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Title: Cicero, Catilinarian Orations - Cicero, Speeches against Catilina
Author: Cicero, Marcus Tullius, 106 BC-43 BC
Language: Latin
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    CICERO

    CATILINARIAN ORATIONS

    _E. A. UPCOTT_



    HENRY FROWDE, M.A.
    PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD
    LONDON, EDINBURGH, NEW YORK, TORONTO
    MELBOURNE AND BOMBAY



    CICERO

    SPEECHES AGAINST CATILINA

    _WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES_

    BY

    E. A. UPCOTT, M.A.

    LATE SCHOLAR OF BALLIOL COLLEGE, OXFORD
    ASSISTANT MASTER IN WELLINGTON COLLEGE


    =PART I.--INTRODUCTION AND TEXT=

    _THIRD EDITION, REVISED_


    OXFORD

    AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

    1900



NOTE.


The text adopted in the following Orations is that of Halm (11th
Edition, Berlin, 1882), from whose notes I have derived much help. I
have also consulted the English edition of the Speeches, based on that
of Halm, by Mr. A. S. Wilkins. My best thanks are due to Mr. Evelyn
Abbott, Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, the Editor of the Series,
for his kind assistance in superintending the printing of the book.

                                                           E. A. U.

    WELLINGTON COLLEGE,

       _June, 1887._



INTRODUCTION.


The four speeches against Catilina were delivered during the latter part
of the year B.C. 63, when Cicero was Consul.

L. Sergius Catilina, the author of the conspiracy against which they
were directed, was descended from one of the oldest patrician families
of Rome, though for many years no one of his house had held any public
office. He was a man of ambitious and energetic disposition,
distinguished among his contemporaries for great powers both of mind and
body, which enabled him to exercise a remarkable degree of influence
over others[1]. At the same time he was notorious for the dissoluteness
and extravagance of his life, which were excessive even in an age when
such characteristics were common; he was, moreover, suspected of grave
crimes, such as the murder of his wife and son. But as these charges
rest to a great extent upon the authority of his opponent Cicero, it is
possible that they have been exaggerated.

He was born probably about B.C. 108, though the exact date is unknown.
His first appearance in public life was during the dictatorship of Sulla
(B.C. 82-79). When the latter issued his proscription list, Catilina was
among those who took an active part in carrying out the work of
bloodshed and confiscation. This, however, was from personal motives,
and not from any sympathy with the Senatorial party which had triumphed
under Sulla; for he subsequently attached himself entirely to the
popular side.

In B.C. 68 he filled the office of Praetor in Rome; the following year
he governed the province of Africa as Propraetor. Immediately on his
return home he became a candidate for the Consulship for the year 65[2].
He was obliged, however, to withdraw, as an indictment for extortion in
his province was brought against him, and Roman law did not allow a
citizen against whom a legal suit was pending to be a candidate for any
magistracy. It so happened that the Consuls elect for 65, P. Autronius
Paetus and P. Cornelius Sulla, were convicted of bribery. Their election
consequently became void, and L. Aurelius Cotta and L. Manlius Torquatus
were declared Consuls in their stead. Enraged at his disappointment,
Autronius entered into communication with Catilina, and the two, in
conjunction with Cn. Piso and others, formed a plot, sometimes known as
the 'First Catilinarian conspiracy.' The intention was, it is said, to
murder Cotta and Torquatus on the day of their entering upon office
(January 1, 65). Catilina and Autronius were then to proclaim themselves
Consuls, while they were to be supported by an army which Piso was to
raise on their behalf in Spain. The execution of this plot was
postponed, however, until February 5, when it failed, as we are told,
through Catilina's impatience in giving the signal too soon, before the
armed bands on which he relied had collected in sufficient number. It is
to this conspiracy that Cicero alludes in Cat. 1. §15. It was asserted
that both Caesar and Crassus were concerned in it, but the facts are
surrounded by a great deal of mystery. Whatever the design was, it came
to nothing, and the Senate did not take steps against anyone in
consequence.

During this year (65) Catilina was acquitted on the charge of extortion.
The trial had, however, been postponed long enough to prevent him from
standing for the Consulship for the year 64.

He was obliged, therefore, to postpone his candidature till the next
year, when he had among his competitors M. Tullius Cicero and C.
Antonius Hybrida, of whom the latter was believed to be partly in
sympathy with him. He was known to entertain revolutionary designs of
the most sweeping character, which he hoped as Consul to carry out.
Prominent among these was a declaration of _novae tabulae_[3], or
general cancelling of debts, and a wholesale confiscation of property.
Many of the Roman aristocracy were hopelessly in debt, and he thus
collected round him a numerous body of adherents, partly composed of
those to whom his designs seemed to promise relief from their
embarrassments, partly also of wild and turbulent spirits to whom any
prospect of revolution was welcome. Alarmed at these schemes, the
Optimates[4] threw their influence upon the side of Cicero, overcoming
their natural jealousy of a _novus homo_, that is, one whose ancestors
had never held any curule office. He was also strongly supported by the
Equites[5], who, as the wealthiest class in Rome, were naturally most
opposed to any general attack upon property. Accordingly, he was elected
by a large majority. Antonius was returned as his colleague by a small
majority over Catilina.

Defeated in his immediate object, Catilina began to entertain the idea
of carrying out his designs by force. The time was eminently favourable
for an armed insurrection against the government. Seventeen years
before, Sulla had rewarded the soldiers of his victorious army by
establishing them in colonies in various parts of Italy, and assigning
them allotments of land. Unsuited for an agricultural life, these men
had for the most part mismanaged their farms and exhausted their
resources. Accordingly they were restless and discontented, and desired
nothing so much as a return of the civil wars, with fresh chances of
plunder. From among these and other discontented spirits, Catilina began
secretly to recruit and organize an army, selecting as his leader one
Manlius, who had served with distinction under Sulla as centurion. At
the same time he opened secret negotiations with the schools of
gladiators in different parts of Italy. Thus prepared, he again stood
for the Consulship for the year 62; his intention being to bring about a
general rising if he should be once more defeated.

The situation of the government was dangerous in the extreme, for there
was no regular army in Italy, and the only general of distinction, Cn.
Pompeius, was absent in the East, where after bringing the third
Mithridatic war to a close (65) he was occupied in settling the affairs
of Syria, and could not be expected to return for some time.

Cicero, however, was kept accurately informed of the progress of the
conspiracy. One of its members, Q. Curius, had talked of the plot to his
mistress Fulvia. She had not kept the secret; and Cicero, employing her
as his agent, had induced Curius by large promises to reveal to him all
the details. The consular elections were this year postponed somewhat
beyond their usual time. On the day before they should have been held,
Cicero induced the Senate to resolve that they should on the next day,
instead of holding the election, take into consideration the state of
public affairs. He thereupon revealed to them what he knew of the
conspiracy, and invited Catilina to clear himself of the charges against
him. The latter replied in threatening language; but, notwithstanding
his violence, the Senate took no decisive resolution[6]. Shortly
afterwards the elections were held; Cicero appearing with a cuirass
under his toga, and surrounded by a guard of his friends, to testify to
the designs upon his life[7]. Catilina was again defeated, and D. Junius
Silanus and L. Licinius Murena elected as Consuls for 62.

Thus once more foiled, Catilina resolved to proceed to active measures.
Alarmed at the news that an army was actually collecting in Etruria, and
roused by further disclosures from Cicero[8], the Senate, on October 21,
passed what was known as the 'Ultimum Decretum;' '_videant consules ne
quid detrimenti respublica capiat._' This, the usual formula in cases of
emergency, declared the State to be in danger, and called on the Consuls
as the executive magistrates to take measures for its safety. Whether it
actually conferred any additional powers upon them, is not certain[9].
At the same time they placed the gladiatorial schools under strict
surveillance, established patrols in the city, and offered large rewards
for information. The praetors, Q. Pompeius Rufus and Q. Metellus Celer,
were sent to Capua and Picenum respectively to raise what troops they
could. Cicero had already detached his colleague Antonius from the
conspiracy, and induced him to support the cause of order, by ceding to
him the lucrative province of Macedonia[10].

On October 27 Manlius set up his standard at Faesulae in Etruria.
Catilina proposed to go thither himself shortly; he was anxious however
to conceal his designs as long as possible, and having been indicted for
inciting to riot (_de vi_) by L. Paullus, he had offered to place
himself in free custody[11] under the charge of some citizen of
reputation in order to disarm suspicion.

On the night of November 6, he assembled his partisans in the house of
M. Porcius Laeca. There he disclosed his plans, and declared it to be
essential to success that Cicero should be removed before his own
departure. Two of his adherents, C. Cornelius and L. Vargunteius,
undertook the duty of visiting Cicero's house in the early morning,
under pretence of giving the customary salutation, and there murdering
him.

The attempt was actually made, though probably not until the morning of
November 8[12]. But Cicero, who was informed of the plot through the
agency previously described, refused his visitors admittance. He
immediately summoned the Senate to meet, for the sake of safety, in the
temple of Jupiter Stator on the Palatine. The equites thronged the hill
in large numbers, to secure the safety of the Consul, and to protest
against the designs of the conspirators. Catilina did not scruple to
attend, whereupon Cicero rose, and delivered the speech known as the
_First Catilinarian Oration_. He revealed to the Senate all the
particulars of the plot, including the attempt upon his own life,
denounced Catilina as a public enemy, and called upon him to leave the
city. His adversary attempted a few words of exculpation, but the
feeling roused by the Consul's address was too strong, and finding
himself assailed on all sides by reproaches, he left the Senate
abruptly, declaring that his enemies were driving him to ruin, but that
if he was to fall he would involve others in his overthrow. The same
evening he left the city for Etruria, travelling by the Via Aurelia,
which was the coast road, in order to create the impression that he was
going into exile at Massilia. He left in the city a large number of
adherents, the chief of whom was P. Cornelius Lentulus Sura, with
directions to prosecute the plans previously agreed upon. Cicero on the
following day assembled the people in the Forum, and in the _Second
Catilinarian Oration_ recounted to them what had taken place in the
Senate, explaining and justifying his own action.

In a few days the news arrived that Catilina had joined the camp of
Manlius at Faesulae. Upon this the Senate declared them both public
enemies. At the same time they issued a proclamation promising immunity
to those of their adherents who should lay down their arms before a
fixed date. Meanwhile the Consul Antonius was directed to take such
military measures as might be necessary against the insurgents, Cicero
being retained for the protection of the city.

The proclamation did not have any effect in reducing the number of
Catilina's forces, nor did the rewards previously offered lead to any
disclosures. Cicero had hoped that the effect of his speeches would be
to drive all the conspirators into open rebellion, as they would thus be
more easily dealt with. In this he was disappointed, for though the
chief had left the city, his agents had remained in Rome, and Cicero
could not venture to proceed against them without direct evidence. It
was not long, however, before their carelessness put into his hands the
proofs he desired.

The Allobroges, a tribe of Transalpine Gaul, had sent delegates to
petition the Senate for relief from certain exactions to which they were
subjected. Knowing that these men, from their desperate condition, were
likely to favour a revolution, Lentulus opened negotiations with them,
with a view to securing the aid of their countrymen for the
conspirators. They took counsel however of their 'patronus' Q. Fabius
Sanga, and by his advice revealed the whole affair to Cicero. Acting
under his directions they pretended to enter heartily into the schemes
of Lentulus, and obtained from him letters written and sealed by himself
and his friends, addressed to their nation, stating and confirming by
oath the rewards they were to receive for their assistance. A letter was
also given them for Catilina, whose camp they were to visit on their way
home. With these letters they set out from Rome on the night of December
2, accompanied by T. Volturcius, the agent of Lentulus. Cicero, as
previously agreed upon, posted two Praetors with an armed force at the
Mulvian Bridge, on the Via Flaminia, a few miles to the north of Rome.
They there arrested the whole party, and carried them, with the
compromising papers, to the Consul. He at once summoned the chief
conspirators to his presence. One, Caeparius, made his escape, though he
was eventually recaptured; but Lentulus, Cethegus, Statilius, and
Gabinius came unsuspectingly, and were at once conveyed by Cicero to the
presence of the Senate, which he had convoked at the Temple of Concord.
There Volturcius, under promise of impunity, made a full disclosure, and
the conspirators were further confronted with the evidence of the
Allobroges, and their own letters, the authenticity of which they were
compelled to acknowledge. Lentulus, who was Praetor at the time, was
obliged to abdicate his office, and he and his companions were placed in
free custody under the charge of several prominent citizens. Rewards
were voted to the informers, and a 'supplicatio' or thanksgiving for the
averted danger decreed in honour of Cicero, who after leaving the Senate
addressed to the people assembled in the Forum the _Third Catilinarian
Oration_, giving a full account of what had just taken place.

Two days later (December 5) the Senate was once more convened, and
Cicero as Consul put to them the formal question, 'what was their advice
with respect to the conspirators actually in custody?'

The Consul elect, D. Silanus, who was first asked for his vote, proposed
that they should be put to death. The other consulars supported him.
When it came to the turn of Caesar, who was praetor elect, he proposed
as an alternative that their property should be confiscated, and that
they should be imprisoned for life in some of the provincial towns of
Italy. These two proposals were before the Senate when Cicero intervened
with the _Fourth Catilinarian Oration_. It does not pronounce a formal
_sententia_, for the Consul, as president, would not himself vote, but
places the alternative proposals before the house for their
consideration; indicating, however, a preference for that of Silanus.
But Caesar's speech had made a great impression, and Silanus announced
that he would agree to a motion for a postponement of the decision,
which had been suggested as a compromise. The matter was eventually
decided by a speech of M. Cato, who was tribune elect. He attacked the
conspirators with great vigour, and proposed that they should be
summarily put to death _more maiorum._ His words produced such an effect
that his proposal was carried forthwith. Lentulus, Cethegus, Statilius,
Gabinius and Caeparius were at once conducted to the Tullianum, the
prison underneath the slopes of the Capitol, and there strangled[13].

This summary proceeding effectually checked the plans of Catilina. From
this moment he received no fresh reinforcements, and his original
adherents began to leave him. The retreat of his army into Gaul was
blocked by the Praetor Metellus Celer, while M. Petreius, acting as the
legate of Antonius, advanced against him from the south. Early in the
following year (62) the opposing forces met at Pistoria in Etruria,
where Catilina and his followers, after fighting with desperate courage,
were defeated and slain to a man.


FOOTNOTES:

[1] See 3. §§16, 17 and Cic. pro Caelio, ch. 5.

[2] The Consuls were elected by the Comitia Centuriata, generally in
July. They entered on their office on the succeeding first of January.
Thus the Consuls for 65 would be elected in July 66; during the interval
they were called 'Consules designati.'

[3] See note on 2. §18.

[4] See note on _bonorum_, 1. §1.

[5] The 'equites' were all those citizens, not senators, who had
property to the amount of 400,000 sesterces (£3,200). They were so
called from the fact that in earlier times, all who had sufficient
property were obliged to serve in the citizen cavalry, but they had long
ceased to have any connection with the army. They were now the
mercantile class in Rome, having most of the trading operations in their
hands, and forming a body intermediate between the aristocracy and the
populace.

[6] See Cic. pro Murena, chs. 25, 26. This is often identified with the
meeting in the Senate on Oct. 21; but Cicero, after describing his
speech and Catilina's answer on this occasion, says expressly 'neque
tamen (senatus) satis severe pro rei indignitate decrevit' which he
could not have said had they then passed the 'ultimum decretum' (see
page 11).

[7] 1. §11.

[8] 1. §7.

[9] On this question see below Note B.

[10] See on 4. §23.

[11] See on 1. §19.

[12] There is some uncertainty about the dates here. Cicero (pro Sulla
§52) says the meeting in Laeca's house took place _nocte ea quae
consecuta est posterum diem Nonarum Novembrium_; this (if genuine) fixes
it to the night of Nov. 6. At this meeting his assassination was
resolved upon. We should naturally suppose that the attempt was made on
the morning of Nov. 7; and this agrees with Sallust Cat. 28 and Cic. in
Cat. 1. §9 (_illa ipsa nocte_). But elsewhere (see esp. 1. §1, 1. §8, 2.
§13) Cicero seems to distinguish between what had happened on the 'night
before last' (_superiore_ or _priore nocte_), i.e. the meeting in
Laeca's house; and 'last night' (_proxima nocte_), i.e. the attempt on
his own life. Hence it seems better to assume that there was an interval
of a day between the meeting and the attempted murder.

[13] On the whole question as to the jurisdiction of the Senate and the
legality of the execution, see below Note B.


       *       *       *       *       *


NOTE A.

The above sketch follows in the main the traditional account of the
Catilinarian conspiracy, which has been generally accepted by later
historians. It is fair to add that some writers have adopted a different
view, which may be thus briefly stated. They believe that historians
have been mistaken in regarding Catilina as the leader of a mere band of
desperadoes; that his so-called 'conspiracy' was really an act of revolt
against the authority of the Senate on the part of the whole democratic
party, of which he was the recognized leader (a similar movement, in
fact, to those which had been organized by Gaius Gracchus in 123 B.C.,
by Saturninus in 100 B.C., by M. Lepidus in 78 B.C., and others); that
he was driven to use force by the opposition of the Optimates to his
schemes, and that Cicero, as the spokesman of the latter, purposely
misrepresented him as the leader of an anarchist conspiracy, whose sole
object was confiscation and plunder.

The received account is derived almost entirely from two sources; the
speeches and writings of Cicero; and the 'History of the Catilinarian
Conspiracy' by Sallust, written probably about 44 B.C. The former is
undoubtedly a prejudiced witness, and statements resting on his
authority alone must be received with caution. Sallust, however, was a
partisan of Caesar, and a member of the democratic party. He had
consequently no motive to represent the character of Catilina as worse
than it really was, especially as his patron Caesar was commonly
supposed to have been implicated in the first conspiracy (66 B.C.)[14],
if not the second also. He certainly hints that the worst charges
against Catilina, which he repeats, rested on very doubtful authority;
but as to the main features of the conspiracy, he confirms Cicero on
every point; and this is a strong argument in favour of the received
account. The question is too large to be fully discussed within the
limits of this book; those who wish to see the contrary view maintained
with great spirit and ability should read the very interesting article
in 'Catiline, Clodius and Tiberius,' by Professor E. S. Beesly[15].


FOOTNOTES:

[14] See page 8.

[15] See also the criticism on this in the Introduction to Capes'
Sallust, pp. 24-27.


       *       *       *       *       *


NOTE B.

_On the Legality of the Execution._

On account of his action in this matter, Cicero was afterwards attacked
by Clodius, who, as tribune in 58 B.C., carried a law enacting that 'any
one who had put Roman citizens to death without trial should be
forbidden fire and water.' As Clodius was supported by Caesar and
Pompeius, Cicero did not make any resistance, but retired temporarily
into exile.

Had his action been really illegal or not? The Valerian, Porcian, and
Sempronian laws certainly enacted that no citizen should be put to death
except by vote of the people, after a formal trial before them. Cicero
justifies his apparent violation of these laws on two grounds--

(1) That the conspirators, having become _hostes_ by their own act, and
having been recognised as such by resolution of the Senate, had _ipso
facto_ forfeited the rights of citizens (1. §28; 4. §10).

As regards this, we may remark that, though the conduct of the
conspirators might justify the adoption of active measures against them,
it could not _legally_ be held to deprive them, when arrested, of the
benefit of trial. For the question, whether they had acted as _hostes_
or not, would be exactly the point which the law-court would have to
decide. The argument is, in fact, from the legal point of view, a
_petitio principii_.

(2) That the 'ultimum decretum' of the Senate (see Introduction, page
11) invested the Consul with dictatorial powers, including the right of
summary execution. (1. §4 _habemus senatus consultum_, etc.)

In support of this he recalls the fact that C. Gracchus (121) and
Saturninus (100) had been killed by the Consuls Opimius and Marius
respectively, acting under a similar decree. It is certain that a party
in the Senate claimed the right of thus arming the Consul with
exceptional powers in cases of emergency, and Sallust (Cat. 29)
distinctly says that they possessed it. On the other hand, the right had
never been admitted by the popular leaders, who had, as a protest,
brought Opimius to trial for the murder of C. Gracchus, though they had
not secured a conviction. They had, moreover, during this year (63)
accused of murder one C. Rabirius, who had been concerned in the death
of Saturninus thirty-seven years before. The trial was avowedly
instituted for the purpose of contesting the right of the Senate to
invest the Consul with dictatorial powers. Cicero, who defended
Rabirius, claimed that the 'ultimum decretum' acquitted his client of
all liability. But it seems probable that he would have been condemned,
had not his supporters found means to prevent the trial from coming to a
decision.

It is on this point that the question of legality or illegality really
turns, and as the Romans were not themselves agreed upon it, we can
scarcely pronounce a decision. If the Consul did possess dictatorial
powers in virtue of the 'ultimum decretum,' then the execution was
legal; if (as seems, perhaps, the more reasonable view) he did not, then
it was illegal. In any case, it is clear that the _Senate_, as such,
could not order the execution of any citizen. They could only arm the
Consul, and though he was at liberty to consult them on this, as on any
matter of importance, the responsibility of the particular measures
taken rested with him alone.

Unconstitutional actions may, however, sometimes be justified on the
ground of the necessities of the case; and Cicero might fairly plead
that the executions had proved efficacious in checking the spread of the
conspiracy, (a result which the measures previously taken had entirely
failed to secure,) and that it was very doubtful whether, if the
prisoners had been kept for trial, a general rising could have been
avoided.

The position of Caesar is somewhat hard to understand. As a popular
leader, he must have held the view that neither the Consul nor the
Senate had the right of dealing summarily with the accused; yet by
proposing the alternative punishment of imprisonment he seems to admit
their jurisdiction. Possibly he took this course as the best means of
saving their lives for the moment, but if so it is not clear why he
should have added the provision that their property should be
confiscated.

       *       *       *       *       *

The first and fourth speeches are _orationes pro senatu habitae_, the
second and third are _contiones ad populum_.



IN CATILINAM ORATIONES.



ORATION I.

BEFORE THE SENATE.


     _How long, Catilina, will you abuse our patience? Can you not
     read the signs of public excitement which show that your
     designs are known to all of us? Yet you dare to come here, and
     we hesitate to inflict upon you the death you deserve. Your
     predecessors in revolution were summarily dealt with_; we _have
     allowed the Senate's decree to lie idle for twenty days._

=1.= Quo usque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra? quam      1
diu etiam furor iste tuus eludet? quem ad finem sese effrenata iactabit
audacia? Nihilne te nocturnum praesidium Palatii, nihil urbis vigiliae,
nihil timor populi, nihil concursus bonorum omnium, nihil hic
munitissimus habendi senatus locus, nihil horum ora vultusque moverunt?
Patere tua consilia non sentis? constrictam omnium horum scientia teneri
coniurationem tuam non vides? Quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris,
ubi fueris, quos convocaveris, quid consilii ceperis, quem nostrum
ignorare arbitraris? O tempora, o mores! senatus haec intellegit,      2
consul videt: hic tamen vivit. Vivit? immo vero etiam in senatum venit,
fit publici consilii particeps, notat et designat oculis ad caedem unum
quemque nostrum. Nos autem, viri fortes, satis facere rei publicae
videmur, si istius furorem ac tela vitemus. Ad mortem te, Catilina, duci
iussu consulis iam pridem oportebat, in te conferri pestem istam, quam
tu in nos machinaris. An vero vir amplissimus, P. Scipio,      3
pontifex maximus, Ti. Gracchum, mediocriter labefactantem statum rei
publicae, privatus interfecit: Catilinam, orbem terrae caede atque
incendiis vastare cupientem, nos consules perferemus? Nam illa nimis
antiqua praetereo, quod C. Servilius Ahala Sp. Maelium, novis rebus
studentem, manu sua occidit. Fuit, fuit ista quondam in hac re publica
virtus, ut viri fortes acrioribus suppliciis civem perniciosum quam
acerbissimum hostem coërcerent. Habemus senatus consultum in te,
Catilina, vehemens et grave; non deest rei publicae consilium neque
auctoritas huius ordinis: nos, nos, dico aperte, consules desumus.

=2.= Decrevit quondam senatus, ut L. Opimius consul videret, ne      4
quid res publica detrimenti caperet: nox nulla intercessit; interfectus
est propter quasdam seditionum suspiciones C. Gracchus, clarissimo
patre, avo, maioribus; occisus est cum liberis M. Fulvius consularis.
Simili senatus consulto C. Mario et L. Valerio consulibus est permissa
res publica; num unum diem postea L. Saturninum tribunum pl. et C.
Servilium praetorem mors ac rei publicae poena remorata est? At vero nos
vicesimum iam diem patimur hebescere aciem horum auctoritatis.


     _You have presumed upon our leniency; you are now collecting an
     army in Etruria. All good citizens would applaud me, if I put
     you to death; but I spare your life, though I keep a check upon
     your designs, till all the world shall recognise the justice of
     your punishment._

Habemus enim huius modi senatus consultum, verum inclusum in tabulis,
tamquam in vagina reconditum, quo ex senatus consulto confestim
interfectum te esse, Catilina, convenit. Vivis, et vivis non ad
deponendam, sed ad confirmandam audaciam. Cupio, patres conscripti, me
esse clementem, cupio in tantis rei publicae periculis me non dissolutum
videri, sed iam me ipse inertiae nequitiaeque condemno. Castra      5
sunt in Italia contra populum Romanum in Etruriae faucibus conlocata,
crescit in dies singulos hostium numerus, eorum autem castrorum
imperatorem ducemque hostium intra moenia atque adeo in senatu videmus
intestinam aliquam cotidie perniciem rei publicae molientem. Si te iam,
Catilina, comprehendi, si interfici iussero, credo, erit verendum mihi,
ne non potius hoc omnes boni serius a me quam quisquam crudelius factum
esse dicat. Verum ego hoc, quod iam pridem factum esse oportuit, certa
de causa nondum adducor ut faciam. Tum denique interficiere, cum iam
nemo tam improbus, tam perditus, tam tui similis inveniri poterit, qui
id non iure factum esse fateatur. Quam diu quisquam erit, qui te      6
defendere audeat, vives, sed vives ita, ut vivis, multis meis et firmis
praesidiis oppressus, ne commovere te contra rem publicam possis.
Multorum te etiam oculi et aures non sentientem, sicut adhuc fecerunt,
speculabuntur atque custodient.


     _You had better abandon those designs; for they are known. I
     told the Senate that you would be in arms on Oct. 27, and I was
     not mistaken. I foretold and prevented your intended massacre
     of the aristocracy, and your attempt upon Praeneste._

=3.= Etenim quid est, Catilina, quod iam amplius exspectes, si neque nox
tenebris obscurare coeptus nefarios neque privata domus parietibus
continere voces coniurationis tuae potest? si inlustrantur, si erumpunt
omnia? Muta iam istam mentem, mihi crede: obliviscere caedis atque
incendiorum. Teneris undique; luce sunt clariora nobis tua consilia
omnia, quae iam mecum licet recognoscas. Meministine me ante diem      7
xii Kalendas Novembres dicere in senatu, fore in armis certo die, qui
dies futurus esset ante diem VI Kalendas Novembres, C. Manlium, audaciae
satellitem atque administrum tuae? Num me fefellit, Catilina, non modo
res tanta, tam atrox tamque incredibilis, verum, id quod multo magis est
admirandum, dies? Dixi ego idem in senatu, caedem te optimatium
contulisse in ante diem v Kalendas Novembres, tum cum multi principes
civitatis Roma non tam sui conservandi quam tuorum consiliorum
reprimendorum causa profugerunt. Num infitiari potes te illo die meis
praesidiis, mea diligentia circumclusum commovere te contra rem publicam
non potuisse, cum te discessu ceterorum nostra tamen, qui remansissemus,
caede contentum esse dicebas? Quid? cum tu te Praeneste Kalendis      8
ipsis Novembribus occupaturum nocturno impetu esse confideres,
sensistine illam coloniam meo iussu meis praesidiis, custodiis
vigiliisque esse munitam? Nihil agis, nihil moliris, nihil cogitas, quod
non ego non modo audiam, sed etiam videam planeque sentiam.


     _The night before last, you and your associates met at Laeca's
     house, and laid your plans; you sent two of them to murder me
     this morning; but I was forewarned and shut them out._

=4.= Recognosce mecum tandem noctem illam superiorem: iam intelleges
multo me vigilare acrius ad salutem quam te ad perniciem rei publicae.
Dico te priore nocte venisse inter falcarios--non agam obscure--in M.
Laecae domum; convenisse eodem complures eiusdem amentiae scelerisque
socios. Num negare audes? quid taces? convincam, si negas; video enim
esse hic in senatu quosdam, qui tecum una fuerunt. O di      9
immortales! ubinam gentium sumus? quam rem publicam habemus? in qua urbe
vivimus? Hic, hic sunt in nostro numero, patres conscripti, in hoc orbis
terrae sanctissimo gravissimoque consilio, qui de nostrum omnium
interitu, qui de huius urbis atque adeo de orbis terrarum exitio
cogitent. Hosce ego video et de re publica sententiam rogo, et quos
ferro trucidari oportebat, eos nondum voce vulnero. Fuisti igitur apud
Laecam illa nocte, Catilina; distribuisti partes Italiae; statuisti quo
quemque proficisci placeret, delegisti quos Romae relinqueres, quos
tecum educeres, discripsisti urbis partes ad incendia, confirmasti te
ipsum iam esse exiturum, dixisti paululum tibi esse etiam nunc morae,
quod ego viverem. Reperti sunt duo equites Romani, qui te ista cura
liberarent et sese illa ipsa nocte paulo ante lucem me in meo lectulo
interfecturos esse pollicerentur. Haec ego omnia, vixdum etiam      10
coetu vestro dimisso, comperi, domum meam maioribus praesidiis munivi
atque firmavi, exclusi eos, quos tu ad me salutatum [mane] miseras, cum
illi ipsi venissent, quos ego iam multis ac summis viris ad me id
temporis venturos praedixeram.


     _Now I bid you leave the city. So long as you attacked me only,
     I resisted you single-handed; now you are attacking the State.
     I will not kill you, for that would not rid us of your
     adherents. No, leave the city--for exile, if you will--and take
     them with you._

=5.= Quae cum ita sint, Catilina, perge quo coepisti, egredere aliquando
ex urbe; patent portae: proficiscere. Nimium diu te imperatorem tua illa
Manliana castra desiderant. Educ tecum etiam omnes tuos, si minus, quam
plurimos; purga urbem. Magno me metu liberabis, dum modo inter me atque
te murus intersit. Nobiscum versari iam diutius non potes: non feram,
non patiar, non sinam. Magna dis immortalibus habenda est atque      11
huic ipsi Iovi Statori, antiquissimo custodi huius urbis, gratia, quod
hanc tam taetram, tam horribilem tamque infestam rei publicae pestem
totiens iam effugimus. Non est saepius in uno homine summa salus
periclitanda rei publicae. Quam diu mihi, consuli designato, Catilina,
insidiatus es, non publico me praesidio, sed privata diligentia defendi.
Cum proximis comitiis consularibus me consulem in campo et competitores
tuos interficere voluisti, compressi conatus tuos nefarios amicorum
praesidio et copiis, nullo tumultu publice concitato; denique,
quotienscumque me petisti, per me tibi obstiti, quamquam videbam
perniciem meam cum magna calamitate rei publicae esse coniunctam.
Nunc iam aperte rem publicam universam petis; templa deorum      12
immortalium, tecta urbis, vitam omnium civium, Italiam denique totam ad
exitium ac vastitatem vocas. Quare quoniam id, quod est primum et quod
huius imperii disciplinaeque maiorum proprium est, facere nondum audeo,
faciam id, quod est ad severitatem lenius et ad communem salutem
utilius. Nam si te interfici iussero, residebit in re publica reliqua
coniuratorum manus: sin tu, quod te iam dudum hortor, exieris,
exhaurietur ex urbe tuorum comitum magna et perniciosa sentina rei
publicae. Quid est, Catilina? num dubitas id imperante me facere,      13
quod iam tua sponte faciebas? Exire ex urbe iubet consul hostem.
Interrogas me: num in exilium? non iubeo, sed, si me consulis, suadeo.


     _You cannot wish to stay where your crimes are notorious. Ruin
     stares you in the face. Your repeated attempts on my life have
     failed; the senators, by their conduct, show how they hate you.
     The State, our common mother, fears you and bids you leave her.
     Your very offers to place yourself under restraint are a
     self-condemnation._

=6.= Quid est enim, Catilina, quod te iam in hac urbe delectare possit?
in qua nemo est extra istam coniurationem perditorum hominum, qui te non
metuat, nemo, qui non oderit. Quae nota domesticae turpitudinis non
inusta vitae tuae est? quod privatarum rerum dedecus non haeret in fama?
quae libido ab oculis, quod facinus a manibus umquam tuis, quod
flagitium a toto corpore afuit? cui tu adulescentulo, quem corruptelarum
inlecebris inretisses, non aut ad audaciam ferrum aut ad libidinem facem
praetulisti? Quid vero? nuper, cum morte superioris uxoris novis      14
nuptiis domum vacuefecisses, nonne etiam alio incredibili scelere hoc
scelus cumulasti? quod ego praetermitto et facile patior sileri, ne in
hac civitate tanti facinoris immanitas aut exstitisse aut non vindicata
esse videatur. Praetermitto ruinas fortunarum tuarum, quas omnes
impendere tibi proximis Idibus senties: ad illa venio, quae non ad
privatam ignominiam vitiorum tuorum, non ad domesticam tuam
difficultatem ac turpitudinem, sed ad summam rem publicam atque ad
omnium nostrum vitam salutemque pertinent. Potestne tibi haec      15
lux, Catilina, aut huius caeli spiritus esse iucundus, cum scias esse
horum neminem qui nesciat, te pridie Kalendas Ianuariis Lepido et Tullo
consulibus stetisse in comitio cum telo? manum consulum et principum
civitatis interficiendorum causa paravisse? sceleri ac furori tuo non
mentem aliquam aut timorem tuum, sed fortunam populi Romani obstitisse?
Ac iam illa omitto--neque enim sunt aut obscura aut non multa commissa
postea--: quotiens tu me designatum, quotiens consulem interficere
voluisti! quot ego tuas petitiones ita coniectas, ut vitari posse non
viderentur, parva quadam declinatione et, ut aiunt, corpore effugi!
Nihil adsequeris, neque tamen conari ac velle desistis. Quotiens      16
tibi iam extorta est sica ista de manibus! quotiens excidit aliquo casu
et elapsa est! quae quidem quibus abs te initiata sacris ac devota sit,
nescio, quod eam necesse putas esse in consulis corpore defigere.

=7.= Nunc vero quae tua est ista vita? Sic enim iam tecum loquar, non ut
odio permotus esse videar, quo debeo, sed ut misericordia, quae tibi
nulla debetur. Venisti paulo ante in senatum. Quis te ex hac tanta
frequentia, tot ex tuis amicis ac necessariis salutavit? Si hoc post
hominum memoriam contigit nemini, vocis exspectas contumeliam, cum sis
gravissimo iudicio taciturnitatis oppressus? Quid, quod adventu tuo ista
subsellia vacuefacta sunt, quod omnes consulares, qui tibi persaepe ad
caedem constituti fuerunt, simul atque adsedisti, partem istam
subselliorum nudam atque inanem reliquerunt, quo tandem animo hoc tibi
ferendum putas? Servi me hercule mei si me isto pacto metuerent,      17
ut te metuunt omnes cives tui, domum meam relinquendam putarem: tu tibi
urbem non arbitraris? et si me meis civibus iniuria suspectum tam
graviter atque offensum viderem, carere me aspectu civium quam infestis
oculis omnium conspici mallem: tu cum conscientia scelerum tuorum
agnoscas odium omnium iustum et iam diu tibi debitum, dubitas, quorum
mentes sensusque vulneras, eorum aspectum praesentiamque vitare? Si te
parentes timerent atque odissent tui nec eos ulla ratione placare
posses, ut opinor, ab eorum oculis aliquo concederes: nunc te patria,
quae communis est parens omnium nostrum, odit ac metuit et iam diu
nihil te iudicat nisi de parricidio suo cogitare: huius tu neque
auctoritatem verebere nec iudicium sequere nec vim pertimesces?
Quae tecum, Catilina, sic agit et quodam modo tacita loquitur:      18
'Nullum iam aliquot annis facinus exstitit nisi per te, nullum flagitium
sine te; tibi uni multorum civium neces, tibi vexatio direptioque
sociorum impunita fuit ac libera; tu non solum ad neglegendas leges et
quaestiones, verum etiam ad evertendas perfringendasque valuisti.
Superiora illa, quamquam ferenda non fuerunt, tamen, ut potui, tuli:
nunc vero me totam esse in metu propter unum te, quidquid increpuerit
Catilinam timeri, nullum videri contra me consilium iniri posse, quod a
tuo scelere abhorreat, non est ferendum. Quam ob rem discede atque hunc
mihi timorem eripe, si est verus, ne opprimar, sin falsus, ut tandem
aliquando timere desinam.

=8.= Haec si tecum, ut dixi, patria loquatur, nonne impetrare      19
debeat, etiam si vim adhibere non possit? Quid, quod tu te ipse in
custodiam dedisti? quod vitandae suspicionis causa ad M'. Lepidum te
habitare velle dixisti? a quo non receptus etiam ad me venire ausus es
atque ut domi meae te adservarem rogasti. Cum a me quoque id responsum
tulisses, me nullo modo posse eisdem parietibus tuto esse tecum, qui
magno in periculo essem, quod eisdem moenibus contineremur, ad Q.
Metellum praetorem venisti: a quo repudiatus ad sodalem tuum, virum
optimum, M. Metellum demigrasti, quem tu videlicet et ad custodiendum
diligentissimum et ad suspicandum sagacissimum et ad vindicandum
fortissimum fore putasti. Sed quam longe videtur a carcere atque a
vinculis abesse debere, qui se ipse iam dignum custodia iudicarit?


     _You challenge me to take a vote of the Senate. Without doing
     so, I can show you what they think. When I bid you go into
     exile, they give consent by their silence. They would not let
     me speak to others thus. As for the knights, they are ready to
     kill you._

Quae cum ita sint, Catilina, dubitas, si emori aequo animo non      20
potes, abire in aliquas terras et vitam istam, multis suppliciis iustis
debitisque ereptam, fugae solitudinique mandare? 'Refer' inquis 'ad
senatum'; id enim postulas, et, si hic ordo sibi placere decreverit te
ire in exilium, obtemperaturum te esse dicis. Non referam, id quod
abhorret a meis moribus, et tamen faciam ut intellegas, quid hi de te
sentiant. Egredere ex urbe, Catilina, libera rem publicam metu, in
exilium, si hanc vocem exspectas, proficiscere. Quid est, Catilina?
ecquid attendis, ecquid animadvertis horum silentium? Patiuntur, tacent.
Quid exspectas auctoritatem loquentium, quorum voluntatem tacitorum
perspicis? At si hoc idem adulescenti optimo, P. Sestio, si      21
fortissimo viro, M. Marcello, dixissem, iam mihi consuli hoc ipso in
templo iure optimo senatus vim et manus intulisset. De te autem,
Catilina, cum quiescunt, probant, cum patiuntur, decernunt, cum tacent,
clamant; neque hi solum, quorum tibi auctoritas est videlicet cara, vita
vilissima, sed etiam illi equites Romani, honestissimi atque optimi
viri, ceterique fortissimi cives, qui stant circum senatum, quorum tu et
frequentiam videre et studia perspicere et voces paulo ante exaudire
potuisti. Quorum ego vix abs te iam diu manus ac tela contineo, eosdem
facile adducam, ut te haec, quae iam pridem vastare studes, relinquentem
usque ad portas prosequantur.


     _But it is vain to speak of exile. I wish there were a chance
     of it, in spite of the hatred I should incur. Go then to the
     camp of Manlius, as you have already arranged. Surrounded by
     every kind of wickedness, you will be in your element there._

=9.= Quamquam quid loquor? te ut ulla res frangat? tu ut umquam      22
te corrigas? tu ut ullam fugam meditere? tu ut exilium cogites? Utinam
tibi istam mentem di immortales duint! etsi video, si mea voce
perterritus ire in exilium animum induxeris, quanta tempestas invidiae
nobis, si minus in praesens tempus, recenti memoria scelerum tuorum, at
in posteritatem impendeat. Sed est tanti, dummodo ista sit privata
calamitas et a rei publicae periculis seiungatur. Sed tu ut vitiis tuis
commoveare, ut legum poenas pertimescas, ut temporibus rei publicae
cedas, non est postulandum; neque enim is es, Catilina, ut te aut pudor
umquam a turpitudine aut metus a periculo aut ratio a furore
revocaverit. Quam ob rem, ut saepe iam dixi, proficiscere, ac,      23
si mihi inimico, ut praedicas, tuo conflare vis invidiam, recta perge in
exilium: vix feram sermones hominum, si id feceris; vix molem istius
invidiae, si in exilium iussu consulis ieris, sustinebo. Sin autem
servire meae laudi et gloriae mavis, egredere cum importuna sceleratorum
manu, confer te ad Manlium, concita perditos cives, secerne te a bonis,
infer patriae bellum, exsulta impio latrocinio, ut a me non eiectus ad
alienos, sed invitatus ad tuos esse videaris. Quamquam quid ego      24
te invitem, a quo iam sciam esse praemissos, qui tibi ad Forum Aurelium
praestolarentur armati? cui sciam pactam et constitutam cum Manlio diem?
a quo etiam aquilam illam argenteam, quam tibi ac tuis omnibus
perniciosam esse confido ac funestam futuram, cui domi tuae sacrarium
[scelerum tuorum] constitutum fuit, sciam esse praemissam? Tu ut ilia
diutius carere possis, quam venerari ad caedem proficiscens solebas, a
cuius altaribus saepe istam impiam dexteram ad necem civium
transtulisti? =10.= Ibis tandem aliquando, quo te iam pridem      25
ista tua cupiditas effrenata ac furiosa rapiebat; neque enim tibi haec
res adfert dolorem, sed quandam incredibilem voluptatem. Ad hanc te
amentiam natura peperit, voluntas exercuit, fortuna servavit. Numquam tu
non modo otium, sed ne bellum quidem nisi nefarium concupisti. Nanctus
es ex perditis atque ab omni non modo fortuna, verum etiam spe
derelictis conflatam improborum manum. Hic tu qua laetitia      26
perfruere! quibus gaudiis exsultabis! quanta in voluptate bacchabere,
cum in tanto numero tuorum neque audies virum bonum quemquam neque
videbis. Ad huius vitae studium meditati illi sunt qui feruntur labores
tui, iacere humi non solum ad obsidendum stuprum, verum etiam ad facinus
obeundum, vigilare non solum insidiantem somno maritorum, verum etiam
bonis otiosorum. Habes, ubi ostentes illam tuam praeclaram patientiam
famis, frigoris, inopiae rerum omnium, quibus te brevi tempore confectum
senties. Tantum profeci tum, cum te a consulatu reppuli, ut      27
exsul potius tentare quam consul vexare rem publicam posses, atque ut
id, quod est abs te scelerate susceptum, latrocinium potius quam bellum
nominaretur.


     _Some may charge me with remissness in letting slip a public
     enemy. It is no fear of illegality, or unpopularity that
     influences me. But Catilina's departure to his camp will purge
     the city of his adherents, and show everyone what his plans
     really are. His death would give us only a temporary relief.
     Let them leave us then for their wicked work, and Jupiter will
     defend us from their attacks._

=11.= Nunc ut a me, patres conscripti, quandam prope iustam patriae
querimoniam detester ac deprecer, percipite, quaeso, diligenter quae
dicam, et ea penitus animis vestris mentibusque mandate. Etenim si mecum
patria, quae mihi vita mea multo est carior, si cuncta Italia, si omnis
res publica sic loquatur: 'M. Tulli, quid agis? tune eum, quem esse
hostem comperisti, quem ducem belli futurum vides, quem exspectari
imperatorem in castris hostium sentis, auctorem sceleris, principem
coniurationis, evocatorem servorum et civium perditorum, exire patiere,
ut abs te non emissus ex urbe, sed inmissus in urbem esse videatur?
Nonne hunc in vincula duci, non ad mortem rapi, non summo supplicio
mactari imperabis? Quid tandem te impedit? mosne maiorum? At      28
persaepe etiam privati in hac re publica perniciosos cives morte
multarunt. An leges, quae de civium Romanorum supplicio rogatae sunt? At
numquam in hac urbe, qui a re publica defecerunt, civium iura tenuerunt.
An invidiam posteritatis times? Praeclaram vero populo Romano refers
gratiam, qui te, hominem per te cognitum, nulla commendatione maiorum
tam mature ad summum imperium per omnes honorum gradus extulit, si
propter invidiam aut alicuius periculi metum salutem civium tuorum
neglegis. Sed si quis est invidiae metus, num est vehementius      29
severitatis ac fortitudinis invidia quam inertiae ac nequitiae
pertimescenda? An cum bello vastabitur Italia, vexabuntur urbes, tecta
ardebunt, tum te non existimas invidiae incendio conflagraturum?'

=12.= His ego sanctissimis rei publicae vocibus et eorum hominum, qui
hoc idem sentiunt, mentibus pauca respondebo. Ego, si hoc optimum factu
iudicarem, patres conscripti, Catilinam morte multari, unius usuram
horae gladiatori isti ad vivendum non dedissem. Etenim si summi viri et
clarissimi cives Saturnini et Gracchorum et Flacci et superiorum
complurium sanguine non modo se non contaminarunt, sed etiam
honestarunt, certe verendum mihi non erat, ne quid hoc parricida civium
interfecto invidiae mihi in posteritatem redundaret. Quodsi ea mihi
maxime impenderet, tamen hoc animo fui semper, ut invidiam virtute
partam gloriam, non invidiam putarem. Quamquam nonnulli sunt in      30
hoc ordine, qui aut ea quae imminent non videant, aut ea quae vident
dissimulent, qui spem Catilinae mollibus sententiis aluerunt
coniurationemque nascentem non credendo conroboraverunt: quorum
auctoritatem secuti multi, non solum improbi, verum etiam imperiti, si
in hunc animadvertissem, crudeliter et regie factum esse dicerent. Nunc
intellego, si iste, quo intendit, in Manliana castra pervenerit, neminem
tam stultum fore, qui non videat coniurationem esse factam, neminem tam
improbum, qui non fateatur. Hoc autem uno interfecto intellego hanc rei
publicae pestem paulisper reprimi, non in perpetuum comprimi posse.
Quodsi se eiecerit secumque suos eduxerit et eodem ceteros undique
collectos naufragos adgregaverit, exstinguetur atque delebitur non modo
haec tam adulta rei publicae pestis, verum etiam stirps ac semen malorum
omnium. =13.= Etenim iam diu, patres conscripti, in his      31
periculis coniurationis insidiisque versamur, sed nescio quo pacto
omnium scelerum ac veteris furoris et audaciae maturitas in nostri
consulatus tempus erupit. Quodsi ex tanto latrocinio iste unus tolletur,
videbimur fortasse ad breve quoddam tempus cura et metu esse relevati,
periculum autem residebit et erit inclusum penitus in venis atque in
visceribus rei publicae. Ut saepe homines aegri morbo gravi, cum aestu
febrique iactantur, si aquam gelidam biberunt, primo relevari videntur,
deinde multo gravius vehementiusque adflictantur, sic hic morbus, qui
est in re publica, relevatus istius poena, vehementius vivis reliquis
ingravescet. Quare secedant improbi, secernant se a bonis, unum      32
in locum congregentur, muro denique, id quod saepe iam dixi,
discernantur a nobis; desinant insidiari domi suae consuli, circumstare
tribunal praetoris urbani, obsidere cum gladiis curiam, malleolos et
faces ad inflammandam urbem comparare: sit denique inscriptum in fronte
unius cuiusque, quid de re publica sentiat. Polliceor vobis hoc, patres
conscripti, tantam in nobis consulibus fore diligentiam, tantam in vobis
auctoritatem, tantam in equitibus Romanis virtutem, tantam in omnibus
bonis consensionem, ut Catilinae profectione omnia patefacta inlustrata,
oppressa vindicata esse videatis.

Hisce ominibus, Catilina, cum summa rei publicae salute, cum      33
tua peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui se tecum omni scelere
parricidioque iunxerunt, proficiscere ad impium bellum ac nefarium. Tum
tu, Iuppiter, qui eisdem quibus haec urbs auspiciis a Romulo es
constitutus, quem Statorem huius urbis atque imperii vere nominamus,
hunc et huius socios a tuis aris ceterisque templis, a tectis urbis ac
moenibus, a vita fortunisque civium arcebis, et homines bonorum
inimicos, hostes patriae, latrones Italiae, scelerum foedere inter se ac
nefaria societate coniunctos, aeternis suppliciis vivos mortuosque
mactabis.



ORATION II.

BEFORE THE PEOPLE.


     _Citizens! We have driven Catilina from the city! We need no
     longer fear his secret plots; he must now fight us openly. This
     is a great success, as he feels._

=1.= Tandem aliquando, Quirites, L. Catilinam, furentem audacia,      1
scelus anhelantem, pestem patriae nefarie molientem, vobis atque huic
urbi ferro flammaque minitantem, ex urbe vel eiecimus vel emisimus vel
ipsum egredientem verbis prosecuti sumus. Abiit excessit, evasit erupit.
Nulla iam pernicies a monstro illo atque prodigio moenibus ipsis intra
moenia comparabitur. Atque hunc quidem unum huius belli domestici ducem
sine controversia vicimus. Non enim iam inter latera nostra sica illa
versabitur; non in campo, non in foro, non in curia, non denique intra
domesticos parietes perhorrescemus. Loco ille motus est, cum ex urbe est
expulsus. Palam iam cum hoste nullo impediente bellum geremus. Sine
dubio perdidimus hominem magnificeque vicimus, cum illum ex occultis
insidiis in apertum latrocinium coniecimus. Quod vero non       2
cruentum mucronem, ut voluit, extulit, quod vivis nobis egressus est,
quod ei ferrum e manibus extorsimus, quod incolumes cives, quod stantem
urbem reliquit, quanto tandem illum maerore esse adflictum et
profligatum putatis? Iacet ille nunc prostratusque est et se perculsum
atque abiectum esse sentit, et retorquet oculos profecto saepe ad hanc
urbem, quam e suis faucibus ereptam esse luget: quae quidem laetari mihi
videtur, quod tantam pestem evomuerit forasque proiecerit.


     _Some may say, 'You should have arrested him.' Had I done so,
     many would not have believed my accusations. For their sakes I
     was obliged to make him declare himself. Once outside, I do not
     fear him; I wish indeed he had taken all his adherents with
     him. Our armies can easily deal with the band of bankrupts and
     swindlers he has assembled; it is the conspirators of high
     rank, whom he has left behind, that we have now to fear. They
     see that we know their plans, yet they persist._

=2.= Ac si quis est talis, quales omnes esse oportebat, qui in      3
hoc ipso, in quo exsultat et triumphat oratio mea, me vehementer
accuset, quod tam capitalem hostem non comprehenderim potius quam
emiserim, non est ista mea culpa, sed temporum. Interfectum esse L.
Catilinam et gravissimo supplicio adfectum iam pridem oportebat, idque a
me et mos maiorum et huius imperii severitas et res publica postulabat.
Sed quam multos fuisse putatis, qui quae ego deferrem non crederent?
quam multos, qui etiam defenderent? Ac si illo sublato depelli a vobis
omne periculum iudicarem, iam pridem ego L. Catilinam non modo invidiae
meae, verum etiam vitae periculo sustulissem. Sed cum viderem, ne      4
vobis quidem omnibus re etiam tum probata, si illum, ut erat meritus,
morte multassem, fore ut eius socios invidia oppressus persequi non
possem, rem huc deduxi, ut tum palam pugnare possetis, cum hostem aperte
videretis. Quem quidem ego hostem, Quirites, quam vehementer foris esse
timendum putem, licet hinc intellegatis, quod etiam moleste fero, quod
ex urbe parum comitatus exierit. Utinam ille omnes secum copias suas
eduxisset! Tongilium mihi eduxit, quem amare in praetexta coeperat,
Publicium et Munatium, quorum aes alienum contractum in popina nullum
rei publicae motum adferre poterat: reliquit quos viros! quanto aere
alieno, quam valentes, quam nobiles! =3.= Itaque ego illum       5
exercitum prae Gallicanis legionibus et hoc dilectu, quem in agro Piceno
et Gallico Q. Metellus habuit, et his copiis, quae a nobis cotidie
comparantur, magno opere contemno, collectum ex senibus desperatis, ex
agresti luxuria, ex rusticis decoctoribus, ex iis, qui vadimonia
deserere quam illum exercitum maluerunt: quibus ego non modo si aciem
exercitus nostri, verum etiam si edictum praetoris ostendero, concident.
Hos, quos video volitare in foro, quos stare ad curiam, quos etiam in
senatum venire, qui nitent unguentis, qui fulgent purpura, mallem secum
suos milites eduxisset: qui si hic permanent, mementote non tam
exercitum illum esse nobis quam hos, qui exercitum deseruerunt,
pertimescendos. Atque hoc etiam sunt timendi magis, quod quid cogitent
me scire sentiunt, neque tamen permoventur. Video, cui sit Apulia      6
attributa, quis habeat Etruriam, quis agrum Picenum, quis Gallicum, quis
sibi has urbanas insidias caedis atque incendiorum depoposcerit; omnia
superioris noctis consilia ad me delata esse sentiunt; patefeci in
senatu hesterno die; Catilina ipse pertimuit, profugit: hi quid
exspectant? Ne illi vehementer errant, si illam meam pristinam lenitatem
perpetuam sperant futuram.


     _I give them one more chance; let them follow their leader.
     Happy for us if we can be quit of them! Catilina's departure
     alone has relieved us much. He is the friend of every criminal,
     the corrupter of youth, the support of bankrupts, the hero of
     gladiators and actors. His adherents are monsters of crime; we
     cannot endure them any longer. Their destruction is at hand.
     Our general has given us peace abroad; under my leadership let
     us declare war upon our domestic enemy._

=4.= Quod exspectavi, iam sum adsecutus, ut vos omnes factam esse aperte
coniurationem contra rem publicam videretis: nisi vero si quis est, qui
Catilinae similes cum Catilina sentire non putet. Non est iam lenitati
locus; severitatem res ipsa flagitat. Unum etiam nunc concedam: exeant,
proficiscantur, ne patiantur desiderio sui Catilinam miserum tabescere.
Demonstrabo iter: Aurelia via profectus est; si accelerare volent, ad
vesperam consequentur. O fortunatam rem publicam, si quidem      7
hanc sentinam urbis huius eiecerit! Uno me hercule Catilina exhausto
relevata mihi et recreata res publica videtur. Quid enim mali aut
sceleris fingi aut cogitari potest, quod non ille conceperit? quis tota
Italia veneficus, quis gladiator, quis latro, quis sicarius, quis
parricida, quis testamentorum subiector, quis circumscriptor, quis
ganeo, quis nepos, quis adulter, quae mulier infamis, quis corruptor
iuventutis, quis corruptus, quis perditus inveniri potest, qui se cum
Catilina non familiarissime vixisse fateatur? Quae caedes per hosce
annos sine illo facta est? quod nefarium stuprum non per illum?
Iam vero quae tanta umquam in ullo homine iuventutis inlecebra      8
fuit, quanta in illo? qui alios amabat ipse turpissime, aliorum amori
flagitiosissime serviebat, aliis fructum libidinum, aliis mortem
parentum non modo impellendo, verum etiam adiuvando pollicebatur. Nunc
vero quam subito non solum ex urbe, verum etiam ex agris ingentem
numerum perditorum hominum collegerat! Nemo non modo Romae, sed      9
ne ullo quidem in angulo totius Italiae oppressus aere alieno fuit, quem
non ad hoc incredibile sceleris foedus adsciverit. =5.= Atque ut eius
diversa studia in dissimili ratione perspicere possitis, nemo est in
ludo gladiatorio paulo ad facinus audacior, qui se non intimum
Catilinae, nemo in scaena levior et nequior, qui se non eiusdem prope
sodalem fuisse commemoret. Atque idem tamen, stuprorum et scelerum
exercitatione adsuefactus frigore et fame ac siti et vigiliis
perferendis, fortis ab istis praedicabatur, cum industriae subsidia
atque instrumenta virtutis in libidine audaciaque consumerentur.
Hunc vero si secuti erunt sui comites, si ex urbe exierint      10
desperatorum hominum flagitiosi greges, o nos beatos, o rem publicam
fortunatam, o praeclaram laudem consulatus mei! Non enim iam sunt
mediocres hominum libidines, non humanae ac tolerandae audaciae: nihil
cogitant nisi caedes, nisi incendia, nisi rapinas. Patrimonia sua
profuderunt, fortunas suas obligaverunt, res eos iam pridem, fides nuper
deficere coepit: eadem tamen illa, quae erat in abundantia, libido
manet. Quodsi in vino et alea comissationes solum et scorta quaererent,
essent illi quidem desperandi, sed tamen essent ferendi: hoc vero quis
ferre possit, inertes homines fortissimis viris insidiari, stultissimos
prudentissimis, ebriosos sobriis, dormientes vigilantibus? qui
adcubantes in conviviis, complexi mulieres impudicas, vino languidi,
conferti cibo, sertis redimiti, unguentis obliti, debilitati stupris
eructant sermonibus suis caedem bonorum atque urbis incendia.
Quibus ego confido impendere fatum aliquod et poenam iam diu      11
improbitati, nequitiae, sceleri, libidini debitam aut instare iam plane
aut certe adpropinquare. Quos si meus consulatus, quoniam sanare non
potest, sustulerit, non breve nescio quod tempus, sed multa saecula
propagarit rei publicae. Nulla est enim natio, quam pertimescamus,
nullus rex, qui bellum populo Romano facere possit; omnia sunt externa
unius virtute terra marique pacata: domesticum bellum manet, intus
insidiae sunt, intus inclusum periculum est, intus est hostis: cum
luxuria nobis, cum amentia, cum scelere certandum est. Huic ego me bello
ducem profiteor, Quirites, suscipio inimicitias hominum perditorum: quae
sanari poterunt, quacumque ratione sanabo; quae resecanda erunt, non
patiar ad perniciem civitatis manere. Proinde aut exeant aut quiescant
aut, si et in urbe et in eadem mente permanent, ea quae merentur
exspectent.


     _Others reproach me with having driven Catilina into exile.
     What I did was to declare to the Senate--who showed their
     approval of what I said--the details of his plans. I bade him
     betake himself to the camp of Manlius, whither I knew he meant
     to go. Was that driving him into exile? Yet now if he should
     change his mind, and really go into exile, I am to be called a
     tyrant. I would gladly bear it, if war might be so averted. But
     there is no chance of it; in three days he will be in arms.
     Those who thus reproach me are really his secret partisans._

=6.= At etiam sunt qui dicant, Quirites, a me in exilium eiectum      12
esse Catilinam. Quod ego si verbo adsequi possem, istos ipsos eicerem,
qui haec loquuntur. Homo enim videlicet timidus aut etiam permodestus
vocem consulis ferre non potuit; simul atque ire in exilium iussus est,
paruit atque ivit. Hesterno die, cum domi meae paene interfectus essem,
senatum in aedem Iovis Statoris vocavi, rem omnem ad patres conscriptos
detuli: quo cum Catilina venisset, quis eum senator appellavit? quis
salutavit? quis denique ita aspexit ut perditum civem, ac non potius ut
importunissimum hostem? quin etiam principes eius ordinis partem illam
subselliorum, ad quam ille accesserat, nudam atque inanem reliquerunt.
Hic ego vehemens ille consul, qui verbo cives in exilium eicio, quaesivi
a Catilina, in nocturno conventu apud M. Laecam fuisset necne.
Cum ille, homo audacissimus, conscientia convictus primo      13
reticuisset, patefeci cetera: quid ea nocte egisset, quid in proximam
constituisset, quem ad modum esset ei ratio totius belli descripta,
edocui. Cum haesitaret, cum teneretur, quaesivi, quid dubitaret
proficisci eo, quo iam pridem pararet, cum arma, cum secures, cum
fasces, cum tubas, cum signa militaria, cum aquilam illam argenteam, cui
ille etiam sacrarium domi suae fecerat, scirem esse praemissam.
In exilium eiciebam, quem iam ingressum esse in bellum videbam?      14
Etenim, credo, Manlius iste centurio, qui in agro Faesulano castra
posuit, bellum populo Romano suo nomine indixit, et illa castra nunc non
Catilinam ducem exspectant, et ille eiectus in exilium se Massiliam, ut
aiunt, non in haec castra conferet.

=7.= O condicionem miseram non modo administrandae, verum etiam
conservandae rei publicae! Nunc si L. Catilina consiliis, laboribus,
periculis meis circumclusus ac debilitatus subito pertimuerit,
sententiam mutaverit, deseruerit suos, consilium belli faciendi
abiecerit, ex hoc cursu sceleris et belli iter ad fugam atque in exilium
converterit, non ille a me spoliatus armis audaciae, non obstupefactus
ac perterritus mea diligentia, non de spe conatuque depulsus, sed
indemnatus, innocens in exilium eiectus a consule vi et minis dicetur,
et erunt qui illum, si hoc fecerit, non improbum, sed miserum, me non
diligentissimum consulem, sed crudelissimum tyrannum existimari velint.
Est mihi tanti, Quirites, huius invidiae falsae atque iniquae      15
tempestatem subire dummodo a vobis huius horribilis belli ac nefarii
periculum depellatur. Dicatur sane eiectus esse a me, dummodo eat in
exilium: sed, mihi credite, non est iturus. Numquam ego a dis
immortalibus optabo, Quirites, invidiae meae levandae causa, ut L.
Catilinam ducere exercitum hostium atque in armis volitare audiatis, sed
triduo tamen audietis; multoque magis illud timeo, ne mihi sit
invidiosum aliquando, quod illum emiserim, potius quam quod eiecerim.
Sed cum sint homines, qui illum, cum profectus sit, eiectum esse dicant,
eidem, si interfectus esset, quid dicerent? Quamquam isti, qui      16
Catilinam Massiliam ire dictitant, non tam hoc queruntur quam verentur.
Nemo est istorum tam misericors, qui illum non ad Manlium quam ad
Massilienses ire malit. Ille autem, si me hercule hoc, quod agit,
numquam antea cogitasset, tamen latrocinantem se interfici mallet quam
exulem vivere. Nunc vero, cum ei nihil adhuc praeter ipsius voluntatem
cogitationemque acciderit, nisi quod vivis nobis Roma profectus est,
optemus potius ut eat in exilium quam queramur.


     _Of his adherents there are six classes._ (1) _Men with large
     debts, but larger estates, which they will not part with,
     hoping that Catilina will declare an abolition of debts. Their
     only chance is a measure of compulsory sale, which I offer
     them._ (2) _Those who hope by the revolution to obtain power
     and office. Let these mark the forces against them, and
     remember that, if it succeeds, the chief power will not fall to
     them._ (3) _The Sullan colonists, who want fresh chances of
     plunder. But the State will not endure a new proscription._ (4)
     _The hopeless bankrupts. Their ruin is certain, but they need
     not involve the whole State in it._ (5) _Criminals of every
     class; let them stay with Catilina._ (6) _The dissolute youth
     of Rome, his special favourites._

=8.= Sed cur tam diu de uno hoste loquimur, et de eo hoste, qui      17
iam fatetur se esse hostem et quem, quia, quod semper volui, murus
interest, non timeo: de his, qui dissimulant, qui Romae remanent, qui
nobiscum sunt, nihil dicimus? Quos quidem ego, si ullo modo fieri
possit, non tam ulcisci studeo quam sanare sibi ipsos, placare rei
publicae, neque, id quare fieri non possit, si me audire volent,
intellego. Exponam enim vobis, Quirites, ex quibus generibus hominum
istae copiae comparentur; deinde singulis medicinam consilii atque
orationis meae, si quam potero, adferam. Unum genus est eorum,      18
qui magno in aere alieno maiores etiam possessiones habent, quarum amore
adducti dissolvi nullo modo possunt. Horum hominum species est
honestissima--sunt enim locupletes--, voluntas vero et causa
impudentissima. Tu agris, tu aedificiis, tu argento, tu familia, tu
rebus omnibus ornatus et copiosus sis, et dubites de possessione
detrahere, adquirere ad fidem? Quid enim exspectas? bellum? Quid ergo?
in vastatione omnium tuas possessiones sacrosanctas futuras putas? An
tabulas novas? Errant qui istas a Catilina exspectant: meo beneficio
tabulae novae proferentur, verum auctionariae; neque enim isti, qui
possessiones habent, alia ratione ulla salvi esse possunt. Quod si
maturius facere voluissent neque, id quod stultissimum est, certare cum
usuris fructibus praediorum, et locupletioribus his et melioribus
civibus uteremur. Sed hosce homines minime puto pertimescendos, quod aut
deduci de sententia possunt aut, si permanebunt, magis mihi videntur
vota facturi contra rem publicam quam arma laturi.

=9.= Alterum genus est eorum qui, quamquam premuntur aere      19
alieno, dominationem tamen exspectant, rerum potiri volunt, honores,
quos quieta re publica desperant, perturbata consequi se posse
arbitrantur. Quibus hoc praecipiendum videtur, unum scilicet et idem
quod reliquis omnibus, ut desperent se id quod conantur consequi posse:
primum omnium me ipsum vigilare, adesse, providere rei publicae; deinde
magnos animos esse in bonis viris, magnam concordiam, [maximam
multitudinem] magnas praeterea copias militum; deos denique immortales
huic invicto populo, clarissimo imperio, pulcherrimae urbi contra tantam
vim sceleris praesentes auxilium esse laturos. Quodsi iam sint id, quod
summo furore cupiunt, adepti, num illi in cinere urbis et in sanguine
civium, quae mente scelerata ac nefaria concupiverunt, se consules aut
dictatores aut etiam reges sperant futuros? Non vident id se cupere,
quod si adepti sint, fugitivo alicui aut gladiatori concedi sit necesse.
Tertium genus est aetate iam adfectum, sed tamen exercitatione      20
robustum, quo ex genere est ipse Manlius, cui nunc Catilina succedit.
Sunt homines ex iis coloniis, quas Sulla constituit: quas ego universas
civium esse optimorum et fortissimorum virorum sentio, sed tamen ii sunt
coloni, qui se in insperatis ac repentinis pecuniis sumptuosius
insolentiusque iactarunt. Hi dum aedificant tamquam beati, dum praediis,
lecticis, familiis magnis, conviviis adparatis delectantur, in tantum
aes alienum inciderunt, ut, si salvi esse velint, Sulla sit iis ab
inferis excitandus: qui etiam nonnullos agrestes, homines tenues atque
egentes, in eandem illam spem rapinarum veterum impulerunt. Quos ego
utrosque in eodem genere praedatorum direptorumque pono, sed eos hoc
moneo: desinant furere et proscriptiones et dictaturas cogitare. Tantus
enim illorum temporum dolor inustus est civitati, ut iam ista non modo
homines, sed ne pecudes quidem mihi passurae esse videantur.

=10.= Quartum genus est sane varium et mixtum et turbulentum,      21
qui iam pridem premuntur, qui numquam emergunt, qui partim inertia,
partim male gerendo negotio, partim etiam sumptibus in vetere aere
alieno vacillant, qui vadimoniis, iudiciis, proscriptionibus bonorum
defatigati, permulti et ex urbe et ex agris se in illa castra conferre
dicuntur. Hosce ego non tam milites acres quam infitiatores lentos esse
arbitror. Qui homines quam primum, si stare non possunt, corruant, sed
ita, ut non modo civitas, sed ne vicini quidem proximi sentiant. Nam
illud non intellego, quam ob rem, si vivere honeste non possunt, perire
turpiter velint, aut cur minore dolore perituros se cum multis, quam si
soli pereant, arbitrentur. Quintum genus est parricidarum,      22
sicariorum, denique omnium facinorosorum: quos ego a Catilina non
revoco; nam neque divelli ab eo possunt et pereant sane in latrocinio,
quoniam sunt ita multi, ut eos carcer capere non possit. Postremum autem
genus est, non solum numero, verum etiam genere ipso atque vita, quod
proprium Catilinae est, de eius dilectu, immo vero de complexu eius ac
sinu, quos pexo capillo nitidos aut imberbes aut bene barbatos videtis,
manicatis et talaribus tunicis, velis amictos, non togis, quorum omnis
industria vitae et vigilandi labor in antelucanis cenis expromitur.
In his gregibus omnes aleatores, omnes adulteri, omnes impuri      23
impudicique versantur. Hi pueri tam lepidi ac delicati non solum amare
et amari, neque cantare et saltare, sed etiam sicas vibrare et spargere
venena didicerunt: qui nisi exeunt, nisi pereunt, etiam si Catilina
perierit, scitote hoc in re publica seminarium Catilinarum futurum.
Verum tamen quid sibi isti miseri volunt? num suas secum mulierculas
sunt in castra ducturi? Quemadmodum autem illis carere poterunt, his
praesertim iam noctibus? quo autem pacto illi Appenninum atque illas
pruinas ac nives perferent? nisi idcirco se facilius hiemem toleraturos
putant, quod nudi in conviviis saltare didicerunt.


     _We scarcely need the armies of the State to defeat such
     contemptible opponents. We have all the resources of the
     government, they have nothing; it is the cause of all good
     against all evil. In such a contest the result is certain.
     Guard your own homes, and we will do our duty._

=11.= O bellum magno opere pertimescendum, cum hanc sit      24
habiturus Catilina scortorum cohortem praetoriam! Instruite nunc,
Quirites, contra has tam praeclaras Catilinae copias vestra praesidia
vestrosque exercitus: et primum gladiatori illi confecto et saucio
consules imperatoresque vestros opponite; deinde contra illam
naufragorum eiectam ac debilitatam manum florem totius Italiae ac robur
educite. Iam vero urbes coloniarum ac municipiorum respondebunt
Catilinae tumulis silvestribus. Neque ego ceteras copias, ornamenta,
praesidia vestra cum illius latronis inopia atque egestate conferre
debeo. Sed si omissis his rebus, quibus nos suppeditamur, eget      25
ille, senatu, equitibus Romanis, urbe, aerario, vectigalibus, cuncta
Italia, provinciis omnibus, exteris nationibus, si his rebus omissis
causas ipsas, quae inter se confligunt, contendere velimus, ex eo ipso,
quam valde illi iaceant, intellegere possumus. Ex hac enim parte pudor
pugnat, illinc petulantia; hinc pudicitia, illinc stuprum; hinc fides,
illinc fraudatio; hinc pietas, illinc scelus; hinc constantia, illinc
furor; hinc honestas, illinc turpitudo; hinc continentia, illinc libido;
denique aequitas, temperantia, fortitudo, prudentia, virtutes omnes
certant cum iniquitate, luxuria, ignavia, temeritate, cum vitiis
omnibus; postremo copia cum egestate, bona ratio cum perdita, mens sana
cum amentia, bona denique spes cum omnium rerum desperatione confligit.
In eius modi certamine ac proelio nonne, etiam si hominum studia
deficiant, di ipsi immortales cogant ab his praeclarissimis virtutibus
tot et tanta vitia superari?

=12.= Quae cum ita sint, Quirites, vos, quem ad modum iam antea      26
dixi, vestra tecta vigiliis custodiisque defendite: mihi, ut urbi sine
vestro motu ac sine ullo tumultu satis esset praesidii, consultum atque
provisum est. Coloni omnes municipesque vestri, certiores a me facti de
hac nocturna excursione Catilinae, facile urbes suas finesque defendent.
Gladiatores, quam sibi ille manum certissimam fore putavit--quamquam
animo meliore sunt quam pars patriciorum,--potestate nostra
continebuntur. Q. Metellus, quem ego hoc prospiciens in agrum Gallicum
Picenumque praemisi, aut opprimet hominem aut omnes eius motus
conatusque prohibebit. Reliquis autem de rebus constituendis,
maturandis, agendis iam ad senatum referemus, quem vocari videtis.


     _One more appeal to the conspirators who are still in the city.
     They can go out if they will, but any attempt at violence here
     will be crushed. This shall be done under my direction, with as
     little disturbance as possible. I rely upon the protection of
     the gods, to whom you must address your prayers._

Nunc illos, qui in urbe remanserunt, atque adeo qui contra urbis      27
salutem omniumque nostrum in urbe a Catilina relicti sunt, quamquam sunt
hostes, tamen, quia sunt cives, monitos etiam atque etiam volo. Mea
lenitas adhuc si cui solutior visa est, hoc exspectavit, ut id, quod
latebat, erumperet. Quod reliquum est, iam non possum oblivisci, meam
hanc esse patriam, me horum esse consulem, mihi aut cum his vivendum aut
pro his esse moriendum. Nullus est portis custos, nullus insidiator
viae; si qui exire volunt, conivere possum: qui vero se in urbe
commoverit, cuius ego non modo factum, sed inceptum ullum conatumve
contra patriam deprehendero, sentiet in hac urbe esse consules
vigilantes, esse magistratus egregios, esse fortem senatum, esse arma,
esse carcerem, quem vindicem nefariorum ac manifestorum scelerum maiores
nostri esse voluerunt.

=13.= Atque haec omnia sic agentur, Quirites, ut maximae res      28
minimo motu, pericula summa nullo tumultu, bellum intestinum ac
domesticum post hominum memoriam crudelissimum et maximum me uno togato
duce et imperatore sedetur. Quod ego sic administrabo, Quirites, ut, si
ullo modo fieri poterit, ne improbus quidem quisquam in hac urbe poenam
sui sceleris sufferat. Sed si vis manifestae audaciae, si impendens
patriae periculum me necessario de hac animi lenitate deduxerit, illud
profecto perficiam, quod in tanto et tam insidioso bello vix optandum
videtur, ut neque bonus quisquam intereat paucorumque poena vos iam
omnes salvi esse possitis. Quae quidem ego neque mea prudentia      29
neque humanis consiliis fretus polliceor vobis, Quirites, sed multis et
non dubiis deorum immortalium significationibus, quibus ego ducibus in
hanc spem sententiamque sum ingressus: qui iam non procul, ut quondam
solebant, ab externo hoste atque longinquo, sed hic praesentes suo
numine atque auxilio sua templa atque urbis tecta defendent. Quos vos,
Quirites, precari, venerari, implorare debetis, ut, quam urbem
pulcherrimam florentissimamque esse voluerunt, hanc omnibus hostium
copiis terra marique superatis a perditissimorum civium nefario scelere
defendant.



ORATION III.

BEFORE THE PEOPLE.


     _Citizens! This day I have saved the State, and may claim equal
     honour with its founder. Let me tell you what has taken place
     in the Senate._

=1.= Rem publicam, Quirites, vitamque omnium vestrum, bona      1
fortunas, coniuges liberosque vestros atque hoc domicilium clarissimi
imperii, fortunatissimam pulcherrimamque urbem hodierno die deorum
immortalium summo erga vos amore, laboribus consiliis periculis meis e
flamma atque ferro ac paene ex faucibus fati ereptam et vobis
conservatam ac restitutam videtis. Et si non minus nobis      2
iucundi atque inlustres sunt ii dies, quibus conservamur, quam illi,
quibus nascimur, quod salutis certa laetitia est, nascendi incerta
condicio, et quod sine sensu nascimur, cum voluptate servamur, profecto,
quoniam illum, qui hanc urbem condidit, ad deos immortales benevolentia
famaque sustulimus, esse apud vos posterosque vestros in honore debebit
is, qui eandem hanc urbem conditam amplificatamque servavit. Nam toti
urbi, templis delubris, tectis ac moenibus subiectos prope iam ignes
circumdatosque restinximus, eidemque gladios in rem publicam destrictos
rettudimus mucronesque eorum a iugulis vestris deiecimus. Quae      3
quoniam in senatu inlustrata, patefacta, comperta sunt per me, vobis
iam exponam breviter, Quirites, ut et quanta et quam manifesta et qua
ratione investigata et comprehensa sint, vos, qui ignoratis et
exspectatis, scire possitis.


     _Since Catilina departed, I have been on the watch for evidence
     against his confederates. I found that Lentulus had been
     tampering with the delegates of the Allobroges, and was sending
     letters by them to Gaul and to Catilina. Here was my
     opportunity. By my orders, two of the praetors last night
     arrested the delegates with Volturcius, the agent of Lentulus,
     at the Mulvian Bridge, seized their letters and brought them to
     me. I sent for Lentulus, Cethegus, Statilius, and Gabinius,
     convoked the Senate, and conveyed thither the whole party, with
     the letters unopened. Another praetor, sent by me, seized a
     collection of arms in the house of Cethegus._

Principio, ut Catilina paucis ante diebus erupit ex urbe, cum sceleris
sui socios, huiusce nefarii belli acerrimos duces, Romae reliquisset,
semper vigilavi et providi, Quirites, quem ad modum in tantis et tam
absconditis insidiis salvi esse possemus. =2.= Nam tum, cum ex urbe
Catilinam eiciebam--non enim iam vereor huius verbi invidiam, cum illa
magis sit timenda, quod vivus exierit,--sed tum, cum illum exterminari
volebam, aut reliquam coniuratorum manum simul exituram aut eos, qui
restitissent, infirmos sine illo ac debiles fore putabam. Atque      4
ego ut vidi, quos maximo furore et scelere esse inflammatos sciebam, eos
nobiscum esse et Romae remansisse, in eo omnes dies noctesque consumpsi,
ut, quid agerent, quid molirentur, sentirem ac viderem, ut, quoniam
auribus vestris propter incredibilem magnitudinem sceleris minorem fidem
faceret oratio mea, rem ita comprehenderem, ut tum demum animis saluti
vestrae provideretis, cum oculis maleficium ipsum videretis. Itaque ut
comperi, legatos Allobrogum belli Transalpini et tumultus Gallici
excitandi causa a P. Lentulo esse sollicitatos, eosque in Galliam ad
suos cives eodemque itinere [cum litteris mandatisque] ad Catilinam esse
missos, comitemque iis adiunctum esse T. Volturcium atque huic ad
Catilinam esse datas litteras, facultatem mihi oblatam putavi, ut, quod
erat difficillimum quodque ego semper optabam ab dis immortalibus, tota
res non solum a me, sed etiam a senatu et a vobis manifesto
deprehenderetur. Itaque hesterno die L. Flaccum et C. Pomptinum      5
praetores, fortissimos atque amantissimos rei publicae viros, ad me
vocavi, rem exposui, quid fieri placeret ostendi. Illi autem, qui omnia
de re publica praeclara atque egregia sentirent, sine recusatione ac
sine ulla mora negotium susceperunt et, cum advesperasceret, occulte ad
pontem Mulvium pervenerunt atque ibi in proximis villis ita bipertito
fuerunt, ut Tiberis inter eos et pons interesset. Eodem autem et ipsi
sine cuiusquam suspicione multos fortes viros eduxerant, et ego ex
praefectura Reatina complures delectos adulescentes, quorum opera utor
assidue in rei publicae praesidio, cum gladiis miseram. Interim      6
tertia fere vigilia exacta, cum iam pontem magno comitatu legati
Allobrogum ingredi inciperent unaque Volturcius, fit in eos impetus;
educuntur et ab illis gladii et a nostris. Res praetoribus erat nota
solis, ignorabatur a ceteris. =3.= Tum interventu Pomptini atque Flacci
pugna, quae erat commissa, sedatur. Litterae, quaecumque erant in eo
comitatu, integris signis praetoribus traduntur; ipsi comprehensi ad me,
cum iam dilucesceret, deducuntur. Atque horum omnium scelerum
improbissimum machinatorem Cimbrum Gabinium statim ad me, nihildum
suspicantem, vocavi; deinde item arcessitus est L. Statilius et post eum
C. Cethegus; tardissime autem Lentulus venit, credo, quod in litteris
dandis praeter consuetudinem proxima nocte vigilarat. Cum summis      7
et clarissimis huius civitatis viris, qui audita re frequentes ad me
mane convenerant, litteras a me prius aperiri quam ad senatum deferri
placeret, ne, si nihil esset inventum, temere a me tantus tumultus
iniectus civitati videretur, negavi me esse facturum, ut de periculo
publico non ad consilium publicum rem integram deferrem. Etenim,
Quirites, si ea, quae erant ad me delata, reperta non essent, tamen ego
non arbitrabar in tantis rei publicae periculis esse mihi nimiam
diligentiam pertimescendam. Senatum frequentem celeriter, ut      8
vidistis, coëgi. Atque interea statim admonitu Allobrogum C. Sulpicium
praetorem, fortem virum, misi, qui ex aedibus Cethegi, si quid telorum
esset, efferret, ex quibus ille maximum sicarum numerum et gladiorum
extulit.


     _Before the Senate, Volturcius made a confession. The Gauls
     disclosed their dealings with the conspirators; and the
     letters, which their writers, Cethegus, Statilius, and
     Lentulus, were forced to acknowledge, were found, when read, to
     confirm their evidence. Cethegus gave up his defence; Lentulus
     tried to cross-examine the Gauls, but broke down, especially
     when his letter to Catilina was read. Finally Gabinius, like
     the rest, was reduced to silence._

=4.= Introduxi Volturcium sine Gallis, fidem publicam iussu senatus
dedi, hortatus sum ut ea quae sciret sine timore indicaret. Tum ille
dixit, cum vix se ex magno timore recreasset, a P. Lentulo se habere ad
Catilinam mandata et litteras, ut servorum praesidio uteretur, ut ad
urbem quam primum cum exercitu accederet; id autem, eo consilio, ut, cum
urbem ex omnibus partibus, quem ad modum descriptum distributumque erat,
incendissent caedemque infinitam civium fecissent, praesto esset ille,
qui et fugientes exciperet et se cum his urbanis ducibus coniungeret.
Introducti autem Galli ius iurandum sibi et litteras ab Lentulo,      9
Cethego, Statilio ad suam gentem data esse dixerunt, atque ita sibi ab
his et a L. Cassio esse praescriptum, ut equitatum in Italiam quam
primum mitterent; pedestres sibi copias non defuturas: Lentulum autem
sibi confirmasse ex fatis Sibyllinis haruspicumque responsis, se esse
illum tertium Cornelium, ad quem regnum huius urbis atque imperium
pervenire esset necesse; Cinnam ante se et Sullam fuisse: eundemque
dixisse fatalem hunc esse annum ad interitum huius urbis atque imperii,
qui esset annus decimus post virginum absolutionem, post Capitolii autem
incensionem vicesimus. Hanc autem Cethego cum ceteris      10
controversiam fuisse dixerunt, quod Lentulo et aliis Saturnalibus caedem
fieri atque urbem incendi placeret, Cethego nimium id longum videretur.

=5.= Ac ne longum sit, Quirites, tabellas proferri iussimus, quae a
quoque dicebantur datae. Primo ostendimus Cethego signum: cognovit; nos
linum incidimus, legimus. Erat scriptum ipsius manu Allobrogum senatui
et populo, sese quae eorum legatis confirmasset facturum esse; orare ut
item illi facerent quae sibi legati eorum recepissent. Tum Cethegus, qui
paulo ante aliquid tamen de gladiis ac sicis, quae apud ipsum erant
deprehensa, respondisset dixissetque se semper bonorum ferramentorum
studiosum fuisse, recitatis litteris debilitatus atque abiectus
conscientia repente conticuit. Introductus est Statilius; cognovit et
signum et manum suam: recitatae sunt tabellae in eandem fere sententiam;
confessus est. Tum ostendi tabellas Lentulo et quaesivi, cognosceretne
signum. Adnuit. 'Est vero' inquam 'notum quidem signum, imago avi tui,
clarissimi viri, qui amavit unice patriam et cives suos, quae quidem te
a tanto scelere etiam muta revocare debuit.' Leguntur eadem      11
ratione ad senatum Allobrogum populumque litterae. Si quid de his rebus
dicere vellet, feci potestatem. Atque ille primo quidem negavit; post
autem aliquanto, toto iam indicio exposito atque edito, surrexit,
quaesivit a Gallis, quid sibi esset cum iis, quam ob rem domum suam
venissent, itemque a Volturcio. Qui cum illi breviter constanterque
respondissent, per quem ad eum quotiensque venissent, quaesissentque ab
eo, nihilne secum esset de fatis Sibyllinis locutus, tum ille subito
scelere demens, quanta conscientiae vis esset, ostendit: nam cum id
posset infitiari, repente praeter opinionem omnium confessus est. Ita
eum non modo ingenium illud et dicendi exercitatio, qua semper valuit,
sed etiam propter vim manifesti atque deprehensi sceleris impudentia,
qua superabat omnes, improbitasque defecit. Volturcius vero      12
subito litteras proferri atque aperiri iubet, quas sibi a Lentulo ad
Catilinam datas esse dicebat. Atque ibi vehementissime perturbatus
Lentulus tamen et signum et manum suam cognovit. Erant autem sine
nomine, sed ita: 'Quis sim, scies ex hoc, quem ad te misi. Cura ut vir
sis et cogita, quem in locum sis progressus; vide, quid iam tibi sit
necesse, et cura ut omnium tibi auxilia adiungas, etiam infimorum.'
Gabinius deinde introductus, cum primo impudenter respondere coepisset,
ad extremum nihil ex iis, quae Galli insimulabant, negavit. Ac      13
mihi quidem, Quirites, cum illa certissima visa sunt argumenta atque
indicia sceleris, tabellae, signa, manus, denique unius cuiusque
confessio, tum multo certiora illa, color, oculi, vultus, taciturnitas.
Sic enim obstipuerant, sic terram intuebantur, sic furtim nonnumquam
inter se aspiciebant, ut non iam ab aliis indicari, sed indicare se ipsi
viderentur.


     _The Senate then voted thanks to me, my colleague, and the
     praetors; placed under arrest Lentulus (who had resigned his
     praetorship) and eight others; and decreed a supplicatio in my
     name, an honour never before bestowed on a civil magistrate._

=6.= Indiciis expositis atque editis, Quirites, senatum consului, de
summa re publica quid fieri placeret. Dictae sunt a principibus
acerrimae ac fortissimae sententiae, quas senatus sine ulla varietate
est secutus. Et quoniam nondum est perscriptum senatus consultum, ex
memoria vobis, Quirites, quid senatus censuerit exponam. Primum      14
mihi gratiae verbis amplissimis aguntur, quod virtute, consilio,
providentia mea res publica maximis periculis sit liberata; deinde L.
Flaccus et C. Pomptinus praetores, quod eorum opera forti fidelique usus
essem, merito ac iure laudantur; atque etiam viro forti, collegae meo,
laus impertitur, quod eos, qui huius coniurationis participes fuissent,
a suis et rei publicae consiliis removisset. Atque ita censuerunt, ut P.
Lentulus, cum se praetura abdicasset, in custodiam traderetur; itemque
uti C. Cethegus, L. Statilius, P. Gabinius, qui omnes praesentes erant,
in custodiam traderentur; atque idem hoc decretum est in L. Cassium, qui
sibi procurationem incendendae urbis depoposcerat, in M. Ceparium, cui
ad sollicitandos pastores Apuliam attributam esse erat indicatum, in P.
Furium, qui est de iis colonis, quos Faesulas L. Sulla deduxit, in Q.
Annium Chilonem, qui una cum hoc Furio semper erat in hac Allobrogum
sollicitatione versatus, in P. Umbrenum, libertinum hominem, a quo
primum Gallos ad Gabinium perductos esse constabat. Atque ea      15
lenitate senatus usus est, Quirites, ut ex tanta coniuratione tantaque
hac multitudine domesticorum hostium novem hominum perditissimorum poena
re publica conservata, reliquorum mentes sanari posse arbitraretur.
Atque etiam supplicatio dis immortalibus pro singulari eorum merito meo
nomine decreta est, quod mihi primum post hanc urbem conditam togato
contigit, et his verbis decreta est: quod urbem incendiis, caede cives,
Italiam bello liberassem. Quae supplicatio si cum ceteris
[supplicationibus] conferatur, hoc interest, quod ceterae bene gesta,
haec una conservata re publica constituta est. Atque illud, quod
faciendum primum fuit, factum atque transactum est. Nam P. Lentulus,
quamquam, patefactus indiciis et confessionibus suis, iudicio senatus
non modo praetoris ius, verum etiam civis amiserat, tamen magistratu se
abdicavit, ut, quae religio C. Mario, clarissimo viro, non fuerat quo
minus C. Glauciam, de quo nihil nominatim erat decretum, praetorem
occideret, ea nos religione in privato P. Lentulo puniendo liberaremur.


     _We have thus defeated the conspiracy; but the struggle would
     have been much more severe, if Catilina had remained in the
     city._

=7.= Nunc quoniam, Quirites, consceleratissimi periculosissimique      16
belli nefarios duces captos iam et comprehensos tenetis, existimare
debetis, omnes Catilinae copias, omnes spes atque opes his depulsis
urbis periculis concidisse. Quem quidem ego cum ex urbe pellebam, hoc
providebam animo, Quirites, remoto Catilina non mihi esse P. Lentuli
somnum nec L. Cassii adipes nec C. Cethegi furiosam temeritatem
pertimescendam. Ille erat unus timendus ex istis omnibus, sed tam diu,
dum urbis moenibus continebatur. Omnia norat, omnium aditus tenebat;
appellare, tentare, sollicitare poterat, audebat; erat ei consilium ad
facinus aptum, consilio autem neque lingua neque manus deerat. Iam ad
certas res conficiendas certos homines delectos ac descriptos habebat.
Neque vero, cum aliquid mandarat, confectum putabat: nihil erat quod
non ipse obiret occurreret, vigilaret laboraret; frigus, sitim, famem
ferre poterat. Hunc ego hominem tam acrem, tam audacem, tam      17
paratum, tam callidum, tam in scelere vigilantem, tam in perditis rebus
diligentem nisi ex domesticis insidiis in castrense latrocinium
compulissem, dicam id quod sentio, Quirites, non facile hanc tantam
molem mali a vestris cervicibus depulissem. Non ille nobis Saturnalia
constituisset neque tanto ante exitii ac fati diem rei publicae
denuntiavisset, neque commisisset ut signum, ut litterae suae testes
manifesti sceleris deprehenderentur. Quae nunc illo absente sic gesta
sunt, ut nullum in privata domo furtum umquam sit tam palam inventum,
quam haec tanta in re publica coniuratio manifesto inventa atque
deprehensa est. Quodsi Catilina in urbe ad hanc diem remansisset,
quamquam, quoad fuit, omnibus eius consiliis occurri atque obstiti,
tamen, ut levissime dicam, dimicandum nobis cum illo fuisset, neque nos
umquam, dum ille in urbe hostis esset, tantis periculis rem publicam
tanta pace, tanto otio, tanto silentio liberassemus.


     _Many signs show that the Gods have had us under their special
     protection. The soothsayers warned us of our danger two years
     ago, when the Capitol was struck by lightning. They bade us
     avert it by making a new statue of Jupiter, and turning it
     towards the Forum; it was erected this day, at the very moment
     when the conspiracy was being detected. It is Jupiter alone who
     has preserved us._

=8.= Quamquam haec omnia, Quirites, ita sunt a me administrata,      18
ut deorum immortalium nutu atque consilio et gesta et provisa esse
videantur; idque cum coniectura consequi possumus, quod vix videtur
humani consilii tantarum rerum gubernatio esse potuisse, tum vero ita
praesentes his temporibus opem et auxilium nobis tulerunt, ut eos paene
oculis videre possemus. Nam ut illa omittam, visas nocturno tempore ab
occidente faces ardoremque caeli, ut fulminum iactus, ut terrae motus
relinquam, ut omittam cetera, quae ita multa nobis consulibus facta
sunt, ut haec, quae nunc fiunt, canere di immortales viderentur, hoc
certe, quod sum dicturus, neque praetermittendum neque relinquendum est.
Nam profecto memoria tenetis, Cotta et Torquato consulibus      19
complures in Capitolio res de caelo esse percussas, cum et simulacra
deorum depulsa sunt et statuae veterum hominum deiectae et legum aera
liquefacta et tactus etiam ille, qui hanc urbem condidit, Romulus, quem
inauratum in Capitolio parvum atque lactantem, uberibus lupinis
inhiantem, fuisse meministis. Quo quidem tempore cum haruspices ex tota
Etruria convenissent, caedes atque incendia et legum interitum et bellum
civile ac domesticum et totius urbis atque imperii occasum adpropinquare
dixerunt, nisi di immortales omni ratione placati suo numine prope fata
ipsa flexissent. Itaque illorum responsis tum et ludi per dies      20
decem facti sunt, neque res ulla, quae ad placandos deos pertineret,
praetermissa est: eidemque iusserunt simulacrum Iovis facere maius et in
excelso collocare et contra atque antea fuerat, ad orientem convertere;
ac se sperare dixerunt, si illud signum, quod videtis, solis ortum et
forum curiamque conspiceret, fore ut ea consilia, quae clam essent inita
contra salutem urbis atque imperii, inlustrarentur, ut a senatu
populoque Romano perspici possent. Atque illud signum collocandum
consules illi locaverunt, sed tanta fuit operis tarditas, ut neque
superioribus consulibus neque nobis ante hodiernum diem collocaretur.
=9.= Hic quis potest esse, Quirites, tam aversus a vero, tam      21
praeceps, tam mente captus, qui neget haec omnia, quae videmus,
praecipueque hanc urbem deorum immortalium nutu ac potestate
administrari? Etenim cum esset ita responsum, caedes, incendia,
interitum rei publicae comparari, et ea per cives, quae tum propter
magnitudinem scelerum nonnullis incredibilia videbantur, ea non modo
cogitata a nefariis civibus, verum etiam suscepta sensistis. Illud vero
nonne ita praesens est, ut nutu Iovis Optimi Maximi factum esse
videatur, ut, cum hodierno die mane per forum meo iussu et coniurati et
eorum indices in aedem Concordiae ducerentur, eo ipso tempore signum
statueretur? quo collocato atque ad vos senatumque converso, omnia, quae
erant cogitata contra salutem omnium, inlustrata et patefacta vidistis.
Quo etiam maiore sunt isti odio supplicioque digni, qui non      22
solum vestris domiciliis atque tectis, sed etiam deorum templis atque
delubris sunt funestos ac nefarios ignes inferre conati. Quibus ego si
me restitisse dicam, nimium mihi sumam et non sim ferendus: ille, ille
Iuppiter restitit; ille Capitolium, ille haec templa, ille cunctam
urbem, ille vos omnes salvos esse voluit. Dis ego immortalibus ducibus
hanc mentem voluntatemque suscepi atque ad haec tanta indicia perveni.
Iam vero ab Lentulo ceterisque domesticis hostibus tam dementer tantae
res creditae et ignotis et barbaris commissaeque litterae numquam essent
profecto, nisi ab dis immortalibus huic tantae audaciae consilium esset
ereptum. Quid vero? ut homines Galli ex civitate male pacata, quae gens
una restat, quae bellum populo Romano facere posse et non nolle
videatur, spem imperii ac rerum amplissimarum ultro sibi a patriciis
hominibus oblatam neglegerent vestramque salutem suis opibus
anteponerent, id non divinitus factum esse putatis? praesertim qui nos
non pugnando, sed tacendo superare potuerint.


     _Celebrate, then, the thanksgiving: never was one better
     deserved. We have had many civil disturbances in the last
     twenty years, and much bloodshed; but in these revolution was
     the object, not the destruction of the State._

=10.= Quam ob rem, Quirites, quoniam ad omnia pulvinaria      23
supplicatio decreta est, celebratote illos dies cum coniugibus ac
liberis vestris. Nam multi saepe honores dis immortalibus iusti habiti
sunt ac debiti, sed profecto iustiores numquam. Erepti enim estis ex
crudelissimo ac miserrimo interitu: sine caede, sine sanguine, sine
exercitu, sine dimicatione togati me uno togato duce et imperatore
vicistis. Etenim recordamini, Quirites, omnes civiles      24
dissensiones, non solum eas, quas audistis, sed eas, quas vosmet ipsi
meministis atque vidistis. L. Sulla P. Sulpicium oppressit: C. Marium,
custodem huius urbis, multosque fortes viros partim eiecit ex civitate,
partim interemit. Cn. Octavius consul armis expulit ex urbe collegam:
omnis hic locus acervis corporum et civium sanguine redundavit.
Superavit postea Cinna cum Mario: tum vero, clarissimis viris
interfectis, lumina civitatis exstincta sunt. Ultus est huius victoriae
crudelitatem postea Sulla, ne dici quidem opus est, quanta deminutione
civium et quanta calamitate rei publicae. Dissensit M. Lepidus a
clarissimo ac fortissimo viro Q. Catulo: attulit non tam ipsius
interitus rei publicae luctum quam ceterorum. Atque illae tamen      25
omnes dissensiones, quae non ad delendam, sed ad commutandam rem
publicam pertinebant--non illi nullam esse rem publicam, sed in ea, quae
esset, se esse principes, neque hanc urbem conflagrare, sed se in hac
urbe florere voluerunt,--eius modi fuerunt, ut non reconciliatione
concordiae, sed internecione civium diiudicatae sint. In hoc autem uno
post hominum memoriam maximo crudelissimoque bello, quale bellum nulla
umquam barbaria cum sua gente gessit, quo in bello lex haec fuit a
Lentulo, Catilina, Cethego, Cassio constituta, ut omnes, qui salva urbe
salvi esse possent, in hostium numero ducerentur, ita me gessi,
Quirites, ut omnes salvi conservaremini, et, cum hostes vestri tantum
civium superfuturum putassent, quantum infinitae caedi restitisset,
tantum autem urbis, quantum flamma obire non potuisset, et urbem et
cives integros incolumesque servavi.


     _I ask no reward but your recollection of my services. Unlike
     foreign conquerors, I must live side by side with my enemies;
     be it yours to see that I do not suffer from the hatred of the
     wicked which I have provoked. Life can give me no greater
     honour; I will strive to prove worthy of it in future._

     _Make your prayers, then, to Jupiter, and guard your homes
     to-night; the danger will soon be over._

=11.= Quibus pro tantis rebus, Quirites, nullum ego a vobis      26
praemium virtutis, nullum insigne honoris, nullum monimentum laudis
postulo praeterquam huius diei memoriam sempiternam. In animis ego
vestris omnes triumphos meos, omnia ornamenta honoris, monimenta
gloriae, laudis insignia condi et collocari volo. Nihil me mutum potest
delectare, nihil tacitum, nihil denique eius modi, quod etiam minus
digni adsequi possint. Memoria vestra, Quirites, res nostrae alentur,
sermonibus crescent, litterarum monimentis inveterascent et
conroborabuntur; eandemque diem intellego, quam spero aeternam fore,
propagatam esse et ad salutem urbis et ad memoriam consulatus mei,
unoque tempore in hac re publica duos cives exstitisse, quorum alter
fines vestri imperii non terrae, sed caeli regionibus terminaret, alter
eiusdem imperii domicilium sedesque servaret. =12.= Sed quoniam      27
earum rerum, quas ego gessi, non eadem est fortuna atque condicio quae
illorum, qui externa bella gesserunt, quod mihi cum iis vivendum est,
quos vici ac subegi, illi hostes aut interfectos aut oppressos
reliquerunt, vestrum est, Quirites, si ceteris facta sua recte prosunt,
mihi mea ne quando obsint providere. Mentes enim hominum audacissimorum
sceleratae ac nefariae ne vobis nocere possent ego providi: ne mihi
noceant vestrum est providere. Quamquam, Quirites, mihi quidem ipsi
nihil ab istis iam noceri potest. Magnum enim est in bonis praesidium,
quod mihi in perpetuum comparatum est, magna in re publica dignitas,
quae me semper tacita defendet, magna vis conscientiae, quam qui
neglegunt, cum me violare volent, se ipsi indicabunt. Est etiam      28
in nobis is animus, Quirites, ut non modo nullius audaciae cedamus, sed
etiam omnes improbos ultro semper lacessamus. Quodsi omnis impetus
domesticorum hostium, depulsus a vobis, se in me unum converterit, vobis
erit videndum, Quirites, qua condicione posthac eos esse velitis, qui se
pro salute vestra obtulerint invidiae periculisque omnibus: mihi quidem
ipsi quid est, quod iam ad vitae fructum possit adquiri, cum praesertim
neque in honore vestro neque in gloria virtutis quidquam videam altius,
quo mihi lubeat ascendere? Illud profecto perficiam, Quirites,      29
ut ea, quae gessi in consulatu, privatus tuear atque ornem, ut, si qua
est invidia conservanda re publica suscepta, laedat invidos, mihi valeat
ad gloriam. Denique ita me in re publica tractabo, ut meminerim semper
quae gesserim, curemque ut ea virtute, non casu gesta esse videantur.
Vos, Quirites, quoniam iam nox est, venerati Iovem illum, custodem huius
urbis ac vestrum, in vestra tecta discedite et ea, quamquam iam est
periculum depulsum, tamen aeque ac priore nocte custodiis vigiliisque
defendite. Id ne vobis diutius faciendum sit atque ut in perpetua pace
esse possitis providebo.



ORATION IV.

BEFORE THE SENATE.


     _Senators! I see all eyes turned upon me. I appreciate your
     anxiety on my behalf, but dismiss all care for me from your
     minds. I am ready to meet all contingencies, though not unmoved
     by the fears of those dear to me._

=1.= Video, patres conscripti, in me omnium vestrum ora atque      1
oculos esse conversos; video vos non solum de vestro ac rei publicae,
verum etiam, si id depulsum sit, de meo periculo esse sollicitos. Est
mihi iucunda in malis et grata in dolore vestra erga me voluntas, sed
eam, per deos immortales, deponite atque obliti salutis meae de vobis ac
de vestris cogitate. Mihi si haec condicio consulatus data est, ut omnes
acerbitates, omnes dolores cruciatusque perferrem, feram non solum
fortiter, verum etiam lubenter, dummodo meis laboribus vobis populoque
Romano dignitas salusque pariatur. Ego sum ille consul, patres      2
conscripti, cui non forum, in quo omnis aequitas continetur, non campus,
consularibus auspiciis consecratus, non curia, summum auxilium omnium
gentium, non domus, commune perfugium, non lectus, ad quietem datus, non
denique haec sedes honoris umquam vacua mortis periculo atque insidiis
fuit. Ego multa tacui, multa pertuli, multa concessi, multa meo quodam
dolore in vestro timore sanavi. Nunc si hunc exitum consulatus mei di
immortales esse voluerunt, ut vos populumque Romanum ex caede miserrima,
coniuges liberosque vestros virginesque Vestales ex acerbissima
vexatione, templa atque delubra, hanc pulcherrimam patriam omnium
nostrum ex foedissima flamma, totam Italiam ex bello et vastitate
eriperem, quaecumque mihi uni proponetur fortuna, subeatur. Etenim si P.
Lentulus suum nomen inductus a vatibus fatale ad perniciem rei publicae
fore putavit, cur ego non laeter meum consulatum ad salutem populi
Romani prope fatalem exstitisse? =2.= Quare, patres conscripti,      3
consulite vobis, prospicite patriae, conservate vos, coniuges, liberos
fortunasque vestras, populi Romani nomen salutemque defendite: mihi
parcere ac de me cogitare desinite. Nam primum debeo sperare, omnes
deos, qui huic urbi praesident, pro eo mihi ac mereor relaturos esse
gratiam: deinde, si quid obtigerit, aequo animo paratoque moriar. Nam
neque turpis mors forti viro potest accidere neque immatura consulari
neque misera sapienti. Nec tamen ego sum ille ferreus, qui fratris
carissimi et amantissimi praesentis maerore non movear horumque omnium
lacrimis, a quibus me circumsessum videtis: neque meam mentem non domum
saepe revocat exanimata uxor et abiecta metu filia et parvulus filius,
quem mihi videtur amplecti res publica tamquam obsidem consulatus mei,
neque ille, qui exspectans huius exitum diei stat in conspectu meo,
gener. Moveor his rebus omnibus, sed in eam partem, uti salvi sint
vobiscum omnes, etiam si me vis aliqua oppresserit, potius, quam et illi
et nos una rei publicae peste pereamus.


     _Think of the gravity of the situation. You have already by
     your measures shown your view of the case, but I will put it
     before you as though it were still an open question. Only
     remember that the evil is widespread, and calls for energetic
     action._

Quare, patres conscripti, incumbite ad salutem rei publicae,      4
circumspicite omnes procellas, quae impendent, nisi providetis. Non Ti.
Gracchus, quod iterum tribunus pl. fieri voluit, non C. Gracchus, quod
agrarios concitare conatus est, non L. Saturninus, quod C. Memmium
occidit, in discrimen aliquod atque in vestrae severitatis iudicium
adducitur: tenentur ii, qui ad urbis incendium, ad vestram omnium
caedem, ad Catilinam accipiendum Romae restiterunt; tenentur litterae,
signa, manus, denique unius cuiusque confessio; sollicitantur
Allobroges, servitia excitantur, Catilina arcessitur, id est initum
consilium, ut interfectis omnibus nemo ne ad deplorandum quidem populi
Romani nomen atque ad lamentandam tanti imperii calamitatem relinquatur.
=3.= Haec omnia indices detulerunt, rei confessi sunt, vos multis      5
iam iudiciis iudicavistis, primum quod mihi gratias egistis singularibus
verbis et mea virtute atque diligentia perditorum hominum coniurationem
patefactam esse decrevistis, deinde quod P. Lentulum se abdicare
praetura coëgistis, tum quod eum et ceteros, de quibus iudicastis, in
custodiam dandos censuistis, maximeque quod meo nomine supplicationem
decrevistis, qui honos togato habitus ante me est nemini; postremo
hesterno die praemia legatis Allobrogum Titoque Volturcio dedistis
amplissima. Quae sunt omnia eius modi, ut ii, qui in custodiam nominatim
dati sunt, sine ulla dubitatione a vobis damnati esse videantur.

Sed ego institui referre ad vos, patres conscripti, tamquam      6
integrum, et de facto quid iudicetis et de poena quid censeatis. Illa
praedicam, quae sunt consulis. Ego magnum in re publica versari furorem
et nova quaedam misceri et concitari mala iam pridem videbam, sed hanc
tantam, tam exitiosam haberi coniurationem a civibus numquam putavi.
Nunc quidquid est, quocumque vestrae mentes inclinant atque sententiae,
statuendum vobis ante noctem est. Quantum facinus ad vos delatum sit,
videtis. Huic si paucos putatis adfines esse, vehementer erratis. Latius
opinione disseminatum est hoc malum: manavit non solum per Italiam,
verum etiam transcendit Alpes et obscure serpens multas iam provincias
occupavit. Id opprimi sustentando et prolatando nullo pacto potest:
quacumque ratione placet, celeriter vobis vindicandum est.


     _Two proposals are before us. D. Silanus would put the
     conspirators to death; C. Caesar would imprison them in some
     municipium for life; a plan difficult to carry out, and perhaps
     really more severe than the other._

=4.= Video adhuc duas esse sententias, unam D. Silani, qui censet      7
eos, qui haec delere conati sunt, morte esse multandos, alteram
C. Caesaris, qui mortis poenam removet, ceterorum suppliciorum omnes
acerbitates amplectitur. Uterque et pro sua dignitate et pro rerum
magnitudine in summa severitate versatur. Alter eos, qui nos omnes vita
privare conati sunt, qui delere imperium, qui populi Romani nomen
exstinguere, punctum temporis frui vita et hoc communi spiritu non putat
oportere, atque hoc genus poenae saepe in improbos cives in hac re
publica esse usurpatum recordatur. Alter intellegit mortem ab dis
immortalibus non esse supplicii causa constitutam, sed aut necessitatem
naturae aut laborum ac miseriarum quietem. Itaque eam sapientes numquam
inviti, fortes saepe etiam lubenter oppetiverunt. Vincula vero et ea
sempiterna certe ad singularem poenam nefarii sceleris inventa sunt.
Municipiis dispertiri iubet. Habere videtur ista res iniquitatem, si
imperare velis, difficultatem, si rogare: decernatur tamen, si placet.
Ego enim suscipiam, et, ut spero, reperiam, qui id, quod salutis      8
omnium causa statueritis, non putent esse suae dignitatis
recusare. Adiungit gravem poenam municipiis, si quis eorum vincula
ruperit: horribiles custodias circumdat et dignas scelere hominum
perditorum. Sancit, ne quis eorum poenam, quos condemnat, aut per
senatum aut per populum possit levare: eripit etiam spem, quae sola
homines in miseriis consolari solet. Bona praeterea publicari iubet:
vitam solam relinquit nefariis hominibus, quam si eripuisset, multas uno
dolore animi atque corporis aerumnas et omnes scelerum poenas ademisset.
Itaque ut aliqua in vita formido improbis esset posita, apud inferos
eius modi quaedam illi antiqui supplicia impiis constituta esse
voluerunt, quod videlicet intelligebant iis remotis non esse mortem
ipsam pertimescendam.


     _My personal interest is clear. As Caesar is a popular leader,
     I shall not, if you adopt his proposal, have to fear so much
     the attacks of that party. Some of its members I see are
     absent, as though they questioned our jurisdiction in this
     matter. Caesar has shown that he has no such scruples._

=5.= Nunc ego, patres conscripti, mea video quid intersit. Si      9
eritis secuti sententiam C. Caesaris, quoniam hanc is in re publica
viam, quae popularis habetur, secutus est, fortasse minus erunt, hoc
auctore et cognitore huiusce sententiae, mihi populares impetus
pertimescendi: sin illam alteram, nescio an amplius mihi negotii
contrahatur. Sed tamen meorum periculorum rationes utilitas rei
publicae vincat. Habemus enim a Caesare, sicut ipsius dignitas et
maiorum eius amplitudo postulabat, sententiam tamquam obsidem perpetuae
in rem publicam voluntatis. Intellectum est, quid interesset inter
levitatem contionatorum et animum vere popularem, saluti populi
consulentem. Video de istis, qui se populares haberi volunt,      10
abesse non neminem, ne de capite videlicet civium Romanorum sententiam
ferat. Is et nudius tertius in custodiam cives Romanos dedit et
supplicationem mihi decrevit et indices hesterno die maximis praemiis
adfecit. Iam hoc nemini dubium est, qui reo custodiam, quaesitori
gratulationem, indici praemium decrerit, quid de tota re et causa
iudicarit. At vero C. Caesar intellegit, legem Semproniam esse de
civibus Romanis constitutam, qui autem rei publicae sit hostis, eum
civem nullo modo esse posse; denique ipsum latorem Semproniae legis
iniussu populi poenas rei publicae dependisse. Idem ipsum Lentulum,
largitorem et prodigum, non putat, cum de pernicie populi Romani, exitio
huius urbis, tam acerbe, tam crudeliter cogitarit, etiam appellari posse
popularem. Itaque homo mitissimus atque lenissimus non dubitat P.
Lentulum aeternis tenebris vinculisque mandare et sancit in posterum, ne
quis huius supplicio levando se iactare et in perniciem populi Romani
posthac popularis esse possit: adiungit etiam publicationem bonorum, ut
omnes animi cruciatus et corporis etiam egestas ac mendicitas
consequatur.


     _In any case we need not fear the charge of cruelty. In
     punishing crimes like these, severity is the truest humanity.
     Remember what L. Caesar said yesterday; yet the offences of C.
     Gracchus cannot be compared to Catilina's._

=6.= Quam ob rem sive hoc statueritis, dederitis mihi comitem ad      11
contionem populo carum atque iucundum, sive Silani sententiam sequi
malueritis, facile me atque vos crudelitatis vituperatione populus
Romanus exsolvet, atque obtinebo eam multo leniorem fuisse. Quamquam,
patres conscripti, quae potest esse in tanti sceleris immanitate
punienda crudelitas? Ego enim de meo sensu iudico. Nam ita mihi salva re
publica vobiscum perfrui liceat, ut ego, quod in hac causa vehementior
sum, non atrocitate animi moveor--quis est enim me mitior?--sed
singulari quadam humanitate et misericordia. Videor enim mihi videre
hanc urbem, lucem orbis terrarum atque arcem omnium gentium, subito uno
incendio concidentem; cerno animo sepulta in patria miseros atque
insepultos acervos civium; versatur mihi ante oculos aspectus Cethegi et
furor in vestra caede bacchantis. Cum vero mihi proposui      12
regnantem Lentulum, sicut ipse se sperasse ex fatis confessus est,
purpuratum esse huic Gabinium, cum exercitu venisse Catilinam, tum
lamentationem matrum familias, tum fugam virginum atque puerorum ac
vexationem [virginum] Vestalium perhorresco, et quia mihi vehementer
haec videntur misera atque miseranda, idcirco in eos, qui ea perficere
voluerunt, me severum vehementemque praebeo. Etenim quaero, si quis
pater familias, liberis suis a servo interfectis, uxore occisa, incensa
domo, supplicium de servo non quam acerbissimum sumpserit, utrum is
clemens ac misericors an inhumanissimus et crudelissimus esse videatur?
Mihi vero importunus ac ferreus, qui non dolore et cruciatu nocentis
suum dolorem cruciatumque lenierit. Sic nos in his hominibus, qui nos,
qui coniuges, qui liberos nostros trucidare voluerunt, qui singulas
unius cuiusque nostrum domos et hoc universum rei publicae domicilium
delere conati sunt, qui id egerunt, ut gentem Allobrogum in vestigiis
huius urbis atque in cinere deflagrati imperii conlocarent, si
vehementissimi fuerimus, misericordes habebimur: sin remissiores esse
voluerimus, summae nobis crudelitatis in patriae civiumque pernicie fama
subeunda est. Nisi vero cuipiam L. Caesar, vir fortissimus et      13
amantissimus rei publicae, crudelior nudius tertius visus est, cum
sororis suae, feminae lectissimae, virum praesentem et audientem vita
privandum esse dixit, cum avum suum iussu consulis interfectum filiumque
eius impuberem, legatum a patre missum, in carcere necatum esse dixit.
Quorum quod simile factum? quod initum delendae rei publicae consilium?
Largitionis voluntas tum in re publica versata est et partium quaedam
contentio. Atque eo tempore huius avus Lentuli, vir clarissimus, armatus
Gracchum est persecutus; ille etiam grave tum vulnus accepit, ne quid de
summa re publica deminueretur: hic ad evertenda fundamenta rei publicae
Gallos arcessit, servitia concitat, Catilinam vocat, attribuit nos
trucidandos Cethego et ceteros cives interficiendos Gabinio, urbem
inflammandam Cassio, Italiam totam vastandam diripiendamque Catilinae.
Vereamini censeo, ne in hoc scelere tam immani ac tam nefando nimis
aliquid severe statuisse videamini: multo magis est verendum, ne
remissione poenae crudeliores in patriam, quam ne severitate
animadversionis nimis vehementes in acerbissimos hostes fuisse
videamini.


     _You need not fear that we shall lack strength to carry out our
     decision. Every class in the State is with us: the knights, the
     civil servants, the freedmen, even the slaves. It is true that
     the shopkeepers have been solicited by Lentulus, but in vain._

=7.= Sed ea, quae exaudio, patres conscripti, dissimulare non      14
possum. Iaciuntur enim voces, quae perveniunt ad aures meas, eorum qui
vereri videntur, ut habeam satis praesidii ad ea, quae vos statueritis
hodierno die, transigunda. Omnia et provisa et parata et constituta
sunt, patres conscripti, cum mea summa cura atque diligentia tum etiam
multo maiore populi Romani ad summum imperium retinendum et ad communes
fortunas conservandas voluntate. Omnes adsunt omnium ordinum homines,
omnium generum, omnium denique aetatum; plenum est forum, plena templa
circum forum, pleni omnes aditus huius loci ac templi. Causa est enim
post urbem conditam haec inventa sola, in qua omnes sentirent unum atque
idem, praeter eos, qui cum sibi viderent esse pereundum, cum omnibus
potius quam soli perire voluerunt. Hosce ego homines excipio et      15
secerno lubenter; neque enim in improborum civium, sed in acerbissimorum
hostium numero habendos puto. Ceteri vero, di immortales, qua
frequentia, quo studio, qua virtute ad communem salutem dignitatemque
consentiunt! Quid ego equites Romanos commemorem? qui vobis ita summam
ordinis consiliique concedunt, ut vobiscum de amore rei publicae
certent; quos ex multorum annorum dissensione huius ordinis ad
societatem concordiamque revocatos hodiernus dies vobiscum atque haec
causa coniungit: quam si coniunctionem, confirmatam in consulatu meo,
perpetuam in re publica tenuerimus, confirmo vobis nullum posthac malum
civile ac domesticum ad ullam rei publicae partem esse venturum. Pari
studio defendundae rei publicae convenisse video tribunos aerarios,
fortissimos viros; scribas item universos, quos cum casu hic dies ad
aerarium frequentasset, video ab exspectatione sortis ad salutem
communem esse conversos. Omnis ingenuorum adest multitudo, etiam      16
tenuissimorum. Quis enim est, cui non haec templa, aspectus urbis,
possessio libertatis, lux denique haec ipsa et hoc commune patriae solum
cum sit carum, tum vero dulce atque iucundum? =8.= Operae pretium est,
patres conscripti, libertinorum hominum studia cognoscere, qui sua
virtute fortunam huius civitatis consecuti hanc suam patriam iudicant,
quam quidam hic nati et summo loco nati non patriam suam, sed urbem
hostium esse iudicaverunt. Sed quid ego hosce homines ordinesque
commemoro, quos privatae fortunae, quos communis res publica, quos
denique libertas, ea quae dulcissima est, ad salutem patriae defendendam
excitavit? Servus est nemo, qui modo tolerabili condicione sit
servitutis, qui non audaciam civium perhorrescat, qui non haec stare
cupiat, qui non tantum, quantum audet et quantum potest, conferat ad
communem salutem voluntatis. Quare si quem vestrum forte      17
commovet hoc, quod auditum est, lenonem quendam Lentuli concursare
circum tabernas, pretio sperare posse sollicitari animos egentium atque
imperitorum, est id quidem coeptum atque tentatum, sed nulli sunt
inventi tam aut fortuna miseri aut voluntate perditi, qui non illum
ipsum sellae atque operis et quaestus cotidiani locum, qui non cubile
atque lectulum suum, qui denique non cursum hunc otiosum vitae suae
salvum esse velint. Multo vero maxima pars eorum, qui in tabernis sunt,
immo vero--id enim potius est dicendum--genus hoc universum amantissimum
est otii. Etenim omne instrumentum, omnis opera atque quaestus
frequentia civium sustentatur, alitur otio: quorum si quaestus occlusis
tabernis minui solet, quid tandem incensis futurum fuit?


     _The people will not fail you; do not fail them. Take advantage
     of their unanimity, and think of the gravity of the crisis._

=9.= Quae cum ita sint, patres conscripti, vobis populi Romani      18
praesidia non desunt: vos ne populo Romano deesse videamini providete.
Habetis consulem ex plurimis periculis et insidiis atque ex media morte
non ad vitam suam, sed ad salutem vestram reservatum; omnes ordines ad
conservandam rem publicam mente, voluntate, studio, virtute, voce
consentiunt; obsessa facibus et telis impiae coniurationis vobis supplex
manus tendit patria communis, vobis se, vobis vitam omnium civium, vobis
arcem et Capitolium, vobis aras Penatium, vobis ignem illum Vestae
sempiternum, vobis omnium deorum templa atque delubra, vobis muros atque
urbis tecta commendat. Praeterea de vestra vita, de coniugum vestrarum
atque liberorum anima, de fortunis omnium, de sedibus, de focis vestris
hodierno die vobis iudicandum est. Habetis ducem memorem vestri,      19
oblitum sui, quae non semper facultas datur; habetis omnes ordines,
omnes homines, universum populum Romanum, id quod in civili causa
hodierno die primum videmus, unum atque idem sentientem. Cogitate,
quantis laboribus fundatum imperium, quanta virtute stabilitam
libertatem, quanta deorum benignitate auctas exaggeratasque fortunas una
nox paene delerit. Id ne umquam posthac non modo confici, sed ne
cogitari quidem possit a civibus, hodierno die providendum est. Atque
haec, non ut vos, qui mihi studio paene praecurritis, excitarem, locutus
sum, sed ut mea vox, quae debet esse in re publica princeps, officio
functa consulari videretur.


     _I know the danger I incur; but whatever comes I shall never
     repent of what I have done. My achievements will find a place
     with those of our national heroes. My domestic enemies will
     wage eternal war upon me; but I trust in the protection of all
     good citizens._

=10.= Nunc antequam ad sententiam redeo, de me pauca dicam. Ego,      20
quanta manus est coniuratorum, quam videtis esse permagnam, tantam me
inimicorum multitudinem suscepisse video, sed eam iudico esse turpem et
infirmam et contemptam et abiectam. Quodsi aliquando alicuius furore et
scelere concitata manus ista plus valuerit quam vestra ac rei publicae
dignitas, me tamen meorum factorum atque consiliorum numquam, patres
conscripti, paenitebit. Etenim mors, quam illi mihi fortasse minitantur,
omnibus est parata: vitae tantam laudem, quanta vos me vestris decretis
honestastis, nemo est adsecutus; ceteris enim bene gestae, mihi uni
conservatae rei publicae gratulationem decrevistis. Sit Scipio      21
clarus ille, cuius consilio atque virtute Hannibal in Africam redire
atque ex Italia decedere coactus est; ornetur alter eximia laude
Africanus, qui duas urbes huic imperio infestissimas, Karthaginem
Numantiamque, delevit; habeatur vir egregius Paullus ille, cuius currum
rex potentissimus quondam et nobilissimus Perses honestavit; sit aeterna
gloria Marius, qui bis Italiam obsidione et metu servitutis liberavit;
anteponatur omnibus Pompeius, cuius res gestae atque virtutes eisdem
quibus solis cursus regionibus ac terminis continentur: erit profecto
inter horum laudes aliquid loci nostrae gloriae, nisi forte maius est
patefacere nobis provincias, quo exire possimus, quam curare ut etiam
illi, qui absunt, habeant quo victores revertantur. Quamquam est      22
uno loco condicio melior externae victoriae quam domesticae, quia hostes
alienigenae aut oppressi serviunt aut recepti in amicitiam beneficio se
obligatos putant; qui autem ex numero civium, dementia aliqua depravati,
hostes patriae semel esse coeperunt, eos cum a pernicie rei publicae
reppuleris, nec vi coërcere nec beneficio placare possis. Quare mihi cum
perditis civibus aeternum bellum susceptum esse video. Id ego vestro
bonorumque omnium auxilio memoriaque tantorum periculorum, quae non modo
in hoc populo, qui servatus est, sed in omnium gentium sermonibus ac
mentibus semper haerebit, a me atque a meis facile propulsari posse
confido. Neque ulla profecto tanta vis reperietur, quae coniunctionem
vestram equitumque Romanorum et tantam conspirationem bonorum omnium
confringere et labefactare possit.


     _One reward I ask for my sacrifices and exertions--your
     recollection of my services, and your protection of my son.
     Vote then bravely, remembering the interests at stake, and I
     will carry out your decision._

=11.= Quae cum ita sint, pro imperio, pro exercitu, pro      23
provincia, quam neglexi, pro triumpho ceterisque laudis insignibus, quae
sunt a me propter urbis vestraeque salutis custodiam repudiata, pro
clientelis hospitiisque provincialibus, quae tamen urbanis opibus non
minore labore tueor quam comparo, pro his igitur omnibus rebus et pro
meis in vos singularibus studiis et pro hac, quam perspicitis, ad
conservandam rem publicam diligentia nihil a vobis nisi huius temporis
totiusque mei consulatus memoriam postulo: quae dum erit in vestris fixa
mentibus, tutissimo me muro saeptum esse arbitrabor. Quodsi meam spem
vis improborum fefellerit atque superaverit, commendo vobis meum parvum
filium, cui profecto satis erit praesidii non solum ad salutem, verum
etiam ad dignitatem, si eius, qui haec omnia suo solius periculo
conservaverit, illum filium esse memineritis. Quapropter de      24
summa salute vestra populique Romani, de vestris coniugibus ac liberis,
de aris ac focis, de fanis ac templis, de totius urbis tectis ac
sedibus, de imperio ac libertate, de salute Italiae, de universa re
publica decernite diligenter, ut instituistis, ac fortiter. Habetis eum
consulem, qui et parere vestris decretis non dubitet et ea, quae
statueritis, quoad vivet, defendere et per se ipsum praestare.



    CICERO

    SPEECHES AGAINST CATILINA

    _WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES_

    BY

    E. A. UPCOTT, M.A.

    LATE SCHOLAR OF BALLIOL COLLEGE, OXFORD
    ASSISTANT MASTER IN WELLINGTON COLLEGE



    PART II.--NOTES

    _THIRD EDITION, REVISED_


    OXFORD

    AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

    1900



NOTES.

[N.B.--_The references are to the sections._]



ORATION I.


§1.

=tandem= often strengthens interrogatives. 'How long, pray?' or 'How
long, I ask?' Cf. 1. 16 'quo tandem animo hoc tibi ferendum putas?' and
2. 2 'quanto tandem maerore?' So also with imperatives, as in 1. 8
'Recognosce tandem.'

=abutere=, future, as is shown by 'eludet,' 'iactabit.'

=quam diu=, etc. 'How long will your madness yet have full play?'
Connect 'etiam' with 'quamdiu,' as in Sall. Cat. 61 'Catilina repertus
est paullulum etiam spirans.' For 'eludet' used absolutely cf. Livy 2.
45 'adeo superbe insolenterque hostis eludebat.' But some editors read
'_nos_ eludet' ('make sport of us').

=nocturnum praesidium Palatii=. The Palatium, or 'Mons Palatinus,' was
one of the seven hills, occupying a central position S. E. of the
Capitoline. It was now protected at night by a guard against any sudden
attempt of the conspirators to seize it. Augustus and his successors had
their residence there; hence, in later times, 'palatium' came to mean 'a
palace.'

=urbis vigiliae=, 'the patrols of the city.'

=bonorum=, perhaps in a general sense 'respectable citizens,' but with
special reference to the senatorial party at Rome, who called themselves
_boni cives_ or _optimates_; just as the aristocratic party at Athens
called themselves καλοκἀγαθοί.

=hic munitissimus=, etc. They were assembled in the temple of Iuppiter
Stator on the Palatine, which was protected by the Equites in arms. The
ordinary place of meeting was the Curia Hostilia, on the north side of
the Forum.

=horum=, the senators.

=constrictam . . . coniurationem tuam=, 'that your conspiracy is fast
held and bound in the knowledge of all here present,' (i.e. it is
powerless, because everybody knows of it).

=Quid proxima . . . arbitraris?= 'Quem' is the direct interrogative;
'quid egeris,' 'ubi fueris,' etc., indirect questions depending upon
'ignorare'; they are put first in the sentence for the sake of emphasis.

=proxima nocte=, 'last night,' on which the attempt on Cicero's life was
made, superiore, 'the night before last,' when the meeting in the house
of Laeca was held. See Introduction, pp. 11, 12, and note.


§2.

=immo vero= is used when the speaker wishes to correct, either by
addition or qualification, something that has been said, like the Greek
μὲν oῦν. 'Lives, did I say? Nay, he actually comes into the senate.' Cf.
4. 17 'maxima pars . . . immo vero genus universum.'

=publici consilii=. _Consilium_ properly = 'deliberation,' 'counsel.'
Hence, as here, 'the deliberating body,' a sense which more properly
belongs to _concilium_. Any state-constituted assemblage of persons for
deliberation was called 'consilium publicum' (e.g. a board of _iudices_
assembled to try a case at law).

=unum quemque nostrum=, not 'each one of us,' but 'us, one by one,'
'individually.'

=viri fortes=, ironical.

=si vitemus=. The subj. is used in the protasis, because the idea of
contingency is contained in 'satisfacere videmur,' which is substituted
for the more regular 'satisfaciamus.' Cf. 4. 7 'habere videtur ista res
iniquitatem, si imperare velis,' and 2. 25 'si contendere velimus,
intelligere possumus.'

=iussu consulis=. The Lex Valeria (see note on 1. 28) secured to every
citizen the right of appeal to the people against the sentence of a
magistrate. On the question whether Cicero was on this occasion legally
entitled to put Catilina to death on his own authority, see Intr. Note
B.


§3.

=An vero, etc=. Tiberius Gracchus was tribune 133 B.C. His law for the
distribution of the public land roused against him the hatred of the
aristocratic party. On the day of the tribunician election for the next
year he was attacked and killed with 300 of his adherents by a body of
senators headed by P. Scipio Nasica. _Privatus_ is strongly opposed to
_consules_ in the next clause. It appears that Nasica was not actually
Pontifex Maximus at the time, but in any case the office was not
regarded as a magistracy.

=mediocriter labefactantem= is similarly contrasted with the more
serious designs of Catilina. Cicero here mentions the violent
proceedings against the Gracchi and their successors with approval,
because he wished to plead for similar measures against Catilina. In
another speech delivered during this year (de Lege Agraria 2. 5. 10) he
calls them 'amantissimi plebis Romanae viri,' and says, 'Non sum autem
is consul, qui, ut plerique, nefas esse arbitrer Gracchos laudare.'

=C. Servilius, etc=. Spurius Maelius, a rich plebeian, sold corn to the
populace at low rates during a famine in 440 B.C. He was accused of
aiming at the supreme power. Cincinnatus was appointed dictator, with C.
Servilius Ahala as his master of the horse; the latter killed Sp.
Maelius with his own hand.

=quod . . . occidit=, 'the fact that,' in apposition to illa, which, as
often, refers to what follows, like ἐκεῖνος in Greek.

=Habemus senatus consultum=, i.e. the _ultimum decretum_, passed Oct.
21. See Introduction, p. 11.

=non deest=, etc. The senate, as the deliberative and authorizing body,
have done their part; the consuls, as the executive, fail.


§4.

=Decrevit quondam=, etc. This was in 121 B.C. Gaius Gracchus (tribune
123, 122) had carried a series of measures tending to overthrow the
authority of the senate. They took the opportunity of a tumult to pass
the _ultimum decretum_, whereupon L. Opimius the consul, with an armed
force, attacked the Aventine, where the adherents of Gracchus were
assembled. Gracchus himself and his supporter M. Fulvius were killed.

=propter quasdam=, etc., a mild expression, intended once more to point
the contrast between the Gracchi and Catilina.

=patre=. Ti. Sempronius Gracchus, who was twice consul and twice
triumphed.

=avo=. His mother was Cornelia, daughter of P. Cornelius Scipio
Africanus, the conqueror of Hannibal.

=Simili senatus consulto=, etc. In 100 B.C. revolutionary measures were
proposed by L. Appuleius Saturninus and C. Servilius Glaucia. In their
fear of violence, the senate passed the _ultimum decretum_ and called
upon the consul Marius to protect them, though he had been a supporter
of Saturninus. In the tumult which followed, the latter and his
adherents were shut up in the senate house, where their opponents,
taking off the tiles, stoned them to death.

=mors ac reipublicae poena=. 'Ac' is explanatory, 'death, (which was)
the penalty inflicted by the state.'

=remorata est=, literally, 'Did death keep them waiting a day longer?'
i.e. 'Had they to wait a single day longer for their death?' He means
that they were put to death on the same day as that on which the
_ultimum decretum_ was passed.

=vicesimum diem=. He speaks in round numbers. The exact time since Oct.
21 (by the Roman reckoning) was eighteen or nineteen days, according as
we fix the date of this speech to Nov. 7 or Nov. 8. See Introduction, p.
12, note.

=interfectum te esse convenit=, 'you might well have been put to death.'

=patres conscripti=. The regular title used in addressing the senate.
The traditional explanation of it is as follows. The original senators
were called _patres_ (patricians); after the expulsion of the kings 160
new senators were enrolled (partly plebeians); these were called
_conscripti_. Hence the whole body were addressed as _patres et
conscripti_ and by abbreviation _patres conscripti_. But this would seem
to require _adscripti_ rather than _conscripti_, and 'it is possible the
senators were originally called _patres conscripti_ to distinguish them
from those _patres_ who were not senators.' [Gow's Companion to School
Classics, p. 192.]


§5.

=in Etruriae faucibus=, at Faesulae (now Fiesole), on the south-west
slope of the Apennines, commanding one of the passes into Cisalpine
Gaul.

=adeo=, 'even,' 'actually.' Cf. 1. 9 'atque adeo de orbis terrarum
exitio.'

=si te iam=, etc. 'Credo,' as usual, marks the sentence as ironical. He
might conceivably fear two opposite criticisms on his conduct--

(_a_) 'ne omnes boni serius factum esse dicant,'

(_b_) 'ne quisquam crudelius factum esse dicat.'

He really fears (_a_); hence speaking ironically he reverses the case,
and says, I shall have to fear, I suppose, not rather (_a_) than (_b_)
(i.e. not so much (_a_) as (_b_)). Translate the whole--'I shall have to
fear I suppose--not that all good citizens may call my action tardy--but
that some one may say it was excessively cruel.'


§6.

=quisquam=, besides its regular use in negative sentences and questions
implying a negative, is used in affirmative sentences, in the sense of
'_any one at all_,' where it is implied that there can be none, or at
most but one or two.

=mihi crede=, 'trust to me,' 'take my advice.'


§7.

=me . . . dicere=. The pres. inf. is often used after _memini_ when the
speaker refers to his own experience. The past event is for the moment
actually present to his mind. So in English 'do you remember my saying?'
Cf. Virg. Ecl. 1. 17 'de caelo tactas memini praedicere quercus.'

=a. d. xii Kal. Nov.= Oct. 21. See Intr. page 11.

=futurus esset=, subj. as part of what Cicero said in the senate.

=a. d. vi Kal. Nov.= Oct. 27. The reading is not certain, the MSS.
varying between vi and ix.

=audaciae satellitem=, etc., 'servant and helper.' 'Satelles' implies a
lower, less free relation than 'administer.' Cf. in Verr. 3. 21
'ministri ac satellites cupiditatum.'

=Num me fefellit=, 'Was I not right, not only as to the gravity of the
design, savage and incredible as it was, but--what is more
remarkable--in the date?'

=optimatium=. See note on 'bonorum' 1. 1.

=sui=, neut. gen. sing. from 'suus,' used to supply the place of gen.
pl. of 'se.' Cf. the similar use of 'nostri,' 'vestri.'

=cum . . . profugerunt=. When _cum_ simply means 'at the time when' (quo
tempore) and does not contain any idea of consequence or cause, it is
usually (though by no means invariably) followed by the indicative;
especially when, as here, the time is fixed by the preceding
demonstrative _tum_. Cf. below 'cum . . . dicebas,' and 1. 21 'cum
quiescunt, probant,' 2. 1 'loco ille motus est, cum ex urbe est
expulsus.' Nothing is known of this exodus.

=qui remansissemus=. The antecedent to 'qui' must be understood from
'nostra.' Subj. because part of the Oratio Obliqua. Catilina said,
'caede illorum qui remanserunt contentus sum.'


§8.

=Quid?= a particle of transition, frequent in rhetorical passages.
'Again.' 'Nay more.' Cf. 'Quid vero?' 1. 14.

=cum=, 'although.'

=Praeneste=, twenty miles S. E. of Rome, occupying a strong position in
the Hernican mountains. It had been the last stronghold of the younger
Marius in 82 B.C.; on its capitulation Sulla put most of the citizens to
death, and subsequently established one of his colonies on the site.
Catilina hoped to use it as a fortified post.

=quod non ego=, etc. 'Quod' is consecutive, = 'tale ut.' 'Non' negatives
the whole clause 'ego . . . sentiam.' Others for 'quod non' read 'quin'
[= 'qui-ne,' lit. 'in such a way that not'], i.e. 'you can do nothing
without my hearing it.'

=tandem=. See on 1. 1.

=noctem illam superiorem=, 'the night before last'; 'last night' would
be 'hanc noctem' or 'proximam noctem.' Below he says 'priore nocte,' to
avoid repeating the same word. See Introduction, p. 12, note.

=ad=, 'with a view to.' Cf. 1. 26 'ad hoc studium meditati.'

=inter falcarios=, 'in the street of the scythemakers.' Cf. 'inter
lignarios,' 'in the street of the carpenters.' Livy 35. 441.


§9.

=ubinam gentium=, 'Where _in the world_?' A genitive is sometimes joined
to an adverb of place or time to define it more exactly. Cf. 'ibidem
loci' = 'in the same place'; 'nusquam gentium' = 'nowhere in the
world;' 'postea loci' (Sallust, Jug. 102. 1), 'afterwards,' and the
Greek ποῦ γῆς;

=de re publica sententiam rogo=. The consul collected the opinion of the
senate by asking each senator successively for his vote (_sententia_) on
the question before the house. The senator might either give it without
comment or make a speech in support of his views.

=illa ipsa nocte=. See Introduction, p. 12, note.

=duo equites Romani=. On _equites_ see Introduction, p. 9, note. Their
names were C. Cornelius and L. Vargunteius (Sallust, Cat. 28).


§10.

=salutatum=, supine. The early morning was the usual time for
complimentary calls. Cf. Martial 4. 8. 1 'Prima salutantes atque altera
conterit hora.'

=id temporis=, adverbial phrase, 'at that particular time.' Cf. Cic. Pro
Roscio Amerino 97 'ut id temporis Roma proficisceretur'; Tac. Ann. 5. 9
'oblisis faucibus id aetatis corpora in Gemonias abjecta.' For this use
of the accusative, cf. phrases like 'ceterum,' 'suam vicem,' etc.

=aliquando= often strengthens imperatives, implying that now at length
the time has come for doing what is requested. Cf. Cic. Phil. 2. 46. 118
'Respice, quaeso, aliquando'; and in Verrem 2. 1. 28 'audite, quaeso, et
aliquando miseremini sociorum.' So in Greek μέθες ποτέ (Soph. Phil.
816). Cf. also 'tandem aliquando' 1. 18, 2. 1.


§11.

=Iovi Statori=. The senate were assembled in the temple of Iuppiter
Stator on the Palatine. See on 1.33.

=in uno homine=, 'in the person of a single man.'

=consuli designato=. He was 'designatus' during the latter part of 64.
We do not know that Catilina then made any attempt on his life.

=proximis comitiis consularibus=, 'at the late assembly for the election
of the consuls.'

=campo=. The Comitia Centuriata, which elected the consuls, met in the
Campus Martius; the Comitia Tributa in the Forum.

=nullo tumultu publice concitato=, 'without any official summons to
arms.'

=per me=, 'by myself,' i.e. by my own exertions without calling in other
help. Cf. 1. 28 'hominem per te cognitum,' 4. 24 'per se ipsum
praestare.'


§12.

=quod est primum=, etc. 'Since I cannot yet venture to take the course
which is the most obvious, and the most suited to the authority I hold
and the strict traditions of our ancestors.' _Imperium_ is the consular
authority (not 'empire'). Cf. 2. 3 'huius imperii severitas.'

=ad=. Greek πρός. 'With respect to.' Cf. 2. 18 'adquirere ad fidem.'

=sentina rei publicae=, ('the refuse of the state'), forms a single
expression upon which the explanatory genitive 'tuorum comitum'
('consisting of your comrades') depends.


§13.

=faciebas=, 'were just doing,' 'ready to do.'

=exilium=. See on §20 below.

=domesticae turpitudinis= refers especially to family scandals, such as
the story of his wife and son (§14). =privatarum rerum dedecus=, to
offences extending beyond the family, but still confined to private
life, i.e. having no political object.

=inretisses=. Subjunctive, because the antecedent to 'quem' does not
refer to any particular individual, but stands for a class.

=ad audaciam=, etc. The sword and the torch are the instruments by which
'audacia' and 'libido' attain their objects; the former to strike the
blow, the latter to show the way in the darkness.


§14.

=alio incredibili scelere=. Sallust (Cat. 15) says that Catilina,
wishing to marry the profligate Orestilla, poisoned his son because she
objected to his presence. The further charge, that he had killed his
first wife, is mentioned by Cicero alone.

=aut non vindicata esse=, understand 'si exstiterit.'

=proximis Idibus=. The Kalends, Nones, and Ides were the 'settling-days'
at Rome. Cicero means that Catilina will realize his failure on the next
settling-day, when his creditors will demand their money. Cf. Hor. Sat.
1. 3. 87 'Cum misero tristes venere Kalendae,' and Epodes 2. 69 'Omnem
redegit Idibus pecuniam, Curat Kalendis ponere,' where the money-lender
calls in his money on the Ides of one month, and on the Kalends of the
next lends it out again.


§15.

=te pridie Kalendas=, etc., i.e. December 31, 66 B.C. This refers to the
so-called 'first conspiracy,' on which see Introduction, page 8.

=comitio=. The singular _comitium_ denotes the place of assembly; the
plural _comitia_ the assembly itself.

=mentem=, 'reflection.'

=fortunam=, because the plot only failed through his accidentally giving
the signal too soon.

=neque enim=, etc. 'Neque' negatives the whole sentence, and 'non' goes
closely with 'multa'; 'for they are no secret, nor have your later
offences been few.'

=parva quadam declinatione et, ut aiunt, corpore=. Hendiadys, 'by a mere
turn of the body, so to speak.' The metaphor is taken from fencing, ('ut
aiunt' being introduced, like the Greek ὡς εἰπεῖν, to soften the
abruptness). Cf. Virg. Aen. 5. 437 (of boxing)

    'Stat gravis Entellus, nisuque immotus eodem
    Corpore tela modo atque oculis vigilantibus exit.'


§16.

=initiata ac devota=. 'Consecrated and vowed'; alluding to the common
practice of assassins, of dedicating the weapon to some patron deity, in
case of the attempt being successful. 'Quae' is the connecting relative,
and 'quibus . . . sit,' an indirect question depending on 'nescio.'

=nulla=, adverbial, 'which you do not deserve _at all_.'

=tibi persaepe=. In prose (except after the gerundive) the dative of the
agent is only used with personal pronouns, and when the thing is done
for the interest of as well as by the person. In poetry there is no such
restriction. Other instances are 1. 24 '_cui_ sciam pactam cum Manlio
diem,' 2.13 'quem ad modum esset _ei_ ratio belli descripta,' 2. 26
'_mihi_ consultum ac provisum est.'

=tandem=. See on 1. 1.


§17.

=pacto=, used adverbially like 'modo.' Cf. 'quo pacto' = 'how?'

=metuerent=. See on 'loquatur' 1. 19 below.

=urbem=. Sc. 'relinquendam esse.'

=iniuria=, 'undeservedly.'

=aliquo=, 'to some spot or other,' 'somewhither'; cf. 'in aliquas
terras' 1. 20. Cf. Ter. And. 339 'dum proficiscor aliquo.'

=nunc=, 'as it is.' So νῦν in Greek.


§18.

=tacita loquitur=. Oxymoron, lit. 'speaks without voice,' 'silently
appeals to you.'

=multorum civium neces=, alluding to his share in carrying out the
proscriptions of Sulla.

=vexatio direptioque sociorum=. He had been propraetor of Africa 67
B.C., brought to trial for extortion, but acquitted in spite of strong
evidence of guilt. The term _socii_ had been originally confined to
those Italians who were not _cives_; but since the franchise had been
given to all Italians (90-89 B.C.) it had been extended to the
provincials.

=quaestiones=, 'law-courts' (_quaestio_ from _quaero_, lit. 'an
investigation'). Criminal jurisdiction belonged legally to the people
assembled in the Comitia Centuriata. As it soon became impossible for
the whole body of citizens to try every case, trials were delegated
from time to time to commissions (_quaestiones_) specially appointed.
Hence arose the idea of establishing standing commissions (_quaestiones
perpetuae_) to try particular classes of offences. The earliest of these
was the _quaestio perpetua de repetundis_ (149 B.C.), which had
cognizance of all cases of extortion. Catilina would have been indicted
before it. Other _quaestiones perpetuae_ were subsequently added, and
the whole system was regulated and extended by Sulla.

=tandem aliquando=. See on 1. 10.


§19.

=si loquatur . . . debeat=. Contrast this with the conditional sentence
in §17 above, 'si metuerent . . . putarem.' Both the imperf. and the
pres. subj. make an imaginary supposition; but the imperfect, throwing
it into the past, marks it as impossible; the present regards it as
still conceivable. Thus 'si metuerent' (εἰ ἐφοβοῦντο) = 'if they feared'
(which they do not); but 'si loquatur' (εἰ λέγοι) = 'if it were to
speak' (now or at any future time).

=custodiam=. A citizen was not imprisoned pending his trial on a
criminal charge. As a rule, he simply gave bail for his appearance;
sometimes however he was placed in the charge of some citizen of
reputation, who became responsible for his safe keeping (_libera
custodia_). Catilina had offered to place himself under some such
restraint on his indictment for inciting to riot (_de vi_) by L.
Paullus. See Introduction, page 11. The trial never took place, owing to
the subsequent events.

=parietibus . . . moenibus=. _Paries_ is the wall of a house; _moenia_
the walls of a town; _murus_ the general term.

=videlicet=, ironical ('videre licet,' like 'scilicet' = 'scire licet').


§20.

=aliquas=, cf. 'aliquo,' 1. 17 and note there.

=ad senatum referre=, the technical term for bringing a matter before
the senate for discussion. This could only be done by the consul (or
other magistrate) who summoned and presided over the meeting.

=non referam=. The real reason of his refusal was that the senate, not
being a judicial court, had no power to pass sentence upon any
individual. Moreover exile was not technically a punishment known to
Roman law; it was merely a recognized means of anticipating a sentence.
See on §28 below.

=hi=, the senators.

After =proficiscere= Cicero pauses, to give time for an expression of
opinion from the senators. As they are silent he resumes, 'Quid est,'
etc. Cf. the rhetorical artifice in Demosth. de Cor. §52.

=auctoritatem=, expressed request; =voluntatem=, unexpressed desire.


§21.

=P. Sestio=. Now quaestor; tribune in 57 B.C. when he was active in
promoting Cicero's return from exile. In 56 Cicero defended him on a
charge of riot.

=M. Marcello=, consul 51 B.C. Opposed Caesar; but was recalled from
exile by him and pardoned 46 B.C.

=vim et manus=, hendiadys.

=cum=, with indicative, see note on 1. 7. 'By their silence, they
approve.'

=cara=, because he professed himself ready to submit to a decree of the
senate ordering his exile.

=iam pridem studes=, 'have long been desiring.' Cf. the Greek πάλαι
ἐπιθυμεῖ.


§22.

=te ut ulla res frangat?= 'What? anything break _your_ resolution?' This
is exactly like the exclamatory use of the acc. and inf. in phrases like
'Mene incepto desistere victam?' (Virg. Aen. 1. 37) only here 'ut' with
subj. takes the place of the more usual acc. and infin. (i.e. he might
have said, 'Tene ullam rem frangere?') Cf. below §24 'tu ut illa diutius
carere possis?' 'Hoccine ut ego nomine appellem eversores huius
imperii?' (pro Sestio §17), 'Utne tegam spurco Damae latus?' (Hor. Sat.
2. 5. 18).

=duint=. Subj. from 'duo' (perhaps an older form of 'do') with _i_ as
the characteristic vowel, in the place of the more usual _a_, as in
'sim,' 'velim,' 'possim,' 'edim,' etc. The form is found frequently in
Plautus, Terence, and old legal phrases. See Roby's Lat. Gr. vol. i.
§589.

=sed est tanti=, 'but it is worth while' (to risk the unpopularity).

=privata=, i.e. affects me only as a private citizen.

=legum poenas=, 'the punishment _prescribed by_ the laws.' Cf. 'rei
publicae poena' 1. 4.

=temporibus rei publicae cedas=, 'yield to the exigencies of the state';
'tempora,' as often, of a political crisis. Catilina is to yield to
these in the sense that he is to sacrifice his personal convenience for
the public advantage.

=ratio=, 'sound reasoning,' 'reflection.' The consecutive sentence is
best translated by turning 'revocaverit' into a passive, 'you are not
the man to have been recalled,' etc.

=exsulta=, 'revel.' Lit. 'leap about,' 'gambol.' Cf. §26 below.


§23.

=latrocinio=, 'brigandage' opposed to 'bellum,' §27. 'Latro,' originally
'a mercenary,' connected with λατρεύω; hence a brigand, because
mercenary troops were addicted to indiscriminate plundering.


§24.

=sciam=, subjunctive, as giving a reason, '_seeing that_ I know you have
sent on,' etc.

=Forum Aurelium=, a small place on the Via Aurelia, about fifty miles
from Rome.

=cui=. See note on 1. 16.

=aquilam=. Marius introduced the silver eagle as the standard of the
legion. The one in question had been used (according to Sallust) in the
war against the Cimbri.

=cui domi tuae=, etc. The place where the eagles were set up in the camp
was regarded as sacred. Catilina prepares a similar sacred spot for his
in his own house. _Sacrarium_ means (1) a shrine, (2) any secret place;
it is here used in both senses; hence trans. 'for which you have
consecrated at your house the secret chamber of your crimes.' But Halm
would omit 'scelerum tuorum' as an interpolation.

=tu ut illa=, etc. See above on §22.

=altaribus=, 'the altar'; the singular form is not found in classical
Latin.


§25.

=haec res=, i.e. making war upon your country.

=tu non modo otium=, sed ne bellum quidem, etc. As the two clauses have
the same verb ('concupisti') the negative is _expressed_ only in the
second which contains the verb, and must be understood from it to the
first, i.e. 'non concupisti' must be understood after 'non modo.'
Literally, 'you not only (did not want) peace, but did not even want a
war unless it were wicked.' Observe that the negation in these two
clauses does not cancel but _repeats_ the original negative 'nunquam.'
This is the regular usage where a negative proposition branches out into
two clauses. Cf. 'Ea Caesar nunquam neque fecit neque fecisset' (Cic. ad
Fam. 14. 13), 'Caesar never did nor would have done those things.' See
Kennedy's Public Sch. Lat. Gr. §84. In English we may avoid the
repetition of negatives and say, 'you have never desired--I will not say
peace--but even war that was anything but criminal.' Exactly parallel is
2. 8 'Nemo non modo Romae, sed ne ullo quidem in angulo totius Italiae
fuit' Cf. also 2. 20 'ut iam,' etc.; 2. 21 'ut non modo,' etc.

=conflatam=. Metaphor from working metals, 'fused,' 'welded together.'
Cf. Virg. Georg. 1. 508 'falces conflantur in ensem,' and pro Roscio §1
'iniuriam novo scelere conflatam.' So συμφυσᾶν in Greek; cf. Ar.
Knights 468

    καὶ ταῦτ' ἐφ' οἷσίν ἐστι συμφυσώμενα
    ἐγᾦδα.


§26.

=meditati=, in passive sense, as the participles of many other
deponents; e.g. 'ultus,' 'complexus,' 'testatus,' 'adeptus,' etc. Cf.
Phil. 2. 34. 85 'meditatum et cogitatum scelus.'

=qui feruntur labores=, οἱ λεγόμενοι πόνοι, 'those exertions of yours
they talk of.'

=iacere=, =vigilare=, infinitives in apposition to labores.


§27.

=a consulatu=. At the election of consuls for 62, held a few weeks
before, Cicero had used his influence to defeat Catilina. See
Introduction, page 10. On 'cum' with indic. see 1. 7.

=est=. Generally a verb dependent on a subjunctive is itself
subjunctive. Here however the relative clause is not really part of the
consecutive sentence, but a mere epithet explanatory of 'id,' added by
the speaker, hence _est_ not _esset_. Cf. 3. 21 '(quis est) qui neget
haec omnia quae _videmus_,' etc.

=latrocinium=. See on §23 above.

=detester=, 'detestari' = 'to avert by entreaty.'

=si loquatur=. The apodosis is not expressed, owing to the length of the
following address. On pres. subj. see note on 1. 19.

=mactari=. Cicero and Caesar only use the acc. and inf. after 'impero'
with _passive_ verbs; in other cases 'ut' and subj.


§28.

=persaepe etiam privati=, an exaggeration. The only case of a 'privatus'
putting an offender to death which Cicero quotes is that of P. Scipio
Nasica and Ti. Gracchus. See note on 1. 3.

=An leges=, etc. The earliest of these was the Lex Valeria (509 B.C.),
which secured the right of appeal to the people from the magistrate
('_ne quis magistratus civem Romanum adversus provocationem necaret neve
verberaret_'). This was re-enacted, and the penalty for violating it
strengthened by the Lex Porcia (197 B.C.) and the Lex Sempronia (122
B.C., Gaius Gracchus). Notice that these laws only forbade the
magistrate to inflict death or scourging on his own authority. The power
to do so, after trial and condemnation, remained with the people; but it
was seldom or never exercised, because the right of the accused to
anticipate the sentence by voluntary exile was universally recognized,
and even according to Sallust secured by law. See Cat. 51 'aliae leges
condemnatis civibus non animam eripi sed exilium permitti iubent.'

=at nunquam=, etc. Cf. 4.10; on the validity of this argument see Intr.
Note B.

=invidiam posteritatis=. Subjective genitive, 'hatred of (felt by)
posterity.' =fortitudinis=, just below, is objective, 'unpopularity of
(attaching to) firmness.'

=per te cognitum=, 'known by your own exertions only'; cf. 1. 11 'per
me tibi obstiti.' Cicero was a _novus homo_; i.e. none of his ancestors
had held a curule office.

=tam mature=. The age which a citizen must attain before becoming a
candidate for the several offices was fixed by the Lex Villia Annalis
(180 B.C.). Cicero appears to have been chosen for each magistracy _suo
anno_, i.e. as soon as he was legally eligible. He was now 43.

=per omnes honorum gradus=, 'through all the degrees of office.' By the
Leges Annales of Sulla, the offices of quaestor, praetor, consul, had to
be filled successively in the order named.


§29.

=si summi viri=, etc. See notes on 1. 3, 4.

=parricida=, because he is attacking the 'patria' which is 'omnium
nostrum communis parens.' But the word is sometimes used in a more
extended sense of wilful murder or sacrilege.

=redundaret=. Metaphor from the overflowing of a stream: 'lest any flood
of unpopularity should overwhelm me in the future.' (Cf. the English
phrase 'to redound to one's credit.')


§30.

=Quamquam=, etc. The first 'qui' is consecutive ('tales ut'), the second
is the connecting relative ('hi autem'), hence followed by indic.
'aluerunt.'

=dissimulent=, sc. 'se videre.'

=sententiis=, 'votes' (in the senate). See on 1. 9.

=regie=, 'tyrannically,' i.e. like a despot, not like the magistrate of
a free state. Gk. τυραννικῶς. Cf. 2. 14 'crudelissimum tyrannum.'

=naufragos=, 'castaways.' Cf. 2. 24 'illam naufragorum manum.'


§31.

=nescio quo pacto=, 'somehow.' 'Nescio quis' is treated as a single
word, hence _erupit_ not _eruperit_.

=latrocinio=, abstract for concrete; 'band of brigands.'

=aestu febrique=, hendiadys, 'in the burning heat of fever.'

=biberunt=, v.l. 'biberint.'

=relevatus= represents the protasis, 'si relevatus erit.'


§32.

=praetoris urbani=. The business of the praetors during their year of
office was mainly judicial. They were now eight in number; two presided
in the civil court; of these the _praetor urbanus_ tried suits between
citizens at a fixed tribunal in the Forum; the _praetor peregrinus_
suits between citizens and foreigners. The remaining six (without
distinctive name) acted as judges in criminal cases. Cicero means that
Catilina and his friends tried to intimidate the praetor in the
discharge of his duties.

=malleolos=. The 'malleolus' was a missile used in sieges. It was filled
with tow, which was ignited before it was thrown, and had an arrow
affixed. The name seems to be derived from the shape, which resembled a
mallet.

=tantam in vobis, etc=., i.e. he would as consul secure the execution of
whatever the senate might decree.


§33.

=cum=. Used of the attendant circumstances of an action. In English, 'to
the salvation of the state, the destruction of yourself,' etc.

=Iuppiter=. The temple of Iuppiter Stator (the 'Stayer of flight,' the
'Stablisher,') was vowed by Romulus during the fight with the Sabines
(Livy 1. 12); it was not, however, built till 294 B.C. (Livy 10. 37).

=auspicia=, augury from the flight of birds, which always preceded any
important undertaking. As the auspices were taken by the chief, 'to do a
thing under a person's auspices' came to mean 'to act under his
leadership and protection.'



ORATION II.


§1.

=Quirites=, the regular title by which citizens were addressed when
assembled in their civil capacity. Cf. the opening of the third speech,
also addressed to the people. The derivation is uncertain; some suppose
the word to be a form of 'Curetes,' i.e. inhabitants of the Sabine town
'Cures,' others derive it from 'Quiris,' a Sabine word meaning 'spear.'

=ferro flammaque=, another reading is 'ferrum flammamque.' We can say
either 'minitari alicui aliquid,' or 'minitari alicui aliqua re.'

=vel . . . vel . . . vel=. Each 'vel' substitutes a milder form of
expression for the preceding. 'We have driven him out,--let him go, if
you will,--at least bidden him good speed on his voluntary departure.'
ipsum = 'sua sponte.' verbis prosecuti is of course ironical.

=abiit, etc.= Note the absence of connecting particles (asyndeton) and
the increased force of each word rising to a climax in 'erupit.'

=versabitur=, 'will play around.'

=campo=, the Campus Martius.

=loco=, 'post,' 'vantage-ground.'

=cum= (= 'quo tempore'), 'at the very moment when.' The two actions were
simultaneous, there is no idea of cause or consequence; hence
indicative. See on 1. 7, and cf. below 'cum . . . eiecimus.'

=hoste= is emphatic. By his action he has declared himself the enemy of
the state. After bellum some MSS. insert 'iustum,' 'regular.'


§2.

=extulit=, indicative because the _fact_ that he did not carry away his
dagger stained with blood is emphasized; 'extulerit' would have made it
an expression of Catilina's feelings, as 'laetari quod evomuerit' below
expresses the feelings of the citizens. Cf. also 'quod non
comprehenderim' §3 ad init.

=tandem= adds force to the question. Cf. 1. 1 'quousque tandem?' and
note there.

=iacet=, 'he lies helpless.' Cf. 2. 25 'quam valde illi iaceant.'


§3.

=in hoc ipso=, 'in this very point,' explained by 'quod non
comprehenderim,' 'that I have not (as they complain) arrested.'

=capitalem=, threatening the 'caput' or principle of life; 'deadly.'

=huius imperii severitas=, 'the strict traditions of my (consular)
authority.'

=crederent=, consecutive subj., as regularly after 'sunt qui,' where the
relative refers not to certain specified individuals, but to a class.

=non modo invidiae=, etc., 'at the risk not merely of unpopularity, but
of life.'


§4.

=cum viderem=, etc. 'Re probata' is ablative absolute; not 'approved by
you,' but 'proved, demonstrated _to_ you.' 'Since I saw that the facts
were even then not fully established to the satisfaction of all of
_you_,' (much less to those inclined to sympathize with Catilina; this
is the force of 'quidem,') 'and that, if I punished him as he deserved,
I should not, under the burden of the unpopularity of that act, be able
to attack his associates, I brought the matter to this point,' etc. The
direct form of the conditional sentence would have been 'si multavero,
non potero'; this becomes in Oratio Obliqua 'cum viderem, si multassem,
fore ut non possem' (periphrasis being necessary because 'possum' has no
future participle).

=quam vehementer=, ironical. =foris= is emphatic; once outside the city
he does not fear him at all, as the context shows.

=exierit=, subjunctive, because the whole sentence stands as the object
of 'fero.'

=mihi=, the so-called 'Ethic' dative; 'Tongilius, I see, he has taken
with him.' The use of 'me' in the same sense is frequent in Shakespeare,
as in the phrases 'Knock me on this door,' 'he steps me to her
trencher,' etc., but is becoming obsolete in modern English.

=praetexta= (sc. 'toga'), the purple-edged 'toga' worn by boys up to the
age of sixteen, when they assumed the 'toga virilis,' which was plain
white.


§5.

=prae=, 'in comparison with.'

=Gallicanis legionibus=, the regular troops stationed in Cisalpine Gaul.
The coast district of Umbria from the Rubicon to the Aesis was known as
'ager Gallicus,' having been originally the home of the Senonian Gauls.
The praetor Q. Metellus had been ordered by the senate to levy troops in
this district and Picenum for the defence of the government.

=agresti luxuria=, abstract for concrete. He is thinking particularly of
the Sullan colonists. See Introduction p. 9, and §20 below.

=decoctoribus=, 'bankrupts.' _Decoquo_, lit. 'to boil down,' so to
squander one's property, become bankrupt. Cf. Cic. Phil. 2. ch. 18
'Tenesne memoria, te praetextatum decoxisse?'

=vadimonia=, 'bail,' i.e. security given for appearance in court when
called upon. Hence _vadimonia deserere_, 'to desert one's legal
obligations,' 'make default.'

=edictum praetoris=. Every praetor, on entering upon his office,
published an _edictum_, stating the rules to which he would adhere in
the administration of justice. Hence Cicero says, 'they will collapse
when I display to them the edict of the praetor,' i.e. remind them of
the penalties to which they will be liable by their non-appearance in
court to answer to their bail.

=hos=, strongly opposed to exercitum illum. He is not afraid of the
ruined spendthrifts who compose Catilina's army; he _is_ afraid of the
conspirators left behind in the city, who have, as it were, deserted
that army. (Lentulus, Cethegus, etc. are pointed at.)

=suos milites eduxisset=, 'taken with him _as_ his force.'

=quod quid cogitent=, etc., i.e. because they must have some secret
force at their back, which gives them confidence.


§6.

=superioris noctis consilia=, i.e. at the meeting in Laeca's house (1.
8), either the night before last or the last night but two. See
Introduction, p. 12 note.

=ne=, 'truly' (like the Greek ναί, νή), to be distinguished from the
conjunction. Used with pronouns only.

=nisi si quis=, 'nisi' is used like an adverb; hence the repetition of
'si.' Cf. Thuc. 1. 17 εἰ μὴ εἴ τι.

=ne patiantur=, 'in order that they may not permit.' Not prohibitive,
which according to Cicero's usage would require the perfect subjunctive.

=Aurelia via=. This was the coast road, the shortest route to Massilia,
whither Catilina pretended to be going.


§7.

=exhausto= keeps up the metaphor of draining away refuse contained in
'sentina.'

=subiector=, 'forger,' from 'subicere' in the sense of 'substitute.'

=nepos=, 'spendthrift,' 'prodigal.' Cf. the bad sense sometimes
attaching to νεανίας in Greek.


§8.

=Iam vero=, frequent in transitions; 'once more,' 'again.' He is passing
to a fresh aspect of Catilina's character. Cf. 3. 22 and de Lege Manilia
11, where, after speaking of the military experience of Pompeius, he
goes on 'Iam vero virtuti Cn. Pompeii quae potest oratio par inveniri?'

=fructum=, 'enjoyment,' 'satisfaction.'


§9.

=Nemo non modo Romae=, etc. Understand 'non fuit' from the second clause
after 'non modo' and see note on 1. 25 for full explanation.

=ut eius diversa studia=, etc., 'to help you to understand other tastes
of his in quite a different sphere of life' ('ratio,' lit. 'way,'
'method,' 'plan').

=ludo=, 'school,' where gladiators were trained under a fencing-master
(_lanista_).

=in scaena= (σκηνή), 'on the stage.' The profession of an actor was
considered degrading (_infamis_) for a Roman citizen, and was generally
left to slaves and freedmen.

=levior et nequior=, 'a little more frivolous and worthless' (than his
fellows).

=cum=, 'although.'

=instrumenta=, 'the instruments,' i.e. the powers of mind and body by
which a virtuous disposition makes itself felt.


§10.

=fortunas=, 'estates,' as distinguished from property in money.

=obligaverunt=, 'mortgaged.'

=res=, 'money,' fides, 'credit.' This has just begun to fail them,
because in view of the break-down of their schemes, their creditors will
not trust them any longer. See on 'proximis Idibus' 1. 14.

=bonorum=. See on 1. 1.


§11.

=propagarit=, 'propago' ('pro' and 'pag-' root of 'pango,' 'to fasten
down'), originally a botanical term; 'to generate by slips,' hence
generally 'to extend,' 'prolong.' Tr. 'will have prolonged the existence
of the state, not merely for a brief period, but for many generations.'
A variation for the more usual construction 'in multa saecula propagarit
rempublicam.'

=rex . . . unius=. Pompeius, invested with the supreme command by the
Gabinian and Manilian laws, had just crushed the pirates of Cilicia
('mari'), and brought to a close the third war against Mithridates king
of Pontus ('terra'), by the battle of Nicopolis (B.C. 66).


§12.

Having answered those who might think his measures not strong enough
(§§3-11) Cicero now (§§12-16) addresses those who might urge that he had
acted tyrannically and abused his consular authority by driving Catilina
from the city.

=exilium= is emphatic. They pretend that he has been unlawfully forced
into exile; whereas really, so far from going into exile, he has
voluntarily departed for the camp of his lieutenant Manlius.

=verbo=, 'by a mere word' (as they pretend I did in Catilina's case).

=videlicet= = 'videre licet,' 'it is easy to see,' 'of course.' He is
sarcastically quoting the language of his assailants; his own reply
begins at 'Hesterno die.'

=quin etiam= adds a still stronger testimony. 'Why, even,' etc.

=vehemens ille consul=, 'your violent consul.'

=quaesivi=, see 1. 8.

=necne= is used in indirect disjunctive questions, 'annon' in direct.


§13.

=homo audacissimus=, 'with all his audacity.'

=conscientia=, 'by his guilty knowledge.'

=constituisset=, sc. 'agendum.'

=ei=. See note on dative of the agent, 1. 16.

=ratio=, 'plan.'

=quo iam pridem pararet=, 'whither (I knew) he had long been preparing
to go.'

=secures . . . fasces=, etc. Catilina meant to assume all the insignia
of a consul commanding an army in the field.

=sacrarium=, see on 1. 24.

=fecerat=, indic., because the sentence is a parenthesis added by Cicero
here for the information of his hearers. It is not a quotation from his
speech to the senate, for this would have required _fecisset_.


§14.

=credo=, strongly ironical.

=suo= is emphatic; 'in his _own_ name'; (Catilina, you ask us to
believe, had nothing to do with it.)

=condicionem=, the external circumstances, given conditions under which
a thing must be done. Here perhaps 'task' gives the meaning best; but it
may also be rendered by 'lot,' 'position,' 'terms,' according to the
context. Cf. 'nascendi condicio' 3. 2, 'consulatus condicio' 4. 1 and 3.
27.

=vi et minis=, hendiadys.

=tyrannum=. Cf. 'regie factum' 1. 30.


§15.

=Est mihi tanti=, 'I think it worth while.'

=falsae=, 'misdirected.'

=sane=, 'by all means.'

=non est iturus=, stronger than 'ibit,' 'he has no intention of going.'

=illud= refers to what _follows_ ('ne sit,' etc.). Cf. the use of ἐκεῖνο
in Greek.


§16.

=Quamquam=, etc. 'And yet those, who keep saying that Catilina is going
to Massilia, do not really regret, so much as fear it. No one of them is
tender hearted enough to wish him to go thither rather than to Manlius.'
If their motive were really (as they pretend) disinterested pity for
Catilina, they would be glad to hear he had gone to Massilia, because
that is his only chance of escaping destruction. The truth is that they
are secret partisans of his schemes, and are afraid he may be going to
abandon them by voluntary exile.


§17.

=sanare sibi ipsos=, 'to restore them to themselves,' i.e. to their
right minds.


§18.

=possessiones=, of landed property exclusively ('estates'); =maiores=,
i.e. more than enough to pay their debts, if they were sold.

=dissolvi=, in a kind of middle sense, 'free themselves'; 'solvo' is the
technical word for payment of debts. Cf. the English 'liquidate.'

=species=, 'outward appearance.'

=voluntas et causa=, 'intentions and position.'

=tu . . . sis=, etc., dubitative subjunctive, implying incredulous
astonishment. 'Can you be?' 'is it possible that you are?' It is the
ordinary potential subj., ('velim,' 'I could wish,' etc.) thrown into an
interrogative form. Cf. Cic. ad Q. F. 1. 3 'Ego tibi irascerer, mi
frater?' 'I, angry with you, my brother?' and pro Sulla 44 'Tu tantam
rem ementiare?' 'You to utter such a falsehood?' Also Virg. Aen. 12. 947
'Tunc hinc spoliis indute meorum | Eripiare mihi?' Translate here, 'You
to be luxuriously and abundantly supplied with estates and houses,
silver plate and slaves, everything in short that you can wish for, and
yet to hesitate, by sacrificing a part of your estate, to gain in
respect of credit?' For ad, 'with respect to,' cf. 1. 12 'ad severitatem
lenius.' He wishes them to sell some of their land and pay their debts
with the proceeds; this, though apparently a sacrifice, would really be
a gain, because by restoring their solvency it would improve their
credit.

=tabulas novas=, lit. 'clean tablets,' 'new account books'; a phrase
implying a general cancelling of all debts, which Catilina promised.

=meo beneficio=, etc., 'thanks to me, there shall be an issue of new
tablets, but (they shall be) those of the auctioneers.' He means that he
would propose a law, compelling those debtors who had land to sell it by
auction, and pay with the proceeds. The necessary catalogues of sale
('auctionariae tabulae') would be 'novae tabulae' in a double sense,
(1) because such a law would be a novelty; (2) because it would lead to
freedom from debt, only by legal methods, instead of arbitrary
repudiation of the creditor's claims.

=salvi=, 'solvent.'

=certare cum usuris=, etc., 'instead of matching the produce of their
estates against the interest' (on their loans). They had borrowed
largely, and tried to pay the interest on the loans with the income
derived from their land. It was a contest ('certare') between the two,
in which the interest to be paid tended constantly to outstrip their
income.

=uteremur=, 'we should find them.' Cf. Gk. χρῶμαι in the same sense.


§19.

=dominationem=, 'tyranny,' 'despotism,' used always (like 'dominus') of
the rule of a single person.

=honores=, 'offices.'

=scilicet=, 'that is to say.'

=in bonis viris=, see note on 'bonorum' 1. 1.

=maximam multitudinem=, if genuine, must mean 'that their number is very
great,' but the words are probably an interpolation; 'in maxima
multitudine' (to be connected with 'magnam concordiam') has been
conjectured.

=si sint adepti=, a very remote contingency, 'supposing they were to
obtain.'

=fugitivo alicui=, etc., i.e. in the event of success the real power
would be seized by the most worthless of their own party.


§20.

=Sunt homines=, etc. Sulla during his dictatorship (82-80 B.C.) rewarded
his victorious soldiers to the number of 120,000, by distributing them
in military colonies throughout Italy, assigning an allotment of land to
each. Faesulae was one of these colonies.

=universas=, 'taken as a whole.' Cicero is careful to speak with respect
of Sulla, because he had been the great champion of the aristocratic
party, which was now supporting the orator against Catilina. But further
on he alludes to the horror which the recollection of the proscriptions
still inspired.

=sed tamen ii sunt coloni=, etc. Note that 'qui . . . iactarunt' is not
consecutive. Hence tr. 'Nevertheless the men in question are colonists
who,' etc. For 'ii' which seems awkward, 'in iis' has been conjectured.

=beati=, here, as often, of material prosperity, 'well-to-do.'

=familiis=, 'establishments,' (of slaves and dependents).

=illorum temporum=, i.e. the reign of terror under Marius and Cinna (87,
86 B.C.), during which many of the aristocratic leaders perished; and
the period of Sulla's dictatorship, with its wholesale proscriptions of
the popular party.

=tantus= is adverbial; 'to such an extent.' Cf. 1. 16 'quae tibi _nulla_
videtur.'

=non modo homines=, etc. Understand 'non passuri esse videantur' after
'non modo,' and see note on 1. 25 for explanation.


§21.

=iam pridem premuntur=, 'have long been overwhelmed.'

=emergunt=, 'get their heads above water.' Cf. Juvenal 3. 164

    'Haud facile emergunt, quorum virtutibus obstat
    Res angusta domi.'

=vetere=, 'long-standing.'

=vadimoniis=, etc, alludes to the three stages of legal proceedings
against a debtor. _Vadimonium_, security given for appearance in court;
_iudicium_, the trial and legal decision; _proscriptio bonorum_, the
confiscation of the property for the benefit of the creditors.

=infitiator= is one who denies his legal obligations; 'lentos' is added
to point the antithesis to 'acres'; 'not so much keen soldiers as
shirking defaulters.'

=non modo=, sc. 'non sentiat.'


§22.

=carcer=. The 'Tullianum' under the Capitol was the only public prison
in Rome.

=postremum=, 'the last,' i.e. 'the lowest,' both in point of number and
morality.

=proprium=, 'Catilina's particular favourites; his special choice,--let
me say rather his most cherished and bosom friends.'

=immo vero=, see on 1. 2.

=imberbes=, 'beardless,' i.e. effeminate.

=bene barbatos=, the wearing of a beard was contrary to the Roman custom
at this time and held to be a mark of dissoluteness.

=quorum omnis=, etc., 'who spend all their life's energy and sacrifice
their rest in banquets lasting until daybreak,' =antelucanis=, lit.
before dawn, i.e. prolonged till dawn.


§24.

=cohortem praetoriam=, the troop employed as the general's body guard;
first organized by the younger Scipio during the siege of Numantia (133
B.C.) (Cf. _Praetorium_ = the headquarters in the camp.) Out of this
grew the Praetorian Guard of the Emperors, which played such an
important part in the history of imperial Rome.

=nunc=, ironical, 'now' (if you think it worth while).

=eiectam=, 'castaway,' keeping up the metaphor contained in
'naufragorum.'

=Iam vero=, 'Why, already,' etc.

=urbes coloniarum ac municipiorum=. Originally _colonia_ meant a colony
whose citizens enjoyed the full Roman franchise; _municipium_ a town
possessed of 'Latin rights' only. But since 89 B.C., when the franchise
had been extended to all Italians, the distinction had ceased to exist.

=respondebunt=, 'will be a match for.' Catilina's rustic strongholds
('tumuli silvestres') are contemptuously contrasted with the fortified
towns ('urbes') which were in the hands of the government.


§25.

=urbe=, i.e. the capital.

=eget ille= is opposed to nos suppeditamur, the contrast being
emphasized by the omission of the connecting particle and the
arrangement of the words (Chiasmus).

=causas ipsas quae=, etc., 'simply the causes which are arrayed against
one another.'

=velimus=, subj. because in the apodosis 'intelligere possumus' is
equivalent to the potential subjunctive 'intelligamus.' Cf. 1. 2
'satisfacere videmur, si vitemus,' and note.

=iaceant=. See on 2. 2.

=denique aequitas=, etc., sums up the preceding; the four cardinal
virtues (justice, temperance, bravery, wisdom) are set against the
corresponding vices. The antithesis must be carefully kept in
translation.

=bona ratio cum perdita=, 'upright against corrupt principles.'


§26.

=mihi=, dative of agent. See on 1. 16.

=gladiatores=. There were in Italy a number of schools (_ludi_) where
gladiators were trained. Catilina had hoped to avail himself of these,
but by decree of the senate (October 21) they had been placed under
special guard. See Introduction, page 11.

=agrum Gallicum=. See on 2. 5.


§27.

=adeo= adds an emphasis, 'who indeed.'

=monitos=, sc. 'esse.' For the acc. and infin. construction after 'volo'
cf. 1. 4 'cupio me esse clementem.'

=qui commoverit= is subject to =sentiet=.

=cuius= = 'si illius.'

=carcerem=, as a place of execution ('vindicem') not of detention, for
imprisonment was not employed as a punishment in the case of citizens.


§28.

=togato duce et imperatore=. The toga was the civil dress of the
magistrate in the city, opposed to the military cloak (_paludamentum_)
worn by the general in the field. Tr. 'with me, a civil magistrate, as
your leader and general.' Cicero especially prided himself on the fact
that he defeated Catilina in his civil capacity as consul, without the
aid of an army. Cf. 3. 15, 23, and the words of his own poem on the
subject, 'Cedant arma togae.'

=illud=, explained by ut neque, etc. Cf. 2. 15.



ORATION III.


§2.

=quod salutis, etc.=, 'because the pleasure of safety is assured, while
our lot at birth is doubtful; because again we are not conscious of our
birth, while we can feel the delight of preservation.' =nascendi
condicio= = the external circumstances, surroundings to which we are
born. See on 2. 14.

=illum=, i.e. Romulus.

=benevolentia famaque=, hendiadys, 'with affectionate praise.'

=templum= is the consecrated ground (τέμενος); =delubrum= the actual
shrine (ναός).


§3.

=ut= = 'ex quo tempore,' 'ever since.' Cf. Cic. ad Att. 1. 13. 2 'ut
Brundisio profectus es, nullae mihi abs te sunt redditae litterae,' and
Hor. Od. 4. 4. 42.

=paucis ante diebus=. Really, it was nearly a month ago (Nov. 8-Dec. 3).

=cum . . . eiciebam=, indic. because 'cum' = 'quo tempore,' 'at the time
when.' Cf. 2. 1 and 1. 7, note.

=exterminari=, 'banished' (ex, terminus). The sense 'exterminated' is
not found in classical Latin.


§4.

=fidem faceret=, 'would command confidence.'

=tumultus=, used exclusively of disturbances in Italy and Gaul. Cf. Cic.
Phil. 8. ch. 1 'itaque maiores nostri tumultum Italicum, quod erat
domesticus, tumultum Gallicum, quod erat Italiae finitimus, praeterea
nullum nominabant,' and the whole passage. On the Allobroges, see
Introduction, p. 13.

=ad Catilinam=, 'addressed to Catilina.'


§5.

=qui omnia=, etc., 'like men whose political sentiments were entirely
sound and excellent.' sentirent is subj. because qui is causal.

=pontem Mulvium=, on the Via Flaminia, two miles N. of Rome; now called
Ponte Molle.

=praefectura= was the name given to a provincial town governed by a
magistrate sent annually from Rome, whereas the _municipia_ elected
their own magistrates.

=Reate= was a Sabine town, of which Cicero was _patronus_.

=in reipublicae praesidio=, v.l. 'in republica,' 'praesidio' being then
connected with 'miseram' as dat. of complement.


§6.

=tertia=, etc., i.e. between three and four a. m. The time between
sunset and sunrise was divided into four _vigiliae_.

=integris signis=. See on §10 below.

=ipsi=, i.e. = Volturcius and the Gauls.

=vocavi=. The consul had the right of summoning citizens to his presence
(_ius vocationis_), by force if necessary (_ius prehensionis_).


§7.

=si nihil esset inventum=. Virtual Oratio Obliqua, representing their
words 'si nihil inventum erit.'

=temere=, 'heedlessly,' =i.e. = without due cause.

=negavi=, etc. 'Ut . . . deferrem' is _not_ a final, but a substantival
clause, standing as the object to 'facturum,' the whole being a more
emphatic way of saying 'negavi me non delaturum esse'; 'I said that in a
danger which threatened the state, I could not but bring the facts
unprejudiced before the council of the state.' Cf. 3. 17 'commisisset ut
deprehenderentur.'


§8.

=fidem publicam dedi=. Lit. = 'pledged him the faith of the state,' i.e.
promised him in the name of the state that he should not be prosecuted
in respect of any disclosures, =iussu senatus=, because the consul could
not do this unless authorized by the senate.

=erat=, indic. because an explanation added by Cicero; not part of what
Volturcius said.


§9.

=data esse= (for the gender see note on 'deprehensa' §10), to be taken,
by zeugma, with both 'iusiurandum' and 'litteras,' 'that an oath (had
been sworn) and a letter given them addressed to their nation.'

=atque ita, etc.= Upon the main verb 'dixerunt' depend three
subordinates: 'esse praescriptum'; 'confirmasse'; 'dixisse'; each of
which has in its turn a subordinate clause depending upon it. This will
be best seen by the following scheme;

Galli dixerunt:--

    (_a_) ita sibi ab his et         { ut equitatum mitterent; pedestres
       a L. Cassio esse praescriptum {     sibi copias non defuturas.

    (_b_) Lentulum autem sibi        { se esse ilium ... Sullam
       confirmasse ex fatis, etc.    {     fuisse.

    (_c_) eundemque dixisse          { fatalem hunc esse ...
                                     {     vicesimus.

The reflexive pronoun refers in each case to the subject of the verb
upon which the subordinate sentence _immediately_ depends.

=pedestres sibi, etc.= This is part of what Cassius and the others said,
depending upon some verb of 'saying' to be understood from
'praescriptum'; 'they said that these men and L. Cassius had requested
them to send cavalry into Italy as soon as possible, (adding that) they
should have no lack of infantry.'

=fatis Sibyllinis=, the original 'libri Sibyllini' (containing
prophecies in Greek) were said to have been brought by the Sibyl of
Cumae to Tarquinius Superbus; they were kept in the Capitol and
consulted in times of difficulty. In 83 B.C. they were burnt and a fresh
collection of Sibylline prophecies was made, which was sifted by order
of Augustus and Tiberius. See Tac. Ann. 6. 12.

=tertium Cornelium=, his full name was P. Cornelius Lentulus Sura. On
Cinna and Sulla see note on 3.24.

=virginum=, sc. = 'Vestalium.' Nothing is known of the event alluded to,
but the trial of a Vestal Virgin was always regarded as an event of
great significance.

=Capitolii incensionem=. The Capitol and adjacent buildings had been
burnt down B.C. 83.


§10.

=Saturnalibus=, the festival of Saturn at the end of December. It was a
general holiday, when special license was allowed to slaves; hence a
good opportunity for a rising.

=Primo ostendimus, etc.= Letters were generally written with a stylus on
wax tablets; these were then put together face inwards and tied with
string, which was secured by the seal of the sender. When, as often,
they were written by slaves from dictation, the seal was the only means
of recognising the authorship, as they were not generally signed.

=cognovit=, 'acknowledged it.'

=recepissent=, 'had promised'; _recipio_ = 'to take upon oneself,
engage.' =sibi=, the writer.

=quae . . . deprehensa=, a relative is generally neuter pl. when it
refers, as here, to two inanimate antecedents ('gladii' and 'sicae') of
different genders. So also adjectives and participles. Cf. 3. 9 'data.'
They may however agree with the nearest word, as in 3. 18 'visas . . .
faces ardoremque caeli.'

=qui . . . respondisset=, 'although he had answered.' =tamen=, i.e. in
spite of the appearances against him.

=se semper=, etc., 'that he had always had a fancy for good steel
implements.' He purposely avoids using the word 'tela,' pretending that
the weapons were only part of a collection.

=conscientia=, 'his consciousness of guilt.' For 'abiectus' cf. 4. 3
'abiecta metu filia.'

=in eandem fere sententiam=, 'to much the same effect.'

=avi=, P. Cornelius Lentulus, consul 162 B.C. Cf. 4. 13.


§11.

=eadem ratione=, either with =litterae=, 'of the same tenor,' or with
leguntur, 'in the same way,' i.e. 'with the same formalities.'

=per quem=, the agent was P. Umbrenus. Cf. §14 below.

=subito=, adverb, with =demens=.

=cum=, 'although.'

=dicendi exercitatio=. Lit. 'practice in speaking,' i.e. 'fluency.'


§12.

=Quis sim=, etc. The general sense of the letter is similarly given by
Sallust (Cat. 44) with verbal differences.

=locum=, 'position.'

=etiam infimorum=, i.e. he was to arm the slaves.


§13.

=cum . . . tum=, 'just as ... so also.' Cf. 3. 18. illa in each clause
refers to what follows. Note that 'certiora' follows 'certissima,'
showing that the latter means 'very sure,' not 'the surest possible.'
Cicero is fond of using the superlative in this sense.

=de summa re publica=, 'on a matter so vital to the state.' Cf. 1. 14
'ad summam rempublicam pertinent.'

=principibus=, the leaders.

=sententiae=. See on 1. 9.

=senatus consultum=, the regular word for a decree of the senate. When
passed, it was written down, and the names of the principal supporters
appended.


§14.

=liberata . . . sit=, etc. Subj. because he is quoting the substance of
the decree. =usus essem= is plup. because 'laudantur' (historic present)
is regarded as a past tense.

=viro forti, collegae meo=. This was C. Antonius Hybrida. He had been
associated with Catilina, but Cicero induced him to come over to the
side of the senate by giving up to him the province of Macedonia. See
note on 4. 23.

=a suis et rei publicae=, etc., i.e. he had ceased to hold any
communication with them, either on his private affairs, or his public
duties.

=cum se praetura=, etc. Note the construction of 'abdico.' Strictly
speaking, a magistrate could not be deprived of his office except by his
own act; but resignation was practically compulsory under certain
circumstances (e.g. when the election was proved to have been obtained
by bribery). As praetor, Lentulus could not have been placed under
arrest, for the person of a magistrate was inviolable (_sacrosanctus_).

=in custodiam=. See on 1. 19.

=de iis colonis=. See on 2. 20.


§15.

=supplicatio=, i.e. a period of public prayer and thanksgiving. This was
accompanied by the ceremony called _lectisternium_, when the images of
the gods were placed on couches (_pulvinaria_) before their temples,
with banquets beside them. Here the people came to worship. Cf. 3. 23
'ad omnia pulvinaria,' and Horace, Odes 1. 37. 2

          'nunc Saliaribus
    Ornare pulvinar Deorum
        Tempus erat dapibus, sodales.'

A _supplicatio_ was generally a thanksgiving for victory; to the general
it was an honour only inferior to a triumph, which it often preceded.
More rarely, it was a period of national humiliation in time of
disaster. Thus a _supplicatio_ was decreed at the beginning of 217 B.C.,
and again after the defeat of Cannae. See Livy 22. 1, 23. 11.

=meo nomine=, 'in my name,' 'in my honour.' This was the only instance
of a _supplicatio_ decreed in honour of a citizen not holding a military
command.

=interest= instead of 'interesse videatur,' because he means to state
positively that the difference is there, whether the comparison be made
or not. So we can say, 'If you compare, there is this difference,'
instead of the more strictly grammatical, '_You will find_ that there is
this difference.' Cf. de Amic. §104 'Si illis orbatus essem, tamen
_affert_ nihi aetas ipsa solatium'; where the existence of the
consolation does not depend on the need for it.

=se abdicavit=, 'was allowed to resign.'

=ut quae religio=, etc. A magistrate being 'sacrosanctus,' religious
scruples would forbid his punishment. Cicero says that owing to
Lentulus' abdication, they will not have _this_ scruple to stand in
their way, though reminding them that it did not protect Glaucia. (See
on 1. 4.) Tr. 'So that we can punish Lentulus as a private citizen
without hindrance from any religious scruple; though such scruples did
not prevent C. Marius,' etc.


§16.

=cum pellebam=. See on 1. 7.

=somnum=, 'the sleepiness.'

=aditus=, 'the means of approaching.' Cf. Virg. Aen. 4. 423

    'Sola viri molles aditus et tempora noras.'

Note the striking picture of Catilina's abilities as a leader here
given, and contrast it with Cicero's contemptuous expressions elsewhere,
esp. 2. 9.

=certos=, 'particular,' 'definite.'

=mandarat=. The pluperf. indic. is rare after _cum_ even when (as here)
the connection is of time only.

=quod= constructed with 'obiret' as the nearest verb. 'occurreret' by
itself would require dative.

=vigilaret=, =laboraret= do not grammatically construct with 'quod' at
all. They are an amplification of 'obiret occurreret'; such
amplification being more commonly expressed by an adverbial clause such
as 'per vigilias et labores.' Cf. Aesch. P. V. 331

    πάντων μετασχὼν καὶ τετολμηκὼς ἐμοί,

where καὶ τετολμηκώς is an amplification of μετασχών, and does not
construct with ἐμοί.


§17.

=tanto ante=, because it was now only Dec. 3 and the Saturnalia (3. 10)
did not begin till Dec. 17.

=commisisset ut=, etc. 'have made the mistake of allowing to be
arrested.' Cf. 3. 7 'negavi me facturum esse ut non deferrem.'


§18.

=cum . . . tum=, 'not only ... but also.' Cf. 3. 13.

=Nam ut illa=, etc. Cicero must here be suiting his language to his
audience; for he probably did not believe in miraculous signs. His tone
in the second and third speeches, where he is addressing the people, is
throughout less refined than in the first and fourth, where he is
speaking to the senate.

=canere=, 'foretell,' often used of prophetic utterances.


§19.

=Cotta et Torquato consulibus=, B.C. 65.

=de caelo=, i.e. struck by lightning.

=legum aera=, the brazen tablets on which the laws were engraved.

=tactus=, etc. In the Capitoline Museum at Rome may be seen a bronze
figure of a wolf giving suck to the twins Romulus and Remus. It is just
possible that this may be the group alluded to here, as one of the legs
shows an injury such as would be caused by lightning; but it is more
probably a mediaeval copy of an ancient original.

=Etruria=, the original home of augury.

=adpropinquare dixerunt nisi . . . flexissent=. The soothsayers said
'adpropinquant, nisi flexerint,' the fut. perf. becoming plup. subj. in
Oratio Obliqua, according to rule. Not _adpropinquabunt_, because
futurity is sufficiently expressed by the word itself, = 'they are
drawing near,' 'are upon you.'

=suo numine=, 'by their influence.' The gods are regarded as subject to
Destiny, yet able to mitigate its decrees by their intercession. =prope=
apologizes as it were for the boldness of the expression. Cf. 4. 2 ad
fin.


§20.

=ad orientem=, etc. The Forum stretched S.E. from the Capitol, so that a
statue on the latter facing E. would overlook it.

=collocandum . . . locaverunt=, 'gave a contract for its erection';
_loco_ (lit. 'to place out') is used of the person for whom the work is
done; _conduco_ of the contractor.

=superioribus consulibus=, those of 64 B.C., L. Caesar and C. Figulus.


§21.

=praesens=, perhaps 'clear,' i.e. a visible evidence of the hand of the
gods; or it may be simply 'opportune.'

=ut . . . videatur= is consecutive, =ut . . . statueretur=,
substantival, explanatory of =illud=, '_the fact_ that the statue was
being erected at that particular moment.'

=eorum indices=, 'the witnesses against them.' The Temple of Concord was
on the Capitol; Cicero's house on the Palatine; so that the Forum would
have to be crossed in passing from one to the other.

=ducerentur= follows the mood of its main verb 'statueretur.' Otherwise
as 'cum' = 'quo tempore' we should probably have had the indic. on the
analogy of 1. 7 (where see note) and other instances.


§22.

=templis atque delubris=. See on 3. 2.

=mentem voluntatemque=, 'disposition and purpose.'

Some editions read 'iam vero illa Allobrogum sollicitatio, iam ab
Lentulo,' etc. For iam vero see on 2. 8.

=ut . . . neglegerent=, substantival ('the fact that') in apposition to
'id' below.

=ex civitate male pacata=. The limits of Transalpine Gaul were not
accurately defined at this time, and disturbances on the borders were
frequent. The Allobroges actually revolted two years later, and were
suppressed temporarily by C. Pomptinus; they shared in the universal
subjugation of Gaul by Caesar, 58-51 B.C.

=ultro=, 'spontaneously,' 'unsought,' because the first advances were
made by Lentulus.

=potuerint=, 'especially as they (were men who) might have,' etc.


§23.

=ad omnia pulvinaria=. See on _supplicatio_ 3. 15.

=togati=. See on 2. 28.


§24.

The historical allusions in this section will be best explained by the
following sketch.

In 88 B.C. Sulla was consul, and had just ended the Social War. P.
Sulpicius made certain proposals in the interests of the democratic
party, one of which was to transfer the command against Mithridates of
Pontus from Sulla to Marius. Sulla marched on Rome; Sulpicius, with a
few adherents, was killed; Marius, with others, escaped with difficulty.
Sulla thereupon departed for the East.

In 87 Cinna, as consul, revived the schemes of Sulpicius. His colleague
Octavius drove him from the city; he collected an army, was joined by
Marius, and effected his return by force. A reign of terror followed,
during which many aristocrats were killed. Marius died in 86; Cinna was
killed in a mutiny two years later.

In 82 Sulla came back from the East, defeated the younger Marius (in
alliance with the revolted Samnites), at the Colline Gate, and was
created 'dictator reipublicae constituendae.' As such he issued a
proscription list, ordering the execution of most of the democratic
leaders. Having reformed the constitution in the interest of the
optimates, he resigned his power.

After his death M. Lepidus (consul 78) tried to reverse his acts, but
was expelled by his colleague Q. Catulus. He raised an army and tried,
like Cinna, to effect his return by force, but was defeated by Catulus
at the Mulvian Bridge, B.C. 77; he escaped to Sardinia, where he died.

=vidistis=, because they had all taken place within the last twenty-five
years.

=custodem huius urbis=, he had saved Rome by defeating the Teutones and
Cimbri (102, 101 B.C.).

=redundavit= only suits 'sanguine,' but is applied (by zeugma) to
'acervis corporum' as well, '(was choked) with heaps of corpses and
flooded with blood.'

=clarissimis viris=. Among these were L. Caesar (consul 90, and one of
the enfranchisers of the Italians) and Q. Catulus (consul 102) the
colleague of Marius in the war against the Cimbri.

=ne dici quidem, etc=. The victims of the Sullan proscriptions numbered
from four to five thousand.

=Q. Catulo=, son of the Catulus mentioned above.

=non tam ipsius=, i.e. it was not the fate of Lepidus himself which
excited sympathy, but of those who were involved in it.


§25.

The reading in this section is uncertain, owing to interpolations having
been introduced into the original MS. The text given is Halm's
conjectural emendation; the principal variation is as follows:--

'Atque illae tamen omnes dissensiones _erant eiusmodi Quirites_, quae
non ad delendam, sed ad commutandam rempublicam _pertinerent_; non illi
nullam esse rempublicam, sed in ea quae esset, se esse principes; neque
hanc urbem conflagrare, sed se in hac urbe florere voluerunt. [_Atque
illae tamen omnes dissensiones, quarum nulla exitium reipublicae
quaesivit_, eiusmodi fuerunt, ut non reconciliatione concordiae, sed
internecione civium diiudicatae sint.']

According to this reading, the sentence in brackets is regarded as a
gloss; i.e. an explanation added in the margin by a transcriber, which
afterwards found its way into the text.

=diiudicatae sint=. In consecutive sentences the perf. subj. is used in
preference to the imperf. where the _fact_ of the result is emphasized.
It answers to ὥστε with indicative: the imperfect to ὥστε with
infinitive.

=tantum=, '_only_ so much.'

=infinitae caedi restitisset= (resto), =lit=. 'had remained over to
bloodshed,' i.e. as the only thing left for it to destroy. Cf. Virg.
Aen. 1. 679.

    'Dona ferens, pelago et flammis restantia Troiae.'


§26.

=insigne honoris=, 'mark of distinction,' may perhaps refer to some
purely personal honour (such as the title 'pater patriae'); =monimentum
laudis=, 'memorial of renown,' to something more external (such as a
statue). But see below.

=ornamenta honoris=, etc. The three expressions seem to be practically
synonymous, unless 'laudis insignia' be meant to include the other two.
'Every honourable decoration, every glorious memorial, every outward
mark of distinction.'

=alentur=, 'will be cherished.'

=literarum monimentis=, 'in the records of literature,' i.e. history.

=eandemque diem=, etc. 'Diem' here = 'period.' He means that he has
preserved the state for an unlimited period, and that during that period
the recollection of his consulship will last; the two will go together,
hence 'eandem.' Tr. 'I feel that one and the same term--a term which I
trust will have no limit--has been extended to the safe existence of the
state and the recollection of my consulship.'

=exstitisse= may either depend upon 'intellego,' or (better) upon a verb
to be understood from 'memoriam'; 'and (the recollection) that there
were,' etc.

=alter=, i.e. Pompeius, who was extending the empire by his conquests in
the East, which added the province of Syria to the Roman dominions.
Cicero speaks with rhetorical exaggeration.


§27.

=condicio=, 'circumstances,' 'position.' See on 2. 14.

=recte=, 'as is just.'

=bonis=. See on 'bonorum' 1. 1.


§28.

=Quodsi=, etc. Cicero's fears were realized by the motion for his
banishment (for having put Roman citizens to death without trial)
carried by Clodius, 58 B.C.

=vitae fructum=, 'the _results_ of life.'

=honore vestro=, 'the honours you can bestow'; =gloria virtutis=,
'renown won by merit.'


§29.

=Illud=, explained by 'ut . . . tuear,' etc.



ORATION IV.


§1.

=depulsum sit=. Subj. because he is putting their thoughts into words.

=vestris=. Some editions add _liberis_.

=condicio=. See on 2. 14, 'if these were the terms on which I received
the consulship.'


§2.

=in quo omnis aequitas continetur=, 'the home of all justice,' because
the praetor's courts were held in the Forum and adjacent buildings.

=consularibus auspiciis=, 'the auspices taken at the election of the
consuls.' They were elected by the Comitia Centuriata, which met in the
Campus Martius. For 'auspicia' see on 1. 33.

=summum auxilium=, etc. The control of foreign relations belonged
particularly to the senate.

=ad quietem datus=, epithet of 'lectus' ('datus' must not be mistaken
for the main verb, which is 'fuit').

=sedea honoris=. Some MSS. add the explanatory words 'sella curulis.'

=multa tacui=. He hints at the suppression of the names of certain
persons suspected by him to be implicated. Crassus and Caesar may have
been among these. See Sall. Cat. 48, 49.

=meo quodam dolore=, abl. of attendant circumstances, 'at some pain to
myself.'

=templa atque delubra=. See on 3. 2.

=fatale ad perniciem=, 'destined to the destruction of,' referring to
his belief that he was the third Cornelius who should rule over Rome (3.
9). In the second clause 'prope' ('I may almost say') is added because
the expression might seem too arrogant without qualification. Cf. 3. 19
'nisi di immortales _prope_ fata ipsa flexissent.'


§3.

=pro eo ac mereor=, 'in proportion to my deserts.' Cf. 'simul ac,'
'aeque ac,' 'aliter ac,' etc.

=consulari=, 'to one who has been consul,' because no higher honour
remained to be won.

=misera sapienti=. The Stoic philosophy, of which Cicero was an
adherent, taught that true happiness consisted in being independent of
the external accidents of life.

=ille ferreus=, 'a man of such iron nature.'

=fratris=. Q. Cicero, now praetor designatus.

=uxor=, Terentia; =filia=, Tullia; =filius=, Marcus, now two years old.

=gener=, C. Calpurnius Piso, Tullia's first husband. Not being yet a
senator he was not seated in the assembly, but standing with the crowd
at the open doors of the temple.

=sed in eam partem uti=, etc., 'but only in the direction (of wishing)
that,' etc.


§4.

=Non Ti. Gracchus=, etc. The negatives go closely with the proper names,
and the _present_ 'adducitur' is emphatic. Tr. 'It is no Ti. Gracchus,
for proposing to become tribune a second time, no C. Gracchus, for
attempting to incite the agrarian party to violence, no L. Saturninus,
for the murder of C. Memmius, that is _now_ brought to trial before the
bar of your severity; you have in your hands men who,' etc. He uses the
indic. ('voluit,' 'conatus est,' etc.) instead of the subj. to emphasize
the fact that the persons named had actually committed the offences in
question; he is not simply quoting the grounds of an accusation which
might or might not have been true.

=iterum=, the election of the same person in successive years was
illegal. Ti. Gracchus was tribune 133 B.C. In attempting to secure his
re-election for the next year he fell a victim to the armed attack of
the senate.

=agrarios=, properly those interested in the distribution of the public
land. C. Gracchus carried on the agrarian schemes of his brother, but it
was not the most important part of his legislation. He trusted no doubt
for support to the agricultural population of Italy, but this was rather
in view of his plans for admitting them all to the franchise.

=C. Memmius=, a popular leader at the time of the Jugurthine War; he
changed sides, and was murdered by Saturninus and Glaucia on opposing
the latter in the consular election for 99 B.C.

=restiterunt= (=resto=), 'have stayed behind.'

=servitia=, abstract for concrete.


§5.

=vos multis iam=, etc. 'You have affirmed by many proofs of your
judgment'; i.e. the senate, by the measures they had already taken, had
practically affirmed their belief in the conspirators' guilt.

=in custodiam=. See on 1. 19.

=qui honos=, etc. Cf. 3. 15 and 2. 28.


§6.

The object of =referre= is =de facto quid iudicetis=, etc.; =tanquam
integrum=, 'as though it were an open question.'

=ego magnum=, etc. 'I had long seen that a dangerous madness was abroad,
and that evils of an unheard-of kind were seething and stirring in the
state.'

=latius opinione=, 'more widely than you think.' The following sentence
should be noted, as showing that Cicero recognized that the importance
of the decision lay in the effect it would have upon Catilina's
adherents abroad.


§7.

=sententias=, the technical word for the senator's formal declaration of
his vote. See on 1. 9. Tr. 'proposals.'

=D. Silani=, now consul designatus.

=censet=, not 'thinks,' but 'gives it as his opinion,' 'votes.'

=haec=, i.e. all that is around us, the houses, temples, etc.

=C. Caesaris=, now praetor designatus.

=recordatur=, 'remembers.' Cicero suggests that the recollection
influenced Silanus, not that he actually mentioned the precedents.

=aut necessitatem=, etc. Each _=aut=_ still further qualifies the idea
of death. So far from being a punishment, it is the common necessity of
our nature, or may even sometimes be an actual benefit.

=municipiis=, 'provincial towns.' See on 2. 24.

=si velis=. Subj. because contingency is expressed by 'habere videtur'
(= 'habeat'), 'seems to have,' 'might have.' Cf. 1. 2 'satisfacere
videmur si vitemus.' The sense is: it would be unfair to order any town
to undertake the duty, and difficult to induce any to do so if they
merely asked it as a favour.


§8.

=Adiungit=, sc. Caesar.

=aut per senatum=, etc., i.e. either by a 'senatus consultum,' or a
'lex' passed by the Comitia.

=illi antiqui=, the well-known writers of old time. The order of the
words is 'illi antiqui voluerunt eius modi quaedam supplicia apud
inferos impiis constituta esse.' voluerunt, lit. 'wished,' i.e. 'would
have had us believe.' Cf. Virg. Aen. 1. 626 'Seque ortum antiqua
Teucrorum ab stirpe volebat.' Contrast Cicero's language here (where he
is speaking to a more intelligent audience) with that in 3. 18-22.

=ipsam=, 'by itself.'


§9.

=mea quid intersit=, 'what is for my own interest.'

=quoniam hanc=. 'Viam' is 'path,' 'course.' In English we may perhaps
change the metaphor, and say 'since he has taken what we agree to call
the popular _side_ in politics.' The 'populares' were the opponents of
the 'optimates'; they aimed at breaking down the aristocratic rule of
the senate.

=cognitore=, properly one who acts for another in a law-suit,
'advocate.'

=nescio an=, lit. 'I hardly know whether'; so affirmatively = 'I am
disposed to think.'

=rationes=, 'considerations.'

=enim=, used like γάρ, to introduce a narrative or discussion of a
point. 'Now we have,' etc.

=obsidem=, 'pledge.'

=intellectum est, etc=. 'We understood (when we heard Caesar) how great
was the contrast between the frivolity of demagogues and the true
democratic spirit, which has the interest of the people at heart.'


§10.

=ne de capite=, i.e. because the senate had no legal right to decide
questions affecting the _caput_ (life, or civil rights) of a citizen,
which ought to come before the Comitia Centuriata. On this question see
Introd. Note B.

=nudius tertius=='nunc dies tertius,' 'the day before yesterday,'
according to the Roman inclusive method of reckoning.

=hoc=, explained by =quid iudicarit=. The order is 'hoc, quid (ille) qui
. . . decrerit de tota re et causa iudicarit, nemini dubium est.' Cicero
argues that the absent senators, by assenting to the previous measures,
have acknowledged their jurisdiction in the matter. It appears that
these measures had been unanimously adopted.

=quaesitori=, properly of the president of a law-court: here of Cicero,
as the conductor of the investigations. Cf. Virg. Aen. 6. 432 'Quaesitor
Minos urnam movet.'

=legem Semproniam=. What this was is not quite certain; but C. Gracchus
seems to have passed a law still further securing the right of citizens
to appeal to the people as against the arbitrary sentence of a
magistrate, though this was already provided by the Lex Valeria and the
Lex Porcia (see on 1. 28). Cicero refers to the Lex Sempronia here as
being the most recent legislation on the subject, and because the fact
that summary measures were taken against its author strengthens his
argument.

=qui autem=, etc. On this see Introd. Note B.

=iniussu= is a conjectural emendation for the MS. reading _iussu_,
because C. Gracchus was not put to death by order of the people; he was
killed by the agents of the consul Opimius, who professed to rely upon
the 'ultimum decretum' previously passed by the senate (see on 1. 4).
Cicero quotes it as a precedent exactly suiting the present case.


§11.

=sive=, 'if on the one hand,' answered by sive below. =dederitis= is the
apodosis to the first clause, =exsolvet= to the second.

=comitem=. Cicero would be expected to address the people after the
meeting, to acquaint them with the senate's decision (cf. the Third
Oration), and according to usage he would be accompanied by the proposer
of the successful motion. Connect =populo= with =carum atque iucundum=.

=populus Romanus exsolvet=. The reading of the MSS. here is
unintelligible; that in the text is a conjectural emendation. Other
suggestions are 'apud populum Romanum exsolvam,' 'populo Romano
exsolveritis.'

=obtinebo=, 'I shall maintain.' eam, sc: 'sententiam.'

=ita . . . ut=. A common way of emphasizing a declaration, by expressing
a wish that the welfare of the speaker may depend upon its truth. 'So
may it be mine to enjoy with you the blessings of preservation, as I am
moved,' etc. Cf. the phrase 'ita di me ament, ut,' and the formula 'So
help me God' appended to oaths in English law-courts.


§12.

=purpuratum=. A name for ministers at Eastern courts, from the
magnificence of their dress; 'with Gabinius as his grand vizier.'

=qui non lenierit=, causal, 'in that he did not alleviate.'

=id egerunt, ut=, 'have made it their object to place,' etc.


§13.

=L. Caesar=, consul 64 B.C., not to be confused with C. Julius Caesar.
=sororis suae virum=, Lentulus; =avum=, M. Fulvius Flaccus, the friend
and adherent of C. Gracchus, whose fate he shared. When the disturbance
broke out he sent his young son to treat with the consul Opimius, who
had him arrested and put to death.

The following table will show the relationship:

             M. Fulvius Flaccus (cos. 125)
                         |
                         |
         ------------------------------
         |                            |
         |                            |
    M.F. Flaccus        Fulvia m. L.J. Caesar (cos. 90)
     (filius)                 |
                              |
                      --------------------------
                      |                        |
                      |                        |
            L.J. Caesar (cos. 64)    Julia m. (1) M. Antonius Creticus.
                                              (2) P.C. Lentulus.

=nudius tertius=. At the meeting of the senate described in the Third
Speech.

=quorum=, etc. 'What had they (i.e. Flaccus and C. Gracchus) done that
could compare with this' (the present conspiracy)? factum is treated as
a substantive.

=largitionis voluntas=, etc. 'Designs of largess were then rife in the
state, accompanied by some party rivalry.' C. Gracchus passed a law
providing the people with corn at low rates. He also transferred the
right of sitting as _iudices_ in the law-courts from the senate to the
equites, and thus stirred up strife ('partium contentio') between the
two orders.

Cicero purposely makes light of those measures, which had really very
important effects, in order to give point to his argument, which is--If
such comparatively moderate designs as those of C. Gracchus met with so
signal a punishment, what do the violent schemes of Catilina deserve?
Cf. 1. 4.

=avus=. P. Cornelius Lentulus, consul 162 B.C., and _princeps senatus_
at the time of Gracchus' death. Cf. 3. 10.

=ne quid=, etc., 'lest the majesty of the state should be in any degree
impaired.'

=Vereamini censeo=, lit. 'it is my opinion that you should fear' ('ut'
being omitted, as often after 'censeo'). Ironical advice, where the
contrary is really intended. 'You had better be afraid, I should think.'
Cf. the similar ironical passage in Sallust, Cat. 52 (Cato is speaking
in favour of executing the conspirators), 'Misereamini censeo--deliquere
homines adulescentuli per ambitionem--atque etiam armatos dimittatis.'
=multo magis= verendum, etc. below gives his serious opinion.


§14.

Note the distinction between _vereri ut_ and _vereri ne_.

=imperium=, i.e. the sovereign authority of the Comitia, for which a
revolution might substitute that of a despot. Cf. 'regnantem Lentulum'
§12.

=loci=, the Temple of Concord, on the Capitol.

=in qua= = 'talis, ut in ea,' followed by consec. subj. 'sentirent.'


§15.

=Ceteri=. He goes through all the classes in turn; first the knights
(the disposition of the senate being already clear); then the official
classes (the Civil Service as we might say); then the general body of
freeborn citizens; lastly, the freedmen and slaves.

=equites=, see Introd. p. 9, note. As large holders of property, they
dreaded Catilina's schemes, and supported Cicero by occupying the
Capitol in arms, in order to protect the Senate.

=ita= . . . ut. 'Ut' has a limiting force; it shows with what
reservation the main statement is to be accepted. 'Only so far ...
that.' In English, 'who yield to you the first place in rank and wisdom,
only to rival you in patriotism.' Cf. Cic. de Off. 1. 88 'ita probanda
est mansuetudo, ut adhibeatur reipublicae causa severitas,' and Livy 23.
3 'ita vos irae indulgere oportet, ut potiorem ira salutem habeatis.'

=ex=, 'after.' The ground of quarrel was the right of sitting as
_iudices_ in the law-courts. Transferred from the senate to the
_equites_ by C. Gracchus, it had been restored by Sulla, and was now
shared between the two and the _tribuni aerarii_ (see below).

Cicero's great hope for the state lay in a union between the two orders
(cf. §22 ad fin.), but that now existing was soon broken.

=tribunos aerarios=, probably revenue officers of some kind, but not
much is known about them.

=scribas=, etc., the permanent government clerks, a certain number of
whom were attached to each magistrate. On this day (Dec. 5) the
quaestors for the next year entered on their office, and the _scribae_
had to draw lots to decide which quaestor they should severally attend.
This drawing took place at the treasury, which was in the Temple of
Saturn at the west end of the Forum, in full view of the Temple of
Concord. Hence tr.: 'the entire body of clerks also, who having been
brought to-day by chance to the treasury have I see been diverted from
the anticipation of the lot to thoughts of the public safety.'


§16.

=ingenuorum=, 'freeborn citizens,' opposed to _libertini_, who though
citizens were not freeborn.

=sit=, not subj. after 'cum' (which = 'not only'), but consecutive.

=operae pretium est=, 'it is worth while.'

=sua virtute=, etc., 'who by their own exertions have won the advantages
of our citizenship'; because only those would be manumitted whose
industry and energy deserved it.

=qui modo sit . . . qui non=, etc., the first relative clause limits the
subject ('servus'); the second is consecutive. 'There is no slave,--none
at least whose condition of servitude is bearable--who does not,' etc.
Cf. in Pisonem §45 'Nemo denique civis est, qui modo se civem esse
meminerit, qui vos non oculis fugiat.'

=voluntatis=, gen. after 'tantum.'


§17.

=aut fortuna miseri=, etc., 'so poverty-stricken or so disaffected.'

=immo vero= corrects the preceding. 'The greater part, nay the whole';
see on 1. 2. A large part of the retail trade at Rome was in the hands
of slaves.

=instrumentum=, 'means of trade.'

=futurum fuit=, 'was about to happen,' i.e. 'would have happened';
incensis represents the protasis, 'si incensae essent.' Cf. Livy 2. 1
'Quid enim futurum fuit, si illa plebs agitari coepta esset tribuniciis
procellis?'


§18.

=ignem illum Vestae=, pointing perhaps to the Temple of Vesta in the
Forum below him.


§19.

=in civili causa=, 'on a political question.'

=cogitate=, etc. A short form of expression combining two really
distinct indirect questions, (1) 'cogitate quantis laboribus imperium
fundatum sit,' and (2) 'cogitate ut una nox paene (imperium) delerit.'
In English, 'Think by what toil was the empire established, _which_ one
night nearly destroyed.'

=una nox=, the night of the arrest of the Allobroges. See pro Flacco
§102 'O nox illa, quae paene aeternas huic urbi tenebras attulisti, cum
Galli ad bellum, Catilina ad urbem, coniurati ad ferrum et flammam
vocabantur.'

=non modo=, understand 'non possit' after confici, and see on 1. 25.


§20.

=sententiam=, sc. 'rogandam,' see on 1. 9. The consul would not
pronounce a formal 'sententia' himself.

=Quodsi=, etc. Cicero's fears were realized five years later (58 B.C.),
when Clodius carried a motion for his banishment.


§21.

=Scipio=. The elder Scipio restored the Roman supremacy in Spain during
the Second Punic War, and invaded Africa. Hannibal returned from Italy
to oppose him, and was defeated at Zama (202 B.C.).

=alter Africanus=. P. Cornelius Scipio (Aemilianus) Africanus, son of
Aemilius Paullus, but adopted by the elder Scipio's son. He took and
destroyed Carthage 146, Numantia 133 B.C.

=Paullus=. L. Aem. Paullus defeated and made prisoner Perseus king of
Macedonia at Pydna, 168 B.C.

=bis=. He defeated the Teutones at Aquae Sextiae (102), the Cimbri near
Vercellae on the Campus Raudius (101).

=Pompeius=, see on 2. 11. Note the rhetorical exaggeration in 'eisdem
quibus solis cursus,' etc.


§22.

=uno loco=, 'in one point'

=serviunt=, 'become slaves.'

=possis= is the apodosis of a conditional sentence with the protasis
suppressed. 'You would not be able (if you were to try),' i.e. 'you can
never hope to be able.'

=neque ulla=, etc. This hope was not realized. The immediate danger
being removed, the equites fell back into their habitual attitude of
opposition to the senate.


§23.

=pro imperio=, 'in the place of military command.' The _imperium_ was
the authority vested in a general in virtue of which he controlled his
army by martial law. It belonged equally to all the higher magistrates,
but within the walls of Rome itself its exercise was restricted. Cicero
was not going to govern a province, and therefore not to command an
army.

=pro provincia=. Sulla had ordained that each of the ten chief
magistrates (two consuls and eight praetors) should, after the
expiration of his year of office in the city, govern a province as
proconsul or propraetor. The senate decided which should be the consular
provinces, and the consuls settled between themselves (by lot or
otherwise) which each should take. The consular provinces for 62 B.C.
were Macedonia and Cisalpine Gaul. As Macedonia was a rich province,
Cicero had given it up to Antonius, in order to secure his support
against the conspirators. His own province would therefore in the
ordinary course have been Cisalpine Gaul. But subsequently he asked to
be allowed to resign it, and it fell to the praetor Metellus Celer. (See
Ep. ad Att. 2. 1 'cum provinciam in contione deposui,' and ad Fam. 5. 2,
where writing to Metellus Celer he says 'si hoc dicam, me tui causa
praetermisisse provinciam, tibi ipsi levior videar esse.') By resigning
his province he gave up the command of an army, and with it the chance
of a triumph.

=pro clientelis=, etc. Provincial communities often attached themselves
as 'clients' to their former governors, who became their 'patroni' and
were specially bound to look after their interests. Cicero here says
that by giving up a province he has given up the best opportunities of
forming such connections; nevertheless though confined to the city he
will still do his best in that direction. Tr. 'In the place of ties of
clientship and mutual friendship with provincials, which nevertheless by
such influence as I can exercise in the city (urbanis opibus) I strive
to acquire as zealously as I maintain them' (when acquired).

=pro meis=, etc. Note that 'pro' is here used in a different sense from
the foregoing; '_in return for_ my zeal,' etc.

=suo solius periculo=. Cf. phrases like 'mea ipsius manu.' 'Solius'
agrees with the genitive of the personal pronoun to be understood from
'suo.'


§24.

=per se ipsum=, 'by himself'; cf. 1. 11 'per me tibi obstiti.'

=praestare= is 'to be responsible for,' 'guarantee,' and so, 'to
execute.' He means that he will take upon himself the sole
responsibility of carrying out the senate's decrees.



INDEX.


accusative in adverbial phrases, 1. 10.

ager Gallicus, 2. 5, 2. 26.

agrarii, 4. 4.

Ahala, C. Servilius, 1. 3.

Allobroges, Intr. 13, 3. 4-13.

Antonius, C., Intr. 8, 3. 14.

asyndeton, 2. 1.

auspicia, 1. 33 _n._


Caesar, C. Julius, Intr. 8, 14, 18, 4. 7-10.

Caesar, L. Julius, 4. 13.

caput, 4. 10.

Cato, M., Intr. 15.

Cethegus, 3. 6-14.

Cinna, 3. 9, 3. 24.

clientelae provinciales, 4. 23.

cognitor, 4. 9.

colonia, 2. 24 _n._

comitium, 1. 15.

condicio, 2. 14 _n._, 3. 2, 3. 27, 4. 1, 4. 22.

conditional sentences, special forms of, 1. 2 _n._, 1. 19 _n._, 2. 25,
3. 15, 4. 7.

consilium, 1. 2.

contio, 4. 11.

cum with indic., 1. 7 _n._

custodia libera, 1. 19 _n._


dative of agent, 1. 16 _n._

decoctor, 2. 5.

duint, 1. 22.


edictum praetoris, 2. 5.

eludo, 1. 1.

equites, Intr. 9 _n._, 1. 21, 4. 15.

Ethic dative, 2. 4.

exilium. 1. 20 _n._

exterminor, 3. 3.


fides publica, 3.8.

First conspiracy, Intr. 8.

Flaccus, M. Fulvius, 1. 4, 4. 13.


Gabinius, 3. 6-14.

Glaucia, C. Servilius, 1. 4, 3. 15.

Gracchus, C., 1. 4, 4. 4, 4. 10, 4. 13.

Gracchus, Ti., 1. 3, 4. 4.


hendiadys, 1. 15, 1. 21, 1. 31, 2. 14, 3. 2.

honores, 1. 28.


Idus, 1. 14 _n._

immo vero, 1. 2, 2. 22, 4. 17.

imperium, 4. 23 _n._

indic. in oratio obliqua, 2. 13, 3.8.

inter falcarios, 1. 8.

ita ut, idiomatic uses of, 4. 11, 4. 15.


Laeca, M., 1. 8, 2. 12.

latrocinium, 1. 23, 1. 31.

Lentulus, P. Cornelius, 3. 4-16, 4. 2, 4. 5, 4. 10.

Lepidus, M., 3. 24.

Lex Porcia, 1. 28 _n._

Lex Sempronia, 1. 28 _n._, 4. 10.

Lex Valeria, 1. 28 _n._

Lex Villia Annalis, 1.28 _n._

libertini, 4. 16.

loco, 3. 20.


malleolus, 1. 32.

Manlius, Intr. 10, 1. 7, 1. 23, 2. 14, 2. 20.

Marius, C., 1. 4, 3. 15, 3. 24, 4. 21.

Memmius, C., 4. 4.

municipium, 2. 24 _n._, 4. 7.


non modo, 1. 25 _n._, 2. 9, 2. 20, 2. 21, 4. 19.


Octavius, Cn., 3. 24.

Opimius, L., 1. 4.

optimates, 1. 1 _n._

oxymoron, 1. 18.


Palatium, 1. 1.

parricida, 1. 29.

patres conscripti, 1. 4 _n._

Paullus, L. Aemilius, 4. 21.

Pistoria, Intr. 15.

Pompeius, 2. 11, 3. 26, 4. 21.

populares, 4. 9 _n._

possessio, 2. 18.

praefectura, 3. 5.

Praeneste, 1. 8.

praetexta, 2. 4.

praetor urbanus, 1. 32 _n._

praetor peregrinus, 1. 32 _n._

praetoria cohors, 2. 24.

propago, 2. 11, 3. 26.

proscriptio bonorum, 2. 21.

provinces (consular), 4. 23 _n._

pulvinar, 3. 23.

purpuratus, 4. 12.


quaesitor, 4. 10.

quaestio, 1. 18 _n._

Quirites, 2. 1 _n._

quisquam in affirm. sentences, 1. 6 _n._


Rabirius, C., Intr. 17.

Reate, 3. 5.


sacrarium, 1. 24.

satelles, 1. 7.

Saturnalia, 3. 10.

Saturninus, L., 1. 4, 4. 4.

Scipio Aemilianus, 4. 21.

Scipio Africanus, 4. 21.

Scipio Nasica, 1. 3.

scribae, 4. 15.

sententia, 1. 9 _n._

Sibylline prophecies, 3. 9.

Silanus, D., 4. 7.

socii, 1. 18 _n._

Spurius Maelius, 1. 3.

Statilius, 3. 6-14.

subiector, 2. 7.

subjunctive, interrogative, 2. 18.

Sulla, 3. 9, 3. 24.

Sullan colonies, 2. 20.

Sulpicius, P., 3. 24.

supplicatio, 3. 15.


tabulae auctionariae, 2. 18.

tabulae novae, 2. 18.

togatus, 2. 28, 3. 15, 3. 23, 4. 5.

tribuni aerarii, 4. 15.

tumultus, 3. 4.


Ultimum decretum, Intr. 11, 17, 1. 3.

ut with subj. in exclamations, 1. 22, 1. 24.


vadimonium, 2. 5, 2. 21.

Via Aurelia, 2. 6.

Volturcius, T., 3. 4-13, 4. 5.


zeugma, 3. 9, 3. 24.


THE END.


OXFORD: PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
BY HORACE HART, M.A., PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY



PROPER NAMES.


This index does not contain all the proper names occurring in the
Orations; those about which information is either unnecessary or
supplied in the notes or introduction are omitted.

Final _o_ is long. All other long single vowels are marked, unless they
are followed by two consonants, in which case the syllable is long.


A

=Allobroges=, =-um=, a people of Gaul dwelling south-west of the Lake of
Geneva, between the Rhone and the Isère.

=Appenī=, =-i=, _m._ the Apennines, the mountain chain extending along
the centre of Italy.

=Apūlia=, =-ae=, _f._ a country on the east coast of Italy, between
Calabria and Samnium; now Puglia.


C

=Caesar, C. Iulius=, born 102 or 100 B.C. Elected Pontifex Maximus in
63, the year of Cicero's consulship. After the coalition with Pompeius
and Crassus, which is called the First Triumvirate, he became consul in
59, and in the next year he entered on the government of the Province of
Gaul and began his conquest of the tribes hitherto independent. In 49 he
marched into Italy as the declared enemy of the Senatorial party, and in
48 overthrew its champion, Pompeius, at Pharsālus. On his return to Rome
he was made Dictator for life, and four years afterwards, on the 15th of
March, 44 B.C., he was murdered at a meeting of the Senate.

=Capitōlium=, =-i=, _n._, the Capitol, one of the two summits of the
Capitoline hill and the great temple of Jupiter on it, the other summit
being called the =arx= or citadel.

=Cicero, M. Tullius=, born at Arpīnum of an Equestrian family, 106 B.C.
His first extant speech was delivered in 81. He impeached Verres in 70
for his misgovernment in Sicily, crushed the Catilinarian conspiracy
when he was consul in 63, and in 58 went into exile on a charge of
illegal conduct in ordering the execution of the conspirators. He was
recalled in the following year. When the civil war broke out between
Caesar and Pompeius, he supported the Senatorial party, but he became
reconciled to Caesar after his victory over Pompeius at Pharsālus. After
the murder of Caesar he attacked Antonius violently in the
_Philippics_, and, being put on the list of the 'proscribed' by Augustus
and Antonius, he was murdered at Formiae by the soldiers of Antonius on
the 7th of December, 43 B.C.

=Cimber=, =-bri=, a _cognōmen_ or additional name given by Cicero to P.
Gabīnius Cepito, one of the conspirators.

=Concordia=, =-ae=, _f._ harmony, concord; personified as a goddess.


E

=Etrūria=, =-ae=, _f._ a country on the west coast of Italy, between the
Tiber and the Arno.


F

=Faesulae=, =-ārum=, _f. plur._ a city of Etrūria; now Fiesole, near
Florence.

=Faesulānus=, =-a=, =-um=, of Faesulae.

=Flaccus, M. Fulvius=, a supporter of C. Gracchus; killed with him 121
B.C.


I

=Iānuārius=, =-a=, =-um=, of January.

=Īdūs=, =-uum=, _f. plur._ the Ides, the fifteenth day of March, May,
July, October, the thirteenth of the other months.


K

=Kalendae=, =-ārum=, _f. plur._ the Calends, the first day of the month;
=prīdiē Kalendās=, the day before the Calends.


L

=Lepidus, M. Aemilius=, (1) consul 78 B.C., (2) consul 66 B.C.


M

=Manliānus=, =-a=, =-um=, of Manlius, the commander of Catiline's
troops.

=Marius, C=., born 157 B.C. He was consul seven times. His great
exploits were the conquest of Jugurtha (106), the destruction of the
Teutoni at Aquae Sextiae (102) and of the Cimbri at Vercellae (101). In
his sixth consulship he crushed the insurrection of Sāturnīnus and
Glaucia. In the civil war against Sulla he was forced to flee from
Italy, but he soon returned, entered Rome with Cinna and massacred great
numbers of the aristocratical party opposed to him. He died in the
following year, 86 B.C.

=Massilia=, =-ae=, _f._ Marseilles, a Greek settlement near the mouth of
the Rhone, in the Roman Province (Gallia Narbōnensis).

=Massiliensēs=, =-ium=, the people of Massilia.


N

=November= _or_ =Novembris=, =-bris=, of November; =Kalendae Novembrēs=,
the 1st of November.


P

=Penātēs=, =-ium=, _m._ the guardian gods of the State.

=Pīcēnus=, =-a,=, =-um=, of Pīcēnum, a district on the east coast of
Italy, north of Apūlia.

=Pompeius, Cn. Pompeius Magnus=, was born 106 B.C. When he was still
quite young, he showed great military ability in the service of Sulla
during the war in Italy against the generals of the Marian party. In 77
he was sent to Spain, and for five years conducted the operations
against Sertorius. In 66 he cleared the Mediterranean of the Cilician
pirates, and was appointed by the Manilian law to succeed Lucullus in
the command against Mithridātes. In 60 he made the coalition with Caesar
and Crassus called the First Triumvirate, but when the civil war broke
out, he supported the Senate against Caesar and was conquered by him at
Pharsālus, 48 B.C. He fled to Egypt and was murdered there.


R

=Reātīnus=, =-a=, =-um=, of Reāte, a Sabine town.


S

=Sāturnālia=, =-ium= _or_ =-orum=, _n. plur._ the Festival of Saturn,
celebrated on the 17th of December and several days following.


T

=Transalpīnus=, =-a=, =-um=, that lies beyond the Alps, Transalpine.

=Tullus, L. Volcātius=, consul 66 B.C.


V

=Vesta=, =-ae=, goddess of the hearth and household.

=Vestālis=, =-e=, of Vesta, Vestal; especially =Virginēs Vestālēs=, the
virgin priestesses of Vesta, who kept the holy fire burning in her
temple.



VOCABULARY.


Final _i_ and _o_ are long, if they are not marked. All other long
single vowels are marked, unless they are followed by two consonants, in
which case the syllable is necessarily long.

Perfects and supines of all verbs of the third conjugation are given.
Under other verbs they are not given, unless they are irregular.

An asterisk (*) prefixed to a word indicates that the word itself is not
found.

A

=ā=, =ab=, =abs=, _prep. c. abl._ from, by.

=ab-dico= (1), _tr._ reject;
  =abdico mē= (_c. abl._), resign.

=ab-eo=, =-ii=, =-itum=, =-īre=, _intr._ go away.

=ab-horreo=, =-ui=,----(2), _intr._ shrink from, differ from, am
unconnected with, am inconsistent with.

=ab-icio=, =-iēci=, =-iectum= (3), _tr._ cast away, degrade, humble;
  =abiectus=, =-a=, =-um=, downcast, disheartened, prostrated.

=abs-condo=, =-di= _or_ =-didi=, =-ditum= (3), _tr._ hide, conceal.

=absens=, =-ntis=, absent.

=absolūtio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ acquittal.

=ab-sum=, =āfui=, =abesse=, _intr._ am away, am distant.

=abundantia=, =-ae=, _f._ plenty.

=ab-ūtor=, =-ūsus sum= (3), _intr._ _c. abl._ misuse, abuse.

=ac=, _see_ =atque=.

=ac-cēdo=, =-cessi=, =-cessum= (3), _intr._ come, approach.

=ac-celero= (1), _tr. or intr._ hasten, make haste.

=ac-cido=, =-cidi=, =----= (3), _intr._ happen.

=ac-cipio=, =-cēpi=, =-ceptum= (3), _tr._ receive.

=ac-cūso= (1), _tr._ reproach, blame.

=ācer=, =ācris=, =ācre=, sharp, keen, active, vigorous, violent,
severe.

=acerbē=, _adv._ bitterly, violently.

=acerbitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ harshness, pain, affliction.

=acerbus=, =-a=, =-um=, bitter, violent.

=acervus=, =-i=, _m._ heap.

=aciēs=, =-ēi=, _f._ sharp edge, edge; line of battle, battle array.

=acriter=, _adv._ keenly, energetically;
  _compar._ =acrius=.

=ad=, _prep. c. acc._ to, at, near, with, for, with respect to.

=ad-cubo=, =----=, =----= (1), _intr._ recline.

=ad-dūco=, =-xi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr._ bring, bring up, lead, induce,
prevail upon.

=adeo=, _adv._ so far, so, even.

=adeps=, =-ipis=, _c._ fat;
  _plur._ corpulence.

=ad-fero=, =-tuli=, =-lātum=, =-ferre=, _tr._ bring to, apply.

=ad-ficio=, =-fēci=, =-fectum= (3), _tr._ treat, honour, weaken, &c.
(_varied in meaning by the abl. that qualifies it_).

=adfīnis=, =-e=, related, associated.

=ad-flicto= (1), _tr._ vex, distress.

=ad-flīgo=, =-xi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr._ strike down, cast down.

=ad-grego= (1), _tr._ gather together.

=ad-hibeo= (2), _tr._ apply, use.

=adhūc=, _adv._ hitherto.

=ad-imo=, =-ēmi=, =-emptum= (3), _tr._ take away.

=ad-ipiscor=, =-eptus sum= (3), _tr._ get, obtain.

=aditus=, =-ūs=, _m._ means of approaching, approach, access.

=ad-iungo=, =-nxi=, =-nctum= (3), _tr._ join, add, unite.

=ad-iuvo=, =-iūvi=, =-iūtum= (1), _tr._ help.

=administer=, =-tri=, _m._ assistant, helper.

=ad-ministro= (1), _tr._ manage, govern.

=ad-mīror= (1), _tr._ wonder at.

=admonitus=, =-ūs=, _m._ suggestion, request.

=ad-nuo=, =-ui=, =-ūtum= (3), _intr._ nod, assent.

=adparātus=, =-a=, =-um=, splendid, sumptuous.

=ad-propinquo= (1), _intr._ approach.

=ad-quīro=, =-sīvi=, =-sītum= (3), _tr._ get, gain.

=ad-scisco=, =-scīvi=, =-scītum= (3), _tr._ admit.

=ad-sequor=, =-secūtus sum= (3), _tr._ overtake, gain, obtain.

=ad-servo= (1), _tr._ keep safe.

=ad-sideo=, =-sēdi=, =-sessum= (2), _intr._ sit, sit down.

=ad-suēfacio=, =-fēci=, =-factum= (3), _tr._ accustom, habituate.

=ad-sum=, =-fui=, =-esse=, _intr._ am near, am at hand.

=adulescens=, =-ntis=, _m._ youth.

=adulescentulus=, =-i=, _m._ very young man, youth.

=adulter=, =-eri=, _m._ adulterer.

=adultus=, =-a=, =-um=, full-grown.

=adventus=, =-ūs=, _m._ coming, arrival.

=ad-vesperascit=, =-āvit=, =----=, _impers._ (3), _intr._ evening
approaches.

=aedēs=, =-is=, _f._ temple;
  _plur._ house.

=aedificium=, =-i=, _n._ building, house.

=aedifico= (1), _tr._ build.

=aeger=, =-gra=, =-grum=, sick, ill.

=aequē=, _adv._ equally, in like manner;
  =aequē ac=, just as.

=aequitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ justice.

=aequus=, =-a=, =-um=, level, equal, untroubled.

=aerārium=, =-i=, _n._ treasury.

=aerārius=, =-a=, =-um=, belonging to the treasury;
  =tribūni aerārii=, paymasters.

=aerumna=, =-ae=, _f._ trouble, distress.

=aes=, =aeris=, _n._ copper, bronze; money;
  _plur._ bronze tablets;
  =aes aliēnum=, debt.

=aestus=, =-ūs=, _m._ heat.

=aetās=, =-ātis=, _f._ age.

=aeternus=, =-a=, =-um=, eternal, endless.

=ager=, =-gri=, _m._ territory; land.

=agnosco= (=ad-gnosco=), =-gnōvi=, =-gnitum= (3), _tr._ recognize.

=ago=, =ēgi=, =actum= (3), _tr._ drive, do, carry out;
  _intr._ plead, speak.

=agrārius=, =-a=, =-um=, of the land, agrarian;
  =agrārii=, =-ōrum=, _m. plur._ partisans of the agrarian laws.

=agrestis=, =-e=, of the country, of the fields;
  =agrestis=, =-is=, _m._ countryman, peasant.

=aio=, =ais=, =ait=, _defect. intr._ say.

=ālea=, =-ae=, _f._ game of hazard, gambling.

=āleātor=, =-ōris=, _m._ gambler.

=aliēnigena=, =-ae=, foreign, alien.

=aliēnus=, =-a=, =-um=, strange, belonging to another;
  =aliēnus=, =-i=, _m._ stranger.

=aliquando=, _adv._ at some time, now at length.

=aliquanto=, _adv._ somewhat, a little.

=aliqui=, =-qua=, =-quod=, _indef. adj._ some.

=aliquis=, =-quid=, _indef. pron._ some one, something.

=aliquo=, _adv._ to some place.

=aliquot=, _indecl. adj._ several, a number of.

=alius=, =-a=, =-ud=, other;
  =alii . . . alii=, some ... others.

=alo=, =-ui=, =-tum= (3), _tr._ feed, nourish, cherish, maintain,
support.

=altāria=, =-ium=, _n. plur._ altar.

=alter=, =-era=, =-erum=, the other, second;
  =alter . . . alter=, the one ... the other.

=altus=, =-a=, =-um=, high, lofty.

=āmentia=, =-ae=, _f._ senselessness, madness.

=amicio=, =-icui= _or_ =-ixi=, =-ictum= (3), _tr._ wrap, cover.

=amīcitia=, =-ae=, _f._ friendship.

=amīcus=, =-a=, =-um=, _m._ friend.

=ā-mitto=, =-mīsi=, =-missum= (3), _tr._ lose.

=amo= (1), _tr._ love;
  =amans=, =-ntis=, loving, affectionate, devoted to (_gen._).

=amor=, =-ōris=, _m._ love, passion.

=amplector=, =-plexus sum= (3), _tr._ embrace, include.

=amplifico= (1), _tr._ extend, enlarge.

=amplitūdo=, =-inis=, _f._ grandeur, distinction.

=amplus=, =-a=, =-um=, considerable, great, illustrious; handsome (_of
words or rewards_);

  _neut. compar._ =amplius=, _noun_, more; _adv._ further, besides.

=an=, _conj._ or, _after_ =utrum= _or_ =-ne=;
  _also used elliptically to ask a single question_.

=angulus=, =-i=, _m._ corner.

=anhelo= (1), _tr. or intr._ breathe out, exhale; pant, gasp.

=anima=, =-ae=, _f_. breath, life.

=animadversio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ punishment, chastisement.

=animadverto=, =-ti=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ notice, observe;
  _intr._ =animadverto in=, punish.

=animus=, =-i=, _m._ mind, heart, feeling;
  _plur._ spirit, courage.

=annus=, =-ī=, _m._ year.

=ante=, _adv. or prep._ before.

=anteā=, _adv._ before, formerly.

=antelūcānus=, =-a=, =-um=, before light, lasting till daybreak.

=ante-pōno=, =-posui=, =-positum= (3), _tr._ prefer.

=antequam=, _conj._ before.

=antīquus=, =-a=, =-um=, ancient, old.

=aperio=, =-ui=, =-tum= (4), _tr._ open.

=apertē=, _adv._ openly.

=appello= (1), _tr._ speak to, address.

=aptus=, =-a=, =-um=, fit.

=apud=, _prep. c. acc._ near, with, among, at the house of.

=aqua=, =-ae=, _f._ water.

=aquila=, =-ae=, _f._ eagle.

=āra=, =-ae=, _f._ altar.

=arbitror= (1), _tr. or intr._ think.

=arceo=, =-ui=, =-tum= (2), _tr._ keep away, repel.

=arcesso=, =-īvi=, =-ītum= (3), _tr._ call, summon.

=ardeo=, =arsi=, =arsum= (2), _intr._ burn.

=ardor=, =-ōris=, _m._ fire, heat, brightness.

=argenteus=, =-a=, =-um=, of silver, silver.

=argentum=, =-i=, _n._ silver, silver plate.

=argūmentum=, =-i=, _n._ proof, evidence.

=arma=, =-ōrum=, _n. plur._ arms.

=armātus=, =-a=, =-um=, armed.

=arx=, =arcis=, _f._ citadel, stronghold.

=ascendo= (=ad-scendo=), =-di=, =-sum= (3), _intr._ mount, climb.

=aspectus=, =-ūs=, _m._ gaze, sight.

=aspicio= (=ad-spicio=), =-spexi=, =-spectum= (3), _tr._ look at.

=assiduē=, _adv._ constantly.

=at=, _conj._ but;
  _adv._ yet.

=atque= _or_ =ac=, _conj._ and, as.

=atrōcitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ savageness, cruelty.

=atrox=, =-ōcis=, horrible, hideous.

=at-tendo=, =-di=, =-tum= (3), _tr._ direct to;
  _sc._ =animum=, give heed to.

=at-tribuo=, =-ui=, =-ūtum= (3), _tr._ assign, allot.

=auctiōnārius=, =-a=, =-um=, of an auction.

=auctor=,=-ōris=, _m._ originator, author, proposer, doer.

=auctōritās=, =-ātis=, _f._ influence, authority, bidding.

=audācia=, =-ae=, _f._ boldness, insolence, violence.

=audax=, =-ācis=, bold, violent.

=audeo=, =ausus sum= (2), _tr. or intr._ dare.

=audio= (4), _tr._ hear.

=augeo=, =-xi=, =-ctum= (2), _tr._ increase, enlarge.

=auris=, =-is=, _f._ ear.

=auspicium=, =-i=, _n._ augury.

=aut=, _conj._ or;
  =aut . . . aut=, either ... or.

=autem=, _conj._ but.

=auxilium=, =-i=, _n._ help.

=ā-verto=, =-ti=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ turn away;
  =āversus ā=, opposed to.

=avus=, =-i=, _m._ grandfather.


B

=bacchor= (1), _intr._ revel, run wanton.

=barbaria=, =-ae=, _f._ foreign country, barbarous country.

=barbarus=, =-a=, =-um=, foreign, barbarous.

=barbātus=, =-a=, =-um=, bearded.

=beātus=, =-a=, =-um=, blessed, happy, well-to-do.

=bellum=, =-i=, _n._ war.

=bene=, _adv._ well.

=beneficium=, =-i=, _n._ kindness, service.

=benevolentia=, =-ae=, _f._ good-will, affection.

=benignitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ kindness, favour.

=bibo=, =bibi=, =----= (3), _tr._ drink.

=bipertīto=, _adv._ in two divisions.

=bis=, _adv._ twice.

=bonus=, =-a=, =-um=, good, honest, respectable;
  =bona=, =-ōrum=, _n. plur._ property.

=brevis=, =-e=, short.

=breviter=, _adv._ shortly.


C

=caedēs=, =-is=, _f._ bloodshed, murder, massacre.

=caelum=, =-i=, _n._ heaven, sky.

=calamitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ disaster.

=callidus=, =-a=, =-um=, skilful, crafty.

=campus=, =-i=, _m._ plain (_especially the Campus Martius_).

=cano=, =cecini=, =cantum= (3), _tr. or intr._ sing, foretell.

=canto= (1), _intr._ sing.

=capillus=, =-i=, _m._ hair.

=capio=, =cēpi=, =captum= (3), _tr._ take, hold, make, form;
  =mente captus=, =-a=, =-um=, weakened in sense, insane.

=capitālis=, =-e=, belonging to the head, capital, deadly.

=caput=, =-itis=, _n._ head; life, civil rights.

=carcer=, =-eris=, _m._ prison.

=careo= (2), _intr. c. abl._ am without, forgo.

=cārus=, =-a=, =-um=, dear.

=castra=, =-ōrum=, _n. plur._ camp.

=castrensis=, =-e=, of the camp.

=cāsus=, =-ūs=, _m._ chance.

=causa=, =-ae=, _f._ cause, reason, question; position;
  =causā= (_gen._), for the purpose of.

=cēdo=, =cessi=, =cessum= (3), _intr._ yield;
  _c. dat._ yield to.

=celebro= (1), _tr._ throng, celebrate.

=celeriter=, _adv._ quickly.

=cēna=, =-ae=, _f._ dinner, supper.

=censeo=, =-ui=, =-um= (2), _tr._ judge, propose, vote.

=centurio=, =-ōnis=, _m._ centurion.

=cerno=, =crēvi=, =crētum= (3), _tr._ discern, perceive.

=certāmen=, =-inis=, _n._ contest.

=certē=, _adv._ certainly, assuredly.

=certo= (1), _intr._ contend, struggle, fight, rival.

=certus=, =-a=, =-um=, certain, sure, trustworthy;
  =certiōrem facio=, inform.

=cervix=, =-īcis=, _f._ neck; _usually plur. in prose_.

=cēteri=, =-ae=, =-a=, the rest, all other.

=cibus=, =-i=, _m._ food.

=cinis=, =-eris=, _m._ ashes.

=circum=, _adv. or prep._, _c. acc._ around, about.

=circum-clūdo=, =-si=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ shut in, hem in.

=circum-do=, =-dedi=, =-datum= (1), _tr._ put round.

=circumscriptor=, =-ōris=, _m._ cheat.

=circum-sedeo=, =-sēdi=, =-sessum= (2), _tr._ surround.

=circum-spicio=, =-exi=, =-ectum= (3), _tr. or intr._ look round, look
round on, give heed to.

=circum-sto=, =-steti=, =----= (1), _tr. or intr._ stand round.

=cīvīlis=, =-e=, civil, political.

=cīvis=, =-is=, _c._ citizen.

=cīvitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ state.

=clam=, _adv._ secretly.

=clāmo= (1), _intr._ cry out.

=clārus=, =-a=, =-um=, bright, manifest, famous.

=clēmens=, =-ntis=, merciful.

=clientēla=, =-ae=, _f._ clientship (_the relation of patron and
dependent at Rome_).

=coepi=, _defect._ (3), _tr. or intr._ began, have begun;
  =coeptus=, =-a=, =-um=, begun.

=coeptus=, =-ūs=, _m._ attempt.

=co-erceo= (2), _tr._ check, restrain, repress.

=coetus=, =-ūs=, _m._ assemblage, company.

=cōgitātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ thought, intent.

=cōgito= (1), _tr._ reflect upon, meditate, design.

=cognitor=, =-ōris=, _m._ advocate.

=co-gnosco=, =-gnōvi=, =-gnitum= (3), _tr._ learn, recognize, know.

=cōgo= (=co-ago=), =coēgi=, =coactum= (3), _tr._ call together, collect,
compel.

=cohors=, =-rtis=, _f._ cohort (_one tenth of a legion_).

=collēga=, =-ae=, _m._ colleague.

=col-ligo=, =-lēgi=, =-lectum= (3), _tr._ bring together, collect.

=col-loco=, _see_ =con-loco=.

=colōnia=, =-ae=, _f._ settlement, colony.

=colōnus=, =-i=, _m._ settler, colonist.

=color=, =-ōris=, _m._ colour.

=comes=, =-itis=, _c._ companion.

=cōmissātīo=, =-ōnis=, _f._ revelling.

=comitātus=, =-ūs=, _m._ retinue.

=comitium=, =-i=, _n._ comitium (_place for voting by the north-east
extremity of the Forum_);
  _plur._ assembly, elections.

=comitor= (1), _tr._ accompany;
  =comitātus=, =-a=, =-um=, _also in pass. sense from_ =comito=.

=com-memoro= (1), _tr._ mention, relate, declare.

=commendatio=, =-onis=, _f._ recommendation.

=com-mendo= (1), _tr._ entrust.

=com-mitto=, =-mīsi=, =-missum= (3), _tr._ bring together, begin, engage
in; practise, perpetrate, entrust;
  =committo ut=, bring about that, so act that.

=com-moveo=, =-mōvi=, =-mōtum= (2), _tr._ move, stir, trouble, alarm.

=commūnis=, =-e=, common, general.

=com-mūto= (1), change, alter.

=com-paro= (1), _tr._ get together, procure, acquire, contrive.

=com-pello=, =-puli=, =-pulsum= (3), _tr._ drive.

=com-perio=, =-peri=, =-pertum= (4), _tr._ discover, ascertain.

=competītor=, =-ōris=, _m._ rival, competitor.

=complector=, =-plexus sum= (3), _tr._ embrace.

=complexus=, =-ūs=, _m._ embrace.

=complūrēs=, =-a= _or_ =-ia=, several, many.

=com-prehendo=, =-di=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ lay hold of, arrest, detect.

=com-primo=, =-pressi=, =-pressum= (3), _tr._ crush.

=cōnātus=, =-ūs=, _m._ attempt.

=con-cēdo=, =-cessi=, =-cessum= (3), _tr. or intr._ grant, yield,
retire.

=con-cido=, =-cidi=, =----= (3), _intr._ fall, fail, collapse.

=con-cipio=, =-cēpi=, =-ceptum= (3), _tr._ take in, imagine, conceive.

=con-cito= (1), _tr._ excite, arouse, stir up.

=concordia=, =-ae=, _f._ harmony, union, unanimity.

=con-cupisco=, =-īvi=, =-ītum= (3), _tr._ covet, strive after.

=con-curso= (1), _intr._ hurry about, run to and fro.

=concursus=, =-ūs=, _m._ gathering.

=con-demno= (1), _tr._ convict (_acc. and gen._), condemn.

=condicio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ agreement, terms, lot, task, position,
circumstances.

=con-do=, =-didi=, =-ditum= (3), _tr._ found, build, store.

=con-fercio=, =----=, =-tum= (4), _tr._ fill full, stuff, cram.

=con-fero=, =-tuli=, =-lātum=, =-ferre=, _tr._ bring together, contribute,
compare, direct, put off;
  _with reflex. pronoun_, betake myself.

=confessio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ confession.

=confestim=, _adv._ immediately.

=con-ficio=, =-fēci=, =-fectum= (3), _tr._ finish, carry out, wear out.

=con-fīdo=, =-fīsus sum= (3), _intr. c. dat._ trust, rely on;
  _c. infin._ am confident that.

=con-firmo= (1), _tr._ strengthen, increase; declare.

=con-fiteor=, =-fessus sum= (2), _tr. or intr._ confess, admit.

=con-flagro= (1), _intr._ burn, am consumed.

=con-flīgo=, =-xi=, =-ctum= (3), _intr._ come into conflict, am opposed.

=con-flo= (1), _tr._ blow together, fuse; stir up, cause.

=con-fringo=, =-frēgi=, =-fractum= (3), _tr._ break up, bring to naught.

=con-grego= (1), _tr._ herd together, assemble.

=con-icio=, =-iēci=, =-iectum= (3), _tr._ cast, hurl, aim, drive.

=coniectūra=, =-ae=, _f._ inference.

=coniunctio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ union.

=con-iungo=, =-nxi=, =-nctum= (3), _tr._ join, unite, connect.

=coniunx=, =-ugis=, _c._ husband, wife.

=coniūrātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ conspiracy.

=coniūrātor=, =-ōris=, _m._ conspirator.

=coniūrātus=, =-i=, _m._ conspirator.

=co-nīveo=, =----=, =----= (2), _intr._ wink, connive.

=con-loco= _or_ =col-loco= (1), _tr._ set up, place, pitch.

=cōnor= (1), _tr. or intr._ try, attempt.

=con-rōboro= (1), _tr._ strengthen.

=conscelerātus=, =-a=, =-um=, wicked, criminal.

=conscientia=, =-ae=, _f._ knowledge, consciousness, knowledge of guilt,
conscience.

=con-scrībo=, =-psi=, =-ptum= (3), _tr._ enroll.

=con-secro= (1), make sacred, consecrate.

=consensio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ unanimity.

=con-sentio=, =-sensi=, =-sensum= (4), _intr._ agree, unite.

=con-sequor=, =-secūtus sum= (3), _tr._ follow up, follow, catch up,
attain to, learn.

=con-servo= (1), _tr._ keep safe, save.

=consilium=, =-i=, _n._ deliberation, purpose, intention; plan, wisdom;
council.

=con-sōlor= (1), _tr._ console.

=conspectus=, =-ūs=, _m._ sight.

=con-spicio=, =-spexi=, =-spectum= (3), _tr._ observe, look at, look
upon.

=conspīrātio=, =-ōnis= _f._ agreement, concord.

=constanter=, _adv._ steadily, consistently.

=constantia=, =-ae=, _f._ firmness, steadfastness.

=con-stituo=, =-ui=, =-ūtum= (3), _tr._ set, settle, appoint, ordain,
establish, found.

=con-sto=, =-stiti=, =-stātum= (1), _intr._ am consistent, last;
  =con-stat=, _impers._ it is agreed, it is well known.

=con-stringo=, =-nxi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr._ bind together, bind.

=consuētūdo=, =-inis=, _f._ custom, habit.

=consul=, =-ulis=, _m._ consul (_the title of the two highest
magistrates of the Roman state, elected annually_).

=consulāris=, =-e=, of a consul, consular;
  =consulāris=, =-is=, _m._ ex-consul, one of consular rank.

=consulātus=, =-ūs=, _m._ consulship.

=consulo=, =-ui=, =-tum= (3), _tr._ consult;
  _intr. c. dat._ provide for.

=consultum=, =-i=, _n._ decree, resolution.

=con-sūmo=, =-mpsi=, =-mptūm= (3), _tr._ use up, waste, spend.

=con-tāmino= (1), _tr._ defile, pollute.

=con-temno=, =-tempsi=, =-temptum= (3), _tr._ despise.

=con-tendo=, =-di=, =-tum= (3), _tr._ compare, contrast.

=contentio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ struggle, rivalry.

=contentus=, =-a=, =-um=, contented.

=con-ticesco=, =-ticui=, =----= (3), _intr._ become silent.

=con-tineo=, =-tinui=, =-tentum= (2), _tr._ contain, retain, enclose,
repress, keep to myself.

=con-tingo=, =-tigi=, =-tactum= (3), _tr. or intr._ touch, reach;
befall, happen.

=contio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ meeting (_summoned by a magistrate_), speech.

=contionātor=, =-ōris=, _m._ haranguer, demagogue.

=contrā=, _prep. c. acc._ against;
  _adv._ opposite, otherwise;
  =contrā atque=, otherwise than.

=con-traho=, =-xi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr._ draw together, cause, incur.

=contrōversia=, =-ae=, _f._ dispute, question.

=contumēlia=, =-ae=, _f._ insult.

=con-venio=, =-vēni=, =-ventum= (4), _intr._ come together, meet;
  =con-venit=, _impers._ it is fitting.

=conventus=, =-ūs=, _m._ meeting.

=con-verto=, =-ti=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ turn, turn back, direct.

=con-vinco=, =-vīci=, =-victum= (3), _tr._ refute, convict.

=convīvium=, =-i=, _n._ feast, banquet.

=con-voco= (1), _tr._ call together, assemble.

=cōpia=, =-ae=, _f._ plenty, abundance;
  _plur._ resources, troops.

=cōpiōsus=, =-a=, =-um=, plentiful, well supplied.

=corpus=, =-oris=, _n._ body.

=cor-rigo=, =-rexi=, =-rectum= (3), _tr._ correct, amend.

=cor-rumpo=, =-rūpi=, =-ruptum= (3), _tr._ ruin, seduce;
  =corruptus=, =-i=, _m._ scoundrel.

=cor-ruo=, =-ui=, =----= (3), _intr._ fall together, fall.

=corruptēla=, =-ae=, _f._ corruption, seduction.

=corruptor=, =-ōris=, _m._ seducer, corruptor.

=cotīdiānus=, =-a=, =-um=, daily.

=cotīdiē=, _adv._ daily.

=crēdo=, =-didi=, =-ditum= (3), _tr._ entrust;
  _intr. c. dat._ believe.

=cresco=, =crēvi=, =crētum= (3), _tr._ grow, increase, am enlarged.

=cruciātus=, =-ūs=, _m._ torture.

=crūdēlis=, =-e=, cruel.

=crūdēlitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ cruelty.

=crūdēliter=, _adv._ cruelly;
  _compar._ =crūdēlius=.

=cruentus=, =-a=, =-um=, bloody.

=cubīle=, =-is=, _n._ bed.

=culpa=, =-ae=, _f._ fault.

=cum=, _conj._ when, since.

=cum=, _prep. c. abl._ together with, with.

=cumulo= (1), _tr._ heap up, aggravate.

=cunctus=, =-a=, =-um=, all.

=cupiditās=, =-ātis=, _f._ desire, passion.

=cupio=, =-īvi=, =-ītum= (3), _tr._ desire, wish.

=cūr=, _adv._ why.

=cūra=, =-ae=, _f._ care, anxiety, task.

=cūria=, =-ae=, _f._ senate-house.

=cūro= (1), _tr. or intr._ care for, attend to, take measures.

=currus=, =-ūs=, _m._ chariot.

=cursus=, =-ūs=, _m._ course, path.

=custōdia=, =-ae=, _f._ watch, guard, imprisonment;
  sentinel (_usually in plur._).

=custōdio= (4), _tr._ guard.

=custōs=, =-ōdis=, _c._ guardian, guard.


D

=damno= (1), _tr._ condemn.

=dē=, _prep. c. abl._ down from, from, concerning.

=dēbeo= (2), _tr._ owe;
  _followed by infin._ am bound to, must, ought.

=dēbilis=, =-e=, weak.

=dēbilito= (1), weaken, unnerve.

=dē-cēdo=, =-cessi=, =-cessum= (3), _intr._ withdraw.

=decem=, _indecl. adj._ ten.

=dē-cerno=, =-crēvi=, =-crētum= (3), _tr. or intr._ determine,
decree, resolve.

=decimus=, =-a=, =-um=, tenth.

=declīnātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ bending aside, avoidance, escape.

=dēcoctor=, =-ōris=, _m._ bankrupt.

=dēdecus=, =-oris=, _n._ disgrace.

=dē-dūco=, =-xi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr._ bring down, bring, lead away,
conduct.

=dē-fatīgo= (1), _tr._ tire out.

=dē-fendo=, =-di=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ protect, guard, defend.

=dē-fero=, =-tuli=, =-lātum=, =-ferre=, _tr._ bring down, report.

=dē-ficio=, =-fēci=, =-fectum= (3), _tr._ _or intr._ desert, fail;
revolt from, rebel against.

=dē-fīgo=, =-xi=, =-xum= (3), _tr._ drive, plunge.

=dē-flagro= (1), _tr. or intr._ turn down, destroy utterly; am
consumed.

=dē-icio=, =-iēci=, =-iectum= (3), _tr._ throw aside, cast down, force
away.

=deinde=, _adv._ next, then;
  _after_ =prīmum=, secondly.

=dēlecto= (1), _tr._ please, delight.

=dēleo=, =-ēvi=, =-ētum= (2), _tr._ destroy, annihilate.

=dēlicātus=, =-a=, =-um=, luxurious, effeminate.

=dē-ligo=, =-lēgi=, =-lectum= (3), _tr._ choose.

=dē-lubrum=, =-i=, _n._ shrine.

=dēmens=, =-ntis=, mad, maddened, distracted.

=dēmenter=, _adv._ insanely.

=dēmentia=, =-ae=, _f._ madness, insanity.

=dē-migro= (1), _intr._ depart, remove.

=dē-minuo=, =-ui=, =-ūtum= (3), _tr._ lessen, abate.

=dēminūtio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ decrease, loss.

=dē-monstro= (1), _tr._ point out.

=dēmum=, _adv._ at last.

=dēnique=, _adv._ at last, at length.

=dē-nuntio= (1), _tr._ give notice of.

=dē-pello=, =-puli=, =-pulsum= (3), _tr._ drive down, drive away,
remove, overthrow.

=dē-pendo=, =-di=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ pay.

=dē-plōro= (1), _tr._ lament.

=dē-pōno=, =-posui=, =-positum= (3), _tr._ lay aside, put away.

=dē-posco=, =-poposci=, =----= (3), _tr._ demand.

=dē-prāvo= (1), _tr._ pervert, lead astray.

=dē-precor= (1), _tr._ avert by prayer, avert.

=dē-prehendo=, =-di=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ catch, find out, detect.

=dē-relinquo=, =-līqui=, =-lictum= (3), _tr._ abandon, desert.

=dē-scrībo=, =-psi=, =-ptum= (3), _tr._ copy off, arrange, map out.

=dē-sero=, =-serui=, =-sertum= (3), _tr._ desert, abandon.

=dē-sīderium=, =-i=, _n._ want, longing.

=dēsīdero= (1), _tr._ long for, miss.

=dē-signo= (1), _tr._ note, appoint;
  =dēsignātus=, =-a=, =-um=, elected, elect (_especially of a consul_).

=dē-sino=, =-sii=, =-situm= (3), _tr. or intr._ stop, cease.

=dē-sisto=, =-stiti=, =-stitum= (3), _intr._ cease.

=despērātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ despair.

=dē-spēro= (1), _tr. or intr._ despair of, give up hope;
  =despērātus=, =-a=, =-um=, desperate.

=dē-stringo=, =-nxi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr._ strip, unsheathe, draw.

=dē-sum=, =-fui=, =-esse=, _intr. c. dat._ am wanting to, fail.

=dē-testor= (1), _tr._ avert by entreaty.

=dē-traho=, =-xi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr._ withdraw, take away.

=detrīmentum=, =-i=, _n._ damage, hurt.

=deus=, =-i=, _m._ god.

=dē-voveo=, =-vōvi=, =-vōtum= (2), _tr._ vow.

=dextera= _or_ =dextra=, =-ae=, _f._ right-hand.

=dīco=, =-xi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr. or intr._ say, speak.

=dictātor=, =-ōris=, _m._ dictator.

=dictātūra=, =-ae=, _f._ dictatorship.

=dictito= (1), _tr._ keep saying, repeat.

=diēs=, =-ēi=, _c._ (_m. in plur._) day, period;
  =in diēs=, day by day, as days pass.

=difficilis=, =-e=, difficult.

=difficultās=, =-ātis=, _f._ difficulty, distress, distressed
circumstances.

=dignitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ worthiness, honour, authority.

=dignus=, =-a=, =-um=, worthy, deserving.

=dī-iūdico= (1), _tr._ decide, determine.

=dīlectus=, =-ūs=, _m._ choice, levy.

=dīligens=, =-ntis=, careful, active.

=dīligenter=, _adv._ carefully, earnestly.

=dīligentia=, =-ae=, _f._ care, energy.

=dī-lūcescit=, =-luxit=, =----= (3), _impers. intr._ it dawns.

=dīmicātio=, =ōnis=, _f._ fighting.

=dī-mico= (1) _intr._ fight, struggle.

=dī-mitto=, =-mīsi=, =-missum= (3), _tr._ send away.

=dīreptio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ plundering.

=dīreptor=, _m._ plunderer.

=dī-ripio=, =-ripui=, =-reptum= (3), _tr._ plunder.

=dis-cēdo=, =-cessi=, =-cessum= (3), _intr._ depart.

=dis-cerno=, =-crēvi=, =-cretum= (3), _tr._ divide.

=discessus=, =-ūs=, _m._ departure.

=disciplīna=, =-ae=, _f._ teaching, training, practice.

=disco=, =didici=, =----= (3), _tr._ learn.

=di-scrībo=, =-psi=, =-ptum= (3), _tr._ distribute, assign.

=discrīmen=, =-inis=, _n._ danger.

=dis-pertio= (4), _tr._ distribute.

=dis-sēmino= (1), _tr._ spread.

=dissensio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ discord, disagreement.

=dis-sentio=, =-si=, =-sum= (4), _intr._ disagree, differ.

=dissimilis=, =-e=, unlike.

=dis-simulo= (1), _tr. or intr._ hide, disguise, dissemble.

=dis-solvo=, =-solvi=, =-solūtum= (3), _tr._ unloose, release, disunite;
  =dissolūtus=, =-a=, =-um=, remiss, negligent.

=dis-tribuo=, =-ui=, =-ūtum= (3), _tr._ divide, distribute.

=diū=, _adv._ for a long time, long.

=dī-vello=, =-velli=, =-vulsum= (3), _tr._ tear, separate.

=dīversus=, =-a=, =-um=, other, different.

=dīvīnitus=, _adv._ by divine influence, from heaven.

=do=, =dedi=, =datum= (1), _tr._ give, deliver, write (_a letter_).

=dolor=, =-ōris=, _m._ sorrow, grief, pang.

=domesticus=, =-a=, =-um=, belonging to a home, family, private;
intestine, civil (_war_).

=domicilium=, =-i=, _n._ dwelling, home.

=dominātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ tyranny, despotism.

=domus=, =-ūs=, _f._ house;
  _loc._ =domi=, at home;
  =domi meae=, at my house;
  =domum=, home.

=dormio= (4), _intr._ sleep.

=dubitātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ doubt.

=dubito= (1), _intr._ doubt, hesitate.

=dubius=, =-a=, =-um=, doubtful;
  =sine dubio=, without doubt.

=dūco=, =-xi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr._ lead, carry off, think, consider.

=dūdum=, _adv. see_ =iam dūdum=.

=duint=, _older form of pres. subj. of_ =do=.

=dulcis=, =-e=, sweet.

=dum=, _conj._ while, until, provided that.

=dummodō=, _conj._ provided that, if only.

=duō=, =-ae=, =-ō=, two.

=duodecimus=, =-a=, =-um=, twelfth.

=dux=, =ducis=, _c._ leader.


E

=ē= _or_ =ex=, _prep. c. abl._ from, out of, in accordance with.

=ebriōsus=, =-a=, =-um=, given to drinking, drunkard.

=ecquis=, =ecquid=, _interrog. pron._ any one? anything?
  =ecquid=, in any way? (_used as an interrog. particle_).

=ēdictum=, =-i=, _n._ edict, proclamation.

=ē-do=, =-didi=, =-ditum= (3), _tr._ put forth, set forth, declare.

=ē-doceo=, =-ui=, =-tum= (2), _tr._ inform.

=ē-duco=, =-xi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr._ lead out, draw.

=ef-fero=, =extuli=, =ēlātum=, =efferre=, _tr._ bring out, carry out,
raise.

=effrēnātus=, =-a=, =-um=, unbridled.

=ef-fugio=, =-fūgi=, =----= (3), _tr. or intr._ flee from, escape, shun,
flee away.

=egeo=, =-ui=, =----= (2), _intr._ am needy.

=egestās=, =-ātis=, _f._ poverty.

=egō=, =mei=, I.

=ē-gredior=, =-gressus sum= (3), _intr._ go out.

=egregius=, =-a=, =-um=, excellent, eminent, great.

=ē-icio=, =-iēci=, =-iectum= (3), _tr._ drive out, wreck.

=ē-lābor=, =-lapsus sum= (3), _intr._ slip away, drop.

=ē-lūdo=, =-si=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ jeer, make sport of;
  _intr._ cease to play, have full play.

=ē-mergo=, =-si=, =-sum= (3), _intr._ come up, get clear.

=ē-mitto=, =-mīsi=, =-missum= (3), _tr._ send out, allow to escape.

=ē-morior=, =-mortuus sum= (3), _intr._ die.

=enim=, _conj._ for.

=eo=, _adv._ to that place.

=eo=, =ii=, =itum=, =īre=, _intr._ go.

=eōdem=, _adv._ to the same place.

=eques=, =-itis=, _m._ horseman; _one of the order called Equites_.

=equitātus=, =-ūs=, _m._ cavalry.

=ergā=, _prep. c. acc._ towards.

=ergo=, _adv._ accordingly, therefore, then.

=ē-ripio=, =-ripui=, =-reptum= (3), _tr._ snatch away, take away.

=erro= (1), _intr._ wander, mistake, am wrong.

=ē-ructo= (1), _tr._ vomit forth.

=ē-rumpo=, =-rūpi=, =-ruptum= (3), _tr. or intr._ burst asunder; break
forth, rush out.

=et=, _conj._ and;
  =et . . . et=, both ... and.

=etenim=, _conj._ and indeed, for indeed, truly, yet.

=etiam=, _conj. or adv._ also, even, even yet, still.

=etsi=, _conj._ although.

=ē-vādo=, =-si=, =-sum= (3), _intr._ get away, escape.

=ē-verto=, =-ti=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ overthrow.

=ē-vocātor=, =-ōris=, _m._ one who calls to arms, instigator.

=ē-vomo=, =-ui=, =-itum= (3), _tr._ vomit forth.

=ex=, _see_ =ē=.

=ex-aggero= (1), _tr._ heap up, magnify.

=ex-animo= (1), _tr._ deprive of life, deprive of sense
  =ex-animātus=, =-a=, =-um=, dead, fainting.

=ex-audio= (4), _tr._ hear.

=ex-cēdo=, =-cessi=, =-cessum= (3), _intr._ retire, withdraw.

=excelsus=, =-a=, =-um=, lofty, high;
  =excelsum=, =-i=, _n._ height.

=ex-cido=, =-cidi=, =----= (3), _intr._ fall out, fall down.

=ex-cipio=, =-cēpi=, =-ceptum= (3), _tr._ except, make exception of;
catch, intercept.

=ex-cito= (1), _tr._ summon forth, stir up, arouse.

=ex-clūdo=, =-si=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ shut out.

=excursio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ sally, attack.

=ex-eo=, =-ii=, =-itum=, =-īre=, _intr._ go out.

=ex-erceo= (2), _tr._ practise.

=exercitātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ practice.

=exercitus=, =-ūs=, _m._ army.

=ex-haurio=, =-si=, =-stum= (4), _tr._ empty out, remove.

=ex-igo=, =-ēgi=, =-actum= (3), _tr._ drive out, finish.

=exilium=, =-i=, _n._ exile, banishment.

=eximius=, =-a=, =-um=, extraordinary, signal.

=ex-istimo= (1), _tr._ judge, suppose, think.

=exitiōsus=, =-a=, =-um=, destruction, deadly.

=exitium=, =-i=, _n._ ruin, overthrow.

=exitus=, =-ūs=, _m._ end.

=ex-pello=, =-puli=, =-pulsum= (3), _tr._ drive out.

=ex-pōno=, =-posui=, =-positum= (3), _tr._ set forth, explain.

=ex-prōmo=, =-mpsi=, =-mptum= (3), _tr._ show forth, display, expend.

=ex-sisto=, =-stiti=, =-stitum= (3), _intr._ appear, am manifest, exist.

=ex-solvo=, =-solvi=, =-solūtum= (3), _tr._ free, release.

=exspectātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ expectation, anticipation.

=ex-specto= (1), _tr._ await, wait for, expect.

=ex-stinguo=, =-nxi=, =-nctum= (3), _tr._ quench, put out.

=exsul= _or_ =exul=, =-ulis=, _m._ exile.

=ex-sulto= (1), _intr._ leap about, exult, revel.

=ex-termino= (1), _tr._ banish.

=externus=, =-a=, =-um=, foreign.

=exterus=, =-a=, =-um=, foreign.

=ex-torqueo=, =-si=, =-tum= (2), _tr._ wrest away, force away.

=extrā=, _prep. c. acc._ outside.

=extrēmus=, =-a=, =-um=, last;
  =ad extrēmum=, at last.


F

=facile=, _adv._ easily.

=facinorōsus=, =-a=, =-um=, criminal, vicious.

=facinus=, =-oris=, _n._ deed, crime, outrage.

=facio=, =fēci=, =factum= (3), _tr._ do, make, bring about, perform;
hold (_games_).

=factum=, =-i=, _n._ deed, act.

=facultās=, =-ātis=, _f._ opportunity.

=falcārius=, =-i=, _m._ scythe-maker.

=fallo=, =fefelli=, =falsum= (3), _tr._ deceive, disappoint, escape
notice of.

=falsus=, =-a=, =-um=, false, misdirected.

=fāma=, =-ae=, _f._ report, reputation, fame, character.

=famēs=, =-is= _f._ hunger.

=familia=, =-ae= _or_ =-ās= _f._ household (_of slaves_), establishment;
  =pater= _or_ =māter familias=, master _or_ mistress of a house.

=familiārissimē=, _adv._ most intimately, on most intimate terms.

=fānum=, =-i=, _n._ sanctuary.

=fascis=, =-is=, _m._ bundle;
  _plur._ fascēs, _the bundles of rods enclosing an axe, carried before
the highest magistrates_.

=fātālis=, =-e=, destined, fated.

=fateor=, =fassus sum= (2), _tr. or intr._ admit, allow.

=fātum=, =-i=, _n._ fate, oracle.

=faucēs=, =-ium=, _f._ _plur._ throat, jaws, entrance.

=fax=, =facis=, _f._ torch, firebrand; meteor.

=febris=, =-ia=, _f._ fever.

=fero=, =tuli=, =lātum=, =ferre=, _tr._ lead, carry, get, bear; report,
celebrate;
  =sententiam fero=, vote.

=ferramentum=, =-i=, _n._ steel implement.

=ferreus=, =-a=, =-um=, of iron; of iron nature.

=ferrum=, =-i=, _n._ iron, sword.

=fidēlis=, =-e=, faithful, loyal.

=fidēs=, =-ei=, belief, faith, credit; honesty; assurance, engagement.

=fīgo=, =-xi=, =-xum= (3), _tr._ fix.

=fīlia=, =-ae=, _f._ daughter.

=fīlius=, =-i=, _m._ son.

=fingo=, =-nxi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr._ imagine, devise.

=fīnis=, =-is=, _m._ end, limit;
  _plur._ territory.

=fīo=, =factus sum=, =fieri=, _intr._ happen, become, am done, am made.

=firmo= (1), _tr._ strengthen.

=firmus=, =-a=, =-um=, strong.

=flāgitiōsissimē=, _adv._ most shamefully, most infamously.

=flāgitiōsus=, =-a=, =-um=, infamous, dissolute.

=flāgitium=, =-i=, _n._ shameful deed.

=flāgito=, (1) _tr._ demand earnestly, importune for.

=flamma=, =-ae=, _f._ flame.

=flecto=, =flexi=, =flexum= (3), _tr._ bend, turn aside.

=flōreo=, =-ui=, =----= (2), _intr._ flourish, am prosperous, am
powerful.

=flōs=, =-ōris=, _m._ flower.

=focus=, =-i=, _m._ hearth.

=foedus=, =-eris=, _n._ treaty, compact.

=foedus=, =-a=, =-um=, hideous, shameful.

=foras=, _adv._ out of doors (_with verbs of motion_).

=foris=, _adv._ out of doors (_with verbs of rest_).

=formīdo=, =-inis=, _f._ fear, dread.

=fors=, =-rtis=, _f._ chance;
  =forte=, by chance.

=fortasse=, _adv._ perhaps.

=fortis=, =-e=, brave, strong.

=fortiter=, _adv._ bravely.

=fortītūdo=, =-inis=, _f._ courage, firmness.

=fortūna=, =-ae=, _f._ fortune;
  _plur._ property, possessions, estates.

=fortūnātus=, =-a=, =-um=, fortunate, happy.

=forum=, =-i=, _n._ market, meeting-place for business; _especially the_
=Forum Romanum=.

=frango=, =frēgi=, =fractum= (3), _tr._ break.

=fraudātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ deceit, fraud.

=frequens=, =-ntis=, crowded, in great numbers.

=frequentia=, =-ae=, _f._ numerous assembly, crowd, throng.

=frequento= (1), _tr._ bring in crowds.

=frētus=, =-a=, =-um=, relying on.

=frīgus=, =-oris=, _n._ cold.

=frons=, =-ntis=, _f._ brow, forehead.

=fructus=, =-ūs=, _m._ enjoyment, produce.

=fruor=, =fructus sum=, _intr. c. abl._ enjoy.

=fuga=, =-ae=, _f._ banishment.

=fugio=, =fūgi=, =fugitum= (3), _intr._ flee, take flight.

=fugitīvus=, =-i=, _m._ runaway slave.

=fulgeo=, =-si=, =----= (2), _intr._ shine, am bright.

=fulmen=, =-inis=, _n._ lightning, thunderbolt.

=fundāmentum=, =-i=, _n._ foundation.

=fundo= (1), _tr._ found.

=funestus=, =-a=, =-um=, deadly, fatal.

=fungor=, =functus sum= (3), _intr. c. abl._ perform.

=furiōsus=, =-a=, =-um=, mad.

=furo=, =-ui=, =----= (3), _intr._ am mad.

=furor=, =-ōris=, _m._ madness.

=furtim=, _adv._ stealthily.

=furtum=, =-i=, _n._ theft.


G

=gāneo=, =-ōnis=, _m._ glutton, debauchee.

=gaudium=, =-i=, _n._ delight.

=gelidus=, =-a=, =-um=, cold.

=gener=, =-eri=, _m._ son-in-law.

=gens=, =-ntis=, _f._ clan, race, people.

=genus=, =-eris=, _n._ class, kind.

=gero=, =gessi=, =gestum= (3), _tr._ bear, carry on, administer;
  =rēs gestae=, exploits.

=gladiātor=, =-ōris=, _m._ gladiator.

=gladiātōrius=, =-a=, =-um=, of gladiators.

=gladius=, =-i=, _m._ sword.

=glōria=, =-ae=, _f._ glory, fame.

=gradus=, =-ūs=, _m._ step, degree.

=grātia=, =-ae=, _f._ favour, thanks, gratitude;
  =grātiās ago=, give thanks, pass a vote of thanks;
  =refero grātiam=, show gratitude;
  =grātiam habeo=, feel gratitude.

=grātulātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ congratulation.

=grātus=, =-a=, =-um=, pleasing, welcome.

=gravis=, =-e=, heavy, weighty, authentic, severe.

=graviter=, _adv._ violently.

=grex=, =gregis=, _m._ flock, band.

=gubernātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ steering, direction.


H

=habeo= (2), _tr._ have, hold, assemble, set on foot, render;
  _pass._ am considered.

=habito= (1), _intr._ live.

=haereo=, =-si=, =-sum= (2), _intr._ cleave, cling, am fixed.

=haesito= (1), _intr._ am in doubt, am at a loss.

=haruspex=, =-icis=, _m._ soothsayer, diviner (_who foretold future
events by the inspection of the entrails of victims_).

=hebesco=, =----=, =----= (3), _intr._ grow dull.

=hercule= _or_ =me hercule=, _interj._ by Hercules.

=hesternus=, =-a=, =-um=, of yesterday.

=hic=, =haec=, =hōc=, this.

=hīc=, _adv._ here, thereupon, then.

=hīce=, =haece=, =hōce=, _strengthened form of_ =hic=.

=hiems=, =-emis=, _f._ winter.

=hinc=, _adv._ hence, for this reason;
  =hinc . . . illinc=, on this side ... on that.

=hodiernus=, =-a=, =-um=, of to-day, present.

=homo=, =-inis=, _c._ human being, man.

=honestās=, =-ātis=, _f._ honour, high character.

=honestē=, _adv._ honourably.

=honesto= (1), _tr._ honour, grace.

=honestus=, =-a=, =-um=, honourable.

=honor=, =-ōris=, _m._ honour, sacrifice, office.

=hōra=, =-ae=, _f._ hour.

=horribilis=, =-e=, terrible, dreadful.

=hortor= (1), _tr._ urge, advise.

=hospitium=, =-i=, _n._ mutual friendship.

=hostis=, =-is=, _c._ enemy.

=hūc=, _adv._ hither, to this point.

=hūmānitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ kindly feeling.

=hūmānus=, =-a=, =-um=, human.

=humus=, =-i=, _f._ ground;
  _locat._ =humi=, on the ground.


I

=iaceo= (2), _intr._ lie, lie helpless.

=iacio=, =iēci=, =iactum= (3), _tr._ cast, utter, bruit about.

=iacto= (1), _tr._ toss, hurl, vaunt;
  _with reflex, pron._ speak boastfully, make boast.

=iactus=, =-ūs=, _m._ hurling, casting.

=iam=, _adv._ just now, already, by this time;
  =iam dūdum=, long since.

=idcirco=, _adv._ for that reason.

=īdem=, =eadem=, =idem=, same.

=igitur=, _conj._ therefore, accordingly.

=ignāvia=, =-ae=, _f._ cowardice.

=ignis=, =-is=, _m._ fire.

=ignōminia=, =-ae=, _f._ infamy, disgrace.

=ignōro= (1), _tr. or intr._ am ignorant of, am ignorant.

=ignōtus=, =-a=, =-um=, unknown.

=ille=, =-a=, =-ud=, that; he, she, it.

=imāgo=, =-inis=, _f._ image, likeness.

=imberbis=, =-e=, beardless.

=immānis=, =-e=, monstrous.

=immānitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ enormity, heinousness.

=immātūrus=, =-a=, =-um=, untimely, premature.

=immineo=, =----=, =----= (2), _intr._ hang over, threaten.

=immo=, _adv._ on the contrary, nay.

=immortālis=, =-e=, immortal.

=impedio= (4), _tr._ hinder, prevent.

=im-pello=, =-puli=, =-pulsum= (3), _tr._ drive on, incite.

=im-pendeo=, =----=, =----= (2), _intr. c. dat._ hang over, threaten.

=imperātor=, =-ōris=, _m._ commander, general.

=imperītus=, =-a=, =-um=, inexperienced, ignorant.

=imperium=, =-ī=, _n._ command, sovereignty, dominion; military power,
command in chief.

=impero= (1), _tr. or intr. c. dat._ order, enjoin, command.

=im-pertior= (4), _tr._ bestow.

=impetro= (1), _tr._ get, obtain (_by request_).

=impetus=, =-ūs=, _m._ assault, attack.

=impius=, =-a=, =-um=, impious, wicked.

=im-plōro= (1), _tr._ entreat, supplicate.

=importūnus=, =-a=, =-um=, unsuitable, unnatural, dangerous.

=improbitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ wickedness, depravity, recklessness.

=improbus=, =-a=, =-um=, persistent, violent, reckless.

=impūbēs=, =-eris= _or_ =-is=, youthful.

=impudens=, =-ntis=, shameless.

=impudenter=, _adv._ shamelessly, with assurance.

=impudentia=, =-ae=, _f._ shamelessness, assurance.

=impudīcus=, =-a=, =-um=, shameless, immodest.

=impūnītus=, =-a=, =-um=, unpunished.

=impūrus=, =-a=, =-um=, unclean.

=in=, _prep. c. acc._ into, to, against, for;
  _c. abl._ in, on.

=inānis=, =-e=, empty.

=in-auro= (1), _tr._ gild.

=incendium=, =-i=, _n._ fire, conflagration, burning.

=in-cendo=, =-di=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ set on fire, burn.

=incensio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ burning.

=incertus=, =-a=, =-um=, uncertain.

=in-cīdo=, =-di=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ cut.

=in-cido=, =-cidi=, =-cāsum= (3), _intr._ fall.

=in-cipio=, =-cēpi=, =-ceptum= (3), _tr. or intr._ begin.

=in-clīno= (1), _tr. or intr._ bend, incline; am disposed.

=in-clūdo=, =-si=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ shut in, lock up, confine.

=incolumis=, =-e=, safe, uninjured, still alive.

=incrēdibilis=, =-e=, incredible.

=in-crepo=, =-ui=, =-itum= (1), _intr._ sound, make a noise, am noised
abroad.

=in-cumbo=, =-cubui=, =-cubitum= (3), _intr. c. dat._ lean on, press
on; =incumbo ad=, devote myself to, exert myself for.

=indemnātus=, =-a=, =-um=, uncondemned.

=index=, =-icis=, _c._ informer.

=indicium=, =-i=, _n._ information, proof.

=in-dico= (1), _tr._ declare, disclose, reveal, betray.

=in-dīco=, =-xi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr._ proclaim, make (_war_).

=in-dūco=, =-xi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr._ bring in, introduce, persuade;
  =animum indūco=, resolve, determine.

=industria=, =-ae=, _f._ activity, energy.

=in-eo=, =-ii=, =-itum=, =-īre=, _tr._ enter on, adopt.

=iners=, =-rtis=, inactive, indolent.

=inertia=, =-ae=, _f._ inactivity, remissness.

=infāmis=, =-e=, disreputable.

=inferi=, =-ōrum=, _m. plur._ the dead.

=in-fero=, =-tuli=, =-lātum=, =-ferre=, _tr._ put on, lay on, set,
inflict.

=infestus=, =-a=, =-um=, dangerous, hostile, deadly.

=infimus=, =-a=, =-um=, lowest, meanest.

=infīnītus=, =-a=, =-um=, without limit, boundless, interminable.

=infirmus=, =-a=, =-um=, powerless.

=infitiātor=, =-ōris=, _m._ defaulter.

=infitior= (1), _tr. or intr._ deny.

=in-flammo= (1), _tr._ set on fire, inflame.

=ingenium=, =-i=, _n._ nature, ability.

=ingens=, =-ntis=, huge, vast.

=ingenuus=, =-a=, =-um=, free-born.

=in-gravesco=, =----=, =----= (3), _intr._ grow heavier, become worse.

=in-gredior=, =-gressus sum= (3), _tr. or intr._ enter, enter upon, go
on to, engage in.

=in-hio= (1), _intr. c. dat._ open the mouth for.

=inhūmānus=, =-a=, =-um=, savage, unfeeling.

=in-icio=, =-iēci=, =-iectum= (3), _tr._ throw on, cause, occasion.

=inimīcitia=, =-ae=, _f._ enmity.

=inimīcus=, =-a=, =-um=, unfriendly, hostile;
  =inimīcus=, =-i=, _m._ enemy.

=inīquitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ unfairness, injustice.

=inīquus=, =-a=, =-um=, unfair, unjust.

=initio= (1), _tr._ consecrate.

=iniūria=, =-ae=, _f._ outrage, wrong;
  =iniūriā=, undeservedly.

=iniussū= (_only in abl. sing._), _m._ without the command.

=inlecebra=, =-ae=, _f._ attraction, allurement.

=inlustris=, =-e=, distinguished, famous.

=in-lustro= (1), _tr._ illuminate, make clear.

=in-mitto=, =-mīsi=, =-missum= (3), _tr._ send in.

=innocens=, =-ntis=, guiltless.

=inopia=, =-ae=, _f._ want.

=inquam=, =inquis=, =inquit=, _defect. intr._ say.

=in-rētio= (4), _tr._ ensnare, entrap.

=in-scrībo=, =-psi=, =-ptum= (3), _tr._ write on.

=insepultus=, =-a=, =-um=, unburied.

=insidiae=, =-ārum=, _f. plur._ ambuscade, plot.

=insidiātor=, =-ōris=, _m._ plotter;
  _with_ =viae=, waylayer.

=insidior= (1), _intr. c. dat._ lie in wait for, plot against.

=insidiōsus=, =-a=, =-um=, treacherous.

=insigne=, =-is=, _n._ mark, badge.

=in-simulo= (1), _tr._ charge, allege.

=insolentius=, _adv._ more immoderately, more haughtily.

=inspērātus=, =-a=, =-um=, unhoped for.

=in-stituo=, =-ui=, =-ūtum= (3), _tr._ undertake, begin.

=in-sto=, =-stiti=, =-stātum= (1), _intr._ press on, threaten.

=instrūmentum=, =-i=, _n._ instrument, means of trade.

=in-struo=, =-xi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr._ draw up, array.

=integer=, =-gra=, =-grum=, untouched, unharmed, unbroken.

=intel-lego= _or_ =-ligo=, =-exi=, =-ectum= (3), _tr._ learn,
understand, know.

=in-tendo=, =-di=, =-tum= _or_ =-sum= (3), _tr. or intr._ stretch out;
purpose, endeavour.

=inter=, _prep. c. acc._ between, among, amid;
  =inter sē=, each other.

=inter-cēdo=, =-cessi=, =-cessum= (3), _intr._ intervene.

=intereā=, _adv._ meanwhile.

=inter-eo=, =-ii=, =-itum=, =-īre=, _intr._ perish, am ruined.

=inter-ficio=, =-fēci=, =-fectum= (3), _tr._ kill, slay.

=interim=, _adv._ meanwhile.

=inter-imo=, =-ēmi=, =-emptum= (3), _tr._ kill, slay.

=interitus=, =-ūs=, _m._ death, ruin, destruction, annihilation.

=inter-necio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ massacre, annihilation.

=inter-rogo= (1), _tr._ ask.

=inter-sum=, =-fui=, =-esse=, _intr._ am between, differ;
  _impers._ =interest=, it interests, it concerns (_with_ =meā=, =tuā=,
&c).

=interventus=, =-ūs=, _m._ coming between, intervention.

=intestīnus=, =-a=, =-um=, internal.

=intimus=, =-a=, =-um=, inmost, most secret;
  =intimus=, =-i=, _m._ intimate friend.

=intrā=, _prep. c. acc._ within.

=intrō-dūco=, =-xi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr._ bring in, introduce.

=in-tueor= (2), _tr._ look at.

=intus=, _adv._ inside.

=in-ūro=, =-ussi=, =-ustum= (3), _tr._ burn into.

=in-venio=, =-vēni=, =-ventum= (4), _tr._ find, discover.

=in-vestīgo= (1), _tr._ track out, search out.

=in-veterasco=, =-āvi=, =----= (3), _intr._ grow old, am established, am
fixed.

=invictus=, =-a=, =-um=, unconquered.

=invidia=, =-ae=, _f._ unpopularity.

=invidiōsus=, =-a=, =-um=, odious, unpopular.

=invidus=, =-a=, =-um=, envious.

=invīto= (1), _tr._ invite, summon.

=invītus=, =-a=, =-um=, unwilling.

=ipse=, =-a=, =-um=, oneself, self, very, in person.

=is=, =ea=, =id=, that, those, such; he, she, it, they.

=iste=, =-a=, =-ud=, that of yours, that; he, she, it (_used especially
of any one or anything connected with the person addressed_).

=ita=, _adv._ so, in such a way.

=itaque=, _conj._ and so, accordingly.

=item=, _adv._ in like manner.

=iter=, =itineris=, _n._ going, journey, route.

=iterum=, _adv._ a second time.

=iubeo=, =iussi=, =iussum= (2), _tr._ order.

=iūcundus=, =-a=, =-um=, pleasant.

=iudicium=, =-i=, _n._ judgement, legal decision, sentence.

=iūdico= (1), _tr. or intr._ judge, decide.

=iugulum=, =-i=, _n._ throat.

=iūs=, =iūris=, _n._ law, right;
  =iūre=, rightly;
  =iūs iūrandum=, oath.

=iussū= (_only in abl. sing._), _m._ order, command.

=iustus=, =-a=, =-um=, just, righteous.

=iuventūs=, =-ūtis=, _f._ body of youth, youth.


L

=labefacto= (1), _tr._ shake, give a shock to, undermine, ruin.

=labor=, =-ōris=, _m._ toil.

=labōro= (1), _intr._ work, exert myself.

=lacesso=, =-īvi=, =-ītum= (3), _tr._ harass, attack.

=lacrima=, =-ae=, _f._ tear.

=lacto= (1), _intr._ suck milk.

=laedo=, =-si=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ hurt, injure.

=laetitia=,-ae, _f._ joy, pleasure.

=laetor= (1), _intr._ rejoice.

=lāmentātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ mourning, wailing.

=lāmentor= (1), _tr. or intr._ mourn, bewail.

=languidus=, =-a=, =-um=, dull, listless.

=largītio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ largess, bribery.

=largītor=, =-ōris=, _m._ briber.

=lātē=, _adv._ widely.

=lateo=, =-ui=, =----= (2), _intr._ lie hid, am hidden.

=lātor=, =-ōris=, _m._ mover, proposer.

=latro=, =-ōnis=, _m._ brigand.

=latrōcinium=, =-i=, _n._ robbery, brigandage, band of brigands.

=latrōcinor= (1), _intr._ am a robber, am a bandit.

=latus=, =-eris=, _n._ side.

=laudo= (1), _tr._ praise.

=laus=, =laudis=, _f._ praise, honour, glory, distinction.

=lectīca=, =-ae=, _f._ litter.

=lectulus=, =-i=, _m._ small couch, bed.

=lectus=, =-i=, _m._ couch, bed.

=lēgātus=, =-i=, _m._ ambassador.

=legio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ legion.

=lego=, =lēgi=, =lectum= (3), _tr._ choose, read;
  =lectus=, =-a=, =-um=, excellent.

=lēnio= (4), _tr._ soften, assuage.

=lēnis=, =-e=, gentle, merciful.

=lēnitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ mercy, clemency.

=lēno=, =-ōnis=, _m._ pander, creature.

=lentus,= =-a=, =-um=, slow, sluggish.

=lepidus=, =-a=, =-um=, charming, witty.

=levis=, =-e=, light, frivolous.

=levissimē=, _adv._ very lightly, in the mildest manner.

=levitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ frivolity.

=levo= (1), _tr._ lighten, lessen.

=lex=, =lēgis=, _f._ law, rule, condition.

=līber=, =-era=, =-erum=, free;
  =līberi=, =-ōrum=, _m. plur._ children (_in relation to their
parents_).

=lībero= (1), _tr._ free, relieve.

=lībertās=, =-ātis=, _f._ freedom, liberty.

=lībertīnus=, =-i=, _m._ freedman.

=libīdo=, =-inis=, _f._ passion, lust.

=licet=, =licuit= _or_ =licitum est=, _impers._ (2), _intr. c. dat._ it
is allowed, one may.

=lingua=, =-ae=, _f._ tongue.

=līnum=, =-i=, _n._ flax, thread.

=liquefacio=, =-fēci=, =-factum= (3), _tr._ melt.

=littera=, =-ae=, _f._ letter (_of the alphabet_);
  _plur._ letter, dispatch, literature.

=loco= (1), _tr._ place, contract for.

=locuples=, =-ētis=, rich.

=locus=, =-i=, _m._ place, position, room.

=longē=, _adv._ far.

=longinquus=, =-a=, =-um=, distant.

=longus=, =-a=, =-um=, long, tedious.

=loquor=, =locūtus sum= (3), _tr. or intr._ speak, say.

=lubenter=, _adv._ gladly.

=lubet=, =lubuit= _or_ =lubitum est=, _impers._ (2), _intr. c. dat._ it
pleases.

=luctus=, =-ūs=, _m._ mourning.

=lūdus=, =-i=, _m._ play, school;
  _plur._ public games.

=lūgeo=, =luxi=, =----= (2) _tr. or intr._ mourn, lament.

=lūmen=, =-inis=, _n._ light.

=lupīnus=, =-a=, =-um=, of a wolf.

=lux=, =lūcis=, _f._ light, day.

=luxuria=, =-ae=, _f._ extravagance, excess.


M

=māchinātor=, =-ōris=, _m._ contriver.

=māchinor= (1), _tr._ contrive, design.

=macto= (1), _tr._ sacrifice, punish.

=maeror=, =-ōris=, _m._ grief.

=magis=, _adv._ more.

=magistrātus=, =-ūs=, _m._ office, magistrate.

=magnificē=, _adv._ splendidly, gloriously.

=magnitūdo=, =-inis=, _f._ greatness, size, extent.

=magnus=, =-a=, =-um=, great;
  =magno opere=, greatly.

=māior=, =-us=, greater, larger, older;
  =māiōrēs=, =-um=, _m. plur._ ancestors.

=male=, _adv._ badly;
  _with adj._ not.

=maleficium=, =-i=, _n._ wickedness, offence.

=malleolus=, =-i=, _m._ mallet, fire-dart.

=mālo=, =mālui=, =malle=, _tr. or intr._ prefer.

=malus=, =-a=, =-um=, bad;
  =malum=, =-i=, _n._ evil.

=mandātum=, =-i=, _n._ charge, order.

=mando= (1), _tr._ entrust, commit.

=māne=, _indecl. n._ morning.

=maneo=, =-si=, =-sum= (2), _intr._ remain.

=manicātus=, =-a=, =-um=, having long sleeves.

=manifestus=, =-a=, =-um=, clear, evident;
  _adv._ =manifesto=, clearly.

=māno= (1), _intr._ flow, get abroad.

=manus=, =-ūs=, _f._ hand, handwriting; company, band.

=mare=, =-is=, _n._ sea.

=marītus=, =-i=, _m._ husband.

=mātūrē=, _adv._ early;
  _compar._ =mātūrius=.

=mātūritās=, =-ātis=, _f._ ripeness.

=mātūro= (1), _tr._ hasten, dispatch.

=maximē=, _adv._ especially.

=maximus=, =-a=, =-um=, greatest, very great, chief.

=medicīna=, =-ae=, _f._ remedy.

=mediocris=, =-e=, ordinary, tolerable.

=mediocriter=, _adv._ trivially, not seriously.

=meditor= (1), _tr._ purpose, intend;
  _perf. partic. also pass. in sense_, practised.

=medius=, =-a=, =-um=, mid, middle.

=melior=, =-us=, better.

=memini=, _defect._ (3), _tr. or intr. c. gen._ remember.

=memor=, =-oris=, mindful.

=memoria=, =-ae=, _f._ memory.

=mendīcitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ beggary.

=mens=, =-ntis=, _f._ mind, thought, intention, understanding,
disposition.

=mereor= (2), _tr. or intr._ deserve.

=meritum=, =-i=, _n._ desert, service, favour;
  =merito=, deservedly.

=metuo=, =-ui=, =-ūtum= (3), _tr._ fear.

=metus=, =-ūs=, _m._ fear.

=meus=, =-a=, =-um=, my.

=mīles=, =-itis=, _m._ soldier.

=mīlitāris=, =-e=, belonging to a soldier, military.

=minae=, =-ārum=, _f._ _plur._ threats.

=minimē=, _adv._ very little, least.

=minimus=, =-a=, =-um=, very little, least.

=minitor= (1), _intr. c. dat._ threaten.

=minor=, =-us=, smaller, less;
  _adv._ =minus=, less, not.

=minuo=, =-ui=, =-ūtum= (3), _tr._ lessen, reduce.

=misceo=, =miscui=, =mixtum= (2), _tr._ mix, mingle, embroil.

=miser=, =-era=, =-erum=, wretched, pitiable.

=miseria=, =-ae=, _f._ misfortune, affliction.

=misericordia=, =-ae=, _f._ pity.

=misericors=, =-rdis=, tenderhearted, pitiful.

=miseror= (1), _tr._ pity.

=mītis=, =-e=, mild, gentle.

=mitto=, =mīsi=, =missum= (3), _tr._ send.

=modō=, _adv._ just now, lately, only.

=modus=, =-i=, _m._ limit, kind, manner.

=moenia=, =-ium=, _n. plur._ walls (_of a town_).

=mōlēs=, =-is=, _f._ mass, weight.

=molestē=, _adv._ with trouble;
  =molestē fero=, take it ill, am vexed at.

=mōlior= (4), _tr._ set in motion, attempt, design.

=mollis=, =-e=, soft, mild.

=moneo= (2), _tr._ warn, advise.

=monimentum=, =-i=, _n._ memorial.

=monstrum=, =-i=, _n._ evil omen, portent, monster.

=mora=, =-ae=, _f._ delay.

=morbus=, =-i=, _m._ disease.

=morior=, =mortuus sum= (3), _intr._ die;
  =mortuus=, =-a=, =-um=, dead.

=mors=, =-rtis=, _f._ death.

=mōs, mōris=, _m._ custom, habit.

=mōtus=, =-ūs=, _m._ movement, disturbance, trouble;
  =terrae mōtus=, earthquake.

=moveo=, =mōvi=, =mōtum= (2), _tr._ move, affect, alarm.

=mucro=, =-ōnis=, _m._ point, edge, sword.

=mulier=, =-eris=, _f._ woman.

=muliercula=, =-ae=, _f._ little woman.

=multitūdo=, =-inis=, _f._ multitude, numbers.

=multo= (1), _tr._ punish.

=multus=, =-a=, =-um=, much, many;
  _adv._ =multo=, by much.

=mūniceps=, =-cipis=, _c._ citizen of a =mūnicipium=, burgess.

=mūnicipium=, =-i=, _n._ free town.

=mūnio= (4), _tr._ fortify, defend;
  =mūnītissimus=, =-a=, =-um=, strongly fortified.

=mūrus=, =-i=, _m._ wall.

=mūto= (1), _tr._ change.

=mūtus=, =-a=, =-um=, silent.


N

=nam=, _conj._ for.

=nanciscor=, =nanctus= _or_ =nactus sum= (3), _tr._ get, obtain.

=nascor=, =nātus sum= (3), _intr._ am born, begin, grow.

=nātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ tribe, people.

=nātūra=, =-ae=, _f._ nature.

=naufragus=, =-i=, _m._ shipwrecked man, castaway.

=-ne=, _interrog. particle_.

=nē=, _conj._ that ... not, lest;
  _adv._ not;
  =nē . . . quidem=, not either, not even.

=nē=, _interj._ really, indeed.

=nec=, _see_ =neque=.

=necessārio=, _adv._ necessarily.

=necessārius=, =-i=, _m._ kinsman, connexion.

=necesse=, _indecl. adj._ inevitable, necessary.

=necessitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ necessity.

=necne=, _conj._ or not.

=neco= (1), _tr._ kill, murder.

=nefandus=, =-a=, =-um=, abominable, execrable.

=nefariē=, _adv._ impiously.

=nefārius=, =-a=, =-um=, impious, wicked.

=neglego= (=nec-lego=), =-xi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr._ neglect, despise.

=nego= (1), _tr. or intr._ deny.

=negōtium=, =-i=, _n._ business, trouble.

=nēmo=, =nullīus=, _m._ no one;
  =non nēmo=, some one.

=nepos=, =-ōtis=, _m._ grandson, prodigal, spendthrift.

=neque= _or_ =nec=, _conj._ and not, nor;
  =neque . . . neque=, neither ... nor.

=nēquior=, =-us= (_compar. of_ =nēquam=), more unprincipled, more
worthless.

=nēquitia=, =-ae=, _f._ want of principle, remissness, negligence.

=nē-scio= (4), _tr. or intr._ do not know, am ignorant;
  =nescio qui=, some.

=nex=, =necis=, _f._ violent death, murder.

=nihil=, _indecl. n._ nothing;
  _adv._ in nothing, not at all;
  =nihildum=, nothing yet.

=nimis=, _adv._ too much, too.

=nimius=, =-a=, =-um=, too much, too great;
  _adv._ =nimium=, too much, too.

=nisī=, _adv. or conj._ except, unless.

=niteo=, =----=, =----= (2), _intr._ glitter, glisten.

=nitidus=, =-a=, =-um=, shining, glossy.

=nix=, =nivis=, _f._ snow.

=nōbilis=, =-e=, famous, high-born.

=noceo= (2), _intr. c. dat._ hurt, do harm to;
  =nocens=, =-ntis=, _m._ criminal.

=nocturnus=, =-a=, =-um=, nightly, by night, night.

=nōlo=, =nōlui=, =nolle=, _tr. or intr._ do not wish, am unwilling.

=nōmen=, =-inis=, _n._ name.

=nōminātim=, _adv._ by name.

=nōmino= (1), name, call.

=nōn=, _adv._ not.

=nondum=, _adv._ not yet.

=nonnullus=, =-a=, =-um=, some.

=nonnumquam=, _adv._ sometimes.

=nosco=, =nōvi=, =nōtum= (3), _tr._ learn;
  =nōvi=, know.

=noster=, =-tra=, =-trum=, our.

=nota=, =-ae=, _f._ mark, brand.

=noto= (1), _tr._ mark.

=nōtus=, =-a=, =-um=, known.

=novem=, _indecl. adj._ nine.

=novus=, =-a=, =-um=, new;
  =rēs novae=, revolution.

=nox=, =noctis=, _f._ night.

=nūdius tertius=, _adv._ the day before yesterday.

=nūdus=, =-a=, =-um=, bare, naked.

=nullus=, =-a=, =-um=, no, none.

=num=, _interrog. particle_.

=nūmen=, =-inis=, _n._ divinity, divine power.

=numerus=, =-i=, _m._ number.

=numquam=, _adv._ never.

=nunc=, _adv._ now.

=nūper=, _adv._ lately.

=nuptiae=, =-ārum=, _f._ _plur._ marriage.

=nūtus=, =-ūs=, _m._ nod, will.


O

=O!= _interj._ oh!

=ob=, _prep. c. acc._ on account of.

=ob-eo=, =-ii=, =-itum=, =-īre=, _tr._ come to, visit, attend to,
execute, accomplish.

=ob-fero=, =-tuli=, =-lātum=, =-ferre=, _tr._ present, offer.

=ob-ligo= (1), _tr._ bind, lay under an obligation, render liable,
mortgage.

=ob-lino=, =-lēvi=, =-litum= (3), _tr._ besmear, overload;
  =oblitus=, =-a=, =-um=, reeking.

=oblīviscor=, =-lītus sum= (3), _tr. or intr. c. gen._ forget.

=obscūrē=, _adv._ darkly, obscurely.

=obscūro= (1), _tr._ hide, cover.

=obscūrus=, =-a=, =-um=, dark, secret.

=obses=, =-idis=, _c._ hostage.

=ob-sideo=, =-sēdi=, =-sessum= (2), _tr._ besiege, blockade, beset, am
on the look out for.

=obsidio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ blockade.

=ob-sisto=, =-stiti=, =-stitum= (3), _intr. c. dat._ hinder, oppose.

=ob-stipesco=, =-pui=, =----= (3), _intr._ am astounded, am stupefied.

=ob-sto=, =-stiti=, =-stātum= (1), _intr. c. dat._ hinder, oppose.

=ob-stupefacio=, =-fēci=, =-factum= (3), _tr._ astound, arouse.

=ob-sum=, =-fui=, =-esse=, _intr. c. dat._ injure.

=ob-tempero= (1), _intr. c. dat._ obey.

=ob-tineo=, =-tinui=, =-tentum= (2), _tr._ hold, assert, maintain.

=ob-tingo=, =-tigi=, =----= (3), _intr._ happen, befall.

=occāsus=, =-ūs=, _m._ fall.

=occidens=, =-ntis=, _m._ west.

=oc-cīdo=, =-di=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ kill, slay, murder.

=oc-clūdo=, =-si=, =-sum= (3), shut.

=oc-culo=, =-ui=, =-tum= (3), _tr._ hide.

=occultē=, _adv._ secretly.

=oc-cupo= (1), _tr._ seize, take possession of.

=oc-curro=, =-curri=, =-cursum= (3), _intr. c. dat._ meet, engage in.

=oculus=, =-i=, _m._ eye.

=ōdi=, _defect._ (3), _tr._ hate.

=odium=, =-i=, _n._ hatred.

=of-fendo=, =-di=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ strike against, light upon,
displease, offend.

=officium=, =-i=, _n._ duty.

=ōmen=, =-inis=, _n._ omen, token.

=omitto=, =-mīsi=, =-missum= (3), _tr._ pass over, leave unmentioned.

=omnis=, =-e=, all.

=opera=, =-ae=, _f._ aid, service, employment;
  =operae pretium=, worth while.

=opīnio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ expectation, belief.

=opīnor= (1), _intr._ think.

=oportet=, =-uit=, _impers._ (2), it is necessary;
  _c. acc._ one ought, one must.

=op-peto=, =-īvi,-ītum= (3), _tr._ encounter.

=op-pōno=, =-posui=, =-positum= (3), _tr._ oppose.

=op-primo=, =-pressi=, =-pressum= (3), _tr._ put down, crush, baffle.

*=ops, opis=, _f._ power, aid;
  _plur._ power, resources, wealth.

=optimātēs=, =-ium=, _m. plur._ best men, good citizens.

=optimus=, =-a=, =-um=, best.

=opto= (1), _tr._ desire, pray for.

=opus=, =-eris=, _n._ work;
  =opus est=, there is need, it is necessary;
  =magno opere=, greatly.

=ōrātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ speech, discourse, harangue.

=orbis=, =-is=, _m._ circle;
  =orbis terrae= _or_ =terrarum=, the circle of the earth, the world.

=ordo=, =-inis=, _m._ order, rank, class, body.

=oriens=, =-ntis=, _m._ east.

=ornāmentum=, =-i=, _n._ equipment, decoration.

=orno= (1), _tr._ equip, furnish, embellish, honour.

=ōro= (1), _tr._ beg, pray, ask.

=ortus=, =-ūs=, _m._ rising.

=ōs=, =ōris=, _n._ mouth, face.

=ostendo=, =-di=, =-sum= _or_ =-tum= (3), _tr._ show, display.

=ostento= (1), _tr._ exhibit, display.

=ōtiōsus=, =-a=, =-um=, unemployed, tranquil;
  =ōtiōsus=, =-i=, _m._ private person, civilian.

=ōtium=, =-i=, _n._ leisure, quiet, tranquillity.


P

=paciscor=, =pactus sum= (3), _tr._ agree upon, covenant;
  _perf. partic. also with passive meaning_.

=pāco= (1), _tr._ make peaceful, subdue.

=pactum=, =-i=, _n._ agreement, terms, manner.

=paene=, _adv._ nearly, almost.

=paenitet=, =-uit=, _impers._ (2), _tr._ it repents.

=palam=, _adv._ openly, plainly.

=pār=, =paris=, equal, like.

=parco=, =peperci=, =parsum= (3), _intr. c. dat._ spare.

=parens=, =-ntis=, _c._ parent.

=pāreo= (2), _intr. c. dat._ obey.

=pariēs=, =-etis=, _m._ wall (_of a house_).

=pario=, =peperi=, =partum= (3), _tr._ bring forth, produce, gain.

=paro= (1), _tr._ prepare, collect, raise;
  =paratus=, =-a=, =-um=, ready.

=parricīda=, =-ae=, _c._ murderer, traitor.

=parricīdium=, =-i=, _n._ murder, treason.

=pars=, =-rtis=, _f._ part, division, direction, side; political party,
faction.

=particeps=, =-cipis=, sharing in (_gen._);
  _as noun_, partner.

=partim=, _adv._ partly.

=parum=, _adv._ too little, not enough.

=parvulus=, =-a=, =-um=, very small.

=parvus=, =-a=, =-um=, small.

=pastor=, =-ōris=, _m._ shepherd.

=patefacio=, =-fēci=, =-factum= (3), _tr._ bring to light, expose,
convict.

=pateo=, =-ui=, =----= (2), _intr._ am open, am manifest.

=pater=, =-tris=, _m._ father.

=patientia=, =-ae=, _f._ endurance, patience, indulgence.

=patior=, =passus sum= (3), _tr. or intr._ suffer, allow.

=patria=, =-ae=, _f._ fatherland, country.

=patricius=, =-a=, =-um=, patrician;
  =patricius=, =-i=, _m._ patrician (_member of the Roman nobility_).

=patrimōnium=, =-i=, _n._ inheritance.

=pauci=, =-ae=, =-a=, few.

=paulisper=, _adv._ for a short time.

=paulo=, _adv._ a little.

=paululum=, =-i=, _n._ a very little.

=pax=, =pācis=, _f._ peace, tranquillity.

=pecto=, =pexi=, =pexum= (3), _tr._ comb.

=pecūnia=, =-ae=, _f._ wealth, money.

=pecus=, =-udis=, _f._ beast.

=pedester=, =-tris=, =-tre=, of foot-soldiers, of infantry.

=pello=, =pepuli=, =pulsum= (3), _tr._ drive, expel.

=penitus=, _adv._ deeply, wholly.

=per=, _prep. c. acc._ through, by.

=per-cello=, =-culi=, =-culsum= (3), _tr._ beat down, smite.

=per-cipio=, =-cēpi=, =-ceptum= (3), _tr._ listen to, attend to.

=per-cutio=, =-cussi=, =-cussum= (3), _tr._ strike.

=per-do=, =-didi=, =-ditum= (3), _tr._ lose, destroy;
  =perditus=, =-a=, =-um=, desperate, abandoned, corrupt;
  =perditur=, =-i=, _m._ scoundrel.

=per-dūco=, =-xi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr._ lead, take.

=per-eo=, =-ii=, =-itum=, =-īre=, _intr._ die, perish.

=per-fero=, =-tuli=, =-lātum=, =-ferre=, _tr._ endure, tolerate.

=per-ficio=, =-fēci=, =-fectum= (3), _tr._ carry out, manage.

=per-fringo=, =-frēgi=, =-fractum= (3), _tr._ break through, shatter.

=per-fruor=, =-fructus sum= (3), _intr. c. abl._ enjoy fully.

=per-fugium=, =-i=, _n._ refuge.

=pergo=, =perrexi=, =perrectum= (3), _intr._ proceed, go on.

=per-horresco=, =-rui=, =----= (3), _intr._ shudder, tremble;
  _tr._ have a horror of.

=perīclitor= (1), _tr. or intr._ make trial of, endanger; am
endangered.

=perīculōsus=, =-a=, =-um=, dangerous.

=perīculum=, =-i=, _n._ danger.

=permagnus=, =-a=, =-um=, very large.

=per-maneo=, =-si=, =-sum= (2), _intr._ stay to the end, continue,
persist.

=per-mitto=, =-mīsi=, =-missum= (3), _tr._ entrust.

=permodestus=, =-a=, =-um=, bashful, obedient.

=per-moveo=, =-mōvi=, =-mōtum= (2), _tr._ interest, alarm.

=permultus=, =-a=, =-um=, very much; _plur._ very many.

=perniciēs=, =-ēi=, _f._ destruction.

=perniciōsus=, =-a=, =-um=, destructive, mischievous, deadly.

=perpetuus=, =-a=, =-um=, continuous, constant, lasting;
  =in perpetuum= (_sc._ =tempus=), permanently.

=persaepe=, _adv._ very often.

=per-scrībo=, =-psi=, =-ptum= (3), _tr._ write out in full.

=per-sequor=, =-secūtus sum= (3), _tr._ pursue, attack.

=per-spicio=, =-spexi=, =-spectum= (3), _tr._ see clearly.

=per-terreo= (2), _tr._ frighten, scare.

=per-timesco=, =-timui=, =----= (3), _tr. or intr._ fear.

=per-tineo=, =-ui=, =----= (2), _intr._ reach, belong, concern.

=per-turbo= (1), _tr._ trouble, disturb, agitate.

=per-venio=, =-vēni=, =-ventum= (4), _intr._ come, arrive.

=pestis=, =-is=, _f._ plague, scourge, destruction.

=petītio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ blow, thrust.

=peto=, =-īvi=, =-ītum= (3), _tr._ attack, assault; demand, beg.

=petulantia=, =-ae=, _f._ wantonness, impudence.

=pietās=, =-ātis=, _f._ dutifulness, goodness.

=placeo= (2), _intr. c. dat._ please;
  =placet=, _impers._ it seems right, it is determined.

=plāco= (1), _tr._ reconcile, appease.

=plānē=, _adv._ clearly, completely.

=plēnus=, =-a=, =-um=, full.

=plūrimus=, =-a=, =-um=, very many, most.

=plūs=, _adv._ more.

=poena=, =-ae=, _f._ penalty, punishment.

=polliceor= (2), _tr. or intr._ promise, undertake.

=pōno, posui, positum= (3), _tr._ put, place, pitch, assign.

=pons=, =-ntis=, _m._ bridge.

=pontifex=, =-icis=, _m._ high-priest, pontiff.

=popīna=, =-ae=, _f._ eating-house, tavern.

=populāris=, =-e=, popular, friendly to the people.

=populus=, =-i=, _m._ people.

=porta=, =-ae=, _f._ gate.

=possessio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ holding, possession, property, estate.

=possum=, =potui=, =posse=, _intr._ am able, can.

=post=, _prep. c. acc._ after, since;
  _adv._ afterwards.

=posteā=, _adv._ afterwards, later.

=posteritās=, =-ātis=, _f._ future time, posterity.

=posterus=, =-a=, =-um=, future;
  =posteri=, =-ōrum=, _m. plur._ descendants, posterity;
  =in posterum=, for the future, in future.

=posthāc=, _adv._ after this, for the future.

=postrēmus=, =-a=, =-um=, last;
  _adv._ =postrēmo=, lastly.

=postulo= (1), _tr._ ask, demand.

=potens=, =-ntis=, powerful.

=potestās=, =-ātis=, _f._ power, authority;
  =potestātem facio=, give opportunity, give leave.

=potior= (4), _intr. c. gen. or abl._ get, gain.

=potius=, _adv._ rather.

=prae=, _prep. c. abl._ before, in comparison with.

=praebeo= (2), _tr._ offer, render, show.

=praeceps=, =-cipitis=, headstrong.

=prae-cipio=, =-cēpi=, =-ceptum= (3), _tr._ enjoin, give as a warning.

=pracipuē=, _adv._ especially.

=praeclārus=, =-a=, =-um=, famous, remarkable, signal, noble.

=prae-curro=, =-cucurri=, =-cursum= (3), _intr. c. dat._ run before,
outrun, surpass.

=praedātor=, =-ōris=, _m._ robber.

=prae-dico= (1), _tr._ declare, extol.

=prae-dīco=, =-xi=, =-ctum= (3), _tr._ state beforehand, premise,
proclaim.

=praedium=, =-i=, _n._ farm.

=praefectūra=, =-ae=, _f._ prefecture (_an Italian city governed by a
Roman magistrate_).

=prae-fero=, =-tuli=, =-lātum=, =-ferre=, _tr._ hold forth, offer.

=prae-mitto=, =-mīsi=, =-missum= (3), _tr._ send in advance.

=praemium=, =-i=, _n._ reward.

=prae-scrībo=, =-psi=, =-ptum= (3), _tr. acc. and dat._ order, appoint.

=praesens=, =-ntis=, present, opportune.

=praesentia=, =-ae=, _f._ presence.

=praesertim=, _adv._ especially;
  =cum praesertim=, especially since.

=prae-sideo=, =-sēdi=, =----= (2), _intr. c. dat._ guard, watch.

=praesidium=, =-i=, _n._ guard, protection, garrison, force.

=praesto=, _adv._ at hand.

=prae-sto=, =-stiti=, =-stitum= _or_ =-stātum= (1), _tr._ guarantee,
carry out.

=praestōlor= (1), _intr. c. dat._ wait for.

=praeter=, _prep. c. acc._ except, besides, contrary to.

=praetereā=, _adv._ besides.

=praeter-eo=, =-ii=, =-itum=, =-īre=, _tr._ pass over, leave
unmentioned.

=praeter-mitto=, =-mīsi=, =-missum= (3), _tr._ pass over, omit.

=praeterquam=, _adv._ besides, except.

=praetexta= (_sc._ =toga=), =-ae=, _f._ gown edged with purple.

=praetor=, =-ōris=, _m._ praetor (_a magistrate charged with the
administration of justice_).

=praetōrius=, =-a=, =-um=, belonging to a praetor or general,
praetorian.

=praetūra=, =-ae=, _f._ praetorship.

=precor= (1), _tr. or intr._ pray, pray to, beseech.

=premo=, =pressi=, =pressum= (3), _tr._ check, harass, crush, overwhelm.

=pretium=, =-i=, _n._ value, worth, pay.

=prīdem=, _adv._ long ago, long since.

=prīdiē=, _adv._ on the day before.

=prīmus=, =-a=, =-um=, first;
  _adv._ =prīmum=, =prīmo=, at first, firstly;
  =quam prīmum=, as soon as possible.

=princeps=, =-ipis=, first, chief;
  _as noun_, chief, chief man, leader.

=principium=, =-i=, _n._ beginning;
  =principio=, at first, firstly.

=prior=, =-us=, former, earlier, previous.

=pristinus=, =-a=, =-um=, former, early.

=prīvātus=, =-a=, =-um=, private, personal;
  =prīvātus=, =-i=, _m._ private citizen.

=prīvo= (1), rob, deprive.

=pro=, _prep. c. abl._ for, on behalf of, in accordance with, instead
of, in return for.

=probo= (1), _tr._ approve, prove.

=procella=, =-ae=, _f._ storm.

=procul=, _adv._ far off.

=prōcūrātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ charge, office.

=prōdigium=, =-i=, _n._ evil token, prodigy.

=prōdigus=, =-a=, =-um=, lavish, extravagant;
  =prōdigus=, =-i=, _m._ spendthrift.

=proelium=, =-i=, _n._ battle.

=profectio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ departure.

=profecto=, _adv._ assuredly.

=prō-fero=, =-tuli=, =-lātum=, =-ferre=, _tr._ bring forth, bring
forward, issue.

=prō-ficio=, =-fēci=, =-fectum= (3), _tr._ effect, accomplish.

=pro-ficiscor=, =-fectus sum= (3), _intr._ set out, start.

=prō-fiteor=, =-fessus sum= (3), _tr._ propose, offer.

=prō-flīgo= (1), _tr._ overthrow.

=prō-fugio=, =-fūgi=, =----= (3), _tr. or intr._ flee from; flee, run
away.

=pro-fundo=, =-fūdi=, =-fūsum= (3), _tr._ pour out, dissipate.

=prō-gredior=, =-gressus sum= (3), _intr._ go forward, advance.

=pro-hibeo= (2), _tr._ hinder, prevent.

=prō-icio=, =-iēci=, =-iectum= (3), _tr._ cast forth.

=proinde=, _adv._ in like manner, accordingly.

=prō-lāto= (1), _tr._ put off, defer.

=propāgo= (1), _tr._ extend, prolong.

=prope=, _adv._ nearly, almost.

=prō-pōno=, =-posui=, =-positum= (3), _tr._ set before, offer,
determine.

=proprius=, =-a=, =-um=, peculiar to, characteristic of.

=propter=, _prep. c. acc._ on account of.

=prō-pulso= (1), _tr._ repel, avert.

=proscriptio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ proscription, confiscation.

=prō-sequor=, =-secūtus sum= (3), _tr._ follow, attend.

=prō-spicio=, =-exi=, =-ectum= (3), _tr._ see beforehand, give attention
to;
  _intr. c. dat._ take measures for.

=prō-sterno=, =-strāvi=, =-strātum= (3), _tr._ lay low.

=prō-sum=, =prōfui=, =prōdesse=, _intr. c. dat._ benefit.

=prō-videntia=, =-ae=, _f._ foresight.

=prō-video=, =-vīdi=, =-vīsum= (2), _tr._ foresee, prepare;
  _intr._ make provision;
  _intr. c. dat._ provide for, guard the interests of.

=prōvincia=, =-ae=, _f._ province.

=prōvinciālis=, =-e=, belonging to a province, provincial.

=proximus=, =-a=, =-um=, nearest, next, last.

=prūdens=, =-ntis=, wise.

=prūdentia=, =-ae=, _f._ wisdom.

=pruīna=, =-ae=, _f._ frost.

=publicātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ confiscation.

=publicē=, _adv._ publicly.

=publico= (1), _tr._ confiscate.

=publicus=, =-a=, =-um=, public;
  =rēs publica=, state, public affairs, public interest.

=pudīcitia=, =-ae=, _f._ chastity, virtue.

=pudor=, =-ōris=, _m._ shame, modesty, decency.

=puer=, =-eri=, _m._ boy.

=pugna=, =-ae=, _f._ fight, battle.

=pugno= (1), _intr._ fight.

=pulcher=, =-chra=, =-chrum=, beautiful.

=pulvīnar=, =-āris=, _n._ couch (_for the images of the gods at a
thanksgiving_).

=punctum=, =-i=, _n._ point, instant.

=pūnio= (4), _tr._ punish.

=purgo= (1), _tr._ cleanse, purify.

=purpura=, =-ae=, _f._ purple.

=purpurātus=, =-i=, _m._ officer clothed in purple, vizier.

=puto= (1), _tr. or intr._ think.


Q

=quaero=, =-sīvi=, =-sītum= (3), _tr._ seek, ask.

=quaesītor=, =-ōris=, _m._ investigator, inquisitor.

=quaeso=, =quaesumus= (3), _defect. intr._ beg, pray.

=quaestio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ investigation, commission, law-court.

=quaestus=, =-ūs=, _m._ gain.

=quālis=, =-e=, such as, as (_after_ =tālis=).

=quam=, _adv._ how, as, than;
  =tam . . . quam=, so much ... as;
  _also used to strengthen superlatives_;
  =quam diu=, how long? as long as.

=quamquam=, _conj._ although.

=quando=, _adv._ at any time.

=quantus=, =-a=, =-um=, how great? as great as, as (_after_ =tantus=).

=quapropter=, _adv._ for which reason.

=quārē=, _adv._ wherefore.

=quartus=, =-a=, =-um=, fourth.

=-que=, _conj._ and.

=quemadmodum=, _adv._ how.

=querimōnia=, =-ae=, _f._ complaint.

=queror=, =questus sum= (3), _tr. or intr._ regret, complain, bewail.

=qui=, =quae=, =quod=, _rel. pron._ who, which, that.

=qui=, =quae=, =quod=, _interrog. adj._ which? what?

=quia=, _conj._ because.

=quīcumque=, =quaecumque=, =quodcumque=, whoever, whatever; every
possible.

=quīdam=, =quaedam=, =quoddam=, a certain, some.

=quidem=, _adv._ indeed.

=quiēs=, =-ētis=, _f._ rest.

=quiesco=, =-ēvi=, =-ētum= (3), _intr._ am quiet, do nothing.

=quiētus=, =-a=, =-um=, peaceful, undisturbed.

=quīn=, _conj. or adv. with indic._ why not? =quīn etiam=, nay even;
  _with subj._ but that, that.

=quintus=, =-a=, =-um=, fifth.

=quis=, =quid=, _interrog. pron._ who? what? _adv._ =quid=, why?

=quis=, =quid=, _indef. pron._ any one, anything;
  =quis=, _also adj._ any.

=quispiam=, =quaepiam=, =quodpiam= _or_ =quidpiam=, _indef. pron._ any
one, anything, someone, something;
  _adj._ any, some.

=quisquam=, =quidquam=, _indef. pron._ any one, anything;
  =quisquam=, _also adj._ any.

=quisque=, =quaeque=, =quodque=, _or_ (_as pron._)
  =quidque=, each.

=quisquis=, =quidquid=, whoever, whatever.

=quo=, _adv._ whither (_rel. or interrog._);
  =quo usque=, how long?

=quoad=, _adv._ as long as.

=quōcumque=, _adv._ in whatever direction.

=quod=, _conj._ because, that.

=quodsi=, _conj._ but if.

=quondam=, _adv._ in old time, formerly.

=quoniam=, _conj._ since.

=quoque=, _conj._ also, too.

=quot=, _indecl. adj._ how many.

=quotiens=, _adv._ how often.

=quotienscumque=, _adv._ how often soever.


R

=rapīna=, =-ae=, _f._ plundering, plunder.

=rapio=, =-ui=, =-tum= (3), _tr._ snatch, hurry away.

=ratio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ consideration, reflection, reason, principle;
method, way.

=recens=, =-ntis=, new, fresh.

=re-cipio=, =-cēpi=, =-ceptum= (3), _tr._ take back, receive, admit;
engage, promise.

=re-cito= (1), _tr._ read aloud.

=re-co-gnosco=, =-gnōvi=, =-gnitum= (3), _tr._ call to mind, examine.

=reconciliātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ renewal.

=re-condo=, =-didi=, =-ditum= (3), _tr._ stow away, hide.

=recordor= (1), _tr. or intr._ remember.

=re-creo= (1), _tr._ refresh, recover.

=rectā=, _adv._ straight.

=rectē=, _adv._ rightly, justly.

=recūsātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ refusal, objection.

=re-cūso= (1), _tr._ decline, reject.

=red-eo=, =-ii=, =-itum=, =-īre=, _intr._ go back, return.

=redimio= (4), _tr._ wreathe.

=red-undo= (1), _intr._ overflow.

=re-fero=, =-tuli=, =-lātum=, =-ferre=, _tr._ bring back, bring before.

=rēgiē=, _adv._ royally, despotically.

=regio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ district.

=regno= (1), _intr._ reign, am king.

=regnum=, =-i=, _n._ royal authority, sovereignty.

=re-levo= (1), _tr._ lift up, relieve.

=rēligio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ scruple.

=re-linquo=, =-līqui=, =-lictum= (3), _tr._ leave behind, leave.

=reliquus=, =-a=, =-um=, that is left, remaining, rest of.

=re-maneo=, =-mansi=, =----= (2), _intr._ stay behind.

=remissio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ relaxation, mildness.

=re-mitto=, =-mīsi=, =-missum= (3), _tr._ send back, slacken;
  =remissus=, =-a=, =-um=, slack, lax.

=re-moror= (1), _tr._ hinder, delay.

=re-moveo=, B, =-mōtum= (2), _tr._ remove, set aside.

=re-pello=, =reppuli=, =repulsum= (3), _tr._ drive back, reject, bring
about rejection of.

=repente=, _adv._ suddenly.

=repentīnus=, =-a=, =-um=, sudden.

=re-perio=, =repperi=, =repertum= (4), _tr._ find, discover.

=re-primo=, =-pressi=, =-pressum= (3), _tr._ check, restrain.

=repudio= (1), _tr._ reject.

=rēs=, =rei=, _f._ fact, deed, matter, thing, interest, property;
  _plur._ power, administration.

=re-seco=, =-cui=, =-ctum= (1), _tr._ cut away.

=re-servo= (1), _tr._ keep back, reserve.

=re-sideo=, =-sēdi=, =----= (2), _intr._ remain, am left.

=re-sisto=, =-stiti=, =----= (3), _intr._ stop, stay behind;
  _intr. c. dat._ resist, remain over to.

=re-spondeo=, =-di=, =-sum= (2), _tr. or intr. c. dat._ answer, give an
answer to, prove a match for.

=responsum=, =-i=, _n._ answer.

=re-stinguo=, =-nxi=, =-nctum= (3), _tr._ put out, quench.

=re-stituo=, =-ui=, =-ūtum= (3), _tr._ put back, restore.

=re-sto=, =-stiti=, =----= (1), _intr._ hold out, remain.

=re-ticeo=, =-ui=, =----= (2), _intr._ keep silence, make no answer.

=re-tineo=, =-tinui=, =-tentum= (2), _tr._ hold back, keep, preserve.

=re-torqueo=, =-si=, =-tum= (2), _tr._ turn back.

=re-tundo=, =rettudi=, =retūsum= (3), _tr._ blunt, turn the edge of.

=reus=, =-i=, _m._ person accused, prisoner.

=re-vertor=, =-versus sum= _or_ =-verti= (3), _intr._ turn back, return.

=re-voco= (1), _tr._ call back, recall.

=rex=, =rēgis=, _m._ king.

=rōbur=, =-oris=, _n._ strength.

=rōbustus=, =-a=, =-um=, strong, vigorous.

=rogo= (1), _tr._ ask, introduce, propose (_a law_).

=ruīna=, =-ae=, _f._ downfall, ruin, disaster.

=rumpo=, =rūpi=, =ruptum= (3), _tr._ break.

=rusticus=, =-a=, =-um=, rustic, rural.


S

=sacer=, =-cra=, =-crum=, sacred;
  =sacra=, =-ōrum=, _n. plur._ rites, mysteries.

=sacrārium=, =-i=, _n._ shrine.

=sacrōsanctus=, =-a=, =-um=, inviolable.

=saeculum=, =-i=, _n._ generation.

=saepe=, _adv._ often.

=saepio=, =-psi=, =-ptum= (4), _tr._ fence in, surround.

=sagax=, =-ācis=, shrewd.

=salto= (1), _intr._ dance.

=salūs=, =-ūtis=, _f._ safety, preservation.

=salūto= (1), _tr. or intr._ greet, wait upon, pay a call.

=salvus=, =-a=, =-um=, safe, preserved, solvent.

=sancio=, =-nxi=, =-nctum= (4), _tr. or intr._ ordain, forbid under
penalty.

=sanctus=, =-a=, =-um=, sacred, holy, inviolable.

=sānē=, _adv._ by all means.

=sanguis=, =-inis=, _m._ blood.

=sāno= (1), _tr._ cure.

=sānus=, =-a=, =-um=, sound, healthy, wise.

=sapiens=, =-ntis=, wise.

=satelles=, =-itis=, _c._ attendant, servant.

=satis=, _adv._ enough, quite;
  _as noun_, enough of;
  =satis facio= (_dat._), satisfy, do my duty to.

=saucius=, =-a=, =-um=, wounded.

=scaena=, =-ae=, _f._ stage.

=scelerātē=, _adv._ wickedly.

=scelerātus=, =-a=, =-um=, impious, wicked;
  =scelerātus=, =-i=, _m._ criminal, profligate.

=scelus=, =-eris=, _n._ crime.

=scientia=, =-ae=, _f._ knowledge.

=scīlicet=, _adv._ evidently, to be sure.

=scio= (4), _tr. or intr._ know.

=scortum=, =-i=, _n._ harlot.

=scrība=, =-ae=, _m._ notary.

=scrībo=, =-psi=, =-ptum= (3), _tr._ write.

=sē= _or_ =sēsē=, =sui=, himself, herself, &c.

=sē-cēdo=, =-cessi=, =-cessum= (3), _intr._ go apart, withdraw.

=sē-cerno=, =-crēvi=, =-crētum= (3), _tr._ divide, separate, put on
one side.

=secūris=, =-is=, _f._ axe.

=sed=, _conj._, but.

=sēdēs=, =-is=, _f._ seat, abode, habitation.

=sēditio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ disaffection, rebellion.

=sēdo= (1), _tr._ quiet, settle, stop.

=sē-iungo=, =-nxi=, =-nctum= (3), _tr._ separate.

=sella=, =-ae=, _f._ seat, chair.

=semel=, _adv._ once.

=sēmen=, =-inis=, _n._ seed.

=sēminārium=, =-i=, _n._ nursery-garden, school.

=semper=, _adv._ always.

=sempiternus=, =-a=, =-um=, perpetual, everlasting.

=senātor=, =-ōris=, _m._ senator.

=senātus=, =-ūs=, _m._ senate.

=senex=, =-is=, _m._ old man.

=sensus=, =-ūs=, _m._ feeling, consciousness.

=sententia=, =-ae=, _f._ opinion, purpose, vote; meaning, purport.

=sentīna=, =-ae=, _f._ refuse, dregs.

=sentio, sensi, sensum=, _tr. or intr._ feel, see, perceive.

=sepelio=, =-elīvi=, =-ultum= (4), _tr._ bury.

=sequor=, =secūtus sum= (3), _tr. or intr._ follow, adopt, obey.

=sērius=, _adv._ later, too late.

=sermo=, =-ōnis=, _m._ talk, conversation, discourse.

=serpo=, =-psi=, =-ptum= (3), _intr._ creep.

=sertum=, =-i=, _n._ garland.

=servio= (4), _intr. c. dat._ serve, am a slave, do service to, indulge.

=servitium=, =-i=, _n._ slavery, body of slaves.

=servitūs=, =-ūtis=, _f._ slavery.

=servo= (1), _tr._ keep, preserve.

=servus=, =-i=, _m._ slave.

=sevērē=, _adv._ sternly, severely.

=sevēritās=, =-ātis=, _f._ strictness, sternness.

=sevērus=, =-a=, =-um=, stern, severe, strict.

=sextus=, =-a=, =-um=, sixth.

=si=, _conj._ if.

=sīc=, _adv._ so, thus.

=sīca=, =-ae=, _f._ dagger.

=sīcārius=, =-i=, _m._ assassin.

=sīcut=, _adv._ just as, as.

=significātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ token, intimation.

=signum=, =-i=, _n._ standard, seal.

=silentium=, =-i=, _n._ silence.

=sileo=, =-ui=, =----= (2), _tr. or intr._ am silent about, leave
unmentioned; am silent.

=silvestris=, =-e=, woodland, rustic.

=similis=, =-e=, like.

=simul=, _adv._ at the same time;
  =simul atque= (=ac=), _conj._ as soon as.

=simulacrum=, =-i=, _n._ image.

=sīn=, _conj._ if however, but if.

=sine=, _prep. c. abl._ without.

=singulāris=, =-e=, extraordinary, unprecedented.

=singuli=, =-ae=, =-a=, one each, each, single.

=sino=, =sīvi=, =situm= (3), _tr. or intr._ allow, permit.

=sinus=, =-ūs=, _m._ bosom.

=sitis=, =-is=, _f._ thirst.

=sīve=, _conj._ or if;
  =sīve . . . sīve=, whether ... or, if ... but if.

=sobrius=, =-a=, =-um=, sober.

=societās=, =-ātis=, _f._ association.

=socius=, =-i=, _m._ comrade, partner.

=sodālis=, =-is=, _c._ companion, associate.

=sōl=, =sōlis=, _m._ the sun.

=soleo=, =-itus sum= (2), _intr._ am wont, am accustomed.

=sōlitūdo=, =-inis=, _f._ loneliness, solitude.

=sollicitātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ instigation, tampering.

=sollicito= (1), _tr._ disturb, seduce, tamper with.

=sollicitus=, =-a=, =-um=, anxious.

=solum=, =-i=, _n._ ground.

=sōlus=, =-a=, =-um=, alone, only;
  _adv._ =sōlum=, only.

=solvo=, =-vi=, =-ūtum= (3), _tr._ loosen;
  =solūtus=, =-a=, =-um=, weak, lax.

=somnus=, =-i=, _m._ sleep.

=sors=, =-rtis=, _f._ lot.

=spargo=, =-si=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ scatter.

=speciēs=, =-ēi=, _f._ appearance.

=speculor= (1), _tr._ watch, observe.

=spēro= (1), _tr. or intr._ hope.

=spēs=, =-ei=, _f._ hope.

=spīritus=, =-ūs=, _m._ breath.

=spolio= (1), _tr._ rob, deprive.

=sponte=, _abl. f._ of free will, willingly.

=stabilio= (4), _tr._ make firm, establish.

=statim=, _adv._ immediately.

=statua=, =-ae=, _f._ statue.

=statuo=, =-ui=, =-ūtum= (3), _tr._ set up, establish, settle,
determine.

=status=, =-ūs=, _m._ position, constitution.

=stirps=, =-pis=, _f._ root, stem.

=sto=, =steti=, =statum= (1), _intr._ stand.

=studeo=, =-ui=, =----= (2), _intr. c. dat._ strive after, aim at,
desire.

=studiōsus=, =-a=, =-um=, eager for, having a fancy for.

=studium=, =-i=, _n._ aim, pursuit, desire; energy, enthusiasm.

=stultus=, =-a=, =-um=, foolish, dull.

=stuprum=, =-i=, _n._ debauchery.

=suādeo=, =-si=, =-sum=, _intr. c. dat._ urge, advise.

=sub-eo=, =-ii=, =-itum=, =-īre=, _tr._ undergo, suffer.

=sub-icio=, =-iēci=, =-iectum= (3), _tr._ lay under, lay near.

=subiector=, =-ōris=, _m._ forger.

=sub-igo=, =-ēgi=, =-actum= (3), _tr._ subdue.

=subito=, _adv._ suddenly.

=subsellium=, =-i=, _n._ bench.

=subsidium=, =-i=, _n._ help, support, appliance.

=suc-cēdo=, =-cessi=, =-cessum= (3), _intr. c. dat._ come next to,
succeed.

=suf-fero=, =sustuli=, =sublātum=, =sufferre=, _tr._ undergo, bear.

=sum=, =fui=, =esse=, am.

=summa=, =-ae=, _f._ highest place.

=summus=, =-a=, =-um=, highest, greatest, most grave, most noble, most
severe.

=sūmo=, =-mpsi=, =-mptum= (3), _tr._ take up, assume; inflict.

=sumptuōsius=, _adv._ more extravagantly.

=sumptus=, =-ūs=, _m._ expense, extravagance.

=superior=, =-us=, higher, earlier, previous, former.

=supero= (1), _tr._ overcome, overpower, surpass.

=super-sum=, =-fui=, =-esse=, _intr._ survive.

=suppedito= (1), _tr._ supply, furnish.

=supplex=, =-icis=, suppliant.

=supplicātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ service of thanksgiving.

=supplicium=, =-i=, _n._ punishment, penalty, chastisement.

=surgo=, =surrexi=, =surrectum= (3), _intr._ rise.

=sus-cipio=, =-cēpi=, =-ceptum= (3), _tr._ undertake, take upon me.

=suspectus=, =-a=, =-um=, suspected.

=suspīcio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ suspicion.

=suspicor= (1), _tr. or intr._ suspect.

=sus-tento= (1), _tr._ uphold, support, bear.

=sus-tineo=, =-tinui=, =-tentum= (2), _tr._ bear, endure.

=suus=, =-a=, =-um=, his, her, its, their.


T

=tabella=, =-ae=, _f._ writing-tablet;
  _plur._ letter.

=taberna=, =-ae=, _f._ shop.

=tābesco=, =-bui=, =----= (3), _intr._ melt, pine, languish.

=tabula=, =-ae=, _f._ writing-tablet;
  _plur._ account books;
  =tabulae novae=, cancelling of debts.

=taceo= (2), _intr._ am silent, say nothing;
  _tr._ say nothing of, conceal.

=taciturnitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ silence.

=tacitus=, =-a=, =-um=, silent.

=taeter=, =-tra=, =-trum=, foul, hideous, abominable.

=tālāris=, =-e=, reaching to the ankle.

=tālis=, =-e=, such.

=tam=, _adv._ so;
  =tam . . . quam=, so much ... as.

=tamen=, _adv._ nevertheless, yet.

=tamquam=, _adv._ just as, as if.

=tandem=, _adv._ at length, pray.

=tango=, =tetigi=, =tactum= (3), _tr._ touch, strike.

=tantus=, =-a=, =-um=, so great;
  =tantum=, =-i=, _n._ so much;
  =tanti=, of such value, worth while; =tanto=, by so much.

=tardissimē=, _adv._ very slowly, very late, latest.

=tarditās=, =-ātis=, _f._ slowness.

=tectum=, =-i=, _n._ roof, house.

=tēlum=, =-i=, _n._ dart, shaft, weapon.

=temerē=, _adv._ rashly, heedlessly, for nothing.

=temeritās=, =-ātis=, _f._ rashness.

=temperantia=, =-ae=, _f._ self-restraint, temperance.

=tempestās=, =-ātis=, _f._ storm.

=templum=, =-i=, _n._ consecrated ground, temple.

=tempus=, =-oris=, _n._ time.

=tendo=, =tetendi=, =tensum= _or_ =tentum= (3), _tr._ stretch out.

=tenebrae=, =-ārum=, _f._ _plur._ darkness.

=teneo=, =-ui=, =----= (2), _tr._ hold, hold fast, confine;
  _pass._ am in difficulty.

=tento= (1), _tr._ make an attempt on, attempt, attack, test, tempt.

=tenuis=, =-e=, thin, poor.

=termino= (1), _tr._ bound, limit.

=terminus=, =-i=, _m._ limit.

=terra=, =-ae=, _f._ earth, land, ground.

=tertius=, =-a=, =-um=, third.

=testāmentum=, =-i=, _n._ will.

=testis=, =-is=, _c._ witness.

=timeo=, =-ui=, =----= (2), _tr. or intr._ fear.

=timidus=, =-a=, =-um=, timid, fearful.

=timor=, =-ōris=, _m._ fear.

=toga=, =-ae=, _f._ toga (_gown of civil life_), gown.

=togātus=, =-a=, =-um=, wearing the toga.

=tolerābilis=, =-e=, endurable, bearable.

=tolero= (1), _tr._ bear, endure.

=tollo=, =sustuli=, =sublātum= (3), _tr._ raise, remove.

=tot=, _indecl. adj._ so many.

=tōtus=, =-a=, =-um=, whole.

=tracto= (1), _tr._ handle, manage; =mē tracto=, behave.

=trā-do=, =-didi=, =-ditum= (3), _tr._ hand over.

=transcendo= (=trans-scendo=), =-di=, =-sum= (3), _tr._ cross, pass.

=trans-fero=, =-tuli=, =-lātum=, =-ferre=, _tr._ carry across, transfer.

=trans-igo=, =-ēgi=, =-actum= (3), _tr._ complete, dispatch.

=tribūnal=, =-ālis=, _n._ judgement-seat.

=tribūnus=, =-i=, _m._ tribune;
  =tribūnus pl.= (i.e. =plēbis=) tribune of the people, _thus
  distinguished from e.g. a military tribune_.

=trīduum=, =-i=, _n._ three days' time.

=triumpho= (1), _intr._ triumph.

=triumphus=, =-i=, _m._ triumph.

=trucīdo= (1), _tr._ slaughter, butcher.

=tū=, =tui=, thou, you;
  =vosmet=, you yourselves.

=tuba=, =-ae=, _f._ trumpet.

=tueor= (2), _tr._ gaze at; maintain, support.

=tum=, _adv._ then;
  _after_ =deinde=, thirdly.

=tumultus=, =-ūs=, _m._ disturbance.

=tumulus=, =-i=, _n._ hillock, height, stronghold.

=tunc=, _adv._ then, at that time.

=tunica=, =-ae=, _f._ tunic.

=turbulentus=, =-a=, =-um=, restless, troublesome.

=turpis=, =-e=, base, disgraceful, shameful.

=turpiter=, _adv._ disgracefully; _superl._ =turpissimē=.

=turpitūdo=, =-inis=, _f._ baseness.

=tūtus=, =-a=, =-um=, safe; _adv._ =tūto=, in safety.

=tuus=, =-a=, =-um=, thy, your.

=tyrannus=, =-i=, _m._ despot, tyrant.


U

=ūber=, =-eris=, _n._ pap, teat.

=ubī=, _adv. or conj._ where, when.

=ubinam=, _adv._ where?

=ulciscor=, =ultus sum= (3), _tr._ punish.

=ullus=, =-a=, =-um=, any.

=ultro=, _adv._ voluntarily, unasked.

=umquam=, _adv._ ever.

=ūnā=, _adv._ at the same time, in company.

=undique=, _adv._ on all sides.

=unguentum=, =-i=, _n._ unguent, perfume.

=ūnicē=, _adv._ specially, wonderfully.

=ūniversus=, =-a=, =-um=, entire, whole, general.

=ūnus=, =-a=, =-um=, one, alone.

=urbānus=, =-a=, =-um=, of the city, in the city.

=urbs=, =-bis=, _f._ city.

=usque=, _adv._ all the time, continually; =usque ad=, even to.

=ūsūra=, =-ae=, _f._ use, enjoyment, interest.

=usurpo= (1), _tr._ use, apply.

=ut= _or_ =uti=, _adv. or conj._ as, how, when;
  _c. subjunct._ in order that, so that, that.

=uterque=, =utraque=, =utrumque=, each of two; _plur._ each of two sets.

=ūtilis=, =-e=, useful, expedient.

=ūtilitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ advantage, interest.

=utinam=, _adv._ would that?

=ūtor=, =ūsus sum= (3), _intr. c. abl._ use, enjoy, experience, find.

=utrum=, _interrog. adv._ whether (_but not translated in direct
questions_).

=uxor=, =-ōris=, _f._ wife.


V

=vacillo= (1), _intr._ totter, stagger.

=vacuēfacio=, =-fēci=, =-factum= (3), _tr._ empty, clear, free.

=vacuus=, =-a=, =-um=, empty, free from.

=vadimōnium=, =-i=, _n._ bail.

=vāgīna=, =-ae=, _f._ sheath, scabbard.

=valdē=, _adv._ very much, exceedingly.

=valeo= (2), _intr._ have strength, have influence.

=varietās=, =-ātis=, _f._ difference, change.

=varius=, =-a=, =-um=, diverse, various.

=vastātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ plundering, devastation.

=vastitās=, =-ātis=, _f._ devastation.

=vasto= (1), _tr._ waste, devastate.

=vātēs=, =-is=, _c._ soothsayer, prophet.

=vectīgal=, =-ālis=, _n._ tax, revenue.

=vehemens=, =-ntis=, vigorous, violent, efficacious, severe.

=vehementer=, _adv._ strongly, greatly, seriously, violently;
  _compar._ =vehementius=, _superl._ =vehementissimē=.

=vēlum=, =-i=, _n._ veil.

=vēna=, =-ae=, _f._ vein.

=venēficus=, =-i=, _m._ poisoner.

=veneror= (1), _tr._ worship.

=venio=, =vēni=, =ventum= (4), _intr._ come.

=verbum=, =-i=, _n._ word.

=vērē=, _adv._ truly.

=vereor= (2), _tr. or intr._ fear.

=versor= (1), _intr._ move, dwell, abide, am concerned.

=vērus,=-a=, =-um=, true;
  =vērum=, =-i=, _n._ truth;
  _adv._ =vēro=, in truth, however;
  _adv. or conj._ =vērum=, truly, but in truth, but.

=vespera=, =-ae=, _f._ evening.

=vester=, =-tra=, =-trum=, your.

=vestīgium=, =-i=, _n._ step, track, trace; _plur._ ruins.

=vetus=, =-eris=, old, former.

=vexātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ trouble, distress, insult.

=vexo= (1), _tr._ trouble, harass.

=via=, =-ae=, _f._ way, road, course.

=vibro= (1), _tr._ brandish.

=vicēsimus=, =-a=, =-um=, twentieth.

=vīcīnus=, =-i=, _m._ neighbour.

=victor=, =-ōris=, victorious.

=victōria=, =-ae=, _f._ victory.

=vidēlicet=, _adv._ clearly, evidently.

=video=, =vīdi=, =vīsum= (2), _tr. or intr._ see, make sure;
  =videor=, seem, seem right.

=vigilia=, =-ae=, _f._ wakefulness, watch;
  _plur._ guard, patrol.

=vigilo= (1), _intr._ keep awake, am watchful, am on the watch.

=vīlis=, =-e=, cheap, unimportant.

=villa=, =-ae=, _f._ country-house, farm.

=vinco=, =vīci=, =victum= (3), _tr. or intr._ conquer, outweigh.

=vinculum=, =-i=, _n._ chain; _in plur._ prison, imprisonment.

=vindex=, =-icis=, _c._ avenger, punisher.

=vindico= (1), _tr._ punish.

=vīnum=, =-i=, _n._ wine.

=violo= (1), _tr._ injure, do outrage to.

=vir=, =viri=, _m._ man.

=virgo=, =-inis=, _f._ maiden.

=virtūs=, =-ūtis=, _f._ manliness, courage, goodness.

=vīs=, =vim=, =vi=, _f._ force, power;
  _plur._ =vīrēs=, =-ium=, strength.

=viscera=, =-um=, _n. plur._ inner parts, vitals.

=vīta=, =-ae=, _f._ life.

=vitium=, =-i=, _n._ vice, fault.

=vīto= (1), _tr._ avoid, escape.

=vituperātio=, =-ōnis=, _f._ blame, censure.

=vīvo=, =-xi=, =-ctum= (3), _intr._ live.

=vīvus=, =-a=, =-um=, alive.

=vix=, _adv._ scarcely, hardly.

=vixdum=, _adv._ scarcely yet.

=voco= (1), _tr._ call, summon.

=volito= (1), _intr._ fly about, flit about, flutter.

=volo=, =volui=, =velle=, _tr. or intr._ wish.

=voluntās=, =-ātis=, _f._ wish, will, intention; good-will.

=voluptās=, =-ātis=, _f._ pleasure, joy.

=vosmet=, _see_ =tu=.

=vōtum=, =-i=, _n._ vow, prayer.

=vox=, =vōcis=, _f._ voice, speech, word.

=vulnero= (1), _tr._ wound.

=vulnus=, =-eris=, _n._ wound.

=vultus=, =-ūs=, _m._ countenance, features, expression.



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Transcriber's Notes

In the Notes section, some words being glossed have occasionally not
been set in bold type. These have been amended.

Other amendments:

Notes P. 17: Missing single quote added before "and that, if I Punished
him".

Notes p. 30: "is it" amended to "it is".

Notes p. 33: period added after "Cf. Virg. Aen. 1. 679".

Vocabulary p. 59: "exspectation" amended to "expectation".

Vocabulary p. 62: "iam iūdum" amended to "iam dūdum".

Vocabulary p. 71: period added after "arrive".

Vocabulary p. 77: period added after "thirst".

Vocabulary p. 81: period added after "tr" in the definition of "vibro";
also on p. 81: semicolon added after "power" in the definition of "vis".

Ellipses follow LOTE rules in Latin phrases (e.g. either . . . or).

B. C. has been condensed to B.C., i. e. to i.e., e. g. to e.g., and v.
l. to v.l.





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