
represented with his right to the spectator, the right hand and arm
raised as if enforcing an order. The features are small, the nose rather
"cocked," and the face conveys the idea of spirit and determination; he
wears a very small three-cocked hat, with a plain black cockade, a sort
of frock coat reaching to the knees, where it is met by long boots;
there are no epaulets, a twist belt confines the coat, and supports a
cartouche-box in front, and a bayonet at the right side, and he carries
a fusil slung from his right shoulder "en bandouillière."

It is said that the father of Wolfe was an Irishman, and I have been
shown in the co. Wicklow the farm on which it is said that James Wolfe
was born. It lies near Newtown-Mount-Kennedy. Be that as it may, the
name has been made celebrated in Ireland within the last half century by
three individuals: first, the Lord Kilwarden, who was murdered during
Emmett's rising in 1803; secondly, the late Chief Baron, who spelt his
name "with a difference;" and last, not least, the author of the
celebrated lines on the "Burial of Sir John Moore."



(Vol. iv., p. 338.)

I think considerable light is thrown upon this very remarkable incident
by a letter of the prince himself to the Earl of Lincoln, dated
Midhurst, June 14, which appears upon the Roll of that prince's letters
lately discovered at the Chapter House, Westminster. (See _Ninth Report
of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records_, App. II., No. 5.) This
letter has been printed in one of the volumes of the Sussex
Archæological Society, having been written from that county. For such of
your readers as may not have either of these books at command, I will
give the material part of the letter, translated:

  "On Sunday, the 13th of June, we came to Midhurst, where we found
  the lord the king, our father; the Monday following, on account of
  certain words which, it had been reported to the king, had taken
  place _between us and the Bishop of Chester_, he was so enraged
  with us that he has forbidden us, or any of our retinue, to dare
  to enter his house; and he has forbidden all the people of his
  household and of the exchequer to give or lend us anything for the
  support of our household. We are staying at Midhurst to wait his
  pleasure and favour, and we shall follow after him as well as we
  are able, at a distance of ten or twelve miles from his house,
  until we have been able to recover his good will, which we very
  much desire."

The roll contains several letters which show how seriously the prince
was affected by his father's displeasure, and how the king was appeased.

By the letter above quoted, the "minister" appears to have been the
Bishop of Chester, then treasurer of the royal household. But the
connexion between the prince's case and that of William de Brewosa does
not appear, unless they were on intimate terms, as is not improbable:
and the punishment of the prince himself is, in my opinion, referred to
as a precedent or justification of the punishment imposed upon Brewes.
That the severe punishment so imposed was richly deserved none can doubt
who has read the report on the Roll: but an unfortunate error in the
press[2] makes it appear that the prince, and not De Brewes, was the
culprit, and performed the penance.

  [Footnote 2: Page 339. col. 1. line 46., where "Edward" is printed
  instead of "William de Brewes."]

To return to the prince's offence and punishment. He appears to have
been nearly starved into submission, as the royal prohibition against
supplying him with articles or money was obliged to be removed by a
Letter Close directed to all the sheriffs, dated Ospring, 22nd July.

The whole transaction is highly characteristic of the firmness of the
king. Whether the prince's letters which I have referred to make out a
case of _harshness_, as regards some other circumstances, I will not now
trouble you with. But while examining cotemporary documents illustrative
of the prince and his correspondents, I met with an entry upon the Close
Roll (33 Edw. I.) too strikingly illustrative of the determination and
caution of Edward I. to be allowed to remain in its present obscurity.

On the 27th November the prince addressed a letter to Master Gerard de
Pecoraria, earnestly begging him to favour and forward the affairs of
Ralph de Baldok, then Bishop Elect of London. The "affairs" in question
were the removal of certain scruples instilled into the Papal ear
against the approval of the bishop elect; a matter generally involving
some diplomacy and much money. Master Gerard was employed by the Pope to
collect various dues in England; and so his good will was worth
obtaining. But the following Letter Close will show how he received his
"quietus," as far as the King of England was concerned:

  "The King to Ralph de Sandwich.--By reason of the excessive and
  indecent presumption with which Gerard de Pecoraria is making
  oppressive levies and collections of money in various places; by
  whose authority we know not, for he will not show it; and inasmuch
  as the same is highly derogatory to our crown, and injurious to
  our people, and many complaints have been made against him on that
  account; We command you to take the said Gerard before the Mayor
  and Sheriffs of London, and there warn him to cease from making
  the said levies, and to quit the kingdom in six days, _provided
  that at such warning no public notary be present, so that the
  warning be given to the said Gerard alone, no one else hearing.
  And be you careful that no one but yourself see this letter, or
  get a copy thereof._"

Who can doubt that such a mandate was strictly carried out?

I regret that my memoranda do not preserve the original language.


MR. GIBSON will find that this story, as well as that relative to Sir
William Gascoigne, is also told by MR. FOSS (_Judges of England_, vol.
iii. pp. 43. 261.), who suggests that the offence committed by Prince
Edward was an insult to Walter de Langton, Bishop of Lichfield and
Coventry, occasioned probably by the boldness with which that prelate,
while treasurer, corrected the insolence of Peter de Gaveston, and
restrained the Prince's extravagance. (_Ibid._ p. 114.)

    R. S. V. P.


(Vol. iv., p. 367.)

Your correspondent J. M. G., whose letter is inserted in your 106th
Number, labours under various mistakes relating to this small volume.
The first edition was not printed in 1684, but more than sixty years
earlier. Moreover, that edition, or at least what the Rev. C. H.
Craufurd appended to his Sermons in 1840 as a reprint, is not a genuine
or faithful republication of the original work. I have for several years
possessed a copy of _the third impression_, Printed at "London, by _Iohn
Hauiland_, for _Hanna Barres_, 1625;" and of this third impression a
_fac-simile_ reprint has passed through the press of Messrs. Blackwood
in Edinburgh, which new edition corresponds _literatim et verbatim_
(line for line and page for page) with the earliest impression known to
exist, which differs materially in several passages from the reprint
published by Mr. Craufurd. This new edition is accompanied by a long
preface or dissertation containing many particulars relating to the
authoress and her relatives, and to a number of ladies of high station
and polished education, who during the period intervening between the
Reformation in England and the Revolution in 1688, distinguished
themselves by publishing works characterized by exalted piety and
refined taste. With regard to Mrs. Joceline, no printed work appears to
have preserved correct information. Genealogists seem to have conspired
to change her Christian name from Elizabeth to Mary or Jane. The husband
is supposed to have sprung from an old Cambridgeshire family, the
Joscelyns of Hogington, now called Oakington, the name of a parish
adjoining to Cottenham. The writer of the preface seems rather disposed
to trace his parentage to John Joscelyn (Archbishop Parker's chaplain),
who, according to Strype, was _an Essex man_.

But I have probably exceeded the bounds allotted to an answer to a

    J. L.


_The Mother's Legacy to her unborne Child_ is reprinted for the benefit
of the Troubridge National Schools, and can be procured at Hatchard's,

    J. S.

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Coleridge's "Christabel"_ (Vol. iv., p. 316.).--I am not familiar with
the Coleridge Papers, under that title, nor indeed am I quite sure that
I know at all to what papers MR. MORTIMER COLLINS refers in his
question. On this account I am not qualified, as he will perhaps think,
to give an opinion upon the genuineness of the lines quoted as a
continuation of "Christabel." If I may be allowed, however, to hazard a
judgment, as one to whom most of the great poet-philosopher's works have
long and affectionately been known, I would venture to express an
opinion against the right of these lines to admission as one of his
productions. I do it with diffidence; but with the hope that I may aid
in eliciting the truth concerning them.

I presume "brookless plash" is a misprint for "brooklet's plash."

The expressions "the sorrow of human years," "wild despair," "the years
of life below," of a person who is not yet dead and in heaven, do not
seem to me, _as they stand in the lines_, to be in Coleridge's manner;
but especially I do not think the couplet--

      "Who felt all grief, all wild despair,
      That the race of man may ever bear,"

is one which Coleridge would have penned, reading as I do in the _Aids
to Reflection_, vol. i. p. 255. (edit. Pickering, 1843) his protest
against the doctrine

  "holden by more than one of these divines, that the agonies
  suffered by Christ were equal in amount to the sum total of the
  torments of all mankind here and hereafter, or to the infinite
  debt which in an endless succession of instalments we should have
  been paying to the divine justice, had it not been paid in full by
  the Son of God incarnate!"

There are one or two other expressions of which I entertain doubt, but
not in sufficient degree to make it worth while to dwell upon them.

Are we ever likely to receive from any member of Coleridge's family, or
from his friend Mr. J. H. Green, the fragments, if not the entire work,
of his _Logosophia_? We can ill afford to lose a work the conception of
which engrossed much of his thoughts, if I am rightly informed, towards
the close of his life.


_Dryden--Illustrations by T. Holt White_ (Vol. iv., p. 294.).--My
father's notes on Dryden are in my possession. Sir Walter Scott never
saw them. The words ÆGROTUS attributes to Sir Walter were used by
another commentator on Dryden some thirty years since.


_Lofcop, Meaning of_ (Vol. i., p. 319.).--_Lofcop_, not _loscop_, is
clearly the true reading of the word about which I inquired. _Lovecope_
is the form in which it is written in the Lynn town-books, as well as in
the Cinque-port charters, for a reference to which I have to thank your
correspondent L. B. L. (Vol. i., p. 371.). I am now satisfied that it is
an altered form of the word _lahcop_, which occurs in the laws of
Ethelred, and is explained in Thorpe's _Ancient Laws and Institutes of
England_, vol. i., p. 294., note. The word _loveday_, which is found in
English Middle-Age writers, meaning "a day appointed for settling
differences by arbitration," is an instance of a similar change. This
must originally have been _lah-dæg_, though I am not aware that the word
is met with in any Anglo-Saxon documents. But in Old-Norse is found
_Lögdagr_, altered in modern Danish into _Lavdag_ or _Lovdag._

    C. W. G.

_Middleton's Epigrams and Satyres, 1608_ (Vol. iv., p. 272.).--These
Epigrams, about which QUÆSO inquires, are not the production of Thomas
Middleton the dramatist, but of "_Richard_ Middleton of Yorke,
gentleman." The only copy known to exist is among the curious collection
of books presented by the poet Drummond to the University of Edinburgh.
A careful reprint, limited to forty copies, was published at Edinburgh
in 1840. It is said to have been done under the superintendance of James
Maidment, Esq.


_Lord Edward Fitzgerald_ (Vol. iv., p. 173.).--Your correspondent R. H.
was misinformed as to the house of Lord Edward Fitzgerald at Harold's
Cross, from the fact of his friend confounding that nobleman with
another of the United Irishmen leaders; namely, Robert Emmett, who was
arrested in the house alluded to. Lord Edward never lived at Harold's
Cross, either in avowed residence or concealment.

R. H.'s note above referred to, provoked the communication of L. M. M.
at Vol. iv., p. 230., who seems to cast a slur upon the Leinster family
for neglecting the decent burial of their chivalric relative. This is
not merited. The family was kept in complete ignorance as to how the
body was disposed of, it being the wish of the government of the day to
conceal the place of its sepulture; as is evident from their not
interring it at St. Michan's, where they interred Oliver Bond and all
the others whom they put to death at Newgate; and from the notoriety of
their having five years later adopted a similar course with regard to
the remains of Robert Emmett. (See Madden's _Life of Emmett_.) But is he
buried at St. Werburgh's? Several, and among others his daughter, Lady
Campbell, as appears from L. M. M.'s note, think that he is. I doubt it.
Some years since I conversed with an old man named Hammet, the
superannuated gravedigger of St. Catherine's, Dublin, and he told me
that he officiated at Lord Edward's obsequies in St. Catherine's church,
and that they were performed at night in silence, secrecy, and mystery.

    E. J. W.

_Earwig_ (Vol. iv., p. 274.).--I do not know what the derivations of
this word may be, which are referred to by ΑΞΩΝ as being in
vogue. It is a curious fact that Johnson, Richardson, and Webster do not
notice the word at all; although I am not aware that it is of limited or
provincial use. In Bailey's _Scottish Dictionary_, and in Skinner's
_Etymologicon_, it is traced to the Anglo-Saxon _ear-wicga_, i.e.
ear-beetle. In Bosworth's _Dictionary_ we find _wicga_, a kind of
insect, a shorn-bug, a beetle.

    C. W. G.

_Sanderson and Taylor_ (Vol. iv., p. 293.).--In No. 103 of "NOTES AND
QUERIES," under the head of "_Sanderson and Taylor_," a question is put
by W. W. as to the common source of the sentence, "Conscience is the
brightness and splendour of the eternal light, a spotless mirror of the
Divine majesty, and the image of the goodness of God." Without at all
saying that it is the common source, I would beg to refer W. W. to "The
Wisdom of Solomon," c. vii. v. 26., where "wisdom"  is described as
"the brightness of the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror of the
power of God, and the image of His goodness." The coincidence is
curious, though the Latin expressions are dissimilar, the verse in "The
Wisdom of Solomon" being as follows: "Nam splendor est à luce æterna et
speculum efficacitatis Dei expers maculæ, ac imago bonitatis ejus."

    R. M. M. (A Subscriber).


_Island of Ægina and the Temple of Jupiter Panhellinius_ (Vol. iv., p.
255.).--In Lemprière's _Classical Dict._, by the Rev. J. A. Giles, 1843,
is the subjoined:--

  "The most remarkable remnant of antiquity at the present day is
  the temple of 'Jupiter Panhellinius' on a _mount of the same name_
  about four hours' distance from the port, supposed to be one of
  the most ancient temples in Greece, and the oldest specimen of
  Doric architecture; Dodwell pronounces it to be the most
  picturesque ruin in Greece."

And in Arrowsmith's _Compendium of Ancient and Modern Geography_, 1839,
p. 414.:

  "In the southern part of the island is _Panhellinius Mons_, so
  called _from a temple_ of Jupiter Panhellinius, erected on its
  summit by Æacus."

    C. W. MARKHAM.

_The Broad Arrow_ (Vol. iv., p. 315.).--I forget where it is, but
remember something about a place held by the tenure of presenting the
king with

              "---- a Broad-Arrow,
      When he comes to hunt upon Yarrow."

I would however suggest, that the use of an arrow-head as a government
mark may have a Celtic origin; and that the so-called arrow may be the
↑ or _â_, the broad _a_ of the Druids. This letter was
typical of superiority either in rank and authority, intellect or
holiness; and I believe stood also for king or prince.

    A. C. M.

  Exeter, Nov. 4. 1851.

_Consecration of Bishops in Sweden_ (Vol. iv., p. 345.).--E. H. A. asks
whether any record exists of the consecration of Bethvid, Bishop of
_Strengnäs_ in the time of Gustavus I., King of Sweden? I cannot reply
from this place with the certainty I might be able to do, if I had
access to my books and papers. But I may venture to state, that the
"consecration" (if by that term be meant the canonical and apostolical
ordination) of Bethvidus Sermonis, in common with that of all the
Lutheran Bishops of Sweden, is involved in much doubt and obscurity; the
fact being, that they all derive their orders from _Petrus Magni_,
Bishop of Westeras, who _is said_ to have been "consecrated" bishop of
that see at Rome by a cardinal in A.D. 1524, the then Pontiff having
acceded to the request of Gustavus Vasa to this effect. It is, however,
uncertain whether Petrus Magni ever received proper episcopal
consecration, although it appears probable he did. I endeavoured at one
time to ascertain the fact by reference to Rome; but though promised by
my correspondent (a British Romanist resident there) that he would
procure the examination of the Roll of Bishops in communion with the
Holy See, and consecrated by Papal license, for the purpose of
discovering whether Bishop Petrus Magni's name occurred therein or not,
I never heard more of the subject. I could not help judging, that this
silence on the part of my correspondent (to whom I was personally
unknown), after his having replied immediately and most civilly to my
first communication, was very eloquent and significant. But still the
doubt remains uncleared, as to whether the Swedish episcopacy possess or
not, _as they maintain they do_, the blessing of an apostolical and
canonical succession.

    G. J. R. G.

  Pen-y-lau, Ruabon.

_Meaning of Spon_ (Vol. iv., p. 39.).--Is the word _spooney_ derived
from the Anglo-Saxon _spanan_, _spón_, _asponen_, to allure, entice, and
therefore equivalent to one allured, trapped, &c., a gowk or simpleton?
If C. H. B. could discover whether those specified places were ever at
any time tenanted by objectionable characters, this verb and its
derivatives might assist his inquiries. He will, however, see that
_Spondon_ (pronounced _spoondon_) in Derbyshire is another instance of
the word he inquires after.



_Quaker Expurgated Bible_ (Vol. iv., p. 87.).--I can inform the
correspondent who inquires whether such a publication of a Bible, which
a committee of Friends were intending to publish, ever took place, that
no committee was ever appointed by the Society of Friends, who adopt the
English authorised version only, as may be seen by their yearly epistle
and other authorised publications. I have inquired of many Friends who
were likely to know, and not one ever heard of what the authoress of
_Quakerism_ states.


_Cozens the Painter_ (Vol. iv., p. 368.).--In Rose's _Biographical
Dictionary_ it is stated that Alexander Cozens was a landscape painter,
born in Russia, but attaining his celebrity in London, where he taught
drawing. In 1778 he published a theoretical work called _The Principle
of Beauty relative to the Human Face_, with illustrations, engraved by
Bartolozzi. He died in 1786.

    J. O'G.

_Authors of the Homilies_ (Vol. iv., p. 346.).--Allow me to say that in
the reply to the inquiry of G. R. C. one work is omitted which will
afford at once all that is wanted: for the Preface to Professor Corrie's
recent edition of the _Homilies_, printed at the Pitt Press, contains
the most circumstantial account of their authors.

    W. K. C.

  College, Ely.



We had occasion, some short time since, to speak in terms of deserved
commendation of the excellent _Handbook to the Antiquities of the
British Museum_ which had been prepared by Mr. Vaux. Another and most
important department of our great national collection has just found in
Dr. Mantell an able scientific, yet popular expositor of its treasures.
His _Petrifactions and their Teachings, or a Handbook to the Gallery of
Organic Remains in the British Museum_, forms the new volume of Bohn's
_Scientific Library_; and, thanks to the acquirements of Dr. Mantell,
his good sense in divesting his descriptions, as much as possible, of
technical language, and the numerous well-executed woodcuts by which it
is illustrated, the work is admirably calculated to accomplish the
purpose for which it has been prepared; namely, to serve as a handbook
to the general visitor to the Gallery of Organic Remains, and as an
explanatory Catalogue for the more scientific observer.

To satisfy the deep interest taken by many persons, who are unable to
study the phenomena themselves, in the numerous new and remarkable facts
relating to the formation and temperature of the globe, and to the
movements of the ocean and of the atmosphere, as well as to the
influence of both on climate, and on the adaptation of the earth for the
dwelling of man, which the exertions of scientific men have of late
years revealed, was the motive which led Professor Buff to write his
_Familiar Letters on the Physics of the Earth; treating of the chief
Movements of the Land, the Waters, and the Air, and the Forces that give
rise to them_: and Dr. Hoffman has been induced to undertake an English
edition of them from a desire of rendering accessible to the public a
source of information from which he has derived no less of profit than
of pleasure: which profit and which pleasure will, we have no doubt, be
shared by a large number of readers of this unpretending but very
instructive little volume.

_Welsh Sketches, chiefly Ecclesiastical, to the close of the Twelfth
Century._ These sketches, which treat of Bardism, the Kings of Wales,
the Welsh Church, Monastic Institutions, and Giraldus Cambrensis, are
from the pen of the amiable author of the _Essays on Church Union_, and
are written in the same attractive and popular style.

About five-and-thirty years ago the Treatment of the Insane formed the
subject of a Parliamentary inquiry, and the public mind was shocked by
the appalling scenes revealed before a Committee of the House of
Commons. But the publication of them did its work; for that such scenes
are now but matters of history, we owe to that inquiry. The condition of
the London Poor, in like manner, is now in the course of investigation;
not indeed by an official commission, but by a private individual, Mr.
Henry Mayhew, who is gathering by personal visits to the lowest haunts
of poverty and its attendant vices, and from personal communication with
the people he is describing, an amount of fact illustrative of the
social conditions of the poorest classes in this metropolis, which
deserves, and must receive, the earnest attention of the statesman, the
moralist, and the philanthropist. His work is entitled _London Labour
and the London Poor, a Cyclopædia of the Condition and Earnings of those
that_ WILL _work, those that_ CANNOT _work, and those that_ WILL NOT
_work_. Vol. I. _The London Street Folk_, is just completed. It is of
most painful interest, for it paints in vivid colours the misery,
ignorance, and demoralisation in which thousands are living at our very
doors; and its perusal must awaken in every right-minded man an earnest
desire to do his part towards assisting the endeavours of the honest
poor to earn their bread--towards instructing the ignorant, and towards
reforming the vicious.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--Williams and Norgate's (14. Henrietta Street)
German Book Circular No. 28.; J. Lilly's (19. King Street) very Cheap
Clearance Catalogue No. 2.; J. Miller's (43. Chandos Street) Catalogue
No. 31. of Books Old and New; W. Brown's (130. Old Street) Register of
Literature, Ancient, Modern, English, Foreign, No. 1.; T. Kerslake's (3.
Park Street, Bristol) Catalogue of Geological and Scientific Library of
the late Rev. T. Williams.



HUNTER'S DEANERY OF DONCASTER. Vol. I. Large or small paper.


1756 or 1757.

CHURCH. By Samuel Grascombe. London, 1703. 8vo.

By Samuel Parker, Lord Bishop of Oxon. 1688. 4to.





LONG'S ASTRONOMY. 4to. 1742.




WILLIS'S ARCHITECTURE OF THE MIDDLE AGES. (10_s._ 6_d._ will be paid for
a copy in good condition.)

CARPENTER'S DEPUTY DIVINITY; a Discourse of Conscience. 12mo. 1657.

NEW MODELLED PAGANISM, &c., 1679. 4to.

ERSKINE'S SPEECHES. Vol. II. London, 1810.


HOPE'S ESSAY ON ARCHITECTURE. Vol. I. London, 1835. 2nd Edition.

MULLER'S HISTORY OF GREECE. Vol. II. (Library of Useful Knowledge. Vol.


SCOTT'S (SIR W.) LIFE OF NAPOLEON. Vol. I. Edinburgh, 1837. 9 Vol.


JAMES WILSON'S ANNALS OF HAWICK. Small 8vo. Printed in 1850.


BRITISH POETS (Chalmers', Vol. X.) London, 1810.



SCOTT'S NOVELS. Vol. XXXVI (Redgauntlet, II.); Vols. XLIV. XLV. (Ann of
Grerstein, I. & II.) 48 Vol. Edition.

SMOLLETT'S WORKS. Vols. II. & IV. Edinburgh, 1800. 2nd Edition.


CRABBE'S WORKS. Vol. V. London, 1831.

Four letters on several subjects to persons of quality, the fourth being
an answer to the Bishop of Lincoln's book, entitled POPERY, &c., by
Peter Walsh. 1686. 8vo.

the King, 1678, by William Lloyd, D.D. 1679. 4to.

COMMONS, MAY 29, 1685, by W. Sherlock, D.D. 4to. London, 1685.


ALMANACS, any for the year 1752.


1785. Vol. V.

SWIFT'S WORKS, Faulkner's Edition. 8 Vols. 12mo. Dublin, 1747. Vol. III.


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Notices to Correspondents.

KENNETH R. H. MACKENZIE. _We are very much obliged to our correspondent
for his kind suggestion, but his proposal a little shocks our modesty.
The subject, he will remember, has been taken up by several of our most
influential contemporaries. It would scarcely become us to suggest that
they should now abandon it to us. We are anxious to help it forward, but
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least influential, being, that the course proposed would be an
interference with our valued contemporary_ The Gentleman's Magazine,
_and with that particular department of which it is so valuable--the_

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Equivocation," "Damasked Linen," "Thomas More and John Fisher,"
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  Together with the Sovereigns of Europe, from the Foundation of
  their respective States; the Peerage of England and of Great
  Britain; and numerous other Lists. By JOSEPH HAYDN. Author of "The
  Dictionary of Dates," and compiler of various other Works.


Recently published, price 4_l._ 4_s._

  original editions. With a Life of the Author, by the Rev. JOHN
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Recently published, 8vo., with Portrait, 14_s._

  THE LIFE OF THOMAS KEN, Bishop of Bath and Wells. By A. LAYMAN.

  "The Library Edition of the Life of Bishop Ken."--_The Times._

  ... "We have now to welcome a new and ample biography, by 'a
  layman.'"--_Quarterly Review_, September.

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published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, November 22. 1851.

      [List of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries", Vol. I-IV]

      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      | Vol. IV No. 88  | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No. 89  | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No. 90  | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No. 91  | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      | Vol. IV No. 92  | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No. 93  | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No. 94  | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No. 95  | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No. 96  | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      | Vol. IV No. 104 | Oct. 25, 1851      | 305-333 | PG # 38926 |
      | Vol. IV No. 105 | Nov. 1, 1851       | 337-358 | PG # 39076 |
      | Vol. IV No. 106 | Nov. 8, 1851       | 361-374 | PG # 39091 |
      | Vol. IV No. 107 | Nov. 15, 1851      | 377-396 | PG # 39135 |
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 108, November 22, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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