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Title: Walks in Rome
Author: Hare, Augustus J.C.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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    THE ARRIVAL IN ROME                                                9


    DULL-USEFUL INFORMATION                                           27


    THE CORSO AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD                                   36


    THE CAPITOLINE                                                   109


    THE FORUMS AND THE COLISEUM                                      159


    THE VELABRUM AND THE GHETTO                                      221


    THE PALATINE                                                     273


    THE CŒLIAN                                                       316


    THE AVENTINE                                                     348


    THE VIA APPIA                                                    372


    THE QUIRINAL AND VIMINAL                                         433



"Again this date of Rome; the most solemn and interesting that my hand
can ever write, and even now more interesting than when I saw it last,"
wrote Dr. Arnold to his wife in 1840--and how many thousands before and
since have experienced the same feeling, who have looked forward to a
visit to Rome as one of the great events of their lives, as the
realization of the dreams and longings of many years.

An arrival in Rome is very different to that in any other town of
Europe. It is coming to a place new and yet most familiar, strange and
yet so well known. When travellers arrive at Verona, for instance, or at
Arles, they generally go to the amphitheatres with a curiosity to know
what they are like; but when they arrive at Rome and go to the Coliseum,
it is to visit an object whose appearance has been familiar to them from
childhood, and, long ere it is reached, from the heights of the distant
Capitol, they can recognize the well-known form;--and as regards St.
Peter's, who is not familiar with the aspect of the dome, of the
wide-spreading piazza, and the foaming fountains, for long years before
they come to gaze upon the reality?

"My presentiment of the emotions with which I should behold the Roman
ruins, has proved quite correct," wrote Niebuhr. "Nothing about them is
new to me; as a child I lay so often, for hours together, before their
pictures, that their images were, even at that early age, as distinctly
impressed upon my mind, as if I had actually seen them."

Yet, in spite of the presence of old friends and landmarks, travellers
who pay a hurried visit to Rome, are bewildered by the vast mass of
interest before them, by the endless labyrinth of minor objects, which
they desire, or, still oftener, feel it a duty, to visit. Their Murray,
their Baedeker, and their Bradshaw indicate appalling lists of churches,
temples, and villas which ought to be seen, but do not distribute them
in a manner which will render their inspection more easy. The promised
pleasure seems rapidly to change into an endless vista of labour to be
fulfilled and of fatigue to be gone through; henceforward the hours
spent at Rome are rather hours of endurance than of pleasure--his
_cicerone_ drags the traveller in one direction,--his antiquarian
friend, his artistic acquaintance, would fain drag him in others,--he is
confused by accumulated misty glimmerings from historical facts once
learnt at school, but long since forgotten,--of artistic information,
which he feels that he ought to have gleaned from years of society, but
which, from want of use, has never made any depth of impression,--by
shadowy ideas as to the story of this king and that emperor, of this
pope and that saint, which, from insufficient time, and the absence of
books of reference, he has no opportunity of clearing up. It is
therefore in the hope of aiding some of these bewildered ones, and of
rendering their walks in Rome more easy and more interesting, that the
following chapters are written. They aim at nothing original, and are
only a gathering up of the information of others, and a gleaning from
what has been already given to the world in a far better and fuller, but
less portable form; while, in their plan, they attempt to guide the
traveller in his daily wanderings through the city and its suburbs.

It must not, however, be supposed, that one short residence at Rome will
be sufficient to make a foreigner acquainted with all its varied
treasures; or even, in most cases, that its attractions will become
apparent to the passing stranger. The squalid appearance of its modern
streets, the filth of its beggars, the inconveniences of its daily life,
will leave an impression which will go far to neutralize the effect of
its ancient buildings, and the grandeur of its historic recollections.
It is only by returning again and again, by allowing the _feeling_ of
Rome to gain upon you, when you have constantly revisited the same view,
the same temple, the same picture, that Rome engraves itself upon your
heart, and changes from a disagreeable, unwholesome acquaintance, into a
dear and intimate friend, seldom long absent from your thoughts.
"Whoever," said Chateaubriand, "has nothing else left in life, should
come to live in Rome; there he will find for society a land which will
nourish his reflections, walks which will always tell him something new.
The stone which crumbles under his feet will speak to him, and even the
dust which the wind raises under his footsteps will seem to bear with it
something of human grandeur."

"When we have once known Rome," wrote Hawthorne, "and left her where she
lies, like a long-decaying corpse, retaining a trace of the noble shape
it was, but with accumulated dust and a fungous growth overspreading all
its more admirable features--left her in utter weariness, no doubt, of
her narrow, crooked, intricate streets, so uncomfortably paved with
little squares of lava that to tread over them is a penitential
pilgrimage; so indescribably ugly, moreover, so cold, so alley-like,
into which the sun never falls, and where a chill wind forces its deadly
breath into our lungs--left her, tired of the sight of those immense
seven-storied, yellow-washed hovels, or call them palaces, where all
that is dreary in domestic life seems magnified and multiplied, and
weary of climbing those staircases which ascend from a ground-floor of
cook-shops, cobblers'-stalls, stables, and regiments of cavalry, to a
middle region of princes, cardinals, and ambassadors, and an upper tier
of artists, just beneath the unattainable sky,--left her, worn out with
shivering at the cheerless and smoky fireside by day, and feasting with
our own substance the ravenous population of a Roman bed at night, left
her sick at heart of Italian trickery, which has uprooted whatever faith
in man's integrity had endured till now, and sick at stomach of sour
bread, sour wine, rancid butter, and bad cookery, needlessly bestowed on
evil meats,--left her, disgusted with the pretence of holiness and the
reality of nastiness, each equally omnipresent,--left her, half lifeless
from the languid atmosphere, the vital principle of which has been used
up long ago or corrupted by myriads of slaughters,--left her, crushed
down in spirit by the desolation of her ruin, and the hopelessness of
her future,--left her, in short, hating her with all our might, and
adding our individual curse to the infinite anathema which her old
crimes have unmistakeably brought down:--when we have left Rome in such
mood as this, we are astonished by the discovery, by-and-by, that our
heartstrings have mysteriously attached themselves to the Eternal City,
and are drawing us thitherward again, as if it were more familiar, more
intimately our home, than even the spot where we were born."

This is the attractive and sympathetic power of Rome which Byron so
fully appreciated--

      "Oh Rome my country! city of the soul!
      The orphans of the heart must turn to thee,
      Lone mother of dead empires! and controul
      In their shut breasts their petty misery.
      What are our woes and sufferance? Come and see
      The cypress, hear the owl, and plod your way
      O'er steps of broken thrones and temples. Ye!
      Whose agonies are evils of a day--
    A world is at our feet as fragile as our clay.

      "The Niobe of nations! there she stands
      Childless and crownless, in her voiceless woe;
      An empty urn within her withered hands,
      Whose sacred dust was scattered long ago;
      The Scipios' tomb contains no ashes now;
      The very sepulchres lie tenantless
      Of their heroic dwellers: dost thou flow,
      Old Tiber! through a marble wilderness?
    Rise, with thy yellow waves, and mantle her distress!"

The impressiveness of an arrival at the Eternal City was formerly
enhanced by the solemn singularity of the country through which it was
slowly approached. "Those who arrive at Rome now by the railway," says
Mrs. Craven in her 'Anne Severin,' "and rush like a whirlwind into a
station, which has nothing in its first aspect to distinguish it from
that of one of the most obscure places in the world, cannot imagine the
effect which the words 'Ecco Roma' formerly produced, when on arriving
at the point in the road from which the Eternal City could be descried
for the first time, the postillion stopped his horses, and pointing it
out to the traveller in the distance, pronounced them with that Roman
accent which is grave and sonorous, as the name of Rome itself."

"How pleasing," says Cardinal Wiseman, "was the usual indication to
early travellers, by voice and outstretched whip, embodied in the
well-known exclamation of every vetturino, 'Ecco Roma.' To one 'lasso
maris et viarum,' like Horace, these words brought the first promise of
approaching rest. A few more miles of weary hills, every one of which,
from its summit, gave a more swelling and majestic outline to what so
far constituted 'Roma,' that is, the great cupola, not of the church,
but of the city, its only discernible part, cutting, like a huge peak,
into the dear winter sky, and the long journey was ended, and ended by
the full realization of well-cherished hopes."

Most travellers, perhaps, in the old days came by sea from Marseilles
and arrived from Civita Vecchia, by the dreary road which leads through
Palo, and near the base of the hills upon which stands Cervetri, the
ancient Cære, from the junction of whose name and customs the word
"ceremony" has arisen,--so especially useful in the great neighbouring
city. "This road from Civita Vecchia," writes Miss Edwards, the talented
authoress of 'Barbara's History,' "lies among shapeless hillocks, shaggy
with bush and briar. Far away on one side gleams a line of soft blue
sea--on the other lie mountains as blue, but not more distant. Not a
sound stirs the stagnant air. Not a tree, not a housetop, breaks the
wide monotony. The dust lies beneath the wheels like a carpet, and
follows like a cloud. The grass is yellow, the weeds are parched; and
where there have been wayside pools, the ground is cracked and dry. Now
we pass a crumbling fragment of something that may have been a tomb or
temple, centuries ago. Now we come upon a little wide-eyed peasant boy,
keeping goats among the ruins, like Giotto of old. Presently a buffalo
lifts his black mane above the neighbouring hillock, and rushes away
before we can do more than point to the spot on which we saw it. Thus
the day attains its noon, and the sun hangs overhead like a brazen
shield, brilliant, but cold. Thus, too, we reach the brow of a long and
steep ascent, where our driver pulls up to rest his weary beasts. The
sea has now faded almost out of sight; the mountains look larger and
nearer, with streaks of snow upon their summits, the Campagna reaches on
and on and shows no sign of limit or of verdure,--while, in the midst of
the clear air, half way, so it would seem, between you and the purple
Sabine range, rises one solemn solitary dome. Can it be the dome of St.

The great feature of the Civita Vecchia route was that after all the
utter desolation and dreariness of many miles of the least interesting
part of the Campagna, the traveller was almost stunned by the
transition, when on suddenly passing the Porta Cavalleggieri, he found
himself in the Piazza, of St. Peter's, with its wide-spreading
colonnades, and high-springing fountains; indeed the first building he
saw was St. Peter's, the first house that of the Pope, the palace of the
Vatican. But the more gradual approach by land from Viterbo and Tuscany
possessed equal if not superior interest.

"When we turned the summit above Viterbo," wrote Dr. Arnold, "and opened
on the view on the other side, it might be called the first approach to
Rome. At the distance of more than forty miles, it was of course
impossible to see the town, and besides the distance was hazy; but we
were looking on the scene of the Roman history; we were standing on the
outward edge of the frame of the great picture, and though the features
of it were not to be traced distinctly, yet we had the consciousness
that they were before us. Here, too, we first saw the Mediterranean, the
Alban hills, I think, in the remote distance, and just beneath us, on
the left, Soracte, an outlier of the Apennines, which has got to the
right bank of the Tiber, and stands out by itself most magnificently.
Close under us in front, was the Ciminian lake, the crater of an extinct
volcano, surrounded as they all are, with their basin of wooded hills,
and lying like a beautiful mirror stretched out before us. Then there
was the grand beauty of Italian scenery, the depth of the valleys, the
endless variety of the mountain outline, and the towns perched upon the
mountain summits, and this now seen under a mottled sky, which threw an
ever-varying light and shadow over the valley beneath, and all the
freshness of the young spring. We descended along one of the rims of
this lake to Ronciglione, and from thence, still descending on the
whole, to Monterosi. Here the famous Campagna begins, and it certainly
is one of the most striking tracts of country I ever beheld. It is by no
means a perfect flat, except between Rome and the sea; but rather like
the Bagshot Heath country, ridges of hills with intermediate valleys,
and the road often running between high steep banks, and sometimes
crossing sluggish streams sunk in a deep bed. All these banks are
overgrown with broom, now in full flower; and the same plant was
luxuriant everywhere. There seemed no apparent reason why the country
should be so desolate; the grass was growing richly everywhere. There
was no marsh anywhere visible, but all looked as fresh and healthy as
any of our chalk downs in England. But it is a wide wilderness; no
villages, scarcely any houses, and here and there a lonely ruin of a
single square tower, which I suppose used to serve as strongholds for
men and cattle in the plundering warfare in the middle ages. It was
after crowning the top of one of these lines of hills, a little on the
Roman side of Baccano, at five minutes after six, according to my watch,
that we had the first view of Rome itself. I expected to see St. Peter's
rising above the line of the horizon, as York Minster does, but instead
of that, it was within the horizon, and so was much less conspicuous,
and from the nature of the ground, it looked mean and stumpy. Nothing
else marked the site of the city, but the trees of the gardens and a
number of white villas specking the opposite bank of the Tiber for some
little distance above the town, and then suddenly ceasing. But the whole
scene that burst upon our view, when taken in all its parts, was most
interesting. Full in front rose the Alban hills, the white villas on
their sides distinctly visible, even at that distance, which was more
than thirty miles. On the left were the Apennines, and Tivoli was
distinctly to be seen on the summit of its mountain, on one of the
lowest and nearest parts of the chain. On the right and all before us
lay the Campagna, whose perfectly level outline was succeeded by that of
the sea, which was scarcely more so. It began now to get dark, and as
there is hardly any twilight, it was dark soon after we left La Storta,
the last post before you enter Rome. The air blew fresh and cool, and we
had a pleasant drive over the remaining part of the Campagna, till we
descended into the valley of the Tiber, and crossed it by the Milvian
bridge. About two miles further on we reached the walls of Rome, and
entered it by the Porta del Popolo."

Niebuhr coming the same way says:--"It was with solemn feelings that
this morning from the barren heights of the moory Campagna, I first
caught sight of the cupola of St. Peter's, and then of the city from the
bridge, where all the majesty of her buildings and her history seems to
lie spread out before the eye of the stranger; and afterwards entered by
the Porta del Popolo."

Madame de Staël gives us the impression which the same subject would
produce on a different type of character:--

"Le comte d'Erfeuil faisait de comiques lamentations sur les environs de
Rome. Quoi, disait-il, point de maison de campagne, point de voiture,
rien qui annonce le voisinage d'une grande ville! Ah! bon Dieu, quelle
tristesse! En approchant de Rome, les postillons s'écrièrent avec
transport: _Voyez, voyez, c'est la coupole de Saint-Pierre!_ Les
Napolitains montrent aussi le Vésuve; et la mer fait de même l'orgueil
des habitans des côtes. On croirait voir le dôme des Invalides, s'écria
le comte d'Erfeuil."

It was by this approach that most of its distinguished pilgrims have
entered the capital of the Catholic world: monks, who came hither to
obtain the foundation of their Orders; saints, who thirsted to worship
at the shrines of their predecessors, or who came to receive the crown
of martyrdom; priests and bishops from distant lands,--many coming in
turn to receive here the highest dignity which Christendom could offer;
kings and emperors, to ask coronation at the hands of the reigning
pontiff; and among all these, came by this road, in the full fervour of
Catholic enthusiasm, Martin Luther, the future enemy of Rome, then its
devoted adherent. "When Luther came to Rome," says Ampère, in his
'Portraits de Rome à Divers Ages,' "the future reformer was a young
monk, obscure and fervent; he had no presentiment, when he set foot in
the great Babylon, that ten years later he would burn the bull of the
Pope in the public square of Wittenberg. His heart experienced nothing
but pious emotions; he addressed to Rome in salutation the ancient hymn
of the pilgrims; he cried, 'I salute thee, O holy Rome, Rome venerable
through the blood and the tombs of the martyrs.' But after having
prostrated on the threshold, he raised himself, he entered into the
temple, he did not find the God he looked for; the city of the saints
and martyrs was a city of murderers and prostitutes. The arts which
marked this corruption were powerless over the stolid senses, and
scandalised the austere spirit of the German monk; he scarcely gave a
passing glance at the ruins of pagan Rome;--and inwardly horrified by
all that he saw, he quitted Rome in a frame of mind very different from
that which he brought with him; he knelt then with the devotion of the
pilgrims, now he returned in a disposition like that of the _frondeurs_
of the Middle Ages, but more serious than theirs. This Rome of which he
had been the dupe, and concerning which he was disabused, should hear of
him again; the day would come when, amid the merry toasts at his table,
he would cry three times, 'I would not have missed going to Rome for a
thousand florins, for I should always have been uneasy lest I should
have been rendering injustice to the Pope.'"

When one is in Rome life seems to be free from many of the petty
troubles which beset it in other places; there is no foreign town which
offers so many comforts and advantages to its English visitors. The
hotels, indeed, are enormously expensive, and the rent of apartments is
high; but when the latter is once paid, living is rather cheap than
otherwise, especially for those who do not object to dine from a
_trattoria_, and to drive in hackney carriages.

The climate of Rome is very variable. If the _sirocco_ blows, it is mild
and very relaxing; but the winters are more apt to be subject to the
severe cold of the _tramontana_, which requires even greater precaution
and care than that of an English winter. Nothing can be more mistaken
than the impression that those who go to Italy are sure to find there a
mild and congenial temperature. The climate of Rome has been subject to
severity, even from the earliest times of its history. Dionysius speaks
of one year in the time of the republic when the snow at Rome lay seven
feet deep, and many men and cattle died of the cold.[1] Another year,
the snow lay for forty days, trees perished, and cattle died of
hunger.[2] Present times are a great improvement on these: snow seldom
lies upon the ground for many hours together, and the beautiful
fountains of the city are only hung with icicles long enough to allow
the photographers to represent them thus; but still the climate is not
to be trifled with, and violent transitions from the hot sunshine to the
cold shade of the streets often prove fatal. "No one but dogs and
Englishmen," say the Romans, "ever walk in the sun."

The _malaria_, which is so much dreaded by the natives, lies dormant
during the winter months, and seldom affects strangers, unless they are
inordinately imprudent in sitting out in the sunset. With the heats of
the late summer this insidious ague-fever is apt to follow on the
slightest exertion, and particularly to overwhelm those who are employed
in field labour. From June to November the Villa Borghese and the Villa
Doria are uninhabitable, and the more deserted hills--the Cœlian, the
Aventine, and the greater part of the Esquiline,--are a constant prey to
fever. The malaria, however, flies before a crowd of human life, and the
Ghetto, which teems with inhabitants, is perfectly free from it. In the
Campagna,--with the exception of Porto d'Anzio, which has always been
healthy,--no town or village is safe after the month of August, and to
this cause the utter desolation of so many formerly populous sites
(especially those of Veii and Galera) may be attributed:--

    "Roma, vorax hominum, domat ardua colla virorum;
    Roma, ferax febrium, necis est uberrima frugum:
    Romanæ febres stabili sunt jure fideles."

Thus wrote Peter Damian in the 10th century, and those who refuse to be
on their guard will find it so still.

The greatest risk at Rome is incurred by those who, coming out of the
hot sunshine, spend long hours in the Vatican and the other galleries,
which are filled with a deadly chill during the winter months. As March
comes on this chill wears away, and in April and May the temperature of
the galleries is delightful, and it is impossible to find a more
agreeable retreat. It is in the hope of inducing strangers to spend more
time in the study of these wonderful museums, and of giving additional
interest to the hours which are passed there, that so much is said about
their contents in these volumes. As far as possible it has been desired
to evade any mere catalogue of their collections,--so that no mention
has been made of objects which possess inferior artistic or historical
interest; while by introducing anecdotes connected with those to which
attention is drawn, or by quoting the opinion of some good authority
concerning them, an endeavour has been made to fix them in the

So much has been written about Rome, that in quoting from the remarks of
others the great difficulty has been selection,--and the rule has been
followed that the most learned books are not always the most instructive
or the most interesting. No endeavour has been made to enter into deep
archæological questions,--to define the exact limits of the Walls of
Servius Tullius,--or to hazard a fresh opinion as to how the earth
accumulated in the Roman Forum, or whence the pottery came, out of which
the Monte Testaccio has arisen; but it has rather been sought to gather
up and present to the reader such a succession of word pictures from
various authors, as may not only make the scenes of Rome more
interesting at the time, but may deepen their impression afterwards.
This was the work which the late illustrious M. Ampère intended to carry
out, and which he would have done so much better and more fully.

From the experience of many years the writer can truly say that the more
intimately these scenes become known, the more deeply they become
engraven upon the inmost affections. Rome, as Goethe truly says, "is a
world, and it takes years to find oneself at home in it." It is not a
hurried visit to the Coliseum, with guide book and cicerone, which will
enable one to drink in the fulness of its beauty; but a long and
familiar friendship with its solemn walls, in the ever-varying grandeur
of golden sunlight and grey shadow--till, after many days'
companionship, its stones become dear as those of no other building ever
can be;--and it is not a rapid inspection of the huge cheerless
basilicas and churches, with their gaudy marbles and gilded ceilings and
ill-suited monuments, which arouses your sympathy; but the long
investigation of their precious fragments of ancient cloister, and
sculptured fountain,--of mouldering fresco, and mediæval tomb,--of
mosaic-crowned gateway, and palm-shadowed garden;--and the
gradually-acquired knowledge of the wondrous story which clings around
each of these ancient things, and which tells how each has a motive and
meaning entirely unsuspected and unseen by the passing eye.

The immense extent of Rome, and the wide distances to be traversed
between its different ruins and churches, is in itself a sufficient
reason for devoting more time to it than to the other cities of Italy.
Surprise will doubtless be felt that so few pagan ruins remain,
considering the enormous number which are known to have existed even
down to a comparatively late period. A monumental record of A.D. 540,
published by Cardinal Mai, mentions 324 streets, 2 capitols--the
Tarpeian and that on the Quirinal,--80 gilt statues of the gods (only
the Hercules remains), 66 ivory statues of the gods, 46,608 houses,
17,097 palaces, 13,052 fountains, 3785 statues of emperors and generals
in bronze, 22 great equestrian statues of bronze (only Marcus Aurelius
remains), 2 colossi (Marcus Aurelius and Trajan), 9026 baths, 31
theatres, and 8 amphitheatres!

It is impossible to speak too highly of the facilities afforded to
strangers for seeing and enjoying everything, especially by the Roman
nobility. The beautiful grounds of the Villa Borghese and the Villa
Doria appear to be kept up at an enormous expense, solely for the use
and pleasure of the public, and almost all the palaces and collections
are thrown open on fixed days with unequalled liberality. In almost all
these galleries, museums, and gardens the stranger is permitted to
wander about and linger as he pleases, entirely unmolested by officious
servants and ignorant _ciceroni_.

Those will enjoy Rome most who have studied it thoroughly before leaving
their own homes. In the multiplicity of engagements in which a foreigner
is soon involved, there is little time for historical research, and few
are able to do more than "read up their Murray," so that half the
pleasure and all the advantage of a visit to Rome are thrown away: while
those who arrive with the foundation already prepared, easily and
naturally acquire, amid the scenes around which the history of the world
revolved, an amount of information which will be astonishing even to
themselves. "People out of Rome," says Goethe, "have no idea how one is
_schooled_ there;" but then, as the author of 'Vera' remarks, "that is
true of Rome, which Madame Swetchine said of life, viz. that you find
exactly what you put into it."

The pagan monuments of Rome have been written of and discussed ever
since they were built, and the catacombs have lately found historians
and guides both able and willing,--about the later Christian monuments
far less has hitherto been said. In English, except in the immense
collection of interest which is imbedded in the works of Hemans, and in
the few beautiful notices of some of the early martyrs by Mrs. Jameson,
very little has been written; in French there is far more. There is a
natural shrinking in the English Protestant mind from all that is
connected with the story of the saints,--especially the later saints of
the Roman Catholic Church. Many believe, with Addison, "that the
Christian antiquities are so embroiled in fable and legend, that one
derives but little satisfaction from searching into them." And yet, as
Mrs. Jameson observes, when all that the controversialist can desire is
taken away from the reminiscences of those, who to the Roman Catholic
mind have consecrated the homes of their earthly life, how much
remains!--"so much to awaken, to elevate, to touch the heart;--so much
that will not fade from the memory, so much that may make a part of our

No attempt has been made in these pages to describe the country round
Rome, beyond a few of the most ordinary drives and excursions outside
the walls. The opening of the railways to Naples and Civita Vecchia have
now brought a vast variety of new excursions within the range of a
day's expedition--and the papal citadel of Anagni, the temples of Cori,
the cyclopean remains of Segni, Alatri, Norba, Cervetri, and Corneto,
and the wild heights of Soracte, will probably ere long become as well
known as the oft-visited Tivoli, Ostia, and Albano. It is intended to
supplement these "Walks in Rome" by a similar volume of "Excursions
round Rome."



     _Hotels._--For passing travellers or bachelors, the best are: Hotel
     d'Angleterre, Bocca di Leone; Hotel de Rome, Corso. For families,
     or for a long residence: Hotel des Iles Britanniques, Piazza del
     Popolo; Hotel de Russie (close to the last), Via Babuino; Hotel de
     Londres, and Hotel Europa, Piazza di Spagna; Hotel Costanzi, Via S.
     Nicolo in Tolentino, in a high airy situation towards the
     railway-station, and very comfortable and well managed, but further
     from the sights of Rome. Less expensive, are: Hotel d'Allemagne,
     Via Condotti; Hotel Vittoria, Via Due Macelli; Hotel d'Italie, Via
     Quattro Fontane; Hotel della Pace, 8 Via Felice; Hotel Minerva,
     Piazza della Minerva, very near the Pantheon. A large new hotel is
     the "Quirinale," in the Via Nazionale.

     _Pensions_ are much wanted in Rome. The best are those of Miss
     Smith and Madame Tellenbach, in the Piazza di Spagna; Pension Suez,
     Via S. Nicolo in Tolentino; and the small Hotel du Sud, in the Capo
     le Case.

     _Apartments_ have lately greatly increased in price. An apartment
     for a very small family in one of the best situations can seldom be
     obtained for less than 300 to 500 francs a month. The English
     almost all prefer to reside in the neighbourhood of the Piazza di
     Spagna. The best situations are the sunny side of the Piazza
     itself, the Trinità de' Monti, the Via Gregoriana, and Via Sistina.
     Less good situations are, the Corso, Via Condotti, Via Due Macelli,
     Via Frattina, Capo le Case, Via Felice, Via Quattro Fontane, Via
     Babuino, and Via delle Croce,--in which last, however, are many
     very good apartments. On the other side of the Corso suites of
     rooms are much less expensive, but they are less convenient for
     persons who make a short residence in Rome. In many of the palaces
     are large apartments which are let by the year.

     _Trattorie_ (Restaurants) send out dinners to families in
     apartments in a tin box with a stove, for which the bearer calls
     the next morning. A dinner for six francs ought to be amply
     sufficient for three persons, and to leave enough for luncheon the
     next day. _Restaurants_ where luncheons or dinners may be obtained
     upon the spot, are those of Bedeau, Via della Croce, and Nazzari,
     Piazza di Spagna. Those who wish for a real Roman dinner of
     Porcupine, Hedgehog, and other such delicacies, find it at the
     Falcone, where Ariosto used to lodge when in Rome.

     _English Church._--Just outside the Porta del Popolo, on the left.
     Services at 9 A.M., 11 A.M., and 3 P.M. on Sundays; daily service
     twice on week-days. The _American Church_ is in the same building,
     with an entrance further on.

     _Post Office._--In the Piazza Colonna. The English mail leaves
     daily at 8 P.M.

     _Telegraph Office._--121 Piazza Monte-Citorio. A telegraph of 20
     words to England, including name and address, costs 11 francs.

     _Bankers._--Hooker, 20 Piazza di Spagna; Macbean, 378 Corso;
     Plowden, 50 Via Mercede; Spada and Flamini, 20 Via Condotti.

     _For sending Boxes to England._--Welby, Strada Papala. (His agents
     in London, Messrs. Scott, 11 King William St.)

     _English Doctors._--Dr. Grigor, 3 Pa di Spagna; Dr. Small, 56 Via
     Babuino; Dr. Gason, 82 Via della Croce. _German_: Dr. Taussig, 144
     Via Babuino. _American_: Dr. Gould, 107 Via Babuino. _Italian_: Dr.
     Valeri, 138 Via Babuino.

     _Homœopathic Doctor._--Dr. Liberali, 69 Via della Frezza.

     _Dentist._--Dr. Parmby, 93 Piazza di Spagna.

     _Sick-nurses._--Mrs. Meyer, 44 Via delle Carozze; the Nuns of the
     Bon-Secours at the convent in the Via del Banchi.

     _Chemists._--English Pharmacy, 498 Corso; Sininberghi, 134 Via
     Frattina; and Borioni, Via Babuino, are those usually employed by
     the English; but the chemists' shops in the Corso are as good, and
     much less expensive.

_English House Agent._--Shea, 11 Piazza di Spagna.

_English Livery Stables._--Jarrett, 3 Piazza del Popolo; Ranucci, Vicolo

_Circulating Library._--Piale, 1, 2, Piazza di Spagna.

_Booksellers._--Monaldini, Piazza di Spagna; Spithover, Piazza di
Spagna; Bocca, 216 Corso; Loesther, 346 Corso.

_Italian Masters._--Vannini, 31 Via Condotti (in the summer at the Bagni
di Lucca); Monachesi (a Roman), 8 Via S. Sebastianello; Gordini, 374
Corso; N. Lucantini, 17 Via della Stamperia.

_Photographers.--For views of Rome._--Watson, Via Babuino; Macpherson,
12 Vicolo Aliberti; Mang, 104 Via Felice; Anderson (his photographs sold
at Spithover's); Joseph Phelps, 169 Via Babuino; Maggi, 329 Corso. _For
Artistic Bits_, very much to be recommended, De Bonis, 11 Via Felice.
_For Portraits_.--Suscipi, 48 Via Condotti (the best for medallions);
Alessandri, 12 Corso (excellent for Cartes de Visite); Lais, 57 Via del
Campo-Marzo; Ferretti, 50 Via Sta. Maria in Via.

_Drawing Materials._--Dovizelli, 136 Via Babuino; Corteselli, 150 Via
Felice. For commoner articles and stationery, the "Cartoleria," 214
Corso, opposite the Piazza Colonna.

_Engravings._--At the Stamperia Nazionale (fixed prices), 6 Via della
Stamperia, near the fountain of Trevi.

_Antiquities._--Depoletti, 31 Via Fontanella Borghese; Innocenti, 118
Via Frattina; Santelli, 141 Via Frattina; Capobianchi, 152 Via Babuino.

_Bronzes._--Röhrich, 104 Via Sistina; Chiapanelli, 92 Via Babuino;
Dressler, 17 Via Due Macelli.

_Cameos._--Saulini, 96 Via Babuino; Neri, 72 Via Babuino.

_Mosaics._--Rinaldi, 125 Via Babuino; Boschetti, 74 Via Condotti.

_Jewellers._--Castellani, 88 Via Poli (closed from 12 to 1), very
beautiful, but very expensive; Pierret, 20 Piazza di Spagna; Innocenti,
33 Piazza Trinità de' Monti.

_Roman Pearls._--Rey, 122 Via Babuino; Lacchini, 70 Via Condotti.

_Bookbinder._--Olivieri, 1 Via Frattina.

_Engraver._--(For visiting cards, &c.), Martelli, 139 Via Frattina.

_Tailors._--Mattina (the "Poole" of Rome), Corso, opposite S. Carlo,
entrance 2 Via delle Carozze; Vai, 60 Piazza di Spagna; Reanda, 61
Piazza. S. Apostoli; Evert, 77 Piazza Borghese.

_Shoemakers._--Rubini, 223 Corso (none good).

_Dressmaker._--Clarisse, 166 Corso.

_Shops for Ladies' Dress._--Massoni, Palazzo Simonetti; the Ville de
Lyon, 48 Via dei Prefetti (behind S. Lorenzo in Lucina); Sebastiani, 8
Via del Campo-Marzo; Giovannetti, 50 to 53 Campo-Marzo.

_Roman Ribbons and Shawls._--Arvotti, 66 Piazza Madama (fixed prices);
Bianchi, 82 Via della Minerva.

_Gloves._--Cremonesi, 420 Corso; 4 Piazza S. Lorenzo in Lucina.

_Carpets and small Household Articles._--Cagiati, 250 Corso.

_German Baker._--Colalucci, 88 Via della Croce (excellent).

_English Grocer._--Lowe, 76 Piazza di Spagna.

_Italian Grocer and Wine Merchant._--Giacosa, Via della Maddalena.

_Oil, Candles and Wood, &c._--Luigioni, 70 Piazza di Spagna.

_English Dairy._--Palmegiani, 66 Piazza di Spagna.

_Artists' Studios._--

  Benonville, 61 Via Babuino,--landscapes.
  Brennan, 76 Via Borghetto.
  Coleman, 16 Via dei Zucchelli,--very good for animals.
  Corrodi, 25 Angelo-Custode,--water-colour landscapes, very highly finished.
  Desoulavy, 33 Via Margutta,--landscapes.
  Fattorini, Via Margutta,--a very beautiful copyist.
  Flatz, 3 Mario di Fiori,--sacred subjects.
  Haseltine, J. H., 59 Via Babuino.
  *Joris, 33 Via Margutta,--quite first-rate for figure subjects
   in water-colour.
  Garelli, 217 Ripetta,--an admirable copyist, generally to be found
   in the Capitoline Gallery.
  *Glennie, 17 Piazza Margana,--water-colour, first-rate.
  Knebel, 33 Via Margutta,--oil landscapes.
  Maes, 33 Via Margutta.
  *Marianecci, 53 Via Margutta,--the prince of copyists.
  Muller, 60 Piazza Barberini,--water-colour landscapes.
  Podesti, 55 Via Margutta,--oil: large historical and sacred subjects.
  Poingdestre, 36 Vicolo dei Greci--oil: landscapes.
  Buchanan Read, 55 Via Margutta.
  *Rivière, 36 Vicolo dei Greci,--water-colour.
  De Sanctis, 33 Via Margutta.
  Strutt (Arthur), 81 Via della Croce,--landscapes and figures,
   both oil and water-colour.
  Tapiro (Spanish), 72 Sistina,--admirable for figures.
  Tilton, 20 Via S. Basilio,--remarkable for his drawings of the Nile.
  Vertunni, 53 Via Margutta.
  Wedder, 55A Via Margutta.
  *Penry Williams, 12 Piazza Mignanelli.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Sculptors' Studios._--

    D'Epinay, 57 Via Sistina.
    Fabj-Altini, 4 S. Nicolo in Tolentino.
    Miss Foley, 53 Via Margutta,--admirable for medallion portraits and
    busts, also the author of a beautiful fountain.
    *Miss Hosmer, 118 Via Margutta--(Gibson's studio).
    Miss Lewis, 8 Via S. Nicolo in Tolentino.
    Macdonald, 7 Piazza Barberini.
    Rosetti, 55 Via Margutta.
    Story, 2 Via S. Nicolo in Tolentino.
    Tadolini, 150A Via Babuino.
    Wood (Shakspeare), 504 Corso,--excels in medallion portraits.
    Wood (Warrington), 7 Piazza Trinità de' Monti.

It is impossible for a traveller who spends only a week or ten days in
Rome to see a tenth part of the sights which it contains. Perhaps the
most important objects are:

     _Churches._--S. Peter's, S. John Lateran, Sta. Maria Maggiore, S.
     Lorenzo fuori Mura, S. Paoli fuori Mura, S. Agnese fuori Mura, Ara
     Cœli, S. Clemente, S. Pietro in Montorio, S. Pietro in Vincoli,
     Sta. Sabina, Sta. Prassede and Sta. Pudentiana, S. Gregorio, S.
     Stefano Rotondo, Sta. Maria sopra Minerva, Sta. Maria del Popolo.

     _Palaces._--Vatican, Capitol, Borghese, Barberini (and, if
     possible, Corsini, Colonna, Sciarra, Rospigliosi, and Spada).

     _Villas._--Albani, Doria, Borghese, Wolkonski, and, though less
     important, Ludovisi.

     _Ruins._--Palace of the Cæsars, Temples in Forum, Coliseum, and, if
     possible, the ruins in the Ghetto, and the Baths of Caracalla.

It is desirable for the traveller who is pressed for time to apply at
once to his Banker for orders for any of the villas for which they are
necessary. The following scheme will give a good general idea of Rome
and its neighbourhood in a few days. The sights printed in italics can
only be seen on the days to which they are ascribed:--

     _Monday._--General view of Capitol, Gallery of Sculpture, Ara
     Cœli, General view of Forum, Coliseum, St. John Lateran (with
     cloisters), and drive out to the Via Latina and the aqueducts at

     _Tuesday._--Morning: St. Peter's and the Vatican Stanze. Afternoon:
     _Villa Albani_, St. Agnese, and drive to the Ponte Nomentana.

     _Wednesday._--Go to Tivoli (the Cascades, Cascatelle, and Villa

     _Thursday._--Morning: _Palace of the Cæsars._ Afternoon: drive on
     the Via Appia as far as Torre Mezzo Strada; in returning, see the
     Baths of Caracalla.

     _Friday._--Morning: Palazzo Borghese, Palazzo Spada, The Ghetto,
     The Temple of Vesta, cross the Ponte Rotto to Sta. Cecilia; and end
     in the afternoon at St. Pietro in Montorio and the _Villa Doria_
     (or on Monday).

     _Saturday._--Frascati and Albano. Drive to Frascati early, take
     donkeys, by Rocca di Papa to Mte. Cavo; take luncheon at the
     Temple, and return by Palazzuolo and the upper and lower Galleries
     to Albano, whither the carriage should be sent on to await you at
     the Hotel de Russie. Drive back to Rome in the evening.

     _Sunday._--Morning: Sta. Maria del Popolo on way to English Church.
     Afternoon: St. Peter's again; drive to Monte Mario (Villa Mellini),
     or in the Villa Borghese, and end with the Pincio.

     _2d Monday._--Morning: Sta. Prassede, Sta. Pudentiana, Sta. Maria
     Maggiore. Afternoon: Sta. Sabina, Priorato Garden, English
     Cemetery, S. Paolo, and the Tre Fontane.

     _2d Tuesday._--Morning: Vatican Sculptures. Afternoon: S. Gregorio,
     S. Stefano Rotondo, S. Clemente, S. Pietro in Vincoli, Sta. Maria
     degli Angeli, S. Lorenzo fuori Mura, and drive out to the Torre dei
     Schiavi, returning by the Porta Maggiore.

     _2d Wednesday._--Morning: Palazzo Barberini, _Palazzo Rospigliosi_,
     (and on Saturdays) Vatican Pictures. Afternoon: Forum in detail,
     SS. Cosmo and Damian, and ascend the Coliseum.

       *       *       *       *       *

The following list may be useful as a guide to some of the best subjects
for artists who wish to draw at Rome, and have not much time to search
for themselves:--

_Morning Light_:

    Temple of Vesta with the fountain.
    Arch of Constantine from the Coliseum (early).
    Coliseum from behind Sta. Francesca Romana (early).
    Temples in the Forum from the School of Xanthus.
    View from the Garden of the Rupe Tarpeia.
    In the Garden of S. Giovanni e Paolo.
    In the Garden of S. Buonaventura.
    In the Garden of the S. Bartolomeo in Isola.
    In the Garden of S. Onofrio.
    On the Tiber from Poussin's Walk.
    From the door of the Villa Medici.
    At S. Cosimato.
    At the back entrance of Ara Cœli.
    At the Portico of Octavia.
    Looking to the Arch of Titus up the Via Sacra.
    In the Cloister of the Lateran.
    In the Cloister of the Certosa.
    Near the Temple of Bacchus.
    On the Via Appia, beyond Cecilia Metella.
    Torre Mezza Strada on the Via Appia.
    Torre Nomentana, looking to the mountains.
    Ponte Nomentana, looking to the Mons Sacer.
    Torre dei Schiavi, looking towards Tivoli.
    Aqueducts at Tavolato.

_Evening Light_:

    From St. John Lateran.
    From the Ponte Rotto.
    From the Terrace of the Villa Doria (St. Peter's).
    Palace of the Cæsars--Roman side--looking to Sta. Balbina.
    Palace of the Cæsars--French side--looking to the Coliseum.
    Apse of S. Giovanni e Paolo.
    Near the Navicella.
    Garden of the Villa Mattei.
    Garden of the Villa Wolkonski.
    Garden of the Priorato.
    Porta S. Lorenzo.
    Torre dei Schiavi, looking towards Rome.
    Via Latina, looking towards the Aqueducts.
    Via Latina, looking towards Rome.

The months of November and December are the best for drawing. The
colouring is then magnificent; it is enhanced by the tints of the
decaying vegetation, and the shadows are strong and clear. January is
generally cold for sitting out, and February wet; and before the end of
March the vegetation is often so far advanced that the Alban Hills,
which have retained glorious sapphire and amethyst tints all winter,
change into commonplace green English downs; while the Campagna, from
the crimson and gold of its dying thistles and fenochii, becomes a
lovely green plain waving with flowers.

Foreigners are much too apt to follow the native custom of driving
constantly in the Villa Borghese, the Villa Doria, and on the Pincio,
and getting out to walk there during their drives. For those who do not
care always to see the human world, a delightful variety of drives can
be found; and it is a most agreeable plan for invalids, without
carriages of their own, to take a "course to the Parco di San Gregorio,"
or to the sunny avenues near the Lateran, and walk there instead of on
the Pincio. A carriage for the return may almost always be found in the
Forum or at the Lateran.



     The Piazza del Popolo--Obelisk--Sta. Maria del Popolo--(The
     Pincio--Villa Medici--Trinità de' Monti) (Via Babuino--Via
     Margutta--Piazza di Spagna--Propaganda) (Via Ripetta--SS. Rocco e
     Martino--S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni)--S. Giacomo degli
     Incurabili--Via Vittoria--Mausoleum of Augustus--S. Carlo in
     Corso--Via Condotti--Palazzo Borghese--Palazzo Ruspoli--S. Lorenzo
     in Lucina--S. Sylvestro in Capite--S. Andrea delle Fratte--Palazzo
     Chigi--Piazza Colonna--Palace and Obelisk of Monte-Citorio--Temple
     of Neptune--Fountain of Trevi--Palazzo Poli--Palazzo Sciarra--The
     Caravita--S. Ignazio--S. Marcello--Sta. Maria in Via Lata--Palazzo
     Doria Pamfili--Palazzo Salviati--Palazzo Odescalchi--Palazzo
     Colonna--Church of SS. Apostoli--Palazzo Savorelli--Palazzo
     Buonaparte--Palazzo di Venezia--Palazzo Torlonia--Ripresa dei
     Barberi--S. Marco--Church of Il Gesu--Palazzo Altieri.

The first object of every traveller will naturally be to reach the
Capitol, and look down thence upon ancient Rome; but as he will go down
to the Corso to do this, and must daily pass most of its surrounding
buildings, we will first speak of those objects which will, ere long,
become the most familiar.

A stranger's first lesson in Roman geography should be learnt standing
in the _Piazza del Popolo_, whence three streets branch off--the Corso,
in the centre, leading towards the Capitol, beyond which lies ancient
Rome; the Babuino, on the left, leading to the Piazza di Spagna and the
English quarter; the Ripetta, on the right, leading to the Castle of St.
Angelo and St. Peter's. The scene is one well known from pictures and
engravings. The space between the streets is occupied by twin churches,
erected by Cardinal Gastaldi.

     "Les deux églises élevées au Place du Peuple par le Cardinal
     Gastaldi à l'entrée du Corso, sont d'un effet médiocre. Comment un
     cardinal n'a-t-il pas senti qu'il ne faut pas élever une église
     pour _faire pendant_ à quelque chose? C'est ravaler la majesté
     divine." _Stendhal_, i. 172.

It is in the church on the left that sermons are preached every winter
on Sunday afternoons by some of the best Roman Catholic
controversialists, just at the right moment for catching the Protestant
congregations as they emerge from their chapels outside the Porta del

These churches are believed to occupy the site of the magnificent tomb
of Sylla, who died at Puteoli B.C. 82, but was honoured at Rome with a
public funeral, at which the patrician ladies burnt masses of incense
and perfumes on his funeral pyre.

The _Obelisk_ of the Piazza del Popolo was placed on this site by Sixtus
V. in 1589, but was originally brought to Rome and erected in honour of
Apollo by the Emperor Augustus.

     "Apollo was the patron of the spot which had given a name to the
     great victory of Actium; Apollo himself, it was proclaimed, had
     fought for Rome and for Octavius on that auspicious day; the same
     Apollo, the Sun-god, had shuddered in his bright career at the
     murder of the Dictator, and terrified the nations by the eclipse of
     his divine countenance." ... Therefore, "besides building a temple
     to Apollo on the Palatine hill, the Emperor Augustus sought to
     honour him by transplanting to the Circus Maximus, the sports of
     which were under his special protection, an obelisk from
     Heliopolis, in Egypt. This flame-shaped column was a symbol of the
     sun, and originally bore a blazing orb upon its summit. It is
     interesting to trace an intelligible motive for the first
     introduction into Europe of these grotesque and unsightly monuments
     of eastern superstition."--_Merivale, Hist. of the Romans._

     "This red granite obelisk, oldest of things, even in Rome, rises in
     the centre of the piazza, with a four-fold fountain at its base.
     All Roman works and ruins (whether of the empire, the far-off
     republic, or the still more distant kings) assume a transient,
     visionary, and impalpable character, when we think that this
     indestructible monument supplied one of the recollections which
     Moses and the Israelites bore from Egypt into the desert.
     Perchance, on beholding the cloudy pillar and fiery column, they
     whispered awe-stricken to one another, 'In its shape it is like
     that old obelisk which we and our fathers have so often seen on the
     borders of the Nile.' And now that very obelisk, with hardly a
     trace of decay upon it, is the first thing that the modern
     traveller sees after entering the Flaminian Gate."--_Hawthorne's

It was on the left of the Piazza, at the foot of what was even then
called "the Hill of Gardens," that Nero was buried (A.D. 68).

     "When Nero was dead, his nurse Eclaga, with Alexandra, and Acte the
     famous concubine, having wrapped his remains in rich white stuff,
     embroidered with gold, deposited them in the Domitian monument,
     which is seen in the Campus-Martius under the Hill of Gardens. The
     tomb was of porphyry, having an altar of Luna marble, surrounded by
     a balustrade of Thasos marble."--_Suetonius._

Church tradition tells that from the tomb of Nero afterwards grew a
gigantic walnut-tree, which became the resort of innumerable crows,--so
numerous as to become quite a pest to the neighbourhood. In the eleventh
century, Pope Paschal II. dreamt that these crows were demons, and that
the Blessed Virgin commanded him to cut down and burn the tree ("albero
malnato"), and build a sanctuary to her honour in its place. A church
was then built by means of a collection amongst the common people;
hence the name which it still retains of "St. Mary of the People."

_Sta. Maria del Popolo_ was rebuilt by Bacio Pintelli for Sixtus IV. in
1480, and very richly adorned. It was modernized by Bernini for
Alexander VII. (Fabio Chigi, 1655-67), of whom it was the family
burial-place, but it still retains many fragments of beautiful fifteenth
century work (the principal door of the nave is a fine example of this);
and its interior is a perfect museum of sculpture and art.

Entering the church by the west door, and following the right aisle, the
first chapel (Venuti, formerly Della Rovere[3]) is adorned with
exquisite paintings by _Pinturicchio_. Over the altar is the
Nativity--one of the most beautiful frescoes in the city; in the
lunettes are scenes from the life of St. Jerome. Cardinal Christoforo
della Rovere, who built this chapel and dedicated it to "the Virgin and
St. Jerome," is buried on the left, in a grand fifteenth century tomb;
on the right is the monument of Cardinal di Castro. Both of these tombs
and many others in this church have interesting and greatly varied
lunettes of the Virgin and Child.

The second chapel, of the Cibo family, rich in pillars of nero-antico
and jasper, has an altarpiece representing the Assumption of the Virgin,
by _Carlo Maratta_. In the cupola is the Almighty, surrounded by the
heavenly host.[4]

The third chapel is also painted by _Pinturicchio_. Over the altar, the
Madonna and four saints; above, God the Father, surrounded by angels. In
the other lunettes, scenes in the life of the Virgin;--that of the
Virgin studying in the Temple, a very rare subject, is especially
beautiful. In a frieze round the lower part of the wall, a series of
martyrdoms in grisaille. On the right is the tomb of Giovanni della
Rovere, ob. 1483. On the left is a fine sleeping bronze figure of a
bishop, unknown.

The fourth chapel has a fine fifteenth century altar-relief of St.
Catherine between St. Anthony of Padua and St. Vincent. On the right is
the tomb of Marc-Antonio Albertoni, ob. 1485; on the left, that of
Cardinal Costa, of Lisbon, ob. 1508, erected in his lifetime. In this
tomb is an especially beautiful lunette of the Virgin adored by Angels.

Entering the right transept, on the right is the tomb of Cardinal
Podocanthorus of Cyprus, a very fine specimen of fifteenth century work.
A door near this leads into a cloister, where is preserved, over a door,
the Gothic altar-piece of the church of Sixtus IV, representing the
Coronation of the Virgin, and two fine tombs--Archbishop Rocca, ob.
1482, and Bishop Gomiel.

The choir (shown when there is no service) has a ceiling by
_Pinturicchio_. In the centre, the Virgin and Saviour, surrounded by the
Evangelists and Sibyls; in the corners, the Fathers of the
Church--Gregory, Ambrose, Jerome, and Augustine. Beneath are the tombs
of Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, and Cardinal Girolamo Basso, nephews of
Sixtus IV. (Francesco della Rovere), beautiful works of _Andrea di
Sansovino_. These tombs were erected at the expense of Julius II.,
himself a Della Rovere, who also gave the windows, painted by _Claude
and Guillaume de Marseilles_, the only good specimens of stained glass
in Rome.

The high-altar is surmounted by a miraculous image of the Virgin,
inscribed, "In honorificentia populi nostri," which was placed in this
church by Gregory IX., and which, having been "successfully invoked" by
Gregory XIII., in the great plague of 1578, has ever since been annually
adored by the pope of the period, who prostrates himself before it upon
the 8th of September. The chapel on the left of this has an Assumption,
by _Annibale Caracci_.

In the left transept is the tomb of Cardinal Bernardino Lonati, with a
fine fifteenth century relief of the Resurrection.

Returning by the left aisle, the last chapel but one is that of the
Chigi family, in which the famous banker, Agostino Chigi (who built the
Farnesina) is buried, and in which _Raphael_ is represented at once as a
painter, a sculptor, and an architect. He planned the chapel itself; he
drew the strange design of the Mosaic on the ceiling (carried out by
_Aloisio della Pace_), which represents an extraordinary mixture of
Paganism and Christianity, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn (as
the planets), conducted by angels, being represented with and
surrounding Jehovah; and he modelled the beautiful statue of Jonah
seated on the whale, which was sculptured in the marble by _Lorenzetto_.
The same artist sculptured the figure of Elijah,--those of Daniel and
Habakkuk being by _Bernini_. The altarpiece, representing the Nativity
of the Virgin, is a fine work of _Sebastian del Piombo_. On the pier
adjoining this chapel is the strange monument by _Posi_ (1771) of a
Princess Odescalchi Chigi, who died in childbirth, at the age of twenty,
erected by her husband, who describes himself, "In solitudine et luctu

The last chapel contains two fine fifteenth century ciboria, and the
tomb of Cardinal Antonio Pallavicini, 1507.

On the left of the principal entrance is the remarkable monument of Gio.
Batt. Gislenus, the companion and friend of Casimir I. of Poland (ob.
1670). At the top is his portrait while living, inscribed, "Neque hic
vivus"; then a medallion of a chrysalis, "In nidulo meo moriar";
opposite to which is a medallion of a butterfly emerging, "Ut Phœnix
multiplicabo dies": below is a hideous skeleton of giallo antico in a
white marble winding-sheet, "Neque hic mortuus."

     Martin Luther "often spoke of death as the Christian's true birth,
     and this life as but a growing into the chrysalis-shell in which
     the spirit lives till its being is developed, and it bursts the
     shell, casts off the web, struggles into life, spreads its wings,
     and soars up to God."

The Augustine Convent adjoining this church was the residence of Luther
while he was in Rome. Here he celebrated mass immediately on his
arrival, after he had prostrated himself upon the earth, saying, "Hail
sacred Rome! thrice sacred for the blood of the martyrs shed here!"
Here, also, he celebrated mass for the last time before he departed from
Rome to become the most terrible of her enemies.

     "Lui pauvre écolier, élevé si durement, qui souvent, pendant son
     enfance, n'avait pour oreiller qu'une dalle froide, il passe devant
     des temples tout de marbre, devant des colonnes d'albâtre, des
     gigantesques obélisques de granite, des fontaines jaillissantes,
     des _villas_ fraîches et embellies de jardins, de fleurs, de
     cascades et de grottes. Veut-il prier? il entre dans une église qui
     lui semble un monde véritable, où les diamants scintillent sur
     l'autel, l'or aux soffites, le marbre aux colonnes, la mosaïque aux
     chapelles, au lieu d'un de ces temples rustiques qui n'ont dans sa
     patrie pour tout ornement que quelques roses qu'une main pieuse va
     déposer sur l'autel le jour du dimanche. Est-il fatigué de la
     route? il trouve sur son chemin, non plus un modeste banc de bois,
     mais un siège d'albâtre antique récemment déterré. Cherche-t-il une
     sainte image? il n'aperçoit que des fantaisies païennes, des
     divinités olympiques, Apollon, Vénus, Mars, Jupiter, auxquelles
     travaillent mille mains de sculpteurs. De toutes ces merveilles, il
     ne comprit rien, il ne vit rien. Aucun rayon de la couronne de
     Raphaël, de Michel-Ange, n'éblouit ses regards; il resta froid et
     muet devant tous les trésors de peinture et de sculpture rassemblés
     dans les églises; son oreille fut fermée aux chants du Dante, que
     le peuple répétait autour de lui. Il était entré à Rome en pèlerin,
     il en sort comme Coriolan, et s'écrie avec Bembo: 'Adieu, Rome, que
     doit fuir quiconque veut vivre saintement! Adieu, ville où tout est
     permis, excepté d'être homme de bien.'"--_Audin, Histoire de
     Luther_, c. ii.

It was in front of this church that the cardinals and magnates of Rome
met to receive the apostate Christina of Sweden upon her entrance into
the city.

       *       *       *       *       *

On the left side of the piazza rise the terraces of the Pincio, adorned
with rostral-columns, statues, and marble bas-reliefs, interspersed with
cypresses and pines. A winding road, lined with mimosas and other
flowering shrubs, leads to the upper platform, now laid out in public
drives and gardens, but, till twenty years ago, a deserted waste, where
the ghost of Nero was believed to wander in the middle ages.

Hence the Eternal City is seen spread at our feet, and beyond it the
wide-spreading Campagna, till a silver line marks the sea melting into
the horizon beyond Ostia. All these churches and tall palace roofs
become more than mere names in the course of the winter, but at first
all is bewilderment Two great buildings alone arrest the attention:

     "Westward, beyond the Tiber, is the Castle of St. Angelo, the
     immense tomb of a pagan emperor with the archangel on its
     summit.... Still further off, a mighty pile of buildings,
     surmounted by a vast dome, which all of us have shaped and swelled
     outward, like a huge bubble, to the utmost scope of our
     imaginations, long before we see it floating over the worship of
     the city. At any nearer view the grandeur of St. Peter's hides
     itself behind the immensity of its separate parts, so that we only
     see the front, only the sides, only the pillared length and
     loftiness of the portico, and not the mighty whole. But at this
     distance the entire outline of the world's cathedral, as well as
     that of the palace of the world's chief priest, is taken in at
     once. In such remoteness, moreover, the imagination is not debarred
     from rendering its assistance, even while we have the reality
     before our eyes, and helping the weakness of human sense to do
     justice to so grand an object. It requires both faith and fancy to
     enable us to feel, what is nevertheless so true, that yonder, in
     front of the purple outline of the hills, is the grandest edifice
     ever built by man, painted against God's loveliest

Here the band plays under the great palm-tree every afternoon except
Friday. On Sunday afternoons the Pincio is in what Miss Thackeray
describes as "a fashionable halo of sunset and pink parasols"--when
immense crowds collect, showing every phase of Roman life; and disperse
again as the Ave-Maria bell rings from the churches, either to descend
into the city, or to hear benediction sung by the nuns in the Trinità
de' Monti.

     "When the fashionable hour of rendezvous arrives, the same spot,
     which a few minutes before was immersed in silence and solitude,
     changes as it were with the rapidity of a scene in a pantomime to
     an animated panorama. The scene is rendered not a little ludicrous
     by the miniature representation of the Ring in Hyde Park in a small
     compass. An entire revolution of the carriage-drive is performed in
     the short period of three minutes as near as may be, and the
     perpetual occurrence of the same physiognomies and the same
     carriages trotting round and round for two successive hours,
     necessarily reminds one of the proceedings of a country fair, and
     children whirling in a roundabout."--_Sir G. Head's 'Tour in

     "The Pincian Hill is the favourite promenade of the Roman
     aristocracy. At the present day, however, like most other Roman
     possessions, it belongs less to the native inhabitants than to the
     barbarians from Gaul, Great Britain, and beyond the sea, who have
     established a peaceful usurpation over all that is enjoyable or
     memorable in the Eternal City. These foreign guests are indeed
     ungrateful, if they do not breathe a prayer for Pope Clement, or
     whatever Holy Father it may have been, who levelled the summit of
     the mount so skilfully, and bounded it with the parapet of the city
     wall; who laid out those broad walks and drives, and overhung them
     with the shade of many kinds of tree; who scattered the flowers of
     all seasons, and of every clime, abundantly over those smooth,
     central lawns; who scooped out hollows in fit places, and setting
     great basons of marble in them, caused ever-gushing fountains to
     fill them to the brim; who reared up the immemorial obelisk out of
     the soil that had long hidden it; who placed pedestals along the
     borders of the avenues, and covered them with busts of that
     multitude of worthies,--statesmen, heroes, artists, men of letters
     and of song,--whom the whole world claims as its chief ornaments,
     though Italy has produced them all. In a word, the Pincian garden
     is one of the things that reconcile the stranger (since he fully
     appreciates the enjoyment, and feels nothing of the cost,) to the
     rule of an irresponsible dynasty of Holy Fathers, who seem to have
     arrived at making life as agreeable an affair as it can well be.

     "In this pleasant spot the red-trousered French soldiers are always
     to be seen; bearded and grizzled veterans, perhaps, with medals of
     Algiers or the Crimea on their breasts. To them is assigned the
     peaceful duty of seeing that children do not trample on the
     flower-beds, nor any youthful lover rifle them of their fragrant
     blossoms to stick in his beloved one's hair. Here sits (drooping
     upon some marble bench, in the treacherous sunshine,) the
     consumptive girl, whose friends have brought her, for a cure, into
     a climate that instils poison into its very purest breath. Here,
     all day, come nursery maids, burdened with rosy English babies, or
     guiding the footsteps of little travellers from the far western
     world. Here, in the sunny afternoon, roll and rumble all kinds of
     carriages, from the Cardinal's old-fashioned and gorgeous purple
     carriage to the gay barouche of modern date. Here horsemen gallop
     on thorough-bred steeds. Here, in short, all the transitory
     population of Rome, the world's great watering-place, rides,
     drives, or promenades! Here are beautiful sunsets; and here,
     whichever way you turn your eyes, are scenes as well worth gazing
     at, both in themselves and for their historical interest, as any
     that the sun ever rose and set upon. Here, too, on certain
     afternoons in the week, a French military band flings out rich
     music over the poor old city, floating her with strains as loud as
     those of her own echoless triumphs."--_Hawthorne._

The garden of the Pincio is very small, but beautifully laid out. At a
crossroads is placed an _Obelisk_, brought from Egypt, and which the
late discoveries in hieroglyphics show to have been erected there, in
the joint names of Hadrian and his empress Sabina, to their beloved
Antinous, who was drowned in the Nile A.D. 131.

From the furthest angle of the garden we look down upon the strange
fragment of wall known as the _Muro-Torto_.

     "Le Muro-Torto offre un souvenir curieux. On nomme ainsi un pan de
     muraille qui, avant de faire partie du rempart d'Honorius, avait
     servi à soutenir la terrasse du jardin du Domitius, et qui, du
     temps de Bélisaire, était déjà incliné comme il l'est aujourd'hui.
     Procope racconte que Bélisaire voulait le rebâtir, mais que les
     Romains l'en empêchèrent, affirmant que ce point n'était pas
     exposé, parce que Saint Pierre avait promis de le défendre. Procope
     ajoute: 'Personne n'a osé réparer ce mur, et il reste encore dans
     le même état.' Nous pouvons en dire autant que Procope, et le mur,
     détaché de la colline à laquelle il s'appuyait, reste encore
     incliné et semble près de tomber. Ce détail du siége de Rome est
     confirmé par l'aspect singulier du Muro-Torto, qui _semble toujours
     près de tomber_, et subsiste dans le même état depuis quatorze
     siècles, comme s'il était soutenu miraculeusement par la main de
     Saint Pierre. On ne saurait guère trouver pour l'autorité temporel
     des papes, un meilleur symbole."--_Ampère, Emp._ ii. 397.

     "At the furthest point of the Pincio, you look down from the
     parapet upon the Muro-Torto, a massive fragment of the oldest Roman
     wall, which juts over, as if ready to tumble down by its own
     weight, yet seems still the most indestructible piece of work that
     men's hands ever piled together. In the blue distance rise Soracte,
     and other heights, which have gleamed afar, to our imagination, but
     look scarcely real to our bodily eyes, because, being dreamed about
     so much, they have taken the aerial tints which belong only to a
     dream. These, nevertheless, are the solid framework of hills that
     shut in Rome, and its broad surrounding Campagna; no land of
     dreams, but the broadest page of history, crowded so full with
     memorable events, that one obliterates another, as if Time had
     crossed and recrossed his own records till they grew

In early imperial times the site of the Pincio garden was occupied by
the famous villa of Lucullus, who had gained his enormous wealth as
general of the Roman armies in Asia.

     "The life of Lucullus was like an ancient comedy, where first we
     see great actions, both political and military, and afterwards
     feasts, debauches, races by torchlight, and every kind of frivolous
     amusement. For among frivolous amusements, I cannot but reckon his
     sumptuous villas, walks, and baths; and still more so the
     paintings, statues, and other works of art which he collected at
     immense expense, idly squandering away upon them the vast fortune
     he amassed in the wars. Insomuch that now, when luxury is so much
     advanced, the gardens of Lucullus rank with those of the kings, and
     are esteemed the most magnificent even of these."--_Plutarch._

Here, in his Pincian villa, Lucullus gave his celebrated feast to Cicero
and Pompey, merely mentioning to a slave beforehand that he should sup
in the hall of Apollo, which was understood as a command to prepare all
that was most sumptuous.

     After Lucullus--the beautiful Pincian villa belonged to Valerius
     Asiaticus, and in the reign of Claudius was coveted by his fifth
     wife, Messalina. She suborned Silius, her son's tutor, to accuse
     him of a licentious life, and of corrupting the army. Being
     condemned to death, "Asiaticus declined the counsel of his friends
     to starve himself, a course which might leave an interval for the
     chance of pardon; and after the lofty fashion of the ancient
     Romans, bathed, perfumed, and supped magnificently, and then opened
     his veins, and let himself bleed to death. Before dying he
     inspected the pyre prepared for him in his own gardens, and ordered
     it to be removed to another spot, that an umbrageous plantation
     which overhung it might not be injured by the flames."

     As soon as she heard of his death, Messalina took possession of the
     villa, and held high revel there with her numerous lovers, with the
     most favoured of whom, Silius, she had actually gone through the
     religious rites of marriage in the lifetime of the emperor, who was
     absent at Ostia. But a conspiracy among the freedmen of the royal
     household informed the emperor of what was taking place, and at
     last even Claudius was aroused to a sense of her enormities.

     "In her suburban palace, Messalina was abandoning herself to
     voluptuous transports. The season was mid-autumn, the vintage was
     in full progress; the wine-press was groaning; the ruddy juice was
     streaming; women girt with scanty fawnskins danced as drunken
     Bacchanals around her: while she herself, with her hair loose and
     disordered, brandished the thyrsus in the midst, and Silius by her
     side, buskined and crowned with ivy, tossed his head to the
     flaunting strains of Silenus and the Satyrs. Vettius, one, it
     seems, of the wanton's less fortunate paramours, attended the
     ceremony, and climbed in merriment a lofty tree in the garden. When
     asked what he saw, he replied, 'an awful storm from Ostia'; and
     whether there was actually such an appearance, or whether the words
     were spoken at random, they were accepted afterwards as an omen of
     the catastrophe which quickly followed.

     "For now in the midst of these wanton orgies the rumour quickly
     spread, and swiftly messengers arrived to confirm it, that Claudius
     knew it all, that Claudius was on his way to Rome, and was coming
     in anger and vengeance. The lovers part: Silius for the forum and
     the tribunals; Messalina for the shade of her gardens on the
     Pincio, the price of the blood of the murdered Asiaticus." Once the
     empress attempted to go forth to meet Claudius, taking her children
     with her, and accompanied by Vibidia, the eldest of the vestal
     virgins, whom she persuaded to intercede for her, but her enemies
     prevented her gaining access to her husband; Vibidia was satisfied
     for the moment by vague promises of a later hearing; and upon the
     arrival of Claudius in Rome, Silius and the other principal lovers
     of the empress were put to death. "Still Messalina hoped. She had
     withdrawn again to the gardens of Lucullus, and was there engaged
     in composing addresses of supplication to her husband, in which her
     pride and long-accustomed insolence still faintly struggled into
     her fears. The emperor still paltered with the treason. He had
     retired to his palace; he had bathed, anointed, and lain down to
     supper; and, warmed with wine and generous cheer, he had actually
     despatched a message to the _poor creature_, as he called her,
     bidding her come the next day, and plead her cause before him. But
     her enemy Narcissus, knowing how easy might be the passage from
     compassion to love, glided from the chamber, and boldly ordered a
     tribune and some centurions to go and slay his victim. 'Such,' he
     said, 'was the emperor's command'; and his word was obeyed without
     hesitation. Under the direction of the freedman Euodus, the armed
     men sought the outcast in her gardens, where she lay prostrate on
     the ground, by the side of her mother Lepida. While their fortunes
     flourished, dissensions had existed between the two; but now, in
     her last distress, the mother had refused to desert her child, and
     only strove to nerve her resolution to a voluntary death. 'Life,'
     she urged, 'is over; nought remains but to look for a decent exit
     from it.' But the soul of the reprobate was corrupted by her vices;
     she retained no sense of honour; she continued to weep and groan as
     if hope still existed; when suddenly the doors were burst open, the
     tribune and his swordsmen appeared before her, and Euodus assailed
     her, dumb-stricken as she lay, with contumelious and brutal
     reproaches. Roused at last to the consciousness of her desperate
     condition, she took a weapon from one of the men's hands and
     pressed it trembling against her throat and bosom. Still she wanted
     resolution to give the thrust, and it was by a blow of the
     tribune's falchion that the horrid deed was finally accomplished.
     The death of Asiaticus was avenged on the very spot; the hot blood
     of the wanton smoked on the pavement of his gardens, and stained
     with a deeper hue the variegated marbles of Lucullus."--_Merivale,
     Hist. of the Romans under the Empire._

From the garden of the Pincio a terraced road (beneath which are the
long-closed catacombs of St. Felix) leads to the _Villa Medici_, built
for Cardinal Ricci da Montepulciano by Annibale Lippi in 1540. Shortly
afterwards it passed into the hands of the Medici family, and was
greatly enlarged by Cardinal Alessandro de Medici, afterwards Leo XI. In
1801 the Academy for French Art-Students, founded by Louis XIV., was
established here. The villa contains a fine collection of casts, open
every day except Sunday.

Behind the villa is a beautiful _Garden_ (which can be visited on
application to the porter). The terrace, which looks down upon the Villa
Borghese, is bordered by ancient sarcophagi, and has a colossal statue
of Rome. The garden side of the villa has sometimes been ascribed to
Michael Angelo.

     "La plus grande coquetterie de la maison, c'est la façade
     postérieure. Elle tient son rang parmi les chefs-d'œuvre de la
     Renaissance. On dirait que l'architecte a épuisé une mine de
     bas-reliefs grecs et romains pour en tapisser son palais. Le jardin
     est de la même époque: il date du temps où l'aristocratie romaine
     professait le plus profond dédain pour les fleurs. On n'y voit que
     des massifs de verdure, alignés avec un soin scrupuleux. Six
     pelouses, entourées de haies à hauteur d'appui, s'étendent devant
     la villa et laissent courir la vue jusqu'au mont Soracte, qui ferme
     l'horizon. A gauche, quatre fois quatre carrés de gazon s'encadrent
     dans de hautes murailles de lauriers, de buis gigantesques et de
     chênes verts. Les murailles se rejoignent au-dessus des allées et
     les enveloppent d'une ombre fraîche et mystérieuse. A droite, une
     terrasse d'une style noble encadre un bois de chênes verts, tordus
     et eventrés par le temps. J'y vais quelquefois travailler à
     l'ombre; et le merle rivalise avec le rossignol au-dessus de ma
     tête, comme un beau chantre de village peut rivaliser avec Mario ou
     Roger. Un peu plus loin, une vigne toute rustique s'étend jusqu'à
     la porte Pinciana, où Belisaire a mendié, dit-on. Les jardins
     petits et grands sont semés de statues, d'Hermes, et de marbres de
     toute sorte. L'eau coule dans des sarcophages antiques ou jaillit
     dans des vasques de marbre: le marbre et l'eau sont les deux luxes
     de Rome."--_About, Rome Contemporaine._

     "The grounds of the Villa Medici are laid out in the old fashion of
     straight paths, with borders of box, which form hedges of great
     height and density, and are shorn and trimmed to the evenness of a
     wall of stone, at the top and sides. There are green alleys, with
     long vistas, overshadowed by ilex-trees; and at each intersection
     of the paths the visitor finds seats of lichen-covered stone to
     repose upon, and marble statues that look forlornly at him,
     regretful of their lost noses. In the more open portions of the
     garden, before the sculptured front of the villa, you see fountains
     and flower-beds; and, in their season, a profusion of roses, from
     which the genial sun of Italy distils a fragrance, to be scattered
     abroad by the no less genial breeze."--_Hawthorne._

A second door will admit to the higher terrace of _the Boschetto_; a
tiny wood of ancient ilexes, from which a steep flight of steps leads to
the "Belvidere," whence there is a beautiful view.

     "They asked the porter for the key of the Bosco, which was given,
     and they entered a grove of ilexes, whose gloomy shade effectually
     shut out the radiant sunshine that still illuminated the western
     sky. They then ascended a long and exceedingly steep flight of
     steps, leading up to a high mound covered with ilexes.

     "Here both stood still, side by side, gazing silently on the city,
     where dome and bell-tower stood out against a sky of gold; the
     desolate Monte Mario and its stone pines rising dark to the right.
     Behind, close at hand, were sombre ilex woods, amid which rose here
     and there the spire of a cypress or a ruined arch, and on the
     highest point, the white Villa Ludovisi; beyond, stretched the
     Campagna, girdled by hills melting into light under the evening
     sky."--_Mademoiselle Mori._

From the door of the Villa Medici is the scene familiar to artists, of a
fountain shaded by ilexes, which frame a distant view of St Peter's.

     "Je vois (de la Villa Medici) les quatre cinquièmes de la ville; je
     compte les sept collines, je parcours les rues régulières qui
     s'étendent entre le cours et la place d'Espagne, je fais le
     d'enombrement des palais, des églises, des dômes, et des clochers;
     je m'égare dans le Ghetto et dans la Trastévère. Je ne vois pas des
     ruines autant que j'en voudrais: elles sont ramassées là-bas, sur
     ma gauche, aux environs du Forum. Cependant nous avons tout près de
     nous la colonne Antonine et la mausolée d'Adrien. La vue est fermée
     agréablement par les pins de la villa Pamphili, qui reunissent
     leurs larges parasols et font comme une table à mille pieds pour un
     repas de géants. L'horizon fuit à gauche à des distances infinies;
     la plaine est nue, onduleuse et bleue comme la mer. Mais si je vous
     mettais en présence d'un spectacle si étendu et si divers, en seul
     objet attirerait vos regards, un seul frapperait votre attention:
     vous n'auriez des yeux que pour Saint Pierre. Son dôme est moitié
     dans la ville, moitié dans la ciel. Quand j'ouvre ma fenêtre, vers
     cinq heures du matin, je vois Rome noyée dans les brouillards de la
     fièvre: seul, le dôme de Saint-Pierre est coloré par la lumière
     rose du soleil levant."--_About._

The terrace ("La Passeggiata") ends at the _Obelisk of the Trinità de'
Monti_, erected here in 1822 by Pius VII., who found it near the Church
of Sta. Croce in Gerusalemme.

     "When the Ave Maria sounds, it is time to go to the church of
     Trinità de' Monti, where French nuns sing; and it is charming to
     hear them. I declare to heaven that I am become quite tolerant, and
     listen to bad music with edification; but what can I do? The
     composition is perfectly ridiculous, the organ-playing even more
     absurd: but it is twilight, and the whole of the small bright
     church is filled with persons kneeling, lit up by the sinking sun
     each time that the door is opened; both the singing nuns have the
     sweetest voices in the world, quite tender and touching, more
     especially when one of them sings the responses in her melodious
     voice, which we are accustomed to hear chaunted by priests in a
     loud, harsh, monotonous tone. The impression is very singular;
     moreover, it is well known that no one is permitted to see the fair
     singers, so this caused me to form a strange resolution. I have
     composed something to suit their voices, which I have observed very
     minutely, and I mean to send it to them. It will be pleasant to
     hear my chaunt performed by persons I never saw, especially as they
     must in turn sing it to the 'barbaro Tedescho,' whom they also
     never beheld."--_Mendelssohn's Letters._

     "In the evenings people go to the Trinità to hear the nuns sing
     from the organ-gallery. It sounds like the singing of angels. One
     sees in the choir troops of young scholars, moving with slow and
     measured steps, with their long white veils, like a flock of
     spirits."--_Frederika Bremer._

_The Church of the Trinità de' Monti_ was built in 1495 by Charles VIII.
of France, at the request of S. Francesco di Paola. At the time of the
French revolution it was plundered, but was restored by Louis XVIII. in
1817. It contains several interesting paintings.

In the second chapel on the left is the Descent from the Cross, the
masterpiece of _Daniele da Volterra_, declared by Nicholas Poussin to be
the third picture in the world, but terribly injured by the French in
their attempts to remove it.

     "We might almost fancy ourselves spectators of the mournful
     scene,--the Redeemer, while being removed from the cross, gradually
     sinking down with all that relaxation of limb and utter
     helplessness which belongs to a dead body; the assistants engaged
     in their various duties, and thrown into different and contrasted
     attitudes, intently occupied with the sacred remains which they so
     reverently gaze upon; the mother of the Lord in a swoon amidst her
     afflicted companions; the disciple whom he loved standing with
     outstretched arms, absorbed in contemplating the mysterious
     spectacle. The truth in the representation of the exposed parts of
     the body appears to be nature itself. The colouring of the heads
     and of the whole picture accords precisely with the subject,
     displaying strength rather than delicacy, a harmony, and in short a
     degree of skill, of which M. Angelo himself might have been proud,
     if the picture had been inscribed with his name. And to this I
     believe the author alluded, when he painted his friend with a
     looking-glass near it, as if to intimate that he might recognize in
     the picture a reflection of himself."--_Lanzi._

     "Daniele da Volterra's Descent from the Cross is one of the
     celebrated pictures of the world, and has very grand features. The
     body is not skilfully sustained; nevertheless the number of strong
     men employed about it makes up in sheer muscle for the absence of
     skill. Here are four ladders against the cross, stalwart figures
     standing, ascending, and descending upon each, so that the space
     between the cross and the ground is absolutely alive with
     magnificent lines. The Virgin lies on one side, and is like a grand
     creature struck down by a sudden death-blow. She has fallen, like
     Ananias in Raphael's cartoon, with her head bent backwards, and her
     arm under her. The crown of thorns has been taken from the dead
     brow, and rests on the end of one of the ladders."--_Lady

The third chapel on the right contains an Assumption of the Virgin,
another work of _Daniele da Volterra_. The fifth chapel is adorned with
frescoes of his school. The sixth has frescoes of the school of
_Perugino_. The frescoes in the right transept are by _F. Zuccaro_ and
_Pierino del Vaga_; in that of the Procession of St. Gregory the
mausoleum of Hadrian is represented as it appeared in the time of Leo X.

The adjoining _Convent of the Sacré Cœur_ is much frequented as a
place of education. The nuns are all persons of rank. When a lady takes
the veil, her nearest relations inherit her property, except about
1000_l._, which goes to the convent. The nuns are allowed to retain no
personal property, but if they wish still to have the use of their
books, they give them to the convent library. They receive visitors
every afternoon, and quantities of people go to them from curiosity, on
the plea of seeking advice.

From the Trinità the two popular streets--Sistina and
Gregoriana--branch off; the former leading in a direct line (though the
name changes) to Sta. Maria Maggiore, and thence to St. John Lateran and
Sta. Croce in Gerusalemme. The house adjoining the Trinità was that of
Nicholas Poussin; that at the angle of the two streets, called the
_Tempietto_, was once inhabited by Claude Lorraine. The adjoining house
(64 Sistina)--formerly known as Palazzo della Regina di Polonia, from
Maria Casimira, Queen of Poland, who resided there for some years--was
inhabited by the Zuccari family, and has paintings on the ground-floor
by _Federigo Zuccaro_. One of the rooms on the first-floor was adorned
with frescoes by modern German artists at the expense of the Prussian
consul Bartholdy, viz.:--

    The Selling of Joseph: _Overbeck._
    Joseph and Potiphar's Wife: _Veit._
    Meeting of Joseph and his Brethren: _Cornelius._
    The Seven Lean Years: _Overbeck._
    Joseph interprets the Dreams in Prison: _Schadow._
    The Brethren bring Joseph's Coat to Jacob: _Schadow._
    Joseph interprets the Dreams of Pharaoh: _Cornelius._
    The Seven Plentiful Years: _Veit._

       *       *       *       *       *

On the left of the Piazza del Popolo, the _Via Babuino_ branches off,
deriving its name from the mutilated figure on a fountain halfway down.
On the right is the Greek _Church of S. Atanasio_, attached to a college
founded by Gregory XIII. in 1580.

     "To-day, the feast of the Epiphany, I have witnessed mass according
     to the Greek rite. The ceremonies appear to be more stately, more
     severe, more significant, and at the same time more popular, than
     those of the Latin rite."--_Goethe, Romische Briefe._

Behind this street is the _Via Margutta_, almost entirely inhabited by
artists and sculptors.

     "The Via Margutta is a street of studios and stables, crossed at
     the upper end by a little roofed gallery with a single window, like
     a shabby Bridge of Sighs. Horses are continually being washed and
     currycombed outside their stable doors; frequent heaps of
     _immondeazzajo_ make the air unfragrant; and the perspective is
     frequently damaged by rows of linen suspended across the road from
     window to window. Unsightly as they are, however, these obstacles
     in no wise affect the popularity of the Via Margutta, either as a
     residence for the artist, or a lounge for the amateur. Fashionable
     patrons leave their carriages at the corner, and pick their way
     daintily among the gutters and dust-heaps. A boar-hunt by Vallatti
     compensates for an unlucky splash; and a campagna sunset of
     Desoulavey glows all the richer for the squalor through which it is
     approached."--_Barbara's History._

In this street also is situated the _Costume Academy_.

     "Imagine a great barn of a room, with dingy walls half covered with
     chalk studies of the figure in all possible attitudes. Opposite the
     door is a low platform with revolving top, and beside it an
     _écorché_, or plaster figure bereft of skin, so as to exhibit the
     muscles. Ranges of benches, raised one above the other, occupy the
     remainder of the room; and if you were to look in at about eight
     o'clock on a winter's evening, you would find them tenanted by a
     multitude of young artists, mostly in their shirt sleeves, with
     perhaps three or four ladies, all disposed around the model, who
     stands upon the platform in one of the picturesque costumes of
     Southern Italy, with a cluster of eight lamps, intensified by a
     powerful reflector, immediately above his or her unlucky head.

     The costumes are regulated by Church times and seasons. During Lent
     the models were mediæval dresses; during the winter and carnival,
     Italian costumes of the present day; and with Easter begin mere
     draperies, _pieghe_, or folds, as they are technically called.

     Every evening the subject for the next night is chalked up on a
     black board beside the platform; for the next _two_ nights rather;
     for each model poses for two evenings; the position of his feet
     being chalked upon the platform, so as to secure the same attitude
     on the second evening. Consequently, four hours are allowed for
     each drawing.... The _pieghe_ are only for a single time, as it
     would be impossible to secure the same folds twice over.... The
     expense of attending the Academy, including attendance, each
     person's share in the model, and his own especial lamp, amounts to
     2½_d._ an evening, or a scudo and a half (about 6_s._ 6_d._) a
     month; marvellously cheap, it most be confessed."--_H. M. B._, in
     _Once a Week_.

The Babuino ends in the ugly but central square of the _Piazza di
Spagna_, where many of the best hotels and shops are situated. Hence the
Trinità is reached by a magnificent flight of steps (disgracefully ill
kept), which was built by Alessandro Specchi at the expense of a private
individual, M. Gueffier, secretary to the French embassy at Rome, under
Innocent XIII.

     "No art-loving visitor to Rome can ever have passed the noble
     flight of steps which leads from the Piazza di Spagna to the Church
     of the Trinità de' Monti without longing to transfer to his
     sketch-book the picturesque groups of models who there spend their
     day, basking in the beams of the wintry sun, and eating those
     little boiled beans whose yellow husks bestrew every place where
     the lower class Romans congregate--practising, in short, the 'dolce
     far niente.' Beppo, the celebrated lame beggar, is no longer to be
     seen there, having been banished to the steps of the Church of St.
     Agostino; but there is old Felice, with conical hat, brown cloak,
     and bagpipes, father of half the models on the steps. He has been
     seen in an artist's studio in Paris, and is reported to have
     performed on foot the double journey between Rome and that capital.
     There are two or three younger men in blue jackets and goat-skin
     breeches; as many women in folded linen head-dresses, and red or
     blue skirts; and a sprinkling of children of both sexes, in
     costumes the miniature fac-similes of their elders. All these
     speedily learn to recognise a visitor who is interested in that
     especial branch of art which is embodied in models, and at every
     turn in the street such a one is met by the flash of white teeth,
     and the gracious sweetness of an Italian smile."--_H. M. B._

     "Among what may be called the cubs or minor lions of Rome, there
     was one that amused me mightily. It is always to be found there;
     and its den is on the great flight of steps that lead from the
     Piazza di Spagna to the Church of the Trinità de' Monti. In plainer
     words, these steps are the great place of resort for the artists'
     'Models,' and there they are constantly waiting to be hired. The
     first time I went up there, I could not conceive why the faces
     seemed so familiar to me; why they appeared to have beset me, for
     years, in every possible variety of action and costume; and how it
     came to pass that they started up before me, in Rome, in the broad
     day, like so many saddled and bridled nightmares. I soon found that
     we had made acquaintance, and improved it, for several years, on
     the walls of various Exhibition Galleries. There is one old
     gentleman with long white hair, and an immense beard, who, to my
     knowledge, has gone half-through the catalogues of the Royal
     Academy. This is the venerable or patriarchal model. He carries a
     long staff; and every knob and twist in that staff I have seen,
     faithfully delineated, innumerable times. There is another man in a
     blue cloak, who always pretends to be asleep in the sun (when there
     is any), and who, I need not say, is always very wide awake, and
     very attentive to the disposition of his legs. This is the _dolce
     far niente_ model. There is another man in a brown cloak, who leans
     against a wall, with his arms folded in his mantle, and look out of
     the corners of his eyes, which are just visible beneath his broad
     slouched hat. This is the assassin model. There is another man, who
     constantly looks over his own shoulder, and is always going away,
     but never goes. This is the haughty or scornful model. As to
     Domestic Happiness, and Holy Families, they should come very cheap,
     for there are heaps of them, all up the steps; and the cream of the
     thing is, that they are all the falsest vagabonds in the world,
     especially made up for the purpose, and having no counterparts in
     Rome or any other part of the habitable globe."--_Dickens._

     "Climb these steps when the sun is setting. From a hundred belfries
     the bells ring for Ave Maria, and there, across the town, and in a
     blaze of golden glory, stands the great dome of St. Peter's: and
     from the terrace of the Villa Medici you can see the whole
     wonderful view, faintly pencilled Soracte far to your right, and
     below you and around you the City and the Seven Hills."--_Vera._

The _Barcaccia_, the fountain at the foot of the steps, executed by
_Bernini_, is a stone boat commemorating the naumachia of
Domitian,--naval battles which took place in an artificial lake
surrounded by a kind of theatre, which once occupied the site of this
piazza. In front of the _Palazzo di Spagna_ (the residence of the
Spanish ambassador), which gives its name to the square, stands a
_Column_ of cipollino, supporting a statue of the Virgin, erected by
Pius IX. in 1854, in honour of his new dogma of the Immaculate
Conception. At the base are figures of Moses, David, Isaiah, and

The Piazza di Spagna may be considered as the centre of the English
quarter, of which the Corso forms the boundary.

     "Every winter there is a gay and pleasant English colony in Rome,
     of course more or less remarkable for rank, fashion, or
     agreeability, with every varying year. Thrown together every day
     and night after night, flocking to the same picture-galleries,
     statue-galleries, Pincian drives, and church functions, the English
     colonists at Rome perforce become intimate, and in many cases
     friendly. They have an English library where the various meets for
     the week are placarded: on such a day the Vatican galleries are
     open; the next is the feast of Saint so-and-so; on Wednesday there
     will be music and vespers at the Sistine Chapel; on Thursday the
     pope will bless the animals--sheep, horses, and what-not; and
     flocks of English accordingly rush to witness the benediction of
     droves of donkeys. In a word, the ancient city of the Cæsars, the
     august fanes of the popes, with their splendour and ceremony, are
     all mapped out and arranged for English diversion."--Thackeray,
     _The Newcomes._

The Piazza is closed by the _Collegio di Propaganda Fede_, founded in
1622 by Gregory XV., but enlarged by Urban VIII., who built the present
edifice from plans of Bernini. Like all the buildings erected by this
pope, its chief decorations are the bees of the Barberini. The object of
the college is the education of youths of all nations as missionaries.

     "The origin of the Propaganda is properly to be sought in an edict
     of Gregory XIII., by which the direction of eastern missions was
     confided to a certain number of cardinals, who were commanded to
     promote the printing of catechisms in the less known tongues. But
     the institution was not firmly established; it was unprovided with
     the requisite means, and was by no means comprehensive in its
     views. It was at the suggestion of the great preacher Girolamo da
     Narni that the idea was first conceived of extending the
     above-named institution. At his suggestion, a congregation was
     established in all due form, and by this body regular meetings
     were to be held for the guidance and conduct of missions in every
     part of the world. The first funds were advanced by Gregory; his
     nephew contributed from his private property; and since this
     institution was in fact adapted to a want, the pressure of which
     was then felt, it increased in prosperity and splendour. Who does
     not know the services performed by the Propaganda for the diffusion
     of philosophical studies? and not this only;--the institution has
     generally laboured (in its earliest years most successfully,
     perhaps) to fulfil its vocation in a liberal and noble
     spirit."--_Ranke, Hist. of the Popes._

     "On y reçoit des jeunes gens nés dans les pays ultramontains et
     orientaux, où sont les infidéles et les hérétiques; ils y font leur
     education religieuse et civile, et retournent dans leur pays comme
     missionnaires pour propager la loi."--_A. Du Pays._

     "Le collége du Propaganda Fede, ou l'on engraisse des missionnaires
     pour donner à manger aux cannibales. C'est, ma foi, un excellent
     ragout pour eux, que deux pères franciscains à la sauce rousse. Le
     capucin en daube, se mange aussi comme le renard, quand il a été
     gelé. Il y a à la Propagande une bibliothèque, une imprimerie
     fournie de toutes sortes de caractères des langues orientales, et
     de petits Chinois qu'on y élève ainsi que des alouettes
     chanterelles, pour en attraper d'autres."--_De Brosses._

In January a festival is held here, when speeches are recited by the
pupils in all their different languages. The public is admitted by

       *       *       *       *       *

The _Via Ripetta_ leaves the Piazza del Popolo on the right. Passing, on
the right, a large building belonging to the Academy of St. Luke, we
reach, on the right, the Quay of the Ripetta, a pretty architectural
construction of Clement XI. in 1707.

Hence, a clumsy ferry-boat gives access to a walk which leads to St.
Peter's (by Porta Angelica) through the fields at the back of S. Angelo.
These fields are of historic interest, being the _Prata Quinctia_ of

     "L. Quinctius Cincinnatus, the only hope of the Roman people, lived
     beyond the Tiber, opposite the place where the Navalia are, where
     he cultivated the four acres of ground which are now called the
     Quinctian meadows. There the messengers of the senate found him
     leaning on his spade, either digging a trench or ploughing, but
     certainly occupied in some field labour. The salutation, 'May it be
     well with you and the republic,' was given and returned in the
     usual form, and he was requested to put on his toga to receive a
     message from the senate. Amazed, and asking if anything was wrong,
     he desired his wife Racilia to fetch his toga from the cottage, and
     having wiped off the sweat and dust with which he was covered, he
     came forward dressed in his toga to the messengers, who saluted him
     as dictator, and congratulated him."--_Livy_, iii. 26.

The churches on the left of the Ripetta are, first, _SS. Rocco e
Martino_, built 1657, by Antonio de Rossi, with a hospital adjoining it.

     "The lying-in hospital adjoins the Church of San Rocco. It contains
     seventy beds, furnished with curtains and screens, so as to
     separate them effectually. Females are admitted without giving
     their name, their country, or their condition in life; and such is
     the delicacy observed in their regard, that they are at liberty to
     wear a veil, so as to remain unknown even to their attendants, in
     order to save the honour of their families, and prevent abortion,
     suicide, or infanticide. Even should death ensue, the deceased
     remains unknown. The children are conveyed to Santo Spirito; and
     the mother who wishes to retain her offspring, affixes a
     distinctive mark, by which it may be recognised and recovered. To
     remove all disquietude from the minds of those who may enter, the
     establishment is exempt from all civil, criminal, and
     ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and its threshold is never crossed
     except by persons connected with the establishment."--_Dr.

Then, opposite the quay, _S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni_, built for Sixtus
V. by Fontana. It contains, near the altar, a striking figure of St.
Jerome, seated, with a book upon his knees.

       *       *       *       *       *

We will now follow the Corso, which, in spite of its narrowness and bad
side-pavements, is the finest street in Rome. It is greatly to be
regretted that this street, which is nearly a mile long, should lead to
nothing, instead of ending at the steps of the Capitol, which would have
produced a striking effect. It follows the line of the ancient Via
Flaminia, and in consequence was once spanned by four triumphal
arches--of Marcus Aurelius, Domitian, Claudius, and Gordian--but all
these have disappeared. The Corso is perfectly lined with balconies,
which, during the carnival, are filled with gay groups of maskers
flinging confetti. These balconies are a relic of imperial times, having
been invented at Rome, where they were originally called "Mœniana,"
from the tribune Mœnius, who designed them to accommodate spectators
of processions in the streets below.

     "The Corso is a street a mile long; a street of shops, and palaces,
     and private houses, sometimes opening into a broad piazza. There
     are verandahs and balconies, of all shapes and sizes, to almost
     every house--not on one story alone, but often to one room or
     another on every story--put there in general with so little order
     or regularity, that if, year after year, and season after season,
     it had rained balconies, hailed balconies, snowed balconies, blown
     balconies, they could scarcely have come into existence in a more
     disorderly manner."--_Dickens._

On the left of the Corso is the Augustine Church of _Gesù e Maria_, with
a façade by _Rinaldi_. Almost opposite, is the Church of _S. Giacomo
degli Incurabili_, by _Carlo Maderno_. It is attached to a surgical
hospital for 350 patients. In the adjoining Strada S. Giacomo was the
studio of Canova, recognizable by fragments of bas-reliefs engrafted in
its walls.

Three streets beyond this (on right) is the _Via de' Pontefici_ (so
called from a series of papal portraits, now destroyed, which formerly
existed on the walls of one of its houses), where (No. 57R) is the
entrance to the remains of the _Mausoleum of Augustus_.

     "Hard by the banks of the Tiber, in the grassy meadows where the
     Roman youths met in athletic and martial exercises, there rose a
     lofty marble tower with three retiring stages, each of which had
     its terrace covered with earth and planted with cypresses. These
     stages were pierced with numerous chambers, destined to receive,
     row within row, and story upon story, the remains of every member
     of the imperial family, with many thousands of their slaves and
     freedmen. In the centre of that massive mound the great founder of
     the empire was to sleep his last sleep, while his statue was
     ordained to rise conspicuous on its summit, and satiate its
     everlasting gaze with the view of his beloved city."--_Merivale._

The first funeral here was that of Marcellus, son of Octavia, the sister
of Augustus, and first husband of his daughter Julia, who died of
malaria at Baiæ, B.C. 23.

    "Quantos ille virûm magnam Mavortis ad urbem
    Campus aget gemitus! vel quæ, Tiberine, videbis
    Funera, cum tumulum præterlabere recentem!
    Nec puer Iliacâ quisquam de gente Latinos
    In tantum spe tollet avos; nec Romula quondam
    Ullo se tantum tellus jactabit alumno.
    Heu pietas, heu prisca fides, invictaque bello
    Dextera! non illi se quisquam impune tulisset
    Obvius armato, seu quum pedes iret in hostem,
    Seu spumantis equi foderet calcaribus armos.
    Heu, miserande puer! si qua fata aspera rumpas,
    Tu Marcellus eris."

    _Æneid_, vi. 873.

The next member of the family buried here was Agrippa, the second
husband of Julia, ob. 12 B.C. Then came Octavia, sister of the emperor
and widow of Antony, honoured by a public funeral, at which orations
were delivered by Augustus himself, and Drusus, son of the empress
Livia. Her body was carried to the tomb by Tiberius (afterwards
emperor) and Drusus, the two sons of the empress. Drusus (B.C. 9) died
in a German campaign by a fall from his horse, and was brought back
hither for interment. In A.D. 14 the great Augustus died at Nola, and
his body was burnt here on a funeral pile so gigantic, that the widowed
Livia, dishevelled and ungirt, with bare feet, attended by the principal
Roman senators, had to watch it for five days and nights, before it
cooled sufficiently for them to collect the ashes of the emperor. At the
moment of its being lighted an eagle was let loose from the summit of
the pyre, under which form a senator, named Numerius Atticus, was
induced, by a gift from Livia equivalent to 250,000 francs, to swear
that he saw the spirit of Augustus fly away to heaven. Then came
Germanicus, son of the first Drusus, and nephew of Tiberius, ob. A.D.
19, at Antioch, where he was believed to have been poisoned by Piso and
his wife Plancina. Then, in A.D. 23, Drusus, son of Tiberius, poisoned
by his wife, Livilla, and her lover, Sejanus: then the empress, Livia,
who died A.D. 29, at the age of 86. Agrippina, widow of Germanicus (ob.
A.D. 33), starved to death, and her two sons, Nero and Drusus, also
murdered by Tiberius, were long excluded from the family sepulchre, but
were eventually brought hither by the youngest brother Caius, afterwards
the emperor Caligula. Tiberius, who died A.D. 37, at the villa of
Lucullus at Misenum, was brought here for burial. The ashes of Caligula,
murdered A.D. 41, and first buried in the Horti Lamiani on the
Esquiline, were transferred here by his sisters. In his reign, Antonia,
the widow of Drusus, and mother of Germanicus, had died, and her ashes
were laid up here. The Emperor Claudius, A.D. 54, murdered by Agrippina;
his son, Britannicus, A.D. 55, murdered by Nero; and the Emperor Nerva,
A.D. 98, were the latest inmates of the mausoleum.

The last cremation which occurred here was long after the mausoleum had
fallen into ruin, when the body of the tribune Rienzi, after having hung
for two days at S. Marcello, was ordered to be burnt here by Jugurta and
Sciaretta, and was consumed by a vast multitude of Jews (out of flattery
to the Colonna, their neighbours at the Ghetto), "in a fire of dry
thistles, till it was reduced to ashes, and no fibre of it remained."

There is nothing now remaining to testify to the former magnificence of
this building. The area is used in summer as an open-air theatre, where
very amusing little plays are very well acted. Among its massive cells a
poor washerwoman, known as "Sister Rose," established, some ten years
ago, a kind of hospital for aged women (several of them centagenarians),
whom she supported entirely by her own exertions, having originally
begun by taking care of one old woman, and gradually adding another and
another. The English church service was first performed in Rome in the
Palazzo Correa, adjoining this building.

Opposite the Via de' Pontefici, the _Via Vittoria_ leaves the Corso. To
the Ursuline convent in this street (founded by Camilla Borghese in the
seventeenth century) Madame Victoire and Madame Adelaide ("tantes du
Roi") fled in the beginning of the great French revolution, and here
they died.

_The Church of S. Carlo in Corso_ (on right) is the national church of
the Lombards. It is a handsome building with a fine dome. The interior
was commenced by _Lunghi_ in 1614, and finished by _Pietro da Cortona_.
It contains no objects of interest, unless a picture of the Apotheosis
of S. Carlo Borromeo (the patron of the church), over the high altar, by
_Carlo Maratta_, can be called so. The heart of the saint is preserved
under the altar.

Just beyond this on the left, the _Via Condotti_--almost lined with
jewellers'-shops--branches off to the Piazza di Spagna. The Trinità de'
Monti is seen beyond it. The opposite street, Via Fontanella, leads to
St. Peter's, and in five minutes to the magnificent--

_Palazzo Borghese_, begun in 1590 by Cardinal Deza, from designs of
Martino Lunghi, and finished by Paul V. (Camillo Borghese, 1605-21),
from those of Flaminio Ponzio. The apartments inhabited by the family
are handsome, but contain few objects of interest.

     "In the reign of Paul V. the Borghese became the wealthiest and
     most powerful family in Rome. In the year 1612, the church
     benefices already conferred upon Cardinal Scipione Borghese were
     computed to secure him an income of 150,000 scudi. The temporal
     offices were bestowed on Marc-Antonio Borghese, on whom the pope
     also conferred the principality of Sulmona in Naples, besides
     giving him rich palaces in Rome and the most beautiful villas in
     the neighbourhood. He loaded his nephews with presents; we have a
     list of them through his whole reign down to the year 1620. They
     are sometimes jewels or vessels of silver, or magnificent
     furniture, which was taken directly from the stores of the palace
     and sent to the nephews; at other times carriages, rich arms, as
     muskets and falconets, were presented to them; but the principal
     thing was the round sums of hard money. These accounts make it
     appear that to the year 1620, they had received in ready money
     689,627 scudi, 31 baj; in luoghi di monte, 24,600 scudi, according
     to their nominal value; in places, computing them at the sum their
     sale would have brought to the treasury, 268,176 scudi; all which
     amounted, as in the case of the Aldobrandini, to nearly a million.

     "Nor did the Borghese neglect to invest their wealth in real
     property. They acquired eighty estates in the Campagna of Rome; the
     Roman nobles suffering themselves to be tempted into the sale of
     their ancient hereditary domain by the large prices paid them, and
     by the high rate of interest borne by the luoghi di monte, which
     they purchased with the money thus acquired. In many other parts of
     the ecclesiastical states, the Borghese also seated themselves, the
     pope facilitating their doing so by the grant of peculiar
     privileges. In some places, for example, they received the right of
     restoring exiles; in others, that of holding a market, or certain
     exemptions were granted to those who became their vassals. They
     were freed from various imposts, and even obtained a bull, by
     virtue of which their possessions were never to be
     confiscated."--_Ranke, Hist. of the Popes._

     "Si l'on peut reprocher à Paul, avec Muratori, ses libéralités
     envers ses neveux, envers le cardinal Scipion, envers le duc de
     Sulmone, il est juste d'ajouter que la plupart des membres de cette
     noble famille rivalisèrent avec le pape de magnificence et de
     générosité. Or, chaque année, Paul V. distribuait un million d'écus
     d'or aux pélerins pauvres et un million et demi aux autres
     nécessiteux. C'est à lui que remonte la fondation de la banque du
     Saint-Esprit, dont les riches immeubles servirent d'hypothèques aux
     dépôts qui lui furent confiés. Mais ce fut surtout dans les
     constructions qu'il entreprit, que Paul V. déploya une royale

     "The Palazzo Borghese is an immense edifice standing round the four
     sides of a quadrangle; and though the suite of rooms, comprising
     the picture-gallery, forms an almost interminable vista, they
     occupy only a part of the ground-floor of one side. We enter from
     the street into a large court surrounded with a corridor, the
     arches of which support a second series of arches above. The
     picture-rooms open from one into another, and have many points of
     magnificence, being large and lofty, with vaulted ceilings and
     beautiful frescoes, generally of mythological subjects, in the flat
     central parts of the vault. The cornices are gilded; the deep
     embrasures of the windows are panelled with wood-work; the doorways
     are of polished and variegated marble, or covered with a
     composition as hard, and seemingly as durable. The whole has a kind
     of splendid shabbiness thrown over it, like a slight coating of
     rust; the furniture, at least the damask chairs, being a good deal
     worn; though there are marble and mosaic tables which may serve to
     adorn another palace, when this has crumbled away with

The Borghese Picture Gallery is the best private collection in Rome, and
is open to the public daily from 9 to 2, except on Saturdays and
Sundays. The gallery is entered from the side of the palace towards the
Piazza Borghese. It contains several gems, which are here marked with
an asterisk; noticeable pictures are:--

     _1st Room._--Schools of Milan and Perugia.

    1. Holy Family: _Sandro Botticelli_.
    2. Holy Family: _Lorenzo di Credi_.
    3. Holy Family: _Paris Alfani Perugino_.
    4. Portrait: _Lorenzo di Credi_.
    5. Vanity: _School of Leonardo da Vinci_.
    27, 28. Petrarch and Laura.
    32. St. Agatha: _School of Leonardo_.
    33. The Young Christ: _School of Leonardo_.
    34. Madonna: _School of Perugino_.
    35. Raphael as a boy: _Raphael?_
    43. Madonna: _Francesco Francia?_
    44. Calvario: _C. Crivelli_.
    48. St. Sebastian: _Perugino_.
    49, 57. History of Joseph: _Pinturicchio_.
    59. Presepio: _Sketch attributed to Raphael when young_.
    61. St. Antonio: _Francesco Francia_.
    66. Presepio: _Mazzolino_.
    67. Adoration of the Child Jesus: _Ortolano_.
    68. Christ and St. Thomas: _Mazzolino?_
    69. Holy Family: _Pollajuolo_.

     _2nd Room._--Chiefly of the school of Garofalo.

    6. Madonna with St. Joseph and St. Michael: _Garofalo_.
    9. The mourners over the dead Christ: _Garofalo_.*
    18. Portrait of Julius II.: _Giulio Romano, after Raphael_.
    22. Portrait of a Cardinal: _Bronzino? called Raphael_.*
    23. 'Madonna col divin' amore': _School of Raphael_.*
    26. Portrait of Cæsar Borgia: _Bronzino, attributed to Raphael_.*[5]
    28. Portrait of a (naked) woman: _Bronzino_.
    36. Holy Family: _Andrea del Sarto_.
    38. Entombment: _Raphael_.*

     This picture was the last work of Raphael before he went to Rome.
     It was ordered by Atalanta Baglioni for a chapel in S. Francesco
     de' Conventuali at Perugia. Paul V. bought it for the Borghese.
     The 'Faith, Hope, and Charity' at the Vatican, formed a predella
     for this picture.

     "Raphael's picture of 'Bearing the Body of Christ to the
     Sepulchre,' though meriting all its fame in respect of drawing,
     expression, and knowledge, has lost all signs of reverential
     feeling in the persons of the bearers. The reduced size of the
     winding-sheet is to blame for this, by bringing them rudely in
     contact with their precious burden. Nothing can be finer than their
     figures, or more satisfactory than their labour, if we forget what
     it is they are carrying; but it is the weight of the burden only,
     and not the character of it, which the painter has kept in view,
     and we feel that the result would have been the same had these
     figures been carrying a sack of sand. Here, from the youth of the
     figure, the bearer at the feet appears to be St. John."--_Lady

    40. Holy Family: _Fra Bartolomeo_.
    43. Madonna: _Fr. Francia_.
    44. Madonna: _Sodoma_.
    51. St. Stephen: _Francesco Francia_.*
    59. Adoration of the Magi: _Mazzolino_.
    60. Presepio: _Garofalo_.
    65. The Fornarina: _Copy of Raphael, Giulio Romano?_
    69. St. John Baptist in the Wilderness: _Giulio Romano_.

_3rd Room._--Chiefly of the school of Andrea del Sarto. (The works of
this painter are often confounded with those of his disciple, Domenico

    1. Christ bearing the Cross: _Andrea Solario_.
    2. Portrait: _Parmigianino._
    5. 'Noli me tangere': _Bronzino?_
    11. The Sorceress Circe: _Dosso Dossi_.
    13. Mater Dolorosa: _Solario?_
    22. Holy Family: _School of Raphael_.
    24. Madonna and Child with three children: _A. del Sarto_.
    28. Madonna, Child, and St. John: _A. del Sarto_.
    29. Madonna, Child, St. John, and St. Elizabeth: _Pierino del
    33. Holy Family: _Pierino del Vaga_.
    35. Venus and Cupids: _A. del Sarto_.
    40. Danae: _Correggio_.*

In the corner of this picture are the celebrated Cupids sharpening an

    42. Cosmo de' Medici: _Bronzino_.
    46. The Reading Magdalene: _School of Correggio_.
    47. Holy Family: _Pomarancio_.
    48. The Flagellation: _Sebastian del Piombo_.*
    49. St. M. Magdalene: _A. del Sarto_.

_4th Room._--Bolognese school.

    1. Entombment: _Ann. Carracci_.
    2. Cumæan Sibyl: _Domenichino_.*
    18. St. Francis: _Cigoli_.
    20. St. Joseph: _Guido Reni_.
    23. St. Francis: _Ann. Carracci_.
    29. St. Domenic: _Ann. Carracci_.
    36. Madonna: _Carlo Dolce_.
    37. Mater Dolorosa: _Carlo Dolce_.
    38, 41. Two heads for an Annunciation: _Furino_.
    42. Head of Christ: _Carlo Dolce_.
    43. Madonna: _Sassoferrato_.

_5th Room._--

    11, 12, 13, 14. The Four Seasons: _Fr. Albani_.

     "The Seasons, by Francesco Albani, were, beyond all others, my
     favourite pieces; the beautiful, joyous, angel-children--the Loves,
     were as if creations of my own dreams. How deliciously they were
     staggering about in the picture of Spring! A crowd of them were
     sharpening arrows, whilst one of them turned round the great
     grindstone, and two others, floating above, poured water upon it.
     In Summer, they flew about among the tree-branches, which were
     loaded with fruit, which they plucked; they swam in the fresh
     water, and played with it. Autumn brought the pleasures of the
     chase. Cupid sits, with a torch in his hand, in his little chariot,
     which two of his companions draw; while Love beckons to the brisk
     hunter, and shows him the place where they can rest themselves side
     by side. Winter has lulled all the little ones to sleep; soundly
     and fast they lie slumbering around. The Nymphs steal their quivers
     and arrows, which they throw on the fire, that there may be an end
     of the dangerous weapons."--_Andersen, in The Improvisatore._

    15. La Caccia di Diana: _Domenichino_.
    25. The Deposition, with Angels: _F. Zuccari_.

_6th Room._--

    5. Return of the Prodigal Son: _Guercino_.
    7. Portrait of G. Ghislieri: _Pietro da Cortona_.
    10. St Stanislaus with the Child Jesus: _Ribera_.*
    12. Joseph Interpreting the Dreams in Prison: _Valentin_.
    13. The Three Ages of Man. _Copy from Titian by Sassoferrato_.[6]
    18. Madonna: _Sassoferrato_.
    22. Flight of Æneas from Troy: _Baroccio_.

_7th Room._--Richly decorated with mirrors, painted with Cupids by
_Girofiri_, and wreaths of flowers by _Mario di Fiori_.

_8th Room._--Contains nothing of importance, except a mosaic portrait of
Paul V. by _Marcello Provenzali_.

_9th Room._--Containing several interesting frescoes.

    1. The Nuptials of Alexander and Roxana.
    2. The Nuptials of Vertumnus and Pomona.
    3. 'Il Bersaglio dei Dei.'

     These three frescoes were brought hither from the Casino of
     Raphael, in the Villa Borghese (destroyed in the siege of Rome in
     1849), and are supposed to have been painted by some of Raphael's
     pupils from his designs. The other frescoes in this room are by
     _Giulio Romano_, and were removed from the Villa Lante, when it was
     turned into a convent.

_10th Room._--

    2. Cupid blindfolded by Venus: _Titian_.
    4. Judith: _School of Titian_.
    9. Portrait: _Pordenone_.
    13. David with the head of Goliath: _Giorgione_.*
    14. St. John the Baptist preaching (unfinished): _Paul Veronese_.
    16. St. Domenic: _Titian_.
    19. Portrait: _Giac. Bassano_.
    21. 'Sacred and Profane Love': _Titian_.*

     "Out of Venice there is nothing of Titian's to compare to his
     Sacred and Profane Love. It represents two figures: one, a heavenly
     and youthful form, unclothed, except with a light drapery; the
     other, a lovely female, dressed in the most splendid attire; both
     are sitting on the brink of a well, into which a little winged Love
     is groping, apparently to find his lost dart.... Description can
     give no idea of the consummate beauty of this composition. It has
     all Titian's matchless warmth of colouring, with a correctness of
     design no other painter of the Venetian school ever attained. It
     is nature, but not individual nature: it is ideal beauty in all its
     perfection, and breathing life in all its truth, that we
     behold."--_Eaton's Rome._

     "Two female forms are seated on the edge of a sarcophagus-shaped
     fountain, the one in a rich Venetian costume, with gloves, flowers
     in her hands, and a plucked rose beside her, is in deep meditation,
     as if solving some difficult question. The other is unclothed; a
     red drapery is falling behind her, while she exhibits a form of the
     utmost beauty and delicacy; she is turning towards the other figure
     with the sweetest persuasiveness of expression. A Cupid is playing
     in the fountain; in the distance is a rich, glowing

    30. Madonna: _Giov. Bellini_.
    34. St. Cosmo and Damian: _Venetian School_.

_11th Room._--Veronese school.

    1. Madonna with Adam (?) and St. Augustine: _Lorenzo Lotto_, MDVIII.
    2. St. Anthony preaching to the Fishes: _P. Veronese?_
    3. Madonna: _Titian?_
    11. Venus and Cupid on Dolphins: _Luc. Cambiaso_.
    14. Last Supper: _And. Schiavone_.
    15. Christ and the Mother of Zebedee's Children: _Bonifazio_.*
    16. Return of the Prodigal Son: _Bonifazio_.*
    17. Samson: _Titian_.
    18. Christ and the Woman taken in Adultery: _Bonifazio_.
    19. Madonna and Saints: _Palma Vecchio_.

     In this picture the donors are introduced--the head of the man is
     grandly devout and beautiful.

    25. Portrait of Himself: _Titian?_
    27. Portrait: _Giov. Bellini_.
    31. Madonna and St. Peter: _Giov. Bellini_.
    32. Holy Family: _Palma Vecchio_.
    33. Portrait of the Family of Licini da Pordenone: _Bart.
        Licini da Pordenone_.

_12th Room._--Dutch and German school.

    1. Crucifixion: _Vandyke_.
    7. Entombment: _Vandyke_.
    8. Tavern Scene: _Teniers_.
    9. Interior: _Brouerer_.
    19. Louis VI. of Bavaria: _Albert Dürer?_
    21. Portrait: _Holbein_.
    21. Landscape and Horses: _Wouvermann_.
    22. Cattle-piece: _Paul Potter_.
    24. Portrait: _Holbein_.
    26. Skating (in brown): _Berghem_.
    27. Portrait: _Vandyke_.
    35. Portrait: _Lucas von Leyden?_
    44. Venus and Cupid: _Lucas Cranach_.

The _Palazzetto Borghese_ on the opposite side of the piazza, originally
intended as a dower-house for the family, is now let in apartments. It
is this house which is described as the "Palazzo Clementi," in
_Mademoiselle Mori_.

At the corner of the Via Fontanella and the Corso is the handsome
_Palazzo Ruspoli_, built by Ammanati in 1586. It has a grand white
marble staircase erected by Lunghi in 1750. Beyond this are the palaces
_Fiano_, _Verospi_, and _Teodoli_.

     "Les palais de Rome, bien que n'ayant pas un caractère original
     comme ceux de Florence ou de Venise n'en sont pas moins cependant
     un des traits de la ville des papes. Ils n'appartiennent ni au
     moyen age, ni à la renaissance (la Palais de Venise seul rappelle
     les constructions massives de Florence); ils sont des modèles
     d'architecture civile moderne. Les Bramante, les Sangallo, les
     Balthazar Peruzzi, qui les ont batis, sont des maîtres qu'on ne se
     lasse pas d'étudier. La magnificence de ces palais reside
     principalement dans leur architecture et dans les collections
     artistiques que quelques-uns contiennent. Un certain nombre sont
     malheureusement dans un triste état d'abandon. De plus, à
     l'exception d'un très petit nombre, ils sont restés inachevés. Cela
     se conçoit; presque tous sont le produit du luxe célibataire des
     papes ou des cardinaux; très-peu de ces personages ont pu voir la
     fin de ce qu'ils avaient commencé. Leurs heritiers, pour le
     plupart, se souciaient fort peu de jeter les richesses qu'ils
     venaient d'acquerir dans les édifices de luxe et de vanité. A
     l'intérieur, le plus souvent, est un mobilier rare, suranné, et
     mesquin."--_A. Du Pays._[7]

The _Palazzo Bernini_ (151 Corso), on the left, has, inside its
entrance, a curious statue of "Calumny" by _Bernini_, with an
inscription relative to his own sufferings from slander.

On the right, the small piazza of S. Lorenzo opens out of the Corso.
Here is the _Church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina_, founded in the fifth
century, but rebuilt in its present form by Paul V. in 1606. The
campanile is of an older date, and so are the lions in the portico.

     "When the lion, or other wild beast, appears in the act of preying
     on a smaller animal or on a man, is implied the severity of the
     Church towards the impenitent or heretical; but when in the act of
     sporting with another creature, her benignity towards the neophyte
     and the docile. At the portal of St Lorenzo in Lucina, this idea is
     carried out in the figure of a mannikin affectionately stroking the
     head of the terrible creature who protects, instead of devouring
     him."--_Hemans' Christian Art._

No one should omit seeing the grand picture of _Guido Reni_, over the
high altar of this church,--the Crucifixion, seen against a wild, stormy
sky. Niccolas Poussin, ob. 1660, is buried here, and one of his best
known Arcadian landscapes is reproduced in a bas-relief upon his tomb,
which was erected by Chateaubriand, with the epitaph,--

    "Parce piis lacrymis, vivit Pussinus in urnâ,
      Vivus qui dederat, nescius ipse mori.
    Hîc tamen ipse silet; si vis audire loquentem,
      Mirum est, in tabulis vivit, et eloquitur."

In "The Ring and the Book" of Browning, this church is the scene of
Pompilia's baptism and marriage. She is made to say:--

           --"This St. Lorenzo seems
    My own particular place, I always say.
    I used to wonder, when I stood scarce high
    As the bed here, what the marble lion meant,
    Eating the figure of a prostrate man."

Here the bodies of her parents are represented as being exposed after
the murder:

           --"beneath the piece
    Of Master Guido Reni, Christ on Cross,
    Second to nought observable in Rome."

On the left, where the Via della Vite turns out of the Corso, an
inscription in the wall records the destruction, in 1665, of the
triumphal arch of Marcus Aurelius, which existed here till that time.
The magnificence of this arch is attested by the bas-reliefs
representing the history of the emperor, which were removed from it, and
are preserved on the staircase of the palace of the Conservators.

     "Les Barbares n'en savaient pas assez et n'avaient pas assez de
     patience pour démolir les monuments romains; mais, avec les
     ressources de la science moderne et à la suite d'une administration
     régulière, on est venu à bout de presque tout ce que le temps avait
     épargné. Il y'avait, par exemple, au commencement du XVIe.
     siècle, quatre arcs de triomphe qui n'existent plus; le dernier,
     celui de Marc Aurele, a été enlevé par le pape Alexandre VII. On
     lit encore dans le Corso l'inconcevable inscription dans laquelle
     le pape se vante d'avoir debarrassé la promenade publique de ce
     monument, qui, vu sa date, devait être d'un beau style."--_Ampère,
     Voyage Dantesque._

A little further down the Corso, on the left, the Via delle Convertite
leads to _S. Sylvestro in Capite_, one of three churches in Rome
dedicated to the sainted pope of the time of Constantine. This, like S.
Lorenzo, has a fine mediæval campanile. The day of St. Sylvester's
death, December 31 (A.D. 335), is kept here with great solemnity, and is
celebrated by magnificent musical services. This pope was buried in the
cemetery of Priscilla, whence his remains were removed to S. Martino al
Monte. The title "In Capite" is given to this church on account of the
head of St John Baptist, which it professes to possess, as is narrated
by an inscription engrafted into its walls.

The convent attached to this church was founded in 1318, especially for
noble sisters of the house of Colonna who dedicated themselves to God.
Here it was that the celebrated Vittoria Colonna, Marchesa di Pescara,
came to reside in 1525, when widowed in her thirty-sixth year, and here
she began to write her sonnets, a kind of "In Memoriam," to her husband.
It is a curious proof of the value placed upon her remaining in the
world, that Pope Clement VII. was persuaded to send a brief to the
abbess and nuns, desiring them to offer her "all spiritual and temporal
consolations," but forbidding them, under pain of the greater
excommunication, to permit her to take the veil in her affliction.[8]

At the end of this street, continued under the name of Via de Mercede
(No. 11 was the residence of Bernini), and behind the Propaganda, is the
_Church of S. Andrea delle Fratte_, whose brick cupola by Borromini is
so picturesque a feature. The bell-tower beside it swings when the bells
are rung. In the second chapel on the right is the beautiful modern tomb
of Mademoiselle Julie Falconnet, by Miss Hosmer. The opposite chapel is
remarkable for a modern miracle (?) annually commemorated here.

     "M. Ratisbonne, un juif, appartenant à une très-riche famille
     d'Alsace, qui se trouvait accidentellement à Rome, se promenant
     dans l'église de S. Andrea delle Fratte pendant qu'on y faisait les
     préparatifs pour les obsèques de M. de la Ferronays, s'y est
     converti subitement. Il se trouvait debout en face d'une chapelle
     dédiée à l'ange gardien, à quelques pas, lorsque tout-à-coup il a
     eu une apparition lumineuse de la Sainte Vierge qui lui a fait
     signe d'aller vers cette chapelle. Une force irrésistible l'y a
     entraíné, il y est tombé à genoux, et il a été à l'instant
     chrétien. Sa première parole à celui qui l'avait accompagné a été,
     en relevant son visage inondé de larmes: 'Il faut que ce monsieur
     ait beaucoup prié pour moi.'"--_Récit d'une Sœur._

     "Era un istante ch'io mi stava in chiesa allora che di colpo mi
     sentii preso da inesprimibile conturbamento. Alzai gli occhi; tutto
     l'edifizio s'era dileguato a' miei sguardi; sola una cappella aveva
     come in se raccolta tutta la luce, e di mezzo di raggianti
     splendori s' è mostrata diritta sull'altare, grande,
     sfolgoreggiante, piena di maestà, e di dolcezza, la Vergine Maria.
     Una forza irresistibile m'ha sospinto verso di lei. La Vergine m'ha
     fatto della mano segno d'inginocchiarmi; pareva volermi dire,
     'Bene!' Ella non mi ha parlato ma io ho inteso tutto."--_Recital of
     Alfonse Ratisbonne._[9]

M. de la Ferronays, whose character is now so well known from the
beautiful family memoirs of Mrs. Augustus Craven, is buried beneath the
altar where this vision occurred. In the third chapel on the left is the
tomb of Angelica Kauffmann; in the right aisle that of the Prussian
artist, Schadow. The two angels in front of the choir are by _Bernini_,
who intended them for the bridge of S. Angelo.

Returning to the Corso, the Via S. Claudio (left) leads to the pretty
little church of that name, adjoining the Palazzo Parisani. Behind, is
the Church of Sta. Maria in Via.

At the corner of the Piazza Colonna is the _Palazzo Chigi_, begun in
1526 by Giacomo della Porta, and finished by Carlo Maderno. It contains
several good pictures and a fine library, but is seldom shown.[10]

The most remarkable members of the great family of Chigi have been the
famous banker Agostino Chigi, who lived so sumptuously at the Farnesina
(see chap. 20), and Fabio Chigi, who mounted the papal throne as
Alexander VII., and who long refused to have anything to do with the
aggrandisement of his family, saying that the poor were the only
relations he would acknowledge, and, like Christ, he did not wish for
any nearer ones. To keep himself in mind of the shortness of earthly
grandeur, this pope always kept a coffin in his room, and drank out of a
cup shaped like a skull.

The side of the _Piazza Colonna_, which faces the Corso, is occupied by
the Post-Office. On its other sides are the Piombino and Ferrajuoli
palaces, of no interest. In the centre is placed the fine _Column_,
which was found on the Monte Citorio in 1709, having been originally
erected by the senate and people A.D. 174, to the Emperor Marcus
Aurelius Antoninus (adopted son of the Emperor Hadrian,--husband of his
niece, Annia Faustina,--father of the Emperor Commodus). It is
surrounded by bas-reliefs, representing the conquest of the Marcomanni.
One of these has long been an especial object of interest, from being
supposed to represent a divinity (Jupiter?) sending rain to the troops,
in answer to the prayers of a Christian legion from Mitylene. Eusebius
gives the story, stating that the piety of these Christians induced the
emperor to ask their prayers in his necessity, and a letter in Justin
Martyr (of which the authenticity is much doubted), in which Aurelius
allows the fact, is produced in proof. The statue of St. Paul on the
top of the column was erected by Sixtus V.; the pedestal also is modern.

Behind the Piazza Colonna is the _Piazza Monte Citorio_, containing an
_Obelisk_ which was discovered in broken fragments near the Church of S.
Lorenzo in Lucina. It was repaired with pieces of the column of
Antoninus Pius, the pedestal of which may still be seen in the Vatican
garden. Its hieroglyphics are very perfect and valuable, and show that
it was erected more than 600 years before Christ, in honour of
Psammeticus I. It was brought from Heliopolis by Augustus, and erected
by him in the Campus Martius, where it received the name of Obeliscus
Solaris, from being made to act as a sun-dial.

     "Ei, qui est in campo, divus Augustus addidit mirabilem usum ad
     deprehendendas solis umbras, dierumque ac noctium ita magnitudines,
     strato lapide ad magnitudinem obelisci, cui par fieret umbra, brumæ
     confectæ die, sexta hora; paulatimque per regulas (quæ sunt ex die
     exclusæ) singulis diebus decresceret ac rursus augesceret: digna
     cognitu res et ingenio fœcundo. Manilius mathematicus apici
     auratam pilam addidit, cujus umbra vertice colligeretur in se ipsa
     alias enormiter jaculante apice ratione (ut ferunt) a capite
     hominis intellecta. Hæc observatio triginta jam ferè annos non
     congruit, sive solis ipsius dissono cursu, et cœli aliqua
     ratione mutato, sive universa tellure a centra suo aliquid emota ut
     deprehendi et in aliis locis accipio: sive urbis tremoribus ibi
     tantum gnomone intorto, sive inundationibus Tiberis sedimento molis
     facto: quanquam ad altitudinem impositi oneris in terram quoque
     dicantur acta fundamenta."--_Plin. Nat. Hist._ lib. xxxiv. 14.

_The Palace of the Monte Citorio_ (designed by Bernini) contains public
offices connected with police, passports, &c. On the opposite side of
the piazza are the Railway and Telegraph Offices.

Proceeding up the Corso, the Via di Pietra (right) leads into the small
Piazza di Pietra, one side of which is occupied by the eleven remaining
columns of the _Temple of Neptune_, built up by Innocent XII. into the
walls of the modern Custom-house. It is worth while to enter the
courtyard in order to look back and observe the immense masses of stone
above the entrance, part of the ancient temple,--which are here

Close to this, behind the Palazzo Cini, in the Piazza Orfanelli, is the
_Teatro Capranica_, occupying part of a palace of _c._ 1350, with gothic
windows. The opposite church, _Sta. Maria in Aquiro_, recalls by its
name the column of the Equiria, celebrated in ancient annals as the
place where certain games and horse-races, instituted by Romulus, were
celebrated. Ovid describes them in his Fasti. The church was founded
_c._ 400, but was re-built under Francesco da Volterra in 1590.

A small increase of width in the Corso is now dignified by the name of
the _Piazza Sciarra_. The street which turns off hence, under an arch
(Via de Muratte, on the left), leads to the _Fountain of Trevi_, erected
in 1735 by Niccolo Salvi for Clement XII. The statue of Neptune is by
Pietro Bracci.

     "The fountain of Trevi draws its precious water from a source far
     beyond the walls, whence it flows hitherward through old
     subterranean aqueducts, and sparkles forth as pure as the virgin
     who first led Agrippa to its well-springs by her father's door. In
     the design of the fountain, some sculptor of Bernini's school has
     gone absolutely mad, in marble. It is a great palace-front, with
     niches and many bas-reliefs, out of which looks Agrippa's legendary
     virgin, and several of the allegoric sisterhood; while at the base
     appears Neptune with his floundering steeds and tritons blowing
     their horns about him, and twenty other artificial fantasies, which
     the calm moonlight soothes into better taste than is native to
     them. And, after all, it is as magnificent a piece of work as ever
     human skill contrived. At the foot of the palatial façade, is
     strown, with careful art and ordered regularity, a broad and broken
     heap of massive rock, looking as if it may have lain there since
     the deluge. Over a central precipice falls the water, in a
     semicircular cascade; and from a hundred crevices, on all sides,
     snowy jets gush up, and streams spout out of the mouths and
     nostrils of stone monsters, and fall in glistening drops; while
     other rivulets, that have run wild, come leaping from one rude step
     to another, over stones that are mossy, shining and green with
     sedge, because, in a century of their wild play, nature has adopted
     the fountain of Trevi, with all its elaborate devices, for her own.
     Finally the water, tumbling, sparkling, and dashing with joyous
     haste and never ceasing murmur, pours itself into a great marble
     basin and reservoir, and fills it with a quivering tide; on which
     is seen, continually, a snowy semi-circle of momentary foam from
     the principal cascade, as well as a multitude of snow-points from
     smaller jets. The basin, occupies the whole breadth of the piazza,
     whence flights of steps descend to its border. A boat might float,
     and make mimic voyages, on this artificial lake.

     "In the daytime there is hardly a livelier scene in Rome than the
     neighbourhood of the fountain of Trevi; for the piazza is then
     filled with stalls of vegetable and fruit dealers,
     chestnut-roasters, cigar-vendors, and other people whose petty and
     wandering traffic is transacted in the open air. It is likewise
     thronged with idlers, lounging over the iron railing, and with
     _forestieri_, who come hither to see the famous fountain. Here,
     also, are men with buckets, urchins with cans, and maidens (a
     picture as old as the patriarchal times) bearing their pitchers
     upon their heads. For the water of Trevi is in request, far and
     wide, as the most refreshing draught for feverish lips, the
     pleasantest to mingle with wine, and the wholesomest to drink in
     its native purity, that can anywhere be found. But, at midnight,
     the piazza is a solitude; and it is a delight to behold this
     untameable water, sporting by itself in the moonshine, and
     compelling all the elaborate trivialities of art to assume a
     natural aspect, in accordance with its own powerful simplicity.
     Tradition goes, that a parting draught at the fountain of Trevi
     ensures a traveller's return to Rome, whatever obstacles and
     improbabilities may seem to beset him."--_Hawthorne's

     "Le bas-relief, placé au-dessus de cette fontaine, représente la
     jeune fille indiquant la source précieuse, comme dans l'antiquité
     une peinture représentait le même évènement dans une chapelle
     construite au lieu où il s'était passé."--_Ampère, Emp._ i. 264.

In this piazza is the rather handsome front of _Sta. Maria in Trivia_,
formerly Sta. Maria in Fornica, erected by Cardinal Mazarin, on the site
of an older church built by Belisarius--as is told by an inscription:--

    "Hanc vir patricius Belisarius urbis amicus
      Ob culpæ veniam condidit ecclesiam.
    Hanc, idcirco, pedem qui sacram ponis in ædem
      Ut miseretur eum sæpe precare Deum."

The fault which Belisarius wished to expiate, was the exile of Pope
Sylverius (A.D. 536), who was starved to death in the island of Ponza.
The crypt of the present building, being the parish church of the
Quirinal, contains the entrails of twenty popes (removed for
embalmment)--from Sixtus V. to Pius VIII.--who died in the Quirinal

The little church near the opposite corner of the piazza is that of _The
Crociferi_, and is still (1870) served by the Venerable Don Giovanni
Merlini, Father General of the Order of the Precious Blood, and the
personal friend of its founder, Gaspare del Buffalo.

The Fountain of Trevi occupies one end of the gigantic _Palazzo Poli_,
which contains the English consulate. At the other end is the shop of
the famous jeweller, Castellani, well worth visiting, for the sake of
its beautiful collection of Etruscan designs, both in jewellery and in
larger works of art.

     "Castellani est l'homme qui a ressuscité la bijouterie romaine. Son
     escalier, tapissé d'inscriptions et de bas-reliefs antiques, fait
     croire que nous entrons dans un musée. Un jeune marchand aussi
     érudit que les archéologues fait voir une collection de bijoux
     anciens de toutes les époques, depuis les origines de l'Etrurie
     jusqu'au siècle de Constantin. C'est la source où Castellani puise
     les éléments d'un art nouveau qui détrônera avant dix ans la
     pacotille du Palais-Royal."--_About_, _Rome Contemporaine_.

     "C'est en s'inspirant des parures retrouvées dans les tombes de
     l'Etrurie, des bracelets et des colliers dont se paraient les
     femmes étrusques et sabines, que M. Castellani, guidé par le goût
     savant et ingénieux d'un homme qui porte dignement l'ancien nom de
     Caetani, a introduit dans la bijouterie un style à la fois
     classique et nouveau. Parmi les artistes les plus originaux de Rome
     sont certainement les orfèvres Castellani et D. Miguele Caetani,
     duc de Sermoneta."--_Ampère_, _Hist. Rom._ i. 388.

The _Palazzo Sciarra_ (on left of the Corso), built in 1603 by Labacco,
contains a gallery of pictures. Its six celebrated gems are marked with
an asterisk. We may notice:--

    _1st Room._--

     5. Death of St. John Baptist: _Valentin_.
    13. Holy Family: _Innocenza da Imola_.
    15. Rome Triumphant: _Valentin_.
    20. Madonna: _Titian_.
    23. Sta. Francesca Romana: _Carlo Veneziano_.

    _2nd Room._--

    17. Flight into Egypt: _Claude Lorrain_.
    18. Sunset: _Claude Lorrain_.

    _3rd Room._--

     6. Holy Family: _Francia_.
     9. Boar Hunt: _Garofalo_.
    11. Holy Family: _Andrea del Sarto_.
    17. A Monk led by an Angel to the Heavenly Spheres: _Gaudenzio
    26. The Vestal Claudia drawing a boat with the statue of Ceres up
          the Tiber: _Garofalo_.
    29. Tavern Scene: _Teniers_.
    33. The Fornarina: _Copy of Raphael by Giulio Romano_.
    36. Holy Family with Angels: _Lucas Cranach_, 1504.

    _4th Room._--

    1. Holy Family: _Fra Bartolomeo_.*

     "The glow and freshness of colouring in this admirable painting,
     the softness of the skin, the beauty and sweetness of the
     expression, the look with which the mother's eyes are bent upon
     the baby she holds in her arms, and the innocent fondness with
     which the other child gazes up in her face, are worthy of the
     painter whose works Raphael delighted to study, and from which, in
     a great measure, he formed his principles of colouring."--_Eaton's

    5. St. John the Evangelist: _Guercino_.
    6. The Violin Player (Andrea Marone?): _Raphael_.*

     "The Violin Player is a youth holding the bow of a violin and a
     laurel wreath in his hand, and looking at the spectators over his
     shoulder. The expression of his countenance is sensible and
     decided, and betokens a character alive to the impressions of
     sense, yet severe. The execution is excellent,--inscribed with the
     date 1518."--_Kugler._

     7. St. Mark: _Guercino_.
     8. Daughter of Herodias: _Guercino_.
    12. Conjugal Love: _Agostino Caracci_.
    16. The Gamblers: _Caravaggio_.*

     "This is a masterpiece of the painter. A sharper is playing at
     cards with a youth of family and fortune, whom his confederate,
     while pretending to be looking on, is assisting to cheat. The
     subject will remind you of the Flemish School, but this painting
     bears no resemblance to it. Here is no farce, no caricature.
     Character was never more strongly marked, nor a tale more
     inimitably told. It is life itself, and you almost forget it is a
     picture, and expect to see the game go on. The colouring is beyond
     all praise."--_Eaton's Rome._

    17. Modesty and Vanity: _Leonardo da Vinci_.*

     "One of Leonardo's most beautiful pictures is in Rome, in the
     Sciarra Palace--two female half-figures of Modesty and Vanity. The
     former, with a veil over her head, is a particularly pleasing,
     noble profile, with a clear, open expression; she beckons to her
     sister, who stands fronting the spectator, beautifully arrayed, and
     with a sweet seducing smile. This picture is remarkably powerful in
     colouring, and wonderfully finished, but unfortunately has become
     rather dark in the shadows."--_Kugler._

    19. Magdalen: _Guido Reni_.
    24. Family Portrait: _Titian_.
    25. Portrait: _Bronzino_.
    26. St. Sebastian: _Perugino_.
    29. Bella Donna: _Titian_.*

     Sometimes supposed to represent Donna Laura Eustachio, the peasant
     Duchess of Alphonso I. of Ferrara.

     "When Titian or Tintoret look at a human being, they see at a
     glance the whole of its nature, outside and in; all that it has of
     form, of colour, of passion, or of thought; saintliness and
     loveliness; fleshly power, and spiritual power; grace, or strength,
     or softness, or whatsoever other quality, those men will see to the
     full, and so paint, that, when narrower people come to look at what
     they have done, every one may, if he chooses, find his own special
     pleasure in the work. The sensualist will find sensuality in
     Titian; the thinker will find thought; the saint, sanctity; the
     colourist, colour; the anatomist, form; and yet the picture will
     never be a popular one in the full sense, for none of these
     narrower people will find their special taste so alone consulted,
     as that the qualities which would ensure their gratification shall
     be sifted or separated from others; they are checked by the
     presence of the other qualities, which ensure the gratification of
     other men.... Only there is a strange undercurrent of everlasting
     murmur about the name of Titian, which means the deep consent of
     all great men that he is greater than they."--_Ruskin's Two Paths,
     Lect. 2._

    31. Death of the Virgin: _Albert Durer_.
    32. Maddalena della Radice: _Guido Reni_.*

     "The two Magdalens by Guido are almost duplicates, and yet one is
     incomparably superior to the other. She is reclining on a rock, and
     her tearful and uplifted eyes, the whole of her countenance and
     attitude, speak the overwhelming sorrow that penetrates her soul.
     Her face might charm the heart of a stoic; and the contrast of her
     youth and enchanting loveliness, with the abandonment of grief, the
     resignation of all earthly hope, and the entire devotion of herself
     to penitence and heaven, is most affecting."--_Eaton's Rome._[11]

Near the Piazza Sciarra, the Corso (as Via Flaminia) was formerly
spanned by the Arch of Claudius, removed in 1527. Some reliefs from this
arch are preserved in the portico of the Villa Borghese, and though much
mutilated are of fine workmanship. The inscription, which commemorated
the erection of the arch in honour of the conquest of Britain, is
preserved in the courtyard of the Barberini Palace.

On the right of the Piazza Sciarra is the Via della Caravita, containing
the small but popular _Church of the Caravita_,[12] used for the
peculiar religious exercises of the Jesuits, especially for their
terrible Lenten "flagellation" services, which are one of the most
extraordinary sights afforded by Catholic Rome.

     "The ceremony of pious whippings, one of the penances of the
     convents, still takes place at the time of vespers in the oratory
     of the Padre Caravita and in another church in Rome. It is preceded
     by a short exhortation, during which a bell rings, and whips, that
     is, strings of knotted whipcord, are distributed quietly amongst
     such of the audience as are on their knees in the nave. On a second
     bell, the candles are extinguished--a loud voice issues from the
     altar, which pours forth an exhortation to think of unconfessed, or
     unrepented, or unforgiven crimes. This continues a sufficient time
     to allow the kneelers to strip off their upper garments; the tone
     of the preacher is raised more loudly at each word, and he
     vehemently exhorts his hearers to recollect that Christ and the
     martyrs suffered much more than whipping. 'Show, then, your
     penitence--show your sense of Christ's sacrifice--show it with the
     whip.' The flagellation begins. The darkness, the tumultuous sound
     of blows in every direction--'Blessed Virgin Mary, pray for us!'
     bursting out at intervals,--the persuasion that you are surrounded
     by atrocious culprits and maniacs, who know of an absolution for
     every crime--so far from exciting a smile, fixes you to the spot in
     a trance of restless horror, prolonged beyond bearing. The
     scourging continues ten or fifteen minutes."--_Lord Broughton._

     "Each man on entering the church was supplied with a scourge. After
     a short interval the doors were barred, the lights extinguished;
     and from praying, the congregation proceeded to groaning, crying,
     and finally, being worked up into a kind of ecstatic fury, applied
     the scourge to their uncovered shoulders without
     mercy."--_Whiteside's Italy in the Nineteenth Century._

Beyond the Caravita is the _Church of S. Ignazio_, built by Cardinal
Ludovisi. The façade, of 1685, is by Algardi. It contains the tomb of
Gregory XIV. (Nicolo Sfondrati, 1590--91), and that of S. Ludovico
Gonzaga, both sculptured by _Le Gros_.

     "In S. Ignazio is the chapel of San Luigi Gonzaga, on whom not a
     few of the young Roman damsels look with something of the same kind
     of admiration as did Clytie on Apollo, whom he and St. Sebastian,
     those two young, beautiful, graceful saints, very fairly represent
     in Christian mythology. His festa falls in June, and then his altar
     is embosomed in flowers, arranged with exquisite taste; and a pile
     of letters may be seen at its foot, written to the saint by young
     men and maidens, and directed to Paradiso. They are supposed to be
     burnt unread, except by San Luigi, who must find singular petitions
     in these pretty little missives, tied up now with a green ribbon,
     expressive of hope, now with a red one, emblematic of love, or
     whatever other significant colour the writer may
     prefer."--_Mademoiselle Mori._

The frescoes on the roof and tribune are by the Padre Pozzi.

     "Amid the many distinguished men whom the Jesuits sent forth to
     every region of the world, I cannot recollect the name of a single
     artist unless it be the Father Pozzi, renowned for his skill in
     perspective, and who used his skill less as an artist than a
     conjuror, to produce such illusions as make the vulgar stare; to
     make the impalpable to the grasp appear as palpable to the vision;
     the near seem distant, the distant near; the unreal, real; to cheat
     the eye; to dazzle the sense;--all this has Father Pozzi most
     cunningly achieved in the Gesù and the Sant' Ignazio at Rome; but
     nothing more, and nothing better than this. I wearied of his
     altar-pieces and of his wonderful roofs which pretend to be no
     roofs at all. Scheme, tricks, and deceptions in art should all be
     kept for the theatre. It appeared to me nothing less than profane
     to introduce _shams_ into the temples of God."--_Mrs. Jameson._

On the left of the Corso--opposite the handsome Palazzo Simonetti--is
the _Church of S. Marcello_ (Pope, 308--10), containing some interesting
modern monuments. Among them are those of Pierre Gilles, the traveller
(ob. 1555), and of the English Cardinal Weld. Here, also, Cardinal
Gonsalvi, the famous and liberal minister of Pius VII., is buried in
the same tomb with his beloved younger brother, the Marchese Andrea
Gonsalvi. Their monument, by Rinaldi, tells that here repose the bodies
of two brothers--

    "Qui cum singulari amore dum vivebant
          Se mutuo dilexissent
            Corpora etiam sua
    Una eademque urna condi voluere."

Here are the masterpieces which made the reputation of Pierino del Vaga
(1501--1547). In the chapel of the Virgin are the cherubs, whose
graceful movements and exquisite flesh-tints Vasari declares to have
been unsurpassed by any artist in fresco. In the chapel of the Crucifix
is the Creation of Eve, which is even more beautiful.

     "The perfectly beautiful figure of the naked Adam is seen lying,
     overpowered by sleep, while Eve, filled with life, and with folded
     hands, rises to receive the blessing of her Maker,--a most grand
     and solemn figure standing erect in heavy drapery."--_Vasari_, iv.

This church is said to occupy the site of a house of the Christian
matron Lucina, in which Marcellus died of wounds incurred in attempting
to settle a quarrel among his Christian followers. It was in front of it
that the body of the tribune Rienzi, after his murder on the Capitol
steps, was hung up by the feet for two days as a mark for the rabble to
throw stones at.

The next street to the right leads to the _Collegio Romano_, founded by
St. Francis Borgia, Duke of Gandia (a descendant of Pope Alexander VI.),
who, after a youth spent amid the splendours of the court of Madrid,
retired to Rome in 1550, in the time of Julius III., and became the
successor of Ignatius Loyola as general of the Jesuits. The buildings
were erected, as we now see them, by Ammanati, in 1582, for Gregory
XIII. The college is entirely under the superintendence of the Jesuits.
The library is large and valuable. The _Kircherian Museum_ (shown to
gentlemen from ten to eleven on Sundays) is worth visiting. It contains
a number of antiquities, illustrative of Roman and Etruscan customs, and
many beautiful ancient bronzes and vases. The most important object is
the "Cista Mistica," a bronze vase and cover, which was given as a prize
to successful gladiators, and which was originally fitted up with
everything useful for their profession.

The _Observatory_ of the Collegio Romano has obtained a European
reputation from the important astronomical researches of its director,
the Padre Secchi.

The Collegio Romano has produced eight popes--Urban VIII., Innocent X.,
Clement IX., Clement X., Innocent XII., Clement XI., Innocent XIII., and
Clement XII. Among its other pupils have been S. Camillo de Lellis, the
Blessed Leonardo di Porto-Maurizio, the Venerable Pietro Berna, and

     "Ignace, François Borgia, ont passé par ici. Leur souvenir plane,
     comme un encouragement et une bénédiction, sur ces salles où ils
     présidèrent aux études, sur ces chaires où peut-être retentit leur
     parole, sur ces modestes cellules qu'ils ont habitées. A la fin du
     seizième siècle, les élèves du collége Romain perdirent un de leurs
     condisciples que sa douce aménité et ses vertus angéliques avaient
     rendu l'objet d'un affectueux respect. Ce jeune homme avait été
     page de Philippe II.; il était allié aux maisons royales
     d'Autriche, de Bourbon et de Lorraine. Mais au milieu de ces
     illusions d'une grande vie, sous ce brillant costume de cour qui
     semblait lui promettre honneurs et fortune, il ne voyait jamais que
     la pieuse figure de sa mère agenouillée au pied des autels, et
     priant pour lui. A peine âgé de seize ans, il s'échappe de Madrid,
     il vient frapper à la porte du collége Romain, et demande place, au
     dortoir et à l'étude, pour Louis Gonzague, fils du comte de
     Castiglione. Pendant sept ans, Louis donna dans cette maison le
     touchant exemple d'une vie céleste; puis ses jours _déclinèrent_,
     comme parle l'Ecriture; il avait assez vécu."--_Gournerie_, _Rome
     Chrétienne_, ii. 211.

We now reach (on right) the _Church of Sta. Maria in Via Lata_, which
was founded by Sergius I., in the eighth century, but twice rebuilt, the
second time under Alexander VII., in 1662, when the façade was added by
Pietro da Cortona.

     In this church "they still show a little chapel in which, as hath
     been handed down from the first ages, St. Luke the Evangelist
     wrote, and painted the effigy of the Virgin Mother of God."--_See
     Jameson's Sacred Art_, p. 155.

The subterranean church is shown as the actual house in which St. Paul
lodged when he was in Rome.

     "And when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners to
     the captain of the guard: but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself
     with a soldier that kept him."

     "And when they had appointed him a day, there came many to him into
     his lodging; to whom he expounded and testified the kingdom of God,
     persuading them concerning Jesus, both out of the law of Moses, and
     out of the prophets, from morning till evening." ...

     "And Paul dwelt two whole years in his own hired house, and
     received all that came in unto him, preaching the kingdom of God,
     and teaching those things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ, with
     all confidence, no man forbidding him."--_Acts_ xxviii. 16, 23, 30,

     "St. Paul after his arrival at Rome, having made his usual effort,
     in the first place, for the salvation of his own countrymen, and as
     usual, having found it vain, turned to the Gentiles, and during two
     whole years, in which he was a prisoner, received all that came to
     him, preaching the kingdom of God. It was thus that God overruled
     his imprisonment for the furtherance of the gospel, so that his
     bonds in Christ were manifest in the palace, and in all other
     places, and many of the brethren in the Lord, waxing confident by
     his bonds, were much more bold to speak the word without fear. Even
     in the palace of Nero, the most noxious atmosphere, as we should
     have concluded, for the growth of divine truth, his bonds were
     manifest, the Lord Jesus was preached, and, more than this, was
     received to the saving of many souls; for we find the Apostle
     writing to his Philippian converts: 'All the saints salute you,
     chiefly they which are of Cæsar's household.' The whole Church of
     Christ has abundant reason to bless God for the dispensation which,
     during the most matured period of St. Paul's Christian life,
     detained him a close prisoner in the imperial city. Had he, to the
     end of his course, been at large, occupied, as he had long been,
     'in labours most abundant,' he would, humanly speaking, never have
     found time to pen those epistles which are among the most blessed
     portion of the Church's inheritance. It was from within the walls
     of a prison, probably chained hand to hand to the soldier who kept
     him, that St. Paul indited the Epistles to the Ephesians,
     Philippians, Colossians, and Hebrews."--_Blunt's Lectures on St.

     "In writing to Philemon, Paul chooses to speak of himself as the
     captive of Jesus Christ. Yet he went whither he would, and was free
     to receive those who came to him. It is interesting to remember
     amid these solemn vaults, the different events of St. Paul's
     apostolate, during the two years that he lived here. It was here
     that he converted Onesimus, that he received the presents of the
     Philippians, brought by Epaphroditus; it was hence that he wrote to
     Philemon, to Titus, to the inhabitants of Philippi and of Colosse;
     it was here that he preached devotion to the cross with that
     glowing eagerness, with that startling eloquence, which gained
     fresh power from contest and which inspiration rendered sublime.

     "Peter addressed himself to the Circumcised; Paul to the
     Gentiles,[13]--to their silence that he might confound it, to their
     reason that he might humble it. Had he not already converted the
     proconsul Sergius Paulus and Dionysius the Areopagite? At Rome his
     word is equally powerful, and among the courtiers of Nero, perhaps
     even amongst his relations, are those who yield to the power of
     God, who reveals himself in each of the teachings of his
     servant.[14] Around the Apostle his eager disciples group
     themselves--Onesiphorus of Ephesus, who was not ashamed of his
     chain;[15] Epaphras of Colosse, who was captive with him,
     _concaptivus meus_;[16] Timothy, who was one with his master in a
     holy union of every thought, and who was attached to him like a
     son, _sicut patri filius_;[17] Hermas, Aristarchus, Marcus,
     Demas--and Luke the physician, the faithful companion of the
     Apostle, his well-beloved disciple--'Lucas medicus
     carissimus.'"--_From Gournerie, Rome Chrétienne._

     "I honour Rome for this reason; for though I could celebrate her
     praises on many other accounts--for her greatness, for her beauty,
     for her power, for her wealth, and for her warlike exploits,--yet,
     passing over all these things, I glorify her on this account, that
     Paul in his lifetime wrote to the Romans, and loved them, and was
     present with and conversed with them, and ended his life amongst
     them. Wherefore the city is on this account renowned more than on
     all others--on this account I admire her, not on account of her
     gold, her columns, or her other splendid decorations."--_St. John
     Chrysostom, Homily on the Ep. to the Romans._

     "The Roman Jews expressed a wish to hear from St. Paul himself a
     statement of his religious sentiments, adding that the Christian
     sect was everywhere spoken against.... A day was fixed for the
     meeting at his private lodging.

     "The Jews came in great numbers at the appointed time. Then
     followed an impressive scene, like that at Troas (Acts xxi.)--the
     Apostle pleading long and earnestly,--bearing testimony concerning
     the kingdom of God,--and endeavouring to persuade them by arguments
     drawn from their own Scriptures,--'from morning till evening.' The
     result was a division among the auditors--'not peace, but a
     sword,'--the division which has resulted ever since, when the Truth
     of God has encountered, side by side, earnest conviction with
     worldly indifference, honest investigation with bigoted prejudice,
     trustful faith with the pride of scepticism. After a long and
     stormy discussion, the unbelieving portion departed; but not until
     St. Paul had warned them, in one last address, that they were
     bringing upon themselves that awful doom of judicial blindness,
     which was denounced in their own Scriptures against obstinate
     unbelievers; that the salvation which they rejected would be
     withdrawn from them, and the inheritance they renounced would be
     given to the Gentiles. The sentence with which he gave emphasis to
     this solemn warning was that passage in Isaiah, which recurring
     thus with solemn force at the very close of the Apostolic history,
     seems to bring very strikingly together the Old Dispensation and
     the New, and to connect the ministry of Our Lord with that of His
     Apostles:--'Go unto this people and say: Hearing ye shall hear and
     shall not understand, and seeing ye shall see and shall not
     perceive: for the heart of this people is waxed gross, and their
     ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes have they closed; lest
     they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and
     understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should
     heal them.'

     " ... During the long delay of his trial St. Paul was not reduced,
     as he had been at Cæsarea, to a forced inactivity. On the contrary,
     he was permitted the freest intercourse with his friends, and was
     allowed to reside in a house of sufficient size to accommodate the
     congregation which flocked together to listen to his teaching. The
     freest scope was given to his labours, consistent with the military
     custody under which he was placed. We are told, in language
     peculiarly emphatic, that his preaching was subjected to no
     restraint whatever. And that which seemed at first to impede, must
     really have deepened the impression of his eloquence; for who could
     see without emotion that venerable form subjected by iron links to
     the coarse control of the soldier who stood beside him? how often
     must the tears of the assembly have been called forth by the
     upraising of that fettered hand, and the clanking of the chain
     which checked its energetic action.

     "We shall see hereafter that these labours of the imprisoned
     Confessor were not fruitless; in his own words, he 'begot many
     children in his chains.' Meanwhile, he had a wider sphere of action
     than even the metropolis of the world. Not only 'the crowd which
     pressed upon him daily,' but also 'the care of all the churches'
     demanded his constant vigilance and exertion.... To enable him to
     maintain this superintendence, he manifestly needed many faithful
     messengers; men who (as he says of one of them) 'rendered him
     profitable service'; and by some of whom he seems to have been
     constantly accompanied, wheresoever he went. Accordingly we find
     him, during this Roman imprisonment, surrounded by many of his
     oldest and most valued attendants. Luke, his fellow-traveller,
     remained with him during his bondage; Timotheus, his beloved son in
     the faith, ministered to him at Rome, as he had done in Asia, in
     Macedonia, and in Achaia. Tychicus, who had formerly borne him
     company from Corinth to Ephesus, is now at hand to carry his
     letters to the shores which they had visited together. But there
     are two names amongst his Roman companions which excite a peculiar
     interest, though from opposite reasons,--the names of Demas and of
     Mark. The latter, when last we heard of him, was the unhappy cause
     of the separation of Barnabas and Paul. He was rejected by Paul, as
     unworthy to attend him, because he had previously abandoned the
     work of the Gospel out of timidity or indolence. It is delightful
     to find him now ministering obediently to the very Apostle who had
     then repudiated his services; still more to know that he
     persevered in this fidelity even to the end, and was sent for by
     St. Paul to cheer his dying hours. Demas, on the other hand, is now
     a faithful 'fellow-labourer' of the Apostle but in a few years we
     shall find that he had 'forsaken' him, having 'loved this present

     "Amongst the rest of St. Paul's companions at this time, there were
     two whom he distinguishes by the honourable title of his
     'fellow-prisoners.' One of these is Aristarchus, the other
     Epaphras. With regard to the former, we know that he was a
     Macedonian of Thessalonica, one of 'Paul's companions in travel,'
     whose life was endangered by the mob at Ephesus, and who embarked
     with St. Paul at Cæsarea when he set sail for Rome. The other,
     Epaphras, was a Colossian, who must not be identified with the
     Philippian Epaphroditus, another of St. Paul's fellow-labourers
     during this time. It is not easy to say in what exact sense these
     two disciples were peculiarly _fellow-prisoners_ of St. Paul.
     Perhaps it only implies that they dwelt in his house, which was
     also his prison.

     "But of all the disciples now ministering to St. Paul at Rome, none
     has a greater interest than the fugitive Asiatic slave Onesimus. He
     belonged to a Christian named Philemon, a member of the Colossian
     Church. But he had robbed his master, and fled from Colosse, and at
     last found his way to Rome. Here he was converted to the faith of
     Christ, and had confessed to St. Paul his sins against his
     master."--_Conybeare and Howson, Life of St. Paul._

A fountain in the crypt is shown, as having miraculously sprung up in
answer to the prayers of St. Paul, that he might have wherewithal to
baptize his disciples. At the end of the crypt are some large blocks of
peperino, said to be remains of the arch erected by the senate in honour
of the Emperor Gordian III., and destroyed by Innocent VIII.

Far along the right side of the Corso now extends the façade of the
immense _Palazzo Doria_, built by Valvasori (the front towards the
Collegio Romano being by Pietro da Cortona, and that towards the Piazza
Venezia by Amati). Entering the courtyard, one must turn left to reach
the _Picture Gallery_ (which is open on Tuesdays and Fridays, from ten
till two)--a vast collection, which contains some grand portraits and a
few other fine paintings.

The _1st Room_ entered is a great hall--to which pictures are removed
for copying. It contains four fine sarcophagi, with reliefs of the Hunt
of Meleager, the Story of Marsyas, Endymion and Diana, and a Bacchic
procession. Of two ancient circular altars, one serves as the pedestal
of a bearded Dionysus. The pictures are chiefly landscapes, of the
school of Poussin and Salvator Rosa,--that of the Deluge is by _Ippolito

_2nd Room._--In the centre a Centaur (restored), of basalt and
rosso-antico. On either side groups of boys playing.


     4. Caritas Romana: _Valentin_.

     5. Circumcision: _Giov. Bellini?_

     7. Madonna and Saints: _Basaiti_.

     15. Temptations of St. Anthony: _Scuola di Mantegna_.

     19. St. John in the Desert: _Guercino?_

     35. Birth of St. John: _Vittore Pisanello_.

     21. Spozalizio: _V. Pisanello_.

     23. St. Sylvester before Maximin II.: _Pesellino_.

     24. Madonna and Child: _F. Francia?_

     28. Annunciation: _Fil. Lippi_.

     29. St. Sylvester and the Dragon: _Pesellino_ (see the account of
     Sta. Maria Liberatrice).

     33. St. Agnes on the burning pile: _Guercino_.

     37. Magdalen: _Copy of the Titian in the Pitti Palace_.

_4th Room._--

     A bust of Innocent X. (with whose ill-acquired wealth this palace
     was built) in rosso-antico, with a bronze head: _Bernini_.

_5th Room._--

     17. The Money-changers: _Quentin Matsys_.

     25. St. Joseph: _Guercino_. In the centre, a group of Jacob
     wrestling with the Angel: _School of Bernini_.

_6th Room._--

     8. Portrait of Olympia Maldacchini, the sister-in-law of Innocent
     X., who ruled Rome in his time.

     13. Madonna: _Carlo Maratta_.

     30. Sketch of a Boy: _Incognito_.

From this room we enter a small cabinet, hung with pictures of
_Breughel_ and _Fiammingo_, and containing a bust by _Algardi_, of
Olympia Maldacchini-Pamfili, who built the Villa Doria Pamfili for her

_7th Room._--

     8. Belisarius in the desert: _Salvator Rosa_.

     19. Slaughter of the Innocents: _Mazzolino_.

We now enter the Galleries--which begin towards the left--

_1st Gallery._--

     2. Holy Family in glory, and two Franciscan Saints adoring:

     3. Magdalen: _Annibale Caracci_.

     8. Two Heads: _Quentin Matsys_.

     9. Holy Family: _Sassoferrato_.

     10. Story of the conversion of S. Eustachio (see the description of
     his church): _School of Albert Durer_.

     14. A Portrait: _Titian_.

     15. Holy Family: _Andrea del Sarto_.

     20. The Three Ages of Man: _Titian_.*

     21. Return of the Prodigal Son: _Guercino_.

     25. Landscape with the Flight into Egypt: _Claude Lorraine_.

     26. The meeting of Mary and Elizabeth: _Garofalo_.

     38. Copy of the "Nozze Aldobrandini:" _Poussin_.

     45. Madonna: _Guido Reni_.

     50. Holy Family: _Giulio Romano, from Raphael_.

_2nd Gallery._--

     6. Madonna: _Fran. Francia_.

     14. "Bartolo and Baldo:" _Raphael_.*

     17. Portrait: _Titian_.

     21. Portrait of a Widow: _Vandyke_.

     24. Three Heads, called Calvin, Luther, and Catherine: _Giorgione_.

     26. Sacrifice of Isaac: _Titian_.

     33. Portrait of a Pamfili: _Vandyke_.

     40. Herodias with the Head of John the Baptist: _Pordenone_. A
     grand bust of Andrew Doria.

     50. "The Confessor:" _Rubens_.

     53. Joanna of Arragon: _School of Leonardo da Vinci_.*

     56. Magdalene: _School of Titian_.

     61. Adoration of the Infant Jesus: _Gio. Batt. Benvenuti_

     66. Holy Family: _Garofalo_.

     69. Glory crowning Virtue (a sketch): _Correggio_.

     80. Portrait of Titian and his Wife: _Titian_. Also a number of
     pictures of the Creation: _Breughel_.

_3rd Gallery._--

     1, 6, 28, 34. Landscapes (with figures introduced): _Ann. Caracci_.

     5. Landscape, with Mercury stealing cattle: _Claude Lorraine_.

     10. Titian's Wife: _Titian_.

     11. "Niccolaus Macchiavellus Historiar. Scriptor:" _Bronzino_.

     12. "The Mill:" _Claude Lorraine_.*

     "The foreground of the picture of 'the Mill' is a piece of very
     lovely and perfect forest scenery, with a dance of peasants by a
     brook-side; quite enough subject to form, in the hands of a master,
     an impressive and complete picture. On the other side of the brook,
     however, we have a piece of pastoral life; a man with some bulls
     and goats tumbling head foremost into the water, owing to some
     sudden paralytic affection of all their legs. Even this group is
     one too many; the shepherd had no business to drive his flock so
     near the dancers, and the dancers will certainly frighten the
     cattle. But when we look farther into the picture, our feelings
     receive a sudden and violent shock, by the unexpected appearance,
     amidst things pastoral and musical, of the military; a number of
     Roman soldiers riding in on hobby-horses, with a leader on foot,
     apparently encouraging them to make an immediate and decisive
     charge on the musicians. Beyond the soldiers is a circular temple,
     in exceedingly bad repair; and close beside it, built against its
     very walls, a neat water-mill in full work; by the mill flows a
     large river with a weir across it.... At an inconvenient distance
     from the water-side stands a city, composed of twenty-five round
     towers and a pyramid. Beyond the city is a handsome bridge; beyond
     the bridge, part of the Campagna, with fragments of aqueducts;
     beyond the Campagna the chain of the Alps; on the left, the
     cascades of Tivoli.

     "This is a fair example of what is commonly called an 'ideal'
     landscape; _i.e._ a group of the artist's studies from nature,
     individually spoiled, selected with such opposition of character as
     may insure their neutralizing each other's effect, and united with
     sufficient unnaturalness and violence of association to insure
     their producing a general sensation of the impossible."--_Ruskin's
     Modern Painters._

     "Many painters take a particular spot, and sketch it to perfection;
     but Claude was convinced that taking nature as he found it, seldom
     produced beauty. Neither did he like exhibiting in his pictures
     accidents of nature. He professed to pourtray the style of general
     nature, and so his pictures were a composition of the various
     draughts which he had previously made from beautiful scenes and
     prospects."--_Sir J. Reynolds._

     18. Pietà: _Ann. Caracci_.

     23. Landscape, with the Temple of Apollo: _Claude Lorraine_.

     26. Portrait: _Mazzolino_.

     27. Portrait: _Giorgione_.

     33. Landscape, with Diana hunting: _Claude Lorraine_.

At the end of this gallery is a small cabinet, containing the gems of
the collection:--

     1. Portrait of a "Letterato:" _Lucas V. Leyden?_*

     2. Portrait of Andrea Doria: _Sebastian del Piombo_.*

     3. Portrait of Giannetto Doria: _Bronzino_.*

     4. Portrait of S. Filippo Neri, as a boy: _Barocci_.

     5. Portrait of Innocent X.; Gio. Battista Pamfili (1644--55):

     6. Entombment: _John Emelingk_.*

Here, also, is the bust of the late beloved Princess Doria (Lady Mary
Talbot), which has always been veiled in crape since her death.

The _4th Gallery_ is decorated with mirrors, and with statues of no
especial merit.

     "In the whole immense range of rooms of the Palazzo Doria, I saw
     but a single fire-place, and that so deep in the wall that no
     amount of blaze would raise the atmosphere of the room ten degrees.
     If the builder of the palace, or any of his successors, have
     committed crimes worthy of Tophet, it would be a still worse
     punishment to him to wander perpetually through this suite of
     rooms, on the cold floors of polished brick tiles, or marble, or
     mosaic, growing a little chiller and chiller through every moment
     of eternity--or at least, till the palace crumbles down upon
     him."--_Hawthorne, Notes on Italy._

Opposite the Palazzo Doria is the _Palazzo Salviati_. The next two
streets on the left lead into the long narrow square called _Piazza
Santi Apostoli_, containing several handsome palaces. That on the right
is the _Palazzo Odescalchi_, built by Bernini, in 1660, for Cardinal
Fabio Chigi, to whose family it formerly belonged. It has some fine
painted and carved wooden ceilings. This palace is supposed to be the
scene of the latest miracle of the Roman Catholic Church. The present
Princess Odescalchi had long been bedridden, and was apparently dying of
a hopeless disease, when, while her family were watching what they
considered her last moments, the pope (Pius IX.) sent, by the hands of a
nun, a little loaf (panetello), which he desired her to swallow. With
terrible effort, the sick woman obeyed, and was immediately healed, and
on the following day the astonished Romans saw her go in person to the
pope, at the Vatican, to return thanks for her restoration!

The building at the end of the square is the _Palazzo Valentini_, which
once contained a collection of antiquities.

Near this, on the left, but separated from the piazza by a courtyard, is
the vast _Palazzo Colonna_, begun, in the fifteenth century, by Martin
V., and continued at various later periods. Julius II. at one time made
it his residence, and also Cardinal (afterwards San Carlo) Borromeo.
Part of it is now the residence of the French ambassadors. The palace is
built very near the site of the ancient fortress of the Colonna
family--so celebrated in times of mediæval warfare with the Orsini--of
which one lofty tower still remains, in a street leading up to the

The _Gallery_ is shown every day, except Sundays and holidays, from 11
to 3. It is entered by the left wing. The first room is a fine, gloomy
old hall, containing the family dais, and hung with decaying Colonna
portraits. Then come three rooms covered with tapestries, the last
containing a pretty statue of a girl, sometimes called Niobe. Hence we
reach the pictures. The _1st Room_ has an interesting collection of the
early schools, including Madonnas of _Filippo Lippi_; _Luca Longhi_;
_Botticelli_; _Gentile da Fabriano_; _Innocenza da Imola_; a curious
Crucifixion, by _Jacopo d'Avanzo_; and a portrait by _Giovanni Sanzio_,
father of Raphael.

The ceiling of the _3rd Room_ has a fresco, by _Battoni_ and _Luti_, of
the apotheosis of Martin V. (Oddone Colonna, 1417--24). Among its
pictures, are St. Bernard, _Giovanni Bellini_; Onuphrius Pavinius,
_Titian_; Holy Family, _Bronzino_; Peasant dining, _Annibale Caracci_;
St. Jerome, _Spagna_; Portrait, _Paul Veronese_; Holy Family,

Hence we enter the _Great Hall_, a truly grand room, hung with mirrors
and painted with flowers by _Mario de' Fiori_, and with genii by
_Maratta_. The statues here are unimportant. The ceiling is adorned with
paintings, by _Coli_ and _Gherardi_, of the battle of Lepanto, Oct. 8,
1571, which Marc-Antonio Colonna assisted in gaining. The best pictures
are the family portraits:--Federigo Colonna, _Sustermanns_; Don Carlo
Colonna, _Vandyke_; Card. Pompeio Colonna, _Lorenzo Lotto_; Vittoria
Colonna, _Muziano_; Lucrezia Colonna, _Vandyke_; Pompeio Colonna,
_Agostino Caracci_; Giacomo Sciarra Colonna, _Giorgione_. We may also
notice an extraordinary picture of the Madonna rescuing a child from a
demon, by _Niccolo d'Alunno_, with a double portrait, by _Tintoret_, on
the right wall, and a Holy Family of _Palma Vecchio_ at the end of the
gallery. Near the entrance are some glorious old cabinets, inlaid with
ivory and lapis-lazuli. On the steps leading to the upper end of the
hall is a bomb left on the spot where it fell during the siege of Rome
in 1848.

(Through the palace access may be obtained to the beautiful Colonna
Gardens; but as they are generally visited from the Quirinal, they will
be noticed in the description of that hill.)

     "On parle d'un Pierre Colonna, dépouillé de tous ses biens en 1100
     par le pape Pascal II. Il fallait que la famille fût déjà
     passablement ancienne, car les grandes fortunes ne s'élèvent pas en
     un jour."--_About._

     "Si n'etoit le différent des Ursins et des Colonnois (Orsini and
     Colonna) la terre de l'Eglise seroit la plus heureuse habitation
     pour les subjects, qui soit en tout le monde."--_Philippe de
     Comines._ 1500.

    "Gloriosa Colonna, in cui s' appoggia
      Nostra speranza, e'l gran nome Latino,
      Ch'ancor non torte del vero cammino
    L'ira di Giove per ventosa pioggia."

    _Petrarca, Sonnetto_ X.

Adjoining the Palazzo Colonna is the fine _Church of the Santi
Apostoli_, founded in the sixth century, rebuilt by Martin V., in 1420,
and modernized, _c._ 1602, by Fontana. The portico contains a
magnificent bas-relief of an eagle and an oak-wreath (frequently copied
and introduced in architectural designs).

     "Entrez sous la portique de l'église des Saints-Apôtres, et vous
     trouverez là, encadré par hasard dans le mur, un aigle qu'entoure
     une couronne d'un magnifique travail. Vous reconnaîtrez facilement
     dans cet aigle et cette couronne la représentation d'une ensigne
     romaine, telle que les bas-reliefs de la colonne Trajane vous en
     ont montré plusieurs; seulement ce qui était là en petit est ici en
     grand."--_Ampère, Emp._ ii. 168.

Also in the portico, is a monument, by _Canova_, to Volpato, the
engraver. Over the sacristy door is the tomb of Pope Clement XIV. (Giov.
Antonio Ganganelli, 1769-74), also by Canova, executed in his
twenty-fifth year.

     "La mort de Clément XIV. est du 22 Septembre, 1774. A cette époque,
     Alphonse de Liguori était évêque de Sainte-Agathe des Goths, au
     royaume de Naples. Le 22 Septembre, au matin, l'évêque tomba dans
     une espèce de sommeil léthargique après avoir dit la messe, et,
     pendant vingt-quatre heures, il demeura sans mouvement dans son
     fauteuil. Ses serviteurs s'étonnant de cet état, le lendemain, avec
     lui:--'Vous ne savez pas, leur dit-il, que j'ai assisté le pape qui
     vient de mourir.' Peu après, la nouvelle du décès de Clément arriva
     à Sainte Agathe."--_Gournerie, Rome Chrétienne_, ii. 362.

In 1873 the traditional grave of St. Philip and St. James, the
"Apostoli" to whom this church is dedicated, was opened during its
restoration. Two bodies were found, enclosed in a sarcophagus of
beautiful transparent marble, and have been duly enshrined. In the choir
are monuments of the fifteenth century, to two relations of Pope Sixtus
IV., Pietro Riario, and Cardinal Raffaelo Riario. To the right is the
tomb of the Chevalier Girard, brother-in-law of Pope Julius II., and
maître d'hôtel to Charles VIII. and Louis XII. of France. The tomb of
Cardinal Bessarion was removed from the church, in 1702, to the
cloisters of the adjoining Convent, which is the residence of the
General of the Order of "Minori Conventuali" (Black Friars). The
altar-piece represents the martyrdom of SS. Philip and James, by

The heart of Maria Clementina Sobieski (buried in St. Peter's), wife of
James III., called the First Pretender, is also preserved here, as is
shown by a Latin inscription.

     "Le roi d'Angleterre est devot a l'excès; sa matinée se passe en
     prières aux Saints-Apôtres, près du tombeau de sa femme."--_De
     Brosses_, 1739.

In 1552 this church was remarkable for the sermons of the monk Felix
Peretti, afterwards Sixtus V.

     "Suivant un manuscrit de la bibliothèque Alfieri, un jour, pendant
     qu'il était dans la chaire des Saints-Apôtres, un billet cacheté
     lui fut remis; Frère Félix l'ouvre et y lit, en face d'un certain
     nombre de propositions que l'on disait être extraites de ses
     discours, ce mot écrit en gros caractères: MENTIRIS (tu mens). Le
     fougueux orateur eut peine à contenir son émotion; il termina son
     sermon en quelques paroles, et courut au palais de l'Inquisition
     présenter le billet mystérieux, et demander qu'on examinât
     scrupuleusement sa doctrine. Cet examen lui fut favorable, et il
     lui valut l'amitié du grand inquisiteur, Michael Ghislieri, qui
     comprit aussitôt tout le parti qu'on pouvait tirer d'un homme dont
     les moindres actions étaient empreintes d'une inébranlable force de

In this church is buried the young Countess Savorelli, the story of
whose love, misfortunes, and death, has been celebrated by About, under
the name of _Tolla_ (the Lello of the story having been one of the
Doria-Pamfili family).

     "The convent which Tolla had sanctified by her death sent three
     embassies in turn to beg to preserve her relics: already the people
     spoke of her as a saint. But Count Feraldi (Savorelli) considered
     that it was due to his honour and to his vengeance to bear her
     remains with pomp to the tomb of his family. He had sufficient
     influence to obtain that for which permission is not granted once
     in ten years: the right of transporting her uncovered, upon a bed
     of white velvet, and of sparing her the horrors of a coffin. The
     beloved remains were wrapped in the white muslin robe which she
     wore in the garden on the day when she exchanged her sweet vows
     with Lello. The Marchesa Trasimeni, ill and wasted as she was, came
     herself to arrange her hair in the manner she loved. Every garden
     in Rome despoiled itself to send her its flowers; it was only
     necessary to choose. The funeral procession quitted the church of
     S. Antonio Abbate on Thursday evening at 7.30 for the Santi
     Apostoli, where the Feraldis are buried. The body was preceded by a
     long file of the black and white confraternities, each bearing its
     banner. The red light of the torches played upon the countenance of
     the beautiful dead, and seemed to animate her afresh. The piazza
     was filled with a dense and closely packed but dumb crowd; no
     discordant sound troubled the grief of the relations and friends of
     Tolla, who wept together at the Palazzo Feraldi....

     "The Church of the Apostoli and the tomb of the poor loving girl,
     became at certain days of the year an object of pilgrimage, and
     more than one young Roman maiden adds to her evening litany the
     words, 'St. Tolla, virgin and martyr, pray for us.'"--_About._

Just beyond the church is the _Palazzo Muto-Savorelli_ (the home of
Tolla, "Palazzo Feraldi") long the residence of Prince Charles Edward
("the last Pretender"), who died here in 1788. Hence the _Via delle
Vergini_, with its dismal lines of latticed convent-windows, leads to
the Fountain of Trevi.

Returning to the Corso, we pass (right) _Palazzo Buonaparte_, built by
Giovanni dei Rossi in 1660. Here Lætitia Buonaparte--"Madame Mère"--the
mother of Napoleon I., died February 2nd, 1836. The present head of the
family is Cardinal Lucien-Louis Buonaparte, son of Prince Charles (son
of Lucien) and of Princess Zénaïde, daughter of King Joseph of Spain.
His only surviving brother is Prince Napoleon Buonaparte.

This palace forms one corner of the _Piazza di Venezia_, which contains
the ancient castellated _Palace_ of the Republic of Venice, built in
1468 by Giuliano da Majano (with materials plundered from the Coliseum)
for Paul II., who was of Venetian birth. On the ruin of the republic the
palace fell into the hands of Austria, and is still the residence of the
Austrian ambassador, to whom it was specially reserved on the cession of
Venice to Italy.

Opposite this, on a line with the Corso, is the _Palazzo Torlonia_,
built by Fontana in 1650, for the Bolognetti family.

     "Nobility is certainly more the fruit of wealth in Italy than in
     England. Here, where a title and estate are sold together, a man
     who can buy the one secures the other. From the station of a
     lacquey, an Italian who can amass riches, may rise to that of duke.
     Thus Torlonia, the Roman banker, purchased the title and estate of
     the Duca di Bracciano, fitted up the 'Palazzo Nuovo di Torlonia'
     with all the magnificence that wealth commands; and a marble
     gallery, with its polished floors, modern statues, painted
     ceilings, and gilded furniture, far outshines the faded splendour
     of the halls of the old Roman nobility."--_Eaton's Rome._

     "Un ancien domestique de place, devenu spéculateur et banquier,
     achète un marquisat, puis une principauté. Il crée un majorat pour
     son fils aîné et une seconde géniture en faveur de l'autre. L'un
     épouse une Sforza-Cesarini et marie ses deux fils à une Chigi et
     une Ruspoli; l'autre obtient pour femme une Colonna-Doria. C'est
     ainsi que la famille Torlonia, par la puissance de l'argent et la
     faveur du saint-père, s'est élevée presque subitement à la hauteur
     des plus grands maisons népotiques et féodales."--_About._

The most interesting of the antiquities preserved in this palace is a
bas-relief, representing a combat between men and animals, brought
hither from the Palazzo Orsini, and probably pourtraying the famous
dedication of the theatre of Marcellus on that site, celebrated by the
slaughter of six hundred animals.

The end of the Corso--narrowed by a projecting wing of the Venetian
Palace--is known as the _Ripresa dei Barberi_, because there the
horses, which run in the races during the Carnival, are caught in large
folds of drapery let down across the street to prevent their dashing
themselves to pieces against the opposite wall.

Close to the end of this street, built into the wall of a house in the
Via di Marforio, is one of the few relics of republican times in the
city,--a Doric _Tomb_, bearing an inscription which states that it was
erected by order of the people on land granted by the Senate to Caius
Publicius Bibulus, the plebeian ædile, and his posterity. Petrarch
mentions in one of his letters that he wrote one of his sonnets leaning
against the tomb of Bibulus.

This tomb has a secondary interest as marking the commencement of the
Via Flaminia, as it stood just outside the Porta Ratumena from whence
that road issued. There are some obscure remains of another tomb on the
other side of the street. The Via Flaminia, like the Via Appia, was once
fringed with tombs.

From the Ripresa dei Barberi, a street passing under an arch on the
right, leads to the back of the Venetian Palace, where is the _Church of
S. Marco_, originally founded in the time of Constantine, but rebuilt in
833, and modernized by Cardinal Quirini in 1744. Its portico, which is
lined with early Christian inscriptions, contains a fine fifteenth
century doorway, surmounted by a figure of St. Mark. The interior is in
the form of a basilica, its naves and aisles separated by twenty
columns, and ending in an apse. The best pictures are S. Marco, "a pope
enthroned, by _Carlo Crivelli_, resembling in sharpness of finish and
individuality the works of Bartolomeo Viviani,"[18] and a Resurrection
by _Palma Giovane_.

     "The mosaics of S. Marco, executed under Pope Gregory IV. (A.D.
     827--844), with all their splendour, exhibit the utmost poverty of
     expression. Above the tribune, in circular compartments, is the
     portrait of Christ between the symbols of the Evangelists, and
     further below SS. Peter and Paul (or two prophets) with scrolls;
     within the tribune, beneath a hand extended with a wreath, is the
     standing figure of Christ with an open book, and on either side, S.
     Angelo and Pope Gregory IV. Further on, but still belonging to the
     dome, are the thirteen lambs, forming a second and quite uneven
     circle round the figures. The execution is here especially rude,
     and of true Byzantine rigidity, while, as if the artist knew that
     his long lean figures were anything but secure upon their feet, he
     has given them each a separate little pedestal. The lines of the
     drapery are chiefly straight and parallel, while, with all this
     rudeness, a certain play of colour has been contrived by the
     introduction of high lights of another colour."--_Kugler._

This church is said to have been originally founded in honour of the
Evangelist in 337 by Pope Marco, but this pope, being himself canonized,
is also honoured here, and is buried under the high altar. On April
25th, St. Mark's Day, a grand procession of clergy starts from this
church. It was for the most part rebuilt under Gregory IV. in 838.

Behind the Palazzo Venezia is the vast _Church of Il Gesù_, begun in
1568 by the celebrated Vignola, but the cupola and façade completed in
1575 by his scholar Giacomo della Porta. In the interior is the monument
of Cardinal Bellarmin, and various pictures representing events in the
lives or deaths of the Jesuit saints,--that of the death of St. Francis
Xavier is by _Carlo Maratta_. The high altar, by Giacomo della Porta,
has fine columns of giallo-antico. The altar of St. Ignatius at the end
of the left transept is of gaudy magnificence. It was designed by Padre
Pozzi, the group of the Trinity being by Bernardino Ludovisi; the globe
in the hand of the Almighty is said to be the largest piece of
lapis-lazuli in existence. Beneath this altar, and his silver statue,
lies the body of St. Ignatius Loyola, in an urn of gilt bronze, adorned
with precious stones. A great ceremony takes place in this church on
July 31st, the feast of St. Ignatius, and on December 31st a Te Deum is
sung here for the mercies of the past year, in the presence of the pope,
cardinals, and the people of Rome,--a really solemn and impressive

The _Convent of the Gesù_ is the residence of the General of the Jesuits
("His Paternity"), and the centre of religious life in their Order. The
rooms in which St. Ignatius lived and died are of the deepest historic
interest. They consist of four chambers. The first, now a chapel, is
that in which he wrote his "Constitutions." The second, also a chapel,
is that in which he died. It contains the altar at which he daily
celebrated mass, and the autograph engagement to live under the same
laws of obedience, poverty, and chastity, signed by Laynez, Francis
Xavier, and Ignatius Loyola. On its walls are two portraits of Ignatius
Loyola, one as a young knight, the other as a Jesuit father, and
portraits of S. Carlo Borromeo and S. Filippo Neri. It was in this
chamber also that St. Francis Borgia died. The third room was that of
the attendant monk of St. Ignatius; the fourth is now a kind of museum
of relics containing portions of his robes and small articles which
belonged to him and to other saints of the Order.

Facing the Church of the Gesù is the _Palazzo Altieri_, built by
Cardinal Altieri in 1670, from designs of Giov. Antonio Rossi.

     "Quand le palais Altieri fut achevé, les Altieri, neveux de Clément
     X., invitèrent leur oncle à le venir voir. Il s'y fit porter, et
     d'aussi loin qu'il aperçut la magnificence et l'étendue de cette
     superbe fabrique, il reboussa chemin le cœur serré, sans dire un
     seul mot, et mourut peu après."--_De Brosses._

     "On the staircase of the Palazzo Altieri, is an ancient colossal
     marble _finger_, of such extraordinary size, that it is really
     worth a visit."--_Eaton's Rome._

This palace was the residence of the late noble-hearted vicar-general,
Cardinal Altieri, who died a martyr to his devotion to his flock (as
Bishop of Albano) during the terrible visitation of cholera at Albano in

The _Piazza del Gesù_ is considered to be the most draughty place in
Rome. The legend runs that the devil and the wind were one day taking a
walk together. When they came to this square, the devil, who seemed to
be very devout, said to the wind, "Just wait a minute, mio caro, while I
go into this church." So the wind promised, and the devil went into the
Gesù, and has never come out again--and the wind is blowing about in the
Piazza del Gesù to this day.



     The Story of the Hill--Piazza del Campidoglio--Palace of the
     Senator--View from the Capitol Tower--The Tabularium--The Museo
     Capitolino--Gallery of Statues--Palace of the Conservators--Gallery
     of Pictures--Palazzo Caffarelli--Tarpeian Rock--Convent and Church
     of Ara-Cœli--Mamertine Prisons.

The Capitoline was the hill of the kings and the republic, as the
Palatine was of the empire.

Entirely composed of tufa, its sides, now concealed by buildings or by
the accumulated rubbish of ages, were abrupt and precipitous, as are
still the sides of the neighbouring citadels of Corneto and Cervetri. It
was united to the Quirinal by an isthmus of land cut away by Trajan, but
in every other direction was isolated by its perpendicular cliffs:--

    "Arduus in valles et fora clivus erat."

    _Ovid, Fast._ i. 264.

Up to the time of the Tarquins, it bore the name of Mons Saturnus,[19]
from the mythical king Saturn, who is reported to have come to Italy in
the reign of Janus, and to have made a settlement here. His name was
derived from sowing, and he was looked upon as the introducer of
civilization and social order, both of which are inseparably connected
with agriculture. His reign here was thus considered to be the golden
age of Italy. His wife was Ops, the representative of plenty.[20]

     "C'est la tradition d'un âge de paix représenté par le règne
     paisible de Saturne; avant qu'il y eut une _Roma_, ville de la
     force, il y eut une _Saturnia_, ville de la paix."--_Ampère, Hist.
     Rom._ i. 86.

Virgil represents Evander, the mythical king of the Palatine, as
exhibiting Saturnia, already in ruins, to Æneas.

    "Hæc duo præterea disjectis oppida muris,
    Reliquias veterumque vides monumenta virorum.
    Hanc Janus pater, hanc Saturnus condidit arcem:
    Janiculum huic, illi fuerat Saturnia nomen."

    _Æn._ viii. 356.

When Romulus had fixed his settlement upon the Palatine, he opened an
asylum for fugitive slaves upon the then deserted Saturnus, and here, at
a sacred oak, he is said to have offered up the spoils of the
Cæcinenses, and their king Acron, who had made a war of reprisal upon
him, after the rape of their women in the Campus Martius; here also he
vowed to build a temple to Jupiter Feretrius, where spoils should always
be offered. But in the mean time, the Sabines, under Titius Tatus,
besieged and took the hill, having a gate of its fortress (said to have
been on the ascent above the spot where the arch of Severus now stands)
opened to them by Tarpeia, who gazed with longing upon the golden
bracelets of the warriors, and, obtaining a promise to receive that
which they wore upon their arms, was crushed by their shields as they
entered. Some authorities, however, maintain that she asked and obtained
the hand of king Tatius. From this time the hill was completely occupied
by the Sabines, and its name became partially merged in that of _Mons
Tarpeia_, which its southern side has always retained. Niebuhr states
that it is a popular superstition that the beautiful Tarpeia still sits,
sparkling with gold and jewels, enchanted and motionless, in a cave in
the centre of the hill.

After the death of Tatius, the Capitoline again fell under the
government of Romulus, and his successor, Numa Pompilius, founded here a
Temple of Fides Publica, in which the flamens were always to sacrifice
with a fillet on their right hands, in sign of fidelity. To Numa also is
attributed the worship of the god Terminus, who had a temple here in
very early ages.

Under Tarquinius Superbus, B.C. 535, the magnificent _Temple of Jupiter
Capitolinus_, which had been vowed by his father, was built with money
taken from the Volscians in war. In digging its foundations, the head of
a man was found, still bloody, an omen which was interpreted by an
Etruscan augur to portend that Rome would become the head of Italy. In
consequence of this, the name of the hill was once more changed, and has
ever since been _Mons Capitolinus_, or Capitolium.

The site of this temple has always been one of the vexed questions of
history. At the time it was built, as now, the hill consisted of two
peaks, with a level space between them. Niebuhr and Gregorovius place
the temple on the south-eastern height, but Canina and other
authorities, with more probability, incline to the north-eastern
eminence, the present site of Ara-Cœli, because, among many other
reasons, the temple faced the south, and also the Forum, which it could
not have done upon the south-eastern summit; and also because the
citadel is always represented as having been nearer to the Tiber than
the temple: for when Herdonius, and the Gauls, arriving by the river,
scaled the heights of the Capitol, it was the _citadel_ which barred
their path, and in which, in the latter case, Manlius was awakened by
the noise of the sacred geese of Juno.

The temple of Jupiter occupied a lofty platform, the summit of the rock
being levelled to receive it. Its façade was decorated with three ranges
of columns, and its sides by a single colonnade. It was nearly square,
being 200 Roman feet in length, and 185 in width.[21] The interior was
divided into three cells; the figure of Jupiter occupied that in the
centre, Minerva was on his right, and Juno on his left. The figure of
Jupiter was the work of an artist of the Volscian city of Fregellæ,[22]
and was formed of terra-cotta, painted like the statues which we may
still see in the Etruscan museum at the Vatican, and clothed with the
tunica palmata, and the toga picta, the costume of victorious generals.
In his right hand was a thunder-bolt, and in his left a spear.

    "Jupiter angusta vix totus stabat in Æde;
      Inque Jovis dextra fictile fulmen erat."

    _Ovid, Fast._ i. 202.

At a later period the statue was formed of gold, but this figure had
ceased to exist in the time of Pliny.[23] When Martial wrote, the
statues of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, were all gilt.

    "Scriptus es æterno nunc primum, Jupiter, auro,
    Et soror, et summi filia tota patris."

    _Martial,_ xi. _Ep._ 5.

In the wall adjoining the cella of Minerva, a nail was fastened every
year, to mark the lapse of time.[24] In the centre of the temple was the
statue of Terminus.

     "The sumptuous fane of Jupiter Capitolinus had peculiar claims on
     the veneration of the Roman citizens; for not only the great lord
     of the earth was worshipped in it, but the conservative principle
     of property itself found therein its appropriate symbol. While the
     statue of Jupiter occupied the usual place of the divinity in the
     furthest recess of the building, an image of the god Terminus was
     also placed in the centre of the nave, which was open to the
     heavens. A venerable legend affirmed, that when, in the time of the
     kings, it was requisite to clear a space on the Capitoline to erect
     on it a temple to the great father of the gods, and the shrines of
     the lesser divinities were to be removed for the purpose, Terminus
     alone, the patron of boundaries, refused to quit his place, and
     demanded to be included in the walls of the new edifice. Thus
     propitiated he was understood to declare that henceforth the bounds
     of the republic should never be removed; and the pledge was more
     than fulfilled by the ever increasing circuit of her
     dominion."--_Merivale, Romans Under the Empire._

The gates of the temple were of gilt bronze, and its pavement of
mosaic;[25] in a vault beneath were preserved the Sibylline books placed
there by Tarquin. The building of Tarquin lasted 400 years, and was
burnt down in the civil wars, B.C. 83. It was rebuilt very soon
afterwards by Sylla, and adorned with columns of Pentelic marble, which
he had brought from the temple of Jupiter Olympus at Athens.[26] Sylla,
however, did not live to rededicate it, and it was finished by Q.
Lutatius Catulus, B.C. 62. This temple lasted till it was burnt to the
ground by the soldiers of Vitellius, who set fire to it by throwing
torches upon the portico, A.D. 69, and dragging forth Sabinus, the
brother of Vespasian, murdered him at the foot of the Capitol, near the
Mamertine Prisons.[27] Domitian, the younger son of Vespasian, was, at
that time, in the temple with his uncle, and escaped in the dress of a
priest; in commemoration of which, he erected a chapel to Jupiter
Conservator, close to the temple, with an altar upon which his adventure
was sculptured. The temple was rebuilt by Vespasian, who took so great
an interest in the work, that he carried away some of the rubbish on his
own shoulders; but his temple was the exact likeness of its predecessor,
only higher, as the aruspices said that the gods would not allow it to
be altered.[28] In this building Titus and Vespasian celebrated their
triumph for the fall of Jerusalem. The ruin of the temple began in A.D.
404, during the short visit of the youthful Emperor Honorius to Rome,
when the plates of gold which lined its doors were stripped off by
Stilicho.[29] It was finally plundered by the Vandals, in A.D. 455, when
its statues were carried off to adorn the African palace of Genseric,
and half its roof was stripped of the gilt bronze tiles which covered
it; but it is not known precisely when it ceased to exist,--the early
fathers of the Christian Church speak of having seen it. The story that
the bronze statue of Jupiter, belonging to this temple, was transformed
by Leo I. into the famous image of St. Peter, is very doubtful.

Close beside this, the queen of Roman temples, stood the _Temple of
Fides_, said to have been founded by Numa, where the senate were
assembled at the time of the murder of Tiberius Gracchus, B.C. 133, who
fell in front of the temple of Jupiter, at the foot of the statues of
the kings: his blood being the first spilt in Rome in a civil war.[30]
Near this, also, were the twin _Temples of Mars and Venus Erycina_,
vowed after the battle of Thrasymene, and consecrated, B.C. 215, by the
consuls Q. Fabius Maximus and T. Otacilius Crassus. Near the top of the
Clivus was the _Temple of Jupiter Tonans_, built by Augustus, in
consequence of a vow which he made in an expedition against the Cantabri
when his litter was struck, and the slave who preceded him was killed by
lightning. This temple was so near, that it was considered as a porch to
that of Jupiter Capitolinus, and in token of that character, Augustus
hung some bells upon its pediment.

On the Arx, or opposite height of the Capitol, was the _Temple of Honour
and Virtue_, built B.C. 103, by Marius, with the spoils taken in the
Cimbric wars. This temple was of sufficient size to allow of the senate
meeting there, to pass the decree for Cicero's recall.[31] Here Nardini
places the ancient _Temple of Jupiter Feretrius_, in which Romulus
dedicated the first spolia opima. Here, on the site of the house of
Manlius, was built the _Temple of Juno Moneta_, B.C. 345, in accordance
with a vow of L. Furius Camillus.[32] On this height, also, was the
_Altar of Jupiter Pistor_, which commemorated the stratagem of the
Romans, who threw down loaves into the camp of the besieging Gauls, to
deceive them as to the state of their supplies.[33]

    "Nomine, quam pretio celebratior, arce Tonantis,
      Dicam Pistoris quid velit ara Jovis."

    _Ovid, Fast._ vi. 349.

It was probably also on this side of the hill that the gigantic _Statue
of Jupiter_ stood, which was formed out of the armour taken from the
Samnites, B.C. 293, and which is stated by Pliny to have been of such a
size that it was visible from the top of Monte Cavo.

Two cliffs are now rival claimants to be considered as the Tarpeian
Rock; but it is most probable that the whole of the hill on this side of
the Intermontium was called the Mons Tarpeia, and was celebrated under
that name by the poets.

    "In summo custos Tarpeiæ Manlius arcis
    Stabat pro templo, et Capitolia celsa tenebat:
    Romuleoque recens horrebat regia culmo.
    Atque hic auratis volitans argenteus anser
    Porticibus, Gallos in limine adesse canebat."

    _Virgil, Æn._ viii. 652.

    "Aurea Tarpeia ponet Capitolia rupe,
    Et junget nostro templorum culmina cœlo."

    _Sil. Ital._ iii. 623.

    ... "juvat inter tecta Tonantis,
    Cernere Tarpeia pendentes rupe Gigantes."

    _Claud._ vi. _Cons. Hon._ 44.

Among the buildings upon the _Intermontium_, or space between the two
heights, were the Tabularium, or Record Office, part of which still
remains; a portico, built by Scipio Nasica,[34] and an arch which Nero
built here to his own honour, the erection of which upon the sacred
hill, hitherto devoted to the gods, was regarded even by the subservient
senate as an unparalleled act of presumption.[35]

In mediæval times the revolutionary government of Arnold of Brescia
established itself on this hill (1144), and Pope Lucius II., in
attempting to regain his temporal power, was slain with a stone in
attacking it. Here Petrarch received his laurel crown (1341); and here
the tribune Rienzi promulgated the laws of the "good estate." At this
time nothing existed on the Capitol but the church and convent of
Ara-Cœli, and a few ruins. Yet the cry of the people at the
coronation of Petrarch, "Long life to _the Capitol_ and the poet!" shows
that the scene itself was then still more present to their minds than
the principal actor upon it. But, when the popes returned from Avignon,
the very memory of the Capitol seemed effaced, and the spot was only
known as the Goat's Hill,--_Monte Caprino_. Pope Boniface IX. (1389--94)
was the first to erect on the Capitol, on the ruins of the Tabularium, a
residence for the senator and his assessors, Paul III. (1544--50)
employed Michael Angelo to lay out the Piazza del Campidoglio; when he
designed the Capitoline Museum and the Palace of the Conservators. Pius
IV., Gregory XIII., and Sixtus V. added the sculptures and other
monuments which now adorn the steps and balustrade.[36]

       *       *       *       *       *

Just beyond the end of the Corso, the _Via della Pedacchia_ turns to the
right, under a quaint archway in the secret passage constructed as a
means of escape for the Franciscan Generals of Ara-Cœli to the
Palazzo Venezia, as that in the Borgo is for the escape of the popes to
S. Angelo. In this street is a house decorated with simple but elegant
Doric details, and bearing an inscription over the door which shows that
it was that of Pietro da Cortona.

The street ends in the sunny open space at the foot of the Capitol, with
Ara-Cœli on its left, approached by an immense flight of steps,
removed hither from the Temple of the Sun, on the Quirinal, but marking
the site of the famous staircase to the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus,
which Julius Cæsar descended on his knees, after his triumph for his
Gallic victories.[37]

The grand staircase, "_La Cordonnata_," was opened in its present form
on the occasion of the entry of Charles V., in 1536.[38] At its foot are
two lions of Egyptian porphyry, which were removed hither from the
Church of S. Stefano in Cacco, by Pius IV. It was down the staircase
which originally existed on this site, that Rienzi the tribune fled in
his last moments, and close to the spot where the left-hand lion stands,
that he fell, covered with wounds, his wife witnessing his death from a
window of the burning palace above. A small space between the two
staircases has lately been transformed into a garden, through which
access may be obtained to four vaulted brick chambers, remnants of the
substructions of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. A living wolf is
kept here in commemoration of the nurse of Romulus and Remus.

At the head of the stairs are colossal statues of the twin heroes,
Castor and Pollux (brought hither from the Ghetto), commemorating the
victory of the Lake Regillus, after which they rode before the army to
Rome, to announce the joyful news, watered their horses at the Aqua
Argentina, and then passed away from the gaze of the multitude into
celestial spheres. Beyond these, on either side, are two trophies of
imperial times discovered in the ruin on the Esquiline, misnamed the
Trophies of Marius. Next come statues of Constantine the Great and his
son Constantine II., from their baths on the Quirinal. The two ends of
the parapet are occupied by ancient Milliaria, being the first and
seventh milestones of the Appian Way. The first milestone was found in
_situ_, and showed that the miles counted from the gates of Rome, and
not, as was formerly supposed, from the Milliarium Aureum, at the foot
of the Capitol.

We now find ourselves in the _Piazza del Campidoglio_, occupying the
Intermontium, where Brutus harangued the people after the murder of
Julius Cæsar. In the centre of the square is the famous _Statue of
Marcus Aurelius_, the only perfect ancient equestrian statue in
existence. It was originally gilt, as may still be seen from marks of
gilding upon the figure, and stood in front of the arch of
Septimius-Severus. Hence it was removed by Sergius III. to the front of
the Lateran, where, not long after, it was put to a singular use by John
XIII., who hung a refractory prefect of the city from it by his
hair.[39] During the rejoicings consequent upon the elevation of Rienzi
to the tribuneship in 1347, one of its nostrils was made to flow with
water and the other with wine. From its vicinity to the Lateran, so
intimately connected with the history of Constantine, it was supposed
during the middle ages to represent that Christian emperor, and this
fortunate error alone preserved it from the destruction which befell so
many other ancient imperial statues. Michael Angelo, when he designed
the buildings of the Capitoline Piazza, wished to remove the statue to
its present site, but the canons of the Lateran were unwilling to part
with their treasure, and only consented to its removal upon an annual
acknowledgment of their proprietorship, for which a bunch of flowers is
still presented once a year by the senators to the chapter of the
Lateran. Michael Angelo, standing in fixed admiration before this
statue, is said to have bidden the horse "Cammina." Even until late
years an especial guardian has been appointed to take care of it, with
an annual stipend of ten scudi a year, and the title of "Il custode del

     "They stood awhile to contemplate the bronze equestrian statue of
     Marcus Aurelius. The moonlight glistened upon traces of the gilding
     which had once covered both rider and steed; these were almost
     gone, but the aspect of dignity was still perfect, clothing the
     figure as it were with an imperial robe of light. It is the most
     majestic representation of the kingly character that ever the world
     has seen. A sight of the old heathen emperor is enough to create an
     evanescent sentiment of loyalty even in a democratic bosom, so
     august does he look, so fit to rule, so worthy of man's profoundest
     homage and obedience, so inevitably attractive of his love. He
     stretches forth his hand with an air of proud magnificence and
     unlimited authority, as if uttering a decree from which no appeal
     was permissible, but in which the obedient subject would find his
     highest interests consulted: a command that was in itself a

     "I often ascend the Capitoline Hill to look at Marcus Aurelius and
     his horse, and have not been able to refrain from caressing the
     lions of basalt. You cannot stand on the Aventine or the Palatine
     without grave thoughts, but standing on the spot brings me very
     little nearer the image of past ages."--_Niebuhr's Letters._

     "La statue équestre de Marc-Aurèle a aussi sa légende, et celle-là
     n'est pas du moyen âge, mais elle a été recueillie il y a peu
     d'années de la bouche d'un jeune Romain. La dorure, en partie
     détruite, se voit encore en quelques endroits. A en croire le jeune
     Romain, cependant, la dorure, au lieu d'aller s'effaçant toujours
     davantage, était en voie de progrès. 'Voyez, disait-il, la statue
     de bronze commence à se dorer, et quand elle le sera entièrement,
     le monde finira.'--C'est toujours, sous une forme absurde, la
     vieille idée romaine, que les destinées et l'existence de Rome sont
     liées aux destinées et à l'existence du monde. C'est ce qui faisait
     dire au septième siècle; ainsi que les pèlerins saxons l'avaient
     entendu et le répétaient; 'Quand le Colisée tombera, Rome et le
     monde finiront.'"--_Ampère, Emp._ ii. 228.

The building at the back of the piazza is _The Palace of the Senator_,
originally built by Boniface IX. (1389), but altered by Michael Angelo
to correspond with his buildings on either side. The fountain at the
foot of the double staircase was erected by Sixtus V., and is adorned
with statues of river gods found in the Colonna Gardens, and a curious
porphyry figure of Minerva--adapted as Rome. The body of this statue
was found at Cori, but the head and arms are modern additions.

     "Rome personnifiée, cette déesse à laquelle on érigea des temples,
     voulut d'abord être une Amazone, ce qui se conçoit, car elle était
     guerrière avant tout. C'est sous la forme de Minerve que Rome est
     assise sur la place du Capitole."--_Ampère, Hist. Romaine_, iii.

In the interior of this building the Hall of the Senators contains some
papal statues, and that of Charles of Anjou, who was made senator of
Rome in the thirteenth century.

The _Tower of the Capitol_ contains the great bell of Viterbo, carried
off from that town during the wars of the middle ages, which is never
rung except to announce the death of a pope, or the opening of the
carnival. During the closing years of the temporal power of the popes,
it has been difficult to obtain admission to the tower, but the ascent
is well repaid by the view from the summit, which embraces not only the
seven hills of Rome, but the various towns and villages of the
neighbouring plain and mountains which successively fell under its

     "Pour suivre les vicissitudes des luttes extérieures des Romains
     contre les peuples qui les entourent et les pressent de tous côtés,
     nous n'aurons qu'à regarder à l'horizon la sublime campagne romaine
     et ces montagnes qui l'encadrent si admirablement. Elles sont
     encore plus belles et l'œil prend encore plus de plaisir à les
     contempler quand on songe à ce qu'elles ont vu d'efforts et de
     courage dans les premiers temps de la république. Il n'est presque
     pas un point de cette campagne qui n'ait été témoin de quelque
     rencontre glorieuse; il n'est presque un rocher de ces montagnes
     qui n'est été pris et repris vingt fois.

     "Toutes ces nations sabelliques qui dominaient la ville du Tibre et
     semblaient placées là sur des hauteurs disposées en demi-cercle
     pour l'envelopper et l'écraser, toutes ces nations sont devant nous
     et à la portée du regard.

     "Voici de côté de la mer les montagnes des Volsques; plus à l'est
     sont les Herniques et les Æques; au nord, les Sabins; à l'ouest,
     d'autres ennemis, les Etrusques, dont le mont Ciminus est le

     "Au sud, la plaine se prolonge jusqu'à la mer. Ici sont les Latins,
     qui, n'ayant pas des montagnes pour leur servir de citadelle et de
     refuge, commenceront par être des alliés.

     "Nous pouvons donc embrasser le panorama historique des premiers
     combats qu'eurent à soutenir et que soutinrent si vaillamment les
     Romains affranchis."--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ ii. 373.

Beneath the Palace of the Senator (entered by a door in the street on
the right), are the gigantic remains of the _Tabularium_, consisting of
huge rectangular blocks of peperino supporting a Doric colonnade, which
is shown by an inscription still preserved to have been that of the
public Record Office, where the Tabulæ, engraved plates bearing
important decrees of the Senate, were preserved, having been placed
there by Q. Lutatius Catulus in B.C. 79. A gallery in the interior of
the Tabularium has been fitted up as a museum of architectural
antiquities collected from the neighbouring temples. This building is as
it were the boundary between inhabited Rome and that Rome which is a
city of ruins.

     "I came to the Capitol, and looked down on the other side. There
     before my eyes opened an immense grave, and out of the grave rose a
     city of monuments in ruins, columns, triumphal arches, temples, and
     palaces, broken, ruinous, but still beautiful and grand,--with a
     solemn mournful beauty! It was the giant apparition of ancient
     Rome."--_Frederika Bremer._

The traces of an ancient staircase still exist, which led down from the
Tabularium to the Forum. This is believed by many to have been the path
by which the besiegers under Vitellius, A.D. 69, attacked the Capitol.

The east side of the piazza--on the left as one stands at the head of
the steps--is the _Museo Capitolino_ (open daily from 9 to 4, for a
fee; and on Mondays and Thursdays gratis, from 2½ to 4½).

Above the fountain in the court, opposite the entrance, reclines the
colossal statue of a river-god, called Marforio, removed hither from the
end of the Via di Marforio (Forum Martis?) near the arch of Severus.
This figure, according to Roman fancy, was the friend and gossip of
Pasquin (at the Palazzo Braschi), and lively dialogues, merciless to the
follies of the government and the times, used to appear with early
morning, placarded on their respective pedestals, as passing between the
two. Thus, when Clement XI. mulcted Rome of numerous sums to send to his
native Urbino, Marforio asked, "What is Pasquino doing?" The next
morning Pasquin answered, "I am taking care of Rome, that it does not go
away to Urbino." In the desire of putting an end to such inconvenient
remarks, the government ordered the removal of one of the statues to the
Capitol, and, since Marforio has been shut up, Pasquino has lost his

From the corridor on the ground floor open several rooms devoted to
ancient inscriptions and sarcophagi with bas-reliefs. The first room on
the left has some bronzes--in the centre a mutilated horse, found, 1849,
in the Trastevere.

     "Calamis, venu un peu avant Phidias, n'eut point de rival pour les
     chevaux. Calamis, qui fut fondeur en bronze, serait-il l'auteur du
     cheval de bronze du Capitole, qui, en effet, semble plutôt un peu
     antérieur que postérieur à Phidias?"--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ iii.

At the foot of the staircase is a colossal statue of the Emperor
Hadrian, found on the Cœlian.

The _Staircase_ is lined with the fragments of the _Pianta Capitolina_,
a series of marble slabs of imperial date (found in the sixteenth
century under SS. Cosmo and Damian), inscribed with ground plans of
Rome, and exceedingly important from the light they throw upon the
ancient topography of the city.

The upper _Corridor_ is lined with statues and busts. Here and elsewhere
we will only notice those especially remarkable for beauty or historic

     L. 12. Satyr playing on a flute.
     R. 13. Cupid bending his bow.
     R. 20. Old woman intoxicated.

     "Tout le monde a remarqué dans le musée du Capitole une vieille
     femme serrant des deux mains une bouteille, la bouche entr'ouverte,
     les yeux mourants tournés vers le ciel, comme si, dans la
     jubilation de l'ivresse, elle savourait le vin qu'elle vient de
     boire. Comment ne pas voir dans cette caricature en marbre une
     reproduction de _la Vielle Femme ivre_ de Myron, qui passait pour
     une des curiosités de Smyrne."--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ iii. 272.

    L. 26. The infant Hercules strangling a serpent.
    L. 28. Grand Sarcophagus--the Rape of Proserpine.
    R. 33. Satyr playing on a flute.
    (In the wall on the left inscriptions from the columbarium of Livia.)
    R. 43. Head of Ariadne.
    L. 48. Sarcophagus--the birth and childhood of Bacchus.
    L. 56. Statue, draped.
    R. 64. Jupiter, on a cippus with a curious relief of Claudia drawing
    the boat with the image of the Magna Mater up the Tiber.
    L. 69. Bust of Caligula.
    R. 70. Marcus Aurelius, as a boy--a very beautiful bust.
    R. 70. Statue of Minerva from Velletri. The same as that in the
    Braccio Nuovo of the Vatican.
    R. 72. Trajan.
    76. In the window, a magnificent vase, found near the tomb
    of Cecilia Metella, standing on a puteal adorned with reliefs of the
    twelve principal gods and goddesses.

From the right of this corridor open two chambers. The first is named
the _Room of the Doves_, from the famous mosaic found in the ruins of
Hadrian's villa near Tivoli, and generally called _Pliny's Doves_,
because Pliny, when speaking of the perfection to which the mosaic art
had attained, describes a wonderful mosaic of Sosus of Pergamos, in
which one dove is seen drinking and casting her shadow on the water,
while others are pluming themselves on the edge of the vase. As a
pendant to this is another _Mosaic, of a Tragic and Comic Mask_. In the
farther window is the _Iliac Tablet_, an interesting relief in the soft
marble called palombino, relating to the story of the destruction of
Troy, and the flight of Æneas, and found at Bovillæ.

     "L'ensemble de la guerre contre Troie est contenu dans un abrégé
     figuré qu'on appelle la Table Iliaque, petit bas-relief destiné à
     offrir un résumé visible de cette guerre aux jeunes Romains, et à
     servir dans les écoles soit pour l'_Iliade_, soit pour les poëmes
     cycliques comme d'un _Index parlant_.

     "La Table Iliaque est un ouvrage romain fait à Rome. Tout ce qui
     touche aux origines troyennes de cette ville, inconnues à Homère et
     célébrées surtout par Stésichore avant de l'être par Virgile, tient
     dans ce bas-relief une place importante et domine dans sa
     composition."--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ iii. 431.

In the centre of the room is a pretty statuette of a girl shielding a

The second chamber, known as _The Reserved Cabinet_, contains the famous
_Venus of the Capitol_--a Greek statue, found immured in a wall upon the

     "La vérité et la complaisance avec lesquelles la nature est rendue
     dans la Vénus du Capitole faisaient de cette belle statue,--qui
     pourtant n'a rien d'indécent bien que par une pruderie peu chaste
     on l'ait reléguée dans un cabinet réservé,--faisaient de cette
     belle statue un sujet de scandale pour l'austérité des premiers
     chrétiens. C'était sans doute afin de la soustraire à leurs
     mutilations qu'on l'avait enfouie avec soin, ce qui l'a conservée
     dans son intégrité; ainsi son danger l'a sauvée. Comme on l'a
     trouvée dans le quartier suspect de la Suburra, on peut supposer
     qu'elle ornait l'atrium élégant de quelque riche
     courtisane."--_Ampère_, iii. 318.

The two smaller sculptures of Leda and the Swan, and Cupid and
Psyche--two lovely children embracing (most needlessly secluded here),
were found on the Aventine.

From the end of the gallery we enter

_The Hall of the Emperors._ In the centre is the beautiful seated statue
of Agrippina (grand-daughter of Augustus--wife of Germanicus--and mother
of Caligula).

     "On s'arrête avec respect devant la première Agrippine, assise avec
     une si noble simplicité et dont le visage exprime si bien la
     fermeté virile."--_Ampère_, iv.

     "Ici nous la contemplons telle que nous pouvons nous la figurer
     après la mort de Germanicus. Elle semble mise aux fers par le
     destin, mais sans pouvoir encore renoncer aux pensées superbes dont
     son âme était remplie aux jours de son bonheur."--_Braun._

Round the room are ranged 83 busts of Roman emperors, empresses, and
their near relations, forming perhaps the most interesting portrait
gallery in the world. Even viewed as works of art, many of them are of
the utmost importance. They are--

     1. Julius Cæsar, nat. B.C. 100; ob. B.C. 44.
     2. Augustus, Imp. B.C. 12--A.D. 14.
     3. Marcellus, his nephew and son-in-law, son
     of Octavia, ob. B.C. 23, aged 20.
     4, 5. Tiberius, Imp. A.D. 14-37.
     6. Drusus, his brother, son of Livia and Claudius Nero, ob. B.C. 10.
     7. Drusus, son of Tiberius and Vipsania, ob. A.D. 23.
     8. Antonia, daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia, wife of the elder
     Drusus, mother of Germanicus and Claudius.
     9. Germanicus, son of Drusus and Antonia, ob. A.D. 19.
     10. Agrippina, daughter of Julia and Agrippa, granddaughter of
     Augustus, wife of Germanicus. Died of starvation under Tiberius, A.D. 33.
     11. Caligula, Imp. A.D. 37-41, son of Germanicus and
     Agrippina. Murdered by the tribune Cherœa (in basalt).
     12. Claudius, Imp. A.D. 41-54, younger son of Drusus and Antonia.
     Poisoned by Agrippina.
     13. Messalina, third wife of Claudius. Put
     to death by Claudius, A.D. 48.

     "Une grosse commère sensuelle, aux traits bouffis, à l'air assez
     commun, mais qui pouvait plaire à Claude."--_Ampère, Emp._ ii. 32.

    14. Agrippina the younger, sixth wife of Claudius, daughter of Germanicus
        and Agrippina the elder, great-granddaughter of Augustus. Murdered by
        her son Nero, A.D. 60.

     "Ce buste la montre avec cette beauté plus grande que celle de sa
     mère, et qui était pour elle un moyen. Agrippine a les yeux levés
     vers le ciel, on dirait qu'elle craint, et qu'elle attend."--_Emp._
     ii. 34.

    15, 16. Nero, Imp. A.D. 54-69, son of Agrippina the younger by her first
        husband, Ahenobarbus. Died by his own hand.
    17. Poppæa Sabina (?), second wife of Nero. Killed by a kick from
    her husband, A.D. 62.

     "Ce visage a la délicatesse presque enfantine que pouvait offrir
     celui de cette femme, dont les molles recherches et les soins
     curieux de toilette étaient célèbres, et dont Diderot a dit avec
     vérité, bien qu'avec un peu d'emphase, 'C'était une furie sous le
     visage des grâces.'"--_Emp._ ii. 38.

    18. Galba, Imp. A.D. 69. Murdered in the Forum.
    19. Otho, Imp. A.D. 69. Died by his own hand.
    20. Vitellius (?), Imp. A.D. 69. Murdered at the Scalæ Gemoniæ.
    21. Vespasian, Imp. A.D. 70-79.
    22. Titus, Imp. A.D. 79-81. Supposed to have been poisoned by Domitian.
    23. Julia, daughter of Titus.
    24. Domitian, Imp. A.D. 81-96, son of Vespasian. Murdered
        in the Palace of the Cæsars.

     "Domitien est sans comparaison le plus beau des trois Flaviens:
     mais c'est une beauté formidable, avec un air farouche et
     faux."--_Emp._ ii. 12.

  25. Longina (?).
  26. Nerva (?), Imp. A.D. 96.
  27. Trajan, Imp. A.D. 98-118.
  28. Plotina, wife of Trajan.
  29. Marciana, sister of Trajan.
  30. Matidia, daughter of Marciana, niece of Trajan.
  31, 32. Hadrian, Imp. A.D. 118-138, adopted son of Trajan.
  33. Julia Sabina, wife of Hadrian, daughter of Matidia.
  34. Elius Verus, first adopted son of Hadrian.
  35. Antoninus Pius, Imp. A.D. 138-161, second adopted son of Hadrian.
  36. Faustina the elder, wife of Antoninus Pius and sister of Elius Verus.
  37. Marcus Aurelius, Imp. A.D. 161-180, son of Servianus by Paulina, sister
      of Hadrian, adopted by Antoninus Pius, as a boy.
  38. Marcus Aurelius, in later life.
  39. Annia Faustina, wife of Marcus Aurelius, daughter of Antoninus Pius
      and Faustina the elder.
  40. Galerius Antoninus, son of Antoninus Pius.
  41. Lucius Verus, son-in-law of Marcus Aurelius.
  42. Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus, daughter of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina
      the younger. Put to death at Capri for a plot against her husband.
  43. Commodus, Imp. A.D. 180-193, son of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina.
      Murdered in the Palace of the Cæsars.
  44. Crispina, wife of Commodus. Put to death by her husband at Capri.
  45. Pertinax, Imp. A.D. 193, successor of Commodus, reigned three months.
      Murdered in the Palace of the Cæsars.
  46. Didius Julianus, Imp. A.D. 193, successor of Pertinax. Murdered in
      the Palace of the Cæsars.
  47. Manlia Scantilla (?), wife of Didius Julianus.
                       {rival candidates (after murder of Didius
  48. Pescennius Niger,{Julianus, A.D. 193) for the Empire, which
  49. Clodius Albinus, {they failed to obtain, and were both put to
  50, 51. Septimius Severus, Imp. A.D. 193-211, successor of Didius Julianus.
  52. Julia Pia, wife of Septimius Severus.
  53. Caracalla, Imp. A.D. 211-217, son of Sept. Severus and Julia Pia.
  54. Geta, brother of Caracalla, by whose order he was murdered in the
      arms of Julia Pia.
  55. Macrinus, Imp. A.D. 217, murderer and successor of Caracalla. Murdered.
  56. Diadumenianus, son of Macrinus. Murdered with his father.
  57. Heliogabalus, Imp. A.D. 218--222, son of Julia Soemis, daughter of
      Julia Mœsa, who was sister of Julia Pia. Murdered.
  58. Annia Faustina, third wife of Heliogabalus, great-granddaughter of
      Marcus Aurelius.
  59. Julia Mœsa, sister-in-law of Septimius Severus, aunt of Caracalla,
      and grandmother of Alexander Severus.
  60. Alexander Severus, Imp., son of Julia Mammea, second daughter of Julia
      Mœsa. Murdered at the age of 30.
  61. Julia Mammea, daughter of Julia Mœsa, and mother of Alexander
      Severus. Murdered with her son.
  62. Julius Maximinus, Imp. 235--238; elected by the army. Murdered.
  63. Maximus. Murdered with his father, at the age of 18.
  64. Gordianus Africanus, Imp. 238; a descendant of Trajan. Died by his
      own hand.
  65. (Antoninus) Gordianus, Junior, Imp. 238, son of Gordianus Africanus and
      Fabia Orestella, great-granddaughter of Antoninus Pius. Died in battle.
  66. Pupienus, Imp. 238, {reigned together for four months and then
  67. Balbinus, Imp. 238, {were murdered.
  68. Gordianus Pius, Imp. 238, grandson, through his mother, of Gordianus
      Africanus. Murdered.
  69. Philip II., Imp. 244, son of, and co-emperor with Philip I. Murdered.
  70. Decius(?), Imp. 249--251. Forcibly elected by the army. Killed in
  71. Quintus Herennius Etruscus, son of Decius and Herennia Etruscilla.
      Killed in battle with his father.
  72. Hostilianus, son or son-in-law of Decius, Imp. 251, with Treb. Gallus.
  73. Trebonianus Gallus, Imp. 251--254. Murdered.
  74, 75. Volusianus, son of Trebonianus Gallus. Murdered.
  76. Gallienus, Imp. 261--268. Murdered.
  77. Salonina, wife of Gallienus.
  78. Saloninus, son of Gallienus and Salonina. Put to death by Postumus, A.D.
      259, at the age of 17.
  79. Marcus Aurelius Carinus, Imp. 283, son of the Emperor Carus. Murdered.
  80. Diocletian, Imp. 284-305; elected by the army.
  81. Constantinus Chlorus, Imp. 305-306, son of Eutropius and Claudia, niece
      of the Emperor Claudius and Quintilius, father of Constantine the Great.
  82. Julian the Apostate, Imp. 361-363, son of Julius Constantius and nephew
      of Constantine the Great. Died in battle.
  83. Magnus Decentius, brother of the Emperor Magnentius. Strangled
      himself, 353.

     "In their busts the lips of the Roman emperors are generally
     closed, indicating reserve and dignity, free from human passions
     and emotions."--_Winckelmann._

     "At Rome the emperors become as familiar as the popes. Who does not
     know the curly-headed Marcus Aurelius, with his lifted brow and
     projecting eyes--from the full round beauty of his youth to the
     more haggard look of his latest years? Are there any modern
     portraits more familiar than the severe wedge-like head of
     Augustus, with his sharp cut lips and nose,--or the dull phiz of
     Hadrian, with his hair combed down over his low forehead,--or the
     vain, perking face of Lucius Verus, with his thin nose, low brow,
     and profusion of curls,--or the brutal bull head of Caracalla,--or
     the bestial, bloated features of Vitellius?

     "These men, who were but lay figures to us at school, mere pegs of
     names to hang historic robes upon, thus interpreted by the living
     history of their portraits, the incidental illustrations of the
     places where they lived and moved and died, and the buildings and
     monuments they erected, become like men of yesterday. Art has made
     them our contemporaries. They are as near to us as Pius VII. and
     Napoleon."--_Story's Roba di Roma._

     "Nerva est le premier des bons, et Trajan le premier des grands
     empereurs romains; après lui il y en eut deux autres, les deux
     Antonins. Trois sur soixante-dix, tel est à Rome le bilan des
     gloires morales de l'empire."--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ liii.

Among the reliefs round the upper walls of this room are two,--of
Endymion sleeping, and of Perseus delivering Andromeda, which belong to
the set in the Palazzo Spada, and are exceedingly beautiful.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Hall of Illustrious Men_ contains a seated statue of M. Claudius
Marcellus (?), the conqueror of Syracuse, B.C. 212. Round the room are
ranged 93 busts of ancient philosophers, statesmen, and warriors. Among
the more important are:--

       4, 5, 6. Socrates.
             9. Aristides, the orator.
            10. Seneca (?).
            16. Marcus Agrippa.
            19. Theophrastus.
            23. Thales.
            25. Theon.
            27. Pythagoras.
            28. Alexander the Great(?).
            30. Aristophanes.
            31. Demosthenes.
            38. Aratus.
        39, 40. Democritus of Aldera.
        42, 43. Euripides.
    44, 45, 46. Homer.
            47. Eumenides.
            48. Cneius Domitius Corbulo, general under Claudius and Nero.
            49. Scipio Africanus.
            52. Cato Minor.
            54. Aspasia(?).
            55. Cleopatra (?).
            60. Thucydides (?).
            61. Æschines.
        62, 64. Epicurus.
            63. Epicurus and Metrodorus.
        68, 69. Masinissa.
            71. Antisthenes.
        72, 73. Julian the Apostate.
            75. Cicero.
            76. Terence.
            82. Æschylus (?).

Among the interesting bas-reliefs in this room is one of a Roman
interior with a lady trying to persuade her cat to dance to a lyre--the
cat, meanwhile, snapping, on its hind legs, at two ducks; the detail of
the room is given--even to the slippers under the bed.

_The Saloon_ contains, down the centre,

     1. Jupiter (in nero-antico), from Porto d'Anzio, on an altar with
     figures of Mercury, Apollo, and Diana.

     2, 4. Centaurs (in bigio-morato), by _Aristeas_ and _Papias_ (their
     names are on the bases), from Hadrian's villa.

     3. The young Hercules, found on the Aventine. It stands on an altar
     of Jupiter.

     "On voit au Capitole une statue d'Hercule très-jeune, en basalte,
     qui frappe assez désagréablement, d'abord, par le contraste,
     habilement exprimé toutefois, des formes molles de l'enfance et de
     la vigueur caractéristique du héros. L'imitation de la Grèce se
     montre même dans la matière que l'artiste a choisie; c'est un
     basalt verdâtre, de couleur sombre. Tisagoras et Alcon avaient fait
     un Hercule en fer, pour exprimer la force, et, comme dit Pline,
     pour signifier l'énergie persévérante de dieu."--_Ampère, Hist.
     Rom._ iii. 406.

     5. Æsculapius (in nero-antico), on an altar, representing a

Among the statues and busts round the room the more important are:--

     9. Marcus Aurelius.

     14. A Satyr.

     21. Hadrian, as Mars, from Ceprano.

     24. Hercules, in gilt bronze, found in the Forum-Boarium (the
     columns on either side come from the tomb of Cecilia Metella).

     "On cite de Myron trois Hercules, dont deux à Rome; l'un de ces
     derniers a probablement servi de modèle à l'Hercule en bronze doré
     du Capitole. Cette statue a été trouvée dans le marché aux
     Bœufs, non loin du grand cirque. L'Hercule de Myron était dans
     un temple élevé par Pompée et situé près du grand cirque; mais la
     statue du Capitole, dont le geste est maniéré, quel que soit son
     mérite, n'est pas assez parfaite qu'on puisse y reconnaître une
     œuvre de Myron. Peut-être Pompée n'avait placé dans son temple
     qu'une copie de l'un des deux Hercules de Myron et la donnait pour
     l'original; peut-être aussi Pline y a-t-il été trompé. La vanité
     que l'un montre dans tous les actes de sa vie et le peu de
     sentiment vrai que trahit si souvent la vaste composition de
     l'autre s'accordent également avec cette supposition et la rendent
     assez vraisemblable."--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ iii. 273.

     28. Hecuba.

     "Nous avons le personnage même d'Hécube dans la Pleureuse du
     Capitole. Cette prétendué pleureuse est une Hécube furieuse et une
     Hécube en scène, car elle porte le costume, elle a le geste et la
     vivacité du théâtre, je dirais volontiers de la pantomime.... Son
     regard est tourné vers le ciel, sa bouche lance des imprécations;
     on voit qu'elle pourra faire entendre ces hurlements, ces
     aboiements de la douleur effrénée que l'antiquité voulut exprimer
     en supposant que la malheureuse Hécube avait été métamorphosée en
     chienne, une chienne à laquelle on a arraché ses petits."--_Ampère,
     Hist. Rom._ iii. 468.

     31. Colossal bust of Antoninus Pius.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Hall of the Faun_ derives its name from the famous Faun of
rosso-antico, holding a bunch of grapes to his mouth, found in Hadrian's
Villa. It stands on an altar dedicated to Serapis. Against the right
wall is a magnificent sarcophagus, whose reliefs (much studied by
Flaxman) represent the battle of Theseus and the Amazons. The opposite
sarcophagus has a relief of Diana and Endymion. We should also notice--

15. A boy with a mask.

21. A boy with a goose (found near the Lateran).

Let into the wall is a black tablet--the Lex Regia, or
Senatus-Consultum, conferring imperial powers upon Vespasian, being the
very table upon which Rienzi declaimed in favour of the rights of the

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Hall of the Dying Gladiator_ contains the three gems of the
collection--"the Gladiator," "the Antinous of the Capitol," and the
"Faun of Praxiteles." Besides these, we should notice--2. Apollo with
the lyre, and 9. a bust of M. Junius Brutus, the assassin of Julius

In the centre of the room is the grand statue of the wounded Gaul,
generally known as the Dying Gladiator.

    "I see before me the gladiator lie:
    He leans upon his hand--his manly brow
    Consents to death, but conquers agony,
    And his drooped head sinks gradually low,--
    And through his side the last drops, ebbing slow
    From the red gash, fall heavy, one by one,
    Like the first of a thunder-shower; and now
    The arena swims around him--he is gone,
    Ere ceased the inhuman shout which hailed the wretch who won.

    "He heard it, but he heeded not--his eyes
    Were with his heart, and that was far away;
    He reck'd not of the life he lost, nor prize,
    But where his rude hut by the Danube lay
    There were his young barbarians all at play,
    There was their Dacian mother--he, their sire,
    Butchered to make a Roman holiday.
    All this rushed with his blood--shall he expire,
    And unavenged? Arise, ye Goths, and glut your ire!"

    _Byron, Childe Harold._

It is delightful to read in this room the description in

     "It was that room in the centre of which reclines the noble and
     most pathetic figure of the dying gladiator, just sinking into his
     death-swoon. Around the walls stand the Antinous, the Amazon, the
     Lycian Apollo, the Juno; all famous productions of antique
     sculpture, and still shining in the undiminished majesty and beauty
     of their ideal life, although the marble that embodies them is
     yellow with time, and perhaps corroded by the damp earth in which
     they lay buried for centuries. Here, likewise, is seen a symbol (as
     apt at this moment as it was two thousand years ago) of the Human
     Soul, with its choice of Innocence or Evil close at hand, in the
     pretty figure of a child, clasping a dove to her bosom, but
     assaulted by a snake.

     "From one of the windows of this saloon, we may see a broad flight
     of stone steps, descending alongside the antique and massive
     foundation of the Capitol, towards the battered triumphal arch of
     Septimius Severus, right below. Farther on, the eye skirts along
     the edge of the desolate Forum (where Roman washerwomen hang out
     their linen to the sun), passing over a shapeless confusion of
     modern edifices, piled rudely up with ancient brick and stone, and
     over the domes of Christian churches, built on the old pavements
     of heathen temples, and supported by the very pillars that once
     upheld them. At a distance beyond--yet but a little way,
     considering how much history is heaped into the intervening
     space--rises the great sweep of the Coliseum, with the blue sky
     brightening through its upper tier of arches. Far off, the view is
     shut in by the Alban mountains, looking just the same, amid all
     this decay and change, as when Romulus gazed thitherward over his
     half-finished wall.

     "In this chamber is the Faun of Praxiteles. It is the marble image
     of a young man, leaning his right arm on the trunk or stump of a
     tree: one hand hangs carelessly by his side, in the other he holds
     a fragment of a pipe, or some such sylvan instrument of music. His
     only garment, a lion's skin with the claws upon the shoulder, falls
     half-way down his back, leaving his limbs and entire front of the
     figure nude. The form, thus displayed, is marvellously graceful,
     but has a fuller and more rounded outline, more flesh, and less of
     heroic muscle, than the old sculptors were wont to assign to their
     types of masculine beauty. The character of the face corresponds
     with the figure; it is most agreeable in outline and feature, but
     rounded and somewhat voluptuously developed, especially about the
     throat and chin; the nose is almost straight, but very slightly
     curves inward, thereby acquiring an indescribable charm of
     geniality and humour. The mouth, with its full yet delicate lips,
     seems so really to smile outright, that it calls forth a responsive
     smile. The whole statue--unlike anything else that ever was wrought
     in the severe material of marble--conveys the idea of an amiable
     and sensual creature, easy, mirthful, apt for jollity, yet not
     incapable of being touched by pathos. It is impossible to gaze long
     at this stone image, without conceiving a kindly sentiment towards
     it, as if its substance were warm to the touch, and imbued with
     actual life. It comes very near to some of our pleasantest

     "Praxitèle avait dit à Phryné de choisir entre ses ouvrages celui
     qu'elle aimerait le mieux. Pour savoir lequel de ses
     chefs-d'œuvre l'artiste préférait, elle lui fit annoncer que le
     feu avait pris à son atelier. 'Sauvez, s'écria-t-il, mon Satyre et
     mon Amour!'"--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ iii. 309.

The west or right side of the Capitoline Piazza is occupied by _the
Palace of the Conservators_, which contains the Protomoteca, the Picture
Gallery, and various other treasures.

The little court at the entrance is full of historical relics, including
remains of two gigantic statues of Apollo; a colossal head of Domitian;
and the marble pedestal, which once in the mausoleum of Augustus
supported the cinerary urn of Agrippina, wife of Germanicus, with a very
perfect inscription. In the opposite loggia are a statue of Rome
Triumphant, and a group of a lion attacking a horse, found in the bed of
the Almo. In the portico on the right is the only authentic statue of
Julius Cæsar; on the left, a statue of Augustus, leaning against the
rostrum of a galley, in allusion to the battle of Actium.

_The Protomoteca_, a suite of eight rooms on the ground floor, contains
a collection of busts of eminent Italians, with a few foreigners
considered as naturalised by a long residence in Rome. Those in the
second room, representing artists of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and
fifteenth centuries, were entirely executed at the expense of Canova.

At the foot of the staircase is a restoration by Michael Angelo of the
column of Caius Duilius. On the upper flight of the staircase is a
bas-relief of Curtius leaping into the gulf, here represented as a

     "Un bas-relief d'un travail ancien, dont le style ressemble à celui
     des figures peintes sur les vases dits archaïques, représente
     Curtius engagé dans son marais; le cheval baisse la tête et flaire
     le marécage, qui est indiqué par des roseaux. Le guerrier penché en
     avant, presse sa monture. On a vivement, en présence de cette
     curieuse sculpture, le sentiment d'un incident héroïque
     probablement réel, et en même temps de l'aspect primitif du lieu
     qui en fut témoin."--_Ampère, Hist. Rom. i. 321._

On the first and second landings are magnificent reliefs, representing
events in the life of Marcus Aurelius, Imp., belonging to the arch
dedicated to him, which was wantonly destroyed, in order to widen the
Corso, by Alexander VII.

     "Jusqu'au lègne de Commode Rome est représentée par une Amazone;
     dans l'escalier du palais des Conservateurs, Rome, en tunique
     courte d'Amazone et le globe à la main, reçoit Marc Aurèle; le
     globe dans la main de Rome date de César."--_Ampère_, iii. 242.

_The Halls of the Conservators_ consist of eight rooms. The 1st, painted
in fresco from the history of the Roman kings, by the _Cavaliere
d'Arpino_, contains statues of Urban VIII., by Bernini; Leo X., by the
Sicilian Giacomo della Duca;[41] and Innocent X., in bronze, by Algardi.
The 2nd room, adorned with subjects from republican history by
_Lauretti_, has statues of modern Roman generals--Marc Antonio Colonna,
Tommaso Rospigliosi, Francesco Aldobrandini, Carlo Barberini, brother of
Urban VIII., and Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma. The 3rd room,
painted by _Daniele di Volterra_, with subjects from the wars with the
Cimbri, contains the famous _Bronze Wolf of the Capitol_, one of the
most interesting relics in the city. The figure of the wolf is of
unknown antiquity; those of Romulus and Remus are modern. It has been
doubted whether this is the wolf described by Dionysius as "an ancient
work of brass" standing in the temple of Romulus under the Palatine, or
the wolf described by Cicero, who speaks of a little gilt figure of the
founder of the city sucking the teats of a wolf. The Ciceronian wolf was
struck by lightning in the time of the great orator, and a fracture in
the existing figure, attributed to lightning, is adduced in proof of its
identity with it.

              "Geminos huic ubera circum
    Ludere pendentes pueros, et lambere matrem
    Impavidos: illam tereti cervice reflexam
    Mulcere alternos, et corpora fingere lingua."

    _Virgil, Æn._ viii. 632.

    "And thou, the thunder-stricken nurse of Rome!
    She-wolf! whose brazen-imaged dugs impart
    The milk of conquest yet within the dome
    Where, as a monument of antique art,
    Thou standest:--mother of the mighty heart,
    Which the great founder sucked from thy wild teat,
    Scorch'd by the Roman Jove's ethereal dart,
    And thy limbs black with lightning--dost thou yet
    Guard thy immortal cubs, nor thy fond charge forget?"

    _Byron, Childe Harold._

Standing near the wolf is the well-known and beautiful figure of a boy
extracting a thorn from his foot, called the Shepherd Martius.

     "La ressemblance du type si fin de l'Apollon au lézard et du
     charmant bronze du Capitole _le tíreur d'épine_ est trop frappante
     pour qu'on puisse se refuser à voir dans celui-ci une inspiration
     de Praxitèle ou de son école. C'est tout simplement un enfant
     arrachant de son pied une épine qui l'a blessé, sujet naïf et
     champêtre analogue au Satyre se faisant rendre ce service par un
     autre Satyre. On a voulu y voir un athlète blessé par une épine
     pendant sa course et qui n'en est pas moins arrivé au but; mais la
     figure est trop jeune et n'a rien d'athlétique. Le moyen âge avait
     donné aussi son explication et inventé sa legende. On raccontait
     qu'un jeune berger, envoyé à la découverte de l'ennemi, était
     revenu sans s'arrêter et ne s'était permis qu'alors d'arracher une
     épine qui lui blessait le pied. Le moyen âge avait senti le charme
     de cette composition qu'il interprétait à sa manière, car elle est
     sculptée sur un arceau de la cathédrale de Zurich qui date du
     siècle de Charlemagne."--_Ampère_, iii. 315.

Forming part of the decorations of this room are two fine pictures, a
dead Christ with a monk praying, and Sta. Francesca Romana, by
_Romanelli_. Near the door of exit is a bust said to be that of Junius

     "Il est permis de voir dans le buste du Capitole un vrai portrait
     de Brutus; il est difficile d'en douter en le contemplant. Voilà
     bien le visage farouche, la barbe _hirsute_, les cheveux roides
     collés si rudement sur le front, la physiognomie inculte et
     terrible du prémier consul romain; la bouche serrée respire la
     détermination et l'énergie; les yeux, formés d'une matière
     jaunâtre, se détachent en clair sur le bronze noirci par les
     siècles et vous jettent un regard fixe et farouche. Tout près est
     la louve de bronze. Brutus est de la même famille. On sent qu'il y
     a du lait de cette louve dans les veines du second fondateur de
     Rome, comme dans les veines du premier, et que lui aussi, pareil au
     Romulus de la légende, marchera vers son but à travers le sang des

     "Le buste de Brutus est placé sur un piédestal qui le met à la
     hauteur du regard. Là, dans un coin sombre, j'ai passé bien des
     moments face à face avec l'impitoyable fondateur de la liberté
     romaine."--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ ii. 270.

The 4th Room contains the _Fasti Consulares_, tables found near the
temple of Minerva Chalcidica, and inscribed with the names of public
officers from Romulus to Augustus. The 5th Room contains two bronze
ducks (formerly shown as the sacred geese of the Capitol) and a female
head--found in the gardens of Sallust, a bust of Medusa, by _Bernini_,
and many others. The 6th, or Throne Room, hung with faded tapestry, has
a frieze in fresco, by _Annibale Caracci_, representing the triumphs of
Scipio Africanus. The 7th Room is painted by _Daniele da Volterra_(?)
with the history of the Punic Wars. The 8th Room (now used as a passage)
is a chapel, containing a lovely fresco, by _Pinturicchio_, of the
Madonna and Child with Angels.

     "The Madonna is seated enthroned, fronting the spectator; her large
     mantle forms a grand cast of drapery; the child on her lap sleeps
     in the loveliest attitude; she folds her hands and looks down,
     quiet, serious, and beautiful: in the clouds are two adoring

The four Evangelists are by _Caravaggio_; the pictures of Roman saints
(Cecilia, Alexis, Eustachio, Francesca-Romana), by _Romanelli_.

By the same staircase, passing on the left a wonderful relief of the
apotheosis of the wicked Faustina, we may arrive at the _Picture Gallery
of the Capitol_ (which can also be approached by a separate staircase,
entered from an alley at the back of the building), reached by two rooms
inscribed with the names of the Roman Conservators from the middle of
the sixteenth century. This gallery contains very few first-rate
pictures, but has a beautiful St. Sebastian, by Guido, and several fine
works of _Guercino_. The most noticeable pictures are--

_1st Room._--

     2. Disembodied Spirit (unfinished): _Guido Reni_.
    13. St. John Baptist: _Guercino_.
    16. Mary Magdalene: _Guido Reni_.
    20. The Cumæan Sibyl: _Domenichino_.
    26. Mary Magdalene: _Tintoretto_.
    27. Presentation in the Temple: _Fra. Bartolomeo_.
    30. Holy Family: _Garofalo_.
    52. Madonna and Saints: _Botticelli?_
    61. Portrait of himself: _Guido Reni_.
    78. Madonna and Saints: _F. Francia_, 1513.
    80. Portrait: _Velasquez_.
    87. St. Augustine: _Giovanni Bellini_.
    89. Romulus and Remus: _Rubens_.

_2nd Room._--

    100. Two male portraits: _Vandyke_.
    104. Adoration of the Shepherds: _Mazzolino_.
    106. Two Portraits: _Vandyke_.
    116. St. Sebastian: _Guido Reni_.
    117. Cleopatra and Augustus: _Guercino_.
    119. St. Sebastian: _Lud. Caracci_.
    128. Gipsy telling a fortune: _Caravaggio_.
    132. Portrait: _Giovanni Bellini_.
    134. Portrait of Michael Angelo: _M. Venusti?_
    136. Petrarch: _Gio. Bellini?_
    142. Nativity of the Virgin: _Albani_.
    143. Sta. Petronilla: _Guercino_. An enormous picture, brought hither
         from St. Peter's, where it has been replaced by a mosaic copy. The
         composition is divided into two parts. The lower represents the
         burial of Sta. Petronilla, the upper the ascension of her spirit.

"The Apostle Peter had a daughter, born in lawful wedlock, who
accompanied him in his journey from the East. Petronilla was wonderfully
fair; and Valerius Flaccus, a young and noble Roman, who was a heathen,
became enamoured of her beauty, and sought her for his wife; and he,
being very powerful, she feared to refuse him; she therefore desired him
to return in three days, and promised that he should then carry her
home. But she prayed earnestly to be delivered from this peril; and when
Flaccus returned in three days, with great pomp, to celebrate the
marriage, he found her dead. The company of nobles who attended him,
carried her to the grave, in which they laid her, crowned with roses;
and Flaccus lamented greatly."--_Mrs. Jameson, from the Perfetto

199. Death and Assumption of the Virgin: _Cola della Matrice_.

"Here the death of the Virgin is treated at once in a mystical and
dramatic style. Enveloped in a dark blue mantle, spangled with golden
stars, she lies extended on a couch; St. Peter, in a splendid scarlet
cope as bishop, reads the service; St. John, holding the palm, weeps
bitterly. In front, and kneeling before the couch or bier, appear the
three great Dominican saints as witnesses of the religious mystery; in
the centre St. Dominic; on the left, St. Catherine of Siena; and on the
right, St. Thomas Aquinas. In a compartment above is the
Assumption."--_Jameson's Legends of the Madonna_, p. 315.

    123. Virgin and Angels: _Paul Veronese_.
    124. Rape of Europa: _Paul Veronese_.

At the head of the Capitol steps, to the right of the terrace, is the
entrance to the _Palazzo Caffarelli_, the residence of the Prussian
minister. It has a small but beautiful garden, and the view from the
windows is magnificent.

     "After dinner, Bunsen called for us, and took us first to his house
     on the Capitol, the different windows of which command the
     different views of ancient and modern Rome. Never shall I forget
     the view of the former; we looked down on the Forum, and just
     opposite were the Palatine and the Aventine, with the ruins of the
     Palace of the Cæsars on the one, and houses intermixed with gardens
     on the other. The mass of the Coliseum rose beyond the Forum, and
     beyond all, the wide plain of the Campagna to the sea. On the left
     rose the Alban hills, bright in the setting sun, which played full
     upon Frescati and Albano, and the trees which edge the lake, and
     further away in the distance, it lit up the old town of
     Labicum."--_Arnold's Letters._

From the further end of the courtyard of the Caffarelli Palace one can
look down upon part of the bare cliff of the Rupe Tarpeia. Here there
existed till 1868 a small court, which is represented as the scene of
the murder in Hawthorne's Marble Faun, or "Transformation." The door,
the niche in the wall, and all other details mentioned in the novel,
were realities. The character of the place is now changed by the removal
of the boundary-wall. The part of the rock seen from here is that
usually visited from below by the Via Tor de' Specchi.

To reach the principal portion of the south-eastern height of the
Capitol, we must ascend the staircase beyond the Palace of the
Conservators, on the right. Here we shall find ourselves upon the
highest part of

              "The Tarpeian rock, the citadel
    Of great and glorious Rome, queen of the earth,
    So far renown'd, and with the spoils enriched
    Of nations."
          _Paradise Regained._

                          "The steep
    Tarpeian, fittest goal of treason's race,
    The promontory whence the traitor's leap
    Cured all ambition."
         _Childe Harold._

The dirty lane, with its shabby houses, and grass-grown spaces, and
filthy children, has little to remind one of the appearance of the hill
as seen by Virgil and Propertius, who speak of the change in their time
from an earlier aspect.

    "Hinc ad Tarpeiam sedem, et Capitolia ducit,
    Aurea nunc, olim, silvestribus horrida dumis,
    Jam tum religio pavidos terrebat agrestes
    Dira loci; jam tum silvam saxumque tremebant."
                _Virgil, Æn._ viii. 347.

    "Hoc quodcumque vides, hospes, qua maxima Roma est,
    Ante Phrygem Aeneam collis et herba fuit."
                _Propertius_, iv. eleg. I.

It was on this side that the different attacks were made upon the
Capitol. The first was by the Sabine Herdonius at the head of a band of
slaves, who scaled the heights and surprised the garrison, in B.C. 460,
and from the heights of the citadel proclaimed freedom to all slaves who
should join him, with abolition of debts, and defence of the plebs from
their oppressors; but his offers were disregarded, and on the fourth day
the Capitol was re-taken, and he was slain with nearly all his
followers. The second attack was by the Gauls, who, according to the
well-known story, climbed the rock near the Porta Carmentale, and had
nearly reached the summit unobserved--for the dogs neglected to
bark--when the cries of the sacred geese of Juno aroused an officer
named Manlius, who rushed to the defence, and hurled over the precipice
the first assailant, who dragged down others in his fall, and thus the
Capitol was saved. In remembrance of this incident, a goose was
annually carried in triumph, and a dog annually crucified upon the
Capitol, between the temple of Summanus and that of Youth.[42] This was
the same Manlius, the friend of the people, who was afterwards condemned
by the patricians on pretext that he wished to make himself king, and
thrown from the Tarpeian rock, on the same spot, in sight of the Forum,
where Spurius Cassius, an ex-consul, had been thrown down before. To
visit the part of the rock from which these executions must have taken
place, it is necessary to enter a little garden near the German
Hospital, whence there is a beautiful view of the river and the

     "Quand on veut visiter la roche Tarpéienne, on sonne à une porte de
     peu d'apparence, sur laquelle sont écrits ces mots: _Rocca
     Tarpeia_. Une pauvre femme arrive et vous mène dans un carré de
     choux. C'est de là qu'on précipita Manlius. Je serais desolé que le
     carré de choux manquât."--_Ampère, Portraits de Rome._

This side of the Intermontium is now generally known as _Monte Caprino_,
a name which Ampère derives from the fact that Vejovis, the Etruscan
ideal of Jupiter, was always represented with a goat.[43] On this side
of the hill, the viaduct from the Palatine, built by Caligula (who
affected to require it to facilitate communication with his friend
Jupiter), joined the Capitoline.

We have still to examine the north-eastern height, the site of the most
interesting of pagan temples, now occupied by one of the most
interesting of Christian churches. The name of the famous _Church of
Ara-Cœli_ is generally attributed to an altar erected by Augustus to
commemorate the Delphic oracle respecting the coming of our Saviour,
which is still recognised in the well-known hymn of the Church:

    Teste David cum Sibylla.[44]

The altar bore the inscription "Ara Primogeniti Dei." Those who seek a
more humble origin for the church, say that the name merely dates from
mediæval times, when it was called "Sta, Maria in Aurocœlio." It
originally belonged to the Benedictine Order, but was transferred to the
Franciscans by Innocent IV. in 1252, since which time its convent has
occupied an important position as the residence of the General of the
Minor Franciscans (Grey-friars), and is the centre of religious life in
that Order.

The staircase on the left of the Senators' palace, which leads to the
side entrance of Ara-Cœli, is in itself full of historical
associations. It was at its head that Valerius the consul was killed in
the conflict with Herdonius for the possession of the Capitol. It was
down the ancient steps on this site that Annius, the envoy of the
Latins, fell (B.C. 340), and was nearly killed, after his audacious
proposition in the temple of Jupiter, that the Latins and Romans should
become one nation, and have a common senate and consuls. Here also,[45]
in B.C. 133, Tiberius Gracchus was knocked down with the leg of a chair,
and killed in front of the temple of Jupiter.

It is at the top of these steps, that the monks of Ara-Cœli, who are
celebrated as dentists, perform their hideous, but useful and gratuitous
operations, which may be witnessed here every morning!

Over the side entrance of Ara-Cœli is a beautiful mosaic of the
Virgin and Child. This, with the ancient brick arches above, framing
fragments of deep blue sky--and the worn steps below--forms a subject
dear to Roman artists, and is often introduced as a background to groups
of monks and peasants. The interior of the church is vast, solemn, and
highly picturesque. It was here, as Gibbon himself tells us, that on the
15th of October, 1764, as he sat musing amidst the ruins of the Capitol,
while the bare-footed friars were singing vespers, the idea of writing
the "Decline and Fall" of the city first started to his mind.

     "As we lift the great curtain and push into the church, a faint
     perfume of incense salutes the nostrils. The golden sunset bursts
     in as the curtain of the (west) door sways forward, illuminates the
     mosaic floor, catches on the rich golden ceiling, and flashes here
     and there over the crowd (gathered in Epiphany), on some brilliant
     costume or closely shaven head. All sorts of people are thronging
     there, some kneeling before the shrine of the Madonna, which gleams
     with its hundreds of silver votive hearts, legs, and arms, some
     listening to the preaching, some crowding round the chapel of the
     _Presepio_. Old women, haggard and wrinkled, come tottering along
     with their _scaldini_ of coals, drop down on their knees to pray,
     and, as you pass, interpolate in their prayers a parenthesis of
     begging. The church is not architecturally handsome, but it is
     eminently picturesque, with its relics of centuries, its mosaic
     pulpits and floors, its frescoes of Pinturicchio and Pesaro, its
     antique columns, its rich golden ceiling, its gothic mausoleum to
     the Savelli, and its mediæval tombs. A dim, dingy look is over
     all--but it is the dimness of faded splendour; and one cannot stand
     there, knowing the history of the church, its great antiquity, and
     the varied fortunes it has known, without a peculiar sense of
     interest and pleasure.

     "It was here that Romulus in the grey dawning of Rome built the
     temple of Jupiter Feretrius. Here the _spolia opima_ were
     deposited. Here the triumphal processions of the emperors and
     generals ended. Here the victors paused before making their vows,
     until, from the Mamertine prisons below, the message came to
     announce that their noblest prisoner and victim--while the clang of
     their triumph and his defeat rose ringing in his ears, as the
     procession ascended the steps--had expiated with death the crime of
     being the enemy of Rome. On the steps of Ara-Cœli, nineteen
     centuries ago, the first great Cæsar climbed on his knees after
     his first triumph. At their base, Rienzi, the last of the Roman
     tribunes, fell--and if the tradition of the Church is to be
     trusted, it was on the site of the present high altar that Augustus
     erected the 'Ara Primogeniti Dei,' to commemorate the Delphic
     prophecy of the coming of our Saviour. Standing on a spot so
     thronged with memories, the dullest imagination takes fire. The
     forms and scenes of the past rise from their graves and pass before
     us, and the actual and visionary are mingled together in strange
     poetic confusion."--_Roba di Roma_, i. 73.

The floor of the church is of the ancient mosaic known as Opus
Alexandrinum. The nave is separated from the aisles by twenty-two
ancient columns, of which two are of cipollino, two of white marble, and
eighteen of Egyptian granite. They are of very different forms and
sizes, and have probably been collected from various pagan edifices. The
inscription "A Cubiculo Augustorum" upon the third column on the left of
the nave, shows that it was brought from the Palace of the Cæsars. The
windows in this church are amongst the few in Rome which show traces of
gothic. At the end of the nave, on either side, are two ambones, marking
the position of the choir before it was extended to its present site in
the sixteenth century.

The transepts are full of interesting monuments. That on the right is
the burial-place of the great family of Savelli, and contains--on the
left, the monument of Luca Savelli, 1266 (father of Pope Honorius IV.)
and his son Pandolfo,--an ancient and richly sculptured sarcophagus, to
which a gothic canopy was added by _Agostino_ and _Agnolo da Siena_ from
designs of Giotto. Opposite, is the tomb of the mother of Honorius, Vana
Aldobrandesca, upon which is the statue of the pope himself, removed
from his monument in the old St. Peter's by Paul III.

On the left of the high altar is the tomb of Cardinal Gianbattista
Savelli, ob. 1498, and near it--in the pavement, the half-effaced
gravestone of Sigismondo Conti, whose features are so familiar to us
from his portrait introduced into the famous picture of the Madonna di
Foligno, which was painted by Raphael at his order, and presented by him
to this church, where it remained over the high altar, till 1565, when
his great niece Anna became a nun at the convent of the Contesse at
Foligno, and was allowed to carry it away with her. In the east transept
is another fine gothic tomb, that of Cardinal Matteo di Acquasparta
(1302), a General of the Franciscans mentioned by Dante for his wise and
moderate rule.[46] The quaint chapel in the middle of this transept, now
dedicated to St. Helena, is supposed to occupy the site of the "Ara
Primogeniti Dei."

Upon the pier near the ambone of the gospel is the monument of Queen
Catherine of Bosnia, who died at Rome in 1478, bequeathing her states to
the Roman Church on condition of their reversion to her son, who had
embraced Mahommedanism, if he should return to the Catholic faith. Near
this, upon the transept wall, is the tomb of Felice de Fredis, ob. 1529,
upon which it is recorded that he was the finder of the Laocoon. The
Chapel of the Annunciation, opening from the west isle, has a tomb to G.
Crivelli, by Donatello, bearing his signature, "Opus Donatelli
Florentini." The Chapel of Santa Croce is the burial-place of the
Ponziani family, and was the scene of the celebrated ecstasy of the
favourite Roman saint Francesca Romana.

     "The mortal remains of Vanozza Ponziani (sister-in-law of
     Francesca) were laid in the church of Ara-Cœli, in the chapel of
     Santa Croce. The Roman people resorted there in crowds to behold
     once more their loved benefactress--the mother of the poor, the
     consoler of the afflicted. All strove to carry away some little
     memorial of one who had gone about among them doing good, and
     during the three days which preceded the interment, the concourse
     did not abate. On the day of the funeral Francesca knelt on one
     side of the coffin, and, in sight of all the crowd, she was wrapped
     in ecstasy. They saw her body lifted from the ground, and a
     seraphic expression in her uplifted face. They heard her murmur
     several times with an indescribable emphasis the word 'Quando?
     Quando?' When all was over, she still remained immoveable; it
     seemed as if her soul had risen on the wings of prayer, and
     followed Vanozza's spirit into the realms of bliss. At last her
     confessor ordered her to rise and go and attend on the sick. She
     instantly complied, and walked away to the hospital which she had
     founded, apparently unconscious of everything about her, and only
     roused from her trance by the habit of obedience, which, in or out
     of ecstasy, never forsook her."--_Lady Georgiana Fullerton's Life
     of Sta. Fr. Romana._

There are several good pictures over the altars in the aisles of
Ara-Cœli. In the Chapel of St Margaret of Cortona are frescoes
illustrative of her life by _Filippo Evangelisti_,--in that of S.
Antonio, frescoes by _Nicola da Pesaro_;--but no one should omit
visiting the first chapel on the right of the west door, dedicated to S.
Bernardino of Siena, and painted by _Bernardino Pinturicchio_, who has
put forth his best powers to do honour to his patron saint with a series
of exquisite frescoes, representing his assuming the monastic habit, his
preaching, his vision of the Saviour, his penitence, death, and burial.

Almost opposite this--closed except during Epiphany--is the Chapel of
the _Presepio_, where the famous image of the _Santissimo Bambino d'Ara
Cœli_ is shown at that season lying in a manger.

     "The simple meaning of the term _Presepio_ is a manger; but it is
     also used in the Church to signify a representation of the birth of
     Christ. In the Ara-Cœli the whole of one of the side-chapels is
     devoted to this exhibition. In the foreground is a grotto, in which
     is seated the Virgin Mary, with Joseph at her side and the
     miraculous Bambino in her lap. Immediately behind are an ass and an
     ox. On one side kneel the shepherds and kings in adoration; and
     above, God the Father is seen surrounded by crowds of cherubs and
     angels playing on instruments, as in the early pictures of Raphael.
     In the background is a scenic representation of a pastoral
     landscape, on which all the skill of the scene-painter is expended.
     Shepherds guard their flocks far away, reposing under palm-trees or
     standing on green slopes which glow in the sunshine. The distances
     and perspective are admirable. In the middle ground is a crystal
     fountain of glass, near which sheep, preternaturally white, and
     made of real wool and cotton wool, are feeding, tended by figures
     of shepherds carved in wood. Still nearer come women bearing great
     baskets of real oranges and other fruits on their heads. All the
     nearer figures are full-sized, carved in wood, painted, and dressed
     in appropriate robes. The miraculous Bambino is a painted doll
     swaddled in a white dress, which is crusted over with magnificent
     diamonds, emeralds, and rubies. The Virgin also wears in her ears
     superb diamond pendants. The general effect of the scenic show is
     admirable, and crowds flock to it and press about it all day long.

     "While this is taking place on one side of the church, on the other
     is a very different and quite as singular an exhibition. Around one
     of the antique columns a stage is erected, from which little
     maidens are reciting, with every kind of pretty gesticulation,
     sermons, dialogues, and little speeches, in explanation of the
     _Presepio_ opposite. Sometimes two of them are engaged in alternate
     questions and answers about the mysteries of the Incarnation and
     the Redemption. Sometimes the recitation is a piteous description
     of the agony of the Saviour and the sufferings of the Madonna, the
     greatest stress being, however, always laid upon the latter. All
     these little speeches have been written for them by their priest or
     some religious friend, committed to memory, and practised with
     appropriate gestures over and over again at home. Their little
     piping voices are sometimes guilty of such comic breaks and
     changes, that the crowd about them rustles into a murmurous
     laughter. Sometimes, also, one of the little preachers has a
     _dispetto_, pouts, shakes her shoulders, and refuses to go on with
     her part; another, however, always stands ready on the platform to
     supply the vacancy, until friends have coaxed, reasoned, or
     threatened the little pouter into obedience. These children are
     often very beautiful and graceful, and their comical little
     gestures and intonations, their clasping of hands and rolling up of
     eyes, have a very amusing and interesting effect."--_Story's Roba
     di Roma._

At other times the Bambino dwells in the inner Sacristy, where it can be
visited by admiring pilgrims. It is a fresh-coloured doll, tightly
swathed in gold and silver tissue, crowned, and sparkling with jewels.
It has servants of its own, and a carriage in which it drives out with
its attendants, and goes to visit the sick. Devout peasants always kneel
as the blessed infant passes. Formerly it was taken to sick persons and
left on their beds for some hours, in the hope that it would work a
miracle. Now it is never left alone. In explanation of this, it is said
that an audacious woman formed the design of appropriating to herself
the holy image and its benefits. She had another doll prepared of the
same size and appearance as the "Santissimo," and having feigned
sickness, and obtained permission to have it left with her, she dressed
the false image in its clothes, and sent it back to Ara-Cœli. The
fraud was not discovered till night, when the Franciscan monks were
awakened by the most furious ringing of bells and by thundering knocks
at the west door of the church, and hastening thither could see nothing
but a wee naked pink foot peeping in from under the door; but when they
opened the door, without stood the little naked figure of the true
Bambino of Ara-Cœli, shivering in the wind and the rain,--so the
false baby was sent back in disgrace, and the real baby restored to its
home, never to be trusted away alone any more.

In the sacristy is the following inscription relating to the Bambino:--

     "Ad hoc sacellum Ara Cœli a festo nativitatis domini usque ad
     festum Epiphaniæ magna populi frequentia invisitur et colitur in
     presepio Christi nati infantuli simulacrum ex oleæ ligno apud
     montem olivarum Hierosolymis a quodam devoto Minorita sculptum eo
     animo, ut ad hoc festum celebrandum deportaretur. De quo in primis
     hoc accidit, quod deficiente colore inter barbaras gentes ad
     plenam infantuli figurationem et formam, devotus et anxius artifex,
     professione laicus, precibus et orationibus impetravit, ut sacrum
     simulacrum divinitus carneo colore perfunctum reperiretur. Cumque
     navi Italiam veheretur, facto naufragio apud Tusciæ oras, simulacri
     capsa Liburnum appulit. Ex quo, recognita, expectabatur, enim a
     Fratribus, et jam fama illius a Hierosolymis ad nostras familiæ
     partes advenerat, ad destinatam sibi Capitolii sedem devenit.
     Fertur etiam, quod aliquando ex nimia devotione à quadam devota
     fœmina sublatum ad suas ædes miraculosè remeaverit. Quapropter
     in maxima veneratione semper est habitum a Romanis civibus, et
     universo populo donatum monilibus, et jocalibus pretiosis,
     liberalioribusque in dies prosequitur oblationibus."

The outer Sacristy contains a fine picture of the Holy Family by _Giulio

The scene on the long flight of steps which leads to the west door of
Ara-Cœli is very curious during Epiphany.

     "If any one visit the Ara-Cœli during an afternoon in Christmas
     or Epiphany, the scene is very striking. The flight of one hundred
     and twenty-four steps is then thronged by merchants of Madonna
     wares, who spread them out over the steps and hang them against the
     walls and balustrades. Here are to be seen all sorts of curious
     little coloured prints of the Madonna and Child of the most
     extraordinary quality, little bags, pewter medals, and crosses
     stamped with the same figures and to be worn on the neck--all
     offered at once for the sum of one _baiocco_. Here also are framed
     pictures of the saints, of the Nativity, and in a word of all sorts
     of religious subjects appertaining to the season. Little wax dolls,
     clad in cotton-wool to represent the Saviour, and sheep made of the
     same materials, are also sold by the basket-full. Children and
     _Contadini_ are busy buying them, and there is a deafening roar all
     up and down the steps, of 'Mezzo baiocco, bello colorito, mezzo
     baiocco, la Santissima Concezione Incoronata,'--'Diario Romano,
     Lunario Romano nuovo,'--'Ritratto colorito, medaglia e quadruccio,
     un baiocco tutti, un baiocco tutti,'--'Bambinella di cera, un
     baiocco.' None of the prices are higher than one baiocco, except to
     strangers, and generally several articles are held up together,
     enumerated, and proffered with a loud voice for this sum. Meanwhile
     men, women, children, priests, beggars, soldiers, and _villani_ are
     crowding up and down, and we crowd with them."--_Roba di Roma_, i.

     "On the sixth of January the lofty steps of Ara-Cœli looked like
     an ant-hill, so thronged were they with people. Men and boys who
     sold little books (legends and prayers), rosaries, pictures of
     saints, medallions, chestnuts, oranges, and other things, shouted
     and made a great noise. Little boys and girls were still preaching
     zealously in the church, and people of all classes were crowding
     thither. Processions advanced with the thundering cheerful music of
     the fire-corps. Il Bambino, a painted image of wood, covered with
     jewels, and with a yellow crown on its head, was carried by a monk
     in white gloves, and exhibited to the people from a kind of
     altar-like erection at the top of the Ara-Cœli steps. Everybody
     dropped down upon their knees; Il Bambino was shown on all sides,
     the music thundered, and the smoking censers were
     swung."--_Frederika Bremer._

The _Convent of Ara-Cœli_ contains much that is picturesque and
interesting. S. Giovanni Capistrano was abbot here in the reign of
Eugenius IV.

Let us now descend from the Capitoline Piazza towards the Forum, by the
staircase on the left of the Palace of the Senator. Close to the foot of
this staircase is a church, very obscure-looking, with some rude
frescoes on the exterior. Yet every one must enter this building, for
here are the famous _Mamertine Prisons_, excavated from the solid rock
under the Capitol.

The prisons are entered through the low Church of S. Pietro in Carcere,
hung round with votive offerings and blazing with lamps.

     "There is an upper chamber in the Mamertine Prisons, over what is
     said to have been--and very possibly may have been--the dungeon of
     St. Peter. The chamber is now fitted up as an oratory, dedicated to
     that saint; and it lives, as a distinct and separate place, in my
     recollection, too. It is very small and low-roofed; and the dread
     and gloom of the ponderous, obdurate old prison are on it, as if
     they had come up in a dark mist through the floor. Hanging on the
     walls, among the clustered votive offerings, are objects, at once
     strangely in keeping and strangely at variance with the
     place--rusty daggers, knives, pistols, clubs, divers instruments of
     violence and murder, brought here, fresh from use, and hung up to
     propitiate offended Heaven; as if the blood upon them would drain
     off in consecrated air, and have no voice to cry with. It is all so
     silent and so close, and tomblike; and the dungeons below are so
     black, and stealthy, and stagnant, and naked; that this little dark
     spot becomes a dream within a dream: and in the vision of great
     churches which come rolling past me like a sea, it is a small wave
     by itself, that melts into no other wave, and does not flow on with
     the rest."--_Dickens._

Enclosed in the church, near the entrance, may be observed the outer
frieze of the prison wall, with the inscription C. TIBIUS. C. F.
RUFINUS. M.. COCCEIUS. NERVA. COS. EX. S. C., recording the names of two
consuls of A.D. 22, who are supposed to have repaired the prison.
Juvenal's description of the time when one prison was sufficient for all
the criminals in Rome naturally refers to this building:

    "Felices proavorum atavos, felicia dicas
    Sæcula, quæ quondam sub regibus atque tribunis
    Viderunt uno contentam carcere Romam."

    _Sat._ iii. 312.

A modern staircase leads to the horrible dungeon of Ancus Martius,
sixteen feet in height, thirty in length, and twenty-two in breadth.
Originally there was no staircase, and the prisoners were let down
there, and thence into the lower dungeon, through a hole in the middle
of the ceiling. The large door at the side is a modern innovation,
having been opened to admit the vast mass of pilgrims during the festa.
The whole prison is constructed of huge blocks of tufa without cement.
Some remains are shown of the _Scalæ Gemoniæ_, so called from the groans
of the prisoners--by which the bodies were dragged forth to be exposed
to the insults of the populace or to be thrown into the Tiber. It was by
this staircase that Cicero came forth and announced the execution of
the Catiline conspirators to the people in the Forum, by the single word
_Vixerunt_, "they have ceased to live." Close to the exit of these
stairs the Emperor Vitellius was murdered. On the wall by which you
descend to the lower dungeon is a mark, kissed by the faithful, as the
spot against which St. Peter's head rested. The lower prison, called
_Robur_, is constructed of huge blocks of tufa, fastened together by
cramps of iron and approaching horizontally to a common centre in the
roof. It has been attributed from early times to Servius Tullius; but
Ampère[47] argues against the idea that the lower prison was of later
origin than the upper, and suggests that it is Pelasgic, and older than
any other building in Rome. It is described by Livy, and by Sallust, who
depicts its horrors in his account of the execution of the Catiline
conspirators.[48] The spot is shown to which these victims were attached
and strangled in turn. In this dungeon, at an earlier period, Appius
Claudius and Oppius the decemvirs committed suicide (B.C. 449). Here
Jugurtha, king of Mauritania, was starved to death by Marius. Here
Julius Cæsar, during his triumph for the conquest of Gaul, caused his
gallant enemy Vercingetorix to be put to death. Here Sejanus, the friend
and minister of Tiberius, disgraced too late, was executed for the
murder of Drusus, son of the emperor, and for an intrigue with his
daughter-in-law, Livilla. Here, also, Simon Bar-Gioras, the last
defender of Jerusalem, suffered during the triumph of Titus.

The spot is more interesting to the Christian world as the prison of SS.
Peter and Paul, who are said to have been bound for nine months to a
pillar, which is shown here. A fountain of excellent water, beneath the
floor of the prison, is attributed to the prayers of St. Peter, that he
might have wherewith to baptize his gaolers, Processus and Martinianus;
but, unfortunately for this ecclesiastical tradition, the fountain is
described by Plutarch as having existed at the time of Jugurtha's
imprisonment This fountain probably gave the dungeon the name of
_Tullianum_, by which it was sometimes known, _tullius_ meaning a
spring.[49] This name probably gave rise to the idea of its connection
with Servius Tullius.

It is hence that the Roman Catholic Church believes that St. Peter and
St Paul addressed their farewells to the Christian world.

     That of St. Peter:--

     "Shortly I must put off this my tabernacle, even as our Lord Jesus
     Christ hath showed me. Moreover I will endeavour that ye may be
     able after my decease to have these things always in remembrance.
     For we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made
     known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ....
     Nevertheless we, according to his promise, look for new heavens and
     a new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness."--_2nd St. Peter._

     That of St. Paul:--

     "God hath not given us a spirit of fear.... Be not thou, therefore,
     ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner; but
     be thou partaker of the afflictions of the gospel according to the
     power of God.... I suffer trouble as an evil doer, even unto bonds;
     but the word of God is not bound. Therefore I endure all things,
     for the elect's sake, that they also may obtain the salvation which
     is in Christ Jesus.... I charge thee by God and by the Lord Jesus
     Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead ... preach the
     word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort
     with all long-suffering and doctrine; ... watch in all things,
     endure afflictions, do the work of an evangelist, make full proof
     of thy ministry. For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of
     my departure is at hand. I have fought a good fight, I have
     finished my course, I have kept the faith."--_2nd Timothy._

On July 4, the prisons are the scene of a picturesque solemnity, when
they are visited at night by the religious confraternities, who first
kneel and then prostrate themselves in silent devotion.

Above the Church of S. Pietro in Carcere, is that of _S. Giuseppe del
Falegnami_, St. Joseph of the Carpenters.

     "Pourquoi les guides et les antiquaires qui nous ont si souvent
     montré la voie triomphale qui mène au Capitale et nous en ont tant
     de fois énuméré les souvenirs; pourquoi aucun d'eux ne nous a-t-il
     jamais parlé de ce qui survint le jour du triomphe de Titus,
     là-bas, près des prisons Mamertines? Laisse-moi vous rappeler que
     ce jour-là le triomphateur, au moment de monter au temple, devant
     verser le sang d'une victime, s'arrêta à cette place, tandis que
     l'on détachait de son cortége un captif de plus haute taille et
     plus richement vêtu que les autres, et qu'on l'emmenait dans cette
     prison pour y achever son supplice avec le lacet même qu'il portait
     autour du cou. Ce ne fût qu'après cette immolation que le cortége
     reprit sa marche et acheva de monter jusqu'au Capitole! Ce captif
     dont on ne daigne nous parler, c'était Simon Bar-Gioras; c'était un
     des trois derniers défenseurs de Jérusalem; c'était un de ceux qui
     la défendirent jusqu'au bout, mais hélas! qui la défendirent comme
     des démons maîtres d'une âme de laquelle ils ne veulent pas se
     laisser chasser, et non point comme des champions héroïques d'une
     cause sacrée et perdue. Aussi cette grandeur que la seule infortune
     suffit souvent pour donner, elle manque à la calamité la plus
     grande que le monde ait vue, et les noms attachés à cette immense
     catastrophe ne demeurèrent pas même fameux! Jean de Giscala,
     Eléazar, Simon Bar-Gioras; qui pense à eux aujourd'hui? L'univers
     entier proclame et vénère les noms de deux pauvres juifs qui,
     quatre ans auparavant, dans cette même prison, avaient eux aussi
     attendu la supplice; mais le malheur, le courage, la mort tragique
     des autres, ne leur ont point donné la gloire, et un dédaigneux
     oubli les a effacés de la mémoire des hommes!"--_(Anne Severin)
     Mrs. Augustus Craven._

                        "Along the sacred way
    Hither the triumph came, and, winding round
    With acclamation, and the martial clang
    Of instruments, and cars laden with spoil,
    Stopped at the sacred stair that then appeared,
    Then thro' the darkness broke, ample, star-bright,
    As tho' it led to heaven. 'Twas night; but now
    A thousand torches, turning night to day,
    Blazed, and the victor, springing from his seat,
    Went up, and, kneeling as in fervent prayer,
    Entered the Capitol. But what are they
    Who at the foot withdraw, a mournful train
    In fetters? And who, yet incredulous,
    Now gazing wildly round, now on his sons,
    On those so young, well pleased with all they see,
    Staggers along, the last? They are the fallen,
    Those who were spared to grace the chariot-wheels;
    And there they parted, where the road divides,
    The victor and the vanquished--there withdrew;
    He to the festal board, and they to die.
      "Well might the great, the mighty of the world,
    They who were wont to fare deliciously
    And war but for a kingdom more or less,
    Shrink back, nor from their thrones endure to look,
    To think that way! Well might they in their pomp
    Humble themselves, and kneel and supplicate
    To be delivered from a dream like this!"

    _Rogers' Italy._



     Forum of Trajan--(Sta. Maria di Loreto)--Temple of Mars
     Ultor--Forum of Augustus--Forum of Nerva--Forum of Julius
     Cæsar--(Academy of St. Luke)--Forum Romanum--Tribune--Comitium
     --Vulcanal--Temple of Concord--Temple of Vespasian--Temple of
     Saturn--Arch of Septimius Severus--Temple of Castor and
     Pollux--Pillar of Phocas--Temple of Antoninus and
     Faustina--Basilica of Constantine--(Sta. Martina--S. Adriano--Sta.
     Maria--Liberatrice, SS. Cosmo and Damian--Sta. Francesca
     Romana)--Temple of Venus and Rome--Arch of Titus--(Sta. Maria
     Pallara--S. Buonaventura)--Meta Sudans--Arch of

Following the Corso to its end at the Ripresa dei Barberi, and turning
to the left, we find ourselves at once amid the remains of the _Forum of
Trajan_, erected by the architect Apollodorus for the Emperor Trajan on
his return from the wars of the Danube. This forum now presents the
appearance of a ravine between the Capitoline and Quirinal, but is an
artificial hollow, excavated to facilitate the circulation of life
within the city. An inscription over the door of the column, which
overtops the other ruins, shows that it was raised in order to mark the
depth of earth which was removed to construct the forum. The earth was
formerly as high as the top of the column, which reaches, 100 Roman
feet, to the level of the Palatine Hill. The forum was sometimes called
the "Ulpian," from one of the names of the emperor.

     "Before the year A.D. 107 the splendours of the city and the Campus
     beyond it were still separated by a narrow isthmus, thronged
     perhaps by the squalid cabins of the poor, and surmounted by the
     remains of the Servian wall which ran along its summit. Step by
     step the earlier emperors had approached with their new forums to
     the foot of this obstruction. Domitian was the first to contemplate
     and commence its removal. Nerva had the fortune to consecrate and
     to give his own name to a portion of his predecessor's
     construction; but Trajan undertook to complete the bold design, and
     the genius of his architect triumphed over all obstacles, and
     executed a work which exceeded in extent and splendour any previous
     achievement of the kind. He swept away every building on the site,
     levelled the spot on which they had stood, and laid out a vast area
     of columnar galleries, connecting halls and chambers for public use
     and recreation. The new forum was adorned with two libraries, one
     for Greek, the other for Roman volumes, and it was bounded on the
     west by a basilica of magnificent dimensions. Beyond this basilica,
     and within the limits of the Campus, the same architect
     (Apollodorus) erected a temple for the worship of Trajan himself;
     but this work probably belonged to the reign of Trajan's successor,
     and no doubt the Ulpian forum, with all its adjuncts, occupied many
     years in building. The area was adorned with numerous statues, in
     which the figure of Trajan was frequently repeated, and among its
     decorations were groups in bronze or marble, representing his most
     illustrious actions. The balustrades and cornices of the whole mass
     of buildings flamed with gilded images of arms and horses. Here
     stood the great equestrian statue of the emperor; here was the
     triumphal arch decreed him by the senate, adorned with sculpture,
     which Constantine, two centuries later, transferred without a blush
     to his own, a barbarous act of this first Christian emperor, to
     which however we probably owe their preservation to this day from
     more barbarous spoliation."--_Merivale, Romans under the Empire_,
     ch. lxiii.

The beautiful _Column of Trajan_ was erected by the senate and people of
Rome, A.D. 114. It is composed of thirty-four blocks of marble, and is
covered with a spiral band of bas-reliefs illustrative of the Dacian
wars, and increasing in size as it nears the top, so that it preserves
throughout the same proportion when seen from below. It was formerly
crowned by a statue of Trajan, holding a gilt globe, which latter is
still preserved in the Hall of Bronzes in the Capitol. This statue had
fallen from its pedestal long before Sixtus V. replaced it by the
existing figure of St. Peter. At the foot of the column was a sepulchral
chamber, intended to receive the imperial ashes, which were however
preserved in a golden urn, upon an altar in front of it.

                            "And apostolic statues climb
    To crush the imperial urn, whose ashes slept sublime."
           _Childe Harold_, cx.

It was while walking in this forum, that Gregory the Great, observing
one of the marble groups which told of a good and great action of
Trajan, lamented bitterly that the soul of so noble a man should be
lost, and prayed earnestly for the salvation of the heathen emperor. He
was told that the soul of Trajan should be saved, but that to ensure
this he must either himself undergo the pains of purgatory for three
days, or suffer earthly pain and sickness for the rest of his life. He
chose the latter, and never after was in health. This incident is
narrated by his three biographers, John and Paul Diaconus, and John of

The forum of Trajan was partly uncovered by Pope Paul III. in the
sixteenth century, but excavated in its present form by the French in
1812. There is much still buried under the streets and neighbouring

     "All over the surface of what once was Rome it seems to be the
     effort of Time to bury up the ancient city, as it were a corpse,
     and he the sexton; so that, in eighteen centuries, the soil over
     its grave has grown very deep, by the slow scattering of dust, and
     the accumulation of more modern decay upon older ruin.

     "This was the fate, also, of Trajan's forum, until some papal
     antiquary, a few hundred years ago, began to hollow it out again,
     and disclosed the whole height of the gigantic column, wreathed
     round with bas-reliefs of the old emperor's warlike deeds (rich
     sculpture, which, twining from the base to the capital, must be an
     ugly spectacle for his ghostly eyes, if he considers that this
     huge, storied shaft must be laid before the judgment seat, as a
     piece of the evidence of what he did in the flesh). In the area
     before the column stands a grove of stone, consisting of the broken
     and unequal shafts of a vanished temple, still keeping a majestic
     order, and apparently incapable of further demolition. The modern
     edifices of the piazza (wholly built, no doubt, out of the spoil of
     its old magnificence) look down into the hollow space whence these
     pillars rise.

     "One of the immense gray granite shafts lies in the piazza, on the
     verge of the area. It is a great, solid fact of the Past, making
     old Rome actually visible to the touch and eye; and no study of
     history, nor force of thought, nor magic of song, can so vitally
     assure us that Rome once existed, as this sturdy specimen of what
     its rulers and people wrought. There is still a polish remaining on
     the hard substance of the pillar, the polish of eighteen centuries
     ago, as yet but half rubbed off."--_Hawthorne, Transformation._

On the north of this forum are two churches: that nearest to the Corso
is _Sta. Maria di Loreto_ (founded by the corporation of bakers in
1500), with a dome surmounted by a picturesque lantern by Giuliano di
Sangallo, c. 1506. It contains a statue of Sta. Susanna (_not_ the
Susanna of the Elders) by _Fiammingo_ (François de Quesnoy), which is
justly considered the chef-d'œuvre of the Bernini School. The
companion church is called _Sta. Maria di Vienna_, and (like Sta. Maria
della Vittoria) commemorates the liberation of Vienna from the Turks in
1683, by Sobieski, king of Poland. It was built by Innocent XI.

Leaving the forum at the opposite corner by the Via Alessandrina, and
passing under the high wall of the Convent of the Nunziatina, a street,
opening on the left, discloses several beautiful pillars, which, after
having borne various names, are now declared to be the remains of the
_Temple of Mars Ultor_, built by Augustus in his new forum, which was
erected in order to provide accommodation for the crowds which
overflowed the Forum Romanum and Forum Julium.

     "The title of Ultor marked the war and the victory by which,
     agreeably to his vow, Augustus had avenged his uncle's death.

    "'Mars ades, et satia scelerato sanguine ferrum;
      Stetque favor causa pro meliore tuus.
    Templa feres, et, me victore, vocaberis Ultor.'[51]

     The porticoes, which extended on each side of the temple with a
     gentle curve, contained statues of distinguished Roman generals.
     The banquets of the Salii were transferred to this temple, a
     circumstance which led to its identification, from the discovery of
     an inscription here recording the _mansiones_ of these priests.
     Like the priesthood in general, they appear to have been fond of
     good living, and there is a well-known anecdote of the Emperor
     Claudius having been lured by the steams of their banquet from his
     judicial functions in the adjacent forum, to come and take part in
     their feast. The temple was appropriated to meetings of the senate
     in which matters connected with wars and triumphs were debated....
     Here while Tiberius was building a temple to Augustus upon the
     Palatine, his golden statue reposed upon a couch."--_Dyer's City of

     "Up to the time of Augustus, the god Mars, the reputed father of
     the Roman race, had never, it is said, enjoyed the distinction of a
     temple within the walls. He was then introduced into the city which
     he had saved from overthrow and ruin; and the aid he had lent in
     bringing the murderers of Cæsar to justice, was signalised by the
     title of Avenger, by which he was now specially addressed.... The
     temple of Mars Ultor, of gigantic proportions, 'Et deus est ingens
     et opus,' was erected in the new forum of Augustus at the foot of
     the Capitoline and Quirinal hills."--_Merivale, Romans under the

     "Ce temple était particulièrement cher à Auguste. Il voulut que les
     magistrats en partissent pour aller dans leurs provinces; que
     l'honneur du triomphe y fût décerné, et que les triomphateurs y
     fissent hommage à Mars Vengeur de leur couronne et de leur sceptre;
     que les drapeaux pris à l'ennemi y fussent conservés; que les chefs
     de la cavalerie exécutassent des jeux en avant des marches de ce
     temple; enfin que les censeurs, en sortant de leur charge, y
     plantassent le clou sacré, vieil usage étrusque jusque-là attaché
     au Capitole. Auguste désirait que ce temple fondé par lui prît
     l'importance du Capitole.

     "Il fit dédier le temple par ses petit-fils Caius et Lucius; et son
     autre petit-fils, Agrippa, à la tête des plus nobles enfants de
     Rome, y célébra le jeu de Troie, qui rappelait l'origine prétendue
     troyenne de César; deux cent soixante lions furent égorgés dans la
     cirque, c'était leur place; deux troupes de gladiateurs
     combattirent dans les Septa ou se faisaient les élections au temps
     de la république, comme si Auguste eût voulu, par ces combats qui
     se livraient en l'honneur des morts, célébrer les funérailles de la
     liberté romaine."--_Ampère, Emp._ i. 224.

The temple of Mars stands at the north-eastern corner of the magnificent
_Forum of Augustus_, which extended from here as far as the present Via
Alessandrina, surpassing in size the forum of Julius Cæsar, to which it
was adjoining. It was of sufficient size to be frequently used for
fights of animals (venationes). Among its ornaments were statues of
Augustus triumphant and of the subdued provinces--with inscriptions
illustrative of the great deeds he had accomplished there; also a
picture by Apelles representing War with her hands bound behind her,
seated upon a pile of arms. Part of the boundary wall exists, enclosing
on two sides the remains of the temple of Mars Ultor, and is constructed
of huge masses of peperino. The arch, in the wall close to the temple,
is known as Arco dei Pantani. The sudden turn in the wall here is
interesting as commemorating a concession made to the wish of some
proprietors, who were unwilling to part with their houses for the sake
of the forum.

     "C'est l'histoire du moulin de Sans-Souci, qui du reste paraît
     n'être pas vraie.

     "Il est piquant d'assister aujourd'hui à ce ménagement d'Auguste
     pour l'opinion qu'il voulait gagner. Envoyant le mur s'infléchir
     parce-qu'il a fallu épargner quelques maisons, on croit voir la
     toute-puissance d'Auguste gauchir à dessein devant les intérêts
     particuliers, seule puissance avec laquelle il reste à compter
     quand tout intérêt général a disparu. L'obliquité de la politique
     d'Auguste est visible dans l'obliquité de ce mur, qui montre et
     rend pour ainsi dire palpable le manège adroit de la tyrannie, se
     déguisant pour se fonder. Le mur biaise, comme biaisa constamment
     l'empereur."--_Ampère, Emp._ i. 233.

(The street on the left--passing the Arco dei Pantani--the Via della
Salita del Grillo, commemorates the approach to the castle of the great
mediæval family Del Grillo; the street on the right leads through the
ancient Suburra.)

At the corner of the next street (Via della Croce Bianca)--on the left
of the Via Alessandrina--is the ruin called the "Colonnace," being part
of the _Portico of Pallas Minerva_, which decorated the _Forum
Transitorium_, begun by Domitian, but dedicated in the short reign of
Nerva, and hence generally called the _Forum of Nerva_, on account of
the execration with which the memory of Domitian was regarded. Up to the
seventeenth century seven magnificent columns of the temple of Minerva
were still standing, but they were destroyed by Paul V., who used part
of them in building the Fontana Paolina. The existing remains consist of
two half-buried Corinthian columns with a figure of Minerva, and a
frieze of bas-reliefs.

     "Les bas-reliefs du forum de Nerva représentent des femmes occupées
     des travaux d'aiguille, auxquels présidait Minerve. Quand on se
     rappelle, que Domitien avait placé à Albano, près du temple de
     cette déesse, un collège de prêtres qui imitaient la parure et les
     mœurs de femmes, on est tenté de croire qu'il y a dans le choix
     des subjets figurés ici une allusion aux habitudes efféminées de
     ces prétres."--_Ampère, Emp._ ii. 161.

     "The portico of the temple of Minerva is most rich and beautiful in
     architecture, but woefully gnawed by time, and shattered by
     violence, besides being buried midway in the accumulation of the
     soil, that rises over dead Rome like a flood-tide. Within this
     edifice of antique sanctity a baker's shop is now established, with
     an entrance on one side; for everywhere, the remnants of old
     grandeur and divinity have been made available for the meanest
     neccessities of to-day."--_Hawthorne._

It was in this forum that Nerva caused Vetronius Turinus, who had
trafficked with his court interest, to be suffocated with smoke, a
herald proclaiming at the time, "Fumo punitur qui vendidit fumum."

Returning a short distance down the Via Alessandrina, and turning (left)
down the Via Bonella, we traverse the site of the _Forum of Julius
Cæsar_, upon which 4000 sestertia (800,000 _l._) were expended, and
which is described by Dion-Cassius as having been more beautiful than
the Forum Romanum. It was ornamented with a Temple of Venus
Genetrix--from whom Julius Cæsar claimed to be descended--which
contained a statue of the goddess by Archesilaus, a statue of Cæsar
himself, and a group of Ajax and Medea by Timomacus. Here, also, Cæsar
had the effrontery to place the statue of his mistress, Cleopatra, by
the side of that of the goddess. In front of the temple stood a bronze
figure of a horse--supposed to be the famous Bucephalus--the work of

    "Cedat equus Latiæ qui, contra templa Diones,
    Cæsarei stat sede Fori. Quem tradere es ausus
    Pellæo Lysippa Duci, mox Cæsaris ora
    Aurata cervice tulit."

    _Statius, Silv._ i. 84.

The only visible remains of this forum are some courses of huge square
blocks of stone (Lapis Gabinus), in a dirty court.

Part of the site of the forum of Julius Cæsar is now occupied--on the
right near the end of the Via Bonella--by the _Accademia di San Luca_,
founded in 1595, Federigo Zuccaro being its first director. The
collections are open from 9 to 5 daily. A ceiling representing Bacchus
and Ariadne, is by _Guido_. The best pictures are:--

     Bacchus and Ariadne: _Poussin_.
     Vanity: _Paul Veronese_.
     Calista and the Nymphs: _Titian_.
     The murder of Lucretia: _Guido Cagnacci_.
     Fortune: _Guido_.
     Innocent XI.: _Velasquez_.
     The Saviour and the Pharisee: _Titian_.
     A lovely fresco of a child: _Raphael_.
     St. Luke painting the Virgin: _Attributed to Raphael_.

"St. Luke painting the Virgin has been a frequent and favourite
subject. The most famous of all is a picture in the Academy of St.
Luke, ascribed to Raphael. Here St. Luke, kneeling on a footstool
before an easel, is busied painting the Virgin with the Child in
her arms, who appears to him out of heaven, sustained by clouds;
behind St. Luke stands Raphael himself, looking on."--_Mrs.

A skull preserved here was long supposed to be that of Raphael, but his
true skull has since been found in his grave in the Pantheon.

     "On a longtemps vénéré ici un crâne que l'on croyait être celui de
     Raphael; crâne étroit sur lequel les phrénologistes auront prononcé
     de vains oracles, devant lequel on aura bien profondément rêvé et
     qui n'était que celui d'un obscur chanoine bien innocent de toutes
     ces imaginations."--_A. Du Pays._

Just beyond St. Luca, we enter the Forum Romanum.

       *       *       *       *       *

The interest of Rome comes to its climax in the Forum. In spite of all
that is destroyed, and all that is buried, so much still remains to be
seen, and every stone has its story. Even without entering into all the
vexed archæological questions which have filled the volumes of Canina,
Bunsen, Niebuhr, and many others, the occupation which a traveller
interested in history will find here is all but inexhaustible; and,
after the disputes of centuries, the different sites seem now to be
verified with tolerable certainty. The study of the Roman Forum is
complicated by the _succession_ of public edifices by which it has been
occupied, each period of Roman history having a different set of
buildings, and each in a great measure supplanting that which went
before. Another difficulty has naturally arisen from the exceedingly
circumscribed space in which all these buildings have to be arranged,
and which shows that many of the ancient temples must have been mere
chapels, and the so-called "lakes" little more than fountains.

     "This spot, where the senate had its assemblies, where the rostra
     were placed, where the destinies of the world were discussed, is
     the most celebrated and the most classical of ancient Rome. It was
     adorned with the most magnificent monuments, which were so crowded
     upon one another, that their heaped-up ruins are not sufficient for
     all the names which are handed down to us by history. The course of
     centuries has overthrown the Forum, and made it impossible to
     define; the level of the ancient soil is twenty-four feet below
     that of to-day, and however great a desire one may feel to
     reproduce the past, it must be acknowledged that this very
     difference of level is a terrible obstacle to the powers of
     imagination; again, the uncertainties of archæologists are
     discouraging to curiosity and the desire of illusion. For more than
     three centuries learning has been at work upon this field of ruins,
     without being able even to agree upon its bearings; some describing
     it as extending from north to south, others from east to west. The
     origin of the Forum goes back to the alliance of the Romans and
     Sabines. It was a space surrounded by marshes, which extended
     between the Palatine and the Capitol, occupied by the two colonies,
     and serving as a neutral ground where they could meet. The Curtian
     Lake was situated in the midst. Constantly adorned under the
     republic and the empire, it appears that it continued to exist
     until the eleventh century. Its total ruin dates from Robert
     Guiscard, who, when called to the assistance of Gregory VII., left
     it a heap of ruins. Abandoned for many centuries, it became a
     receptacle for rubbish, which gradually raised the level of the
     soil. About 1547, Paul III. began to make excavations in the Forum.
     Then the place became a cattle-market, and the glorious name of
     Forum Romanum changed into that of Campo Vaccino.

     "The Forum was surrounded by a portico of two stories, the lower of
     which was occupied by shops (tabernæ). In the beginning of the
     sixth century of Rome, two fires destroyed part of the edifices
     with which it had been embellished. This was an opportunity for
     isolating the Forum, and basilicas and temples were raised in
     succession along its sides, which in their turn were partly
     destroyed in the fire of Nero. Domitian rebuilt a part, and added
     the temple of Vespasian, and Antoninus that of Faustina."--_A. Du

The excavations which were made in the Forum before 1871 are for the
most part due to the generosity of Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire. The
papal government always displayed the most extraordinary apathy about
extending them, and, when a large excavation was made in the winter of
1869--70, by the British Archæological Society, in front of the Church
of Sta. Martina, insisted on its being immediately filled up again,
instead of extending it, as might easily have been done, to join the
excavation which had long existed on the Clivus Capitolinus. Lately the
excavations have been considerably increased, but were the roads
leading to the Forum to be closed, and a large body of efficient
labourers set to work, the whole of the Roman Forum and its surroundings
might be laid bare in a month, without any injury to the interesting
churches in its neighbourhood. At present, even that part which is
disinterred is cut up by a number of raised causeways, which distract
the eye and mar the general effect, and the excavations, recommenced by
the Italian government, are slowly and inadequately carried on.

If we stand on the causeway in front of the arch of Septimius Severus,
and turn towards the Capitol, we look upon the Clivus Capitolinus, which
is perfectly crowded with historical sites and fragments, viz.:--

1. The modern Capitol, resting on the _Tabularium_. This is one of the
earliest architectural relics in Rome. It is built in the Etruscan
style, of huge blocks of tufa or peperino placed long-and cross-ways
alternately. It was formerly composed of two stages called Camellaria.
Only the lower now remains. It contained the tables of the laws. The
corridor which remains in the interior is used as a museum of
architectural fragments. The Tabularium probably communicated with the
_Ærarium_ in the temple of Saturn.

2. On the right of the excavated space, and nearest the Tabularium, the
site of the _Tribune_, in front of which were the _Rostra_, to which the
head of Octavius was affixed by Marius, and the head and hand of Cicero
by Antony, and where Fulvia, the widow of Clodius, spat in his dead
face, and pierced his inanimate tongue with the pin which she wore in
her hair. In front of the rostrum were the statues of the three Sibyls
called Tria Fata.

3. Below, a little(**typo? little?) more to the right, is the site of
the _Comitium_, where the survivor of the Horatii was condemned to
death, and saved by the voice of the people. Here, also, was the
trophied pillar which bore the arms of the Curiatii. In the area of the
Comitium grew the famous fig-tree which was always preserved here in
commemoration of the tree under which Romulus and Remus were suckled by
the wolf, and beneath which was a bronze representation of the wolf and
the children.

4. A little more to the left, is the site of _the Vulcanal_, so called
from an altar dedicated to Vulcan, a platform (still defined) where, in
the earliest times, Romulus and Tatius used to meet on intermediate
ground and transact affairs common to both; and where Brutus was seated,
when, without any change of countenance, he saw his two sons beaten and
beheaded. Adjoining the Vulcanal was the _Græcostasis_, where foreign
ambassadors waited before they were admitted to an audience of the

5. Below the Vulcanal, and just behind the Arch of Severus, is the site
of the _Temple of Concord_, dedicated, with blasphemous
inappropriateness, B.C. 121, by the consul Opimius, immediately after
the murder of Caius Gracchus. Here Cicero pronounced his orations
against Catiline before the senate. A pavement of coloured marbles
remains. At its base are still to be seen some small remains of the
_Colonna Mænia_, which was surmounted by the statue of C. Mænius, who
decorated the rostra with the iron beaks of vessels taken in war.

6. The three beautiful columns which are still standing were attributed
to a temple of Jupiter Tonans, but are now decided to belong to the
_Temple of Vespasian_. The engravings of Piranesi represent them as
buried almost to their capitals, and they remained in this state until
they were disinterred during the first French occupation. The space was
so limited in this part of Rome, that in order to prevent encroaching
upon the street Clivus Capitolinus, which descends the hill between this
temple and that of Saturn, the temple of Vespasian was raised on a kind
of terrace, and the staircase which led to it was thrust in between the
columns. This temple was restored by Septimius Severus, and to this the
letters on the entablature refer, being part of the word _Restituere_.
Instruments of sacrifice are sculptured on the frieze.

7. On the left of the excavated space, close beneath the Tabularium, a
low range of columns recently re-erected represents the building called
the _School of Xanthus_, chambers, for the use of the scribes and
persons in the service of the curule ædiles, which derived their name
from Xanthus, a freedman, by whom they were rebuilt.

8. The eight Ionic columns still standing, part of the _Temple of
Saturn_, the ancient god of the Capitol. Before this temple Pompey sate
surrounded by soldiers, listening to the orations which Cicero was
delivering from the rostrum, when he received the personal address, "Te
enim jam appello, et ea voce ut me exaudire possis." Here the tribune
Metellus flung himself before the door and vainly attempted to defend
the treasure of the _Ærarium_ in this temple against Julius Cæsar. The
present remains are those of an indifferent and late renovation of an
earlier temple, being composed of columns which differ in diameter, and
a frieze put together from fragments which do not belong to one another.
The original temple was built by Tarquin, and was supposed to mark the
site of the ancient Sabine altar of the god and the limit of the wood of
refuge mentioned by Virgil.

9. Just below the Temple of Saturn is the site of the _Arch of
Tiberius_, erected, according to Tacitus, upon the recovery by
Germanicus of the standards which Varus had lost.

10. The remains of the _Milliarium Aureum_, which formed the upper
extremity of a wall faced with marbles, ending near the arch of Severus
in a small conical pyramid. Distances without the walls were inscribed
upon the Milliarium Aureum, as distances within the walls were upon the
pyramid (from which in this case they were also measured) which bore the
name of _Umbilicus Romæ_. The Via Sacra, which is still visible,
descended from the Capitol between the temples of Saturn and
Vespasian,--being known here as the Clivus Capitolinus, and passed to
the left of--

11. The _Arch of Septimius Severus_, which was erected by the senate
A.D. 205, in honour of that emperor and his two sons, Caracalla and
Geta. It is adorned with bas-reliefs relating his victories in the
east,--his entry into Babylon and the tower of the temple of Belus are
represented. A curious memorial of imperial history may be observed in
the inscription, where we may still discern the erasure made by
Caracalla after he had put his brother Geta to death in A.D. 213, for
the sake of obliterating his memory. The added words are OPTIMIS
FORTISSIMISQVE PRINCIPIBUS--but the ancient inscription P. SEPT. LVC.
FIL. GETÆ. NOBILISS. CÆSARI, has been made out by painstaking
decipherers. In one of the piers is a staircase leading to the top of
the arch which was formerly (as seen from coins of Severus and
Caracalla) adorned by a car drawn by six horses abreast, and containing
figures of Severus and his sons. It was in front of this arch that the
statue of Marcus Aurelius stood, which is now at the Capitol.

     "Les proportions de l'arc de Septime-Sévère sont encore belles.
     L'aspect en est imposant; il est solide sans être lourd. La grande
     inscription où se lisent les épithètes victorieuses qui rappellent
     les succès militaires de l'empereur, Parthique, Dacique,
     Adiabénique, se déploie sur une vaste surface et donne à
     l'entablement un air de majesté qu'admirent les artistes. Cette
     inscription est doublement historique; elle rappelle les campagnes
     de Sévère et la tragédie domestique qui après lui ensanglanta sa
     famille, le meurtre d'un de ses fils immolé par l'autre, et
     l'acharnement de celui-ci à poursuivre la mémoire du frère qu'il
     avait fait assassiner. Le nom de Géta a été visiblement effacé par
     Caracalla. La même chose se remarque dans une inscription sur
     bronze qu'on voit au Capitale et sur le petit arc du Marché aux
     bœufs dont j'ai parlé, où l'image de Géta a été effacée comme
     son nom. Caracalla ne permit pas même à ce nom proscrit de se
     cacher parmi les hiéroglyphes. En Egypte, ceux qui composaient le
     nom de Géta ont été grattés sur les monuments."--_Ampère, Emp._ ii.

(The excavations in thé Forum are open to the public on the same days as
the Palace of the Cæsars--Thursdays and Sundays.)

The platform on which we have been standing leads to the Via della
Consolazione, occupying the site of the ancient _Vicus Jugarius_, where
Augustus erected an altar to Ceres, and another to Ops Augusta, the
goddess of wealth. (In this street, on the left, is a good cinque-cento
doorway.) Where this street leaves the Forum was the so-called _Lacus
Servilius_, a basin which probably derived its name from Servilius Ahala
(who slew the philanthropist Sp. Mælius with a dagger near this very
spot), and which was encircled with a ghastly row of heads in the
massacres under Sylla. This fountain was adorned by M. Aggrippa with a
figure of a hydra. The right side of the Forum is now occupied for a
considerable distance by the disinterred remains of the _Basilica
Julia_, begun by Julius Cæsar, and finished by Augustus, who dedicated
it in honour of his daughter. A basilica of this description was
intended partly as a Law Court and partly as an Exchange. In this
basilica the judges called Centumviri held their courts, which were four
in number:

    "Jam clamor, centumque viri, densumque coronæ
    Vulgus: et infanti Julia tecta placent."

    _Martial_, vi. _Ep._ 38.

Beyond the basilica are three beautiful columns which belong to a
restoration of the _Temple of Castor and Pollux_, dedicated by
Postumius, B.C. 484. Here costly sacrifices were always offered in the
ides of July, at the anniversary of the battle of the Lake Regillus,
after which the Roman knights, richly clothed, crowned with olive, and
bearing their trophies, rode past it in military procession, starting
from the temple of Mars outside the Porta Capena. The entablature which
the three columns support is of great richness, and the whole fragment
is considered to be one of the finest existing specimens of the
Corinthian order. None of the Roman ruins have given rise to more
discussion than this. It has perpetually changed its name. Bunsen and
many other authorities considered it to belong to the temple of Minerva
Chalcidica; but as it is known that the position of the now discovered
Basilica Julia was exactly between the temple of Saturn and that of
Castor, and a passage of Ovid describes the latter as being close to the
site of the temple of Vesta, which is also ascertained, it seems almost
certain now that it belonged to the temple of the Dioscuri. Dion-Cassius
mentions that Caligula made this temple a vestibule to his house on the

Here, on the right, branches off the Via dei Fienili, once the _Vicus
Tuscus_, or Etruscan quarter (see Chap. V.), leading to the Circus
Maximus. At its entrance was the bronze statue of Vertumnus, the god of
Etruria, and patron of the quarter. The long trough-shaped fountain
here, at which such picturesque groups of oxen and buffaloes are
constantly standing, is a memorial of the _Lake of Juturna_ the sister
of Turnus, or as she was sometimes described, the wife of Janus the
Sabine war-god. This fountain, for such it must have been, was dried up
by Paul V.

    "At quæ venturas præcedit sexta kalendas,
      Hac sunt Ledæis templa dicata deis.
    Fratribus illa deis fratres de gente deorum
      Circa Juturnæ composuere lacus."

    _Ovid, Fast._ i. 705.

Here, close under the Palatine, is the site of the famous _Temple of
Vesta_, in which the sacred fire was preserved, with the palladium saved
from Troy. On the altar of this temple, blood was sprinkled annually
from the tail of the horse which was sacrificed to Mars in the
Campus-Martius. The foundation of the temple was attributed to Numa, but
the worship must have existed in Pelasgic times, as the mother of
Romulus was a vestal. It was burnt down in the fire of Nero, rebuilt and
again burnt down under Commodus, and probably restored for the last time
by Heliogabalus. Here, during the consulate of the young Marius, the
high priest Scævola was murdered, splashing the image of Vesta with his
blood,--and here (A.D. 68) Piso, the adopted son of Galba, was murdered
in the sanctuary whither he had fled for refuge, and his head, being cut
off, was affixed to the rostra. Behind the temple, along the lower ridge
of the Palatine, stretched the sacred grove of Vesta, and the site of
the Church of Sta. Maria Liberatrice was occupied by the _Atrium Vestæ_,
a kind of convent for the vestal virgins. Here Numa Pompilius fixed his
residence, hoping to conciliate both the Latins of the Palatine and the
Sabines of the Capitoline by occupying a neutral ground between them.

    "Quæris iter? dicam, vicinum Castora, canæ
      Transibis Vestæ, virgineamque domum,
    Inde sacro veneranda petes palatia Clivo."

    _Martial_, i. _Ep._ 70.

    "Hic focus est Vestæ, qui Pallada servat et ignem.
      Hic fuit antiqui regia parva Numæ."
         _Ovid, Trist._ iii. _El._ 1.

    "Hic locus exiguus, qui sustinet atria Vestæ,
      Tunc erat intonsi regia magna Numæ.
    Forma tamen templi, quae nunc manet, ante fuisse
      Dicitur; et formæ causa probanda subest.
    Vesta eadem est, et Terra; subest vigil ignis utrique,
      Significant sedem terra focusque suam.
    Terra pilæ similis, nullo fulcimine nixa,
      Aëre subjecto tam grave pendet onus.
    Arte Syracosia suspensus in aëre clauso
      Stat globus, immensi parva figura poli;
    Et quantum a summis, tantum secessit ab imis
      Terra. Quod ut fiat, forma rotunda facit.
    Par facies templi: nullus procurrit ab illo
      Angulus. A pluvio vindicat imbre tholus."

    _Ovid, Fast._ vi. 263.

    "Servat et Alba, Lares, et quorum lucet in aris
    Ignis adhuc Phrygius, nullique adspecta virorum
    Pallas, in abstruso pignus memorabile templo."

    _Lucan_, ix. 992.

Close to the temple of Vesta was the _Regia_, where Julius Cæsar lived
(as pontifex maximus)--where Pompeia his second wife admitted her lover
Clodius in the disguise of a woman to the mysteries of the Bona
Dea--whence Cæsar went forth to his death--and from which his last wife
Calpurnia rushed forth with loud outcries to receive his dead body.

Somewhere in this part of the Forum was the famous _Curtian Lake_, so
called from Mettus Curtius, a Sabine warrior, who with difficulty
escaped from its quagmires to the Capitol after a battle between Romulus
and Tatius.[52] Tradition declares that the quagmire afterwards became a
gulf, which an oracle declared would never close until that which was
most important to the Roman people was sacrificed to it. Then the young
Marcus Curtius, equipped in full armour, leapt his horse into the abyss,
exclaiming that nothing was more important to the Roman people than arms
and courage; and the gulf was closed.[53] Two altars were afterwards
erected on the site to the two heroes, and a vine and an olive tree grew

    "Hoc, ubi nunc fora sunt, udæ tenuere paludes:
      Amne redundatis fossa madebat aquis.
    Curtius ille lacus, siccas qui sustinet aras,
      Nunc solida est tellus, sed lacus ante fuit."
             _Ovid, Fast._ vi. 401.

Some fountain, like those of Servilius and Juturna, bearing the name of
Lacus Curtius must have existed on this site to imperial times, for the
Emperor Galba was murdered there.

     "A single cohort still surrounded Galba, when the standard-bearer
     tore the Emperor's image from his spear-head, and dashed it on the
     ground. The soldiers were at once decided for Otho; swords were
     drawn, and every symptom of favour for Galba amongst the bystanders
     was repressed by menaces, till they dispersed and fled in horror
     from the Forum. At last, the bearers of the emperor's litter
     overturned it at the Curtian pool beneath the Capitol. In a few
     moments enemies swarmed around his body. A few words he muttered,
     which have been diversely reported: some said that they were abject
     and unbecoming; others affirmed that he presented his neck to the
     assassin's sword, and bade him strike 'if it were for the good of
     the republic;' but none listened, none perhaps heeded the words
     actually spoken; Galba's throat was pierced, but even the author of
     his mortal wound was not ascertained, while his breast being
     protected by the cuirass, his legs and arms were hacked with
     repeated gashes."--_Merivale_, vii. 73.

At the foot of the Clivus Capitolinus, on the left (looking towards the
Arch of Titus) stood the _Temple of Janus Quirinus_, between the great
Forum and the Forum of Julius Cæsar, and near the ascent to the Porta
Janualis, by which Tarpeia admitted the Sabines to the Capitol.
Procopius, in the sixth century, saw the little bronze temple of Janus
still standing. This was one of many temples of the great Sabine god.

    "Quum tot sint Jani; cur stas sacratus in uno,
    Hic ubi juncta foris templa duobus habes?"

    _Ovid, Fast._ i. 257.

This was the temple which was the famous index of peace and war, closed
by Augustus for the third time from its foundation after the victory of

    " ...et vacuum duellis
    Janum Quirini clausit, et ordinem
    Rectum, et vaganti fræna licentiæ

    _Horace_, Ode iv. 15.

Besides this temple there were three arches, whose sites are unknown,
dedicated to Janus in different parts of the Forum.

    " ...Hæc Janus summus ab imo

    _Horace, Ep._ i. 1, 54.

The central arch was the resort of brokers and money-lenders.[56]

    " ...Postquam omnis res mea Janum
    Ad medium fracta est."

    _Hor. Sat._ ii. 3, 18.

Along this side of the Forum stood the _Tabernæ Argentariæ_, the
silversmiths' shops, and beyond them--probably in front of S.
Adriano--were the Tabernæ Novæ, where Virginia was stabbed by her father
with a butcher's knife, which he had seized from one of the stalls,
saying, "This, my child, is the only way to keep thee free," as he
plunged it into her heart.[57] Near this also was the statue of Venus

The front of the Church of S. Adriano is a fragment of the _Basilica of
Æmilius Paulus_, built with part of 1500 talents which Cæsar had sent
from Gaul to win him over to his party. This basilica occupied the site
of the famous _Curia_ of Tullus Hostilius.

     "Là se réunit, pour la première fois sous un toit, le conseil des
     anciens rois que le savant Properce, avec un sentiment vrai des
     antiquités romaines, nous montre tel qu'il était dans l'origine, se
     rassemblant au son de la trompe pastorale dans un pré, comme le
     peuple dans certains petits cantons de la Suisse."--_Ampère, Hist.
     Rom._ ii. 310.

The Curia was capable of containing six hundred senators, their number
in the time of the Gracchi. It had no tribune,--each speaker rose in
turn and spoke in his place. Here was "the hall of assembly in which the
fate of the world was decided." The Curia was destroyed by fire, which
it caught from the funeral pyre of Clodius. Around the Curia stood many
statues of Romans who had rendered especial service to the state. The
Curia Julia occupied the site of the Curia Hostilia in the early part of
the reign of Augustus. Close by the old Curia was the _Basilica Porcia_,
built by Cato the Censor, which was likewise burnt down at the funeral
of Clodius. Near this, the base of the rostral column, _Colonna Duilia_,
has been found.

Opposite the Basilica Julia, in the depth of the Forum, is the _Column
of Phocas_, raised to that emperor by the exarch Smaragdus in 608. This

    "The nameless column with a buried base,"

of Byron, but is now neither nameless nor buried, its pedestal having
been laid bare by the Duchess of Devonshire in 1813, and bearing an
inscription which shows an origin that no one ever anticipated.

     "In the age of Phocas (602--610), the art of erecting a column like
     that of Trajan or M. Aurelius had been lost. A large and handsome
     Corinthian pillar, taken from some temple or basilica, was
     therefore placed in the Forum, on a huge pyramidal basis quite out
     of proportion to it, and was surmounted with a statue of Phocas in
     gilt bronze. It has so little the appearance of a monumental
     column, that for a long while it was thought to belong to some
     ruined building, till, in 1813, the inscription was discovered. The
     name of Phocas had, indeed, been erased; but that it must have been
     dedicated to him is shown by the date.... The base of this column,
     discovered by the excavations of 1816 to have rested on the ancient
     pavement of the Forum, proves that this former centre of Roman life
     was still, at the beginning of the seventh century, unencumbered
     with ruins."--_Dyer's History of the City of Rome._

     "Ce monument et l'inscription qui l'accompagne sont précieux pour
     l'histoire, car ils montrent le dernier terme de l'avilissement où
     Rome devait tomber. Smaragdus est le premier magistrat de
     Rome,--mais ce magistrat est un préfet, l'élu du pouvoir impérial
     et non de ses concitoyens;--il commande, non, il est vrai, à la
     capitale du monde, mais au chef-lieu du duché de Rome. Ce préfet,
     qui n'est connu de l'histoire que par ses lâches ménagements envers
     les Barbares, imagine de voler une colonne à un beau temple, au
     temple d'un empereur de quelque mérite, pour la dédier à un
     exécrable tyran monté sur le trône par des assassinats, au
     meurtrier de l'empereur Maurice, à l'ignoble Phocas, que tout le
     monde connaît, grâce à Corneille, qui l'a encore trop ménagé. Et le
     plat drôle ose appeler très-clément celui qui fit égorger sous les
     yeux de Maurice ses quatre fils avant de l'égorger lui-même. Il
     décerne le titre de triomphateur à Phocas, qui laissa conquérir par
     Chosroès une bonne part de l'empire. Il ose écrire: 'pour les
     innombrables bienfaits de sa piété, pour le repos procuré à
     l'Italie et à la liberté.' Ainsi l'histoire monumentale de la Rome
     de l'empire finit honteusement par un hommage ridicule de la
     bassesse à la violence."--_Ampère, Emp._ ii. 389.

A little behind the Column of Phocas are the marble slabs commemorating
the sacrifices called Suovetaurilia, consisting of a pig, a sheep, and
an ox, animals which are sculptured here in bold relief. On the side
towards the Capitol a number of figures are represented, amongst them a
woman presenting a child to the emperor, in reference to Trajan's asylum
for orphans, or for those who were too poor to bring up their children.
On the other side is a burning of deeds in reference to the famous
remission of debts by Trajan.

Beyond this, on the left, the base of the famous statue of Domitian has
been discovered as described by Statius:

    "Ipse loci custos, cujus sacrata vorago,
    Famosusque lacus nomen memorabile servat."

    _Silv._ i. 66.

Here the Via Sacra turns, almost continuing the Vicus Tuscus. On its
right, on a line with the Temple of the Dioscuri, has been discovered
the base of the small Temple of Julius Cæsar (Ædes Divi Julii),[59]
which was surrounded with a colonnade of closely-placed columns and
surmounted by a statue of the deified triumvir. This was the first
temple in Rome which was dedicated to a mortal.

    "Fratribus assimilis, quos proxima templa tenentes
    Divus ab excelsa Julius æde videt."

    _Ovid, Pont. El._ ii. 2.

Dion Cassius narrates that this temple was erected on the spot where the
body of Julius was burnt. It was adorned by Augustus with the beaks of
the vessels taken in the battle of Actium, and hence obtained the name
of Rostra Julia. He also placed here the statue of Venus Anadyomene of
Apelles, because Cæsar had claimed descent from that goddess. Here, in
A.D. 14, the body of Augustus, being brought from Nola, where he died,
was placed upon a bier, while Tiberius pronounced a funeral oration over
it, before it was carried to the Campus Martius.

The road turns again in front of the remains of the _Temple of Antoninus
and Faustina_, erected by the flattery of the senate to the memory of
the licentious Empress Faustina, the faithless wife of Antoninus Pius,
whom they elevated to the rank of a goddess. Her husband, dying before
its completion, was associated in her honours, and the inscription,
which still remains on the portico, is "DIVO ANTONINO ET DIVÆ FAUSTINÆ.
EX. S. C." The front of the temple is adorned with eight columns of
cipolino, forty-three feet high, supporting a frieze ornamented with
griffins and candelabra. The effect of these remains would be
magnificent if the modern road were removed, and the temple were laid
bare in its full height, with the twenty-one steps which formerly led to
it. It is also greatly injured by the hideous Church of S. Lorenzo in
Miranda, which encloses the cella of the temple, and whose name, says
Ampère, naively expresses the admiration in which its builders held
these remains.[60]

On the left we now reach the Church of SS. Cosmo and Damian, considered
by Nibby and others to occupy the site of a temple of Remus. Ampère has
since proved that this temple never existed, and that the remains are
those of a _Temple of the Penates_, rebuilt by Augustus. Here Valerius
Publicola had a house, to which he removed from the Velia, in deference
to the wishes of the Roman people.

     "Le sentiment d'effroi que la demeure féodale des Valérius causait,
     était pareille à celui qu'inspiraient aux Romains du moyen âge les
     tours des barons, que le peuple, dès qu'il était le maître, se
     hâtait de démolir. Valerius n'attendit pas qu'on se portât à cette
     extrémité, et il vint habiter au pied de la Velia. C'est le premier
     triomphe des plébéiens sur l'aristocratie romaine et la première
     concession de cette aristocratie."--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ ii. 274.

A little further on are three gigantic arches, being all that remains of
the magnificent _Basilica of Constantine_, which was 320 feet in length
and 235 feet in width. The existing ruins are those of one of the aisles
of the basilica. There are traces of an entrance towards the Coliseum.
The roof was supported by eight Corinthian columns, of which one,
remaining here till the time of Paul V., was removed by him to the
piazza of Sta. Maria Maggiore, where it still stands. This site was
previously occupied by the _Temple of Peace_, burnt down in the time of
Commodus. This temple was the great museum of Rome under the empire, and
contained the seven-branched candlestick and other treasures brought
from Jerusalem,[61] as well as all the works of art which had been
collected in the palace of Nero and which were removed hither by
Vespasian. A statue of the Nile, with children playing around it, is
mentioned by Pliny as among the sights in the temple of Peace.[62]

It was near this that the Via Sacra was crossed by the _Arch of Fabius_,
erected B.C. 121, in honour of the conqueror of the Allobroges,--the
then inhabitants of Savoy. Close to this portion of the Via Sacra also
stood a statue of Valeria, daughter of Publicola, by whom the honours of
the virgin Clœlia were disputed.

Besides those which we have noticed, there is mention in classical
authors of many other buildings and statues which were once crowded into
this narrow space; but all trace of many even of those enumerated is
still buried many feet below the soil.

The modern name of _Campo Vaccino_, by which the Forum is now known, is
supposed by some antiquaries to be derived from Vitruvius Vacco, who
once had a house there.

     "La guerre aux habitants de Privernum (Piperno) rattache à une
     localité du Palatin.... Les habitants de Fondi avaient fait cause
     commune avec les habitants de Privernum. Leur chef, Vitruvius
     Vacca, possedait une maison sur le Palatin; c'était un homme
     considérable dans son pays et même à Rome. Ils demandèrent et
     obtinrent grâce. Privernum fut pris, et Vitruvius Vacca, qui s'y
     était réfugié, conduit à Rome, enfermé dans le prison Mamertine
     pour y être gardé jusqu'au retour du consul, et alors battu de
     verges et mis à mort; sa maison du Palatin fut rasée, et le lieu où
     elle avait été garda le nom de _Prés de Vacca_."--_Ampère, Histoire
     Romaine_, iii. 17.

But the name will seem singularly appropriate to those who are familiar
with the groups of meek-faced oxen of the Campagna, which are always to
be seen lying in the shade under the trees of the Forum, or drinking at
its water-troughs.

     "'Romanoque Foro et lautis mugire Carinis.'

     "Ce vers m'a toujours profondément frappé, lorsque je traversais le
     Forum, aujourd'hui Campo-Vaccino (le champ du bétail); je voyais
     en effet presque toujours à son extrémité des bœufs couchés au
     pied du Palatin. Virgile, se reportant de la Rome de son temps à la
     Rome ancienne d'Evandre, ne trouvait pas d'image plus frappante du
     changement produit par les siècles, que la présence d'un troupeau
     de bœufs dans le lieu destiné à être le Forum. Eh bien, le jour
     devait venir où ce qui était pour Virgile un passé lointain et
     presque incroyable se reproduirait dans la suite des âges; le Forum
     devait être de nouveau un lieu agreste, ses magnificences s'en
     aller et les bœufs y revenir.

     "J'aimais à les contempler à travers quelques colonnes moins
     vieilles que les souvenirs qu'ils me retracaient, reprenant
     possession de ce sol d'où les avait chassés la liberté, la gloire,
     Cicéron, César, et où devait les ramener la plus grande vicissitude
     de l'historie, la destruction de l'empire romain per les barbares.
     Ce que Virgile trouvait si étrange dans le passé n'étonne plus dans
     le présent; les bœufs mugissent au Forum; ils s'y couchent et y
     ruminent aujourd'hui, de même qu'au temps d'Evandre et comme s'il
     n'était rien arrivé."--Ampère, Hist. Rom. 1. 211.

                  "In many a heap the ground
    Heaves, is if Ruin in a frantic mood
    Had done his utmost. Here and there appears,
    As left to show his handy-work not ours,
    An idle column, a half-buried arch,
    A wall of some great temple. It was once,
    And long, the centre of their Universe,
    The Forum--whence a mandate, eagle-winged,
    Went to the ends of the earth. Let us descend
    Slowly. At every step much may be lost,
    The very dust we tread stirs as with life,
    And not a breath but from the ground sends up
    Something of human grandeur.

           *       *       *       *       *

    Now all is changed; and here, as in the wild,
    The day is silent, dreary as the night;
    None stirring, save the herdsman and his herd,
    Savage alike; or they that would explore,
    Discuss, and learnedly; or they that come,
    (And there are many who have crossed the earth,)
    That they may give the hours to meditation,
    And wander, often saving to themselves,
    'This was the Roman Forum!'"

    _Rogers' Italy._

     "We descended into the Forum, the light fast fading away and
     throwing a kindred soberness over the scene of ruin. The soil has
     risen from rubbish at least fifteen feet, so that no wonder that
     the hills look lower than they used to do, having been never very
     considerable at the first. There it was one scene of desolation,
     from the massy foundation-stones of the Capitoline Temple, which
     were laid by Tarquinius the Proud, to a single pillar erected in
     honour of Phocas, the eastern emperor, in the fifth century. What
     the fragments of pillars belonged to, perhaps we can never know;
     but that I think matters little. I care not whether it was a temple
     of Jupiter Stator or the Basilica Julia, but one knows that one is
     on the ground of the Forum, under the Capitol, the place where the
     tribes assembled, and the orators spoke; the scene, in short, of
     all the internal struggles of the Roman people."--_Arnold's

     "They passed the solitary column of Phocas, and looked down into
     the excavated space, where a confusion of pillars, arches,
     pavements, and shattered blocks and shafts--the crumbs of various
     ruins dropt from the devouring maw of Time--stand, or lie, at the
     base of the Capitoline Hill. That renowned hillock (for it is
     little more) now rose abruptly above them. The ponderous masonry,
     with which the hillside is built up, is as old as Rome itself, and
     looks likely to endure while the world retains any substance or
     permanence. It once sustained the Capitol, and now bears up the
     great pile which the mediæval builders raised on the antique
     foundation, and that still loftier tower, which looks abroad upon a
     larger page of deeper historic interest than any other scene can
     show. On the same pedestal of Roman masonry, other structures will
     doubtless arise, and vanish like ephemeral things.

     "To a spectator on the spot, it is remarkable that the events of
     Roman history, and of Roman life itself, appear not so distant as
     the Gothic ages which succeeded them. We stand in the Forum, or on
     the height of the Capitol, and seem to see the Roman epoch close at
     hand. We forget that a chasm extends between it and ourselves, in
     which lie all those dark, rude, unlettered centuries, around the
     birthtime of Christianity, as well as the age of chivalry and
     romance, the feudal system, and the infancy of a better
     civilization than that of Rome. Or, if we remember these mediæval
     times, they look further off than the Augustan age. The reason may
     be, that the old Roman literature survives, and creates for us an
     intimacy with the classic ages, which we have no means of forming
     with the subsequent ones.

     "The Italian climate, moreover, robs age of its reverence, and
     makes it look nearer than it is. Not the Coliseum, nor the tombs of
     the Appian Way, nor the oldest pillar in the Forum, nor any other
     Roman ruin, be it as dilapidated as it may, ever give the
     impression of venerable antiquity which we gather, along with the
     ivy, from the grey walls of an English abbey or castle. And yet
     every brick and stone, which we pick up among the former, had
     fallen, ages before the foundation of the latter was
     begun."--_Hawthorne, Transformation._

     "A Rome, vous marchez sur les pierres qui ont été les dieux de
     César et de Pompée: vous considérez la ruine de ces grands
     ouvrages, dont la vieillesse est encore belle, et vous vous
     promènerez tous les jours parmi les histoires et les fables.... Il
     n'y à que Rome où la vie soit agréable, où le corps trouve ses
     plaisirs et l'esprit les siens, où l'on est à la source des belles
     choses. Rome est cause que vous n'êtes plus barbares, elle vous a
     appris la civilité et la religion.... Il est certain que je ne
     monte jamais au Palatin ni au Capitole que je n'y change d'esprit,
     et qu'il ne me vienne d'autres pensées que les miennes ordinaires.
     Cet air m'inspire quelque chose de grand et de généreux que je
     n'avais point auparavant: si je rêve deux heures au bord du Tibre,
     je suis aussi savant que si j'avais étudié huit jours."--_Balzac._

       *       *       *       *       *

Before leaving the Forum we must turn from its classical to its mediæval
remains, and examine the very interesting group of churches which have
sprung up amid its ruins.

Almost opposite the Mamertine Prisons, surmounted by a handsome dome, is
the _Church of Sta. Martina_, which contains the original model,
bequeathed by the sculptor Thorwaldsen, of his Copenhagen statue of
Christ in the act of benediction. The opposite transept contains a very
inferior statue of Religion by _Canova_. The figure of Sta. Martina by
_Guerini_ reposes beneath the high altar. The subterranean church is
well worth visiting. An ante-chapel adorned with statues of four virgin
martyrs leads to a chapel erected at the cost and from the designs of
Pietro da Cortona, whose tomb stands near its entrance, with a fine bust
by _Bernini_. In the centre of the inner chapel lamps are burning round
the magnificent bronze altar which covers the shrine of Sta. Martina,
and beneath it, you can discover the martyr's tomb by the light of a
torch which a monk lets down through a hole. In the tribune is an
ancient throne. A side chapel contains the grave in which the body of
the virgin saint, with three other martyrs, her companions, was found in
1634: it is adorned with a fine bas-relief by _Algardi_.

     "At the foot of the Capitoline hill, on the left hand as we descend
     from the Ara Cœli into the Forum, there stood in very ancient
     times a small chapel dedicated to Sta. Martina, a Roman virgin, who
     was martyred in the persecution under Alexander Severus. The
     veneration paid to her was of very early date, and the Roman people
     were accustomed to assemble there on the first day of the year.
     This observance was, however, confined to the people, and not very
     general till 1634; an era which connects her in rather an
     interesting manner with the history of art. In this year, as they
     were about to repair her chapel, they discovered, walled into the
     foundations, a sarcophagus of terra-cotta, in which was the body of
     a young female, whose severed head reposed in a separate casket.
     These remains were very naturally supposed to be those of the saint
     who had been so long venerated on that spot. The discovery was
     hailed with the utmost exultation, not by the people only, but by
     those who led the minds and consciences of the people. The pope
     himself, Urban VIII., composed hymns in her praise; and Cardinal
     Francesco Barberini undertook to rebuild her church. Amongst those
     who shared the general enthusiasm was the painter, Pietro da
     Cortona, who was at Rome at the time, who very earnestly dedicated
     himself and his powers to the glorification of Sta. Martina. Her
     church had already been given to the Academy of Painters, and
     consecrated to St. Luke, their patron saint. It is now 'San Luca
     and Santa Martina.' Pietro da Cortona erected at his own cost, the
     chapel of Sta. Martina, and when he died, endowed it with his whole
     fortune. He painted for the altarpiece his best picture, in which
     the saint is represented as triumphing over the idols, while the
     temple in which she has been led to sacrifice, is struck by
     lightning from heaven, and falls in ruins around her. In a votive
     picture of Sta. Martina kneeling at the feet of the Virgin and
     Child, she is represented as very young and lovely; near her, a
     horrid instrument of torture, a two-pronged fork with barbed
     extremities, and the lictor's axe, signifying the manner of her
     death."--_Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art._

The feast of the saint is observed here on Jan. 30, with much solemnity.
Then in all the Roman churches is sung the Hymn of Sta. Martina--

    "Martinæ celebri plaudite nomini,
    Cives Romulei, plaudite gloriæ;
    Insignem mentis dicite virginem,
    Christi dicite martyrem.

    Hæc dum conspicuis orta parentibus
    Inter delicias, inter amabiles
    Luxus illecebras, ditibus affluit
    Faustæ muneribus domus.

    Vitæ despiciens commoda, dedicat
    Se rerum Domino, et munifica manu
    Christi pauperibus distribuens opes
    Quærit præmia cœlitum.

    A nobis abigas lubrica gaudia
    Tu, qui martyribus dexter ades,
    Une et trine: tuis da famulis jubar,
    Quo clemens animos beas. Amen."

There is nothing especial to notice in _S. Adriano_, which is built in
the ruins of the basilica of Emilius Paulus, or in _S. Lorenzo in
Miranda_, which occupies the temple of Antoninus and Faustina, but _Sta.
Maria Liberatrice_, built on the site of the house of Numa and the
convent of the Vestals, commemorates by its name a curious legend of the
fourth century. On this site, it is said, dwelt in a cave, a terrible
dragon who had slain three hundred persons with the poison of his
breath. Into this cave, instructed thereto by St. Peter, and entrusting
himself to the care of the Virgin, descended St. Silvester the Pope,
attended by two acolytes bearing torches, and here, having pronounced
the name of Christ, he was miraculously enabled to bind the dragon, and
to shut him up till the day of Judgment. But when he ascended in safety,
he found at the mouth of the cave two magicians who had followed him in
the hope of discovering some imposture, dying from the poison of the
dragon's breath,--and these also he saved alive.

We now reach the circular building which has been so long known as the
temple of Remus. To the right of the entrance are two pillars of
cipolino, almost buried in the soil. The porphyry pillars at the
entrance, supporting a richly sculptured cornice, were probably set up
in their present position when the temple was turned into a church. The
bronze doors were brought from Perugia. If, as is now supposed, the
temple on this site was that of the Penates, the protectors against all
kinds of illness and misfortune, the modern dedication to the protecting
physicians Cosmo and Damian may have had some reference to that which
went before.

The Church of _SS. Cosmo and Damiano_ was founded within the ancient
temple by Pope Felix IV. in 527, and restored by Adrian I. in 780. In
1633 the whole building was modernized by Urban VIII., who, in order to
raise it to the present level of the soil, cut the ancient church in
half by the vaulting which now divides the upper and lower churches. To
visit the lower church a monk must be summoned, who will bring a torch.
This is well worth while. It is of great size, and contains a curious
well into which Christian martyrs in the time of Nero are said to have
been precipitated. The tomb of the martyrs Cosmo and Damian is beneath
the altar, which is formed of beautiful transparent marble. Under a side
altar is the grave of Felix IV. The third and lowest church (the
_original_ crypt) which is very small, is said to have been a place of
refuge during the early Christian persecutions. Here is shown the altar
at which Felix IV. celebrated mass while his converts were hiding
here--the grave in which the body of the pope was afterwards
discovered--and a miraculous spring, still flowing, which is said to
have burst forth in answer to his prayers that he might have wherewithal
to baptize his disciples. A passage which formerly led from hence to the
Catacombs of St. Sebastian, was walled up, twenty years ago, by the
paternal government, because twenty persons were lost in it. In this
crypt were found the famous "Pianta Capitolina," now preserved in the
Capitol. In the upper church, on the right of the entrance from the
circular vestibule into the body of the building is this inscription--

     "L'imagine di Madonna Santissima che esiste all'altar magg. parlò a
     S. Gregorio Papa dicendogli, 'Perchè piu non mi saluti mentre
     passando eri solito salutarmi?' Il santo domandò perdona e concesse
     a quelli che celebrano in quell'altare la liberazione dell'anima
     dal purgatorio, cioé per quell'anima per la quale si celebra la

Another inscription narrates--

     "Gregorius primus concessit omnibus et singulis visitantibus
     ecclesiam istam sanctorum Cosmæ et Damiani mille annos de
     indulgentia, et in die stationis ejusdem ecclesiæ idem Gregorius
     concessit decem millia annorum de indulgentia."

Among the many relics preserved in this church are, "Una ampulla lactis
Beatæ Mariæ Virginis"; "De Domo Sanctæ Mariæ Magdalenæ"; "De Domo Sancti
Zachariæ profeta!"

Deserving of the most minute attention is the grand mosaic of
Christ--coming on the clouds of sunset.

     "The mosaics of SS. Cosmo and Damian (A.D. 526--530) are the finest
     of ancient Christian Rome. Above the arch appear, on each side of
     the Lamb, four angels, of excellent but somewhat severe style; then
     follow various apocalyptic emblems: a modern walling up having left
     but few traces of the four and twenty elders. A gold surface,
     dimmed by age, with little purple clouds, forms the background:
     though in Rome, at least, at both an earlier and later date, a blue
     ground prevailed. In the apsis itself, upon a dark blue ground,
     with golden-edged clouds, is seen the colossal figure of Christ;
     the right hand raised, either in benediction or teaching, the left
     holding a written scroll; above is the hand, which is the emblem of
     the First Person of the Trinity. Below, on each side, the apostles
     Peter and Paul are leading SS. Cosmo and Damiano, each with crowns
     on their heads, towards the Saviour, followed by St. Theodore on
     the right, and by Pope Felix IV., the founder of the church, on the
     left. This latter, unfortunately, is an entirely restored figure.
     Two palm-trees, sparkling with gold, above one of which appears the
     emblem of eternity, the phœnix--with a star-shaped nimbus, close
     the composition on each side. Further below, indicated by
     water-plants, sparkling also with gold, is the river Jordan. The
     figure of Christ may be regarded as one of the most marvellous
     specimens of the art of the middle ages. Countenance, attitude, and
     drapery combine to give him an expression of quiet majesty, which,
     for many centuries after, is not found again in equal beauty and
     freedom. The drapery, especially, is disposed in noble folds, and
     only in its somewhat too ornate details is a further departure from
     the antique observable. The saints are not as yet arranged in stiff
     parallel forms, but are advancing forward, so that their figures
     appear somewhat distorted, while we already remark something
     constrained and inanimate in their step. The apostles Peter and
     Paul wear the usual ideal costume. SS. Cosmo and Damiano are
     attired in the late Roman dress: violet mantles, in gold stuff,
     with red embroideries of oriental barbaric effect. Otherwise the
     chief motives of the drapery are of great beauty, though somewhat
     too abundant in folds. The high lights are brought out by gold and
     other sparkling materials, producing a gorgeous play of colour
     which relieves the figures vigorously from the dark blue
     background. Altogether, a feeling for colour is here displayed, of
     which no later mosaics with gold grounds give any idea. The heads,
     with the exception of the principal figure, are animated and
     individual, though without any particular depth of expression;
     somewhat elderly, also, in physiognomy, but still far removed from
     any Byzantine stiffness; St. Peter has already the bald head, and
     St. Paul the short brown hair and dark beard, by which they were
     afterwards recognizable. Under this chief composition, on a gold
     ground, is seen the Lamb upon a hill, with the four rivers of
     Paradise, and the twelve sheep on either hand. The great care of
     execution is seen in the five or six gradations of tints which the
     artist has adopted."--_Kugler._

SS. Cosmo and Damian, to whom this church is dedicated, were two Arabian
physicians who exercised their art from charity. They suffered under
Diocletian. "First they were thrown into the sea, but an angel saved
them; and then into the fire, but the fire refused to burn them; then
they were bound to crosses and stoned, but the stones either fell
harmless or rebounded on their executioners and killed them, so then the
pro-consul Lycias, believing them to be sorcerers, commanded that they
should be beheaded, and thus they died." SS. Cosmo and Damian were the
patron saints of the Medici, and their gilt statues were carried in
state at the coronation of Leo X. (Giovanni de' Medici). Their fame is
general in many parts of France, where their fête is celebrated by a
village fair--children who ask for their fairing of a toy or gingerbread
calling it their "St. Côme."

     "It is related that a certain man, who was afflicted with a cancer
     in his leg, went to perform his devotions in the Church SS. Cosmo
     and Damian at Rome, and he prayed most earnestly that these
     beneficent saints would be pleased to aid him. When he had prayed,
     a deep sleep fell upon him. Then he beheld St. Cosmo and St.
     Damian, who stood beside him; and one carried a box of ointments,
     and the other a sharp knife. And one said, 'What shall we do to
     replace this diseased leg when we have cut it off?' And the other
     replied, 'There is a Moor who has been buried just now at St.
     Pietro in Vincoli; let us take his leg for the purpose.' So they
     brought the leg of the dead man, and with it they replaced the leg
     of the sick man; anointing it with celestial ointment, so that he
     remained whole. When he awoke he almost doubted whether it could be
     himself; but his neighbours, seeing that he was healed, looked into
     the tomb of the Moor, and found that there had been an exchange of
     legs: and thus the truth of this great miracle was proved to all
     beholders."--_Mrs. Jameson, from the Legenda Aurea._

Just beyond the basilica of Constantine, stands the _Church of Sta.
Francesca Romana_, which is full of interest. It was first built by St.
Sylvester on the site of the temple of Venus and dedicated to the
Virgin, under the title of Sta. Maria Antica. It was rebuilt in A.D. 872
by John VIII., who resided in the adjoining monastery during his
pontificate. An ancient picture attributed to St. Luke, brought from
Troy in 1100, was the only object in this church which was preserved
when the building was totally destroyed by fire in 1216, after which the
church, then called Sta. Maria Nuova, was restored by Honorius III.
During the restoration, the picture was kept at S. Adriano, and its
being brought back led to a contest amongst the people, which was ended
by a child exclaiming--"What are you doing? the Madonna is already in
her own church." She had betaken herself thither none knew how.

In the twelfth century the church was given to the Lateran Canons, in
the fourteenth to the Olivetan monks; under Eugenius IV., the latter
extended their boundaries so far that they included the Coliseum, but
their walls were forced down in the succeeding pontificate. Gregory XI.,
Paul II., and Cæsar Borgia, were cardinals of Sta. Maria Novella. In
1440 the name was changed to that of Sta. Francesca Romana, when that
saint, Francesca de' Ponziani, foundress of the Order of Oblates, was
buried here. Her tomb was erected in 1640 by Donna Agata Pamfili, sister
of Innocent X., herself an Oblate. It is from the designs of Bernini,
and is rich in marbles. The figure was not added till 1868.

     "After the death of Francesca, her body remained during a night and
     a day at the Ponziani Palace, the Oblates watching by turns over
     the beloved remains.... Francesca's face, which had recently borne
     traces of age and suffering, became as beautiful again as in the
     days of youth and prosperity; and the astonished bystanders gazed
     with wonder and awe at her unearthly loveliness. Many of them
     carried away particles from her clothes, and employed them for the
     cure of several persons who had been considered beyond the
     possibility of recovery. In the course of the day the crowd
     augmented to a degree which alarmed the inhabitants of the palace,
     Battista Ponziani took measures to have the body removed at once to
     the church, and a procession of the regular and secular clergy
     escorted the venerated remains to Santa Maria Nuova, where they
     were to be interred.

     "The popular feeling burst forth on the occasion; it was no longer
     to be restrained. Francesca was invoked by the crowd, and her
     beloved name was heard in every street, in every piazza, in every
     corner of the Eternal City. It flew from mouth to mouth, it seemed
     to float in the air, to be borne aloft by the grateful enthusiasm
     of a whole people, who had seen her walk to that church by her
     mother's side in her holy childhood; who had seen her kneel at that
     altar in the grave beauty of womanhood, in the hour of bereavement,
     and now in death, carried thither in state, she the gentle, the
     humble saint of Rome, the poor woman of the Trastevere, as she was
     sometimes called at her own desire."--_Lady G. Fullerton's Life of
     Sta. Francesca Romana._

A chapel on the right of the church contains the monument of Cardinal
Vulcani, 1322, supporting his figure, with Faith, Hope, and Charity
sculptured in high relief below. Near the door is that of Cardinal
Adimari, 1432, who died here after an ineffectual mission to the
anti-pope Pedro da' Luna. In the left transept was a fine Perugino
(removed 1867); in the right transept is the tomb of Pope Gregory XI.,
by Pietro Paolo Olivieri, erected by the senate in gratitude for his
having restored the papal court to Rome from Avignon. A bas-relief
represents his triumphal entry, with St. Catherine of Siena, by whose
entreaties he was induced to return, walking before his mule. A breach
in the walls indicates the ruinous state into which Rome had fallen, the
chair of St. Peter is represented as floating back through the air,
while an angel carries the papal tiara and keys; a metaphorical figure
of Rome is coming forth to welcome the pope.

     "The greatest part of the praise due to Gregory's return to Rome
     belongs to St. Catherine of Siena, who, with infinite courage,
     travelled to Avignon, and persuaded the pope to return, and by his
     presence to dispel the evils which disgraced Italy, in consequence
     of the absence of the popes. Thus it is not to be wondered at, that
     those writers, who rightly understand the matter, should have said
     that Catherine, the virgin of Siena, brought back to God the
     abandoned apostolical chair upon her shoulders."--_Ughelli, Ital.
     Sacra_, vi. col. 45.

Near Pope Gregory's tomb some blackened marks in the wall are shown as
holes made by the (gigantic) knees of St. Peter, when he knelt to pray
that Simon Magus might be dropped by the demons he had invoked to
support him in the air, which he is said to have done to show his power
on this spot.

     "When the error of Simon was spreading farther and farther, the
     illustrious pair of men, Peter and Paul, the rulers of the Church,
     arrested it by going thither, who suddenly exhibited as dead,
     Simon, the putative God, on his appearance. For when Simon declared
     that he would ascend aloft into heaven, the servants of God cast
     him headlong to the earth, and though this occurrence was wonderful
     in itself, it was not wonderful under the circumstances, for it was
     Peter who did it, he who bears with him the keys of heaven, ... it
     was Paul who did it, he who was caught up into the third
     heaven."--_St. Cyril of Jerusalem._

     "Simon promised to fly, and thus ascend to the heavenly abodes. On
     the day agreed upon, he went to the Capitoline hill, and throwing
     himself from the rock, began his ascent. Then Peter, standing in
     the midst, said, 'O Lord Jesus, show him that his arts are in
     vain.' Hardly had the words been uttered, when the wings which
     Simon had made use of became entangled, and he fell. His thigh was
     fractured, never to be healed,--and some time afterwards, the
     unhappy man died at Aretia, whither he had retired after his
     discomfiture."--_St. Ambrose._[64]

     "There can be no doubt that there existed in the first century a
     Simon, a Samaritan, a pretender to divine authority and
     supernatural powers; who, for a time, had many followers; who stood
     in a certain relation to Christianity; and who may have held some
     opinions more or less similar to those entertained by the most
     famous heretics of the early ages, the Gnostics. Irenæus calls this
     Simon the father of all heretics. 'All those,' he says, 'who in any
     way corrupt the truth, or mar the preaching of the Church, are
     disciples and successors of Simon, the Samaritan magician.' Simon
     gave himself forth as a God, and carried about with him a beautiful
     woman named Helena, whom he represented as the first conception of
     his--that is, of the divine--mind, the symbol and manifestation of
     that portion of spirituality which had become entangled in
     matter."--_Jameson's Sacred Art_, p. 204.

The vault of the tribune is covered with mosaics.

     "The restored tribune mosaics (A.D. 858--887, during the
     pontificate of Nicholas I.), close the list of Roman Byzantine
     works. By their time it had become apparent that such figures as
     the art of the day was alone able to achieve, could have no
     possible relation to each other, and therefore no longer constitute
     a composition; the artists accordingly separated the Madonna on the
     throne, and the four saints with uplifted hands, by graceful
     arcades. The ground is gold, the nimbuses blue. The faces consist
     only of feeble lines--the cheeks are only red blotches; the folds
     merely dark strokes; nevertheless a certain flow and fulness in the
     forms, and the character of a few accessories (for instance, the
     exchange of a crown upon the Virgin's head for the invariable
     Byzantine veil), seem to indicate that we have not so much to do
     here with the decline of Byzantine art, as with a northern and
     probably Frankish influence."--_Kugler._

The convent attached to this church was the abode of Tasso during his
first visit to Rome.

Behind Sta. Francesca Romana, and facing the Coliseum, are the remains
generally known as the _Temple of Venus and Rome_, also called Templum
Urbis (now sometimes called by objectors the "Portico of Livia"), which,
if this name is the correct one, was originally planned by the Emperor
Hadrian to rival the Forum of Trajan, erected by the architect
Apollodorus. It was built upon a site previously occupied by the atrium
of Nero's Golden House. Little remains standing except a cella facing
the Coliseum, and another in the cloisters of the adjoining convent
(these, perhaps, being restorations by Maxentius, _c._ 307, after a fire
had destroyed most of the building of Hadrian), but the surrounding
grassy height is positively littered with fragments of the grey granite
columns which once formed the grand portico (400 by 200 feet) of the
building. A large mass of Corinthian cornice remains near the cella
facing the Coliseum. This was the last pagan temple which remained in
use in Rome.[65] It was only closed by Theodosius in 391, and remained
entire till 625, when Pope Honorius carried off the bronze tiles of its
roof to St. Peter's.

    "Ac sacram resonare viam mugitibus, ante
    Delubrum Romæ; colitur nam sanguine et ipsa
    More deæ, nomenque loci, ceu numen, habetur.
    Atque Urbis, Venerisque pari se culmine tollunt
    Templa, simul geminis adolentur thura deabus."

    _Prudentius contr. Symm._ v. 214.

     "When about to construct his magnificent temple of Venus and Rome,
     Hadrian produced a design of his own and showed it with proud
     satisfaction to the architect Apollodorus. The creator of the
     Trajan column remarked with a sneer that the deities, if they rose
     from their seats, must thrust their heads through the ceiling. The
     emperor, we are assured, could not forgive this banter; but we can
     hardly take to the letter the statement that he put his critic to
     death for it."--_Merivale_, ch. lxvi.

In front of this temple stood the bronze statue of Clœlia, mentioned
by Livy and Seneca, and (till the sixth century) the bronze elephants
mentioned by Cassiodorus. Nearer the Coliseum may still be seen the
remains of the foundation prepared by Hadrian for the _Colossal Statue
of Nero_, executed in bronze by Zenodorus. This statue was twice moved,
first by Vespasian, in A.D. 75, that it might face the chief entrance of
his amphitheatre,[66] whose plan had been already laid out. At the same
time--though it was a striking likeness of Nero--its head was surrounded
with rays that it might represent Apollo. In its second position it is
described by Martial:

    "Hic ubi sidereus propius videt astra colossus
      Et crescunt media pegmata celsa via,
    Invidiosa feri radiabant atria regis,
      Unaque jam tota stabat in urbe domus."

    _De Spect._ ii.

It was again moved (with the aid of forty-two elephants), a few yards
further north, by Hadrian, when he built his temple of Venus and Rome.
Pliny describes the colossus as 110, Dion Cassius as 100 feet high.

     "Hadrian employed an architect named Decrianus to remove the
     colossus of Nero, the face of which had been altered into a Sol. He
     does not seem to have accomplished the design of Apollodorus to
     erect a companion statue of Luna."--_Merivale_, ch. lxvi.

Near the Church of Sta. Francesca the Via Sacra passes under the _Arch
of Titus_, which, even in its restored condition, is the most beautiful
monument of the kind remaining in Rome. Its Christian interest is
unrivalled, from its having been erected by the senate to commemorate
the taking of Jerusalem, and from its bas-reliefs of the seven-branched
candlestick and other treasures of the Jewish Temple. In mediæval times
it was called the Arch of the Seven Candlesticks (septem lucernarum)
from the bas-relief of the candlestick, concerning which Gregorovius
remarks, that the fantastic figures carved upon it prove that it was
_not_ an exact likeness of that which came from Jerusalem. The
bas-reliefs are now greatly mutilated, but they are shown in their
perfect state in a drawing of Giuliano di Sangallo. On the frieze is the
sacred river Jordan, as an aged man, borne on a bier. The arch, which
was in a very ruinous condition, had been engrafted in the middle ages
into a fortress tower called Turris Cartularia, and so it remained till
the present century. This tower originally formed the entrance to the
vast fortress of the powerful Frangipani family, which included the
Coliseum and a great part of the Palatine and Cœlian hills; and here,
above the gate, Pope Urban II. dwelt in 1093, under the protection of
Giovanni Frangipani. The arch was repaired by Pius VII., who replaced in
travertine the lost marble portions at the top and sides.

     "Standing beneath the arch of Titus, and amid so much ancient dust,
     it is difficult to forbear the commonplaces of enthusiasm, on which
     hundreds of tourists have already insisted. Over the half-worn
     pavement, and beneath this arch, the Roman armies had trodden in
     their outward march, to fight battles, a world's width away.
     Returning victorious, with royal captives, and inestimable spoil, a
     Roman triumph, that most gorgeous pageant of earthly pride, has
     streamed and flaunted in hundred-fold succession over these same
     flagstones, and through this yet stalwart archway. It is politic,
     however, to make few allusions to such a past; nor is it wise to
     suggest how Cicero's feet may have stepped on yonder stone, or how
     Horace was wont to stroll near by, making his footsteps chime with
     the measure of the ode that was ringing in his mind. The very
     ghosts of that massive and stately epoch have so much density that
     the people of to-day seem the thinner of the two, and stand more
     ghost-like by the arches and columns, letting the rich sculpture be
     discerned through their ill-compacted substance."--_Hawthorne,

     "We passed on to the arch of Titus. Amongst the reliefs there is
     the figure of a man bearing the golden candlestick from the Temple
     at Jerusalem, as one of the spoils of the triumph. Yet He who
     abandoned His visible and local temple to the hands of the heathen
     for the sins of His nominal worshippers, has taken to Him His great
     power, and has gotten Him glory by destroying the idols of Rome as
     He had done the idols of Babylon; and the golden candlestick burns
     and shall burn with an everlasting light, while the enemies of His
     holy name, Babylon, Rome, or the carcass of sin in every land,
     which the eagles of His wrath will surely find out, perish for ever
     from before Him."--_Arnold's Journal._

     "The Jewish trophies are sculptured in bas-relief on the inside of
     the arch beneath the vaulting. Opposite to these is another
     bas-relief representing Titus in the quadriga, the reins borne by
     the goddess Roma. In the centre of the arch, Titus is borne to
     heaven by an eagle. It may be conjectured that these ornaments to
     his glory were designed after the death of Vespasian, and completed
     after his own.... These witnesses to the truth of history are
     scanned at this day by Christians passing to and fro between the
     Coliseum and the Forum; and at this day the Jew refuses to walk
     beneath them, and creeps stealthily by the side, with downcast
     eyes, or countenance averted."--_Merivale, Romans under the
     Empire_, vii. 250.

     "The restoration of the arch of Titus reflects the greatest credit
     on the commission appointed by Pius VII. for the restoration of
     ancient edifices. This, not only beautiful, but precious monument,
     had been made the nucleus of a hideous castellated fort by the
     Frangipani family. Its masonry, however, embraced and held
     together, as well as crushed, the marble arch; so that on freeing
     it from its rude buttresses there was fear of its collapsing, and
     it had first to be well bound together by props and bracing beams,
     a process in which the Roman architects are unrivalled. The simple
     expedient was then adopted by the architect Stern of completing the
     arch in stone; for its sides had been removed. Thus increased in
     solid structure, which continued all the architectural lines, and
     renewed its proportions to the mutilated centre, the arch was both
     completely secured and almost restored to its pristine
     elegance."--_Wiseman's Life of Pius VII._

The processions of the popes going to the Lateran for their solemn
installation, used to halt beside the arch of Titus while a Jew
presented a copy of the Pentateuch, with a humble oath of fealty. This
humiliating ceremony was omitted for the first time at the installation
of Pius IX.

       *       *       *       *       *

At this point it may not be inappropriate to notice two other buildings,
which, though situated on the Palatine, are totally disconnected with
the other objects occupying that hill.

A lane runs up to the right from the arch of Titus. On the left is a
gateway, surmounted by a faded fresco of St. Sebastian. Here is the
entrance to a wild and beautiful garden, possessing most lovely views of
the various ruins, occupying the site of the gardens of Adonis. This is
the place where St. Sebastian underwent his (so-called) martyrdom, and
will call to mind the many fine pictures, scattered over Europe, of the
youthful and beautiful saint, bound to a tree, and pierced with arrows.
The finest of these are the Domenichino, in Sta. Maria degli Angeli, and
the Sodoma at Florence. He is sometimes represented as bound to an
orange tree, and sometimes, as in the Guido at Bologna, to a cypress,
like those we still see on this spot. Here was an important Benedictine
Convent, where Pope Boniface IV. was a monk before his election to the
papacy, and where the famous abbots of Monte Casino had their Roman
residence. Here, in 1118, fifty-one cardinals took refuge, and elected
Gelasius II. as Pope. The only building remaining is the _Church of Sta.
Maria Pallara_ or _S. Sebastiano_, containing some curious inscriptions
relating to events which have occurred here, and--in the tribune,
frescoes, of the Saviour in benediction with four saints, and below,
two other groups representing the Virgin with saints and angels, placed,
as we learn by the inscription beneath, by one Benedict--probably an

Further up the lane a "Via Crucis" leads to the _Church of S.
Buonaventura_, "the seraphic doctor" (Cardinal and Bishop of Albano, ob.
July 14, 1274), who in childhood was raised from the point of death
(1221) by the prayers of St. Francis, who was so surprised when he came
to life, that he involuntarily exclaimed, "O buona ventura"--("what a
happy chance")--whence the name by which he was afterwards known.[67]

The little church contains several good modern monuments. Beneath the
altar is shown the body of the Blessed Leonardo of Porto-Maurizio (ob.
1751), who arranged the Via Crucis in the Coliseum, and who is much
revered by the ultra-Romanists for having prophesied the proclamation of
the dogma of the Immaculate Conception. The crucifix and the picture of
the Madonna which he carried with him in his missions, are preserved in
niches on either side of the tribune, and many other relics of him are
shown in his cell in the adjoining convent of Minor Franciscans. Entered
through the convent is a lovely little garden, whence there is a grand
view of the Coliseum, and where a little fountain is shaded by two tall
palm trees.

     "Oswald went next to the monastery of S. Buenaventura, built on the
     ruins of Nero's palace. There, where so many crimes had reigned
     remorselessly, poor friars, tormented by conscientious scruples,
     doom themselves to fasts and stripes for the least omission of
     duty. 'Our only hope,' said one, 'is that when we die, our faults
     will not have exceeded our penances.' Nevill, as he entered,
     stumbled over a trap, and asked its purpose. 'It is through that we
     are interred,' answered one of the youngest, already a prey to the
     bad air. The natives of the south fear death so much that it is
     wondrous to find there these perpetual mementoes; yet nature is
     often fascinated by what she dreads, and such an intoxication fills
     the soul exclusively. The antique sarcophagus of a child serves as
     the fountain of this institution. The boasted palm of Rome is the
     only tree of its garden."--_Madame de Staël, Corinne._

       *       *       *       *       *

The arch of Titus is spoken of as being "in summa _Via Sacra_," as the
street was called which led from the southern gate of Rome to the
Capitol, and by which the victorious generals passed in their triumphant
processions to the temple of Jupiter. Between the arch of Titus and the
Coliseum, the ancient pavement of this famous road, composed of huge
polygonal blocks of lava, has been allowed to remain. Here we may
imagine Horace taking his favourite walk.

    "Ibam forte Via Sacrâ, sicut meus est mos,
    Nescio quid meditans nugarum, et totus in illis."

    _Sat._ i. 9.

It appears to have been the favourite resort of the _flaneurs_ of the

    "Videsne, Sacram metiente te viam
      Cum bis ter ulnarum togâ,
    Ut ora vertat huc et huc euntium
      Liberrima indignatio?"

    _Horace, Epod._ 4.

The Via Sacra was originally bordered with shops, some of which,
together with some baths, have been unearthed on the right of the road.
Ovid alludes frequently to the purchases which might be made there in
his time. In this especial part of the Via was the market for fruit and

    "Dum bene dives ager, dum rami pondere nutant;
      Adferat in calatho rustica dona puer.
    Rure suburbano poteris tibi dicere missa;
      Illa vel in Sacra sint licet empta Via."

    _Ovid, Art. Aman._ ii. 263.

At the foot of the hill are the remains of the bason and the brick cone
of a fountain called _Meta Sudans_, where the gladiators used to wash.
Seneca, who lived in this neighbourhood, complains (Epist. lvi.) of the
noise which was made by a showman who blew his trumpet close to this

On the right the Via Triumphalis leads to the Via Appia, passing under
the _Arch of Constantine_. The lower bas-reliefs upon this arch, which
are crude and ill-designed, refer to the deeds of Constantine; but the
upper, of fine workmanship, illustrate the life of Trajan, which has led
some to imagine that the arch was originally erected in honour of
Trajan, and afterwards appropriated by Constantine. They were, however,
removed from an arch of Trajan (whose ruins existed in 1430[69]), and
were appropriated by Constantine for his own arch.

     "Constantin a enlevé à un arc de triomphe de Trajan les statues de
     prisonniers daces que l'on voit au sommet du sien. Ce vol a été
     puni au seizième siècle, car, dans ce qui semble un accès de folie,
     Lorenzino, le bizarre assassin d'Alexandre de Médicis a décapité
     toutes les statues qui surmontaient l'arche Constantin, moins une,
     la seule dont la tête soit antique. Heureusement on a dans les
     musées, à Rome et ailleurs, bon nombre de ces statues de captifs
     barbares avec le même costume, c'est-à-dire le pantalon et le
     bonnet, souvent les mains liées, dans une attitude de soumission
     morne, quelque fois avec une expression de sombre fierté, car l'art
     romain avait la noblesse de ne pas humilier les vaincus; il ne les
     représentait point à genoux, foulés aux pieds par leurs vainqueurs;
     on ne donnait pas à leurs traits étranges un aspect qu'on eût pu
     rendre hideux; on les plaçait sur le sommet des arcs de triomphe,
     debout, la tête baissée, l'air triste."

    "'Summus tristis captivus in arcu.'"

    _Ampère, Emp._ ii. 169.

The arch was further plundered by Clement VIII., who carried off one of
its eight Corinthian columns to finish a chapel at the Lateran. They
were formerly _all_ of giallo-antico. But it is still the most striking
and beautiful of the Roman arches.

     "L'inscription gravée sur l'arc de Constantin est curieuse par le
     vague de l'expression en ce qui touche aux idées religieuses, par
     l'indécision calculée des termes dont se servait un sénat qui
     voulait éviter de se compromettre dans un sens comme dans l'autre.
     L'inscription porte que cet arc a été dédié a l'empereur parcequ'il
     a délivré la république d'un tyran (on dit encore la république!)
     par la grandeur de son âme et une inspiration de la Divinité,
     _instinctu Divinitatis_. Il parait même que ces mots ont été
     ajoutés après coup pour remplacer une formule peut-être plus
     explicitement païenne. Ce monument, qui célèbre le triomphe de
     Constantin, ne proclame donc pas encore nettement le triomphe du
     Christianisme. Comment s'en étonner, quand sur les monnaies de cet
     empereur on voit d'un côté le monogramme du Christ et l'autre
     l'effigie de Rome, qui était une divinité pour les
     païens?"--_Ampère, Emp._ ii. 355.

We now turn to the _Coliseum_, originally called The Flavian
Amphitheatre. This vast building was begun in A.D. 72, upon the site of
the reservoir of Nero, by the Emperor Vespasian, who built as far as the
third row of arches, the last two rows being finished by Titus after his
return from the conquest of Jerusalem. It is said that 12,000 captive
Jews were employed in this work, as the Hebrews in building the Pyramids
of Egypt, and that the external walls alone cost a sum equal to
17,000,000 francs. It consists of four stories, the first Doric, the
second Ionic, the third and fourth Corinthian. Its circumference is 1641
feet, its length is 287, its width 182, its height 157. The entrance for
the emperor was between two arches facing the Esquiline, where there is
no cornice. Here there are remains of stucco decoration. On the opposite
side was a similar entrance from the Palatine. Towards S. Gregorio has
been discovered the subterranean passage in which the Emperor Commodus
was near being assassinated. The numerous holes visible all over the
exterior of the building were made in the middle ages, to extract the
iron cramps, at that time of great value. The arena was surrounded by a
wall sufficiently high to protect the spectators from the wild beasts,
who were introduced by subterranean passages closed by huge gates, from
the side towards the Cœlian. The _podium_ contained the places of
honour reserved for the Emperor and his family, the Senate, and the
Vestal virgins. The places for the other spectators who entered by
openings called _vomitoria_, were arranged in three stages (_caveæ_),
separated by a gallery (_præcinctio_). The first stage for knights and
tribunes, had 24 steps, the second (for the common people) 16, the third
(for the soldiery) 10. The women, by order of the emperor, sate apart
from the men, and married and unmarried men were also divided. The whole
building was probably capable of containing 100,000 persons. At the top,
on the exterior, may be seen the remains of the consoles which sustained
the _velarium_ which was drawn over the arena to shelter the spectators
from the sun or rain. The arena could on occasions be filled with water
for the sake of naval combats.

Nothing is known with certainty as to the architect of the Coliseum,
though a tradition of the Church (founded on an inscription in the crypt
of S. Martino al Monte), ascribes it to Gaudentius, a Christian martyr,
who afterwards suffered on the spot.[70]

     "The name of the architect to whom the great work of the Coliseum
     was entrusted has not come down to us. The ancients seem themselves
     to have regarded this name as a matter of little interest; nor, in
     fact, do they generally care to specify the authorship of their
     most illustrious buildings. The reason is obvious. The forms of
     ancient art in this department were almost wholly conventional, and
     the limits of design within which they were executed gave little
     room for the display of original taste and special character.... It
     is only in periods of eclecticism and renaissance, when the taste
     of the architect has wider scope, and may lead the eye instead of
     following it, that interest attaches to his personal merit. Thus it
     is that the Coliseum, the most conspicuous type of Roman
     civilisation, the monument which divides the admiration of
     strangers in modern Rome with St. Peter's itself, is nameless and
     parentless, while every stage in the construction of the great
     Christian temple, the creation of a modern revival, is appropriated
     with jealous care to its special claimants.

     "The dedication of the Coliseum afforded to Titus an opportunity
     for a display of magnificence hitherto unrivalled, A battle of
     cranes with dwarfs representing the pigmies was a fanciful novelty,
     and might afford diversion for a moment; there were combats of
     gladiators, among whom women were included, though no noble matron
     was allowed to mingle in the fray; and the capacity of the vast
     edifice was tested by the slaughter of five thousand animals in its
     circuit. The show was crowned with the immission of water into the
     arena, and with a sea-fight representing the contests of the
     Corinthians and Corcyreans, related by Thucydides.... When all was
     over, Titus himself was seen to weep, perhaps from fatigue,
     possibly from vexation and disgust; but his tears were interpreted
     as a presentiment of his death, which was now impending, and it is
     probable that he was already suffering from a decline of bodily
     strength.... He lamented effeminately the premature decease he too
     surely anticipated, and, looking wistfully at the heavens,
     exclaimed that he did not deserve to die. He expired on the 13th
     September, 81, not having quite completed his fortieth
     year."--_Merivale_, ch. Ix.

     "Hadrian gave a series of entertainments in honour of his
     birth-day, with the slaughter of a thousand beasts, including a
     hundred lions and as many lionesses. One magical scene was the
     representation of forests, when the whole arena became planted with
     living trees, shrubs, and flowers; to complete which illusion the
     ground was made to open, and send forth wild animals from yawning
     clefts, instantly re-covered with bushes.

     "One may imagine the frantic excess to which the taste for
     gladiatorial combats was carried in Rome, from the preventive law
     of Augustus that gladiators should no more combat without
     permission of the senate; that prætors should not give these
     spectacles more than twice a year; that more than sixty couples
     should not engage at the same time; and that neither knights nor
     senators should ever contend in the arena. The gladiators were
     classified according to the national manner of fighting which they
     imitated. Thus were distinguished the Gothic, Dacian, Thracian, and
     Samnite combatants; the _Retiarii_, who entangled their opponents
     in nets thrown with the left hand, defending themselves with
     tridents in the right; the _Secutores_, whose special skill was in
     pursuit; the _Laqueatores_, who threw slings against their
     adversaries; the _Dimachæ_, armed with a short sword in each hand;
     the _Hoplomachi_, armed at all points; the _Myrmillones_, so called
     from the figure of a fish at the crest of the Gallic helmet they
     wore; the _Bustuarii_, who fought at funeral games; the
     _Bestiarii_, who only assailed animals; other classes who fought on
     horseback, called _Andabates_; and those combating in chariots
     drawn by two horses, _Essedarii_. Gladiators were originally
     slaves, or prisoners of war; but the armies who contended on the
     Roman arena in later epochs, were divided into compulsory and
     voluntary combatants, the former alone composed of slaves, or
     condemned criminals. The latter went through a laborious education
     in their art, supported at the public cost, and instructed by
     masters called _Lanistæ_, resident in colleges, called _Ludi_. To
     the eternal disgrace of the morals of Imperial Rome, it is recorded
     that women sometimes fought in the arena, without more modesty than
     hired gladiators. The exhibition of himself in this character by
     Commodus, was a degradation of the imperial dignity, perhaps more
     infamous, according to ancient Roman notions, than the theatrical
     performances of Nero."--_Hemans' Story of Monuments in Rome._

The Emperor Commodus (A.D. 180-182), frequently fought in the Coliseum
himself, and killed both gladiators and wild beasts, calling himself
Hercules, dressed in a lion's-skin, with his hair sprinkled with

The gladiatorial combats came to an end, when, in A.D. 403, an oriental
monk named Telemachus, was so horrified at them, that he rushed into the
midst of the arena and besought the spectators to renounce them: instead
of listening to him, they stoned him to death. The first martyrdom here
was that of St Ignatius, said to have been the child especially blessed
by our Saviour--the disciple of John--and the companion of Polycarp--who
was sent here from Antioch, where he was bishop. When brought into the
arena, he knelt down, and exclaimed, "Romans who are present, know that
I have not been brought into this place for any crime, but in order that
by this means I may merit the fruition of the glory of God, for love of
whom I have been made prisoner. I am as the grain of the field, and must
be ground by the teeth of the lions, that I may become bread fit for His
table." The lions were then let loose, and devoured him, except the
larger bones, which the Christians collected during the night.

     "It is related of Ignatius that he grew up in such innocence of
     heart and purity of life, that to him it was granted to hear the
     angels sing; hence, when he became bishop of Antioch, he introduced
     into the service of his church the practice of singing the praises
     of God in responses, as he had heard the choirs of angels answering
     each other.... His story and fate are so well attested, and so
     sublimely affecting, that it has always been to me a cause of
     surprise as well as regret to find so few representations of
     him."--_Jameson's Sacred Art_, 693.

Soon after the death of Ignatius, 115 Christians were shot down here
with arrows. Under Hadrian, A.D. 218, a patrician named Placidus, his
wife Theophista, and his two sons, were first exposed here to the wild
beasts, but when these refused to touch them were shut up in a brazen
bull, and roasted by a fire lighted beneath. In 253, Abdon and Sennen,
two rich citizens of Babylon, were exposed here to two lions and four
bears, but on their refusing to attack them, were killed by the swords
of the gladiators. In A.D. 259, Sempronius, Olympius, Theodulus, and
Exuperia, were burnt at the entrance of the Coliseum, before the statue
of the Sun. In A.D. 272, Sta. Prisca was vainly exposed here to a lion,
then starved for three days, then stretched on a rack to have her flesh
torn by iron hooks, then put into a furnace, and--having survived all
these torments--was finally beheaded. In A.D. 277, Sta. Martina, another
noble Roman lady, was exposed in vain to the beasts and afterwards
beheaded in the Coliseum. St. Alexander under Antoninus; St. Potitus,
168; St. Eleutherius, bishop of Illyria, under Hadrian; St Maximus, son
of a senator, 284; and Vitus, Crescentia, and Modesta, under Domitian,
were also martyred here.[71]

     "It is no fiction, but plain, sober, honest truth, to say: so
     suggestive and distinct is it at this hour: that, for a
     moment--actually in passing in--they who will, may have the whole
     great pile before them, as it used to be, with thousands of eager
     faces staring down into the arena, and such a whirl of strife, and
     blood, and dust going on there, as no language can describe. Its
     solitude, its awful beauty, and its utter desolation, strike upon
     the stranger, the next moment, like a softened sorrow; and never in
     his life, perhaps, will he be so moved and overcome by any sight,
     not immediately connected with his own affections and afflictions.

     "To see it crumbling there, an inch a year; its walls and arches
     overgrown with green, its corridors open to the day; the long
     grass growing in its porches; young trees of yesterday springing
     up on its ragged parapets, and bearing fruit--chance produce of the
     seeds dropped there by the birds who build their nests within its
     chinks and crannies; to see its pit of fight filled up with earth,
     and the peaceful cross planted in the centre; to climb into its
     upper halls, and look down on ruin, ruin, ruin, all about it; the
     triumphal arches of Constantine, Septimius Severus, and Titus, the
     Roman Forum, the Palace of the Cæsars, the temples of the old
     religion, fallen down and gone; is to see the ghost of old Rome,
     wicked, wonderful old city, haunting the very ground on which its
     people trod. It is the most impressive, the most stately, the most
     solemn, grand, majestic, mournful sight conceivable. Never, in its
     bloodiest prime, can the sight of the gigantic Coliseum, full and
     running over with the lustiest life, have moved one heart, as it
     must move all who look upon it now, a ruin. God be thanked: a ruin!

     "As it tops all other ruins: standing there, a mountain among
     graves: so do its ancient influences outlive all other remnants of
     the old mythology and old butchery of Rome, in the nature of the
     fierce and cruel Roman people. The Italian face changes as the
     visitor approaches the city; its beauty becomes devilish; and there
     is scarcely one countenance in a hundred, among the common people
     in the streets, that would not be at home and happy in a renovated
     Coliseum to-morrow."--_Dickens._

The spot where the Christian martyrs suffered is now marked by a tall
cross, devoutly kissed by the faithful,--and all round the arena of the
Coliseum, are the small chapels or "stations," used in the Via Crucis,
which is observed here at 4 P.M. every Friday, when a confraternity
clothed in grey, with only the eyes visible, is followed by a crowd of
worshippers who chaunt and pray at each station in turn,--after which a
Capuchin monk preaches from a pulpit on the left of the arena. These
sermons are often very striking, being delivered in a familiar style,
and upon popular subjects of the day, but they also often border on the

     "Oswald voulut aller au Colisée pour entendre le Capucin qui devait
     y prêcher en plein air au pied de l'un des autels qui désignent,
     dans l'intérieur de l'enceinte, ce qu'on appelle _la route de la
     Croix_. Quel plus beau sujet pour l'éloquence que l'aspect de ce
     monument, que cette arène où les martyrs ont succédé aux
     gladiateurs! Mais il ne faut rien espérer à cet égard du pauvre
     Capucin, qui ne connâit de l'histoire des hommes que sa propre vie.
     Néanmoins, si l'on parvient à ne pas écouter son mauvais sermon, on
     se sent ému par les divers objets dont il est entouré. La plupart
     de ses auditeurs sont de la confrérie des Camaldules; ils se
     revêtent, pendant les exercises religieux, d'une espèce de robe
     grise qui couvre entièrement la tête et le corps, et ne laisse que
     deux petites ouvertures pour les yeux; c'est ainsi que les ombres
     pourraient être représentées. Ces hommes, ainsi cachés sous leurs
     vêtements, se prosternent la face contre terre, et se frappent la
     poitrine. Quand le prédicateur se jette à genoux en criant
     _miséricorde de pitié!_ le peuple qui l'environne se jette aussi à
     genoux, et répète ce même cri, qui va se perdre sous les vieux
     portiques du Colisée. Il est impossible de ne pas éprouver alors
     une émotion profondément religieuse; cet appel de la douleur à la
     bonté, de la terre au ciel, remue l'âme jusque dans son sanctuaire
     le plus intime."--_Madame de Staël._

     "'C'est aujourd'hui Vendredi,' dit Guy, 'il y aura foule au
     Colisée, il vaudrait mieux, je crois, y aller un autre jour.'

     "'Non, non,' dit Eveline, 'c'est précisément pour cela que je veux
     y aller. On m'a dit qu'il fallait le voir ainsi rempli de monde, et
     que d'ailleurs cette fête était curieuse.'

     "'Ce n'est pas une fête,' dit Guy gravement, 'c'est un simple acte
     de dévotion qui se répète tous les Vendredis.'

     "'En vérité,' dit Eveline, 'et pourquoi le Vendredi?'

     "'Parceque c'est le jour où Christ est mort pour nous; par cette
     raison, vous ne l'ignorez pas, ce jour est demeuré consacré dans le
     monde chrétien ... dans le monde catholique du moins,' repondit

     "'Mais à quel propos choisit-on le Colisée pour s'y réunir ce jour

     "'Parceque le Colisée a été baigné du sang des martyrs et que leur
     souvenir se mêle là plus qu'ailleurs à celui de la croix pour
     laquelle ils l'ont versé.'"--_Mrs. Augustus Craven in Anne

The pulpit of the Coliseum was used for the stormy sermons of Gavazzi,
who called the people to arms from thence in the revolution of March,

It is well worth while to ascend to the upper galleries (a man who
lives near the entrance from the Forum will open a locked door for the
purpose), as then only is it possible to realize the vast size and
grandeur of the building.

     "_May, 1827._--Lastly, we ascended to the top of the Coliseum,
     Bunsen leaving us at the door, to go home; and I seated myself just
     above the main entrance, towards the Forum, and there took my
     farewell look over Rome. It was a delicious evening, and everything
     was looking to advantage:--the huge Coliseum just under me, the
     tufts of ilex and aliternus and other shrubs that fringe the walls
     everywhere in the lower part, while the outside wall, with its top
     of gigantic stones, lifts itself high above, and seems like a
     mountain barrier of bare rock, enclosing a green and varied valley.
     I sat and gazed upon the scene with an intense and mingled feeling.
     The world could show nothing grander; it was one which for years I
     had longed to see, and I was now looking at it for the last time.
     When I last see the dome of St. Peter's I shall seem to be parting
     from more than a mere town full of curiosities, where the eye has
     been amused, and the intellect gratified. I never thought to have
     felt thus tenderly towards Rome; but the inexplicable solemnity and
     beauty of her ruined condition has quite bewitched me, and to the
     latest hour of my life I shall remember the Forum, the surrounding
     hills, and the magnificent Coliseum."--_Arnold's Letters._

The upper arches frame a series of views of the Aventine, the
Capitoline, the Cœlian, and the Campagna, like a succession of
beautiful pictures.

Those who visit the Coliseum by moonlight will realize the truthfulness
of the following descriptions:--

    "I do remember me, that in my youth,
    When I was wandering,--upon such a night,
    I stood within the Coliseum's wall,
    Midst the chief relics of almighty Rome;
    The trees which grew along the broken arches
    Waved dark in the blue midnight, and the stars
    Shone through the rents of ruin; from afar
    The watch-dog bayed beyond the Tiber; and
    More near from out the Cæsar's palace came
    The owl's long cry, and, interruptedly,
    Of distant sentinels the fitful song
    Began and died upon the gentle wind:--
    Some cypresses beyond the time-worn breach
    Appeared to skirt the horizon, yet they stood
    Within a bowshot where the Cæsars dwelt,
    And dwell the tuneless birds of night, amidst
    A grove which springs through levell'd battlements,
    And twines its roots with the imperial hearths;
    Ivy usurps the laurel's place of growth;--
    But the gladiator's bloody circus stands,
    A noble wreck in ruinous perfection!
    While Cæsar's chambers, and the Augustan halls,
    Grovel on earth in indistinct decay.
    And thou didst shine, thou rolling moon, upon
    All this, and cast a wide and tender light,
    Which softened down the hoar austerity
    Of rugged desolation, and fill'd up,
    As 't were anew, the gaps of centuries;
    Leaving that beautiful which still was so,
    And making that which was not, till the place
    Became religion, and the heart ran o'er
    With silent worship of the great of old:--
    The dead but scepter'd sovereigns, who still rule
    Our spirits from their urns."


    "Arches on arches! as it were that Rome,
    Collecting the chief trophies of her line,
    Would build up all her triumphs in one dome,
    Her Coliseum stands; the moonbeams shine
    As 't were its natural torches, for divine
    Should be the light which streams here, to illume
    The long-explored but still exhaustless mine
    Of contemplation; and the azure gloom
    Of an Italian night, where the deep skies assume

    "Hues which have words, and speak to ye of heaven,
    Floats o'er this vast and wondrous monument,
    And shadows forth its glory. There is given
    Under the things of earth, which Time hath bent,
    A spirit's feeling, and where he hath leant
    His hand, but broke his scythe, there is a power
    And magic in the ruined battlement,
    For which the palace of the present hour
    Must yield its pomp, and wait till ages are its dower."

    _Childe Harold._

     "No one can form any idea of full moonlight in Rome who has not
     seen it. Every individual object is swallowed in the huge masses of
     light and shadow, and only the marked and principal outlines remain
     visible. Three days ago (Feb. 2, 1787) we made good use of a light
     and most beautiful night. The Coliseum presents a vision of beauty.
     It is closed at night; a hermit lives inside in a little church,
     and beggars roost amid the ruined vaults. They had lighted a fire
     on the bare ground, and a gentle breeze drove the smoke across the
     arena. The lower portion of the ruin was lost, while the enormous
     walls above stood forth into the darkness. We stood at the gates
     and gazed upon this phenomenon. The moon shone high and bright.
     Gradually the smoke moved through the chinks and apertures in the
     walls, and the moon illuminated it like a mist. It was an exquisite

It is believed that the building of the Coliseum remained entire until
the eighth century, and that its ruin dates from the invasion of Robert
Guiscard, who destroyed it to prevent its being used as a stronghold by
the Romans. During the middle ages it served as a fortress, and became
the castle of the great family of Frangipani, who here gave refuge to
Pope Innocent II. (Papareschi) and his family, against the anti-pope
Anacletus II., and afterwards in the same way protected Innocent III.
(Conti) and his brothers against the anti-pope Paschal II. Constantly at
war with the Frangipani were the Annibaldi, who possessed a neighbouring
fortress, and obtained from Gregory IX. a grant of half the Coliseum,
which was rescinded by Innocent IV. During the absence of the popes at
Avignon the Annibaldi got possession of the whole of the Coliseum, but
it was taken away again in 1312, and placed in the hands of the
municipality, after which it was used for bull-fights, in which (as
described by Monaldeschi) nobles of high rank took part and lost their
lives. In 1381 the senate made over part of the ruins to the Canons of
the Lateran, to be used as a hospital, and their occupation is still
commemorated by the arms of the Chapter (our Saviour's head between two
candelabra) sculptured in various parts of the building. From the
fourteenth century it began to be looked upon as a stone-quarry, and the
Palazzos Farnese, Barberini, S. Marco, and the Cancellaria, were built
with materials plundered from its walls. It is said that the first of
these destroyers, Cardinal Farnese, only extorted permission from his
reluctant uncle, Paul III., to quarry as much stone as he could remove
in twelve hours, and that he availed himself of this permission to let
loose four thousand workmen upon the building. Sixtus V. endeavoured to
utilize it by turning the arcades into shops, and establishing a woollen
manufactory, and Clement XI. (1700--1721) by a manufactory of saltpetre,
but both happily failed. In the last century the tide of restoration
began to set in. A Carmelite monk, Angelo Paoli, represented the
iniquity of allowing a spot consecrated by such holy memories to be
desecrated, and Clement XI. consecrated the arena to the memory of the
martyrs who had suffered there, and erected in one of the archways the
still existing chapel of Sta. Maria della Pietà. The hermit appointed to
take care of this chapel was stabbed in 1742, which caused Benedict XIV.
to shut in the Coliseum with bars and gates. After this time destruction
became sacrilege, and the five last popes all contributed to strengthen
and preserve the walls which remain. Even so late as thirty years ago,
however, the interior was (like that of an English abbey) an uneven
grassy space littered with masses of ruin, amid which large trees grew
and flourished, and the clearing out of the arena, though exhibiting
more perfectly the ancient form of the building, is much to be regretted
by lovers of the picturesque.[72]

Among the ecclesiastical legends connected with the Coliseum, it is said
that Gregory the Great presented some foreign ambassadors with a handful
of earth from the arena as a relic for their sovereigns, and upon their
receiving the gift with disrespect, he pressed it, when blood flowed
from the soil. Pius V, urged those who wished for relics to gather up
the dust of the Coliseum, wet with the blood of the martyrs.

In 1744 "the blessed Leonardo di Porto Maurizio," who is buried in S.
Buonaventura, drew immense crowds to the Coliseum by his preaching, and
obtained permission from Benedict XIV. to found the confraternity of
"Amanti di Gesù e Maria," for whom the Via Crucis was established here.
Recently the ruins have been associated with the holy beggar, Benoit
Joseph Labré (beatified by Pius IX. in 1860), who died at Rome in 1783,
after a life spent in devotion. He was accustomed to beg in the
Coliseum, to sleep at night under its arcades, and to pray for hours at
its various shrines.

The name Coliseum is first found in the writings of the Venerable Bede,
who quotes a prophecy of Anglo-Saxon pilgrims.

    "While stands the Coliseum, Rome shall stand;
    When falls the Coliseum, Rome shall fall;
    And when Rome falls, the world."[73]

The name was probably derived from its size; the amphitheatre of Capua
was also called Colossus.

     "When one looks at the Coliseum everything else becomes small; it
     is so great that one cannot keep its true image in one's soul; one
     only remembers it on a smaller scale, and returning thither again
     finds it again grown larger."--_Goethe, Romische Briefe._

Once or twice in the course of every Roman winter the Coliseum is
illuminated with Bengal lights.

     "Les étrangers se donnent parfois l'amusement d'éclairer le Colisée
     avec des feux de Bengale. Cela ressemble un peu trop à un finale de
     mélodrame, et on peut préférer comme illumination un radieux soleil
     on les douces lueurs de la lune. Cependant j'avoue que la première
     fois que le Colisée m'apparut ainsi, embrasé de feux rougeâtres,
     son histoire me revint vivement à la pensée. Je trouvais qu'il
     avait en ce moment sa vraie couleur, la couleur du sang."--_Ampère,
     Emp._ ii. 156.



     S. Teodoro--Sta. Anastasia--Circus Maximus--S. Giorgio in
     Velabro--Arch of Septimius Severus--Arch of
     Janus--Cloaca-Maxima--Sta. Maria in Cosmedin--Temple of
     Vesta--Temple of Fortuna Virilis--House of
     Rienzi--Ponte-Rotto--Ponte Sublicio--S. Nicolo in Carcere--Theatre
     of Marcellus--Portico of Octavia--Pescheria--Jewish
     Synagogue--Palazzo Cenci--Fontana Tartarughe--Palazzo
     Mattei--Palazzo Caetani--Sta. Caterina dei Funari--Sta. Maria
     Campitelli--Palazzo Margana--Convent of the Tor de' Specchi.

The second turn on the right of the Roman Forum is the Via dei Fienili,
formerly the _Vicus Tuscus_, so called from the Etruscan colony
established there after the drying up of the marsh which occupied that
site in the earliest periods of Roman history. During the empire, this
street, leading from the Forum to the Circus Maximus, was one of the
most important. Martial speaks of its silk-mercers; from an inscription
on a tomb we know that the fashionable tailors were to be found there;
and the perfumers' shops were of such abundance as to give to part of
the street the name of Vicus Thurarius. At its entrance was the statue
of the Etruscan god, Vertumnus, the patron of the quarter.[74] This was
the street by which the processions of the Circensian games passed from
the Forum to the Circus Maximus. In one of the Verrine Orations, an
accusation brought by Cicero against the patrician Verres, was that from
avaricious motives he had paved even this street--used for processions
of the Circus--in such a manner that he would not venture to use it

All this valley was once a stagnant marsh, left by inundations of the
Tiber, for in early times the river often overflowed the whole valley
between the Palatine and the Capitoline hills, and even reached as far
as the foot of the Quirinal, where the Goat's Pool, at which Romulus
disappeared, is supposed to have formed part of the same swamp. Ovid, in
describing the processions of the games, speaks of the willows and
rushes which once covered this ground, and the marshy places which one
could not pass over except with bare feet:

    "Qua Velabra solent in Circum ducere pompas,
      Nil præter salices crassaque canna fuit,
    Sæpe suburbanas rediens conviva per undas
      Cantat, et ad nautas ebria verba jacit.
    Nondum conveniens diversis iste figuris
      Nomen ab averso ceperat amne deus.
    Hic quoque lucus erat juncis et arundine densus,
      Et pede velato non adeunda palus.
    Stagna recesserunt, et aquas sua ripa coërcet:
      Siccaque nunc tellus. Mos tamen ille manet."

    _Fast._ vi. 405.

We even know the price which was paid for being ferried across the
Velabrum: "it was a _quadrans_, three times as much as one pays now for
the boat at the Ripetta."[76] The creation of the Cloaca Maxima had
probably done much towards draining, but some fragments of the marsh
remained to a late period.

According to Varro the name of the Velabrum was derived from _vehere_,
because of the boats which were employed to convey passengers from one
hill to the other.[77] Others derive the name from _vela_, also in
reference to the mode of transit, or, according to another idea, in
reference to the awnings which were stretched across the street to
shelter the processions,--though the name was in existence long before
any processions were thought of.

It was the waters of the Velabrum which bore the cradle of Romulus and
Remus from the Tiber, and deposited it under the famous fig-tree of the

       *       *       *       *       *

On the left of the Via dei Fienili (shut in by a railing, generally
closed, but which will be opened on appealing to the sacristan next
door) is the round _Church of S. Teodoro_. The origin of this building
is unknown. It used to be called the temple of Romulus, on the very
slight foundation that the famous bronze wolf, mentioned by Dionysius as
existing in the temple of Romulus, was found near this spot. Dyer
supposes that it may have been the Temple of Cybele; this, however, was
upon, and not under, the Palatine. Be they what they may, the remains
were dedicated as a Christian church by Adrian I., in the eighth
century, and some well preserved mosaics in the tribune are of that

     "It is curious to note in Rome how many a modern superstition has
     its root in an ancient one, and how tenaciously customs still cling
     to the old localities. On the Capitoline hill the bronze she-wolf
     was once worshipped as the wooden Bambino is now. It stood in the
     Temple of Romulus, and there the ancient Romans used to carry
     children to be cured of their diseases by touching it. On the
     supposed site of the temple now stands the church dedicated to S.
     Teodoro, or Santo Toto, as he is called in Rome. Though names must
     have changed and the temple has vanished, and church after church
     has here decayed and been rebuilt, the old superstition remains,
     and the common people at certain periods still bring their sick
     children to Santo Toto, that he may heal them with his
     touch."--_Story's Roba di Roma._[78]

Further on the left, still under the shadow of the Palatine Hill, is the
large _Church of Sta. Anastasia_, containing, beneath the altar, a
beautiful statue of the martyred saint reclining on a faggot.

     "Notwithstanding her beautiful Greek name, and her fame as one of
     the great saints of the Greek Calendar, Sta. Anastasia is
     represented as a noble Roman lady, who perished during the
     persecution of Diocletian. She was persecuted by her husband and
     family for openly professing the Christian faith, but being
     sustained by the eloquent exhortations of St. Chrysogonus, she
     passed triumphantly, receiving in due time the crown of martyrdom,
     being condemned to the flames. Chrysogonus was put to death with
     the sword and his body thrown into the sea.

     "According to the best authorities, these two saints did not suffer
     in Rome, but in Illyria; yet in Rome we are assured that Anastasia,
     after her martyrdom, was buried by her friend Apollina in the
     garden of her house under the Palatine hill and close to the Circus
     Maximus. There stood the church, dedicated in the fourth century,
     and there it now stands. It was one of the principal churches in
     Rome in the time of St. Jerome, who, according to ancient
     tradition, celebrated mass at one of the altars, which is still
     regarded with peculiar veneration."--_Mrs. Jameson's Sacred and
     Legendary Art._

It was the custom for the mediæval popes to celebrate their second mass
of Christmas night in this church, for which reason Sta. Anastasia is
still especially commemorated in that mass.

To the left of the high altar is the tomb of the learned Cardinal Mai,
by the sculptor Benzoni, who owed everything to the kind interest with
which this cardinal regarded him from childhood. The epitaph is
remarkable. It is thus translated by Cardinal Wiseman:

    "I, who my life in wakeful studies wore,
      Bergamo's son, named Angelo, here lie.
    The empyreal robe and crimson hat I bore,
      Rome gave. Thou giv'st me, Christ, th' empyreal sky.
    Awaiting Thee, long toil I could endure:
    So with Thee be my rest now, sweet, secure."

Through this church, also, we may enter some of the subterraneous
chambers of the Palace of the Cæsars.

The valley near this, between the Palatine and the Aventine, was the
site of the _Circus Maximus_, of which the last vestiges were destroyed
in the time of Paul V. Its ground plan can, however, be identified, with
the assistance of the small circus of Maxentius on the Via Appia, which
still partially exists. It was intended for chariot-races and
horse-races, and is said to have been first instituted by Tarquinius
Priscus after his conquest of the Latin town of Apiolæ. It was a vast
oblong, ending in a semicircle, and surrounded by three rows of seats,
termed collectively _cavea_. In the centre of the area was the low wall
called the _spina_, at each end of which were the _metæ_, or goals.
Between the metæ were columns supporting the _ova_, egg-shaped balls,
and _Delphinæ_, or dolphins, each seven in number, one of which was put
up for each circuit made in the race. At the extremity of the Circus
were the stalls for the horses and chariots called _Carceres_. This, the
square end of the Circus, was termed _oppidum_, from its external
resemblance to a town, with walls and towers. In the Circus Maximus,
which was used for hunting wild beasts, Julius Cæsar made a canal,
called _Euripus_,[79] ten feet wide, between the seats and the
racecourse, to protect the spectators. The _Ludi Circenses_ were first
established by Romulus, to attract his Sabine neighbours, in order that
he might supply his city with wives. The games were generally at the
expense of the ædiles, and their cost was so great, that Cæsar was
obliged to sell his Tiburtine villa, to defray those given during his
ædileship. Perhaps the most magnificent games known were those in the
reign of Carinus (Imp. A.D. 283), when the Circus was transformed into
an artificial forest, in which hundreds of wild beasts and birds were
slaughtered. At one time this Circus was capable of containing 385,000

At the western extremity of the Circus Maximus stood the Temple of
Ceres, Liber, and Libera (said to have been vowed by the Dictator Albus
Postumius, at the battle of the Lake Regillus), dedicated by the Consul
Sp. Cassius, B.C. 492.

     "Quand le père de Cassius l'eut immolé de ses propres mains à
     l'avidité patricienne, il fit don du pécule de son fils--un fils
     n'avait que son pécule comme un esclave--à ce même temple de Cérès
     que Spurius Cassius avait consacré, et par une féroce ironie, mit
     au bas de la statue faite avec cet argent, et qu'il dédiait à la
     déesse: 'Don de la famille Cassia.'

     "L'ironie était d'autant plus amère, que l'on vendait auprès du
     temple de Cérès ceux qui avaient offensé au tribun.

     "Ce temple, mis particulièrement sous la surveillance des édiles et
     où ils avaient leurs archives, était le temple de la démocratie
     romaine. Le farouche patricien le choisit pour lui faire adresser
     par son fils mort au service de la démocratie un dérisoire
     hommage."--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ ii. 416.

We must now retrace our steps for a short distance, and descend into a
hollow on the left, which we have passed, between the churches of S.
Teodoro and Sta. Anastasia.

Here an interesting group of buildings still stands to mark the site of
the famous ox-market, _Forum Boarium_. In its centre a brazen bull,
brought from Egina,[80] once commemorated the story of the oxen of
Geryon, which Hercules left to pasture on this marshy site, and which
were stolen hence by Cacus,--and is said by Ovid to have given a name to
the locality:

    "Pontibus et magno juncta est celeberrima Circo
    Area, quæ posito de bove nomen habet."

    _Fast._ vi. 478.

The fact of this place being used as a market for oxen is mentioned by

The Forum Boarium is associated with several deeds of cruelty. After the
battle of Cannæ, a male and female Greek and a male and female Gaul were
buried alive here;[82] and here the first fight of gladiators took
place, being introduced by M. and D. Brutus, at the funeral of their
father in B.C. 264.[83] Here the Vestal virgins buried the sacred
utensils of their worship, at the spot called Doliola, when they fled
from Rome after the battle of the Allia.[84]

Amongst the buildings which once existed in the Forum Boarium, but of
which no trace remains, were the Temple of the Sabine deity Matuta, and
the Temple of Fortune, both ascribed to Servius Tullius.

    "Hac ibi luce ferunt Matutæ sacra parenti,
    Sceptiferas Servi templa dedisse manus."

    _Ovid, Fast._ vi. 479.

    "Lux eadem, Fortuna, tua est, auctorque, locusque,
    Sed superinjectis quis latet æde togis?
    Servius est: hoc constat enim----"

    _Fast._ vi. 569.

The Temple of Fortune was rebuilt by Lucullus, and Dion Cassius mentions
that the axle of Julius Cæsar's car broke down in front of it on
occasion of one of his triumphs.[85] Another temple in this
neighbourhood was that of Pudicitia Patricia, into which the noble
ladies refused to admit Virginia, because she had espoused a plebeian
consul[86] (see Chap. X.). Here, also, was the Temple of Hercules
Victor, erected by Pompey.[87] The two earliest triumphal arches were
built in this forum, being in honour of L. Stertinius, erected B.C. 196,
after his victories in Spain.

The building which first attracts attention, among those now standing,
is the _Arch of Janus_, the Sabine god. It has four equal sides and
arches, turned to the four points of the compass, and forty-eight
niches, probably intended for the reception of small statues.
Bas-reliefs on the inverted blocks employed in the lower part of this
edifice, show that they must have been removed from earlier buildings.
This was probably used as a portico for shelter or business for those
who trafficked in the Forum; there were many similar porticoes in
ancient Rome.

On the left of the arch of Janus is a narrow alley, spanned by low brick
arches, which leads first to the beautiful clear spring of the Aqua
Argentina, which, according to some authorities, is the place where
Castor and Pollux watered their horses after the battle of the Lake

    "Then on rode those strange horsemen,
      With slow and lordly pace;
    And none who saw their bearing
      Durst ask their name or race.
    On rode they to the Forum,
      While laurel boughs and flowers
    From house-tops and from windows,
      Fell on their crests in showers.

    "When they drew nigh to Vesta,
      They vaulted down amain,
    And washed their horses in the well
      That springs by Vesta's fane.
    And straight again they mounted
      And rode to Vesta's door;
    Then, like a blast, away they passed,
      And no man saw them more."

    _Macaulay's Lays._

The alley is closed by an arch of the celebrated _Cloaca Maxima_, the
famous drain formed by Tarquinius Priscus, fifth king of Rome, to dry
the marshy land of the Velabrum.

     "Infima urbis loca circa Forum, aliasque interjectas collibus
     convalles, quia ex planis locis haud facile evehebant aquas,
     cloacis a fastigio in Tiberim ductis siccat."--_Livy_, lib. i. c.

The Cloaca extended from the Forum to the Tiber, and is still, after
2,400 years, used, during the latter part of its course, for the purpose
for which it was originally intended, though Pliny was filled with
wonder that, in his time, it had already withstood the earthquakes,
inundations, and accidents of seven hundred years. Strabo tells that the
tunnel of the Cloaca was of sufficient height to admit a waggon laden
with hay, but this probably supposes the water at its lowest. Agrippa,
who cleaned out the Cloaca, navigated its whole length in a boat. The
mouth of the Cloaca, composed of three concentric courses of blocks of
peperino, without cement, is visible on the river a little to the right
of the temple of Vesta.

     "Ces lieux ont encore un air et comme une odeur de marécage--quand
     on rôde aux approches de la nuit dans ce coin désert de Rome où fut
     placée la scène des premiers moments de son premier roi, on y
     retrouve, à présent mieux qu'au temps de Tite-Live, quelque chose
     de l'impression que ce lieu devait produire il y a vingt-cinq
     siècles, à l'époque où, selon la vieille tradition, le berceau de
     Romulus s'arrêta dans les boues du Vélabre, au pied du Palatin,
     près de l'antre Lupercal. Il faut s'écarter un peu de cet endroit,
     qui était au pied du versant occidental du Palatin, et faire
     quelques pas à droite pour aller chercher les traces du Vélabre là
     où les rues et les habitations modernes ne les ont pas entièrement
     effacées. En s'avançant vers la Cloaca Maxima, on rencontre un
     enfoncement où une vieille église, elle-même au dedans humide et
     moisie, rappelle par son nom, San Giorgio in Velabro, que le
     Vélabre a été là. On voit sourdre encore les eaux qui
     l'alimentaient sous une voûte sombre et froide, tapissée de
     mousses, de scolopendres et de grandes herbes frissonnant dans la
     nuit. Alentour, tout a un aspect triste et abandonné, abandonné
     comme le furent au bord du marais, suivant l'antique récit, les
     enfants dont on croit presque ouïr dans le crépuscule les
     vagissements. L'imagination n'a pas de peine à se représenter les
     arbres et les plantes aquatiques qui croissaient sur le bord de cet
     enfoncement que voilà, et à travers lesquelles la louve de la
     légende se glissait à cette heure pour venir boire à cette eau. Ces
     lieux sont assez peu fréquentés et assez silencieux pour qu'on se
     les figure comme ils étaient alors, alors qu'il n'y avait ici,
     comme dit Tite-Live, vrai cette fois, que des solitudes désertes:
     _Vastæ tunc solitudines erant_."--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ i. 271.

The church with the picturesque campanile near the arch of Janus, is _S.
Giorgio in Velabro_, founded in the fourth century, as the Basilica
Sempronia, but repeatedly rebuilt. The architrave above its portico was
that where Rienzi affixed his famous inscription, announcing the return
to the Good Estate: "_In breve tempo gli Romani torneranno al loro
antico buono stato_." The church is seldom open, except on its festival
(Jan. 20), and during its station in Lent. The interior is in the
basilica form, the long nave being lined by sixteen columns, of various
sizes, and with strangely different capitals, showing that they have
been plundered from ancient temples. The carving on some of the capitals
is sharp and delicate. There is a rather handsome ancient baldacchino,
with an old Greek picture let into its front, over the high altar.
Beneath is preserved a fragment of the banner of St George. Some injured
frescoes in the tribune replace mosaics which once existed here, and
which were attributed to Giotto. In the centre is the Saviour, between
the Virgin and St. Peter; on one side, St. George with the martyr's palm
and the warrior's banner,--on the other, St. Sebastian, with an arrow.
Several fragments of carving and inscriptions are built into the side
walls. The pictures are poor and ugly which relate to the saint of the
church, St. George (the patron of England and Germany), the knight of
Cappadocia, who delivered the Princess Cleodolinda from the dragon.

     "Among good specimens of thirteenth century architecture is the
     portico of S. Giorgio, with Ionic columns and horizontal
     architrave, on which is a gothic inscription, in quaint Leonine
     verse, informing us that the Cardinal (or Prior) Stephen, added
     this detail (probably the campanile also), to the ancient
     church--about the middle of the thirteenth century, as is supposed,
     though no date is given here; and in the midst of an age so alien
     to classic influences, a work in which classic feeling thus
     predominates, is remarkable."--_Heman's Sacred Art._

Partly hidden by the portico of this church, is the beautiful miniature
_Arch of Septimius Severus_, erected to the emperor, his wife Julia Pia,
and his sons Caracalla and Geta, by the silversmiths (argentarii) who
had their shops in the Forum Boarium on this very spot ("cujus loci qui
invehent"). The part of the dedication relating to Geta (as in the
larger arch of Septimius) was obliterated after his murder, and the
words FORTISSIMO FELICISSIMOQUE PRINCIPI engraved in its place. The
architecture and sculpture, part of which represents a sacrifice by the
imperial family, prove the decadence of art at this period.

Proceeding in a direct line from the Arch of Janus, we reach the _Church
of Sta. Maria in Cosmedin_, on the site of a Temple of Ceres, dedicated
by the consul Spurius Cassius, B.C. 493, and afterwards re-dedicated to
Ceres and Proserpine, probably by Augustus, who had been initiated into
the Eleusinian mysteries in Greece. The church was built in the basilica
form, in 782, by Adrian I., when the name Cosmedin, from the Greek
κοσμος, is supposed to have been given, from the ornaments with which he
adorned it It was intended for the use of the Greek exiles expelled from
the East by the iconoclasts under Constantine Copronimus, and derived
the epithet of Sta. Maria in Scuola Greca, from a "Schola" attached to
it for their benefit. Another relic of the Greek colony which existed
here is to be found in the name of the adjoining street, Via della
Greca. In the middle ages the whole bank of the river near this was
called Ripa Greca.

The interior of this church is of great interest. The nave is divided
from the aisles by twelve ancient marble columns, of which two have
especially curious antique capitals, and are evidently remains of the
temple which once existed here. The choir is raised, as at S. Clemente.
The pavement is of splendid Opus Alexandrinum (1120); the ambones are
perfect; there is a curious crypt; the altar covers an ancient bason of
red granite, and is shaded by a gothic canopy, supported by four
Egyptian granite pillars; behind it is a fine episcopal throne, with
lions, said to have been used by St. Augustine, an ancient Greek picture
of the Virgin, and a graceful tabernacle of marble inlaid with mosaic,
by _Deodato Cosmati_. In the sacristy is a very curious mosaic, one of
the few relics preserved from the old St Peter's, A.D. 705. (There is
another in S. Marco at Florence.) Crescimbeni, the founder and historian
of the Arcadian Academy (d. 1728), is buried in this church, of which he
was a canon. On St. Valentine's Day the skull of St. Valentine, crowned
with roses, is exhibited here.

In the portico is the strange and huge mask of stone, which gives the
name of _Bocca della Verita_ to the neighbouring piazza. It was believed
that if a witness, whose truthfulness was doubtful, were desired to
place his hand in the mouth of this mask, he would be unable to withdraw
it, if he were guilty of perjury.

     "Cette Bouche-de-Vérité est une curieuse relique du moyen âge. Elle
     servait aux jugements de Dieu. Figurez-vous une meule de moulin qui
     ressemble, non pas à un visage humain, mais au visage de la lune:
     on y distingue des yeux, un nez et une bouche ouverte où l'accusé
     mettait la main pour prêter serment. Cette bouche mordait les
     menteurs; au moins la tradition l'assure. J'y ai introduit ma
     dextre en disant que le Ghetto était un lieu de délices, et je n'ai
     pas été mordu."--_About, Rome Contemporaine._

On the other side of the portico is the tomb of Cardinal Alfanus, ob.

     "The church was rebuilt under Calixtus II.; about A.D. 1128, by
     Alfanus, Roman Chancellor, whose marble sepulchre stands in the
     atrium, with his epitaph, along a cornice, giving him that most
     comprehensive title, 'an honest man,' _vir probus_. Some more than
     half-faded paintings, a Madonna and Child, angels, and two mitred
     heads, on the wall behind the canopy, give importance to this
     Chancellor's tomb. Though now disfigured exteriorly by a modern
     façade in the worst style, interiorly by a waggon-vault roof and
     heavy pilasters, this church is still one of the mediæval gems of
     Rome, and retains many olden details: the classic colonnades,
     probably left in their original place since the time of Adrian I.;
     and the fine campanile, one of the loftiest in Rome; also the
     sculptured doorway, the rich intarsio pavement, the high altar, the
     marble and mosaic-inlaid ambones, the marble episcopal throne, with
     supporting lions and a mosaic decoration above, &c.,--all of the
     twelfth century. But we have to regret the destruction of the
     ancient choir-screens, and (still more inexcusable) the
     white-washing of wall surfaces so as entirely to conceal the
     mediæval paintings which adorned them, conformably to that once
     almost universal practice of polychrome decoration in churches,
     prescribed even by law under Charlemagne. Ciampini (see his
     valuable history of this basilica) mentions the iron rods for
     curtains between the columns of the atrium, and those, still in
     their place, in the porch, with rings for suspending; also a small
     chapel with paintings, at one end of the atrium, designed for those
     penitents who were not allowed to worship within the sacred
     building--as such, an evidence of disciplinary observance, retained
     till the twelfth century. Over the portal are some tiny
     bas-reliefs, so placed along the inner side of the lintel that many
     might pass underneath without seeing them: in the centre, a hand
     blessing, with the Greek action, between two sheep, laterally; the
     four evangelistic emblems, and two doves, each pecking out of a
     vase, and one perched upon a dragon (more like a lizard), to
     signify the victory of the purified soul over mundane
     temptations."--_Hemans' Christian Art._

Close to this church stood the Palace of Pope Gelasius II. (1118).

Opposite the church is a beautiful fountain, erected by one of the
Medici, and beyond it the graceful round temple now called the _Temple
of Vesta_, supposed by Canina to have been that of Mater Matuta, and by
others to have been that of Hercules founded by Pompey. It is known to
have existed in the time of Vespasian. It is very small, the
circumference of the peristyle being only 156 feet, and that of the
cella 26 feet,--the height of the surrounding Corinthian columns
(originally twenty in number) 32 feet This temple was first dedicated as
a church under the name of S. Stefano delle Carrozze; it is now called
_Sta. Maria del Sole_.

This is not the Temple of Vesta (which was situated near the Church of
Sta. Maria Liberatrice in the Forum) of which Horace wrote:--

    "Vidimus flavum Tiberim, retortis
    Littore Etrusco violenter undis,
    Ire dejectum monumenta regum
                      Templaque Vestæ."

    _Carm._ i. 2.

The modern overhanging roof of the temple has been much objected to, as
it replaces an entablature like that on the temple of the Sibyl at
Tivoli; but artists admire the exquisite play of light and shade caused
by its rugged tiles, and, finding it a perfect "subject," wish for no

     "C'est auprès de la Bouche-de-Vérité, devant le petit temple de
     Vesta, que la justice romaine exécute un meurtrier sur cent. Quand
     j'arrivai sur la place, on n'y guillotinait personne; mais six
     cuisinières, dont une aussi belle que Junon, dansaient la
     tarantelle au son d'un tambour de basque. Malheureusement elles
     divinèrent ma qualité d'étranger, et elles se mirent à polker
     contre la mesure."--_About._

Close to this--overhanging a little hollow way--is the _Temple of
Fortuna Virilis_, built originally by Servius Tullius, but rebuilt
during the republic, and, if the existing building is really republican,
the most ancient temple remaining in Rome. It is surrounded by Ionic
columns (one side being enclosed in other buildings), 28 feet high,
clothed with hard stucco, and supporting an entablature adorned with
figures of children, oxen, candelabra, &c. The Roman matrons had a great
regard for this goddess, who was supposed to have the power of
concealing their personal imperfections from the eyes of men. At the
close of the tenth century this temple was consecrated to the Virgin,
but has since been bestowed upon _St. Mary of Egypt_.

Hard by, is a picturesque end of building, laden with rich but
incongruous sculpture, at one time called "The House of Pilate," but now
known as the _House of Rienzi_. It derives its present name from a long
inscription over a doorway, which tallies with the bombastic epithets
assumed by "The Last of the Tribunes" in his pompous letter of Aug. 1,
1347, when, in his semi-madness, he summoned kings and emperors to
appear before his judgment-seat. The inscription closes:--

    "Primus de primis magnus Nicolaus ab imis,
    Erexit patrum decus ob renovare suorum.
    Stat patris Crescens matrisque Theodora nomen.
    Hoc culmen clarum caro de pignore gessit,
    Davidi tribuit qui pater exhibuit."

It is believed, from the inscription, that the house was fortified by
Nicholas, son of Crescentius and Theodora, who gave it to David, his
son; that the Crescentius alluded to was son of the famous patrician who
headed the populace against Otho III.; and that, three centuries later,
the house may have belonged to Cola di Rienzi, a name which is, in fact,
only popular language for Niccola Crescenzo. It is, however, known that
Rienzi was not born in this house, but in a narrow street behind S.
Tommaso, in the Rione alla Regola, where his father Lorenzo kept an inn,
and his mother, Maddalena, gained her daily bread as a washerwoman and
water-carrier--so were the Crescenzi fallen!

Here is the entrance to a suspension-bridge, which joins the remaining
arches of the _Ponte Rotto_, and leads to the Trastevere. On this site
was the Pons Æmilius, begun, B.C. 180, by M. Æmilius Lepidus and Marcus
Fulvius Nobilior, and finished by P. Scipio Africanus and L. Mummius,
the censors, in B.C. 142. Hence the body of the Emperor Heliogabalus was
thrown into the Tiber. The bridge has been three times rebuilt by
different popes, but two of its arches were finally carried away in an
inundation of 1598, and have never since been replaced. The existing
remains, which only date from the time of Julius III., are highly

     "Quand on a établi un pont en fil de fer, on lui a donné pour base
     les piles du Ponte-Rotto, élevé au moyen âge sur les fondements du
     Pons Palatinus, qui fut achevé sous la censure de Scipion
     l'Africain. Scipion l'Africain et un pont en fil de fer, voilà de
     ces contrastes qu'on ne trouve qu'à Rome."--_Ampère, Emp._ ii. 209.

From this bridge is the best view of the Isola Tiberina and its bridges,
and hence, also, the Temple of Vesta is seen to great advantage. Just
below is the mouth of the Cloaca Maxima.

     "Quand du Ponte-Rotto on considère le triple cintre de l'ouverture
     par laquelle la Cloaca Maxima se déchargeait dans le Tibre, on a
     devant les yeux un monument qui rappelle beaucoup de grandeur et
     beaucoup d'oppression. Ce monument extraordinaire est une page
     importante de l'histoire romaine. Il est à la fois la suprême
     expression de la puissance des rois étrusques et le signe
     avant-coureur de leur chute. L'on croit voir l'arc triomphal de la
     royauté par où devait entrer la république."--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._
     ii. 233.

In the bed of the river a little lower down may be seen, at low water,
some massive fragments of masonry. Here stood the _Pons Sublicius_, the
oldest bridge in Rome, built by Ancus Martius (B.C. 639), on which
Horatius Cocles and his two companions "kept the bridge" against the
Etruscan army of Lars Porsenna, till--

    "Back darted Spurius Lartius;
      Herminius darted back:
    And, as they passed, beneath their feet
      They felt the timbers crack.
    But when they turned their faces,
      And on the farther shore
    Saw brave Horatius stand alone,
      They would have crossed once more.

    "But with a crash like thunder
      Fell every loosened beam,
    And, like a dam, the mighty wreck
      Lay right athwart the stream:
    And a long shout of triumph
      Rose from the walls of Rome,
    As to the highest turret-tops
      Was splashed the yellow foam."

    _Macaulay's Lays._

The name "Sublicius" came from the wooden beams of its construction,
which enabled the Romans to cut it away. The bridge was rebuilt by
Tiberius and again by Antoninus Pius, each time of beams, but upon stone
piers, of which the present remains are fragments, the rest having been
destroyed by an inundation in the time of Adrian I.

On the Trastevere bank, between these two bridges, half hidden in shrubs
and ivy (but worth examination in a boat), are two gigantic _Heads of
Lions_, to which in ancient times chains were fastened, and drawn across
the river to prevent hostile vessels from passing.

Near this we enter the _Via S. Giovanni Decollato_, decorated with
numerous heads of John the Baptist in the dish, let into the walls over
the doors of the houses. The "Confraternità della Misericordia di S.
Giovanni Decollato," founded in 1488, devote themselves to criminals
condemned to death. They visit them in prison, accompany them to
execution, receive their bodies, and offer masses for their souls in
their little chapel. Vasari gives the highest praise to two pictures of
Francesco Salviati in the Church of S. Giov. Decollato, "before which
all Rome stood still in admiration,"--representing the appearance of the
angel to Zacharias, and the meeting of the Virgin and Elizabeth.

On the left is the _Hospital of Sta. Galla_, commemorating the pious
foundation of a Roman matron in the time of John I. (523--526), who
attained such celebrity, that she is still commemorated in the Roman
mass by the prayer--

     "Almighty and merciful God, who didst adorn the blessed Galla with
     the virtue of a wonderful love towards thy poor; grant us, through
     her merits and prayers, to practise works of love, and to obtain
     Thy mercy, through the Lord, &c. Amen."

On, or very near this site, stood the _Porta Carmentalis_, which, with
the temple beside it, commemorated Carmenta, the supposed mother of
Evander, a Sabine prophetess, who is made by Ovid to predict the future
grandeur of Rome.[88] Carmenta was especially invoked by women in
childbirth. The Porta Carmentalis was reached from the Forum by the
Vicus Jugarius. It was by this route that the Fabii went forth to meet
their doom in the valley of the Crimera. The Porta had two gates--one
for those who entered, the other for those who left it, so that in each
case the passenger passed through the "Janus," as it was called, upon
his right. After the massacre of the Fabii, the road by which they left
the city was avoided, and the Janus Carmentalis on the right was closed,
and called the Porta Scelerata.

    "Carmentis portæ dextro via proxima Jano est
    Ire per hanc noli, quisquis es; omen habet."

    _Ovid, Fast._ ii. 201.

Just beyond the Porta Carmentalis was the district called _Tarentum_,
where there was a subterranean "Ara Ditis Patris et Proserpinæ."

We now reach (left) the _Church of S. Nicolo in Carcere_. It has a mean
front, with an inscription in honour of one of the Aldobrandini family,
and is only interesting as occupying the site of the three _Temples of
Juno Matuta, Piety(?), and Hope_, which are believed to mark the site of
the Forum Olitorium. The vaults beneath the church contain the massive
substructions of these temples, and fragments of their columns.

The central temple is believed to be that of Piety, built by M. Acilius
Glabrio, the duumvir, in B.C. 165 (though Pliny says that this temple
was on the site afterwards occupied by the theatre of Marcellus), in
fulfilment of a vow made by his father, a consul of the same name, on
the day of his defeating the forces of Antiochus the Great, king of
Syria, at Thermopylæ. Others endeavour to identify it with the temple
built on the site of the Decemviral prisons, to keep up the recollection
of the famous story, called the "Caritas Romana,"--of a woman condemned
to die of hunger in prison being nourished by the milk of her own
daughter. Pliny and Valerius Maximus tell the story as of a mother;
Festus only speaks of a father;[89]--yet art and poetry have always
followed the latter legend. A cell is shown, by torchlight, as the scene
of this touching incident.

    "There is a dungeon, in whose dim drear light
    What do I gaze on? Nothing. Look again!
    Two forms are slowly shadowed on my sight--
    Two insulated phantoms of the brain:
    It is not so; I see them full and plain--
    An old man, and a female young and fair,
    Fresh as a nursing mother, in whose vein
    The blood is nectar:--but what doth she there,
    With her unmantled neck, and bosom white and bare?

    "But here youth offers to old age the food,
    The milk of his own gift:--it is her sire,
    To whom she renders back the debt of blood
    Born with her birth. No, he shall not expire
    While in those warm and lovely veins the fire
    Of health and holy feeling can provide
    Great Nature's Nile, whose deep stream rises higher
    Than Egypt's river;--from that gentle side
    Drink, drink, and live, old man! Heaven's realm holds no such tide.

    "The starry fable of the milky-way
    Has not thy story's purity; it is
    A constellation of a sweeter ray,
    And sacred Nature triumphs more in this
    Reverse of her decree, than in the abyss
    Where sparkle distant worlds:--Oh, holiest nurse!
    No drop of that clear stream its way shall miss
    To thy sire's heart, replenishing its source
    With life, as our freed souls rejoin the universe."

    _Childe Harold._

A memorial of this story of a prison is preserved in the name of the
church--S. Nicolo _in Carcere_. It was probably owing to this legend
that, in front of the Temple of Piety, was placed the _Columna
Lactaria_, where infants were exposed, in the hope that some one would
take pity upon and nurse them out of charity.

A wide opening out of the street near this, with a pretty fountain, is
called the _Piazza Montanara_, and is one of the places where the
country people collect and wait for hire.

     "Le dimanche est le jour où les paysans arrivent à Rome. Ceux qui
     cherchent l'emploi de leurs bras viennent se louer aux marchands de
     campagne, c'est-à-dire aux fermiers. Ceux qui sont loués et qui
     travaillent hors des murs viennent faire leurs affaires et
     renouveler leurs provisions. Ils entrent en ville au petit jour
     après avoir marché une bonne partie de la nuit. Chaque famille
     amène un âne, qui porte le bagage. Hommes, femmes, et enfants,
     poussant leur âne devant eux, s'établissent dans un coin de la
     place Farnèse, ou de la place Montanara. Les boutiques voisines
     restent ouvertes jusqu'à midi, par un privilège spécial. On va, on
     vient, on achète, on s'accroupit dans les coins pour compter les
     pièces de cuivre. Cependant les ânes se reposent sur leurs quatre
     pieds au bord des fontaines. Les femmes, vêtues d'un corset en
     cuirasse, d'un tablier rouge, et d'une veste rayée, encadrent leur
     figure hâlée dans une draperie de linge très-blanc. Elles sont
     toutes à peindre sans exception: quand ce n'est pas pour la beauté
     de leurs traits, c'est pour l'élégance naïve de leurs attitudes.
     Les hommes ont le long manteau bleu de ciel et le chapeau pointu;
     là-dessous leurs habits de travail font merveille, quoique roussis
     par le temps et couleur de perdrix. Le costume n'est pas uniforme;
     on voit plus d'un manteau amadou rapiécé de bleu vif ou de rouge
     garance. Le chapeau de paille abonde en été. La chaussure est
     très-capricieuse; soulier, botte et sandale foulent successivement
     le pavé. Les déchaussés trouvent ici près de grandes et profondes
     boutiques où l'on vend des marchandises d'occasion. Il y a des
     souliers de tout cuir et de tout âge dans ces trésors de la
     chaussure; on y trouverait des cothurnes de l'an 500 de la
     république, en cherchant bien. Je viens de voir un pauvre diable
     qui essayait une paire de bottes à revers. Elles vont à ses jambes
     comme une plume à l'oreille d'un porc, et c'est plaisir de voir la
     grimace qu'il fait chaque fois qu'il pose le pied à terre. Mais le
     marchand le fortifie par de bonnes paroles: 'Ne crains rien,' lui
     dit-il, 'tu souffriras pendant cinq ou six jours, et puis tu n'y
     penseras plus.' Un autre marchand débite des clous à la livre: le
     chaland les enfonce lui-même dans ses semelles; il y a des bancs
     _ad hoc_. Le long des murs, cinq ou six chaises de paille servent
     de boutique à autant de barbiers en plein vent. Il en coute un sou
     pour abattre une barbe de huit jours. Le patient, barbouillé de
     savon, regarde le ciel d'un œil résigné; le barbier lui tire le
     nez, lui met les doigts dans la bouche, s'interrompt pour aiguiser
     le rasoir sur un cuir attaché au dossier de la chaise, ou pour
     écorner une galette noire qui pend au mur. Cependant l'opération
     est faite en un tour de main; le rasé se lève et sa place est
     prise. Il pourrait aller se laver à la fontaine, mais il trouve
     plus simple de s'essuyer du revers de sa manche.

     "Les écrivains publics alternent avec les barbiers. On leur apporte
     les lettres qu'on a reçues; ils les lisent et font la réponse:
     total, trois sous. Dès qu'un paysan s'approche de la table pour
     dicter quelque-chose, cinq ou six curieux se réunissent
     officieusement autour de lui pour mieux entendre. Il y a une
     certaine bonhomie dans cette indiscrétion. Chacun place son mot,
     chacun donne un conseil: 'Tu devrais dire ceci.'--'Non; dis plutôt
     cela.'--'Laissez-le parler,' crie un troisième, 'il sait mieux que
     vous ce qu'il veut faire écrire.'

     "Quelques voitures chargées de galettes d'orge et de maïs circulent
     au milieu de la foule. Un marchand de limonade, armé d'une pince de
     bois, écrase les citrons dans les verres. L'homme sobre boit à la
     fontaine en faisant un aqueduc des bords de son chapeau. Le gourmet
     achète des viandes d'occasion devant un petit étalage, où les
     rebuts de cuisine se vendent à la poignée. Pour un sou, le débitant
     remplit de bœuf haché et d'os de côtelettes un morceau de vieux
     journal; une pincée de sel ajoutée sur le tout pare agréablement la
     denrée. L'acheteur marchande, non sur le prix, qui est invariable,
     mais sur la quantité; il prend au tas quelques bribes de viande, et
     on le laisse faire; car rien ne se conclut à Rome sans marchander.

     "Les ermites et les moines passent de groupe en groupe en quêtant
     pour les âmes du purgatoire. M'est avis que ces pauvres ouvriers
     font leur purgatoire en ce monde; et qu'il vaudrait mieux leur
     donner de l'argent que de leur en demander; ils donnent pourtant,
     et sans se faire tirer l'oreille.

     "Quelquefois un beau parleur s'amuse à raconter une histoire; on
     fait cercle autour de lui, et à mesure que l'auditoire augmente il
     élève la voix. J'ai vu de ces conteurs qui avaient la physionomie
     bien fine et bien heureuse; mais je ne sais rien de charmant comme
     l'attention de leur public. Les peintres du quinzième siècle ont dû
     prendre à la place Montanara les disciples qu'ils groupaient autour
     du Christ."--_About, Rome Contemporaine._

An opening on the left discloses the vast substructions of the _Theatre
of Marcellus_. This huge edifice seems to have been projected by Julius
Caesar, but he probably made little progress in it. It was actually
erected by Augustus, and dedicated (_c._ 13 B.C.) in memory of the young
nephew whom he married to his daughter Julia, and intended as his
successor, but who was cut off by an early death. The theatre was
capable of containing 20,000 spectators, and consisted of three tiers of
arches, but the upper range has disappeared, and the lower is very
imperfect. Still it is a grand remnant, and rises magnificently above
the paltry houses which surround it. The perfect proportions of its
Doric and Ionic columns served as models to Palladio.

     "Le mur extérieur du portique demi-circulaire qui enveloppait les
     gradins offre encore à notre admiration deux étages d'arceaux et de
     colonnes doriques et ioniques d'une beauté presque grecque. L'étage
     supérieur, qui devait être corinthien, a disparu. Les _fornices_,
     ou voûtes du rez-de chaussée, sont habitées encore aujourd'hui
     comme elles l'étaient dans l'antiquité, mais plus honnêtement, par
     de pauvres gens qui vendent des ferrailles. Au-dessous des belles
     colonnes de l'enceinte extérieure, on a construit des maisons
     modernes dans lesquelles sont pratiquées des fenêtres, et à ces
     fenêtres du théâtre de Marcellus, on voit des pots à fleurs, ni
     plus ni moins qu à une mansarde de la rue Saint Denis; des chemises
     sèchent sur l'entablement; des cheminées surmontent la ruine
     romaine, et un grand tube se dessine à l'extrémité.

     "Dans les jeux célébrés à l'occasion de la dédicace du théâtre de
     Marcellus, on vit pour la première fois un tigre apprivoisé,
     _tigrim mansuefactum_. Dans ce tigre le peuple romain pouvait
     contempler son image."--_Ampère, Emp._ i. 256.

In the middle ages this theatre was the fortress of the great family of
Pierleoni, the rivals of the Frangipani, who occupied the Coliseum;
their name is commemorated by the neighbouring street, Via Porta Leone.
The constant warfare in which they were engaged with their neighbours
did much to destroy the building, whose interior became reduced to a
mass of ruins, forming a hill, upon which Baldassare Peruzzi (1526)
built the _Palazzo Savelli_, of which the entrance, flanked by the two
armorial bears of the family, may be seen in the street (Via Savelli)
which leads to the Ponte Quattro Capi.

     "Au dix-septième siècle, les Savelli exerçaient encore une
     jurisdiction féodale. Leur tribunal, aussi régulièrement constitué
     que pas un, s'appellait Corte Savella.[90] Ils avaient le droit
     d'arracher tous les ans un criminel à la peine de mort: droit de
     grâce, droit régalien reconnu par la monarchie absolue des papes.
     Les femmes de cette illustre famille ne sortaient point de leurs
     palais sinon dans un carosse bien fermé. Les Orsini et les Colonna
     se vantaient que pendant les siècles, aucun traité de paix n'avait
     été conclu entre les princes chrétiens, dans lequel ils n'eussent
     été nominativement compris."--_About._

The palace has now passed to the family of Orsini-Gravina, who descended
from a senator of A.D. 1200. The princes of Orsini and Colonna, in
their quality as attendants on the throne (_principi assistenti al
soglio_), take precedence of all other Roman nobles.

     "Nicolovius will remember the Theatre of Marcellus, in which the
     Savelli family built a palace. My house is half of it. It has stood
     empty for a considerable time, because the drive into the courtyard
     (the interior of the ancient theatre) rises like the slope of a
     mountain upon the heaps of rubbish; although the road has been cut
     in a zig-zag, it is still a break-neck affair. There is another
     entrance from the Piazza Montanara, whence a flight of
     seventy-three steps leads up to the same story I have mentioned;
     the entrance-hall of which is on a level with the top of the
     carriage-way through the courtyard. The apartments in which we
     shall live are those over the colonnade of Ionic pillars forming
     the third story of the ancient theatre, and some, on a level with
     them, which have been built out like wings on the rubbish of the
     ruins. These enclose a little quadrangular garden, which is indeed
     very small, only about eighty or ninety feet long, and scarcely so
     broad, but so delightful! It contains three fountains--an abundance
     of flowers: there are orange-trees on the wall between the windows,
     and jessamine under them. We mean to plant a vine besides. From
     this story, you ascend forty steps, or more, higher, where I mean
     to have my own study, and there are most cheerful little rooms,
     from which you have a prospect over the whole country beyond the
     Tiber, Monte Mario, and St. Peter's, and can see over St. Pietro in
     Montorio, indeed almost as far as the Aventine. It would, I think,
     be possible besides to erect a loggia upon the roof (for which I
     shall save money from other things), that we may have a view over
     the Capitol, Forum, Palatine, Coliseum, and all the inhabited parts
     of the city."--_Niebuhr's Letters._

Following the wall of the theatre, down a filthy street, we arrive at
the picturesque group of ruins of the "Porticus Octaviæ," erected by
Augustus, in honour of his sister (the unhappy wife of Antony), close to
the theatre to which he had given the name of her son. The exact form of
the building is known from the Pianta Capitolina,--that it was a
parallelogram, surrounded by a double arcade of 270 columns, and
enclosing the temples of Jupiter and Juno, built by the Greek
architects, Batracus and Saurus.[91]

With regard to these temples, Pliny narrates a fact which reminds one of
the story of the Madonna of Sta. Maria Nuova.[92] The porters having
carelessly carried the statues of the gods to the wrong temples, it was
imagined that they had done so from divine inspiration, and the people
would not venture to remove them, so that the statues always remained
where they had been placed, though their surroundings were utterly

The _Portico of Octavia_ built by Augustus, occupied the site of an
earlier portico--the Porticus Metelli--built by A. Cæcilius Metellus,
after his triumph over Andriscus in Macedonia, in B.C. 146. Temples of
Jupiter Stator and Juno existed also in this portico, one of them being
the earliest temple built of marble in Rome. Before these temples
Metellus placed the famous group of twenty-five bronze statues, which he
had brought from Greece, executed by Lysippus for Alexander the Great,
and representing that conqueror himself and twenty-four horsemen of his
troop who had fallen at the Granicus.[93]

The existing fragment of the portico is the original entrance to the
whole. The building had suffered from fire in the reign of Titus, and
was restored by Septimius Severus, and of this time is the large brick
arch on one side of the ruin.

     "It was in this hall of Octavia that Titus and Vespasian celebrated
     their triumph over Israel with festive pomp and splendour. Among
     the Jewish spectators stood the historian Flavius Josephus, who was
     one of the followers and flatterers of Titus ... and to this base
     Jewish courtier we owe a description of the
     triumph."--_Gregorovius, Wanderjahre in Italien._

Within the portico is the _Church of S. Angelo in Pescheria_. Here it
was that Cola Rienzi summoned, at midnight--May 20, 1347--all good
citizens to hold a meeting for the re-establishment of "the good
estate;" here he kept the vigil of the Holy Ghost; and hence he went
forth, bareheaded, in complete armour, accompanied by the papal legate,
and attended by a vast multitude, to the Capitol, where he called upon
the populace to ratify the Good Estate.

It is said that one of the causes which most incited the indignation of
Rienzi against the assumption and pride of the Roman families, was the
fact of their painting their arms on the ancient Roman buildings, and
thus in a manner appropriating them to their own glory. Remains of coats
of arms thus painted may be seen on the front wall of the Portico of
Octavia. It was also on this very wall that Rienzi painted his famous
allegorical picture. In this painting kings and men of the people were
seen burning in a furnace, with a woman half consumed, who personified
Rome,--and on the right was a church, whence issued a white-robed angel,
bearing in one hand a naked sword, while with the other he plucked the
woman from the flames. On the church tower were SS. Peter and Paul,
crying to the angel, "Aquilo, aquilo, succurri a l'albergatrice
nostra,"--and beyond this were represented falcons (typical of the Roman
barons) falling from heaven into the flames, and a white dove bearing a
wreath of olive, which it gave to a little bird (Rienzi), which was
chased by the falcons. Beneath was inscribed: "I see the time of great
justice, do thou await that time."

    "Then turn we to her latest tribune's name,
    From her ten thousand tyrants turn to thee,
    Redeemer of dark centuries of shame--
    The friend of Petrarch--hope of Italy--
    Rienzi! last of Romans! While the tree
    Of Freedom's wither'd trunk puts forth a leaf,
    Even for thy tomb a garland let it be--
    The forum's champion, and the people's chief--
    Her newborn Numa thou--with reign, alas! too brief."

    _Childe Harold._

Through the brick arch of the Portico we enter upon the ancient
_Pescheria_, with the marble fish-slabs of imperial times still
remaining in use. It is a striking scene--the dark, many-storied houses
almost meeting overhead and framing a narrow strip of deep blue
sky,--below, the bright groups of figures and rich colouring of hanging
cloths and drapery.

     "C'est une des ruines les plus remarquables de Rome, et une de
     celles qui offrent ces contrastes piquants entre le passé et le
     présent, amusement perpétuel de l'imagination dans la ville des
     contrastes. Le portique d'Octavie est, aujourd'hui, le marché aux
     poissons. Les colonnes et le fronton s'élèvent au milieu de
     l'endroit le plus sale de Rome; leur effet n'en est pas moins
     pittoresque, il l'est peut-être davantage. Le lieu est fait pour
     une aquarelle, et quand un beau soleil éclaire les débris antiques,
     les vieux murs sombres de la rue étroite où la poisson se vend sur
     des tables de marbre blanc, et à travers laquelle des nattes sont
     tendues, on a, à côté du monument romain, le spectacle d'un marché
     du moyen âge, et un peu le souvenir d'un bazar d'Orient."--_Ampère,
     Emp._ i. 179.

     "Who that has ever been to Rome does not remember Roman streets of
     an evening, when the day's work is done? They are all alive in a
     serene and homelike fashion. The old town tells its story. Low
     arches cluster with life--a life humble and stately, though rags
     hang from the citizens and the windows. You realize it as you pass
     them--their temples are in ruins, their rule is over--their
     colonies have revolted long centuries ago. Their gates and their
     columns have fallen like the trees of a forest, cut down by an
     invading civilization."--_Miss Thackeray._

       *       *       *       *       *

Here we are in the centre of the Jews' quarter--the famous _Ghetto_.

The name "Ghetto" is derived from the Hebrew word _chat_, broken,
destroyed, shaven, cut down, cast off, abandoned (see the Hebrew in
Isaiah xiv. 12; xv. 2; Jer. xlviii. 25, 27; Zech. xi. 10--14; &c.). The
first Jewish slaves were brought to Rome by Pompey the Great, after he
had taken Jerusalem, and forcibly entered the Holy of Holies. But for
centuries after this they lived in Rome in wealth and honour, their
princes Herod and Agrippa being received with royal distinction, and
finding a home in the Palace of the Cæsars,--in which Berenice (or
Veronica), the daughter of Agrippa, presided as the acknowledged
mistress of Titus, who would willingly have made her empress of Rome.
The chief Jewish settlement in imperial times was nearly on the site of
their present abode, but they were not compelled to live here, and also
had a large colony in the Trastevere; and when St. Peter was at Rome (if
the Church tradition be true), he dwelt, with Aquila and Priscilla, on
the slopes of the Aventine. Julius, Augustus, and Tiberius Cæsar treated
the Jews with kindness, but under Caligula they already met with
ill-treatment and contempt,--that emperor being especially irritated
against them as the only nation which refused to yield him divine
honours, and because they had successfully resisted the placing of his
statue in the Holy of Holies at Jerusalem. On the destruction of
Jerusalem by Titus, thousands of Jewish slaves were brought to Rome, and
were employed on the building of the Coliseum. At the same time
Vespasian, while allowing the Hebrews in Rome the free exercise of their
religion, obliged them to pay the tax of half a skekel, formerly paid
into the Temple treasury, to Jupiter Capitolinus,--and this custom is
still kept up in the annual tribute paid by the Jews in the Camera

Under Domitian the Jews were banished from the city to the valley of
Egeria, where they lived in a state of poverty and outlawry, which is
described by Juvenal,[94] and occupied themselves with soothsaying,
love-charms, magic-potions, and mysterious cures.[95]

During the reigns of the earlier popes, the Jews at Rome enjoyed a great
amount of liberty, and the anti-pope Anacletus II. (ob. 1138) was even
the grandson of a baptized Jew, whose family bore a leading part in
Rome, as one of the great patrician houses. The clemency with which the
Jews were regarded was, however, partly due to their skill as
physicians,--and long after their persecutions had begun (as late as
Martin V., 1417--31), the physician of the Vatican was a Jew. The first
really bitter enemy of the Jews was Eugenius IV. (Gabriele Condolmiere,
1431--39), who forbade Christians to trade, to eat, or to dwell with
them, and prohibited them from walking in the streets, from building new
synagogues, or from occupying any public post. Paul II. (1468) increased
their humiliation by compelling them to run races during the Carnival,
as the horses run now, amidst the hoots of the populace. This custom
continued for two hundred years. Sprenger's "Roma Nuova" of 1667,
mentions that "the asses ran first, then the Jews--naked, with only a
band round their loins--then the buffaloes, then the Barbary horses."
It was Clement IX. (Rospigliosi), in 1668, who first permitted the Jews
to pay a sum equivalent to 1500 francs annually instead of racing.

     "On the first Saturday in Carnival, it was the custom for the heads
     of the Jews in Rome to appear as a deputation before the
     Conservators in the Capitol. Throwing themselves upon their knees,
     they offered a nosegay and twenty scudi with the request that this
     might be employed to ornament the balcony in which the Roman Senate
     sate in the Piazza del Popolo. In like manner they went to the
     senator, and, after the ancient custom, implored permission to
     remain in Rome. The senator placed his foot on their foreheads,
     ordered them to stand up, and replied in the accustomed formula,
     that Jews were not adopted in Rome, but allowed from compassion to
     remain there. This humiliation has now disappeared, but the Jews
     still go to the Capitol, on the first Saturday of Carnival, to
     offer their homage and tribute for the pallii of the horses, which
     they have to provide, in memory that now the horses amuse the
     people in their stead."--_Gregorovius, Wanderjahre._

The Jews were first shut up within the walls of the Ghetto by the
fanatical Dominican pope, Paul IV. (Gio. Pietro Caraffa, 1555--59), and
commanded never to appear outside it, unless the men were in yellow
hats, or the women in yellow veils. "For," says the Bull Cum Nimis,

     "It is most absurd and unsuitable that the Jews, whose own crime
     has plunged them into everlasting slavery, under the plea that
     Christian magnanimity allows them, should presume to dwell and mix
     with Christians, not bearing any mark of distinction, and should
     have Christian servants, yea, even buy houses."

The Ghetto, or Vicus Judæorum, as it was at first called, was shut in by
walls which reached from the Ponte Quattro Capi to the Piazza del
Pianto, or "Place of Weeping," whose name bears witness to the grief of
the people on the 26th July, 1556, when they were first forced into
their prison-house.

     "Those Jews who were shut up in the Ghetto were placed in
     possession of the dwellings of others. The houses in that quarter
     were the property of Romans, and some of them were inhabited by
     families of consideration, such as the Boccapaduli. When these
     removed they remained the proprietors and the Jews only tenants.
     But as they were to live for ever in these streets, it was
     necessary that the Jews should have a perpetual lease to defend
     them against a twofold danger,--negligence on the part of the owner
     to announce to his Jewish tenant when his possession expired, or
     bankruptcy if the owner raised his rent. Thus originated a law
     which established that the Romans should remain in possession of
     the dwellings let to the Jews, but that the latter should hold the
     houses in fee farm; that is, the expiration of the contract cannot
     be announced to a Jewish tenant, and so long as he pays the lawful
     rent, the rent can never be raised; the Jew at the same time may
     alter or enlarge his house as he chooses. This still existing
     privilege is called the Jus Gazzaga. By virtue of it a Jew is in
     hereditary possession of the lease, and can sell it to his
     relations or others, and to the present day it is a costly fortune
     to be in possession of a Jus Gazzaga, or a hereditary lease. Highly
     extolled is the Jewish maiden who brings her bridegroom such a
     dowry. Through this salutary law the Jew became possessed of a
     home, which to some extent he may call his own."--_Gregorovius._

The Jews were kindly treated by Sixtus V. on the plea that they were
"the family from whom Christ came," and he allowed them to practise many
kinds of trades, and to have intercourse with Christians, and to build
houses, libraries, and synagogues, but his mild laws were all repealed
by Clement VIII. (Aldobrandini, 1592--1605), and under Clement XI. and
Innocent XIII. all trade was forbidden them, except that in old-clothes,
rags, and iron, "stracci feracci." To these Benedict XIV. (Lambertini)
added trade in drapery, with which they are still largely occupied.
Under Gregory XIII. (Buoncompagni, 1572--85) the Jews were forced to
hear a sermon every week in the church, first of S. Benedetto alla
Regola, then in S. Angelo in Peschiera, and every Sabbath police-agents
were sent into the Ghetto to drive men, women, and children into the
church with scourges, and to lash them while there if they appeared to
be inattentive.

     "Now was come about Holy Cross Day, and now must my lord preach his
     first sermon to the Jews: as it was of old cared for in the
     merciful bowels of the Church, that, so to speak, a crumb at least
     from her conspicuous table here in Rome, should be, though but once
     yearly, cast to the famishing dogs, undertrampled and bespitten
     upon beneath the feet of the guests; and a moving sight in truth
     this, of so many of the besotted, blind, restive, and
     ready-to-perish Hebrews! now maternally brought--nay (for He saith,
     'Compel them to come in'), haled, as it were, by the head and hair,
     and against their obstinate hearts, to partake of the heavenly
     grace...."--_Diary by the Bishop's Secretary,_ 1600.

Though what the Jews really said, on thus being driven to church, was
rather to this effect:--


    "Groan all together now, whee-hee-hee!
    It's a-work, it's a-work, ah, woe is me!
    It began, when a herd of us, picked and placed,
    Were spurred through the Corso, stripped to the waist;
    Jew-brutes, with sweat and blood well spent
    To usher in worthily Christian Lent.


    'It grew, when the hangman entered our bounds,
    Yelled, pricked us out to his church like hounds.
    It got to a pitch, when the hand indeed
    Which gutted my purse, would throttle my creed.
    And it overflows, when, to even the odd,
    Men I helped to their sins, help me to their God."

    _R. B. Browning, Holy Cross Day._

This custom of compelling Jews to listen to Christian sermons was
renewed by Leo XII., and was only abolished in the early years of Pius
IX. The walls of the Ghetto also remained, and its gates were closed at
night until the reign of the present pope, who removed the limits of the
Ghetto, and revoked all the oppressive laws against the Jews. The humane
feeling with which he regarded this hitherto oppressed race is said to
have been first evinced,--when, on the occasion of his placing a liberal
alms in the hand of a beggar, one of his attendants interposed, saying,
"It is a Jew!" and the pope replied, "What does that matter, it is a

     "The present population of the Ghetto is estimated at 3800, a
     number out of all proportion, considering the small size of the
     Ghetto, which covers less space than the fifth part of any small
     town of 3000 inhabitants. The Jews are under the chief congregation
     of the Inquisition, and their especial magistrate for all civil and
     criminal processes is the Cardinal Vicar. The tribunal which
     governs them consists of the Cardinal Vicar, the Prelato
     Vicegerente, the Prelato Luogo-tenente Civile, and the Criminal
     Lieutenant. In police matters, the President of the Region of S.
     Angelo and Campitelli exercises the local police magistracy. The
     Jewish community has itself the right of regulating its internal
     order by the so-called Fattori del Ghetto, chosen every half-year.
     The common tribute of the Ghetto to the state, and to various
     religious bodies, amounts to about 13,000 francs."

Opposite the gate of the Ghetto near the Ponte Quattro Capi a converted
Jew erected a church, which is still to be seen, with a painting of the
Crucifixion on its outside wall (upon which every Jew must look as he
comes out of the Ghetto), and underneath an inscription in large letters
of Hebrew and Latin from Isaiah, lxv. 2:--"All day long I have stretched
out my hands to a disobedient and gainsaying people." The lower streets
of the Ghetto, especially the Fiumara, which is nearest to the banks of
the Tiber, are annually overflowed during the spring rains and melting
of the mountain snows, which is productive of great misery and distress.
Yet in spite of this, and of the teeming population crowded into its
narrow alleys, the mortality was less here during the cholera than in
any other part of Rome, and malaria is unknown here, a freedom from
disease which may perhaps be attributed to the Jewish custom of
whitewashing their dwellings at every festival. There is no Jewish
hospital, and if the Jews go to an ordinary hospital, they must submit
to a crucifix being hung over their beds. It is remarkable that the very
centre of the Jewish settlement should be the Portico of Octavia, in
which Vespasian and Titus celebrated their triumph after the fall of
Jerusalem. Here and there in the narrow alleys the seven-branched
candlestick may be seen carved on the house walls, a "yet living symbol
of the Jewish religion."

Everything may be obtained in the Ghetto: precious stones, lace,
furniture of all kinds, rich embroidery from Algiers and Constantinople,
striped stuffs from Spain,--but all is concealed and under cover. "Cosa
cercate," the Jew shopkeepers hiss at you as you thread their narrow
alleys, and try to entice you into a bargain with them. The same article
is often passed on by a mutual arrangement from shop to shop, and meets
you wherever you go. On Friday evening all shops are shut, and bread is
baked for the Sabbath, all merchandise is removed, and the men go to the
synagogue, and wish each other "a good Sabbath," on their return.[96]

In the Piazza della Scuola are five schools under one roof--the Scuola
del Tempio, Catilana, Castigliana, Siciliana, and the Scuola Nuova,
"which show that the Roman Ghetto is divided into five districts or
parishes, each of which represents a particular race, according to the
prevailing nationality of the Jews, whose fathers have been either
Roman-Jewish from ancient times, or have been brought hither from Spain
and Sicily; the Temple-district is said above all others to assert its
descent from the Jews of Titus." In the same piazza, is the chief
synagogue, richly adorned with sculpture and gilding. On the external
frieze are represented in stucco the seven-branched candlestick, David's
harp, and Miriam's timbrel. The interior is highly picturesque and
quaint, and is hung with curious tapestries on festas. The frieze which
surrounds it represents the temple of Solomon with all its sacred
vessels. A round window in the north wall, divided into twelve panes of
coloured glass, is symbolical of the twelve tribes of Israel, and a type
of the Urim and Thummim. "To the west is the round choir, a wooden desk
for singers and precentors. Opposite, in the eastern wall, is the Holy
of Holies, with projecting staves (as if for the carrying of the ark)
resting on Corinthian columns. It is covered by a curtain, on which
texts and various devices of roses and tasteful arabesques in the style
of Solomon's temple are embroidered in gold. The seven-branched
candlestick crowns the whole. In this Holy of Holies lies the sealed
Pentateuch, a large parchment roll. This is borne in procession through
the hall and exhibited from the desk towards all the points of the
compass, whereat the Jews raise their arms and utter a cry."

     "On entering the Ghetto, we see Israel before its tents, in full
     restless labour and activity. The people sit in their doorways, or
     outside in the streets, which receive hardly more light than the
     damp and gloomy chambers, and grub amid their old trumpery, or
     patch and sew diligently. It is inexpressible what a chaos of
     shreds and patches (called _Cenci_ in Italian) is here accumulated.
     The whole world seems to be lying about in countless rags and
     scraps, as Jewish plunder. The fragments lie in heaps before the
     doors, they are of every kind and colour,--gold fringes, scraps of
     silk brocade, bits of velvet, red patches, blue patches, orange,
     yellow, black and white, torn, old, slashed and tattered pieces,
     large and small. I never saw such varied rubbish. The Jews might
     mend up all creation with it, and patch the whole world as gaily as
     harlequin's coat. There they sit and grub in their sea of rags, as
     though seeking for treasures, at least for a lost gold brocade. For
     they are as good antiquarians as any of those in Rome, who grovel
     amongst the ruins to bring to light the stump of a column, a
     fragment of a relief, an ancient inscription, a coin, or such
     matters. Each Hebrew Winckelmann in the Ghetto lays out his rags
     for sale with a certain pride, as does the dealer in marble
     fragments. The latter boasts a piece of giallo-antico, the Jew can
     match it with an excellent fragment of yellow silk; porphyry here
     is represented by a piece of dark red damask, verde-antico by a
     handsome patch of ancient green velvet. And there is neither jasper
     nor alabaster, black marble, or white, or parti-coloured, which the
     Ghetto antiquarian is not able to match. The history of every
     fashion from Herod the Great to the invention of paletôts, and of
     every mode of the highest as well as of the lower classes may be
     collected from these fragments, some of which are really
     historical, and may once have adorned the persons of Romulus,
     Scipio Africanus, Hannibal, Cornelia, Augustus, Charlemagne,
     Pericles, Cleopatra, Barbarossa, Gregory VII., Columbus, and so

     "Here sit the daughters of Zion on these heaps and sew all that is
     capable of being sewn. Great is their boasted skill in all work of
     mending, darning, and fine-drawing, and it is said that even the
     most formidable rent in any old drapery or garment whatsoever,
     becomes invisible under the hands of these Arachnes. It is chiefly
     in the Fiumara, the street lying lowest and nearest to the river,
     and in the street corners (one of which is called Argumille, _i.e._
     of unleavened bread), that this business is carried on. I have
     often seen with a feeling of pain the pale, stooping, starving
     figures, laboriously plying the needle,--men as well as women,
     girls, and children. Misery stares forth from the tangled hair, and
     complains silently in the yellow-brown faces, and no beauty of
     feature recalls the countenance of Rachel, Leah, or Miriam,--only
     sometimes a glance from a deep-sunk, piercing black eye, that looks
     up from its needle and rags, and seems to say--'From the daughter
     of Zion, all her beauty is departed--she that was great among the
     nations, and princess among the provinces, how is she become
     tributary! She weepeth sore in the night, and her tears are on her
     cheeks; among all her lovers she hath none to comfort her: all her
     friends have dealt treacherously with her, they are become her
     enemies. Judah is gone into captivity, because of affliction, and
     because of great servitude; she dwelleth among the heathen, she
     findeth no rest; all her persecutors overtook her between the
     straits. How hath the Lord covered the daughter of Zion with a
     cloud in his anger!"--_Gregorovius, Wanderjahre._

The narrow street which is a continuation of the Pescheria, emerges upon
the small square called _Piazza della Giudecca_. In the houses on the
left may be seen some columns and part of an architrave, being the only
visible remains of the _Theatre of Balbus_, erected by C. Cornelius
Balbus, a general who triumphed in the time of Augustus, with the spoils
taken from the Garamantes, a people of Africa. It was opened in the same
year as the Theatre of Marcellus, and though very much smaller, was
capable of containing as many as 11,600 spectators.

To the right, still partly on the site of the ancient theatre, and
extending along one side of the Piazza delle Scuole, is the vast
_Palazzo Cenci_, the ancient residence of the famous Cenci family (now
represented by Count Cenci-Bolognetti), and the scene of many of the
terrible crimes and tragedies which stain its annals.

     "The Cenci Palace is of great extent: and, though in part
     modernized, there yet remains a vast and gloomy pile of feudal
     architecture in the same state as during the dreadful scenes which
     it once witnessed. The palace is situated in an obscure corner of
     Rome, near the quarter of the Jews, and from the upper windows you
     see the immense ruins of Mount Palatine, half hidden under the
     profuse undergrowth of trees. There is a court in one part of the
     palace supported by columns, and adorned with antique friezes of
     fine workmanship, and built up, after the Italian fashion, with
     balcony over balcony of open work. One of the gates of the palace,
     formed of immense stones, and leading through a passage dark and
     lofty, and opening into gloomy subterranean chambers, struck me
     particularly."--_Shelley's Preface to "The Cenci."_

Opposite the further entrance of the Palace, is the tiny Church of _S.
Tommaso del Cenci_, founded 1113 by Cencio, bishop of Sabina; granted by
Julius II. to Rocco Cenci;--and rebuilt in 1575 by the wicked Count

     "In 1585, Francesco Cenci was the head of the family, a man of
     passions so ungovernable and heart so depraved, that he hesitated
     at no species of crime. His first wife was a Princess Santa Croce,
     whom he is believed to have poisoned in order to marry the
     beautiful Lucrezia Petroni. His domestic cruelties to his children,
     especially to his three elder sons, Giacomo, Christoforo, and
     Rocco, were so terrible, that they petitioned the reigning Pope
     Clement VIII. to interfere in their behalf, but he abruptly
     dismissed them as rebels against the paternal authority; one
     daughter, Marguerita, alone escaped from her miserable home, being
     given in marriage by the pope to a Signor Gabrielli.

     "The escape of this daughter made Francesco the more embittered
     against the remainder of his family. His youngest child, Beatrice,
     he immured in a solitary chamber, to which no one but himself was
     admitted, and where he constantly starved and beat her severely.
     When he received the news that his sons Christoforo and Rocco were
     assassinated in the neighbourhood of Rome by an unknown hand, he
     expressed the utmost joy, declaring that no money of his should
     purchase masses for the repose of their souls, and that he could
     have no peace until his wife and every child he had were in their

     "Lucrezia, believing that the monster whom she had espoused was
     possessed, in spite of his cruelty, by a criminal passion for his
     own daughter, attempted secretly to save her, by presenting a
     memorial to the pope imploring him to give her in marriage to a
     Signor Guerra, who had long been attached to her. But this petition
     was intercepted by Francesco, who then carried off Lucrezia and his
     two youngest children, Beatrice and Bernardo, to Petrella, a vast
     and desolate castle in the Apennines. Guerra, and Giacomo the
     eldest remaining brother of Beatrice, hired a band of banditti in
     the Sabine hills who were to attack the party on the way, and to
     carry off Francesco for a ransom, liberating the women;--but the
     rescue arrived too late.

     "When they reached Petrella, Beatrice was incarcerated in a
     subterranean dungeon, where she was persuaded that her lover Guerra
     had been murdered, and was treated with such awful cruelty by her
     father, that, for a time, she was deprived of her reason. One day a
     servant, Marzio, whose betrothed had previously been seduced and
     murdered by Francesco, roused by the shrieks of Beatrice, burst
     into the room, and rushing upon his master dealt a terrible thrust
     with a dagger on his neck, exclaiming, 'I murder thee, assassin of
     thy own blood.' But Cenci arose uninjured, to the horror of Marzio,
     who imagined that only a demon could avert such a blow, and who was
     ignorant that he wore under his vestments, even in bed, a coat of
     mail which covered his entire body.

     "At length Beatrice contrived to communicate with her brother
     Giacomo, who united with Guerra in hiring the services of Marzio
     and of Olympio, another servant, who was inspired with an equal
     thirst for vengeance upon Count Cenci. All felt that the death of
     Francesco was the only hope for his unhappy family. The assassins
     communicated with Lucrezia, who administered an opiate to her
     husband, and then stole from him some keys which enabled her after
     midnight to liberate Bernardo and Beatrice. The latter she found in
     a state of stupefaction, and vainly endeavoured to rouse her,
     signifying that the moment of escape had arrived. Beatrice showed
     no symptom of surprise at the announcement, or at the visit of her
     stepmother at that strange hour; she asked not how they had opened
     her door, or how her liberty had been acquired. When they were all
     assembled in the hall, Lucrezia told them the project, and asked
     their aid. Bernardo at first hesitated, but Lucrezia roused him by
     every argument she could urge and obtained his consent. Beatrice
     made no reply.

     " ... Francesco Cenci was murdered in his sleep. Marzio placed a
     large nail or iron bolt on his right eye, which Olympio, with one
     blow of a hammer, drove straight into the brain. The deed thus
     accomplished, Marzio and Olympio wrapped the dead body in a sheet,
     and carried it to a small pavilion built at the end of a
     terrace-walk, overlooking an orchard. From this height they cast it
     down on an old gnarled elder-tree, in order that when the body
     should be found the next morning, it might appear that whilst
     walking on the terrace, the foot of the count had slipped, and that
     he had fallen head-foremost on one of the stunted branches of the
     tree, which, piercing through his eye to the brain, had caused his
     death. Returning to the hall, they received from Lucrezia a purse
     of gold; Marzio, carrying with him a valuable cloak trimmed with
     gold lace, turned towards Beatrice (who still stood leaning against
     the table), and saying, 'I shall keep this as a memorial of you,'
     departed with Olympio. The report of Francesco's death was not
     spread through the castle until the next morning. Lucrezia then
     rushed through the house uttering cries. In a day or two the
     funeral took place, and immediately after the family returned to
     Rome. Giacomo took possession of the Cenci palace, and Beatrice
     daily improved in health of body and mind.

     "Soon, however, the suspicious circumstances of Count Cenci's
     death excited attention; the body was exhumed and examined, and
     the inhabitants of Petrella placed under arrest, when a washerwoman
     deposed to having received bloody sheets from one of the
     inhabitants of the castle--she thought from Beatrice--the day after
     the murder. On hearing this, the fear that he would turn against
     them, induced Signor Guerra to hire assassins to pursue Olympio,
     whom they despatched at Terni; but Marzio was arrested, and
     confessed the circumstances of the murder, though when confronted
     with Beatrice, he proclaimed her innocence of it, and declared her
     incapable of crime.

     "Guerra made good his escape, but the whole Cenci family were
     thrown into prison and put to the torture. Giacomo, Bernardo, and
     Lucrezia, unable to endure the sufferings of the rack, confessed at

     "Such, however, was not the case with the young and beautiful
     Beatrice. Full of spirit and courage, neither the persuasions nor
     threats of Moscati the judge could extort from her the smallest
     confession. She endured the torture of the cord with all the
     firmness which the purity of her heart inspired. The judge failed
     to extort from her lips a single word which could throw a shade
     over her innocence, and at length, believing it useless to pursue
     the torture further, he suspended the proceedings, and reported
     them to the pope. But Clement VIII, suspecting that the
     unwillingness of Moscati to believe Beatrice guilty was induced by
     her extreme beauty, only replied by consigning the prosecution to
     another judge, and Beatrice was left in the hands of Luciani, 'a
     man whose heart was a stranger to every feeling of humanity.' Upon
     her renewed protestations of innocence, he ordered the torture of
     the Vigilia.

     "The torture of the Vigilia was as follows:--Upon a high
     joint-stool, the seat about a span large, and instead of being
     flat, cut in the form of pointed diamonds, the victim was seated:
     the legs were fastened together and without support; the hands
     bound behind the back, and with a running knot attached to a cord
     descending from the ceiling: the body was loosely attached to the
     back of the chair, cut also into angular points. A wretch stood
     near, pushing the victim from side to side, and now and then, by
     pulling the rope from the ceiling, gave the arms most painful
     jerks. In this horrible position the sufferer _remained forty
     hours_, the assistants being changed every fifth hour. At the
     expiration of this time, Beatrice was carried into the prison more
     dead than alive. The judge was annoyed at the account he received
     of the fortitude of Beatrice, and, in a rage, he exclaimed, 'Never
     shall it be said that a weak girl can escape from my hands, while
     not one of those condemned have been able to resist my power!'

     "On the third day the examination was renewed, and Beatrice was
     condemned to the _tortura capillorum_. 'At a given signal, the
     satellites of the tribunal carried Beatrice under a rope suspended
     from the ceiling, and twisting into a cord her long and beautiful
     hair, they attached it, with diabolical art, to the rope, so that
     the whole body could by this means be raised from the ground. The
     frightful preparations over, and her protestations of innocence
     again disregarded, she was elevated from the ground by the hair of
     her head; at the same time was added another torture, consisting of
     a mesh of small cords twined about the fingers, twisting them
     nearly out of joint and dragging the hand almost from the bone of
     the arm. The wretched girl screamed with agony, while the judge
     stood by, commanding the suspended rope to be tightened, and
     raising the body by the hair from the ground gave it a sudden jerk,
     exhorting her to confess. She cried out in a convulsion for water,
     rolling her eyes in agony, and exclaiming, 'I am innocent.' The
     torture being repeated with still greater cruelty, and the
     fortitude of the young girl remaining unshaken, the judge,
     believing it impossible that a young female could resist such
     torments, concluded, with the superstition of the times, that she
     carried about with her some witchcraft; he ordered her to be
     examined, and finding no cause of suspicion, was about to have her
     hair cut off, when it was suggested the torment of the _tortura
     capillorum_ could not then be renewed; her hair was again fastened
     to the rope, and for a whole hour she was subjected to such a
     succession of cruelties as the heart shrinks from narrating: but
     not a word escaped from her lips, that could compromise her

     "In the mean time Lucrezia, Giacomo, and Bernardo were taken into
     the hall Erculeo, and in their presence a repetition of the torture
     was ordered, to so awful an extent, that she fainted and lay
     senseless. A new cruelty was devised--the _taxilla_,--her feet were
     bared, and to the soles was applied a block of heated wood,
     prepared in such a way as to retain the scorching heat; then did
     the unhappy girl utter piercing shrieks, and remained some minutes
     apparently dead. These accumulated tortures were repeated, until
     her relations, who were handcuffed lest they should render her any
     assistance, began to implore her with heart-rending tears and
     entreaties to yield. To this the judge mingled threats and the
     application of further torments, and enforced them with such
     rigour, that the victim shrieked in agony, and exclaimed, 'Oh!
     cease this martyrdom, and I will confess anything.'

     "The tortures were at once suspended and restoratives applied,
     while her family on their knees implored Beatrice to adhere to her
     promise, urging that the unnatural cruelties of her father would be
     a just defence for the crime imputed to her, and that by agreeing
     to their deposition, she might give them a hope of common
     liberation. The unhappy girl replied, 'Be it as you wish. I am
     content to die if I can preserve you'--and to each interrogatory of
     the judge she replied, '_E vero_,' until asked whether she did not
     urge the assassins to kill her father, and, on their refusal,
     propose to commit the crime herself, when she involuntarily
     exclaimed, 'Impossible, impossible! a tiger could not do it; how
     much less a daughter!' Threatened anew with the torture, she
     answered not, but, raising her eyes to Heaven, and moving her lips
     in prayer, she said, 'Oh my God, Thou knowest if this be true!'
     Thus did the judge force from Beatrice an assent to a deed at which
     her very nature revolted.

     "Luciani hastened to the pope with the news that Beatrice had
     confessed. Clement VIII. was seized with one of those fits of anger
     to which he was subject, and exclaimed--'Let them all be
     immediately bound to the tails of wild horses, and dragged through
     the streets until life is extinct.' The horror evinced by all
     classes at this sentence induced him to grant a respite of
     twenty-five days, at the end of which a trial took place, and the
     advocate Farinacci boldly pleaded the defence of the prisoners. But
     while their fate was hanging in the balance, the Marchesa
     Santa-Croce was murdered by her own son, which caused Clement to
     order the immediate execution of the whole Cenci family, and the
     entreaties of their friends only induced him to spare the life of
     Bernardo, with the horrible proviso that he was to remain upon the
     scaffold and witness the execution of his relations.

     " ... During the fearful and protracted transit to the scaffold, it
     was the custom of the satellites of the inquisition, at regular
     intervals, to tear from the body pieces of flesh with heated
     pincers, but in this instance the pope dispensed with this torture,
     but ordered that Giacomo should be beaten to death and then
     quartered. As the procession passed the piazza of the Palazzo
     Cenci, Giacomo, who had appeared resigned, became dreadfully
     agitated, and uttered heart-rending cries of, 'My children! my
     children!' The people shouted, 'Dogs, give him his children!' The
     procession was proceeding, when the multitude assumed such a
     threatening aspect, that two of the Compagnia dei Confortati
     thought themselves authorised to pause, the unhappy man imploring
     them in accents of despair, to suffer him once more to behold his
     children. The crowd became pacified on seeing Giacomo descend from
     the cart and conducted to the vestibule of his palace, where they
     brought to him his children and his wife. The latter fainted on the
     last step.

     "The scene that followed was the most affecting and painful that
     the imagination can picture. His three children clung around his
     legs, uttering cries that rent the hearts of all present The
     unhappy man embraced them, telling them that in Bernardo they would
     find a father; then, fixing his eyes on his unconscious wife, he
     said, 'Let us go!' Reascending the cart, the procession stopped
     before the prison of the Corte Savella.

     "Here Beatrice and Lucrezia appeared before the gates, conducted by
     the Confortati. They knelt down and prayed for some time before the
     crucifix, and then walked on foot behind the carriage. Lucrezia
     wore a robe of black, and a long black veil covered her head and
     shoulders; Beatrice in a dark robe and veil, a handkerchief of
     cloth of silver on her head, and slippers of white velvet,
     ornamented with crimson sandals and rosettes, followed.... Twice
     during the passage, an attempt was made to rescue Beatrice, but
     each failed, and she reached the chapel, where all the condemned
     were to receive the blessing of the Sacrament before execution.

     "The first brought out to ascend the scaffold was Bernardo, who,
     according to the conditions of his reprieve, was to witness the
     death of his relatives. The poor boy, before he had reached the
     summit, fell down in a swoon, and was obliged to be supported to
     his seat of torture. Preceded by the standard and the brethren of
     the Misericordia, the executioner next entered the chapel to convey
     Lucrezia. Binding her hands behind her back, and removing the veil
     that covered her head and shoulders, he led her to the foot of the
     scaffold. Here she stopped, prayed devoutly, kissed the crucifix,
     and taking off her shoes, mounted the ladder barefoot. From
     confusion and terror, she with difficulty ascended, crying out,
     'Oh, my God! oh, holy brethren, pray for my soul, oh, God, pardon
     me!' The principal executioner beckoned to her to place herself on
     the block; the unhappy woman, from her unwieldy figure, being
     unable to do so, some violence was used, the executioner raised his
     axe, and with one stroke severed the head from the body! Catching
     it by the hair, he exposed it, still quivering, to the gaze of the
     populace; then wrapping it in the veil, he laid it on a bier in the
     corner of the scaffold, the body falling into a coffin placed
     underneath. The violence used towards the sufferer had so excited
     the multitude, that a universal uproar commenced. Forty young men
     rushed forward to the chapel to rescue Beatrice, but were again
     defeated, after a short struggle....

     "Meanwhile Beatrice, kneeling in the chapel absorbed in prayer,
     heeded not the uproar that surrounded her. She rose, as the
     standard appeared to precede her to the block, and with eagerness
     demanded, 'Is my mother then really dead?'--Answered in the
     affirmative, she prayed with fervour; then raising her voice, she
     said, 'Lord, thou hast called me, and I obey the summons
     willingly, as I hope for mercy!' Approaching her brother, she bade
     him farewell, and with a smile of love, said, 'Grieve not for me.
     We shall be happy in heaven, I have forgiven thee.' Giacomo
     fainted; his sister, turning round, said, 'Let us proceed!' The
     executioner appeared with a cord, but seemed afraid to fasten it
     round her body. She saw this, and with a sad smile said, 'Bind this
     body; but hasten to release the soul, which pants for immortality!'

     "Scarcely had the victim arrived at the foot of the scaffold, when
     the square, filled with that vast multitude before so uproarious,
     suddenly assumed the silence of a desert. Each one bent forward to
     hear her speak; with every eye riveted on her, and lips apart, it
     seemed as if their very existence depended on any words she might
     utter. Beatrice ascended the stairs with a slow but firm step. In a
     moment she placed herself on the block, which had caused so much
     fear to Lucrezia. She did not allow the executioner to remove the
     veil, but laid it herself upon the table. In this dreadful
     situation she remained a few minutes, a universal cry of horror
     staying the arm of the executioner. But soon the head of his victim
     was held up separated from the trunk, which was violently agitated
     for a few seconds. The miserable Bernardo Cenci, forced to witness
     the fate of his sister, again swooned away; nor could he be
     restored to his senses for more than half an hour.

     "Meanwhile the scaffold was made ready for the dreadful punishment
     destined for Giacomo. Having performed some religious ceremonies,
     he appeared dressed in a cloak and cap. Turning towards the people,
     he said in a clear voice, 'Although in the agonies of torture I
     accused my sister and brother of sharing in the crime for which I
     suffer, I accused them falsely. Now that I am about to render an
     account of my actions to God, I solemnly assert their entire
     innocence. Farewell, my friends. Oh, pray to God for me.'

     "Saying these words, he knelt down; the executioner bound his legs
     to the block and bandaged his eyes. To particularise the details of
     this execution would be too dreadful; suffice it to say, he was
     beaten, beheaded, and quartered in the sight of that vast
     multitude, and by the side of a brother, who was sprinkled with his
     blood. All was now over.

     "..... Near the statue of St. Paul, according to custom, were
     placed three biers, each with four lighted torches. In these were
     laid the bodies of the victims. A crown of flowers had been placed
     around the head of Beatrice, who seemed as though in sleep, so
     calm, so peaceful was that placid face, while a smile such as she
     wore in life still hovered on her lips. Many a tear was shed over
     that bier, many a flower was scattered around her, whose fate all
     mourned--whose innocence none questioned.

     "On that night the bodies were interred. The corpse of Beatrice,
     clad in the dress she wore on the scaffold, was borne, covered with
     garlands of flowers, to the church of San Pietro in Montorio; and
     buried at the foot of the high altar, before Raffaelle's celebrated
     picture of the Transfiguration."[97]

Retracing our steps to the Piazza della Giudecca and turning left down a
narrow alley, which is always busy with Jewish traffic, we reach the
_Piazza delle Tartarughe_, so called from the tortoises which form part
of the adornments of its lovely little fountain,--designed by Giacomo
della Porta, the four figures of boys being by Taddeo Landini.

At this point we leave the Ghetto.

       *       *       *       *       *

Forming one side of the Piazza delle Tartarughe is the _Palazzo
Costaguti_, celebrated for its six splendid ceilings by great artists,

    1. _Albani_: Hercules wounding the Centaur Nessus.
    2. _Domenichino_: Apollo in his car, Time discovering truth,
        &c., much injured.
    3. _Guercino_: _Rinaldo_ and _Armida_ in a chariot drawn by dragons.
    4. _Cav. d'Arpino_: Juno nursing Hercules, Venus and Cupids.
    5. _Lanfranco_: Justice and Peace.
    6. _Romanelli_: Arion saved by the dolphin.

In a corner of the piazza, is a well-known _Lace-Shop_, much frequented
by English ladies, but great powers of bargaining are called for. Almost
immediately behind this is one of the most picturesque mediæval
courtyards in the city.

On the same line, at the end of the street, is the _Palazzo Mattei_,
built by Carlo Maderno (1615) for Duke Asdrubal Mattei, on the site of
the Circus of Flaminius. The small courtyard of this palace is well
worth examining, and is one of the handsomest in Rome, being quite
encrusted, as well as the staircase, with ancient bas-reliefs, busts,
and other sculptures. It contained a gallery of pictures, the greater
part of which have been dispersed. The rooms have frescoes by
_Pomerancio_, _Lanfranco_, _Pietro da Cortona_, _Domenichino_, and

Behind this, facing the Via delle Botteghe Oscure, is the vast _Palazzo
Caëtani_, now inhabited by the learned Don Michael-Angelo Caëtani (Duke
of Sermoneta and Prince of Teano), whose family is one of the most
distinguished in the mediæval history of Rome, and which gave Boniface
VIII. to the church:

    "Lo principe de' nuovi farisei."

    _Dante, Inferno,_ xxvii.

It claims descent from Anatolius, created Count of Gaieta by Pope
Gregory II. in 730.

Close to the Palazzo Mattei is the _Church of Sta. Caterina de' Funari_,
built by Giacomo della Porta, in 1563, adjoining a convent of
Augustinian nuns. The streets in this quarter are interesting as bearing
witness in their names to the existence of the Circus Flaminius, the
especial circus of the plebs, which once occupied all the ground near
this. The _Via delle Botteghe Oscure_, commemorates the dark shops which
in mediæval times occupied the lower part of the circus, as they do now
that of the Theatre of Marcellus. The Via dei Funari, the ropemakers who
took advantage for their work of the light and open space which the
interior of the deserted circus afforded. The remains of the circus
existed to the sixteenth century.

Near this, turning right, is the _Piazza di Campitelli_, which contains
the _Church of S. Maria in Campitelli_, built by Rinaldi for Alexander
VII. in 1659, upon the site of an oratory erected by Sta. Galla in the
time of John I. (523-6), in honour of an image of the Virgin, which one
day miraculously appeared imploring her charity, in company with the
twelve poor women to whom she was daily in the habit of giving alms. The
oratory of Sta. Galla was called Sta. Maria in Portico, from the
neighbouring portico of Octavia, a name which is sometimes applied to
the present church. The miraculous mendicant image is now enshrined in
gold and lapis-lazuli over the high altar. Other relics supposed to be
preserved here are the bodies of Sta. Cyrica, Sta. Victoria, and Sta.
Vincenza, and half that of Sta. Barbara! The second chapel on the right
has a picture of the Descent of the Holy Ghost by _Luca Giordano_; in
the first chapel on the left is the tomb of Prince Altieri, inscribed
"Umbra," and that of his wife, Donna Laura di Carpegna, inscribed
"Nihil;" they rest on lions of rosso-antico. In the right transept is
the tomb, by _Pettrich_, of Cardinal Pacca, who lived in the Palazzo
Pacca, on the opposite side of the square, and was the faithful friend
of Pius VII. in his exile. The bas-relief on the tomb, of St. Peter
delivered by the angel, is in allusion to the deliverance from the
French captivity.

The name Campitelli is probably derived from Campusteli, because in this
neighbourhood (see Ch. XIV.) was the Columna Bellica, from which when
war was declared a dart was thrown into a plot of ground, representing
the hostile territory,--perhaps the very site of this church.

In the street behind this, leading into the Via di Ara Cœli, are the
remains of the ancient _Palazzo Margana_, with a very richly-sculptured
gateway of _c._ 1350.

Opening from hence upon the left is the _Via Tor de' Specchi_, whose
name commemorates the legend of Virgil as a necromancer, and of his
magic tower lined with mirrors, in which all the secrets of the city
were reflected and brought to light.

Here is the famous _Convent of the Tor de' Specchi_, founded by Sta.
Francesca Romana, and open to the public during the octave of the
anniversary of her death (following the 9th of March). At this time the
pavements are strewn with box, the halls and galleries are bright with
fresh flowers, and Swiss guards are posted at the different turnings, to
facilitate the circulation of visitors. It is a beautiful specimen of a
Roman convent. The first hall is painted with ancient frescoes,
representing scenes in the life of the saint. Here, on a table, is the
large bowl in which Sta. Francesca prepared ointment for the poor. Other
relics are her veil, shoes, &c. Passing a number of open cloisters,
cheerful with flowers and orange-trees, we reach the chapel, where
sermons or rather lectures are delivered at the anniversary upon the
story of Sta. Francesca's life, and where her embalmed body may be seen
beneath the altar. A staircase seldom seen, but especially used by
Francesca, is only ascended by the nuns upon their knees. It leads to
her cell and a small chapel, black with age, and preserved as when she
used them. The picturesque dress of the Oblate sisters who are
everywhere visible, adds to the interest of the scene.

     "It is no gloomy abode, the Convent of the Tor di Specchi, even in
     the eyes of those who cannot understand the happiness of a nun. It
     is such a place as one loves to see children in; where religion is
     combined with everything that pleases the eye and recreates the
     mind. The beautiful chapel; the garden with its magnificent
     orange-trees; the open galleries, with their fanciful decorations
     and scenic recesses, where a holy picture or figure takes you by
     surprise, and meets you at every turn; the light airy rooms, where
     religious prints and ornaments, with flowers, birds, and ingenious
     toys, testify that innocent enjoyments are encouraged and smiled
     upon; while from every window may be caught a glimpse of the
     Eternal City, a spire, a ruined wall,--something that speaks of
     Rome and its thousand charms.

     "It was on the 21st of March, the festival of St. Benedict, that
     Francesca herself entered the convent, not as the foundress, but as
     a humble suppliant for admission. At the foot of the stairs, having
     taken off her customary black gown, her veil, and her shoes, and
     placed a cord around her neck, she knelt down, kissed the ground,
     and, shedding an abundance of tears, made her general confession
     aloud in the presence of all the Oblates; she described herself as
     a miserable sinner, a grievous offender against God, and asked
     permission to dwell amongst them as the meanest of their servants;
     and to learn from them to amend her life, and enter upon a holier
     course. The spiritual daughters of Francesca hastened to raise and
     embrace her; and clothing her with their habit, they led the way to
     the chapel, where they all returned thanks to God. While she
     remained there in prayer, Agnese de Lellis, the superioress,
     assembled the sisters in the chapter-room, and declared to them,
     that now their true mother and foundress had come amongst them, it
     would be absurd for her to remain in her present office; that
     Francesca was their guide, their head, and that into her hands she
     should instantly resign her authority. They all applauded her
     decision, and gathering around the Saint, announced to her their
     wishes. As was to be expected, Francesca strenuously refused to
     accede to this proposal, and pleaded her inability for the duties
     of a superioress. The Oblates had recourse to Don Giovanni, the
     confessor of Francesca, who began by entreating, and finally
     commanded her acceptance of the charge. His order she never
     resisted; and accordingly, on the 25th of March, she was duly
     elected to that office."--_Lady Georgina Fullerton's Life of Sta.
     Francesca Romana._

     "Sta. Francesca Romana is represented in the dress of a Benedictine
     nun, a black robe and a white hood or veil; and her proper
     attribute is an angel, who holds in his hand the book of the Office
     of the Virgin, open at the words, '_Tenuisti manum dexteram meam,
     et in voluntate tua deduxisti me, et cum gloria suscepisti me_'
     (Ps. lxxiii. 23, 24); which attribute is derived from an incident
     thus narrated in the acts of her canonisation. Though unwearied in
     her devotions, yet if, during her prayers, she was called away by
     her husband on any domestic duty, she would close her book, saying
     that 'a wife and a mother, when called upon, must quit her God at
     the altar, and find him in her household affairs.' Now it happened
     once, that, in reciting the Office of Our Lady, she was called away
     four times just as she was beginning the same verse, and, returning
     the fifth time, she found that verse written upon the page in
     letters of golden light by the hand of her guardian
     angel."--_Jameson's Sacred Art_, p. 151.

Almost opposite the convent is the Via del Monte Tarpeio, a narrow
alley, leading up to the foot of the Tarpeian rock, beneath the Palazzo
Caffarelli, and one of the points at which the rock is best seen. This
spot is believed to have been the site of the house of Spurius Mælius,
who tried to ingratiate himself with the people, by buying up corn and
distributing it in a year of scarcity (B.C. 440), but who was in
consequence put to death by the patricians. His house was razed to the
ground, and its site, being always kept vacant, went by the name of



     The Story of the Hill--Orti Farnesiani--The Via Nova--Roma
     Quadrata--The Houses of the early Kings--Temple of Jupiter
     Stator--Palace of Augustus--Palace of
     Vespasian--Crypto-Porticus--Temple of Jupiter-Victor--The Lupercal
     and the Hut of Faustulus--Palace of Tiberius--Palace of
     Caligula--Clivus Victoriæ--Ruins of the Kingly Period--Altar of the
     Genius Loci--House of Hortensius--Septizonium of Severus--Palace of

"The Palatine formed a trapezium of solid rock, two sides of which were
about 300 yards in length, the others about 400: the area of its summit,
to compare it with a familiar object, was nearly equal to the space
between Pall-Mall and Piccadilly in London."[99]

The history of the Palatine is the history of the City of Rome. Here was
the Roma Quadrata, the "oppidum," or fortress of the Pelasgi, of which
the only remaining trace is the name Roma, signifying force. This is the
fortress where the shepherd-king Evander is represented by Virgil as
welcoming Æneas.

The Pelasgic fortress was enclosed by Romulus within the limits of this
new city, which, "after the Etruscan fashion, he traced round the foot
of the hill with a plough drawn by a bull and a heifer, the furrow being
carefully made to fall inwards, and the heifer yoked to the near-side,
to signify that strength and courage were required without, obedience
and fertility within the city.... The locality thus enclosed was
reserved for the temples of the gods and the residence of the ruling
class, the class of patricians or burghers, as Niebuhr has taught us to
entitle them, which predominated over the dependent commons, and only
suffered them to crouch for security under the walls of Romulus. The
Palatine was never occupied by the plebs. In the last age of the
republic, long after the removal of this partition, or of the civil
distinction between the great classes of the state, here was still the
chosen site of the mansions of the highest nobility."[100]

In the time of the early kings the City of Rome was represented by the
Palatine only. It was at first divided into two parts, one inhabited,
and the other called Velia, and left for the grazing of cattle. It had
two gates, the Porta Romana to the north, and the Porta Mugonia--so
called from the lowing of the cattle--to the south, on the side of the

Augustus was born on the Palatine, and dwelt there in common with other
patrician citizens in his youth. After he became emperor he still lived
there, but simply, and in the house of Hortensius, till, on its
destruction by fire, the people of Rome insisted upon building him a
palace more worthy of their ruler. This building was the
foundation-stone of "the Palace of the Cæsars," which in time overran
the whole hill, and, under Nero, two of the neighbouring hills besides,
and whose ruins are daily being disinterred and recognised, though much
confusion still remains regarding their respective sites. In A.D. 663,
part of the palace remained sufficiently perfect to be inhabited by the
Emperor Constans, and its plan is believed to have been entire for a
century after, but it never really recovered its sack by Genseric in
A.D. 455, in which it was completely gutted, even of the commonest
furniture; and as years passed on it became imbedded in the soil which
has so marvellously enshrouded all the ancient buildings of Rome, so
that till within the last ten years, only a few broken nameless walls
were visible above ground.

    "Cypress and ivy, weed and wallflower grown
    Matted and mass'd together, hillocks heap'd
    On what were chambers, arch crush'd, columns strown
    In fragments, choked-up vaults, and frescoes steep'd
    In subterranean damps, where the owl peep'd,
    Deeming it midnight:--Temples, baths, or halls?
    Pronounce who can; for all that Learning reap'd
    From her research has been, that these are walls.--
    Behold the Imperial Mount! 'Tis thus the mighty falls."

    _Byron, Childe Harold._

How different is this description to that of Claudian (de Sexto
Consulat. Honorii).

    "The Palatine, proud Rome's imperial seat,
    (An awful pile) stands venerably great:
    Thither the kingdoms and the nations come,
    In supplicating crowds to learn their doom:
    To Delphi less th' inquiring worlds repair,
    Nor does a greater god inhabit there:
    This sure the pompous mansion was design'd
    To please the mighty rulers of mankind;
    Inferior temples rise on either hand,
    And on the borders of the palace stand,
    While o'er the rest her head she proudly rears,
    And lodged amidst her guardian gods appears."

    _Addison's Translation._

After the middle of the sixteenth century a great part of the Palatine
became the property of the Farnese family, latterly represented by the
Neapolitan Bourbons, who sold the "Orti Farnesiani," in 1861, to the
Emperor Napoleon III., for £10,000. Up to that time this part of the
Palatine was a vast kitchen-garden, broken here and there by picturesque
groups of ilex trees and fragments of mouldering wall. In one corner was
a casino of the Farnese (still standing) adorned in fresco by some of
the pupils of Raphael. This and all the later buildings in the "Orti,"
are marked with the Farnese _fleur-de-lis_, and on the principal
staircase of the garden is some really grand distemper ornament of their
time. Since 1861 extensive excavations have been carried on here under
the superintendence of Signor Rosa, which have resulted in the discovery
of the palaces of some of the earlier emperors, and the substructions of
several temples. After the revolution of 1870 the French portion of the
Palatine was sold by the Ex-Emperor Napoleon to the Roman municipal

In visiting the Palace of the Cæsars, it will naturally be asked how it
is known that the different buildings are what they are described to be.
In a great measure this has been ascertained from the descriptions of
Tacitus and other historians,--but the greatest assistance of all has
been obtained from the Tristia of Ovid, who, while in exile, consoles
himself by recalling the different buildings of his native city, which
he mentions in describing the route taken by his book, which he had
persuaded a friend to convey to the imperial library. He supposes the
book to enter the Palatine by the Clivus Victoriæ behind the Temple of
Vesta, and follows its course, remarking the different objects it passed
on the right or the left.

       *       *       *       *       *

If we enter the palace by the Farnese gateway, on the right of the
Campo-Vaccino, opposite SS. Cosmo e Damiano, we had better only ascend
the first division of the staircase and then turn to the left. Passing
along the lower ridge of the Palatine, afterwards occupied by many of
the great patrician houses, whose sites we shall return to and examine
in detail, we reach that corner of the garden which is nearest to the
Arch of Titus. Here a paved road of large blocks of lava has lately been
laid bare, and is identified beyond a doubt as part of the Via Nova,
which led from the Porta Mugonia of the Palatine along the base of the
hill to the Velabrum. In the reign of Augustus it appears to have been
made to communicate also with the Forum.

    "Qua Nova Romano nunc Via juncta Foro est."

    _Ovid, Fast._ vi. 396.

At this point the road was called _Summa Via Nova_.

Near this spot must have been the site of the house where Octavius lived
with his wife Afra, the niece of Julius Cæsar (daughter of his eldest
sister Julia), and where their son, Octavius, afterwards the Emperor
Augustus, was born. This house afterwards passed into the possession of
C. Lætorius, a patrician; but after the death of Augustus, part of it
was turned into a chapel, and consecrated to him. It was situated at the
top of a staircase--"supra scalas annularias"[101]--which probably led
to the Forum, and is spoken of as "ad capita bubula," perhaps from
bulls' heads, with which it may have been decorated.

Here we find ourselves, owing to the excavations, in a deep hollow
between the two divisions of the hill. On the left is the Velia, upon
which, near the Porta Mugonia, the Sabine king, Ancus Martius, had his
palace. When Ancus died, he was succeeded by an Etruscan stranger,
Lucius Tarquinius, who took the name of Tarquinius Priscus. This king
also lived upon the Velia,[102] with Tanaquil his queen, and here he was
murdered in a popular rising, caused by the sons of his predecessor.
Here his brave wife Tanaquil closed the doors, concealed the death of
the king, harangued the people from the windows,[103] and so gained time
till Servius Tullius was prepared to take the dead king's place and
avenge his murder.[104]

Keeping to the valley, on our right are now some huge blocks of tufa, of
great interest as part of the ancient _Roma Quadrata_, anterior to
Romulus. Beyond this, also on the right, are foundations of the _Temple
of Jupiter Stator_, built by Romulus, who vowed that he would found a
temple to Jupiter under that name, if he would arrest the flight of his
Roman followers in their conflict with the superior forces of the

    "Inde petens dextram, porta est, ait, ista Palati;
    Hic Stator, hoc primum condita Roma loco est."

    _Ovid, Trist._ iii. El. I.

    "Tempus idem Stator ædis habet, quam Romulus olim
    Ante Palatini condidit ora jugi."

    _Ovid, Fast._ vi. 793.

The temple of Jupiter Stator has an especial interest from its
connection with the story of Cicero and Catiline.

     "Cicéron rassembla le sénat dans le temple de Jupiter Stator. Le
     choix du lieu s'explique facilement; ce temple était près de la
     principale entrée du Palatin sur le Vélia, dominant, en cas
     d'émeute, le Forum, que Cicéron et les principaux sénateurs
     habitants du Palatin n'avaient pas à traverser comme s'il eût fallu
     se rendre à la Curie. D'ailleurs Jupiter Stator, qui avait arrêté
     les Sabines à la porte de Romulus, arrêterait ces nouveaux ennemis
     qui voulaient sa ruine. Là Cicéron prononça la première
     Catilinaire. Ce discours dut être en grande partie improvisé, car
     les événements aussi improvisaient. Cicéron ne savait si Catilina
     oserait se présenter devant le sénat; en le voyant entrer, il
     conçut son fameux exorde: 'Jusqu'à quand, Catilina, abuseras-tu de
     notre patience!'

     "Malgré la garde volontaire de chevaliers qui avait accompagné
     Cicéron et qui se tenait à la porte du temple, Catilina y entra et
     salua tranquillement l'assemblée; nul ne lui rendit son salut, à
     son approche on s'écarta et les places restèrent vides autour de
     lui. Il écouta les foudroyantes apostrophes de Cicéron, qui, après
     l'avoir accablé des preuves de son crime, se bornait à lui dire:
     'Sors de Rome. Va-t-en!'

     "Catilina se leva et d'un air modeste pria le sénat de ne pas
     croire le consul avant qu'une enquête eût été faite. 'II n'est pas
     vraisemblable, ajouta-t-il, avec une hauteur toute aristocratique,
     qu'un patricien, lequel, aussi bien que ses ancêtres, a rendu
     quelques services à la république, ne puisse exister que par sa
     ruine, et qu'on ait besoin d'un étranger d'Arpinum pour la sauver.'
     Tant d'orgueil et d'impudence révoltèrent l'assemblée; on cria à
     Catilina: 'Tu es un ennemi de la patrie, un meurtrier.' Il sortit,
     réunit encore ses amis, leur recommanda de se débarasser de
     Cicéron, prit avec lui un aigle d'argent qui avait appartenu à une
     légion de Marius, et à minuit quitta Rome et partit par la voie
     Aurélia pour aller rejoindre son armée."--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ iv.

Nearly opposite the foundations of Jupiter Stator, on the left,--are
some remains considered to be those of the Porta Palatii.

The valley is now blocked by a vast mass of building which entirely
closes it. This is the palace of Augustus, built in the valley between
the Velia and the other eminence of the Palatine, which Rosa, contrary
to other opinions, identifies with the _Germale_. The division of the
Palatine thus named, was reckoned as one of "the seven hills" of
ancient Rome. Its name was thought to be derived from Germani, owing to
Romulus and Remus being found in its vicinity.[106]

The _Palace of Augustus_ was begun soon after the battle of Actium, and
gradually increased in size, till the whole valley was blocked up by it,
and its roofs became level with the hill-sides. Part of the ground which
it covered had previously been occupied by the villa of Catiline.[107]
Here Suetonius says that Augustus occupied the same bed-room for forty
years. Before the entrance of the palace it was ordained by the Senate,
B.C. 26, that two bay-trees should be planted, in remembrance of the
citizens he had preserved, while an oak wreath was placed above the gate
in commemoration of his victories.

    "Singula dum miror, video fulgentibus armis
      Conspicuos postes, tectaque digna deo.
    An Jovis hæc, dixi, domus est? Quod ut esse putarem,
      Augurium menti querna corona dabat.
    Cujus ut accepi dominum, non fallimur, inquam:
      Et magni rerum est hanc Jovis esse domum.
    Cur tamen apposita velatur janua lauro?
      Cingit et Augustas arbor opaca fores?"

    _Ovid, Trist._ i. 33.

    "State Palatinæ laurus; prætextaque quercu
      Stet domus; æternos tres habet una deos."

    _Fast._ iv. 953.

It was before the gate of this palace that Augustus upon one day in
every year sate as a beggar, receiving alms from the passers-by, in
obedience to a vision that he should thus appease Nemesis.

Upon the top of this building of Augustus, Vespasian built his palace in
A.D. 70, not only using the walls of the older palace as a support for
his own, but filling the chambers of the earlier building entirely up
with earth, so that they became a solid massive foundation. The ruins
which we visit are thus for the most part those of the palace of
Vespasian, but from one of its halls we can descend into rooms
underneath excavated from the palace of Augustus. The three projecting
rostra which we now see in front of the palace are restorations by
Signor Rosa.

The palace on the Palatine was not the place where the emperors
generally lived. They resided at their villas, and came into the town to
the Palace of the Cæsars for the transaction of public business. Thus
this palace was, as it were, the St. James's of Rome. The fatigue and
annoyance of a public arrival every morning, amid the crowd of clients
who always waited upon the imperial footsteps, was naturally very great,
and to obviate this the emperors made use of a subterranean passage
which ran round the whole building, and by which they were enabled to
arrive unobserved, and not to present themselves in public till their
appearance upon the rostra in front of the building to receive the
morning salutations of their people.

If we ascend a winding path to the right, to the garden which now covers
the greater part of the hill Germale, we shall find a staircase which
descends on the left to join this passage, following which, we will
ascend, with the emperor, into his palace.

The passage, called _Crypto-Porticus_, is still quite perfect, and
retains a great part of its mosaic pavements and much of its inlaid
ceilings, from which the gilt mosaic has been picked out, but the
pattern is still traceable. The passage was lighted from above. It was
by this route that St. Laurence was led up for trial in the basilica,
of the palace. Turning to the left, we again emerge upon the upper

The emperor here reached the palace, but as he did not yet wish to
appear in public, he turned to the left by the private passage called
_Fauces_, which still remains, running behind the main halls of the
building. Here he was received by the different members of the imperial
family, much as Napoleon III. was received by Princesses Mathilde,
Clotilde, and the Murats, in a private apartment at the Tuileries,
before entering the ball-room. Hence, passing across the end of the
basilica, the emperor reached the portico in front of the palace,
looking down upon the hollow space where were the Temple of Jupiter
Stator and the other buildings connected with the early history of the
Roman state. Here the whole Court received him and escorted him to the
central rostra, where he had his public reception from the people
assembled below, and whence perhaps he addressed to them a few words of
morning salutation in return. The attendants meanwhile defiled on either
side to the lower terraced elevation, which still remains.

This ceremony being gone through, the emperor returned as he came, to
the basilica, for the transaction of business.

The name Basilica means "King's House." It was the ancient Law Court. It
usually had a portico, was oblong in form, and ended in an apse for
ornament. The Christians adopted it for their places of worship because
it was the largest type of building then known. They also adopted the
names of the different parts of the pagan basilica, as the Confessional,
from the _Confession_, the bar of justice at which the criminal was
placed,--the Tribune, from the _Tribunal_ of the Judge, &c. A chapel
and sacristy added on either side produced the form of the cross. The
_Basilica_ here is of great width. A leg of the emperor's chair actually
remains _in situ_ upon the tribunal, and part of the richly wrought bar
of the Confession still exists. This was the bar at which St. Laurence
and many other Christian martyrs were judged. The basilica in the palace
of the Cæsars was also the scene of the trial of Valerius Asiaticus in
the time of Claudius (see Chap. II.), when the Empress Messalina, who
was seated near the emperor upon the tribunal, was so overcome by the
touching eloquence of the innocent man, that she was obliged to leave
the hall to conceal her emotion,--but characteristically whispered as
she went out, that the accused must nevertheless on no account be
suffered to escape with his life,[108]--that she might take possession
of his Pincian Garden, which was as Naboth's Vineyard in her eyes. An
account is extant which describes how it was necessary to increase the
width of the seat upon the tribunal at this period, in consequence of a
change in the fashion of dress among the Roman ladies.

This basilica, though perhaps not then itself in existence, will always
have peculiar interest as showing the form and character of that earlier
basilica in the Palace of the Cæsars, in which St. Paul was tried before
Nero. But it is quite possible that it may be the same actual basilica
itself,--and that the palace of Nero which overran the whole of the
hill, may have had its basilica on this site, where it was preserved by
Vespasian in his later and more contracted palace.

     "The appeals from the provinces in civil causes were heard, not by
     the emperor himself, but by his delegates, who were persons of
     consular rank: Augustus had appointed one such delegate to hear
     appeals from each province respectively. But criminal appeals
     appear generally to have been heard by the emperor in person,
     assisted by his council of assessors. Tiberius and Claudius had
     usually sat for this purpose in the Forum; but Nero, after the
     example of Augustus, heard these causes in the imperial palace,
     whose ruins still crown the Palatine. Here, at one end of a
     splendid hall,[109] lined with the precious marbles of Egypt and of
     Libya, we must imagine Cæsar seated in the midst of his assessors.
     These councillors, twenty in number, were men of the highest rank
     and greatest influence. Among them were the two consuls and
     selected representatives of each of the other great magistracies of
     Rome. The remainder consisted of senators chosen by lot. Over this
     distinguished bench of judges presided the representatives of the
     most powerful monarchy which has ever existed,--the absolute ruler
     of the whole civilised world.

     "Before the tribunal of the blood-stained adulterer Nero, Paul was
     brought in fetters, under the custody of his military guard. The
     prosecutors and their witnesses were called forward, to support
     their accusation; for although the subject-matter for decision was
     contained in the written depositions forwarded from Judæa by
     Festus, yet the Roman law required the personal presence of the
     accusers and the witnesses, whenever it could be obtained. We
     already know the charges brought against the Apostle. He was
     accused of disturbing the Jews in the exercise of their worship,
     which was secured to them by law; of desecrating their Temple; and,
     above all, of violating the public peace of the empire by perpetual
     agitation, as the ringleader of a new and factious sect. This
     charge was the most serious in the view of a Roman statesman; for
     the crime alleged amounted to _majestas_, or treason against the
     commonwealth, and was punishable with death.

     "These accusations were supported by the emissaries of the
     Sanhedrim, and probably by the testimony of witnesses from Judæa,
     Ephesus, Corinth, and the other scenes of Paul's activity.... When
     the parties on both sides had been heard, and the witnesses all
     examined, the judgment of the court was taken. Each of the
     assessors gave his opinion in writing to the emperor, who never
     discussed the judgment with his assessors, as had been the practice
     of better emperors, but after reading their opinion, gave sentence
     according to his own pleasure, without reference to the judgment
     of the majority. On this occasion it might have been expected that
     he would have pronounced the condemnation of the accused, for the
     influence of Poppæa had now reached its culminating point, and she
     was a Jewish proselyte. We can scarcely doubt that the emissaries
     from Palestine would have demanded her aid for the destruction of a
     traitor to the Jewish faith; nor would any scruples have prevented
     her listening to their request, backed as it probably was,
     according to Roman usage, by a bribe. However this may be, the
     trial resulted in the acquittal of St. Paul. He was pronounced
     guiltless of the charges brought against him, his fetters were
     struck off, and he was liberated from his long
     captivity."--_Conybeare and Howson._

Beyond the basilica is the _Tablinum_, the great hall of the palace,
which served as a kind of commemorative domestic museum, where family
statues and pictures were preserved. This vast room was lighted from
above, on the plan which may still be seen at Sta. Maria degli Angeli,
which was in fact a great hall of a Roman house. The roof of this hall
was one vast arch, unsupported except by the side walls. We have record
of a period when these walls were supposed insufficient for the great
weight, and had to be strengthened, in interesting confirmation of which
we can still see how the second wall was added and united to the first.

Appropriately opening from the family picture gallery of the Tablinum,
was the _Lararium_, a private chapel for the worship of such members of
the family--Livia and many others--as were deified after death. An
altar, on the original site, has been erected here by Signor Rosa, from
bits which have been found.

Hitherto the chambers which we have visited were open to the public;
beyond this, none but his immediate family and attendants could follow
the emperor. We now enter the _Peristyle_, a courtyard, which was open
to the sky, but surrounded with arcades ornamented with statues, where
we may imagine that the empresses amused themselves with their birds
and flowers. Hence, by a narrow staircase, we can descend into what is
perhaps the most interesting portion of the whole, the one unearthed
fragment of the actual _Palace of Augustus_, which still retains remains
of gilding and fresco, and an artistic group in stucco. An original
window remains, and it will be recollected on looking at it, that when
this was built it was not subterranean, but merely in the hollow of the
valley, afterwards filled up. In these actual rooms may have lived
Livia, who in turn inhabited three houses on the Palatine, first that of
her first husband Nero Drusus, whom Augustus compelled her to divorce;
then the imperial house of Augustus; and lastly that of Tiberius, the
son by her first husband, whom she was the means of raising to the

We now reach the _Triclinium_ or dining-room, surrounded by a skirting
of pavonazzetto with a cornice of giallo. Tacitus describes a scene in
the imperial triclinium, in which the Emperor Tiberius is represented as
reclining at dinner, having on one side his aged mother, the Empress
Livia, and on the other his niece Agrippina, widow of Germanicus and
granddaughter of the great Augustus.[110] It was while the imperial
family were seated at a banquet in the triclinium, in the time of Nero,
that his young step-brother Britannicus (son of Claudius and Messalina)
swallowed the cup of poison which the emperor had caused Locusta to
prepare and sank back dead upon his couch, his wretched sisters Antonia
and Octavia, also seated at the ghastly feast, not daring to give
expression to their grief and horror,--and Nero merely desiring the
attendants to carry the boy out, and saying that it was a fit to which
he was subject.[111] Here it was that Marcia the concubine presented the
cup of drugged wine to the wicked Commodus, on his return from a wild
beast hunt, and produced the heavy slumber during which he was strangled
by the wrestler Narcissus. In this very room also his successor
Pertinax, who had spent his short reign of three months in trying to
reform the State, resuscitate the finances, and to heal, as far as
possible, 'the wounds inflicted by the hand of tyranny,' received the
news that the guard, impatient of unwonted discipline, had risen against
him, and going forth to meet his assassins, fell, covered with wounds,
just in front of the palace.[112]

Vitruvius says that every well-arranged Roman house has a dining-room
opening into a nymphæum, and accordingly here, on the right, is a
_Nymphæum_, with a beautiful fountain surrounded by miniature niches,
once filled with bronzes and statues. Water was conveyed hither by the
Neronian aqueduct. The pavement of this room was of oriental alabaster,
of which fragments remain.

Beyond the Triclinium is a disgusting memorial of Roman imperial life,
in the _Vomitorium_, with its bason, whither the feasters retired to
tickle their throats with feathers, and come back with renewed appetite
to the banquet.

We now reach the portico which closed the principal apartments of the
palace on the south-west. Some of its Corinthian pillars have been
re-erected on the sites where they were found. From hence we can look
down upon some grand walls of republican times, formed of huge tufa

Passing a space of ground, called, without much authority,
_Bibliotheca_, we reach a small _Theatre_ on the edge of the hill,
interesting as described by Pliny, and because the Emperor Vespasian,
who is known to have been especially fond of reciting his own
compositions, probably did so here. Hence we may look down upon the
valley between the Palatine and Aventine, where the rape of the Sabines
took place, and upon the site of the Circus Maximus. From hence, we may
imagine, that the later emperors surveyed the hunts and games in that
circus, when they did not care to descend into the amphitheatre itself.

Beyond this, on the right, is (partially restored) the grand staircase
leading to the platform once occupied by the _Temple of Jupiter-Victor_,
vowed by Fabius Maximus during the Samnite war, in the assurance that he
would gain the victory. On the steps is a sacrificial altar, which
retains its grooves for the blood of the victims, with an inscription
stating that it was erected by "Cnæus Domitius C. Calvinus,
Pontifex,"--who was a general under Julius Cæsar, and consul B.C. 53 and
B.C. 40.

Now, for some distance, there are no remains, because this space was
always kept clear, for here, constantly renewed, stood the _Hut of
Faustulus and the Sacred Fig-tree_.

     "The old Roman legend ran as follows:--Procas, king of Alba, left
     two sons. Numitor, the elder, being weak and spiritless, suffered
     Amulius to wrest the government from him, and reduce him to his
     father's private estates. In the enjoyment of these he lived rich,
     and, as he desired nothing more, secure: but the usurper dreaded
     the claims that might be set up by heirs of a different character.
     He had Numitor's son murdered, and appointed his daughter, Silvia,
     one of the Vestal virgins.

     "Amulius had no children, or at least only one daughter: so that
     the race of Anchises and Aphrodite seemed on the point of
     expiring, when the love of a god prolonged it, in spite of the
     ordinances of man, and gave it a lustre worthy of its origin.
     Silvia had gone into the sacred grove, to draw water from the
     spring for the service of the temple. The sun quenched its rays:
     the sight of a wolf made her fly into a cave: there Mars
     overpowered the timid virgin, and then consoled her with the
     promise of noble children, as Posidon consoled Tyro, the daughter
     of Salmoneus. But he did not protect her from the tyrant; nor could
     the protestations of her innocence save her. Vesta herself seemed
     to demand the condemnation of the unfortunate priestess; for at the
     moment when she was delivered of twins, the image of the goddess
     hid its eyes, her altar trembled, and her fire died away. Amulius
     ordered that the mother and her babes should be drowned in the
     river. In the Anio Silvia exchanged her earthly life for that of a
     goddess. The river carried the bole or cradle, in which the
     children were lying, into the Tiber, which had overflowed its banks
     far and wide, even to the foot of the woody hills. At the root of a
     wild fig-tree, the Ficus Ruminalis, which was preserved and held
     sacred for many centuries, at the foot of the Palatine, the cradle
     overturned. A she-wolf came to drink of the stream: she heard the
     whimpering of the children, carried them into her den hard by, made
     a bed for them, licked and suckled them. When they wanted other
     food than milk, a woodpecker, the bird sacred to Mars, brought it
     to them. Other birds consecrated to auguries hovered over them, to
     drive away insects. This marvellous spectacle was seen by
     Faustulus, the shepherd of the royal flocks. The she-wolf drew
     back, and gave up the children to human nature. Acca Laurentia, his
     wife, became their foster-mother. They grew up, along with her
     twelve sons, on the Palatine hill, in straw huts which they built
     for themselves: that of Romulus was preserved by continual repairs,
     as a sacred relic, down to the time of Nero. They were the stoutest
     of the shepherd lads, fought bravely against wild beasts and
     robbers, maintaining their right against every one by their might,
     and turning might into right. Their booty they shared with their
     comrades. The followers of Romulus were called Quinctilii, those of
     Remus Fabii: the seeds of discord were soon sown amongst them.
     Their wantonness engaged them in disputes with the shepherds of the
     wealthy Numitor, who fed their flocks on Mount Aventine: so that
     here, as in the story of Evander and Cacus, we find the quarrel
     between the Palatine and the Aventine in the tales of the remotest
     times. Remus was taken by the stratagem of these shepherds, and
     dragged to Alba as a robber. A secret foreboding, the remembrance
     of his grandsons, awakened by the story of the two brothers, kept
     Numitor from pronouncing a hasty sentence. The culprit's
     foster-father hastened with Romulus to the city, and told the old
     man and the youths of their kindred. They resolved to avenge their
     own wrong and that of their house. With their faithful comrades,
     whom the dangers of Remus had brought to the city, they slew the
     king; and the people of Alba again became subject to Numitor.

     "But love for the home which fate had assigned them drew the youths
     back to the banks of the Tiber, to found a city there, and the
     shepherds, their old companions, were their first citizens.... This
     is the old tale, as it was written by Fabius, and sung in ancient
     lays down to the time of Dionysius."--_Niebuhr's Hist. of Rome._

In the cliff of the Palatine, below the fig-tree, was shown for many
centuries the cavern Lupercal, sacred from the earliest times to the
Pelasgic god Pan.

    "Hinc lucum ingentum, quem Romulus acer Asylum
    Retulit, et gelidâ monstrat sub rupe Lupercal,
    Parrhasio dictum Panos de monte Lycæi."

    _Virgil, Æn._ viii. 342.

     "La louve, nourrice de Romulus, a peut-être été imaginée en raison
     des rapports mythologiques qui existaient entre le loup et Pan
     défenseur des troupeaux. Ce qu'il y a de sûr, c'est que les fêtes
     lupercales gardèrent le caractère du dieu en l'honneur duquel elles
     avaient été primitivement instituées et l'empreinte d'une origine
     pélasgique; ces fêtes au temps de Cicéron avaient encore un
     caractère pastoral en mémoire de l'Arcadie d'où on les croyait
     venues. Les Luperques qui représentaient les Satyres, compagnons de
     Pan, faisaient le tour de l'antique séjour des Pélasges sur le
     Palatin. Ces hommes nus allaient frappant avec les lanières de peau
     de bouc, l'animal lascif par excellence, les femmes pour les rendre
     fécondes; des fêtes analogues se célébraient en Arcadie sous le nom
     de Lukéia (les fêtes des loups), dont le mot lupercales est une
     traduction."--_Ampère, Hist. Rome_, i. 143.

In the hut of Romulus were preserved several objects venerated as relics
of him.

     "On conservait le bâton augural avec lequel Romulus avait dessiné
     sur le ciel, suivant le rite étrusque, l'espace où s'était
     manifesté le grand auspice des douze vautours dans lesquels Rome
     crut voir la promesse des douze siècles qu'en effet le destin
     devait lui accorder. Tous les augures se servirent par la suite de
     ce bâton sacré, qui fut trouvé intact après l'incendie du monument
     dans lequel il était conservé, miracle païen dont l'equivalent
     pourrait se rencontrer dans plus d'une légende de la Rome
     chrétienne. On montrait le cornouiller né du bois de la lance que
     Romulus, avec la vigueur surhumaine d'un demi-dieu, avait jetée de
     l'Aventin sur le Palatin, où elle s'était enfoncée dans la terre et
     avait produit un grand arbre.

     "On montrait sur le Palatin le berceau et la cabane de Romulus.
     Plutarque a vu ce berceau, le _Santo-Presepio_ des anciens Romains,
     qui était attaché avec des liens d'airain, et sur lequel on avait
     tracé des caractères mystérieux. La cabane était à un seul étage,
     en planches et couverte de roseaux, que l'on reconstruisait
     pieusement chaque fois qu'un incendie la détruisait; car elle brûla
     à diverses reprises, ce que la nature des matériaux dont elle était
     formée fait croire facilement. J'ai vu dans les environs de Rome un
     cabaret rustique dont la toiture était exactement pareille à celle
     de là cabane de Romulus."--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ i. 342.

Turning along the terrace which overhangs the Velabrum we reach the
ruins of the _Palace of Tiberius_,[113] in which he resided during the
earlier part of his reign, when he was under the influence of his aged
and imperious mother Livia. Here he had to mourn for Drusus, his only
son, who fell a victim (A.D. 23) to poison administered to him by his
wife Livilla and her lover the favourite Sejanus. Here also, in A.D. 29,
died Livia, widow of Augustus, at the age of eighty-six, "a memorable
example of successful artifice, having attained in succession, by craft
if not by crime, every object she could desire in the career of female

The row of arches remaining are those of the soldiers' quarters. In the
fourth arch is a curious _graffite_ of a ship. In another the three
pavements in use at different times may be seen _in situ_, one above
another. On the terrace above these arches has recently been discovered
a large piscina, or _fish-pond_, and the painted chambers of a building,
which is supposed to have been the _House of Drusus_ (elder brother of
Tiberius) _and Antonia_. Several of the rooms in this building are
richly decorated in fresco, one has a picture of a street with figures
of females going to a sacrifice, and of ladies at their toilette;
another of Mercury, Io, and Argus; and a third of Galatea and
Polyphemus. From the names of the characters in these pictures
represented being affixed to them in Greek, we may naturally conclude
that they are the work of Greek artists.

The north-eastern corner of the area is entirely occupied by the vast
ruins of the _Palace of Caligula_, built against the side of the hill
above the _Clivus Victoriœ_, which still remains, and consisting of
ranges of small rooms, communicating with open galleries, edged by
marble balustrades, of which a portion exists. In these rooms the
half-mad Caius Caligula rushed about, sometimes dressed as a charioteer,
sometimes as a warrior, and delighted in astonishing his courtiers by
his extraordinary pranks, or shocking them by trying to enforce a belief
in his own divinity.[115]

     "C'est dans ce palais que, tourmenté par l'insomnie et par
     l'agitation de son âme furieuse, il passera une partie de la nuit à
     errer sous d'immenses portiques, attendant et appellant le jour.
     C'est là aussi qu'il aura l'incroyable idée de placer un dieu

     "Caligula se fit bâtir sur le Palatin deux temples. Il avait
     d'abord voulu avoir une demeure sur le mont Capitolin; mais, ayant
     réfléchi que Jupiter l'avait precédé au Capitole, il en prit de
     l'humeur et retourna sur le Palatin. Dans les folies de Caligula,
     on voit se manifester cette pensée: Je suis dieu! pensée qui
     n'était peut-être pas très-extraordinaire chez un jeune homme de
     vingt-cinq ans devenu tout-à-coup maître du monde. Il parut en
     effet croire à sa divinité, prenant le nom et les attributs de
     divers dieux, et changeant de nature divine en changeant de

     "Non content de s'élever un temple à lui-même, Caligula en vint à
     être son propre prêtre et à s'adorer. Le despotisme oriental avait
     connu cette adoration étrange de soi: sur les monuments de l'Egypte
     on voit Ramsès-roi présenter son offrande à Ramsès-dieu; mais
     Caligula fit ce que n'avait fait aucun Pharaon; il se donna pour
     collègue, dans ce culte de sa propre personne, son cheval, qu'il ne
     nomma pas, mais qu'il songea un moment de nommer consul."--_Ampère,
     Emp._ ii. 8.

     Here "one day at a public banquet, when the consuls were reclining
     by his side, Caligula burst suddenly into a fit of laughter; and
     when they courteously inquired the cause of his mirth, astounded
     them by coolly replying that he was thinking how by one word he
     could cause both their heads to roll on the floor. He amused
     himself with similar banter even with his wife Cæsonia, for whom he
     seems to have had a stronger feeling than for any of his former
     consorts. While fondling her neck he is reported to have said,
     'Fair as it is, how easily I could sever it.'"--_Merivale_, ch.

After the murder of Caligula (Jan. 24, 794) by the tribune Cheræa, in
the vaulted passage which led from the palace to the theatre, a singular
chance which occurred in this part of the palace led to the elevation of
Claudius to the throne.

     "In the confusion which ensued upon the death of Caius, several of
     the prætorian guards had flung themselves furiously into the palace
     and began to plunder its glittering chambers. None dared to offer
     them any opposition; the slaves or freedmen fled and concealed
     themselves. One of the inmates, half-hidden behind a curtain in an
     obscure corner, was dragged forth with brutal violence; and great
     was the intruder's surprise when they recognised him as Claudius,
     the long despised and neglected uncle of the murdered emperor.[116]
     He sank at their feet almost senseless with terror: but the
     soldiers in their wildest mood still respected the blood of the
     Cæsars, and instead of slaying or maltreating the suppliant, the
     brother of Germanicus, they hailed him, more in jest perhaps than
     earnest, with the title of Imperator, and carried him off to their
     camp."--_Merivale_, ch. xlix.

In this same palace Claudius was feasting when he was told that his
hitherto idolised wife Messalina was dead, without being told whether
she died by her own hand or another's,--and asked no questions, merely
desiring a servant to pour him out some more wine, and went on eating
his supper.[117] Here also Claudius, who so dearly loved eating,
devoured his last and fatal supper of poisoned mushrooms which his next
loving wife (and niece) Agrippina prepared for him, to make way for her
son Nero upon the throne.[118]

The Clivus Victoriæ commemorates by its name the _Temple of
Victory_,[119] said to have been founded by the Sabine aborigines before
the time of Romulus, and to be the earliest temple at Rome of which
there is any mention except that of Saturnus. This temple was rebuilt by
the consul L. Posthumius.

Chief of a group of small temples, the famous _Temple of Cybele_,
"Mother of the Gods," stood at this corner of the Palatine. Thirteen
years before it was built, the "Sacred Stone," the form under which the
"Idæan Mother" was worshipped, had been brought from Pessinus in
Phrygia, because, according to the Sibylline books, frequent showers of
stones which had occurred could only be expiated by its being
transported to Rome. It was given up to the Romans by their ally
Attalus, king of Pergamus, and P. Cornelius Scipio, the young brother of
Africanus--accounted the worthiest and most virtuous of the Romans--was
sent to receive it. As the vessel bearing the holy stone came up the
Tiber it grounded at the foot of the Aventine, when the aruspices
declared that only chaste hands would be able to move it. Then the
Vestal Claudia drew the vessel up the river by a rope.

     "Ainsi Sainte Brigitte, Suédoise morte à Rome, prouva sa pureté en
     touchant le bois de l'autel, qui reverdit soudain. Une statue fut
     érigée à Claudia, dans le vestibule du temple de Cybèle. Bien
     qu'elle eût été, disait on, seule épargnée dans deux incendies du
     temple, nous n'avons plus cette statue, mais nous avons au Capitole
     un bas-relief où l'événement miraculeux est représenté. C'est un
     autel dédié par une affranchie de la gens Claudia; il a été trouvé
     au pied de l'Aventin, près du lieu qu'on désignait comme celui où
     avait été opéré le miracle."--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ iii. 142.

In her temple, which was _round and surmounted_ by a cupola, Cybele was
represented by a statue with its face to the east; the building was
adorned with a painting of Corybantes, and plays were acted in front of

          "Qua madidi sunt tecta Lyæi
    Et Cybeles picto stat Corybante domus."

    _Martial, Ep._ i. 71, 9.

This temple, after its second destruction by fire, was entirely rebuilt
by Augustus in A.D. 2.

     "Cybèle est certainement la grande déesse, la grande mère,
     c'est-à-dire la personnification de la fécondité et de la vie
     universelle: bizarre idole qui présente le spectacle hideux de
     mamelles disposés par paires le long d'un corps comme enveloppé
     dans une gaîne, et d'où sortent des taureaux et des abeilles,
     images des forces créatrices et des puissances ordonnatrices de la
     nature. On honorait cette déesse de l'Asie par des orgies
     furieuses, par un mélange de débauche effrénée et de rites cruels;
     ses prêtres efféminés dansaient au son des flûtes lydiennes et de
     ses _crotales_, véritables castagnettes, semblables à celles que
     fait résonner aujourd'hui la paysanne romaine en dansant la
     fougueuse _saltarelle_. On voit au musée du Capitole l'effigie
     bas-relief d'un _archigalle_, d'un chef de ces prêtres insensés, et
     près de lui les attributs de la déesse asiatique, les flûtes, les
     crotales, et la mystérieuse corbeille. Cet archigalle, avec son air
     de femme, sa robe qui conviendrait à une femme, nous retrace
     l'espèce de démence religieuse à laquelle s'associaient les délires
     pervers d'Héliogabale."--_Ampère, Emp._ ii. 310.

We have the authority of Martial[121] that in the immediate
neighbourhood of the temple of Cybele, stood the _Temple of Apollo_,
though Signor Rosa places it on the other side of the hill in the
gardens of S. Buonaventura. Its remains have yet to be discovered.

     "Nothing could exceed the magnificence of this temple, according to
     the accounts of ancient authors. Propertius, who was present at its
     dedication, has devoted a short elegy to the description of it, and
     Ovid describes it as a splendid structure of white marble.

    'Tum medium claro surgebat marmore templum,
        Et patria Phœbo carius Ortygia.
    Auro solis erat supra fastigia currus,
        Et valvæ Libyci nobile dentis opus.
    Altera dejectos Parnassi vertice Gallos,
        Altera mœrebat funera Tantalidos.
    Deinde inter matrem Deus ipse, interque sororem
        Pythius in longa carmina veste sonat.'

    _Propertius,_ ii. _El._ 31.

    'Inde timore pari gradibus sublimia celsis
        Ducor ad intonsi candida templa Dei.'

    _Ovid, Trist._ iii. _El._ 1.

     "From the epithet _aurea_ porticus, it seems probable that the
     cornice of the portico which surrounded it was gilt. The columns
     were of African marble, or _giallo-antico_, and must have been
     fifty-two in number, as between them were the statues of the fifty
     Danaids, and that of their father, brandishing a naked sword.

    'Quæris cur veniam tibi tardior? aurea Phœbi
      Porticus a magno Cæsare aperta fuit.
    Tota erat in speciem Pœnis digesta columnis:
      Inter quas Danai fœmina turba senis.'

    _Propert._ ii. _El._ 31.

    'Signa peregrinis ubi sunt alterna columnis
      Belides, et stricto barbarus ense pater.'

    _Ovid, Trist._ iii. 1. 61.

     "Here also was a statue of Apollo sounding the lyre, apparently a
     likeness of Augustus; whose beauty when a youth, to judge from his
     bust in the Vatican, might well entitle him to counterfeit the god.
     Around the altar were the images of four oxen, the work of Myron,
     so beautifully sculptured that they seemed alive. In the middle of
     the portico rose the temple, apparently of white marble. Over the
     pediment was the chariot of the sun. The gates were of ivory, one
     of them sculptured with the story of the giants hurled down from
     the heights of Parnassus, the other representing the destruction of
     the Niobids. Inside the temple was the statue of Apollo in a tunica
     talaris, or long garment, between his mother Latona and his sister
     Diana, the work of Scopas, Cephisodorus, and Timotheus. Under the
     base of Apollo's statue Augustus caused to be buried the Sibylline
     books which he had selected and placed in gilt chests. Attached to
     the temple was a library called _Bibliotheca Græca et Latina_,
     apparently, however, only one structure, containing the literature
     of both tongues. Only the choicest works were admitted to the
     honour of a place in it, as we may infer from Horace:

                          'Tangere vitet
    Scripta, Palatinus quæcunque recepit Apollo.'

    _Ep._ i. 3. 16.

     "The library appears to have contained a bronze statue of Apollo,
     fifty feet high; whence we must conclude that the roof of the hall
     exceeded that height. In this library, or more probably, perhaps,
     in an adjoining apartment, poets, orators, and philosophers recited
     their productions. The listless demeanour of the audience on such
     occasions seems, from the description of the younger Pliny, to have
     been, in general, not over-encouraging. Attendance seems to have
     been considered as a friendly duty."--_Dyer's City of Rome._

The temple of Apollo was built by Augustus to commemorate the battle of
Actium. He appropriated to it part of the land covered with houses which
he had purchased upon the Palatine;--another part he gave to the
Vestals; the third he used for his own palace.

    "Phœbus habet partem, Vestæ pars altera cessit:
    Quod superest illis, tertius ipse tenet.

           *       *       *       *       *

    Stet domus, æternos tres habet una deos."

    _Ovid, Fast._ iv. 951.

Thus Apollo and Vesta became as it were the household gods of Augustus:

    "Vestaque Cæsareos inter sacrata penates,
    Et cum Cæsarea tu, Phœbe domestice, Vesta."

    _Ovid, Metam._ xv. 864.

Other temples on the Palatine were that of _Juno_ Sospita:

    "Principio mensis Phrygiæ contermina Matri
      Sospita delubris dicitur aucta novis."

    _Ovid, Fast._ ii. 55.

of Minerva:

    "Sexte, Palatinæ cultor facunde Minervæ
      Ingenio frueris qui propiore Dei."

     _Martial,_ v. _Ep._ 5.

a temple of Moonlight mentioned by Varro (iv. 10) and a shrine of Vesta.

    "Vestaque Cæsareos inter sacrata penates."

    _Ovid, Met._ i.

From the _Torretta del Palatino_ which is near the house of Caligula,
there is a magnificent view over the seven hills of Rome;--the Palatine,
Aventine, Capitoline, Cœlian, Quirinal, Viminal, and Esquiline. From
this point also it is very interesting to remember that these were not
the heights considered as "the Seven Hills" in the ancient history of
Rome, when the sacrifices of the _Septimontium_ were offered upon the
Palatine, Velia, and Germale, the three divisions of the Palatine--of
which one can no longer be traced; upon the Fagutal, Oppius, and
Cispius, the secondary heights of the Esquiline; and upon the Suburra,
which perhaps comprehended the Viminal.[122] Hence also we see the
ground we have traversed on the Palatine spread before us like a map.

If we descend the staircase in the Palace of Caligula, we may trace as
far as the Porta Romana the piers of the _Bridge of Caligula_, which,
half in vanity, half in madness, he threw across the valley, that he
might, as he said, the more easily hold intercourse with his friend and
comrade Jupiter upon the Capitol. One of the piers which he used for his
bridge, beyond the limits of the palace, was formed by the temple of
Augustus built by Tiberius.[123] This bridge, with all other works of
Caligula, was of very short duration, being destroyed immediately after
his death by Claudius.

Returning by the Clivus Victoriæ, we shall find ourselves again on the
eastern slope of the hill from which we started, the site once occupied
by so many of the great patrician families. Here at one time lived Caius
Gracchus, who to gratify the populace, gave up his house on the side of
the Palatine, and made his home in the gloomy Suburra. Here also lived
his coadjutor in the consulship, Fulvius Flaccus, who shared his fate,
and whose house was razed to the ground by the people after his murder.
At this corner of the hill also was the house of Q. Lutatius Catulus,
poet and historian, who was consul B.C. 102, and together with Marius
was conqueror of the Cimbri in a great battle near Vercelli. In memory
of this he founded a temple of the "Fortuna hujusce diei," and decorated
the portico of his house with Cimbrian trophies. Varro mentions that his
house had also a domed roof.[124] Here also the consul Octavius,
murdered on the Janiculum by the partisans of Marius, had a house, which
was rebuilt with great magnificence by Emilius Scaurus, who adorned it
with columns of marble thirty-eight feet high.[125] These two last-named
houses were bought by the wealthy Clodius, who gave 14,800,000
sesterces, or about 130,000_l._, for that of Scaurus, and throwing down
the Porticus Catuli, included its site, and the house of E. Scaurus, in
his own magnificent dwelling. Clodius was a member of the great house of
the Claudii, and was the favoured lover of Pompeia, wife of Julius
Cæsar, by whose connivance, disguised as a female musician, he attempted
to be present at the orgies of the Bona Dea, which were celebrated in
the house of the Pontifex Maximus close to the temple of Vesta, and from
which men were so carefully excluded, that even a male mouse, says
Juvenal, dared not show himself there. The position of his own dwelling,
and that of the pontifex, close to the foot of the Clivus Victoriæ,
afforded every facility for this adventure, but it was discovered by his
losing himself in the passages of the Regia. A terrible scandal was the
result--Cæsar divorced Pompeia, and the senate referred the matter to
the pontifices, who declared that Clodius was guilty of sacrilege.
Clodius attempted to prove an alibi, but Cicero's evidence showed that
he was with him in Rome only three hours before he pretended to have
been at Interamna. Bribery and intimidation secured his acquittal by a
majority of thirty-one to twenty-five,[126] but from this time a deadly
enmity ensued between him and Cicero.

The house of Clodius naturally leads us to that of Cicero, which was
also situated at this corner of the Palatine, whence he could see his
clients in the Forum and go to and fro to his duties there. This house
had been built for M. Livius Drusus, who, when his architect proposed a
plan to prevent its being overlooked, answered, "Rather build it so that
all my fellow-citizens may behold everything that I do." In his acts
Drusus seemed to imitate the Gracchi; but he sought popularity for its
own sake, and after being the object of a series of conspiracies was
finally murdered in the presence of his mother Cornelia, in his own
hall, where the image of his father was sprinkled with his blood. When
dying he turned to those around him and asked, with characteristic
arrogance, based perhaps upon conscious honesty of purpose, "when will
the commonwealth have a citizen like me again?" After the death of
Drusus the house was inhabited by L. Licinius Crassus the orator, who
lived here in great elegance and luxury. His house was called from its
beauty "the Venus of the Palatine," and was remarkable for its size, the
taste of its furniture, and the beauty of its grounds. "It was adorned
with pillars of Hymettian marble, with expensive vases, and triclinia
inlaid with brass. His gardens were provided with fishponds, and some
noble lotus-trees shaded his walks. Ahenobarbus, his colleague in the
censorship, found fault with such corruption of manners,[127] estimated
his house at a hundred million, or, according to Valerius Maximus,[128]
six million sesterces, and complained of his crying for the loss of a
lamprey as if it had been a daughter. It was a tame lamprey which used
to come at the call of Crassus, and feed out of his hand. Crassus
retorted by a public speech against his colleague, and by his great
powers of ridicule, turned him into derision; jested upon his name,[129]
and to the accusation of weeping for a lamprey, replied, that it was
more than Ahenobarbus had done for the loss of any of his three
wives."[130] Cicero purchased the house of Crassus a year or two after
his consulate for a sum equal to about 30,000_l._, and removed thither
from the Carinæ with his wife Terentia. His house was close to that of
Clodius, but a little lower down the hill, which enabled him to threaten
to increase the height, so as to shut out his neighbour's view of the
city. Upon his accession to the tribuneship Clodius procured the
disgrace of Cicero, and after his flight to Greece, obtained a decree of
banishment against him. He then pillaged and destroyed his house upon
the Palatine, as well as his villas at Tusculum and Formia, and obliged
Terentia to take refuge with the Vestals, whose Superior was fortunately
her sister. But in the following year, a change of consuls and revulsion
of the popular favour led to the recall of Cicero, who found part of his
house appropriated by Clodius, who had erected a shrine to Libertas
(with a statue which was that of a Greek courtezan carried off from the
tomb)[131] on the site of the remainder, which he had razed to the

     "Clodius had also destroyed the portico of Catulus; in fact, he
     appears to have been desirous of appropriating all this side of the
     Palatine. He wanted to buy the house of the ædile Seius. Seius
     having declared that so long as he lived, Clodius should not have
     it, Clodius caused him to be poisoned, and then bought his house
     under a feigned name! He was thus enabled to erect a portico three
     hundred feet in length, in place of that of Catulus. The latter,
     however, was afterwards restored at the public expense.

     "Cicero obtained public grants for the restoration of his house and
     of his Tusculan and Formian villas, but very far from enough to
     cover the losses he had suffered. The aristocratic part of the
     Senate appears to have envied and grudged the _novus homo_ to whose
     abilities they looked for protection. He was advised not to rebuild
     his house on the Palatine, but to sell the ground. It was not in
     Cicero's temper to take such a course; but he was hampered ever
     after with debts. Clodius, who had been defeated but not beaten,
     still continued his persecutions. He organised a gang of street
     boys to call out under Cicero's windows, 'Bread! Bread!' His bands
     interrupted the dramatic performances on the Palatine, at the
     Megalesian games, by rushing upon the stage. On another occasion,
     Clodius, at the head of his myrmidons, besieged the Senate in the
     temple of Concord. He attacked Cicero in the streets, to the danger
     of his life; and when he had begun to rebuild his house, drove away
     the masons, overthrew what part had been re-erected of Catulus'
     portico, and cast burning torches into the house of Quintus Cicero,
     which he had hired next to his brother's on the Palatine, and
     consumed a great part of it."--_Dyer's City of Rome_, 152.

The indemnity which Cicero received from the state in order to rebuild
his house on the Palatine, amounted to about 16,000_l._ The house of
Quintus Cicero was rebuilt close to his brother's at the same time by
Cyrus, the fashionable architect of the day.[133]

Among other noble householders on this part of the Palatine was Mark
Antony,[134] whose house was afterwards given by Augustus to Agrippa and
Messala, soon after which it was burnt down.

A small _Museum_ in this part of the garden contains some of the
smaller objects which have been found in the excavations, and specimens
of the different marbles and alabasters. There is nothing of any great
importance. The fragments of statues and some busts which have been
found (including Flavia Domitilla, wife of Vespasian, and Julia,
daughter of Titus), have been sent to Paris, but casts have been left

We have now made the round of the French division of the Palatine.

       *       *       *       *       *

It has been decided that some remains which exist in the garden of the
Villa Mills (now a Convent of Visitandine Nuns) are those of the House
of Hortensius, an orator, "who was second only to Cicero in eloquence,
and who, in the early part at least of their lives, was his chief
opponent."[135] Cicero himself describes the extraordinary gifts of his
rival[136] as well as the integrity with which he fulfilled the duties
of a quæstor.[137] In the latter portion of his public career Hortensius
was frequently engaged on the same side with Cicero, and then always
recognised his superiority by allowing him to speak last. Hortensius
died B.C. 50, to the great grief of his ancient rival.[138] The splendid
villas of Hortensius were celebrated. He was accustomed to water his
trees with wine at regular intervals,[139] and had huge fishponds at
Bauli, into which the salt-water fish came to be fed from his hand, and
he became so fond of them, that he wept for the death of a favourite
muræna.[140] But the house on the Palatine was exceedingly simple and
had no decorations but plain columns of Alban stone.[141] This was the
chosen residence of Augustus, until, upon its destruction by fire, the
citizens insisted upon raising the more sumptuous residence in the
hollow of the Palatine by public subscription. The subterranean chambers
which have been discovered have some interesting remains of stucco

The villa, which is now turned into a convent, possessed some frescoes
painted by Giulio Romano from designs of Raphael, but these have been
destroyed or removed in deference to the modesty of the present
inhabitants. The neighbouring church and garden of S. Sebastiano occupy
the site of the _Gardens of Adonis_. (See Chap. IV.)

       *       *       *       *       *

A large, and by far the most picturesque portion of the Palace of the
Cæsars (the only part which was not imbedded in soil ten years ago), is
now accessible either from the end of the lane of S. Buenaventura, or
from a gate on the left of the Via dei Fienili just before reaching Sta.
Anastasia. The excavations in the last-named quarter were begun by the
Emperor of Russia, who purchased the site, but afterwards presented it
to the city.

Behind Sta. Maria Liberatrice, in some farm buildings, are remains which
probably belong to the Regia of Julius Cæsar.

Beyond this, against the escarpment of the Palatine, a part of the
_Walls of Romulus_ has been discovered, built in large oblong blocks.
Here also are fragments of bases of towers of republican times. Behind
S. Teodoro are remains of an early concrete wall, behind which the tufa
rock is visible. The wall is only built where the tufa is of a soft

     "La système de construction est le même que dans les villes
     d'Étrurie et dans la muraille bâtie à Rome par les rois étrusques.
     Cependant l'appareil est moins régulier. Les murs d'une petite
     ville du Latium fondée par un aventurier ne pouvaient être aussi
     soignés que les murs des villes de l'Étrurie, pays tout autrement
     civilisé. La petite cité de Romulus, bornée au Palatin, n'avait pas
     l'importance de la Rome des Tarquins, qui couvrait les huit

     "Du reste, la construction est étrusque et devait l'être. Romulus
     n'avait dans sa ville, habitée par des pâtres et des bandits,
     personne qui fût capable d'en bâtir l'enceinte. Les Étrusques,
     grands bâtisseurs, étaient de l'autre côté du fleuve. Quelques-uns
     même l'avaient probablement passé déjà et habitaient le mont
     Cœlius. Romulus dut s'adresser à eux, et faire faire cet ouvrage
     par des architects et des maçons étrusques. Ce fut aussi selon le
     rite de l'Étrurie, pays sacerdotal, que Romulus, suivant en cela
     l'usage établi dans les cités latines, fit consacer l'enceinte de
     la ville nouvelle. Il agit en cette circonstance comme agit un
     paysan romain, quand il appelle un prêtre pour bénir l'emplacement
     de la maison qu'il veut bâtir.

     "Les détails de la cérémonie par laquelle fut inaugurée la première
     enceinte de Rome nous ont été transmis par Plutarque,[142] et, avec
     un grand détail par Tacite,[143] qui sans doute avait sous les yeux
     les livres des pontifes. Nous connaissons avec exactitude le
     contour que traça la charrue sacrée. Nous pouvons le suivre encore

     "Romulus attela an taureau blanc et une vache blanche à une charrue
     dont le soc était d'airain.[144] L'usage de l'airain a précédé à
     Rome, comme partout, l'usage du fer. Il partit du lieu consacré par
     l'antique autel d'Hercule, au-dessous de l'angle occidental du
     Palatin et de la première Rome des Pelasges, et, se dirigeant vers
     le sud-est, traça son sillon le long de la base de la colline.

     "Ceux qui suivaient Romulus, rejetaient les mottes de terre en
     dedans du sillon, image du Vallum futur. Ce sillon était l'Agger de
     Servius Tullius en petit. A l'extrémité de la vallée qui sépare le
     Palatin de l'Aventin, où devait être le grand cirque, et où est
     aujourd'hui la rue des _Cerchi_, il prit à gauche, et, contournant
     la colline, continua, en creusant toujours son sillon, à tracer
     sans le savoir la route que devaient suivre un jour les triomphes,
     puis revint au point d'où il était parti. La charrue, l'instrument
     du labour, le symbole de la vie agricole des enfants de Saturne,
     avait dessiné le contour de la cité guerrière de Romulus. De même,
     quand on avait détruit une ville, on faisait passer la charrue sur
     le sol qu'elle avait occupé. Par là, ce sol devenait sacré, et il
     n'était pas plus permis de l'habiter qu'il ne l'était de franchir
     le sillon qu'on creusait autour des villes lors de leur fondation,
     comme le fit Romulus et comme le firent toujours depuis les
     fondateurs d'une colonie; car toute colonie était une
     Rome."--_Ampère, Hist. Rome_, i. 283.

Close under this, the northern side of the walls of Romulus, ran the
_Via Nova_, down which Marcus Cædicius was returning to the city in the
gloaming, when, at this spot, between the sacred grove and the temple of
Vesta, he heard a supernatural voice, bidding him to warn the senate of
the approach of the Gauls. After the Gauls had invaded Rome, and
departed again, an altar and sanctuary recorded the miracle on this

At the corner near Sta. Anastasia, are remains of a private house of
early times built against the cliff. Near this were the steps called the
_Stairs of Cacus_, leading up to the hut of Faustulus. On the other side
the _Gradus Pulchri Littoris_, the κλη Ακτη of Plutarch, led to the

Here a remarkable altar of republican times has been discovered, and
remains _in situ_. It is inscribed SEI DEO SEI DIVAE SAC.--C SEXTIVS C T
actual altar mentioned above as erected to the Genius Loci, in
consequence of the mysterious warning of the Gallic invasion. The father
of the tribune, C. S. Calvinus, mentioned in the inscription, was consul
with C. Cassius Longinus, B.C. 124, and is described by Cicero as an
elegant orator of a sickly constitution.[147]

Beyond this a number of chambers have been discovered under the steep
bank of the Palatine, and retain a quantity of _graffiti_ scratched upon
their walls. The most interesting of these, found in the fourth chamber,
has been removed to the museum of the Collegio Romano. It is generally
believed to have been executed during the reign of Septimius Severus,
and to have been done in an idle moment by one of the soldiers occupying
these rooms, supposed to have been used as guard-chambers under that
emperor. If so, it is perhaps the earliest existing pictorial allusion
to the manner of our Saviour's death. It is a caricature evidently
executed in ridicule of a Christian fellow-soldier. The figure on the
cross has an ass's head, and by the worshipping figure is inscribed in
Greek characters, _Alexamenos worships his God_.

     "The lowest orders of the populace were as intelligently hostile to
     it [the worship of the Crucified] as were the philosophers. Witness
     that remarkable caricature of the adoration of our crucified Lord,
     which was discovered some ten years ago beneath the ruins of the
     Palatine palace. It is a rough sketch, traced, in all probability,
     by the hand of some pagan slave in one of the earliest years of the
     third century of our era. A human figure with an ass's head is
     represented as fixed to a cross, while another figure in a tunic
     stands on one side. This figure is addressing himself to the
     crucified monster, and is making a gesture which was the customary
     pagan expression of adoration. Underneath there runs a rude
     inscription: _Alexamenos adores his God_. Here we are face to face
     with a touching episode of the life of the Roman Church in the days
     of Severus or of Caracalla. As under Nero, so, a century and a half
     later, there were worshippers of Christ in the household of Cæsar.
     But the paganism of the later date was more intelligently and
     bitterly hostile to the Church than the paganism which had shed the
     blood of the apostles. The Gnostic invective which attributed to
     the Jews the worship of an ass, was applied by pagans
     indiscriminately to Jews and Christians. Tacitus attributes the
     custom to a legend respecting services rendered by wild asses to
     the Israelites in the desert; 'and so, I suppose,' observes
     Tertullian, 'it was thence presumed that we, as bordering upon the
     Jewish religion, were taught to worship such a figure.' Such a
     story, once current, was easily adapted to the purposes of a pagan
     caricaturist. Whether from ignorance of the forms of Christian
     worship, or in order to make his parody of it more generally
     intelligible to its pagan admirers, the draughtsman has ascribed to
     Alexamenos the gestures of a heathen devotee. But the real object
     of his parody is too plain to be mistaken. Jesus Christ, we may be
     sure, had other confessors and worshippers in the Imperial palace
     as well as Alexamenos. The moral pressure of the advancing Church
     was felt throughout all ranks of pagan society; ridicule was
     invoked to do the work of argument; and the moral persecution which
     crowned all true Christian devotion was often only the prelude to a
     sterner test of that loyalty to a crucified Lord, which was as
     insensible to the misrepresentations, as Christian faith was
     superior to the logic, of heathendom."[148]--_Liddon, Bampton
     Lectures of 1866_, lect. vii. p. 593.

These chambers acquire a great additional interest from the belief which
many entertain that they are those once occupied by the Prætorian Guard,
in which St. Paul was confined.

     "The close of the Epistle to the Ephesians contains a remarkable
     example of the forcible imagery of St. Paul. Considered simply in
     itself, the description of the Christian's armour is one of the
     most striking passages in the sacred volume. But if we view it in
     connection with the circumstances with which the Apostle was
     surrounded, we find a new and living emphasis in his enumeration of
     all the parts of the heavenly panoply,--the belt of sincerity and
     truth, with which the loins are girded for the spiritual war,--the
     breast-plate of that righteousness, the inseparable links whereof
     are faith and love,--the strong sandals, with which the feet of
     Christ's soldiers are made ready, not for such errands of death and
     despair as those on which the Prætorian soldiers were daily sent,
     but for the universal message of the gospel of peace,--the large
     shield of confident trust, wherewith the whole man is protected,
     and whereon the fiery arrows of the Wicked One fall harmless and
     dead,--the close-fitting helmet, with which the hope of salvation
     invests the head of the believer,--and finally the sword of the
     Spirit, the Word of God, which, when wielded by the Great Captain
     of our Salvation, turned the tempter in the wilderness to flight,
     while in the hands of His chosen Apostle (with whose memory the
     sword seems inseparably associated), it became the means of
     establishing Christianity on the earth.

     "All this imagery becomes doubly forcible if we remember that when
     St. Paul wrote the words he was chained to a soldier, and in the
     close neighbourhood of military sights and sounds. The appearance
     of the Prætorian Guards was daily familiar to him; as his 'chains,'
     on the other hand (so he tells us in the succeeding Epistle),
     became well known throughout the whole _Prætorium_! (Phil. i. 13).
     A difference of opinion has existed as to the precise meaning of
     the word in this passage. Some have identified it, as in the
     authorised version, with the house of Cæsar on the Palatine: more
     commonly it has been supposed to mean that permanent camp of the
     Prætorian Guards, which Tiberius established on the north of the
     city, outside the walls. As regards the former opinion, it is true
     that the word came to be used, almost as we use the word 'palace,'
     for royal residences generally or for any residences of princely
     splendour. Yet we never find the word employed for the imperial
     house at Rome: and we believe the truer view to be that which has
     been recently advocated, namely, that it denotes here, not the
     palace itself, but the quarters of that part of the imperial
     guards, which was in immediate attendance upon the emperor. The
     emperor was _prætor_ or commander-in-chief of the troops, and it
     was natural that his immediate guard should be in _prætorium_ near
     him. It might, indeed, be argued that this military establishment
     on the Palatine would cease to be necessary, when the Prætorian
     camp was established: but the purpose of that establishment was to
     concentrate near the city those cohorts, which had previously been
     dispersed in other parts of Italy: a local body-guard near the
     palace would not cease to be necessary: and Josephus, in his
     account of the imprisonment of Agrippa, speaks of a 'camp' in
     connection with the 'royal house.' Such we conceive to have been
     the barrack immediately alluded to by St. Paul: though the
     connection of these smaller quarters with the general camp was such
     that he would naturally become known to '_all the rest_' of the
     guards, as well as those who might for the time be connected with
     the imperial household.

     "St. Paul tells us (in the Epistle to the Philippians) that
     throughout the Prætorian quarter he was well known as a prisoner
     for the cause of Christ, and he sends special salutations to the
     Philippian Church from the Christians of the imperial household.
     These notices bring before us very vividly the moral contrasts by
     which the Apostle was surrounded. The soldier to whom he was
     chained to-day might have been in Nero's body-guard yesterday; his
     comrade who next relieved guard might have been one of the
     executioners of Octavia, and might have carried her head to Poppæa
     a few weeks before.

     "History has few stronger contrasts than when it shows us Paul
     preaching Christ under the walls of Nero's palace. Thenceforward
     there were but two religions in the Roman world; the worship of the
     emperor, and the worship of the Saviour. The old superstitions had
     long been worn out; they had lost all hold on educated minds....
     Over against the altars of Nero and Poppæa, the voice of a prisoner
     was daily heard, and daily woke in grovelling souls the
     consciousness of their divine destiny. Men listened, and knew that
     self-sacrifice was better than ease, humiliation more exalted than
     pride, to suffer nobler than to reign. They felt that the only
     religion which satisfied the needs of man was the religion of
     sorrow, the religion of self-devotion, the religion of the
     cross."--_Conybeare and Howson._

Hence, we may ascend through some gardens beneath the Villa Mills, to
the terrace which surmounts the grand ruins at the end of the Palace of
the Cæsars, supposed to be remains of the _Palace of Nero_, but as no
inscriptions have been discovered, no part of it can be identified.[149]
These are by far the most picturesque portions of the ruins, and few
compositions can be finer than those formed by the huge masses of
stately brick arches, laden with a wealth of laurustinus, cytizus, and
other flowering shrubs, standing out against the soft hues and delicate
blue and pink shadows of the distant Campagna. Beneath the terrace is a
fine range of lofty chambers, with a broken statue at the end, through
which there is a striking view. One of these ruined halls has been
converted into a kind of museum of architectural fragments found in this
part of the palace, many of them of great beauty. This was the portion
of the palace which longest remained entire, and which was inhabited by
Heraclius in the seventh century. Some consider that these ruins were
incorporated into the

_Septizonium of Severus_, so called from its seven stories of building,
erected A.D. 198, and finally destroyed by Sixtus V., who carried off
its materials for the building of St Peter's. It was erected by Severus
at the southern corner of the palace, in order that it might at once
strike the eyes of his African compatriots,[150] on their arrival in
Rome. He built two other edifices which he called Septizonium, one on
the Esquiline near the baths of Titus, and the other on the Via Appia,
which he intended as the burial-place of his family, and where his son
Geta was actually interred.

The remaining ruins on this division of the hill, supposed to be those
of a theatre, a library, &c., have not yet been historically identified.
They probably belong to the _Palace of Domitian_ (Imp. A.D. 81--96), who
added largely to the buildings on the Palatine. The magnificence of his
palace is extolled in the inflated verses of Statius, who describes the
imperial dwelling as exciting the jealousy of the abode of Jupiter--as
losing itself amongst the stars by its height, and rising above the
clouds into the full splendour of the sunshine! Such was the
extravagance displayed by Domitian in these buildings, that Plutarch
compares him to Midas, who wished everything to be made of gold. This
was the scene of many of the tyrannical vagaries of Domitian.

     "'Having once made a great feast for the citizens, he proposed,'
     says Dion, 'to follow it up with an entertainment to a select
     number of the highest nobility. He fitted up an apartment all in
     black. The ceiling was black, the walls were black, the pavement
     was black, and upon it were ranged rows of bare stone seats, black
     also. The guests were introduced at night without their attendants,
     and each might see at the head of his couch a column placed, like a
     tomb-stone, on which his own name was graven, with the cresset lamp
     above it, such as is suspended in the tombs. Presently there
     entered a troop of naked boys, blackened, who danced around with
     horrid movements, and then stood still before them, offering them
     the fragments of food which are commonly presented to the dead. The
     guests were paralysed with terror, expecting at every moment to be
     put to death; and the more, as the others maintained a deep
     silence, as though they were dead themselves, and Domitian spake of
     things pertaining to the state of the departed only.' But this
     funeral feast was not destined to end tragically. Cæsar happened to
     be in a sportive mood, and when he had sufficiently enjoyed his
     jest, and had sent his visitors home expecting worse to follow, he
     bade each to be presented with the silver cup and platter on which
     his dismal supper had been served, and with the slave, now neatly
     washed and apparelled, who had waited upon him. Such, said the
     populace, was the way in which it pleased the emperor to solemnise
     the funereal banquet of the victims of his defeats in Dacia, and of
     his persecutions in the city."--_Merivale_, ch. lxii.

It was in this palace that the murder of Domitian took place:

     "Of the three great deities, the august assessors in the Capitol,
     Minerva was regarded by Domitian as his special patroness. Her
     image stood by his bedside: his customary oath was by her divinity.
     But now a dream apprised him that the guardian of his person was
     disarmed by the guardian of the empire, and that Jupiter had
     forbidden his daughter to protect her favourite any longer. Scared
     by these horrors he lost all self-control, and petulantly cried,
     and the cry was itself a portent: 'Now strike Jove whom he will!'
     From supernatural terrors he reverted again and again to earthly
     fears and suspicions. Henceforward the tyrant allowed none to be
     admitted to his presence without being previously searched; and he
     caused the ends of the corridor in which he took exercise to be
     lined with polished marble, to reflect the image of any one behind
     him; at the same time he inquired anxiously into the horoscope of
     every chief whom he might fear as a possible rival or successor.

     "The victim of superstition had long since, it was said,
     ascertained too surely the year, the day, the hour which should
     prove fatal to him. He had learnt too that he was to die by the
     sword.... The omens were now closing about the victim, and his
     terrors became more importunate and overwhelming. 'Something,' he
     exclaimed, 'is about to happen, which men shall talk of all the
     world over.' Drawing a drop of blood from a pimple on his forehead,
     'May this be all,' he added. His attendants, to reassure him,
     declared that the hour had passed. Embracing the flattering tale
     with alacrity, and rushing at once to the extreme of confidence, he
     announced that the danger was over, and that he would bathe and
     dress for the evening repast. But the danger was just then ripening
     within the walls of the palace. The mysteries there enacted few,
     indeed, could penetrate, and the account of Domitian's fall has
     been coloured by invention and fancy. The story that a child, whom
     he suffered to attend in his private chamber, found by chance the
     tablets which he had placed under his pillow, and that the empress,
     on inspecting them, and finding herself, with his most familiar
     servants, designated for execution, contrived a plot for his
     assassination, is one so often repeated as to cause great
     suspicion. But neither can we accept the version of Philostratus,
     who would have us believe that the murder of Domitian was the deed
     of a single traitor, a freedman of Clemens, named Stephanus, who,
     indignant at his patron's death, and urged to fury by the sentence
     on his patron's wife, Domitilla, rushed alone into the tyrant's
     chamber, diverted his attention with a frivolous pretext, and smote
     him with the sword he bore concealed in his sleeve. It is more
     likely that the design, however it originated, was common to
     several of the household, and that means were taken among them to
     disarm the victim, and baffle his cries for assistance. Stephanus,
     who is said to have excelled in personal strength, may have been
     employed to deal the blow; for not more, perhaps, than one
     attendant would be admitted at once into the presence. Struck in
     the groin, but not mortally, Domitian snatched at his own weapon,
     but found the sword removed from its scabbard. He then clutched the
     assassin's dagger, cutting his own fingers to the bone; then
     desperately thrust the bloody talons into the eyes of his
     assailant, and beat his head with a golden goblet, shrieking all
     the time for help. Thereupon in rushed Parthenius, Maximus, and
     others, and despatched him as he lay writhing on the
     pavement."--_Merivale_, ch. lxii.

Trajan stripped the palace of his predecessors of all its ornaments to
adorn the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus,[151] but it was restored by
Commodus, after a fire which occurred in his reign,[152] and enriched by
Heliogabalus,[153] and almost every succeeding emperor, till the time of

    "'Brickwork I found thee, and marble I left thee!' their Emperor vaunted;
    'Marble I thought thee, and brickwork I find thee!' the Tourist may

    _A. H. Clough._



     S. Gregorio--S. Giovanni e Paolo--Arch of Dolabella--S. Tommaso in
     Formis--Villa Mattei--Sta. Maria della Navicella--S. Stefano
     Rotondo--I Santi Quattro Incoronati--S. Clemente.

The Cœlian Hill extends from St. John Lateran to the Vigna of the
Porta Capena, and from the Fountain of Egeria to the Convent of S.
Gregorio. It is now entirely uninhabited, except by monks of the
Camaldolese, Passionist, and Redemptorist Orders, and by the Augustinian
Nuns of the Incoronati.

In the earliest times the name of this hill was Mons Querquetulanus,
"The Hill of Oaks," and it was clothed with forest, part of which long
remained as the sacred wood of the Camenæ. It first received its name of
Cœlius from Cœlius Vibenna, an Etruscan Lucumo of Ardea, who is
said to have come to the assistance of Romulus in his war against the
Sabine king Tatius, and to have afterwards established himself here. In
the reign of Tullus Hostilius the Cœlian assumed some importance, as
that king fixed his residence here, and transported hither the Latin
population of Alba.

As the Cœlian had a less prominent share in the history of Rome than
any of the other hills, it preserves scarcely any historical monuments
of pagan times. All those which existed under the republic were
destroyed by a great fire which ravaged this hill in the reign of
Tiberius,[155] except the Temple of the Nymphs, which once stood in the
grove of the Camenæ, and which had been already burnt by Clodius, in
order to destroy the records of his falsehoods and debts which it
contained.[156] Some small remains in the garden of the Passionist
convent are attributed to the temple which Agrippina raised to her
husband the Emperor Claudius, and in S. Stefano Rotondo some antiquaries
recognize the Macellum of Nero. There are no remains of the palace of
the Emperor Tetricus, who lived here, "between the two sacred
groves,"[157] in a magnificent captivity under Aurelian, whom he
received here at a banquet, at which he exhibited an allegorical picture
representing his reception of the empire of Gaul, and his subsequent
resignation of it for the simple insignia of a Roman senator.[158]

To the Christian visitor, however, the Cœlian will always prove of
the deepest interest--and the slight thread of connection which runs
between all its principal objects, as well as their nearness to one
another, brings them pleasantly within the limits of a single day's
excursion. Many of those who are not mere passing visitors at Rome, will
probably find that their chief pleasure lies not amid the well-known
sights of the great basilicas and palaces, but in quiet walks through
the silent lanes and amid the decaying buildings of these more distant

     "The recollection of Rome will come back, after many years, in
     images of long delicious strolls, in musing loneliness, through the
     deserted ways of the ancient city; of climbing among its hills,
     over ruins, to reach some vantage-ground for mapping out the
     subjacent territory, and looking beyond on the glorious chains of
     greater and lesser mountains, clad in their imperial hues of gold
     and purple; and then, perhaps, of solemn entrance into the cool
     solitude of an open basilica, where your thought now rests, as your
     body then did, after the silent evening prayer, and brings forward
     from many well-remembered nooks, every local inscription, every
     lovely monument of art, the characteristic feature of each, or the
     great names with which it is associated. The Liberian speaks to you
     of Bethlehem and its treasured mysteries; the Sessorian of Calvary
     and its touching relics. Baronius gives you his injunctions on
     Christian architecture inscribed, as a legacy, in his title of
     Fasciola; St. Dominic lives in the fresh paintings of a faithful
     disciple, on the walls of the opposite church of St. Xystus; there
     stands the chair and there hangs the hat of St. Charles, as if he
     had just left his own church, from which he calls himself in his
     signature to letters 'the Cardinal of St. Praxedes;' near it, in a
     sister church, is fresh the memory of St. Justin Martyr, addressing
     his apologies for Christianity to heathen emperor and senate, and
     of Pudens and his British spouse; and, far beyond the city gates,
     the cheerful Philip[159] is seen kneeling at S. Sebastiano, waiting
     for the door to the Platonia to be opened for him, that he may
     watch the night through in the martyr's dormitory."--_Wiseman's
     Life of Leo XII._

     "For myself, I must say that I know nothing to compare with a
     pilgrimage among the antique churches scattered over the Esquiline,
     the Cœlian, and the Aventine Hills. They stand apart, each in
     its solitude, amid gardens, and vineyards, and heaps of nameless
     ruins;--here a group of cypresses, there a lofty pine or solitary
     palm; the tutelary saint, perhaps some Sant' Achilleo, or Santa
     Bibiana, whom we never heard of before,--an altar rich in precious
     marbles,--columns of porphyry,--the old frescoes dropping from the
     walls,--the everlasting colossal mosaics looking down so solemn, so
     dim, so spectral;--these grow upon us, until at each succeeding
     visit they themselves, and the associations by which they are
     surrounded, become a part of our daily life, and may be said to
     hallow that daily life when considered in a right spirit. True,
     what is most sacred, what is most poetical, is often desecrated to
     the fancy by the intrusion of those prosaic realities which easily
     strike prosaic minds; by disgust at the foolish fabrications which
     those who recite them do not believe, by lying inscriptions, by
     tawdry pictures, by tasteless and even profane restorations;--by
     much that saddens, much that offends, much that disappoints;--but
     then so much remains! So much to awaken, to elevate, to touch the
     heart; so much that will not pass away from the memory, so much
     that makes a part of our after-life."--_Mrs. Jameson._

       *       *       *       *       *

We may pass under the Arch of Constantine, or through the pleasant sunny
walks known as the _Parco di San Gregorio_,--planted by the French
during their first occupation of Rome, but which may almost be regarded
as a remnant of the sacred grove of the Camenæ which once occupied this

The further gate of the Parco opens on a small triangular piazza, whence
a broad flight of steps lead up to the _Church of S. Gregorio_, to the
English pilgrim one of the most interesting spots in Rome, for it was at
the head of these steps that St. Augustine took his last farewell of
Gregory the Great, and, kneeling on this green-sward below, the first
missionaries of England received the parting blessing of the great
pontiff, as he stood on the height in the gateway. As we enter the
portico (built 1633, by Card. Scipio Borghese,) we see on either side
two world-famous inscriptions.

On the right:

            Adsta hospes
              et lege.
    Hic olim fuit M. Gregori domus
    Ipse in monasterium convertit,
    Ubi monasticen professus est
      Et diu abbas præfuit.
    Monachi primum Benedictini
      Mox Græci tenuere
        Dein Benedictini iterum
              Post varios casos
                Quum jamdiu
            Esset commendatum
            Et poene desertum.
                Anno MDLXXIII
            Camaldulenses inducti
              Qui et industria sua
                Et ope plurium
              R. E. Cardinalium
      Quorum hic monumenta exstant,
    Favente etiam Clemente XI. P. M.
      Templum et adjacentes ædes
      In hanc quam cernis formam

On the left:

                  Ex hoc monasterio
    S. Gregorius, M. Fundator et Parens
    S. Eleutherius, A.B. Hilarion, A.B.
    S. Augustinus. Anglor. Apostol.
    S. Laurentius. Cantuar. Archiep.
    S. Mellitus. Londinen. Ep. mox.
                  Archiep. Cantuar.
    S. Justus. Ep. Roffensis.
    S. Paulinus. Ep. Eborac.
    S. Maximianus. Syracusan. Ep.
    SS. Antonius, Merulus, et Joannes, Monachi.
    St. Petrus. A.B. Cantuar.
      Marinianus. Archiep. Raven.
      Probus. Xenodochi. Jerosolymit.
      Curator. A. S. Gregori. Elect.
      Sabinus Callipodit. Ep.
      Gregorius. Diac. Card. S. Eustach.
      Hic. Etiam. Diu. Vixit. M. Gregori
      Mater. S. Silvia. Hoc. Maxime
      Colenda. Quod. Tantum. Pietatis
      Sapientiæ. Et. Doctrinæ. Lumen

     "Cette ville incomparable renferme peu de sites plus attrayants et
     plus dignes d'éternelle mémoire. Le sanctuaire occupe l'angle
     occidental du mont Cœlius.... Il est à égale distance du grand
     Cirque, des Thermes de Caracalla et du Colisée, tout proche de
     l'église des saints martyrs Jean et Paul. Le berceau du
     christianisme de l'Angleterre touche ainsi au sol trempé par le
     sang de tant de milliers de martyrs. En face s'élève le mont
     Palatin, berceau de Rome païenne, encore couvert des vastes débris
     du palais des Césars.... Où est donc l'Anglais digne de ce nom qui,
     en portant son regard du Palatin au Colisée, pourrait contempler
     sans émotion ce coin de terre d'où lui sont venus la foi, le nom
     chrétien et la Bible dont il est si fier. Voilà où les enfants
     esclaves de ses aïeux étaient recueillis et sauvés! Sur ces pierres
     s'agenouillaient ceux qui ont fait sa patrie chrétienne! Sous ces
     voûtes a été conçu par une âme sainte, confié à Dieu, béni par
     Dieu, accepté et accompli par d'humbles et généreux chrétiens, le
     grand dessein! Par ces degrés sont descendus les quarante moines
     qui ont porté à l'Angleterre la parole de Dieu, la lumière de
     l'Évangile, la succession apostolique et la règle de
     Saint-Benoît!"--_Montalembert, Moines d'Occident._

Hard by was the house of Sta. Silvia, mother of St. Gregory, of which
the ruins still remain, opposite to the church of S. Giovanni e Paolo,
and in the little garden which still exists, we may believe that he
played as a child under his mother's care. Close to his mother's home he
founded the monastery of St. Andrew, where he dwelt for many years as a
monk, employed in writing homilies, and in the enjoyment of visionary
conversation with the Virgin, whom he believed to answer him in person
from her picture before which he knelt. "To this monastery he presented
his own portrait, with those of his father and mother, which were
probably in existence 300 years after his death; and this portrait of
himself probably furnished that peculiar type of physiognomy which we
trace in all the best representations of him."[160] During the life of
penance and poverty which was led here by St. Gregory, he sold all his
goods for the benefit of the poor, retaining nothing but a silver bason
given him by his mother. One day a poor shipwrecked sailor came several
times to beg in the cell where he was writing, and as he had no money,
he gave him instead this one remaining treasure. A long time after, St.
Gregory saw the same shipwrecked sailor reappear in the form of his
guardian angel, who told him that God had henceforth destined him to
rule his church, and become the successor of St. Peter, whose charity he
had imitated.[161]

     "Un moine (A.D. 590) va monter pour la première fois sur la chaire
     apostolique. Ce moine, le plus illustre de tous ceux qui ont compté
     parmi les souverains pontifes, y rayonnera d'un éclat qu'aucun de
     ses prédécesseurs n'a égalé et qui rejaillera comme une sanction
     suprême, sur l'institut dont il est issu. Grégoire, le seul parmi
     les hommes avec le Pape Léon Ier qui ait reçu à la fois, du
     consentement universel, le double surnom de Saint et de Grand, sera
     l'eternel honneur de l'Ordre bénédictin comme de la papauté. Par
     son génie, mais surtout par le charme et l'ascendant de sa vertu,
     il organisera le domaine temporel des papes, il développera et
     régularisera leur souveraineté spirituelle, il fondera leur
     paternelle suprématie sur les royautés naissantes et les nations
     nouvelles qui vont devenir les grands peuples de l'avenir, et
     s'appeler la France, l'Espagne, l'Angleterre. A vrai dire, c'est
     lui qui inaugure le moyen âge, la société moderne et la
     civilisation chrétienne."--_Montalembert._

The church of St. Gregory is approached by a cloistered court filled
with monuments. On the left is that of Sir Edward Carne, one of the
commissioners to obtain the opinion of foreign universities respecting
the divorce of Henry VIII. from Catherine of Arragon, ambassador to
Charles V., and afterwards to the court of Rome. He was recalled when
the embassy was suppressed by Elizabeth, but was kept at Rome by Paul
IV., who had conceived a great affection for him, and he died here in
1561. Another monument, of an exile for the catholic faith, is that of
Robert Pecham, who died 1567, inscribed:

     "Roberto Pecham Anglo, equite aurato, Philippi et Mariæ Angliæ et
     Hispan regibus olim a consiliis genere religione virtute præclaro
     qui cum patriam suam a fede catholica deficientem adspicere sine
     summo dolore non posset, relictis omnibus quæ in hac vita carissima
     esse solent, in voluntarium profectus exilium, post sex annis
     pauperibus Christi heredibus testamento institutis, sanctissime e
     vita migravit."

The _Church_, rebuilt in 1734, under Francesco Ferrari, has sixteen
ancient granite columns and a fine Opus-Alexandrinum pavement. Among its
monuments we may observe that of Cardinal Zurla, a learned writer on
geographical subjects, who was abbot of the adjoining convent. It was a
curious characteristic of the laxity of morals in the time of Julius II.
(1503-13), that her friends did not hesitate to bury the famous Aspasia
of that age in this church, and to inscribe upon her tomb: "Imperia,
cortisana Romana, quæ digna tanto nomine, raræ inter homines formæ
specimen dedit. Vixit annos xxvi. dies xii. obiit 1511, die 15
Augusti,"--but this monument has now been removed.

At the end of the right aisle is a picture by _Badalocchi_,
commemorating a miracle on this spot, when, at the moment of elevation,
the Host is said to have bled in the hands of St. Gregory, to convince
an unbeliever of the truth of transubstantiation. It will be observed
that in this and in most other representations of St. Gregory, a dove is
perched upon his shoulder, and whispering into his ear. This is
commemorative of the impression that every word and act of the saint was
directly inspired by the Holy Ghost; a belief first engendered by the
happy promptitude of Peter, his arch-deacon, who invented the story to
save the beloved library of his master which was about to be destroyed
after his death by the people, in a pitiful spirit of revenge, because
they fancied that a famine which was decimating them, had been brought
about by the extravagance of Gregory.[162] An altar beneath this picture
is decorated with marble reliefs, representing the same miracle, and
also the story of the soul of the Emperor Trajan being freed from
purgatory by the intercession of Gregory. (Chap. IV.)

A low door near this leads into the monastic cell of St. Gregory,
containing his marble chair, and the spot where his bed lay, inscribed:

    "Nocte dieque vigil longo hic defessu labore
      Gregorius modica membra quiete levat."

Here also an immense collection of minute relics of saints are exposed
to the veneration of the credulous.

On the opposite side of the church is the _Salviati Chapel_, the
burial-place of that noble family, modernized in 1690 by Carlo Maderno.
Over the altar is a copy of Annibale Caracci's picture of St. Gregory,
which once existed here, but is now in England. On the right is the
picture of the Madonna, "which spoke to St. Gregory," and which is said
to have become suddenly impressed upon the wall after a vision in which
she appeared to him;--on the left is a beautiful marble ciborium.

Hence a sacristan will admit the visitor into the _Garden of Sta.
Silvia_, whence there is a grand view over the opposite Palatine.

     "To stand here on the summit of the flight of steps which leads to
     the portal, and look across to the ruined Palace of the Cæsars,
     makes the mind giddy with the rush of thoughts. _There_, before us,
     the Palatine Hill--pagan Rome in the dust; _here_, the little cell,
     a few feet square, where slept in sackcloth the man who gave the
     last blow to the power of the Cæsars, and first set his foot as
     sovereign on the cradle and capital of their greatness."--_Mrs.

Here are three Chapels, restored by the historian Cardinal Baronius, in
the sixteenth century. The first, of _Sta. Silvia_, contains a fresco of
the Almighty with a choir of angels, by _Guido_, and beneath it a
beautiful statue of the venerable saint (especially invoked against
convulsions), by _Niccolo Cordieri_--one of the best statues of saints
in Rome. The second chapel, of _St. Andrew_, contains the two famous
rival frescoes of _Guido_ and _Domenichino_. Guido has represented St.
Andrew kneeling in reverent thankfulness at first sight of the cross on
which he was to suffer; Domenichino--a more painful subject--the
flagellation of the saint. Of these paintings Annibale Caracci observed
that "Guido's was the painting of the Master; but Domenichino's the
painting of the scholar who knew more than the master." The beautiful
group of figures in the corner, where a terrified child is hiding its
face in its mother's dress, is introduced in several other pictures of

     "It is a well-known anecdote that a poor old woman stood for a long
     time before the story of Domenichino, pointing it out bit by bit
     and explaining it to a child who was with her,--and that she then
     turned to the story told by Guido, admired the landscape, and went
     away. It is added that when Annibale Caracci heard of this, it
     seemed to him in itself a sufficient reason for giving the
     preference to the former work. It is also said that when
     Domenichino was painting one of the executioners, he worked himself
     up into a fury with threatening words and gestures, and that
     Annibale, surprising him in this condition, embraced him, saying:
     'Domenico, to-day you have taught me a lesson, which is that a
     painter, like an orator, must first feel himself that which he
     would represent to others.'"--_Lanzi_, v. 82.

     "In historical pictures Domenichino is often cold and studied,
     especially in the principal subject, while on the other hand, the
     subordinate persons have much grace, and a noble character of
     beauty. Thus, in the scourging of St. Andrew, a group of women
     thrust back by the executioners is of the highest beauty. Guido's
     fresco is of high merit--St. Andrew, on his way to execution, sees
     the cross before him in the distance, and falls upon his knees in
     adoration,--the executioners and spectators regard him with

The third chapel, of _Sta. Barbara_, contains a grand statue of St.
Gregory by _Niccolo Cordieri_[163] (where the whispering dove is again
represented), and the table at which he daily fed twelve poor pilgrims
after washing their feet. The Roman breviary tells how on one occasion
an angel appeared at the feast as the thirteenth guest. This story,--the
sending forth of St. Augustine,--and other events of St. Gregory's life,
are represented in rude frescoes upon the walls by _Viviani_.

The adjoining _Convent_ (modern) is of vast size, and is now occupied by
Camaldolese monks, though in the time of St. Gregory it belonged to the
Benedictines. In its situation it is beautiful and quiet, and must have
been so even in the time of St. Gregory, who often regretted the
seclusion which he was compelled to quit.

     "Un jour, plus accablé que jamais par le poids des affaires
     séculières, il s'était retiré dans un lieu secret pour s'y livrer
     dans un long silence à sa tristesse, et y fut rejoint par le
     diàcre Pierre, son élève, son ami d'enfance et le compagnon de ses
     chères études. 'Vous est-il donc arrivé quelque chagrin nouveau,'
     lui dit le jeune homme, 'pour que vous soyez ainsi plus triste qu'à
     l'ordinaire.' 'Mon chagrin,' lui répondit le pontife, 'est celui de
     tous mes jours, toujours vieux par l'usage, et toujours nouveau par
     sa croissance quotidienne. Ma pauvre âme se rappelle ce qu'elle
     était autrefois, dans notre monastère, quand elle planait sur tout
     ce qui passe, sur tout ce qui change; quand elle ne songeait qu'au
     ciel; quand elle franchissait par la contemplation le cloître de ce
     corps qui l'enserre; quand elle aimait d'avance la mort comme
     l'entrée de la vie. Et maintenant il lui faut, à cause de ma charge
     pastorale, supporter les mille affaires des hommes du siècle et se
     souiller dans cette poussière. Et quand, après s'être ainsi
     répandue au dehors, elle veut retrouver sa retraite intérieure,
     elle n'y revient qu'amoindrie. Je médite sur tout ce que je souffre
     et sur tout ce que j'ai perdu. Me voici, battu par l'océan et tout
     brisé par la tempête; quand je pense à ma vie d'autrefois, il me
     semble regarder en arrière vers le rivage. Et ce qu'il y a de plus
     triste, c'est qu'ainsi ballotté par l'orage, je puis à peine
     entrevoir le port que j'ai quitté.'"--_Montalembert, Moines

Pope Gregory XVI. was for some years abbot of this convent, to which he
was afterwards a generous benefactor;--regretting always, like his great
predecessor, the peace of his monastic life. His last words to his
cardinals, who were imploring him, for political purposes, to conceal
his danger, were singularly expressive of this--"Per Dio
lasciatemi!--voglio morire da frate, non da sovrano." The last great
ceremony enacted at S. Gregorio was when Cardinal Wiseman consecrated
the mitred abbot of English Cistercians,--Dr. Manning preaching at the
same time on the prospects of English Catholicism.

Ascending the steep paved lane between S. Gregorio and the Parco, the
picturesque church on the left with the arcaded apse and tall campanile
(_c._ A.D. 1206), inlaid with coloured tiles and marbles, is that of
_SS. Giovanni e Paolo_, two officers in the household of the Christian
princess Constantia, daughter of the Emperor Constantine, in whose time
they occupied a position of great influence and trust. When Julian the
Apostate came to the throne, he attempted to persuade them to sacrifice
to idols, but they refused, saying, "Our lives are at the disposal of
the emperor, but our souls and our faith belong to our God." Then
Julian, fearing to bring them to public martyrdom, lest their popularity
should cause a rebellion and the example of their well-known fortitude
be an encouragement to others, sent off soldiers to behead them
privately in their own house. Hence the inscription on the spot, "Locus
martyrii SS. Joannis et Paoli in ædibus propriis." The church was built
by Pammachus, the friend of St. Jerome, on the site of the house of the
saints. It is entered by a portico adorned with eight ancient granite
columns, interesting as having been erected by the English pope,
Nicholas Breakspear, A.D. 1158. The interior, in the basilica form, has
sixteen ancient columns and a beautiful Opus-Alexandrinum pavement. In
the centre of the floor is a stone, railed off, upon which it is said
that the saints were beheaded. Their bodies are contained in a porphyry
urn under the high altar. In early times these were the only bodies of
saints preserved within the walls of Rome (the rest being in the
catacombs). In the Sacramentary of St. Leo, in the Preface of SS. John
and Paul, it is said, "Of Thy merciful providence Thou hast vouchsafed
to crown not only the circuit of the city with the glorious passions of
the martyrs, but also to hide in the very heart of the city itself the
victorious limbs of St. John and St. Paul."[164]

Above the tribune are frescoes by _Pomerancio_. A splendid chapel on the
right was built 1868;--two of its alabaster pillars were the gift of
Pius IX. Beneath the altar on the left of the tribune is preserved the
embalmed body of St. Paul of the Cross (who died 1776), founder of the
Order of Passionists, who inhabit the adjoining convent. The aged face
bears a beautiful expression of repose;--the body is dressed in the robe
which clothed it when living.[165]

Male visitors are admitted through the convent to its large and
beautiful _Garden_, which overhangs the steep side of the Cœlian
towards the Coliseum, of which there is a fine view between its ancient
cypresses. Here, on a site near the monastery, are some remains believed
to be those of the temple built by Agrippina (_c._ A.D. 57), daughter of
Germanicus, to the honour of her deified husband (and uncle) Claudius,
after she had sent him to Olympus by feeding him with poisonous
mushrooms. This temple was pulled down by Nero, who wished to efface the
memory of his predecessor, on the pretext that it interfered with his
Golden House; but was rebuilt under Vespasian. In this garden also is
the entrance to the vast substructions known as the _Vivarium_, whence
the wild beasts who devoured the early Christian martyrs were frightened
by burning tow down a subterranean passage into the arena.

The famous Church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo at Venice was founded by
emigrants from this convent. The memory of these saints was so much
honoured up to the time of Pope Gregory the Great, that the eve of their
festival was an obligatory fast. Their fête (June 26) is still kept with
great solemnities on the Cœlian, when the railing round their place
of execution is wreathed and laden with flowers. When the "station" is
held at their church, the apse is illuminated.

Continuing to follow the lane up the Cœlian, we reach the richly
tinted brick _Arch of Dolabella_, erected, A.D. 10, by the consuls P.
Cornelius Dolabella and Caius Julius Silanus. Nero, building his
aqueduct to the palace of the Cæsars, made use of this, which already
existed, and included it in his line of arches.

Above the arch is a _Hermitage_, revered as that where S. Giovanni di
Matha lived, and where he died in 1213. Before he came to reside here he
had been miraculously brought from Tunis (whither he had gone on a
mission) to Ostia, in a boat without helm or sail, in which he knelt
without ceasing before the crucifix throughout the whole of his voyage!

Passing beneath the gateway, we emerge upon the picturesque irregular
Piazza of the Navicella, the central point of the Cœlian, which is
surrounded by a most interesting group of buildings, and which contains
an isolated fragment of the aqueduct of Nero, dear to artists from its
colour. Behind this, under the trees, is the little marble _Navicella_,
which is supposed to have been originally a votive offering of a sailor
to Jupiter Redux, whose temple stood near this; but which was adapted by
Leo X. as a Christian emblem of the Church,--the boat of St. Peter.

     "The allegory of a ship is peculiarly dwelt upon by the ancient
     Fathers. A ship entering the port was a favourite heathen emblem of
     the close of life. But the Christian idea, and its elevation from
     individual to universal or catholic humanity, is derived directly
     from the Bible,--see, for instance, I Peter iii. 20, 21. 'Without
     doubt,' says St. Augustine, 'the ark is the figure of the city of
     God pilgrimising in this world, in other words, of the Church,
     which is saved by the wood on which hung the mediator between God
     and man, the man Christ Jesus.' The same interpretation was
     recognised in the Latin Church in the days of Tertullian and St.
     Cyprian, &c. The bark of St. Peter is similarly represented on a
     Greek gem, found in the Catacombs, as sailing on a fish, probably
     Leviathan or Satan, while doves, emblematical of the faithful,
     perch on the mast and stern,--two Apostles row, a third lifts up
     his hands in prayer, and our Saviour, approaching the vessel,
     supports Peter by the hand when about to sink.... But the allegory
     of the ship is carried out to its fullest extent in the
     fifty-seventh chapter of the second book of the 'Apostolical
     Constitutions,' supposed to have been compiled in the name of the
     Apostles, in the fourth century."--_Lord Lindsay's Christian Art_,
     i. 18.

On the right is (first) the gateway of the deserted convent of
Redemptorists, called _S. Tommaso in Formis_, which was founded by S.
Giovanni de Matha, who, when celebrating his first mass at Paris, beheld
in a vision, an angel robed in white, with a red and blue cross upon his
breast, and his hands resting in benediction upon the heads of two
captives,--a white and a black man. The bishop of Paris sent him to Rome
to seek explanation from Innocent III., who was celebrated as an
interpreter of dreams,--his foundation of the Franciscan order having
resulted from one which befell him. S. Giovanni was accompanied to the
pope by another hermit, Felix de Valois. They found that Innocent had
himself seen the same vision of the angel between the two captives while
celebrating mass at the Lateran, and he interpreted it as inculcating
the duty of charity towards Christian slaves, for which purpose he
founded the Trinitarians, since called Redemptorists. The story of the
double vision is commemorated in a _Mosaic_, erected above the door,
A.D. 1260, and bearing the name of the artist, Jacobus Cosmati.

The next gate beyond the church is that of the _Villa Mattei_, the
garden of the Redemptorists. (The villa is now the property of Baron
Richard Hoffmann: visitors are generally admitted upon writing down
their names at the gate.)

These grounds are well worth visiting--quite the ideal of a deserted
Roman garden, a wealth of large Roman daisies, roses, and periwinkle
spreading at will amid remains of ancient statues and columns. A grand
little avenue of ilexes leads to a terrace whence there is a most
beautiful view towards the aqueducts and the Alban Hills, with a noble
sarcophagus and a quantity of fine aloes and prickly-pears in the
foreground. There is an obelisk, of which only the top is Egyptian. It
is said that there is a man's hand underneath;--when the obelisk was
lowered it fell suddenly, and one of the workmen had not time to take
his hand away. In the grounds annexed to the lower part of the villa is
the Fountain of Egeria (p. 375).

Almost standing in the garden of the villa, and occupying the site of
the house of Sta. Cyriaca, is the _Church of Sta. Maria in Domenica_ or
_della Navicella_. (If no one is here, the hermit at S. Stefano Rotondo
will unlock it.) The portico is due to Raphael (his design is at
Windsor). The damp interior (rebuilt by Leo X. from designs of Raphael)
is solemn and striking. It is in the basilica form, the nave separated
from the aisles by eighteen columns of granite and one (smaller, near
the tribune) of porphyry. The frieze, in chiaroscuro, was painted by
_Giulio Romano_ and _Pierino del Vaga_. Beneath the confessional are
the bones of Sta. Balbina, whose fortress-like church stands on the
Pseudo-Aventine. In the tribune are curious mosaics, in which the figure
of Pope Paschal I. is introduced, the square nimbus round his head being
an evidence of its portrait character, _i. e._, that it was done during
his lifetime.[166]

     "Within the tribune are mosaics of the Virgin and Child seated on a
     throne, with angels ranged in regular rows on each side; and, at
     her feet, with unspeakable stiffness of limb, the kneeling figure
     of Pope Paschal I. Upon the walls of the tribune is the Saviour
     with a nimbus, surrounded with two angels and the twelve apostles,
     and further below, on a much larger scale, two prophets, who appear
     to point towards him. The most remarkable thing here is the rich
     foliage decoration. Besides the wreaths of flowers (otherwise not a
     rare feature) which are growing out of two vessels on the edge of
     the dome, the floor beneath the figures is also decorated with
     flowers--a graceful species of ornament seldom aimed at in the
     moroseness of Byzantine art. From this point, the decline into
     utter barbarism is rapid."--_Kugler._

     "The Olivetan monks inhabited the church and cloisters of Sta.
     Maria in Domenica, commonly called in Navicella, from the rudely
     sculptured marble monument that stands on the grass before its
     portal, a remnant of bygone days, to which neither history nor
     tradition has given a name, but which has itself given one to the
     picturesque old church which stands on the brow of the Cœlian
     Hill."--_Lady Georgiana Fullerton._

A tradition of the Church narrates that St. Lorenzo, deacon and martyr,
daily distributed alms to the poor in front of this church--then the
house of Sta. Cyriaca--with whom he had taken refuge.

Opposite, is the round _Church of S. Stefano Rotondo_, dedicated by St.
Simplicius in 467. It appears to have been built on the site of an
ancient circular building, and to have belonged to the great victual
market--Macellum Magnum--erected by Nero in this quarter.[167] It is
seldom used for service, except on St. Stephen's Day (December 26), but
visitors are admitted through a little cloister, in which stands a well
of beautiful proportions, of temp. Leo X.--attributed to Michael Angelo.
The interior is exceedingly curious architecturally. It is one hundred
and thirty-three feet in diameter, with a double circle of granite
columns, thirty-six in the outer and twenty in the inner series,
enclosing two tall Corinthian columns, with two pilasters supporting a
cross wall. In the centre is a kind of temple in which are relics of St.
Stephen (his body is said to be at S. Lorenzo). In the entrance of the
church is an ancient marble seat from which St. Gregory is said to have
read his fourth homily.

The walls are lined with frescoes by _Pomerancio_ and _Tempesta_. They
begin with the Crucifixion, but as the Holy Innocents really suffered
before our Saviour, one of them is represented lying on each side of the
cross. Next comes the stoning of St. Stephen, and the frescoes continue
to pourtray every phase of human agony in the most revolting detail, but
are interesting as showing a historical series of what the Roman
Catholic Church considers as the best authenticated martyrdoms, viz.:

                       {St. Peter, crucified.
                       {St. Paul, beheaded.
                       {St. Vitale, buried alive.
                       {St. Thecla, tossed by a bull.
  Under Nero           {St. Gervase, beaten to death.
                       {SS. Protasius, Processus, and Martinianus, beheaded.
                       {St. Faustus and others, clothed in skins of beasts
                       {and torn to pieces by dogs.

                       {St. John, boiled in oil (which he survived) at the
                       {Porta Latina.
                       {St. Cletus, Pope, beheaded.
  Under Domitian       {St. Denis, beheaded (and carrying his head).
                       {St. Domitilla, roasted alive.
                       {SS. Nereus and Achilles, beheaded.

                       {St. Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, eaten by lions in
                       {the Coliseum.
  Under Trajan         {St. Clement, Pope, tied to an anchor and thrown
                       {into the sea.
                       {St. Simon, Bishop of Jerusalem, crucified.

                       {St. Eustachio, his wife Theophista, and his children
                       {Agapita and Theophista, burnt in a
                       {brazen bull before the Coliseum.
  Under Hadrian        {St. Alexander, Pope, beheaded.

                       {St. Sinforosa, drowned, and her seven sons martyred
                       {in various ways.
                       {St. Pius, Pope, beheaded.

                       {St. Felicitas and her seven sons martyred in
  Under Antoninus-Pius {various ways.
  and Marcus           {St. Justus, beheaded.
  Aurelius             {St. Margaret, stretched on a rack, and torn to
                       {pieces with iron forks.

                       {St. Blandina, tossed by a bull, in a net.
  Under Antoninus      {St. Attalus, roasted on red-hot chair.
  and Verus            {St. Pothicus and others, burnt alive.

                       {SS. Perpetua and Felicitas, torn to pieces by lions
  Under Septimius      {in the Coliseum.
  Severus and          {SS. Victor and Zephyrinus, Leonida and Basil,
  Caracalla            {beheaded.
                       {St. Alexandrina, covered with boiling pitch.

                       {St. Calixtus, Pope, thrown into a well with a stone
                       {round his neck.
                       {St. Calepodius, dragged through Rome by wild
                       {horses, and thrown into the Tiber.
  Under Alexander      {St. Martina, torn with iron forks.
  Severus              {St. Cecilia, who, failing to be suffocated with hot
                       {water, was stabbed in the throat.
                       {St. Urban the Pope, Tibertius, Valerianus, and
                       {Maximus, beheaded.

                       {St. Pontianus, Pope, beheaded in Sardinia.
                       {St. Agatha, her breasts cut off.
                       {SS. Fabian and Cornelius, Popes, and St. Cyprian
                       {of Carthage, beheaded.
                       {St. Tryphon, burnt.
                       {SS. Abdon and Sennen, torn by lions.
                       {St. Apollonia, burnt, after all her teeth were pulled
  Under Valerianus     {out.
  and Gallienus        {St. Stephen, Pope, burnt in his episcopal chair.
                       {St. Cointha, torn to pieces.
                       {St. Sixtus, Pope, killed with the sword.
                       {St. Venantius, thrown from a wall.
                       {St. Laurence the deacon, roasted on a gridiron.
                       {St. Hippolytus, torn by wild horses.
                       {SS. Rufina and Semula, drowned in the Tiber.
                       {SS. Protus and Hiacinthus, beheaded.

                       {Three hundred Christians, burnt in a furnace.
                       {St. Tertullian, burnt with hot irons.
                       {St. Nemesius, beheaded.
                       {St. Sempronius, Olympius, and Theodulus, burnt.
  Under Claudius       {St. Marius, hung, with a huge weight tied to his
  II.                  {feet.
                       {St. Martha, and her children, martyred in different
                       {SS. Cyprian and Justinian, boiled.
                       {St. Valentine, killed with the sword.

                       {St. Agapitus (aged 15), hung head downwards over
                       {a pan of burning charcoal. Inscribed above
                       {are these words from Wisdom, 'Properavit ut
  Under Aurelian       {educeret illum a seductionibus et iniquitatibus
  and Numerianus       {gentis suæ.'
                       {St. Christina, transfixed through the heart.
                       {St. Columba, burnt.
                       {SS. Chrysanthus and Daria, buried alive.

                       {St. Agnes, bound to a stake, afterwards beheaded.
                       {St. Caius, Pope, beheaded.
                       {St. Emerantia, stoned to death.
                       {Nearly the whole population of Nicomedia martyred
                       {in different ways.
                       {St. Erasmus, laid in a coffin, into which boiling
                       {lead was poured.
                       {St. Blaise, bound to a column, and torn to pieces.
                       {St. Barbara, burnt with hot irons.
                       {St. Eustrathius and his companions, martyred in
  Under Diocletian     {different ways.
  and Maximianus       {St. Vincent, burnt on a gridiron.
                       {SS. Primus and Felicianus, torn by lions.
                       {St. Anastasia, thrown from a rock?
                       {SS. Quattro Incoronati, martyred in various ways.
                       {SS. Peter and Marcellinus, beheaded.
                       {St. Boniface, placed in a dungeon full of boiling
                       {St. Lucia, shut up in a well full of serpents.
                       {St. Euphemia, run through with a sword.
                       {SS. Vitus, Modestus, and Crescentius, boiled alive.
                       {St. Sebastian, shot with arrows (which he survived).
                       {SS. Cosmo and Damian, Pantaleon, Saturninus,
                       {Susanna, Gornius, Adrian, and others, in
                       {different ways.

                       {St. Catherine of Alexandria, and others, broken
                       {on the wheel.
  Under Maxentius      {SS. Faustina and Porfirius, burnt with a company
                       {of soldiers.
                       {St. Marcellus, Pope, died worn out by persecution.

                       {St. Simon and 1600 citizens cut into fragments.
  Under Maximinus      {St. Peter, Bishop of Alexandra, and forty soldiers,
  and Licinius         {left to die, up to their waists in a frozen lake.

                       {SS. John and Paul, beheaded.
                       {St. Artemius, crushed between two stones.
  Under Julian the     {St. Pigmenius, drowned in the Tiber.
  Apostate             {St. Bibiana, flogged to death, and thrown for food
                       {to dogs in the Forum.

The last picture represents the reunion of eminent martyrs (in which the
Roman Church includes English sufferers under Elizabeth), and above is
inscribed this verse from Isaiah xxv., "Laudabit populus fortis, civitas
gentium robustarum."

     "Au-dessus du tableau de la Crucifixion se trouve cette
     inscription: 'Roi glorieux des martyrs, s'il donne sa vie pour
     racheter la péché, il verra une postérité sans fin.' Et quelle
     postérité! Hommes, femmes, vieillards, jeunes hommes, jeunes
     filles, enfants! Comme tous accourent, comme tous savent
     mourir."--_Une Chrétienne à Rome._

     "Les païens avaient divinisé la vie, les chrétiens divinisèrent la
     mort."--_Madame de Stael._

     "S. Stefano Rotondo exhibits, in a series of pictures all round the
     church, the martyrdoms of the Christians in the so-called
     persecutions, with a general picture of the most eminent martyrs
     since the triumph of Christianity. No doubt many of the particular
     stories thus painted will bear no critical examination; it is
     likely enough, too, that Gibbon has truly accused the general
     statements of exaggeration. But this is a thankless labour, such as
     Lingard and others have undertaken with regard to the St.
     Bartholomew massacre, and the Irish massacre of 1642. Divide the
     sum total of reported martyrs by twenty,--by fifty, if you
     will,--but after all you have a number of persons of all ages and
     sexes suffering cruel torments and death for conscience' sake and
     for Christ's, and by their sufferings manifestly, with God's
     blessing, ensuring the triumph of Christ's gospel. Neither do I
     think that we consider the excellence of this martyr-spirit half
     enough. I do not think pleasure is a sin: the stoics of old, and
     the ascetic Christians since, who have said so (see the answers of
     that excellent man, Pope Gregory the Great, to Augustine's
     questions, as given at length by Bede), have, in saying so,
     outstepped the simplicity and wisdom of Christian truth. But,
     though pleasure is not a sin, yet surely the contemplation of
     suffering for Christ's sake is a thing most needful to us in our
     days, from whom, in our daily life, suffering seems so far removed.
     And, as God's grace enabled rich and delicate persons, women, and
     even children, to endure all extremities of pain and reproach in
     times past, so there is the same grace no less mighty now, and if
     we do not close ourselves against it, it might in us be no less
     glorified in a time of trial. And that such times of trial will
     come, my children, in your times, if not in mine, I do believe
     fully, both from the teaching of man's wisdom and of God's. And
     therefore pictures of martyrdom are, I think, very wholesome--not
     to be sneered at, nor yet to be looked on as a mere
     excitement,--but as a sober reminder to us of what Satan can do to
     hurt, and what God's grace can enable the weakest of His people to
     bear. Neither should we forget those who, by their sufferings, were
     more than conquerors, not for themselves only, but for us, in
     securing to us the safe and triumphant existence of Christ's
     blessed faith--in securing to us the possibility, nay, the actual
     enjoyment, had it not been for the Antichrist of the priesthood--of
     Christ's holy and glorious ἑκκλησια, the
     congregation and commonwealth of Christ's people."--_Arnold's

     "On croit que l'église de Saint-Etienne-le-Rond est bâtie sur
     l'emplacement du _Macellum Augusti_. S'il en est ainsi, les
     supplices des martyrs, hideusement représentés sur les murs de
     cette église, rappellent ce qu'elle a remplacé."--_Ampère, Emp._ i.

The first chapel on the left, dedicated to SS. Primus and Felicianus,
contains some delicate small mosaics.

     "The mosaics of the small altar of S. Stefano Rotondo, are of A.D.
     642--649. A brilliantly-decorated cross is represented between two
     standing figures of St. Primus and St. Felicianus. On the upper end
     of the cross (very tastefully introduced) appears a small head of
     Christ with a nimbus, over which the hand of the Father is extended
     in benediction."--_Kugler._

In the next chapel is a very beautiful tomb of Bernardino Capella, Canon
of St. Peter's, who died 1524.

In a small house, which formerly stood among the gardens in this
neighbourhood, Palestrina lived and wrote.

     "Sous le règne de Paul IV., Palestrina faisait partie de la
     chapelle papale; mais il fut obligé de la quitter, parce-qu'il
     était marié. Il se retira alors dans une chaumière perdue au milieu
     des vignes du Mont Cœlius, et là, seul, inconnu au monde, il se
     livra, durant de longs jours, à cette extase de la pensée qui
     agrandit, au-delà de toute mesure, la puissance créatrice de
     l'homme. Le désir des Pères du concile lui ayant été manifesté, il
     prit aussitôt une plume, écrivit en tête de son cahier, 'Mon Dieu,
     éclairez-moi,' et se mit à l'œuvre avec un saint enthousiasme.
     Ses premiers efforts ne répondirent pas à l'idéal que son génie
     s'était formé; mais peu à peu ses pensées s'éclaircirent, et les
     flots de poésie qui inondaient son âme, se répandirent en mélodies
     touchantes. Chaque parole du texte retentissait clairement, allait
     chercher toutes les consciences, et les exaltait dans une émotion
     commune. La _messe du pape Marcel_ trancha la question; et Pie IV.
     s'écria, après l'avoir entendue, qu'il avait cru assister aux
     concerts des anges."--_Gournerie, Rome Chrétienne_, ii. 195.

Following the lane of S. Stefano Rotondo--skirted by broken fragments of
Nero's aqueduct--almost to its debouchment near St. J. Lateran, and then
turning to the left, we reach the quaint fortress like church and
convent of the _Santi Quattro Incoronati_ crowned by a stumpy campanile
of 1112. The full title of this church is "I Santi quattro Pittori
Incoronati e i cinque Scultori Martiri," the names which the Church
attributes to the painters being Severus, Severianus, Carpoforus, and
Vittorinus; and those of the sculptors Claudius, Nicostratus,
Sinforianus, Castorius, and Simplicius,--who all suffered for refusing
to carve and paint idols for Diocletian. Their festa is kept on Nov. 8.

This church was founded on the site of a temple of Diana by Honorius I.,
A.D. 622; rebuilt by Leo IV. A.D. 850; and again rebuilt in its present
form by Paschal II., who consecrated it afresh in A.D. 1111. It is
approached through a double court, in which are many ancient
columns,--perhaps remains of the temple. Some antiquaries suppose that
the church itself was once of larger size, and that the pillars which
now form its atrium were once included in the nave. The interior is
arranged on the English plan with a triforium and a clerestory, the
triforium being occupied by the nuns of the adjoining convent. The
aisles are groined, but the nave has a wooden ceiling. Behind the
tribune is a vaulted passage, partly subterranean. The tribune contains
a marble throne, and is adorned with frescoes by _Giovanni di San
Giovanni_.[168] In the right aisle are preserved some of the verses of
Pope Damasus. Another inscription tells of the restoration of the church
in the fifteenth century, and describes the state of desolation into
which it had fallen.

    "Hæc quæcumque vides veteri prostrata ruina
    Obruta verberis, ederis, dumisque jacebant."

Opening out of the court in front of the church is the little _Chapel of
S. Sylvestro_, built by Innocent II. in 1140. It contains a series of
very curious frescoes.

     "Showing the influence of Byzantine upon Roman art is the little
     chapel of S. Silvestro, detailing the history of the conversion of
     Constantine with a naïveté which, with the exception of a certain
     dignity in some of the figures, constitutes their sole attraction.
     They are indeed little better than Chinese paintings; the last of
     the series, representing Constantine leading Pope Sylvester's horse
     by the bridle, walking beside him in his long flowing robe, with a
     chattah held over his head by an attendant, has quite an Asiatic
     character."--_Lord Lindsay's Christian Art._

     "Here, as in so many instances, legend is the genuine reflex, not
     of the external, but the moral part of history. In this series of
     curious wall-paintings, we see Constantine dismissing, consoled and
     laden with gifts, the mothers whose children were to be slaughtered
     to provide a bath of blood, the remedy prescribed--but which he
     humanely rejected--for his leprosy, his punishment for persecuting
     the Church while he yet lingered in the darkness of paganism; we
     see the vision of St. Peter and St. Paul, who appear to him in his
     dreams, and prescribe the infallible cure for both physical and
     moral disease through the waters of baptism; we see the mounted
     emissaries, sent by the emperor to seek St. Sylvester, finding that
     pontiff concealed in a cavern on Mount Soracte; we see that saint
     before the emperor, exhibiting to him the authentic portraits of
     the two apostles (said to be still preserved at St. Peter's),
     pictures in which Constantine at once recognises the forms seen in
     his vision, assuming them to be gods entitled to his worship; we
     see the imperial baptism, with a background of fantastic
     architecture, the rite administered both by immersion (the neophyte
     standing in an ample font) and affusion; we see the pope on a
     throne, before which the emperor is kneeling, to offer him a
     tiara--no doubt the artist intended thus to imply the immediate
     bestowal of temporal sovereignty (very generally believed the act
     of Constantine in the first flush of his gratitude and neophyte
     zeal) upon the papacy; lastly, we see the pontiff riding into Rome
     in triumph, Constantine himself leading his horse, and other mitred
     bishops following on horseback. Another picture--evidently by the
     same hand--quaintly represents the finding of the true cross by St.
     Helena, and the miracle by which it was distinguished from the
     crosses of the two thieves,--a subject here introduced because a
     portion of that revered relic was among treasures deposited in this
     chapel, as an old inscription, on one side, records. The largest
     composition on these walls, which completes the series, represents
     the Saviour enthroned amidst angels and apostles. This chapel is
     now only used for the devotions of a guild of marble-cutters, and
     open for mass on but one Sunday--the last--in every
     month."--_Hemans Mediæval Christian Art._

In the fresco of the Crucifixion in this chapel an angel is represented
taking off the crown of thorns and putting on a real crown, an incident
nowhere else introduced in art.

The castellated Convent of the Santi Quattro was built by Paschal II. at
the same time as the church, and was used as a papal palace while the
Lateran was in ruins, hence its defensive aspect, suited to the
troublous times of the anti-popes. It is now inhabited by Augustinian

At the foot of the Cœlian beneath the Incoronati, and in the street
leading from the Coliseum to the Lateran, is the _Church of S.
Clemente_, to which recent discoveries, have given an extraordinary

The upper church, in spite of modernizations under Clement XI. in the
last century, retains more of the details belonging to primitive
ecclesiastical architecture than any other building in Rome. It was
consecrated in memory of Clement, the fellow-labourer of St Paul, and
the third bishop of Rome, upon the site of his family house. It was
already important in the time of Gregory the Great, who here read his
thirty-third and thirty-eighth homilies. It was altered by Adrian I. in
A.D. 772, and by John VIII. in A.D. 800, and again restored in A.D. 1099
by Paschal II., who had been cardinal of the church, and who was elected
to the papacy within its walls. The greater part of the existing
building is thus either of the ninth or the twelfth century.

At the west end a porch supported by two columns, and attributed to the
eighth century, leads into the _quadriporticus_, from which is the
entrance to the nave, separated from its aisles by sixteen columns
evidently plundered from pagan buildings. Raised above the nave and
protected by a low marble wall is the _cancellum_, preserving its
ancient pavement, ambones, altar, and episcopal throne.

     "In S. Clemente, built on the site of his paternal mansion, and
     restored at the beginning of the twelfth century, an example is
     still to be seen, in perfect preservation, of the primitive church;
     everything remains in statu quo--the court, the portico, the
     cancellum, the ambones, paschal candlestick, crypt, and
     ciborium--virgin and intact; the wooden roof has unfortunately
     disappeared, and a small chapel, dedicated to St. Catherine, has
     been added, yet even this is atoned for by the lovely frescoes of
     Masaccio. I most especially recommend this relic of early
     Christianity to your affectionate and tender admiration. Yet the
     beauty of S. Clemente is internal only, outwardly it is little more
     than a barn."--_Lord Lindsay._

On the left of the side entrance is the Chapel of the Passion, clothed
with frescoes of _Masaccio_, which, though restored, are very
beautiful--over the altar is the Crucifixion, on the side walls the
stories of St. Clement and St Catherine.

     "The celebrated series relating to St. Catherine is still most
     striking in the grace and refinement of its principal figures:

     "1. St. Catherine (cousin of the Emperor Constantine) refuses to
     worship idols.

     "2. She converts the empress of Maximin. She is seen through a
     window seated inside a prison, and the empress is seated outside
     the prison, opposite to her, in a graceful listening attitude.

     "3. The empress is beheaded, and her soul is carried to heaven by
     an angel.

     "4. Catherine disputes with the pagan philosophers. She is standing
     in the midst of a hall, the forefinger of one hand laid on the
     other, as in the act of demonstrating. She is represented fair and
     girlish, dressed with great simplicity in a tunic and girdle,--no
     crown, nor any other attribute. The sages are ranged on each side,
     some lost in thought, others in astonishment, the tyrant (Maximin)
     is seen behind, as if watching the conference, while through an
     open window we behold the fire kindled for the converted
     philosophers, and the scene of their execution.

     "5. Catherine is delivered from the wheels, which are broken by an

     "6. She is beheaded. In the background three angels lay her in a
     sarcophagus on the summit of Mount Sinai."--See _Jameson's Sacred
     Art_, p. 491.

     "'Masaccio,' says Vasari, 'whose enthusiasm for art would not allow
     him to rest contentedly at Florence, resolved to go to Rome, that
     he might learn there to surpass every other painter.' It was during
     this journey, which, in fact, added much to his renown, that he
     painted, in the Church of San Clemente--the chapel which now so
     usually disappoints the expectations of the traveller, on account
     of the successive restorations by which his work has been
     disfigured.... The heavy brush which has passed over each
     compartment has spared neither the delicacy of the outline, the
     roundness of the forms, nor the play of light and shade: in a word,
     nothing which constitutes the peculiar merit of Masaccio."--_Rio,
     Poetry of Christian Art._

At the end of the right aisle is the beautiful tomb of Cardinal
Rovarella, ob. 1476. A statue of St. John the Baptist is by Simone,
brother of Donatello. Beneath the altar repose the relics of St.
Clement, St. Ignatius of Antioch--martyred in the Coliseum, St. Cyril,
and St. Servulus.

    "'The Fathers are in dust, yet live to God:'
      So says the Truth; as if the motionless clay
    Still held the seeds of life beneath the sod,
      Smouldering and struggling till the judgment-day.

    "And hence we learn with reverence to esteem
      Of these frail houses, though the grave confines:
    Sophist may urge his cunning tests, and deem
      That they are earth;--but they are heavenly shrines."

    _J. H. Newman_, 1833.

     "St. Grégoire raconte que de son temps on voyait dans le vestibule
     de l'église Saint Clément un pauvre paralytique, priant et
     mendiant, sans que jamais une plainte sortît de sa bouche, malgré
     les vives douleurs qu'il endurait. Chaque fidèle lui donnait, et le
     paralytique distribuait à son tour, aux malheureux ce qu'il avait
     reçu de la compassion publique. Lorsqu'il mourut, son corps fut
     placé près de celui de Saint Clément, pape, et de Saint Ignace
     d'Antioche, et son nom fut inscrit au martyrologe. On le vénère
     dans l'Eglise sous le nom de Saint Servulus."--_Une Chrétienne à

The mosaics in the tribune are well worth examination.

     "There are few Christian mosaics in which mystic meaning and poetic
     imagination are more felicitous than in those on the apse of S.
     Clemente, where the crucifix, and a wide-spreading vine-tree
     (allusive to His words, who said 'I am the True Vine'), spring from
     the same stem; twelve doves, emblems of the apostles, being on the
     cross with the Divine Sufferer; the Mother and St. John beside it,
     the usual hand stretched out in glory above, with a crown; the four
     doctors of the Church, also other small figures, men and birds,
     introduced amidst the mazy vine-foliage; and at the basement, the
     four mystic rivers, with stags and peacocks drinking at their
     streams. The figure of St. Dominic is a modern addition. It seems
     evident, from characteristics of style, that the other mosaics
     here, above the apsidal arch, and at the spandrils, are more
     ancient, perhaps by about a century; these latter representing the
     Saviour in benediction, the four Evangelic emblems, St. Peter and
     St. Clement, St. Paul and St. Laurence seated; the two apostles
     designated by their names, with the Greek 'hagios' in Latin
     letters. The later art-work was ordered (see the Latin inscription
     below) in 1299, by a cardinal titular of S. Clemente, nephew to
     Boniface VIII.; the same who also bestowed the beautiful gothic
     tabernacle for the holy oils, with a relief representing the donor
     presented by St. Dominic to the Virgin and Child--set against the
     wall near the tribune, an admirable, though but an accessorial,
     object of mediæval art."--_Hemans' Mediæval Art._

From the sacristy a staircase leads to the _Lower Church_ (occasionally
illuminated for the public) first discovered in 1857. Here, there are
several pillars of the rarest marbles in perfect preservation, and a
very curious series of frescoes of the eighth and ninth centuries, parts
of which are still clear and almost uninjured. These include--the
Crucifixion, with the Virgin and St. John standing by the cross,--the
earliest example in Rome of this well-known subject; the Ascension,
sometimes called by Romanists (in preparation for their dogma of 1870),
"the Assumption of the Virgin," because the figure of the Virgin is
elevated above the other apostles, though she is evidently intent on
watching the retreating figure of her divine Son--in this fresco the
figure of a pope is introduced (with the square nimbus, showing that it
was painted in his lifetime), and the inscription "Sanctissimus dominus,
Leo Papa Romanus," probably Leo III. or Leo IV.; the Maries at the
sepulchre; the descent into Hades; the Marriage of Cana; the Funeral of
St. Cyril with Pope Nicholas I. (858--67) walking in the procession;
and, the most interesting of all--probably of somewhat later date, the
story of S. Clemente, and that of S. Alexis, whose adventures are
described in the account of his church on the Aventine. An altar of
Mithras was discovered during the excavations here. Beneath this crypt
is still a third structure, discovered 1867,--probably the very house of
St. Clement,--(decorated with rich stucco ornament)--sometimes supposed
to be the 'cavern near S. Clemente' to which the Emperor Otho III., who
died at the age of twenty-two, retired in A.D. 999 with his confessor,
and where he spent fourteen days in penitential retirement.

According to the Acts of the Martyrs, the Prefect Mamertinus ordered the
arrest of Pope Clement, and intended to put him to death, but was
deterred by a tumult of the people, who cried with one voice, "What evil
has he done, or rather what good has he not done?" Clement was then
condemned to exile in the Chersonese, and Mamertinus, touched by his
submission and courage, dismissed him with the words--"May the God you
worship bring you relief in the place of your banishment."

In his exile Clement received into the Church more than two hundred
Christians who had been waiting for baptism, and miraculously discovered
water for their support in a barren rock, to which he was directed by a
Lamb, in whose form he recognised the guidance of the Son of God. The
enthusiasm which these marvels excited led Trajan to send executioners,
by whom he was tied to an anchor and thrown into the sea. But his
disciples, kneeling on the shore, prayed that his relics might be given
up to them, when the waves retired, and disclosed a marble chapel, built
by unearthly hands--over the tomb of the saint. From the Chersonese the
remains of St. Clement were brought back to Rome by St. Cyril, the
Apostle of the Slavonians, who, dying here himself, was buried by his



     Jewish Burial-ground--Sta. Sabina--S. Alessio--The Priorato--Sta.
     Prisca--The Vigna dei Gesuiti--S. Sabba--Sta. Balbina.

The Aventine, which is perhaps the highest, and now--from its coronet of
convents--the most picturesque of all the Roman hills, is of irregular
form, and is divided into two parts by a valley; one side, the higher,
is crowned by the churches of Sta. Sabina, S. Alessio, and the Priorato,
which together form "the Capitol of the Aventine;" the other, known as
the Pseudo-Aventine, is marked by the churches of S. Sabba and Sta.

Virgil and Ovid allude repeatedly to the thick woods which once clothed
the Aventine.[169] Dionysius speaks of the laurels or bays, an
indigenous tree of ancient Rome, which grew there in abundance. Only one
side of the hill, that towards the Tiber, now shows any of the natural
cliff, but it was once remarkable for its rocks, and the Pseudo-Aventine
obtained the name of Saxum from a huge solitary mass of stone which
surmounted it.

    "Est moles nativa; loco res nomina fecit
    Appellant Saxum: pars bona mentis ea est."[170]

The upper portion of the hill is of volcanic formation, and it is
supposed that the legend of Cacus vomiting forth flames from his cave on
the side of the Aventine had its origin in noxious sulphuric vapours
emitted by the soil, as is still the case at the Solfatara on the way to
Tivoli. The demi-god Faunus, who had an oracle at the Solfatara, had
also an oracle on this hill.[171]

Some derive the name of Aventine from Aventinus-Silvius, king of Alba,
who was buried here;[172] others from Avens, a Sabine river; while
others say that the name simply means "the hill of birds," and connect
it with the story of the foundation of the city. For when it became
necessary to decide whether Romulus or Remus was to rule over the
newly-built Rome, Romulus seated himself upon the Palatine to watch the
auspices, but Remus upon the rock of the Pseudo-Aventine. Here Remus saw
only six vultures, while Romulus saw twelve, but each interpreted the
augury in his own favour, and Remus leapt across the boundary of the
Palatine, whether in derision or war, and was slain by his brother, or
by Celer, one of his followers. He was brought back and buried upon the
Aventine, and the stone whence he had watched the vultures was
thenceforth called the Sacred Rock. Ancient tradition places the tomb of
Remus on the Pseudo-Aventine, but in the middle ages the tomb of Caius
Cestus was believed--even by Petrarch--to be the monument of Remus.

Some authorities consider that when Remus was watching the vultures on
the Pseudo-Aventine, that part of the hill was already occupied by a
Pelasgic fortress called Romoria, but at this time and for long
afterwards, the higher part of the Aventine was held by the Sabines.
Here the Sabine king Numa dedicated an altar to Jupiter Elicius,[173]
and the Sabine god Consus had also an altar here. Hither Numa came to
visit the forest-gods Faunus and Picus at their sacred fountain:

    Lucus Aventino suberat niger ilicis umbra,
      Quo posses viso dicere, numen inest.
    In medio gramen, muscoque adoperta virenti
      Manabat saxo vena perennis aquæ.
    Inde fere soli Faunus Picusque bibebant.[174]

By mingling wine and honey with the waters of their spring, Numa snared
the gods, and compelled them to tell him how he might learn from Jupiter
the knowledge of his will, and to reveal to him a charm against thunder
and lightning.[175]

The Sabine king Tatius, the rival of Romulus, was buried on the Aventine
"in a great grove of laurels," and, at his tomb, then called
Armilustrum, it was the custom, every year, in the month of October, to
hold a feast for the purification of arms, accompanied by martial
dances. A horse was at the same time sacrificed to Janus, the Sabine

Ancus Martius surrounded the Aventine by a wall,[177] and settled there
many thousands of the inhabitants of Latin towns which he had subdued.
This was the origin of the plebs, who were soon to become such
formidable opponents of the first colonists of the Palatine, who took
rank as patricians, and who at first found in them an important
counterpoise to the power of the original Sabine inhabitants, against
whom the little Latin colony of Romulus had hitherto been standing
alone. The Aventine continued always to be the especial property and
sanctuary of the plebs, the patricians avoiding it--in the first
instance, it is supposed, from an impression that the hill was of evil
omen, owing to the story of Remus. In B.C. 416, the tribune Icilius
proposed and carried a law by which all the public lands of the Aventine
were officially conferred upon the plebs, who forthwith began to cover
its heights with houses, in which each family of the people had a right
in one floor,--a custom which still prevails at Rome. At this time,
also, the Aventine was included for the first time within the
pomœrium or religious boundary of the city. Owing to its being the
"hill of the people," the commons henceforth held their comitia and
elected their tribunes here; and here, after the murder of Virginia, to
whom the tribune Icilius had been betrothed, the army assembled against
Appius Claudius.

Very little remains of the numerous temples which once adorned the hill,
but their sites are tolerably well ascertained. We still ascend the
Aventine by the ancient Clivus Publicius, originally paved by two
brothers Publicii, who were ædiles at the same time, and had embezzled a
public sum of money, which they were compelled to expend thus--

    Parte locant clivum, qui tune erat ardua rupes:
    Utile nunc iter est, Publiciumque vocant.[178]

At the foot of this road was the temple of Luna, or Jana, in which
Tatius had also erected an altar to Janus or the Sun.

    Luna regit menses; hujus quoque tempora mensis
    Finit Aventino Luna colenda jugo.[179]

It was up this road that Caius Gracchus, a few hours before his death,
fled to take refuge in a small Temple of Diana, which stood somewhere
near the present site of S. Alessio, where, kneeling before the statue
of the goddess, he implored that the people who had betrayed him might
never be free. Close by, singularly enough, rose the Temple of Liberty,
which his grandfather Sempronius Gracchus had built. Adjoining this
temple was a hall where the archives of the censors were kept, and where
they transacted business; this was rebuilt by Asinius Pollio, who added
to it the first public library established in Rome.

    Nec me, quæ doctis patuerunt prima libellis
    Atria, Libertas tangere passa sua est.[180]

In the same group stood the famous sanctuary of Juno Regina, vowed by
Camillus during the siege of Veii, and to which the Juno of the captured
city was removed after she had given a verbal consent when asked whether
she wished to go to Rome and inhabit a new temple, much as the modern
queen of heaven is apt to do in modern times at Rome.[181] The Temples
of Liberty and Juno were both rebuilt under Augustus; some imagine that
they were under a common roof. If they were distinct buildings, nothing
of the former remains; some beautiful columns built into the church of
Sta. Sabina are all that remain of the temple of Juno, though Livy
thought that her reign here would be eternal--

    ... in Aventinum, æternam sedem suam.[182]

Also belonging to this group was a Temple of Minerva.

    Sol abit a Geminis, et Cancri signa rubescunt:
    Cœpit Aventina Pallas in arce coli.[183]

Here the dramatist Livius Andronicus, who lived upon the Aventine, was
honoured after his death by a company of scribes and actors. Another
poet who lived upon the Aventine was Ennius, who is described as
inhabiting a humble dwelling, and being attended by a single female
slave. The poet Gallus also lived here.

    Totis, Galle, jubes tibi me servire diebus,
    Et per Aventinum ter quater ire tuum![184]

On the other side of the Aventine (above the Circus Maximus), which was
originally covered with myrtle--a shrub now almost extinct at Rome--on
the site now occupied by Sta. Prisca, was a more important Temple of
Diana, sometimes called by the Sabine name of Murcia,--built in
imitation of the temple of Diana at Ephesus. Propertius writes--

    Phyllis Aventinæ quædam est vicina Dianæ;[185]

and Martial--

    Quique videt propius magna certamina Circi
    Laudat Aventinæ vicinus Sura Dianæ.[186]

Here till the time of Dionysius was preserved the pillar of brass on
which was engraved the law of Icilius.

Near this were the groves of Simila, the retreat of the infamous
association discovered and terribly punished at the time of the Greek
wars; and--in the time of the empire--the gardens of Servilia, where she
received the devotion of Julius Cæsar, and in which her son Brutus is
said to have conspired his murder, and to have been interrogated by his
wife Portia as to the mystery, which he refused to reveal to her,
fearing her weakness under torture, until, by the concealment of a
terrible wound which she had given to herself, she had proved to him
that the daughter of Cato could suffer and be silent.

The Aventine continued to be inhabited, and even populous, until the
sixth century, from which period its prosperity began to decline. In the
eleventh century it was occupied by the camp of Henry IV. of Germany,
when he came in war against Gregory VII. In the thirteenth century
Honorius III. made a final effort to re-establish its popularity; but
with each succeeding generation it has become--partly owing to the
ravages of malaria--more and more deserted, till now its sole
inhabitants are monks, and the few ague-stricken contadini who look
after the monastic vineyards. In wandering along its desolate lanes,
hemmed in by hedges of elder, or by walls covered with parasitical
plants, it is difficult to realize the time when it was so thickly
populated; and except in the quantities of coloured marbles with which
its fields and vineyards are strewn, there is nothing to remind one of
the 16 ædiculæ, 64 baths, 25 granaries, 88 fountains, 130 of the larger
houses called _domus_, and 2487 of the poorer houses called _insulæ_,
which occupied this site.

The present interest of the hill is almost wholly ecclesiastical, and
centres around the story of St. Dominic, and the legends of the saints
and martyrs connected with its different churches.

       *       *       *       *       *

The best approach to the Aventine is behind the Church of Sta. Maria in
Cosmedin, where the _Via Sta. Sabina_, once the Clivus Publicius
(available for carriages), turns up the hill.

A lane on the left leads to the Jewish burial-ground, used as a place of
sepulture for the Ghetto for many centuries. A curious instance of the
cupidity attributed to the Jewish race may be seen in the fact, that
they have, for a remuneration of four baiocchi, habitually given leave
to their neighbours to discharge the contents of a rubbish cart into
their cemetery, a permission of which the Romans have so abundantly
availed themselves, that the level of the soil has been raised by many
yards, and whole sets of older monuments have been completely swallowed
up, and new ones erected over their heads.

After we turn the corner at the hill top, with its fine view over the
Palatine, and cross the trench of fortification formed during the fear
of a Garibaldian invasion in 1867, we skirt what appears to be part of a
city wall. This is in fact the wall of the Honorian city, built by Pope
Honorius III., of the great family of Savelli, whose idea was to render
the Aventine once more the populous and favourite portion of the city,
and who began great works for this purpose. Before his arrangements were
completed St. Dominic arrived in Rome, and was appointed master of the
papal household, and abbot of the convent of Sta. Sabina, where his
ministrations and popularity soon formed such an attraction, that the
pope wisely abandoned his design of founding a new city which should
commemorate himself, and left the field to St. Dominic,--to whom he made
over the land on this side of the hill. Henceforward the convent of
Sta. Sabina and its surroundings have become, more than any other spot,
connected with the history of the Dominican Order,--there, all the great
saints of the Order have received their first inspiration,--have
resided,--or are buried; there St. Dominic himself received in a
beatific vision the institution of the rosary; there he was ordered to
plant the famous orange-tree, which, being then unknown in Rome, he
brought from his native Spain as the only present which it was suitable
for the gratitude of a poor monk to offer to his patron Honorius, who
was himself one of the great botanists of his time,--an orange-tree
which still lives, and which is firmly believed by the monks to flourish
or fail with the fortunes of the Order, so that it has lately been
greatly the worse for the suppression of the convents in Northern Italy,
though the residence of Père Lacordaire within the convent proved
exceedingly beneficial to it, and his visit even caused a new sucker to

The _Church of Sta. Sabina_ was built on the site of the house of the
saint--in which she suffered martyrdom under the Emperor Hadrian,[187]
in A.D. 423--by Peter, a priest of Illyria, "rich for the poor, and poor
for himself" _(pauperibus locuples, sibi pauper)_, as we read by the
mosaic inscription inside the principal entrance. St. Gregory the Great
read two of his homilies here. The church was rebuilt in 824, and
restored and reconsecrated by Gregory IX. in 1238. Much of its
interest,--ancient pavements, mosaics, &c.,--was destroyed in 1587 by
Sixtus V., who took the credit of discovering the relics of the martyrs
who are buried beneath the altar.

On the west is a covered corridor containing several ancient
inscriptions. It is supported on one side by ancient spiral columns of
pavonazzetto, on the other these have been plundered and replaced by
granite. Hence, through a window, ladies are allowed to gaze upon the
celebrated orange-tree, 665 years old, which they cannot approach; a
rude figure of St. Dominic is sculptured upon the low wall which
surrounds it. The west door, of the twelfth century, in a richly
sculptured frame, is cited by Kugler as an instance of the extinction of
the Byzantine influence upon art. Its panels are covered with carvings
from the Old and New Testament, referred by Mamachi to the seventh, by
Agincourt to the thirteenth century. Some of the subjects have been
destroyed; among those which remain are the Annunciation, the Angels
appearing to the Shepherds, the Angel and Zachariah in the Temple, the
Magi, Moses turning the rods into serpents, the ascent of Elijah, Christ
before Pilate, the denial of Peter, and the Ascension. Within the
entrance are the only remains of the magnificent mosaic, erected in 431,
under Celestine I., which entirely covered the west wall till the time
of Sixtus V., consisting of an inscription in large letters, with a
female figure on either side, that on the left bearing the name
"Ecclesia cum circumcisione," that on the right, "Ecclesia ex gentibus."
Among the parts destroyed were the four beasts typical of the
Evangelists, and St. Peter and St. Paul. The church was thus gorgeously
decorated, because in the time of the Savelli popes, it was what the
Sistine is now, the Chiesa Apostolica.

The nave is lined by twenty-four Corinthian columns of white marble,
relics of the temple of Juno Regina, which once stood here. Above, is
an inlaid frieze of pietradura, of A.D. 431, which once extended up to
the windows, but was destroyed by Sixtus V., who at the same time built
up the windows which till then existed over each pier. In the middle of
the pavement near the altar, is a very curious mosaic figure over the
grave of Munoz de Zamora, a General of the Dominican Order, who died in
1300. Nearer the west door are interesting incised slabs representing a
German bishop and a lady, benefactors of this church, and (on the left)
a slab with arms in mosaic, to a lady of the Savelli family. In the left
aisle is another monument of 1312, commemorating a warrior of the
imperial house of Germany. The high altar covers the remains of Sabina
and Seraphia, Alexander the Pope, Eventius and Theodulus, all martyrs.
In the chapel beneath St. Dominic is said to have flagellated himself
three times nightly, "perché uno colpo solo non abbastava per
mortificare la carne."

At the end of the right aisle is the Chapel of the Rosary, where a
beautiful picture of Sassoferrato, called "La Madonna del Rosario,"
commemorates the vision of St. Dominic on that spot, in which he
received the rosary from the hands of the Virgin.

     "St. Catherine of Siena kneels with St. Dominic before the throne
     of the Madonna; the lily at her feet. The Infant Saviour is turned
     towards her, and with one hand he crowns her with thorns, with the
     other he presents the rosary. This is the master-piece of the
     painter, with all his usual elegance, without his usual
     insipidity."--_Jameson's Monastic Orders._

Few Roman Catholic practices have excited more animadversion than the
"vain repetition" of the worship of the Rosary. The Père Lacordaire (a
Dominican) defended it, saying--

     "Le rationaliste sourit en voyant passer de longues files de gens
     qui redisent une même parole. Celui qui est éclairé d'une meilleure
     lumière comprend que l'amour n'a qu'un mot, et qu'en le disant
     toujours, il ne le répète jamais."

Grouped around this chapel are three beautiful tombs,--a cardinal, a
bishop, and a priest of the end of the fifteenth century. That of the
cardinal (which is of the well-known Roman type of the time), is
inscribed "Ut moriens viveret, vixit est moriturus;" the others are
incised slabs. At the other end of this aisle is a marble slab, on which
St. Dominic is said to have been wont to lie prostrate in prayer. One
day while he was lying thus, the Devil in his rage is said to have
hurled a huge stone (a round black marble, _pietra di paragone_,) at
him, which missed the saint, who left the attack entirely unnoticed. The
devil was frantic with disappointment, and the stone, remaining as a
relic, is preserved on a low pillar in the nave. A small gothic
ciborium, richly inlaid with mosaic, remains on the left of the tribune.

Opening from the left aisle is a chapel built by Elic of Tuscany--very
rich in precious marbles. The frame of the panel on the left is said to
be unique.

It was in this church, in 1218, that St. Hyacinth, struck by the
preaching of St. Dominic, and by the recollection of the barbarism,
heathenism, and ignorance which prevailed in many parts of his native
land of Silesia, offered himself as its missionary, and took the vows of
the Dominican Order, together with his cousin St. Ceslas. Hither fled to
the monastic life St. Thomas Aquinas, pursued to the very door of the
convent by the tears and outcries of his mother, who vainly implored him
to return to her. One evening, a pilgrim, worn out with travel and
fatigue, arrived at the door of this convent mounted upon a wretched
mule, and implored admittance. The prior in mockery asked, "What are you
come for, my father? are you come to see if the college of cardinals is
disposed to elect you as pope?" "I come to Rome," replied the pilgrim
Michele Ghislieri, "because the interests of the Church require it, and
I shall leave as soon as my task is accomplished; meanwhile I implore
you to give me a brief hospitality and a little hay for my mule."
Sixteen years afterwards Ghislieri mounted the papal throne as Pius V.,
and proved, during a troubled reign, the most rigid follower and eager
defender of the institutions of St. Dominic. One day as Ghislieri was
about to kiss his crucifix in the eagerness of prayer, "the image of
Christ," says the legend, retired of its own accord from his touch, for
it had been poisoned by an enemy, and a kiss would have been death. This
crucifix is now preserved as a precious relic in the convent, where the
cells both of St. Dominic and of St. Pius V. are preserved, though, like
most historical chambers of Roman saints, their interest is lessened by
their having been beautified and changed into chapels. In the cell of
St. Dominic is a portrait by _Bazzani_, founded on the records of his
personal appearance; the lily lies by his side,--the glory hovers over
his head,--he is, as the chronicler describes him, "of amazing beauty."
In this cell he is said frequently to have passed the night in prayer
with his rival St. Francis of Assisi. The refectory is connected with
another story of St. Dominic:--

     "It happened that when he was residing with forty of his friars in
     the convent of Sta. Sabina at Rome, the brothers who had been sent
     to beg for provisions had returned with a very small quantity of
     bread, and they knew not what they should do, for night was at
     hand, and they had not eaten all day. Then St. Dominic ordered that
     they should seat themselves in the refectory, and, taking his place
     at the head of the table, he pronounced the usual blessing: and
     behold! two beautiful youths clad in white and shining garments
     appeared amongst them; one carried a basket of bread, and the other
     a pitcher of wine, which they distributed to the brethren: then
     they disappeared, and no one knew how they had come in, nor how
     they had gone out. And the brethren sat in amazement; but St.
     Dominic stretched forth his hand, and said calmly, 'My children,
     eat what God hath sent you:' and it was truly celestial food, such
     as they had never tasted before nor since."--_Jameson's Monastic
     Orders_, p. 369.

Other saints who sojourned for a time in this convent were St. Norbert,
founder of the Premonstratensians (ob. 1134), and St. Raymond de
Penaforte (ob. 1275), who left his labours in Barcelona for a time in
1230 to act as chaplain to Gregory IX.

In 1287 a conclave was held at Sta. Sabina for the election of a
successor to Pope Martin IV., but was broken up by the malaria, six
cardinals dying at once within the convent, and all the rest taking
flight except Cardinal Savelli, who would not desert his paternal home,
and survived by keeping large fires constantly burning in his chamber.
Ten months afterwards his perseverance was rewarded by his own election
to the throne as Honorius IV.

In the garden of the convent are some small remains of the palace of the
Savelli pope, Honorius III. Here, on the declivity of the Aventine, many
important excavations were made in 1856--57, by the French Prior Besson,
a person of great intelligence, and he was rewarded by the discovery of
an ancient Roman house--its chambers paved with black and white mosaic,
and some fine fragments of the wall of Servius Tullius, formed of
gigantic blocks of peperino. In the chambers which were found decorated
in stucco with remnants of painting in figures and arabesque ornaments,
"one little group represented a sacrifice before the statue of a god, in
an ædicula. Some rudely scratched Latin lines on this surface led to the
inference that this chamber, after becoming subterranean and otherwise
uninhabitable, had served for a prison; one unfortunate inmate having
inscribed curses against those who caused his loss of liberty; and
another, more devout, left record of his vows to sacrifice to Bacchus in
case of recovering that blessing."[188]

Since the death of Prior Besson[189] the works have been abandoned, and
the remains already discovered have been for the most part earthed up
again. A nympheum, a well, and several subterranean passages, are still
visible on the hillside.

Just beyond Sta. Sabina is the Hieronymite _Church and Convent of S.
Alessio_, the only monastery of Hieronymites in Italy where meat was
allowed to be eaten,--in consideration of the malaria. The first church
erected here was built in A.D. 305 in honour of St. Boniface, martyr, by
Aglae, a noble Roman lady, whose servant (and lover) he had been. It was
reconsecrated in A.D. 401 by Innocent I., in honour of St. Alexis, whose
paternal mansion was on this site. This saint, young and beautiful, took
a vow of virginity, and being forced by his parents into marriage, fled
on the same evening from his home, and was given up as lost. Worn out
and utterly changed he returned many years afterwards to be near those
who were dear to him, and remained, unrecognised, as a poor beggar,
under the stairs which led to his father's house. Seventeen years
passed away, when a mysterious voice suddenly echoed through the Roman
churches, crying, "Seek ye out the man of God, that he may pray for
Rome." The crowd was stricken with amazement,--when the same voice
continued, "Seek in the house of Euphemian." Then, pope, emperor, and
senators rushed together to the Aventine, where they found the despised
beggar dying beneath the doorstep, with his countenance beaming with
celestial light, a crucifix in one hand, and a sealed paper in the
other. Vainly the people strove to draw the paper from the fingers which
were closing in the gripe of death, but when Innocent I. bade the dying
man in God's name to give it up, they opened, and the pope read aloud to
the astonished multitude the secret of Alexis; and his father Euphemian
and his widowed bride, regained in death the son and the husband they
had lost.

S. Alessio is entered through a courtyard.

     "The courtyards in front of S. Alessio, Sta. Cecilia, S. Gregorio,
     and other churches, are like the vestibula of the ancient Roman
     houses, on the site of which they were probably built. This style
     of building, says Tacitus, was generally introduced by Nero. Beyond
     opened the _prothyra_, or inner entrance, with the _cellæ_ for the
     porter and dog, _both_ chained, on either side."

In the portico of the church is a statue of Benedict XIII. (Pietro
Orsini, 1724). The west door has a rich border of mosaic. The church has
been so much modernised as to retain no appearance of antiquity. The
fine Opus-Alexandrinum pavement is preserved. In the floor is the
incised gothic monument of Lupi di Olmeto, General of the Hieronymites
(ob. 1433). Left of the entrance is a shrine of S. Alessio, with his
figure sleeping under the staircase--part of the actual wooden stairs
being enclosed in a glass case over his head. Not far from this is the
ancient well of his father's house. In a chapel which opens out of a
passage leading to the sacristy is the fine tomb of Cardinal Guido di
Balneo, of the time of Leo X. He is represented sitting, with one hand
resting on the ground--the delicate execution of his lace in marble is
much admired. The mosaic roof of this chapel was burst open by a
cannon-ball during the French bombardment of 1849, but the figure was
uninjured. The baldacchino (well known from Macpherson's photographs) is
remarkable for its perfect proportions. Behind, in the tribune, are the
inlaid mosaic pillars of a gothic tabernacle. No one should omit to
descend into the _Crypt of S. Alessio_, which is an early church,
supported on stunted pillars, and containing a marble episcopal chair,
green with age. Here the pope used to meet the early conclaves of the
Church in times of persecution. The pillar under the altar is shown as
that to which St. Sebastian was bound when he was shot with the arrows.

The cloister of the convent, from which ladies are excluded, blooms with
orange and lemon trees. There are only six Hieronymite brethren here
now. The convent was at one time purchased by the ex-king Ferdinand of
Spain, who intended turning it into a villa for himself.

A short distance beyond S. Alessio is a sort of little square, adorned
with trophied memorials of the knights of Malta, and occupying the site
of the laurel grove (Armilustrum) which contained the tomb of Tatius.
Here is the entrance of the Priorato garden, where is the famous _View
of St. Peter's through the Keyhole_, admired by crowds of people on
Ash-Wednesday, when the "stazione" is held at the neighbouring churches.
Entering the garden (which can always be visited) we find ourselves in a
beautiful avenue of old bay-trees framing the distant St. Peter's. A
terrace overhanging the Tiber has an enchanting view over the river and
town. In the garden is an old pepper-tree, and in a little court a
picturesque palm-tree and well. From hence we can enter the church,
sometimes called _S. Basilio_, sometimes _Sta. Maria Aventina_, an
ancient building modernized by Cardinal Rezzonico in 1765, from the very
indifferent designs of Piranesi. It contains an interesting collection
of tombs, most of them belonging to the Knights of Malta; that of Bishop
Spinelli is an ancient marble sarcophagus, with a relief of Minerva and
the Muses. A richly sculptured ancient altar contains relics of saints
found beneath the pavement of the church.

The Priorato garden, so beautiful and attractive in itself, has an
additional interest as that in which the famous Hildebrand (Gregory
VII., 1073--80) was brought up as a boy, under the care of his uncle,
who was abbot of the adjoining monastery. A massive cornice in these
grounds is one of the few architectural fragments of ancient Rome
existing on the Aventine. It may perhaps have belonged to the smaller
temple of Diana in which Caius Gracchus took refuge, and in escaping
from which, down the steep hillside, he sprained his ankle, and so was
taken by his pursuers. Some buried houses were discovered and some
precious vases brought to light, when Urban VIII. built the stately
buttress walls which now support the hillside beyond the Priorato.

The cliff below these convents is the supposed site of the cave of the
giant Cacus, described by Virgil.

    "At specus et Caci detecta apparuit ingens
    Regia, et umbrosæ penitus patuere cavernæ;
    Non secus, ac si quâ penitus vi terra dehiscens
    Infernas reseret sedes, et regna recludat
    Pallida, dîs invisa; superque immane barathrum
    Cernatur, trepidentque immisso lumine manes."

    _Æneid_, lib. viii.

Hercules brought the oxen of Geryon to pasture in the valley between the
Aventine and Palatine. Cacus issuing from his cave while their owner was
asleep, carried off four of the bulls, dragging them up the steep side
of the hill by their tails, that Hercules might be deceived by their
foot-prints being reversed. Then he concealed them in his cavern, and
barred the entrance with a rock. Hercules sought the stolen oxen
everywhere, and when he could not find them, he was going away with the
remainder. But as he drove them along the valley near the Tiber one of
his oxen lowed, and when the stolen oxen in the cave heard that, they
answered; and Hercules, after rushing three times round the Aventine
boiling with fury, shattered the stone which guarded the entrance of the
cave with a mass of rock, and, though the giant vomited forth smoke and
flames against him, he strangled him in his arms. Thus runs the legend,
which is explained by Ampère.

     "Cacus habite une caverne de l'Aventin, montagne en tout temps mal
     famée, montagne anciennement hérissée de rochers et couverte de
     forêts, dont la forêt Nœvia, longtemps elle-même un repaire de
     bandits, était une dépendance et fut un reste qui subsista dans
     les temps historiques. Ce Cacus était sans doute un brigand
     célèbre, dangereux pour les pâtres du voisinage dont il volait les
     troupeaux quand ils allaient paître dans les prés situés au bord du
     Tibre et boire l'eau du fleuve. Les hauts faits de Cacus lui
     avaient donné cette célébrité qui, parmi les paysans romains,
     s'attache encore à ses pareils, et surtout le stratagème employé
     par lui probablement plus d'une fois pour dérouter les bouviers des
     environs, en emmenant les animaux qu'il dérobait, à manière de
     cacher la direction de leurs pas. La caverne du bandit avait été
     découverte et forcée par quelque pâtre courageux, qui y avait
     pénétré vaillamment, malgré la terreur que ce lieu souterrain et
     formidable inspirait, y avait surpris le voleur et l'avait

     "Tel était, je crois, le récit primitif où il n'était pas plus
     question d'Hercule que de Vulcain, et dans lequel Cacus n'était pas
     mis à mort par un demi-dieu, mais par un certain Recaranus, pâtre
     vigoureux et de grande taille. A ces récits de bergers, qui
     allaient toujours exagérant les horreurs de l'antre de Cacus et la
     résistance désespérée de celui-ci, vinrent se mêler peu à peu des
     circonstances merveilleuses."--_Hist. Rom._ i. 170.

We must retrace our steps, as far as the summit of the hill towards the
Palatine, and then turn to the right in order to reach the ugly
obscure-looking _Church of Sta. Prisca_, founded by Pope Eutychianus in
A.D. 280, but entirely modernised by Cardinal Giustiniani from designs
of Carlo Lombardi, who encased its fine granite columns in miserable
stucco pilasters. Over the high altar is a picture by _Passignano_ of
the baptism of the saint, which is said to have taken place in the
ancient crypt beneath the church, where an inverted Corinthian
capital,--a relic of the temple of Diana which once occupied this
site,--is shown as the font in which Sta. Prisca was baptized by St.

Opening from the right aisle is a kind of terraced loggia with a
peculiar and beautiful view. In the adjoining vineyard are three arches
of an aqueduct.

     "According to the old tradition, this church stands on the site of
     the house of Aquila and Priscilla, where St. Peter lodged when at
     Rome, and who are the same mentioned by St. Paul as tent-makers;
     and here is shown the font, from which, according to the same
     tradition, St. Peter baptized the first Roman converts to
     Christianity. The altar-piece represents the baptism of Sta.
     Prisca, whose remains being afterwards placed in the church, it has
     since borne her name. According to the legend, she was a Roman
     virgin of illustrious birth, who, at the age of thirteen, was
     exposed in the amphitheatre. A fierce lion was let loose upon her,
     but her youth and innocence disarmed the fury of the savage beast,
     which, instead of tearing her to pieces, humbly licked her
     feet;--to the great consolation of Christians, and the confusion of
     idolaters. Being led back to prison, she was there beheaded.
     Sometimes she is represented with a lion, sometimes with an eagle,
     because it is related that an eagle watched by her body till it was
     laid in the grave; for thus, says the story, was virgin innocence
     honoured by kingly bird as well as by kingly beast."--_Mrs.

Opposite the door of this church is the entrance of the _Vigna dei
Gesuiti_, a wild and beautiful vineyard occupying the greater part of
this deserted hill, and extending as far as the Porta S. Paolo and the
pyramid of Caius Cestius. Several farm-houses are scattered amongst the
vines and fruit trees. There are beautiful views towards the Alban
mountains, and to the Pseudo-Aventine with its fortress-like convents.
The ground is littered with fragments of marbles and alabaster, which
lie unheeded among the vegetables, relics of unknown edifices which once
existed here. Just where the path in the vineyard descends a slight
declivity towards S. Paolo, are the finest existing remains of the
_Walls of Servius Tullius_,[190] formed of large quadrilateral blocks of
tufa, laid alternately long and cross-ways, as in the Etruscan
buildings. The spot is beautiful, and overgrown by a luxuriance of wild
mignonette and other flowers in the late spring.

Descending to the valley beneath Sta. Prisca, and crossing the lane
which leads from the Via Appia to the Porta S. Paolo, we reach, on the
side of the Pseudo-Aventine, the _Church of S. Sabba_, which is supposed
to mark the site of the Porta Randusculana of the walls of Servius
Tullius. Its position is very striking, and its portico, built in A.D.
1200, is picturesque and curious.

This church is of unknown origin, but is known to have existed in the
time of St. Gregory the Great, and to have been one of the fourteen
privileged abbacies of Rome. Its patron saint was St. Sabbas, an abbot
of Cappadocia, who died at Jerusalem in A.D. 532.

     "The record of the artist Jacobus dei Cosmati, dated the third year
     of Innocent III. (1205), on the lintel of the mosaic-inlaid
     doorway, justifies us in classing this church among monuments of
     the thirteenth century. From its origin a Greek monastery, it was
     assigned by Lucius II., in 1141, to the Benedictines of the Cluny
     rule. An epigraph near the sacristy mentions a rebuilding either of
     the cloisters or church, in 1325, by an abbot Joannes; and in 1465
     the roof was renewed in woodwork by a cardinal, the nephew of Pius

     "In 1512 the Cistercians of Clairvaux were located here by Julius
     II.; and some years later these buildings were given to the
     Germanic-Hungarian College. Amidst gardens and vineyards,
     approached by a solitary lane between hedgerows, this now deserted
     sanctuary has a certain affecting character in its forlornness.
     Save on Thursdays, when the German students are brought hither by
     their Jesuit professors to enliven the solitude by their sports and
     converse, we might never succeed in finding entrance to this quiet
     retreat of the monks of old.

     "Within the arched porch, through which we pass into an outer
     court, we read an inscription telling that here stood the house and
     oratory (called _cella nova_) of Sta. Sylvia, mother of St. Gregory
     the Great, whence the pious matron used daily to send a porridge of
     legumes to her son, while he inhabited his monastery on the Clivus
     Scauri, or northern ascent of the Cœlian. Within that court
     formerly stood the cloistral buildings, of which little now
     remains. The façade is remarkable for its atrium in two stories:
     the upper with a pillared arcade, probably of the fifteenth
     century; the lower formerly supported by six porphyry columns,
     removed by Pius VI. to adorn the Vatican library, where they still
     stand. The porphyry statuettes of two emperors embracing, supposed
     either an emblem of the concord between the East and West, or the
     intended portraits of the co-reigning Constantine II. and
     Constans--a curious example of sculpture in its deep decline, and
     probably imported by Greek monks from Constantinople--project from
     two of those ancient columns."--_Hemans' Mediæval Art._

The interior of St. Sabba is in the basilica form. It retains some
fragments of inlaid pavements, some handsome inlaid marble panels on
either side of the high altar, and an ancient sarcophagus. The tribune
has rude paintings of the fourteenth century--the Saviour between St.
Andrew and St. Sabbas the Abbot; and below the Crucifixion, the Madonna
and the twelve Apostles. Beneath the tribune is a crypt,--and over its
altar a beautifully ornamented disk with a Greek cross in the centre.

Behind St. Sabbas is another delightful vineyard, but it is difficult to
gain admittance. Here Flaminius Vacca describes the discovery of a
mysterious chamber without door or window, whose pavement was of agate
and cornelian, and whose walls were plated with gilt copper; but of this
nothing remains.[191]

To reach the remaining church of the Aventine, we have to turn to the
Via Appia, and then follow the lane which leads up the hillside from the
Baths of Caracalla to the _Church of Sta. Balbina_, whose picturesque
red brick tower forms so conspicuous a feature, as seen against the long
soft lines of the flat Campagna, in so many Roman views. It was erected
in memory of Sta. Balbina, a virgin martyr (buried in Sta. Maria in
Domenica), who suffered under Hadrian, A.D. 132. It contains the remains
of an altar erected by Cardinal Barbo, in the old basilica of St.
Peter's, a splendid ancient throne of marble inlaid with mosaics, and a
fine tomb of Stefano Sordi, supporting a recumbent figure, and adorned
with mosaics by one of the Cosmati.

Adjoining this church Monsignor de Mérode established a house of
correction for youthful offenders, to avert the moral result of exposing
them to communication with other prisoners.



     The Porta Capena--Baths of Caracalla--Vigna Guidi--SS. Nereo ed
     Achilleo--SS. Sisto e Domenico--S. Cesareo (S. Giovanni in Oleo--S.
     Giovanni in Porta Latina)--Columbarium of the Freedmen of
     Octavia--Tomb of the Scipios--Columbarium of the Vigna Codini--Arch
     of Drusus--Porta S. Sebastiano--Tombs of Geta and Priscilla--Church
     of Domine Quo Vadis (Vigna Marancia)--Catacombs of S. Calixtus, of
     S. Pretextatus, of the Jews, and SS. Nereo ed Achilleo--(Temple of
     Bacchus, _i.e._ S. Urbano--Grotto of Egeria--Temple of Divus
     Rediculus)--Basilica and Catacombs of S. Sebastiano--Circus of
     Maxentius--Temple of Romulus, son of Maxentius--Tomb of Cecilia
     Metella--Castle of the Caetani--Tombs of the Via Appia--Sta. Maria
     Nuova--Roma Vecchia--Casale Rotondo--Tor di Selce, &c.

The _Via Appia_, called Regina Viarum by Statius, was begun B.C. 312, by
the Censor Appius Claudius the Blind, "the most illustrious of the great
Sabine and Patrician race, of whom he was the most remarkable
representative." It was paved throughout, and during the first part of
its course served as a kind of patrician cemetery, being bordered by a
magnificent avenue of family tombs. It began at the Porta Capena, itself
crossed by the Claudian aqueduct, which was due to the same great

    "Substitit ad veteres arcus madidamque Capenam,"

and was carried by Claudius across the Pontine Marshes as far as Capua,
but afterwards extended to Brundusium.

The site of the Porta Capena, so important as marking the commencement
of the Appian Way, was long a disputed subject. The Roman antiquaries
maintained that it was outside the present Walls, basing their opinion
on the statement of St. Gregory, that the river Almo was in that Regio,
and considering the Almo identical with a small stream which is crossed
in the hollow about half a mile beyond the Porta S. Sebastiano, and
which passes through the Valle Caffarelle, and falls into the Tiber near
S. Paolo. This stream, however, which rises at the foot of the Alban
Hills below the lake, divides into two parts about six miles from Rome,
and its smaller division, after flowing close to the Porta San Giovanni,
recedes again into the country, enters Rome near the Porta Metronia, a
little behind the Church of S. Sisto, and passing through the Circus
Maximus, falls into the Tiber at the Pulchrum Littus, below the temple
of Vesta. Close to the point where this, the smaller branch of the Almo,
crosses the Via San Sebastiano, Mr. J. H. Parker, in 1868--69,
discovered some remains, on the original line of walls, which he has
identified, beyond doubt, as those of the _Porta Capena_, whose position
had been already proved by Ampère and other authorities.

Close to the Porta Capena stood a large group of historical buildings,
of which no trace remains. On the right of the gate was the temple of

    "Lux eadem Marti festa est; quem prospicit extra
    Appositum Tectæ Porta Capena viæ."

    _Ovid, Fast._ vi. 191.

It is probably in allusion to this temple that Propertius says:

    "Armaque quum tulero portæ votiva Capenæ,
    Subscribam, salvo grata puella viro."

    _Prop._ iv. _Eleg._ 3.

Martial alludes to a little temple of Hercules near this:

    "Capena grandi porta qua pluit gutta,
    Phrygiæque Matris Almo qua lavat ferrum,
    Horatiorum qua viret sacer campus,
    Et qua pusilli fervet Herculis fanum."

    _Mart._ iii. _Ep._ 47.

Near the gate also stood the tomb of the murdered sister of the
Horatii,[192] with the temples of Honour and Virtue, vowed by Marcellus
and dedicated by his son,[193] and a fountain, dedicated to Mercury:

    "Est aqua Mercurii portæ vicina Capenæ;
      Si juvat expertis credere, numen habet.
    Huc venit incinctus tunicas mercator, et urna
      Purus suffita, quam ferat, haurit aquam.
    Uda fit hinc laurus: lauro sparguntur ab uda
      Omnia, quæ dominos sunt habitura novos."

    _Ovid, Fast._ v. 673.

It was at the Porta Capena that the survivor of the Horatii met his

     "Horatius went home at the head of the army, bearing his triple
     spoils. But as they were drawing near to the Capenian gate, his
     sister came out to meet him. Now she had been betrothed in marriage
     to one of the Curiatii, and his cloak, which she had wrought with
     her own hands, was borne on the shoulders of her brother; and she
     knew it, and cried aloud, and wept for him she had loved. At the
     sight of her tears Horatius was so wrath that he drew his sword,
     and stabbed his sister to the heart; and he said, 'So perish the
     Roman maiden who shall weep for her country's enemy!'"--_Arnold's
     Hist. of Rome_, i. 16.

Among the many other historical scenes with which the Porta Capena is
connected, we may remember that it was here that Cicero was received in
triumph by the senate and people of Rome, upon his return from
banishment B.C. 57.

       *       *       *       *       *

Two roads lead to the Via S. Sebastiano, one the Via S. Gregorio, which
comes from the Coliseum beneath the arch of Constantine; the other, the
street which comes from the Ghetto, through the Circus Maximus, between
the Palatine and Aventine.

The first gate on the left, after the junction of these roads, is that
of the vineyard of the monks of S. Gregorio, in which the site of the
Porta Capena was found. The remains discovered have been reburied, owing
to the indifference or jealousy of the government; but the vineyard is
worth entering on account of the picturesque view it possesses of the
Palace of the Cæsars.

On the right, a lane leads up the Pseudo-Aventine to the Church of Sta.
Balbina, described Chap. VIII.

On the left, where the Via Appia crosses the brook of the Almo, now
called Maranna, the Via di San Sisto Vecchio leads to the back of the
Cœlian behind S. Stefano Rotondo. Here, in the hollow, in the grounds
of the Villa Mattei, under some picturesque farm-buildings, is a spring
which modern archæology has determined to be the true _Fountain of
Egeria_, where Numa Pompilius is described as having his mysterious
meetings with the nymph Egeria. The locality of this fountain was
verified when that of the Porta Capena was ascertained, as it was
certain that it was in the immediate neighbourhood of that gate, from a
passage in the 3d Satire of Juvenal, which describes, that when he was
waiting at the Porta Capena with Umbritius while the waggon was loading
for his departure to Cumæ, they rambled into the valley of Egeria, and
Umbritius said, after speaking of his motives for leaving Rome, "I could
add other reasons to these, but my beasts summon me to move on, and the
sun is setting. I must be going, for the muleteer has long been
summoning me by the cracking of his whip."

To this valley the oppressed race of the Jews was confined by Domitian,
their furniture consisting of a basket and a wisp of hay:

    "Nunc sacri fontis nemus et delubra locantur
    Judæis, quorum cophinus fœnumque supellex."

    _Juvenal, Sat._ iii. 13.

On the right, are the _Baths of Caracalla_, the largest mass of ruins in
Rome, except the Coliseum; consisting for the most part of huge
shapeless walls of red and orange-coloured brickwork, framing vast
strips of blue sky, and tufted with shrubs and flowers. These baths,
which could accommodate 1600 bathers at once, were begun in A.D. 212, by
Caracalla, continued by Heliogabalus, and finished under Alexander
Severus. They covered a space of 2,625,000 square yards--a size which
made Ammianus Marcellinus say that the Roman baths were like
provinces--and they were supplied with water by the Antonine Aqueduct,
which was brought hither for that especial purpose from the Claudian,
over the Arch of Drusus.

Antiquaries have amused themselves by identifying different chambers, to
which, with considerable uncertainty, the names of Calidarium,
Laconicum, Tepidarium, Frigidarium, &c., have been affixed.

The habits of luxury and inertion which were introduced with the
magnificent baths of the emperors were among the principal causes of the
decline and fall of Rome. Thousands of the Roman youth frittered away
their hours in these magnificent halls, which were provided with
everything which could gratify the senses. Poets were wont to recite
their verses to those who were reclining in the baths.

                         ----"In medio qui
    Scripta foro recitent, sunt multi,--quique lavantes:
    Suave locus voci resonat conclusus."

    _Horace, Sat._ i. 4.

     "These _Thermæ_ of Caracalla, which were one mile in circumference,
     and open at stated hours for the indiscriminate service of the
     senators and the people, contained above sixteen hundred seats of
     marble. The walls of the lofty apartments were covered with curious
     mosaics that imitated the art of the pencil in elegance of design
     and in the variety of their colours. The Egyptian granite was
     beautifully encrusted with the precious green marble of Numidia.
     The perpetual stream of hot water was poured into the capacious
     basons through so many wide mouths of bright and massy silver; and
     the meanest Roman could purchase, with a small copper coin, the
     daily enjoyment of a scene of pomp and luxury which might excite
     the envy of the kings of Asia. From these stately palaces issued
     forth a swarm of dirty and ragged plebeians, without shoes and
     without mantle; who loitered away whole days in the street or
     Forum, to hear news and to hold disputes; who dissipated, in
     extravagant gaming, the miserable pittance of their wives and
     children; and spent the hours of the night in the indulgence of
     gross and vulgar sensuality."--_Gibbon._

In the first great hall was found, in 1824, the immense mosaic pavement
of the pugilists, now in the Lateran museum. Endless works of art have
been discovered here from time to time, among them the best of the
Farnese collection of statues,--the Bull, the Hercules, and the
Flora,--which were dug up in 1534, when Paul III. carried off all the
still remaining marble decorations of the baths to use for the Farnese
Palace. The last of the pillars to be removed from hence is that which
supports the statue of Justice in the Piazza Sta. Trinità at Florence.

A winding stair leads to the top of the walls, which are worth
ascending, as well for the idea which you there receive of the vast size
of the ruins, as for the lovely views of the Campagna, which are
obtained between the bushes of lentiscus and phillyrea with which they
are fringed. It was seated on these walls that Shelley wrote his
"Prometheus Unbound."

     "This poem was chiefly written upon the mountainous ruins of the
     baths of Caracalla, among the flowery glades and thickets of
     odoriferous blossoming trees which are extended in ever-winding
     labyrinths upon its immense platforms and dizzy arches suspended in
     the air. The bright blue sky of Rome, and the effect of the
     vigorous awakening spring in that divinest climate, and the new
     life with which it drenches the spirits even to intoxication, were
     the inspiration of the drama."--_Preface to the Prometheus._

     "Maintenant les murailles sont nues, sauf quelques fragments de
     chapiteaux oubliés par la destruction; mais elles conservent ce que
     seules des mains de géant pourraient leur ôter, leur masse
     écrasante, la grandeur de leurs aspects, la sublimité de leurs
     ruines. On ne regrette rien quand on contemple ces énormes et
     pittoresque débris, baignés à midi par une ardente lumière ou se
     remplissant d'ombres à la tombée de la nuit, s'élançant, à une
     immense hauteur vers un ciel éblouissant, ou se dressant, mornes et
     mélancoliques, sous un ciel grisâtre,--ou bien, lorsque, montant
     sur la plate-forme inégale, crevassée, couverte d'arbustes et
     tapissée de gazon, on voit, comme du haut d'une colline, d'un côté
     se dérouler la campagne romaine et le merveilleux horizon de
     montagnes qui la termine, de l'autre apparaître, ainsi qu'une
     montagne de plus, le dôme de Saint-Pierre, la seule des œuvres
     d'homme qui ait quelque chose de la grandeur des œuvres de
     Dieu."--_Ampère, Emp._ ii. 286.

The name of the lane which leads to the baths (_Via all' Antoniana_)
recalls the fact that, "with a vanity which seems like mockery,
Caracalla dared to bear the name of Antoninus," which was always dear
to the Roman people.

Passing under the wall of the government-garden for raising shrubs for
the public walks, a door on the left of the Via Appia, with a sculptured
marble frieze above it, is that of Guidi, the antiquity vendor, who has
a small museum here of splendid fragments of marble and alabaster for
sale. Opposite is the Vigna of Signor Guidi, who has unearthed a
splendid mosaic pavement of Tritons riding on dolphins, and who has here
also a collection of antique fragments to be disposed of.

On the right, is _SS. Nereo ed Achilleo_, a most interesting little
church. The tradition runs that St. Peter, going to execution, let drop
here one of the bandages of his wounds, and that the spot was marked by
the early Christians with an oratory, which bore the name of Fasciola.
Nereus and Achilles, eunuchs in the service of Clemens Flavius and
Flavia Domitilla (members of the imperial family exiled to Pontia under
Diocletian), having suffered martyrdom at Terracina, their bodies were
transported here in 524 by John I., when the oratory was enlarged into a
church, which was restored under Leo III., in 795. The church was
rebuilt in the sixteenth century, by Cardinal Baronius, who took his
title from hence. In his work he desired that the ancient basilica
character should be carefully carried out, and all the ancient ornaments
of the church were preserved and re-erected. His anxiety that his
successors should not meddle with or injure these objects of antiquity
is shown by, the inscription on a marble slab in the tribune:

     "Presbyter, Card. Successor quisquis fueris, rogo te, per gloriam
     Dei, et per merita horum martyrum, nihil demito, nihil minuito, nec
     mutato; restitutam antiquitatem pie servato; sic Deus martyrum
     suorum precibus semper adjuvet!"

The chancel is raised and surrounded by an inlaid marble screen. Instead
of ambones there are two plain marble reading-desks for the epistle and
gospel. The altar is inlaid, and has "transennæ," or a marble grating,
through which the tomb of the saints Nereus and Achilles may be seen,
and through which the faithful might pass their handkerchiefs to touch
it. Behind, in the semicircular choir, is an ancient episcopal throne,
supported by lions, and ending in a gothic gable. Upon it part of the
twenty-eighth homily of St. Gregory was engraved by Baronius, under the
impression that it was delivered thence,--though it was really first
read in the catacomb, whence the bodies of the saints were not yet
removed. All these decorations are of the restoration under Leo III., in
the eighth century. Of the same period are the mosaics on the arch of
the tribune (partly painted over in later times), representing, in the
centre, the Transfiguration (the earliest instance of the subject being
treated in art), with the Annunciation on one side, and the Madonna and
Child attended by angels on the other.

It is worth while remarking that when the relics of Flavia Domitilla
(who was niece of Vespasian) and of Nereus and Achilles were brought
hither from the catacomb on the Via Ardeatina, which bears the name of
the latter, they were first escorted in triumph to the Capitol, and made
to pass under the imperial arches which bore as inscriptions: "The
senate and the Roman people to Sta. Flavia Domitilla, for having brought
more honour to Rome by her death than her illustrious relations by
their works." ... "To Sta. Flavia Domitilla, and to the Saints Nereus
and Achilles, the excellent citizens who gained peace for the Christian
republic at the price of their blood."

Opposite, on the left, is a courtyard leading to the _Church of S.
Sisto_, with its celebrated convent, long deserted on account of

It was here that St. Dominic first resided in Rome, and collected one
hundred monks under his rule, before he was removed to Sta. Sabina by
Honorius III. After he went to the Aventine, it was decided to utilize
this convent by collecting here the various Dominican nuns, who had been
living hitherto under very lax discipline, and allowed to leave their
convents, and reside in their own families. The nuns of Sta. Maria in
Trastevere resisted the order, and only consented to remove on condition
of bringing with them a Madonna picture attributed to St. Luke, hoping
that the Trasteverini would refuse to part with their most cherished
treasure. St. Dominic obviated the difficulty by going to fetch the
picture himself at night, attended by two cardinals, and a bare-footed,
torch-bearing multitude.

     "On Ash-Wednesday, 1218, the abbess and some of her nuns went to
     take possession of their new monastery, and being in the
     chapter-house with St. Dominic and Cardinal Stefano di Fossa Nuova,
     suddenly there came in one tearing his hair, and making great
     outcries, for the young Lord Napoleon Orsini, nephew of the
     cardinal, had been thrown from his horse, and killed on the spot.
     The cardinal fell speechless into the arms of Dominic, and the
     women and others who were present were filled with grief and
     horror. They brought the body of the youth into the chapter-house,
     and laid it before the altar; and Dominic, having prayed, turned to
     it, saying, 'O adolescens Napoleo, in nomine Domini nostri Jesu
     Christi tibi dico surge,' and thereupon he arose sound and whole,
     to the unspeakable wonder of all present."--_Jameson's Monastic

After being convinced by this miracle of the divine mission of St.
Dominic, forty nuns settled at S. Sisto, promising never more to cross
its threshold.[194]

There is very little remaining of the ancient S. Sisto, except the
campanile, which is of 1500. But the vaulted _Chapter-House_, now
dedicated to St. Dominic, is well worth visiting. It has recently been
covered with frescoes by the Padre Besson,--himself a Dominican
monk,--who received his commission from Father Mullooly, Prior of S.
Clemente, the Irish Dominican convent, to which S. Sisto is now annexed.
The three principal frescoes represent three miracles of St. Dominic--in
each case of raising from the dead. One represents the resuscitation of
a mason of the new monastery, who had fallen from a scaffold; another,
that of a child in a wild and beautiful Italian landscape; the third,
the restoration of Napoleone Orsini on this spot,--the mesmeric
upspringing of the lifeless youth being most powerfully represented. The
whole chapel is highly picturesque, and effective in colour. Of two
inscriptions, one commemorates the raising of Orsini; the other, a
prophecy of St. Dominic, as to the evil end of two monks who deserted
their convent.

Just beyond S. Sisto, where the Via della Ferratella branches off on the
left to the Lateran, stands a small ædiculum, or _Shrine of the Lares_,
with brick niches for statues.

Further, on the right, standing back from a kind of piazza, adorned with
an ancient granite column, is the _Church of S. Cesareo_, which already
existed in the time of St. Gregory the Great, but was modernized under
Clement VII. (1523--34). Its interior retains many of its ancient
features. The pulpit is one of the most exquisite specimens of church
decoration in Rome, and is covered with the most delicate sculpture,
interspersed with mosaic; the emblems of the Evangelists are introduced
in the carving of the panels. The high altar is richly encrusted with
mosaics, probably by the Cosmati family; tiny owls form part of the
decorations of the capitals of its pillars. Beneath is a "confession,"
where two angels are drawing curtains over the tomb of the saint. The
chancel has an inlaid marble screen. In the tribune is an ancient
episcopal throne, once richly ornamented with mosaics.

In this church St. Sergius was elected to the papal throne, in 687; and
here, also, an Abbot of SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio was elected in 1145,
as Eugenius III., and was immediately afterwards forced by the opposing
senate to fly to Montecelli, and then to the Abbey of Farfa, where his
consecration took place.

Part of the palace of the titular cardinal of S. Cesareo remains in the
adjoining garden, with an interesting loggia of _c._ 1200.

In this neighbourhood was the _Piscina Publica_, which gave a name to
the twelfth Region of the city. It was used for learning to swim, but
all trace of it had disappeared before the time of Festus, whose date is
uncertain, but who lived before the end of the fourth century--

    "In thermas fugio: sonas ad aurem,
    Piscinam peto: non licet natare."

    _Martial_, iii. _Ep._ 44.

       *       *       *       *       *

Here a lane turns on the left, towards the ancient _Porta Latina_
(through which the Via Latina led to Capua), now closed.

In front of the gate is a little chapel, of the sixteenth century,
called _S. Giovanni in Oleo_, decorated with indifferent frescoes, on
the spot where St. John is said to have been thrown into a cauldron of
boiling oil (under Domitian), from which "he came forth as from a
refreshing bath." It is the suffering in the burning oil which gave St.
John the palm of a martyr, with which he is often represented in art.
The festival of "St. John ante Port. Lat." (May 6) is preserved in the
English Church Calendar.

On the left, is the _Church of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina_, built in
1190 by Celestine III.

In spite of many modernizations, the last by Cardinal Rasponi in 1685,
this building retains externally more of its ancient character than most
Roman churches, in its fine campanile and the old brick walls of the
nave and apse, decorated with terra-cotta friezes. The portico is
entered by a narrow arch resting on two granite columns. The
entrance-door and the altar have the peculiar mosaic ribbon decoration
of the Cosmati, of 1190. The frescoes are all modern; in the tribune,
are the deluge and the baptism of Christ,--the type and antitype. Of the
ten columns, eight are simple and of granite, two are fluted and of
porta-santa, showing that they were not made for the church, but removed
from some pagan building--probably from the temple of Ceres and
Proserpine. Near the entrance is a very picturesque marble _Well_, like
those so common at Venice and Padua, decorated with an intricate pattern
of rich carving.

In the opposite vineyard, behind the chapel of the Oleo, very
picturesquely situated under the Aurelian Wall, is the _Columbarium of
the Freedmen of Octavia_. A columbarium was a tomb containing a number
of cinerary urns in niches like pigeon-holes, whence the name. Many
columbaria were held in common by a great number of persons, and the
niches could be obtained by purchase or inheritance; in other cases, the
heads of the great houses possessed whole columbaria for their families
and their slaves. In the present instance the columbarium is more than
usually decorated, and, though much smaller, it is far more worth seeing
than the columbaria which it is the custom to visit immediately upon the
Appian Way. One of the cippi, above the staircase, is beautifully
decorated with shells and mosaic. Below, is a chamber, whose vault is
delicately painted with vines and little Bacchi gathering in the
vintage. Round the walls are arranged the urns, some of them in the form
of temples, and very beautifully designed, others merely pots sunk into
the wall, with conical lids, like pipkins let into a kitchen-range. A
beautiful vase of lapis-lazuli found here has been transferred to the

       *       *       *       *       *

Proceeding along the Via Appia, on the left by a tall cypress (No. 13)
is the entrance to _the Tomb of the Scipios_, a small catacomb in the
tufa rock, discovered in 1780, from which the famous sarcophagus of L.
Scipio Barbatus, and a bust of the poet Ennius,[195] were removed to the
Vatican by Pius VII.

    "The Scipios' tomb contains no ashes now;
    The very sepulchres lie tenantless
    Of their heroic dwellers."

    _Childe Harold._

The contadino at the neighbouring farmhouse provides lights, with which
one can visit a labyrinth of steep narrow passages, some of which still
retain inscribed sepulchral slabs. Among the Scipios whose tombs have
been discovered here were Lucius Scipio Barbatus and his son, the
conqueror of Corsica; Aula Cornelia wife of Cneius Scipio Hispanis; a
son of Scipio Africanus; Lucius Cornelius son of Scipio Asiaticus;
Cornelius Scipio Hispanis and his son Lucius Cornelius. At the further
end of these passages, and now, like them, subterranean, may be seen the
pediment and arched entrance of the tomb towards the Via Latina. "It is
uncertain whether Scipio Africanus was buried at Liternum or in the
family tomb. In the time of Livy monuments to him were extant in both

There is a beautiful view towards Rome from the vineyard above the tomb.

A little further on, left (No. 14), is the entrance of the _Vigna
Codini_ (a private garden with an extortionate custode), containing
three interesting _Columbaria_. Two of these are large square vaults,
supported by a central pillar, which, as well as the walls, is
perforated by niches for urns. The third has three vaulted passages.

We now reach the _Arch of Drusus_. On its summit are the remains of the
aqueduct by which Caracalla carried water to his baths. The arch once
supported an equestrian statue of Drusus, two trophies, and a seated
female figure representing Germany.

The Arch of Drusus was decreed by the senate in honour of the second son
of the empress Livia, by her first husband, Tiberius Nero. He was father
of Germanicus and the emperor Claudius, and brother of Tiberius. He died
during a campaign on the Rhine, B.C. 9, and was brought back to be
buried by his step-father Augustus in his own mausoleum. His virtues are
attested in a poem ascribed to Pedo Albinovanus.

     "This arch, 'Marmoreum arcum cum tropæo Appia Via' (Suet. I), is,
     with the exception of the Pantheon, the most perfect existing
     monument of Augustan architecture. It is heavy, plain, and narrow,
     with all the dignified but stern simplicity which belongs to the
     character of its age."--_Merivale._

     "It is hard for one who loves the very stones of Rome, to pass over
     all the thoughts which arise in his mind, as he thinks of the great
     Apostle treading the rude and massive pavement of the Appian Way,
     and passing under that Arch of Drusus at the Porta S. Sebastiano,
     toiling up the Capitoline Hill past the Tabularium of the Capitol,
     dwelling in his hired house in the Via Lata or elsewhere,
     imprisoned in those painted caves in the Prætorian Camp, and at
     last pouring out his blood for Christ at the Tre Fontane, on the
     road to Ostia."--_Dean Alford's Study of the New Testament_, p.

_The Porta San Sebastiano_ has two fine semicircular towers of the
Aurelian wall, resting on a basement of marble blocks, probably
plundered from the tombs on the Via Appia. Under the arch is a gothic
inscription relating to the repulse of some unknown invaders.

It was here that the senate and people of Rome received in state the
last triumphant procession which has entered the city by the Via Appia,
that of Marc-Antonio Colonna, after the victory of Lepanto in 1571. As
in the processions of the old Roman generals, the children of the
conquered prince were forced to adorn the triumph of the victor, who
rode into Rome attended by all the Roman nobles, "in abito di grande
formalità,"[197] preceded by the standard of the fleet.

From the gate, the _Clivus Martis_ (crossed by the railway to Civita
Vecchia) descends into the valley of the Almo, where antiquaries
formerly placed the Porta Capena. On the hillside stood a Temple of
Mars, vowed in the Gallic war, and dedicated by T. Quinctius the
"duumvir sacris faciundis," in B.C. 387. No remains exist of this
temple. It was "approached from the Via Capena by a portico, which must
have rivalled in length the celebrated portico at Bologna extending to
the church of the Madonna di S. Luca."[198] Near this, a temple was
erected to Tempestas in B.C. 260, by L. Cornelius Scipio, to commemorate
the narrow escape of his fleet from shipwreck off the coast of
Sardinia.[199] Near this, also, the poet Terence owned a small estate of
twenty acres, presented to him by his friend Scipio Emilianus.[200]
After crossing the brook, we pass between two conspicuous tombs. That on
the left is the _Tomb of Geta_, son of Septimius Severus, the murdered
brother of Caracalla; that on the right is the _Tomb of Priscilla_, wife
of Abascantius, a favourite freedman of Domitian.

    "Est locus, ante urbem, qua primum nascitur ingens
    Appia, quaque Italo gemitus Almone Cybele
    Ponit, et Idæos jam non reminiscitur amnes.
    Hic te Sidonio velatam molliter ostro
    Eximius conjux (nec enim fumantia busta
    Clamoremque rogi potuit perferre), beato
    Composuit, Priscilla, toro."

    _Statius_, lib. v. _Sylv._ i. 222.

Just beyond this, the _Via Ardeatina_ branches off on the right,
passing, after about two miles, the picturesque _Vigna Marancia_, a
pleasant spot, with fine old pines and cypresses.

Where the roads divide, is the _Church of Domine Quo Vadis_, containing
a copy of the celebrated footprint said to have been left here by Our
Saviour: the original being removed to S. Sebastiano.

     "After the burning of Rome, Nero threw upon the Christians the
     accusation of having fired the city. This was the origin of the
     first persecution, in which many perished by terrible and hitherto
     unheard-of deaths. The Christian converts besought Peter not to
     expose his life. As he fled along the Appian Way, about two miles
     from the gates, he was met by a vision of our Saviour travelling
     towards the city. Struck with amazement, he exclaimed, 'Lord,
     whither goest thou?' to which the Saviour, looking upon him with a
     mild sadness, replied, 'I go to Rome to be crucified a second
     time,' and vanished. Peter, taking this as a sign that he was to
     submit himself to the sufferings prepared for him, immediately
     turned back to the city.[201] Michael Angelo's famous statue, now
     in the Church of Sta. Maria sopra Minerva, is supposed to represent
     Christ as he appeared to St. Peter on this occasion. A cast or copy
     of it is in the little church of 'Domine, quo vadis?'

     "It is surprising that this most beautiful, picturesque, and, to my
     fancy, sublime legend, has been so seldom treated; and never, as it
     seems to me, in a manner worthy of its capabilities and high
     significance. It is seldom that a story can be told by two figures,
     and these two figures placed in such grand and dramatic
     contrast;--Christ in His serene majesty, and radiant with all the
     joy of beatitude, yet with an expression of gentle reproach; the
     Apostle at his feet arrested in his flight, amazed, and yet filled
     with a trembling joy; and for the background the wide Campagna, or
     towering walls of imperial Rome."--_Mrs. Jameson._[202]

Beyond the church is a second "Bivium," or cross-ways, where a lane on
the left leads up the Valle Caffarelle. Here, feeling an uncertainty
_which_ was the crossing where Our Saviour appeared to St. Peter, the
English Cardinal Pole erected a second tiny chapel of "Domine Quo
Vadis," which remains to this day.

On the left, is the _Columbarium of the Freedmen of Augustus and Livia_,
divided into three chambers, but despoiled of its adornments. Other
Columbaria near this are assigned to the Volusii, and the Cæcilii.

Over the wall on the left of the Via Appia now hangs in profusion the
rare yellow-berried ivy. Many curious plants are to be found on these
old Roman walls. Their commonest parasite, the Pellitory--"_herba
parietina_," calls to mind the nickname given to the Emperor Trajan in
derision of his passion for inscribing his name upon the walls of Roman
buildings which he had merely restored, as if he were their
founder;[203] a passion in which the popes have since largely

We now reach (on the right) the entrance of the _Catacombs of St.

     (The Catacombs (except those at S. Sebastiano) can only be visited
     in company of a guide. For most of the Catacombs it is necessary to
     obtain a _permesso_ at the office of the Cardinal-Vicar, 70 Via
     della Scrofa, before 12 A.M.; upon which a day (generally Sunday)
     is fixed, which must be adhered to. The Catacombs of St. Calixtus
     are sometimes superficially shown without a special _permesso_. It
     may be well for the visitor to provide himself with

All descriptions of dangers attending a visit to the Catacombs, if
accompanied by a guide, and provided with "cerini," are quite imaginary.
Neither does the visitor ever suffer from cold; the temperature of the
Catacombs is mild and warm; the vaults are almost always dry, and the
air pure.

     "The Roman Catacombs--a name consecrated by long usage, but having
     no etymological meaning, and not a very determinate geographical
     one--are a vast labyrinth of galleries excavated in the bowels of
     the earth in the hills around the Eternal City; not in the hills on
     which the city itself was built, but in those beyond the walls.
     Their extent is enormous; not as to the amount of superficial soil
     which they underlie, for they rarely, if ever, pass beyond the
     third mile-stone from the city, but in the actual length of their
     galleries; for these are often excavated on various levels, or
     _piani_, three, four, or even five--one above the other; and they
     cross and recross one another, sometimes at short intervals, on
     each of these levels; so that, on the whole, there are certainly
     not less than 350 miles of them; that is to say, if stretched out
     in one continuous line, they would extend the whole length of Italy
     itself. The galleries are from two to four feet in width, and vary
     in height according to the nature of the rock in which they are
     dug. The walls on both sides are pierced with horizontal niches,
     like shelves in a bookcase or berths in a steamer, and every niche
     once contained one or more dead bodies. At various intervals this
     succession of shelves is interrupted for a moment, that room may be
     made for a doorway opening into a small chamber; and the walls of
     these chambers are generally pierced with graves in the same way as
     the galleries.

     "These vast excavations once formed the ancient Christian
     cemeteries of Rome; they were begun in apostolic times, and
     continued to be used as burial-places of the faithful till the
     capture of the city by Alaric in the year 410. In the third
     century, the Roman Church numbered twenty-five or twenty-six of
     them, corresponding to the number of her titles, or parishes,
     within the city; and besides these, there are about twenty others,
     of smaller dimensions, isolated monuments of special martyrs, or
     belonging to this or that private family. Originally they all
     belonged to private families or individuals, the villas or gardens
     in which they were dug being the property of wealthy citizens who
     had embraced the faith of Christ, and devoted of their substance to
     His service. Hence their most ancient titles were taken merely from
     the names of their lawful owners, many of which still survive.
     Lucina, for example, who lived in the days of the Apostles, and
     others of the same family, or at least of the same name, who lived
     at various periods in the next two centuries; Priscilla, also a
     contemporary of the Apostles; Flavia Domitilla, niece of Vespasian;
     Commodilla, whose property lay on the Via Ostiensis; Cyriaca, on
     the Via Tiburtina; Pretextatus, on the Via Appia; Pontiano, on the
     Via Portuensis; and the Jordani, Maximus and Thraso, all on the Via
     Salaria Nova. These names are still attached to the various
     catacombs, because they were originally begun upon the land of
     those who bore them. Other catacombs are known by the names of
     those who presided over their formation, as that of St. Calixtus,
     on the Via Appia; or St. Mark, on the Via Ardeatina; or of the
     principal martyrs who were buried in them, as SS. Hermes, Basilla,
     Protus, and Hyacinthus, on the Via Salaria Vetus; or, lastly, by
     some peculiarity of their position, as _ad Catacumbas_ on the Via
     Appia, and _ad duas Lauros_ on the Via Labicana.

     "It has always been agreed among men of learning who have had an
     opportunity of examining these excavations, that they were used
     exclusively by the Christians as places of burial and of holding
     religious assemblies. Modern research has now placed it beyond a
     doubt, that they were also originally designed for this purpose and
     for no other: that they were not deserted sand-pits (_arenariæ_) or
     quarries, adapted to Christian uses, but a development, with
     important modifications, of a form of sepulchre not altogether
     unknown even among the heathen families of Rome, and in common use
     among the Jews both in Rome and elsewhere.

     "At first, the work of making the Catacombs was done openly,
     without let or hindrance, by the Christians; the entrances to them
     were public on the high-road or on the hill-side, and the galleries
     and chambers were freely decorated with paintings of a sacred
     character. But early in the third century, it became necessary to
     withdraw them as much as possible from the public eye; new and
     often difficult entrances were now effected in the recesses of
     deserted _arenariæ_, and even the liberty of Christian art was
     cramped and fettered, lest what was holy should fall under the
     profane gaze of the unbaptized.

     "Each of these burial-places was called in ancient times either
     _hypogæum_, i. e. generically, a subterranean place, or
     _cœmeterium_, a sleeping-place, a new name of Christian origin
     which the pagans could only repeat, probably without understanding;
     sometimes also _martyrium_, or _confessio_ (its Latin equivalent),
     to signify that it was the burial-place of martyrs or confessors of
     the faith. An ordinary grave was called _locus_ or _loculus_, if it
     contained a single body; or _bisomum_, _trisomum_, or
     _quadrisomum_, if it contained two, three, or four. The graves were
     dug by _fossores_, and burial in them was called _depositio_. The
     galleries do not seem to have had any specific name; but the
     chambers were called _cubicula_. In most of these chambers, and
     sometimes also in the galleries themselves, one or more tombs are
     to be seen of a more elaborate kind; a long oblong _chasse_, like a
     sarcophagus, either hollowed out in the rock or built up of
     masonry, and closed by a heavy slab of marble lying horizontally on
     the top. The niche over tombs of this kind was of the same length
     as the grave, and generally vaulted in a semicircular form, whence
     they were called _arcosolia_. Sometimes, however, the niche
     retained the rectangular form, in which case there was no special
     name for it, but for distinction's sake we may be allowed to call
     it a table-tomb. Those of the _arcosolia_, which were also the tomb
     of martyrs, were used on the anniversaries of their deaths
     (_Natalitia_, or birthdays) as altars whereon the holy mysteries
     were celebrated; hence, whilst some of the _cubicula_ were only
     family-vaults, others were chapels, or places of public assembly.
     It is probable that the holy mysteries were celebrated also in the
     private vaults, on the anniversaries of the deaths of their
     occupants; and each one was sufficiently large in itself for use on
     these private occasions; but in order that as many as possible
     might assist at the public celebrations, two, three, or even four
     of the _cubicula_ were often made close together, all receiving
     light and air through one shaft or air-hole (_luminare_), pierced
     through the superincumbent soil up to the open air. In this way as
     many as a hundred persons might be collected in some parts of the
     catacombs to assist at the same act of public worship; whilst a
     still larger number might have been dispersed in the _cubicula_ of
     neighbouring galleries, and received there the bread of life
     brought to them by the assistant priests and deacons. Indications
     of this arrangement are not only to be found in ancient
     ecclesiastical writings; they may still be seen in the very walls
     of the catacombs themselves, episcopal chairs, chairs for the
     presiding deacon or deaconess, and benches for the faithful, having
     formed part of the original design when the chambers were hewn out
     of the living rock, and still remaining where they were first
     made."--_Roma Sotterranea, Northcote and Brownlow._

     "To our classic associations, Rome was still, under Trajan and the
     Antonines, the city of the Cæsars, the metropolis of pagan
     idolatry--in the pages of her poets and historians we still linger
     among the triumphs of the Capitol, the shows of the Coliseum; or if
     we read of a Christian being dragged before the tribunal, or
     exposed to the beasts, we think of him as one of a scattered
     community, few in number, spiritless in action, and politically
     insignificant. But all this while there was living beneath the
     visible an invisible Rome--a population unheeded,
     unreckoned--thought of vaguely, vaguely spoken of, and with the
     familiarity and indifference that men feel who live on a
     volcano--yet a population strong-hearted, of quick impulses, nerved
     alike to suffer or to die, and in number, resolution, and physical
     force sufficient to have hurled their oppressors from the throne of
     the world, had they not deemed it their duty to kiss the rod, to
     love their enemies, to bless those that cursed them, and to submit,
     for their Redeemer's sake, to the 'powers that be.' Here, in these
     'dens and caves of the earth,' they lived; here they died--a
     'spectacle' in their lifetime 'to men and angels,' and in their
     death a 'triumph' to mankind--a triumph of which the echoes still
     float around the walls of Rome, and over the desolate Campagna,
     while those that once thrilled the Capitol are silenced, and the
     walls that returned them have long since crumbled into
     dust."--_Lord Lindsay' s Christian Art_, i. 4.

The name Catacombs is modern, having originally been only applied to S.
Sebastiano "ad catacumbas." The early Christians called their
burial-places by the Greek name _Cœmeteria_, sleeping-places. Almost
all the catacombs are between the first and third mile-stones from the
Aurelian wall, to which point the city extended before the wall itself
was built. This was in obedience to the Roman law which forbade burial
within the precincts of the city.

The fact that the Christians were always anxious not to burn their dead,
but to bury them, in these rock-hewn sepulchres, was probably owing to
the remembrance that our Lord was himself laid "in a new tomb hewn out
of the rock," and perhaps also for this reason the bodies were wrapt in
fine linen cloths, and buried with precious spices, of which remains
have been found in the tombs.

The Catacomb which is known as St. Calixtus, is composed of a number of
catacombs, once distinct, but now joined together. Such were those of
Sta. Lucina; of Anatolia, daughter of the consul Æmilianus; and of Sta.
Soteris, "a virgin of the family to which St. Ambrose belonged in a
later generation," and who was buried "in cœmeterio suo," A.D. 304.
The passages of these catacombs were gradually united with those which
originally belonged to the cemetery of Calixtus.

The high mass of ruin which meets our eyes on first entering the
vineyard of St. Calixtus, is a remnant of the tomb of the Cæcilii, of
which family a number of epitaphs have been found. Beyond this is
another ruin, supposed by Marangoni to have been the basilica which St.
Damasus provided for his own burial and that of his mother and sister;
which Padre Marchi believed to be the church of St. Mark and St.
Marcellinus;--but which De Rossi identifies with the _cella memoriæ_,
sometimes called of St. Sistus, sometimes of St. Cecilia (because built
immediately over the graves of those martyrs), by St. Fabian in the
third century.[204]

Descending into the Catacomb by an ancient staircase restored, we reach
(passing a sepulchral cubiculum on the right) the _Chapel of the Popes_,
a place of burial and of worship of the third or fourth century, (as it
was restored after its discovery in 1854) but still retaining remains
of the marble slabs with which it was faced by Sixtus III. in the fifth
century, and of marble columns, &c. with which it was adorned by St. Leo
III. (795--816). The walls are lined with graves of the earliest popes,
many of them martyrs--viz. St. Zephyrinus, (202--211); St Pontianus, who
died in banishment in Sardinia, (231--236); St. Anteros, martyred under
Maximian in the second month of his pontificate, (236); St. Fabian,
martyred under Decius, (236--250); St. Lucius, martyred under Valerian,
(253--255); St. Stephen I., martyred in his episcopal chair under
Valerian, (255--257); St. Sixtus II., martyred in the catacombs of St.
Pretextatus, (257--260); St. Dionysius, (260--271); St. Eutychianus,
martyr, (275--283); and St. Caius, (284--296). Of these, the gravestones
of Anteros, Fabian, Lucius, and Eutychianus, have been discovered, with
inscriptions in Greek, which is acknowledged to have been the earliest
language of the Church,--in which St. Paul and St. James wrote, and in
which the proceedings of the first twelve Councils were carried on.[205]
Though no inscriptions have been found relating to the other popes
mentioned, they are known to have been buried here from the earliest

Over the site of the altar is one of the beautifully-cut inscriptions of
Pope St. Damasus (366--384), "whose labour of love it was to rediscover
the tombs which had been blocked up for concealment under Diocletian, to
remove the earth, widen the passages, adorn the sepulchral chambers with
marble, and support the friable tufa walls with arches of brick and

    "Hic congesta jacet quæris si turba Piorum
    Corpora Sanctorum retinent veneranda sepulchra,
    Sublimes animas rapuit sibi Regia Cœli:
    Hic comites Xysti portant qui ex hoste tropæa;
    Hic numerus procerum servat qui altaria Christi;
    Hic positus longâ vixit qui in pace Sacerdos;
    Hic Confessores sancti quos Græcia misit;
    Hic juvenes, puerique, senes, castique nepotes,
    Quis mage virgineum placuit retinere pudorem.
    Hic fateor Damasus volui mea condere membra,
    Sed cineres timui sanctos vexare Piorum.

    "Here, if you would know, lie heaped together a number of the holy,
    These honoured sepulchres inclose the bodies of the saints,
    Their lofty souls the palace of heaven has received.
    Here lie the companions of Xystus, who bear away the trophies
     from the enemy;
    Here a tribe of the elders which guards the altars of Christ;
    Here is buried the priest who lived long in peace;[207]
    Here the holy confessors who came from Greece;[208]
    Here lie youths and boys, old men and their chaste descendants,
    Who kept their virginity undefiled.
    Here I Damasus wished to have laid my limbs,
    But feared to disturb the holy ashes of the saints."[209]

From this chapel we enter the _Cubiculum of Sta. Cecilia_, where the
body of the saint was buried by her friend Urban after her martyrdom in
her own house in the Trastevere (see Chap. XVII.) A.D. 224, and where it
was discovered in 820 by Pope Paschal I. (to whom its resting-place had
been revealed in a dream), "fresh and perfect as when it was first laid
in the tomb, and clad in rich garments mixed with gold, with linen
cloths stained with blood rolled up at her feet, lying in a cypress

Close to the entrance of the cubiculum, upon the wall, is a painting of
Cecilia, "a woman richly attired, and adorned with bracelets and
necklaces." Near it is a niche for the lamp which burnt before the
shrine, at the back of which is a large head of Our Saviour, "of the
Byzantine type, and with rays of glory behind it in the form of a Greek
cross. Side by side with this, but on the flat surface of the wall, is a
figure of St. Urban (the friend of Cecilia, who laid her body here) in
full pontifical robes, with his name inscribed." Higher on the wall are
figures of three saints, "executed apparently in the fourth, or perhaps
even the fifth century"--Polycamus, an unknown martyr, with a palm
branch; Sebastianus; and Curinus, a bishop (Quirinus bishop of
Siscia--buried at St. Sebastian). In the pavement is a gravestone of
Septimus Pretextatus Cæcilianus, "a servant of God, who lived worthy for
three-and-thirty years;"--considered important as suggesting a
connection between the family of Cecilia and that of St. Prætextatus, in
whose catacomb on the other side of the Appian Way her husband and
brother-in-law were buried, and where her friend St. Urban was

These two chapels are the only ones which it is necessary to dwell upon
here in detail. The rest of the catacomb is shown in varying order, and
explained in different ways. Three points are of historic interest. 1.
The roof-shaped tomb of Pope St. Melchiades, who lived long in peace and
died A.D. 313. 2. The Cubiculum of Pope St. Eusebius, in the middle of
which is placed an inscription, pagan on one side, on the other a
restoration of the fifth century of one of the beautiful inscriptions
of Pope Damasus, which is thus translated:--

     "Heraclius forbade the lapsed to grieve for their sins. Eusebius
     taught those unhappy ones to weep for their crimes. The people were
     rent into parties, and with increasing fury began sedition,
     slaughter, fighting, discord, and strife. Straightway both (the
     pope and the heretic) were banished by the cruelty of the tyrant,
     although the pope was preserving the bonds of peace inviolate. He
     bore his exile with joy, looking to the Lord as his judge, and on
     the shore of Sicily gave up the world and his life."

At the top and bottom of the tablet is the following title:--

    "Damasus Episcopus fecit Eusebio episcopo et martyri,"

and on either side a single file of letters which hands down to us the
name of the sculptor who executed the Damasine inscriptions.

    "Furius Dionysius Filocalus scripsit Damasis pappæ cultor atque amatot."

3. Near the exit, properly in the catacomb of Sta. Lucina, connected
with that of Calixtus by a labyrinth of galleries, is the tomb of Pope
St. Cornelius (251, 252) the only Roman bishop down to the time of St.
Sylvester (314) who bore the name of any noble Roman family, and whose
epitaph, (perhaps in consequence) is in Latin, while those of the other
popes are in Greek. The tomb has no chapel of its own, but is a mere
grave in a gallery, with a rectangular instead of a circular space
above, as in the cubicula. Near the tomb are fragments of one of the
commemorative inscriptions of St. Damasus, which has been ingeniously
restored by De Rossi thus:--

    "Aspice, descensu extructo tenebrisque fugatis
    Corneli monumenta vides tumulumque sacratum
    Hoc opus ægroti Damasi præstantia fecit,
    Esset ut accessus melior, populisque paratum
    Auxilium sancti, et valeas si fundere puro
    Corde preces, Damasus melior consurgere posset,
    Quem non lucis amor, tenuit mage cura laboris."

     "Behold! a way down has been constructed, and the darkness
     dispelled; you see the monuments of Cornelius, and his sacred tomb.
     This work the zeal of Damasus has accomplished, sick as he is, in
     order that the approach might be better, and the aid of the saint
     might be made convenient for the people; and that, if you will pour
     forth your prayers from a pure heart, Damasus may rise up better in
     health, though it has not been love of life, but care for work,
     that has kept him (here below)."[211]

St. Cornelius was banished under Gallus to Centumcellæ--now Civita
Vecchia, and was brought back thence to Rome for martyrdom Sept. 14,
A.D. 252. On the same day of the month, in 258, died his friend and
correspondent St. Cyprian, archbishop of Carthage,[212] who is
consequently commemorated by the Church on the same day with St.
Cornelius. Therefore also, on the right of the grave, are two figures of
bishops with inscriptions declaring them to be St. Cornelius and St.
Cyprian. Each holds the book of the Gospels in his hands and is clothed
in pontifical robes, "including the pallium, which had not yet been
confined as a mark of distinction to metropolitans."[213] Beneath the
picture stands a pillar which held one of the vases of oil which were
always kept burning before the shrines of the martyr. Beyond the tomb,
at the end of the gallery, is another painting of two bishops, St.
Sistus II., martyred in the catacomb of Pretextatus, and St. Optatus
who was buried near him.

In going round this catacomb, and in most of the others, the visitor
will be shown a number of rude paintings, which will be explained to him
in various ways, according to the tendencies of his guide. The paintings
may be considered to consist of three classes, symbolical; allegorical
and biblical; and liturgical. There is little variety of subject,--the
same are introduced over and over again.

The symbols most frequently introduced on and over the graves are:--

     _The Anchor_, expressive of hope. Heb. vi. 19.

     _The Dove_, symbolical of the Christian soul released from its
     earthly tabernacle. Ps. lv. 6.

     _The Sheep_, symbolical of the soul still wandering amid the
     pastures and deserts of earthly life. Ps. cxix. 176. Isaiah liii.
     6. John x. 14; xxi. 15, 16, 17.

     _The Phœnix_, "the palm bird," emblematical of eternity and the

     _The Fish_--typical of Our Saviour--from the word ιχθυς, formed
     by the initial letters of the titles of Our Lord--Ιησοὑς Χριστὁς
     θεοὑ Υἱὁς Σωτἡρ--"Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the Saviour."

     _The Ship_--representing the Church militant, sometimes seen
     carried on the back of the fish.

     _Bread_, represented with fish, sometimes carried in a basket on
     its back, sometimes with it on a table--in allusion to the
     multiplication of the loaves and fishes.

     _A Female Figure Praying_, an "Orante"--in allusion to the Church.

     _A Vine_--also in allusion to the Church. Ps. lxxx. 8. Isaiah v. 1.

     _An Olive branch_, as a sign of peace.

     _A Palm branch_, as a sign of victory and martyrdom. Rev. vii. 9.

_Allegorical and Biblical Representations._

Of these _The Good Shepherd_ requires an especial notice from the
importance which is given to it and its frequent introduction in
catacomb art, both in sculpture and painting.

     "By far the most interesting of the early Christian paintings is
     that of Our Saviour as the Good Shepherd, which is almost
     invariably painted on the central space of the dome or cupola,
     subjects of minor interest being disposed around it in
     compartments, precisely in the style, as regards both the
     arrangement and execution, of the heathen catacombs.

     "He is represented as a youth in a shepherd's frock and sandals,
     carrying the 'lost sheep' on his shoulders, or leaning on his staff
     (the symbol, according to St. Augustine, of the Christian
     hierarchy), while the sheep feed around, or look up at him.
     Sometimes he is represented seated in the midst of the flock,
     playing on a shepherd's pipe,--in a few instances, in the oldest
     catacombs, he is introduced in the character of Orpheus, surrounded
     by wild beasts enrapt by the melody of his lyre,--Orpheus being
     then supposed to have been a prophet or precursor of the Messiah.
     The background usually exhibits a landscape or meadow, sometimes
     planted with olive-trees, doves resting on their branches,
     symbolical of the peace of the faithful; in others, as in a fresco
     preserved in the Museum Christianum, the palm of victory is
     introduced, --but such combinations are endless. In one or two
     instances the surrounding compartments are filled with
     personifications of the Seasons, apt emblems of human life, whether
     natural or spiritual.

     "The subject of the Good Shepherd, I am sorry to add, is not of
     Roman but Greek origin, and was adapted from a statue of Mercury
     carrying a goat, at Tanagra, mentioned by Pausanias. The Christian
     composition approximates to its original more nearly in the few
     instances where Our Saviour is represented carrying a goat,
     emblematical of the scapegoat of the wilderness. Singularly enough,
     though of Greek parentage, and recommended to the Byzantines by
     Constantine, who erected a statue of the Good Shepherd in the forum
     of Constantinople, the subject did not become popular among them;
     they seem, at least, to have tacitly abandoned it to Rome."--_Lord
     Lindsay's Christian Art._

     "The Good Shepherd seems to have been quite the favourite subject.
     We cannot go through any part of the Catacombs, or turn over any
     collection of ancient Christian monuments, without coming across it
     again and again. We know from Tertullian that it was often designed
     upon chalices. We find it ourselves painted in fresco upon the
     roofs and walls of the sepulchral chambers; rudely scratched upon
     gravestones, or more carefully sculptured on sarcophagi; traced in
     gold upon glass, moulded on lamps, engraved on rings; and, in a
     word, represented on every species of Christian monument that has
     come down to us. Of course, amid such a multitude of examples,
     there is considerable variety of treatment. We cannot, however,
     appreciate the suggestion of Kügler, that this frequent repetition
     of the subject is probably to be attributed to the capabilities
     which it possessed in an artistic point of view. Rather, it was
     selected because it expressed the whole sum and substance of the
     Christian dispensation. In the language even of the Old Testament,
     the action of Divine Providence upon the world is frequently
     expressed by images and allegories borrowed from pastoral life; God
     is the Shepherd, and men are His sheep. But in a still more special
     way our Divine Redeemer offers Himself to our regards as the Good
     Shepherd. He came down from His eternal throne into this wilderness
     of the world to seek the lost sheep of the whole human race, and
     having brought them together into one fold on earth, thence to
     transport them into the ever-verdant pastures of Paradise."--_Roma

Other biblical subjects are:--from the _Old Testament_ (those of Noah,
Moses, Daniel, and Jonah being the only ones at all common)--

     1. The Fall. Adam and Eve on either side of the Tree of Knowledge,
     round which the serpent is coiled. Sometimes, instead of this, "Our
     Saviour (as the representative of the Deity) stands between them,
     condemning them, and offering a lamb to Eve and a sheaf of corn to
     Adam, to signify the doom of themselves and their posterity to
     delve and to spin through all future ages."

     2. The Offering of Cain and Abel. They present a lamb and sheaf of
     corn to a seated figure of the Almighty.

     3. Noah in the Ark, represented as a box--a dove, bearing an
     olive-branch, flies towards him. Interpreted to express the
     doctrine that "the faithful having obtained remission of their sins
     through baptism, have received from the Holy Spirit the gift of
     divine peace, and are saved in the mystical ark of the church from
     the destruction which awaits the world."[214] (Acts ii. 47.)

     4. Sacrifice of Isaac.

     5. Passage of the Red Sea.

     6. Moses receiving the Law.

     7. Moses striking water from the rock--(very common).

     8. Moses pointing to the pots of manna.

     9. Elijah going up to heaven in the chariot of fire.

     10. The Three Children in the fiery furnace;--very common as
     symbolical of martyrdom.

     11. Daniel in the lions' den;--generally a naked figure with hands
     extended, and a lion on either side; most common--as an
     encouragement to Christian sufferers.

     12. Jonah swallowed up by the whale, represented as a strange kind
     of sea-horse.

     13. Jonah disgorged by the whale.

     14. Jonah under the gourd; or, according to the Vulgate, under the

     15. Jonah lamenting for the death of the gourd.

     These four subjects from the story of Jonah are constantly
     repeated, perhaps as encouragement to the Christians suffering from
     the wickedness of Rome--the modern Nineveh, which they were to warn
     and pray for.

Subjects from the _New Testament_ are:

     1. The Nativity--the ox and the ass kneeling.

     2. The Adoration of the Magi--repeatedly placed in juxtaposition
     with the story of the Three Children.

     3. Our Saviour turning water into wine.

     4. Our Saviour conversing with the woman of Samaria.

     5. Our Saviour healing the paralytic man--who takes up his bed.
     This is very common.

     6. Our Saviour healing the woman with the issue of blood.

     7. Our Saviour multiplying the loaves and fishes.

     8. Our Saviour healing the daughter of the woman of Canaan.

     9. Our Saviour healing the blind man.

     10. The raising of Lazarus, who appears at a door in his
     grave-clothes, while Christ with a wand stands before it. This is
     the New Testament subject oftenest introduced. It is constantly
     placed in juxtaposition with a picture of Moses striking the rock.
     "These two subjects may be intended to represent the beginning and
     end of the Christian course, 'the fountain of water springing up to
     life everlasting.' God's grace and the gift of faith being typified
     by the water flowing from the rock, 'which was Christ,' and life
     everlasting by the victory over death and the second life
     vouchsafed to Lazarus."[215]

     11. Our Saviour's triumphal entry into Jerusalem.

     12. Our Saviour giving the keys to Peter--very rare.

     13. Our Saviour predicting the denial of Peter.

     14. The denial of Peter.

     15. Our Saviour before Pilate.

     16. St.Peter taken to prison.

     These last six subjects are only represented on tombs.[216]

The class of paintings shown as _Liturgical_ are less definite than
these. In the Catacombs of Calixtus several obscure paintings are shown
(in cubicula anterior to the middle of the third century), which are
said to have reference to the sacrament of baptism. Pictures of the
paralytic carrying his bed are identified by some Roman Catholic
authorities with the sacrament of penance. (!) Bosio believed that in
the Catacomb of Sta. Priscilla he had found paintings which illustrated
the sacrament of ordination. Representations undoubtedly exist which
illustrate the _agape_ or love-feast of the primitive Church.

On the opposite side of the Via Appia from St. Calixtus (generally
entered from the road leading to S. Urbano) is the _Catacomb of St.
Pretextatus_, interesting as being the known burial-place of several
martyrs. A large crypt was discovered here in 1857, built with solid
masonry and lined with Greek marble.

     "The workmanship points to early date, and specimens of pagan
     architecture in the same neighbourhood enable us to fix the middle
     of the latter half of the second century (A.D. 175) as a very
     probable date for its erection. The Acts of the Saints explain to
     us why it was built with bricks, and not hewn out of the rock--viz.
     because the Christian who made it (Sta. Marmenia) had caused it to
     be excavated immediately below her own house; and now that we see
     it, we understand the precise meaning of the words used by the
     itineraries describing it--viz. 'a large cavern, most firmly
     built.' The vault of the chapel is most elaborately painted, in a
     style by no means inferior to the best classical productions of the
     age. It is divided into four bands of wreaths, one of roses,
     another of corn-sheaves, a third of vine-leaves and grapes (and in
     all these, birds are introduced visiting their young in nests), and
     the last or highest, of leaves of laurel or the bay-tree. Of course
     these severally represent the seasons of spring, summer, autumn,
     and winter. The last is a well-known figure or symbol of death; and
     probably the laurel, as the token of victory, was intended to
     represent the new and Christian idea of the everlasting reward of a
     blessed immortality. Below these bands is another border, more
     indistinct, in which reapers are gathering in the corn; and at the
     back of the arch is a rural scene, of which the central figure is
     the Good Shepherd carrying a sheep upon his shoulders. This,
     however, has been destroyed by graves pierced through the wall and
     the rock behind it, from the eager desire to bury the dead of a
     later generation as near as possible to the tombs of the martyrs.
     As De Rossi proceeded to examine these graves in detail, he could
     hardly believe his eyes when he read around the edge of one of them
     these words and fragments of words:--_Mi Refrigeri Januarius
     Agatopos Felicissim Martyres_--'Januarius, Agapetus, Felicissimus,
     martyrs, refresh the soul of....' The words had been scratched upon
     the mortar while it was yet fresh, fifteen centuries ago, as the
     prayer of some bereaved relative for the soul of him whom they were
     burying here, and now they revealed to the antiquarian of the
     nineteenth century the secret he was in quest of--viz. the place of
     burial of the saints whose aid is here invoked; for the numerous
     examples to be seen in other cemeteries warrant us in concluding
     that the bodies of the saints, to whose intercession the soul of
     the deceased is here recommended, were at the time of his burial
     lying at no great distance."--_Roma Sotterranea._

The St. Januarius buried here was the eldest of the seven sons of St.
Felicitas, martyred July 10, A.D. 162. St. Agapitus and St. Felicissimus
were deacons of Pope Sixtus II., who were martyred together with him and
St. Pretextatus[217] in this very catacomb, because Sixtus II. "had set
at nought the commands of the Emperor Valerian."[218]

A mutilated inscription of St. Damasus, in the Catacomb of Calixtus,
near the tomb of Cornelius, thus records the death of this pope:

    "Tempore quo gladius secuit pia visura Matris
    Hic positus rector cælestia jussa docebam;
    Adveniunt subito, rapiunt qui forte sedentem;
    Militibus missis, populi tunc colla dedere.
    Mox sibi cognovit senior quis tollere vellet
    Palmam seque suumque caput prior obtulit ipse,
    Impatiens feritas posset ne lædere quemquam.
    Ostendit Christus reddit qui præmia vitæ
    Pastoris meritum, numerum gregis ipse tuetur."

     "At the time when the sword pierced the heart of our Mother
     (Church), I, its ruler, buried here, was teaching the things of
     heaven. Suddenly they came, they seized me seated as I was;--the
     soldiers being sent in, the people gave their necks (to the
     slaughter). Soon the old man saw who was willing to bear away the
     palm from himself, and was the first to offer himself and his own
     head, fearing lest the blow should fall on any one else. Christ who
     awards the rewards of life recognises the merit of the pastor, he
     himself is preserving the number of his flock."

An adjoining crypt, considered to date from A.D. 130, is believed to be
the burial-place of St. Quirinus.

Above this catacomb are ruins of two basilicas, erected in honour of St.
Zeno; and of Tiburtius, Valerian, and Maximus, companions of Sta.
Cecilia in martyrdom.

In the road leading to S. Urbano is the entrance to the _Jewish
Catacomb_. It is entered by a chamber open to the sky, floored with
black and white mosaic, which is supposed to have formed part of a pagan
dwelling. The following chamber has remains of a well. Hence a low door
forms the entrance of a gallery out of which open six cubicula, one of
them containing a fine while marble sarcophagus, and decorated with a
painting of the seven-branched candlestick. A side passage leads to
other cubicula, and to an open space which seems to have been an actual
arenarium. A winding passage at the end of the larger gallery leads to
the graves in the floor divided into different cells for corpses, and
called _Cocim_ by Rabbinical writers. A cubiculum at the end of the
catacomb has paintings of figures--Plenty, with a cornucopia; Victory,
with a palm leaf, &c. The inscriptions found show that this cemetery was
exclusively Jewish. They refer to officers of the synagogue, rulers
(αρχοντες), and scribes (γραμματεις), &c. The inscriptions are in great
part in Greek letters, expressing Latin words.

Another small Jewish catacomb has been discovered behind the basilica of
St. Sebastian. Behind the Catacomb of St. Calixtus, on the right of the
Via Ardeatina, is the _Catacomb of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo_. Close to its
entrance is the farm of _Tor Marancia_, where are some ruins, believed
to be remains of the villa of Flavia Domitilla. This celebrated member
of the early Christian Church was daughter of the Flavia Domitilla who
was sister of the Emperor Domitian,--and wife of Titus Flavius Clemens,
son of the Titus Flavius Sabinus who was brother of the Emperor
Vespasian. Her two sons were, Vespasian Junior and Domitian Junior, who
were intended to succeed to the throne, and to whom Quinctilian was
appointed as tutor by the emperor. Dion Cassius narrates that "Domitian
put to death several persons, and amongst them Flavius Clemens the
consul, although he was his nephew, and although he had Flavia Domitilla
for his wife, who was also related to the emperor. They were both
accused of atheism, on which charge many others also had been
condemned, going after the manners and customs of the Jew; and some of
them were put to death, and others had their goods confiscated; but
Domitilla was only banished to Pandataria."[219] This Flavia Domitilla
is frequently confused with her niece of the same name,[220] whose
banishment is mentioned by Eusebius, when he says:--"The teaching of our
faith had by this time shone so far and wide, that even pagan historians
did not refuse to insert in their narratives some account of the
persecution and the martyrdoms that were suffered in it. Some, too, have
marked the time accurately, mentioning, amongst many others, in the
fifteenth year of Domitian (A.D. 97), Flavia Domitilla, the daughter of
a sister of Flavius Clemens, one of the Roman consuls of those days,
who, for her testimony for Christ, was punished by exile to the island
of Pontia." It was this younger Domitilla who was accompanied in her
exile by her two Christian servants, Nereus and Achilles; whose
banishment is spoken of by St. Jerome as "a life-long martyrdom,"--whose
cell was afterwards visited by Sta. Paula,[221] and who, according to
the Acts of SS. Nereus and Achilles, was brought back to the mainland to
be burnt alive at Terracina, because she refused to sacrifice to idols.
The relics of Domitilla, with those of her servants, were preserved in
the catacomb under the villa which had belonged to her Christian aunt.

Receiving as evidence the story of Sta. Domitilla, this catacomb must be
looked upon as the oldest Christian cemetery in existence. Its galleries
were widened and strengthened by John I. (523--526). A chamber near the
entrance is pointed out as the burial-place of Sta. Petronilla.

     "The sepulchre of SS. Nereus and Achilles was in all probability in
     that chapel to which we descend by so magnificent a staircase, and
     which is illuminated by so fine a _luminare_; for that this is the
     central point of attraction in the cemetery is clear, both from the
     staircase and the luminare just mentioned, as also from the greater
     width of the adjacent galleries and other similar tokens." Here
     then St. Gregory the Great delivered his twenty-eighth homily
     (which Baronius erroneously supposes to have been delivered in the
     Church of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo, to which the bodies of the saints
     were not yet removed), in which he says--"These saints, before
     whose tomb we are assembled, despised the world and trampled it
     under their feet, when peace, plenty, riches, and health gave it

     " ... There is a higher and more ancient _piano_, in which coins
     and medals of the first two centuries, and inscriptions of great
     value, have been recently discovered. Some of these inscriptions
     may still be seen in one of the chambers near the bottom of the
     staircase; they are both Latin and Greek; sometimes both languages
     are mixed; and in one or two instances Latin words are written in
     Greek characters. Many of these monuments are of the deepest
     importance both in an antiquarian and religious point of view; in
     archaeology, as showing the practice of private Christians in the
     first ages to make the subterranean chambers at their own expense
     and for their own use, _e. g._--'M. Aurelius Restutus made this
     subterranean for himself, and those of his family who believed in
     the Lord,'--where, both the triple names and the limitation
     introduced at the end (which shows that many of his family were
     still pagan), are unquestionably proofs of very high
     antiquity."--_Northcote's Roman Catacombs_, p. 103, &c.

Among the most remarkable paintings in this catacomb are, Orpheus with
his lyre, surrounded by birds and beasts who are charmed with his music;
Elijah ascending to heaven in a chariot drawn by four horses; and the
portrait of Our Lord.

     "The head and bust of our Lord form a medallion, occupying the
     centre of the roof in the same _cubiculum_ where Orpheus is
     represented. This painting, in consequence of the description
     given of it by Kügler (who misnamed the catacomb St. Calixtus), is
     often eagerly sought after by strangers visiting the catacombs. It
     is only just, however, to add, that they are generally
     disappointed. Kügler supposed it to be the oldest portrait of Our
     Blessed Saviour in existence, but we doubt if there is sufficient
     authority for such a statement. He describes it in these
     words:--'The face is oval, with a straight nose, arched eyebrows, a
     smooth and rather high forehead, the expression serious and mild;
     the hair, parted on the forehead, flows in long curls down the
     shoulders; the beard is not thick, but short and divided; the age
     between thirty and forty.' But this description is too minute and
     precise, too artistic, for the original, as it is now to be seen. A
     lively imagination may, perhaps, supply the details described by
     our author, but the eye certainly fails to distinguish
     them."--_Roma Sotterranea_, p. 253.

Approached by a separate entrance on the slope of the hill-side is a
sepulchral chamber, which De Rossi considers to have been the
_Burial-place of Sta. Domitilla_.

     "It is certainly one of the most ancient and remarkable Christian
     monuments yet discovered. Its position, close to the highway; its
     front of fine brickwork, with a cornice of terra-cotta, with the
     usual space for an inscription (which has now, alas, perished); the
     spaciousness of its gallery, with its four or five separate niches
     prepared for as many sarcophagi; the fine stucco on the wall; the
     eminently classical character of its decorations; all these things
     make it perfectly clear that it was the monument of a Christian
     family of distinction, excavated at great cost, and without the
     slightest attempt at concealment. In passing from the vestibule
     into the catacomb, we recognise the transition from the use of the
     sarcophagus to that of the common _loculus_; for the first two or
     three graves on either side, though really mere shelves in the
     wall, are so disguised by painting on the outside as to present to
     passers-by the complete outward appearance of a sarcophagus. Some
     few of these graves are marked with the names of the dead, written
     in black on the largest tiles, and the inscriptions on the other
     graves are all of the simplest and oldest form. Lastly, the whole
     of the vaulted roof is covered with the most exquisitely graceful
     designs, of branches of the vine (with birds and winged genii among
     them) trailing with all the freedom of nature over the whole walls,
     not fearing any interruption by graves, nor confined by any of
     those lines of geometrical symmetry which characterise similar
     productions in the next century. Traces also of landscapes may be
     seen here and there, which are of rare occurrence in the catacombs,
     though they may be seen in the chambers assigned by De Rossi to SS.
     Nereus and Achilles. The Good Shepherd, an _agape_, or the heavenly
     feast, a man fishing, and Daniel in the lions' den, are the chief
     historical or allegorical representations of Christian mysteries
     which are painted here. Unfortunately they have been almost
     destroyed by persons attempting to detach them from the
     wall."--_Roma Sotterranea_, p. 70.

       *       *       *       *       *

A road to the left now leads to the Via Appia Nuova, passing about a
quarter of a mile hence, a turn on the left to the ruin generally known
as the _Temple of Bacchus_, from an altar dedicated to Bacchus which was
found there, but considered by modern antiquaries as a temple of Ceres
and Proserpine. This building has been comparatively saved from the
destruction which has befallen its neighbours by having been consecrated
as a church in A.D. 820 by Pope Pascal I., in honour of his sainted
predecessor Urban I., A.D. 226--whose pontificate was chiefly passed in
refuge in the neighbouring Catacomb of St. Calixtus--because of a belief
that he was wont to resort hither.

A chapel at a great depth below the church, is shown as that in which
St. Urban baptized and celebrated mass. A curious fresco here represents
the Virgin between St. Urban and St. John.

Around the upper part of the interior are a much injured series of
frescoes, comprising--the life of Christ from the Annunciation to the
descent into Hades,--and the life of St. Cecilia and her husband
Valerian, ending in the burial of Cecilia by Pope Urban in the Catacombs
of Calixtus, and the story of the martyred Urban I. In the picture of
the Crucifixion, the thieves have their names, "Calpurnius and
Longinus." The frescoes were altered in the seventeenth century to suit
the views of the Roman Church, keys being placed in the hand of Peter,
&c. Sets of drawings taken _before_ and _after_ the alterations, are
preserved in the Barberini Library, and curiously show the difference.

A winding path leads from S. Urbano into the valley. Here, beside the
Almo rivulet, is a ruined Nymphæum containing a mutilated statue of a
river-god, which was called "the Grotto of Egeria," till a few years
ago, when the discovery of the true site of the Porta Capena fixed that
of the grotto within the walls. The fine grove of old ilex-trees on the
hillside, was at the same time pointed out as the sacred grove of

    "Egeria! sweet creation of some heart
    Which found no mortal resting-place so fair
    As thine ideal breast; whate'er thou art
    Or wert,--a young Aurora of the air,
    The nympholepsy of some fond despair;
    Or, it might be, a beauty of the earth,
    Who found a more than common votary there
    Too much adoring; whatsoe'er thy birth,
    Thou wert a beautiful thought, and softly bodied forth.

    "The mosses of thy fountain still are sprinkled
    With thine Elysian water-drops; the face
    Of thy cave-guarded spring, with years unwrinkled,
    Reflects the meek-eyed genius of the place,
    Whose green, wild margin now no more erase
    Art's works; nor must the delicate waters sleep,
    Prisoned in marble, bubbling from the base
    Of the cleft statue, with a gentle leap
    The rill runs o'er, and round, fern, flowers, and ivy, creep,

    "Fantastically tangled; the green hills
    Are clothed with early blossoms, through the grass
    The quick-eyed lizard rustles, and the bills
    Of summer-birds sing welcome as ye pass;
    Flowers fresh in hue, and many in their class,
    Implore the pausing step, and with their dyes
    Dance in the soft breeze in a fairy mass;
    The sweetness of the violet's deep blue eyes,
    Kiss'd by the breath of heaven, seems coloured by its skies."

    _Byron, Childe Harold._

It is now known that this nymphæum and the valley in which it stands
belonged to the suburban villa called Triopio, of Herodes Atticus, whose
romantic story is handed down to us through two Greek inscriptions in
the possession of the Borghese family, and is further illustrated by the
writings of Filostratus and Pausanias.

     A wealthy Greek named Ipparchus offended his government and lost
     all his wealth by confiscation, but the family fortunes were
     redeemed, through the discovery by his son Atticus of a vast
     treasure, concealed in a small piece of ground which remained to
     them, close to the rock of the Acropolis. Dreading the avarice of
     his fellow-citizens, Atticus sent at once to Nerva, the then
     emperor, telling him of the discovery, and requesting his orders as
     to what he was to do with the treasure. Nerva replied, that he was
     welcome to keep it, and use it as he pleased. Not yet satisfied or
     feeling sufficiently sure of the protection of the emperor, Atticus
     again applied to him, saying that the treasure was far too vast for
     the use of a person in a private station of life, and asking how he
     was to use it. The emperor again replied that the treasure was his
     own and due to his own good fortune, and that "what he could not
     use he might abuse." Atticus then entered securely into possession
     of his wealth, which he bequeathed to his son Herodes, who used his
     fortune magnificently in his bountiful charities, in the
     encouragement of literature and art throughout both Greece and
     Italy, and (best appreciated of all by the Greeks) in the splendour
     of the public games which he gave.

     Early in the reign of Antoninus Pius, Herodes Atticus removed to
     Rome, where he was appointed professor of rhetoric to Marcus
     Aurelius and Lucius Verus, the two adopted sons of the emperor, and
     where he attained the consulship in A.D. 143. Soon after his
     arrival he fell in love with Annia Regilla, a beautiful and wealthy
     heiress, and in spite of the violent opposition of her brother,
     Annius Attilius Braduas, who, belonging to the Julian family, and
     claiming an imaginary descent from Venus and Anchises, looked upon
     the marriage as a mesalliance, he succeeded in obtaining her hand.
     Part of the wealth which Annia Regilla brought to her husband was
     the Valle Caffarelli and its nymphæum.

     For some years Herodes Atticus and Annia Regilla enjoyed the
     perfection of married happiness in this beautiful valley; but
     shortly before the expected birth of her fifth child, she died very
     suddenly, leaving her husband almost frantic with grief and
     refusing every consolation. He was roused, however, from his first
     anguish by his brother-in-law Annius Braduas, who had never laid
     aside his resentment at the marriage, and who now accused him of
     having poisoned his wife. Herodes demanded a public trial, and was
     acquitted. Filostratus records that the intense grief he showed and
     the depth of the mourning he wore, were taken as signs of his
     innocence. Further to clear himself from imputation, Herodes
     offered all the jewels of Annia Regilla upon the altar of the
     Eleusinian deities, Ceres and Proserpine, at the same time calling
     down the vengeance of the outraged gods if he were guilty of

     The beloved Regilla was buried in a tomb surrounded by "a
     sepulchral field" within the precincts of the villa, dedicated to
     Minerva and Nemesis, and (as recorded in one of the Greek
     inscriptions) it was made an act of the highest sacrilege, for any
     but her own descendants to be laid within those sacred limits. A
     statue was also erected to Regilla in the Triopian temple of Ceres
     and Proserpine, which is now supposed to be the same with that
     usually called the temple of Bacchus. Not only did Herodes hang his
     house with black in his affliction, but all gaily coloured marbles
     were stripped from the walls, and replaced with the dark grey
     marble known as "bardiglio,"--and his depth of woe made him so
     conspicuous, that a satirical person seeing his cook prepare white
     beans for dinner, wondered that he could dare to do so in a house
     so entirely black.

The inscriptions in which this story is related (one of them containing
thirty-nine Greek verses) are engraved on slabs of Pentelic marble--and
Philostratus and Pausanias narrate that the quarries of this marble were
the property of Herodes, and that in his magnificent buildings he almost
exhausted them.[222]

The field path from hence leads back to the Church of Domine Quo Vadis,
passing on the right a beautifully-finished tomb (of the time of
Septimius Severus) known as the _Temple of Divus Rediculus_, and
formerly described as having been built to commemorate the retreat of
Hannibal, who came thus far in his intended attack upon Rome. The temple
erected in memory of this event was really on the right of the Via
Appia. It was dedicated to Rediculus, the god of Return. The folly of
ciceroni often cites this name as "Ridiculous."

     The neighbourhood of the Divus Rediculus (which he however places
     on the _right_ of the Via Appia) is described by Pliny in
     connection with a curious story of imperial times. There was a
     cobbler who had his stall in the Roman Forum, and who possessed a
     tame raven, which was a great favourite with the young Romans, to
     whom he would bid good day as he sate perched upon the rostra. At
     length he became quite a public character, and the indignation was
     so great when his master killed him with his hammer in a fit of
     rage at his spoiling some new leather, that they slew the cobbler
     and decreed a public funeral to the bird; who was carried to the
     grave on a bier adorned with honorary crowns, preceded by a piper,
     and supported by two negroes in honour of his colour,--and
     buried--"ad rogum usque, qui constructus dextrâ Viæ Appiæ ad
     secundum lapidem in campo Rediculo appellate fuit."--_Pliny, Nat.
     Hist._ lib. x. c. 60.

       *       *       *       *       *

Returning to the Via Appia, we reach, on the right, the _Basilica of S.
Sebastiano_, rebuilt in 1611 by Flaminio Ponzio for Cardinal Scipio
Borghese on the site of a church which had been founded by Constantine,
where once existed the house and garden of the matron Lucina, in which
she had buried the body of Sebastian, after his (second) martyrdom under
Diocletian. The basilica contains nothing ancient, but the six granite
columns in the portico. The altar covers the relics of the saint (a
Gaul, a native of Narbonne, a Christian soldier under Diocletian) and
the chapel of St. Sebastian has a statue of him in his youth, designed
by Bernini and executed by Antonio Giorgetti.

     "The almost colossal form lies dead, the head resting on his helmet
     and armour. It is evidently modelled from nature, and is perhaps
     the finest thing ever designed by Bernini.... It is probably from
     the association of arrows with his form and story that St.
     Sebastian has been regarded from the first ages of Christianity as
     the protecting saint against plague and pestilence; Apollo was the
     deity who inflicted plague, and therefore was invoked with prayer
     and sacrifice against it; and to the honour of Apollo, in this
     particular character, St. Sebastian has succeeded."--_Jameson's
     Sacred Art_, p. 414.

The original of the footprint in the Domine Quo Vadis is said to be
preserved here.

On the left of the entrance is the descent into the catacombs, with the

     "In hoc sacrosancto loco qui dicitur ad Catacumbas, ubi sepulta
     fuerunt sanctorum martyrum corpora 174,000 ac 46 summorum
     pontificium pariterque martyrum. In altare in quo corpus divi
     Sebastiani Christi athletæ jacet celebrans summus Pontifex S.
     Gregorius Magnus vidit angelum Dei candidiorem nive, sibi in
     tremendo sacrificio ministrantem ac dicentem, 'Hic est locus
     sacratissimus in quo est divina promissio et omnium peccatorum
     remissio, splendor et lux perpetua, sine fine lætitia, quam Christi
     martyr Sebastianus habere promeruit.' Prout Severanus Tom. Pº.
     pagina 450, ac etiam antiquissimæ lapideæ testantur tabulæ.

     "Ideo in hoc insigne privilegiato altari, tam missæ cantatæ quam
     privatæ, dum celebrante, animæ quæ sunt in purgatorio pro quibus
     sacrificium offertur plenariam indulgentiam, et omnium suorum
     peccatorum remissionem consequuntur prout ab angelo dictum fuit et
     summi pontifices confirmarunt."

These are the catacombs which are most frequently visited by strangers,
because they can always be seen on application to the monks attached to
the church,--though they are of greatly inferior interest to those of St

     "Though future excavations may bring to light much that is
     interesting in this cemetery, the small portion now accessible is,
     as a specimen of the Catacombs, utterly without value. Its only
     interest consists in its religious associations: here St. Bridget
     was wont to kneel, rapt in contemplation; here St. Charles Borromeo
     spent whole nights in prayer; and here the heart of St. Philip Neri
     was so inflamed with divine love as to cause his very bodily frame
     to be changed."--_Northcote's Roman Catacombs._

    "Philip, on thee the glowing ray
      Of heaven came down upon thy prayer,
    To melt thy heart, and burn away
      All that of earthly dross was there.

    "And so, on Philip when we gaze,
      We see the image of his Lord;
    The saint dissolves amid the blaze
      Which circles round the Living Word.

    "The meek, the wise, none else is here,
      Dispensing light to men below;
    His awful accents fill the ear,
      Now keen as fire, now soft as snow."

    _J. H. Newman_, 1850.

Owing to the desire in the early Christian Church of saving the graves
of their first confessors and martyrs from desecration, almost all the
catacombs were gradually blocked up, and by lapse of time their very
entrances were forgotten. In the fourteenth century very few were still
open. In the fifteenth century none remained except this of St.
Sebastian, which continued to be frequented by pilgrims, and was called
in all ancient documents "cœmeterium ad catacumbas."

At the back of the high-altar is an interesting half-subterranean
building, attributed to Pope Liberius (352--355), and afterwards adorned
by Pope Damasus, who briefly tells its history in one of his
inscriptions, which may still be seen here:

    "Hinc habitasse prius sanctos cognoscere debes,
    Nomina quisque Petri pariter Paulique requiris.
    Discipulos Oriens misit, quod sponte fatemur,
    Sanguinis ob meritum Christumque per astra sequuti,
    Aetherios petiere sinus et regna piorum.
    Roma suos potius meruit defendere cives.
    Hæc Damasus vestras referat sidera laudes."

     "Here you should know that saints dwelt. Their names, if you ask
     them, were Peter and Paul. The East sent disciples, which we freely
     acknowledge. For the merit of their blood they followed Christ to
     the stars, and sought the heavenly home and the kingdom of the
     blest. Rome however deserved to defend her own citizens. May
     Damasus record these things for your praise, O new stars."

     "The two Apostles, St. Peter and St. Paul, were originally buried,
     the one at the Vatican, the other on the Ostian Way, at the spot
     where their respective basilicas now stand; but, as soon as the
     Oriental Christians had heard of their death, they sent some of
     their brethren to remove their bodies, and bring them back to the
     East, where they considered that they had a right to claim them as
     their fellow-citizens and countrymen. These so far prospered in
     their mission as to gain a momentary possession of the sacred
     relics, which they carried off, along the Appian Way, as far as the
     spot where the church of St. Sebastian was afterwards built. Here
     they rested for a while, to make all things ready for their
     journey, or, according to another account, were detained by a
     thunderstorm of extraordinary violence, which delay, however
     occasioned, was sufficient to enable the Christians of Rome to
     overtake them and recover their lost treasure. These Roman
     Christians then buried the bodies, with the utmost secrecy, in a
     deep pit, which they dug on the very spot where they were. Soon,
     indeed, they were restored to their original places of sepulture,
     as we know from contemporary authorities, and there seems reason to
     believe the old ecclesiastical tradition to be correct, which
     states them to have only remained in this temporary abode for a
     year and seven months. The body of St. Peter, however, was destined
     to revisit it a second time, and for a longer period; for when, at
     the beginning of the third century, Heliogabalus made his circus at
     the Vatican, Calixtus, who was then pope, removed the relics of the
     Apostle to their former temporary resting-place, the pit on the
     Appian Way. But in A.D. 257, St. Stephen, the pope, having been
     discovered in this very cemetery and having suffered martyrdom
     there, the body of St. Peter was once more removed, and restored to
     its original tomb in the Vatican."--_Northcote's Roman Catacombs._

In the passages of this catacomb are misguiding inscriptions placed here
in 1409 by William, Archbishop of Bourges, calling upon the faithful to
venerate _here_ the tombs of Sta. Cecilia and of many of the martyred
popes, who are buried elsewhere. The martyr St. Cyrinus is known to have
been buried here from very early itineraries, but his grave has not been

     "When I was a boy, being educated at Rome, I used every Sunday, in
     company with other boys of my own age and tastes, to visit the
     tombs of the apostles and martyrs, and to go into the crypts
     excavated there in the bowels of the earth. The walls on either
     side as you enter are full of the bodies of the dead, and the whole
     place is so dark, that one seems almost to see the fulfilment of
     those words of the prophet, 'Let them go down alive into Hades.'
     Here and there a little light, admitted from above, suffices to
     give a momentary relief to the horror of the darkness; but as you
     go forwards, and find yourself again immersed in the utter
     blackness of night, the words of the poet come spontaneously to
     your mind: 'The very silence fills the soul with dread.'"--_St.
     Jerome_ (A.D. 354), _In Ezek._ ch. lx.

     "A gaunt Franciscan friar, with a wild bright eye, was our only
     guide down into this profound and dreadful place. The narrow ways
     and openings hither and thither, coupled with the dead and heavy
     air, soon blotted out, in all of us, any recollection of the track
     by which we had come; and I could not help thinking, 'Good Heaven,
     if in a sudden fit of madness he should dash the torches out, or if
     he should be seized with a fit, what would become of us!' On we
     wandered, among martyrs' graves: passing great subterranean vaulted
     roads, diverging in all directions, and choked up with heaps of
     stones, that thieves and murderers may not take refuge there, and
     form a population under Rome, even worse than that which lives
     between it and the sun. Graves, graves, graves; graves of men, of
     women, of little children, who ran crying to the persecutors, 'We
     are Christians! we are Christians!' that they might be murdered
     with their parents; graves with the palm of martyrdom roughly cut
     into their stone boundaries, and little niches, made to hold a
     vessel of the martyr's blood; graves of some who lived down here,
     for years together, ministering to the rest, and preaching truth,
     and hope, and comfort, from the rude altars, that bear witness to
     their fortitude at this hour; more roomy graves, but far more
     terrible, where hundreds, being surprised, were hemmed in and
     walled up; buried before death, and killed by slow starvation.

     "'The triumphs of the Faith are not above-ground in our splendid
     churches,' said the friar, looking round upon us, as we stopped to
     rest in one of the low passages, with bones and dust surrounding us
     on every side. 'They are here! among the martyrs' graves!' He was a
     gentle, earnest man, and said it from his heart; but when I thought
     how Christian men have dealt with one another; how, perverting our
     most merciful religion, they have hunted down and tortured, burnt
     and beheaded, strangled, slaughtered, and oppressed each other; I
     pictured to myself an agony surpassing any that this Dust had
     suffered with the breath of life yet lingering in it, and how these
     great and constant hearts would have been shaken--how they would
     have quailed and drooped--if a foreknowledge of the deeds that
     professing Christians would commit in the great name for which they
     died, could have rent them with its own unutterable anguish, on the
     cruel wheel, and bitter cross, and in the fearful

     "Countless martyrs, they say, rest in these ancient sepulchres. In
     these dark depths the ancient Church took refuge from persecution;
     there she laid her martyrs, and there, over their tombs, she
     chaunted hymns of triumph, and held communion with Him for whom
     they died. In that church I spend hours. I have no wish to descend
     into those sacred sepulchres, and pry among the graves the
     resurrection trump will open soon enough. I like to think of the
     holy dead, lying undisturbed and quiet there; of their spirits in
     Paradise; of their faith triumphant in the city that massacred

     "No doubt they also had their perplexities, and wondered why the
     wicked triumph, and sighed to God, 'How long, O Lord, how
     long?'"--_Schonberg Cotta Family._

     "And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the
     souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the
     testimony which they held: and they cried with a loud voice,
     saying, How long, O Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and
     avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth? And white robes
     were given unto every one of them; and it was said unto them, that
     they should rest yet for a little season, until their
     fellow-servants also and their brethren, that should be killed as
     they were, should be fulfilled."--_Rev._ vi. 9--11.

In the valley beneath S. Sebastiano are the ruins of the _Circus of
Maxentius_, near those of a villa of that emperor. The circus was 1482
feet long, 244 feet broad, and was capable of containing 15,000
spectators, yet it is a miniature compared with the Circus Maximus,
though very interesting as retaining in tolerable preservation all the
different parts which composed a circus. The circular ruin near it was a
_Temple_ dedicated by Maxentius to his son Romulus.

     "Le jeune Romulus, étant mort, fut placé au rang des dieux, dans
     cet olympe qui s'écroulait. Son père lui éleva un temple dont la
     partie inférieure se voit encore, et le cirque lui-même fut
     peut-être une dépendance de ce temple funèbre, car les courses de
     chars étaient un des honneurs que l'antiquité rendait aux morts, et
     sont souvent pour cela représentées sur les tombeaux."--_Ampère,
     Emp._ ii. 360.

These ruins are very picturesque, backed by the peaks of the Sabine
range, which in winter are generally covered with snow.

The opposite hill is crowned by the _Tomb of Cecilia Metella_, daughter
of Quintus Metellus Creticus, and wife of Crassus. It is a round tower,
seventy feet in diameter. The bulls' heads on the frieze gave it the
popular name of Capo di Bove. The marble coating of the basement was
carried off by Urban VIII. to make the fountain of Trevi. The
battlements were added when the tomb was turned into a fortress by the
Caëtani in the thirteenth century.

     "About two miles, or more, from the city gates, and right upon the
     roadside, is an immense round pile, sepulchral in its original
     purpose, like those already mentioned. It is built of great blocks
     of hewn stone, on a vast, square foundation of rough, agglomerated
     material, such as composes the mass of all the other ruinous tombs.
     But, whatever might be the cause, it is in a far better state of
     preservation than they. On its broad summit rise the battlements of
     a mediæval fortress, out of the midst of which (so long since had
     time begun to crumble the supplemental structure, and cover it with
     soil, by means of wayside dust) grow trees, bushes, and thick
     festoons of ivy. This tomb of a woman has become the dungeon-keep
     of a castle; and all the care that Cecilia Metella's husband could
     bestow, to secure endless peace for her beloved relics, only
     sufficed to make that handful of precious ashes the nucleus of
     battles, long ages after her death."--_Hawthorne, Transformation._

    "There is a stern round tower of other days,
    Firm as a fortress, with its fence of stone,
    Such as an army's baffled strength delays,
    Standing with half its battlements alone,
    And with two thousand years of ivy grown,
    The garland of eternity, where wave
    The green leaves over all by time o'erthrown;--
    What was this tower of strength? within its cave
    What treasure lay so lock'd, so hid?--a woman's grave.

    "But who was she, the lady of the dead,
    Tomb'd in a palace? Was she chaste and fair?
    Worthy a king's--or more--a Roman's bed?
    What race of chiefs and heroes did she bear?
    What daughter of her beauties was the heir?
    How lived--how loved--how died she? Was she not
    So honoured--and conspicuously there,
    Where meaner relics must not dare to rot,
    Placed to commemorate a more than mortal lot?

    "Perchance she died in youth: it may be, bow'd
    With woes far heavier than the ponderous tomb
    That weigh'd upon her gentle dust, a cloud
    Might gather o'er her beauty, and a gloom
    In her dark eye, prophetic of the doom
    Heaven gives its favourites--early death; yet shed
    A sunset charm around her, and illume
    With hectic light, the Hesperus of the dead,
    Of her consuming cheek the autumnal leaf-like red.

    "Perchance she died in age--surviving all,
    Charms, kindred, children--with the silver grey
    On her long tresses, which might yet recall,
    It may be, still a something of the day
    When they were braided, and her proud array
    And lovely form were envied, praised, and eyed
    By Rome--but whither would Conjecture stray?
    Thus much alone we know--Metella died,
    The wealthiest Roman's wife: Behold his love or pride!"

    _Childe Harold._

Close to the tomb are the ruins of a Gothic church of the Caëtani.

     "Le tombeau de Cecilia-Metella était devenu un château fort alors
     aux mains des Caëtani, et autour du château s'était formé un
     village avec son église, dont on a récemment retrouvé les
     restes."--_Ampère, Voyage Dantesque._

It is at Cecilia Metella's tomb that the beauties of the Via Appia
really begin. A very short distance further, we emerge from the walls
which have hitherto shut in the road on either side, and enjoy
uninterrupted views over the Latin plain, strewn with its ruined castles
and villages--and the long lines of aqueducts, to the Sabine and Alban

     "The Via Appia is a magnificent promenade, amongst ruinous tombs,
     the massive remains of which extend for many miles over the Roman
     Campagna. The powerful families of ancient Rome loved to build
     monuments to their dead by the side of the public road, probably to
     exhibit at once their affection for their relations and their own
     power and affluence. Most of these monuments are now nothing but
     heaps of ruins, upon which are placed the statues and sculptures
     which have been found in the earth or amongst the rubbish. Those
     inscriptions which have been found on the Via Appia bear witness to
     the grief of the living for the dead, but never to the hope of
     reunion. On a great number of sarcophagi or the friezes of tombs
     may be seen the dead sitting or lying as if they were alive, some
     seem to be praying. Many heads have great individuality of
     character. Sometimes a white marble figure, beautifully draped,
     projects from these heaps of ruins, but without head or hands;
     sometimes a hand is stretched out, or a portion of a figure rises
     from the tomb. It is a street through monuments of the dead, across
     an immense churchyard; for the desolate Roman Campagna may be
     regarded as such. To the left it is scattered with the ruins of
     colossal aqueducts, which, during the time of the emperors,
     conveyed lakes and rivers to Rome, and which still, ruinous and
     destroyed, delight the eye by the beautiful proportions of their
     arcades. To the right is an immense prairie, without any other
     limit than that of the ocean, which, however, is not seen from it.
     The country is desolate, and only here and there are there any huts
     or trees to be seen."--_Frederika Bremer._

     "For the space of a mile or two beyond the gate of S. Sebastiano,
     this ancient and famous road is as desolate and disagreeable as
     most of the other Roman avenues. It extends over small,
     uncomfortable paving-stones, between brick and plastered walls,
     which are very solidly constructed, and so high as almost to
     exclude a view of the surrounding country. The houses are of the
     most uninviting aspect, neither picturesque, nor homelike and
     social; they have seldom or never a door opening on the wayside,
     but are accessible only from the rear, and frown inhospitably upon
     the traveller through iron-grated windows. Here and there appears a
     dreary inn, or a wine-shop, designated by the withered bush beside
     the entrance, within which you discover a stone-built and
     sepulchral interior, where guests refresh themselves with sour
     bread and goat's-milk cheese, washed down with wine of dolorous

     "At frequent intervals along the roadside, up rises the ruin of an
     ancient tomb. As they stand now, these structures are immensely
     high, and broken mounds of conglomerated brick, stone, pebbles, and
     earth, all molten by time into a mass as solid and indestructible
     as if each tomb were composed of a single boulder of granite. When
     first erected, they were cased externally, no doubt, with slabs of
     polished marble, artfully wrought, bas-reliefs, and all such
     suitable adornments, and were rendered majestically beautiful by
     grand architectural designs. This antique splendour has long since
     been stolen from the dead, to decorate the palaces and churches of
     the living. Nothing remains to the dishonoured sepulchres, except
     their massiveness.

     "Even the pyramids form hardly a stranger spectacle, or a more
     alien from human sympathies, than the tombs of the Appian Way, with
     their gigantic height, breadth, and solidity, defying time and the
     elements, and far too mighty to be demolished by an ordinary
     earthquake. Here you may see a modern dwelling, and a garden with
     its vines and olive-trees, perched on the lofty dilapidation of a
     tomb, which forms a precipice of fifty feet in depth on each of the
     four sides. There is a house on that funeral mound, where
     generations of children have been born, and successive lives have
     been spent, undisturbed by the ghost of the stern Roman whose ashes
     were so preposterously burdened. Other sepulchres wear a crown of
     grass, shrubbery, and forest-trees, which throw out a broad sweep
     of branches, having had time, twice over, to be a thousand years
     of age. On one of them stands a tower, which, though immemorially
     more modern than the tomb, was itself built by immemorial hands,
     and is now rifted quite from top to bottom by a vast fissure of
     decay; the tomb-hillock, its foundation, being still as firm as
     ever, and likely to endure until the last trump shall rend it wide
     asunder, and summon forth its unknown dead.

     "Yes, its unknown dead! For, except in one or two doubtful
     instances, these mountainous sepulchral edifices have not availed
     to keep so much as the bare name of an individual or a family from
     oblivion. Ambitious of everlasting remembrance as they were, the
     slumberers might just as well have gone quietly to rest, each in
     his pigeon-hole of a columbarium, or under his little green
     hillock, in a grave-yard, without a headstone to mark the spot. It
     is rather satisfactory than otherwise, to think that all these idle
     pains have turned out so utterly abortive."--_Hawthorne._

Near the fourth milestone, is the tomb of Marcus Servilius Quartus (with
an inscription), restored by Canova in 1808. A bas-relief of the death
of Atys, killed by Adrastus, a short distance beyond this, has been
suggested as part of the tomb of Seneca, who was put to death "near the
fourth milestone" by order of Nero. An inscribed tomb beyond this is
that of Sextus Pompeius Justus.

Near this, in the Campagna on the left, are some small remains, supposed
to be those of a Temple of Juno.

Beyond this a number of tombs can be identified, but none of any
importance. Such are the tombs of Plinius Eutychius, erected by Plinius
Zosimus, a freedman of Pliny the younger; of Caius Licinius; the Doric
tomb of the tax-gatherer Claudius Philippanus, inscribed "Tito. Claudio.
Secundo. Philippiano. Coactori. Flavia. Irene. Vxori Indulgentissimo;"
of Rabinius, with three busts in relief; of Hermodorus; of Elsia Prima,
priestess of Isis; of Marcus C. Cerdonus, with the bas-relief of an
elephant bearing a burning altar.

Beyond the fifth milestone, two circular mounds with basements of
peperino, were considered by Canina to be the tombs of the Horatii and

On the opposite side of the road is the exceedingly picturesque mediæval
fortress, known as _Torre Mezza Strada_, into which are incorporated the
remains of the Church of Sta. Maria Nuova, or della Gloria. Behind this
extend a vast assemblage of ruins, which form a splendid foreground to
the distant mountain view, and whose size has led to their receiving the
popular epithet of _Roma Vecchia_. Here was the favourite villa of the
Emperor Commodus, where he was residing, when the people, excited by a
sudden impulse during the games of the Circus, rose and poured out of
Rome against him--as the inhabitants of Paris to Versailles--and refused
to depart, till, terrified into action by the entreaties of his
concubine Marcia, he tossed the head of the unpopular Cleander to them
out of the window, and had the brains of that minister's child dashed
out against the stones. This villa is proved by the discovery of a
number of pipes bearing their names to have been that of the brothers
Condianus and Maximus, of the great family of the Quintilii, which was
confiscated by Commodus.

     "L'histoire des deux frères est intéressante et romanesque.
     Condianus et Maximus Quintilius étaient distingués par la science,
     les talents militaires, la richesse, et surtout par une tendresse
     mutuelle qui ne s'était jamais démentie. Servant toujours ensemble,
     l'un se faisait le lieutenant de l'autre. Bien qu'étrangers à toute
     conspiration, leur vertu les fit soupçonner d'être peu favorables à
     Commode; ils furent proscrits et moururent ensemble comme ils
     avaient vécu. L'un d'eux avait un fils nommé Sextus. Au moment de
     la mort de son père et de son oncle, ce fils se trouvait en Syrie.
     Pensant bien que le même sort l'attendait, il feignit de mourir
     pour sauver sa vie. Sextus, après avoir bu sang du lièvre, monta à
     cheval, se laissa tomber, vomit le sang qu'il avait pris et qui
     parut être son propre sang. On mit dans sa bière le corps d'un
     bélier qui passa pour son cadavre, et il disparut. Depuis ce temps,
     il erra sons divers déguisements; mais on sut qu'il avait échappé,
     et on se mit à sa recherche. Beaucoup furent tués parce-qu'ils lui
     ressemblaient ou parce-qu'ils étaient soupçonnés de lui avoir donné
     asile. Il n'est pas bien sûr qu'il ait été atteint, que sa tête se
     trouvât parmi celles qu'on apporta à Rome et qu'on dit être la
     sienne. Ce qui est certain, c'est qu'après la mort de Commode, un
     aventurier, tenté par la belle villa et par les grandes richesses
     des Quintilii, se donna pour Sextus et réclama son héritage. Il
     paraît ne pas avoir manqué d'adresse et avoir connu celui pour
     lequel il voulut qu'on le prît, car par ses réponses il se tira
     très-bien de toutes les enquêtes. Peut-être s'était-il lié avec
     Sextus et l'avait-il assassiné ensuite. Cependant l'empereur
     Pertinax, successeur de Commode, l'ayant fait venir, eut l'idée de
     lui parler grec. Le vrai Sextus connaissait parfaitement cette
     langue. Le faux Sextus, qui ne savait pas le grec, répondit tout de
     travers, et sa fraude fut ainsi découverte."--_Ampère, Emp._ ii.

On the left of the Via Appia, appears a huge monument, on a narrow base,
called the Tomb of the Metelli. Beyond this, after the fifth milestone,
are the tombs of Sergius Demetrius, a wine merchant; of Lucius Arrius;
of Septimia Gallia; and of one of the Cæcilii, in whose sepulchre,
according to Eutropius, was buried Pomponius Atticus, the friend of
Cicero, whose daughter Vipsania was the first wife of Agrippa, and whose
granddaughter Vipsania Agrippina was the first wife of Tiberius.

Close to the sixth milestone is the mass of masonry sometimes called
"Casale Rotondo," or "Cotta's Tomb," from that name being found there
inscribed on a stone, but generally attributed to Messala Corvinus, the
poet, and friend of Horace, and believed to have been raised to him by
his son Valerius Maximus Cotta, mentioned in Ovid.

    "Te autem in turba non ausim, Cotta, silere,
    Pieridum lumen, præsidiumque fori."

    _Epist._ xvi.

This tomb was even larger than that of Cecilia Metella, and was turned
into a fortress by the Orsini in the fifteenth century.

Beyond this are tombs identified as those of P. Quintius, tribune of the
sixteenth legion; Marcus Julius, steward of Claudius; Publius Decumius
Philomusus (with appropriate bas-reliefs of two mice nibbling a cake);
and of Cedritius Flaccianius.

Passing on the left the _Tor di Selce_, erected upon a huge unknown
tomb, are the tombs of Titia Eucharis, and of Atilius Evodus, jeweller
(margaritarius) on the Via Sacra, with the inscription, "Hospes
resiste--aspice ubi continentur ossa hominis boni misericordis amantis
pauperis." Near the eighth milestone are ruins attributed to the temples
of Silvanus and of Hercules,--of which the latter is mentioned in
Martial's Epigrams, beyond which were the villas of Bassus and of
Persius. The last tomb identified is that of Quintus Verranius. Near the
ninth milestone is a tomb supposed to be that of Gallienus (Imp. 268),
who lived close by in a villa, amid the ruins of which "the Discobolus"
was discovered.

From the stream called Pontecello, near the tenth milestone, the road
gradually ascends to Albano, passing several large but unnamed tombs. At
the Osteria delle Frattocchie it joins the Via Appia Nuova. Close to the
gate of Albano, it passes on the left the tall tomb attributed to Pompey
the Great, in accordance with the statement of Plutarch, and in spite of
the epigram of Varro Atacinus, which says:--

    "Marmoreo Licinius tumulo jacet; at Cato parvo;
    Pompeius nullo: quis putet esse Deus."

Among the many processions which have passed along this road, perhaps
the most remarkable have been that bearing back to Rome the dead body of
Sylla, who died at Pozzuoli, "in a gilt litter, with royal ornaments,
trumpets before him, and horsemen behind;"[223] and the funeral of
Augustus, who dying at Nola (A.D. 14), was brought to Bovillæ, and
remained there a month in the sanctuary of the Julian family, after
which the knights brought the body in solemn procession to his palace on
the Palatine.

But throughout a walk along the Appian Way, the one great Christian
interest of this world-famous road, will, to the Christian visitor,
overpower all others.

     "And so we went toward Rome.

     "And from thence, when the brethren heard of us, they came to meet
     us as far as Appii-forum, and the Three Taverns: whom when Paul
     saw, he thanked God, and took courage.

     "And when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners to
     the captain of the guard; but Paul was suffered to dwell by
     himself, with a soldier that kept him."--_Acts_ xxviii. 14--16.

     "It is not without its manifold uses to remember that, amidst the
     dim and wavering traditions of later times, one figure at least
     stands out clear and distinct and undoubted, and this figure is the
     Apostle Paul. He, whatever we may think concerning any other
     apostle or apostolic man in connection with Rome, he, beyond a
     shadow of doubt, appears in the New Testament as her great teacher.
     No criticism or scepticism of modern times has ever questioned the
     perfect authenticity of that last chapter of the Acts, which gives
     the account of his journey, stage by stage, till he set foot within
     the walls of the city. However much we may be compelled to distrust
     any particular traditions concerning special localities of his life
     and death, we cannot doubt for a moment that his eye rested on the
     same general view of sky and plain and mountain; that his feet trod
     the pavement of the same Appian road; that his way lay through the
     same long avenue of ancient tombs on which we now look and wonder;
     that he entered (and there we have our last authentic glimpse of
     his progress) through the arch of Drusus, and then is lost to our
     view in the great Babylon of Rome."--_A. P. Stanley's Sermons._

     "When St. Paul was approaching Rome, all the bases of the mountains
     were (as indeed they are partially now) clustered round with the
     villas and gardens of wealthy citizens. The Appian Way climbs and
     then descends along its southern slope. After passing Lanuvium it
     crossed a crater-like valley or immense substructions, which still
     remain. Here is Aricia, an easy stage from Rome. The town was above
     the road, and on the hillside swarms of beggars beset travellers as
     they passed. On the summit of the next rise, Paul of Tarsus would
     obtain his first view of Rome. There is no doubt that the prospect
     was, in many respects, very different from the view which is now
     obtained from the same spot. It is true that the natural features
     of the scene are unaltered. The long wall of blue Sabine mountains,
     with Soracte in the distance, closed in the Campagna, which
     stretched far across to the sea and round the base of the Alban
     hills. But ancient Rome was not, like modern Rome, impressive from
     its solitude, standing alone, with its one conspicuous cupola, in
     the midst of a desolate though beautiful waste. St. Paul would see
     a vast city, covering the Campagna, and almost continuously
     connected by its suburbs with the villas on the hill where he
     stood, and with the bright towns which clustered on the sides of
     the mountains opposite. Over all the intermediate space were the
     houses and gardens, through which aqueducts and roads might be
     traced in converging lines towards the confused mass of edifices
     which formed the city of Rome. Here no conspicuous building,
     elevated above the rest, attracted the eye or the imagination.
     Ancient Rome had neither cupola nor campanile, still less had it
     any of those spires which give life to all the capitals of northern
     Christendom. It was a widespread aggregate of buildings, which,
     though separated by narrow streets and open spaces, appeared, when
     seen from near Aricia, blended into one indiscriminate mass: for
     distance concealed the contrasts which divided the crowded
     habitations of the poor and the dark haunts of filth and
     misery--from the theatres and colonnades, the baths, the temples,
     and palaces with gilded roofs, flashing back the sun.

     "The road descended into the plain at Bovillæ, six miles from
     Aricia: and thence it proceeded in a straight line, with the
     sepulchres of illustrious families on either hand. One of these was
     the burial-place of the Julian gens, with which the centurion who
     had charge of the prisoners was in some way connected. As they
     proceeded over the old pavement, among gardens and modern houses,
     and approached nearer the busy metropolis--the 'conflux issuing
     forth or entering in' in various costumes and on various
     errands,--vehicles, horsemen, and foot-passengers, soldiers and
     labourers, Romans and foreigners,--became more crowded and
     confusing. The houses grew closer. They were already in Rome. It
     was impossible to define the commencement of the city. Its populous
     portions extended far beyond the limits marked out by Servius. The
     ancient wall, with its once sacred pomœrium, was rather an
     object for antiquarian interest, like the walls of York or Chester,
     than any protection against the enemies, who were kept far aloof by
     the legions on the frontier.

     "Yet the Porta Capena is a spot which we can hardly leave without
     lingering for a moment. Under this arch--which was perpetually
     dripping with the water of the aqueduct that went over it--had
     passed all those who, since a remote period of the republic, had
     travelled by the Appian Way,--victorious generals with their
     legions, returning from foreign service,--emperors and courtiers,
     vagrant representatives of every form of heathenism, Greeks and
     Asiatics, Jews and Christians. From this point entering within the
     city, Julius and his prisoners moved on, with the Aventine on their
     left, close round the base of the Cœlian, and through the hollow
     ground which lay between this hill and the Palatine: thence over
     the low ridge called Velia, where afterwards was built the arch of
     Titus, to commemorate the destruction of Jerusalem; and then
     descending, by the _Via Sacra_, into that space which was the
     centre of imperial power and imperial magnificence, and associated
     also with the most glorious recollections of the republic. The
     Forum was to Rome, what the Acropolis was to Athens, the heart of
     all the characteristic interest of the place. Here was the
     _Milliarium Aureum_, to which the roads of all the provinces
     converged. All around were the stately buildings, which were raised
     in the closing years of the republic, and by the earlier emperors.
     In front was the Capitoline Hill, illustrious long before the
     invasion of the Gauls. Close on the left, covering that hill, whose
     name is associated in every modern European language with the
     notion of imperial splendour, were the vast ranges of the
     _palace_--the 'house of Cæsar' (Philipp. iv. 22). Here were the
     household troops quartered in a _prætorium_ attached to the palace.
     And here (unless, indeed, it was in the great Prætorian Camp
     outside the city wall) Julius gave up his prisoner to Burrus, the
     Prætorian Prefect, whose official duty it was to keep in custody
     all accused persons who were to be tried before the
     Emperor."--_Conybeare and Howson._



     Palazzo Barberini--Palazzo Albani--S. Carlo a Quattro Fontane--S.
     Andrea a Monte Cavallo--Quirinal Palace--Palazzo della
     Consulta--Palazzo Rospigliosi--Colonna Gardens and Temple of the
     Sun--S. Silvestro a Monte Cavallo--Sta. Caterina di Siena--SS.
     Domenico e Sisto--Sta. Agata dei Goti--Sta. Maria in Monte--S.
     Lorenzo Pane e Perna--Sta. Pudenziana--S. Paolo Primo Eremita--S.
     Dionisio--S. Vitale.

It is difficult to determine the exact limits of what in ancient times
were regarded as the Quirinal and Viminal hills. They, like the
Esquiline and Cœlian, are "in fact merely spurs or tongues of hill,
projecting inwards from a common base, the broad table-land, which
slopes on the other side almost imperceptibly into the Campagna."[224]
That, which is described in this chapter as belonging to these two
hills, is chiefly the district to the right of the Via Quattro Fontane,
and its continuations--which extend in a straight line to Sta. Maria

The Quirinal, like all the other hills, except the Palatine and the
Cœlian, belonged to the Sabines in the early period of Roman history,
and is full of records of their occupation. They had a Capitol here
which is believed to have been long anterior to that on the Capitoline,
and which was crowned by a temple of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. This
Sabine capitol occupied the site of the present Palazzo Rospigliosi.

The name Quirinal is derived from the Sabine word _Quiris_--signifying a
lance, which gave the Sabines their name of Quirites, or lance-bearers,
and to their god the name Quirinus.[225] After his death Romulus
received this title, and an important temple was raised to him on the
Quirinal by Numa,[226] under this name, thus identifying him with Janus
Quirinus, the national god. This temple was surrounded by a sacred grove
mentioned by Ovid.[227] It was rebuilt by the consul L. Papirius Cursor,
to commemorate his triumph after the third Samnite war, B.C. 293, when
he adorned it with a sun-dial (_solarium horologium_), the first set up
in Rome, which, however, not being constructed for the right latitude,
did not show the time correctly. This defect was not remedied till
nearly a century afterwards, when Q. Marcius Philippus set up a correct
dial.[228] In front of this temple grew two celebrated myrtle-trees, one
called _Patricia_, the other _Plebeia_, which shared the fortunes of
their respective orders, as the orange-tree at Sta. Sabina now does that
of the Dominicans. Thus, up to the fifth century, Patricia flourished
gloriously, and Plebeia pined; but from the time when the plebeians
completely gained the upper hand, Patricia withered away.[229] The
temple was rebuilt by Augustus, and Dion Cassius states that the number
of pillars by which it was surrounded accorded with that of the years of
his life.[230]

Adjoining the temple was a portico:

    "Vicini pete porticum Quirini:
    Turbam non habet otiosiorem

    _Martial_, xi. Ep. i.

                     ----"Officium cras
    Primo sole mihi peragendum in valle Quirini."

    _Juvenal, Sat._ ii. 132.

Hard by was a temple of Fortuna Publica,

    "Qui dicet, Quondam sacrata est colle Quirini
    Hac Fortuna die Publica; verus erit."

    _Ovid, Fast._ iv. 375.

also an altar to Mamurius, an ancient Sabine divinity, probably
identical with Mars, and a temple of Salus, or Health, which gave a name
to the Porta Salutaria, which must have stood nearly on the site of the
present Quattro Fontane, and near which, not inappropriately, was a
temple of Fever, in the Via S. Vitale, where fever is still prevalent.

The site of the temple of Quirinus is ascertained to have been nearly
that now occupied by S. Andrea a Monte Cavallo. On the opposite side of
the street, where part of the papal palace now stands, was the temple of
Semo-Sanctus, the reputed father of Sabinus. Between these two temples
was the House of Pomponius Atticus (the friend and correspondent of
Cicero), a situation which gave an opportunity for the witticism of
Cicero when he said that Caesar would rather dwell with Quirinus than
with Salus, meaning that he would rather be at war than be in good

In the same neighbourhood lived Martial the epigrammatist, "on the
third floor, in a narrow street," whence he had a view as far as the
portico of Agrippa, near the Flaminian Way. Below, probably on the site
now occupied by the Piazza Barberini, was a Circus of Flora.

    "Mater, ades, florum, ludis celebranda jocosis:
      Distuleram partes mense priore tuas.
    Incipis Aprili: transis in tempora Maii.
      Alter te, fugiens; cum venit, alter habet.
    Quum tua sint cedantque tibi confinia mensum,
      Convenit in laudes ille vel ille tuas.
    Circus in hunc exit, clamataque palma theatris:
      Hoc quoque cum Circi munere carmen eat."

    _Ovid, Fast._ v. 183.

Among the great families who lived on the Quirinal were the Cornelii,
who had a street of their own, _Vicus Corneliorum_, probably on the
slopes behind the present Colonna Palace; and the Flavii, who were of
Sabine origin.[232] Domitian was born here in the house of the Flavii,
afterwards consecrated by him as a temple, in which Vespasian, Titus,
and Domitian himself were buried, and Julia the ugly daughter of
Titus--well known from her statues in the Vatican.

As some fragments remain of the two buildings erected on the Quirinal
during the later empire, Aurelian's Temple of the Sun, and the Baths of
Constantine, they will be noticed in the regular course.

       *       *       *       *       *

On the ascent of the hill, just above the Piazza del Tritone, is the
noble _Barberini Palace_, built by Urban VIII. from designs of Carlo
Maderno, continued by Borromini, and finished by Bernini, in 1640. It is
screened from the street by a magnificent railing between columns,
erected 1865--67, and if this railing could be continued, and the block
of houses towards the piazza removed, it would be far the most splendid
private palace in Rome.

This immense building is a memorial of the magnificence and ambition of
Urban VIII. Its size is enormous, the smallest apartment in the palace
containing forty rooms. The Prince at present inhabits the right wing;
with him lives his elder brother the Duke, who abdicated the family
honours in his favour. In the left wing--occupied in the beginning of
this century by the ex-king (Charles VII.) and queen of Spain, and the
"Prince of Peace"--is the huge apartment of the late Cardinal Barberini,
now uninhabited. On this side is the grand staircase, upon which is
placed a lion in high relief, found on the family property at
Palestrina. It is before this lion that Canova is said to have lain for
hours upon the pavement, studying for his tomb of Clement XIII. in St.
Peter's. The _guarda-roba_, badly kept, contains many curious relics of
family grandeur; amongst them is a sedan-chair, painted by Titian.

The _Library_ (open on Thursdays from nine to two) contains a most
valuable collection of MSS., about 7000 in number, brought together by
Cardinal Francesco Barberini, nephew of Urban VIII. They include
collections of letters of Galileo, Bembo, and Bellarmine; the official
reports to Urban VIII., relating to the state of Catholicism in England
in the time of Charles I.; a copy of the Bible in the Samaritan
character; a Bible of the fourth century; several MSS. copies of Dante;
a missal illuminated by Ghirlandajo; and a book of sketches of ancient
Roman edifices, of 1465, by Giuliano de Sangallo,--most interesting to
the antiquarian and architect, as preserving the forms of many public
buildings which have disappeared since that date. Among the 50,000
printed books is a Hebrew Bible of 1788, one of the twelve known copies
of the complete edition of Soncino; a Latin Plato, by Ficino, with
marginal notes by Tasso and his father Bernardo; a Dante of 1477, with
notes by Bembo, &c.

In the right wing is a huge _Hall_ (adorned with second-rate statues),
with a grand ceiling by _Pietro da Cortona_ (1596--1669), representing
"Il Trionfo della Gloria," the Forge of Vulcan, Minerva annihilating the
Titans, and other mythological subjects--much admired by Lanzi, and
considered by Kugler to be the most important work of the artist. Four
vast frescoes of the Fathers of the Church are preserved here, having
been removed from the dome of St. Peter's, where they were replaced with
mosaics by Urban VIII. Below are other frescoes by _Pietro da Cortona_,
a portrait of Urban VIII., and some tapestries illustrative of the
events of his reign and of his own intense self-esteem--thus the Virgin
and Angels are represented bringing in the ornaments of the papacy at
his coronation, &c. But the conceit of Pope Urban reaches its climax in
a room at the top of the house, which exhibits a number of the Barberini
bees (the family crest) flocking against the sun, and eclipsing it--to
typify the splendour of the family. The Will of Pope Urban VIII. is a
very curious document, providing against the extinction of the family in
every apparent contingency; this, however, now seems likely to take
place; the heir is a Sciarra. The pillars in front of the palace, and
all the surrounding buildings, teem with the bees of the Barberini,
which may also be seen on the Propaganda and many other great Roman
edifices, and which are creeping up the robe of Urban VIII. in St.

     "The Barberini were the last papal nephews who aspired to
     independent principalities. Urban VIII., though he enriched them
     enormously, appears to have been but little satisfied with them. He
     used to complain that he had four relations who were fit for
     nothing, the first, Cardinal Francesco, was a saint, and worked no
     miracles: the second, Cardinal Antonio, was a monk, and had no
     patience: the third, Cardinal Antonio the younger, was an orator
     (_i.e._ an ambassador), and did not know how to speak: and the
     fourth was a general, who could not draw a sword."--_Goethe,
     Romische Briefe._

On the right, on entering the palace, is the small _Collection of
Pictures_ (open when the custode chooses to be there), indifferently
lodged for a building so magnificent. We may notice:--

     _2nd Room._--

    34. Urban VIII.: _Andrea Sacchi_.
    35. A Cardinal: _Titian_.
    48. Madonna and Child, St. John, and St Jerome: _Francia_.
    54. Madonna and Child: _Sodoma_.
    58. Madonna and Child: _Giovanni Bellini_.
    63. Daughter of Raphael Mengs: _Mengs_.
    67. Portrait of himself: _Masaccio_.
    74. Adam and Eve: _Domenichino_.

     _3rd Room._--

     73. The "Schiava:" _Palma Vecchio_.

     "The so-called Slave (a totally unmeaning name) is probably a mere
     school picture, of grand beauty, but with too clumsy a style of
     drapery, too cold an expression, and too brown a carnation for
     Titian--to whom it is attributed."--_Kugler._

     76. Castel Gandolfo: _Claude Lorraine_.

     78. Portrait: _Bronzino_.

     79. Christ among the Doctors--painted in five days, in 1506:
     _Albert Durer_.

     81. "The mother of Beatrice Cenci"? _Caravaggio_.

     82. The Fornarina (with the painter's name on the armlet):

     "The history of this person, to whom Raphael was attached even to
     his death, is obscure, nor are we very clear with regard to her
     likenesses. In the tribune at Florence there is a portrait,
     inscribed with the date 1512, of a very beautiful woman holding the
     fur trimming of her mantle with her right hand, which is said to
     represent her. The picture is decidedly by Raphael, but can hardly
     represent the Fornarina; at least it has no resemblance to this
     portrait, which has the name of Raphael on the armlet, and of the
     authenticity of which (particularly with respect to the subject)
     there can hardly be a doubt. In this the figure is seated, and is
     uncovered to the waist; she draws a light drapery around her; a
     shawl is twisted round her head. The execution is beautiful and
     delicate, although the lines are sufficiently defined; the forms
     are fine and not without beauty, but at the same time not free from
     an expression of coarseness and common life. The eyes are large,
     dark, and full of fire, and seem to speak of brighter days. There
     are repetitions of this picture, from the school of Raphael, in
     Roman galleries."--_Kugler._

    86. Death of Germanicus: _Poussin._
    88. Seaport: _Claude Lorraine._
    90. Holy Family: _Andrea del Sarto._
    93. Annunciation: _Botticelli._

But the interest of this collection centres entirely around two
portraits--that (81) of Lucrezia, the unhappy wife of Francesco Cenci,
by _Scipione Gaetani_, and that (85) of Beatrice Cenci, by _Guido Reni_.

     "The portrait of Beatrice Cenci is most interesting as a just
     representation of one of the loveliest specimens of the workmanship
     of nature. There is a fixed and pale composure upon the features;
     she seems sad and stricken down in spirit, yet the despair thus
     expressed is lightened by the patience of gentleness. Her head is
     bound with folds of white drapery, from which the yellow strings of
     her golden hair escape, and fall about her neck. The moulding of
     her face is exquisitely delicate; the eyebrows are distinct and
     arched; the lips have that permanent meaning of imagination and
     sensibility which suffering has not repressed, and which it seems
     as if death scarcely could extinguish. Her forehead is large and
     clear; her eyes, which we are told were remarkable for their
     vivacity, are swollen with weeping, and lustreless, but beautifully
     tender and serene. In the whole mien there is a simplicity and
     dignity, which, united with her exquisite loveliness and deep
     sorrow, is inexpressibly pathetic. Beatrice Cenci appears to have
     been one of those persons in whom energy and gentleness dwell
     together without destroying one another; her nature simple and
     profound. The crimes and miseries in which she was an actor and
     sufferer, are as the mask and the mantle in which circumstances
     clothed her for her impersonation on the scene of the
     world."--_Shelley's Preface to the Cenci._

     "The picture of Beatrice Cenci represents simply a female head; a
     very youthful, girlish, perfectly beautiful face, enveloped in
     white drapery, from beneath which strays a lock or two of what
     seems a rich, though hidden luxuriance of auburn hair. The eyes are
     large and brown, and meet those of the spectator, evidently with a
     strange, ineffectual effort to escape. There is a little redness
     about the eyes, very slightly indicated, so that you would question
     whether or no the girl had been weeping. The whole face is very
     quiet; there is no distortion or disturbance of any single feature;
     nor is it easy to see why the expression is not cheerful, or why a
     single touch of the artist's pencil should not brighten it into
     joyousness. But, in fact, it is the very saddest picture ever
     painted or conceived; it involves an unfathomable depth of sorrow,
     the sense of which comes to the observer by a sort of intuition. It
     is a sorrow that removes this beautiful girl out of the sphere of
     humanity, and sets her in a far-off region, the remoteness of
     which, while yet her face is so close before us,--makes us shiver
     as at a spectre. You feel all the time you look at Beatrice, as if
     she were trying to escape from your gaze. She knows that her sorrow
     is so strange and immense, that she ought to be solitary for ever
     both for the world's sake and her own; and this is the reason we
     feel such a distance between Beatrice and ourselves, even when our
     eyes meet hers. It is infinitely heart-breaking to meet her glance,
     and to know that nothing can be done to help or comfort her,
     neither does she ask help or comfort, knowing the hopelessness of
     her case better than we do. She is a fallen angel--fallen and yet
     sinless: and it is only this depth of sorrow with its weight and
     darkness, that keeps her down to earth, and brings her within our
     view even while it sets her beyond our reach."--_Hawthorne,

     "The portrait of Beatrice Cenci is a picture almost impossible to
     be forgotten. Through the transcendent sweetness and beauty of the
     face, there is a something shining out that haunts me. I see it
     now, as I see this paper, or my pen. The head is loosely draped in
     white; the light hair falling down below the linen folds. She has
     turned suddenly towards you; and there is an expression in the
     eyes--although they are very tender and gentle--as if the wildness
     of a momentary terror, or distraction, had been struggled with and
     overcome, that instant; and nothing but a celestial hope, and a
     beautiful sorrow, and a desolate earthly helplessness remained.
     Some stories say that Guido painted it the night before her
     execution; some other stories, that he painted it from memory,
     after having seen her on her way to the scaffold. I am willing to
     believe that, as you see her on his canvas, so she turned towards
     him, in the crowd, from the first sight of the axe, and stamped
     upon his mind a look which he has stamped on mine as though I had
     stood beside him in the concourse. The guilty palace of the Cenci:
     blighting a whole quarter of the town, as it stands withering away
     by grains: had that face, to my fancy, in its dismal porch, and at
     its black blind windows, and flitting up and down its dreary
     stairs, and growing out of the darkness of its ghostly galleries.
     The history is written in the painting; written, in the dying
     girl's face, by Nature's own hand. And oh! how in that one touch
     she puts to flight (instead of making kin) the puny world that
     claims to be related to her, in right of poor conventional

     "Five days had been passed by Beatrice in the secret prisons of the
     Torre Savella, when, at an early hour in the morning, her advocate,
     Farinacci, entered her sad abode. With him appeared a young man of
     about twenty-five years of age, dressed in the fashion of a writer
     in the courts of justice of that day. Unheeded by Beatrice, he sat
     regarding her at a little distance with fixed attention. She had
     risen from her miserable pallet, but, unlike the wretched inmate of
     a dungeon, she seemed a being from a brighter sphere. Her eyes were
     of liquid softness, her forehead large and clear, her countenance
     of angelic purity, mysteriously beautiful. Around her head a fold
     of white muslin had been carelessly wrapped, from whence in rich
     luxuriance fell her fair and waving hair. Profound sorrow imparted
     an air of touching sensibility to her lovely features. With all the
     eagerness of hope, she begged Farinacci to tell her frankly if his
     visit foreboded good, and assured him of her gratitude for the
     anxiety he evinced, to save her life and that of her family.

     "Farinacci conversed with her for some time, while at a distance
     sat his companion, sketching the features of Beatrice. Turning
     round, she observed this with displeasure and surprise; Farinacci
     explained that this seeming writer was the celebrated painter,
     Guido Reni, who, earnestly desiring her picture, had entreated to
     be introduced into the prison for the purpose of obtaining so rich
     an acquisition. At first unwilling, but afterwards consenting, she
     turned and said, 'Signor Guido, your renown might make me desirous
     of knowing you, but how will you undervalue me in my present
     situation. From the fatality that surrounds me, you will judge me
     guilty. Perhaps my face will tell you I am not wicked; it will show
     you, too, that I now languish in this prison, which I may quit,
     only to ascend the scaffold. Your great name, and my sad story, may
     make my portrait interesting, and,' she added, with touching
     simplicity, 'the picture will awaken compassion if you write on one
     of its angles the word, _innocente_.' The great artist set himself
     to work, and produced the picture now in the Palazzo Barberini, a
     picture that rivets the attention of every beholder, which, once
     seen, ever after hovers over the memory with an interest the most
     harrowing and mysterious."--_From "Beatrice Cenci, Storia del
     Secolo XVI., Raccontata dal D.A.A., Firenze." Whiteside's

There is a pretty old-fashioned garden belonging to this palace, at one
corner of which--overhanging an old statue--was the celebrated
_Barberini Pine_, often drawn by artists from the Via Sterrata at the
back of the garden, where statue and pine combined well with the Church
of S. Caio; but, alas, this magnificent tree was cut down in 1872.

At the back of the palace-court, behind the arched bridge leading to the
garden, is--let into the wall--an inscription which formed part of the
dedication of an arch erected to Claudius by the senate and people, in
honour of the conquest of Britain. The letters were inlaid with bronze.
It was found near the Palazzo Sciarra, where the arch is supposed to
have stood.

Ascending to the summit of the hill, we find four ugly statues of
river-gods, lying over the _Quattro Fontane_, from which the street
takes its name.

On the left is the _Palazzo Albani_, recently restored by Queen
Christina of Spain.

     "In one of its rooms is a very ancient painting of Jupiter and
     Ganymede, in a very uncommon style, uniting considerable grandeur
     of conception, great force and decision, and a deep tone and colour
     which produce great effect. It is said to be Grecian."--_Eaton's

The opposite church, _S. Carlo a Quattro Fontane_, is worth observing
from the fact that the whole building, church and convent, corresponds
with one of the four piers supporting the cupola of St. Peter's. Here
was formed the point of attack against the Quirinal Palace, November 16,
1848, which caused the flight of Pius IX., and the downfall of his
government. From a window of this convent the shot was fired which
killed Monsignor Palma, one of the pontifical secretaries, and a writer
on ecclesiastical history--who had unfortunately exposed himself at one
of the windows opposite. The church contains two pictures by _Mignard_
relating to the history of S. Carlo.

Turning down Via del Quirinale, on the left is _S. Andrea a Monte
Cavallo_ (on the supposed site of the temple of Quirinus), erected, as
it is told by an inscription inside, by Camillo Pamphili, nephew of
Innocent X., from designs of Bernini. It has a Corinthian façade and a
projecting semicircular portico with Ionic columns. The interior is
oval. It is exceedingly rich, being almost entirely lined with red
marble streaked with white (Sicilian jasper), divided by white marble
pillars supporting a gilt cupola. The high altar--supposed to cover the
body of St. Zeno--between really magnificent pillars, is surmounted by a
fine picture, by _Borgognone_, of the crucifixion of St. Andrew. Near
this is the tomb, by _Festa_, of Emmanuel IV., king of Sardinia, who
abdicated his throne in 1802, to become a Jesuit monk in the adjoining
convent, where he died in 1818. On the right is the chapel of Santa
Croce, with three pictures of the passion and death of Christ by
_Brandini_; and that of St. Francis Xavier, with three pictures by
_Baciccio_, representing the saint preaching,--baptizing an Indian
queen,--and lying dead in the island of Sancian in China. On the left
is the chapel of the Virgin, with pictures, by _David_, of the three
great Jesuit saints--St. Ignatius Loyola, St. Francis Borgia, and St.
Luigi Gonzaga--adoring the Virgin, and, by _Gerard de la Nuit_, of the
Adoration of the Shepherds and of the Magi; and lastly the chapel of S.
Stanislas Kostka, containing his shrine of gold and lapis-lazuli, under
an exceedingly rich altar, which is adorned with a beautiful picture by
_Carlo Maratta_, representing the saint receiving the Infant Jesus from
the arms of his mother. At the sides of the chapel are two other
pictures by _Maratta_, one of which represents S. Stanislas "bathing
with water his breast inflamed with divine love," the other his
receiving the host from the hands of an angel. These are the three
principal incidents in the story of the young S. Stanislas, who belonged
to a noble Polish family and abandoned the world to shut himself up
here, saying, "I am not born for the good things of this world; that
which my heart desires is the good things of eternity."

     "I have long ago exhausted all my capacity of admiration for
     splendid interiors of churches; but methinks this little, little
     temple (it is not more than fifty or sixty feet across) has a more
     perfect and gem-like beauty than any other. Its shape is oval, with
     an oval dome, and above that another little dome, both of which are
     magnificently frescoed. Around the base of the larger dome is
     wreathed a flight of angels, and the smaller and upper one is
     encircled by a garland of cherubs--cherub and angel all of pure
     white marble. The oval centre of the church is walled round with
     precious and lustrous marble, of a red-veined variety, interspersed
     with columns and pilasters of white; and there are arches, opening
     through this rich wall, forming chapels, which the architect seems
     to have striven hard to make even more gorgeous than the main body
     of the church. The pavement is one star of various tinted
     marble."--_Hawthorne, Notes on Italy._

The adjoining _Convent of the Noviciate of the Order of Jesus_ contains
the room in which S. Stanislas Kostka died, at the age of eighteen, with
his reclining statue by _Le Gros_, the body in white, his dress (that of
a novice) in black, and the couch upon which he lies in yellow marble.
Behind his statue is a picture of a celestial vision which consoled him
in his last moments. On the day of his death, November 13, the convent
is thrown open, and mass is said without ceasing in this chamber, which
is visited by thousands.

     "La petite chambre de S. Stanislas Kostka, est un de ces lieux où
     la prière naît spontanément dans le cœur, et s'en échappe comme
     par un cours naturel."--_Veuillot, Parfum de Rome._[233]

In the convent garden is shown the fountain where "the angels used to
bathe the breast of S. Stanislas burning with the love of Christ."

Passing the Benedictine convent, with a courtyard containing an old
sarcophagus as a fountain, and a humble church decorated with rude
frescoes of St. Benedict and Sta. Scholastica, we reach a small and
popular church, rich in marbles, belonging to the _Perpetua Adoratrice
del Divin Sacramento del Altare_, founded by sister Maddalena of the
Incarnation, who died 1829, and is buried on the right of the entrance.
Here the low monotonous chant of the perpetual adoration may be
constantly heard.

The _Piazza of the Monte Cavallo_ has in its centre the red granite
obelisk (ninety-five feet high with its base) erected here by Antinori
in 1781, for Pius VI. It was originally brought from Egypt by Claudius,
A.D. 57, together with the obelisk now in front of Sta. Maria Maggiore,
and they were both first placed at the entrance of the mausoleum of
Augustus. At its base are the colossal statues found in the baths of
Constantine, of the Dioscuri Castor and Pollux reining in their horses.
These statues give a name to the district. Their bases bear the names of
Phidias and Praxiteles, and though their claim to be the work of such
distinguished sculptors is doubtful, they are certainly of Greek origin.
Copies of these statues at Berlin have received the nicknames of
Gehemmter Fortschritt, and Beförderter Rückschritt,--Progress checked
and Retrogression encouraged.

     "At the time when the _Mirabilia Romæ_ were published, that is,
     about the thirteenth century, these statues were believed to
     represent the young philosophers, Praxiteles and Phidias, who came
     to Rome during the reign of Tiberius, and promised to tell him his
     most secret words and actions provided he would honour them with a
     monument. Having performed their promise, they obtained these
     statues, which represent them naked, because all human science was
     naked and open to their eyes. From this fable, wild and absurd as
     it is, we may nevertheless draw the inference that the statues had
     been handed down from time immemorial as the works of Phidias and
     Praxiteles, though those artists had in the lapse of ages been
     metamorphosed into philosophers. May we not also assume the
     existence of a tradition that the statues were brought to Rome in
     the reign of Tiberius? In the middle ages the group appears to have
     been accompanied by a statue of Medusa, sitting at their feet, and
     having before her a shell. According to the text of the
     _Mirabilia_, as given by Montfaucon in his _Diarium Italicum_, this
     figure represented the Church. The snakes which surrounded her
     typified the volumes of Scripture, which nobody could approach
     unless he had first been washed--that is, baptized--in the water of
     the shell. But the Prague MS. of the _Mirabilia_ interprets the
     female figure to represent Science, and the serpents to typify the
     disputed questions with which she is concerned."--_Dyer's Hist. of
     the City of Rome._

     "L'imitation du grand style de Phidias est visible dans plusieurs
     sculptures qu'il a inspirées, et surtout dans les colosses de
     Castor et Pollux, domptant des chevaux, qui ont fait donner à une
     partie du mont Quirinal le nom de _Monte Cavallo_.

     "Il ne faut faire aucune attention aux inscriptions qui attribuent
     un des deux colosses à Phidias et l'autre à Praxitèle, Praxitèle
     dont le style n'a rien à faire ici; son nom a été inscrit sur la
     base de l'une des deux statues, comme Phèdre le reprochait déjà à
     des faussaires du temps d'Auguste, qui croyaient augmenter le
     mérite d'un nouvel ouvrage en y mettant le nom de Praxitèle. Quelle
     que soit l'époque où les colosses de Monte Cavallo ont été
     exécutés, malgré quelques différences, on doit affirmer que les
     deux originaux étaient de la même école, de l'école de
     Phidias."--_Ampère, Hist. Romaine_, iii. 252.

     "Chacun des deux héros dompte d'une seule main un cheval fougueux
     qui se cabre. Ces formes colossales, cette lutte de l'homme avec
     les animaux, donnent, comme tous les ouvrages des anciens, une
     admirable idée de la puissance physique de la nature
     humaine."--_Mad. de Staël._

    "Ye too, marvellous Twain, that erect on the Monte Cavallo
    Stand by your rearing steeds in the grace of your motionless movement,
    Stand with your upstretched arms and tranquil regardant faces,
    Stand as instinct with life in the might of immutable manhood,--
    O ye mighty and strange, ye ancient divine ones of Hellas."

    _A. H. Clough._

     "Before me were the two Monte Cavallo statues, towering
     gigantically above the pygmies of the present day, and looking like
     Titans in the act of threatening heaven. Over my head the stars
     were just beginning to look out, and might have been taken for
     guardian angels keeping watch over the temples below. Behind, and
     on my left, were palaces; on my right, gardens, and hills beyond,
     with the orange tints of sunset over them still glowing in the
     distance. Within a stone's throw of me, in the midst of objects
     thus glorious in themselves, and thus in harmony with each other,
     was stuck an unplaned post, on which glimmered a paper lantern.
     Such is Rome."--_Guesses at Truth._

Close by is a fountain playing into a fine bason of Egyptian granite,
brought hither by Pius VII. from the Forum, where it had long been used
for watering cattle.

On the left, is the _Palace of the Consulta_, built in 1730 by Clement
XII. (Corsini), from designs of Fuga. Before its gates, under the old
regime, some of the Papal Guardia Nobile were always to be seen sunning
themselves in a uniform so resplendent that it could scarcely be
believed that the pay of this "noble guard" of the Pope amounted only to
£5 6_s._ 3_d._ a month!

On the right, is the immense _Palace of the Quirinal_, which also
extends along one whole side of the street we have been pursuing.

     "That palace-building, ruin-destroying pope, Paul IV., began to
     erect the enormous palace on the Quirinal Hill; and the
     prolongation of his labours, by a long series of successive
     pontiffs, has made it one of the largest and ugliest buildings
     extant."--_Eaton's Rome._

     The chief, indeed almost the only, interest of this palace arises
     from its having been the favourite residence of Pius VII.
     (Chiaramonte). It was here that he was taken prisoner by the
     French. General Radet forced his way into the pope's room on the
     night of June 6, 1809, and, while excusing himself for being the
     messenger, hastily intimated to the pontiff, in the name of the
     emperor, that he must at once abdicate his temporal sovereignty.
     Pius absolutely refused, upon which he was forced to descend the
     staircase, and found a coach waiting at the entrance of the palace.
     Here the pope paused, his face streaming with tears, and, standing
     in the starlit piazza, solemnly extended his arms in benediction
     over his sleeping people. Then he entered the carriage, followed by
     Cardinal Pacca, and was hurried away to exile.... "Whirled away
     through the heat and dust of an Italian summer's day, without an
     attendant, without linen, without his spectacles--fevered and
     wearied, he never for a moment lost his serenity. Cardinal Pacca
     tells us, that when they had just started on this most dismal of
     journeys, the pope asked him if he had any money. The secretary of
     state replied that he had had no opportunity of providing himself.
     'We then drew forth our purses,' continues the cardinal, 'and
     notwithstanding the state of affliction we were in at being thus
     torn away from Rome, and all that was dear to us, we could hardly
     compose our countenances, on finding the contents of each purse to
     consist--of the pope's, of a papetto (10_d._), and of mine, of
     three grossi (7½_d._). We had precisely thirty-five baiocchi
     between us. The pope, extending his hand, showed his papetto to
     General Radet, saying, at the same time, 'Look here--this is all I
     possess.'"[234].... Six years after, Napoleon was sent to St.
     Helena, and Pius VII. returned in triumph to Rome!

It was from this same palace that Pius IX.--who has never inhabited it
since--made his escape to Gaeta during the revolution of 1848, when the
siege of the Quirinal by the insurgents had succeeded in extorting the
appointment of a democratic ministry.

     "On the afternoon of the 24th of November, the Duc d'Harcourt had
     arrived at the Quirinal in his coach as ambassador of France, and
     craved an audience of the sovereign. The guards wondered that he
     stayed so long; but they knew not that he sat reading the
     newspapers in the papal study, while the pope had retired to his
     bed-room to change his dress. Here his major-domo, Filippani, had
     laid out the black cassock and dress of an ordinary priest. The
     pontiff took off his purple stole and white pontifical robe, and
     came forth in the simple garb he had worn in his quiet youth. The
     Duc d'Harcourt threw himself on his knees exclaiming, 'Go forth,
     holy Father; divine wisdom inspires this counsel, divine power will
     lead it to a happy end.' By secret passages and narrow staircases,
     Pius IX. and his trusty servant passed unseen to a little door,
     used only occasionally for the Swiss guards, and by which they were
     to leave the palace. They reached it, and bethought them that the
     key had been forgotten! Filippani hastened back to the papal
     apartment to fetch it; and returning unquestioned to the wicket,
     found the pontiff on his knees, and quite absorbed in prayer. The
     wards were rusty, and the key turned with difficulty; but the door
     was opened at last, and the holy fugitive and his servant quickly
     entered a poor hackney coach that was waiting for them outside.
     Here, again, they ran risk of being discovered through the
     thoughtless adherence to old etiquette of the other servant, who
     stood by the coach, and who, having let down the steps, knelt, as
     usual, before he shut the door.

     "The pope wore a dark great coat over his priest's cassock, a
     low-crowned round hat, and a broad brown woollen neckcloth outside
     his straight Roman collar. Filippani had on his usual loose cloak;
     but under this he carried the three-cornered hat of the pope, a
     bundle of the most private and secret papers, the papal seals, the
     breviary, the cross-embroidered slippers, a small quantity of
     linen, and a little box full of gold medals stamped with the
     likeness of his Holiness. From the inside of the carriage, he
     directed the coachman to follow many winding and diverging streets,
     in the hope of misleading the spies, who were known to swarm at
     every corner. Beside the Church of SS. Pietro e Marcellino, in the
     deserted quarter beyond the Coliseum, they found the Bavarian
     minister, Count Spaur, waiting in his own private carriage, and
     imagining every danger which could have detained them so long. The
     sovereign pressed the hand of his faithful Filippani, and entered
     the Count's carriage. Silently they drove on through the old gate
     of Rome,--Count Spaur having there shown the passport of the
     Bavarian minister going to Naples on affairs of state.

     "Meanwhile the Duc d'Harcourt grew tired of reading the newspapers
     in the pope's study; and when he thought that his Holiness must be
     far beyond the walls of Rome, he left the palace, and taking
     post-horses, hastened with all speed to overtake the fugitive on
     the road to Civita Vecchia, whither he believed him to be flying.
     As he left the study in the Quirinal, a prelate entered with a
     large bundle of ecclesiastical papers, on which, he said, he had to
     confer with the pope; then his chamberlain went in to read to him
     his breviary, and the office of the day. The rooms were lighted up,
     and the supper taken in as usual; and at length it was stated that
     his Holiness, feeling somewhat unwell, had retired to rest; and his
     attendants, and the guard of honour, were dismissed for the night.
     It is true that a certain prelate, who chanced to see the little
     door by which the fugitive had escaped into the street left open,
     began to cry out, 'The pope has escaped! the pope has escaped!' But
     Prince Gabrielli was beside him; and, clapping his hand upon the
     mouth of the alarmist, silenced him in time, by whispering, 'Be
     quiet, Monsignore; be quiet, or we shall be cut to pieces!'

     "Near La Riccia, the fugitives found Countess Spaur (who had
     arranged the whole plan of the escape) waiting with a coach and six
     horses--in which they pursued their journey to Gaeta, reaching the
     Neapolitan frontier between five and six in the morning. The pope
     throughout carried with him the sacrament in the pyx which Pius the
     Seventh carried when he was taken prisoner to France, and which, as
     if with prescience of what would happen, had been lately sent to
     him as a memorial by the Bishop of Avignon."--_Beste._

It is in the Quirinal Palace that the later conclaves have always met
for the election of the popes.

     "In the afternoon of the last day of the novendiali, as they are
     called, after the death of a pope, the cardinals assemble (at S.
     Sylvestro a Monte Cavallo), and walk in procession, accompanied by
     their conclavisti, a secretary, a chaplain, and a servant or two,
     to the great gate of the royal residence, in which one will remain
     as master and supreme lord. Of course the hill is crowded by
     persons, lining the avenue kept open for the procession. Cardinals
     never before seen by them, or not for many years, pass before
     them; eager eyes scan and measure them, and try to conjecture, from
     fancied omens in eye, in figure, or in expression, who will be
     shortly the sovereign of their fair city; and, what is much more,
     the head of the Catholic Church, from the rising to the setting
     sun. They all enter equal over the threshold of that gate: they
     share together the supreme rule, spiritual and temporal: there is
     still embosomed in them all, the voice yet silent, that will soon
     sound from one tongue over all the world, and the dormant germ of
     that authority which will soon again be concentrated in one man
     alone. To-day they are all equal; perhaps to-morrow one will sit
     enthroned, and all the rest will kiss his feet; one will be
     sovereign, and others his subjects; one the shepherd, and the
     others his flock.

            *       *       *       *       *

     "From the Quirinal Palace stretches out, the length of a whole
     street, an immense wing, divided in its two upper floors into a
     great number of small but complete suites of apartments, occupied
     permanently, or occasionally, by persons attached to the Court.
     During conclave these are allotted, literally so, to the cardinals,
     each of whom lives apart with his own attendants. His food is
     brought daily from his own house, and is overhauled, and delivered
     to him in the shape of 'broken victuals,' by the watchful guardians
     of the _turns_ and lattices, through which alone anything, even
     conversation, can penetrate into the seclusion of that sacred
     retreat. For a few hours, the first evening, the doors are left
     open, and the nobility, the diplomatic body, and, in fact, all
     presentable persons, may roam from cell to cell, paying a brief
     compliment to its occupant, perhaps speaking the same good wishes
     to fifty, which they know can only be accomplished in one. After
     that, all is closed; a wicket is left accessible for any cardinal
     to enter, who is not yet arrived; but every aperture is jealously
     guarded by faithful janitors, judges and prelates of various
     tribunals, who relieve one another. Every letter even is opened and
     read, that no communications may be held with the outer world. The
     very street on which the wing of the conclave looks is barricaded
     and guarded by a picquet at each end; and as, fortunately, opposite
     there are no private residences, and all the buildings have access
     from the back, no inconvenience is thereby created.... In the mean
     time, within, and unseen from without, _fervet opus_.

     "Twice a day the cardinals meet in the chapel belonging to the
     palace, included in the enclosure, and there, on tickets so
     arranged that the voter's name cannot be seen, write the name of
     him for whom they give their suffrage. These papers are examined in
     their presence, and if the number of votes given to any one do not
     constitute the majority, they are burnt in such a manner that the
     smoke, issuing through a flue, is visible to the crowd usually
     assembled in the square outside. Some day, instead of this usual
     signal to disperse, the sound of pick and hammer is heard, a small
     opening is seen in the wall which had temporarily blocked up the
     great window over the palace gateway. At last the masons of the
     conclave have opened a rude door, through which steps out on the
     balcony the first Cardinal Deacon, and proclaims to the many, or to
     the few, who may happen to be in waiting, that they again possess a
     sovereign and a pontiff."--_Cardinal Wiseman._

     "Sais-tu ce que c'est qu'un conclave? Une réunion de vieillards,
     moins occupés du ciel que de la terre, et dont quelques-uns se font
     plus maladifs, plus goutteux, et plus cacochymes qu'ils ne le sont
     encore, dans l'espérance d'inspirer un vif interêt à leurs
     partisans. Grand nombre d'éminences ne renonçant jamais à la
     possibilité d'une élection, le rival le plus près de la tombe
     excite toujours le moins de répugnance. Un rhumatisme est ici un
     titre à la confiance; l'hydropisie a ses partisans: car l'ambition
     et la mort comptent sur les mêmes chances. Le cercueil sert comme
     de marchepied au trône; et il y a tel pieux candidat qui
     négocierait avec son concurrent, si la durée du nouveau règne
     pouvait avoir son terme obligatoire comme celui d'un effet de
     commerce. Eh! ne sais-tu pas toi-même que le pâtre d'Ancône brûla
     gaiement ses béquilles dès qu'il eut ceint la tiare; et que Léon
     X., élu à trente-huit ans, avait eu grand soin de ne guérir d'un
     mal mortel que le lendemain de son couronnement?"--_Lorenzo
     Ganganelli (Clement XIV.) à Carlo Bertinazzi, Avril 16, 1769._

Under the rule of the Popes the palace was shown from 12 A.M. to 4 P.M.
on presentation of a ticket, which could easily be obtained through a
banker. It was stripped of all historical memorials and contained very
few fine pictures, so was little worth visiting. Since the winter of
1870--71 the palace has been appropriated as the residence of the
Sardinian Royal Family.

On the landing of the principal staircase, in a bad light, is a very
important fresco by _Melozzo da Forli_, a rare master of the Paduan

     "On the vaulted ceiling of a chapel in the Church of the SS.
     Apostoli at Rome, Melozzo executed a work (1472) which, in those
     times, can have admitted of comparison with few. When the chapel
     was rebuilt in the eighteenth century some fragments were saved.
     That comprehending the Creator between angels was removed to a
     staircase in the Quirinal palace, while single figures of angels
     were placed in the sacristy of St. Peter's. These detached portions
     suffice to show a beauty and fulness of form, and a combination of
     earthly and spiritual grandeur, comparable in their way to the
     noblest productions of Titian, although in mode of execution rather
     recalling Coreggio. Here, as in the cupola frescoes of Coreggio
     himself, half a century later, we trace that constant effort at
     true perspective of the figure, hardly in character, perhaps, with
     high ecclesiastical art; the drapery, also, is of a somewhat
     formless description; but the grandeur of the principal figure, the
     grace and freshness of the little adoring cherubs, and the elevated
     beauty of the angels are expressed with an easy naïveté, to which
     only the best works of Mantegna and Signorelli can

Passing through a great hall, one hundred and ninety feet long, we are
shown a number of rooms fitted up by Pius VII. and Gregory XVI. for the
papal summer residence. They contain few objects of interest. In one
chamber is a Last Supper by _Baroccio_;--in the next a fine tapestry
representing the marriage of Louis XIV. The following rooms contain some
good Gobelin tapestries.

Several apartments have mosaic pavements, brought hither from pagan
edifices. The chamber is shown in which Pius VII. died,--the bed has
been changed. In the next room--an audience chamber--he was taken
prisoner. Here is a curious ancient pietra-dura of the
Annunciation,--the ceiling is painted by Overbeck. In one of the
following rooms are some pictures, including--

    S. Giorgio: _Pordenone_.

     "One picture especially attracted me at the Quirinal; a St. George,
     the conqueror of the dragon, and deliverer of the maiden. No one
     could tell me the name of the master, till a modest little man
     stepped forward, and told me the picture was by Pordenone the
     Venetian, one of his best works, showing all his merits. This quite
     explained my liking for it; the picture had struck me, because
     being best acquainted with the Venetian school, I could best
     appreciate the merits of one of its masters."--_Goethe, Romische

    Marriage of S. Catherine: _Battoni_.
    St. Peter and St. Paul: _Fra Bartolomeo_.

     "The two standing figures of St. Peter and St. Paul, as large as
     life, were executed during a short residence in Rome. The first was
     completed by Raphael after Fra Bartolomeo's departure."--_Kugler._

The room which is decorated with a fine modern tapestry of the martyrdom
of St. Stephen, has a plaster frieze, being the original cast of the
Triumph of Alexander the Great, modelled for Napoleon by _Thorwaldsen_.
One of the last rooms shown is a kind of picture gallery. Among the best
works here are:--

    Saul and David: _Guercino_.
    Ecce Homo: _Domenichino_.
    St. Jerome: _Spagnoletto_.
    The Flight into Egypt: _Baroccio_.

Here also is a worthless picture of the Battle of Mentana, presented to
Pius IX. by the English Catholic ladies.

The _Private Chapel of the Pope_, opening from this gallery, contains a
magnificent picture of the Annunciation by _Guido_, and frescoes of the
life of the Virgin by _Albani_. The great hall of the Consistory, a bare
room with benches, has a fresco of the Virgin and Child by _Carlo
Maratta_, over an altar.

The _Gardens of the Quirinal_ can be visited with an order from 8 to 12
A.M. They are in the stiff style of box hedges and clipped avenues,
which seems to belong especially to Rome, and which we know to have
been popular here even in imperial times. Pliny, in his account of his
Tusculan villa, describes his gardens decorated with "figures of
different animals, cut in box: evergreens clipped into a thousand
different shapes; sometimes into letters forming different names; walls
and hedges of cut box, and trees twisted into a variety of forms." But
the Quirinal gardens are also worth visiting, on account of the many
pretty glimpses they afford of St. Peter's and other distant buildings,
and the oddity of some of the devices--an organ played by water, &c. The
Casino, built by Fuga, has frescoes by _Orizonti_, _Pompeo Battoni_, and

If we turn to the left on issuing from the palace, we reach--on the
left--the entrance to the courtyard of the vast _Palazzo Rospigliosi_,
built by Flaminio Ponzio, in 1603, for Cardinal Scipio Borghese, on a
portion of the site of the Baths of Constantine. It was inhabited by
Cardinal Bentivoglio, and sold by him to Cardinal Mazarin, who enlarged
it from designs of Carlo Maderno. From his time to 1704 it was inhabited
by French ambassadors, and it then passed to the Rospigliosi family. The
present Prince Rospigliosi inhabits the second floor, his brother,
Prince Pallavicini, the first.

The palace itself (well known from its hospitalities) is not shown, but
the _Casino_ is open on Wednesdays and Saturdays. It is situated at the
end of a very small but pretty garden planted with magnolias, and
consists of three chambers. On the roof of the central room is the
famous Aurora of Guido.

     "Guido's Aurora is the very type of haste and impetus; for surely
     no man ever imagined such hurry and tumult, such sounding and
     clashing. Painters maintain that it is lighted from two
     sides,--they have my full permission to light theirs from three if
     it will improve them, but the difference lies
     elsewhere."--_Mendelssohn's Letters_, p. 91.

     "This is the noblest work of Guido. It is embodied poetry. The
     Hours, that hand in hand encircle the car of Phœbus, advance
     with rapid pace. The paler, milder forms of those gentle sisters
     who rule over declining day, and the glowing glance of those who
     bask in the meridian blaze, resplendent in the hues of heaven,--are
     of no mortal grace and beauty; but they are eclipsed by Aurora
     herself, who sails on the golden clouds before them, shedding
     'showers of shadowing roses' on the rejoicing earth; her celestial
     presence diffusing gladness, and light, and beauty around. Above
     the heads of the heavenly coursers, hovers the morning star, in the
     form of a youthful cherub, bearing his flaming torch. Nothing is
     more admirable in this beautiful composition than the motion given
     to the whole. The smooth and rapid step of the circling Hours as
     they tread on the fleecy clouds; the fiery steeds; the whirling
     wheels of the car; the torch of Lucifer, blown back by the velocity
     of his advance; and the form of Aurora, borne through the ambient
     air, till you almost fear she should float from your
     sight."--_Eaton's Rome._

     "The work of Guido is more poetic than that of Guercino, and
     luminous, and soft, and harmonious. Cupid, Aurora, Phœbus, form
     a climax of beauty, and the Hours seem as light as the clouds on
     which they dance."--_Forsyth._

     Lanzi points out that Guido always took the Venus de Medici and the
     Niobe as his favourite models, and that there is scarcely one of
     his large pictures in which the Niobe or one of her sons is not
     introduced, yet with such dexterity, that the theft is scarcely

The frescoes of the frieze are by _Tempesta;_ the landscapes by _Paul
Brill_. In the hall are busts, statues, and a bronze horse found in the
ruins of the Baths.

There is a small collection of pictures--the only work of real
importance being the beautiful _Daniele di Volterra_ of our Saviour
bearing his cross, in the room on the left. In the same room are two
large pictures, David triumphing with the head of Goliath,
_Domenichino_; and Perseus rescuing Andromeda, _Guido_. In the room on
the right are, Adam gathering fig-leaves for Eve, in a Paradise which is
crowded with animals like a menagerie, _Domenichino_; and Samson pulling
down the pillars upon the Philistines, _Ludovico Caracci_.

A second small garden belonging to this palace is well worth seeing in
May from the wealth of camellias, azaleas, and roses, with which it is

Opposite the Rospigliosi Palace, by ringing at a gate in the wall, we
gain admission to the _Colonna Gardens_ (connected with the palace in
the Piazza SS. Apostoli, by a series of bridges across the intervening
street). Here, on a lofty terrace which has a fine view towards the
Capitol, and overshadowed by grand cypresses, are the colossal remains
of the _Temple of the Sun_ (huge fragments of cornice) built by Aurelian
(A.D. 270--75). At the other end of the terrace, looking down through
two barns into a kind of pit, we can see some remains of the _Baths of
Constantine_--built A.D. 326--and of the great staircase which led up to
them from the valley below. The portico of these baths remained erect
till the time of Clement XII. (1730--40), and was adorned with four
marble statues, of which two--those of the two Constantines--may now be
seen on the terrace of the Capitol.

Beneath the magnificent cypress-trees on the slope of the hill are
several fine sarcophagi. Only the stem is preserved of the grand
historical pine-tree, which was planted on the day on which Cola di
Rienzi died, and which was one of the great ornaments of the city till
1848, when it was broken in a storm.

Just beyond the end of the garden, are the great _Convent_ and _Church
of S. Silvestro a Monte Cavallo_--belonging to the Missionaries of St.
Vincent de Paul--in which the Cardinals meet before going in procession
to the Conclave. It contains a few rather good pictures. The cupola of
the second chapel has frescoes by _Domenichino_, of David dancing before
the Ark,--the Queen of Sheba and Solomon,--Judith with the head of
Holofernes,--and Esther fainting before Ahasueras. These are considered
by Lanzi as some of the finest frescoes of the master. In the left
transept is a chapel containing a picture of the Assumption, painted on
slate, considered the masterpiece of _Scipione Gaetani_. The last chapel
but one on the left has a ceiling by _Cav. d'Arpino_, and frescoes on
the walls by _Polidoro da Caravaggio_. The picture over the altar,
representing St. Dominic and St. Catherine of Siena, is by _Mariotto
Albertinelli_. Cardinal Bentivoglio--who wrote the history of the wars
in Flanders, and lived in the Rospigliosi Palace--is buried here.

We now reach the height of Maganaopoli, from which the isthmus which
joined the Quirinal to the Capitoline was cut away by Trajan. Here is a
cross-ways. On the right is a descent to the Forum of Trajan, at the
side of which is the villa of Cardinal Antonelli, and beyond it, the
handsome modern palace of Count Trapani, cousin to the King of Naples.

Opposite, is the _Church of Sta. Caterina di Siena_, possessing some
frescoes attributed, on doubtful grounds, to the rare master _Timoteo
della Vite_. Adjoining, is a large convent, enclosed within the
precincts of which is the tall brick mediæval tower, sometimes called
the Tower of Nero, but generally known as the _Torre delle Milizie_,
_i.e._ the Roman Militia. It was erected by the sons of Peter Alexius, a
baron attached to the party of the Senator Pandolfo de Suburra. The
lower part is said to have been built in 1210, the upper in 1294 and

     "People pass through two regular courses of study at Rome,--the
     first in learning, and the second in unlearning.

     "'This is the tower of Nero, from which he saw the city in
     flames,--and this is the temple of Concord,--and this is the temple
     of Castor and Pollux,--and this is the temple of Vesta,--and these
     are the baths of Paulus-Æmilius,'--and so on, says your lacquey.

     "'This is not the tower of Nero,--nor that the temple of Castor and
     Pollux,--nor the other the temple of Concord,--nor are any of these
     things what they are called,' says your antiquary."--_Eaton's

The Convent of Sta. Caterina was built by the celebrated Vittoria
Colonna, who requested the advice of Michael Angelo on the subject, and
was told that she had better make the ancient "Torre" into a belfry. A
very curious account of the interview in which this subject was
discussed, and which took place in the Church of S. Silvestro a Monte
Cavallo, is left us in the memoirs of Francesco d'Olanda, a Portuguese
painter, who was himself present at the conversation.

Near this point are two other fine mediæval towers. One is to the right
of the descent to the Forum of Trajan, being that of the Colonnas, now
called _Tor di Babele_, ornamented with three beautiful fragments of
sculptured frieze, one of them bearing the device of the Colonna, a
crowned column rising from a wreath. The other tower, immediately facing
us, is called _Torre del Grillo_, from the ancient family of that name.

Opposite Sta. Caterina is the handsome _Church of SS. Domenico e Sisto_,
approached by a good double twisted staircase. Over the second altar on
the left is a picture of the marriage of St. Catherine by _Allegrani_,
and, on the anniversary of her (visionary) marriage (July 19), the dried
hand of the saint is exhibited here to the unspeakable comfort of the

Turning by this church into the Via Maganaopoli (formerly Baganaopoli, a
corruption of Balnea Pauli--Baths of Emilius Paulus), we pass on the
left the _Palazzo Aldobrandini_, with a bright pleasant-looking court
and handsome fountain. The present Prince Aldobrandini is brother of
Prince Borghese. Of this family was S. Pietro Aldobrandini, generally
known as S. Pietro Igneo, who was canonized because, in 1067, he walked
unhurt, crucifix in hand, through a burning fiery furnace ten feet long
before the church door of Settimo, near Florence, to prove an accusation
of simony which he had brought against Pietro di Pavia, bishop of that

In the Via di Mazzarini, in the hollow between the Quirinal and Viminal,
is the _Convent of Sta. Agata in Suburra_, through the courtyard of
which we enter the _Church of Sta. Agata dei Goti_. A tradition declares
that this (like S. Sabba on the Aventine) is on the site of a house of
Sta. Silvia, mother of St. Gregory the Great, who consecrated the church
after it had been plundered by the Goths, and dedicated it to Sta.
Agata. It was rebuilt by Ricimer, the king-maker, in A.D. 472. Twelve
ancient granite columns and a handsome opus-alexandrinum pavement are
its only signs of antiquity. The church now belongs to the Irish
Seminary. In the left aisle is the monument of Daniel O'Connell, with
bas-reliefs by Benzoni, inscribed:--

     "This monument contains the heart of O'Connell, who dying at Genoa
     on his way to the Eternal City, bequeathed his soul to God, his
     body to Ireland, and his heart to Rome. He is represented at the
     bar of the British House of Commons in MDCCCXXIII., when he refused
     to take the anti-catholic declaration, in these remarkable
     words--'I at once reject this declaration; part of it I believe to
     be untrue, and the rest I know to be false.' He was born vi. Aug.
     MDCCLXXVI., and died xv. May, MDCCCXLVIII. Erected by Charles
     Bianconi, the faithful friend of the immortal liberator, and of
     Ireland the land of his adoption."

At the end of the left aisle is a chapel, which Cardinal Antonelli (who
has his palace near this) decorated, 1863, with frescoes and arabesques
as a burial-place for his family. In the opposite chapel is a gilt
figure of Sta. Agata carrying her breasts--showing the manner in which
she suffered.

     "Agatha was a maiden of Catania, in Sicily, whither Decius the
     emperor sent Quintianus as governor. He, inflamed by the beauty of
     Agatha, tempted her with rich gifts and promises, but she repulsed
     him with disdain. Then Quintianus ordered her to be bound and
     beaten with rods, and sent two of his slaves to tear her bosom with
     iron shears, and as her blood flowed forth, she said to him, 'O
     thou cruel tyrant! art thou not ashamed to treat me thus--hast thou
     not thyself been fed at thy mother's breasts?' Thus only did she
     murmur. And in the night a venerable man came to her, bearing a
     vase of ointment, and before him walked a youth bearing a torch. It
     was the holy apostle Peter, and the youth was an angel; but Agatha
     knew it not; though such a glorious light filled the prison, that
     the guards fled in terror.... Then St. Peter made himself known and
     ministered to her, restoring with heavenly balm her wounded

     "Quintianus, infuriated, demanded who had healed her. She replied,
     'He whom I confess and adore with heart and lips, he hath sent his
     apostle who hath healed me.' Then Quintianus caused her to be
     thrown bound upon a great fire, but instantly an earthquake arose,
     and the people in terror cried, 'This visitation is sent because of
     the sufferings of the maiden Agatha.' So he caused her to be taken
     from the fire, and carried back to prison, where she prayed aloud
     that having now proved her faith, she might be freed from pain and
     see the glory of God;--and her prayer was answered and her spirit
     instantly departed into eternal glory, Feb. 5, A.D. 251."--_From
     the "Legende delle SS. Vergini."_

Agatha (patroness of Catania) is one of the saints most reverenced by
the Roman people. On the 5th of February her vespers are sung here,
which contain the antiphons:--

     "Who art thou that art come to heal my wounds?--I am an apostle of
     Christ, doubt not concerning me, my daughter.

     "Medicine for the body have I never used; but I have the Lord Jesus
     Christ, who with his word alone restoreth all things.

     "I render thanks to thee, O Lord Jesus Christ, for that thou hast
     been mindful of me, and hast sent thine apostle to heal my wounds.

     "I bless thee, O Father of my Lord Jesus Christ, because through
     thine apostle thou hast restored my breasts to me.

     "Him who hath vouchsafed to heal me of every wound, and to restore
     to me my breasts, him do I invoke, even the living God.

            *       *       *       *       *

     "Blessed Agatha, standing in her prison, stretched forth her hands
     and prayed unto the Lord, saying, 'O Lord Jesus Christ, my good
     master, I thank thee because thou hast given me strength to
     overcome the tortures of the executioners; and now, Lord, speak the
     word, that I may depart hence to thy glory which fadeth not away."

The tomb of John Lascaris (a refugee from Constantinople when taken by
the Turks) has--in Greek--the inscription:--

     "Lascaris lies here in a foreign grave; but, stranger, that does
     not disturb him, rather does he rejoice; yet he is not without
     sorrow, as a Grecian, that his fatherland will not bestow upon him
     the freedom of a grave."

Passing the great Convent of S. Bernardino Senensis, we reach the Via
dei Serpenti, interesting as occupying the supposed site of the Vallis
Quirinalis, where Julius Proculus, returning from Alba Longa,
encountered the ghost of Romulus:

    "Sed Proculus Longâ veniebat Julius Albâ;
      Lunaque fulgebat; nec facis usus erat:
    Cum subito motu nubes crepuere sinistræ:
      Retulit ille gradus, horrueruntque comæ.
    Pulcher, et humano major, trabeâque decorus,
      Romulus in mediâ visus adesse viâ."

    _Ovid, Fast._ ii. 498.

Turning to the right down the Via dei Serpenti, we reach the Piazza Sta.
Maria in Monti, containing a fountain, and a church dedicated to SS.
Sergius and Bacchus, two martyrs who suffered under Maximian at Rasapha
in Syria.

One side of this piazza is occupied by the _Church of Sta. Maria in
Monti_, in which is deposited a figure of the beggar Labre (canonized by
Pius IX. in 1860), dressed in the gown of a mendicant-pilgrim, which he
wore when living. Over the altar is a picture of him in the Coliseum,
distributing to his fellow-beggars the alms which he had obtained. His
fête is observed here on April 16. (At No. 3 Via dei Serpenti, one may
visit the chamber in which Labre died--and in the Via dei Crociferi,
near the fountain of Trevi, a chapel containing many of his relics,--the
bed on which he died, the crucifix which he wore in his bosom, &c.)

     "Benoît Joseph Labre naquit en 1748 dans le diocèse de Boulogne
     (France) de parents chrétiens et jouissant d'une modeste aisance.
     D'une piété vive et tendre, il voulut d'abord se faire religieux;
     mais sa santé ne put résister, ni aux règles des Chartreux, ni à
     celles des Trappistes, chez lesquels il entra successivement. _Il
     fut alors sollicité intérieurement_, est il dit dans la notice sur
     sa vie, _de mener une vie de pénitence et de charité au milieu du
     siècle_. Pendant sept années, il parcourut en pèlerin-mendiant,
     les sanctuaires de la Vierge les plus vénérés de toute l'Europe; on
     a calculé qu'il fit, à pied, plus de cinq mille lieues, pendant ces
     sept années.

     "En 1777, il revint en Italie, pour ne plus en sortir. Il habitait
     Rome, faisant seulement une fois chaque année, le pèlerinage de
     Lorète. Il passait une grande partie de ses journées dans les
     églises, mendiait, et faisait des œuvres de charité. Il couchait
     quelquefois sous le portique des églises, et le plus souvent au
     Colysée derrière la petite chapelle de la cinquième station du
     chemin de la croix. L'église qu'il fréquentait le plus, était celle
     de Ste. Marie des Monts; le 16 Avril, 1783, après y avoir prié fort
     longtemps, en sortant, il tomba, comme évanoui, sur les marches du
     péristyle de l'église. On le transporta dans une maison voisine, où
     il mourut le soir."--_Une Année à Rome._

Almost opposite this church, a narrow alley, which appears to be a
_cul-de-sac_ ending in a picture of the Crucifixion, is in reality the
approach to the carefully concealed _Convent of the Farnesiani Nuns_,
generally known as the _Sepolte Vive_. The only means of communicating
with them is by rapping on a barrel which projects from a wall on a
platform above the roofs of the houses,--when a muffled voice is heard
from the interior,--and if your references are satisfactory, the barrel
turns round and eventually discloses a key by which the initiated can
admit themselves to a small chamber in the interior of the convent. Over
its door is an inscription, bidding those who enter that chamber to
leave all worldly thoughts behind them. Round the walls are
inscribed,--"Qui non diligit, manet in morti."--"Militia est vita
hominis super terram."--"Alter alterius onera portate"; and, on the
other side, opposite the door,

    "Vi esorto a rimirar
      La vita del mondo
    Nella guisa che la mira
      Un moribondo."

In one of the walls is an opening with a double grille, beyond which is
a metal plate, pierced with holes like the rose of a watering-pot. It is
beyond this grille and behind this plate, that the abbess of the Sepolte
Vive receives her visitors, but she is even then veiled from head to
foot in heavy folds of thick bure. Gregory XVI., who of course could
penetrate within the convent and who wished to try her, said, "Sorella
mia, levate il velo." "No, mio padre," she replied, "E vietato dalla
nostra regola."

The nuns of the Sepolte Vive are never seen again after they once assume
the black veil, though they are allowed double the ordinary noviciate.
They never hear anything of the outer world, even of the deaths of their
nearest relations. Daily, they are said to dig their own graves and lie
down in them, and their remaining hours are occupied in perpetual and
monotonous adoration of the Blessed Sacrament.

Returning as far as the Via Pane e Perna (a continuation of the Via
Maganaopoli) we ascend the slope of the _Viminal Hill_, now with
difficulty to be distinguished from the Quirinal. It derives its name
from _vimina_, osiers, and was once probably covered with woods, since a
temple of Sylvanus or Pan was one of several which adorned its principal
street--the Vicus Longus--the site of which is now marked by the
countrified lane called Via S. Vitale. This end of the hill is crowned
by the _Church of S. Lorenzo Pane e Perna_, built on the site of the
martyrdom of the deacon St. Laurence, who suffered under Claudius II.,
in A.D. 264, for refusing to give up the goods of the Church. Over the
altar is a huge fresco, representing the saint extended upon a red-hot
gridiron, and below--entered from the exterior of the church--a crypt
is shown as the scene of his cruel sufferings.[236]

     "Blessed Laurentius, as he lay stretched and burning on the
     gridiron, said to the impious tyrant, 'The meat is done, make haste
     hither and eat. As for the treasures of the Church which you seek,
     the hands of the poor have carried them to a heavenly
     treasury.'"--_Antiphon of St. Laurence._

The funeral of St. Bridget of Sweden took place in this church, July
1373, but after resting here for a year, her body was removed by her son
to the monastery of Wastein in Sweden.

Under the second altar on the right are shown the relics of St. Crispin
and St. Crispinian, "two holy brothers, who departed from Rome with St.
Denis to preach the Gospel in France, where, after the example of St.
Paul, they laboured with their hands, being by trade shoemakers. And
these good saints made shoes for the poor without fee or reward (for
which the angels supplied them with leather), until, denounced as
Christians, they suffered martyrdom at Soissons, being, after many
tortures, beheaded by the sword (A.D. 300)."[237] The festival of St.
Crispin and St. Crispinian is held on October 25, the anniversary of the
battle of Agincourt.

    "And Crispin Crispian shall ne'er go by,
    From this day to the ending of the world,
    But we in it shall be remembered."

    _Shakespeare, Henry V._

Throughout the middle ages the statues of Posidippus and Menander, now
in the gallery of statues at the Vatican, were kissed and worshipped in
this church under the impression that they represented saints (see Ch.
XV.). They were found on this site, which was once occupied by the baths
of Olympias, daughter-in-law of Constantine.

The strange name of the church, Pane e Perna, is supposed to have had
its origin in a dole of bread and ham once given at the door of the
adjacent convent. In the garden belonging to the convent is a mediæval
house of _c._ 1200. The campanile is of 1450.

The small neighbouring _Church of S. Lorenzo in Fonte_ covers the site
of the prison of St. Lawrence, and a fountain is shown there as that in
which he baptized Vicus Patricius and his daughter Lucilla, whom he
miraculously raised from the dead.

Descending the hill below the church--in the valley between the
Esquiline and Viminal--we reach at the corner of the street a spot of
preëminent historical interest, as that where Servius Tullius was
killed, and where Tullia (B.C. 535) drove in her chariot over the dead
body of her father. The Vicus Urbius by which the old king had reached
the spot is now represented by the Via Urbana; the Vicus Cyprius, by
which he was about to ascend to the palace on the hill Cispius, by the
Via di Sta. Maria Maggiore.

     "Servius-Tullius, après avoir pris le chemin raccourci qui partait
     du pied de la Velia et allait du côté des Carines, atteignit le
     Vicus-Cyprius (Via Urbana).

     "Parvenu à l'extrémité du Vicus-Cyprius, le roi fut atteint et
     assassiné par les gens de Tarquin auprès d'un temple de Diane.

     "C'est arrivés en cet endroit, au moment de tourner à droite et de
     gagner, en remontant le Vicus-Virbius, le Cispius, où habitait son
     père, que les chevaux s'arrêtèrent; que Tullie, poussée par
     l'impatience fièvreuse de l'ambition, et n'ayant plus que quelques
     pas à faire pour arriver au terme, avertie par le cocher que le
     cadavre de son père était là gisant, s'écria: 'Eh bien, pousse le
     char en avant.'

     "Le meurtre s'est accompli au pied du Viminal, à l'extrémité du
     Vicus-Cyprius, là où fut depuis le Vicus-Sceleratus, la rue

     "Le lieu où la tradition plaçait cette tragique aventure ne peut
     être sur l'Esquilin: mais nécessairement au pied de cette colline
     et du Viminal, puisque, parvenu à l'extrémité du Vicus-Cyprius, le
     cocher allait tourner à droite et remonter pour gravir l'Esquilin.
     Il ne faut donc pas chercher, comme Nibby, la rue Scélérate sur une
     des pentes, ou, comme Canina et M. Dyer, sur le sommet de
     l'Esquilin, d'où l'on ne pouvait monter sur l'Esquilin.

     "Tullie n'allait pas sur l'Oppius (San-Pietro in Vincoli), dans la
     demeure de son mari, mais sur le Cispius, dans la demeure de son
     père. C'était de la demeure royale qu'elle allait prendre
     possession pour le nouveau roi.

            *       *       *       *       *

     "Je n'oublierai jamais le soir où, après avoir longtemps cherché le
     lieu qui vit la mort de Servius et le crime de Tullie, tout-à-coup
     je découvris clairement que j'y étais arrivé, et m'arrêtant plein
     d'horreur, comme le cocher de la parricide, plongeant dans l'ombre
     un regard qui, malgré moi, y cherchait le cadavre du vieux roi, je
     me dis: 'C'était là!'"

    _Ampère, Hist. Rom._ ii. 153.

Turning to the left, at the foot of the Esquiline, we find the
interesting _Church of Sta. Pudenziana_, supposed to be the most ancient
of all the Roman churches ("omnium ecclesiaram urbis vetustissima").
Cardinal Wiseman, who took his title from this church, considers it was
the principal place of worship in Rome after apostolic times, being
founded on the site of the house where St. Paul lodged, A.D. 41 to 50,
with the senator Pudens, whose family were his first converts, and who
is said to have himself suffered martyrdom under Nero. On this ancient
place of worship an oratory was engrafted by Pius I. (_c._ A.D. 145), in
memory of the younger daughter of Pudens, Pudenziana, perhaps at the
request of her sister Prassede, who is believed to have survived till
that time. In very early times two small churches existed here, known
as "Titulus Pudentis" and "Titulus Pastoris," the latter in memory of a
brother of Pius I.

The church, which has been successively altered by Adrian I. in the
eighth century, by Gregory VII., and by Innocent II., was finally
modernised by Cardinal Caetani in 1597. Little remains of ancient
external work except the graceful brick campanile (_c._ 1130) with
triple arcades of open arches on every side separated by bands of
terra-cotta moulding,--and the door adorned with low reliefs of the Lamb
bearing a cross, and of Sta. Prassede and Sta. Pudenziana with the vases
in which they collected the blood of the martyrs, and two other figures,
probably St. Pudens and St. Pastor.

The chapel on the left of the tribune, which is regarded as the "Titulus
Pudentis," has an old mosaic pavement, said to have belonged to the
house of Pudens. Here is a bas-relief by Giacomo della Porta,
representing our Saviour delivering the keys to St. Peter; and here is
preserved part of the altar at which St. Peter is said to have
celebrated mass (the rest is at the Lateran), and which was used by all
the early popes till the time of Sylvester. Among early Christian
inscriptions let into the walls, is one to a Cornelia, of the family of
the Pudenziani, with a rude portrait.

Opening from the left aisle is the chapel of the Caetani family, with
tombs of the seventeenth century. Over the altar is a bas-relief of the
Adoration of the Magi, by _Paolo Olivieri_. On each side are fine
columns of Lunachella marble. Over the entrance from the nave are
ancient mosaics,--of the Evangelists and of Sta. Pudenziana collecting
the blood of the martyrs. Beneath, is a gloomy and neglected vault, in
which all the sarcophagi and coffins of the dead Caetani are shown by

In the tribune are magnificent mosaics, ascribed by some to the eighth,
by others to the fourth century, and considered by De Rossi,[238] as the
best of all ancient Christian mosaics.

     "In conception and treatment this work is indeed classic: seated on
     a rich throne in the centre, is the Saviour with one arm extended,
     and in the other hand holding a book open at the words,
     _Conservator Ecclesiæ Pudentianæ_; laterally stand SS. Praxedis and
     Pudentiana with leafy crowns in their hands; and at a lower level,
     but more in front, SS. Peter and Paul with eight other male
     figures, all in the amply-flowing costume of ancient Romans; while
     in the background are seen, beyond a portico with arcades, various
     stately buildings, one a rotunda, another a parallelogram with a
     gable-headed front, recognizable as a baptistery and basilica,
     here, we may believe, in authentic copy from the earliest types of
     the period of the first Christian emperors. Above the group, and
     hovering in the air, a large cross, studded with gems, surmounts
     the head of our Saviour, between the four symbols of the
     Evangelists, of which one has been entirely, and another in the
     greater part, sacrificed to some wretched accessories in woodwork
     actually allowed to conceal portions of this most interesting
     mosaic! As to expression, a severe solemnity is that prevailing,
     especially in the principal head, which _alone_ is crowned with the
     nimbus--one among other proofs, if but negative, of its high
     antiquity."--_Heman's Ancient Christian Art._

Besides Sta. Pudenziana and St. Pudens,--St. Novatus and St. Siricius
are said to be buried here. Those who visit this sanctuary every day
obtain an indulgence of 3000 years, with remission of a third part of
their sins! Excavations made by Mr. J. H. Parker, in 1865, have laid
bare some interesting constructions beneath the church,--supposed to be
those of the house of Pudens--a part of the public baths of Novatus, the
son of Pudens, which were in use for some centuries after his time, and
a chamber in which is supposed to have been the oratory dedicated by
Pius I. in A.D. 145.

     "Eubulus greeteth thee, and _Pudens_, and Linus, and Claudia, and
     all the brethren."--_2 Timothy_ iv. 21.

The following account of the family of Pudens is received as the legacy
of Pastor to the Christian Church.

     "Pudens went to his Saviour, leaving his daughters strengthened
     with chastity, and learned in all the divine law. These sold their
     goods, and distributed the produce to the poor, and persevered
     strictly in the love of Christ, guarding intact the flower of their
     virginity, and only seeking for glory in vigils, fastings, and
     prayer. They desired to have a baptistery in their house, to which
     the blessed Pius not only consented, but with his own hand drew the
     plan of the fountain. Then calling in their slaves, both from town
     and country, the two virgins gave liberty to those who were
     Christians, and urged belief in the faith upon those who had not
     yet received it. By the advice of the blessed Pius, the
     affranchisement was declared, with all the ancient usages, in the
     oratory founded by Pudens; then, at the festival of Easter,
     ninety-six neophytes were baptized; so that thenceforth assemblies
     were constantly held in the said oratory, which night and day
     resounded with hymns of praise. Many pagans gladly came thither to
     find the faith and receive baptism.

     "Meanwhile the Emperor Antonine, being informed of what was taking
     place, issued an edict commanding all Christians to dwell apart in
     their own houses, without mixing with the rest of the people, and
     that they should neither go to the public shops, nor to the baths.
     Praxedis and Pudentiana then assembled those whom they had led to
     the faith, and housed them. They nourished them for many days,
     watching and praying. The blessed bishop Pius himself frequently
     visited us with joy, and offered the sacrifice for us to the

     "Then Pudentiana went to God. Her sister and I wrapped her in
     perfumes and kept her concealed in the oratory. Then, at the end of
     twenty-eight days, we carried her to the cemetery of Priscilla, and
     laid her near her father Pudens.

     "Eleven months after, Novatus died in his turn. He bequeathed his
     goods to Praxedis, and she then begged of St. Pius to erect a
     titular (a church) in the baths of Novatus, which were no longer
     used, and where there was a large and spacious hall. The bishop
     made the dedication in the name of the blessed virgin Praxedis. In
     the same place he consecrated a baptistery.

     "But, at the end of two years, a great persecution was declared
     against the Christians, and many of them received the crown of
     martyrdom. Praxedis concealed a great number of them in her
     oratory, and nourished them at once with the food of this world and
     with the word of God. But the Emperor Antonine, having learnt that
     these meetings took place in the oratory of Priscilla, caused it to
     be searched, and many Christians were taken, especially the priest
     Simetrius and twenty-two others. And the blessed Praxedis collected
     their bodies by night, and buried them in the cemetery of
     Priscilla, on the seventh day of the calends of June. Then the
     virgin of the Saviour, worn out with sorrow, only asked for death.
     Her tears and her prayers reached to heaven, and fifty-four days
     after her brethren had suffered, she passed to God. And I, Pastor,
     the priest, have buried her body near that of her father
     Pudens."--_From the Narration of Pastor._

Returning by the main line of streets to the Quattro Fontane, we skirt
on the right the wall of the Villa Negroni (see Ch. XI). Beyond this, on
the left, is the _Church of S. Paolo Primo Eremita_. The strange-looking
palm-tree over the door, with a raven perched upon it and two lions
below, commemorates the story of the saint, who, retiring to the desert
at the age of 22, lived there till he was 112, eating nothing but the
dates of his tree for twenty-two years, after which bread was daily
brought to him by a raven. In his last hours St. Anthony came to visit
him and was present at his burial, when two lions his companions came to
dig his grave. The sustaining palm-tree and the three animals who loved
S. Paolo are again represented over the altar. Further on the left, we
pass the Via S. Vitale, occupying the site of the Vicus Longus,
considered by Dyer to have been the longest street in the ancient city.
Here stood the temples of Sylvanus, and of Fever, with that of Pudicitia
Plebeia, founded _c._ B.C. 297, by Virginia the patrician, wife of
Volumnius, when excluded from the patrician temple of Pudicitia in the
Forum Boarium, on account of her plebeian marriage. "At its altar none
but plebeian matrons of unimpeachable chastity, and who had been married
to only one husband, were allowed to sacrifice."[239]

The _Church of S. Vitale_ on the Viminal, which now stands here, was
founded by Innocent I. in A.D. 416. The interior is covered with
frescoes of martyrdoms. It is seldom open except early on Sunday
mornings. S. Vitale, father of S. Gervasius and S. Protasius, was the
martyr and patron saint of Ravenna who was buried alive under Nero.

Beyond this, on the left of the Via delle Quattro Fontane, is the
_Church of S. Dionisio_, belonging to the Basilian nuns, called
Apostoline di S. Basilio. It contains an Ecce Homo of _Luca Giordano_,
and the gaudy shrine of the virgin martyr Sta. Coraola.


[Illustration: ROME

Showing the more important streets and buildings. (left-side of map)]









    [_All rights reserved_]







    THE ESQUILINE                                                     46




    IN THE CAMPUS MARTIUS                                            148


    THE BORGO AND ST. PETER'S                                        223


    THE VATICAN                                                      282


    THE ISLAND AND THE TRASTEVERE                                    360


    THE TRE FONTANE AND S. PAOLO                                     392


    THE VILLAS BORGHESE MADAMA, AND MELLINI                          410


    THE JANICULAN                                                    432



     The Cappuccini--S. Isidore--S. Niccolo in Tolentino--Via S.
     Basilio--Convent of the Pregatrici--Villa Massimo Rignano--Gardens
     of Sallust--Villa Ludovisi--Porta Salara--(Villa Albani--Catacombs
     of Sta. Felicitas and Sta. Priscilla--Ponte Salara)--Porta
     Pia--(Villa Torlonia--Sant' Agnese--Sta. Costanza--Ponte
     Nomentana--Mons Sacer--S. Alessandro)--Villa Torlonia within the
     walls--Via Macao--Pretorian Camp--Railway Station--Villa
     Negroni--Agger of Servius Tullius--Sta. Maria degli
     Angeli--Fountain of the Termini--Sta. Maria della Vittoria--Sta.
     Susanna--S. Bernardo--S. Caio.

Opening from the left of the Piazza Barberini, is the small _Piazza of
the Cappuccini_, named from a convent suppressed since the Sardinian
occupation, but which was one of the largest and most populous in Rome.

The conventual church, dedicated to _Sta. Maria della Concezione_,
contains several fine pictures. In the first chapel, on the right, is
the magnificent _Guido_ of the Archangel Michael trampling upon the
Devil,--said to be a portrait of Pope Innocent X., against whom the
painter had a peculiar spite.

     "Here the angel, standing, yet scarcely touching the ground, poised
     on his outspread wings, sets his left foot on the head of his
     adversary; in one hand he brandishes a sword, in the other he holds
     the end of a chain, with which he is about to bind down the demon
     in the bottomless pit. The attitude has been criticised, and
     justly; the grace is somewhat mannered, verging on the theatrical;
     but Forsyth is too severe when he talks of 'the air of a dancing
     master': one thing, however, is certain, we do not think about the
     attitude when we look at Raphael's St. Michael (in the Louvre); in
     Guido's it is the first thing that strikes us; but when we look
     farther, the head redeems all; it is singularly beautiful, and in
     the blending of the masculine and feminine graces, in the serene
     purity of the brow, and the flow of the golden hair, there is
     something divine; a slight, very slight expression of scorn is in
     the air of the head. The fiend is the worst part of the picture; it
     is not a fiend, but a degraded prosaic human ruffian; we laugh with
     incredulous contempt at the idea of an angel called down from
     heaven to overcome such a wretch. In Raphael the fiend is human,
     but the head has the god-like ugliness and malignity of a satyr;
     Guido's fiend is only stupid and base. It appears to me that there
     is just the same difference--the same _kind_ of difference--between
     the angel of Raphael and the angel of Guido, as between the
     description in Tasso and the description in Milton; let any one
     compare them. In Tasso we are struck by the picturesque elegance of
     the description as a piece of art, the melody of the verse, the
     admirable choice of the expressions, as in Guido by the finished
     but somewhat artificial and studied grace. In Raphael and Milton we
     see only the vision of a 'shape divine.'"--_Jameson's Sacred Art_,
     p. 107.

In the same chapel is a picture by _Gherardo della Notte_ of Christ in
the purple robe. The third chapel contains a fresco by _Domenichino_ of
the Death of St Francis, and a picture of the Ecstasy of St. Francis,
which was a gift from the same painter to this church.

The first chapel on the left contains The Visit of Ananias to Saul, by
_Pietro da Cortona_.

     "Whoever would know to what length this painter carried his style
     in his altar-piece should examine the Conversion of St. Paul in the
     Cappuccini at Rome, which though placed opposite to the St. Michael
     of Guido, cannot fail to excite the admiration of such judges as
     are willing to admit various styles of beauty in art."--_Lanzi._

On the left of the high-altar is the tomb of Prince Alexander Sobieski,
son of John III., king of Poland, who died at Rome in 1714.

The church was founded in 1624, by Cardinal Barberini, the old
monk-brother of Urban VIII., who, while his nephews were employed in
building magnificent palaces, refused to take advantage of the family
elevation otherwise than to endow this church and convent. He is buried
in front of the altar, with the remarkable epitaph--very different to
the pompous, self-glorifying inscriptions of his brother--

    "Hic jacet pulvis, cinis, et nihil."

This Cardinal Barberini possesses some historical interest from the
patronage he extended to Milton during his visit to Rome in 1638.

     "During his sojourn in Rome Milton enjoyed the conversation of
     several learned and ingenious men, and particularly of Lucas
     Holsteinius, keeper of the Vatican library, who received him with
     the greatest humanity, and showed him all the Greek authors,
     whether in print or MS.--which had passed through his correction;
     and also presented him to Cardinal Barberini, who, at an
     entertainment of music, performed at his own expense, waited for
     him at the door, and taking him by the hand, brought him into the
     assembly. The next morning he waited upon the Cardinal to return
     him thanks for these civilities, and by the means of Holsteinius
     was again introduced to his Eminence, and spent some time in
     conversation with him."--_Newton's Life of Milton._[240]

Over the entrance is a cartoon (with some differences) for the Navicella
of Giotto.

From this church is entered the famous cemetery of the Cappuccini (not
subterranean), consisting of four chambers, ornamented with human bones
in patterns, and with mummified bodies. The earth was brought from
Jerusalem. As the cemetery was too small for the convent, when any monk
died, the one who had been buried longest was ejected to make room for
him. The loss of a grave was supposed to be amply compensated by the
short rest in the holy earth which the body had already enjoyed. It is
pleasant to read on the spot the pretty sketch in the "Improvisatore."

     "I was playing near the church of the Capuchins, with some other
     children who were all younger than myself. There was fastened on
     the church door a little cross of metal; it was fastened about the
     middle of the door, and I could just reach it with my hand. Always
     when our mothers had passed by with us they had lifted us up that
     we might kiss the holy sign. One day, when we children were
     playing, one of the youngest of them inquired, 'why the child Jesus
     did not come down and play with us?' I assumed an air of wisdom,
     and replied that he was really bound upon the cross. We went to the
     church door, and although we found no one, we wished, as our
     mothers had taught us, to kiss him, but we could not reach up to
     it; one therefore lifted up the other, but just as the lips were
     pointed for the kiss, that one who lifted the other lost his
     strength, and the kissing one fell down just when his lips were
     about to touch the invisible child Jesus. At that moment my mother
     came by, and when she saw our child's play, she folded her hands,
     and said, 'You are actually some of God's angels, and thou art mine
     own angel,' added she, and kissed me.

     "The Capuchin monk, Fra Martino, was my mother's confessor. He made
     very much of me, and gave me a picture of the Virgin, weeping great
     tears, which fell, like rain-drops, down into the burning flames of
     hell, where the damned caught this draught of refreshment. He took
     me over with him into the convent, where the open colonnade, which
     enclosed in a square the little potato-garden, with the two cypress
     and orange-trees, made a very deep impression upon me. Side by
     side, in the open passages, hung old portraits of deceased monks,
     and on the door of each cell were pasted pictures from the history
     of the martyrs, which I contemplated with the same holy emotions as
     afterwards the masterpieces of Raphael and Andrea del Sarto.

     "'Thou art really a bright youth,' said he; 'thou shall now see the
     dead.' Upon this, he opened a little door of a gallery which lay a
     few steps below the colonnade. We descended, and now I saw round
     about me skulls upon skulls, so placed one upon another, that they
     formed walls, and therewith several chapels. In these were regular
     niches, in which were seated perfect skeletons of the most
     distinguished of the monks, enveloped in their brown cowls, their
     cords round their waists, and with a breviary or withered bunch of
     flowers in their hands. Altars, chandeliers, bas-reliefs, of human
     joints, horrible and tasteless as the whole idea. I clung fast to
     the monk, who whispered a prayer, and then said to me, 'Here also I
     shall some time sleep; wilt thou thus visit me?'

     "I answered not a word, but looked horrified at him, and then round
     about me upon the strange grizzly assembly. It was foolish to take
     me, a child, into this place. I was singularly impressed with the
     whole thing, and did not feel myself easy again until I came into
     his little cell, where the beautiful yellow oranges almost hung in
     at the window, and I saw the brightly coloured picture of the
     Madonna, who was borne upwards by angels into the clear sunshine,
     while a thousand flowers filled the grave in which she had

     "On the festival of All-Saints I was down in the chapel of the
     dead, where Fra Martino took me when I first visited the convent.
     All the monks sang masses for the dead, and I, with two other boys
     of my own age, swung the incense-breathing censer before the great
     altar of skulls. They had placed lights in the chandeliers made of
     bones, new garlands were placed around the brows of the skeleton
     monks, and fresh bouquets in their hands. Many people, as usual,
     thronged in; they all knelt and the singers intoned the solemn
     Miserere. I gazed for a long time on the pale yellow skulls, and
     the fumes of the incense which wavered in strange shapes between me
     and them, and everything began to swim round before my eyes; it was
     as if I saw everything through a large rainbow; as if a thousand
     prayer-bells rung in my ear; it seemed as if I was borne along a
     stream; it was unspeakably delicious--more, I know not;
     consciousness left me,--I was in a swoon."--_Hans Ch. Andersen._

The street behind the Piazza Cappuccini leads to the _Church of S.
Isidoro_,[241] built 1622, for Irish Franciscan monks. The altar-piece,
representing S. Isidore, is by _Andrea Sacchi_. This church contains
several tombs of distinguished Irishmen who have died in Rome.

Opposite are the recently founded convent and small chapel of the
_Pregatrici_--nuns most picturesquely attired in blue and white, and
devoted to the perpetual adoration of the Sacrament, who sing during the
Benediction service, like the nuns of the Trinità di Monti.

The _Via S. Niccolo in Tolentino_ leads by the handsome Church of that
name, from the Piazza Barberini to the railway station. In this street
are the hotels "Costanzi" and "Del Globo."

Parallel with, and behind this, the _Via S. Basilio_ runs up the
hill-side. At the top of this street is the entrance of the _Villa
Massimo Rignano_, containing some fine palm-trees. This site, with the
ridge of the opposite hill, and the valley between, was once occupied by
the _Gardens of Sallust_ (Horti Pretiosissimi), purchased for the
emperors after the death of the historian, and a favourite residence of
Vespasian, Nerva, and especially of Aurelian. Some vaulted halls under
the cliff of the opposite hill, and a circular ruin surrounded by
niches, are the only remains of the many fine buildings which once
existed here, and which comprised a palace, baths, and the portico
called Milliarensis, 1000 feet long. These edifices are known to have
been ruined when Rome was taken by the Goths under Alaric (410), who
entered at the neighbouring Porta Salara. The obelisk now in front of
the Trinità di Monti, was removed from hence by Pius VI. The picturesque
old casino of the Barberini, which occupied the most prominent position
in the gardens, was pulled down in 1869, to make way for a house
belonging to Spithover the librarian. The hill-side is supported by long
picturesque buttresses, beneath which are remains of the huge masonry of
Servius Tullius, whose _Agger_ may be traced on the ridge of the hill
running towards the present railway station. Part of these grounds are
supposed to have formed the Campus Sceleratus, where the vestal virgins
suffered who had broken their vows of chastity.

     "When condemned by the college of pontifices, the vestal was
     stripped of her vittæ and other badges of office, was scourged, was
     attired like a corpse, placed in a close litter, and borne through
     the forum, attended by her weeping kindred with all the ceremonies
     of a real funeral, to the Campus Sceleratus, within the city walls,
     close to the Colline gate. There a small vault underground had been
     previously prepared, containing a couch, a lamp, and a table with a
     little food. The Pontifex Maximus, having lifted up his hands to
     heaven and uttered a secret prayer, opened the litter, led forth
     the culprit, and placing her on the steps of the ladder which gave
     access to the subterranean cell, delivered her over to the common
     executioner and his assistants, who conducted her down, drew up the
     ladder, and having filled the pit with earth until the surface was
     level with the surrounding ground, left her to perish deprived of
     all the tributes of respect usually paid to the spirits of the
     departed. In every case the paramour was publicly scourged to death
     in the forum."--_Smith's Dict. of Antiquities._

     "A Vignaiuolo showed us in the Gardens of Sallust a hole, through
     which he said those vestal virgins were put who had violated their
     vows of chastity. While we were listening to their story, some
     pretty Contadini came up to us attended by their rustic swains, and
     after looking into the hole, pitied the vestal
     virgins--'_Poverine_,' shrugged their shoulders, and laughing,
     thanked their stars and the Madonna, that poor Fanciulle were not
     buried alive for such things now-a-days."--_Eaton's Rome._

A turn in the road now leads to the gate of the beautiful _Villa
Ludovisi_, to which it has been very difficult to obtain admittance
since the Sardinian occupation. The excellent proprietors, the Duke and
Duchess Sora, have lived at Foligno in complete seclusion, since the
change of government.

The villa was built early in the last century by Cardinal Ludovisi,
nephew of Gregory XV., from whom it descended to the Prince of Piombino,
father of Duke Sora. The grounds, which are of an extent extraordinary
when considered as being within the walls of a capital, were laid out by
Le Nôtre, and are in the stiff French style of high clipped hedges, and
avenues adorned with vases and sarcophagi. Near the entrance is a pretty
fountain shaded by a huge plane-tree; the Quirinal is seen in the

To the right of the entrance is the principal casino of sculptures, a
very beautiful collection (catalogues on the spot). Especially
remarkable are,--the grand colossal head, known as the "Ludovisi Juno"

     "A Rome, une Junon surpasse toutes les autres par son aspect et
     rappelle la Junon de Polyclète par sa majesté: c'est la célèbre
     Junon Ludovisi que Goethe admirait tant, et devant laquelle dans un
     accès de dévotion païenne,--seul genre de dévotion qu'il ait connu
     à Rome,--il faisait, nous dit-il, sa prière du matin.

     "Cette tête colossale de Junon offre bien les caractères de la
     sculpture de Polyclète; la gravité, la grandeur, la dignité; mais
     ainsi que dans d'autres Junons qu'on peut supposer avoir été
     sculptées à Rome, l'imitateur de Polyclète, on doit le croire,
     adoucit la sévérité, je dirai presque la dureté de l'original,
     telle qu'elle se montre sur les médailles d'Argos, et celles
     d'Elis."--_Ampère, Hist. Romaine_, iii. 264.

     "No words can give a true impression of the colossal head of Juno
     in the Villa Ludovisi: it is like a song of Homer."--_Goethe._

--the _Statue of Mars_ seated (I), with a Cupid at his feet, found in
the portico of Octavia, and restored by Bernini;

     "II y avait bien un Mars assis de Scopas, et ce Mars était à Rome;
     mais un dieu dans son temple devait être assis sur un trône et non
     sur un rocher, comme le prétendu Mars Ludovisi. On a donc eu
     raison, selon moi, de reconnaître dans cette belle statue un
     Achille, à l'expression pensive de son visage, et surtout à
     l'attitude caractéristique que le sculpteur lui a donnée, lui
     faisant embrasser son genou avec ses deux mains, attitude qui, dans
     le langage de la sculpture antique, était le signe d'une méditation
     douloureuse. On citait comme très-beau un Achille de Silanion,
     sculpteur grec habile à rendre les sentiments violents. D'après
     cela, son Achille pouvait être un Achille indigné; c'est de lui que
     viendrait l'Achille de la villa Ludovisi. L'expression de dépit,
     plus énergique dans l'original, eût été adoucie dans une admirable
     copie.'--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ iii. 437.

--and No. 28;

     "Le beau groupe auquel on avait donné le nom d'Arria et Pætus; il
     fallait fermer les yeux à l'évidence pour voir un Romain du temps
     de Claude dans ce chef barbare qui, après avoir tué sa femme, se
     frappe lui-même d'un coup mortel. Le type du visage, la chevelure,
     le caractère de l'action, tout est gaulois; la manière même dont
     s'accomplit l'immolation volontaire montre que ce n'est pas un
     Romain que nous avons devant les yeux; un Romain se tuait plus
     simplement, avec moins de fracas. Le principal personnage du groupe
     Ludovisi conserve en ce moment suprême quelque chose de triomphant
     et de théâtral; soulevant d'une main sa femme affaissée sous le
     coup qu'il lui a porté, de l'autre il enfonce son épée dans sa
     poitrine. La tête haute, l'œil tourné vers le ciel, il semble
     répéter le mot de sa race: 'Je ne crains qu'une chose, c'est que le
     ciel tombe sur ma tête.'"--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ iii. 207.

At the end of the gardens, to the left, is another casino, from whose
roof a most beautiful view may be obtained. Here are the most famous
frescoes of _Guercino_. On the ceiling of the ground-floor, Aurora
driving away Night and scattering flowers in her course, with Evening
and Daybreak in the lunettes; and, on the first floor, "Fame" attended
by Force and Virtue. Smaller rooms on the ground floor have landscapes
by _Guercino_ and _Domenichino_, and some groups of Cupids by _T.
Zucchero_; on the staircase is a fine bas-relief of two Cupids dragging
a quiver.

     "The prophets and sibyls of Guercino da Cento (1590--1666), and his
     Aurora, in a garden pavilion of the Villa Ludovisi, at Rome, almost
     attain to the effect of oil paintings in their glowing colouring
     combined with the broad and dark masses of shadow."--_Kugler._

     "In allegorising nature, Guercino imitates the deep shades of
     night, the twilight grey, and the irradiations of morning, with all
     the magic of _chiaroscuro_; but his figures are too mortal for the
     region where they move."--_Forsyth._

In B.C. 82, the district near the Porta Collina, now occupied by the
Villa Ludovisi, was the scene of a great battle for the very existence
of Rome, between Sylla, and the Samnites and Lucanians under the Samnite
general Pontius Telesinus, who declared he would raze the city to the
ground if he were victorious. The left wing under Sylla was put to
flight; but the right wing, commanded by Crassus, enabled him to restore
the battle, and to gain a complete victory; fifty thousand men fell on
each side.

The road now runs along the ridge of the hill to the Porta Salara, by
which Alaric entered Rome through the treachery of the Isaurian guard,
on the 24th of August, 410.

Passing through the gate and turning to the right along the outside of
the wall, we may see, against the grounds of the Villa Ludovisi, the two
round towers of the now closed _Porta Pinciana_, restored by Belisarius.
This is the place where tradition declares that in his declining years
the great general sat begging, with the cry, "Date obolum Belisario."

     "A côté de la Porta Pinciana, on lit sur une pierre les paroles
     célèbres: 'Donnez une obole à Bélisaire'; mais cette inscription
     est moderne, comme la légende à laquelle elle fait allusion, et
     qu'on ne trouve dans nul historien contemporain de Bélisaire.
     Bélisaire ne demanda jamais l'aumône, et si le cicerone montre
     encore aux voyageurs l'endroit où, vieux et aveugle, il implorait
     une obole de la charité des passants, c'est que près de ce lieu il
     avait, sur la colline du Pincio, son palais, situé entre les
     jardins de Lucullus et les jardins de Salluste, et digne
     probablement de ce double voisinage par sa magnificence. Ce qui est
     vrai, c'est que le vainqueur des Goths et des Vandales fut
     disgracié par Justinien, grâce aux intrigues de Théodora. La
     légende, comme presque toujours, a exprimé par une fable une
     vérité, l'ingratitude si fréquente des souverains envers ceux qui
     leur ont rendu lus plus grands services."--_Ampère, Emp._ ii. 396.

       *       *       *       *       *

A short distance from the gate, along the Via Salara, is, on the right,
the _Villa Albani_ (shown on Tuesdays by an order), built in 1760 by
Cardinal Alessandro Albani,--sold in 1834 to the Count of Castelbarco,
and in 1868 to Prince Torlonia, its present possessor. The scene from
its garden terrace is among the loveliest of Roman pictures, the view of
the delicate Sabine mountains--Monte Gennaro, with the Montecelli
beneath it--and in the middle distance, the churches of Sant' Agnese and
Sta. Costanza, relieved by dark cypresses and a graceful fountain.

The _Casino_, which is, in fact, a magnificent palace, is remarkable as
having been built from Cardinal Albani's own designs, Carlo Marchionni
having been only employed to see that they were carried out.

     "Here is a villa of exquisite design, planned by a profound
     antiquary. Here Cardinal Albani, having spent his life in
     collecting ancient sculpture, formed such porticoes and such
     saloons to receive it as an old Roman would have done: porticoes
     where the statues stood free upon the pavement between columns
     proportioned to their stature; saloons which were not stocked but
     embellished with families of allied statues, and seemed full
     without a crowd. Here Winckelmann grew into an antiquary under the
     cardinal's patronage and instruction; and here he projected his
     history of art, which brings this collection continually into
     view."--_Forsyth's Italy._

The collection of sculptures is much reduced since the French invasion,
when 294 of the finest specimens were carried off by Napoleon to Paris,
where they were sold by Prince Albani upon their restoration in 1815, as
he was unwilling to bear the expense of transport. The greater
proportion of the remaining statues are of no great importance. Those of
the imperial family in the vestibule are interesting--those of Julius
and Augustus Cæsar, of Agrippina wife of Germanicus, and of Faustina,
are seated; most of the heads have been restored.

Conspicuous among the treasures of this villa, are the sarcophagus with
reliefs of the marriage of Peleus and Thetis, pronounced by Winckelmann
to be one of the finest in existence; a head of Æsop, supposed to be
after Lysippus; and the bronze "Apollo Sauroctonos," considered by
Winckelmann to be the original statue by Praxiteles described by Pliny,
and the most beautiful bronze statue in the world,--it was found on the
Aventine. But most important of all is the famous relievo of Antinous
crowned with lotus, from the Villa Adriana (over the chimney-piece of
the first room to the right of the saloon), supposed to have formed part
of an apotheosis of Antinous:

     "As fresh, and as highly finished, as if it had just left the
     studio of the sculptor, this work, after the Apollo and the
     Laocoon, is perhaps the most beautiful monument of antiquity which
     time has transmitted to us."--_Winckelmann, Hist. de l'Art_, vi.
     ch. 7.

Inferior only to this, is another bas-relief, also over a
chimney-piece,--the parting of Orpheus and Eurydice.

     "Les deux époux vont se quitter. Eurydice attache sur Orphée un
     profond regard d'adieu. Sa main est posée sur l'épaule de son
     époux, geste ordinaire dans les groupes qui expriment la séparation
     de ceux qui s'aiment. La main d'Orphée dégage doucement celle
     d'Eurydice, tandis que Mercure fait de la sienne un léger mouvement
     pour l'entraîner. Dans ce léger mouvement est tout leur sort;
     l'effet le plus pathétique est produit par la composition la plus
     simple; l'émotion la plus pénétrante s'exhale de la sculpture la
     plus tranquille."--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ iii. 256.

The villa also contains a collection of pictures, of which the most
interesting are the sketches of _Giulio Romano_ for the frescoes of the
story of Psyche in the Palazzo del Te at Mantua, and two fine pictures
by Luca Signorelli and Perugino, in compartments, in the first room on
the left of the saloon. All the works of art have lately been
rearranged. The _Caffè_ and the _Bigliardo_--(reached by an avenue of
oaks, which, being filled with ancient tombstones, has the effect of a
cemetery)--contain more statues, but of less importance.

Beyond the villa, the Via Salara (said by Pliny to derive its name from
the salt of Ostia exported to the north by this route) passes on the
left the site of Antemnæ, and crosses the Anio two miles from the city,
by the _Ponte Salara_, destroyed by the Roman government in the terror
of Garibaldi's approach from Monte Rotondo, in 1867. This bridge was a
restoration by Narses, in the sixth century, but stood on the
foundations of that famous Ponte Salara, upon which Titus Manlius fought
the Gaulish giant, and cutting off his head, carried off the golden
collar which earned him the name of Torquatus.

     "Manlius prend un bouclier léger de fantassin, une épée espagnole
     commode pour combattre de très-près, et s'avance à la rencontre du
     Barbare. Les deux champions, isolés sur le pont, comme sur un
     théâtre, se joignent au milieu. Le Barbare portait un vêtement
     bariolé et une armure ornée de dessins et d'incrustations dorées,
     conforme au caractère de sa race, aussi vaine que vaillante. Les
     armes du Romain étaient bonnes, mais sans éclat. Point chez lui,
     comme chez son adversaire, de chant, de transports, d'armes agitées
     avec fureur, mais un cœur plein de courage et d'une colère
     muette qu'il réservait tout entière pour le combat.

     "Le Gaulois, qui dépassait son adversaire de toute la tête, met en
     avant son bouclier et fait tomber pesamment son glaive sur l'armure
     de son adversaire. Celui-ci le heurte deux fois de son bouclier, le
     force à reculer, le trouble, et se glissant alors entre le bouclier
     et le corps du Gaulois, de deux coups rapidement portés lui ouvre
     le ventre. Quand le grand corps est tombé, Manlius lui coupe la
     tête, et, ramassant le collier de son ennemi décapité, jette tout
     sanglant sur son cou ce collier, le _torques_, propre aux Gaulois,
     et qu'on peut voir au Capitole porté par celui qu'on appelle à tort
     le gladiateur mourant. Un soldat donne, en plaisantant, à Manlius
     le sobriquet de _Torquatus_, que sa famille a toujours été fière de
     porter."--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ iii. 10.

Beyond the ruins of the bridge, is a huge tomb with a tower, now used as
an Osteria. Hence, the road leads by the Villa of Phaon (Villa Spada)
where Nero died, and the site of Fidenæ, now known as Castel Giubeleo,
to Monte Rotondo.

The district beyond the Porta Salara, and that extending between the Via
Salara and the Monte Parioli, are completely undermined by catacombs
(see Ch. IX.). The most important are--1. Nearest the gate, the
_Catacomb of St. Felicitas_, which had three tiers of galleries, adorned
by Pope Boniface I., who took refuge there from persecution,--now much
dilapidated. Over this cemetery was a church, now destroyed, which is
mentioned by William of Malmesbury. 2. _The Catacomb of SS. Thraso and
Saturninus_, much decorated with the usual paintings. 3. _The Catacomb
of Sta. Priscilla_, near the descent to the Anio. This cemetery is of
great interest, from the number of martyrs' graves it contains, and from
its peculiar construction in an ancient _arenarium_, pillars and walls
of masonry being added throughout the central part, in order to sustain
the tufa walls. Here were buried--probably because the entrance to the
Chapel of the Popes at St. Calixtus was blocked up to preserve it in the
persecution under Diocletian--Pope St. Marcellinus (ob. 308), and Pope
St. Marcellus (ob. 310), who was sent into exile by Maxentius. On the
tomb of the latter was placed, in finely cut type, the following epitaph
by Pope Damasus:--

    "Veredicus Rector, lapsos quia crimina flere
    Prædixit, miseris fuit omnibus hostis amarus.
    Hinc furor, hinc odium sequitur, discordia, lites,
    Seditio, cædes, solvuntur fœdera pacis.
    Crimen ob alterius Christum qui in pace negavit,
    Finibus expulsus patriæ est feritate tyranni.
    Hæc breviter Damasus voluit comperta referre,
    Marcelli ut populus meritum cognoscere posset."

     "The truth-speaking pope, because he preached that the lapsed
     should weep for their crimes, was bitterly hated by all those
     unhappy ones. Hence followed fury, hatred, discord, contentions,
     sedition, and slaughter, and the bonds of peace were ruptured. For
     the crime of another, who in (a time of) peace had denied Christ,
     (the pontiff) was expelled the shores of his country by the cruelty
     of the tyrant. These things Damasus having learnt, was desirous to
     narrate briefly, that people might recognise the merit of

Several of the paintings in this catacomb are remarkable; especially
that of a woman with a child, claimed by the Roman Church as one of the
earliest representations of the Virgin. The painting is thus described
by Northcote:--

     "De Rossi unhesitatingly says that he believes this painting of our
     Blessed Lady to belong almost to the apostolic age. It is to be
     seen on the vaulted roof of a _loculus_, and represents the Blessed
     Virgin seated, her head partially covered by a short light veil,
     and with the Holy Child in her arms; opposite to her stands a man,
     clothed in the pallium, holding a volume in one hand, and with the
     other pointing to a star which appears above and between the
     figures. This star almost always accompanies our Blessed Lady, both
     in paintings and in sculptures, where there is an obvious
     historical excuse for it, _e. g._, when she is represented with the
     Magi offering their gifts, or by the side of the manger with the ox
     and the ass; but with a single figure, as in the present instance,
     it is unusual. The most obvious conjecture would be that the figure
     was meant for St. Joseph, or for one of the Magi. De Rossi,
     however, gives many reasons for preferring the prophet Isaias,
     whose prophecies concerning the Messias abound with imagery
     borrowed from light."--_Roma Sotterranea._

This catacomb is one of the oldest, Sta. Priscilla, from whom it is
named, being supposed to have been the mother of Pudens, and a
contemporary of the apostles. Her granddaughters, Prassede and
Pudenziana, were buried here before the removal of their relics to the
church on the Esquiline. With this cemetery is connected the
extraordinary history of the manufacture of Sta. Filomena, now one of
the most popular saints in Italy, and one towards whom idolatry is
carried out with frantic enthusiasm both at Domo d'Ossola and in some of
the Neapolitan States. The story of this saint is best told in the words
of Mrs. Jameson.

     "In the year 1802, while some excavations were going forward in the
     catacomb of Priscilla, a sepulchre was discovered containing the
     skeleton of a young female; on the exterior were rudely painted
     some of the symbols constantly recurring in these chambers of the
     dead; an anchor, an olive branch (emblems of Hope and Peace), a
     scourge, two arrows, and a javelin: above them the following
     inscription, of which the beginning and end were destroyed:--

    ----LUMENA PAX TE CUM FI----

     "The remains, reasonably supposed to be those of one of the early
     martyrs for the faith, were sealed up and deposited in the treasury
     of relics in the Lateran; here they remained for some years
     unthought of. On the return of Pius VII. from France, a Neapolitan
     prelate was sent to congratulate him. One of the priests in his
     train, who wished to create a sensation in his district, where the
     long residence of the French had probably caused some decay of
     piety, begged for a few relics to carry home, and these recently
     discovered remains were bestowed on him; the inscription was
     translated somewhat freely, to signify _Santa Philumena, rest in
     peace_. Another priest, whose name is suppressed _because of his
     great humility_, was favoured by a vision in the broad noon-day, in
     which he beheld the glorious virgin Filomena, who was pleased to
     reveal to him that she had suffered death for preferring the
     Christian faith and her vow of chastity to the addresses of the
     emperor, who wished to make her his wife. This vision leaving much
     of her history obscure, a certain young artist, whose name is also
     suppressed, perhaps because of his great humility, was informed in
     a vision that the emperor alluded to was Diocletian, and at the
     same time the torments and persecutions suffered by the Christian
     virgin Filomena, as well as her wonderful constancy, were also
     revealed to him. There were some difficulties in the way of the
     Emperor Diocletian, which _incline_ the writer of the _historical_
     account to incline to the opinion that the young artist in his
     wisdom _may_ have made a mistake, and that the emperor may have
     been not Diocletian but Maximian. The facts, however, now admitted
     of no doubt; the relics were carried by the priest Francesco da
     Lucia to Naples; they were enclosed in a case of wood resembling in
     form the human body; this figure was habited in a petticoat of
     white satin, and over it a crimson tunic after the Greek fashion;
     the face was painted to represent nature, a garland of flowers was
     placed on the head, and in the hands a lily and a javelin with the
     point reversed to express her purity and her martyrdom; then she
     was laid in a half-sitting posture in a sarcophagus, of which the
     sides were glass, and, after lying for some time in state in the
     chapel of the Torres family in the Church of Sant' Angiolo, she was
     carried in grand procession to Mugnano, a little town about twenty
     miles from Naples, amid the acclamations of the people, working
     many and surprising miracles by the way.... Such is the legend of
     Sta. Filomena, and such the authority on which she has become
     within the last twenty years one of the most popular saints in
     Italy."--_Sacred and Legendary Art_, p. 671.

It is hoped that very interesting relics may still be discovered in this

     "In an account preserved by St. Gregory of Tours, we are told that
     under Numerianus, the martyrs Chrysanthus and Daria were put to
     death in an _arenaria_, and that a great number of the faithful
     having been seen entering a subterranean crypt on the Via Salara,
     to visit their tombs, the heathen emperor caused the entrance to be
     hastily built up, and a vast mound of sand and stone to be heaped
     in front of it, so that they might be all buried alive, even as the
     martyrs whom they had come to venerate. St. Gregory adds, that when
     the tombs of these martyrs were re-discovered, after the ages of
     persecution had ceased, there were found with them, not only the
     relics of those worshippers who had been thus cruelly put to death,
     skeletons of men, women, and children lying on the floor, but also
     the silver cruets (_urcei argentei_) which they had taken down with
     them for the celebration of the sacred mysteries. St. Damasus was
     unwilling to destroy so touching a memorial of past ages. He
     abstained from making any of those changes by which he usually
     decorated the martyrs' tombs, but contented himself with setting up
     one of his invaluable historical inscriptions, and opening a window
     in the adjacent wall or rock, that all might see, without
     disturbing, this monument so unique in its kind--this Christian
     Pompeii in miniature. These things might still be seen in St.
     Gregory's time, in the sixth century; and De Rossi holds out hopes
     that some traces of them may be restored even to our own
     generation, some fragments of the inscription perhaps, or even the
     window itself through which our ancestors once saw so moving a
     spectacle, assisting, as it were, at a mass celebrated in the third
     century."--_Roma Sotterranea_, p. 88.

       *       *       *       *       *

Returning to the Porta Salara, and following the walls, we reach the
_Porta Pia_, built, as it is now seen, by Pius IX.--very ugly, but
appropriately decorated with statues of St. Agnes and St. Alexander, to
whose shrines it leads. The statues lost their heads in the capture of
Rome in 1870 by the Italian troops, who entered the city by a breach in
the walls close to this. A little to the right was the _Porta
Nomentana_, flanked by round towers, closed by Pius IV. It was by this
gate that the oppressed Roman people retreated to the Mons Sacer--and
that Nero fled.

     "Suivons-le du Grand-Cirque à la porte Nomentane. Quel spectacle!
     Néron, accoutumé à toutes les recherches de la volupté, s'avance à
     cheval, les pieds nus, en chemise, couvert d'un vieux manteau dont
     la couleur était passée, un mouchoir sur le visage. Quatre
     personnes seulement l'accompagnent; parmi elles est ce Sporus, que
     dans un jour d'indicible folie il avait publiquement épousé. Il
     sent la terre trembler, il voit les éclairs au ciel: Néron a peur.
     Tous ceux qu'il a fait mourir lui apparaissent et semblent se
     précipiter sur lui. Nous voici à la porte Nomentane, qui touche au
     Camp des Prétoriens. Néron reconnaît ce lieu où, il y a quinze ans,
     suivant alors le chemin qu'il vient de suivre, il est venu se faire
     reconnaître empereur par les prétoriens. En passant sous les murs
     de leur camp, vers lequel son destin le ramène, il les entend
     former des vœux pour Galba, et lancer des imprécations contre
     lui. Un passant lui dit: 'Voilà des gens qui cherchent Néron.' Son
     cheval se cabre au milieu de la route: c'est qu'il a flairé un
     cadavre. Le mouchoir qui couvrait son visage tombe; un prétorien
     qui se trouvait là le ramasse et le rend à l'empereur, qu'il salue
     par son nom. A chacun de ces incidents son effroi redouble. Enfin
     il est arrivé à un petit chemin qui s'ouvre à notre gauche, dans la
     direction de la voie Salara, parallèle à la voie Nomentane. C'est
     entre ces deux voies qu'était la villa de Phaon, à quatre milles de
     Rome. Pour l'attendre, Néron, qui a mis pied à terre, s'enfonce à
     travers un fourré d'épines et un champ de roseaux comme il s'en
     trouve tant dans la Campagne de Rome; il a peine de s'y frayer un
     chemin; il arrive ainsi au mur de derrière de la villa. Près de là
     était un de ces antres creusés pour l'extraction du sable
     volcanique, appelé _pouzzolane_, tels qu'on en voit encore de ce
     côté. Phaon engage le fugitif à s'y cacher; il refuse. On fait un
     trou dans la muraille de la villa par où il pénètre, marchant
     quatre pieds, dans l'intérieur. Il entre dans une petite salle et
     se couche sur un lit formé d'un méchant matelas sur lequel on avait
     jeté un vieux manteau. Ceux qui l'entourent le pressent de mourir
     pour échapper aux outrages et au supplice. Il essaye à plusieurs
     reprises de se donner la mort et n'y peut se résoudre; il pleure.
     Enfin, en entendant les cavaliers qui venaient le saisir, il cite
     un vers grec, fait un effort et se tue avec le secours d'un
     affranchi."--_Ampère, Emp._ ii. 65.

       *       *       *       *       *

Immediately outside the Porta Pia is the entrance of the beautiful
_Villa Patrizi_, whose grounds enclose the small _Catacomb of St.
Nicomedus_. Then comes the _Villa Lezzani_, where Sta. Giustina is
buried in a chapel, and where her festa is observed on the 25th of

Beyond this is the ridiculous _Villa Torlonia_ (shown with an order on
Wednesdays from 11 to 4, but not worth seeing), sprinkled with mock

At little more than a mile from the gate the road reaches the _Basilica
of St' Agnese fuori le Mura_, founded by Constantine at the request of
his daughter Constantia, in honour of the virgin martyr buried in the
neighbouring catacomb; but rebuilt 625--38 by Honorius I. It was altered
in 1490 by Innocent VIII., but retains more of its ancient character
than most of the Roman churches. The polychrome decorations of the
interior, and the rebuilding of the monastery, were carried out at the
expense of Pius IX., as a thank-offering for his escape, when he fell
through the floor here into a cellar, with his cardinals and attendants,
on April 15, 1855. The scene is represented in a large fresco by
_Domenico Tojetti_, in a chamber on the right of the courtyard.

The approach to the church is by a picturesque staircase of forty-five
ancient marble steps, lined with inscriptions from the catacombs. The
nave is divided from the aisles by sixteen columns, four of which are of
"porta-santa" and two of "pavonazzetto." A smaller range of columns
above these supports the roof of a triforium, which is on a level with
the road. The baldacchino, erected in 1614, is supported by four
porphyry columns. Beneath is the shrine of St. Agnes surmounted by her
statue, an antique of oriental alabaster, with modern head, and hands of
gilt bronze. The mosaics of the tribune, representing St. Agnes between
Popes Honorius I. and Symmachus, are of the seventh century. Beneath, is
an ancient episcopal chair.

The second chapel on the right has a beautiful mosaic altar, and a
relief of SS. Stephen and Laurence of 1490. The third chapel is that of
St. Emerentiana, foster-sister of St. Agnes, who was discovered praying
beside the tomb of her friend, and was stoned to death because she
refused to sacrifice to idols.

     "So ancient is the worship paid to St. Agnes, that next to the
     Evangelists and Apostles, there is no saint whose effigy is older.
     It is found on the ancient glass and earthenware vessels used by
     the Christians in the early part of the third century, with her
     name inscribed, which leaves no doubt of her identity. But neither
     in these images, nor in the mosaics, is the lamb introduced, which
     in later times has become her inseparable attribute, as the
     patroness of maidens and maidenly modesty."--_Jameson's Sacred
     Art_, p. 105.

St. Agnes suffered martyrdom by being stabbed in the throat, under
Diocletian, in her thirteenth year (see Ch. XIV.), after which,
according to the expression used in the acts of her martyrdom, her
parents "with all joy" laid her in the catacombs. One day as they were
praying near the body of their child, she appeared to them surrounded by
a great multitude of virgins, triumphant and glorious like herself, with
a lamb by her side, and said, "I am in heaven, living with these virgins
my companions, near Him whom I have so much loved." By her tomb, also,
Constantia, a princess sick with hopeless leprosy, was praying for the
healing of her body, when she heard a voice saying, "Rise up,
Constantia, and go on constantly ('Costanter age, Constantia') in the
faith of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who shall heal your
diseases,"--and, being cured of her evil, she besought her father to
build this basilica as a thank-offering.[243]

On the 21st of January, a beautiful service is celebrated here, in which
two lambs, typical of the purity of the virgin saint, are blessed upon
the altar. They are sent by the chapter of St. John Lateran, and their
wool is afterwards used to make the pallium of the pope, which is
consecrated before it is worn, by being deposited in a golden urn upon
the tomb of St. Peter. The pallium is the sign of episcopal

     "Ainsi, le simple ornement de laine que ces prélats doivent porter
     sur leurs épaules comme symbole de la brebis du bon Pasteur, et que
     le pontife Romain prend sur l'autel même de Saint Pierre pour le
     leur adresser, va porter jusqu'aux extrémités de l'Eglise, dans une
     union sublime, le double sentiment de la force du Prince des
     Apôtres et de la douceur virginale d'Agnes."--_Dom Guéranger._

Close to St' Agnese is the round _Church of Sta. Costanza_. erected by
Constantine as a mausoleum for his daughters Constantia and Helena, and
converted into a church by Alexander IV. (1254--61) in honour of the
Princess Constantia, ob. 354, whose life is represented by Marcellinus
as anything but saintlike, and who is supposed to have been confused in
her canonization with a sainted nun of the same name. The rotunda,
seventy-three feet in diameter, is surrounded by a vaulted corridor;
twenty-four double columns of granite support the dome. The vaulting is
covered with mosaic arabesques of the fourth century, of flowers and
birds, with scenes referring to a vintage. The same subjects are
repeated on the splendid porphyry sarcophagus of Sta. Costanza, of which
the interest is so greatly marred by its removal to the Vatican from its
proper site, whence it was first stolen by Pope Paul II., who intended
to use it as his own tomb.

     "Les enfants qui foulent le raisin, tels qu'on les voit dans les
     mosaïques de l'église de Sainte Constance, les bas-reliefs de son
     tombeau et ceux de beaucoup d'autres tombeaux chrétiens sont bien
     d'origine païenne, car on les voit aussi figurer dans les
     bas-reliefs où paraît Priape."--_Ampère, Hist. Rom._ iii. 257.

Behind the two churches is an oblong space, ending in a fine mass of
ruin, which is best seen from the valley below. This was long supposed
to be the Hippodrome of Constantine, but is now discovered to have
belonged to an early Christian cemetery.

_The Catacomb of St Agnese_ is entered from a vineyard about a quarter
of a mile beyond the church. It is lighted and opened to the public on
St. Agnes' Day. After those of St. Calixtus, this, perhaps, is the
catacomb which is most worthy of a visit.

We enter by a staircase attributed to the time of Constantine. The
passages are lined with the usual _loculi_ for the dead, sometimes
adapted for a single body, sometimes for two laid together. Beside many
of the graves the palm of victory may be seen scratched on the mortar,
and remains of the glass bottles or _ampullæ_, which are supposed to
indicate the graves of martyrs, and to have contained a portion of their
blood, of which they are often said to retain the trace. One of the
graves in the first gallery bears the names of consuls of A.D. 336,
which fixes the date of this part of the cemetery.

The most interesting features here are a square chamber hewn in the
rock, with an arm-chair (_sedia_) cut out of the rock on either side of
the entrance, supposed to have been a school for catechists,--and near
this is a second chamber for female catechists, with plain seats in the
same position. Opening out of the gallery close by is a chamber which
was apparently used as a chapel; its _arcosolium_ has marks of an altar
remaining at the top of the grave, and near it is a credence-table; the
roof is richly painted,--in the central compartment is our Lord seated
between the rolls of the Old and New Testament. Above the arcosolium, in
the place of honour, is our Saviour as the Good Shepherd, bearing a
sheep upon his shoulders, and standing between other sheep and
trees;--in the other compartments are Daniel in the lions' den, the
Three Children in the furnace, Moses taking off his shoes, Moses
striking the rock, and--nearest the entrance--the Paralytic carrying his
bed. A neighbouring chapel has also remains of an altar and
credence-table, and well-preserved paintings,--the Good Shepherd, Adam
and Eve, with the tree between them, Jonah under the gourd, and in the
fourth compartment a figure described by Protestants merely as an
Orante, and by Roman Catholics as the Blessed Virgin.[244] Near this
chapel we can look down through an opening into the second floor of the
catacomb, which is lined with graves like the first.

In the further part of the catacomb is a long narrow chapel which has
received the name of the _cathedral_ or _basilica_. It is divided into
three parts, of which the furthest, or presbytery, contains an ancient
episcopal chair with lower seats on either side for priests--probably
the throne where Pope St. Liberius (A.D. 359) officiated, with his face
to the people, when he lived for more than a year hidden here from
persecution. Hence a flight of steps leads down to what Northcote calls
"the Lady Chapel," where, over the altar, is a fresco of an orante,
without a nimbus, with outstretched arms,--with a child in front of her.
On either side of this picture, a very interesting one, is the monogram
of Constantine, and the painting is referred to his time. Near this
chapel is a chamber with a spring running through it, evidently used as
a baptistery.

At the extremity of the catacomb, under the basilica of St. Agnes, is
one of its most interesting features. Here the passages become wider and
more irregular, the walls sloping and unformed, and graves cease to
appear, indicating one of the ancient _arenaria_, which here formed the
approach to the catacomb, and beyond which the Christians excavated
their cemetery.

The graves throughout almost all the catacombs have been rifled, the
bones which they contained being distributed as relics throughout Roman
Catholic Christendom, and most of the sarcophagi and inscriptions
removed to the Lateran and other museums.

     "Vous pourriez voir ici la capitale des catacombes de toute la
     chrétienté. Les martyrs, les confesseurs, et les vierges, y
     fourmillent de tous côtés. Quand on se fait besoin de quelques
     reliques en pays étrangers, le Pape n'a qu'à descendre ici et
     crier, _Qui de vous autres veut aller être saint en Pologne?_
     Alors, s'il se trouve quelque mort de bonne volonté, il se lève et
     s'en va."--_De Brosses_, 1739.

Half a mile beyond St' Agnese, the road reaches the willow-fringed river
Anio, in which "Silvia changed her earthly life for that of a goddess,"
and which carried the cradle containing her two babes Romulus and Remus
into the Tiber, to be brought to land at the foot of the Palatine
fig-tree. Into this river we may also recollect that Sylla caused the
ashes of his ancient rival Marius to be thrown. The river is crossed by
the _Ponte Nomentana_, a mediæval bridge, partially covered, with forked

     "Ponte Nomentana is a solitary dilapidated bridge in the spacious
     green Campagna. Many ruins from the days of ancient Rome, and many
     watch-towers from the middle ages, are scattered over this long
     succession of meadows; chains of hills rise towards the horizon,
     now partially covered with snow, and fantastically varied in form
     and colour by the shadows of the clouds. And there is also the
     enchanting vapoury vision of the Alban hills, which change their
     hues like the chameleon, as you gaze at them--where you can see for
     miles little white chapels glittering on the dark foreground of the
     hills, as far as the Passionist Convent on the summit, and whence
     you can trace the road winding through thickets, and the hills
     sloping downwards to the lake of Albano, while a hermitage peeps
     through the trees."--_Mendelssohn's Letters._

The hill immediately beyond the bridge is the _Mons Sacer_ (not only the
part usually pointed out on the right of the road, but the whole
hillside), to which the famous secession of the Plebs took place in B.C.
549, amounting, according to Dionysius, to about 4000 persons. Here they
encamped upon the green slopes for four months, to the terror of the
patricians, who foresaw that Rome, abandoned by its defenders, would
fall before its enemies, and that the crops would perish for want of
cultivation. Here Menenius Agrippa delivered his apologue of the belly
and its members, which is said to have induced them to return to Rome;
that which really decided them to do so being the concession of
tribunes, to be the organs and representatives of the plebs as the
consuls were of the patricians. The epithet Sacer is ascribed by
Dionysius to an altar which the plebeians erected at the time on the
hill to Ζεὑς Δειμἁτιος.

A second secession to the Mons Sacer took place in B.C. 449, when the
plebs rose against Appius Claudius after the death of Virginia, and
retired hither under the advice of M. Duilius, till the decemvirs

Following the road beyond the bridge past the castle known as _Casale
dei Pazzi_ (once used as a lunatic asylum) and the picturesque tomb
called Torre Nomentana,--as far as the seventh milestone--we reach the
remains of the unburied _Basilica of S. Alessandro_, built on the site
of the place where that pope suffered martyrdom with his companions
Eventius and Theodulus, A.D. 119, and was buried on the same spot by the
Christian matron Severina.[245] The plan of the basilica, disinterred
1856-7, is still quite perfect. The tribune and high altar retain
fragments of rich marbles and alabasters; the episcopal throne also
remains in its place.

The "Acts of the martyrs Alexander, Eventius, and Theodulus," narrate
that Severina buried the bodies of the first two martyrs in one tomb,
and the third separately--"Theodulum vero alibi sepelivit." This is
borne out by the discovery of a chapel opening from the nave, where the
single word "martyri," is supposed to point out the grave of Theodulus.
A baptistery has been found with its font, and another chapel adjoining
is pointed out as the place where neophytes assembled to receive
confirmation from the bishop. Among epitaphs laid bare in the pavement
is one to a youth named Apollo "votus Deo" (dedicated to the
priesthood?) at the age of 14. Entered from the church is the catacomb
called "ad nymphas," containing many ancient inscriptions and a few rude

Mass is solemnly performed here by the Cardinal Prefect of the
Propaganda on the festival of St. Alexander, May 3, when the roofless
basilica--backed by the blue Sabine mountains and surrounded by the
utterly desolate Campagna--is filled with worshippers, and presents a
striking scene. Beyond this a road to the left leads through beautiful
woods to _Mentana_, occupying the site of the ancient Nomentum, and
recently celebrated for the battle between the papal troops and the
Garibaldians on Nov. 3, 1867. The conflict took place chiefly on the
hillside which is passed on the right before reaching the town. Two
miles further is _Monte Rotondo_, with a fine old castle of the
Barberini family (once of the Orsini), from which there is a beautiful
view. This place was also the scene of fighting in 1867. It is possible
to vary the route in returning to Rome from hence by the lower road
which leads by the (now broken) Ponte Salara.

       *       *       *       *       *

If we re-enter Rome by the Porta Pia, immediately within the gates we
find another Villa belonging to the Torlonia family. The straight road
from the gate leads by the Termini to the Quattro Fontane and the Monte
Cavallo. On the left, if we follow the _Via de Macao_, which takes its
strange name from a gift of land which the princes of Savoy made to the
Jesuits for a mission in China, we reach a small piazza with two pines,
where a gate on the left leads to the remains of the _Pretorian Camp_,
established by Sejanus, the minister of Tiberius. It was dismantled by
Constantine, but from three sides having been enclosed by Aurelian in
the line of his city-wall, its form is still preserved to us. The
Pretorian Camp was an oblong of 1200 by 1500 feet; its area was occupied
by a vineyard of the Jesuits till 1861, when a "Campo Militare" was
again established here, for the pontifical troops.

     "En suivant l'enceinte de Rome, quand on arrive à l'endroit où elle
     se continue par le mur du Camp des prétoriens, on est frappé de la
     supériorité de construction que présente celui-ci. La partie des
     murs d'Honorius qui est voisine a été refaite au huitième siècle.
     Le commencement et la fin de l'empire se touchent. On peut
     apprécier d'un coup d'œil l'état de la civilisation aux deux
     époques: voilà ce qu'on faisait dans le premier siècle, et voilà ce
     qu'on faisait au huitième, après la conquête de l'empire Romain par
     les Barbares. Il faut songer toutefois que cette époque où l'on
     construisait si bien a amené celle où l'on ne savait plus
     construire."--_Ampère, Emp._ i. 421.

Hence a road, three-quarters of a mile long, leads--passing under an
arch of Sixtus V.--to the Porta S. Lorenzo (Ch. XIII.).

The road opposite the gateway leading to the Camp is bordered on the
left by the buildings belonging to the _Railway Station_, beyond which
is the entrance to the grounds of the _Villa Massimo Negroni_, which
possessed a delightful terrace, fringed with orange-trees--a most
agreeable sunny walk in winter--and many pleasant shady nooks and
corners for summer, but which has been mutilated and stripped of all its
beauties since the Sardinian rule. In a part of this villa beyond the
railway but still visible from hence, is a colossal statue of Minerva
(generally called "Rome"), which is a relic of the residence here of
Cardinal Felix Perretti, who as a boy had watched the pigs of his father
at Montalto, and who lived to mount the papal throne as Sixtus V. The
pedestal of the statue bears his arms,--a lion holding three pears in
its paw. Here, with her husband's uncle, lived the famous Vittoria
Accoramboni, the wife of the handsome Francesco Perretti, who had been
vainly sought in marriage by the powerful and ugly old Prince Paolo
Orsini. It was from hence that her young husband was summoned to a
secret interview with her brothers on the slopes of the Quirinal, where
he was cruelly murdered by the hired bravos of her first lover. Hence
also Vittoria went forth--on the very day of the installation of Sixtus
V.--to her strange second marriage with the murderer of her husband, who
died six months after, leaving her with one of the largest fortunes in
Italy--an amount of wealth which led to her own barbarous murder through
the jealousy of the Orsini a month afterwards.

Here, after the election of her brother to the papacy, lived Camilla,
the sister of Sixtus V., whom he refused to recognise when she came to
him in splendid attire as a princess, but tenderly embraced when she
reappeared in her peasant's wimple and hood. From hence her two
granddaughters were married,--one to Virginius Orsini, the other to
Marc-Antonio Colonna, an alliance which healed the feud of centuries
between the two families.

In later times the Villa Negroni was the residence of the poet Alfieri.

The principal terrace ends near a reservoir which belonged to the baths
of Diocletian.

     "As one looks from the Villa Negroni windows, one cannot fail to be
     impressed by the strange changes through which this wonderful city
     has passed. The very spot on which Nero, the insane emperor-artist,
     fiddled while Rome was burning, has now become a vast
     kitchen-garden, belonging to Prince Massimo (himself a descendant,
     as he claims, of Fabius Cunctator), where men no longer, but only
     lettuces, asparagus, and artichokes, are ruthlessly cut down. The
     inundations are not for mock sea-fights among slaves, but for the
     peaceful purposes of irrigation. In the bottom of the valley, a
     noble old villa, covered with frescoes, has been turned into a
     manufactory for bricks, and part of the Villa Negroni itself is now
     occupied by the railway station. Yet here the princely family of
     Negroni lived, and the very lady at whose house Lucrezia Borgia
     took her famous revenge may once have sauntered under the walls,
     which still glow with ripening oranges, to feed the gold fish in
     the fountain,--or walked with stately friends through the long
     alleys of clipped cypresses, or pic-nicked _alla Giornata_ on lawns
     which are now but kitchen-gardens, dedicated to San
     Cavolo."--_Story's Roba di Roma._

The lower part of the Villa Negroni, and the slopes towards the
Esquiline, were once celebrated as the _Campus Esquilinus_, a large
pauper burial-ground, where bodies were thrown into pits called
_puticoli_,[246] as is still the custom at Naples. There were also tombs
here of a somewhat pretentious character: "those probably of rich
well-to-do burgesses, yet not great enough to command the posthumous
honour of a roadside mausoleum."[247] Horace dwells on the horrors of
this burial-ground, where he places the scene of Canidia's

    "Nec in sepulcris pauperum prudens anus
    Novemdiales dissipare pulveres."
        _Epod._ xvii. 47.

                    'Has nullo perdere possum
    Nec prohibere modo, simul ac vaga luna decorum
    Protulit os, quin ossa legant, herbasque nocentes.
    Vidi egomet nigrâ succinctam vadere pallâ
    Canidiam, pedibus nudis passoque capillo,
    Cum Saganâ majore ululantem; pallor utrasque
    Fecerat horrendas aspectu,

           *       *       *       *       *

                            Serpentes atque videres
    Infernas errare canes; lunamque rubentem,
    Ne foret his testis, post magna latere sepulcra."
           _Hor. Sat._ i. 8'

The place was considered very unhealthy until its purification by

    "Huc prius angustis ejecta cadavera cellis
    Conservus vili portanda locabat in arcâ.
    Hoc miseræ plebi stabat commune sepulcrum,
    Pantolabo scurræ, Nomentanoque nepoti.
    Mille pedes in fronte, trecentos cippus in agrum
    Hîc dabat; heredes monumentum ne sequeretur.
    Nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus, atque
    Aggere in aprico spatiari; quo modo tristes
    Albis informem spectabant ossibus agrum."

    _Hor. Sat._ i. 8.

    "Post insepulta membra different lupi,
    Et Esquilinæ alites."

    _Hor. Ep._ v. 100.

     "The Campus Esquilinus, between the roads which issued from the
     Esquiline and Viminal gates, was the spot assigned for casting out
     the carcases of slaves, whose foul and half-burnt remains were
     hardly hidden from the vultures. The _accursed field_ was enclosed,
     it would appear, neither by wall nor fence, to exclude the
     wandering steps of man or beast; and from the public walk on the
     summit of the ridge, it must have been viewed in all its horrors.
     Here prowled in troops the houseless dogs of the city and the
     suburbs; here skulked the solitary wolf from the Alban hills, and
     here perhaps, to the doleful murmurs of the Marsic chaunt, the
     sorceress compounded her philtres of the ashes of dead men's bones.
     Mæcenas (B.C. 7) deserved the gratitude of the citizens, when he
     obtained a grant of this piece of land, and transformed it into a
     park or garden.... The Campus Esquilinus is now part of the gardens
     of the Villa Negroni."--_Merivale, Romans under the Empire._

Within what were the grounds of the Villa Negroni until they were
encroached upon by the railway, but now only to be visited with a
"lascia passare" from the station master, are some of the best remains
of the _Agger of Servius Tullius_. In 1869--70, some curious painted
chambers were discovered here, but were soon destroyed,--and the foolish
jealousy of the authorities prevented any drawings or photographs being
taken. The Agger can be traced from the Porta Esquilina (near the Arch
of Gallienus), to the Porta Collina (near the Gardens of Sallust). In
the time of the empire it had become a kind of promenade, as we learn
from Horace.[248]

Opposite the station are the vast, but for the most part uninteresting,
remains of the _Baths of Diocletian_, covering a space of 440,000 square
yards. They were begun by Diocletian and Maximian, about A.D. 302, and
finished by Constantius and Maximinus. It is stated by Cardinal
Baronius, that 40,000 Christians were employed in the work; some bricks
marked with crosses have been found in the ruins. At the angles of the
principal front were two circular halls, both of which remain; one is
near the modern Villa Strozzi, at the back of the Negroni garden, and is
now used as a granary, the other is transformed into the Church of S.

The Baths are supposed to have first fallen into decay after the Gothic
invasion of A.D. 410. In the sixteenth century the site was sold to
Cardinal Bella, ambassador of Francis I. at Rome, who built a fine
palace among the ruins; after his death, in 1560, the property was
re-sold to S. Carlo Borromeo. He sold it again to his uncle, Pope Pius
IV., who founded the monastery of Carthusian monks. These, in 1593, sold
part of the ruins to Caterina Sforza, who founded the Cistercian convent
of S. Bernardo.

About 1520, a Sicilian priest called Antonio del Duca came to Rome,
bringing with him from Palermo pictures of the seven archangels
(Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel, Santhiel, Gendiel, and Borachiel),
copied from some which existed in the Church of S. Angiolo. Carried away
by the desire of instituting archangel-worship at Rome, he obtained
leave to affix these pictures to seven of the columns still standing
erect in the Baths of Diocletian, which, ten years after, Julius II.
allowed to be consecrated under the title of Sta. Maria degli Angeli;
though Pius IV., declaring that angel-worship had never been sanctioned
by the Church, except under the three names mentioned in Scripture,
ordered the pictures of Del Duca to be taken away.[249] At the same time
he engaged Michael Angelo to convert the great oblong hall of the Baths
(Calidarium) into a church. The church then arranged was not such as we
now see, the present entrance having been then the atrium of the side
chapel, and the main entrance at first by what is now the right
transept, while the high altar stood in what is now the left transept.
In 1749, the desire of erecting a chapel to the Beato Nicolo Albergati,
led to the church being altered, under Vanvitelli, as we now see it.

The _Church of Sta. Maria degli Angeli_, still most magnificent, is now
entered by a rotunda (Laconicum) which contains four monuments of some
interest; on the right of the entrance is that of the artist Carlo
Maratta, who died 1713; on the left that of Salvator Rosa, who died
1673, with an epitaph by his son, describing him as "Pictorum sui
temporis nulli secundum, poetarum omnium temporum principibus parem!"
Beyond, on the right, is the monument of Cardinal Alciati, professor of
law at Milan, who procured his hat through the interest of S. Carlo
Borromeo, with the epitaph "Virtute vixit, memoria vivit, gloria
vivet,"--on the left, that of Cardinal Parisio di Corenza, inscribed,
"Corpus humo tegitur, fama per ora volat, spiritus astra tenet." In the
chapel on the right are the angels of Peace and Justice, by _Pettrich_;
in that on the left Christ appearing to the Magdalen, by _Arrigo
Fiamingo_. Against the pier on the right is the grand statue of S.
Bruno, by _Houdon_, of which Clement XIV. (Ganganelli) used to say, "He
would speak, if the rule of his Order did not forbid it."

The body of the church is now a perfect gallery of very large pictures,
most of which were brought from St. Peter's, where their places have
been supplied by mosaic copies. In what is now the right transept, on
the right, is the Crucifixion of St. Peter, _Ricciolini_; the Fall of
Simon Magus, a copy of _Francesco Vanni_ (the original in St. Peter's);
on the left, St. Jerome, with St. Bruno and St. Francis, _Muziano_
(1528--92) (the landscape by _Brill_); and the Miracles of St. Peter,
_Baglioni_. This transept ends in the chapel of the Beato Nicolo
Albergati, a Carthusian Cardinal, who was sent as legate by Martin V.,
in 1422, to make a reconciliation between Charles VI. of France and
Henry V. of England. The principal miracle ascribed to him, the
conversion of bread into coal in order to convince the Emperor of
Germany of his divine authority, is represented in the indifferent
altar-piece. In the left transept, which ends in the chapel of S. Bruno,
are: on the left, St. Basil by the solemnity of the Mass rebuking the
Emperor Valens, _Subleyras_; and the Fall of Simon Magus, _Pompeo
Battoni_;--on the right, the Immaculate Conception, _P. Bianchi_; and
Tabitha raised from the Dead, _P. Costanzi_.

In the tribune are, on the right, the Presentation of the Virgin in the
Temple, _Romanelli_; and the Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, a grand fresco
of _Domenichino_, painted originally on the walls of St. Peter's, and
removed here with great skill by the engineer Zabaglia;--on the left,
the Death of Ananias and Sapphira, _Pomarancio_; and the Baptism of
Christ, _Maratta_.

On the right of the choir is the tomb of Cardinal Antonio Serbelloni; on
the left that of Pius IV., Giovanni Angelo Medici (1559-1565), under
whose reign the Council of Trent was closed,--uncle of S. Carlo
Borromeo, a lively and mundane pope, but the cruel persecutor of the
Caraffa nephews of his predecessor, Paul IV., whom he executed in the
Castle of S. Angelo.

Of the sixteen columns in this church (45 feet in height, 16 feet in
diameter), only the eight in the transept are of ancient Egyptian
granite; the rest are in brick, stuccoed in imitation, and were
additions of Vanvitelli. On the pavement is a meridian line, laid down
in 1703.

     "Quand Dioclétien faisait travailler les pauvres chrétiens à ses
     étuves, ce n'était pas son dessein de bâtir des églises à leurs
     successeurs; il ne pensait pas être fondateur, comme il l'a été,
     d'un monastère de Pères Chartreux et d'un monastère de Pères
     Feuillants.... C'est aux dépens de Dioclétien, de ses pierres et de
     son ciment qu'on fait des autels et des chapelles à Jesus-Christ,
     des dortoirs et des réfectoires à ses serviteurs. La providence de
     Dieu se joue de cette sorte des pensées des hommes, et les
     événements sont bien éloignés des intentions quand la terre a un
     dessein et le ciel un autre."--_Balzac._

The Carthusian convent behind the church (ladies are not admitted)
contains several picturesque fountains. That in the great cloister,
built from designs of Michael Angelò, is surrounded by a group of huge
and grand cypresses, said to have been planted by his hand.

     "Il semble que la vie ne sert ici qu'à contempler la mort--les
     hommes qui existent ainsi sont pourtant les mêmes à qui la guerre
     et toute son activité suffirait à peine s'ils y étaient accoutumés.
     C'est un sujet inépuisable de réflexion que les différentes
     combinaisons de la destinée humaine sur la terre. Il se passe dans
     l'intérieur de l'âme mille accidents, il se forme mille habitudes,
     qui font de chaque individu un monde et son histoire."--_Madame de

On a line with the monastery is a Prison for Women--then an Institution
for Deaf, Dumb, and Blind--then the ugly _Fountain of the Termini_
(designed by Fontana), sometimes called Fontanone dell' Acqua Felice,
(Felice, from Fra Felice, the name by which Sixtus V. was known before
his papacy,) to which the Acqua Felice was brought from Colonna 22 miles
distant in the Alban hills, in 1583, by Sixtus V. It is surmounted by a
hideous statue of Moses by _Prospero Bresciano_, who is said to have
died of vexation at the ridicule it excited when uncovered. The side
statues, of Aaron and Gideon, are by _Giov. Batt. della Porta_ and
_Flaminio Vacca_.

Opposite this, in the Via della Porta Pia, is the _Church of Sta. Maria
della Vittoria_, built in 1605, by Carlo Maderno, for Paul V. Its façade
was added from designs of Giov. Batt. Soria, by Cardinal Borghese, in
payment to the monks of the adjoining Carmelite convent, for the statue
of the Hermaphrodite, which had been found in their vineyard.

The name of the church commemorates an image of the Virgin, burnt in
1833, which was revered as having been instrumental in gaining the
victory for the Catholic imperial troops over the Protestant Frederick
and Elizabeth of Bohemia, at the battle of the White Mountain, near
Prague. The third chapel on the left contains the Trinity, by
_Guercino_; a Crucifixion, by _Guido_; and a portrait of Cardinal
Cornaro, _Guido_. The altar-piece of the second chapel on the right,
representing St. Francis receiving the Infant Christ from the Virgin, is
by _Domenichino_, as are two frescoes on the side walls. In the left
transept, above an altar adorned with a gilt bronze-relief of the Last
Supper, by Cav. d'Arpino, is a group representing Sta. Teresa transfixed
by the dart of the Angel of Death, by _Bernini_. The following
criticisms upon it are fair specimens of the contrast between English
and French taste.

     "All the Spanish pictures of Sta. Theresa sin in their materialism;
     but the grossest example--the most offensive--is the marble group
     of Bernini, in the Santa Maria della Vittoria at Rome. The head of
     Sta. Theresa is that of a languishing nymph, the angel is a sort of
     Eros; the whole has been significantly described as 'a parody of
     Divine love.' The vehicle, white marble,--its place in a Christian
     church,--enhance all its vileness. The least destructive, the
     least prudish in matters of art, would here willingly throw the
     first stone."--_Mrs. Jameson's Monastic Orders_, p. 421.

     "La sainte Thérèse de Bernin est adorable! couchée, évanouie
     d'amour les mains, les pieds nus pendants, les yeux demiclos, elle
     s'est laissée tomber de bonheur et d'extase. Son visage est maigri,
     mais combien noble! C'est la vraie grande dame qui a séché dans les
     feux, dans les larmes, en attendant celui qu'elle aime. Jusqu'aux
     draperies tortillées, jusqu'à l'allanguissement des mains
     défaillantes, jusqu'au soupir qui meurt sur ses levres
     entr'ouvertes, il n'y a rien en elle ni autour d'elle qui n'exprime
     l'angoisse volupteuse et le divin élancement de son transport. On
     ne peut pas rendre avec des mots une attitude si enivrée et si
     touchante. Renversée sur le dos, elle pâme, tout son être se
     dissout; le moment poignant arrive, elle gémit; c'est son dernier
     gémissement, la sensation est trop forte. L'ange cependant, un
     jeune page de quatorze ans, en légère tunique, la poitrine
     découverte jusqu'au dessous du sein, arrive gracieux, aimable;
     c'est le plus joli page de grand seigneur qui vient faire le
     bonheur d'une vassal trop tendre. Un sourire demi-complaisant,
     demi-malin, creuse des fossettes dans ses fraîches joues luisantes;
     sa flêche d'or à la main indique le tressaillement délicieux et
     terrible dont il va secouer tous les nerfs de ce corps charmant,
     ardent, qui s'étale devant sa main. On n'a jamais fait ce roman si
     séduisant et si tendre."--_Taine, Voyage en Italie._

Close by is the handsome _Church of Sta. Susanna_, rebuilt by _Carlo
Maderno_, for Sixtus V., on the site of an oratory founded by Pope Caius
(A.D. 283), in the house of his brother Gabinus, who was martyred with
his daughter Susanna because she refused to break her vow of virginity
by a marriage with Maximianus Galerus, adopted son of the Emperor
Diocletian, to whom this family were related. The bodies of these
martyrs are said to rest beneath the high altar. The side chapel of St.
Laurence was presented by Camilla Peretti, the sister of Sixtus V.,
together with a dowry of fifty scudi, to be paid every year to the nine
best girls in the parish, on the festival of Sta. Susanna. The frescoes
of the story of Susanna and the Elders, painted here on the side walls,
from the analogy of names, are by _Baldassare Croce_; those in the
tribune are by _Cesare Nebbia_.

Opposite this, is the Cistercian convent and _Church of S. Bernardo_, a
rotunda of the Baths of Diocletian, turned into a church in 1598, by
Caterina Sforza, Contessa di Santa Fiora.

Hence the Via della Porta Pia leads to the Quattro Fontane. On the left
is the small _Church of S. Caio_, which encloses the tomb of that pope,
inscribed "Sancti Caii, Papæ, martyris ossa." Further, on the left, is
the great recently suppressed convent of the Carmelites, and the _Church
of Sta. Teresa_. The right of the street is bordered by the
orange-shaded wall of the Barberini garden.

Between S. Caio and Sta. Teresa, is the _Studio of Overbeck_, the
venerable German devotional painter, who died 1869. His daughter allows
visitors to be admitted on Sunday afternoons.



     Golden House of Nero--Baths of Titus and Trajan--S. Pietro in
     Vincoli--Frangipani Tower--House of Lucrezia Borgia--S. Martino al
     Monte--Sta. Lucia in Selce--Sta. Prassede--Santissimo
     Redentore--Arch of Gallienus--Trophies of Marius--Sta.
     Bibiana--Temple of Minerva Medica--S. Eusebio--S. Antonio
     Abbate--Sta. Maria Maggiore.

The Esquiline, which is the largest of the so-called 'hills of Rome,' is
not a distinct hill, but simply a projection of the Campagna. "The
Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, and Cœlian stretch out towards the
Tiber, like four fingers of a hand, of which the plain whence they
detach themselves represents the vast palm. This hand has seized the

Varro says that the name Esquiline was derived from the word _excultus_,
because of the ornamental groves which were planted on this hill by
Servius Tullius,--such as the Lucus Querquetulanus, Fagutalis, and
Esquilinus.[251] The sacred wood of the Argiletum long remained on the
lower slope of the hill, where the Via Sta. Maria dei Monti now is.

The Esquiline, which is still unhealthy, must have been so in ancient
times, for among its temples were those dedicated to Fever, near Sta.
Maria Maggiore--to Juno Mephitis,[252] near a pool which emitted
poisonous exhalations--and to Venus Libitina,[253] for the registration
of deaths, and arrangement of funerals. As the hill was in the hands of
the Sabines, its early divinities were Sabine. Besides those already
mentioned, it had an altar of the Sabine sun-god Janus, dedicated
together with an altar to Juno by the survivor of the Horatii,[254] and
a temple of Juno Lucina, the goddess of birth and light.

    "Monte sub Esquilio multis incæduus annis
    Junonis magnæ nomine lucus erat."

    _Ovid, Fast._ ii. 435.

This hill has two heights. That which is crowned by Santa Maria Maggiore
was formerly called _Cispius_, where Servius Tullius had a palace; that
which is occupied by S. Pietro in Vincoli was formerly called _Oppius_,
where Tarquinius Superbus lived. It was in returning to his palace on
the former (and not on the latter height, as generally maintained) that
Servius Tullius was murdered.

The most important buildings of the Esquiline, in the later republican
and in imperial times, were on the slope of the hill behind the Forum,
and near the Coliseum, in the fashionable quarter called Carinæ,--the
"rich Carinæ,"

          "Passimque armenta videbant
    Romanoque Foro et lautis mugire Carinis."

    _Virgil, Æn._ viii. 361.

of which the principal street probably occupied the site of the present
Via del Colosseo. At the entrance of this suburb, where the fine
mediæval Torre dei Conti now stands, was the house of Spurius Cassius
(Consul B.C. 493), which was confiscated and demolished, and the ground
ordained to be always kept vacant, because he was suspected of aiming at
regal power. Here, however, or very nearly on this site, the _Ædes
Telluris_, or temple of Tellus, was erected _c._ B.C. 269,[255]--a
building of sufficient importance for the senate, summoned by Antony, to
assemble in it. The quarter immediately surrounding this temple acquired
the name of _In Tellure_, which is still retained by several of its
modern churches.[256] Near this temple--"in tellure," lived Pompey, in a
famous though small historical house, which he adorned on the outside
with rostra in memory of his naval victories, and which was painted
within to look like a forest with trees and birds, much probably as the
chambers are painted which were discovered a few years ago in the villa
of Livia.[257] Here Julia, the daughter of Julius Cæsar, and wife of
Pompey, died. After the death of Pompey this house was bought by the
luxurious Antony. The difference between its two masters is pourtrayed
by Cicero, who describes the severe comfort of the house of Pompey
contrasted with the voluptuous luxury of its second master, and winds up
his oration by exclaiming, "I pity even the roofs and the walls under
the change." At a later period the same house was the favourite
residence of Antoninus Pius. Hard by, in the Carinæ, the favourite
residence of Roman knights, lived the father of Cicero, and hence the
young Tullius went to listen in the forum to the orators whom he was one
day to surpass.[258] Also in the Carinæ, but nearer the site of the
Coliseum, was the magnificent house of the wealthy Vedius Pollio, which
he bequeathed to Augustus, who pulled it down, and built the portico of
Livia on its site:

    "Disce tamen, veniens ætas, ubi Livia nunc est
      Porticus, immensæ tecta fuisse domûs.
    Urbis opus domus una fuit; spatiumque tenebat,
      Quo brevius muris oppida multa tenent.
    Hæc æquata solo est, nullo sub crimine regni,
      Sed quia lux