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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 110, December 6, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 110, December 6, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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[Transcriber's note: Characters with macrons have been marked in
brackets with an equal sign, as [=e] for a letter e with a macron on
top. Underscores have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts; equal signs
indicate =bold= fonts. Original spelling variations have not been
standardized. A list of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries" has
been added at the end.]



NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. IV.--No. 110. SATURDAY, DECEMBER 6. 1851.

Price Sixpence. Stamped Edition 7_d._



CONTENTS.

                                                                Page


      NOTES:--

      The Aborigines of St. Domingo, by Henry H. Breen           433

      Mitigation of Capital Punishment to a Forger, by
      Alfred Gatty                                               434

      Passage in Jeremy Taylor                                   435

      Parallel Passages, by Harry Leroy Temple                   435

      Folk Lore:--Death Omen by Bees                             436

      The Caxton Coffer                                          436

      Minor Notes:--Mental Almanac--Corruptions recognised
      as acknowledged Words--Pasquinade--Epigram
      on Erasmus--Etymology of London--Verses on
      Shipmoney--Columbus's Bust, &c. at Havanna                 436

      QUERIES:--

      Additional Queries respecting General James Wolfe          438

      Christianity, when first introduced into Orkney            439

      The Roman Index Expurgatorius of 1607                      440

      Minor Queries:--"The Don," a Poem--John Lord
      Frescheville--Meaning of "Pallant"--Rectitudines
      Singularum Personarum--Sir Henry Tichborne's
      Journal--Round Towers at Bhaugulpore--Johannes
      Trithemius--Races in which Children are named after
      the Mothers--Foreign Ambassadors, Ministers, Envoys,
      and Residents from Foreign Courts--Critolaus
      and the Horatii and Curiatii--Cabal--"Thus said the
      Ravens black"--Symbols in Painting--Latin Verse
      on Franklin--General Moyle--Musical Compositions
      of Matthew Dubourg--Collodion, and its Application
      to Photography--Engraved Portrait--Lines by Lord
      Chesterfield on Queen Caroline's supposed Refusal to
      forgive her Son when on her Death-bed                      441

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Kimmeroi, Cimbri,
      Cymry--Dictionary of Musicians--City of London
      Charter--St. Alkald                                        444

      REPLIES:--

      Plaids and Tartans                                         445

      Religious Statistics                                       445

      Royal Library                                              446

      Damasked Linen                                             446

      Vermin, Payments for Destruction of                        447

      Was Raleigh in Virginia?                                   448

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Bunting's Irish
      Melodies--Colonies in England--"History of Anglesey,"
      &c.--The Lowey of Tunbridge--Praed's Works--John
      à Cumber--Punishment of Prince Edward of
      Carnarvon--Joceline's Legacy--Bristol Tables--Grimsdyke
      or Grimesditch--Derivation of "Æra"--Scent of the
      Bloodhound--Monk and Cromwell Families--"Truth is that
      which a man troweth"--"Worse than a Crime"--Verses in
      Classical Prose--Cruelty of the Spaniards in Peru--Nolo
      Episcopari--Hougoumont--Call a Spade, a Spade--"Tace is
      Latin for a Candle"--Collars of SS.--Locusts of the New
      Testament--Theodolite--"A Posie of other Men's
      Flowers"--Voltaire--Sinaïtic Inscriptions--Le Greene
      at Wrexham--Cross-legged Effigies--The Word Ἀδελφὸς
      --Finger Pillories--Blackloana Heresis--Quaker
      Expurgated Bible--"Acu tinali merida"                      452

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                     459

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               460

      Notices to Correspondents                                  460

      Advertisements                                             460



Notes.


THE ABORIGINES OF ST. DOMINGO.

Perhaps you will kindly permit me to have recourse to "NOTES AND
QUERIES" for the purpose of pointing out one or two errors in a letter
from Sir R. Schomburgk, which was read at the meeting of the British
Association on the 3rd July last, section of Geography and Ethnology.
This communication, entitled "Ethnological Researches in Santo Domingo,"
and addressed to His Royal Highness Prince Albert, contains the
following statement: I quote from the _Athenæum_ of the 5th July:--

  "The extirpation of the pure Indian race prevented me from making
  comparative inquiries between the still existing tribes of Guiana,
  and those that once inhabited St. Domingo. My researches were
  therefore restricted to what history and the few and poor
  monuments have transmitted to us of their customs and manners.
  Their language lives only in the names of places, rivers, trees,
  and fruits; but all combine in declaring that the people who
  bestowed these names were identical with the Carib and Arawaak
  tribes of Guiana."

The last sentence in this passage is obviously erroneous. That the
aboriginal inhabitants of the great Antilles (Santo Domingo, Cuba,
Porto-Rico, and Jamaica,) were identical with, or descended from, the
Arawaaks of Guiana, is an opinion which has long prevailed, and which
the circumstances stated by Sir R. Schomburgk tend to confirm. Indeed,
they are described by most writers as Indians _or_ Arawaaks. But that
there was any identity between the Indians and the tribes known by the
name of Caribs, is an assertion totally at variance with the established
facts. In support, however, of this assertion, Sir R. Schomburgk appeals
to "history;" but what history, he does not state. I have perused, and
still possess, almost every work that was ever written on the history of
these islands; and they all lead to the conclusion, that the Indians of
Santo Domingo (also called Hispaniola and Haiti) were a totally distinct
race from the Caribs. The Indians were a mild, inoffensive people; the
Caribs a race of savages, some say, cannibals. The former were indolent
and effeminate; the latter fierce and warlike. In short, no two races
ever presented such a striking disparity, not only in their manners and
customs, but in their features and personal appearance.

The second error into which Sir R. Schomburgk has fallen, is where he
says:

  "There are various proofs that the Caribs inhabited Santo Domingo;
  among others, I found at the eastern point of the island, called
  Junta Engaño, numerous heaps of conch shells."

The fact is, that the Caribs were the mortal enemies of the Indians.
They were engaged with them in the fiercest warfare, and made frequent
depredatory incursions into Santo Domingo and the other large islands.
But they never formed any settlements in those islands, and cannot be
said to have "inhabited" any of them, in the sense in which that word is
used by Sir R. Schomburgk.

Whenever the Caribs in any of the lesser Antilles projected an
expedition against the Indians, they provided themselves with clubs and
poisoned arrows, and set off in their canoes. On their way, they touched
at most of the other small islands; and with their conch shells, of
which they always kept a supply, they summoned their brother Caribs to
join the expedition. As the fleet of canoes approached St. Domingo (the
principal theatre of their depredations) they glided silently along the
coast, and secreted themselves in some sheltered bay, till the darkness
of the night enabled them to emerge from their hiding places. Then, with
the most savage yells and war-whoops, accompanied by the blowing of
shells, they pounced upon the nearest village, beating down with their
clubs such of the Indians as had not taken refuge in flight. In these
encounters, however, the Caribs were not always victorious. If the
Indians were less robust and warlike than their invaders, they were also
far more numerous; and it sometimes happened that the Caribs were driven
back to their canoes with much slaughter. In all hand-to-hand conflicts
the conch shells would easily get detached, or, becoming an incumbrance,
would be thrown aside; and the Indians, finding them on the field of
battle, may be supposed to have piled them up as so many trophies.

As the Caribs were incited to these incursions by the prospect of
plunder among a race of people their superiors in the arts of
civilisation, but chiefly from their inveterate hatred to the Indians,
so the moment they had accomplished their object, they lost no time in
retreating from a country where a longer sojourn would only have
afforded their enemies an opportunity of risings _en masse_, and
exterminating them by the superiority of their numbers.

These facts are sufficient to account for the heaps of shells found by
Sir R. Schomburgk, and for the other traces of the Caribs which he
appears to have discovered in St. Domingo, without resorting to the
supposition that the Caribs had actually "inhabited" that island, or
warranting the conclusion that the two races were identical.

    HENRY H. BREEN.

  St. Lucia, Sept. 1851.


MITIGATION OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT TO A FORGER.

The well-known cases of Dr. D. the divine and Mr. F. the banker, who
were executed for forgery, notwithstanding the powerful intercessions
that were made in their behalf, induced me to suppose that any
mitigation of punishment under similar circumstances used to be a very
rare occurrence; and, if so, that a curious instance of successful
application for mercy may interest some readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES."

A young man of respectable Scotch connexions settled in a town in the
north of England as a merchant, and soon afterwards made an offer of
marriage to a young lady of the same place. Her parents rejected his
suit, on the ground of his not being sufficiently established in
business, and he seemed to acquiesce in their decision. In a short time,
however, the young merchant took possession of larger premises than he
had hitherto occupied, and showed other symptoms of wishing to have it
understood that his fortunes were improving. But these appearances were
of short duration. He was suddenly arrested, and committed to take his
trial at the ensuing assizes on several charges of forgery. Immediately
after his arrest, a sister of singularly energetic character arrived
from Scotland, and applied to the father of my informant for
professional aid. This gentleman told her that he never touched criminal
business, and declined to interfere. But she was no common client, and
it ended in his undertaking to prepare the defence of her brother, and
receiving her into his house as a guest. Her immediate object was to
prevent the prosecutors pressing their charges at the trial; and, by her
indefatigable management, she succeeded with all, except the L---- bank,
the directors of which, as a matter of principle, were inexorable to her
entreaties. The trial came on at an early period of the assize, and the
prisoner was found guilty, and condemned to be hanged. His sister left
the court, and instantly proceeded to Scotland. There were no railways
in those days, and she had to rely on coaches and post-chaises, and she
travelled for four days and nights successively, without stopping or
removing her clothes, and carrying a petition with her from house to
house amongst her titled and powerful Scotch friends.

With this she returned to the city at which the assizes had been held,
just as they were concluded. The two judges were in the act of
descending through the cathedral nave, after partaking of the holy
sacrament, when the petitioner cast herself at their feet, and held
forth her document. Baron G. was notorious for his unflinching obduracy;
but her devotion and energy were irresistible. He received her petition;
and her brother's sentence was eventually commuted to transportation for
life. But his story is not yet finished. The forger was placed in the
hulks prior to transportation; and, before this took place, he had
forged a pass or order from the Home Secretary's office for his own
liberation, which procured his release, and he was never afterwards
heard of.

This "Jeanie Deans," who was the means of saving the life of her
unworthy relative, was described to me as a person of extraordinary
force of character. Indeed it could not have been otherwise. She
prevailed with the solicitor, who before had been a stranger both to her
and her brother; with the main body of the prosecutors; with the
petitioners in Scotland; and ultimately with the judge himself. My
friend, who lived in his father's house during the several weeks she
stayed there, told me, that, night and morning when he passed her door,
she was always in audible prayer; and he was convinced that her success
was attributable to her prayers having been _extraordinarily_ answered.
Her subsequent fate, even in this world, was a happy one. She became a
wife and a mother, and possibly is so still.

    ALFRED GATTY.


PASSAGE IN JEREMY TAYLOR.

It may not be useless or uninteresting to the readers of Bishop Jeremy
Taylor to bring under their notice a point in which the editor of the
last edition seems to have fallen into an error. In Part II. of the
Sermon "On the Invalidity of a Death-bed Repentance" (p. 395.), the
Bishop says:

   "Only be pleased to observe this one thing: that this place of
  Ezekiel [_i.e._ xviii. 21.] is it which is so often mistaken for
  that common saying, 'At what time soever a sinner repents him of
  his sins from the bottom of his heart, I will put all his
  wickedness out of my remembrance, saith the Lord:' yet there are
  no such words in the whole Bible, nor any nearer to the sense of
  them, than the words I have now read to you out of the prophet
  Ezekiel."

Now the editor, as a reference for this "common saying," says in a
note--

  "+ See Jer. xviii. 7, 8.:"

whence I suppose that he thinks that text to be the nearest quotation to
it that can be found. But he has altogether overlooked the fact that
this "common saying" is, as the Bishop has here quoted it, the exact
form in which the first of the sentences at the beginning of Morning
Prayer occurs in the Second Book of Edward, and down to the time of the
last review, with the exception of the Scotch book. As it did not agree
with the translation of the Bible then in use, Bishop Taylor seems to
have considered it as a paraphrase. This also is the view which
Chillingworth took of it, who makes this reflection on it, in a sermon
preached before Charles I.:

  "I would to God (says he) the composers of our Liturgy, out of a
  care of avoiding mistakes, and to take away occasion of cavilling
  our Liturgy, and out of fear of encouraging carnal men to security
  in sinning, had been so provident as to set down in terms the
  first sentence, taken out of the 18th of Ezekiel, and not have put
  in the place of it an ambiguous, and (though not in itself, but
  accidentally, by reason of the mistake to which it is subject) I
  fear very often a pernicious paraphrase: for whereas they make it,
  '_At what time soever ... saith the Lord_;' the plain truth, if
  you will hear it, is, the Lord doth not say so; these are not the
  very words of God, but the paraphrase of men."

Thus, I think, it is evident that this "sentence" has nothing to do with
the passage of Jeremiah to which the editor refers us; and its being
read continually in the church explains the application of the word
"common" to it in this place.

While on this subject I would go on to mention that both Chillingworth
and Taylor seemed to have erred in calling it a paraphrase, and saying
that it does not occur in the Bible; for according to L'Estrange (c.
iii. n. F.) the sentence is taken from the Great Bible, or Coverdale's
translation. It is, however, remarkable that this fact should not have
been known to these divines.

    F. A.


PARALLEL PASSAGES.

I send you two parallels on the subject of Death and Sleep, Nature the
art of God, &c.

      "How wonderful is death--
      Death and his brother sleep!"

      Shelley, _Queen Mab_.

  "Since the Brother of Death daily haunts us with dying
  mementoes."

  Sir T. Browne, _Hydriotaphia_.

       *       *       *       *       *

      "Oh! what a wonder seems the fear of death,
      Seeing how gladly we all sink to sleep,
      Babes, children, youths, and men,
      Night following night, for threescore years and ten!"

      Coleridge, _Monody on Chatterton_.

      "A sleep without dreams, after a rough day
      Of toil, is what we covet most; and yet
      How clay slinks back from more quiescent clay!"

      _Byron_ (reference lost).

       *       *       *       *       *

  "In brief all things are artificial; for Nature is the art of
  God."

  Sir T. Browne, _Religio Medici_, p. 32. (St. John's edit.)

      "The course of Nature is the art of God."

      Young, _Night Thoughts_, IX.

       *       *       *       *       *

  "Princes are like to heavenly bodies, which cause good or evil
  times, and _which have much veneration, but no rest_."

  Bacon, _Essay 20._, "Of Empire."

      "Kings are like stars--they rise and set--_they have
      The worship of the world, but no repose_."

      Shelley, _Hellas_.

The following are not exactly parallel, but being "in pari materia," are
sufficiently curious and alike to merit annotation:

  "But the common form [of urns] with necks was a proper figure,
  making our last bed like our first: nor much unlike the urns of
  our nativity, while we lay in the nether part of the earth, and
  inward vault of our microcosm."

  Sir T. Browne, _Hydriotaphia_, p. 221. (St. John's edit.)

      "The babe is at peace within the womb,
      The corpse is at rest within the tomb.
      We begin in what we end."

      Shelley, _Fragments_.

  "The grave is as the womb of the earth."

  Pearson _on the Creed_, p. 162.

    HARRY LEROY TEMPLE.


FOLK LORE.

_Death Omen by Bees._--It is not wonderful that the remarkable instincts
and intelligence of the honey-bee, its domesticity, and the strong
affinity of its social habits to human institutions, should make it the
object of many superstitious observances, and I think it probable that
if enquiry be made of that class of people amongst whom such branches of
folk-lore are most frequently found lingering, other prejudices
respecting bees than those lately noticed by some of your correspondents
might be discovered.

If the practice of making the bees acquainted with the mortuary events
of the family ever prevailed in that part of Sussex from whence I write,
I think it must be worn out, for I have not heard of it. But there is
another superstition, also appertaining to mortality, which is very
generally received, and which is probably only one of a series of such,
and amongst which it is probable the practice before-mentioned might
once be reckoned. Some years since the wife of a respectable cottager in
my neighbourhood died in childbed. Calling on the widower soon after, I
found that although deeply deploring a loss which left him several
motherless children, he spoke calmly of the fatal termination of the
poor woman's illness, as an inevitable and foregone conclusion. On being
pressed for an explanation of these sentiments, I discovered that both
him and his poor wife had been "warned" of the coming event by her going
into the garden a fortnight before her confinement, and discovering that
their bees, in the act of swarming, had made choice of a _dead hedge
stake for their settling-place_. This is generally considered as an
infallible sign of a death _in the family_, and in her situation it is
no wonder that the poor woman should take the warning to herself;
affording, too, another example of how a prediction may assist in
working out its own fulfilment.

Seeing that another P-urveyor to your useful P-ages has assumed the same
signature as myself, for the future permit me, for contradistinction, to
be--

    "J. P. P.," but not "CLERK OF THIS PARISH."


THE CAXTON COFFER.

Did Caxton ever print his name CAUSTON or CAWSTON, or is it ever found
so spelt? He tells us, in the preface or prologue to his _Recuyell of
the Historyes of Troye_, "that I was born and learned mine English in
Kent, in the Weald." The only locality in Kent which I can discover at
all approximating in its name to Caxton, is Causton, a manor in the
parish of Hadlow, in the Weald of Kent, _held of the honor of Clare_.
This manor was, in the fourteenth century, possessed by the family of
"De Causton;" how and when it passed from them I have been unable to
ascertain with certainty, possibly not long before the birth of William
Caxton. In 1436, Beatrice Bettenham entails it on the right heirs of her
son, Thomas Towne, by which entail it came into the family of Watton of
Addington Place, who owned it in 1446. The honor of Clare, and the
forest, &c. of South Frith, closely adjoining Causton, descended through
one of the co-heiresses of Gilbert de Clare to Richard Duke of York,
father of the Duchess of Burgundy and Edward IV., whose widow, Cicely,
continued in possession till her death. I name the owners of the manor
of Causton, and the chief lords of whom it was held, as affording,
perhaps, some clue to identification, should any of your correspondents
be inclined to take up the inquiry. I need hardly add that the
difference between the two names of Causton and Caxton is of little
moment should other circumstances favour the chances that Causton in
Hadlow may claim the honour of having given birth to our illustrious
printer, or that he was descended from the owners of that manor.

    L. B. L.


Minor Notes.

_Mental Almanac_ (Vol. iv., p. 203.).--The additive number for this
month of December, is 6. Hence next Sunday is 1 + 6 = the 7th of
December. Christmas Day will be 25, less 20, that is 5, or Thursday.

    A. E. B.

_Corruptions recognised as acknowledged Words_ (Vol. iv., p. 313.).--The
first person who settled in Honduras was the celebrated buccaneer
Wallis, in 1638, from whom the principal town and river were named. The
Spaniards called it _Valis_; and _v_ and _b_ having the same
pronunciation in Spanish, it became _Balis_, then _Balize_, _Belize_,
the actual name.

    PHILIP S. KING.

_Pasquinade_ (Vol. iv., p. 292.).--Will A. B. R. allow me to correct one
or two to typographical errors in the Italian version of his clever
epigram? In the first place "_Piu_," in both places where it occurs,
should be "_Pio_," which the sense demands, while _Piu_ is downright
nonsense. What A. B. R. _intended_ to write was no doubt:

      "Quando Papa o' Cardinale
      Chies' Inglese tratta male,
      _Quel che_ chiamo quella gente
      Pio? No-no, _ne_ sapiente."

The alteration in the third line is required both by sense and metre,
which last is octosyllabic; and _chiamo_ is pronounced as a dissyllable,
as are also _chiesa_ and _-piente_.

    E. S. TAYLOR.

_Epigram on Erasmus._--The following epigram, written in a fly-leaf of a
copy of the _Epistolæ Obscuroram Virorum_, published at Frankfort, 1624,
in the possession of a friend, is commended to your notice; not,
however, without a suspicion of its having been printed already:

      "Ut Rhadamantheum stetit ante tribunal Erasmus,
        Ante jocos scribens serio damnor, ait
      Cui Judex, libri dant seria damna jocosi,
        Si tibi culpa jocus, sit tibi poena jocus."

      _Anglicè_, T. CORBETT.

      "Erasmus standeinge fore hell's tribune said,
      For writeinge iest I am in earnest paid.
      The iudge replied, Iests will in earnest hurt,
      Sport was thy fault, then let thy paine be sport."

    D. B. J.

_Etymology of London._--I believe the word London has never yet received
a satisfactory explanation, and it is, perhaps, too late in the day to
try to explain it entirely. It has always, however, been supposed that
it was significant in the old British language. It has been explained as
"the town of ships," the final syllable _don_, formerly _dun_, meaning a
town. Several other explanations have been given also on the same
principle, namely, that the final syllable meant a town or fortified
place, and the first was the characteristic distinguishing it from other
towns or _duns_ in the neighbourhood.

This mode of explanation is repugnant to the general principles of
British topographical nomenclature: for they generally put the general
name first, and the characteristic last. Might the first syllable "Lon"
not be a corruption of the British "Llan," so common yet in names of
places, and so universally retained in Wales to this day? Llan means a
level place generally, as most of your readers who are versant in those
subjects know. The _don_ is not so easily explained, but perhaps some of
your readers may be able to assist in finding a meaning.

"Don" might indeed still mean an enclosed strong place, and the meaning
of the whole word "London" would then be _Llandun_, or "the level ground
near the fort or strong camp." Perhaps some of your correspondents may
be able to offer something confirmatory or adverse to this explanation,
and in either case I should join with the rest of your readers in
thanking them.

    M. C. E.

_Verses on Shipmoney._--

  "A coppy of certaine Verses dispersed in and about London in febr.
  1634 in ye 10th year of ye Raigne of ye King Charls occasioned by
  ye eager prosecucon of Shipmoney, and Imprisonm'ts therefore.

      "The Cittie Cofers abounding with Treasure,
      Can pay this ship Tribute, and doe poor men pleasure
      To save that Pelfe: the more is the pitty,
      The Grey Cloaks divide it and yet tax the Citty.
      A p'sent there being small occasion for Gold
      Hast thether Collectors, 'tis time it were tould
      And taken from such citty Asses:
      Mony whom sly Proiects easily passes,
      And speedily conveyt to Court
      Wher they to see it will make sport,
      And set out Shipps from Puddle dock
      To scoure ye seas. A pretty mock

        "If that this ship Tribute be not speedily paid
        Pycrust Lord Maior saith in Newgate you shall be laid,
        Wher you shall see rogues, theeves, and vile knaves,
        Yet none so bad as are Tributarie Slaves.

      "If men like Pycrust could make so great gain
      As xx'ty in ye hundred to Irish mens paine
      For moneys lent, some reason ther were,
      To pay this ship Tribute w'thout wit or feare.

        "O crewell hard Pycrust though pay all men must
        This crewell hard Tribute cause thou art uniust
        And favourest this Project, when laid in thy grave
        All good men will say then: Parkhurst was a knave.

      "Finis." (From a MS. at Oxford.)

_Columbus's Bust, &c. at Havanna._--In case you do not happen to possess
a correct copy of the inscription on Columbus's bust and tablet in the
cathedral at Havanna, I send you one, and my translation of it, for the
benefit of those who may not make out the force and beauty of the
"éloge."

      "O restos e imagen del grande Colon,
      Mil siglos durad guardados en la urna,
      Y en la remembranza de nuestra nacion!"

      "O remains and image of the great Columbus,
                      [ages]
      For a thousand centuries rest ye securely in this urn,
      And in the remembrance of our nation."

The bust is a mean and ill-executed one; although a late "lady"
authoress _has_ a different opinion of its merits. It is stiff and
wooden-looking, and, still worse, the right cheek, and _side of the head
too_, are comparatively _flattened_. Within it, built into the wall, are
the "restos," the dust and bones, in the urn. Beneath the epitaph is a
date of "1822"--the year, I presume, of the bust being "set up." It
stands abreast of the altar, and on the right hand, the head of the bust
being about six feet from the ground. I visited the interesting spot
only a few days ago, as soon as possible after my landing, for the first
time, in that truly noble city the Havana (or, in the Spanish, Habana).

    A. L.

  West Indies.



Queries.


ADDITIONAL QUERIES RESPECTING GENERAL JAMES WOLFE.

(Vol. iv., pp. 271. 322.)

I beg to thank the six gentlemen who have so promptly and courteously
responded to my Queries respecting this admirable soldier. The
information they have communicated is valuable and interesting, and
tends to remove much of the obscurity that had attended my researches
into the earlier portion of his history; and I feel greatly obliged to
your correspondents. Still, some of my Queries are unanswered, and I
venture to repeat these, in the hope that the information wanted may be
elicited.

1. Where was James Wolfe educated?

2. His _first_, and subsequent, military services?

3. How long was he stationed in Scotland; on what duty; and in what
places? [He was in the North in 1749 and 1750; but I have reason to
believe some years earlier.]

4. Was he at the battle of Culloden, in 1746?

As some of the gentlemen, in kindly answering my inquiries, have raised
certain points on which additional information may be mutually given and
received, I take leave to offer the following remarks to these
respondents, _seriatim_.

I.--To H. G. D.

In corroboration of your statement, that the correct date of Wolfe's
birth is 2nd January, 1727 (not 1726, as alleged by some), I am enabled
to cite his own authority. One of his autograph letters in my
possession, dated Glasgow, 2nd April, 1749, states, "_I am but
twenty-two and three months_;" which answers precisely to your time.

You mention that his mother came from, or near, Deptford, and that her
Christian name was Henrietta. I am enabled to mention that her surname
was _Thompson_, and that her brother Edward was member of parliament for
Plymouth, prior to 1759. Does this give you any clue to Wolfe's mother's
family; and particularly whether his maternal grandfather was a military
man?

May I further inquire--

1. Whether Wolfe's _father_ was a native of Westerham; or merely
quartered there when his illustrious son was born?

2. You allude to two houses at Westerham. Were these General Edward
Wolfe's property; or if not, what had led to the family residing there
so long, as they seem, from your remarks, to have done?

3. Who was Sir Jeffrey Amherst, and in what manner did he "patronise
Wolfe"? Was he any relation of the General Amherst, commander-in-chief
in British America, who was to have supported young Wolfe in the attack
on Quebec in 1759.

4. Who is the present representative of Wolfe's family?

You mention that you are uncertain when and where James Wolfe _first_
served. I have experienced the very same difficulty. It seems strange
that his biographers have been so meagre in the details of his life. It
has been said that Wolfe's first effort in arms was as a volunteer under
his father, in the unlucky expedition against Carthagena, in 1740,
commanded by Lord Cathcart. But I cannot find proper authority for this.

You farther state, that Wolfe was ardently attached to Colonel Barré. It
is curious enough that their introduction to each other was chiefly in
consequence of a letter which Barré carried to Wolfe, from the officer
to whom Wolfe's letters in my possession are addressed. In one of these,
dated "Portsmouth, 7th Feb. 1758," Wolfe, after speaking favourably of
Barré, states--

  "I did not know that Barré was your friend, nor even your
  acquaintance. Now that I do know it, I shall value him the
  more.... I trust I shall have good reason to thank the man that
  mentioned him. Nay, I am already overpaid, by the little that I
  did, by drawing out of his obscurity so worthy a gentleman. I
  never saw his face till very lately, nor ever spoke ten words to
  him before I ventured to propose him as a Major of Brigade."

And he adds:

  "Barré and I have the great apartment of a three-decked ship to
  revel in, but, with all this space, and fresh air, I am sick to
  death. Time, I suppose, will deliver me from these sufferings
  [sea-sickness], though in former trials I never could overcome
  it", &c.

I cordially assent to your encomium on England's young general.

II.--To YUNAFF.

The lady to whom the affectionate and touching lines you have quoted
were addressed was Miss Louther, a sister of Sir James Louther; rich,
highly accomplished, and most amiable. Wolfe was to have been married to
her, had he returned from Quebec. She was very averse to his accepting
the command. But nothing could stay his military ardour, even though in
indifferent health. Well might the epithet be applied to him--"favourite
son of Minerva."

Miss Louther was an object of general sympathy, after her brave lover's
fall; and some of the periodicals of the day contain beautiful verses,
addressed to her, appropriate to the occasion. This lady's _name_ is not
mentioned in any of Wolfe's letters in my possession; but an _allusion_
is made to her incidentally. She was a favourite with the old general
and Mrs. Wolfe. In one of the early letters a graphic description is
given by young Wolfe of another lady of rank, with whom he was much
smitten. That was before he paid his addresses, however, to Miss
Louther. But I do not feel at liberty to break the seal of confidence
under which this information was communicated in Wolfe's letter, though
at the distance of one hundred years, by mentioning farther particulars.

May I ask if the verses in your possession are signed by Wolfe; or in
his autograph; and dated? It would be very interesting to have precise
information, tending to identity Wolfe as the author of these lines.

III.--To W. A.

I shall be glad to know the contents of the petition, dated February,
1746, and of the six letters mentioned by you. They may throw some light
on Wolfe's history. Will you allow me to communicate with you on this
subject, by letter, through the Editor, as I reside at a distance from
London?

IV.--To J. H. M.

The packet of Wolfe's letters in my possession was never shown to
Southey. They were discovered only three years ago. I believe Southey
intended to write a memoir of Wolfe, but I am not aware that he carried
his intentions into effect. The letters in my care were published in
_Tait's Edinburgh Magazine_, December, 1849, under the title "Original
Correspondence of General Wolfe." I shall feel obliged by any
information you possess regarding the _other_ collection of Wolfe's
letters which you believe to exist. Pray, where are they to be seen?

    [Gh.]

P.S.--Since expressing my acknowledgments to the other gentlemen who
have kindly answered some of my inquiries respecting Wolfe, I have had
the pleasure to peruse the information communicated by J. R. (Cork), and
I beg to thank him for his courtesy. The sketch he has given of Wolfe's
ancestors is very interesting, the more so, as J. R. mentions he is
himself connected with Wolfe's family. Would J. R. be kind enough to
supply information on the following additional points, viz.:

1. In which of the English counties did Captain George Wolfe, who
escaped after the siege of Limerick, settle?

2. Was the son of this officer (father of General Edward Wolfe) also a
military man, or a civilian; and what was his Christian name?

3. The birth-place of General Edward Wolfe, father of the hero of
Quebec.

Answers to these Queries would connect some of the broken links in the
history of one of the most gallant and skilful young generals that
England ever entrusted with her armies.

    [Gh.]

General Wolfe's executor was General Warde, of the family of Squerries,
near Westerham, by whom the epitaph was written, which is now over the
south door of Westerham church. General Warde's nephew and executor was
General George Warde, who by that means became possessed of several very
interesting objects, viz., an original portrait of Wolfe, representing
him with his natural red hair. After some time the natural red was
converted, by water colours, into a powdered wig; consequently a sponge
and clean water would restore it to its original state. Another portrait
of Wolfe painted after his death by West; he is represented sitting and
consulting a plan of military operations. West has given him the same
countenance in which he appears in the celebrated picture of his death.
When West was offered the original portrait on which to form this
picture, he declined making use of it, as he had already committed
himself in the historical portrait, and it would not do for him to alter
it, and send out in his name two different portraits. Gen. G. Warde also
possessed Wolfe's short sword and black leather letter-case, and a
collection of original letters; among which was one of much interest,
where Wolfe, mentioning the flattering terms in which he was spoken of
by the public and high military authorities, says, that unwarranted
expectations were raised, and that to maintain his reputation he might
be driven into some desperate undertaking.

I write all this from memory, but my details cannot be very far from
correct.

    GRIFFIN.


CHRISTIANITY, WHEN FIRST INTRODUCED INTO ORKNEY.

Christianity is believed to have been introduced into Orkney before the
Norwegian conquest by King Harold Harfager, in 895; but the race who
inhabited the country at that period are said to have been extirpated or
driven out by the Scandinavians, who were worshippers of Odin and Thor.
In the end of the tenth century, the King of Norway, Olaf Tryggveson,
renounced Paganism for Christianity, which he forced both on Norway and
Orkney at the point of the sword. M. Depping, in his _Histoire des
Expéditions Maritimes des Normands_, tom. ii. p. 60. ed. 1826, states
that Sigurd, the second Earl of Orkney (whose brother Ronald, Earl of
Mære, the first Norwegian Earl of Orkney, was the common ancestor of the
Earls of Orkney and Dukes of Normandy), drove the Christians out of
Orkney. This was towards the beginning of the tenth century. It has been
overlooked by Barry, the local historian, or unknown to him, who
mentions (p. 123.) the introduction by King Olaf Tryggveson as either
the first introduction, or at least the final establishment of the
Christian religion. I have looked into Torfæus' _Orcades_, the
Orknayinga Saga, and the Sagas of the two kings, Harold Harfager and
Olaf Tryggveson, in Mr. Laing's translation of Snow's Hermskringla, and
have not found the expulsion of the Christians by Sigurd mentioned in
any of those works. Will some of your learned correspondents be so
obliging as to point out M. Depping's authority for this fact? I have
just now fallen in with a curious example of the rude Christianity of
the Northmen, who worshipped both Thor and Christ, and the passage is
perhaps worth quoting. Torfæus, in his _Orcades_, p. 15., mentions a
Scandinavian chief called Helgius, who lived in Iceland about 888, and
says:

  "Christianis sacris quibus infans initiatus est, per totam vitam
  adhæsit, valde tamen in religionis articulis rudis; nam Thorem, ad
  ardua negotia, itineraque maritima feliciter expediunda,
  invocandum, cætera Christum dictitavit, tanquam cum Thore divisum
  imperium habentem. Simile Witichendus Monachus et Sigebertus
  Gemlansensis, de Danis, in primis religionis incunabulis,
  prodidere."

    W. H. F.


THE ROMAN INDEX EXPURGATORIUS OF 1607.

This work, both in the original edition, and in the reprint of Bergomi,
1608, is reputed to be of extreme rarity. Mr. Mendham, in his _Literary
Policy of the Church of Rome Exhibited, in an Account of her Damnatory
Catalogues or Indices, both Prohibitory and Expurgatory, &c._, 2nd ed.,
London, 1830, calls it "perhaps the most extraordinary and scarcest of
all this class of publications," p. 116., while all of the class are
known to be by no means of common occurrence. Clement (_Bibliothèque
Curieuse_, art. "Brasichellensis," v. ccvii.) designates the Roman
edition as "_extrêmement_ rare;" and (note 48., p. 211 a.) says of the
other, "cette édition de Bergame est encore plus rare que celle de
Rome."

Now Clement informs us that "on a copié l'édition de Rome de 1607 à
Ratisbonne, vers l'an 1723, sur de beau papier;" and Mr. Mendham says
that this was done by "Serpilius, a priest of Ratisbon, in 1723," and
that the copy so closely resembled the original "as to admit of its
being represented as the same." Accordingly, Clement says that it was
furtively sold as the genuine work, until the announcement of an
intended reprint by Hessel, at Altorff, in 1742, induced the owner of
the remainder of the Ratisbon counterfeit to avow his fraud. Then, Mr.
Mendham says, it "appeared with a new title-page, as a second edition."
Of _that_ circumstance Clement makes no mention.

"The original and counterfeit editions of this peculiar work are
sufficiently alike to deceive any person who should not examine them in
literal juxtaposition; but upon such examination the deception is easily
apparent," says Mr. Mendham, p. 131. The natural inference from this is,
that _he has_ so examined them.

His mention of the Bodleian "copy of the original edition" may warrant
the belief that he has made use of it. The fact that Dr. James, "chief
keeper" of the Bodleian, used and cited the Roman edition in his
_Treatise of the Corruptions of Scripture, Councils and Fathers, &c._ in
1612, may further warrant the belief that the copy in that library is an
indubitable original, placed where it is before the counterfeit was
gotten up.

If these inferences are correct, I have, what I much desire, a criterion
by which to distinguish the counterfeit from the genuine Roman edition.
Yet I hardly dare to trust it, because it involves a charge of
carelessness against Clement, who is not often justly liable to such
reproach.

He says, "J'ai eu le bonheur d'acquérir l'édition originale de Rome." He
therefore either copied the title of what he thought a genuine edition,
or carelessly substituted that of the counterfeit.

Now I have a copy of what purports to be the Roman edition, the title of
which, agreeing exactly neither with Clement nor with the title given by
Mr. Mendham (p. 116.), yet coincides with the latter in one curious
particular, which seems to identify it with Mr. Mendham's genuine
original, while its rare disagreements from Clement's distinguish it
from that. Mr. Mendham's transcript of the title runs:

  "Indicis Librorum Expurgandorum in Studiosorum gratiam confecti.
  Tomus Primus. In quo Quinquaginta Auctorum Libri præ cæteris
  desiderati emendantur, Per Fr. Jo. Mariam Brasichellen Sacri
  Palatii Apostolici Magistrum in unum corpus redactus, et publicæ
  commoditati æditus. Romæ, ex Typographia R. Cam. Apost. MDCVII.
  Superiorum Permissu."

In this there are two observable peculiarities: 1. The full-stop after
"confecti," breaking the grammatical construction; 2. The omission of
such a stop (as a sign of contraction) after the portion of a word,
"Brasichellen," from which the final syllable "sem" has been dropped, as
appears in the archetype, for want of room.

That Mr. Mendham faithfully copied this last peculiarity is shown by his
own singular misconception of the word, which he has taken to be
complete, and on p. 130. writes of "_Brasichellen_, or _Guanzellus_;" a
mistake into which he has been led by Jugler, whom he is there
reporting; Jugler, as quoted in the note, seeming to have been led into
it by Zobelius.

The peculiarity which has thus led Mr. Mendham, and before him Zobelius
and Jugler, into error, does not appear in Clement's title. It runs:

  "Indicis Librorum Expurgandorum in Studiosorum gratiam confecti,
  Tomus Primus. In quo Quinquaginta Auctorum Libri præ cæteris
  desiderati emendantur. Per Fr. Jo. Mariam Brasichellen. Sacri
  Palatii Apostolici Magistrum in unum corpus redactus, et publicæ
  commoditati æditus. Romæ, ex Typographia R. Cam. Apost. M.DC.VII.
  Superiorum Permissu."

Both the peculiarities pointed out in Mendham's copy are wanting in
this; and a third difference is, that where Mendham, after "emendantur,"
has a comma, this has a full-stop. All these differences are
corrections, and therefore more likely to be found in a reprint, than
the reverse.

My copy agrees with Mendham in the two peculiarities first remarked; but
with Clement in the last. It has, beside, another peculiarity which
neither has retained, but resembling those of Mendham's copy. After the
word "auctorum" there is a full-stop, breaking the grammatical
construction just as that after "confecti" does.

These circumstances lead me to think my copy one of the genuine edition,
and to suppose that Mendham's was of the same; in which case, Clement
must have either carelessly given the title of the counterfeit, while he
had the genuine at hand (as he says); or, still more carelessly,
miscopied the genuine; or deceived himself with the belief that he had
the genuine, while he had only a counterfeit.

It is singular that there is room for a similar doubt about the Bergomi
edition of this work. Of that, too, I have what purports to be a copy;
but am led by Clement's description of the Altorff edition to have
misgivings that it may have been made as studiously a counterfeit of the
Bergomi edition, as its predecessor of Ratisbon had been of that of
Rome. In all the particulars of which Clement says, "Ceux qui auront
l'édition de Bergame, pourront juger sur ce détail, si la copie
d'Altorff la représente exactement ou non," my copy _does_ agree with
his description; and it may be that some of the Altorff copies bear a
false title, with Bergomi as the imprint.

The genuineness of this book is of no ordinary interest. It is one of
the most damaging witnesses against Rome, to convict her of conscious
fraud. How much its evidence is dreaded, is proved by the industrious
suppression that has made it of so great rarity.

May I not hope, therefore, that some of your readers who have access to
the Bodleian will inform me through your columns--

1. Whether any copy there, purporting to be of the Roman edition, can be
identified as having been in the library before 1723?

2. Whether the title of such copy (if there be any) agree with Mr.
Mendham's, or Clement's, or mine?

3. Whether there is in that library (or elsewhere in England) an
undoubted copy of the Bergomi edition?

A copy of the titles of the Ratisbon and Altorff editions would also be
desirable; and (if they could be identified) any distinguishing note of
the Ratisbon counterfeit, _e.g._ the signature marks of its preliminary
sheet.

    U. U.

  Baltimore, U. S. A.


Minor Queries.

313. _"The Don," a Poem._--This is an old work illustrative of the local
antiquities, ancient families, castles, &c., on the banks of the Don, in
Aberdeenshire. It is said to have been written during the usurpation of
Oliver Cromwell by a Mr. Forbes of Brux, in the immediate neighbourhood.
One of the ablest of our local antiquaries states, that he has never
been able to satisfy himself of the existence of any edition of that
poem earlier than that of the quarto one of 1742, which seems to have
been reprinted from an edition of the year 1655; but is so thoroughly
redolent of the spirit of a later age, that it is not possible to
believe it to have been written in the seventeenth century. All
subsequent editions (and they have been numerous) have reference to an
edition of 1655. In 1655, it is said to have been originally written by
a Mr. Forbes of Brux, as before stated, and published the same year,
with a few historical notes, and reprinted in 1674; and again in 1742,
with little or no alteration, and continued in that state until 1796;
when Mr. Charles Dawson, schoolmaster of Kemnay, added a few more notes,
and offered it to the public as his own composition in a small 12mo.
pamphlet!!! price 4_d._; which met with such encouragement, that a
second edition appeared in 1798, with more copious notes, price 6_d._ An
enlarged edition in 8vo. was published in Edinburgh in 1814. In 1819,
Mr. Peter Buchan of Peterhead, the editor of _Scottish Ballads_,
_Gleanings of Scarce Old Ballads_, &c. &c., published an edition, price
6_d._, which sold well; and in 1849, another edition was printed at the
Hattonian Press, Fintray, Aberdeenshire, by John Cumming. I should be
glad to hear if any of your correspondents have seen an edition of 1655
or 1674?

    STONEHAVEN.

314. _John Lord Frescheville._--It is stated in the printed notices of
this individual, with whom expired, in 1682, the barony of Frescheville
of Stavely, co. Derb., that he was engaged, on the side of the king, at
the battle of Edge Hill. I have no reason to doubt the truth of the
statement: but I should like to know whether his name occurs in any of
the contemporary accounts of the fight at that place, or rather Keynton;
or whether he is anywhere mentioned in the royal musters. I think a
correspondent of the "NOTES AND QUERIES" indicated an acquaintance with
some local information relative to this affair, and the persons engaged
in it.

    D.

315. _Meaning of_ "_Pallant._"--While staying in the neighbourhood of a
small country town in the south of England, I was requested to drive a
friend to call on an acquaintance who lived in _The Pallant_ in the said
town. The word being an uncommon one, we naturally conversed on its
probable derivation and meaning, but without arriving at a satisfactory
conclusion. I have since seen it used in a number of Dickens' _Household
Words_, where the scene of a ghost story is laid in an old house, or
street (I forget which), called _The Pallant_. What is its true
signification?

    A DEVONIAN.

316. _Rectitudines Singularum Personarum._--This interesting Anglo-Saxon
document is necessarily well known to many of your readers. Will they
favor me with a Note, stating what they consider to be its date? In the
mean time, I will say that it is not improbable that the date may be
referrible to _temp._ Ethelredi II. The service of _Sæ weard_ is
insisted upon, and it is fair to suppose that such would not have been
the case if the _textus_ had been written at a period anterior to those
times, when the coast was wasted by the piratical incursions of the
Northmen. In the title "thegnes riht" it is mentioned in priority to
"heafod weard" and "fyrdweard." It is again mentioned in the title
"cotsetlan riht." This document was doubtless written by a priest, and
probably by a secular one, for some of its concluding words show a
habit, or at least a possibility, of migration on the part of the
writer, viz.:

  "Be thære theode theawe, the we thænne onwuniath."

The Latin translation, which accompanies the original, is of a date
manifestly later than the Norman Conquest. The phraseology which it
exhibits, and the gross mistakes which it contains, are sufficient
evidence of the fact.

In the title "be thaw the beon bewitath," the words "self lædan" are
translated "ipse minare." Sometimes the translator does not understand
his original: in the first title he converts "bocriht" into "testamenti
rectitudo;" and of the words "sceorp to frithscipe," he leaves the first
word as he finds it.

    H. C. C.

317. _Sir Henry Tichborne's Journal._--I should be obliged to any of
your numerous correspondents or readers for any information given
respecting a diurnal written by Sir Henry Tichborne, third baronet of
Tichborne, co. Hants, of his _Travells into France, Italy, Loretto,
Rome, and other places, in the years 1675, 1676, and 1678_.

Is the original in existence, or where might this MS. be found? Has any
of your readers seen or heard of it?

I may here remark it is not in the possession of the family, neither
have they yet been able to trace it.

    THE WHITE ROSE.

  Winchester.

318. _Round Towers at Bhaugulpore._--Lord Valentia (_Travels to India,
&c._) gives views of these towers, and the following description of
them:--

  "They much resemble those buildings in Ireland, which have
  hitherto puzzled the antiquaries of the sister kingdoms, excepting
  that they are more ornamented. It is singular that there is no
  tradition concerning them, nor are they held in any respect by the
  Hindoos of this country. The Rajah of Jyenagur considers them as
  holy, and has erected a small building to shelter the great number
  of his subjects, who annually come to worship here."

This is but a meagre account of them; and if any of your readers can
give further information respecting them, and especially on the religion
of those who go to worship at them, they will confer a great favour on
your querist. Bhaugulpore seems to be about half-way between Calcutta
and Patna, at some distance off the great road; and Jyenagur must be
some 800 miles distant. The dominant race in the latter are Rajpoots,
but there appear to be inferior races; which are the worshippers? What
is the meaning of Bhaugulpore? has it any relation to Baal? Jeypoor is
another name for Jyenagur.

    DE CAMERA.

319. _Johannes Trithemius._--In my possession is a book entitled _Liber
de Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis_, by the above author; the date of its
publication 1494. Can any one inform me who Trithemius was, and whether
the book, in point of accuracy, is to be relied on?

    A. W. H.

320. _Races in which Children are named after the Mothers._--Will some
correspondent favour me with a list of the races in which the children
are named, or take their titles, or inherit property after their
mothers, and not after their fathers; and where descent in any form is
reckoned on the mother's side? I have a list of some, but I fear a very
imperfect one; and all additions to it, with a memorandum of the
authority on which the statement is made, will be very valuable to me. I
wish the instances to be fetched as well from ancient as from modern
nations.

    THEOPHYLACT.

321. _Foreign Ambassadors, Ministers, Envoys, and Residents from Foreign
Courts._--Will any of your readers inform me where there may be found
the best, or any list of personages filling these diplomatic posts,
between the 1st of King Henry VIII. and the end of the reign of King
James II.?

    S. E. G.

322. _Critolaus and the Horatii and Curiatii._--Has any writer on early
Roman history noticed the extraordinary similarity, even in the minutest
particulars, of the combat between the Horatii and Curiatii, followed by
the murder of a sister of the former by her brother, for mourning for
one of the opposite party, to whom she was betrothed, to the similar
circumstances related of Critolaus the Tegean? The chances of two such
transactions resembling each other so closely appear so very small, that
there can be no doubt of one story being a copy of the other: but which
was the original? I have no doubt the Roman historians adopted this tale
from the Greeks, to diversify the barren pages of their early history.
At all events, such a person as Critolaus undoubtedly existed, which is
more than can be averred of the Roman hero. (See _Encyc. Brit._, art.
"Critolaus.")

    J. S. WARDEN.

  Balica.

323. _Cabal._--I should like to know the earliest use of this word as
signifying "a secret council," and, as a verb, "to plot or intrigue."
Pepys applies it to the king's confidential advisers several years
before the date (1672) when Burnet remarks that the word was composed of
the initials of the five chief ministers; and Dryden uses the verb in
the sense I have mentioned. Can any of your correspondents trace either
verb or noun to an earlier period, or explain this application of it?
The Hebrew verb _kibbal_ signifies "to receive;" and the _Cabbala_ was
so called from its being "traditionary," not from its being "secret." A
popular error on this point may, however, have given rise to the
above-mentioned application of the word.

    E. H. D. D.

324. "_Thus said the Ravens black._"--In what modern poem or ballad do
the following or similar lines occur?

                ---- "thus said the ravens black,
      We have been to Cordova, and we're just come back."

    D. B. J.

325. _Symbols in Painting._--In a painting of the Crucifixion by Guido
(?) the following accessories are introduced, the meaning of which I
cannot discover: the persons present are four, two of whom are evidently
the Virgin and St. John; but the other two, who are both old men, are
doubtful. On the ground, at the foot of the cross, is a skull and some
bones; and at one side of the picture is a monster, somewhat like a
gigantic toad, with his foot on a book; and at the other side lies a
bell, with a twisted cord attached to it: the monster and the skull
might be symbolical of sin and death, but what can the bell mean? It is
a singular object for an artist to have introduced without some
particular meaning; but the only instance I know of its use, is in the
pictures of St. Anthony (in the fourth century), who is generally
represented with a bell in his hand. Perhaps some of your correspondents
may be able to explain its meaning in this painting. Can the handbell
rung in Roman Catholic churches at the elevation of the host have any
connexion with the subject in question?

    B. N. C.

  Oxford.

326. _Latin Verse on Franklin._--Can you inform me who wrote the line on
Franklin:

      "Eripuit coelo fulmen, sceptrumque Tyrannis?"

    HENRY H. BREEN.

  St. Lucia.

327. _General Moyle._--Who was General John Moyle, who died about 1738?
He resided, if he did not die, in Bury St. Edmund's, Suffolk.

    BURIENSIS.

328. _Musical Compositions of Matthew Dubourg._--I am induced, while
preparing for the press a new edition of my _opusculum_ on the _violin_,
to seek your kind mediatorial aid in behalf of an object which some one
or other of your correspondents, acquainted with Irish matters of the
last century, may _possibly_ enable me to attain. I am desirous of
learning whether there be _extant_ any of the musical compositions
(especially the violin _solos_ and _concertos_) of my progenitor,
Matthew Dubourg, who held the post of director and composer to the
king's band in Ireland, from 1728 until, I believe, his death in 1767.

As I do not know that any of these compositions (which appear to have
been called forth by immediate occasions) were ever _printed_, my hope
of now tracing them out is perhaps more lively than rational. If they
have existed only in a manuscript state, it is but too possible that the
barbarian gripe of the butterman may long ago have suppressed what
vitality was in them. I cannot, however, relinquish the idea that a
dusty oblivion, and not absolute destruction, may be the amount of what
they have undergone; and that they _may_ still exist in such condition
as to be, at least, more susceptible of resuscitation than disinterred
_mummies_. I have the honour to be, Sir, yours wistfully,

    G. DUBOURG.

  Brighton.

329. _Collodion, and its Application to Photography._--May I ask for
information as to the first discoverer of Collodion, and the origin or
derivation of the name? I should also be glad to know by whom it was
first applied to photogenic purposes.

    A PHOTOGRAPHER.

330. _Engraved Portrait._--Will some of your correspondents who are
conversant with the history of engraved English heads, oblige me by
naming the original of a copper-plate print in my possession, and also
with the conclusion of the verses beneath, the lower part of the plate
being mutilated. The verses, as far as I have them, run thus:

      "Here you may see an honest face,
      Arm'd against envy and disgrace;
      Who lives respected still in spite
      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   ."

The addition of the names of the painter and engraver will increase the
obligation.

    HENRY CAMPKIN.

331. _Lines by Lord Chesterfield on Queen Caroline's supposed Refusal to
forgive her Son when on her Death-bed._--In Coxe's _Life of Sir Robert
Walpole_ (vol. i. p. 549.), we read, in the account of the death of
Queen Caroline, as follows:

  "The tongue of slander has even reproached her with maintaining
  her implacability to the hour of death, and refusing her pardon to
  the prince, who had humbly requested to receive her blessing. To
  this imputation Chesterfield alludes in a copy of verses
  circulated at the time:

      "'And unforgiving, unforgiven dies.'"

Can any of your readers refer me to the remainder of this copy of
verses?

    PROEM.


Minor Queries Answered.

_Kimmeroi, Cimbri, Cymry._--There appears to be a growing belief that
the Gomeridæ of the Bible, the Kimmeroi of the Greeks, the Cimbri of the
Romans, and the Cymry or Kymry of Wales, belong to the same family; the
few words remaining of their language are to all appearance Kymraeg; and
recently there was some likelihood of having more light thrown upon this
subject. Kohl, the German traveller, visited the remnant of the Cimbri
defeated by Marius, and was told that "_sette commune parlano Cimbro_."
Is the language of these Lombard Kimbri like that of the Kymry of Wales?
M. Kohl states that a professor at Padua was about to publish the
remains of their language; but I have not seen any subsequent notice
respecting them. The inquiry is highly interesting, and will I trust be
taken up by some persons who may be in position to obtain further
information; and I hope soon to see a few specimens of their language in
"NOTES AND QUERIES."

Ritson, in the notes to his work on the Celts, has these remarks on the
language of this Cimbric remnant:

  "Their language, which was thought to be a corrupt German, was
  found upon closer inquiry to be very pure Danish. Signor Marco
  Pezzo has written a very learned dissertation on this
  subject."--Page 288.

What is the title of this work? I am very desirous to obtain further
information on this subject, and invite attention to this people and
their Kimbro speech.

    T. STEPHENS.

  Merthyr Tydfil.

  [The title of Pezzo's work is, _Dei Cimbri Veronesi, e Vicentini_,
  libri ii. Terza edizione. 8vo. Verona, 1763. This edition is in
  the British Museum.]

_Dictionary of Musicians._--I have now before me _A Dictionary of
Musicians_, &c., second edition, 2 vols. 8vo., Longman and others, 1827.
I should be glad to know whether there is any more recent edition, or
anybody engaged in preparing one; or whether there is any more recent
and complete work of the kind. This one contains much information, but
might be greatly improved by omissions, corrections, and additions.

    AN AMATEUR.

  [_The Biographical Dictionary of Musicians_ noticed by our
  correspondent is very incorrect in its details. There is another
  work of the same kind in preparation, but is not expected to be
  published for some months. The latest works on the subject are the
  German _Lexicon der Tonkunst_ in several 8vo. volumes, and that by
  M. Fetis, which appeared about four years since at Brussels, and
  pronounced both comprehensive and correct.]

_City of London Charter._--What was the cause of the City charter being
forfeited in the year 1683?

In a trial, _The King_ v. _The City of London_, judgment was given
against the City, whereby the charter was forfeited.

    S. E. G.

  [An information brought against the Mayor and citizens of London
  was "for usurping of divers franchises and liberties within the
  said city, and for assuming to themselves an unlawful power to
  levy several great sums of money, as well upon the said citizens
  of London as strangers; and in particular upon those which come to
  the markets of the said city, by colour of the laws and ordinances
  in their Common Council by them in fact ordained and established,
  without any other right or authority." The circumstance which gave
  occasion for this _quo warranto_ to be brought against the City
  charter, was a petition the Court of Aldermen and City made to the
  King, upon his prorogation of Parliament, when they were going to
  try several noblemen concerned in the Popish plot; but especially
  for their printing and publishing the petition, which was
  considered seditious. For particulars relating to this celebrated
  trial, we must refer our correspondent to the following
  tracts:--_The Case of the Charter of London Stated_, fol. 1683.
  This is an ingenious treatise against the charter. _A Defence of
  the Charter and Municipal Rights of the City of London_, by Thomas
  Hunt, 4to.; _The Lawyer Outlawed; or a Brief Answer to Mr. Hunt's
  Defence of the Charter_, 4to. 1683; _The Forfeitures of London's
  Charter, or an Impartial Account of the several Seisures of the
  City Charter_, 4to. 1682; _Reflections on the City Charter, and
  Writ of Quo Warranto_, 4to. 1682; _The City of London's Plea to
  the Quo Warranto_, (an information) _brought against their Charter
  in Michaelmas Term_, 1681, fol. 1682. A summary account of the
  whole proceedings will be found in Maitland's _History of London_,
  vol. i. pp. 473-484.]

_St. Alkald._--Upon looking over a sheet of the Ordnance Map lately
published, on which part of the parish of Giggleswick is laid down, I
find that the patron saint, to whom the church is dedicated, is St.
Alkald. No calendar that I have access to mentions any such saint. I
shall be obliged by any of your correspondents giving me some account of
him, or referring me to any book where I may read his history.

    F. W. J.

  [In _The Calendar of the Anglican Church Illustrated_, published
  by Parker of Oxford, p. 181., our querist will find

  "_S. Alkald_ or _Alkilda_ was commemorated March 28. The church of
  Giggleswick, Yorkshire, is named in honour of this saint, and the
  Collegiate Church of Middleham in the same county in the joint
  names of SS. Mary and Alkald."]



Replies.


PLAIDS AND TARTANS.

(Vol. iv., p. 107.)

I am not going to enter into the controversy respecting the antiquity of
the _Highland_ kilt and tartans, nor when and where they were invented.
But in reference to these questions, I beg leave to cite a passage,
which may be found in the second book of the _History_ of Tacitus, in
which is designated a garb having a very distinct analogy to the _trews_
and tartans of the Highland chiefs.

In lib. ii. sec. xx. the return of Cæcina from Germany into Italy is
thus described:--

  "At Cæcina, velut relictâ post Alpes sævitiâ ac licentiâ, modesto
  agmine per Italiam incessit. Ornatum ipsius, municipia et coloniæ
  in superbiam trahebant, quod _versicolore sagulo, bruccas_ tegmen
  barbarum, indutus, togatos adloqueretur."

Cæcina and Valens had been the Imperial "Legati" in Upper Germany, and
the former is thus described in lib. i. sec. liii.:--

  "At in superiore Germaniâ, Cæcina decorâ juventâ, corpore ingens,
  animi immodicus, scito sermone, erecto incessu studia militum
  inlexerat."

So it seems that this handsome Roman, "great in stature," and "graceful
in youth," thought (like many of our modern fine gentlemen when they get
among the hills) the partycoloured plaid and barbarian clothing so
extremely becoming, that he was determined to set the fashion of wearing
it in Italy, and actually was intrepid enough to appear like a male
Bloomer before the astonished eyes of the "Togati," and to answer the
addresses of the "Municipia" and "Coloniæ" clad in this outlandish
costume.

I leave to more learned antiquaries the task of tracing this Celtic
habit, "in superiore Germaniâ," into the Scottish Highlands. For myself
I have little doubt that from the earliest division of the community
into septs or clans, the chiefs assumed the pattern of this "tegmen
versicolor" which best pleased them, and in course of time the pattern
distinguished the wearers as belonging to such and such chiefs. As to
the kilt, in all probability it was the apology for nudity.

The chiefs wore the trews, the humbler vassals or serfs either wore no
nether garments at all, or covered their loins with a scanty apron,
which gradually comprising more ample folds, has been modernised into
the kilt.

But I beg leave to put forward these speculations with all possible
modesty, feeling quite inadequate to discuss such momentous matters from
being only

    A BORDERER.


RELIGIOUS STATISTICS.

(Vol. iv., p. 382.)

I have a memorandum (not dated) which states that M. Pradt, in his work
on _Ancient and Modern Jesuitism_, gives curious calculations on the
religious statistics of the world. The terrestrial globe, he estimates,
contains 670,000,000 inhabitants, who are thus divided:--

      Catholics                         120,000,000
      Protestants and their dependants   40,000,000
      Of the Greek Church                36,000,000
      Jews                                4,000,000
      Mahomedans                         70,000,000
      Idolators                         400,000,000

Of these, China alone, according to the most probable accounts, contains
300,000,000.

An elaborate, valuable, and now, I believe, a scarce work, entitled _The
Consumption of Public Wealth by the Clergy of every Christian Nation_,
&c. (published by Effingham Wilson in 1822), among details, founded on
authorities of repute, and which are named, gives for each nation,
"France," "Scotland" (its Kirk), "Spain," "Portuguese Church,"
"Hungarian Churches," "Clergy in Italy," "Clergy in Austria," "Clergy in
Prussia," "Clergy in Russia," "England and Wales," "Established Church
Property Ireland," &c. &c., the particulars required by Q. E. D. For
instance, under the heading "Hungarian Churches," we are preliminarily
told that--

  "Hungary contains about 8,000,000 people of various religious
  persuasions, who live happily together ever since the days of that
  excellent Emperor Joseph II. He laboured resolutely and
  successfully, in spite of the bigots of his own religion by whom
  he was surrounded, to root out the evils of religious discord from
  his dominions; and he left, as a glorious legacy to his people,
  for which his memory will be ever dear, the blessings of concord
  and harmony between his subjects of all denominations."

It is then narrated that there are (in Hungary):

      "Catholics, Latin and Greek         4,750,000
      Greek Church                        1,150,000
      Calvinists                          1,050,000
      Lutherans                             650,000
      Unitarian Christians                   46,000
      Various small Christian Sects, and
        persons of the Jewish faith         200,000."

But this work contains no summary of the total amounts of its own
enumerations.

    A HERMIT AT HAMPSTEAD.


ROYAL LIBRARY.

(Vol. iii., p. 427.; Vol. iv., pp. 69. 154.)

Your correspondent J. H. M. remarks (Vol. iv., p. 69.): "In justice to
King George IV., the letter which he addressed to the late Earl of
Liverpool, on presenting the books to his own subjects, should be
printed in your columns." Heartily concurring in this opinion, I have
much pleasure in supplying your readers with a transcript of the same. I
copied it some years back from the original, then in the possession of a
noble friend:

  "Dear Lord Liverpool,--The king, my late revered and excellent
  father, having formed, during a long period of years, a most
  valuable and extensive library, consisting of about one hundred
  and twenty thousand volumes, I have resolved to present this
  collection to the British nation. Whilst I have the satisfaction
  by this means of advancing the literature of my country, I also
  feel that I am paying a just tribute to the memory of a parent,
  whose life was adorned with every public and private virtue. I
  desire to add, that I have great pleasure, my lord, in making this
  communication through you. Believe me, with great regard, your
  sincere friend,

  "G. R.

  "Pavilion, Brighton, 15th of January, 1823."

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

Your correspondent C. says, "the whole story of the projected sale to
Russia is absolutely unfounded." He seems to consider that, because the
Princess Lieven never heard a syllable about the matter, the whole story
was unfounded--that is, that when a part of a story is untrue the whole
must be untrue. What is really the truth I do not positively _know_; but
I will give you the story, as I heard it at the time, from one who had
good means of information. George IV. disliked the expense of keeping up
the Royal Library; he was also occasionally out of temper at the claims
made or insinuated by some members of the family, that as the library
had not been bequeathed, they had all an equal property in it. To get
rid of the expense and the claims he resolved to dispose of it, and said
something about this wish at his own dinner-table. This was, perhaps, in
the presence of the Russian ambassador, or some distinguished Russian,
or at least came to his ears; and he spoke to Lord Liverpool upon the
subject, expressing a desire to purchase. Lord L. immediately waited
upon the king, and remonstrated in the strongest terms against allowing
such a library collected by a king of England to be sent out of the
country; and went so far as to say that he would resign his office if
the measure was persisted in. The king then resolved to relieve himself
from all annoyance about the matter by presenting it to the nation. Such
I believe to be the outline of the truth: the minute details I did not
"make a Note" of at the time, and will not trust my memory to relate
them.

    GRIFFIN.


DAMASKED LINEN.

(Vol. ii., p. 199.; Vol. iii., pp. 13. 229.)

In the subjoined account of some old patterns, I have, for the sake of
brevity, enclosed in brackets the descriptions of the several objects
represented, beginning with the highest and most distant. The words
enclosed within inverted commas are the inscriptions.

                          No. I.
      [Two horsemen, with steel-caps, riding away at speed.]
                         [Crown.]
           "PVRSV'D BY MEN. PRESERV'D BY GOD."
         [Crown.]                      [Crown.]
      [Oak branches surrounding a head surmounted
         with a low-crowned hat and flowing wig.]

I may mention that this bears the mark of an ancestor of its present
possessor, who was about forty years of age at the time of the
Restoration, and died in 1707.

                          No. II.
      "SISTE SOL IN GIBEON ET LVNA IN VALLE IAALON."
               [Sun]  "RIS"  [Moon]  "SEL."
                     [Fortified town.]
          [Mortars throwing shells into the town.]
                    [Tents and cannon.]
        [Trophy]       "EGENIVS."       [Trophy.]
           [Equestrian figure holding a baton.]

Can any of your readers be so good as to explain the allusion of the
above ungainly and somewhat profane compliment to Prince Eugene?

                          No. III.
                         "STAD ANT
                          WERPEN."
                        [City gate.]
                     [Water with ships.]
                 "DER HERTZOG VON MARLBORVK."
      [Equestrian figure in the proper costume, holding a baton.]

The above probably commemorates the surrender of Antwerp to the allied
armies soon after the battle of Ramillies, May 27, 1706.

                    No. IV.
          "CAROLVS KÖNIG IN SPANIGEN."
             [Equestrian figure.]
        [Trophy of arms and banners.]
                  "MADRIED."
              [City and gates.]
      [Batteries with cannon planted.]

I presume this must refer to the short-lived triumph of Charles
(afterwards Emperor of Germany), who was crowned King of Spain at Vienna
in 1703, and entered Madrid in 1706.

                                 No. V.
                                 [City.]
                           [River with boats.]
                          [Cannon and mortars.]
      [Tents and halberdiers, and arms strewn about on the ground.]
                             "KÖNIG GEORGE."
        [Crown.]                                         [Crown.]
        [Harp.]                                           [Harp.]
                  [Equestrian figure holding a sceptre.]

Will some one be so kind as to explain the meaning of this design?

I may mention that there is little doubt that this cloth, as well as the
others, belonged to the son of the gentleman before mentioned, and that
it is very unlikely that it ever belonged to the royal household. This
may perhaps affect the inference of your correspondent H. W. D. from the
inscription "Der König Georg II." (Vol. iii., p. 229.).

                          No. VI.
      [A group of figures:--On the right an eastern
      monarch standing, and in an attitude of command
      towards a female figure on the left, who
      is stooping down to put something into the
      gaping mouth of a dragon, while with her left
      hand she points towards the king. Behind the
      woman are three men turning towards the king
      in attitudes of entreaty.]
                        "BABYLON."
      [A man and woman kneeling down, with hands
      raised as in supplication or astonishment.]
                     "DANIEL, XIIII."
      [A tree with two birds in it. In front of the tree
      an angel flying downwards; and underneath, a
      man in the same attitude, holding a vessel
      shaped like a pitch-kettle in the left hand, and
      what appears to be a small loaf or cake in the
      right.]

All the above figures are in oriental costume. The date of this cloth
_cannot_ be later than about 1720. In each case the pattern is repeated
in rows; the alternate rows being reversed so that on whichever side the
cloth is turned, half of the patterns have the inscriptions legible.

      W. S. T.


VERMIN, PAYMENTS FOR DESTRUCTION OF.

(Vol. iv., pp. 208. 389.)

The authority by which churchwardens paid for the destruction of vermin,
is by acts of parliament (8 Eliz. cap. 15. and 14 Eliz. cap. 11.), but
_not AS churchwardens_; and the payment for vermin out of the
_church-rate_ is illegal: but they are _ex officio_ appointed by the
statutes quoted, "with six other parishioners," as shown by FRANCISCUS,
Vol. iv., p. 389.

There can be no doubt, that in course of time this assessment got into
desuetude; that churchwardens, being the "distributors," they charged it
on the _church-rate_ by way of simplifying the machinery. This, and
other duties of churchwardens and other parish officers, many of which
have become obsolete, may be seen in Lambard's _Eirenarcha, or Office of
the Justice of the Peace_, first published in 1581, which passed through
many editions from that date to 1637. The work is commended by
Blackstone as deserving the perusal of students.

With regard to the old names of vermin, _Glead_ and _Ringteal_ are
described by Osbaldiston, in his _Dictionary of Recreation_, as a sort
of kite; the latter with whitish feathers about the tail. _Greas'-head_
and _Baggar_ he does not notice. May they not be provincialisms?

    H. T. ELLACOMBE

  Clyst St. George.

In further illustration of this Query, and of J. EASTWOOD'S reply (p.
389.), may be quoted:--

  "That the distributers of the provision for the destruction of
  noysome foule and vermine being chosen, and having money [as
  before shown by me, Vol. iv., p. 389.], shall give and pay the
  same money so to them delivered, to every person that shall bring
  to them any heades of old crowes, choughes, pies, or rookes, taken
  within the several parishes, for the heads of every three of them
  a peny; and for the heads of every sixe young crowes, choughes,
  pyes, or rookes, taken, as is aforesaid, a peny; and for every
  sixe egges of any of them unbroken, a peny; and likewise for every
  twelve stares heades, a peny. All which said heads and egges, the
  said distributers in some convenient place shall keep, and shall
  every moneth at the least bring foorth the same before the said
  churchwardens and taxors, or three of them, and then and there to
  them shall make a true account in writing, what money they have
  laid forth and paid for such heads and egges, and for the heads of
  such other raveinous birds and vermine, as are hereafter
  mentioned, that is to say:

      "For everie head of merton, haukes, fursekite,
        moldkite, bussard, scag, carmerant, or ringtaile    iid
      For every two egges of them                            id
      For every iron or ospraies heads                    iiiid
      For the head of every woodwall, pie, jay, raven,
        or kite                                              id
      For the head of every bird which is called the
        kingsfisher                                          id
      For the head of every bulfinsh, or other birde
        that devoureth the blouth of fruit                   id
      For the heads of every foxe or gray                  xiid
      For the head of every fichewe, polcat, wesell,
        stote, faire, badger, or wildecat                    id
      For the heads of every otter or hedghog               iid
      For the heads of every three rats or twelve mice       id
      For the heads of every moldwarpe or want, an
        halfe-penie.

  "All which sayd heads and egges shall be foorthwith, after such
  account made in the presence of the sayd churchwardens and taxors,
  or of three of them, burned, consumed, or cut in sunder."--Vid. 8
  Eliz. c. 15.; 14 Eliz. c 11.; and 39 Eliz. c. 18.

    FRANCISCUS.


WAS RALEIGH IN VIRGINIA?

(Vol. iv., pp. 190. 241.)

Raleigh never visited Virginia. The numerous expeditions thither, set on
foot by him, and in which he had so large a concern as to cause them to
be called _his_ voyages, no doubt gave rise to the popular error.

We first find Raleigh's name, in connexion with discovery in North
America, in 1579. In that year Sir Humphrey Gilbert, his stepbrother,
prevailed upon him to join in a projected voyage. The accounts of this
voyage are very scanty: all, I believe, that is known on the subject is
to be found in Hakluyt, vol. iii. p. 146., in the following words:

  "Others failed of their promises contracted, and the greater
  number were dispersed, leaving the Generall with few of his
  assured friends, with whom he adventured to sea; where having
  tasted of no lesse misfortune, he was shortly driven to retire
  home with the losse of a tall ship, and (more to his grief) of a
  valiant gentleman, Miles Morgan."

It will be observed that Raleigh's name is not mentioned, the "Generall"
being Gilbert. It appears, however, to be generally assumed by his
biographers that he did accompany this expedition in person. It may, at
all events, be predicated with tolerable certainty, that Raleigh was not
amongst those who deserted Sir Humphrey. Tytler adds the following
particulars, in his _Life of Raleigh_ (Edinburgh, 1833), p. 27., on the
authority of Oldys's _Life of Raleigh_, pp. 28, 29.:

  "On its homeward passage the small squadron of Gilbert was
  dispersed and disabled by a Spanish fleet, and many of the company
  were slain; but, perhaps owing to the disastrous issue of the
  fight, it has been slightly noticed by the English historians."

Schomburgk adds, in the Introduction to his reprint of Raleigh's
_Guiana_, published for the Hakluyt Society in 1848, also on the
authority of Oldys, that during the engagement "Raleigh was exposed to
great danger."

We may therefore assume that he did sail with Gilbert on this occasion.
There is no appearance, however, of the expedition having reached
America at all; and most certainly Virginia was not then visited.

The next voyage undertaken by Gilbert was in 1583. Raleigh took a great
interest in this expedition, and fitted out a barque of two hundred
tons, which bore his name; and although the "most puissant" vessel in
the fleet, it only ranked as "Vice-admirall." The "Delight, _alias_ the
George, of burthen 120 tunnes, was Admirall, in which went the
Generall." They "began their voyage upon Tuesday, the eleventh day of
June, in the yere of our Lord 1583;" but "about midnight" of the 13th
June, "the Vice-admirall forsooke us, notwithstanding that we had the
winde east, faire, and good. But it was after credibly reported that
they were infected with a contagious sickness, and arrived greatly
distressed at Plimmouth.... Sure I am no cost was spared by their owner,
Master Raleigh, in setting them forth." So writes worthy Master Hayes,
who commanded the Golden Hinde, the "Rear-admirall" of the expedition.
It may be easily believed that Raleigh was not on board of the vessel
which belonged to him. Sir H. Gilbert, who was ignorant of the cause of
desertion, wrote thus to Sir George Peckham, after his arrival in
Newfoundland:--"On the 13th the bark Raleigh ran from me, in fair and
clear weather, having a large wind. I pray you solicit my brother
Raleigh to make them an example to all knaves." The subsequent history
of this disastrous expedition need not be dwelt upon. Gilbert reached
Newfoundland, but was lost in returning on board the Squirrel of ten
tons!

On the 25th March, 1584, Raleigh obtained letters patent from Queen
Elizabeth authorising him to establish a colony in North America, south
of Newfoundland. "The first voyage made" under this patent "to the
coasts of America" was "with two barks, wherein were Captains M. Philip
Amadas, and M. Arthur Barlowe, who _discovered_ part of the countrey now
called Virginia, anno 1584:" the account of which voyage is stated to
have been "written by one of the said Captaines, and _sent_ to Sir
Walter Raleigh, knight, at whose charge and direction the said voyage
was set forty"--_Hak._ vol. iii. p. 246.

The next voyage is called (p. 251.) "The voyage made by Sir Richard
Grenvill _for_ Sir Walter Raleigh to Virginia, in the yeere 1585." Sir
Richard left a colony under the government of Master Ralph Lane. A list
of all the colonists, to the number of 107, "as well gentlemen as
others, that remained one whole yeere in Virginia," is given in Hakluyt,
at p. 254. The first name is Master Philip Amadas, Admirall of the
countrey;" the second is "Master Hariot." On the 10th June of next year
the colony was visited by Sir Francis Drake, with no less than
twenty-three sail of vessels, "in his prosperous returne from the
sacking of Saint Domingo." Sir Francis gave the colonists, who had
suffered severely from "scarsity," the means of returning to England,
which they did, leaving Virginia on the 18th of June, and arriving at
Portsmouth on the 28th of July, 1586. Governor Lane was greatly blamed
for his precipitate desertion of the colony. Hariot wrote a description
of the country, which occupies fifteen folio pages of Hakluyt. Hallam
(in the passage quoted by MR. BREEN) is correct in describing Hariot as
the companion of Raleigh; for that he was, and very much esteemed by
him: but he is wrong in making it appear that they were together in
Virginia.

In the meantime Raleigh at home was far from being forgetful of his
colonists, although they seemed so little inclined to depend upon him.
He got ready no less than four vessels: various delays, however,
occurred to retard their sailing; and Raleigh at last getting anxious
started off one of them as a "bark of aviso," or despatch boat, as it is
called in one of the old accounts. It arrived at the site of the colony
"immediately after the departing of our English colony out of this
paradise of the world;" and "after some time spent in seeking our colony
up in the countrey, and not [of course] finding them, it returned with
all the aforesaid provision into England." Thus Hakluyt, page 265., who
also states that it was "sent and set forth at the charges of Sir Walter
Raleigh and his direction;" expressions surely inconsistent with any
supposition that he was on board of this bark of aviso; and yet it would
appear, from the Introduction of Sir Robert Schomburgk, already referred
to, that _this_ was the identical occasion on which Raleigh was
erroneously supposed to have visited Virginia. As what Sir Robert says
is very important, and bears very directly on the question, I quote his
words:

  "It has been asserted by Theobald and others, that Sir Walter
  Raleigh himself accompanied this vessel, which he sent for the
  relief of the young colony; such may have been his intention, as
  Captain Smith states in the first book of his _General History of
  Virginia_; but we have so many proofs that Sir Walter did not
  leave England in that year, that we are surprised that such an
  erroneous statement has found credence up to the present day."

This is a strong opinion of Sir Robert, and if borne out by evidence,
would be conclusive; but in the first place, his reference to Smith's
_Virginia_ is incorrect; and besides, Smith, for anything he relates
prior to 1606, is only secondary evidence. His book was published in
1624, and is reprinted in Pinkerton's _Voyages_ (1812). On reference to
it there I can find no such _intention_ attributed to Raleigh; and in
fact Smith's account is manifestly taken from Hakluyt (1599), who, it is
well known, had his information on these voyages chiefly from Raleigh
himself[1]. In the second place, it would have been well if Sir Robert
had mentioned some distinct proof that Raleigh was in England on some
one day that the vessel was absent, rather than generally stating that
he did not leave England during 1586. Unfortunately, there is a want of
precision as to the exact dates when the vessel left and returned to
England; enough is said, however, to fix upon the two months _at least_
from the 20th of May to the 20th of July as being embraced in the period
during which she was on her voyage. In Hakluyt it is stated that she did
not sail until "after Easter:" in 1586 Easter Sunday was, by my
calculation, on the 3rd April. The 20th of May is therefore a liberal
meaning to attach to the expression "after Easter." She arrived in
Virginia "immediately after" Drake sailed, on the 18th of June. Say then
that she even arrived on the 19th June; only spent one day in searching
for the colony; and took thirty days to go home; this would bring us to
the 20th July. It will be noticed that I narrow the time as much as
possible, to strengthen the evidence that would be gained by proving an
_alibi_ for Sir Walter. If it can be shown that he was in England on any
day between the 20th May and the 20th July, the supposition that he went
on this occasion to Virginia must be given up as untenable. I have
therefore directed my inquiries to this point. In the sketch of the life
of George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, given in Lodge's _Portraits_, a
work certainly not of indisputable authority, but tolerably correct
notwithstanding, I find the following statement:

  "His [Cumberland's] fleet consisted of three ships, and a pinnace,
  _the latter commanded by Sir Walter Raleigh_.... It sailed from
  Gravesend on the 26th of June, 1586; but was repeatedly driven
  back by contrary winds, and could not finally leave England till
  the end of August."

  [Footnote 1: What Smith really says is, speaking generally of
  _all_ the voyages, that Raleigh's occasions and employments were
  such that he could not go himself; but he says nothing about his
  intentions specially as to this particular voyage.]

Now, if this were quite correct, it would be conclusive, that if Sir
Walter Raleigh sailed from Gravesend on the 26th June, he could not have
started from Virginia to return to England on the 20th of the same
month. I thought it well, however, to verify this statement of Mr.
Lodge, and had recourse to my old friend Hakluyt as usual. I there found
(vol. iii. pp. 769. et seq.) that on starting from Gravesend, there were
only two vessels called respectively the Red Dragon and the Clifford;
these vessels arrived at Plymouth on the 24th of July, and were there
detained by westerly winds until the 17th of August, when they--

  "Then departed with another ship, also for our Rear-admirall,
  called the Roe, whereof W. Hawes was Captaine; and a fine pinnesse
  also, called the Dorothie, _which was Sir Walter Raleigh's_."

It therefore follows, that the pinnace might have joined them
immediately before the 17th of August, a date too late for our purpose.
Nay more, the only authority for Mr. Lodge's statement, that the vessel
was commanded by Sir Walter, rests upon the words which I have put in
Italics; his name is not mentioned in the subsequent account of the
expedition, although, on the 7th of February, 1587, it was found
necessary to hold a council of war, at which no less than eighteen
officers assisted, all of whom, beginning with the admiral, are named.
Raleigh's name does not occur; and is it conceivable that he, if present
in the fleet, would have been absent on such an occasion? This therefore
affords one additional instance in which Raleigh was presumed to be
present merely because he fitted out a vessel. Being inconclusive as a
positive piece of evidence on the main question, my chief reason for
referring to it was to show how hastily some writers make assertions,
and how probable it is that "Theobald and others" went upon similar
grounds in their statement as to Raleigh's having visited Virginia. In
justice to Mr. Lodge, I must mention that the error into which he fell
with respect to Raleigh, in his sketch of the life of the Earl of
Cumberland, is not repeated in his biography of Raleigh, in which it may
be supposed he was more careful. Raleigh's having concerned himself
sometime in July or August in fitting out a vessel for Cumberland's
expedition, undoubtedly forms part of that chain of evidence alluded to
by Schomburgk, tending to prove his continued residence in England in
1586. I feel inclined, however, to search for positive evidence on the
point. In the very valuable collection of letters entitled the
_Leicester Correspondence_, published for the Camden Society in 1844, I
find his name occurring several times. On the 29th of March, 1586,
Raleigh writes "from the court" to the Earl of Leicester, at that time
in the Low Countries: he states that he had moved the Queen to send
Leicester some pioneers, and found her very willing; but that since, the
matter had been stayed, he knew not for what cause. He then goes on to
protest against certain rumours which had been afloat as to his having
been acting a treacherous part with the Queen against the Earl.
Leicester had been in some disgrace with her Majesty, and Raleigh in a
postscript says:

  "The Queen is in very good tearms with yow, and, thanks be to God,
  well pacified, and yow are agayne her 'sweet Robyn.'"

On the 1st of April the Queen herself writes to Leicester a letter,
which will repay perusal. And on the same day, Walsingham, at the
express instance of the Queen, signifies to Leicester that Rawley, "upon
her honor," had done Leicester good offices; and that, during the time
of her displeasure, he dealt as earnestly for him as any other of his
friends. All this shows Raleigh in high favour and standing at the
court; and it is most improbable that he could, at such a moment, absent
himself no less than three months from it. These letters appear to have
been unusually long in reaching Leicester; in the early part of April he
complains of not getting letters from the Queen, and on the 27th a great
many reached him all at once. On the 31st of May, Leicester writes to
Walsingham, and speaks of Rawley's pioneers; saying that he had written
to him saying that they were ready to come. This could not refer to
Raleigh's letter of 29th of March, because in it he states that the
matter had been stayed; it must refer to one of a later date, which does
not appear, but which was written, in all probability, some time on in
May; it could not have been in Leicester's possession on the 29th of
May, because on that day he writes to Walsingham, and mentions the same
subject; namely, his wish for a reinforcement of 1000 men, which led him
to speak of Rawley's pioneers on the 31st. With regard to the time it
took to communicate with Leicester, he was at the Hague on the 30th of
July, and on that day he knew of Drake's arrival at Portsmouth, stated
in Hakluyt's account of Drake's voyage to have taken place on the 28th;
although it is true, Governor Lane, who came home in the fleet, says the
27th of the same month. This was very speedy communication; but the
arrival of Drake, and the results of his enterprise, were looked for
with the utmost anxiety by the English ministry; and, no doubt, their
satisfaction on the subject was communicated to Leicester by a rapid
express. On the 9th of July we find Walsingham writing to Leicester:

  "And lastly, that yt shall in no sorte be fyt for her Majestye to
  take any resolutyon in the cause until Sir Francis Drake's
  returne, at lest untyll the successe of his vyage be seene;
  wheruppon, in verry trothe, dependethe the lyfe and death of the
  cause according to man's judgment."

In a letter from Burleigh to Leicester, dated 20th of June, 1586, occurs
the following:

  "In Irland all thynges are quiet, and a nombre of gentilmen of
  Somersett, Devon, Dorcet, Cheshyre, and Lancashyre, are making
  themselves to go to Monster, to plant two or three thousand
  people, mere English, there this year."

In a note to this, Mr. Bruce, the editor, states, that Stow records the
names of the honourable and worshipful gentlemen who made the attempt to
colonise Munster, and names, amongst others, Sir Walter Raleigh. It was
on this occasion that the poet Spenser got his grant of 3,028 acres in
the county of Cork, which "is said to be dated June 27, 1586." So the
Rev. Mr. Mitford, in his life of Spenser, prefixed to the Aldine edition
of his poems (1839); and although he seems uncertain as to the date,
there can be no doubt but that it is correct. Now I think that most
people will agree with me in thinking that the whole of this, Raleigh's
movements so far as they can be traced, his position at court, and the
busy and stirring nature of the time, make it altogether improbable that
Raleigh was absent in the month of June, 1586, on a voyage to Virginia.
Hakluyt's not mentioning that he was in the vessel, would of itself be
convincing to my mind, knowing the extent of his information on all
subjects connected with Raleigh, and his minute and painstaking
accuracy. Knowing, however, that _this_ was the voyage in which Raleigh
was stated to have visited Virginia, I have thought it worth while to
search for more positive evidence. How far I have succeeded may be seen,
but it is open to others to fix the fact of Raleigh's having been in
England within the time I have limited. As a hint to go upon, I may
mention that Babington's conspiracy was known to the English ministry on
the 9th of July, although the conspirators were not apprehended until a
month after; if Raleigh could be shown to have had any share in the
discovery of the plot, his presence in England in the beginning of July,
1586, would be established beyond all doubt.

I have already been more than sufficiently tedious on the subject of the
voyage of this little bark; what I have brought forward however bears
more or less upon the question as to Raleigh having visited Virginia: I
am clearly of opinion that on this occasion he did not. I cannot
refrain, however, from adding a word or two of purely speculative
conjecture. There is something rather suspicious in Drake visiting
Virginia with the whole of his armament, and losing time in doing so,
when the whole nation, from the queen downwards, was on the very
tenter-hooks of anxiety for intelligence of him and of his success. The
question arises, was it a rendezvous? and did the "bark of aviso" bear
other and more important despatches than those addressed to Master Ralph
Lane? Might not its arrival a day or two earlier have directed Drake to
strike a blow at some defenceless but important part of the Spanish
empire, deadly in proportion to its being unexpected? These are
questions which I can in no wise answer, but they have arisen in my
mind; and if it were so, we might be fain to believe, in spite of
everything that I have been able to bring forward, that Raleigh was
indeed on board his gallant little bark, but that, the mark not having
been hit, the attempt was kept secret. It must not be forgotten that at
that time, with the exception of this little colony, England had not a
rood of land in the New World. However, I must remember that history
ought not to deal in conjecture.

About fourteen or fifteen days after the departure of the bark, Grenvill
made his appearance with the other three vessels. After making every
search he returned home, leaving fifteen men on the Island of Roanoke.
Subsequent expeditions found no traces of these men excepting the bones
of one of them. No one has ever asserted that Raleigh was on board of
this fleet.

Nothing daunted by these failures--

  "In the yeere of our Lord 1587, Sir Walter Raleigh, intending to
  persevere in the planting of his countrey of Virginia, prepared a
  newe colonie of one hundred and fiftie men to be sent thither,
  under the charge of John White, whom hee appointed Governour, and
  also appointed unto him twelve assistants, unto whom he gave a
  charter, and incorporated them by the name of the Governour and
  Assistants of the Citie of Raleigh in Virginia."--_Hak._ Vol. iii.
  p. 280.

This colony, owing to contentions with the natives and other causes, did
not thrive; and in August of the same year White was, much against his
wish, induced to return to England for assistance. He failed in his
first attempt to go back with aid. In 1593 he gives, at Hakluyt's
request, an account of a voyage he made thither in 1590, but which quite
failed in its object. The men with whom he embarked showed a greater
disposition towards buccaneering, than to assist him in his search for
the unfortunate colonists. He found traces of their having gone to the
Island of Croatan; but his associates would not prosecute the search,
and poor White, with a sad heart, was obliged to leave them, if they
even then survived, to their fate. From that day to this no intelligence
has ever been got as to what became of them. This voyage was made, if
not under Raleigh's auspices, at all events with his assistance. It has
been supposed by some that this voyage of White in 1590 was the _last_
attempt made by Raleigh to succour his colonists--he has even been
reproached with it. This, however, was not the case. At p. 1653. vol.
iv. of Purchas, a very brief account is given of a ship having been
purchased by Raleigh and sent out under the command of--

  "Samuell Mace (a sufficient marriner who had been twice before at
  Virginia), to fynd out those people which he had sent last thither
  by Captain White in 1587."

The ill success of the previous attempts to communicate with the colony
seems to have been ascribed to the practice which prevailed in that day
of engaging seamen for the voyage with a share in the profits; this
Raleigh attempted to remedy by hiring "all the cumpanye for wages by the
month." I quote from Strachey's _Virginia_, printed by the Hakluyt
Society from an original MS., whose statement bears undoubted marks of
being the original from which Purchas took his account, and somewhat
abridged it. In spite of Raleigh's precautions as to the hiring, the
people behaved ill, and--

  "They returned, and brought no comfort or new accesse of hope
  concerning the lives and safety of the unfortunate English people,
  for which only they were sett forth, and the charg of this
  employment was undertaken."

Here ends the history of Sir Walter Raleigh's connexion with Virginian
discovery and colonisation. A new company was at the moment in
contemplation, and it even despatched its first pioneer vessel in the
same month of 1602 as Raleigh did. Raleigh may have had, to a certain
extent, a selfish object in view. His patent of 1584 was conditional, as
regarded its continuance, on his planting a colony within six years; and
had he been able to have discovered any remains, however small, of the
colony of '87, he could have prevented interlopers. The nature of his
position also in England in March, 1602, may perhaps afford a clue to
his designs. At that moment his royal mistress lay on the bed of
sickness, dying by inches. The clouds were beginning to gather around
Raleigh's head. His star, which had been in the ascendant for more than
twenty years, was getting nigh its setting. Raleigh, a man of wisdom and
foresight, as well as conduct and action, knew all this. He knew what he
had to expect, and what he afterwards in fact experienced, from the new
king, to whom all eyes were turned. Is it not most likely that he looked
to Virginia as his haven of refuge, where, if he could maintain his
patent rights, he might have set his enemies at defiance? Had this
dream, if he entertained it, been realised, the twelve years'
imprisonment and the bloody scaffold on which his head fell, might have
been averted. This, however, was not to be;--the search, as already
mentioned, was fruitless, and the new company went on; and, finally,
under a fresh charter from James I., Virginia was again colonised in
1606, since which time its history and existence have been
uninterrupted. On Raleigh's return from his last expedition to Guiana in
1618, only a few months before his murder, he touched at Newfoundland,
being, as I verily believe, the only occasion on which he set his foot
in North America.

It may cause your readers to smile, and perhaps be a surprise to some of
them, when I conclude this long paper, written on the subject of
Raleigh's connexion with Virginia, by asserting that he never had any
connexion, direct or indirect, with it! All the colonies with which he
had to do were planted in North Carolina and the islands thereto
belonging. To have laid any stress upon this, or to have mentioned it
earlier than now, would have amounted to nothing but a play upon names.
The country called Virginia in Queen Elizabeth's reign, embraced not
only the state now so called, but also Maryland and the Carolinas.
Virginia Proper was in reality first planted by the company of 1606, who
fixed their settlement on the Chesapeake.

    T. N.

  Demerary, Oct. 1851.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Bunting's Irish Melodies._--On p. 167. of the third volume of "NOTES
AND QUERIES," MR. STEPHENS, of Stockholm asks a question concerning the
_Irish Airs_ of this distinguished musician. As a member of the Royal
Academy of Music in Stockholm, I feel more than ordinary pleasure in
answering the Query of your esteemed correspondent.

Edward Bunting was born at Armagh in 1773. He claimed descent from
Patrick Gruama O'Quin, who as killed in arms in July, 1642; and it was
to this origin that Bunting attributed his musical talents, as well as
certain strong Irish predilections, for which he was through life
remarkable. His first collection of _Irish Airs_ was published in 1796;
his second in 1809; and his third, and last, in 1840. The first work
contains sixty-six native Irish airs never before published. The second
added seventy-five tunes to the original stock. This volume, like the
first, afforded a copious fund of new melodies, of which the
song-writers of the day eagerly and largely availed themselves. The
third and final collection consists of upwards of 150 melodies; "Of
these," the editor remarks in his Preface, "considerably more than 120
are now for the first time published, the remainder being sets much
superior to those already known." Bunting did not live to carry out his
plan of republishing his first two collections uniform with the third.
He died December 21, 1843, aged seventy. A copious memoir of him,
accompanied with a portrait, may be found in the _Dublin University
Magazine_, No. XLI., January, 1847.

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Colonies in England_ (Vol. iv., pp. 272. 370.).--In Vol. iv., p. 207.
inquiry is made about the existence of colonies of Moors and others in
different parts of England: I was not aware of there being any such as
those he mentions, but as your correspondent wishes to know of any
others which may still exist, I can inform him that colonies of
Spaniards are known of in Mount's Bay and Torbay. The latter, from
having intermingled with the surrounding population, have not now, I
believe, much more than a traditionary Spanish descent; whilst the
former, on the contrary, have kept aloof, and are easily distinguished
from their marked Spanish features. This colony is planted at Mousehole;
and, according to their account, they have been settled there upwards of
three centuries. Another account declares the original settlers to have
formed part of the Spanish Armada; and that after its defeat, they made
a descent on this part of the Cornish coast, drove out or killed the
former inhabitants and have ever since remained unmolested, and in great
measure distinct from the surrounding inhabitants. The nature of the
country in which they settled has, no doubt, proved favourable to them
in this respect, as the soil is barren and rocky, with thinly scattered
villages inhabited by a hardy race of fishermen.

    H. L.

The settlement of a colony of Flemings in the lower part of
Pembrokeshire, called Rhos and Castle Martin, in the time of Henry I.,
was one of the subjects discussed at the meeting of the Cambrian
Archæological Association at Tenby in August last, where the subject was
fully debated, and the fact seemed established. A full report of this
discussion is contained in the October number of the _Cambrian
Archæological Association_, published by Pickering, London.

    T. O. M.

_"History of Anglesey," &c._ (Vol. iv, p. 317.).--This publication is
attributed to the Rev. J. Thomas in a note to page 230. of the _Cambrian
Plutarch_, by the late J. Humphreys Parry.

    T. O. M.

_The Lowey of Tunbridge_ (Vol. iv., p. 294.).--There still is, I
believe, a district known by this name. In order to save the valuable
space in "NOTES AND QUERIES," I will merely refer E. N. W. for
information respecting it to the following works:

  "A Perambulation of Kent; written in the yeere 1570 by William
  Lambarde of Lincolnes Inn, Gent. Imprinted at London by Edm.
  Bollisant, 1596."--Page 425.

This first I believe to be a somewhat scarce book.

  "A Topographie or Survey of the County of Kent. By Richard
  Kilburne, London, 1659."--Pp. 276, 277.

  "Tunbridge Wells and its Neighbourhood. By Paul Amsinck, Esq.,
  London, 1810."--Pp. 97-99.

There are incidental notices of Tunbridge Lowey in Hasted's _History of
Kent_. From the _Parliamentary Gazetteer_ I extract the following (to
which my attention has been directed by a friend):--

  "Tunbridge Lowey, a division in the Lathe of Aylesford, County of
  Kent. Area, 20,660 acres; houses, 2,072; population in 1831,
  12,233."

In 1841 the census returns for that district gave a population of
14,638.

There is also, I believe, another "Lowey," viz. that of Pevensey.

    R. VINCENT.

_Praed's Works_ (Vol. iv., p. 256.).--About five years since I saw in
the travelling library of an American lady a very good edition of
Praed's _Poems_, small 8vo. clear type, published (I believe) in the
_States_. The owner promised to send me a fac-simile of the work, on her
return to New York; but family bereavements and various painful
circumstances have arisen to banish the recollection of such a promise.
I have asked for the book in vain in London; but if your correspondent
K. S. is very anxious to procure a copy, I would suggest an order for
it, given through _Chapman in the Strand_, to whom Wiley and Putnam
appear to have transferred the American literary agency. I should think
the price would not exceed six or seven shillings.

    YUNAF.

  [This collection was published by Griswold of New York in 1844. We
  saw a copy at Tupling's, No. 320. Strand, a few days since.]

_John à Cumber_ (Vol. iv., p. 83.).--Some months ago MR. J. P. COLLIER
made some inquiries respecting John à Kent, the Princess Sidanen, and
John à Cumber. Respecting the two latter I was enabled to furnish some
information; and since that I have fallen upon the traces of John à
Cumber. My inquiries have recently been directed to the scene of the
Battle of Cattraeth or Siggeston (Kirby Sigston); and I have
endeavoured, hitherto ineffectually, to find some good description of
the scenery of the North Riding of Yorkshire, and of the great plain of
Mowbray, which was probably the scene of the conflict described by
Aneurin, and which, I believe, includes both Catterick and Sigston. It
was in that country that I found John à Cumber, who is most probably the
person described in the following extract:--

  "Thirsk.--In the reign of Henry VII. an insurrection broke out
  here, in consequence of an obnoxious tax. This was a subsidy
  granted by the parliament to the king, to enable him to carry on
  the war in Brittany against the French. The Earl of Northumberland
  had signified at an assembly, that the king would not remit any
  part of the tax, though the northern people had besought it; when
  they, taking the earl to be the cause of the answer, fell upon,
  and slew him, together with several of his servants, at the
  instigation of one John à Chamber. They then placed themselves
  under a leader, Sir John Egremond, who, on being defeated by the
  Earl of Surrey, fled into Burgundy. John à Chamber and some others
  were taken, and executed at York."--_A Picturesque Tour in
  Yorkshire and Derbyshire_, by the late Edward Dayes, London, 1825,
  pp. 147-8.

Dayes gives no authorities[2]; but this may afford a clue to further
discoveries.

     T. STEPHENS.

  Merthyr, Nov. 21. 1851.

  [Footnote 2: [Dayes' account of the above insurrection will be
  found in Kennett's _History of England_, vol. i. p. 595.--ED.]]

_Punishment of Prince Edward of Carnarvon_ (Vol. iv., pp. 338.
409.).--MR. W. S. GIBSON will find further particulars of the offence
and punishment of this prince in a paper by Mr. Blaauw on the recently
discovered letters of Prince Edward, which is published in the second
volume of the _Sussex Archæological Collections_. The offence appears to
have been committed in May or June, 1305, and the minister was, as has
been stated, Walter de Langton, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, the
king's Treasurer, but in the letters called Bishop of Chester; a seeming
discrepancy arising from the fact that the Bishops of Lichfield and
Coventry were not unfrequently called Bishops of Chester at that period,
which was two centuries before the present see of Chester was created.

    W. S. W.

  Middle Temple.

It may be as well to add a note to your two communications from MR.
JOSEPH BURTT and R. S. V. P., that the _Bishop of Chester_, named by the
former, is one and the same person with the _Bishop of Lichfield and
Coventry_, named by the latter, as suggested by MR. FOSS; the two
bishoprics being identical, and almost as often called by one title as
by the other.

    P. P. C.

_Joceline's Legacy_ (Vol. iv., pp. 367. 410.).--The _first_ edition I
believe to have been "_The Mother's Legacie to her Vnborne Childe_, by
Elizabeth Iocelin, London. Printed by Iohn Hauiland, for William Barret,
1624." pp. 114. + title, approbation and epistle dedicatorie (40).

Henry Jocelyn, a younger son of Sir Thomas Jocelyn, who died 4 Eliz.,
married Anne, daughter and heir of Humphry Torrell, Esq., of Torrell's
Hall, Essex, by whom he had Sir Thomas Jocelyn, Knt., and _other sons;_
one of whom I suspect to have been the Tourell Jocelin, husband to Eliz.
Jocelin, the authoress of this excellent little tract.

    P. B.

_Bristol Tables_ (Vol. iv., p. 406.).--The four remarkable bronze
tables, respecting which E. N. W. inquires, formerly stood under the
piazza of the "Tolzey," or "Counter," in Bristol; the place where the
merchants transacted business. On the opening of the Exchange in 1743,
they were removed, and fixed in front of that building, where they now
stand. It appears that they were presented to the city at different
times, and by different persons. On a garter, beneath the surface of one
of them, is the following inscription:--

  "Thomas Hobson of Bristol made me, anno 1625. Nicholas Crisp of
  London gave me to this honourable city in remembrance of God's
  mercy in anno domini 1625. N. C."

On a ring round the surface is this inscription:

  "Praise the Lord, O my soul! and forget not all his benefits. He
  saved my life from destruction, and ... to his mercy and
  loving-kindness. Praise...."

On a ring round the surface of the second is the following:

  "A.D. 1631. This is the gift of Mr. White of Bristoll, Merchant,
  brother unto Dr. Thomas White, a famous benefactor to this citie."

On the garter round the exterior is this inscription:

  "The church of the Living God is the pillar and ground of the
  truth. So was the work of the pillars finished."

The third table has the following words round the surface:

  "This Post is the gift of Master Robert Kitchen, Merchant, some
  time Maior and Alderman of this city, who deceased Sep. 1. 1594."

On the ring below the surface:

  "His Executors were fower of his servants. John Barker, Mathew
  Howil, and Abell Kitchin, Aldermen of this city, and John
  Rowborow, Sherif. 1630."

Six lines in verse, and a shield with armorial bearings, formerly
appeared as the centre of this table; but they are now obliterated.

The fourth table, which is supposed to be the oldest, has no
inscription.

These curious round tables, on which the merchants of this ancient city
formerly made their payments, and wrote their letters, &c., are now used
by the newsmen, who here sell the daily journals, &c. In times of
popular excitement, they have been sometimes used as pedestals, whence
mob-orators, and candidates for parliamentary honours, have harangued
the populace.

    J. R. W.

_Grimsdyke or Grimesditch_ (Vol. iv., pp. 192. 330.).--There is a
hundred in Norfolk called Grimeshoe or Grimeshow, of which Blomefield,
in his History, vol. ii. p. 148., says:

  "It most probably derives its name from _Grime_ and _hoo_, a hilly
  champaign country. This Grime was (as I take it) some considerable
  leader or general, probably of the Danes, in this quarter; and if
  he was not the _præsitus comitatus_, or _vicecomes_, that is, the
  shire reeve or sheriff, he was undoubtedly the _Centuriæ
  præpositus_, that is, the hundred-greeve; and, as such, gave the
  name to it, which it retains to this day."

Near this is a curious Danish encampment, with a number of pits and
tumuli, called _Grime's Graves_, from the aforementioned Grime. These
are about two miles east of the village of Weeting, on a rising ground.
On the west side of the village is a bank and ditch, extending several
miles, called the Fen-dyke or Foss. The encampment contains about two
acres, and is of a semicircular form. There are numerous deep pits dug
within it in the quincunx form, and capable of concealing a large army.
There are also several tumuli, one in particular of a long shape. The
usual opinion respecting these remains is, that it was the seat of great
military operations between the Saxons and Danes.

    E. S. TAYLOR.

_Derivation of "Æra"_ (Vol. iv., p. 383.).--With regard to the
derivation of _Æra_ (or _Era_). I have always been accustomed to
explain the derivation of _Æra_ or _Era_ thus:--that it is a term
transferred from the [brazen] tablets, on which the records of events
were noted, to the events themselves, and thence to the computum, or
fixed chronological point from which the reckoning proceeds.

My difficulty here has been to find sufficient instances of the use of
brass in ancient times for these purposes. Brass was the material on
which laws, &c. were commonly registered: but the fasti at present
discovered, as far as I can learn, are engraven on marble; as, for
instance, the Fasti Capitolini, discovered in the Roman Forum in 1547,
and the fragments afterwards brought to light in 1817, 1818.

Isidore of Hispola, in the eighth century, in his _Origines_, gives this
derivation:

  "Æra singulorum annorum constituta est a Cæsare Augusto, quando
  primum censum exegit. Dicta autem Æra ex eo, quod omnis orbis æs
  reddere professus est reipublicæ."

I quote on the authority of Facciolati, who adds that others derive the
word from the letters A.ER.A., "annus erat Augusti." These are not at
all satisfactory; and I shall be glad if you will allow me to throw in
my derivation as "being worth what it will fetch."

    THEOPHYLACT.

Koch says, in note 5 to the Introduction of his _Revolution of Europe_,
that "æra" is derived from the initials of the phrase "Anno erat
regnante Augusto;" and was first used among the Spaniards, who dated
from the renewal of the second triumvirate even down to the fourteenth
or fifteenth centuries.

    HD.

_Scent of the Blood-hound_ (Vol. iv., p. 368.).--C. H. asks whether it
be true that hound loses his scent--

      "If he fele swetness of þe flouris."

A few years ago a master of fox-hounds in the New Forest excused some
bad sport in March thus "The hounds can't hunt for those d--d stinking
violets!" rather to the amusement of some of his field.

    G. N.

_Monk and Cromwell Families_ (Vol. iv., p. 381.).--A SUBSCRIBER seems to
imply that the Monk and Cromwell families intermarried. In Chauncy's
_Hertfordshire_, vol. i. p. 582. of the new edition, but which was
originally printed in 1700, it is stated, that the well-known manor of
Theobalds was granted by Charles II. to the great Monk in tail male; on
the death of his son, Duke Christopher, it reverted to the crown; and
that King William, by letters patent of the 4th of April, 1689, gave it
to William Bentinck, who was created Earl of Portland. It must have come
therefore, to the Cromwells by intermarriage either with Bentinck,
which, I believe, was not the case, or with some subsequent purchasers
of the manor. Theobalds originally belonged to Sir Robert Cecil, of whom
James I. obtained it in exchange for Hatfield. It was given as reward
for restoring the Stuarts to Monk, and to Bentinck for assisting again
to expel them.

    J. H. L.

"_Truth is that which a man troweth_" (Vol. iv., p. 382.).--For the
information of your correspondent Γ. I send the following,
which I believe to be the original authority for the above saying. It is
taken from the celebrated work of Horne Tooke's, entitled _Diversions of
Purley_, which, though highly interesting as a treasury of philological
information, contains this among other absurd attempts to base moral
conclusions on the foundation of etymology:--

  "_Truth_ is the third person singular of the indicative _trow_. It
  was formerly written _troweth_, _trowth_, _trouth_, and _troth_.
  And it means (_aliquid_, anything, something) that which one
  _troweth_, i.e. thinketh, or firmly believeth."

Dugald Stewart, in his _Philosophical Essays_, justly observes regarding
the principle involved in such speculations, that "if it were admitted
as sound, it would completely undermine the foundations both of logic
and of ethics."

    TYRO.

  Dublin.

"_Worse than a Crime_" (Vol. iv., p. 274.).--In reply to a question you
attribute the famous saying concerning the murder of the Duc D'Enghien
to Talleyrand.

If you will refer to p. 266. vol. i. of Fouché's _Memoirs_, 2nd edition,
1825, C. Knight, you will find that he claims the saying to himself:

  "I was not the person who hesitated to express himself with the
  least restraint respecting the violence against the rights of
  nations and of humanity. 'It is more than a crime, it is a
  political fault.' I said words which I record, because they have
  been repeated and attributed to others."

    J. W.

  Walsall.

In matters of rumour different people hear different things. I never
heard the words "c'estoit pire qu'un crime, c'estoit une faute,"
ascribed to any one but Fouché of Nantes. I have understood that the
late Prince of Condé would not hold any intercourse with the Prince de
Talleyrand, or with the Court when he was present officiating as Grand
Chamberlain of France, owing to his full conviction of that minister's
privity to the murder of his son. But how is that consistent with
Talleyrand's more than condemning, and even ridiculing the action?

    A. N.

_Verses in Classical Prose_ (Vol. iv., p. 382.).--Merely as matter of
information, permit me to refer your correspondent A. A. D. to the notes
of Glareanus and Drakenborch on the first lines of Livy's preface, and
to the "variorum" commentators on the first line of Tacitus' _Annals_
("Urbem Romanam a principio reges habuere"), for a collection of
examples of the occurrence of verse in prose compositions.

    THEODORE ALOIS BUCKLEY.

_Cruelty of the Spaniards in Peru_ (Vol. iv., p. 257.).--Probably the
melodramatic spectacle mentioned by MR. HASKINS was derived from a
Spanish book, of which I possess an English translation, bearing the
following title:--

  "A Relation of the First Voyages and Discoveries made by the
  Spaniards in America, with an Account of their unparalleled
  Cruelties on the Indians, in the destruction of above Forty
  Millions of People. Together with the Propositions offered to the
  King of Spain, to prevent the further ruin of the West Indies. By
  Don Bartholomew de las Casas, Bishop of Chiapa, who was an
  Eye-witness of their Cruelties. Illustrated with Cuts. London,
  printed for Daniel Brown at the Black Swan and Bible without
  Temple Bar, and Andrew Bell at the Cross Keys and Bible in
  Cornhill, near Stocks Market, 1699." 8vo. pp. 248.

The "cuts" are twenty-two in number, on two fly-sheets, and represent
torturing death in the most horrible variety.

A MS. note on a fly-leaf, in the handwriting of Mr. Bowdler of Bath,
says, "This book is taken out of the fourth part of Purchas's
_Pilgrims_, fol. 1569."

    E. WARING.

  Hotwells, Clifton.

_Nolo Episcopari_ (Vol. iv., p. 346.).--_Bishop Jeremy Taylor_ seems to
ascribe the above oft-quoted words to the _Roman Pontifical_:--

  "It is lawful to desire a Bishoprick; neither can the
  unwillingness to accept it be, in a prudent account, adjudged the
  aptest disposition to receive it (especially if done in
  ceremony--(in Pontifical. Rom.)--just in the instant of their
  entertainment of it, and possibly after a long ambition.)"--_Life
  of Christ_, Ad Sect. IX. Part I. 2.; _Considerations upon the
  Baptism of Jesus_, p. 96. Lond. 1702. Fol.

On more occasions than one I have hunted Roman Pontificals in vain, but
I may have been unfortunate in the editions to which I had access.

It cannot at all events have descended from remote antiquity, for
"episcopari" is a comparatively modern word.

St. Bernard uses it in his 272nd _Epistle_; but the Benedictine editors
speak of it as an "exotic."

    RT.

  Warmington.

_Hougoumont_ (Vol. iv., p. 313.).--The assertion of your correspondent
A. B. R. I have met with before, but forget where: viz. that the proper
designation of the château in question is _Goumont_, and that
_Hougoumont_ is only a corruption of _Château Goumont_.

This may be the case; but the Duke must not be charged with the
corruption, for I have now before me a map of the Département de la
Dyle, published "l'An 8 de la République Française, à Bruxelles, &c.,
par Ph. J. Maillart et Soeur," &c., in which the place is distinctly
called _Hougoumont_.

    A. C. M.

  Exeter.

_Call a Spade, a Spade_ (Vol. iv., p. 274.).--I have found two early,
but unauthenticated, instances of the use of this saying, in a note by
J. Scaliger on the _Priapeia, sive Diversorum Poetarum in Priapum
Lusus_:--

      "Simplicius multo est, ----, latinè
      Dicere, quid faciam? crassa Minervæ mea est."

      _Carmen_, ii. 9, 10.

  "Ἄγροικός εἰμι· τὴν σκάφην σκάφην λέγω;"
  Aristophanes.--"Unde jocus maximi Principis, Philippi Macedonis.
  Quum ii, qui prodiderant Olynthum Philippo, conquestum et
  expostulatum ad ipsum venissent, quod injuriosè nimis vocarentur
  proditores ab aliis Macedonibus: οἱ Μακεδόνες, inquit, ἀμαθεῖς
  καὶ ἄγροικοί εἰσι· τὴν σκάφην σκάφην λέγουσι."—J. Scaliger.

For which note see the "Priapeia," &c., at the end of an edition of
Petronius Arbiter, entitled, _Titi Petronii Arbitri Equitis Romani
Satyricon. Concinnante Michaele Hadrianide. Amstelodami. Typis Ioannis
Blaeu. M.DC.LXIX._

As I cannot at this moment refer to any good verbal index to
Aristophanes, I cannot ascertain in what part of his works Scaliger's
quotation is to be found. Burton, in his preface to the _Anatomy of
Melancholy_ ("Democritus Junior to the Reader"), repeats the saying
twice, _i.e._ in Latin and English, and presents it, moreover, in an
entirely new form:

  "I am _aquæ potor_, drink no wine at all, which so much improves
  our modern wits; a loose, plain, rude writer, _ficum voco ficum,
  et ligonem ligonem_, and as free as loose; _idem calamo quod in
  mente_: I call a spade a spade; _animis hæc scribo, non auribus_,
  I respect matter, not words," &c.--Democritus Jr. to the Reader,
  Burton's _Anatomy of Melancholy_, Blake, MDCCCXXXVI. one vol. 8vo.
  p. 11.

    C. FORBES.

  Temple.

"_Tace is Latin for a Candle_" (Vol. i., p. 385.; Vol. ii., p.
45.).--Your correspondent H. B. C. states that the earliest use he has
met with of this phrase is in Dean Swift's _Polite Conversation_,
written, as appears by the preface, about 1731; but he will find, in
Dampier's _Voyages_, the same phrase in use in 1686, or perhaps earlier:
not having the work itself at hand, I cannot refer him to the passage,
but he will find it quoted in the _United Service Journal_ for 1837,
Part III. p. 11.

    J. S. WARDEN.

  Balica, Oct. 1851.

_Collars of SS._ (Vol. iv., pp. 147. 236.).--With reference to the
different notices that have appeared in your pages respecting effigies
bearing the collar of SS, and especially in compliance with the desire
expressed by MR. E. FOSS, that information should be sent to you of any
effigy that might be met with having this distinction, I beg to state
that in the church of St. Mary, Ruabon, Denbighshire, there is a finely
executed high tomb of alabaster, bearing the effigies of "John ap Ellis
Eyton" and of his lady "Elizabeth Chalfrey Ellis Eyton;" the former
deceased A.D. 1524, and the latter A.D. 1527. The knight wears the
collar of SS, to which is suspended a rose-shaped ornament, and is
stated to have been at the battle of Bosworth, and, for his services on
that day, to have been granted by Henry VII. what lands he chose. The
knight's gauntlets lie together on his right side, and his feet rest
against a lion.

    G. J. R. G.

  Pen-y-lau, Ruabon.

_Locusts of the New Testament_ (Vol. iv., pp. 255. 351.).--In reference
to the word ἀκρὶς, which has given rise to so much discussion
in your very valuable periodical, may I be permitted to observe that the
pâtois spoken in this town (Nice = Nizza = Nicæa, founded by the
Phocæans, expelled their Asian abode by Harpagus; Strabo, l. 4. p. 184.;
Herod. i. 163.) bears many traces of its Greek origin. The tree which
answers to the "locust" is called by the peasantry _acroòb_; and in
order that you, or any of your correspondents, may observe its
similarity in every point to the Eastern tree, I have transmitted a
packet of its fruit to your office. I do not know whether Grimm's law
would authorise the antithesis of a _d_ for a _p_ sound, but every
student of Romaic will allow the tendency that _i_ and _o_ sounds have
for interchanging. This would give _acreed_, ακρίδ, the root of
ἀκρὶς.

    NICÆENSIS.

_Theodolite_ (Vol. iv., p. 383.).--If your correspondent J. S. WOOD will
refer to Todd's _Johnson's Dictionary_, he will find the derivation of
the word thus--

  "THEODOLITE (Fr. from θεῶ, Gr., contracted of θεάω, or θεάομαι, to
  observe; and δολιχὸς, long. See Morin, _Fr. and Gr. Etym. Dict._),
  a mathematical instrument for taking heights and distances."

    HENRY WILKINSON.

  Brompton, Nov. 15. 1851.

"_A Posie of other Men's Flowers_" (Vol. iv., p. 211.).--Your
correspondent MR. C. FORBES appears anxious to know where Montaigne
speaks of "a posie of other men's flowers." I believe that there is an
error in confining Montaigne's idea thus exclusively to poetry, for I
presume the passage sought for is what I shall now quote; but if so, it
applies generally to any borrowed thought from an author embellished by
another:

  "La vérité et la raison sont communes à un chascun, et ne sont
  plus à celui qui les adictes premièrement, qu'à qui les dict
  aprez: ce n'est non plus selon Platon que selon moy, puisque luy
  et moy l'entendons, et veoyons de mesme. _Les abeilles pillotent
  deça delà les fleurs; mais elles en font aprez le miel, qui est
  tout leur; ce n'est plus thym, ny mariolaine_; ainsi les pièces
  empruntées d'aultruy, il les transformera et confondra pour en
  faire un ouvrage tout sien, à scavoir son jugement,"
  &c.--_Essays_, livre i. chap. 25.

I hope that this will satisfactorily answer your correspondent's
inquiry.

    J. R.

_Voltaire_ (Vol. iii. p. 433.).--On the subject of _anagrams_, lately
adverted to by your correspondents, I not long since referred to that
which showed that the name of _Voltaire_, as adduced by me in the
_Gentleman's Magazine_ a few years back, instead of being, as asserted
by Lord Brougham and others, that of an estate, was in fact the anagram
of his family patronymic, with the adjunct of l. j., or junior (le
jeune), to distinguish him from his elder brother. We see similarly the
President of the French National Assembly uniformly called "Dupin
l'aîné"; and his brother Charles, until created a Baron, always "Dupin
le jeune." Observing, therefore, that Voltaire was in reality Arouet le
jeune, or, as he signed it, Arouet l. j., and that the two letters u and
j were, until distinguished by the Elzevir, indiscriminately written v
and i, the anagram will thus be clearly proved: every letter, though
transposed, being equally in both:--

      A R O V E T L J
      1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

      V O L T A I R E
      4 3 7 6 1 8 2 5

Although, as above mentioned, this unquestionable fact has already
appeared in another publication, and, indeed, likewise in the _Dublin
Review_ for June 1845 (both from me), yet the old mis-statement of this
celebrated personage's biographers still continued to be asserted, as it
has been in your own pages. This is my motive for now addressing you on
the matter. Voltaire, I may add, was a little partial to his paternal
name. To the Abbé Moussinot, his Parisian agent, he thus wrote on the
17th of May, 1741:

  "Je vous ai envoyé ma signature, dans laquelle j'ai oublié le nom
  d'Arouet, que j'oublie assez volontiers."

And, on another occasion:

  "Je vous renvoie d'autres parchemins, où se trouve ce nom, malgré
  le peu de cas que j'en fais."

Mixing with the higher classes of society, he wished, like them, to be
known by a territorial possession, and framed the name now resounding
through the world, prefixing to it the nobiliary particle, _De_. His
elder brother was named Armond, whose death preceded that of the younger
by thirty-seven years, 1741-1778; both were unmarried. Numerous, and
curious too, are the anagrams which my memory could furnish me.

    J. R.

_Sinaïtic Inscriptions_ (Vol. iv., p. 382.).--The decipherer of these
inscriptions was the late Professor Beer of Berlin. T. D. will find his
alphabet, together with that of the Himyaritic inscriptions, and others
which resemble them, in Dr. (John) Wilson's _Lands of the Bible_.

    E. H. D. D.

_Le Greene at Wrexham_ (Vol. iv., p. 371.).--A survey of the lordships
of Bromfield and Yale (within the former of which this town is
situated), made by Norden about the year 1620 for Charles I., then
Prince of Wales, has been preserved in the Harleian Collection in the
British Museum. The descriptive part is in Latin; but before the names
of the places and streets in this town the French article _le_ is used,
as Le highe street, Le hope street, Le church street, Le beast market,
Le greene. The larger part of this Le greene (now called "The Green")
has still grass growing upon it; and there is no tradition that either a
granary or corn-mill was ever situated there.

    [Pointing hand symbol]

  Wrexham.

_Cross-legged Effigies_ (Vol. iv., p. 382.).--In the parish church of
Limington, Somerset, is a figure of a cross-legged knight, with his hand
on the hilt of his sword, as if about to draw it. The date of the
foundation of the chantry in which he lies is said to be 1329, and the
mouldings and windows appear to testify its correctness.

    [Hebrew: Beth.]

_The Word Ἀδελφὸς_ (Vol. iv., p. 339.).--Your correspondent,
the Rev. T. R. BROWN, is right in acquiescing in the ordinary derivation
of ἀδελφὸς from ἀ and δέλφυς, but wrong, as I think, in
endeavouring to find cognate forms in the Indo-Germanic
languages. The fact is, that the word is solely and peculiarly Greek.
The Sanscrit word for brother is, as every body knows, _bhratri_ (Latin,
_frater_, &c.); and that this form was not entirely unknown to the
Hellenic races, is evidenced by their use of φράτρα, or
φράτρη, in various senses, all of which may easily be reduced
to the one common idea of brotherhood. How it happened that the word
φρατὴρ was lost in Greek, and ἀδελφὸς substituted,
we think we can satisfactorily explain, and, if so, the elucidation will
make clearer an interesting point in Greek manners. It appears that
they, in common with some Eastern nations, looked upon the relationship
between brothers of the same mother as much closer in blood than that in
which the brothers were related through the father alone; and hence the
well-known law forbidding ἀδελφοὶ ὁμομητρίοι _alone_ to
marry. In the same manner we find Abraham (Gen. xx. 12.) using a similar
excuse for marrying Sarah:

  "And yet indeed she is my sister; she is the daughter of my
  father, but not the daughter of my mother; and she became my
  wife."

It is not difficult, therefore, to understand how this notion prevailing
among the Greeks, might lead them to frame a new word from ἀ
and δέλφυς, to express the uterine relation of brothers, which
would soon in common use supplant the older Indo-German term φρατὴρ.
For further reasons which may have influenced the dropping of
the word φρατὴρ, I would refer to a learned article on
"Comparative Philology" in the last number of the _Edinburgh Review_, by
Dr. Max Müller.

With regard to the derivations suggested by MR. BROWN from the Hebrew,
Arabic, &c., I think I am justified in laying down as a rule that no
apparent similarity between words in the Semitic and Asian families can
be used to establish a real identity, the two classes of language being
radically and fundamentally distinct.

    J. B.

_Finger Pillories_ (Vol. iv., p. 315.).--Meeting recently with a person
who, although illiterate, is somewhat rich in oral tradition and local
folk lore, I inquired if he had ever seen such a thing as that described
by MR. LAWRENCE. He replied that he had not, but that he had frequently
heard of these "stocks," as he called them, and that he believed they
were used in "earlier days" for the purpose of inflicting _penance_ upon
those parishioners who absented themselves from mass for any lengthened
period. My informant illustrated his explanation with a "traditionary"
anecdote (too fabulous to trouble you with), which had been the means of
imparting the above to him. Whether correct or not, however, I must
leave others to determine.

    J. B. COLMAN.

  [Will our correspondent favour us with the tradition to which he
  refers?]

_Blackloana Heresis_ (Vol. iv., p. 239.).--The accounts given of
Blacklow and his religious heresy merely excite curiosity. Will no one
furnish some brief particulars of him and his proceedings? For what was
Peter Talbot famous, and where may his history be read?

    E. A. M.

_Quaker Expurgated Bible._--A MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF FRIENDS (Vol.
iv., p. 412.) has answered my Query respecting this Bible in a manner
not very satisfactory. He says "no committee was ever appointed by the
Society of Friends" to publish such a Bible, and that the Society adopt
the English authorised version only. The authority from which I quoted
did not say that the committee had been appointed by the Society of
Friends, or that the object of the proposed publication was to supersede
the version authorised by the Church, which (as is well known) is
adopted, as your correspondent states, by the Society. What she states
is this:--That about four years ago a Committee of Friends intended to
publish such an edition of the Bible, for daily perusal in Friends'
families; and that a prospectus was printed, in which it was promised
that every passage of the Bible would be carefully expunged which was
unfit for reading aloud, and also those which might be called dangerous,
which the unlearned and unstable might wrest to their own destruction.

My Query was, whether such a Bible was ever published, and whether any
of your correspondents could furnish a copy of the prospectus alluded
to? It is no answer to this to say, that the committee who proposed to
publish this Bible were not appointed by the Society of Friends, and
that the Friends applied to by your correspondent knew nothing of the
project. The authoress of the work I quoted has since been publicly
named, and if this query should meet her eye, perhaps she may be able to
give me the information I require. It is the more incumbent upon her to
do so, as the tone of your correspondent is evidently intended to throw
a doubt upon her veracity.

    T.

"_Acu tinali merida_" (Vol. iv., p. 406.).--An ingenious friend has
suggested to me the following explanation of this passage:
Ἄκουε τὴν ἄλλην μερίδα. It is rendered almost certain by the words that come
immediately after, in the line quoted by C. W. G., _i.e._ "audi alteram
partem." I am unable, however, to point out the source from which the
Greek motto was derived. Perhaps some of your readers will solve this
ulterior question.

    C. H.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

What the Laureate of the day, inspired by the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle,
sang in 1748,--

      "Th' Almighty hand, which first her shores secured
      With rolling oceans, and with rocks immured,
      Which spread her plains, and bade her flocks increase,
      Designed Britannia for the Land of Peace;
      Where Commerce only should exert her sway,
      And musing Science trim th' unfading bay"--

was in 1851 recognised by the whole civilised world, not as a poetical
fiction, but as a practical, we had almost said a political, truth.
Hence the Crystal Palace, that glorious Temple of Concord, which those
potent genii Fox and Henderson, at the bidding of the arch-magician
Paxton, raised before our eyes, to put to shame the visionary glories of
the _Arabian Nights_;--and hence the avidity with which, like
ministering sprites, all the great manufacturers and producers, artists
and artizans, vied with each other in assembling beneath its fairy dome
the masterpieces of their respective skill, ingenuity, and science.
Hence, too, the unfading interest with which, day after day, from May
until October, did thousands upon thousands press forward to gaze upon a
scene unparalleled in the world's history, whether for costliness of
display or moral grandeur.

Of such an event--of such a scene, which it was acknowledged fairly
represented the productive genius of the whole world, all may well
desire to preserve some remembrance; and whatever may be the fate of the
Crystal Palace, the great gathering of the nations which assembled under
its roof has found an imperishable monument in the three handsome octavo
volumes which form _The Official Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue
of the Great Exhibition_, 1851. In this great and useful record--the raw
materials for which were furnished by no fewer than _fifteen thousand
authors_--we have not only an account of every article exhibited,
accompanied in many instances by valuable notes from the ablest
scientific pens, pointing out the leading features of interest in the
objects described--which annotations again are rendered still more
valuable by the twelve hundred woodcut illustrations which are scattered
through these pages,--but we have also Mr. Cole's valuable Historical
Introduction, illustrating the Rise of the Exhibition, its Progress and
Completion; Mr. Digby Wyatt's able account of the Construction of the
Building and of the mechanical applications employed; and Mr. Ellis'
interesting description of the Revision and Preparation of the
Catalogue; when we add that it contains, moreover, all sorts of Indices
and Lists for facilitating references--our readers will, we think, agree
with us that this most complete, instructive, and extraordinary
Catalogue may fairly be regarded as _An Encyclopædia of the Industry of
all Nations in 1851_, and as such should find a place not only in every
factory and workshop, but in every study and educational establishment
within the realm. To meet the requirements of those who cannot purchase
the _Illustrated Catalogue_, Messrs. Spicer have issued a corrected and
improved edition of the _Official Catalogue, with Alphabetical Indices
of Names and Subjects, and British and Foreign Priced Lists_: while to
enable the non-scientific reader to understand, and to furnish the
scientific reader with the results, or, as we might term it, a
summing-up of the details to be found in the works already described,
they commissioned Mr. Robert Hunt to prepare a _Handbook to the Official
Catalogues; an Explanatory Guide to the Natural Productions and
Manufactures of the Great Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations_,
1851; and that gentleman has so ably executed his task, that, though
some who may only wish for general views and impressions may content
themselves with his _Handbook_, the majority of the purchasers of the
larger Catalogues must secure Mr. Hunt's interesting volume as an
indispensable companion to them.

When we read the announcement that Mr. Planché was about to publish _The
Pursuivant of Arms; or Heraldry founded upon Facts_, we looked for a
work in which good common sense and sound antiquarian knowledge would be
found applied to an important branch of historical learning, which has
been too often followed by men whose disregard of the former, and want
of the latter gift, have done much to justify Voltaire's biting sarcasm
upon heraldry. Nor have we been disappointed. The work is one of facts
rather than of inferences; and although the accomplished gentleman now
at the head of the College of Arms, to whom, "as an able antiquary and
worthy man," the work is most appropriately dedicated, may probably
dissent from some of Mr. Planché's views, he will, we are sure, admit
that they are cautiously advanced, and maintained with learning and
ability; and that the _Pursuivant of Arms_, with its numerous woodcut
illustrations drawn from old seals, monuments, &c., is a valuable
contribution towards a more perfect knowledge of heraldic antiquities.

Few books of travels in the East have excited greater attention, on
their first appearance, or maintained their popularity for a longer
period, than the lively volume entitled _Eothen_. In selecting it,
therefore, for the Eleventh and Twelfth Parts of _The Traveller's
Library_, Messrs. Longman have shown their determination to maintain the
interest of that excellent series of cheap books.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--C. Skeet's (21. King William Street, Strand)
Catalogue No. 3. of Old and New Books; W. Lumley's (56. Chancery Lane)
Bibliographical Advertiser No. 9., Ninth Series; E. Stibbs's (331.
Strand) Select Catalogue of a Collection of Books; W. S. Lincoln's
(Cheltenham House, Westminster Road) Seventy-fifth Catalogue of English,
Foreign, Classical and Miscellaneous Cheap Second-hand Books; and
Supplementary Catalogue of Italian Books.


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

MITFORD'S HISTORY OF GREECE. Vol. VI. Cadell, 1822. 8vo.

WILLIS'S ARCHITECTURE OF THE MIDDLE AGES. 15_s._ will be given for a
copy.

FLUDD (ROBERT, M.D.) _alias_ DE FLUCTIBUS, called the Searcher. Any of
his works.

BEHMEN'S (JACOB) GENESIS.

LAW'S APPEAL, &c.

LAW'S APPEAL CASE OF REASON.

HUNTER'S DEANERY OF DONCASTER. Vol. I. Large or small paper.

CLARE'S RURAL MUSE.

CHRISTIAN PIETY FREED FROM THE DELUSIONS OF MODERN ENTHUSIASTS. A.D.
1756 or 1757.

AN ANSWER TO FATHER HUDDLESTONE'S SHORT AND PLAIN WAY TO THE FAITH AND
CHURCH. By Samuel Grascombe. London, 1703. 8vo.

REASONS FOR ABROGATING THE TEST IMPOSED UPON ALL MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT.
by Samuel Parker, Lord Bishop of Oxon. 1688. 4to.

LEWIS'S LIFE OF CAXTON. 8vo. 1737.

CATALOGUE OF JOSEPH AMES'S LIBRARY. 8vo. 1760.

TRAPP'S COMMENTARY. Folio. Vol. I.

WHITLAY'S PARAPHRASE ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. Folio. Vol. I. 1706.

LONG'S ASTRONOMY. 4to. 1742.

ADAMS' MORAL TALES.

AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF DR. JOHNSON. 1805.

  [Star symbol] Letters, stating particulars and lowest price,
  _carriage free_, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND
  QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.


Notices to Correspondents.

BOOKSELLERS' CATALOGUES. _In compliance with the suggestion of several
correspondents, that the space now occupied by our enumeration of
catalogues published during the week might be filled with information of
greater interest to our readers, such announcements will in future be
discontinued._

O. S. _The passage_--

      "Finds tongues in trees," &c.

_is in Shakspeare's_ As You Like It, Act II. Scene 1.

W. S. (Linwood). _The_ History of Napoleon _in the_ Family Library _was
written by Mr. Lockhart._

MR. FENTON'S _Query was received, and, as we thought, inserted. It shall
be attended to._

DRYASDUST'S _Query respecting the "Crucifix" appeared in our last
Number_, p. 422.

_A copy of_ D'ARBLAY'S DIARY, Vol. II., _has been reported, and may be
had of the Publisher._

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Coins of Vabalathus--Crosses and Crucifixes--Mrs.
Mary Anne Clarke--Coke, how pronounced--Freemasonry--Calendar of
Knights--Ellrake--Isabel of Man--Cromwell Estates--Jonah and the Whale,
&c.--Church of St. Bene't Fink--Locust Tree--Story in Jeremy
Taylor--Deep Well near Banstead Downs--Erroneous Scripture
Quotations--Crowns have their Compass--Presant Family--Dido and Æneas,
&c.--Earwig--Passage in Virgil--Passage in Campbell--Bristol
Tables--Slums, &c.--Serpent with a Human Head--Abigail--Hogarth and
Cooper._

_Copies of our_ Prospectus, _according to the suggestion of_ T. E. H.,
_will be forwarded to any correspondent willing to assist us by
circulating them._

VOLS. I., II., _and_ III., _with very copious Indices, may still be had,
price 9s. 6d. each, neatly bound in cloth._

NOTES AND QUERIES _is published at noon on Friday, so that our country
Subscribers may receive it on Saturday. The subscription for the Stamped
Edition is 10s. 2d. for Six Months, which may be paid by Post-office
Order drawn in favour of our Publisher_, MR. GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet
Street; _to whose care all communications for the Editor should be
addressed._

_Erratum._--Vol. iv. p. 429. col. i. 1. 15. for "works of" read "works
of two of."



THE ART JOURNAL FOR JANUARY 1852.

  Circulation guaranteed at 30,000.

  Advertisements for January should be addressed to MR. CLARK, "Art
  Journal Office," 8. Wellington Street North, ON OR BEFORE THE
  THIRTEENTH INSTANT.


SEASONABLE GIFT-BOOK FOR THE YOUNG.

  Just published, fcap. 8vo., cloth, with Steel Engravings, price
  4_s._ 6_d._

  THE FAIRY GODMOTHERS, and OTHER TALES. By Mrs. ALFRED GATTY.
  Dedicated to her Children.

    "Approaching in tone and tendency to the Faëry Tales of Andersen.
    Most commendable as a faëry book, with a beautiful Frontispiece
    Illustration by an amateur artist, Miss L. E.
    Barker."--_Athenæum._

    "A very pretty little book, showing a great deal of talent and
    originality. Indeed, the children are so real, so like our own
    small friends and acquaintance in all their ways and sayings, that
    it gives an additional quaintness to the story to find them,
    subject to the influence of fairies. The lessons are all
    admirable."--_The Monthly Packet._

  London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.


Just published, No. 14. price 2_s._ 6_d._ imperial 4to.,

  DETAILS OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, measured and drawn from existing
  examples, by J. K. COLLING, Architect.

  CONTENTS.

      E.E.  Side Elevation and Section, South Porch,
            West Walton Church, Norfolk.
        "   Details of Pinnacle from ditto      ditto.
        "   Window, Binham Priory, Norfolk.
        "   Door.        ditto      ditto.
      DEC. Diaper work from Winchelsea.

  (Continued Monthly.)

  London: D. BOGUE and GEORGE BELL, Fleet Street.


NEW WORK BY DR. R. G. LATHAM.

  This day, demy 8vo. 12_s._ 6_d._ cloth,

  THE GERMANIA OF TACITUS; with Ethnological Dissertations and
  Notes. By Dr. R. G. LATHAM, Author of the "English Language," &c.

  London: TAYLOR, WALTON, and MABERLY, 28. Upper Gower Street; and
  27. Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row.


CHEAP FOREIGN BOOKS.

      Just published, post free, one stamp,

  WILLIAMS & NORGATE'S SECOND-HAND CATALOGUE, No. 4. Literature,
  History, Travels, German Language, Illustrated Books, Art,
  Architecture, and Ornament. 600 Works at very much reduced prices.

  WILLIAMS & NORGATE'S GERMAN BOOK CIRCULARS. New Books and Books
  reduced in price. No. 28. Theology, Classics, Oriental and
  European Languages, General Literature. No. 29. Sciences, Natural
  History, Medicine, Mathematics, &c.

  [Star symbol] Gratis on application.

  WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 14. Henrietta Street, Covent Garden.


NEW BOOKS AND NEW EDITIONS.

  YEAST: A PROBLEM. By CHARLES KINGSLEY, Rector of Eversley. Cheaper
  Edition. 5_s._

  LEAVES FROM THE NOTE-BOOK OF A NATURALIST. By W. J. BRODERIP,
  F.R.S., Author of "Zoological Recreations." Post 8vo.

  ON THE STUDY OF WORDS. Five Lectures addressed to the Pupils at
  the Diocesan Training School, Winchester. By R. CHENEVIX TRENCH,
  B.D., Professor of Divinity, King's College. 3_s._ 6_d._

  ARUNDINES CAMI, sive MUSARUM CANTABRIGIENSIUM LUSUS CANORI;
  collegit atque edidit HENRICUS DRURY, M.A. Fourth Edition. 12_s._

  THE OLD TESTAMENT.--Nineteen Sermons on the First Lessons for the
  Sundays between Septuagesima Sunday and the First Sunday after
  Trinity. By F. D. MAURICE, M.A., Professor of Divinity, King's
  College. 6_s._

  THE KINGDOM of CHRIST. By R. WHATELEY, D.D., Archbishop of Dublin.
  Fifth Edition, 8vo. 8_s._

  HISTORY OF TRIAL BY JURY. By W. FORSYTH, M.A., late Fellow of
  Trinity College, Cambridge, Author of "Hortensius." 8vo.

  BABYLON AND JERUSALEM; a Letter addressed to Ida, Countess of
  Hahn-Hahn. From the German. With a Preface by the Translator.
  2_s._ 6_d._

  PEARSON'S LECTURES ON THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES AND ANNALS OF ST.
  PAUL. Edited in English, with a few Notes, by J. R. CROWFOOT,
  B.D., Divinity Lecturer of King's College, Cambridge. 4_s._

  BIBLE COINS; Metallic Fac-similes of the Coins mentioned in Holy
  Scripture. 2_s._ 6_d._

  London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON. West Strand.


BOHN'S STANDARD LIBRARY FOR DECEMBER.

  NEANDER'S CHURCH HISTORY. Vol. 5. Post 8vo. 3_s._ 6_d._

  HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6, York Street, Covent Garden.


BOHN'S CLASSICAL LIBRARY FOR DECEMBER.

  CICERO'S ORATIONS, literally translated by C. D. YONGE, M.A.,
  including all the ORATIONS AGAINST VERRES. Post 8vo. 5_s._

  HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6, York Street, Covent Garden.


BOHN'S SCIENTIFIC LIBRARY FOR DECEMBER.

  AGASSIZ AND GOULD'S COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY, touching the Structure
  and Development of the Races of Animals, living and extinct.
  Enlarged by Dr. WRIGHT. Post 8vo., with 390 woodcuts. 5_s._

  HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6, York Street, Covent Garden.


BOHN'S ANTIQUARIAN LIBRARY FOR DECEMBER.

  SIR THOMAS BROWNE'S WORKS, edited by SIMON WILKIN, F.L.S. Vol. 1,
  containing the VULGAR ERRORS. Post 8vo. Fine Portrait. 5_s._

  HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6, York Street, Covent Garden.


BOHN'S CHEAP SERIES FOR DECEMBER.

  HAWTHORNE'S TWICE TOLD TALES. Post 8vo. Price 1_s._

  HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6, York Street, Covent Garden.


Water-Colour Drawings by the most eminent Modern Artists.

  SOUTHGATE AND BARRETT will SELL by AUCTION, at their Rooms. 22.
  Fleet Street, on Wednesday Evening, December 17, and following
  Evening, at Six, the VERY VALUABLE COLLECTION of WATER-COLOUR
  DRAWINGS of a well-known Collector, comprising some of the
  choicest specimens of--

      Callow           Frith         Nash
      Cattermole       Herbert       Poole
      Chambers         Hills         D. Roberts
      S. Cooper        Hunt          Robson
      Cotman           Jenkins       C. Stanfield
      D. Cox           Lance         Topham
      Dewint           Martin        J. M. W. Turner
      Fripp            Müller        Harrison Weir
      and other celebrated Artists.

  [Star symbol] Catalogues will be forwarded to Gentlemen favouring
  S. & B. with their Address.


THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE FOR DECEMBER contains: 1. The Metamorphosis of
Apuleius. 2. Gleanings from the Irish Council Books. 3. The Duchess of
Angouleme. 4. Mediæval Art, as exemplified in the Exhibition of 1851. 5.
Autobiography of Lady Springett, one of the first Quakers. 6. Ulrich von
Hutten, Part IV. 7. Carlyle's Life of Sterling. 8. William Wyon and his
Works (with a Portrait). 9. Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban. 10. Notes
of the Month. With Miscellaneous Reviews, Antiquarian Intelligence,
Historical Chronicle, and OBITUARY, including Memoirs of the Right Hon.
Charles Hope, Hon. Thomas Kenyon, J. H. Tremayne, Esq., Rev. Charles
Gutzlaff, &c. &c. Price 2_s._ 6_d._

    NICHOLS & SON, 25. Parliament Street.


ARNOLD'S INTRODUCTIONS TO GERMAN AND FRENCH.

  Now ready, in 12mo. price 5_s._ 6_d._, the Second Edition of

  THE FIRST GERMAN BOOK: on the Plan of "Henry's First Latin Book."
  By the Rev. THOMAS KERCHEVER ARNOLD, M.A., Rector of Lyndon, and
  late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; and J. W. FRÄDERSDORFF,
  Ph. Dr., of the Taylor-Institute, Oxford.

  RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place;

  Of whom may be had,

  1. A KEY to the Exercises. Price 2_s._ 6_d._

  2. A READING COMPANION to the FIRST GERMAN BOOK, containing
  extracts from the best Authors, with Vocabulary and Explanatory
  Notes. By the SAME EDITORS. Price 4_s._

  3. HANDBOOK of GERMAN VOCABULARY. Price 4_s._

  4. THE FIRST FRENCH BOOK: on the Plan of "Henry's First Latin
  Book." By the Rev. T. K. ARNOLD, M.A. Price 5_s._ 6_d._

    "Mr. Arnold has succeeded in preparing a work admirably adapted to
    meet the wants of English students of the French language. The
    philosophical explanation of the changes of consonants, together
    with the frequent references to Latin words and idioms by way of
    illustration and comparison, render it far superior as a
    school-book to any other introduction, even from the pen of a
    native writer. The sound principles of imitation and repetition
    which have secured for the author a reputation widely extended and
    well deserved are here happily exemplified. His account of the
    differences of idiom is very satisfactory and complete: whoever
    thoroughly masters it, will rarely want any thing further on the
    subject."--_Athenæum._

  5. A KEY to the Exercises, by M. DELILLE. Price 2_s._ 6_d._

  6. HANDBOOK of FRENCH VOCABULARY. Price 4_s._ 6_d._


NEW NUMBER OF MR. ARNOLD'S THEOLOGICAL CRITIC.

  Now ready, price 4_s._; (by post, 4_s._ 6_d._); the Fourth Number of

  THE THEOLOGICAL CRITIC; a Quarterly Journal. Edited by the Rev.
  THOMAS KERCHEVER ARNOLD, M.A., Rector of Lyndon, and late Fellow
  of Trinity College, Cambridge.

  This Journal embraces Theology in its widest acceptation, and
  several articles of each Number are devoted to Biblical Criticism.

  CONTENTS.--1. Scipio de Ricci (_concluded_).--2. Galatians iii.
  19, 20.--3. On the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary.--4.
  On ἐφ' ᾧ in the New Testament.--5. Schmidt's Cathari,
  or Albigenses.--6. Cycles of Egyptian Chronology.--7. The Madonna
  of Ancona.--8. The Septuagint Version an Authentic and Valuable
  Tradition.--9. Mesmerism.--10. "Things New and Old."--Notices of
  Books received.--Contents of the Theological Journals.

  RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place;

  Now ready, The FIRST VOLUME, price 16_s._ 6_d._


In royal 8vo. with a Plan and Sixteen Plates of Antiquities, price
12_s._ cloth,

  EBURACUM; or YORK UNDER THE ROMANS, by C. WELLBELOVED.

  London: LONGMAN, BROWN & CO.; York: R. SUNTER and H. SOTHERAN.


Now ready, Two New Volumes of

  THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND and the Courts at Westminster. By EDWARD
  FOSS, F.S.A.

  Volume Three, 1272-1377. Volume Four, 1377-1485.

  Lately published, price 14_s._ each, cloth,

  Volume One, 1066-1199. Volume Two, 1199-1272.

  London: LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, and LONGMANS.


PROVIDENT LIFE OFFICE, 50. REGENT STREET. CITY BRANCH: 2. ROYAL EXCHANGE
BUILDINGS.

      Established 1806.
      Policy Holders' Capital, 1,192,818_l._
      Annual Income, 150,000_l._--Bonuses Declared, 743,000_l._
      Claims paid since the Establishment of the Office, 2,001,450_l._

      _President._
      The Right Honourable EARL GREY.

      _Directors._
      The Rev. James Sherman, _Chairman_.
      Henry Blencowe Churchill, Esq., _Deputy-Chairman_.
      Henry B. Alexander, Esq.
      George Dacre, Esq.
      William Judd, Esq.
      Sir Richard D. King, Bart.
      The Hon. Arthur Kinnaird
      Thomas Maugham, Esq.
      William Ostler, Esq.
      Apsley Pellatt, Esq.
      George Round, Esq.
      Frederick Squire, Esq.
      William Henry Stone, Esq.
      Capt. William John Williams.

      J. A. Beaumont, Esq., _Managing Director_.

      _Physician_--John Maclean, M.D. F.S.S., 29. Upper Montague
      Street, Montague Square.

  NINETEEN-TWENTIETHS OF THE PROFITS ARE DIVIDED AMONG THE INSURED.

  Examples of the Extinction of Premiums by the Surrender of Bonuses.

      Date of Policy. 1806
      Sum Insured. £2500
      Original Premium. £79  10  10 Extinguished
      Bonuses added subsequently, to be further interested annually.
          £1222   2   0

      Date of Policy. 1811
      Sum Insured. £1000
      Original Premium. £ 33  19   2 Ditto [Extinguished]
      Bonuses added subsequently, to be further interested annually.
           £231  17   8

      Date of Policy. 1818
      Sum Insured. £1000
      Original Premium. £ 34  16  10 Ditto [Extinguished]
      Bonuses added subsequently, to be further interested annually.
           £114  18  10

  Examples of Bonuses added to other Policies.

       Policy No.  521
       Date. 1807
       Sum Insured.  £900
       Bonus added. £982  12  1
       Total with Additions to be further increased. £1882  12  1

       Policy No. 1174
       Date. 1810
       Sum Insured. £1200
       Bonus added. £1160   5  6
       Total with Additions to be further increased. £2360   5  6

       Policy No. 3392
       Date. 1820
       Sum Insured. £5000
       Bonus added. £3558  17  8
       Total with Additions to be further increased. £8558  17  8

  Prospectuses and full particulars may be obtained upon application
  to the Agents of the Office, in all the principal Towns of the
  United Kingdom, at the City Branch, and at the Head Office, No.
  50. Regent Street.


WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND

      ANNUITY SOCIETY,

  3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

  Founded A.D. 1812.

  _Directors._

      H. Edgeworth Bicknell, Esq.
      William Cabell, Esq.
      T. Somers Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
      G. Henry Drew, Esq.
      William Evans, Esq.
      William Freeman, Esq.
      F. Fuller, Esq.
      J. Henry Goodhart, Esq.
      T. Grissell, Esq.
      James Hunt, Esq.
      J. Arscott Lethbridge, Esq.
      E. Lucas, Esq.
      James Lys Seager, Esq.
      J. Basley White, Esq.
      Joseph Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._

      W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.
      L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.
      George Drew, Esq.

  _Consulting Counsel._--Sir William P. Wood, M.P.,
  Solicitor-General.

  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

  VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

  POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through
  temporary difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given
  upon application to suspend the payment at interest, according to
  the conditions detailed in the Prospectus.

  Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100_l._, with a Share
  in three-fourths of the Profits:--

      Age.  £   _s._ _d._

      17    1    14    4
      22    1    18    8
      27    2     4    5
      32    2    10    8
      37    2    18    6
      42    3     8    2

  ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

  Now ready, price 10_s._ 6_d._, Second Edition, with material
  additions, INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION; being a TREATISE
  on BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of
  Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of Freehold Land
  Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a Mathematical Appendix on
  Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A.,
  Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parliament
  Street, London.


SPECIAL NOTICE TO INTENDING ASSURERS.

  Intending Life Assurers are respectfully invited to compare the
  principles, rates, and whole provisions of the

  SCOTTISH PROVIDENT INSTITUTION

  with those of any existing company.

  In this Society the whole profits are divisible among the
  policy-holders, who are at the same time exempt from personal
  liability. It claims superiority, however, over other mutual
  offices in the following particulars.

  1. Premiums at early and middle ages about a fourth lower. See
  specimens below.

  2. A more accurate adjustment of the rates of premium to the
  several ages.

  3. A principle in the division of the surplus more safe,
  equitable, and favourable to good lives.

  4. Exemption from entry money.

  Annual Premiums for 100_l._, with Whole Profits.

      ------------------------------------------------------------------
      Age 20 |   25   |  30   |   35   |   40   |  45   |  50   |  55
      -------+--------+-------+--------+--------+-------+-------+-------
      1 15 8 | 1 18 0 | 2 1 6 | 2 6 10 | 2 14 9 | 3 4 9 | 4 1 7 | 5 1 11
      ------------------------------------------------------------------

  [Annual Premiums for 100_l._, with Whole Profits, payable for 21
  years only.]

      -------------------------------------------------------------
      Age 20 |   25   |   30   |   35   |   40  |   45    |   50
      -------+--------+--------+--------+-------+---------+--------
       2 7 0 | 2 10 8 | 2 14 6 | 2 19 8 | 3 6 4 | 3 14 9  |  4 7 2
      -------------------------------------------------------------

  All policies indisputable unless obtained by fraud.

  Forms of proposal, prospectus containing full tables, copies of
  the Twelfth Annual Report, and every information, will be
  forwarded (gratis) on application at the London Office, 12.
  Moorgate Street.

  GEORGE GRANT, Agent for London.


Just Published,

  ALMANACKS FOR 1852.

  WHITAKER'S CLERGYMAN'S DIARY, for 1852, will contain a Diary, with
  Table of Lessons, Collects, &c., and full directions for Public
  Worship for every day in the year, with blank spaces for
  Memoranda: A List of all the Bishops and other Dignitaries of the
  Church, arranged under the order of their respective Dioceses;
  Bishops of the Scottish and American Churches; and particulars
  respecting the Roman Catholic and Greek Churches; together with
  Statistics of the various Religious Sects in England; Particulars
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  &c. Members of both Houses of Convocation, of both Houses of
  Parliament, the Government, Courts of Law, &c. With Instructions
  to Candidates for Holy Orders; and a variety of information useful
  to all Clergymen, price in cloth 3_s._ or 5_s._ as a pocket-book
  with tuck.

  THE FAMILY ALMANACK AND EDUCATIONAL REGISTER for 1852 will
  contain, in addition to the more than usual contents of an
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LEXICA

  ON SALE AT WILLIAMS & NORGATE'S.

  =Anglo-Saxon.=--ETTMUELLER (L.), LEXICON ANGLO-SAXONICUM cum
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  ---- Abridged in one volume. 4to. 16_s._

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  TURKISH DICTIONARY. Royal 8vo. 1848. 18_s._

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  8vo. 1844 16_s._

  ---- PEYRON, LEXICON LING. COPTICÆ. 4to. 1835. 2_l._ 2_s._

  =Danish.=--FERRALL and REPPS, DANISH and ENGLISH DICTIONARY. Sq.
  8vo. 1845. 7_s._

  ---- ENGLISH and ENGLISH-DANISH POCKET DICTIONARY. 18mo. 3_s._
  6_d._

  =Dutch.=--BOMHOFF, DICTIONARY of the DUTCH and ENGLISH LANGUAGES.
  2 thick vols. 12mo. boards, 1851. 20_s._

  ---- The same abridged in one volume. 1848. 15_s._

  =Finnish.=--RENVALLI (G.), LEXICON LINGUÆ FINNICÆ cum interpret.
  Latin. copios. brev. German. 2 vols. in 1, 4to. Aboe, 1826. 21_s._

  =Flemish.=--OLINGER, DICTIONNAIRE FLAMAND-FRANCAIS et
  FRANCAIS-FLAMAND. 2 vols. royal 8vo. 1842. 24_s._

  =French.=--BOISTE, DICTIONNAIRE UNIVERSELLE de la LANGUE
  FRANCAISE, avec le Latine et l'Etymologie. 4to. 1847. 18_s._

  ---- FLEMMING AND TIBBINS, GRAND ENGLISH and FRENCH, and FRENCH and
  ENGLISH DICTIONARY. 2 thick volumes, imp. 4to. 2_l._ 12_s._ 6_d._

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  1840. (Published at 20_s._), 8_s._

  =German.=--ADELUNG, WÖRTERBUCH der HOCHDEUTSCHEN MUNDART. 4 vols.
  royal 8vo. 1793-1802. (Published at 35_s._), 21_s._

  ---- HEYSE, HANDWÖRTERBUCH der DEUTSCHEN SPRACHE. Complete in 3
  thick vols. 8vo. 1833-49. 24_s._

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  vols. 4to. Strongly half-bound morocco (publ. at 4_l._ 12_s._),
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  ---- The ENGLISH-GERMAN PART. 2 vols. 4to. Half-bound morocco, in
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  =Gothic.=--GABELENTZ u. LOEBE, GLOSSARIUM der GOTHISCHEN SPRACHE.
  4to. 1843. 13_s._ 6_d._

  ---- SCHULZE, GOTHISCHES GLOSSAR mit Vorrede v. JAC. GRIMM. 4to.
  1848. 18_s._

  =Greek.=--BENFEY, GRIECHISCHES WURZEL-LEXICON. 2 vols. 8vo.
  1839-42. (Publ. at 27_s._), 13_s._ 6_d._

  ---- PLANCHÉ, DICTIONNAIRE GREC-FRANCAIS. Composé sur le Thesaurus
  de H. Etienne. Royal 8vo. cloth, 1845. 17_s._ 6_d._

  =Greek (Modern).=--SCHMIDT, DICTIONNAIRE
  GREC-MODERNE--FRANCAIS--ALLEMAND. 8vo. 1838. 8_s._

  =Hebrew; Chaldae.=--GESENIUS, LEXICON MANUALE HEBRÆIC. et CHALD.
  Ed. 2. Royal 8vo. 1848. 14_s._ 6_d._

  ---- GESENIUS, THESAURUS PHILOLOG. CRIT. LING. HEBRÆÆ et CHALDEÆ.
  Vols. I. to III. Part I. (all out). 4to. 1828-42 (Publ. at 3_l._
  4_s._), 1_l._ 15_s._

  ---- KIMCHI (RAB. DAV.) RADICUM LIBER, seu Hebræum Bibliorum
  Lexicon. 4to. 1848. 15_s._

  =Hungarian.=--BLOCH, UNGARISCH u. DEUTSCHES WÖRTERBUCH 2 vols.
  8vo. 1848. 12_s._

  =Icelandic.=--HALDERSON (B.), LEXICON, ISLANDICO-LATINO-DANICUM
  cur. RASK. 2 vols. 4to. 1814. 1_l._ 9_s._

  =Illyrian.=--VOLTIGGI, ILLYRIAN ITALIAN-GERMAN DICTIONARY and
  GRAMMAR. 610 pages. 8vo. Vienna. 6_s._ 6_d._

  =Italian.=--BUTTURA, DICTIONNAIRE ITALIEN-FRANÇAIS et FRANÇ.-ITAL.
  2 vols. 8vo. 1832. 10_s._

  =Jakutsh.=--BÖHTLINGK (O.), WÖRTERBUCH, GRAMMATIK, TEXT ÜBER DIE
  SPRACHE DER JAKUTEN. 4to. Petersb. 1851. 20_s._

  =Japanese.=--PFIZMAIER, WÖRTERBUCH DER JAPANES. SPRACHE.
  (Japanese-German-English). Part I. Fol. 1851. 23_s._

  =Javanese.=--GERICKE, JAVAANSCH-NEDERDUITSCH WOORDENBOEK uitg. d.
  T. ROORDA. Royal 8vo. bds. 1848. 2_l._ 5_s._

  =Lapland.=--IHRE, LEXICON LAPPONICUM, Gramm. Lapp. auct. 4to.
  1780. 30_s._

  =Latin.=--FREUND (W.), WÖRTERBUCH DER LATEIN. SPRACHE. 4 vols.
  royal 8vo. (5,000 pages). 1846. (Publ. at 4_l._) 2_l._ 6_s._

  =Lithuanian.=--NESSELMANN, WÖRTERBUCH DER LITTHAUISCHEN SPRACHE.
  Royal 8vo. 1851. 10_s._ 6_d._

  =Malay.=--WILDE (A. de), NEDERL. MALAEISCH-SONDASCH. WOERDENBOEK.
  8vo. 1841. 10_s._ 6_d._

  =Mongol.=--SCHMIDT, MONGOLISCH-DEUTSCH-RUSSISCH. WÖRTERBUCH. 4to.
  1835. 1_l._ 8_s._

  =Norse.=--AASEN (J.), ORDBOG over det NORSKE FOLKESPROG. Royal
  8vo. 1850. 10_s._

  =Ossetic.=--SJÖGREN, OSSETISCH-DEUTSCH u. DEUTSCH-OSSETISCHES
  WÖRTERBUCH, mit Grammatik. 4to. Petersb. 1844. 12_s._

  =Persian.=--SAMACHSCHARI, LEXICON ARABICUM-PERSICUM atque
  INDICEM ARABICUM, adj. WETZSTEIN. 4to. bds. 1850. 27_s._

  =Polish-English= and ENGLISH-POLISH DICTIONARY, compiled from
  Linde, Mrongovius, &c. 2 vols. royal 8vo. 1851. 20_s._

  =Polyglot.=--REEHORST, POLYGLOT MARINER'S and MERCHANT'S
  DICTIONARY, in English, Dutch, German, Danish, Swedish, French,
  Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Russian. Obl. 8vo. (Publ. at
  20_s._) 5_s._

  =Russian.=--HEYM, DICTIONNAIRE RUSSE, FRANÇAIS et ALLEMANDE.
  Second Edition. 3 vols. 8vo. 1844. 1_l._ 7_s._

  ---- RUSSIAN-ENGLISH and ENGLISH-RUSSIAN POCKET-DICTIONARY. 1846.
  3_s._ 6_d._

  =Sanscrit.=--BOPP (F.), GLOSSARIUM SANSCRITUM COMPARATIV. 4to.
  1847. 20_s._

  ---- WESTERGAARD, RADICES LINGUÆ SANSCRITÆ. Royal 8vo. 1841.
  (Publ. at 34_s._) 12_s._

  =Slavonic (Old).=--NICKLOSICH (F.), LEXICON LINGUÆ SLOVENICÆ
  VETERIS DIALECTI. 4to. 1850. 12_s._

  =Swedish= and ENGLISH POCKET-DICTIONARY. 16mo. 1845. 3_s._ 6_d._

  =Syriac.=--CASTELLI, LEXICON SYRIACUM, ed. MICHAELIS. 2 vols. 4to.
  1788. (Publ. at 22_s._ 6_d._) 6_s._

  =Teutonic.=--GRAFF, ALTHOCHDEUTSCHER SPRACHSCHATZ od. WÖRTERBUCH
  der ALTDEUTSCHEN SPRACHE. 7 vols. 4to. (Publ. at 7_l._) 2_l._
  12_s._ 6_d._

  ---- MEIDINGER, DICTIONNAIRE COMPARATIF et ETYMOLOGIQUE des
  LANGUES TEUTO-GOTHIQUES. Royal 8vo. 1836. 12_s._

  ---- ZIEMANN (A.) MITTELHOCHDEUTSCHES WÖRTERBUCH, nebst gram.
  Einleitung. Royal. 8vo. 1828. (Publ. at 17_s._ 6_d._) 8_s._

  =Tibetan.=--SCHMIDT, TIBETANISCH-DEUTSCHES WÖRTERBUCH. 4to.
  Petersb. 1841. 28_s._

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published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, December 6, 1851.



      [List of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries", Vol. I-IV]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 88  | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No. 89  | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No. 90  | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No. 91  | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 92  | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No. 93  | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No. 94  | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No. 95  | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No. 96  | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      | Vol. IV No. 104 | Oct. 25, 1851      | 305-333 | PG # 38926 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 105 | Nov.  1, 1851      | 337-358 | PG # 39076 |
      | Vol. IV No. 106 | Nov.  8, 1851      | 361-374 | PG # 39091 |
      | Vol. IV No. 107 | Nov. 15, 1851      | 377-396 | PG # 39135 |
      | Vol. IV No. 108 | Nov. 22, 1851      | 401-414 | PG # 39197 |
      | Vol. IV No. 109 | Nov. 29, 1851      | 417-430 | PG # 39233 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      +------------------------------------------------+------------+





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