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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 13, Slice 4 - "Hero" to "Hindu Chronology"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 13, Slice 4 - "Hero" to "Hindu Chronology"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE HERO: "... Arthur's foster-brother and seneschal, the type
      of the bluff and boastful warrior, and Bedivere (Bedwyr), ..."
      'seneschal' amended from 'sensechal'.

    ARTICLE HERWEGH, GEORG: "He next studied law, but having gained the
      interest of August Lewald (1793-1871) by his literary ability, he
      returned to Stuttgart, where Lewald obtained for him a journalistic
      post." 'journalistic' amended from 'journalisitic'.

    ARTICLE HESSE-CASSEL: "The regent, without his father's coarseness,
      had a full share of his arbitrary and avaricious temper."
      'arbitrary' amended from 'arbitary'.

    ARTICLE HIEL, EMMANUEL: "... Jakoba van Beieren ('Jacqueline of
      Bavaria,' a poetic drama, 1880); ..." 'Jacqueline' amended from
      'Jacquelein'.

    ARTICLE HILL, JOHN: "Hill's botanical labours were undertaken at
      the request of his patron, Lord Bute, and he was rewarded by the
      amended from 'underaken'.

    ARTICLE HILLEL: "The duty of considering oneself part of common
      humanity, of not differing from others by any peculiarity of
      behaviour, he sums up in the words:" 'common' amended from
      'comman'.

    ARTICLE HILLEL: "The almost mystical profundity of Hillel's
      consciousness of God is shown in the words spoken by him on the
      occasion of a feast in the Temple ..." 'consciousness' amended from
      'conciousness'.

    ARTICLE HINDOSTANI: "In the article Prakrit it is shown that the
      same construction is obtained in that language." added 'is'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


           VOLUME XIII, SLICE IV

         HERO to HINDU CHRONOLOGY



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  HERO                               HIAWATHA
  HERO AND LEANDER                   HIBBING
  HERO OF ALEXANDRIA                 HIBERNACULUM
  HERO (the Younger)                 HIBERNATION
  HEROD                              HIBERNIA
  HERODAS                            HICKERINGILL, EDMUND
  HERODIANS                          HICKES, GEORGE
  HERODIANUS                         HICKOK, LAURENS PERSEUS
  HERODIANUS, AELIUS                 HICKORY
  HERODOTUS                          HICKS, ELIAS
  HÉROET, ANTOINE                    HICKS, HENRY
  HEROIC ROMANCES                    HICKS, WILLIAM
  HEROIC VERSE                       HIDALGO (state of Mexico)
  HÉROLD, LOUIS JOSEPH FERDINAND     HIDALGO (Spanish title)
  HERON                              HIDALGO Y COSTILLA, MIGUEL
  HERPES                             HIDDENITE
  HERRERA, FERNANDO DE               HIDE
  HERRERA, FRANCISCO                 HIEL, EMMANUEL
  HERRERA Y TORDESILLAS, ANTONIO DE  HIEMPSAL
  HERRICK, ROBERT                    HIERAPOLIS
  HERRIES, JOHN CHARLES              HIERARCHY
  HERRIES, JOHN MAXWELL              HIERATIC
  HERRING                            HIERAX
  HERRING-BONE                       HIERO
  HERRINGS, BATTLE OF THE            HIERO II.
  HERRNHUT                           HIEROCLES
  HERSCHEL, CAROLINE LUCRETIA        HIEROCLES OF ALEXANDRIA
  HERSCHEL, SIR FREDERICK WILLIAM    HIEROGLYPHICS
  HERSCHEL, SIR JOHN WILLIAM         HIERONYMITES
  HERSCHELL, FARRER HERSCHELL        HIERONYMUS OF CARDIA
  HERSENT, LOUIS                     HIERRO
  HERSFELD                           HIGDON, RANULF
  HERSTAL                            HIGGINS, MATTHEW JAMES
  HERTFORD, EARLS AND MARQUESSES OF  HIGGINSON, THOMAS WENTWORTH
  HERTFORD (Hertfordshire, England)  HIGHAM FERRERS
  HERTFORDSHIRE                      HIGHGATE
  HERTHA                             HIGHLANDS, THE
  HERTZ, HEINRICH RUDOLF             HIGHNESS
  HERTZ, HENRIK                      HIGH PLACE
  HERTZBERG, EWALD FRIEDRICH         HIGH SEAS
  HERTZEN, ALEXANDER                 HIGHWAY
  HERULI                             HIGINBOTHAM, GEORGE
  HERVÁS Y PANDURO, LORENZO          HILARION, ST
  HERVEY, JAMES                      HILARIUS, ST (bishop of Pictavium)
  HERVEY DE SAINT DENYS, JEAN LÉON   HILARIUS (bishop of Rome)
  HERVEY OF ICKWORTH, JOHN HERVEY    HILARIUS (Latin poet)
  HERVIEU, PAUL                      HILARIUS, ST (bishop of Arles)
  HERWARTH VON BITTENFELD, EBERHARD  HILDA, ST
  HERWEGH, GEORG                     HILDBURGHAUSEN
  HERZBERG (town in Hanover)         HILDEBERT
  HERZBERG (town in Saxony)          HILDEBRAND, LAY OF
  HERZL, THEODOR                     HILDEBRANDT, EDUARD
  HERZOG, HANS                       HILDEBRANDT, THEODOR
  HERZOG, JOHANN JAKOB               HILDEGARD, ST
  HESEKIEL, JOHANN GEORG LUDWIG      HILDEN
  HESILRIGE, SIR ARTHUR              HILDESHEIM
  HESIOD                             HILDRETH, RICHARD
  HESPERIDES                         HILGENFELD, ADOLF BERNHARD CHRISTOPH
  HESPERUS                           HILL, AARON
  HESS (family of German artists)    HILL, AMBROSE POWELL
  HESS, HEINRICH HERMANN JOSEF       HILL, DANIEL HARVEY
  HESSE                              HILL, DAVID BENNETT
  HESSE-CASSEL                       HILL, GEORGE BIRKBECK NORMAN
  HESSE-DARMSTADT                    HILL, JAMES J.
  HESSE-HOMBURG                      HILL, JOHN
  HESSE-NASSAU                       HILL, MATTHEW DAVENPORT
  HESSE-ROTENBURG                    HILL, OCTAVIA and MIRANDA
  HESSIAN                            HILL, ROWLAND
  HESSUS, HELIUS EOBANUS             HILL, SIR ROWLAND
  HESTIA                             HILL, ROWLAND HILL
  HESYCHASTS                         HILL (elevation)
  HESYCHIUS (Alexandrian grammarian) HILLAH
  HESYCHIUS OF MILETUS               HILLARD, GEORGE STILLMAN
  HETAERISM                          HILLEBRAND, KARL
  HETEROKARYOTA                      HILLEL (Jewish rabbi)
  HETERONOMY                         HILLER, FERDINAND
  HETMAN                             HILLER, JOHANN ADAM
  HETTNER, HERMANN THEODOR           HILLIARD, LAWRENCE
  HETTSTEDT                          HILLIARD, NICHOLAS
  HEUGLIN, THEODOR VON               HILLSDALE
  HEULANDITE                         HILL TIPPERA
  HEUSCH, WILLEM                     HILTON, JOHN
  HEVELIUS, JOHANN                   HILTON, WILLIAM
  HEWETT, SIR PRESCOTT GARDNER       HILVERSUM
  HEWITT, ABRAM STEVENS              HIMALAYA
  HEWLETT, MAURICE HENRY             HIMERA
  HEXAMETER                          HIMERIUS
  HEXAPLA                            HIMLY (LOUIS), AUGUSTE
  HEXAPODA                           HIMMEL, FREDERICK HENRY
  HEXASTYLE                          HINCKLEY
  HEXATEUCH                          HINCKS, EDWARD
  HEXHAM                             HINCKS, SIR FRANCIS
  HEYDEN, JAN VAN DER                HINCMAR
  HEYLYN, PETER                      HIND
  HEYN, PIETER PIETERZOON            HINDERSIN, GUSTAV EDUARD VON
  HEYNE, CHRISTIAN GOTTLOB           HINDI, EASTERN
  HEYSE, PAUL JOHANN LUDWIG          HINDI, WESTERN
  HEYSHAM                            HINDKI
  HEYWOOD, JOHN                      HINDLEY
  HEYWOOD, THOMAS                    HINDOSTANI
  HEYWOOD (Lancashire, England)      HINDOSTANI LITERATURE
  HEZEKIAH                           HINDU CHRONOLOGY
  HIATUS



HERO (Gr. [Greek: hêrôs]), a term specially applied to warriors of
extraordinary strength and courage, and generally to all who were
distinguished from their fellows by superior moral, physical or
intellectual qualities. No satisfactory derivation of the word has been
suggested.


_Ancient Greek Heroes._

In ancient Greece, the heroes were the object of a special cult, and as
such were intimately connected with its religious life. Various theories
have been put forward as to the nature of these heroes. According to
some authorities, they were idealized historical personages; according
to others, symbolical representations of the forces of nature. The view
most commonly held is that they were degraded or "depotentiated" gods,
occupying a position intermediate between gods and men. According to E.
Rohde (in _Psyche_) they are souls of the dead, which after separation
from the body enter upon a higher, eternal existence. But it is only a
select minority who attain to the rank of heroes after death, only the
distinguished men of the past. The worship of these heroes is in reality
an ancestor worship, which existed in pre-Homeric times, and was
preserved in local cults. Instances no doubt occur of gods being
degraded to the ranks of heroes, but these are not the real heroes, the
heroes who are the object of a cult. The cult-heroes were all persons
who had lived the life of man on earth, and it was necessary for the
degraded gods to pass through this stage. They did not at once become
cult-heroes, but only after they had undergone death like other mortals.
Only one who has been a man can become a hero. The heroes are spirits of
the dead, not demi-gods; their position is not intermediate between gods
and men, but by the side of these they exist as a separate class.

In Homer the term is applied especially to warrior princes, to kings and
kings' sons, even to distinguished persons of lower rank, and free men
generally. In Hesiod it is chiefly confined to those who fought before
Troy and Thebes; in view of their supposed divine origin, he calls them
demi-gods ([Greek: hêmitheoi]). This name is also given them in an
interpolated passage in the _Iliad_ (xii. 23), which is quite at
variance with the general Homeric idea of the heroes, who are no more
than men, even if of divine origin and of superior strength and prowess.
But neither in Homer nor in Hesiod is there any trace of the idea that
the heroes after death had any power for good or evil over the lives of
those who survived them; and consequently, no cult. Nevertheless, traces
of an earlier ancestor worship appear, e.g. in funeral games in honour
of Patroclus and other heroes, while the Hesiodic account of the five
ages of man is a reminiscence of the belief in the continued existence
of souls in a higher life. This pre-historic worship and belief, for a
time obscured, were subsequently revived. According to Porphyry (_De
abstinentia_, iv. 22), Draco ordered the inhabitants of Attica to honour
the gods and heroes of their country "in accordance with the usage of
their fathers" with offerings of first fruits and sacrificial cakes
every year, thereby clearly pointing to a custom of high antiquity.
Solon also ordered that the tombs of the heroes should be treated with
the greatest respect, and Cleisthenes (q.v.) sought to create a
pan-Athenian enthusiasm by calling his new tribes after Attic heroes and
setting up their statues in the Agora. Heroic honours were at first
bestowed upon the founders of a colony or city, and the ancestors of
families; if their name was not known, one was adopted from legend. In
many cases these heroes were purely fictitious; such were the supposed
ancestors of the noble and priestly families of Attica and elsewhere
(Butadae at Athens, Branchidae at Miletus Ceryces at Eleusis), of the
eponymi of the tribes and demes. Again, side by side with gods of
superior rank, certain heroes were worshipped as protecting spirits of
the country or state; such were the Aeacidae amongst the Aeginetans,
Ajax son of Oïleus amongst the Epizephyrian Locrians and Hector at
Thebes. Neglect of the worship of these heroes was held to be
responsible for pestilence, bad crops and other misfortunes, while, on
the other hand, if duly honoured, their influence was equally
beneficent. This belief was supported by the Delphic oracle, which was
largely instrumental in promoting hero-worship and keeping alive its due
observance. Special importance was attached to the grave of the hero and
to his bodily remains, with which the spirit of the departed was
inseparably connected. The grave was regarded as his place of abode,
from which he could only be absent for a brief period; hence his bones
were fetched from abroad (e.g. Cimon brought those of Theseus from
Scyros), or if they could not be procured, at least a cenotaph was
erected in his honour. Their relics also were carefully preserved: the
house of Cadmus at Thebes, the hut of Orestes at Tegea, the stone on
which Telamon had sat at Salamis (in Cyprus). Special shrines ([Greek:
hêrôa]) were also erected in their honour, usually over their graves. In
these shrines a complete set of armour was kept, in accordance with the
idea that the hero was essentially a warrior, who on occasion came forth
from his grave and fought at the head of his countrymen, putting the
enemy to flight as during his lifetime. Like the gods, the cult heroes
were supposed to exercise an influence on human affairs, though not to
the same extent, their sphere of action being confined to their own
localities. Amongst the earliest known historical examples of the
elevation of the dead to the rank of heroes are Timesius the founder of
Abdera, Miltiades, son of Cypselus, Harmodius and Aristogiton and
Brasidas, the victor of Amphipolis, who ousted the local Athenian hero
Hagnon. In course of time admission to the rank of a hero became far
more common, and was even accorded to the living, such as Lysimachus in
Samothrace and the tyrant Nicias of Cos. Antiochus of Commagene
instituted an order of priests to celebrate the anniversary of his birth
and coronation in a special sanctuary, and the kings of Pergamum claimed
divine honours for themselves and their wives during their lifetime. The
birthday of Eumenes was regularly kept, and every month sacrifice was
offered to him and games held in his honour. In addition to persons of
high rank, poets, legendary and others (Linus, Orpheus, Homer, Aeschylus
and Sophocles), legislators and physicians (Lycurgus, Hippocrates), the
patrons of various trades or handicrafts (artists, cooks, bakers,
potters), the heads of philosophical schools (Plato, Democritus,
Epicurus) received the honours of a cult. At Teos incense was offered
before the statue of a flute-player during his lifetime. In some
countries the honour became so general that every man after death was
described as a hero in his epitaph--in Thessaly even slaves.

The cult of the heroes exhibits points of resemblance with that of the
chthonian divinities and of the dead, but differs from that of the
ordinary gods, a further indication that they were not "depotentiated"
gods. Thus, sacrifice was offered to them at night or in the evening;
not on a high, but on a low altar ([Greek: eschara]), surrounded by a
trench to receive the blood of the victim, which was supposed to make
its way through the ground to the occupant of the grave; the victims
were black male animals, whose heads were turned downwards, not upwards;
their blood was allowed to trickle on the ground to appease the departed
([Greek: haimakouria]); the body was entirely consumed by fire and no
mortal was allowed to eat of it; the technical expression for the
sacrifice was not [Greek: thuein] but [Greek: enagizein] (less commonly
[Greek: entemnein]). The chthonian aspect of the hero is further shown
by his attribute the snake, and in many cases he appears under that form
himself. On special occasions a sacrificial meal of cooked food was set
out for the heroes, of which they were solemnly invited to partake. The
fullest description of such a festival is the account given by Plutarch
(_Aristides_, 21) of the festival celebrated by the Plataeans in honour
of their countrymen who had fallen at the battle of Plataea. On the 16th
of the month Maimacterion, a long procession, headed by a trumpeter
playing a warlike air, set out for the graves; wagons decked with myrtle
and garlands of flowers followed, young men (who must be of free birth)
carried jars of wine, milk, oil and perfumes; next came the black bull
destined for the sacrifice, the rear being brought up by the archon, who
wore the purple robe of the general, a naked sword in one hand, in the
other an urn. When he came near the tombs, he drew some water with
which he washed the gravestones, afterwards anointing them with perfume;
he then sacrificed the bull on the altar calling upon Zeus Chthonios and
Hermes Psychopompos, and inviting them in company with the heroes to the
festival of blood. Finally, he poured a libation of wine with the words:
"I drink to those who died for the freedom of the Hellenes."

  See especially E. Rohde, _Psyche_ (1905) and in _Rheinisches Museum_,
  li. (1895), 28; P. Stengel, _Die griechischen Kultusaltertümer_
  (Munich, 1898), p. 124; G. F. Schömann, _Griechische Altertümer_, ii.
  (1897), 159; J. Wassner, _De heroum apud Graecos cultu_ (Kiel, 1883);
  article by F. Deneken in Roscher's _Lexikon der Mythologie_, in which
  a large amount of material is accumulated; J. A. Hild, _Étude sur les
  démons_ (1881) and article in Daremberg and Saglio's _Dictionnaire des
  antiquités_.


_Teutonic Legend._

Many of the chief characteristics of the ancient Greek heroes are
reproduced in those of the Teutonic North, the parallel being in some
cases very striking; Siegfried, for instance, like Achilles, is
vulnerable only in one spot, and Wayland Smith, like Hephaestus, is
lame. Superhuman qualities and powers, too, are commonly ascribed to
both, an important difference, however, being that whatever worship may
have been paid to the Teutonic heroes never crystallized into a cult.
This applies equally to those who have a recognized historical origin
and to those who are regarded as purely mythical. Of the latter the
number has tended to diminish in the light of modern scholarship. The
fashion during the 19th century set strongly in the other direction, and
the "degraded gods" theory was applied not only to such conspicuous
heroes as Siegfried, Dietrich and Beowulf, but to a host of minor
characters, such as the good marquis Rüdeger of the Nibelungenlied and
our own Robin Hood (both identified with Woden Hruodperaht). The
reaction from one extreme has, indeed, tended to lead to another, until
not only the heroes, but the very gods themselves, are being traced to
very human, not to say commonplace, origins. Thus M. Henri de Tourville,
in his_ Histoire de la formation particulariste_ (1903), basing his
argument on the _Ynglinga Saga_, interpreted in the light of "Social
Science," reveals Odin, "the traveller," as a great "caravan-leader" and
warrior, who, driven from Asgard--a trading city on the borders of the
steppes east of the Don--by "the blows that Pompey aimed at
Mithridates," brought to the north the arts and industries of the East.
The argument is developed with convincing ingenuity, but it may be
doubted whether it has permanently "rescued Odin from the misty
dreamland of mythology and restored him to history." It is now, however,
admitted that, whatever influence the one may have from time to time
exercised on the other, Teutonic myth and Teutonic heroic legend were
developed on independent lines. The Teutonic heroes are, in the main,
historical personages, never gods; though, like the Greek heroes, they
are sometimes endowed with semi-divine attributes or interpreted as
symbolical representations of natural forces.

The origin of Teutonic heroic saga, which may be regarded as including
that of the Germans, Goths, Anglo-Saxons and Scandinavians, is to be
looked for in the period of the so-called migration of nations (A.D.
350-650). It consequently rests upon a distinct basis of fact, the saga
(in the older and wider sense of any story said or sung) being indeed
the oldest form of historical tradition; though this of course does not
exclude the probability of the accretion of mythical elements round
persons and episodes from the very first. As to the origin of the heroic
sagas as we now have them, Tacitus tells us that the deeds of Arminius
were still celebrated in song a hundred years after his death (_Annals_,
ii. 88) and in the _Germania_ he speaks of "old songs" as the only kind
of "annals" which the ancient Germans possessed; but, whatever relics of
the old songs may be embedded in the Teutonic sagas, they have left no
recognizable mark on the heroic poetry of the German peoples. The
attempt to identify Arminius with Siegfried is now generally abandoned.
Teutonic heroic saga, properly so-called, consists of the traditions
connected with the migration period, the earliest traces of which are
found in the works of historical writers such as Ammianus Marcellinus
and Cassiodorus. According to Jordanes (the epitomator of Cassiodorus's
_History of the Goths_) at the funeral of Attila his vassals, as they
rode round the corpse, sang of his glorious deeds. The next step in the
development of epic narrative was the single lay of an episodic
character, sung by a single individual, who was frequently a member of a
distinguished family, not merely a professional minstrel. Then, as
different stories grew up round the person of a particular hero, they
formed a connected cycle of legend, the centre of which was the person
of the hero (e.g. Dietrich of Bern). The most important figures of these
cycles are the following.

(1) Beowulf, king of the Geatas (Jutland), whose story in its present
form was probably brought from the continent by the Angles. It is an
amalgamation of the myth of Beowa, the slayer of the water-demon and the
dragon, with the historical legend of Beowulf, nephew and successor of
Hygelac (Chochilaicus), king of the Geatas, who was defeated and slain
(c. 520) while ravaging the Frisian coast. The water-demon Grendel and
the dragon (probably), by whom Beowulf is mortally wounded, have been
supposed to represent the powers of autumn and darkness, the floods
which at certain seasons overflow the low-lying countries on the coast
of the North Sea and sweep away all human habitations; Beowulf is the
hero of spring and light who, after overcoming the spirit of the raging
waters, finally succumbs to the dragon of approaching winter. Others
regard him as a wind-hero, who disperses the pestilential vapours of the
fens. Beowulf is also a culture-hero. His father Sceaf-Scyld (i.e. Scyld
Scefing, "the protector with the sheaf") lands on the Anglian or
Scandinavian coast when a child, in a rudderless ship, asleep on a sheaf
of grain, symbolical of the means whereby his kingdom shall become
great; the son indicates the blessings of a fixed habitation, secured
against the attacks of the sea. (2) Hildebrand, the hero of the oldest
German epic. A loyal supporter of Theodoric, he follows his master, when
threatened by Odoacer, to the court of Attila. After thirty years'
absence, he returns to his home In Italy; his son Hadubrand, believing
his father to be dead, suspects treachery and refuses to accept presents
offered by the father in token of good-will. A fight takes place, in
which the son is slain by the father. In a later version, recognition
and reconciliation take place. Well-known parallels are Odysseus and
Telegonis, Rustem and Sohrab. (3) Ermanaric, the king of the East Goths,
who according to Ammianus Marcellinus slew himself (c. 375) in terror at
the invasion of the Huns. With him is connected the old German Dioscuri
myth of the Harlungen. (4) Dietrich of Bern (Verona), the legendary name
of Theodoric the Great. Contrary to historical tradition, Italy is
supposed to have been his ancestral inheritance, of which he has been
deprived by Odoacer, or by Ermanaric, who in his altered character of a
typical tyrant appears as his uncle and contemporary. He takes refuge in
Hungary with Etzel (Attila), by whose aid he finally recovers his
kingdom. In the later middle ages he is represented as fighting with
giants, dragons and dwarfs, and finally disappears on a black horse.
Some attempts have been made to identify him as a kind of Donar or god
of thunder. (5) Siegfried (M.H. Ger. Sîvrit), the hero of the
_Niebelungenlied_, the Sigurd of the related northern sagas, is usually
regarded as a purely mythical figure, a hero of light who is ultimately
overcome by the powers of darkness, the mist-people (Niebelungen). He
is, however, closely associated with historical characters and events,
e.g. with the Burgundian king Gundahari (Gunther, Gunnar) and the
overthrow of his house and nation by the Huns; the scholars have
exercised considerable ingenuity in attempting to identify him with
various historical figures. Theodor Abeling (_Das Nibelungenlied_,
Leipzig, 1907) traces the Nibelung sagas to three groups of Burgundian
legends, each based on fact: the Frankish-Burgundian tradition of the
murder of Segeric, son of the Burgundian king Sigimund, who was slain by
his father at the instigation of his stepmother; the Frankish-Burgundian
story, as told by Gregory of Tours (iii. 11), of the defeat of the
Burgundian kings Sigimund and Godomar, and the captivity and murder of
Sigimund, by the sons of Clovis, at the instigation of their mother
Chrothildis, in revenge for the murder of her father Chilperich and of
her mother, by Godomar; the Rhenish-Burgundian story of the ruin of
Gundahari's kingdom by Attila's Huns. Herr Abeling identifies Siegfried
(Sigurd) with Segeric, while--according to him--the heroine of the
Nibelung sagas, Kriemhild (Gudrun), represents a confusion of two
historical persons: Chrothildis, the wife of Clovis, and Ildico (Hilde),
the wife of Attila. (See also the articles KRIEMHILD, NIBELUNGENLIED).

(6) Hugdietrich, Wolfdietrich and Ortnit, whose legend, like that of
Siegfried, is of Frankish origin. It is preserved in four versions, the
best of which is the oldest, and has an historical foundation.
Hugdietrich is the "Frankish Dietrich" (= Hugo Theodoric), king of
Austrasia (d. 534), who like his son and successor Theodebert, was
illegitimate; both had to fight for their inheritance with relatives.
The transference of the scene to Constantinople is a reminiscence of the
events of the Crusades and Theodebert's projected campaign against that
city. The version in which Hugdietrich gains access to his future wife
by disguising himself as a woman has also a foundation in fact. As the
myth of the Harlungen is connected with Ermanaric, so another Dioscuri
myth (of the Hartungen) is combined with the Ortnit-Wolfdietrich legend.
The Hartungen are probably identical with the divine youths (mentioned
in Tacitus as worshipped by the Vandal Naharvali or Nahanarvali), from
whom the Vandal royal family, the Asdingi, claimed descent. Asdingi
([Greek: Astiggoi]) would be represented in Gothic by Hazdiggos, "men
with women's hair" (cf. _muliebri ornatu_ in Tacitus), and in middle
high German by Hartungen. (7) Rother, king of Lombardy. Desiring to wed
the daughter of Constantine, king of Constantinople, he sends twelve
envoys to ask her in marriage. They are arrested and thrown into prison
by the king. Rother, who appears under the name of Dietrich, sets out
with an army, liberates the envoys and carries off the princess. One
version places the scene in the land of the Huns. The character of
Constantine in many respects resembles that of Alexius Comnenus; the
slaying of a tame lion by one of the gigantic followers of Rother is
founded on an incident which actually took place at the court of Alexius
during the crusade of 1101 under duke Welf of Bavaria, when _King
Rother_ was composed about 1160 by a Rhenish minstrel. Rother may be the
Lombard king Rothari (636-650), transferred to the period of the
Crusades. (8) Walther of Aquitaine, chiefly known from the Latin poem
_Waltharius_, written by Ekkehard of St Gall at the beginning of the
10th century, and fragments of an 8th-century Anglo-Saxon Epic
_Waldere_. Walther is not an historical figure, although the legend
undoubtedly represents typical occurrences of the migration period, such
as the detention and flight of hostages of noble family from the court
of the Huns, and the rescue of captive maidens by abduction. (9) Wieland
(Volundr), Wayland the Smith, the only Teutonic hero (his original home
was lower Saxony) who firmly established himself in England. There is
absolutely no historical background for his legend. He is a fire-spirit,
who is pressed into man's service, and typifies the advance from the
stone age to a higher stage of civilization (working in metals). As the
lame smith he reminds us of Hephaestus, and in his flight with wings of
Daedalus escaping from Minos. (10) Högni (Hagen) and Hedin (Hetel),
whose personalities are overshadowed by the heroines Hilde and Gudrun
(Kudrun, Kutrun). In one version occurs the incident of the never-ending
battle between the forces of Hagen and Hedin. Every night Hilde revives
the fallen, and "so will it continue till the twilight of the gods." The
battle represents the eternal conflict between light and darkness, the
alternation of day and night. Hilde here figures as a typical Valkyr
delighting in battle and bloodshed, who frustrates a reconciliation.
Hedin had sent a necklace as a peace-offering to Hagen, but Hilde
persuades her father that it is only a ruse. This necklace occurs in the
story of the goddess Freya (Frigg), who is said to have caused the
battle to conciliate the wrath of Odin at her infidelity, the price paid
by her for the possession of the necklace Brisnigamen; again, the light
god Heimdal is said to have fought with Loki for the necklace (the sun)
stolen by the latter. Hence the battle has been explained as the
necklace myth in epic form. The historical background is the raids of
the Teutonic maritime tribes on the coasts of England and Ireland.

Famous heroes who are specially connected with England are Alfred the
Great, Richard Coeur-de-Lion, King Horn, Havelok the Dane, Guy of
Warwick, Sir Bevis of Hampton (or Southampton), Robin Hood and his
companions.


_Celtic Heroes._

The Celtic heroic saga in the British islands may be divided into the
two principal groups of Gaelic (Irish) and Brython (Welsh), the first,
excluding the purely mythological, into the Ultonian (connected with
Ulster) and the Ossianic. The Ultonianis grouped round the names of King
Conchobar and the hero Cuchulainn, "the Irish Achilles," the defender of
Ulster against all Ireland, regarded by some as a solar hero. The second
cycle contains the epics of Finn (Fionn, Fingal) mac Cumhail, and his
son Oisin (Ossian), the bard and warrior, chiefly known from the
supposed Ossianic poems of Macpherson. (See CELT, sec. _Celtic
Literature_.)

Of Brython origin is the cycle of King Arthur (Artus), the adopted
national hero of the mixed nationalities of whom the "English" people
was composed. Here he appears as a chiefly mythical personality, who
slays monsters, such as the giant of St Michel, the boar Troit, the
demon cat, and goes down to the underworld. The original Welsh legend
was spread by British refugees in Brittany, and was thus celebrated by
both English and French Celts. From a literary point of view, however,
it is chiefly French and forms "the matter of Brittany." Arthur, the
leader (_comes Britanniae, dux bellorum_) of the Siluri or Dumnonii
against the Saxons, flourished at the beginning of the 6th century. He
is first spoken of in Nennius's _History of the Britons_ (9th century),
and at greater length in Geoffrey of Monmouth's _History of the Kings of
Britain_ (12th century), at the end of which the French Breton cycle
attained its fullest development in the poems of Chrétien de Troyes and
others.

Speaking generally, the Celtic heroes are differentiated from the
Teutonic by the extreme exaggeration of their superhuman, or rather
extra-human, qualities. Teutonic legend does not lightly exaggerate, and
what to us seems incredible in it may be easily conceived as credible to
those by whom and for whom the tales were told; that Sigmund and his son
Sinfiotli turned themselves into wolves would be but a sign of
exceptional powers to those who believed in werewolves; Fafnir assuming
the form of a serpent would be no more incredible to the barbarous
Teuton than the similar transformation of Proteus to the Greek. But in
the characterization of their heroes the Celtic imagination runs riot,
and the quality of their persons and their acts becomes exaggerated
beyond the bounds of any conceivable probability. Take, for instance,
the description of some of Arthur's knights in the Welsh tale of
_Kilhwch and Olwen_ (in the _Mabinogion_). Along with Kai and Bedwyr
(Bedivere), Peredur (Perceval), Gwalchmai (Gawain), and many others, we
have such figures as Sgilti Yscandroed, whose way through the wood lay
along the tops of the trees, and whose tread was so light that no blade
of grass bent beneath his weight; Sol, who could stand all day upon one
leg; Sugyn the son of Sugnedydd, who was "broad-chested" to such a
degree that he could suck up the sea on which were three hundred ships
and leave nothing but dry land; Gweyyl, the son of Gwestad, who when he
was sad would let one of his lips drop beneath his waist and turn up the
other like a cap over his head; and Uchtry Varyf Draws, who spread his
red untrimmed beard over the eight-and-forty rafters of Arthur's hall.
Such figures as these make no human impression, and criticism has busied
itself in tracing them to one or other of the shadowy divinities of the
Celtic pantheon. However this may be, remnants of their primitive
superhuman qualities cling to the Celtic heroes long after they have
been transfigured, under the influence of Christianity and chivalry,
into the heroes of the medieval Arthurian romance, types--for the most
part--of the knightly virtues as these were conceived by the middle
ages; while shadowy memories of early myths live on, strangely
disguised, in certain of the episodes repeated uncritically by the
medieval poets. So Merlin preserves his diabolic origin; Arthur his
mystic coming and his mystic passing; while Gawain, and after him
Lancelot, journey across the river, as the Irish hero Bran had done
before them to the island of fair women--the Celtic vision of the realm
of death.

The chief heroes of the medieval Arthurian romances are the following.
Arthur himself, who tends however to become completely overshadowed by
his knights, who make his court the starting-point of their adventures.
Merlin (Myrddin), the famous wizard, bard and warrior, perhaps an
historical figure, first introduced by Geoffrey of Monmouth, originally
called Ambrose from the British leader Ambrosius Aurelianus, under whom
he is said to have first served. Perceval (Parzival, Parsifal), the
Welsh Peredur, "the seeker of the basin," the most intimately connected
with the quest of the Grail (q.v.). Tristan (Tristram), the ideal lover
of the middle ages, whose name is inseparably associated with that of
Iseult. Lancelot, son of Ban king of Brittany, a creation of chivalrous
romance, who only appears in Arthurian literature under French
influence, known chiefly from his amour with Guinevere, perhaps in
imitation of the story of Tristan and Iseult. Gawain (Welwain, Welsh
Gwalchmai), Arthur's nephew, who in medieval romance remains the type of
knightly courage and chivalry, until his character is degraded in order
to exalt that of Lancelot. Among less important, but still conspicuous,
figures may be mentioned Kay (the Kai of the _Mabinogion_), Arthur's
foster-brother and seneschal, the type of the bluff and boastful
warrior, and Bedivere (Bedwyr), the type of brave knight and faithful
retainer, who alone is with Arthur at his passing, and afterwards
becomes "a hermit and a holy man." (See ARTHUR, MERLIN, PERCEVAL,
TRISTAN, LANCELOT, GAWAIN.)


_Heroes of Romance._

Another series of heroes, forming the central figures of stories
variously derived but developed in Europe by the Latin-speaking peoples,
may be conveniently grouped under the heading of "romance." Of these the
most important are Alexander of Macedon and Charlemagne, while alongside
of them Priam and other heroes of the Trojan war appear during the
middle ages in strangely altered guise. Of all heroes of romance
Alexander has been the most widely celebrated. His name, in the form of
Iskander, is familiar in legend and story all over the East to this day;
to the West he was introduced through a Latin translation of the
original Greek romance (by the pseudo-Callisthenes) to which the
innumerable Oriental versions are likewise traceable (see ALEXANDER
III., KING OF MACEDON; sec. _The Romance of Alexander_). More important
in the West, however, was the cycle of legends gathering round the
figure of Charlemagne, forming what was known as "the matter of France."
The romances of this cycle, of Germanic (Frankish) origin and developed
probably in the north of France by the French (probably in the north of
France) contain reminiscences of the heroes of the Merovingian period,
and in their later development were influenced by the Arthurian cycle.
Just as Arthur was eclipsed by his companions, so Charlemagne's vassal
nobles, except in the _Chanson de Roland_, are exalted at the expense of
the emperor, probably the result of the changed relations between the
later emperors and their barons. The character of Charlemagne himself
undergoes a change; in the _Chanson de Roland_ he is a venerable figure,
mild and dignified, while later he appears as a cruel and typical tyrant
(as is also the case with Ermanaric). The basis of his legend is mainly
historical, although the story of his journey to Constantinople and the
East is mythical, and incidents have been transferred from the reign of
Charles Martel to his. Charlemagne is chiefly venerated as the champion
of Christianity against the heathen and the Saracens. (See CHARLEMAGNE,
_ad fin._ "The Charlemagne Legends.")

The most famous heroes who are associated with him are Roland, praefect
of the marches of Brittany, the Orlando of Ariosto, slain at Roncevaux
(Roncevalles) in the Pyrenees, and his friend and rival Oliver
(Olivier); Ogier the Dane, the Holger Danske of Hans Andersen, and Huon
of Bordeaux, probably both introduced from the Arthurian cycle; Renaud
(Rinaldo) of Montauban, one of the four sons of Aymon, to whom the
wonderful horse Bayard was presented by Charlemagne; the traitor Doon of
Mayence; Ganelon, responsible for the treachery that led to the death of
Roland; Archbishop Turpin, a typical specimen of muscular Christianity;
William Fierabras, William au court nez, William of Toulouse, and
William of Orange (all probably identical), and Vivien, the nephew of
the latter and the hero of Aliscans. The late Charlemagne romances
originated the legends, in English form, of _Sowdone of Babylone_, _Sir
Otnel_, _Sir Firumbras_ and _Huon of Bordeaux_ (in which Oberon, the
king of the fairies, the son of Julius Caesar and Morgan the Fay, was
first made known to England).

The chief remains of the Spanish heroic epic are some poems on the Cid,
on the seven Infantes of Lara, and on Fernán Gonzalez, count of Castile.
The legend of Charlemagne as told in the _Crónica general_ of Alfonso X.
created the desire for a national hero distinguished for his exploits
against the Moors, and Roland was thus supplanted by Bernardo del
Carpio. Another famous hero and centre of a 14th-century cycle of
romance was Amadis of Gaul; its earliest form is Spanish, although the
Portuguese have claimed it as a translation from their own language.
There is no trace of a French original.

_Slavonic Heroes._--The Slavonic heroic saga of Russia centres round
Vladimir of Kiev (980-1015), the first Christian ruler of that country,
whose personality is eclipsed by that of Ilya (Elias) of Mourom, the son
of a peasant, who was said to have saved the empire from the Tatars at
the urgent request of his emperor. It is not known whether he was an
historical personage; many of the achievements attributed to him border
on the miraculous. A much-discussed work is the _Tale of Igor_, the
oldest of the Russian medieval epics. Igor was the leader of a raid
against the heathen Polovtsi in 1185; at first successful, he was
afterwards defeated and taken prisoner, but finally managed to escape.
Although the Finns are not Slavs, on topographical grounds mention may
here be made of Wainamoinen, the great magician and hero of the Finnish
epic _Kalevala_ ("land of heroes"). The popular hero of the Servians and
Bulgarians is Marko Kralyevich (q.v.), son of Vukashin, characterized by
Goethe as a counterpart of the Greek Heracles and the Persian Rustem.
For the Persian, Indian, &c., heroes see the articles on the literature
and religions of the various countries.

  AUTHORITIES.--On the subject generally, see J. G. T. Grässe, _Die
  grossen Sagenkreise des Mittelalters_ (Dresden, 1842), forming part of
  his _Lehrbuch einer Literärgeschichte der berühmtesten Völker des
  Mittelalters_; W. P. Ker, _Epic and Romance_ (2nd ed., 1908).
  TEUTONIC.--B. Symons, "Germanische Heldensage" in H. Paul's _Grundris
  der germanischen Philologie_, iii. (Strassburg, 1900), 2nd revised
  edition, separately printed (_ib._, 1905); W. Grimm, _Die deutsche
  Heldensage_ (1829, 3rd ed., 1889), still one of the most important
  works; W. Müller, _Mythologie der deutschen Heldensage_ (Heilbronn,
  1886) and supplement, _Zur Mythologie der griechischen und deutschen
  Heldensage_ (_ib._, 1889); O. L. Jiriczek, _Deutsche Heldensagen_, i.
  (Strassburg, 1898) and _Die deutsche Heldensage_ (3rd revised edition,
  Leipzig, 1906); Chantepie de la Saussaye, _The Religion of the
  Teutons_ (Eng. tr., Boston, U.S.A., 1902); J. G. Robertson, _History
  of German Literature_ (1902). See also HELDENBUCH.

  CELTIC.--M. H. d'Arbois de Jubainville, _Cours de littérature
  celtique_ (12 vols., 1883-1902), one vol. trans. into English by R. I.
  Best, _The Irish Mythological Cycle and Celtic Mythology_ (1903); L.
  Petit de Julleville, _Hist. de la langue et de la litt. française_, i.
  _Moyen âge_ (1896); C. Squire, _The Mythology of the British Isles: an
  Introduction to Celtic Myth and Romance_ (1905); J. Rhys, _Celtic
  Britain_ (3rd ed., 1904). SLAVONIC.--A. N. Rambaud, _La Russie épique_
  (1876); W. Wollner, _Untersuchungen über die Volksepik der
  Grossrussen_ (1879); W. R. Morfill, _Slavonic Literature_ (1883).



HERO AND LEANDER, two lovers celebrated in antiquity. Hero, the
beautiful priestess of Aphrodite at Sestos, was seen by Leander, a youth
of Abydos, at the celebration of the festival of Aphrodite and Adonis.
He became deeply enamoured of her; but, as her position as priestess and
the opposition of her parents rendered their marriage impossible they
agreed to carry on a clandestine intercourse. Every night Hero placed a
lamp in the top of the tower where she dwelt by the sea, and Leander,
guided by it, swam across the dangerous Hellespont. One stormy night the
lamp was blown out and Leander perished. On finding his body next
morning on the shore, Hero flung herself into the waves. The story is
referred to by Virgil (_Georg._ iii. 258), Statius (_Theb._ vi. 535) and
Ovid (_Her._ xviii. and xix.). The beautiful little epic of Musaeus has
been frequently translated, and is expanded in the _Hero and Leander_ of
C. Marlowe and G. Chapman. It is also the subject of a ballad by
Schiller and a drama by F. Grillparzer.

  See M. H. Jellinek, _Die Sage von Hero und Leander in der Dichtung_
  (1890), and G. Knaack "Hero und Leander" in _Festgabe für Franz
  Susemihl_ (1898). A careful collection of materials will be found in
  F. Köppner, _Die Sage von Hero und Leander in der Literatur und Kunst
  des Altertums_ (1894).



HERO OF ALEXANDRIA, Greek geometer and writer on mechanical and physical
subjects, probably flourished in the second half of the 1st century.
This is the more modern view, in contrast to the earlier theory most
generally accepted, according to which he flourished about 100 B.C. The
earlier theory started from the superscription of one of his works,
[Greek: Hêrônos Ktêsibiou belopoiïka], from which it was inferred that
Hero was a pupil of Ctesibius. Martin, Hultsch and Cantor took this
Ctesibius to be a barber of that name who lived in the reign of Ptolemy
Euergetes II. (d. 117 B.C.) and is credited with having invented an
improved water-organ. But this identification is far from certain, as a
Ctesibius _mechanicus_ is mentioned by Athenaeus as having lived under
Ptolemy II. Philadelphus (285-247 B.C.). Nor can the relation of master
and pupil be certainly inferred from the superscription quoted (observe
the omission of any article), which really asserts no more than that
Hero re-edited an earlier treatise by Ctesibius, and implies nothing
about his being an _immediate_ predecessor. Further, it is certain that
Hero used physical and mathematical writings by Posidonius, the Stoic,
of Apamea, Cicero's teacher, who lived until about the middle of the 1st
century B.C. The positive arguments for the more modern view of Hero's
date are (1) the use by him of Latinisms from which Diels concluded that
the 1st century A.D. was the earliest possible date, (2) the description
in Hero's _Mechanics_ iii. of a small olive-press with one screw which
is alluded to by Pliny (_Nat. Hist._ viii.) as having been introduced
since A.D. 55, (3) an allusion by Plutarch (who died A.D. 120) to the
proposition that light is reflected from a surface at an angle equal to
the angle of incidence, which Hero proved in his _Catoptrica_, the words
used by Plutarch fitting well with the corresponding passage of that
work (as to which see below). Thus we arrive at the latter half of the
1st century A.D. as the approximate date of Hero's activity.

The geometrical treatises which have survived (though not interpolated)
in Greek are entitled respectively _Definitiones_, _Geometria_,
_Geodaesia_, _Stereometrica_ (i. and ii.), _Mensurae_, _Liber
Geoponicus_, to which must now be added the _Metrica_ recently
discovered by R. Schöne in a MS. at Constantinople. These books, except
the _Definitiones_, mostly consist of directions for obtaining, from
given parts, the areas or volumes, and other parts, of plane or solid
figures. A remarkable feature is the bare statement of a number of very
close approximations to the square roots of numbers which are not
complete squares. Others occur in the _Metrica_ where also a method of
finding such approximate square, and even approximate cube, roots is
shown. Hero's expressions for the areas of regular polygons of from 5 to
12 sides in terms of the squares of the sides show interesting
approximations to the values of trigonometrical ratios. Akin to the
geometrical works is that _On the Dioptra_, a remarkable book on
land-surveying, so called from the instrument described in it, which was
used for the same purposes as the modern theodolite. It is in this book
that Hero proves the expression for the area of a triangle in terms of
its sides. The _Pneumatica_ in two books is also extant in Greek as is
also the _Automatopoietica_. In the former will be found such things as
siphons, "Hero's fountain," "penny-in-the-slot" machines, a fire-engine,
a water-organ, and arrangements employing the force of steam. Pappus
quotes from three books of _Mechanics_ and from a work called
_Barulcus_, both by Hero. The three books on _Mechanics_ survive in an
Arabic translation which, however, bears a title "On the lifting of
heavy objects." This corresponds exactly to _Barulcus_, and it is
probable that _Barulcus_ and _Mechanics_ were only alternative titles
for one and the same work. It is indeed not credible that Hero wrote
two separate treatises on the subject of the mechanical powers, which
are fully discussed in the _Mechanics_, ii., iii. The _Belopoiica_ (on
engines of war) is extant in Greek, and both this and the _Mechanics_
contain Hero's solution of the problem of the two mean proportionals.
Hero also wrote _Catoptrica_ (on reflecting surfaces), and it seems
certain that we possess this in a Latin work, probably translated from
the Greek by Wilhelm van Moerbeek, which was long thought to be a
fragment of Ptolemy's _Optics_, because it bore the title _Ptolemaei de
speculis_ in the MS. But the attribution to Ptolemy was shown to be
wrong as soon as it was made clear (especially by Martin) that another
translation by an Admiral Eugenius Siculus (12th century) of an optical
work from the Arabic was Ptolemy's _Optics_. Of other treatises by Hero
only fragments remain. One was four books on _Water Clocks_ ([Greek:
Peri hydriôn horoskopeiôn]), of which Proclus (_Hypotyp. astron._, ed.
Halma) has preserved a fragment, and to which Pappus also refers.
Another work was a commentary on Euclid (referred to by the Arabs as
"the book of the resolution of doubts in Euclid") from which quotations
have survived in an-Nairizi's commentary.

  The _Pneumatica_, _Automatopoietica_, _Belopoiica_ and
  _Cheiroballistra_ of Hero were published in Greek and Latin in
  Thévenot's _Veterum mathematicorum opera graece et latine pleraque
  nunc primum edita_ (Paris, 1693); the first important critical
  researches on Hero were G. B. Venturi's _Commentari sopra la storia e
  la teoria dell'ottica_ (Bologna, 1814) and H. Martin's "Recherches sur
  la vie et les ouvrages d'Héron d'Alexandrie disciple de Ctésibius et
  sur tous les ouvrages mathématiques grecs conservés ou perdus, publiés
  ou inédits, qui ont été attribués à un auteur nommé Héron" (_Mém.
  presentés à l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres_, i. série,
  iv., 1854). The geometrical works (except of course the _Metrica_)
  were edited (Greek only) by F. Hultsch (_Heronis Alexandrini
  geometricorum et stereometricorum reliquiae_, 1864), the _Dioptra_ by
  Vincent (_Extraits des manuscrits relatifs à la géométrie pratique des
  Grecs, Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque
  Impériale_, xix. 2, 1858), the treatises on _Engines of War_ by C.
  Wescher (_Poliorcétique des Grecs_, Paris, 1867). The _Mechanics_ was
  first published by Carra de Vaux in the _Journal asiatique_ (ix.
  série, ii., 1893). In 1899 began the publication in Teubner's series
  of _Heronis Alexandrini opera quae supersunt omnia_. Vol. i. and
  Supplement (by W. Schmidt) contains the _Pneumatica_ and _Automata_,
  the fragment on _Water Clocks_, the _De ingeniis spiritualibus_ of
  Philon of Byzantium and extracts on Pneumatics by Vitruvius. Vol. ii.
  pt. i., by L. Nix and W. Schmidt, contains the _Mechanics_ in Arabic,
  Greek fragments of the same, the _Catoptrica_ in Latin with appendices
  of extracts from Olympiodorus, Vitruvius, Pliny, &c. Vol. iii. (by
  Hermann Schöne) contains the _Metrica_ (in three books) and the
  _Dioptra_. A German translation is added throughout. The approximation
  to square roots in Hero has been the subject of papers too numerous to
  mention. But reference should be made to the exhaustive studies on
  Hero's arithmetic by Paul Tannery, "L'Arithmétique des Grecs dans
  Héron d'Alexandrie" (_Mém. de la Soc. des sciences phys. et math. de
  Bordeaux_, ii. série, iv., 1882), "La Stéréométrie d'Héron
  d'Alexandrie" and "Études Héroniennes" (_ibid._ v., 1883), "Questions
  Héroniennes" (_Bulletin des sciences math._, ii. série, viii., 1884),
  "Un Fragment des Métriques d'Héron" (_Zeitschrift für Math. und
  Physik_, xxxix., 1894; _Bulletin des sciences math._, ii. série,
  xviii., 1894). A good account of Hero's works will be found in M.
  Cantor's _Geschichte der Mathematik_, i.² (1894), chapters 18 and 19,
  and in G. Loria's studies, _Le Scienze esatte nell' antica Grecia_,
  especially libro iii. (Modena, 1900), pp. 103-128.     (T. L. H.)



HERO, THE YOUNGER, the name given without any sufficient reason to a
Byzantine land-surveyor who wrote (about A.D. 938) a treatise on
land-surveying modelled on the works of Hero of Alexandria, especially
the _Dioptra_.

  See "Géodésie de Héron de Byzance," published by Vincent in _Notices
  et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothéque Impériale_, xix. 2
  (Paris, 1858), and T. H. Martin in _Mémoires présentés à l' Académie
  des Inscriptions_, 1st series, iv. (Paris, 1854).



HEROD, the name borne by the princes of a dynasty which reigned in
Judaea from 40 B.C.

HEROD (surnamed THE GREAT), the son of Antipater, who supported Hyrcanus
II. against Aristobulus II. with the aid first of the Nabataean Arabs
and then of Rome. The family seems to have been of Idumaean origin, so
that its members were liable to the reproach of being half-Jews or even
foreigners. Justin Martyr has a tradition that they were originally
Philistines of Ascalon (_Dial._ c. 52), and on the other hand Nicolaus
of Damascus (_apud_ Jos. _Ant._ xiv. 1. 3) asserted that Herod, his
royal patron, was descended from the Jews who first returned from the
Babylonian Captivity. The tradition and the assertion are in all
probability equally fictitious and proceed respectively from the foes
and the friends of the Herodian dynasty.

Antipas (or Antipater), the father of Antipater, had been governor of
Idumaea under Alexander Jannaeus. His son allied himself by marriage
with the Arabian nobility and became the real ruler of Palestine under
Hyrcanus II. When Rome intervened in Asia in the person of Pompey, the
younger Antipater realized her inevitable predominance and secured the
friendship of her representative. After the capture of Jerusalem in 63
B.C. Pompey installed Hyrcanus, who was little better than a figurehead,
in the high-priesthood; and when in 55 B.C. the son of Aristobulus
renewed the civil war in Palestine, the Roman governor of Syria in the
exercise of his jurisdiction arranged a settlement "in accordance with
the wishes of Antipater" (Jos. _Ant._ xiv. 6. 4). To this policy of
dependence upon Rome Antipater adhered, and he succeeded in commending
himself to Mark Antony and Caesar in turn. After the battle of Pharsalia
Caesar made him procurator and a Roman citizen.

At this point Herod appears on the scene as ruler of Galilee (Jos.
_Ant._ xiv. 9. 2) appointed by his father at the age of fifteen or,
since he died at seventy, twenty-five. In spite of his youth he soon
found an opportunity of displaying his mettle; for he arrested Hezekiah
the arch-brigand, who had overrun the Syrian border, and put him to
death. The Jewish nobility at Jerusalem seized upon this high-handed
action as a pretext for satisfying their jealousy of their Idumaean
rulers. Herod was cited in the name of Hyrcanus to appear before the
Sanhedrin, whose prerogative he had usurped in executing Hezekiah. He
appeared with a bodyguard, and the Sanhedrin was overawed. Only Sameas,
a Pharisee, dared to insist upon the legal verdict of condemnation. But
the governor of Syria had sent a demand for Herod's acquittal, and so
Hyrcanus adjourned the trial and persuaded the accused to abscond. Herod
returned with an army, but his father prevailed upon him to depart to
Galilee without wreaking his vengeance upon his enemies. About this time
(47-46 B.C.) he was created _strategus_ of Coelesyria by the provincial
governor. The episode is important for the light which it throws upon
Herod's relations with Rome and with the Jews.

In 44 B.C. Cassius arrived in Syria for the purpose of filling his
war-chest: Antipater and Herod collected the sum of money at which the
Jews of Palestine had been assessed. In 43 B.C. Antipater was poisoned
at the instigation of one Malichus, who was perhaps a Jewish patriot
animated by hatred of the Herods and their Roman patrons.

With the connivance of Cassius Herod had Malichus assassinated; but the
country was in a state of anarchy, thanks to the extortions of Cassius
and the encroachments of neighbouring powers. Antony, who became master
of the East after Philippi, was ready to support the sons of his friend
Antipater; but he was absent in Egypt when the Parthians invaded
Palestine to restore Antigonus to the throne of his father Aristobulus
(40 B.C.). Herod escaped to Rome: the Arabians, his mother's people, had
repudiated him. Antony had made him tetrarch, and now with the assent of
Octavian persuaded the Senate to declare him king of Judaea.

In 39 B.C. Herod returned to Palestine and, when the presence of Antony
put the reluctant Roman troops entirely at his disposal, he was able to
lay siege to Jerusalem two years later. Secure of the support of Rome he
was concerned also to legitimize his position in the eyes of the Jews by
taking, for love as well as policy, the Hasmonaean princess Mariamne to
be his second wife. Jerusalem was taken by storm; the Roman troops
withdrew to behead Antigonus the usurper at Antioch. In 37 B.C. Herod
was king of Judaea, being the client of Antony and the husband of
Mariamne.

The Pharisees, who dominated the bulk of the Jews, were content to
accept Herod's rule as a judgment of God. Hyrcanus returned from his
prison: mutilated, he could no longer hold office as high-priest; but
his mutilation probably gave him the prestige of a martyr, and his
influence--whatever it was worth--seems to have been favourable to the
new dynasty. On the other hand Herod's marriage with Mariamne brought
some of his enemies into his own household. He had scotched the faction
of Hasmonaean sympathizers by killing forty-five members of the
Sanhedrin and confiscating their possessions. But so long as there were
representatives of the family alive, there was always a possible
pretender to the throne which he occupied; and the people had not lost
their affection for their former deliverers. Mariamne's mother used her
position to further her plots for the overthrow of her son-in-law; and
she found an ally in Cleopatra of Egypt, who was unwilling to be spurned
by him, even if she was not weary of his patron, Antony.

The events of Herod's reign indicate the temporary triumphs of his
different adversaries. His high-priest, a Babylonian, was deposed in
order that Aristobulus III., Mariamne's brother, might hold the place to
which he had some ancestral right. But the enthusiasm with which the
people received him at the Feast of Tabernacles convinced Herod of the
danger; and the youth was drowned by order of the king at Jericho.
Cleopatra had obtained from Antony a grant of territory adjacent to
Herod's domain and even part of it. She required Herod to collect
arrears of tribute. So it fell out that, when Octavian and the Senate
declared war against Antony and Cleopatra, Herod was preoccupied in
obedience to her commands and was thus prevented from fighting against
the future emperor of Rome.

After the battle of Actium (31 B.C.) Herod executed Hyrcanus and
proceeded to wait upon the victorious Octavian at Rhodes. His position
was confirmed and his territories were restored. On his return he took
in hand to heal with the Hasmonaeans, and in 25 B.C. the old intriguers,
their victims like Mariamne, and all pretenders were dead. From this
time onwards Herod was free to govern Palestine, as a client-prince of
the Roman Empire should govern his kingdom. In order to put down the
brigands who still infested the country and to check the raids of the
Arabs on the frontier, he built or rebuilt fortresses, which were of
material assistance to the Jews in the great revolt against Rome. Within
and without Judaea he erected magnificent buildings and founded cities.
He established games in honour of the emperor after the ancient Greek
model in Caesarea and Jerusalem and revived the splendour of the Olympic
games. At Athens and elsewhere he was commemorated as a benefactor; and
as Jew and king of the Jews he restored the temple at Jerusalem. The
emperor recognized his successful government by putting the districts of
Ulatha and Panias under him in 20 B.C.

But Herod found new enemies among the members of his household. His
brother Pheroras and sister Salome plotted for their own advantage and
against the two sons of Mariamne. The people still cherished a loyalty
to the Hasmonaean lineage, although the young princes were also the sons
of Herod. The enthusiasm with which they were received fed the
suspicion, which their uncle instilled into their father's mind, and
they were strangled at Sebaste. On his deathbed Herod discovered that
his eldest son, Antipater, whom Josephus calls a "monster of iniquity,"
had been plotting against him. He proceeded to accuse him before the
governor of Syria and obtained leave from Augustus to put him to death.
The father died five days after his son in 4 B.C. He had done much for
the Jews, thanks to the favour he had won and kept in spite of all from
the successive heads of the Roman state; he had observed the Law
publicly--in fact, as the traditional epigram of Augustus says, "it was
better to be Herod's _swine_ than a _son_ of Herod."

  Josephus, _Ant._ xv., xvi., xvii. 1-8, _B.J._ i. 18-33; Schürer,
  _Gesch. d. jüd. Völk._, 4th ed., i. pp. 360-418.

HEROD ANTIPAS, son of Herod the Great by the Samaritan Malthace, and
full brother of Archelaus, received as his share of his father's
dominions the provinces of Galilee and Peraea, with the title of
tetrarch. Like his father, Antipas had a turn for architecture: he
rebuilt and fortified the town of Sepphoris in Galilee; he also
fortified Betharamptha in Peraea, and called it Julias after the wife of
the emperor. Above all he founded the important town of Tiberias on the
west shore of the Sea of Galilee, with institutions of a distinctly
Greek character. He reigned 4 B.C.-A.D. 39. In the gospels he is
mentioned as Herod. He it was who was called a "fox" by Christ (Luke
xiii. 32). He is erroneously spoken of as a king in Mark vi. 14. It was
to him that Jesus was sent by Pilate to be tried. But it is in connexion
with his wife Herodias that he is best known, and it was through her
that his misfortunes arose. He was married first of all to a daughter of
Aretas, the Arabian king; but, making the acquaintance of Herodias, the
wife of his brother Philip (not the tetrarch), during a visit to Rome,
he was fascinated by her and arranged to marry her. Meantime his Arabian
wife discovered the plan and escaped to her father, who made war on
Herod, and completely defeated his army. John the Baptist condemned his
marriage with Herodias, and in consequence was put to death in the way
described in the gospels and in Josephus. When Herodias's brother
Agrippa was appointed king by Caligula, she was determined to see her
husband attain to an equal eminence, and persuaded him, though naturally
of a quiet and unambitious temperament, to make the journey to Rome to
crave a crown from the emperor. Agrippa, however, managed to influence
Caligula against him. Antipas was deprived of his dominions and banished
to Lyons, Herodias voluntarily sharing his exile.

HEROD PHILIP, son of Herod the Great by Cleopatra of Jerusalem, received
the tetrarchate of Ituraea and other districts to E. and N.E. of the
Lake of Galilee, the poorest part of his father's kingdom. His subjects
were mainly Greeks or Syrians, and his coins bear the image of Augustus
or Tiberius. He is described as an excellent ruler, who loved peace and
was careful to maintain justice, and spent his time in his own
territories. He was also a builder of cities, one of which was Caesarea
Philippi, and another was Bethsaida, which he called Julias. He died
after a reign of thirty-seven years (4 B.C.-A.D. 34); and his dominions
were incorporated in the province of Syria.     (J. H. A. H.)



HERODAS (Gr. [Greek: Hêrôdas]), or HERONDAS (the name is spelt
differently in the few places where he is mentioned), Greek poet, the
author of short humorous dramatic scenes in verse, written under the
Alexandrian empire in the 3rd century B.C. Apart from the intrinsic
merit of these pieces, they are interesting in the history of Greek
literature as being a new species, illustrating Alexandrian methods.
They are called [Greek: Mimiamboi], "Mimeiambics." Mimes were the Dorian
product of South Italy and Sicily, and the most famous of them--from
which Plato is said to have studied the drawing of character--were the
work of Sophron. These were scenes in popular life, written in the
language of the people, vigorous with racy proverbs such as we get in
other reflections of that region--in Petronius and the _Pentamerone_.
Two of the best known and the most vital among the _Idylls_ of
Theocritus, the 2nd and the 15th, we know to have been derived from
mimes of Sophron. What Theocritus is doing there, Herodas, his younger
contemporary, is doing in another manner--casting old material into
novel form, upon a small scale, under strict conditions of technique.
The method is entirely Alexandrian: Sophron had written in a peculiar
kind of rhythmical prose; Theocritus uses the hexameter and Doric,
Herodas the _scazon_ or "lame" iambic (with a dragging spondee at the
end) and the old Ionic dialect with which that curious metre was
associated. That, however, hardly goes beyond the choice and form of
words; the structure of the sentences is close-knit Attic. But the
grumbling metre and quaint language suit the tone of common life which
Herodas aims at realizing; for, as Theocritus may be called idealist,
Herodas is a realist unflinching. His persons talk in vehement
exclamations and emphatic turns of speech, with proverbs and fixed
phrases; and occasionally, where it is designed as proper to the part,
with the most naked coarseness of expression.

The scene of the second and the fourth is laid at Cos, and the speaking
characters in each are never more than three. In Mime I. the old nurse,
now the professional go-between or bawd, calls on Metriche, whose
husband has been long away in Egypt, and endeavours to excite her
interest in a most desirable young man, fallen deeply in love with her
at first sight. After hearing all the arguments Metriche declines with
dignity, but consoles the old woman with an ample glass of wine, this
kind being always represented with the taste of Mrs Gamp. II. is a
monologue by the [Greek: Pornoboskos] ("Whoremonger") prosecuting a
merchant-trader for breaking into his establishment at night and
attempting to carry off one of the inmates, who is produced in court.
The vulgar blackguard, who is a stranger to any sort of shame, remarking
that he has no evidence to call, proceeds to a peroration in the regular
oratorical style, appealing to the Coan judges not to be unworthy of
their traditional glories. In fact, the whole oration is also a
burlesque in every detail of an Attic speech at law; and in this case we
have the material from which to estimate the excellence of the parody.
In III. a desperate mother brings to the schoolmaster a truant urchin,
with whom neither she nor his incapable old father can do anything. In a
voluble stream of interminable sentences she narrates his misdeeds and
implores the schoolmaster to flog him. The boy accordingly is hoisted on
another's back and flogged; but his spirit does not appear to be
subdued, and the mother resorts to the old man after all. IV. is a visit
of two poor women with an offering to the temple of Asclepius at Cos.
While the humble cock is being sacrificed, they turn, like the women in
the _Ion_ of Euripides, to admire the works of art; among them a small
boy strangling a vulpanser--doubtless the work of Boëthus that we
know--and a sacrificial procession by Apelles, "the Ephesian," of whom
we have an interesting piece of contemporary eulogy. The oily sacristan
is admirably painted in a few slight strokes. V. brings us very close to
some unpleasant facts of ancient life. The jealous woman accuses one of
her slaves, whom she has made her favourite, of infidelity; has him
bound and sent degraded through the town to receive 2000 lashes; no
sooner is he out of sight than she recalls him to be branded "at one
job." The only pleasing person in the piece is the little
maidservant--permitted liberties as a _verna_ brought up in the
house--whose ready tact suggests to her mistress an excuse for
postponing execution of a threat made in ungovernable fury. VI. is a
friendly chat or a private conversation. The subject is an ugly one, but
the dialogue is as clever and amusing as the rest, with some delicious
touches. Our interest is engaged here in a certain Kerdon, the artistic
shoemaker, to whom we are introduced in VII. (the name had already
become generic for the shoemaker as the typical representative of retail
trade), a little bald man with a fluent tongue, complaining of hard
times, who bluffs and wheedles by turns. VII. opens with a mistress
waking up her maids to listen to her dream; but we have only the
beginning, and the other fragments are very short.

Within the limits of 100 lines or less Herodas presents us with a highly
entertaining scene and with characters definitely drawn. Some of these
had been perfected no doubt upon the Attic stage, where the tendency in
the 4th century had been gradually to evolve accepted types--not
individuals, but generalizations from a class, an art in which
Menander's was esteemed the master-hand. The [Greek: Pornoboskos] and
the [Greek: Mastropos] we can piece together from succeeding literature,
and see how skilfully the established traits are indicated here. This is
achieved by true dramatic means, with touches never wasted and the more
delightful often because they do not clamour for attention. The
execution has the qualities of first-rate Alexandrian work in miniature,
such as the epigrams of Asclepiades possess, the finish and firm
outlines; and these little pictures bear the test of all artistic
work--they do not lose their freshness with familiarity, and gain in
interest as one learns to appreciate their subtle points.

  The papyrus MS., obtained from the Fayum, is in the possession of the
  British Museum, and was first printed by F. G. Kenyon in 1891.
  Editions by O. Crusius (1905, text only, in Teubner series) and J. A.
  Nairn (1904), with introduction, notes and bibliography. There is an
  English verse translation of the mimes by H. Sharpley (1906) under the
  title _A Realist of the Aegean_.     (W. G. H.)



HERODIANS ([Greek: Hêrôdianoi]), a sect or party mentioned in Scripture
as having on two occasions--once in Galilee, and again in
Jerusalem--manifested an unfriendly disposition towards Jesus (Mark iii.
6, xii. 13; Matt. xxii. 6; cf. also Mark viii. 15). In each of these
cases their name is coupled with that of the Pharisees. According to
many interpreters the courtiers or soldiers of Herod Antipas ("Milites
Herodis," Jerome) are intended; but more probably the Herodians were a
public political party, who distinguished themselves from the two great
historical parties of post-exilian Judaism by the fact that they were
and had been sincerely friendly to Herod the Great and to his dynasty
(cf. such formations as "Caesariani," "Pompeiani"). It is possible that,
to gain adherents, the Herodian party may have been in the habit of
representing that the establishment of a Herodian dynasty would be
favourable to the realization of the theocracy; and this in turn may
account for Tertullian's (_De praescr._) allegation that the Herodians
regarded Herod himself as the Messiah. The sect was called by the Rabbis
Boethusians as being friendly to the family of Boethus, whose daughter
Mariamne was one of Herod the Great's wives.     (J. H. A. H.)



HERODIANUS, Greek historian, flourished during the third century A.D. He
is supposed to have been a Syrian Greek. In 203 he was in Rome, where he
held some minor posts. He does not appear to have attained high official
rank; the statement that he was imperial procurator and legate of the
Sicilian provinces rests upon conjecture only. His historical work
([Greek: Hêrôdianou tês meta Markon basileias historiôn biblia oktô])
narrates the events of the fifty-eight years between the death of Marcus
Aurelius and the proclamation of Gordianus III. (180-238). The narrative
is of special value as supplementing Dion Cassius, whose history ends
with Alexander Severus. His work has the value that attaches to a record
written by one chronicling the events of his own times, gifted with
ordinary powers of observation, indubitable candour and independence of
view. But while he gives a lively account of external events--such as
the death of Commodus and the assassination of Pertinax--the barbarian
invasions, the spread of Christianity, the extension of the franchise by
Caracalla are unnoticed. The dates are often wrong, and little attention
is paid to geographical details, which makes the narrative of military
expeditions beyond the borders of the empire difficult to understand.
Herodian has been accused of prejudice against Alexander Severus. His
style, modelled on that of Thucydides and unreservedly praised by
Photius, is on the whole pure, though somewhat rhetorical and showing a
fondness for Latinisms.

  Extensive use has been made of Herodianus by later chroniclers,
  especially the "Scriptores historiae Augustae" and John of Antioch.
  His history was first translated into Latin at the end of the 15th
  century by Politian. The most complete edition is by G. W. Irmisch
  (1789-1805), with elaborate indices, but the notes are very diffuse;
  critical editions by I. Bekker (1855), L. Mendelssohn (1883); see also
  C. Dändliker.



HERODIANUS, AELIUS, called [Greek: ho technikos], Alexandrian
grammarian, flourished in the 2nd century A.D. He early took up his
residence at Rome, where he enjoyed the patronage of Marcus Aurelius
(161-180), to whom he dedicated his great treatise on prosody. This work
in twenty-one books ([Greek: Katholikê prosôdia]) included also an
account of the etymological part of grammar. The work itself is lost,
but several epitomes of it have been preserved. His [Greek:
Hepimerismoi] dealt with difficult words and peculiar forms in Homer.
Herodianus also wrote numerous grammatical treatises, of which only one
has come down to us in a complete form ([Greek: Perí monêrous lexeôs],
on peculiar style), articles on exceptional or anomalous words. Numerous
quotations and fragments still exist, chiefly in the Homeric scholiasts
and Stephanus of Byzantium. Herodianus enjoyed a great reputation as a
grammarian, and Priscian styles him "maximus auctor artis grammaticae."

  The best edition is by A. Lentz, _Herodiani. Technici reliquiae_
  (1867-1870); a supplementary volume is included in Uhling's _Corpus
  grammaticorum Graecorum_; for further bibliographical information see
  W. Christ, _Geschichte der griechischen Literatur_ (1898).



HERODOTUS (c. 484-425 B.C.), Greek historian, called the Father of
History, was born at Halicarnassus in Asia Minor, then dependent upon
the Persians, in or about the year 484 B.C. Herodotus was thus born a
Persian subject, and such he continued until he was thirty or
five-and-thirty years of age. At the time of his birth Halicarnassus was
under the rule of a queen Artemisia (q.v.). The year of her death is
unknown; but she left her crown to her son Pisindelis (born about 498
B.C.), who was succeeded upon the throne by his son Lygdamis about the
time that Herodotus grew to manhood. The family of Herodotus belonged to
the upper rank of the citizens. His father was named Lyxes, and his
mother Rhaeo, or Dryo. He had a brother Theodore, and an uncle or cousin
Panyasis (q.v.), the epic poet, a personage of so much importance that
the tyrant Lygdamis, suspecting him of treasonable projects, put him to
death. It is probable that Herodotus shared his relative's political
opinions, and either was exiled from Halicarnassus or quitted it
voluntarily at the time of his execution.

Of the education of Herodotus no more can be said than that it was
thoroughly Greek, and embraced no doubt the three subjects essential to
a Greek liberal education--grammar, gymnastic training and music. His
studies would be regarded as completed when he attained the age of
eighteen, and took rank among the _ephebi_ or _eirenes_ of his native
city. In a free Greek state he would at once have begun his duties as a
citizen, and found therein sufficient employment for his growing
energies. But in a city ruled by a tyrant this outlet was wanting; no
political life worthy of the name existed. Herodotus may thus have had
his thoughts turned to literature as furnishing a not unsatisfactory
career, and may well have been encouraged in his choice by the example
of Panyasis, who had already gained a reputation by his writings when
Herodotus was still an infant. At any rate it is clear from the extant
work of Herodotus that he must have devoted himself early to the
literary life, and commenced that extensive course of reading which
renders him one of the most instructive as well as one of the most
charming of ancient writers. The poetical literature of Greece was
already large; the prose literature was more extensive than is generally
supposed; yet Herodotus shows an intimate acquaintance with the whole of
it. The _Iliad_ and the _Odyssey_ are as familiar to him as Shakespeare
to the educated Englishman. He is acquainted with the poems of the epic
cycle, the _Cypria_, the _Epigoni_, &c. He quotes or otherwise shows
familiarity with the writings of Hesiod, Olen, Musaeus, Bacis,
Lysistratus, Archilochus of Paros, Alcaeus, Sappho, Solon, Aesop,
Aristeas of Proconnesus, Simonides of Ceos, Phrynichus, Aeschylus and
Pindar. He quotes and criticizes Hecataeus, the best of the prose
writers who had preceded him, and makes numerous allusions to other
authors of the same class.

It must not, however, be supposed that he was at any time a mere
student. It is probable that from an early age his inquiring disposition
led him to engage in travels, both in Greece and in foreign countries.
He traversed Asia Minor and European Greece probably more than once; he
visited all the most important islands of the Archipelago--Rhodes,
Cyprus, Delos, Paros, Thasos, Samothrace, Crete, Samos, Cythera and
Aegina. He undertook the long and perilous journey from Sardis to the
Persian capital Susa, visited Babylon, Colchis, and the western shores
of the Black Sea as far as the estuary of the Dnieper; he travelled in
Scythia and in Thrace, visited Zante and Magna Graecia, explored the
antiquities of Tyre, coasted along the shores of Palestine, saw Gaza,
and made a long stay in Egypt. At the most moderate estimate, his
travels covered a space of thirty-one degrees of longitude, or 1700
miles, and twenty-four of latitude, or nearly the same distance. At all
the more interesting sites he took up his abode for a time; he examined,
he inquired, he made measurements, he accumulated materials. Having in
his mind the scheme of his great work, he gave ample time to the
elaboration of all its parts, and took care to obtain by personal
observation a full knowledge of the various countries.

The travels of Herodotus seem to have been chiefly accomplished between
his twentieth and his thirty-seventh year (464-447 B.C.).[1] It was
probably in his early manhood that as a Persian subject he visited Susa
and Babylon, taking advantage of the Persian system of posts which he
describes in his fifth book. His residence in Egypt must, on the other
hand, have been subsequent to 460 B.C., since he saw the skulls of the
Persians slain by Inarus in that year. Skulls are rarely visible on a
battlefield for more than two or three seasons after the fight, and we
may therefore presume that it was during the reign of Inarus (460-454
B.C.),[2] when the Athenians had great authority in Egypt, that he
visited the country, making himself known as a learned Greek, and
therefore receiving favour and attention on the part of the Egyptians,
who were so much beholden to his countrymen (see ATHENS, CIMON,
PERICLES). On his return from Egypt, as he proceeded along the Syrian
shore, he seems to have landed at Tyre, and from thence to have gone to
Thasos. His Scythian travels are thought to have taken place prior to
450 B.C.

It is a question of some interest from what centre or centres these
various expeditions were made. Up to the time of the execution of
Panyasis, which is placed by chronologists in or about the year 457
B.C., there is every reason to believe that Herodotus lived at
Halicarnassus. His travels in Asia Minor, in European Greece, and among
the islands of the Aegean, probably belong to this period, as also his
journey to Susa and Babylon. We are told that when he quitted
Halicarnassus on account of the tyranny of Lygdamis, in or about the
year 457 B.C., he took up his abode in Samos. That island was an
important member of the Athenian confederacy, and in making it his home
Herodotus would have put himself under the protection of Athens. The
fact that Egypt was then largely under Athenian influence (see CIMON,
PERICLES) may have induced him to proceed, in 457 or 456 B.C., to that
country. The stories that he had heard in Egypt of Sesostris may then
have stimulated him to make voyages from Samos to Colchis, Scythia and
Thrace. He was thus acquainted with almost all the regions which were to
be the scene of his projected history.

After Herodotus had resided for some seven or eight years in Samos,
events occurred in his native city which induced him to return thither.
The tyranny of Lygdamis had gone from bad to worse, and at last he was
expelled. According to Suidas, Herodotus was himself an actor, and
indeed the chief actor, in the rebellion against him; but no other
author confirms this statement, which is intrinsically improbable. It is
certain, however, that Halicarnassus became henceforward a voluntary
member of the Athenian confederacy. Herodotus would now naturally return
to his native city, and enter upon the enjoyment of those rights of free
citizenship on which every Greek set a high value. He would also, if he
had by this time composed his history, or any considerable portion of
it, begin to make it known by recitation among his friends. There is
reason to believe that these first attempts were not received with much
favour, and that it was in chagrin at his failure that he precipitately
withdrew from his native town, and sought a refuge in Greece proper
(about 447 B.C.).[3] We learn that Athens was the place to which he
went, and that he appealed from the verdict of his countrymen to
Athenian taste and judgment. His work won such approval that in the year
445 B.C., on the proposition of a certain Anytus, he was voted a sum of
ten talents (£2400) by decree of the people. At one of the recitations,
it was said, the future historian Thucydides was present with his
father, Olorus, and was so moved that he burst into tears, whereupon
Herodotus remarked to the father--"Olorus, your son has a natural
enthusiasm for letters."[4]

Athens was at this time the centre of intellectual life, and could boast
an almost unique galaxy of talent--Pericles, Thucydides the son of
Melesias, Aspasia, Antiphon, the musician Damon, Pheidias, Protagoras,
Zeno, Cratinus, Crates, Euripides and Sophocles. Accepted into this
brilliant society, on familiar terms with all probably, as he certainly
was with Olorus, Thucydides and Sophocles, he must have been tempted,
like many another foreigner, to make Athens his permanent home. It is to
his credit that he did not yield to this temptation. At Athens he must
have been a dilettante, an idler, without political rights or duties. As
such he would have soon ceased to be respected in a society where
literature was not recognized as a separate profession, where a Socrates
served in the infantry, a Sophocles commanded fleets, a Thucydides was
general of an army, and an Antiphon was for a time at the head of the
state. Men were not men according to Greek notions unless they were
citizens; and Herodotus, aware of this, probably sharing in the feeling,
was anxious, having lost his political status at Halicarnassus, to
obtain such status elsewhere. At Athens the franchise, jealously guarded
at this period, was not to be attained without great expense and
difficulty. Accordingly, in the spring of the following year he sailed
from Athens with the colonists who went out to found the colony of
Thurii (see PERICLES), and became a citizen of the new town.

From this point of his career, when he had reached the age of forty, we
lose sight of him almost wholly. He seems to have made but few journeys,
one to Crotona, one to Metapontum, and one to Athens (about 430 B.C.)
being all that his work indicates.[5] No doubt he was employed mainly,
as Pliny testifies, in retouching and elaborating his general history.
He may also have composed at Thurii that special work on the history of
Assyria to which he twice refers in his first book, and which is quoted
by Aristotle. It has been supposed by many that he lived to a great age,
and argued that "the never-to-be-mistaken fundamental tone of his
performance is the quiet talkativeness of a highly cultivated, tolerant,
intelligent, _old_ man" (Dahlmann). But the indications derived from the
later touches added to his work, which form the sole evidence on the
subject, would rather lead to the conclusion that his life was not very
prolonged. There is nothing in the nine books which may not have been
written as early as 430 B.C.; there is no touch which, even probably,
points to a later date than 424 B.C. As the author was evidently engaged
in polishing his work to the last, and even promises touches which he
does not give, we may assume that he did not much outlive the date last
mentioned, or in other words, that he died at about the age of sixty.
The predominant voice of antiquity tells us that he died at Thurii,
where his tomb was shown in later ages.

_The History._--In estimating the great work of Herodotus, and his
genius as its author, it is above all things necessary to conceive
aright what that work was intended to be. It has been called "a
universal history," "a history of the wars between the Greeks and the
barbarians," and "a history of the struggle between Greece and Persia."
But these titles are all of them too comprehensive. Herodotus, who omits
wholly the histories of Phoenicia, Carthage and Etruria, three of the
most important among the states existing in his day, cannot have
intended to compose a "universal history," the very idea of which
belongs to a later age. He speaks in places as if his object was to
record the wars between the Greeks and the barbarians; but as he omits
the Trojan war, in which he fully believes, the expedition of the
Teucrians and Mysians against Thrace and Thessaly, the wars connected
with the Ionian colonization of Asia Minor and others, it is evident
that he does not really aim at embracing in his narrative all the wars
between Greeks and barbarians with which he was acquainted. Nor does it
even seem to have been his object to give an account of the entire
struggle between Greece and Persia. That struggle was not terminated by
the battle of Mycale and the capture of Sestos in 479 B.C. It continued
for thirty years longer, to the peace of Callias (but see CALLIAS and
CIMON). The fact that Herodotus ends his history where he does shows
distinctly that his intention was, not to give an account of the entire
long contest between the two countries, but to write the history of a
particular war--the great Persian war of invasion. His aim was as
definite as that of Thucydides, or Schiller, or Napier or any other
writer who has made his subject a particular war; only he determined to
treat it in a certain way. Every partial history requires an
"introduction"; Herodotus, untrammelled by examples, resolved to give
his history a magnificent introduction. Thucydides is content with a
single introductory book, forming little more than one-eighth of his
work; Herodotus has six such books, forming two-thirds of the entire
composition.

By this arrangement he is enabled to treat his subject in the _grand_
way, which is so characteristic of him. Making it his main object in his
"introduction" to set before his readers the previous history of the two
nations who were the actors in the great war, he is able in tracing
their history to bring into his narrative some account of almost all the
nations of the known world, and has room to expatiate freely upon their
geography, antiquities, manners and customs and the like, thus giving
his work a "universal" character, and securing for it, without trenching
upon unity, that variety, richness and fulness which are a principal
charm of the best histories, and of none more than his. In tracing the
growth of Persia from a petty subject kingdom to a vast dominant empire,
he has occasion to set out the histories of Lydia, Media, Assyria,
Babylon, Egypt, Scythia, Thrace, and to describe the countries and the
peoples inhabiting them, their natural productions, climate,
geographical position, monuments, &c.; while, in noting the
contemporaneous changes in Greece, he is led to tell of the various
migrations of the Greek race, their colonies, commerce, progress in the
arts, revolutions, internal struggles, wars with one another,
legislation, religious tenets and the like. The greatest variety of
episodical matter is thus introduced; but the propriety of the occasion
and the mode of introduction are such that no complaint can be made; the
episodes never entangle, encumber or even unpleasantly interrupt the
main narrative.

It has been questioned, both in ancient and in modern times, whether the
history of Herodotus possesses the essential requisite of
trustworthiness. Several ancient writers accuse him of intentional
untruthfulness. Moderns generally acquit him of this charge; but his
severer critics still urge that, from the inherent defects of his
character, his credulity, his love of effect and his loose and
inaccurate habits of thought, he was unfitted for the historian's
office, and has produced a work of but small historical value. Perhaps
it may be sufficient to remark that the defects in question certainly
exist, and detract to some extent from the authority of the work, more
especially of those parts of it which deal with remoter periods, and
were taken by Herodotus on trust from his informants, but that they only
slightly affect the portions which treat of later times and form the
special subject of his history. In confirmation of this view, it may be
noted that the authority of Herodotus for the circumstances of the great
Persian war, and for all local and other details which come under his
immediate notice, is accepted by even the most sceptical of modern
historians, and forms the basis of their narratives.

Among the merits of Herodotus as an historian, the most prominent are
the diligence with which he collected his materials, the candour and
impartiality with which he has placed his facts before the reader, the
absence of party bias and undue national vanity, and the breadth of his
conception of the historian's office. On the other hand, he has no claim
to rank as a critical historian; he has no conception of the philosophy
of history, no insight into the real causes that underlie political
changes, no power of penetrating below the surface, or even of grasping
the real interconnexion of the events which he describes. He belongs
distinctly to the romantic school; his forte is vivid and picturesque
description, the lively presentation of scenes and actions, characters
and states of society, not the subtle analysis of motives, the power of
detecting the undercurrents or the generalizing faculty.

But it is as a writer that the merits of Herodotus are most
conspicuous. "O that I were in a condition," says Lucian, "to resemble
Herodotus, if only in some measure! I by no means say in all his gifts,
but only in some single point; as, for instance, the beauty of his
language, or its harmony, or the natural and peculiar grace of the Ionic
dialect, or his fulness of thought, or by whatever name those thousand
beauties are called which to the despair of his imitator are united in
him." Cicero calls his style "copious and polished," Quintilian, "sweet,
pure and flowing"; Longinus says he was "the most Homeric of
historians"; Dionysius, his countryman, prefers him to Thucydides, and
regards him as combining in an extraordinary degree the excellences of
sublimity, beauty and the true historical method of composition. Modern
writers are almost equally complimentary. "The style of Herodotus," says
one, "is universally allowed to be remarkable for its harmony and
sweetness." "The charm of his style," argues another, "has so dazzled
men as to make them blind to his defects." Various attempts have been
made to analyse the charm which is so universally felt; but it may be
doubted whether any of them are very successful. All, however, seem to
agree that among the qualities for which the style of Herodotus is to be
admired are simplicity, freshness, naturalness and harmony of rhythm.
Master of a form of language peculiarly sweet and euphonical, and
possessed of a delicate ear which instinctively suggested the most
musical arrangement possible, he gives his sentences, without art or
effort, the most agreeable flow, is never abrupt, never too diffuse,
much less prolix or wearisome, and being himself simple, fresh, _naif_
(if we may use the word), honest and somewhat quaint, he delights us by
combining with this melody of sound simple, clear and fresh thoughts,
perspicuously expressed, often accompanied by happy turns of phrase, and
always manifestly the spontaneous growth of his own fresh and
unsophisticated mind. Reminding us in some respects of the quaint
medieval writers, Froissart and Philippe de Comines, he greatly excels
them, at once in the beauty of his language and the art with which he
has combined his heterogeneous materials into a single perfect
harmonious whole. See also GREECE, section _History_, "Authorities."

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The history of Herodotus has been translated by many
  persons and into many languages. About 1450, at the time of the
  revival of learning, a Latin version was made and published by
  Laurentius Valla. This was revised in 1537 by Heusbach, and
  accompanies the Greek text of Herodotus in many editions. The first
  complete translation into a modern language was the English one of
  Littlebury, published in 1737. This was followed In 1786 by the French
  translation of Larcher, a valuable work, accompanied by copious notes
  and essays. Beloe, the second English translator, based his work on
  that of Larcher. His first edition, in 1791, was confessedly very
  defective; the second, in 1806, still left much to be desired. A good
  German translation, but without note or comment, was brought out by
  Friedrich Lange at Berlin in 1811. Andrea Mustoxidi, a native of
  Corfu, published an Italian version in 1820. In 1822 Auguste Miot
  endeavoured to improve on Larcher; and in 1828-1832 Dr Adolf Schöll
  brought out a German translation with copious notes (new ed., 1855),
  which has to some extent superseded the work of Lange. About the same
  time a new English version was made by Isaac Taylor (London, 1829). In
  1858-1860, the history of Herodotus was translated by Canon G.
  Rawlinson, assisted in the copious notes and appendices accompanying
  the work by Sir Gardner Wilkinson and Sir Henry Rawlinson. More
  recently we have translations in English by G. C. Macaulay (2 vols.,
  1890); in German by Bähr (Stuttgart, 1867) and Stein (Oldenburg,
  1875); in French by Giguet (1857) and Talbot (1864); in Italian by
  Ricci (Turin, 1871-1876), Grandi (Asti, 1872) and Bertini (Naples,
  1871-1872). A Swedish translation by F. Carlstadt was published at
  Stockholm in 1871.

  The best of the older editions of the Greek text are the
  following:--_Herodoti historiae_, ed. Schweighäuser (5 vols.,
  Strassburg, 1816); _Herodoti Halicarnassei historiarum libri IX._ (ed.
  Gaisford, Oxford, 1840); _Herodotus, with a Commentary_, by J. W.
  Blakesley (2 vols. London, 1854); _Herodoti musae_ (ed. Bähr, 4 vols.,
  Leipzig, 1856-1861, 2nd ed.); and _Herodoti historiae_ (ed. Abicht,
  Leipzig, 1869).

  The most recent editions of the text, or of portions of it, with and
  without commentaries are the following:--H. Stein, _Herodoti
  Historiae_ (ed. Major, 2 vols., Berlin, 1869-1871, with _apparatus
  criticus_; still the best edition of the text); H. Kellenberg,
  _Historiarum libri IX._ (2 vols., Leipzig, 1887); van Herwerden,
  [Greek: Historiai] (Leiden, 1885); H. Stein, _Herodotus, erklärt_
  (Berlin, 1856-1861, and several editions since; the best short
  commentary and introduction); A. H. Sayce, _The Ancient Empires of the
  East, Herodotus I.-III., with introductions and appendices_ (1883; an
  attempt to prove the unveracity of Herodotus, especially in regard to
  the extent of his travels, which has found little support amongst more
  recent English or German writers); R. W. Macan, _Herodotus IV.-VI._ (2
  vols., 1895) and _Herodotus VII.-IX._ (2 vols., 1908), with exhaustive
  introduction, appendices and notes; the only scientific edition of
  these books in English; E. Abbott, _Herodotus V. and VI._ (Oxford,
  1893); A. Wiedemann, _Herodots zweites Buch mit sachlichen
  Bemerkungen_ (Leipzig, 1890; the best and fullest commentary on book
  ii.).

  Among works of value illustrative of Herodotus may be mentioned
  Bouhier, _Recherches sur Hérodote_ (Dijon, 1746); Rennell, _Geography
  of Herodotus_ (London, 1800); Niebuhr, _Geography of Herodotus and
  Scythia_ (Eng. trans., Oxford, 1830); Dahlmann, _Herodot, aus seinem
  Buche sein Leben_ (Altona, 1823); Eltz, _Quaestiones Herodoteae_
  (Leipzig, 1841); Kenrick, _Egypt of Herodotus_ (London, 1841); Mure,
  _Literature of Greece_, vol. iv. (London, 1852); Abicht, _Übersicht
  über den Herodoteischen Dialekt_ (Leipzig, 1869, 3rd ed., 1874), and
  _De codicum Herodoti fide ac auctoritate_ (Naumburg, 1869); Melander,
  _De anacoluthis Herodoteis_ (Lund, 1869); Matzat, "Über die
  Glaubenswürdigkeit der geograph. Angaben Herodots über Asien," in
  _Hermes_, vi.; Büdinger, _Zur ägyptischen Forschung Herodots_ (Vienna,
  1873, reprinted from the _Sitzungsber._ of the Vienna Acad.);
  Merzdorf, _Quaestiones grammaticae de dialecto Herodotea_ (Leipzig,
  1875); A. Kirchhoff, _Über die Entstehungszeit des Herodotischen
  Geschichtswerkes_ (Berlin, 1878); Adolf Bauer, _Herodots Biographie_
  (Vienna, 1878); H. Delbrück, _Perser und Burgunderkriege_ (Berlin,
  1887; of great importance for the criticism of the Persian Wars); N.
  Wecklein, _Über die Tradition der Perserkriege_ (Munich, 1876); A.
  Hauvette-Besnault, _Hérodote historien des guerres médiques_ (Paris,
  1894); J. A. R. Munro, _Some Observations on the Persian Wars_ (in
  various vols. of the _Journal of Hellenic Studies_; acute and
  suggestive); G. B. Grundy, _The Great Persian War_ (London, 1901); J.
  P. Mahaffy, _History of Greek Classical Literature_, ii. 16 ff.
  (London, 1880); E. Meyer, _Forschungen zur alten Geschichte_, i. 151
  ff., and ii. 196 ff. (Halle, 1892-1899); Busolt, _Griechische
  Geschichte_, ii. 602 ff. (2nd ed., Gotha, 1895); J. B. Bury, _Ancient
  Greek Historians_ (1908), lecture 2. For notices of current literature
  see Bursian's _Jahresbericht_. Students of the original may also
  consult with advantage the lexicons of Aemilius Portus (Oxford, 1817)
  and of Schweighäuser (London, 1824). On Herodotus' debt to Hecataeus
  see Wells, in _Journ. Hell. Stud._, 1909, pt. i.     (G. R.; E. M. W.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The date of his travels is difficult to determine. E. Meyer
    inclines to put all the longer journeys, except the Scythian, between
    440 and 430 B.C. The journey to Susa and Babylon is put by C. F.
    Lehmann c. 450 B.C., and by H. Stein before 450.

  [2] Most recent critics (e.g. Stein, Meyer, Busolt) put the visit to
    Egypt after the suppression of the revolt under Inarus and Amyrtaeus
    (i.e. after 449 B.C.), on the strength of Herod. 2. 30, which implies
    the restoration of Persian authority.

  [3] Stein, Meyer, Busolt, and other recent writers attribute his
    departure from Halicarnassus to political causes, e.g. the ascendancy
    of the anti-Athenian party in the state.

  [4] This story is on chronological grounds rejected by all recent
    critics.

  [5] Opinion is divided as to this visit to Athens after his
    settlement at Thurii. Stein, Meyer and Busolt hold that much of his
    work (especially the later books) was composed at Athens soon after
    430 B.C. See further Wachsmuth, _Rheinisches Museum_, lvi. (1901)
    215-218. Macan, _Herodotus_ VII.-IX. (_Introduction_, pp.
    xlv.-lxvi.), seeks to prove that the last three books were the first
    part of the _Histories_ to be composed. He is followed in this view
    by Bury.



HÉROET, ANTOINE, surnamed LA MAISON-NEUVE (d. 1568), French poet, was
born in Paris of a family connected with the famous chancellor, François
Olivier. His poetry belongs to his early years, for after he had taken
orders he ceased to write profane poetry, no doubt because he considered
it out of keeping with his calling, in which he attained the dignity of
bishop of Digue. His chief work is _La Parfaicte Amye_ (Lyons, 1542) in
which he developed the idea of a purely spiritual love, based chiefly on
the reading of the Italian Neo-Platonists. The book aroused great
controversy. La Borderie replied in _L'Amye de cour_ with a description
of a very much more human woman, and Charles Fontaine contributed a
_Contr' amye de cour_ to the dispute. Héroet, in addition to some
translations from the classics, wrote the _Complainte d'une dame
nouvellement surprise d'amour_, an _Épistre a François I^er_, and some
pieces included in the now very rare _Opuscules d'amour par Héroet, La
Borderie et autres divins poëtes_ (Lyons, 1547). Héroet belongs to the
Lyonnese school of which Maurice Scève may be regarded as the leader.
Clément Marot praises him, and Ronsard was careful to exempt him with
one or two others from the scorn he poured on his immediate
predecessors.

  See H. F. Cary, _The Early French Poets_ (1846).



HEROIC ROMANCES, the name by which is distinguished a class of
imaginative literature which flourished in the 17th century, principally
in France. The beginnings of modern fiction in that country took a
pseudo-bucolic form, and the celebrated _Astrée_ (1610) of Honoré d'Urfé
(1568-1625), which is the earliest French novel, is properly styled a
pastoral. But this ingenious and diffuse production, in which all is
artificial, was the source of a vast literature, which took many and
diverse forms. Although its action was, in the main, languid and
sentimental, there was a side of the _Astrée_ which encouraged that
extravagant love of glory, that spirit of "panache," which was now
rising to its height in France. That spirit it was which animated Marin
le Roy, sieur de Gomberville (1600-1674), who was the inventor of what
have since been known as the Heroical Romances. In these there was
experienced a violent recrudescence of the old medieval elements of
romance, the impossible valour devoted to a pursuit of the impossible
beauty, but the whole clothed in the language and feeling and atmosphere
of the age in which the books were written. In order to give point to
the chivalrous actions of the heroes, it was always hinted that they
were well-known public characters of the day in a romantic disguise.

In the _Astrée_ of Honoré d'Urfé, which was a pure pastoral, in the
religious romances of Pierre Camus (1582-1653), in the comic _Francion_
of Charles Sorel, piquancy had been given to the recital by this belief
that real personages could be recognized under the disguises. But in the
_Carithée_ of Gomberville (1621) we have a pastoral which is already
beginning to be a heroic romance, and a book in which, under a travesty
of Roman history, an appeal is made to an extravagantly chivalrous
enthusiasm. A further development was seen in the _Polyxène_ (1623) of
François de Molière, and the _Endymion_ (1624) of Gombauld; in the
latter the elderly queen, Marie de' Medici, was celebrated under the
disguise of Diana, for whom a beautiful shepherd of Caria (the author
himself) nourishes a hopeless passion. The earliest of the Heroic
Romances, pure and simple, is, however, the celebrated _Polexandre_
(1629) of Gomberville. The author began by intending his hero to
represent Louis XIII., but he changed his mind, and drew a portrait of
Cardinal Richelieu. In this novel, for the first time, the romantic
character proper to this class of books is seen undiluted; there is no
intrusion of a personage who is not celebrated for his birth, his beauty
or his exploits. The story deals with the adventures of a hero who
visits all the sea-coasts of the world, the most remote as well as the
most fabulous, in search of an ineffable princess, Alcidiane. This
absurd and pretentious, yet very original piece of invention enjoyed an
immense success, and historical romances of a similar class competed for
the favour of the public. There was an equal amount of geography and
more of ancient history in the _Ariane_ (1632) of Desmarets de
Saint-Sorlin (1595-1676), a book which, long neglected, has in late
years been rediscovered, and which has been greeted by M. Paul Morillot
as the most readable and the least tiresome of all the Heroic Romances.
The type of that class of literature, however, has always been found in
the highly elaborate writings of Gauthier de Coste de la Calprenède
(1609-1663), which enjoyed for a time a prodigious celebrity, and were
read and imitated all over Europe. La Calprenède was a Gascon soldier,
imbued with all the extravagance of his race, and in full sympathy with
the audacity and violence of the aristocratic society of France in his
day. His _Cassandre_, which appeared in ten volumes between 1642 and
1645, is perhaps the most characteristic of all the Heroic Romances. It
deals with a highly romantic epoch of ancient history, the decline of
the empire of Alexander the Great. The wars of the Persians and of the
Scythians are introduced, and among the characters are discovered such
personages as Artaxerxes, Roxana and Ephestion. It must not be supposed,
however, that la Calprenède makes the smallest effort to deal with the
subject accurately or realistically. The figures are those of his own
day; they are seigneurs and great ladies of the court of Louis XIII.,
masquerading in Macedonian raiment. The passion of love is dominant
throughout, and it is treated in the most exalted and hyperbolical
spirit. The central heroes of the story, Oroondate and Lysimachus, are
dignified, eloquent and amorous; they undergo unexampled privations in
the quest of incomparable ladies whose beauty and whose nobility is only
equalled by their magnificent loyalty. These books were written with an
aim that was partly didactic. Their object was to entertain the ladies
and to gratify a taste for endlessly wire-drawn sentimentality, but it
was also to teach fortitude and grandeur of soul and to inculcate
lessons of practical chivalry. La Calprenède followed up the success of
his _Cassandre_ with a _Cléopâtre_ (1647) in twelve volumes, and a
_Faramond_ (1661) which he did not live to finish. He became more
extravagant, more rhapsodical as he proceeded, and he lost all the
little hold on history which he had ever held. _Cléopâtre_,
nevertheless, enjoyed a prodigious popularity, and it became the fashion
to emulate as far as possible the prowess of its magnificent hero, the
proud Artaban. It should be said that la Calprenède objected to his
books being styled romances, and insisted that they were specimens of
"history embellished with certain inventions." He may, in opposition to
his wishes, claim the doubtful praise of being, in reality, the creator
of the modern historical novel. He was immediately imitated or
accompanied by a large number of authors, of whom two have achieved a
certain immortality, which, unhappily, must be confessed to be partly of
ridicule. The vogue of the historical romance was carried to its height
by a brother and a sister, Georges de Scudéry (1601-1667) and Madeleine
de Scudéry (1608-1701), who represented in their own persons all the
extravagant, tempestuous and absurd elements of the age, and whose
elephantine romances remain as portents in the history of literature.
These novels--there are five of them--were signed by Georges de Scudéry,
but it is believed that all were in the main written by Madeleine. The
earliest was _Ibrahim, ou l'Illustre Bassa_ (1641); it was followed by
_Le Grand Cyrus_ (1648-1653) and the final, and most preposterous member
of the series was _Clélie_ (1649-1654). The romances of Mlle de Scudéry
(for to her we may safely attribute them) are much inferior in style to
those of la Calprenède. They are pretentious, affected and sickly. The
author abuses the element of analysis, and pushes a psychology, which
was beyond the age in penetration, to a wearisome and excessive extent.
Nothing, it is probable, in the whole evolution of the Historical
Romances has attracted so much attention as the "Carte de Tendre" which
occurs in the opening book of _Clélie_. This celebrated map, drawn by
the heroine in order to show the route from New Friendship to Tender,
and a geographical symbol, therefore, of the progress of love, with its
city of Tender-upon-Esteem, its sea of Enmity, its river of Inclination,
its rock-built citadel of Pride, its cold lake of Indifference, is a
miracle of elaborate and incongruous ingenuity. But, amusing as it is,
it shows into what depths of puerility the amorous casuistry of these
romances had fallen. These novels formed the chief topic of conversation
and of correspondence in the literary society which gathered at and
around the Hotel de Rambouillet, and in the personages of Mlle de
Scudéry's romances could be recognized all the famous leaders of that
society. The mawkish love-making and the false heroism of these
monstrous novels went rapidly out of fashion in France soon after 1660,
when the epoch of the Heroic Romance came to an end. In England the
Heroic Romance had a period of flourishing popularity. All the principal
French examples were very promptly translated, and "he was not to be
admitted into the academy of wit who had not read _Astrea_ and _The
Grand Cyrus_." The great vogue of these books in England lasted from
about 1645 to 1660. It led, of course, to the composition of original
works in imitation of the French. The most remarkable and successful of
these was _Parthenissa_, published in 1654 by Roger Boyle, Lord Broghill
and afterwards Earl of Orrery (1621-1679), which was greatly admired by
Dorothy Osborne and her correspondents. Addison speaks in the
"Spectator" of the popularity of all these huge books, "the _Grand
Cyrus_, with a pin stuck in one of the middle leaves, _Clélie_, which
opened of itself in the place that describes two lovers in a bower."
When the drama, and in particular tragedy, was reinstituted in England,
sentimental readers found a field for their emotions on the stage, and
the heroic romances immediately began to go out of fashion. They
lingered, however, for a quarter of a century more, and M. Jusserand has
analysed what may be considered the very latest of the race, _Pandion
and Amphigenia_, published in 1665 by the dramatist, John Crowne.

  See Gordon de Percel, _De l'usage des romans_ (1734); André Le Breton,
  _Le Roman au XVII^e siècle_ (1890); Paul Morillot, _Le Roman en France
  depuis 1610_ (1894); J. J. Jusserand, _Le Roman anglais au XVII^e
  siècle_ (1888).     (E. G.)



HEROIC VERSE, a term exclusively used in English to Indicate the rhymed
iambic line or HEROIC COUPLET. In ancient literature, the heroic verse,
[Greek: hêrôikon metron], was synonymous with the dactylic hexameter. It
was in this measure that those typically heroic poems, the _Iliad_ and
_Odyssey_ and the _Aeneid_ were written. In English, however, it was
not enough to designate a single iambic line of five beats as heroic
verse, because it was necessary to distinguish blank verse from the
distich, which was formed by the heroic couplet. This had escaped the
notice of Dryden, when he wrote "The English Verse, which we call
Heroic, consists of no more than ten syllables." If that were the case,
then _Paradise Lost_ would be written in heroic verse, which is not
true. What Dryden should have said is "consists of two rhymed lines,
each of ten syllables." In French the alexandrine has always been
regarded as the heroic measure of that language. The dactylic movement
of the heroic line in ancient Greek, the famous [Greek: rhythmos hêrôos]
of Homer, is expressed in modern Europe by the iambic movement. The
consequence is that much of the rush and energy of the antique verse,
which at vigorous moments was like the charge of a battalion, is lost.
It is owing to this, in part, that the heroic couplet is so often
required to give, in translation, the full value of a single Homeric
hexameter. It is important to insist that it is the couplet, not the
single line, which constitutes heroic verse. It is interesting to note
that the Latin poet Ennius, as reported by Cicero, called the heroic
metre of one line _versum longum_, to distinguish it from the brevity of
lyrical measures. The current form of English heroic verse appears to be
the invention of Chaucer, who used it in his _Legend of Good Women_ and
afterwards, with still greater freedom, in the _Canterbury Tales_. Here
is an example of it in its earliest development:--

  "And thus the longë day in fight they spend,
   Till, at the last, as everything hath end,
   Anton is shent, and put him to the flight,
   And all his folk to go, as best go might."

This way of writing was misunderstood and neglected by Chaucer's English
disciples, but was followed nearly a century later by the Scottish poet,
called Blind Harry (_c._ 1475), whose _Wallace_ holds an important place
in the history of versification as having passed on the tradition of the
heroic couplet. Another Scottish poet, Gavin Douglas, selected heroic
verse for his translation of the _Aeneid_ (1513), and displayed, in such
examples as the following, a skill which left little room for
improvement at the hands of later poets:--

  "One sang, 'The ship sails over the salt foam,
   Will bring the merchants and my leman home';
   Some other sings, 'I will be blithe and light,
   Mine heart is leant upon so goodly wight.'"

The verse so successfully mastered was, however, not very generally used
for heroic purposes in Tudor literature. The early poets of the revival,
and Spenser and Shakespeare after them, greatly preferred stanzaic
forms. For dramatic purposes blank verse was almost exclusively used,
although the French had adopted the rhymed alexandrine for their plays.
In the earlier half of the 17th century, heroic verse was often put to
somewhat unheroic purposes, mainly in prologues and epilogues, or other
short poems of occasion; but it was nobly redeemed by Marlowe in his
_Hero and Leander_ and respectably by Browne in his _Britannia's
Pastorals_. It is to be noted, however, that those Elizabethans who,
like Chapman, Warner and Drayton, aimed at producing a warlike and
Homeric effect, did so in shambling fourteen-syllable couplets. The one
heroic poem of that age written at considerable length in the
appropriate national metre is the _Bosworth Field_ of Sir John Beaumont
(1582-1628). Since the middle of the 17th century, when heroic verse
became the typical and for a while almost the solitary form in which
serious English poetry was written, its history has known many
vicissitudes. After having been the principal instrument of Dryden and
Pope, it was almost entirely rejected by Wordsworth and Coleridge, but
revised, with various modifications, by Byron, Shelley (in _Julian and
Maddalo_) and Keats (in _Lamia_). In the second half of the 19th century
its prestige was restored by the brilliant work of Swinburne in
_Tristram_ and elsewhere.     (E. G.)



HÉROLD, LOUIS JOSEPH FERDINAND (1791-1833), French musician, the son of
François Joseph Hérold, an accomplished pianist, was born in Paris, on
the 28th of January 1791. It was not till after his father's death that
Hérold in 1806 entered the Paris conservatoire, where he studied under
Catal and Méhul. In 1812 he gained the grand prix de Rome with the
cantata _La Duchesse de la Vallière_, and started for Italy, where he
remained till 1815 and composed a symphony, a cantata and several pieces
of chamber music. During his stay in Italy also Hérold for the first
time ventured on the stage with the opera _La Gioventù di Enrico V._,
first performed at Naples in 1815 with moderate success. During a short
stay in Vienna he was much in the society of Salieri. Returning to Paris
he was invited by Boieldieu to collaborate with him on an opera called
_Charles de France_, performed in 1816, and soon followed by Hérold's
first French opera, _Les Rosières_ (1817), which was received very
favourably. Hérold produced numerous dramatic works for the next fifteen
years in rapid succession. Only the names of some of the more important
need here be mentioned:--_La Clochette_ (1817), _L'Auteur mort et
vivant_ (1820), _Marie_ (1826), and the ballets _La Fille mal gardée_
(1828) and _La Belle au bois dormant_ (1829). Hérold also wrote a vast
quantity of pianoforte music, in spite of his time being much occupied
by his duties as accompanist at the Italian opera in Paris. In 1831 he
produced the romantic opera _Zampa_, and in the following year _Le Pré
aux clercs_ (first performance December 15, 1832), in which French
_esprit_ and French chivalry find their most perfect embodiment. These
two operas secured immortality for the name of the composer, who died on
the 18th of January 1833, of the lung disease from which he had suffered
for many years, and the effects of which he had accelerated by incessant
work. Hérold's incomplete opera _Ludovic_ was afterwards printed by J.
F. F. Halévy.



HERON (Fr. _héron_; Ital. _aghirone_, _airone_; Lat. _ardea_; Gr.
[Greek: erôdios]: A.-S. _hragra_; Icelandic, _hegre_; Swed. _häger_;
Dan. _heire_; Ger. _Heiger_, _Reiher_, _Heergans_; Dutch, _reiger_), a
long-necked, long-winged and long-legged bird, the typical
representative of the group _Ardeidae_. It is difficult or even
impossible to estimate with any accuracy the number of species of
_Ardeidae_ which exist. Professor Hermann Schlegel in 1863 enumerated
61, besides 5 of what he terms "conspecies," as contained in the
collection at Leyden (_Mus. des Pays-Bas_, Ardeae, 64 pp.),--on the
other hand, G. R. Gray in 1871 (_Handlist_, &c. iii. 26-34) admitted
above 90, while Dr Anton Reichenow (_Journ. für Ornithologie_, 1877, pp.
232-275) recognizes 67 as known, besides 15 "subspecies" and 3
varieties, arranging them in 3 genera, _Nycticorax_, _Botaurus_ and
_Ardea_, with 17 sub-genera. But it is difficult to separate the family,
with any satisfactory result, into genera, if structural characters have
to be found for these groups, for in many cases they run almost
insensibly into each other--though in common language it is easy to
speak of herons, egrets, bitterns, night-herons and boatbills. With the
exception of the last, Professor Schlegel retains all in the genus
_Ardea_, dividing it into _eight_ sections, the names of which may
perhaps be Englished--great herons, small herons, egrets, semi-egrets,
rail-like herons, little bitterns, bitterns and night-herons.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Heron.]

The common heron of Europe, _Ardea cinerea_ of Linnaeus, is universally
allowed to be the type of the family, and it may also be regarded as
that of Professor Schlegel's first section. The species inhabits
suitable localities throughout the whole of Europe, Africa and Asia,
reaching Japan, many of the islands of the Indian Archipelago and even
Australia. Though by no means so numerous as formerly in Britain, it is
still sufficiently common,[1] and there must be few persons who have not
seen it rising slowly from some river-side or marshy flat, or passing
overhead in its lofty and leisurely flight on its way to or from its
daily haunts; while they are many who have been entertained by watching
it as it sought its food, consisting chiefly of fishes (especially eels
and flounders) and amphibians--though young birds and small mammals come
not amiss--wading midleg in the shallows, swimming occasionally when out
of its depth, or standing motionless to strike its prey with its
formidable and sure beak. When sufficiently numerous the heron breeds in
societies, known as heronries, which of old time were protected both by
law and custom in nearly all European countries, on account of the sport
their tenants afforded to the falconer. Of late years, partly owing to
the withdrawal of the protection they had enjoyed, and still more, it
would seem, from agricultural improvement, which, by draining meres,
fens and marshes, has abolished the feeding-places of a great population
of herons, many of the larger heronries have broken up--the birds
composing them dispersing to neighbouring localities and forming smaller
settlements, most of which are hardly to be dignified by the name of
heronry, though commonly accounted such. Thus the number of so-called
heronries in the United Kingdom, and especially in England and Wales,
has become far greater than formerly, but no one can doubt that the
number of herons has dwindled. The sites chosen by the heron for its
nest vary greatly. It is generally built in the top of a lofty tree, but
not unfrequently (and this seems to have been much more usual in former
days) near or on the ground among rough vegetation, on an island in a
lake, or again on a rocky cliff of the coast. It commonly consists of a
huge mass of sticks, often the accumulation of years, lined with twigs,
and in it are laid from four to six sea-green eggs. The young are
clothed in soft flax-coloured down, and remain in the nest for a
considerable time, therein differing remarkably from the "pipers" of the
crane, which are able to run almost as soon as they are hatched. The
first feathers assumed by young herons in a general way resemble those
of the adult, but the pure white breast, the black throat-streaks and
especially the long pendent plumes, which characterize only the very old
birds, and are most beautiful in the cocks, are subsequently acquired.
The heron measures about 3 ft. from the bill to the tail, and the
expanse of its wings is sometimes not less than 6 ft., yet it weighs
only between 3 and 4 lb.

Large as is the common heron of Europe, it is exceeded in size by the
great blue heron of America (_Ardea herodias_), which generally
resembles it in appearance and habits, and both are smaller than the _A.
sumatrana_ or _A. typhon_ of India and the Malay Archipelago, while the
_A. goliath_, of wide distribution in Africa and Asia, is the largest of
all. The purple heron, _A. purpurea_, as a well-known European species
having a great range over the Old World, also deserves mention here. The
species included in Professor Schlegel's second section inhabit the
tropical parts of Africa, Australasia and America. The egrets, forming
his third group, require more notice, distinguished as they are by their
pure white plumage, and, when in breeding-dress, by the beautiful
dorsal tufts of decomposed feathers that ordinarily droop over the tail,
and are so highly esteemed as ornaments by Oriental magnates. The
largest species is _A. occidentalis_, only known apparently from Florida
and Cuba; but one not much less, the great egret (_A. alba_), belongs to
the Old World, breeding regularly in south-eastern Europe, and
occasionally straying to Britain. A third, _A. egretta_, represents it
in America, while much the same may be said of two smaller species, _A.
garzetta_, the little egret of English authors, and _A. candidissima_;
and a sixth, _A. intermedia_, is common in India, China and Japan,
besides occurring in Australia. The group of semi-egrets, containing
some nine or ten forms, among which the buff-backed heron (_A.
bubulcus_), is the only species that is known to have occurred in
Europe, is hardly to be distinguished from the last section except by
their plumage being at certain seasons varied in some species with
slaty-blue and in others with rufous. The rail-like herons form
Professor Schlegel's next section, but it can scarcely be satisfactorily
differentiated, and the epithet is misleading, for its members have no
rail-like affinities, though the typical species, which inhabits the
south of Europe, and occasionally finds its way to England, has long
been known as _A. ralloides_.[2] Nearly all these birds are tropical or
subtropical. Then there is the somewhat better defined group of little
bitterns, containing about a dozen species--the smallest of the whole
family. One of them, _A. minuta_, though very local in its distribution,
is a native of the greater part of Europe, and has bred in England. It
has a close counterpart in the _A. exilis_ of North America, and is
represented by three or four forms in other parts of the world, the _A.
pusilla_ of Australia especially differing very slightly from it. Ranged
by Professor Schlegel with these birds, which are all remarkable for
their skulking habits, but more resembling the true herons in their
nature, are the common green bittern of America (_A. virescens_) and its
very near ally the African _A. atricapilla_, from which last it is
almost impossible to distinguish the _A. javanica_, of wide range
throughout Asia and its islands, while other species, less closely
related, occur elsewhere as _A. flavicollis_--one form of which, _A.
gouldi_, inhabits Australia.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Bittern.]

The true bitterns, forming the genus _Botaurus_ of most authors, seem to
be fairly separable, but more perhaps on account of their wholly
nocturnal habits and correspondingly adapted plumage than on strictly
structural grounds, though some differences of proportion are
observable. The common bittern (q.v.) of Europe (_B. stellaris_), is
widely distributed over the eastern hemisphere.[3] Australia and New
Zealand have a kindred species, _B. poeciloptilus_, and North America a
third, _B. mugitans_[4] or _B. lentiginosus_. Nine other species from
various parts of the world are admitted by Professor Schlegel, but some
of them should perhaps be excluded from the genus _Botaurus_.

Of the night-herons the same author recognizes six species, all of which
may be reasonably placed in the genus _Nycticorax_, characterized by a
shorter beak and a few other peculiarities, among which the large eyes
deserve mention. The first is _N. griseus_, a bird widely spread over
the Old World, and not unfrequently visiting England, where it would
undoubtedly breed if permitted. Professor Schlegel unites with it the
common night-heron of America; but this, though very closely allied, is
generally deemed distinct, and is the _N. naevius_ or _N. gardeni_ of
most writers. A clearly different American species, with a more southern
habitat, is the _N. violaceus_ or _N. cayennensis_, while others are
found in South America, Australia, some of the Asiatic Islands and in
West Africa. The Galapagos have a peculiar species, _N. pauper_, and
another, so far as is known, peculiar to Rodriguez, _N. megacephalus_,
existed in that island at the time of its being first colonized, but is
now extinct.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Boatbill.]

The boatbill, of which only one species is known, seems to be merely a
night-heron with an exaggerated bill,--so much widened as to suggest its
English name,--but has always been allowed generic rank. This curious
bird, the _Cancroma cochlearia_ of most authors, is a native of tropical
America, and what is known of its habits shows that they are essentially
those of a _Nycticorax_.[5]

Bones of the common heron and bittern are not uncommon in the peat of
the East-Anglian fens. Remains from Sansan and Langy in France have been
referred by Alphonse Milne-Edwards to herons under the names of _Ardea
perplexa_ and _A. formosa_; a tibia from the Miocene of Steinheim am
Albuch by Dr Fraas to an _A. similis_, while Sir R. Owen recognized a
portion of a sternum from the London Clay as most nearly approaching
this family.

It remains to say that the herons form part of Huxley's section
_Pelargomorphae_, belonging to his larger group _Desmognathae_, and to
draw attention to the singular development of the patches of
"powder-down" which in the family _Ardeidae_ attain a magnitude hardly
to be found elsewhere. Their use is utterly unknown.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] In many parts of England it is generally called a
    "hernser"--being a corruption of "heronsewe," which, as Professor
    Skeat states (_Etymol. Dictionary_, p. 264), is a perfectly distinct
    word from "heronshaw," commonly confounded with it. The further
    corruption of "hernser" into "handsaw," as in the well-known proverb,
    was easy in the mouth of men to whom hawking the heronsewe was
    unfamiliar.

  [2] It is the "Squacco-Heron" of modern British authors--the
    distinctive name, given "Sguacco" by Willughby and Ray from
    Aldrovandus, having been misspelt by Latham.

  [3] The last-recorded instance of the bittern breeding in England was
    in 1868, as mentioned by Stevenson (_Birds of Norfolk_, ii. 164).

  [4] Richardson, a most accurate observer, asserts (_Fauna
    Boreali-Americana_, ii. 374) that its booming (whence the epithet)
    exactly resembles that of its Old-World congener, but American
    ornithologists seem only to have heard the croaking note it makes
    when disturbed.

  [5] The very wonderful shoe-bird (_Balaeniceps_) has been regarded by
    many authorities as allied to _Cancroma_; but there can be little
    doubt that it is more nearly related to the genus _Scopus_ belonging
    to the storks. The sun-bittern (_Eurypyga_) forms a family of itself,
    allied to the rails and cranes.



HERPES (from the Gr. [Greek: herpein], to creep) an inflammation of the
true skin resulting from a lesion of the underlying nerve or its
ganglion, attended with the formation of isolated or grouped vesicles of
various sizes upon a reddened base. They contain a clear fluid, and
either rupture or dry up. Two well-marked varieties of herpes are
frequently met with. (a) In _herpes labialis et nasalis_ the eruption
occurs about the lips and nose. It is seen in cases of certain acute
febrile ailments, such as fevers, inflammation of the lungs or even in a
severe cold. It soon passes off. (b) In the _herpes zoster, zona_ or
"shingles" the eruption occurs in the course of one or more cutaneous
nerves, often on one side of the trunk, but it may be on the face, limbs
or other parts. It may occur at any age, but is probably more frequently
met with in elderly people. The appearance of the eruption is usually
preceded by severe stinging neuralgic pains for several days, and, not
only during the continuance of the herpetic spots, but long after they
have dried up and disappeared, these pains sometimes continue and give
rise to great suffering. The disease seldom recurs. The most that can be
done for its relief is to protect the parts with cotton wool or some
dusting powder, while the pain may be allayed by opiates or bromide of
potassium. Quinine internally is often of service.



HERRERA, FERNANDO DE (c. 1534-1597), Spanish lyrical poet, was born at
Seville. Although in minor orders, he addressed many impassioned poems
to the countess of Gelves, wife of Alvaro Colon de Portugal; but it is
suggested that these should be regarded as Platonic literary exercises
in the manner of Petrarch. As is shown by his _Anotaciones á las obras
de Garcilaso de la Vega_ (1580), Herrera had a boundless admiration for
the Italian poets, and continued the work of Boscán in naturalizing the
Italian metrical system in Spain. His commentary on Garcilaso involved
him in a series of literary polemics, and his verbal innovations laid
him open to attack. But, even if his amatory sonnets are condemned as
insincere in sentiment, their workmanship is admirable, while his odes
on the battle of Lepanto, on Don John of Austria, and the elegy on King
Sebastian of Portugal entitle him to rank as the greatest of Andalusian
poets and as the most important of the followers of Garcilaso de la Vega
(see VEGA). His poems were published in 1582, and reprinted with
additions in 1619; they are reissued in the _Biblioteca de autores
españoles_, vol. xxxii. Of Herrera's prose works only the _Vida y muerta
de Tomas Moro_ (1592) survives; it is a translation of the life in
Thomas Stapleton's _Tres Thomae_ (1588).

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--E. Bourciez, "Les Sonnets de Fernando de Herrera,"
  _Annales de la Faculté des Lettres de Bordeaux_ (1891); _Fernando de
  Herrera, controversia sobre sus anotaciones á les obras de Garcilaso
  de la Vega_ (Seville, 1870); A. Morel-Fatio, _L'Hymne sur Lépante_
  (Paris, 1893).



HERRERA, FRANCISCO (1576-1656), surnamed el Viejo (the old), Spanish
historical and fresco painter, studied under Luis Fernandez in Seville,
his native city, where he spent most of his life. Although so rough and
coarse in manners that neither scholar nor child could remain with him,
the great talents of Herrera, and the promptitude with which he used
them, brought him abundant commissions. He was also a skilful worker in
bronze, an accomplishment that led to his being charged with coining
base money. From this accusation, whether true or false, he sought
sanctuary in the Jesuit college of San Hermenegildo, which he adorned
with a fine picture of its patron saint. Philip IV., on his visit to
Seville in 1624, having seen this picture, and learned the position of
the artist, pardoned him at once, warning him, however, that such powers
as his should not be degraded. In 1650 Herrera removed to Madrid, where
he lived in great honour till his death in 1656. Herrera was the first
to relinquish the timid Italian manner of the old Spanish school of
painting, and to initiate the free, vigorous touch and style which
reached such perfection in Velazquez, who had been for a short time his
pupil. His pictures are marked by an energy of design and freedom of
execution quite in keeping with his bold, rough character. He is said to
have used very long brushes in his painting; and it is also said that,
when pupils failed, his servant used to dash the colours on the canvas
with a broom under his directions, and that he worked them up into his
designs before they dried. The drawing in his pictures is correct, and
the colouring original and skilfully managed, so that the figures stand
out in striking relief. What has been considered his best easel-work,
the "Last Judgment," in the church of San Bernardo at Seville, is an
original and striking composition, showing in its treatment of the nude
how ill-founded the common belief was that Spanish painters, through
ignorance of anatomy, understood only the draped figure. Perhaps his
best fresco is that on the dome of the church of San Buenaventura; but
many of his frescoes have perished, some by the effects of the weather
and others by the artist's own carelessness in preparing his surfaces.
He has, however, preserved several of his own designs in etchings. For
his easel-works Herrera often chose such humble subjects as fairs,
carnivals, ale-houses and the like.

His son FRANCISCO HERRARA (1622-1685), surnamed el Mozo (the young), was
also an historical and fresco painter. Unable to endure his father's
cruelty, the younger Herrera, seizing what money he could find, fled
from Seville to Rome. There, instead of devoting himself to the
antiquities and the works of the old Italian masters, he gave himself up
to the study of architecture and perspective, with the view of becoming
a fresco-painter. He did not altogether neglect easel-work, but became
renowned for his pictures of still-life, flowers and fruit, and from his
skill in painting fish was called by the Italians _Lo Spagnuolo degli
pesci_. In later life he painted portraits with great success. He
returned to Seville on hearing of his father's death, and in 1660 was
appointed subdirector of the new academy there under Murillo. His
vanity, however, brooked the superiority of no one; and throwing up his
appointment he went to Madrid. There he was employed to paint a San
Hermenegildo for the barefooted Carmelites, and to decorate in fresco
the roof of the choir of San Felipe el Real. The success of this last
work procured for him a commission from Philip IV. to paint in fresco
the roof of the Atocha church. He chose as his subject for this the
Assumption of the Virgin. Soon afterwards he was rewarded with the title
of painter to the king, and was appointed superintendent of the royal
buildings. He died at Madrid in 1685. Herrera el Mozo was of a somewhat
similar temperament to his father, and offended many people by his
inordinate vanity and suspicious jealousy. His pictures are inferior to
the older Herrera's both in design and in execution; but in some of them
traces of the vigour of his father, who was his first teacher, are
visible. He was by no means an unskilful colourist, and was especially
master of the effects of chiaroscuro. As his best picture Sir Edmund
Head in his _Handbook_ names his "San Francisco," in Seville Cathedral.
An elder brother, known as Herrera el Rubio (the ruddy), who died very
young, gave great promise as a painter.



HERRERA Y TORDESILLAS, ANTONIO DE (1549-1625), Spanish historian, was
born at Cuellar, in the province of Segovia in Spain. His father,
Roderigo de Tordesillas, and his mother, Agnes de Herrera, were both of
good family. After studying for some time in his native country, Herrera
proceeded to Italy, and there became secretary to Vespasian Gonzago,
with whom, on his appointment as viceroy of Navarre, he returned to
Spain. Gonzago, sensible of his secretary's abilities, commended him to
Philip II. of Spain; and that monarch appointed Herrera first
historiographer of the Indies, and one of the historiographers of
Castile. Placed thus in the enjoyment of an ample salary, Herrera
devoted the rest of his life to the pursuit of literature, retaining his
offices until the reign of Philip IV., by whom he was appointed
secretary of state very shortly before his death, which took place at
Madrid on the 29th of March 1625. Of Herrera's writings, the most
valuable is his _Historia general de los hechos de los Castellanos en
las islas y tierra firme del Mar Oceano_ (Madrid, 1601-1615, 4 vols.), a
work which relates the history of the Spanish-American colonies from
1492 to 1554. The author's official position gave him access to the
state papers and to other authentic sources not attainable by other
writers, while he did not scruple to borrow largely from other MSS.,
especially from that of Bartolomé de Las Casas. He used his facilities
carefully and judiciously; and the result is a work on the whole
accurate and unprejudiced, and quite indispensable to the student either
of the history of the early colonies, or of the institutions and
customs of the aboriginal American peoples. Although it is written in
the form of annals, mistakes are not wanting, and several glaring
anachronisms have been pointed out by M. J. Quintana. "If," to quote Dr
Robertson, "by attempting to relate the various occurrences in the New
World in a strict chronological order, the arrangement of events in his
work had not been rendered so perplexed, disconnected and obscure that
it is an unpleasant task to collect from different parts of his book and
piece together the detached shreds of a story, he might justly have been
ranked among the most eminent historians of his country." This work was
republished in 1730, and has been translated into English by J. Stevens
(London, 1740), and into other European languages.

  Herrera's other works are the following: _Historia de lo sucedido en
  Escocia é Inglaterra en quarenta y quatro años que vivió la reyna
  Maria Estuarda_ (Madrid, 1589); _Cinco libros de la historia de
  Portugal, y conquista de las islas de los Açores, 1582-1583_ (Madrid,
  1591); _Historia de lo sucedido en Francia, 1585-1594_ (Madrid, 1598);
  _Historia general del mundo del tiempo del rey Felipe II, desde 1559
  hasta su muerte_ (Madrid, 1601-1612, 3 vols.); _Tratado, relacion, y
  discurso historico de los movimientos de Aragon_ (Madrid, 1612);
  _Comentarios de los hechos de los Españoles, Franceses, y Venecianos
  en Italia, &c., 1281-1559_ (Madrid, 1624, seq.). See W. H. Prescott,
  _History of the Conquest of Mexico_, vol. ii.



HERRICK, ROBERT (1591-1674), English poet, was born at Cheapside,
London, and baptized on the 24th of August 1591. He belonged to an old
Leicestershire family which had settled in London. He was the seventh
child of Nicholas Herrick, goldsmith, of the city of London, who died in
1592, under suspicion of suicide. The children were brought up by their
uncle, Sir William Herrick, one of the richest goldsmiths of the day, to
whom in 1607 Robert was bound apprentice. He had probably been educated
at Westminster school, and in 1614 he proceeded to Cambridge; and it was
no doubt during his apprenticeship that the young poet was introduced to
that circle of wits which he was afterwards to adorn. He seems to have
been present at the first performance of _The Alchemist_ in 1610, and it
was probably about this time that Ben Jonson adopted him as his poetical
"son." He entered the university as fellow-commoner of St John's
College, and he remained there until, in 1616, upon taking his degree,
he removed to Trinity Hall. A lively series of fourteen letters to his
uncle, mainly begging for money, exists at Beaumanoir, and shows that
Herrick suffered much from poverty at the university. He took his B.A.
in 1617, and in 1620 he became master of arts. From this date until 1627
we entirely lose sight of him; it has been variously conjectured that he
spent these years preparing for the ministry at Cambridge, or in much
looser pursuits in London. In 1629 (September 30) he was presented by
the king to the vicarage of Dean Prior, not far from Totnes in
Devonshire. At Dean Prior he resided quietly until 1648, when he was
ejected by the Puritans. The solitude there oppressed him at first; the
village was dull and remote, and he felt very bitterly that he was cut
off from all literary and social associations; but soon the quiet
existence in Devonshire soothed and delighted him. He was pleased with
the rural and semi-pagan customs that survived in the village, and in
some of his most charming verses he has immortalized the morris-dances,
wakes and quintains, the Christmas mummers and the Twelfth Night
revellings, that diversified the quiet of Dean Prior. Herrick never
married, but lived at the vicarage surrounded by a happy family of pets,
and tended by an excellent old servant named Prudence Baldwin. His first
appearance in print was in some verses he contributed to _A Description
of the King and Queen of Fairies_, in 1635. In 1650 a volume of _Wit's
Recreations_ contained sixty-two small poems afterwards acknowledged by
Herrick in the _Hesperides_, and one not reprinted until our own day.
These partial appearances make it probable that he visited London from
time to time. We have few hints of his life as a clergyman. Anthony Wood
says that Herricks's sermons were florid and witty, and that he was
"beloved by the neighbouring gentry." A very aged woman, one Dorothy
King, stated that the poet once threw his sermon at his congregation,
cursing them for their inattention. The same old woman recollected his
favourite pig, which he taught to drink out of a tankard. He was a
devotedly loyal supporter of the king during the Civil War, and
immediately upon his ejection in 1648 he published his celebrated
collection of lyrical poems, entitled _Hesperides; or the Works both
Human and Divine of Robert Herrick_. The "divine works" bore the title
of _Noble Numbers_ and the date 1647. That he was reduced to great
poverty in London has been stated, but there is no evidence of the fact.
In August 1662 Herrick returned to Dean Prior, supplanting his own
supplanter, Dr John Syms. He died in his eighty-fourth year, and was
buried at Dean Prior, October 15, 1674. A monument was erected to his
memory in the parish church in 1857, by Mr Perry Herrick, a descendant
of a collateral branch of the family. The _Hesperides_ (and _Noble
Numbers_) is the only volume which Herrick published, but he contributed
poems to _Lachrymae Musarum_ (1649) and to _Wit's Recreations_.

As a pastoral lyrist Herrick stands first among English poets. His
genius is limited in scope, and comparatively unambitious, but in its
own field it is unrivalled. His tiny poems--and of the thirteen hundred
that he has left behind him not one is long--are like jewels of various
value, heaped together in a casket. Some are of the purest water,
radiant with light and colour, some were originally set in false metal
that has tarnished, some were rude and repulsive from the first. Out of
the unarranged, heterogeneous mass the student has to select what is not
worth reading, but, after he has cast aside all the rubbish, he is
astonished at the amount of excellent and exquisite work that remains.
Herrick has himself summed up, very correctly, the themes of his sylvan
muse when he says:--

  "I sing of brooks, of blossoms, birds and bowers,
   Of April, May, of June and July flowers,
   I sing of May-poles, hock-carts, wassails, wakes,
   Of bridegrooms, brides and of their bridal-cakes."

He saw the picturesqueness of English homely life as no one before him
had seen it, and he described it in his verse with a certain purple glow
of Arcadian romance over it, in tones of immortal vigour and freshness.
His love poems are still more beautiful; the best of them have an ardour
and tender sweetness which give them a place in the forefront of modern
lyrical poetry, and remind us of what was best in Horace and in the
poets of the Greek anthology.

  After suffering complete extinction for more than a century, the fame
  of Herrick was revived by John Nichols, who introduced his poems to
  the readers of the _Gentleman's Magazine_ of 1796 and 1797. Dr Drake
  followed in 1798 with considerable enthusiasm. By 1810 interest had so
  far revived in the forgotten poet that Dr Nott ventured to print a
  selection from his poems, which attracted the favourable notice of the
  _Quarterly Review_. In 1823 the _Hesperides_ and the _Noble Numbers_
  were for the first time edited by Mr T. Maitland, afterwards Lord
  Dundrennan. Since then the reprints of Herrick's have been too
  numerous to be mentioned here; there are few English poets of the 17th
  century whose writings are now more accessible. See F. W. Moorman,
  _Robert Herrick_ (1910).     (E. G.)



HERRIES, JOHN CHARLES (1778-1855), English politician, son of a London
merchant, began his career as a junior clerk in the treasury, and became
known for his financial abilities as private secretary to successive
ministers. He was appointed commissary-in-chief (1811), and, on the
abolition of that office (1816), auditor of the civil list. In 1823 he
entered parliament as secretary to the treasury, and in 1827 became
chancellor of the exchequer under Lord Goderich; but in consequence of
internal differences, arising partly out of a slight put upon Herries,
the ministry was broken up, and in 1828 he was appointed master of the
mint. In 1830 he became president of the board of trade, and for the
earlier months of 1835 he was secretary at war. From 1841 to 1847 he was
out of parliament, but during 1852 he was president of the board of
control under Lord Derby. He was a consistent and upright Tory of the
old school, who carried weight as an authority on financial subjects.
His eldest son, SIR CHARLES JOHN HERRIES (1815-1882), was chairman of
the board of inland revenue.

  See the _Life_ by his younger son, Edward Herries (1880).



HERRIES, JOHN MAXWELL, 4TH LORD (c. 1512-1583), Scottish politician, was
the second son of Robert Maxwell, 4th Lord Maxwell (d. 1546). In 1547 he
married Agnes (d. 1594), daughter of William Herries, 3rd Lord Herries
(d. 1543), a grandson of Herbert Herries (d. c. 1500) of Terregles,
Kirkcudbrightshire, who was created a lord of the Scottish parliament
about 1490, and in 1567 he obtained the title of Lord Herries. But
before this event Maxwell had become prominent among the men who rallied
round Mary queen of Scots, although during the earlier part of his
public life he had been associated with the religious reformers and had
been imprisoned by the regent, Mary of Lorraine. He was, moreover--at
least until 1563--very friendly with John Knox, who calls him "a man
zealous and stout in God's cause." But the transition from one party to
the other was gradually accomplished, and from March 1566, when Maxwell
joined Mary at Dunbar after the murder of David Rizzio and her escape
from Holyrood, he remained one of her staunchest friends, although he
disliked her marriage with Bothwell. He led her cavalry at Langside, and
after this battle she committed herself to his care. Herries rode with
the queen into England in May 1568, and he and John Lesley, bishop of
Ross, were her chief commissioners at the conferences at York. He
continued to labour in Mary's cause after returning to Scotland, and was
imprisoned by the regent Murray; he also incurred Elizabeth's
displeasure by harbouring the rebel Leonard Dacres, but he soon made his
peace with the English queen. He showed himself in general hostile to
the regent Morton, but he was among the supporters of the regent Lennox
until his death on the 20th of January 1583. His son William, 5th Lord
Herries (d. 1604), was, like his father, warden of the west marches.

William's grandson John, 7th Lord Herries (d. 1677), became 3rd earl of
Nithsdale in succession to his cousin Robert Maxwell, the 2nd earl, in
1667. John's grandson was William, 5th earl of Nithsdale, the Jacobite
(see NITHSDALE). William was deprived of his honours in 1716, but in
1858 the House of Lords decided that his descendant William
Constable-Maxwell (1804-1876) was rightly Lord Herries of Terregles. In
1876 William's son Marmaduke Constable-Maxwell (b. 1837) became 12th
Lord Herries, and in 1884 he was created a baron of the United Kingdom.



HERRING (_Clupea harengus_, _Häring_ in German, _le hareng_ in French,
_sill_ in Swedish), a fish belonging to the genus _Clupea_, of which
more than sixty different species are known in various parts of the
globe. The sprat, pilchard or sardine and shad are species of the same
genus. Of all sea-fishes _Clupeae_ are the most abundant; for although
other genera may comprise a greater variety of species, they are far
surpassed by _Clupea_ with regard to the number of individuals. The
majority of the species of _Clupea_ are of greater or less utility to
man; it is only a few tropical species that acquire, probably from their
food, highly poisonous properties, so as to be dangerous to persons
eating them. But no other species equals the common herring in
importance as an article of food or commerce. It inhabits in incredible
numbers the North Sea, the northern parts of the Atlantic and the seas
north of Asia. The herring inhabiting the corresponding latitudes of the
North Pacific is another species, but most closely allied to that of the
eastern hemisphere. Formerly it was the general belief that the herring
inhabits the open ocean close to the Arctic Circle, and that it migrates
at certain seasons towards the northern coasts of Europe and America.
This view has been proved to be erroneous, and we know now that this
fish lives throughout the year in the vicinity of our shores, but at a
greater depth, and at a greater distance from the coast, than at the
time when it approaches land for the purpose of spawning.

Herrings are readily recognized and distinguished from the other species
of _Clupea_ by having an ovate patch of very small teeth on the vomer
(that is, the centre of the palate). In the dorsal fin they have from 17
to 20 rays, and in the anal fin from 16 to 18; there are from 53 to 59
scales in the lateral line and 54 to 56 vertebrae in the vertebral
column. They have a smooth gill-cover, without those radiating ridges of
bone which are so conspicuous in the pilchard and other _Clupeae_. The
sprat cannot be confounded with the herring, as it has no teeth on the
vomer and only 47 or 48 scales in the lateral line.

The spawn of the herring is adhesive, and is deposited on rough
gravelly ground at varying distances from the coast and always in
comparatively shallow water. The season of spawning is different in
different places, and even in the same district, e.g. the east coast of
Scotland, there are herrings spawning in spring and others in autumn.
These are not the same fish but different races. Those which breed in
winter or spring deposit their spawn near the coast at the mouths of
estuaries, and ascend the estuaries to a considerable distance at
certain times, as in the Firths of Forth and Clyde, while those which
spawn in summer or autumn belong more to the open sea, e.g. the great
shoals that visit the North Sea annually.

Herrings grow very rapidly; according to H. A. Meyer's observations,
they attain a length of from 17 to 18 mm. during the first month after
hatching, 34 to 36 mm. during the second, 45 to 50 mm. during the third,
55 to 61 mm. during the fourth, and 65 to 72 mm. during the fifth. The
size which they finally attain and their general condition depend
chiefly on the abundance of food (which consists of crustaceans and
other small marine animals), on the temperature of the water, on the
season at which they have been hatched, &c. Their usual size is about 12
in., but in some particularly suitable localities they grow to a length
of 15 in., and instances of specimens measuring 17 in. are on record. In
the Baltic, where the water is gradually losing its saline constituents,
thus becoming less adapted for the development of marine species, the
herring continues to exist in large numbers, but as a dwarfed form, not
growing either to the size or to the condition of the North-Sea herring.
The herring of the American side of the Atlantic is specifically
identical with that of Europe. A second species (_Clupea leachii_) has
been supposed to exist on the British coast; but it comprises only
individuals of a smaller size, the produce of an early or late spawn.
Also the so-called "white-bait" is not a distinct species, but consists
chiefly of the fry or the young of herrings and sprats, and is obtained
"in perfection" at localities where these small fishes find an abundance
of food, as in the estuary of the Thames.

  Several excellent accounts of the herring have been published, as by
  Valenciennes in the 20th vol. of the _Histoire naturelle des
  poissons_, and more especially by Mr J. M. Mitchell, _The Herring, its
  Natural History and National Importance_ (Edinburgh, 1864). Recent
  investigations are described in the Reports of the Fishery _Board for
  Scotland_, and in the reports of the German _Kommission zur
  Untersuchung der Deutschen Meere_ (published at Kiel).     (J. T. C.)



HERRING-BONE, a term in architecture applied to alternate courses of
bricks or stone, which are laid diagonally with binding courses above
and below: this is said to give a better bond to the wall, especially
when the stone employed is stratified, such as Stonefield stone, and too
thin to be laid in horizontal courses. Although it is only occasionally
found in modern buildings, it was a type of construction constantly
employed in Roman, Byzantine and Romanesque work, and in the latter is
regarded as a test of very early date. It is frequently found in the
Byzantine walls in Asia Minor, and in Byzantine churches was employed
decoratively to give variety to the wall surface. Sometimes the diagonal
courses are reversed one above the other. Examples in France exist in
the churches at Querqueville in Normandy and St Christophe at Suèvres
(Loir et Cher), both dating from the 10th century, and in England
herring-bone masonry is found in the walls of castles, such as at
Guildford, Colchester and Tamworth. The term is also applied to the
paving of stable yards with bricks laid flat diagonally and alternating
so that the head of one brick butts against the side of another; and the
effect is more pleasing than when laid in parallel courses.



HERRINGS, BATTLE OF THE, the name applied to the action of Rouvray,
fought in 1429 between the French (and Scots) and the English, who,
under Sir John Falstolfe (or Falstaff), were convoying Lenten
provisions, chiefly herrings, to the besiegers of Orleans. (See ORLEANS
and HUNDRED YEARS' WAR.)



HERRNHUT, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, 18 m. S.E. of
Bautzen, and situated on the Löbau-Zittau railway. Pop. 1200. It is
chiefly known as the principal seat of the Moravian or Bohemian
brotherhood, the members of which are called _Herrnhuter_. A colony of
these people, fleeing from persecution in Moravia, settled at Herrnhut
in 1722 on a site presented by Count Zinzendorf. The buildings of the
society include a church, a school and houses for the brethren, the
sisters and the widowed of both sexes, while it possesses an
ethnographical museum and other collections of interest. The town is
remarkable for its ordered, regular life and its scrupulous cleanliness.
Linen, paper (to varieties of which Herrnhut gives its name), tobacco
and various minor articles are manufactured. The Hutberg, at the foot of
which the town lies, commands a pleasant view. Berthelsdorf, a village
about a mile distant, has been the seat of the directorate of the
community since about 1789.



HERSCHEL, CAROLINE LUCRETIA (1750-1848), English astronomer, sister of
Sir William Herschel, the eighth child and fourth daughter of her
parents, was born at Hanover on the 16th of March 1750. On account of
the prejudices of her mother, who did not desire her to know more than
was necessary for being useful in the family, she received, in youth
only the first elements of education. After the death of her father in
1767 she obtained permission to learn millinery and dressmaking with a
view to earning her bread, but continued to assist her mother in the
management of the household until the autumn of 1772, when she joined
her brother William, who had established himself as a teacher of music
at Bath. At once she became a valuable co-operator with him both in his
professional duties and in the astronomical researches to which he had
already begun to devote all his spare time. She was the principal singer
at his oratorio concerts, and acquired such a reputation as a vocalist
that she was offered an engagement for the Birmingham festival, which,
however, she declined. When her brother accepted the office of
astronomer to George III., she became his constant assistant in his
observations, and also executed the laborious calculations which were
connected with them. For these services she received from the king in
1787 a salary of £50 a year. Her chief amusement during her leisure
hours was sweeping the heavens with a small Newtonian telescope. By this
means she detected in 1783 three remarkable nebulae, and during the
eleven years 1786-1797 eight comets, five of them with unquestioned
priority. In 1797 she presented to the Royal Society an Index to
Flamsteed's observations, together with a catalogue of 561 stars
accidentally omitted from the "British Catalogue," and a list of the
errata in that publication. Though she returned to Hanover in 1822 she
did not abandon her astronomical studies, and in 1828 she completed the
reduction, to January 1800, of 2500 nebulae discovered by her brother.
In 1828 the Astronomical Society, to mark their sense of the benefits
conferred on science by such a series of laborious exertions,
unanimously resolved to present her with their gold medal, and in 1835
elected her an honorary member of the society. In 1846 she received a
gold medal from the king of Prussia. She died on the 9th of January
1848.

  See _The Memoir and Correspondence of Caroline Herschel_, by Mrs John
  Herschel (1876).



HERSCHEL, SIR FREDERICK WILLIAM (1738-1822), generally known as Sir
William Herschel, English astronomer, was born at Hanover on the 15th of
November 1738. His father was a musician employed as hautboy player in
the Hanoverian guard. The family had quitted Moravia for Saxony in the
early part of the 17th century on account of religious troubles, they
themselves being Protestants. Herschel's earlier education was
necessarily of a very limited character, chiefly owing to the warlike
commotions of his country; but being at all times an indomitable
student, he, by his own exertions, more than repaired this deficiency.
He became a very skilful musician, both theoretical and practical; while
his attainments as a self-taught mathematician were fully adequate to
the prosecution of those branches of astronomy which he so eminently
advanced and adorned. Whatever he did he did methodically and
thoroughly; and in this methodical thoroughness lay the secret of what
Arago very properly termed his astonishing scientific success.


In 1752, at the age of fourteen, he joined the band of the Hanoverian
guard, and with his detachment visited England in 1755, accompanied by
his father and eldest brother; in the following year he returned to his
native country; but the hardships of campaigning during the Seven Years'
War imperilling his health, his parents privately removed him from the
regiment, and on the 26th of July 1757 despatched him to England. There,
as might have been expected, the earlier part of his career was attended
with formidable difficulties and much privation. We find him engaged in
several towns in the north of England as organist and teacher of music,
which were not lucrative occupations. But the tide of his fortunes began
to flow when he obtained in 1766 the appointment of organist to the
Octagon chapel in Bath, at that time the resort of the wealth and
fashion of the city.

During the next five or six years he became the leading musical
authority, and the director of all the chief public musical
entertainments at Bath. His circumstances having thus become easier, he
revisited Hanover for the purpose of bringing back with him his sister
Caroline, whose services he much needed in his multifarious
undertakings. She arrived in Bath in August 1772, being at that time in
her twenty-third year. She thus describes her brother's life soon after
her arrival: "He used to retire to bed with a bason of milk or a glass
of water, with Smith's _Harmonics_ and Ferguson's _Astronomy_, &c., and
so went to sleep buried under his favourite authors; and his first
thoughts on waking were how to obtain instruments for viewing those
objects himself of which he had been reading." It is not without
significance that we find him thus reading Smith's _Harmonics_; to that
study loyalty to his profession would impel him; as a reward for his
thoroughness this led him to Smith's _Optics_; and this, by a natural
sequence, again led him to astronomy, for the purposes of which the
chief optical instruments were devised. It was in this way that he was
introduced to the writings of Ferguson and Keill, and subsequently to
those of Lalande, whereby he educated himself to become an astronomer of
undying fame. In those days telescopes were very rare, very expensive
and not very efficient, for the Dollonds had not as yet perfected even
their beautiful little achromatics of 2¾ in. aperture. So Herschel was
obliged to content himself with hiring a small Gregorian reflector of
about 2 in. aperture, which he had seen exposed for loan in a
tradesman's shop. Not satisfied with this implement, he procured a small
lens of about 18 ft. focal length, and set his sister to work on a
pasteboard tube to match it, so as to make him a telescope. This
unsatisfactory material was soon replaced by tin, and thus a sorry sort
of vision was obtained of Jupiter, Saturn and the moon. He then sought
in London for a reflector of much larger dimensions; but no such
instrument was on sale; and the terms demanded for the construction of a
reflecting telescope of 5 or 6 ft. focal length he regarded as too
exorbitant even for the gratification of such desires as his own. So he
was driven to the only alternative that remained; he must himself build
a large telescope. His first step in this direction was to purchase the
débris of an amateur's implements for grinding and polishing small
mirrors; and thus, by slow degrees, and by indomitable perseverance, he
in 1774 had, as he says, the satisfaction of viewing the heavens with a
Newtonian telescope of 6 ft. focal length made by his own hands. But he
was not contented to be a mere star-gazer; on the contrary, he had from
the very first conceived the gigantic project of surveying the entire
heavens, and, if possible, of ascertaining the plan of their general
structure by a settled mode of procedure, if only he could provide
himself with adequate instrumental means. For this purpose he, his
brother and his sister toiled for many years at the grinding and
polishing of hundreds of specula, always retaining the best and
recasting the others, until the most perfect of the earlier products had
been surpassed. This was the work of the daylight in those seasons of
the year when the fashionable visitors of Bath had quitted the place,
and had thus freed the family from professional duties. After 1774 every
available hour of the night was devoted to the long-hoped-for scrutiny
of the skies. In those days no machinery had been invented for the
construction of telescopic mirrors; the man who had the hardihood to
undertake polishing them doomed himself to walk leisurely and uniformly
round an upright post for many hours, without removing his hands from
the mirror, until his work was done. On these occasions Herschel
received his food from the hands of his faithful sister. But his reward
was nigh.

In May 1780 his first two papers containing some results of his
observations on the variable star "Mira" and the mountains of the moon
were communicated to the Royal Society through the influential
introduction of Dr William Watson. Herschel had made his acquaintance in
a characteristic manner. In order to obtain a sight of the moon the
astronomer had taken his telescope into the street opposite his house;
the celebrated physician happening to pass at the time, and seeing his
eye removed for a moment from the instrument, requested permission to
take his place. The mutual courtesies and intelligent conversation which
ensued soon ripened this casual acquaintance into a solid and enduring
regard.

The phenomena of variable stars were examined by Herschel as a guide to
what might be occurring in our own sun. The sun, he knew, rotated on its
axis, and he knew that dark spots often exist on its photosphere; the
questions that he put to himself were--Are there dark spots also on
variable stars? Do the stars also rotate on their axes? or are they
sometimes partially eclipsed by the intervention of opaque bodies? And
he went on to enquire, What are these singular spots upon the sun? and
have they any practical relation to the inhabitants of this planet? To
these questions he applied his telescopes and his thoughts; and he
communicated the results to the Royal Society in no less than six
memoirs, occupying very many pages in the _Philosophical Transactions_,
and extending in date from 1780 to 1801. It was in the latter year that
these remarkable papers culminated in the inquiry whether any relation
could be traced in the recurrence of sun-spots, regarded as evidences of
solar activity, and the varying seasons of our planet, as exhibited by
the varying price of corn. Herschel's reply was inconclusive; nor has a
final solution of the related problems yet been obtained.

In 1781 he communicated to the Royal Society the first of a series of
papers on the rotation of the planets and of their several satellites.
The object which he had in view was not so much to ascertain the times
of their rotation as to discover whether those rotations are strictly
uniform. From the result he expected to gather, by analogy, the
probability of an alteration in the length of our own day. These
inquiries occupy the greater part of seven memoirs extending from 1781
to 1797. While engaged on them he noticed the curious appearance of a
white spot near to each of the poles of the planet Mars. On
investigating the inclination of its axis to the plane of its orbit, and
finding that it differed little from that of the earth, he concluded
that its changes of climate also would resemble our own, and that these
white patches were probably polar snow. Modern researches have confirmed
his conclusion. He also discovered that, as far as his observations
extended, the times of the rotations of the various satellites round
their axes conform to the analogy of our moon by equalling the times of
their revolution round their primaries. Here again we perceive that his
discoveries arose out of the systematic and comprehensive nature of his
investigation. Nothing with such a man is accidental.

In the same year (1781) Herschel made a discovery which completely
altered the character of his professional life. In the course of a
methodical review of the heavens he lighted on an object which at first
he supposed to be a comet, but which, by its subsequent motions and
appearance, averred itself to be a new planet, moving outside the orbit
of Saturn. The name of Georgium Sidus was by him assigned to it, but has
by general consent been laid aside in favour of Uranus. The object was
detected with a 7-ft. reflector having an aperture of 6½ in.;
subsequently, when he had provided himself with a much more powerful
telescope, of 20 ft. focal length, he discovered, as he believed, no
less than six Uranian satellites. Modern observations, while abolishing
four of these supposed attendants, have added two others apparently not
observed by Herschel. Seven memoirs on the subject were communicated by
him to the Royal Society, extending from the date of the discovery in
1781 to 1815. A noteworthy peculiarity in Herschel's mode of observation
led to the discovery of this planet. He had observed that the spurious
diameters of stars are not much affected by increasing the magnifying
powers, but that the case is different with other celestial objects;
hence if anything in his telescopic field struck him as unusual in
aspect, he immediately varied the magnifying power in order to decide
its nature. Thus Uranus was discovered; and had a similar method been
applied to Neptune, that planet would have been found at Cambridge some
months before it was recognized at Berlin.

We now come to the beginning of Herschel's most important series of
observations, culminating in what ought probably to be regarded as his
capital discovery. A material part of the task which he had set himself
embraced the determination of the relative distances of the stars from
our sun and from each other. Now, in the course of his scrutiny of the
heavens, he had observed many stars in apparently very close contiguity,
but often differing greatly in relative brightness. He concluded that,
on the average, the brighter star would be the nearer to us, the smaller
enormously more distant; and considering that an astronomer on the
earth, in consequence of its immense orbital displacement of some 180
millions of miles every six months, would see such a pair of stars under
different perspective aspects, he perceived that the measurement of
these changes should lead to an approximate determination of the stars'
relative distances. He therefore mapped down the places and aspects of
all the double stars that he met with, and communicated in 1782 and 1785
very extensive catalogues of the results. Indeed, his very last
scientific memoir, sent to the Royal Astronomical Society in the year
1822, when he was its first president and already in the eighty-fourth
year of his age, related to these investigations. In the memoir of 1782
he threw out the hint that these apparently contiguous stars might be
genuine pairs in mutual revolution; but he significantly added that the
time had not yet arrived for settling the question. Eleven years
afterwards (1793), he remeasured the relative positions of many such
couples, and we may conceive what his feelings must have been at finding
his prediction verified. For he ascertained that some of these stars
circulated round each other, after the manner required by the laws of
gravitation, and thus demonstrated the action among the distant members
of the starry firmament of the same mechanical laws which bind together
the harmonious motions of our solar system. This sublime discovery,
announced in 1802, would of itself suffice to immortalize his memory. If
only he had lived long enough to learn the approximate distances of some
of these binary combinations, he would at once have been able to
calculate their masses relative to that of our own sun; and the
quantities being, as we now know, strictly comparable, he would have
found another of his analogical conjectures realized.

In the year 1782 Herschel was invited to Windsor by George III., and
accepted the king's offer to become his private astronomer, and
henceforth devote himself wholly to a scientific career. His salary was
fixed at £200 per annum, to which an addition of £50 per annum was
subsequently made for the astronomical assistance of his sister. Dr
Watson, to whom alone the amount was mentioned, made the natural remark,
"Never before was honour purchased by a monarch at so cheap a rate." In
this way the great astronomer removed from Bath, first to Datchet and
soon afterwards permanently to Slough, within easy access of his royal
patron at Windsor.

The old pursuits at Bath were soon resumed at Slough, but with renewed
vigour and without the former professional interruptions. The greater
part, in fact, of the papers already referred to are dated from Datchet
and Slough; for the magnificent astronomical speculations in which he
was engaged, though for the most part conceived in the earlier portion
of his philosophical career, required years of patient observation
before they could be fully examined and realized.

It was at Slough in 1783 that he wrote his first memorable paper on the
"Motion of the Solar System in Space,"--a sublime speculation, yet
through his genius realized by considerations of the utmost simplicity.
He returned to the same subject with fuller details in 1805. It was also
after his removal to Slough that he published his first memoir on the
construction of the heavens, which from the first had been the inspiring
idea of his varied toils. In a long series of remarkable papers,
addressed as usual to the Royal Society, and extending from the year
1784 to 1818, when he was eighty years of age, he demonstrated the fact
that our sun is a star situated not far from the bifurcation of the
Milky Way, and that all the stars visible to us lie more or less in
clusters scattered throughout a comparatively thin, but immensely
extended stratum. At one time he imagined that his powerful instruments
had pierced through this stellar stratum, and that he had approximately
determined the form of some of its boundaries. In the last of his
memoirs, having convinced himself of his error, he admitted that to his
telescopes the Milky Way was "fathomless." On either side of this
assemblage of stars, presumably in ceaseless motion round their common
centre of gravity, Herschel discovered a canopy of discrete nebulous
masses, such as those from the condensation of which he supposed the
whole stellar universe to have been formed,--a magnificent conception,
pursued with a force of genius and put to the practical test of
observation with an industry almost incredible.

Hitherto we have said nothing about the great reflecting telescope, of
40 ft. focal length and 4 ft. aperture, the construction of which is
often, though mistakenly, regarded as his chief performance. The full
description of this celebrated instrument will be found in the 85th
volume of the _Transactions_ of the Royal Society. On the day that it
was finished (August 28, 1789) Herschel saw at the first view, in a
grandeur not witnessed before, the Saturnian system with six satellites,
five of which had been discovered long before by C. Huygens and G. D.
Cassini, while the sixth, subsequently named Enceladus, he had, two
years before, sighted by glimpses in his exquisite little telescope of
6½ in. aperture, but now saw in unmistakable brightness with the
towering giant he had just completed. On the 17th of September he
discovered a seventh, which proved to be the nearest to the globe of
Saturn. It has since received the name of Mimas. It is somewhat
remarkable that, notwithstanding his long and repeated scrutinies of
this planet, the eighth satellite, Hyperion, and the crape ring should
have escaped him.

Herschel married, on the 8th of May 1788, the widow of Mr John Pitt, a
wealthy London merchant, by whom he had an only son, John Frederick
William. The prince regent conferred a Hanoverian knighthood upon him in
1816. But a far more valued and less tardy distinction was the Copley
medal assigned to him by his associates in the Royal Society in 1781.

He died at Slough on the 25th of August 1822, in the eighty-fourth year
of his age, and was buried under the tower of St Laurence's Church,
Upton, within a few hundred yards of the old site of the 40-ft.
telescope. A mural tablet on the wall of the church bears a Latin
inscription from the pen of the late Dr Goodall, provost of Eton
College.

  See Mrs John Herschel, _Memoir of Caroline Herschel_ (1876); E. S.
  Holden, _Herschel, his Life and Works_ (1881); A. M. Clerke, _The
  Herschels and Modern Astronomy_ (1895); E. S. Holden and C. S.
  Hastings, _Synopsis of the Scientific Writings of Sir William
  Herschel_ (Washington, 1881); Baron Laurier, _Éloge historique_, Paris
  Memoirs (1823), p. lxi.; F. Arago, _Analyse historique, Annuaire du
  Bureau des Longitudes_ (1842), p. 249; Arago, _Biographies of
  Scientific Men_, p. 167; Madame d'Arblay's _Diary, passim; Public
  Characters_ (1798-1799), p. 384 (with portrait); J. Sime, _William
  Herschel and his Work_ (1900). Herschel's photometric Star Catalogues
  were discussed and reduced by E. C. Pickering in _Harvard Annals_,
  vols. xiv. p. 345, xxiii. p. 185, and xxiv.     (C. P.; A. M. C.)



HERSCHEL, SIR JOHN FREDERICK WILLIAM, BART. (1792-1871), English
astronomer, the only son of Sir William Herschel, was born at Slough,
Bucks, on the 7th of March 1792. His scholastic education commenced at
Eton, but maternal fears or prejudices soon removed him to the house of
a private tutor. Thence, at the early age of seventeen, he was sent to
St John's College, Cambridge, and the form and method of the
mathematical instruction he there received exercised a material
influence on the whole complexion of his scientific career. In due time
the young student won the highest academical distinction of his year,
graduating as senior wrangler in 1813. It was during his
undergraduateship that he and two of his fellow-students who
subsequently attained to very high eminence, Dean Peacock and Charles
Babbage, entered into a compact that they would "do their best to leave
the world wiser than they found it,"--a compact loyally and successfully
carried out by all three to the end. As a commencement of this laudable
attempt we find Herschel associated with these two friends in the
production of a work on the differential calculus, and on cognate
branches of mathematical science, which changed the style and aspect of
mathematical learning in England, and brought it up to the level of the
Continental methods. Two or three memoirs communicated to the Royal
Society on new applications of mathematical analysis at once placed him
in the front rank of the cultivators of this branch of knowledge. Of
these his father had the gratification of introducing the first, but the
others were presented in his own right as a fellow.

With the intention of being called to the bar, he entered his name at
Lincoln's Inn on the 24th of January 1814, and placed himself under the
guidance of an eminent special pleader. Probably this temporary choice
of a profession was inspired by the extraordinary success in legal
pursuits which had attended the efforts of some noted Cambridge
mathematicians. Be that as it may, an early acquaintance with Dr
Wollaston in London soon changed the direction of his studies. He
experimented in physical optics; took up astronomy in 1816; and in 1820,
assisted by his father, he completed for a reflecting telescope a mirror
of 18 in. diameter and 20 ft. focal length. This, subsequently improved
by his own hands, became the instrument which enabled him to effect the
astronomical observations forming the chief basis of his fame. In
1821-1823 we find him associated with Sir James South in the
re-examination of his father's double stars, by the aid of two excellent
refractors, of 7 and 5 ft. focal length respectively. For this work he
was presented in 1826 with the Astronomical Society's gold medal; and
with the Lalande medal of the French Institute in 1825; while the Royal
Society had in 1821 bestowed upon him the Copley medal for his
mathematical contributions to their _Transactions_. From 1824 to 1827 he
held the responsible post of secretary to that society; and was in 1827
elected to the chair of the Astronomical Society, which office he also
filled on two subsequent occasions. In the discharge of his duties to
the last-named society he delivered presidential addresses and wrote
obituary notices of deceased fellows, memorable for their combination of
eloquence and wisdom. In 1831 the honour of knighthood was conferred on
him by William IV., and two years later he again received the
recognition of the Royal Society by the award of one of their medals for
his memoir "On the Investigation of the Orbits of Revolving Double
Stars." The award significantly commemorated his completion of his
father's discovery of gravitational stellar systems by the invention of
a graphical method whereby the eye could as it were see the two
component stars of the binary system revolving under the prescription of
the Newtonian law.

Before the end of the year 1833, being then about forty years of age,
Sir John Herschel had re-examined all his father's double stars and
nebulae, and had added many similar bodies to his own lists; thus
accomplishing, under the conditions then prevailing, the full work of a
lifetime. For it should be remembered that astronomers were not as yet
provided with those valuable automatic contrivances which at present
materially abridge the labour and increase the accuracy of their
determinations. Equatorially mounted instruments actuated by clockwork,
electrical chronographs for recording the times of the phenomena
observed, were not available to Sir John Herschel; and he had no
assistant.

His scientific life now entered upon another and very characteristic
phase. The bias of his mind, as he subsequently was wont to declare, was
towards chemistry and the phenomena of light, rather than towards
astronomy. Indeed, very shortly after taking his degree at Cambridge, he
proposed himself as a candidate for the vacant chair of chemistry in
that university; but, as he said with some humour, the result of the
election was to leave him in a glorious minority of one. In fact
Herschel had become an astronomer from a sense of duty, and it was by
filial loyalty to his father's memory that he was now impelled to
undertake the completion of the work nobly begun at Slough. William
Herschel had searched the northern heavens; John Herschel determined to
explore the southern, besides re-exploring northern skies. "I resolved,"
he said, "to attempt the completion of a survey of the whole surface of
the heavens; and for this purpose to transport into the other hemisphere
the same instrument which had been employed in this, so as to give a
unity to the results of both portions of the survey, and to render them
comparable with each other." In accordance with this resolution, he and
his family embarked for the Cape on the 13th November 1833; they arrived
in Table Bay on the 15th January 1834; and proceedings, he says, "were
pushed forward with such effect that on the 22nd of February I was
enabled to gratify my curiosity by a view of [kappa] Crucis, the nebula
about [eta] Argûs, and some other remarkable objects in the 20-ft.
reflector, and on the night of the 4th of March to commence a regular
course of sweeping."

  To give an adequate description of the vast mass of labour completed
  during the next four busy years of his life at Feldhausen would
  require the transcription of a considerable portion of the _Cape
  Observations_, a volume of unsurpassed interest and importance;
  although it might perhaps be equalled by a judicious selection from
  Sir William's "Memoirs," now scattered through some thirty volumes of
  the _Philosophical Transactions_. It was published, at the sole
  expense of the late duke of Northumberland, but not till 1847, nine
  years after the author's return to England, for the cogent reason,
  that as he said, "The whole of the observations, as well as the entire
  work of reducing, arranging and preparing them for the press, have
  been executed by myself." There are 164 pages of catalogues of
  southern nebulae and clusters of stars. There are then careful and
  elaborate drawings of the great nebula in Orion, and of the region
  surrounding the remarkable star in Argo. The labour and the thought
  bestowed upon some of these objects are almost incredible; several
  months were spent upon a minute spot in the heavens containing 1216
  stars, but which an ordinary spangle, held at a distance of an arm's
  length, would eclipse. These catalogues and charts being completed, he
  proceeded to discuss their significance. He confirmed his father's
  hypothesis that these wonderful masses of glowing vapours are not
  irregularly scattered over the visible heavens, but are collected in a
  sort of canopy, whose vertex is at the pole of that vast stratum of
  stars in which our solar system finds itself buried, as Herschel
  supposed, at a depth not greater than that of the average distance
  from us of an eleventh magnitude star. Then follows his catalogue of
  the relative positions and magnitudes of the southern double stars, to
  one of which, [gamma] Virginis, he applied the beautiful method of
  orbital determination invented by himself, and he had the satisfaction
  of witnessing the fulfilment of his prediction that the components
  would, in the course of their revolution, appear to close up into a
  single star, inseparable by any telescopic power. In the next chapter
  he proceeded to describe his observations on the varying and relative
  brightness of the stars. It has been already detailed how his father
  began his scientific career by similar observations on stellar
  light-fluctuations, and how his remarks culminated years afterwards in
  the question whether the radiative changes of our sun, due to the
  presence or absence of sun-spots, affected our harvests and the price
  of corn. Sir John carried speculation still farther, pointing out that
  variations to the extent of half a magnitude in the sun's brightness
  would account for those strange alternations of semi-arctic and
  semi-tropical climates which geological researches show to have
  occurred in various regions of our globe.

Herschel returned to his English home in the spring of 1838. As was
natural and right, he was welcomed with an enthusiastic greeting. By the
queen at her coronation he was created a baronet; and, what to him was
better than all such rewards, other men caught the contagion of his
example, and laboured in fields similar to his own, with an adequate
portion of his success.

Herschel was a highly accomplished chemist. His discovery in 1819 of the
solvent power of hyposulphite of soda on the otherwise insoluble salts
of silver was the prelude to its use as a fixing agent in photography;
and he invented in 1839, independently of Fox Talbot, the process of
photography on sensitized paper. He was the first person to apply the
now well-known terms _positive_ and _negative_ to photographic images,
and to imprint them upon glass prepared by the deposit of a sensitive
film. He also paved the way for Sir George Stokes's discovery of
fluorescence, by his addition of the lavender rays to the spectrum, and
by his announcement in 1845 of "epipolic dispersion," as exhibited by
sulphate of quinine. Several other important researches connected with
the undulatory theory of light are embodied in his treatise on "Light"
published in the _Encyclopaedia metropolitana_.

Perhaps no man can become a truly great mathematician or philosopher if
devoid of imaginative power. John Herschel possessed this endowment to a
large extent; and he solaced his declining years with the translation of
the _Iliad_ into verse, having earlier executed a similar version of
Schiller's _Walk_. But the main work of his later life was the
collection of all his father's catalogues of nebulae and double stars
combined with his own observations and those of other astronomers each
into a single volume. He lived to complete the former, to present it to
the Royal Society, and to see it published in a separate form in the
_Philosophical Transactions_, vol. cliv. The latter work he left
unfinished, bequeathing it, in its imperfect form, to the Astronomical
Society. That society printed a portion of it, which serves as an index
to the observations of various astronomers on double stars up to the
year 1866.

A complete list of his contributions to learned societies will be found
in the Royal Society's great catalogue, and from them may be gathered
most of the records of his busy scientific life. Sir John Herschel met
with an amount of public recognition which was unusual in the time of
his illustrious father. Naturally he was a member of almost every
important learned society in both hemispheres. For five years he held
the same office of master of the mint, which more than a century before
had belonged to Sir Isaac Newton; his friends also offered to propose
him as president of the Royal Society and again as member of parliament
for the university of Cambridge, but neither position was desired by
him.

In private life Sir John Herschel was a firm and most active friend; he
had no jealousies; he avoided all scientific feuds; he gladly lent a
helping hand to those who consulted him in scientific difficulties; he
never discouraged, and still less disparaged, men younger than or
inferior to himself; he was pleased by appreciation of his work without
being solicitous for applause; it was said of him by a discriminating
critic, and without extravagance, that "his was a life full of serenity
of the sage and the docile innocence of a child."

He died at Collingwood, his residence near Hawkhurst in Kent, on the
11th of May 1871, in the seventy-ninth year of his age, and his remains
are interred in Westminster Abbey close to the grave of Sir Isaac
Newton.

  Besides the laborious _Cape Observations_, Sir John Herschel was the
  author of several books, one of which at least, _On the Study of
  Natural Philosophy_ (1830), possesses an interest which no future
  advances of the subjects on which he wrote can obliterate. In 1849
  came the _Outlines of Astronomy_, a volume still replete with charm
  and instruction. His articles, "Meteorology," "Physical Geography,"
  and "Telescope," contributed to the 8th edition of the _Encyclopaedia
  Britannica_, were afterwards published separately. When he was at the
  Cape he was more than once assisted in the attempts there made to
  diffuse a love of knowledge among men not engaged in literary
  pursuits; and with the same purpose he, on his return to England,
  published, in _Good Words_ and elsewhere, a series of papers on
  interesting points of natural philosophy, subsequently collected in a
  volume called _Familiar Lectures on Scientific Subjects_. Another less
  widely known volume is his _Collected Addresses_, in which he is seen
  in his happiest and most instructive mood.

  See also Mrs John Herschel, "Memoir of Caroline Herschel," _Month.
  Notices Roy. Astr. Society_, xxxii. 122 (C. Pritchard); _Proceedings
  Roy. Society_, xx. p. xvii. (T. Romney Robinson); _Proceedings Roy.
  Society of Edinburgh_ vii. 543 (P. G. Tait); _Nature_ iv. 69; E.
  Dunkin, _Obituary Notices_, p. 47; _Report Brit. Association_ (1871),
  p. lxxxv. (Lord Kelvin); _The Times_. (May 13, 1871); R. Grant,
  _History of Phys. Astronomy_; A. M. Clerke, _Popular Hist. of
  Astronomy_; A. M. Clerke, _The Herschels and Modern Astronomy_; J. H.
  Mädler, _Geschichte der Himmelskunde_, Bd. ii.; _Mémoires de la
  Société Physique de Genève_, xxi. 586 (E. Gautier). Reductions, based
  on standard magnitudes of 919 southern stars, observed by Herschel in
  sequences of relative brightness, were published by W. Doberck in the
  _Astrophysical Journal_, xi. 192, 270, and in _Harvard Annals_, vol.
  xli., No. viii.     (C. P.; A. M. C.)



HERSCHELL, FARRER HERSCHELL, 1ST BARON (1837-1899), lord chancellor of
England, was born on the 2nd of November 1837. His father was the Rev.
Ridley Haim Herschell, a native of Strzelno, in Prussian Poland, who,
when a young man, exchanged the Jewish faith for Christianity, took a
leading part in founding the British Society for the Propagation of the
Gospel among the Jews, and, after many journeyings, settled down to the
charge of a Nonconformist chapel near the Edgware Road, in London, where
he ministered to a large congregation. His mother was a daughter of
William Mowbray, a merchant of Leith. He was educated at a private
school and at University College, London. In 1857 he took his B.A.
degree at the University of London. He was reckoned the best speaker in
the school debating society, and he displayed there the same command of
language and lucidity of thought which were his characteristics during
his official life. The reputation which Herschell enjoyed during his
school days was maintained after he became a law-student at Lincoln's
Inn. In 1858 he entered the chambers of Thomas Chitty, the famous common
law pleader, father of the late Lord Justice Chitty. His fellow pupils,
amongst whom were A. L. Smith, afterwards master of the rolls, and
Arthur Charles, afterwards judge of the queen's bench division, gave him
the sobriquet of "the chief baron" in recognition of his superiority. He
subsequently read with James Hannen, afterwards Lord Hannen. In 1860 he
was called to the bar and joined the northern circuit, then in its palmy
days of undividedness. For four or five years he did not obtain much
work. Fortunately, he was never a poor man, and so was not forced into
journalism, or other paths of literature, in order to earn a living. Two
of his contemporaries, each of whom achieved great eminence, found
themselves in like case. One of these, Charles Russell, became lord
chief justice of England; the other, William Court Gully, speaker of the
House of Commons. It is said that these three friends, dining together
during a Liverpool assize some years after they had been called, agreed
that their prospects were anything but cheerful. Certain it is that
about this time Herschell meditated quitting England for Shanghai and
practising in the consular courts there. Herschell, however, soon made
himself useful to Edward James, the then leader of the northern circuit,
and to John Richard Quain, the leading stuff-gownsman. For the latter he
was content to note briefs and draft opinions, and when, in 1866, Quain
donned "silk," it was on Herschell that a large portion of his mantle
descended.

In 1872 Herschell was made a queen's counsel. He had all the necessary
qualifications for a leader--a clear, though not resonant voice; a calm,
logical mind; a sound knowledge of legal principles; and (greatest gift
of all) an abundance of common sense. He never wearied the judges by
arguing at undue length, and he knew how to retire with dignity from a
hopeless cause. His only weak point was cross-examination. In handling a
hostile witness he had neither the insidious persuasiveness of a Hawkins
nor the compelling, dominating power of a Russell. But he made up for
all by his speech to the jury, marshalling such facts as told in his
client's favour with the most consummate skill. He very seldom made use
of notes, but trusted to his memory, which he had carefully trained. By
this means he was able to conceal his art, and to appear less as a paid
advocate than as an outsider interested in the case anxious to assist
the jury in arriving at the truth. By 1874 Herschell's business had
become so good that he turned his thoughts to parliament. In February of
that year there was a general election, with the result that the
Conservative party came into power with a majority of fifty. The usual
crop of petitions followed. The two Radicals (Thompson and Henderson)
who had been returned for Durham city were unseated, and an attack was
then made on the seats of two other Radicals (Bell and Palmer) who had
been returned for Durham county. For one of these last Herschell was
briefed. He made so excellent an impression on the local Radical leaders
that they asked him to stand for Durham city; and after a fortnight's
electioneering, he was elected as junior member. Between 1874 and 1880
Herschell was most assiduous in his attendance in the House of Commons.
He was not a frequent speaker, but a few great efforts sufficed in his
case to gain for him a reputation as a debater. The best examples of his
style as a private member will be found in _Hansard_ under the dates
18th February 1876, 23rd May 1878, 6th May 1879. On the last occasion he
carried a resolution in favour of abolishing actions for breach of
promise of marriage except when actual pecuniary loss had ensued, the
damages in such cases to be measured by the amount of such loss. The
grace of manner and solid reasoning with which he acquitted himself
during these displays obtained for him the notice of Gladstone, who in
1880 appointed Herschell solicitor-general.

Herschell's public services from 1880 to 1885 were of great value,
particularly in dealing with the "cases for opinion" submitted by the
Foreign Office and other departments. He was also very helpful in
speeding government measures through the House, notably the Irish Land
Act 1881, the Corrupt Practices and Bankruptcy Acts 1883, the County
Franchise Act 1884 and the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885. This last
was a bitter pill for Herschell, since it halved the representation of
Durham city, and so gave him statutory notice to quit. Reckoning on the
local support of the Cavendish family, he contested the North Lonsdale
division of Lancashire; but in spite of the powerful influence of Lord
Hartington, he was badly beaten at the poll, though Mr Gladstone again
obtained a majority in the country. Herschell now thought he saw the
solicitor-generalship slipping away from him, and along with it all
prospect of high promotion. Lord Selborne and Sir Henry James, however,
successively declined Gladstone's offer of the Woolsack, and in 1886
Herschell, by a sudden turn of fortune's wheel, found himself in his
forty-ninth year lord chancellor.

Herschell's chancellorship lasted barely six months, for in August 1886
Gladstone's Home Rule Bill was rejected in the Commons and his
administration fell. In August 1892, when Gladstone returned to power,
Herschell again became lord chancellor. In September 1893, when the
second Home Rule Bill came on for second reading in the House of Lords,
Herschell took advantage of the opportunity to justify the "sudden
conversion" to Home Rule of himself and his colleagues in 1885 by
comparing it to the duke of Wellington's conversion to Catholic
Emancipation in 1829 and to that of Sir Robert Peel to Free Trade in
1846. In 1895, however, his second chancellorship came to an end with
the defeat of the Rosebery ministry.

Whether sitting at the royal courts in the Strand, on the judicial
committee of the privy council, or in the House of Lords, Lord
Herschell's judgments were distinguished for their acute and subtle
reasoning, for their grasp of legal principles, and, whenever the
occasion arose, for their broad treatment of constitutional and social
questions. He was not a profound lawyer, but his quickness of
apprehension was such that it was an excellent substitute for great
learning. In construing a real property will or any other document, his
first impulse was to read it by the light of nature, and to decline to
be influenced by the construction put by the judges on similar phrases
occurring elsewhere. But when he discovered that certain expressions had
acquired a technical meaning which could not be disturbed without
fluttering the dovecotes of the conveyancers, he would yield to the
established rule, even though he did not agree with it. He was perhaps
seen at his judicial best in _Vagliano_ v. _Bank of England_ (1891) and
_Allen_ v. _Flood_ (1898). Latterly he showed a tendency, which seems to
grow on some judges, to interrupt counsel overmuch. The case last
mentioned furnishes an example of this. The question involved was what
constituted a molestation of a man in the pursuit of his lawful calling.
At the close of the argument of counsel, whom he had frequently
interrupted, one of their lordships, noted for his pretty wit, observed
that although there might be a doubt as to what amounted to such
molestation in point of law, the House could well understand, after that
day's proceedings, what it was in actual practice. In addition to his
political and judicial work, Herschell rendered many public services. In
1888 he presided over an inquiry directed by the House of Commons with
regard to the Metropolitan Board of Works. He acted as chairman of two
royal commissions, one on Indian currency, the other on vaccination. He
took a great interest in the National Society for the Prevention of
Cruelty to Children, not only promoting the acts of 1889 and 1894, but
also bestowing a good deal of time in sifting the truth of certain
allegations which had been brought against the management of that
society. In June 1893 he was appointed chancellor of the university of
London in succession to the earl of Derby, and he entered on his new
duties with the usual thoroughness. "His views of reform," according to
Victor Dickins, the accomplished registrar of the university, "were
always most liberal and most frankly stated, though at first they were
not altogether popular with an important section of university opinion.
He disarmed opposition by his intellectual power, rather than
conciliated it by compromise, and sometimes was perhaps a little
masterful, after a fashion of his own, in his treatment of the various
burning questions that agitated the university during his tenure of
office. His characteristic power of detachment was well illustrated by
his treatment of the proposal to remove the university to the site of
the Imperial Institute at South Kensington. Although he was at that time
chairman of the Institute, the most irreconcilable opponent of the
removal never questioned his absolute impartiality." With the Imperial
Institute Herschell had been officially connected from its inception. He
was chairman of the provisional committee appointed by the prince of
Wales to formulate a scheme for its organization, and he took an active
part in the preparation of its charter and constitution in conjunction
with Lord Thring, Lord James, Sir Frederick Abel and Mr John Hollams. He
was the first chairman of its council, and, except during his tour in
India in 1888, when he brought the Institute under the notice of the
Indian authorities, he was hardly absent from a single meeting. For his
special services in this connexion he was made G.C.B. in 1893, this
being the only instance of a lord chancellor being decorated with an
order.

In 1897 he was appointed, jointly with Lord Justice Collins, to
represent Great Britain on the Venezuela Boundary Commission, which
assembled in Paris in the spring of 1899. So complicated a business
involved a great deal of preparation and a careful study of maps and
historic documents. Not content with this, he accepted in 1898 a seat on
the joint high commission appointed to adjust certain boundary and other
important questions pending between Great Britain and Canada on the one
hand and the United States on the other hand. He started for America in
July of that year, and was received most cordially at Washington. His
fellow commissioners elected him their president. In February 1899,
while the commission was in full swing, he had the misfortune to slip in
the street and in falling to fracture a hip bone. His constitution,
which at one time was a robust one, had been undermined by constant hard
work, and proved unequal to sustaining the shock. On the 1st of March,
only a fortnight after the accident, he died at the Shoreham Hotel,
Washington, a _post-mortem_ examination revealing disease of the heart.
Mr Hay, secretary of state, at once telegraphed to Mr Choate, the United
States ambassador in London, the "deep sorrow" felt by President
McKinley; and Sir Wilfred Laurier said the next day, in the parliament
chamber at Ottawa, that he regarded Herschell's death "as a misfortune
to Canada and to the British Empire." A funeral service held in St
John's Episcopal Church, Washington, was attended by the president and
vice-president of the United States, by the cabinet ministers, the
judges of the Supreme Court, the members of the joint high commission,
and a large number of senators and other representative men. The body
was brought to London in a British man-of-war, and a second funeral
service was held in Westminster Abbey before it was conveyed to its
final resting-place at Tincleton, Dorset, in the parish church of which
he had been married. Herschell left a widow, granddaughter of
Vice-Chancellor Kindersley; a son, Richard Farrer (b. 1878), who
succeeded him as second baron; and two daughters.

  A "reminiscence" of Herschell by Mr Speaker Gully (Lord Selby) will be
  found in _The Law Quarterly Review_ for April 1899. _The Journal of
  the Society of Comparative Legislation_ (of which he had been
  president from its formation in 1893) contains, in its part for July
  of the same year, notices of him by Lord James of Hereford, Lord
  Davey, Mr Victor Williamson (his executor and intimate friend), and
  also by Mr Justice D. J. Brewer and Senator C. W. Fairbanks (both of
  the United States).     (M. H. C.)



HERSENT, LOUIS (1777-1860), French painter, was born at Paris on the
10th of March 1777, and becoming a pupil of David, obtained the Prix de
Rome in 1797; in the Salon of 1802 appeared his "Metamorphosis of
Narcissus," and he continued to exhibit with rare interruptions up to
1831. His most considerable works under the empire were "Achilles
parting from Briseis," and "Atala dying in the arms of Chactas" (both
engraved in Landon's _Annales du Musée_); an "Incident of the life of
Fénelon," painted in 1810, found a place at Malmaison, and "Passage of
the Bridge at Landshut," which belongs to the same date, is now at
Versailles. Hersent's typical works, however, belong to the period of
the Restoration; "Louis XVI. relieving the Afflicted" (Versailles) and
"Daphnis and Chloë" (engraved by Langier and by Gelée) were both in the
Salon of 1817; at that of 1819 the "Abdication of Gustavus Vasa" brought
to Hersent a medal of honour, but the picture, purchased by the duke of
Orleans, was destroyed at the Palais Royal in 1848, and the engraving by
Henriquel-Dupont is now its sole record. "Ruth," produced in 1822,
became the property of Louis XVIII., who from the moment that Hersent
rallied to the Restoration jealously patronized him, made him officer of
the legion of honour, and pressed his claims at the Institute, where he
replaced van Spaendonck. He continued in favour under Charles X., for
whom was executed "Monks of Mount St Gotthard," exhibited in 1824. In
1831 Hersent made his last appearance at the Salon with portraits of
Louis Philippe, Marie-Amélie and the duke of Montpensier; that of the
king though good, is not equal to the portrait of Spontini (Berlin),
which is probably Hersent's _chef-d'oeuvre_. After this date Hersent
ceased to exhibit at the yearly salons. Although in 1846 he sent an
excellent likeness of Delphine Gay and one or two other works to the
rooms of the Société d'Artistes, he could not be tempted from his usual
reserve even by the international contest of 1855. He died on the 2nd of
October 1860.



HERSFELD, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau,
is pleasantly situated at the confluence of the Geis and Haun with the
Fulda, on the railway from Frankfort-on-Main to Bebra, 24 m. N.N.E. of
Fulda. Pop. (1905) 8688. Some of the old fortifications of the town
remain, but the ramparts and ditches have been laid out as promenades.
The principal buildings are the Stadt Kirche, a beautiful Gothic
building, erected about 1320 and restored in 1899, with a fine tower and
a large bell; the old and interesting town hall (Rathaus) and the ruins
of the abbey church. This church was erected on the site of the
cathedral in the beginning of the 12th century; it was built in the
Byzantine style and was burnt down by the French in 1761. Outside the
town are the Frauenberg and the Johannesberg, on both of which are
monastic ruins. Among the public institutions are a gymnasium and a
military school. The town has important manufactures of cloth, leather
and machinery; it has also dye-works, worsted mills and soap-boiling
works.

Hersfeld owes its existence to the Benedictine abbey (see below). It
became a town in the 12th century and in 1370 the burghers, having
meanwhile shaken off the authority of the abbots, placed themselves
under the protection of the landgraves of Hesse. It was taken and
retaken during the Thirty Years' War and later it suffered from the
attacks of the French.

The Benedictine abbey of Hersfeld was founded by Lullus, afterwards
archbishop of Mainz, about 769. It was richly endowed by Charlemagne and
became an ecclesiastical principality in the 12th century, passing under
the protection of the landgraves of Hesse in 1423. It was secularized in
1648, having been previously administered for some years by a member of
the ruling family of Hesse. As a secular principality Hersfeld passed to
Hesse, and with electoral Hesse was united with Prussia in 1866. In the
middle ages the abbey was famous for its library.

  See Vigelius, _Denkwürdigkeiten von Hersfeld_ (Hersfeld, 1888); Demme,
  _Nachrichten und Urkunden zur Chronik von Hersfeld_ (Hersfeld,
  1891-1901), and P. Hafner, _Die Reichsabtei Hersfeld bis zur Mitte des
  13ten Jahrhunderts_ (Hersfeld, 1889).



HERSTAL, or HERISTAL, a town of Belgium, less than 2 m. N. of Liége and
practically one of its suburbs. The name is supposed to be derived from
_Heerstelle_, i.e. "Permanent Camp." The second Pippin was born here,
and this mayor of the palace acquired the control of the kingdom of the
Franks. His grandson, Pippin the Short, died at Herstal in A.D. 768, and
it disputes with Aix la Chapelle the honour of being the birthplace of
Charlemagne. It is now a very active centre of iron and steel
manufactures. The Belgian national small arms factory and cannon foundry
are fixed here. Pop. (1904) 20,114.



HERTFORD, EARLS AND MARQUESSES OF. The English earldom of Hertford was
held by members of the powerful family of Clare from about 1138, when
Gilbert de Clare was created earl of Hertford, to 1314 when another earl
Gilbert was killed at Bannockburn. In 1537 EDWARD SEYMOUR, viscount
Beauchamp, a brother of Henry VIII.'s queen, Jane Seymour, was created
earl of Hertford, being advanced ten years later to the dignity of duke
of Somerset and becoming protector of England. His son EDWARD (c.
1540-1621) was styled earl of Hertford from 1547 until the protector's
attainder and death in January 1552, when the title was forfeited; in
1559, however, he was created earl of Hertford. In 1560 he was secretly
married to Lady Catherine Grey (c. 1538-1568), daughter of Henry Grey,
duke of Suffolk, and a descendant of Henry VII. Queen Elizabeth greatly
disliked this union, and both husband and wife were imprisoned, while
the validity of their marriage was questioned. Catherine died on the
27th of January 1568 and Hertford on the 6th of April 1621. Their son
Edward, Lord Beauchamp (1561-1612), who inherited his mother's title to
the English throne, predeceased his father; and the latter was succeeded
in the earldom by his grandson WILLIAM SEYMOUR (1588-1660), who was
created marquess of Hertford in 1640 and was restored to his ancestor's
dukedom of Somerset in 1660. The title of marquess of Hertford became
extinct when JOHN, 4th duke of Somerset, died in 1675, and the earldom
when ALGERNON, the 7th duke, died in February 1750.

In August 1750 FRANCIS SEYMOUR CONWAY, 2nd Baron Conway (1718-1794), who
was a direct descendant of the protector Somerset, was created earl of
Hertford; this nobleman was the son of Francis Seymour Conway
(1679-1732), who had taken the name of Conway in addition to that of
Seymour, and was the brother of Field-marshal Henry Seymour Conway.
Hertford was ambassador to France from 1763 to 1765; was lord-lieutenant
of Ireland in 1765 and 1766; and lord chamberlain of the household from
1766 to 1782. Horace Walpole speaks of his "decorum and piety" and
refers to him as a "perfect courtier," but says that he had "too great
propensity to heap emoluments on his children." In 1793 he became earl
of Yarmouth and marquess of Hertford, and he died on the 14th of June
1794. His son, FRANCIS INGRAM SEYMOUR CONWAY (1743-1822), who was known
during his father's lifetime as Lord Beauchamp, took a prominent part in
the debates of the House of Commons from 1766 until he succeeded to the
marquessate in 1794. He was sent as ambassador to Berlin and Vienna in
1793 and from 1812 to 1821 he was lord chamberlain. His son FRANCIS
CHARLES, the 3rd marquess (1777-1842), was an intimate friend of the
prince regent, afterwards George IV., and is the original of the
"Marquis of Steyne" in Thackeray's _Vanity Fair_ and of "Lord Monmouth"
in Disraeli's _Coningsby_. The 4th marquess was his son, RICHARD
(1800-1870), whose mother was the great heiress, Maria Emily Fagniani,
and whose brother was Lord Henry Seymour (1805-1859), the founder of the
Jockey Club at Paris. When Richard died unmarried in Paris in August
1870 his title passed to his kinsman, FRANCIS HUGH GEORGE SEYMOUR
(1812-1884), a descendant of the 1st marquess, whose son, HUGH DE GREY
(b. 1843) became 6th marquess in 1884. The 4th marquess left his great
wealth and his priceless collection of art treasures to Sir Richard
Wallace (1818-1890), his reputed half-brother, and Wallace's widow, who
died in 1897, bequeathed the collection to the British nation. It is now
in Hertford House, formerly the London residence of the marquesses of
Hertford.



HERTFORD, a market-town and municipal borough, and the county town of
Hertfordshire, England, in the Hertford parliamentary division of the
county, 24 m. N. from London, the terminus of branch lines of the Great
Eastern and Great Northern railways. Pop. (1901) 9322. It is pleasantly
situated in the valley of the river Lea. The chief buildings are the
modern churches of St Andrew and of All Saints, on the sites of old
ones, a town hall, corn exchange, public library, school of art and the
old castle, which retains the wall and part of a tower dating from the
Norman period, and is represented by a picturesque Jacobean building of
brick, largely modernized. There are several educational establishments,
including the preparatory school for Christ's Hospital, a picturesque
building (in great part, however, rebuilt) at the east end of the town,
Hale's grammar school, the Cowper Testimonial school, and a Green-coat
school for boys and girls. Two miles S.E. is Haileybury College, one of
the principal public schools of England, founded in 1805 by the East
India Company for their civil service students, who were then
temporarily housed in Hertford Castle. The school lies high above the
Lea valley, towards Hoddesdon, in the midst of a stretch of
finely-wooded country. Hertford has a considerable agricultural trade,
and there are maltings, breweries, iron foundries, and oriental printing
works. The town is governed by a mayor, 5 aldermen and 15 councillors.
Area, 1134 acres.

Hertford (_Herutford_, _Heorotford_, _Hurtford_) was the scene of a
synod in 673. Its communication with London by way of the Lea and the
Thames gave it strategic importance during the Danish occupation of East
Anglia. In 1066 and later it was a royal garrison and burgh. It made
separate payments for aids to the Norman and Angevin kings; and in 1331
was governed by a bailiff annually elected by the commonalty. A charter
incorporated the bailiffs and burgesses in 1555, and was confirmed under
Elizabeth and in 1606. A charter of 1680 to the mayor, aldermen and
commonalty was effective until the Municipal Corporation Act. Hertford
returned two burgesses to the parliament of 1298, and to others until,
after 1375/6, such right became abeyant, to be restored by order of
parliament in 1623/4. One representative was lost by the Representation
Act in 1868, and separate representation by the Redistribution Act in
1885. A grant of fairs in 1226 probably originated or confirmed those
held in 1331 on the feasts of the Assumption and of St Simon and St
Jude, their vigils and morrows, which fairs were confirmed by Elizabeth
and Charles II. Another on the vigil, morrow and feast of the Nativity
of the Virgin was granted by Elizabeth: its date was changed to May-day
under James I. Modern fairs are on the third Saturday before Easter, the
12th of May, the 5th of July and the 8th of November. Markets were held
in 1331 on Wednesday and Saturday; after 1368 on Thursday and Saturday;
and they returned to Wednesdays and Saturdays in 1680.



HERTFORDSHIRE [HERTS], a county of England, bounded N. by
Cambridgeshire, N.W. by Bedfordshire, E. by Essex, S. by Middlesex, and
S.W. by Buckinghamshire. The area is 634.6 sq. m., the county being the
sixth smallest in England. Its aspect is always pleasant, the surface
generally undulating, while in some parts, where these undulations form
a quick succession of hills and valleys, the woodland scenery becomes
very beautiful, as in the upper Lea valley, in the neighbourhood of
Tewin near Hertford, and elsewhere. To the north-west and north
considerable elevations are reached, a line of hills, facing
north-westward with a sharp descent, crossing this portion of the
county, and overlooking the flat lands of Bedfordshire and
Cambridgeshire. They continue the line of the Chiltern Hills under the
name of the East Anglian Ridge. They exceed 800 ft. near Dunstable,
sinking gradually north-eastward. These uplands are generally bare, and
in parts remarkably sparsely populated as compared with the home
counties at large. In the greater part of the county, however, rich
arable lands are intermingled with the parks and woodlands of numerous
fine country seats, which impart to the county a peculiar luxuriance. Of
the principal rivers, the Lea, rising beyond Luton in Bedfordshire,
enters Hertfordshire near East Hyde, flows S.E. to near Hatfield, then
E. by N. to Hertford and Ware, whence it bends S. and passing along the
eastern boundary of the county falls into the Thames below London. It
receives in its course the Maran, or Mimram, the Beane, the Rib and the
Stort, all joining on the north side; the Stort for some distance
forming the county boundary with Essex. The Colne flows through the
south-western part of the county, to fall into the Thames at Staines. It
receives the Ver, the Bulborne and the Chess. The Ivel, rising in the
N.W. soon passes into Bedfordshire to join the Great Ouse. To the south
of Hatfield, near North Mimms, two streams of moderate size are lost in
pot-holes, except in the highest floods. The New River, one of the water
supplies of London, has its source near Ware, and runs roughly parallel
with the Lea. Most of the rivers are full of fish, including trout in
the upper parts (of the Lea and Colne especially), which are carefully
preserved.

  _Geology._--The rocks of Hertfordshire belong to the shallow syncline
  known as the London basin, the beds dipping in a south-easterly
  direction. The two most important formations are the Chalk, which
  forms the high ground in the north and west; and the Eocene Reading
  beds and London Clay which occupy the remaining southern part of the
  county. On the northern boundary, at the foot of the chalk hills, a
  small strip of Gault Clay and the Upper Greensand above it falls just
  within the county. The lowest subdivision of the chalk is the Chalk
  Marl, which with the Totternhoe Stone above it, lies at the base of
  the Chalk escarpment, by Ashwell, Pirton and Miswell to Tring. Above
  these beds, the Lower Chalk, without flints, rises up sharply to form
  the downs which are the easterly continuation of the Chiltern Hills.
  Next comes the Chalk Rock, which being a hard bed, lies near the
  hilltops by Boxmoor, Apsley End and near Baldock. The Upper Chalk
  slopes southward towards the Eocene boundary previously mentioned. The
  Reading beds consist of mottled and yellow clays and sands, the latter
  are frequently hardened into masses made up of pebbles in a siliceous
  cement, known locally as Hertfordshire puddingstone. The London Clay,
  a stiff blue clay which weathers brown, rests nearly everywhere upon
  the Reading beds. Outliers of Eocene rocks rest on the chalk at
  Micklefield Green, Sarrat, Bedmont, &c. The Chalk is often covered by
  the Clay-with-flints, a detrital deposit, formed of the remnants of
  Tertiary rocks and Chalk. Glacial gravels, clays and loams cover a
  great deal of the whole area, and the Upper Chalk itself has been
  disturbed at Reed and Barley by the same agency. Chalk was formerly
  used for building purposes; it is now burned for lime. Reading beds
  and London clay are dug for brick-making at Watford, Hertford and
  Hatfield. Phosphatic nodules have been excavated from the base of the
  Chalk Marl at several places along the outcrop; the Marl is worked for
  cement.

_Climate and Agriculture._--The climate is mild, dry and generally
healthy. On this account London physicians were formerly accustomed to
recommend the county to persons in weak health, and it was so much
coveted by the noble and wealthy as a place of residence that it was a
common saying that "he who buys a home in Hertfordshire pays two years'
purchase for the air." Of the total area about four-fifths is under
cultivation, and of this more than one-third is in permanent pasture.
The principal grain crop is wheat, occupying about two-fifths of the
area under corn, but gradually decreasing. The varieties mostly grown
are white, and they are unsurpassed by those of any English county.
Wheathampstead on the upper Lea receives its name from the fine quality
of the wheat grown in that district. Barley is largely used in the
county for malting purposes. Vetches are grown for the London stables,
and the greater part of the permanent grass is used for hay. There are
some very rich pastures on the banks of the Stort, and also near
Rickmansworth on the Colne. Some two-thirds of the area occupied by
green crops is under turnips, swedes and mangolds, many cows being kept
for the supply of milk and butter to London. The quantity of stock is
generally small, but increasing except in the case of sheep, of which
the numbers have greatly decreased. Of cows the most common breed is the
Suffolk variety; of sheep, Southdowns, Wiltshires and a cross between
Cotteswolds and Leicesters. In the south-west large quantities of
cherries, apples and strawberries are grown for the London market; and
on the best soils near London vegetables are forced by the aid of
manure, and more than one crop is sometimes obtained in a year. A
considerable industry lies in the growth of watercresses in the pure
water of the upper parts of the rivers and the smaller streams. There
are a number of rose-gardens and nurseries.

_Other Industries._--The manufacturing industries are slight; though the
great brewing establishments at Watford may be mentioned, and
straw-plaiting, paper-making, coach-building, tanning and brick-making
are carried on in various towns.

_Communications._--Owing to its proximity to the metropolis,
Hertfordshire is particularly well served by railways. On the eastern
border there is the Great Eastern (Cambridge line) with branches to
Hertford and to Buntingford. The main line of the Great Northern passes
through the centre by Hatfield, Stevenage and Hitchin, with branches
from Hatfield to Hertford, to St Albans and to Luton and Dunstable, and
from Hitchin to Baldock, Royston and so to Cambridge. The Midland passes
through St Albans and Harpenden, with a branch to Hemel Hempstead. The
London & North-Western traverses the south-west by Watford,
Berkhampstead and Tring, with branches to Rickmansworth and to St
Albans. The Metropolitan & Great Central joint line serves
Rickmansworth, and suburban lines of the Great Northern the Barnet
district. The existence of these communications has combined with the
natural attractions of the county to cause many villages to become large
residential centres. Water communications are supplied from Hertford,
Ware and Bishop Stortford, southward to the Thames by the Lea and Stort
Navigation; and the Grand Junction canal from London to the north-west
traverses the south-western corner of the county by Rickmansworth and
Berkhampstead. Three great highways from London to the north traverse
the county. The Holyhead Road passes Chipping Barnet, South Mimms and St
Albans, quitting the county near Dunstable. The Great North Road
branches from the Holyhead Road at Barnet, and passes Potter's Bar,
Hatfield, Stevenage and Baldock, with a branch from Welwyn to Hitchin
and beyond. Another road follows the Lea valley to Ware, whence it runs
to Royston, being here coincident with the Roman Ermine Street and known
as the Old North Road.

_Population and Administration._--The area of the ancient county is
406,157 acres with a population in 1891 of 220,162, and in 1901 of
250,152. The area of the administrative county is 404,518 acres. The
county comprises eight hundreds. The municipal boroughs are: Hemel
Hempstead (11,264), Hertford (9322), St Albans, a city (16,019). The
other urban districts are: Baldock (2057), Barnet (7876), Berkhampstead
(Great Berkhampstead, 5140), Bishop Stortford (7143), Bushey (4564),
Cheshunt (12,292), East Barnet Valley (10,094), Harpenden (4725),
Hitchin (10,072), Hoddesdon (4711), Rickmansworth (5627), Royston
(3517), Sawbridgeworth (2085), Stevenage (3957), Tring (4349), Ware
(5573) and Watford (29,327). The county is in the home circuit, and
assizes are held at Hertford. It has two courts of quarter-sessions, and
is divided into 15 petty-sessional divisions. The boroughs of Hertford
and St Albans have separate commissions of the peace. The total number
of civil parishes is 158. All the civil parishes within 12 m. of, or in
which no portion is more than 15 m. from, Charing Cross, London, are
included in the metropolitan police district. The county contains 170
ecclesiastical parishes or districts, wholly or in part; it is nearly
all in the diocese of St Albans, but small parts are in the dioceses of
Ely, Oxford and London. It is divided into four parliamentary
divisions--Northern or Hitchin, Eastern or Hertford, Mid or St Albans,
Western or Watford, each returning one member. There is no parliamentary
borough within the county.

_History._--Relics of Saxon occupation have been found in Hertfordshire
for the most part near St Albans and Hitchin. The diocesan limits show
that part of the shire was included in the West Saxon kingdom. The East
Saxons, as early as the 6th century, were settled about Hertford, which
in 673 was sufficiently important to be the meeting-place of a synod
convened by Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury, while in 675 the
Witenagemot assembled at a place which has been identified with
Hatfield. In the 9th century the district was frequently visited by the
Danes; and after the peace of Wedmore the country east of the Lea was
included in the Danelaw; in 911 Edward the Elder erected forts on both
sides of the river at Hertford.

After the battle of Hastings William advanced on Hertfordshire and
ravaged as far as Berkhampstead, where the Conquest received its formal
ratification. In the sweeping confiscation of estates which followed,
the church was generously endowed, the abbey of St Albans alone holding
172 hides, while Count Eustace of Boulogne, the chief lay tenant, held a
vast fief in the north-east of the county. Large estates were held by
Geoffrey de Mandeville, and the barony of Peter de Valognes, sheriff of
the county in 1086, though extending over six counties in the east of
England, was returned in 1166 as a Hertfordshire barony. Berkhampstead
was the head of an honour carved from the fief of Robert of Mortain. The
Hertfordshire estates, however, for the most part changed hands very
frequently and the county is noticeably lacking in historic families.
Edmund Langley, fifth son of Edward III., was born at King's Langley in
this county.

During the war between John and his barons, William, earl of Salisbury
and Falkes de Breauté had the king's orders to ravage Hertfordshire, and
in 1216 Hertford Castle was captured and Berkhampstead Castle besieged
by Louis of France, who had come over by invitation of the barons. At
the time of the rising of 1381 the abbot's tenants broke into the abbey
of St Albans and forced the abbot to grant them a charter. During the
Wars of the Roses, Henry VI. was defeated at St Albans in 1455; at the
second battle of St Albans the earl of Warwick was defeated by Queen
Margaret; and in 1471 Edward IV. again defeated the earl at Barnet. On
the outbreak of the Civil War of the 17th century, Hertfordshire joined
with Bedfordshire and Essex in petitioning for peace, and St Albans
again played an important part in the struggle, being at different times
the headquarters of Essex and Fairfax.

As a shire Hertfordshire is of purely military origin, being the
district assigned to the fortress which Edward the Elder erected at
Hertford. It is first mentioned in the Saxon Chronicle in 1011. At the
time of the Domesday Survey the boundaries were approximately those of
the present day, but part of Meppershall in Bedfordshire formed a
detached portion of the shire and is still assessed for land and income
tax in Hertfordshire. Of the nine Domesday hundreds, those of Danais and
Tring were consolidated about 1200 under the name of Dacorum; the modern
hundred of Cashio, from being held by the abbots of St Albans, was known
as Albaneston, while the remaining six hundreds correspond approximately
both in name and extent with those of the present day.

Hertfordshire was originally divided between the dioceses of London and
Lincoln. In 1291 that part included in the Lincoln diocese formed part
of the archdeaconry of Huntingdom and comprised the deaneries of
Berkhampstead, Hitchin, Hertford and Baldock, and the archdeaconry and
deanery of St Albans; while that part within the London diocese formed
the deanery of Braughing within the archdeaconry of Middlesex. In 1535
the jurisdiction of St Albans had been transferred to the London
diocese, the division being otherwise unchanged. In 1846 the whole
county was placed within the diocese of Rochester and archdeaconry of St
Albans, and in the next year the deaneries of Welwyn, Bennington,
Buntingford, Bishop Stortford and Ware were created, and that of
Braughing abolished. In 1864 the archdeaconries of Rochester and St
Albans were united under the name of the archdeaconry of Rochester and
St Albans. In 1878 the county was placed in the newly created diocese of
St Albans, and formed the archdeaconry of St Albans, the deaneries being
unchanged.

Hertfordshire was closely associated with Essex from the time of its
first settlement, and the counties paid a joint fee-farm and were united
under one sheriff until 1565, the shire-court being held at Hertford.
The hundred of St Albans was at an early date constituted a separate
liberty, with independent courts and coroners under the control of the
abbot; it preserved a separate commission of the peace until 1874, when
by act of parliament the county was arranged in two divisions, the
eastern division being named Hertford, and the western the liberty of
St Albans. These divisions have since been abolished.

Hertfordshire has always been an agricultural county, with few
manufactures, and at the time of the Domesday Survey its wealth was
derived almost entirely from its rural manors, with their water meadows,
woodlands, fisheries paying rent in eels, and water-mills, the shire on
its eastern side being noticeably free from waste land. In Norman times
the woollen trade was considerable, and the great corn market at Royston
has been famous since the reign of Elizabeth. At the time of the Civil
War the malting industry was largely carried on, and saltpetre was
produced in the county. In the 17th century Hertfordshire was famous for
its horses, and the 18th century saw the introduction of several minor
industries, such as straw-plaiting, paper-making and silk weaving.

In 1290 Hertfordshire returned two members to parliament, and in 1298
the borough of Hertford was represented. St Albans, Bishop Stortford and
Berkhampstead acquired representation in the 14th century, but from 1375
to 1553 no returns were made for the boroughs. St Albans regained
representation in 1553 and Hertford in 1623. Under the Reform Act of
1832 the county returned three members. St Albans was disfranchised on
account of bribery in 1852. Hertford lost one member in 1868, and was
disfranchised by the act of 1885.

_Antiquities._--Among the objects of antiquarian interest may be
mentioned the cave of Royston, doubtless once used as a hermitage;
Waltham Cross, erected to mark the spot where rested the body of
Eleanor, queen of Edward I., on its way to Westminster for interment;
and the Great Bed of Ware referred to in Shakespeare's _Twelfth Night_
and preserved at Rye House. The principal monastic buildings are the
noble pile of St Albans abbey; the remains of Sopwell Benedictine
nunnery near St Albans, founded in 1140; the remains of the priory of
Ware, dedicated to St Francis, and originally a cell to the monastery of
St Ebrulf at Utica in Normandy; and the remains of the priory at Hitchin
built by Edward II. for the Carmelites. Among the more interesting
churches may be mentioned those of Abbots Langley and Hemel Hempstead,
both of Late Norman architecture; Baldock, a handsome mixed Gothic
building supposed to have been erected by the Knights Templars in the
reign of Stephen; Royston, formerly connected with the priory of canons
regular; Hitchin of the 15th century; Hatfield, dating from the 13th
century but in the main later; Berkhampstead, chiefly in the
Perpendicular style, with a tower of the 16th century. Sandridge church
shows good Norman work with the use of Roman bricks; Wheathampstead
church, mainly very fine Decorated, has pre-Norman remains. The remains
of secular buildings of importance are those of Berkhampstead castle,
Hertford castle, Hatfield palace of the bishops of Ely, the slight
traces at Bishop Stortford, and the earthworks at Anstey. Among the
numerous mansions of interest, Rye House, erected in the reign of Henry
VI., was tenanted by Rumbold, one of the principal agents in the plot to
assassinate Charles II. Moor Park, Rickmansworth, once the property of
St Albans abbey, was granted by Henry VII. to John de Vere, earl of
Oxford, and was afterwards the property of the duke of Monmouth, who
built the present mansion, which, however, was subsequently cased with
Portland stone and received various other additions. Knebworth, the seat
of the Lyttons, was originally a Norman fortress, rebuilt in the time of
Elizabeth in the Tudor style and restored in the 19th century. Hatfield
House is the seat of the marquis of Salisbury; but its earlier history
is of great interest, as is that of Theobalds near Cheshunt. Panshanger
House, until recently the principal seat of the Cowpers, is a splendid
mansion in Gothic style erected at the beginning of the 19th century.
The manor of Cashiobury House, the seat of the earls of Essex, was
formerly held by the abbot of St Albans, but the mansion was rebuilt in
the beginning of the 19th century from designs by Wyatt. Gorhambury
House, near St Albans, the seat of the earl of Verulam, formerly the
seat of the Bacons, and the residence of the great chancellor, was
rebuilt at the close of the 18th century. At Kings Langley and Hunsdon
were also former royal residences.

  See Sir H. Chauncy, _Historical Antiquities of Hertfordshire_ (London,
  1700, 2nd ed., Bishop Stortford, 1826); N. Salmon, _History of
  Hertfordshire_ (London, 1728); R. Clutterbuck, _History and
  Antiquities of the County of Hertford_ (London, 1815-1827); W. Berry,
  _Pedigrees of the Hertfordshire Families_ (London, 1844); J. E.
  Cussans, _History of Hertfordshire_ (London, 1870-1881); _Victoria
  County History, Hertfordshire_ (London, 1902, &c.); see also
  "Visitation of Hertfordshire, 1572-1634," in _Harleian Society's
  Publ._ vol. xvii., and various papers in _Middlesex and Hertfordshire
  Notes and Queries_ (1895-1898), which in January 1899 was incorporated
  in the _Home Counties_ Magazine.



HERTHA, or NERTHUS, in Teutonic mythology, the goddess of fertility,
"Mother Earth." Tacitus states that many Teutonic tribes worshipped her
with orgies and mysterious rites celebrated at night. The chief seat of
her cult was an island which has not been identified. A single priest
performed the service. Her veiled statue was moved from place to place
by sacred cows on which none but the priest might lay hands. At the
conclusion of the rites the image, its vestments and its vehicle were
bathed in a lake.



HERTZ, HEINRICH RUDOLF (1857-1894), German physicist, was born at
Hamburg on the 22nd of February 1857. On leaving school he determined to
adopt the profession of engineering, and in the pursuance of this
decision went to study in Munich in 1877. But soon coming to the
conclusion that engineering was not his vocation he abandoned it in
favour of physical science, and in October 1878 began to attend the
lectures of G. R. Kirchhoff and H. von Helmholtz at Berlin. In
preparation for these he spent the winter of 1877-1878 in reading up
original treatises like those of Laplace and Lagrange on mathematics and
mechanics, and in attending courses on practical physics under P. G. von
Jolly and J. F. W. von Bezold; the consequence was that within a few
days of his arrival in Berlin in October 1878 he was able to plunge into
original research on a problem of electric inertia. For the best
solution a prize was offered by the philosophical faculty of the
University, and this he succeeded in winning with the paper which was
published in 1880 on the "Kinetic Energy of Electricity in Motion." His
next investigation, on "Induction in Rotating Spheres," he offered in
1880 as his dissertation for his doctor's degree, which he obtained with
the rare distinction of _summa cum laude_. Later in the same year he
became assistant to Helmholtz in the physical laboratory of the Berlin
Institute. During the three years he held this position he carried out
researches on the contact of elastic solids, hardness, evaporation and
the electric discharge in gases, the last earning him the special
commendation of Helmholtz. In 1883 he went to Kiel, becoming
_Privatdozent_, and there he began the studies in Maxwell's
electromagnetic theory which a few years later resulted in the
discoveries that rendered his name famous. These were actually made
between 1885 and 1889, when he was professor of physics in the Carlsruhe
Polytechnic. He himself recorded that their origin is to be sought in a
prize problem proposed by the Berlin Academy of Sciences in 1879, having
reference to the experimental establishment of some relation between
electromagnetic forces and the dielectric polarization of insulators.
Imagining that this would interest Hertz and be successfully attacked by
him, Helmholtz specially drew his attention to it, and promised him the
assistance of the Institute if he decided to work on the subject; but
Hertz did not take it up seriously at that time, because he could not
think of any procedure likely to prove effective. It was of course well
known, as a necessity of Maxwell's mathematical theory, that the
polarization and depolarization of an insulator must give rise to the
same electromagnetic effects in the neighbourhood as a voltaic current
in a conductor. The experimental proof, however, was still lacking, and
though several experimenters had come very near its discovery, Hertz was
the first who actually succeeded in supplying it, in 1887. Continuing
his inquiries for the next year or two, he was able to discover the
progressive propagation of electromagnetic action through space, to
measure the length and velocity of electromagnetic waves, and to show
that in the transverse nature of their vibration and their
susceptibility to reflection, refraction and polarization they are in
complete correspondence with the waves of light and heat. The result,
was in Helmholtz's words, to establish beyond doubt that ordinary light
consists of electrical vibrations in an all-pervading ether which
possesses the properties of an insulator and of a magnetic medium. Hertz
himself gave an admirable account of the significance of his discoveries
in a lecture on the relations between light and electricity, delivered
before the German Society for the Advancement of Natural Science and
Medicine at Heidelberg in September 1889. Since the time of these early
experiments, various other modes of detecting the existence of electric
waves have been found out in addition to the spark-gap which he first
employed, and the results of his observations, the earliest interest of
which was simply that they afforded a confirmation of an abstruse
mathematical theory, have been applied to the practical purposes of
signalling over considerable distances (see TELEGRAPHY, WIRELESS). In
1889 Hertz was appointed to succeed R. J. E. Clausius as ordinary
professor of physics in the university of Bonn. There he continued his
researches on the discharge of electricity in rarefied gases, only just
missing the discovery of the X-rays described by W. C. Röntgen a few
years later, and produced his treatise on the _Principles of Mechanics_.
This was his last work, for after a long illness he died at Bonn on the
1st of January 1894. By his premature death science lost one of her most
promising disciples. Helmholtz thought him the one of all his pupils who
had penetrated farthest into his own circle of scientific thought, and
looked to him with the greatest confidence for the further extension and
development of his work.

  Hertz's scientific papers were translated into English by Professor D.
  E. Jones, and published in three volumes: _Electric Waves_ (1893),
  _Miscellaneous Papers_ (1896), and _Principles of Mechanics_ (1899).
  The preface contributed to the first of these by Lord Kelvin, and the
  introductions to the second and third by Professors P. E. A. Lenard
  and Helmholtz, contain many biographical details, together with
  statements of the scope and significance of his investigations.



HERTZ, HENRIK (1797-1870), Danish poet, was born of Jewish parents in
Copenhagen on the 25th of August 1798. In 1817 he was sent to the
university. His father died in his infancy, and the family property was
destroyed in the bombardment of 1807. The boy was brought up by his
relative, M. L. Nathanson, a well-known newspaper editor. Young Hertz
passed his examination in law in 1825. But his taste was all for polite
literature, and in 1826-1827 two plays of his were produced, _Mr
Burchardt and his Family_ and _Love and Policy_; in 1828 followed the
comedy of _Flyttedagen_. In 1830 he brought out what was a complete
novelty in Danish literature, a comedy in rhymed verse, _Amor's Strokes
of Genius_. In the same year Hertz published anonymously
_Gengangerbrevene_, or Letters from a Ghost, which he pretended were
written by Baggesen, who had died in 1826. The book was written in
defence of J. L. Heiberg, and was full of satirical humour and fine
critical insight. Its success was overwhelming; but Hertz preserved his
anonymity, and the secret was not known until many years later. In 1832
he published a didactic poem, _Nature and Art_, and _Four Poetical
Epistles_. _A Day on the Island of Als_ was his next comedy, followed in
1835 by _The Only Fault_. Hertz passed through Germany and Switzerland
into Italy in 1833; he spent the winter there, and returned the
following autumn through France to Denmark. In 1836 his comedy of _The
Savings Bank_ enjoyed a great success. But it was not till 1837 that he
gave the full measure of his genius in the romantic national drama of
_Svend Dyrings Hus_, a beautiful and original piece. His historical
tragedy _Valdemar Atterdag_ was not so well received in 1839; but in
1845 he achieved an immense success with his lyrical drama _Kong René's
Datter_ (King René's Daughter), which has been translated into almost
every European language. To this succeeded the tragedy of _Ninon_ in
1848, the romantic comedy of _Tonietta_ in 1849, _A Sacrifice_ in 1853,
_The Youngest_ in 1854. His lyrical poems appeared in successive
collections, dated 1832, 1840 and 1844. From 1858 to 1859 he edited a
literary journal entitled _Weekly Leaves_. His last drama, _Three Days
in Padua_, was produced in 1869, and he died on the 25th of February of
the next year.

Hertz is one of the first of Danish lyrical poets. His poems are full of
colour and passion, his versification has more witchcraft in it than any
other poet's of his age, and his style is grace itself. He has all the
sensuous fire of Keats without his proclivity to the antique. As a
romantic dramatist he is scarcely less original. He has bequeathed to
the Danish theatre, in _Svend Dyrings Hus_ and _King René's Daughter_,
two pieces which have become classic. He is a troubadour by instinct; he
has little or nothing of Scandinavian local colouring, and succeeds best
when he is describing the scenery or the emotions of the glowing south.

  His _Dramatic Works_ (18 vols.) were published at Copenhagen in
  1854-1873; and his _Poems_ (4 vols.) in 1851-1862.



HERTZBERG, EWALD FRIEDRICH, COUNT VON (1725-1795), Prussian statesman,
who came of a noble family which had been settled in Pomerania since the
13th century, was born at Lottin, in that province, on the 2nd of
September 1725. After 1739 he studied, chiefly classics and history at
the gymnasium at Stettin, and in 1742 entered the university of Halle as
a student of jurisprudence, becoming in due course a doctor of laws in
1745. In addition to this principal study, he was also interested while
at the university in historical and philosophical (Christian Wolff)
studies. A first thesis for his doctorate, entitled _Jus publicum
Brandenburgicum_, was not printed, because it contained a criticism of
the existing condition of the state. Shortly afterwards Hertzberg
entered the government service, in which he was first employed in the
department of the state archives (of which he became director in 1750),
soon after in the foreign office, and finally in 1763 as chief minister
(_Cabinetsminister_). In 1752 he married Baroness Marie von Knyphausen,
a marriage which was happy, but childless.

For more than forty years Hertzberg played an active part in the
Prussian foreign office. In this capacity he had a decisive influence on
Prussian policy, both under Frederick the Great and Frederick William
II. At the beginning of the Seven Years' War (1756) he took part as a
political writer in the Hohenzollern-Habsburg quarrel, both in his
_Ursachen, die S.K.M. in Preussen bewogen haben, sich wider die
Absichten des Wienerischen Hofes zu setzen und deren Ausführung
zuvorzukommen_ ("Motives which have induced the king of Prussia to
oppose the intentions of the court of Vienna, and to prevent them from
being carried into effect"), and in his _Mémoire raisonné sur la
conduite des cours de Vienne et de Saxe_, based on the secret papers
taken by Frederick the Great from the archives of Dresden. After the
defeat at Kolin (1757) he hastened to Pomerania in order to organize the
national defence there and collect the necessary troops for the
protection of the fortresses of Stettin and Colberg. In the same year he
conducted the peace negotiations with Sweden, and was of great service
in bringing about the peace of Hubertsburg (1763), on the conclusion of
which the king received him with the words, "I congratulate you. You
have made peace as I made war, one against many."

In the later years, too, of Frederick the Great's reign, Hertzberg
played a considerable part in foreign policy. In 1772, in a memoir based
upon comprehensive historical studies, he defended the Prussian claims
to certain provinces of Poland. He also took part successfully as a
publicist in the negotiations concerning the question of the Bavarian
succession (1778) and those of the peace of Teschen (1779). But in 1780
he failed to uphold Prussian interests at the election of the bishop of
Münster. In 1784 appeared Hertzberg's memoir containing a thorough study
of the _Fürstenbund_. He championed this latest creation of Frederick
the Great's mainly with a view to an energetic reform of the empire,
though the idea of German unity was naturally still far from his mind.
In 1785 followed "An explanation of the motives which have led the king
of Prussia to propose to the other high estates of the empire an
association for the maintenance of the system of the empire" (_Erklärung
der Ursachen, welche S.M. in Preussen bewogen haben, ihren hohen
Mitständen des Reichs eine Association zur Erhaltung des Reichssystems
anzutragen_). By upholding the Fürstenbund Hertzberg made many enemies,
prominent among whom was the king's brother, Prince Henry. Though the
_Fürstenbund_ failed to effect a reform of the empire, it at any rate
prevented the fulfilment of Joseph II.'s old desire for the
incorporation of Bavaria with Austria. The last act of state in which
Hertzberg took part under Frederick the Great was the commercial treaty
concluded in 1785 between Prussia and the United States.

With Frederick, especially in his later years, Hertzberg stood in very
intimate personal relations and was often the king's guest at
Sans-Souci. Under Frederick William II. his influential position at the
court of Berlin was at first unshaken. The king at once received him
with favour, as is clearly proved by Hertzberg's elevation to the rank
of count in 1786; and Mirabeau would never have attacked him with such
violence in his _Secret History of the Court of Berlin_, which appeared
in 1788, if he had not seen in him the most powerful man after the king.
In this attack Mirabeau seems to have been influenced by Hertzberg's
personal enemies at the court. Hertzberg's political system remained on
the whole the same under Frederick William II. as it had been under his
predecessor. It was mainly characterized by a sharp opposition to the
house of Habsburg and by a desire to win for Prussia the support of
England, a policy supported by him in important memoirs of the years
1786 and 1787. His diplomacy was directed also against Austria's old
ally, France. Hence it was chiefly owing to Hertzberg that in 1787, in
spite of the king's unwillingness at first, Prussia intervened in
Holland in support of the stadtholder William V. against the democratic
French party (see HOLLAND: _History_). The success of this intervention,
which was the practical realization of a plan very characteristic of
Hertzberg, marks the culminating point in his career.

But the opposition between him and the new king, which had already
appeared at the time of the conclusion of the triple alliance between
Holland, England and Prussia, became more marked in the following years,
when Hertzberg, relying upon this alliance, and in conscious imitation
of Frederick II.'s policy at the time of the first partition of Poland,
sought to take advantage of the entanglement of Austria with Russia in
the war with Turkey to secure for Prussia an extension of territory by
diplomatic intervention. According to his plan, Prussia was to offer her
mediation at the proper moment, and in the territorial readjustments
that the peace would bring, was to receive Danzig and Thorn as her
portion. Beyond this he aimed at preventing the restoration of the
hegemony of Austria in the Empire, and secretly cherished the hope of
restoring Frederick the Great's Russian alliance.

With a curious obstinacy he continued to pursue these aims even when,
owing to military and diplomatic events, they were already partly out of
date. His personal position became increasingly difficult, as
deep-rooted differences between him and the king were revealed during
these diplomatic campaigns. Hertzberg wished to effect everything by
peaceful means, while Frederick William II. was for a time determined on
war with Austria. As regards Polish policy, too, their ideas came into
conflict, Hertzberg having always been openly opposed to the total
annihilation of the Polish kingdom. The same is true of the attitude of
king and minister towards Great Britain. At the conferences at
Reichenbach in the summer of 1790, this opposition became more and more
acute, and Hertzberg was only with difficulty persuaded to come to an
agreement merely on the basis of the _status_ quo, as demanded by Pitt.
The king's renunciation of any extension of territory was in Hertzberg's
eyes impolitic, and this view of his was later endorsed by Bismarck. A
letter which came to the eyes of the king, in which Hertzberg severely
criticized the king's foreign policy, and especially his plans for
attacking Russia, led to his dismissal on the 5th of July 1791. He
afterwards made several attempts to exert an influence over foreign
affairs, but in vain. The king showed himself more and more personally
hostile to the ex-minister, and in later years pursued Hertzberg, now
quite embittered, with every kind of petty persecution, even ordering
his letters to be opened.

Even in his literary interests Hertzberg found an adversary in the
ungrateful king, for Frederick William, to give one instance, made it so
difficult for him to use the archives that in the end Hertzberg entirely
gave up the attempt. He found, however, some recompense for all his
disillusionment and discouragement in learning, and, Wilhelm von
Humboldt excepted, he was the most learned of all the Prussian
ministers. As a member of the Berlin Academy especially, and, from 1786
onwards, as its curator, Hertzberg carried on a great and valuable
activity in the world of learning. His yearly reports dealt with
history, statistics and political science. The most interesting is that
of 1784: _Sur la forme des gouvernements, et quelle est la meilleure_.
This is directed exclusively against the absolute system (following
Montesquieu), upholds a limited monarchy, and is in favour of extending
to the peasants the right to be represented in the diet. He spoke for
the last time in 1793 on Frederick the Great and the advantages of
monarchy. After 1783 these discourses caused a great sensation, since
Hertzberg introduced into them a review of the financial situation,
which in the days of absolutism seemed an unprecedented innovation.
Besides this, Hertzberg exerted himself as an academician to change the
strongly French character of the Academy and make it into a truly German
institution. He showed a keen interest in the old German language and
literature. A special "German deputation" was set aside at the Academy
and entrusted with the drawing up of a German grammar and dictionary. He
also stood in very close relations with many of the German poets of the
time, and especially with Daniel Schubart. Among the German historians
in whom he took a great interest, he had the greatest esteem for
Pufendorf. He was equally concerned in the improvement of the state of
education. In 1780 he boldly took up the defence of German literature,
which had been disparaged by Frederick the Great in his famous writing
_De la littérature allemande_.

Hertzberg's frank and honourable nature little fitted him to be a
successful diplomatist; but the course of history has justified many of
his aims and ideals, and in Prussia his memory is honoured. He died at
Berlin on the 22nd of May 1795.

  AUTHORITIES.--(1) By Hertzberg himself: The _Mémoires de l'Académie_
  from 1780 on contain Hertzberg's discourses. The most noteworthy of
  them were printed in 1787. Here too is to be found: _Histoire de la
  dissertation [du roi] sur la littérature allemande_; see also _Recueil
  des déductions, &c., qui ont été rédigés ... pour la cour de Prusse
  par le ministre_ (3 vols., 1789-1795); and an "Autobiographical
  Sketch" published by Höpke in Schmidt's _Zeitschrift für
  Geschichtswissenschaft_, i. (1843). (2) Works dealing specially with
  Hertzberg: Mirabeau, _Histoire secrète de la cour de Berlin_ (1788);
  P. F. Weddigen, _Hertzbergs Leben_ (Bremen, 1797); E. L. Posselt,
  _Hertzbergs Leben_ (Tübingen, 1798); H. Lehmann, in _Neustettiner
  Programm_ (1862); E. Fischer, in _Staatsanzeiger_ (1873); M. Duncker,
  in _Historische Zeitschrift_ (1877); Paul Bailleu, in _Historische
  Zeitschrift_ (1879); and _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_ (1880); H.
  Petrich, _Pommersche Lebensbilder_ i. (1880); G. Dressler, _Friedrich
  II. und Hertzberg in ihrer Stellung zu den holländischen Wirren_,
  Breslauer Dissertation (1882); K. Krauel, _Hertzberg als Minister
  Friedrich Wilhelms II_. (Berlin, 1899); F. K. Wittichen, in
  _Historische Vierteljahrschrift_, 9 (1906); A. Th. Preuss, _Ewald
  Friedrich, Graf von Hertzberg_ (Berlin, 1909). (3) General works: F.
  K. Wittichen, _Preussen und England, 1785-1788_ (Heidelberg, 1902); F.
  Luckwaldt, _Die englisch-preussische Allianz von 1788 in den
  Forschungen zur brandenburgisch-preussischen Geschichte_, Bd. 15, and
  in the _Delbrückfestschrift_ (Berlin, 1908); L. Sevin, _System der
  preussischen Geheimpolitik_ 1790-1791 (Heidelberger Dissertation,
  1903); P. Wittichen, _Die polnische Politik Preussens 1788-1790_
  (Berlin, 1899); F. Andreae, _Preussische und russische Politik in
  Polen_ 1787-1789 (Berliner Dissertation, 1905); also W. Wenck,
  _Deutschland vor 100 Jahren_ (2 vols., 1887, 1890); A. Harnack,
  _Geschichte der preussischen Akademie_ (4 vols., 1899); Consentius,
  _Preussische Jahrbücher_ (1904); J. Hashagen, "Hertzbergs Verhältnis
  zur deutschen Literatur," in _Zeitschrift für deutsche Philologie_ for
  1903.     (J. Hn.)



HERTZEN, ALEXANDER (1812-1870), Russian author, was born at Moscow, a
very short time before the occupation of that city by the French. His
father, Ivan Yakovlef, after a personal interview with Napoleon, was
allowed to leave, when the invaders arrived, as the bearer of a letter
from the French to the Russian emperor. His family attended him to the
Russian lines. Then the mother of the infant Alexander (a young German
Protestant of Jewish extraction from Stuttgart, according to A. von
Wurzbach), only seventeen years old, and quite unable to speak Russian,
was forced to seek shelter for some time in a peasant's hut. A year
later the family returned to Moscow, where Hertzen passed his
youth--remaining there, after completing his studies at the university,
till 1834, when he was arrested and tried on a charge of having
assisted, with some other youths, at a festival during which verses by
Sokolovsky, of a nature uncomplimentary to the emperor, were sung. The
special commission appointed to try the youthful culprits found him
guilty, and in 1835 he was banished to Viatka. There he remained till
the visit to that city of the hereditary grand-duke (afterwards
Alexander II.), accompanied by the poet Joukofsky, led to his being
allowed to quit Viatka for Vladimir, where he was appointed editor of
the official gazette of that city. In 1840 he obtained a post in the
ministry of the interior at St Petersburg; but in consequence of having
spoken too frankly about a death due to a police officer's violence, he
was sent to Novgorod, where he led an official life, with the title of
"state councillor," till 1842. In 1846 his father died, leaving him by
his will a very large property. Early in 1847 he left Russia, never to
return. From Italy, on hearing of the revolution of 1848, he hastened to
Paris, whence he afterwards went to Switzerland. In 1852 he quitted
Geneva for London, where he settled for some years. In 1864 he returned
to Geneva, and after some time went to Paris, where he died on the 21st
of January 1870.

His literary career began in 1842 with the publication of an essay, in
Russian, on _Dilettantism in Science_, under the pseudonym of
"Iskander," the Turkish form of his Christian name--convicts, even when
pardoned, not being allowed in those days to publish under their own
names. His second work, also in Russian, was his _Letters on the Study
of Nature_ (1845-1846). In 1847 appeared, his novel _Kto Vinovat?_
(Whose Fault?), and about the same time were published in Russian
periodicals the stories which were afterwards collected and printed in
London in 1854, under the title of _Prervannuie Razskazui_ (Interrupted
Tales). In 1850 two works appeared, translated from the Russian
manuscript, _Vom anderen Ufer_ (From another Shore) and _Lettres de
France et d'Italie_. In French appeared also his essay _Du Développement
des idées révolutionnaires en Russie_, and his _Memoirs_, which, after
being printed in Russian, were translated under the title of _Le Monde
russe et la Révolution_ (3 vols., 1860-1862), and were in part
translated into English as _My Exile to Siberia_ (2 vols., 1855). From a
literary point of view his most important work is _Kto Vinovat?_ a story
describing how the domestic happiness of a young tutor, who marries the
unacknowledged daughter of a Russian sensualist of the old type, dull,
ignorant and genial, is troubled by a Russian sensualist of the new
school, intelligent, accomplished and callous, without there being any
possibility of saying who is most to be blamed for the tragic
termination. But it was as a political writer that Hertzen gained the
vast reputation which he at one time enjoyed. Having founded in London
his "Free Russian Press," of the fortunes of which, during ten years, he
gave an interesting account in a book published (in Russian) in 1863, he
issued from it a great number of Russian works, all levelled against the
system of government prevailing in Russia. Some of these were essays,
such as his _Baptized Property_, an attack on serfdom; others were
periodical publications, the _Polyarnaya Zvyezda_ (or Polar Star), the
_Kolokol_ (or Bell), and the _Golosa iz Rossii_ (or Voices from Russia).
The _Kolokol_ soon obtained an immense circulation, and exercised an
extraordinary influence. For three years, it is true, the founders of
the "Free Press" went on printing, "not only without selling a single
copy, but scarcely being able to get a single copy introduced into
Russia"; so that when at last a bookseller bought ten shillings' worth
of _Baptized Property_, the half-sovereign was set aside by the
surprised editors in a special place of honour. But the death of the
emperor Nicholas in 1855 produced an entire change. Hertzen's writings,
and the journals he edited, were smuggled wholesale into Russia, and
their words resounded throughout that country, as well as all over
Europe. Their influence became overwhelming. Evil deeds long hidden,
evil-doers who had long prospered, were suddenly dragged into light and
disgrace. His bold and vigorous language aptly expressed the thoughts
which had long been secretly stirring Russian minds, and were now
beginning to find a timid utterance at home. For some years his
influence in Russia was a living force, the circulation of his writings
was a vocation zealously pursued. Stories tell how on one occasion a
merchant, who had bought several cases of sardines at Nijni-Novgorod,
found that they contained forbidden print instead of fish, and at
another time a supposititious copy of the _Kolokol_ was printed for the
emperor's special use, in which a telling attack upon a leading
statesman, which had appeared in the genuine number, was omitted. At
length the sweeping changes introduced by Alexander II. greatly
diminished the need for and appreciation of Hertzen's assistance in the
work of reform. The freedom he had demanded for the serfs was granted,
the law-courts he had so long denounced were remodelled, trial by jury
was established, liberty was to a great extent conceded to the press. It
became clear that Hertzen's occupation was gone. When the Polish
insurrection of 1863 broke out, and he pleaded the insurgents' cause,
his reputation in Russia received its death-blow. From that time it was
only with the revolutionary party that he was in full accord.

  In 1873 a collection of his works in French was commenced in Paris. A
  volume of posthumous works, in Russian, was published at Geneva in
  1870. His _Memoirs_ supply the principal information about his life, a
  sketch of which appears also in A. von Wurzbach's _Zeitgenossen_, pt.
  7 (Vienna, 1871). See also the _Revue des deux mondes_ for July 15 and
  Sept. 1, 1854. _Kto Vinovat?_ has been translated into German under
  the title of _Wer ist schuld?_ in Wolffsohn's _Russlands
  Novellendichter_, vol. iii. The title of _My Exile in Siberia_ is
  misleading; he was never in that country.     (W. R. S.-R.)



HERULI, a Teutonic tribe which figures prominently in the history of the
migration period. The name does not occur in writings of the first two
centuries A.D. Where the original home of the Heruli was situated is
never clearly stated. Jordanes says that they had been expelled from
their territories by the Danes, from which it may be inferred that they
belonged either to what is now the kingdom of Denmark, or the southern
portion of the Jutish peninsula. They are mentioned first in the reign
of Gallienus (260-268), when we find them together with the Goths
ravaging the coasts of the Black Sea and the Aegean. Shortly afterwards,
in A.D. 289, they appear in the region about the mouth of the Rhine.
During the 4th century they frequently served together with the Batavi
in the Roman armies. In the 5th century we again hear of piratical
incursions by the Heruli in the western seas. At the same time they had
a kingdom in central Europe, apparently in or round the basin of the
Elbe. Together with the Thuringi and Warni they were called upon by
Theodoric the Ostrogoth about the beginning of the 6th century to form
an alliance with him against the Frankish king Clovis, but very shortly
afterwards they were completely overthrown in war by the Langobardi. A
portion of them migrated to Sweden, where they settled among the Götar,
while others crossed the Danube and entered the Roman service, where
they are frequently mentioned later in connexion with the Gothic wars.
After the middle of the 6th century, however, their name completely
disappears. It is curious that in English, Frankish and Scandinavian
works they are never mentioned, and there can be little doubt that they
were known, especially among the western Teutonic peoples, by some other
name. Probably they are identical either with the North Suabi or with
the Iuti. The name Heruli itself is identified by many with the A.S.
_eorlas_ (nobles), O.S. _erlos_ (men), the singular of which (_erilaz_)
frequently occurs in the earliest Northern inscriptions, apparently as a
title of honour. The Heruli remained heathen until the overthrow of
their kingdom, and retained many striking primitive customs. When
threatened with death by disease or old age, they were required to call
in an executioner, who stabbed them on the pyre. Suttee was also
customary. They were entirely devoted to warfare and served not only in
the Roman armies, but also in those of all the surrounding nations. They
disdained the use of helmets and coats of mail, and protected themselves
only with shields.

  See Georgius Syncellus; Mamertinus _Paneg. Maximi_; Ammianus
  Marcellinus; Zosimus i. 39; Idatius, _Chronica_; Jordanes, _De origine
  Getarum_; Procopius, esp. _Bellum Goticum_, ii. 14 f.; _Bellum
  Persicum_, ii. 25; Paulus Diaconus, _Hist. Langobardorum_, i. 20; K.
  Zeuss, _Die Deutschen und die Nachbarstämme_, pp. 476 ff. (Munich,
  1837).     (F. G. M. B.)



HERVÁS Y PANDURO, LORENZO (1735-1809), Spanish philologist, was born at
Horcajo (Cuenca) on the 10th of May 1735. He joined the Jesuits on the
29th of September 1745 and in course of time became successively
professor of philosophy and humanities at the seminaries of Madrid and
Murcia. When the Jesuit order was banished from Spain in 1767, Hervás
settled at Forli, and devoted himself to the first part of his _Idea
dell' Universo_ (22 vols., 1778-1792). Returning to Spain in 1798, he
published his famous _Catálogo de las lenguas de las naciones conocidas_
(6 vols., 1800-1805), in which he collected the philological
peculiarities of three hundred languages and drew up grammars of forty
languages. In 1802 he was appointed librarian of the Quirinal Palace in
Rome, where he died on the 24th of August 1809. Max Müller credits him
with having anticipated Humboldt, and with making "one of the most
brilliant discoveries in the history of the science of language" by
establishing the relation between the Malay and Polynesian family of
speech.



HERVEY, JAMES (1714-1758), English divine, was born at Hardingstone,
near Northampton, on the 26th of February 1714, and was educated at the
grammar school of Northampton, and at Lincoln College, Oxford. Here he
came under the influence of John Wesley and the Oxford methodists;
ultimately, however, while retaining his regard for the men and his
sympathy with their religious aims, he adopted a thoroughly Calvinistic
creed, and resolved to remain in the Anglican Church. Having taken
orders in 1737, he held several curacies, and in 1752 succeeded his
father in the family livings of Weston Favell and Collingtree. He was
never robust, but was a good parish priest and a zealous writer. His
style is often bombastic, but he displays a rare appreciation of natural
beauty, and his simple piety made him many friends. His earliest work,
_Meditations and Contemplations_, said to have been modelled on Robert
Boyle's _Occasional Reflexions on various Subjects_, within fourteen
years passed through as many editions. _Theron and Aspasio, or a series
of Letters upon the most important and interesting Subjects_, which
appeared in 1755, and was equally well received, called forth some
adverse criticism even from Calvinists, on account of tendencies which
were considered to lead to antinomianism, and was strongly objected to
by Wesley in his _Preservative against unsettled Notions in Religion_.
Besides carrying into England the theological disputes to which the
_Marrow of Modern Divinity_ had given rise in Scotland, it also led to
what is known as the Sandemanian controversy as to the nature of saving
faith. Hervey died on the 25th of December 1758.

  A "new and complete" edition of his _Works_, with a memoir, appeared
  in 1797. See also _Collection of the Letters of James Hervey, to which
  is prefixed an account of his Life and Death_, by Dr Birch (1760).



HERVEY DE SAINT DENYS, MARIE JEAN LÉON, MARQUIS D' (1823-1892), French
Orientalist and man of letters, was born in Paris in 1823. He devoted
himself to the study of Chinese, and in 1851 published his _Recherches
sur l'agriculture et l'horticulture des Chinois_, in which he dealt with
the plants and animals that might be acclimatized in the West. At the
Paris Exhibition of 1867 he acted as commissioner for the Chinese
exhibits; in 1874 he succeeded Stanislas Julien in the chair of Chinese
at the Collège de France; and in 1878 he was elected a member of the
Académie des Inscriptions et de Belles-Lettres. His works include
_Poésies de l'époque des T'ang_ (1862), translated from the Chinese;
_Ethnographie des peuples étrangers à la Chine_, translated from
Ma-Touan-Lin (1876-1883); _Li-Sao_ (1870), from the Chinese; _Mémoires
sur les doctrines religieuse; de Confucius et de l'école des lettres_
(1887); and translations of some Chinese stories not of classical
interest but valuable for the light they throw on oriental custom.
Hervey de Saint Denys also translated some works from the Spanish, and
wrote a history of the Spanish drama. He died in Paris on the 2nd of
November 1892.



HERVEY OF ICKWORTH, JOHN HERVEY, BARON (1696-1743), English statesman
and writer, eldest son of John, 1st earl of Bristol, by his second
marriage, was born on the 13th of October 1696. He was educated at
Westminster school and at Clare Hall, Cambridge, where he took his M.A.
degree in 1715. In 1716 his father sent him to Paris, and thence to
Hanover to pay his court to George I. He was a frequent visitor at the
court of the prince and princess of Wales at Richmond, and in 1720 he
married Mary Lepell, who was one of the princess's ladies-in-waiting,
and a great court beauty. In 1723 he received the courtesy title of Lord
Hervey on the death of his half-brother Carr, and in 1725 he was elected
M.P. for Bury St Edmunds. He had been at one time on very friendly terms
with Frederick, prince of Wales, but from 1731 he quarrelled with him,
apparently because they were rivals in the favour of Anne Vane. These
differences probably account for the scathing picture he draws of the
prince's callous conduct. Hervey had been hesitating between William
Pulteney (afterwards earl of Bath) and Walpole, but in 1730 he
definitely took sides with Walpole, of whom he was thenceforward a
faithful adherent. He was assumed by Pulteney to be the author of
_Sedition and Defamation display'd with a Dedication to the patrons of
The Craftsman_ (1731). Pulteney, who, up to this time, had been a firm
friend of Hervey, replied with _A Proper Reply to a late Scurrilous
Libel_, and the quarrel resulted in a duel from which Hervey narrowly
escaped with his life. Hervey is said to have denied the authorship of
both the pamphlet and its dedication, but a note on the MS. at Ickworth,
apparently in his own hand, states that he wrote the latter. He was able
to render valuable service to Walpole from his influence over the queen.
Through him the minister governed Queen Caroline and indirectly George
II. Hervey was vice-chamberlain in the royal household and a member of
the privy council. In 1733 he was called to the House of Lords by writ
in virtue of his father's barony. In spite of repeated requests he
received no further preferment until after 1740, when he became lord
privy seal. After the fall of Sir Robert Walpole he was dismissed (July
1742) from his office. An excellent political pamphlet, _Miscellaneous
Thoughts on the present Posture of Foreign and Domestic Affairs_, shows
that he still retained his mental vigour, but he was liable to epilepsy,
and his weak appearance and rigid diet were a constant source of
ridicule to his enemies. He died on the 5th of August 1743. He
predeceased his father, but three of his sons became successively earls
of Bristol.

Hervey wrote detailed and brutally frank memoirs of the court of George
II. from 1727 to 1737. He gave a most unflattering account of the king,
and of Frederick, prince of Wales, and their family squabbles. For the
queen and her daughter, Princess Caroline, he had a genuine respect and
attachment, and the princess's affection for him was commonly said to be
the reason for the close retirement in which she lived after his death.
The MS. of Hervey's memoirs was preserved by the family, but his son,
Augustus John, 3rd earl of Bristol, left strict injunctions that they
should not be published until after the death of George III. In 1848
they were published under the editorship of J. W. Croker, but the MS.
had been subjected to a certain amount of mutilation before it came into
his hands. Croker also softened in some cases the plainspokenness of the
original. Hervey's bitter account of court life and intrigues resembles
in many points the memoirs of Horace Walpole, and the two books
corroborate one another in many statements that might otherwise have
been received with suspicion.

Until the publication of the _Memoirs_ Hervey was chiefly known as the
object of savage satire on the part of Pope, in whose works he figured
as Lord Fanny, Sporus, Adonis and Narcissus. The quarrel is generally
put down to Pope's jealousy of Hervey's friendship with Lady Mary
Wortley Montagu. In the first of the _Imitations of Horace_, addressed
to William Fortescue, "Lord Fanny" and "Sappho" were generally
identified with Hervey and Lady Mary, although Pope denied the personal
intention. Hervey had already been attacked in the _Dunciad_ and the
_Bathos_, and he now retaliated. There is no doubt that he had a share
in the _Verses to the Imitator of Horace_ (1732) and it is possible that
he was the sole author. In the _Letter from a nobleman at Hampton Court
to a Doctor of Divinity_ (1733), he scoffed at Pope's deformity and
humble birth. Pope's reply was a _Letter to a Noble Lord_, dated
November 1733, and the portrait of Sporus in the _Epistle to Dr
Arbuthnot_ (1735), which forms the prologue to the satires. Many of the
insinuations and insults contained in it are borrowed from Pulteney's
libel. The malicious caricature of Sporus does Hervey great injustice,
and he is not much better treated by Horace Walpole, who in reporting
his death in a letter (14th of August 1743) to Horace Mann, said he had
outlived his last inch of character. Nevertheless his writings prove him
to have been a man of real ability, condemned by Walpole's tactics and
distrust of able men to spend his life in court intrigue, the weapons of
which, it must be owned, he used with the utmost adroitness. His wife
Lady Hervey [Molly Lepell] (1700-1768), of whom an account is to be
found in Lady Louisa Stuart's _Anecdotes_, was a warm partisan of the
Stuarts. She retained her wit and charm throughout her life, and has the
distinction of being the recipient of English verses by Voltaire.

  See Hervey's _Memoirs of the Court of George II._, edited by J. W.
  Croker (1848); and an article by G. F. Russell Barker in the _Dict.
  Nat. Biog._ (vol. xxvi., 1891). Besides the _Memoirs_ he wrote
  numerous political pamphlets, and some occasional verses.



HERVIEU, PAUL (1857-   ), French dramatist and novelist, was born at
Neuilly (Seine) on the 2nd of November 1857. He was called to the bar in
1877, and, after serving some time in the office of the president of the
council, he qualified for the diplomatic service, but resigned on his
nomination in 1881 to a secretaryship in the French legation in Mexico.
He contributed novels, tales and essays to the chief Parisian papers and
reviews, and published a series of clever novels, including _L'Inconnu_
(1887), _Flirt_ (1890), _L'Exorcisée_ (1891), _Peints par eux-mêmes_
(1893), an ironical study written in the form of letters, and
_L'Armature_ (1895), dramatized in 1905 by Eugène Brieux. But his most
important work consists of a series of plays: _Les Paroles restent_
(Vaudeville, 17th of November 1892); _Les Tenailles_ (Théâtre Français,
28th of September 1895); _La Loi de l'homme_ (Théâtre Français, 15th of
February 1897); _La Course du flambeau_ (Vaudeville, 17th of April
1901); _Point de lendemain_ (Odéon, 18th of October 1901), a dramatic
version of a story by Vivaut Denon; _L'Ênigme_ (Théâtre Français, 5th of
November 1901); _Théroigne de Méricourt_ (Théâtre Sarah Bernhardt, 23rd
of September 1902); _Le Dédale_ (Théâtre Français, 19th of December
1903), and _Le Réveil_ (Théâtre Français, 18th of December 1905). These
plays are built upon a severely logical method, the mechanism of which
is sometimes so evident as to destroy the necessary sense of illusion.
The closing words of _La Course du flambeau_--"_Pour ma fille, j'ai tué
ma mère_"--are an example of his selection of a plot representing an
extreme theory. The riddle in _L'Éngime_ (staged at Wyndham's Theatre,
London, March 1st 1902, as _Caesar's Wife_) is, however, worked out with
great art, and _Le Dédale_, dealing with the obstacles to the remarriage
of a divorced woman, is reckoned among the masterpieces of the modern
French stage. He was elected to the French Academy in 1900.

  See A. Binet, in _L'Année psychologique_, vol. x. Hervieu's _Théâtre_
  was published, by Lemerre (3 vols., 1900-1904).



HERWARTH VON BITTENFELD, KARL EBERHARD (1796-1884), Prussian general
field-marshal, came of an aristocratic family which had supplied many
distinguished officers to the Prussian army. He entered the Guard
infantry in 1811, and served through the War of Liberation (1813-15),
distinguishing himself at Lützen and Paris. During the years of peace he
rose slowly to high command. In the Berlin revolution of 1848 he was on
duty at the royal palace as colonel of the 1st Guards. Major-general in
1852, and lieutenant-general in 1856, he received the grade of general
of infantry and the command of the VIIth (Westphalian) Army Corps in
1860. In the Danish War of 1864 he succeeded to the command of the
Prussians when Prince Frederick Charles became commander-in-chief of the
Allies, and it was under his leadership that the Prussians forced the
passage into Alsen on the 29th of June. In the war of 1866 Herwarth
commanded the "Army of the Elbe" which overran Saxony and invaded
Bohemia by the valley of the Elbe and Iser. His troops won the actions
of Hühnerwasser and Münchengrätz, and at Königgrätz formed the right
wing of the Prussian army. Herwarth himself directed the battle against
the Austrian left flank. In 1870 he was not employed in the field, but
was in charge of the scarcely less important business of organizing and
forwarding all the reserves and material required for the armies in
France. In 1871 his great services were recognized by promotion to the
rank of field-marshal. The rest of his life was spent in retirement at
Bonn, where he died in 1884. Since 1889 the 13th (1st Westphalian)
Infantry has borne his name.

  See _G. F. M. Herwarth von Bittenfeld_ (Münster, 1896).



HERWEGH, GEORG (1817-1875), German political poet, was born at Stuttgart
on the 31st of May 1817, the son of a restaurant keeper. He was educated
at the gymnasium of his native city, and in 1835 proceeded to the
university of Tübingen as a theological student, where, with a view to
entering the ministry, he entered the protestant theological seminary.
But the strict discipline was distasteful; he broke the rules and was
expelled in 1836. He next studied law, but having gained the interest of
August Lewald (1793-1871) by his literary ability, he returned to
Stuttgart, where Lewald obtained for him a journalistic post. Called out
for military service, he had hardly joined his regiment when he
committed an act of flagrant insubordination, and fled to Switzerland to
avoid punishment. Here he published his _Gedichte eines Lebendigen_
(1841), a volume of political poems, which gave expression to the
fervent aspirations of the German youth of the day. The work immediately
rendered him famous, and although confiscated, it soon ran through
several editions. The idea of the book was a refutation of the opinions
of Prince Pückler-Muskau (q.v.) in his _Briefe eines Verstorbenen_. He
next proceeded to Paris and in 1842 returned to Germany, visiting Jena,
Leipzig, Dresden and Berlin--a journey which was described as being a
"veritable triumphal progress." His military insubordination appears to
have been forgiven and forgotten, for in Berlin King Frederick William
IV. had him introduced to him and used the memorable words: "_ich liebe
eine gesinnungsvolle Opposition_" ("I admire an opposition, when
dictated by principle.") Herwegh next returned to Paris, where he
published in 1844 the second volume of his _Gedichte eines Lebendigen_,
which, like the first volume, was confiscated by the German police. At
the head of a revolutionary column of German working men, recruited in
Paris, Herwegh took an active part in the South German rising in 1848;
but his raw troops were defeated on the 27th of April at Schopfheim in
Baden and, after a very feeble display of heroism, he just managed to
escape to Switzerland, where he lived for many years on the proceeds of
his literary productions. He was later (1866) permitted to return to
Germany, and died at Lichtenthal near Baden-Baden on the 7th of April
1875. A monument was erected to his memory there in 1904. Besides the
above-mentioned works, Herwegh published _Einundzwanzig Bogen aus der
Schweiz_ (1843), and translations into German of A. de Lamartine's works
and of seven of Shakespeare's plays. Posthumously appeared _Neue
Gedichte_ (1877).

  Herwegh's correspondence was published by his son Marcel in 1898. See
  also Johannes Scherr, _Georg Herwegh; literarische und politische
  Blätter_ (1843); and the article by Franz Muncker in the _Allgemeine
  deutsche Biographie_.



HERZBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover,
situated under the south-western declivity of the Harz, on the Sieber,
25 m. N.W. from Nordhausen by the railway to Osterode-Hildesheim. Pop.
(1905) 3896. It contains an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church, and
a botanical garden, and has manufactures of cloth and cigars, and
weaving and dyeing works. The breeding of canaries is extensively
carried on here and in the district. On a hill to the south-west of the
town lies the castle of Herzberg, which in 1157 came into the possession
of Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, and afterwards was one of the
residences of a branch of the house of Brunswick.



HERZBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Saxony, on the
Schwarze Elster, 25 m. S. from Jüterbog by the railway
Berlin-Röderau-Dresden. It has a church (Evangelical) dating from the
13th century and a medieval town hall. Its industries include the
founding and turning of metal, agricultural machinery and boot-making.
Pop. (1905) 4043.



HERZL, THEODOR (1860-1904), founder of modern political Zionism (q.v.),
was born in Budapest on the 2nd of May 1860, and died at Edlach on the
3rd of July 1904. The greater part of his career was associated with
Vienna, where he acquired high repute as a literary journalist. He was
also a dramatist, and apart from his prominence as a Jewish Nationalist
would have found a niche in the temple of fame. All his other claims to
renown, however, sink into insignificance when compared with his work as
the reviver of Jewish hopes for a restoration to political autonomy.
Herzl was stirred by sympathy for the misery of Jews under persecution,
but he was even more powerfully moved by the difficulties experienced
under conditions of assimilation. Modern anti-Semitism, he felt, was
both like and unlike the medieval. The old physical attacks on the Jews
continued in Russia, but there was added the reluctance of several
national groups in Europe to admit the Jews to social equality. Herzl
believed that the humanitarian hopes which inspired men at the end of
the 18th and during the larger part of the 19th centuries had failed.
The walls of the ghettos had been cast down, but the Jews could find no
entry into the comity of nations. The new nationalism of 1848 did not
deprive the Jews of political rights, but it denied them both the
amenities of friendly intercourse and the opportunity of distinction in
the university, the army and the professions. Many Jews questioned this
diagnosis, and refused to see in the new anti-Semitism (q.v.) which
spread over Europe in 1881 any more than a temporary reaction against
the cosmopolitanism of the French Revolution. In 1896 Herzl published
his famous pamphlet "Der Judenstaat." Holding that the only alternatives
for the Jews were complete merging by intermarriage or self-preservation
by a national re-union, he boldly advocated the second course. He did
not at first insist on Palestine as the new Jewish home, nor did he
attach himself to religious sentiment. The expectation of a Messianic
restoration to the Holy Land has always been strong, if often latent, in
the Jewish consciousness. But Herzl approached the subject entirely on
its secular side, and his solution was economic and political rather
than sentimental. He was a strong advocate for the complete separation
of Church and State. The influence of Herzl's pamphlet, the progress of
the movement he initiated, the subsequent modifications of his plans,
are told at length in the article ZIONISM.

His proposals undoubtedly roused an extraordinary enthusiasm, and though
he almost completely failed to win to his cause the classes, he rallied
the masses with sensational success. He unexpectedly gained the
accession of many Jews by race who were indifferent to the religious
aspect of Judaism, but he quite failed to convince the leaders of Jewish
thought, who from first to last remained (with such conspicuous
exceptions as Nordau and Zangwill) deaf to his pleading. The orthodox
were at first cool because they had always dreamed of a nationalism
inspired by messianic ideals, while the liberals had long come to
dissociate those universalistic ideals from all national limitations.
Herzl, however, succeeded in assembling several congresses at Basel
(beginning in 1897), and at these congresses were enacted remarkable
scenes of enthusiasm for the cause and devotion to its leader. At all
these assemblies the same ideal was formulated: "the establishing for
the Jewish people a publicly and legally assured home in Palestine."
Herzl's personal charm was irresistible. Among his political opponents
he had some close personal friends. His sincerity, his eloquence, his
tact, his devotion, his power, were recognized on all hands. He spent
his whole strength in the furtherance of his ideas. Diplomatic
interviews, exhausting journeys, impressive mass meetings, brilliant
literary propaganda--all these methods were employed by him to the
utmost limit of self-denial. In 1901 he was received by the sultan; the
pope and many European statesmen gave him audiences. The British
government was ready to grant land for an autonomous settlement in East
Africa. This last scheme was fatal to Herzl's peace of mind. Even as a
temporary measure, the choice of an extra-Palestinian site for the
Jewish state was bitterly opposed by many Zionists; others (with whom
Herzl appears to have sympathized) thought that as Palestine was, at all
events momentarily, inaccessible, it was expedient to form a settlement
elsewhere. Herzl's health had been failing and he did not long survive
the initiation of the somewhat embittered "territorial" controversy. He
died in the summer of 1904, amid the consternation of supporters and the
deep grief of opponents of his Zionistic aims.

Herzl was beyond question the most influential Jewish personality of the
19th century. He had no profound insight into the problem of Judaism,
and there was no lasting validity in his view that the problem--the
thousands of years' old mystery--could be solved by a retrogression to
local nationality. But he brought home to Jews the perils that
confronted them; he compelled many a "semi-detached" son of Israel to
rejoin the camp; he forced the "assimilationists" to realize their
position and to define it; his scheme gave a new impulse to "Jewish
culture," including the popularization of Hebrew as a living speech; and
he effectively roused Jews all the world over to an earnest and vital
interest in their present and their future. Herzl thus left an indelible
mark on his time, and his renown is assured whatever be the fate in
store for the political Zionism which he founded and for which he gave
his life.     (I. A.)



HERZOG, HANS (1819-1894), Swiss general, was born at Aarau. He became a
Swiss artillery lieutenant in 1840, and then spent six years in
travelling (visiting England among other countries), before he became a
partner in his father's business in 1846. In 1847 he saw his first
active service (as artillery captain) in the short Swiss _Sonderbund_
war. In 1860 he abandoned mercantile pursuits for a purely military
career, becoming colonel and inspector-general of the Swiss artillery.
In 1870 he was commander-in-chief of the Swiss army, which guarded the
Swiss frontier, in the Jura, during the Franco-German War, and in
February 1871, as such, concluded the Convention of Verrières with
General Clinchant for the disarming and the interning of the remains of
Bourbaki's army, when it took refuge in Switzerland. In 1875 he became
the commander-in-chief of the Swiss artillery, which he did much to
reorganize, helping also in the re-organization of the other branches of
the Swiss army. He died in 1894 at his native town of Aarau.
     (W. A. B. C.)



HERZOG, JOHANN JAKOB (1805-1882), German Protestant theologian, was born
at Basel on the 12th of September 1805. He studied at Basel and Berlin,
and eventually (1854) settled at Erlangen as professor of church
history. He died there on the 30th of September 1882, having retired in
1877. His most noteworthy achievement was the publication of the
_Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche_ (1853-1868,
22 vols.), of which he undertook a new edition with G. L. Plitt
(1836-1880) in 1877, and after Plitt's death with Albert Hauck (b.
1845). Hauck began the publication of the third edition in 1896
(completed in 22 vols., 1909).

  His other works include _Joh. Calvin_ (1843), _Leben Ökolampads_
  (1843), _Die romanischen Waldenser_ (1853), _Abriss der gesamten
  Kirchengeschichte_ (3 vols., 1876-1882, 2nd ed., G. Koffmane, Leipzig,
  1890-1892).



HESEKIEL, JOHANN GEORG LUDWIG (1819-1874), German author, was born on
the 12th of August 1819 in Halle, where his father, distinguished as a
writer of sacred poetry, was a Lutheran pastor. Hesekiel studied history
and philosophy in Halle, Jena and Berlin, and devoted himself in early
life to journalism and literature. In 1848 he settled in Berlin, where
he lived until his death on the 26th of February 1874, achieving a
considerable reputation as a writer and as editor of the _Neue
Preussische Zeitung_. He attempted many different kinds of literary
work, the most ambitious being perhaps his patriotic songs
_Preussenlieder_, of which he published a volume during the
revolutionary excitement of 1848-1849. Another collection--_Neue
Preussenlieder_--appeared in 1864 after the Danish War, and a third in
1870--_Gegen die Franzosen, Preussische Kriegs- und Königslieder_. Among
his novels may be mentioned _Unter dem Eisenzahn_ (1864) and _Der
Schultheiss vom Zeyst_ (1875). The best known of his works is his
biography of Prince Bismarck (_Das Buch vom Fürsten Bismarck_) (3rd ed.,
1873; English trans. by R. H. Mackenzie).



HESILRIGE (or HESELRIG), SIR ARTHUR, 2nd Bart. (d. 1661), English
parliamentarian, was the eldest son of Sir Thomas Hesilrige, 1st baronet
(c. 1622), of Noseley, Leicestershire, a member of a very ancient
family settled in Northumberland and Leicestershire, and of Frances,
daughter of Sir William Gorges, of Alderton, Northamptonshire. He early
imbibed strong puritanical principles, and showed a special antagonism
to Laud. He sat for Leicestershire in the Short and Long Parliaments in
1640, and took a principal part in Strafford's attainder, the Root and
Branch Bill and the Militia Bill of the 7th of December 1641, and was
one of the five members impeached on the 3rd of January 1642. He showed
much activity in the Great Rebellion, raised a troop of horse for Essex,
fought at Edgehill, commanded in the West under Waller, being nicknamed
his _fidus Achates_, and distinguished himself at the head of his
cuirassiers, "The Lobsters," at Lansdown on the 5th of July 1643, at
Roundway Down on the 13th of July, at both of which battles he was
wounded, and at Cheriton, March 29th 1644. On the occasion of the breach
between the army and the parliament, Hesilrige supported the former,
took Cromwell's part in his dispute with Manchester and Essex, and on
the passing of the Self-denying Ordinance gave up his commission and
became one of the leaders of the Independent party in parliament. On the
30th of December 1647 he was appointed governor of Newcastle, which he
successfully defended, besides defeating the Royalists on the 2nd of
July 1648 and regaining Tynemouth. In October he accompanied Cromwell to
Scotland, and gave him valuable support in the Scottish expedition in
1650. Hesilrige, though he approved of the king's execution, had
declined to act as judge on his trial. He was one of the leading men in
the Commonwealth, but Cromwell's expulsion of the Long Parliament threw
him into antagonism, and he opposed the Protectorate and refused to pay
taxes. He was returned for Leicester to the parliaments of 1654, 1656
and 1659, but was excluded from the two former. He refused a seat in the
Lords, whither Cromwell sought to relegate him, and succeeded in again
obtaining admission to the Commons in January 1658. On Cromwell's death
Hesilrige refused support to Richard, and was instrumental in effecting
his downfall. He was now one of the most influential men in the council
and in parliament. He attempted to maintain a republican parliamentary
administration, "to keep the sword subservient to the civil magistrate,"
and opposed Lambert's schemes. On the latter succeeding in expelling the
parliament, Hesilrige turned to Monk for support, and assisted his
movements by securing Portsmouth on the 3rd of December 1659. He marched
to London, and was appointed one of the council of state on the 2nd of
January 1660, and on the 11th of February a commissioner for the army.
He was completely deceived by Monk, and trusting to his assurance of
fidelity to "the good old cause" consented to the retirement of his
regiment from London. At the Restoration his life was saved by Monk's
intervention, but he was imprisoned in the Tower, where he died on the
7th of January 1661. Clarendon describes Hesilrige as "an absurd, bold
man." He was rash, "hare-brained," devoid of tact and had little claim
to the title of a statesman, but his energy in the field and in
parliament was often of great value to the parliamentary cause. He
exposed himself to considerable obloquy by his exactions and
appropriations of confiscated landed property, though the accusation
brought against him by John Lilburne was examined by a parliamentary
committee and adjudged to be false. Hesilrige married (1) Frances,
daughter of Thomas Elmes of Lilford, Northamptonshire, by whom he had
two sons and two daughters, and (2) Dorothy, sister of Robert Greville,
2nd Lord Brooke, by whom he had three sons and five daughters. The
family was represented in 1907 by his descendant Sir Arthur Grey
Hazlerigg of Noseley, 13th Baronet.

  AUTHORITIES.--Article on Hesilrige by C. H. Firth in the _Dict. of
  Nat. Biography_, and authorities there quoted; _Early History of the
  Family of Hesilrige_, by W. G. D. Fletcher; _Cal. of State Papers,
  Domestic_, 1631-1664, where there are a large number of important
  references, as also in _Hist. MSS._, _Comm. Series_, _MSS. of Earl
  Cowper_, _Duke of Leeds_ and _Duke of Portland_; _Egerton MSS._ 2618,
  _Harleian_ 7001 f. 198, and in the _Sloane_, _Stowe_ and _Additional_
  collections in the British Museum; also S. R. Gardiner, _Hist. of
  England_, _Hist. of the Great Civil War and Commonwealth_; Clarendon's
  _History, State Papers and Cal. of State Papers_, J. L. Sanford's
  _Studies of the Great Rebellion_. His life is written by Noble in the
  _House of Cromwell_, i. 403. For his public letters and speeches in
  parliament see the catalogue of the British Museum.



HESIOD, the father of Greek didactic poetry, probably flourished during
the 8th century B.C. His father had migrated from the Aeolic Cyme in
Asia Minor to Boeotia; and Hesiod and his brother Perses were born at
Ascra, near mount Helicon (_Works and Days_, 635). Here, as he fed his
father's flocks, he received his commission from the Muses to be their
prophet and poet--a commission which he recognized by dedicating to them
a tripod won by him in a contest of song (see below) at some funeral
games at Chalcis in Euboea, still in existence at Helicon in the age of
Pausanias (_Theogony_, 20-34, _W. and D._, 656; Pausanias ix. 38. 3).
After the death of his father Hesiod is said to have left his native
land in disgust at the result of a law-suit with his brother and to have
migrated to Naupactus. There was a tradition that he was murdered by the
sons of his host in the sacred enclosure of the Nemean Zeus at Oeneon in
Locris (Thucydides iii. 96; Pausanias ix. 31); his remains were removed
for burial by command of the Delphic oracle to Orchomenus in Boeotia,
where the Ascraeans settled after the destruction of their town by the
Thespians, and where, according to Pausanias, his grave was to be seen.

Hesiod's earliest poem, the famous _Works and Days_, and according to
Boeotian testimony the only genuine one, embodies the experiences of his
daily life and work, and, interwoven with episodes of fable, allegory,
and personal history, forms a sort of Boeotian shepherd's calendar. The
first portion is an ethical enforcement of honest labour and dissuasive
of strife and idleness (1-383); the second consists of hints and rules
as to husbandry (384-764); and the third is a religious calendar of the
months, with remarks on the days most lucky or the contrary for rural or
nautical employments. The connecting link of the whole poem is the
author's advice to his brother, who appears to have bribed the corrupt
judges to deprive Hesiod of his already scantier inheritance, and to
whom, as he wasted his substance lounging in the agora, the poet more
than once returned good for evil, though he tells him there will be a
limit to this unmerited kindness. In the _Works and Days_ the episodes
which rise above an even didactic level are the "Creation and Equipment
of Pandora," the "Five Ages of the World" and the much-admired
"Description of Winter" (by some critics judged post-Hesiodic). The poem
also contains the earliest known fable in Greek literature, that of "The
Hawk and the Nightingale." It is in the _Works and Days_ especially that
we glean indications of Hesiod's rank and condition in life, that of a
stay-at-home farmer of the lower class, whose sole experience of the sea
was a single voyage of 40 yds. across the Euripus, and an old-fashioned
bachelor whose misogynic views and prejudice against matrimony have been
conjecturally traced to his brother Perses having a wife as extravagant
as himself.

The other poem attributed to Hesiod or his school which has come down in
great part to modern times is _The Theogony_, a work of grander scope,
inspired alike by older traditions and abundant local associations. It
is an attempt to work into system, as none had essayed to do before, the
floating legends of the gods and goddesses and their offspring. This
task Herodotus (ii. 53) attributes to Hesiod, and he is quoted by Plato
in the _Symposium_ (178 B) as the author of the _Theogony_. The first to
question his claim to this distinction was Pausanias, the geographer
(A.D. 200). The Alexandrian grammarians had no doubt on the subject; and
indications of the hand that wrote the _Works and Days_ may be found in
the severe strictures on women, in the high esteem for the wealth-giver
Plutus and in coincidences of verbal expression. Although, no doubt, of
Hesiodic origin, in its present form it is composed of different
recensions and numerous later additions and interpolations. The
_Theogony_ consists of three divisions--(1) a cosmogony, or creation;
(2) a theogony proper, recounting the history of the dynasties of Zeus
and Cronus; and (3) a brief and abruptly terminated heroögony, the
starting-point not improbably of the supplementary poem, the [Greek:
katalogos], or "Lists of Women" who wedded immortals, of which all but
a few fragments are lost.[1] The proem (1-116) addressed to the
Heliconian and Pierian muses, is considered to have been variously
enlarged, altered and arranged by successive rhapsodists. The poet has
interwoven several episodes of rare merit, such as the contest of Zeus
and the Olympian gods with the Titans, and the description of the
prison-house in which the vanquished Titans are confined, with the
Giants for keepers and Day and Night for janitors (735 seq.).

The only other poem which has come down to us under Hesiod's name is the
_Shield of Heracles_, the opening verses of which are attributed by a
nameless grammarian to the fourth book of _Eoiai_. The theme of the
piece is the expedition of Heracles and Iolaus against the robber
Cycnus; but its main object apparently is to describe the shield of
Heracles (141-317). It is clearly an imitation of the Homeric account of
the shield of Achilles (_Iliad_, xviii. 479) and is now generally
considered spurious. Titles and fragments of other lost poems of Hesiod
have come down to us: didactic, as the _Maxims of Cheiron_;
genealogical, as the _Aegimius_, describing the contest of that mythical
ancestor of the Dorians with the Lapithae; and mythical, as the
_Marriage of Ceyx_ and the _Descent of Theseus to Hades_.

Recent editions of Hesiod include the [Greek: Agôn Homêrou kai
Hêsiodou], the contest of song between Homer and Hesiod at the funeral
games held in honour of King Amphidamas at Chalcis. This little tract
belongs to the time of Hadrian, who is actually mentioned as having been
present during its recitation, but is founded on an earlier account by
the sophist Alcidamas (q.v.). Quotations (old and new) are made from the
works of both poets, and, in spite of the sympathies of the audience,
the judge decides in favour of Hesiod. Certain biographical details of
Homer and Hesiod are also given.

A strong characteristic of Hesiod's style is his sententious and
proverbial philosophy (as in _Works and Days_, 24-25, 40, 218, 345,
371). There is naturally less of this in the _Theogony_, yet there too
not a few sentiments take the form of the saw or adage. He has undying
fame as the first of didactic poets (see DIDACTIC POETRY), the
accredited systematizer of Greek mythology and the rough but not
unpoetical sketcher of the lines on which Virgil wrought out his
exquisitely finished Georgics.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Complete works: _Editio princeps_ (Milan, 1493);
  Göttling-Flach (1878), with full bibliography up to date of
  publication; C. Sittl (1889), with introduction and critical and
  explanatory notes in Greek; F. A. Paley (1883); A. Rzach (1902),
  including the fragments. Separate works: _Works and Days_: Van Lennep
  (1847); A. Kirchhoff (1889); A. Steitz, _Die Werke und Tage des
  Hesiodos_ (1869), dealing chiefly with the composition and arrangement
  of the poem; G. Wlastoff, _Prométhée, Pandore, et la légende des
  siècles_ (1883). _Theogony_: Van Lennep (1843); F. G. Welcker (1865),
  valuable edition; G. F. Schömann (1868), with text, critical notes and
  exhaustive commentary; H. Flach, _Die Hesiodische Theogonie_ (1873),
  with prolegomena dealing chiefly with the digamma in Hesiod, _System
  der Hesiodischen Kosmogonie_ (1874), and _Glossen und Scholien zur
  Theogonie_ (1876); Meyer, _De compositione Theogoniae_ (1887). _Shield
  of Heracles_: Wolf-Ranke (1840); Van Lennep-Hullemann (1854); F.
  Stegemann, _De scuti Herculis Hesiodei poëta Homeri carminum
  imitatore_ (1904); the fragments were published by W. Marckscheffel in
  1840; for the [Greek: Agôn Homêrou] (ed. A. Rzach, 1908) see F.
  Nietzsche in _Rheinisches Museum_ (new series), xxv. p. 528. For
  papyrus fragments of the "Catalogue," some 50 lines on the wooing of
  Helen, and a shorter fragment in praise of Peleus, see
  Wilamowitz-Möllendorff in _Sitzungsber. der königl. preuss. Akad. der
  Wissenschaften_, for 26th of July 1900; for fragments relating to
  Meleager and the suitors of Helen, _Berliner Klassikertexte_, v.
  (1907); of the _Theogony, Oxyrh. Pap._ vi. (1908).

  On the subject generally, consult G. F. Schömann, _Opuscula_, ii.
  (1857); H. Flach, _Die Hesiodischen Gedichte_ (1874); A. Rzach, _Der
  Dialekt des Hesiodos_ (1876); P. O. Gruppe, _Die griechischen Kulte
  und Mythen_, i. (1887); O. Friedel, _Die Sage vom Tode Hesiods_
  (1879), from _Jahrbücher für classische Philologie_ (10th suppl. Band,
  1879); J. Adam, _Religious Teachers of Greece_ (1908). There is a full
  bibliography of the publications relating to Hesiod (1884-1898) by A.
  Rzach in Bursian's _Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der
  klassischen Altertumswissenschaft_, xxvii. (1900).

  There are translations of the Hesiodic poems in English by Cooke
  (1728), C. A. Elton (1815), J. Banks (1856), and specially by A. W.
  Mair, with introduction and appendices (Oxford Library of
  Translations, 1908); in German (metrical version) with valuable
  introductions and notes by R. Peppmüller (1896) and in other modern
  languages.     (J. Da.; J. H. F.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Part of the poem was called Eoiai, because the description of
    each heroine began with [Greek: ê oiê], "or like as." (See
    Bibliography.)



HESPERIDES, in Greek mythology, maidens who guarded the golden apples
which Earth gave Hera on her marriage to Zeus. According to Hesiod
(_Theogony_, 215) they were the daughters of Erebus and Night; in later
accounts, of Atlas and Hesperis, or of Phorcys and Ceto (schol. on
Apoll. Rhod. iv. 1399; Diod. Sic. iv. 27). They were usually supposed to
be three in number--Aegle, Erytheia, Hesperis (or Hesperethusa);
according to some, four, or even seven. They lived far away in the west
at the borders of Ocean, where the sun sets. Hence the sun (according to
Mimnermus _ap._ Athenaeum xi. p. 470) sails in the golden bowl made by
Hephaestus from the abode of the Hesperides to the land where he rises
again. According to other accounts their home was among the
Hyperboreans. The golden apples grew on a tree guarded by Ladon, the
ever-watchful dragon. The sun is often in German and Lithuanian legends
described as the apple that hangs on the tree of the nightly heaven,
while the dragon, the envious power, keeps the light back from men till
some beneficent power takes it from him. Heracles is the hero who brings
back the golden apples to mankind again. Like Perseus, he first applies
to the Nymphs, who help him to learn where the garden is. Arrived there
he slays the dragon and carries the apples to Argos; and finally, like
Perseus, he gives them to Athena. The Hesperides are, like the Sirens,
possessed of the gift of delightful song. The apples appear to have been
the symbol of love and fruitfulness, and are introduced at the marriages
of Cadmus and Harmonia and Peleus and Thetis. The golden apples, the
gift of Aphrodite to Hippomenes before his race with Atalanta, were also
plucked from the garden of the Hesperides.



HESPERUS (Gr. [Greek: Hesperos], Lat. Vesper), the evening star, son or
brother of Atlas. According to Diodorus Siculus (iii. 60, iv. 27), he
ascended Mount Atlas to observe the motions of the stars, and was
suddenly swept away by a whirlwind. Ever afterwards he was honoured as a
god, and the most brilliant star in the heavens was called by his name.
Although as a mythological personality he is regarded as distinct from
Phosphoros or Heosphoros (Lat. Lucifer), the morning star or bringer of
light, the son of Astraeus (or Cephalus) and Eos, the two stars were
early identified by the Greeks.

  Diog. Laërt. viii. 1. 14; Cicero, _De nat. deorum_, ii. 20; Pliny,
  _Nat. Hist._ ii. 6 [8].



HESS, the name of a family of German artists.

HEINRICH MARIA HESS (1798-1863)--von Hess, after he received a patent of
personal nobility--was born at Düsseldorf and brought up to the
profession of art by his father, the engraver Karl Ernst Christoph Hess
(1755-1828). Karl Hess had already acquired a name when in 1806 the
elector of Bavaria, having been raised to a kingship by Napoleon,
transferred the Düsseldorf academy and gallery to Munich. Karl Hess
accompanied the academy to its new home, and there continued the
education of his children. In time Heinrich Hess became sufficiently
master of his art to attract the attention of King Maximilian. He was
sent with a stipend to Rome, where a copy which he made of Raphael's
Parnassus, and the study of great examples of monumental design,
probably caused him to become a painter of ecclesiastical subjects on a
large scale. In 1828 he was made professor of painting and director of
all the art collections at Munich. He decorated the Aukirche, the
Glyptothek and the Allerheiligencapelle at Munich with frescoes; and his
cartoons were selected for glass windows in the cathedrals of Cologne
and Regensburg. Then came the great cycle of frescoes in the basilica of
St Boniface at Munich, and the monumental picture of the Virgin and
Child enthroned between the four doctors, and receiving the homage of
the four patrons of the Munich churches (now in the Pinakothek). His
last work, the "Lord's Supper," was found unfinished in his atelier
after his death in 1863. Before testing his strength as a composer
Heinrich Hess tried genre, an example of which is the Pilgrims entering
Rome, now in the Munich gallery. He also executed portraits, and twice
had sittings from Thorwaldsen (Pinakothek and Schack collections). But
his fame rests on the frescoes representing scenes from the Old and New
Testaments in the Allerheiligencapelle, and the episodes from the life
of St Boniface and other German apostles in the basilica of Munich. Here
he holds rank second to none but Overbeck in monumental painting, being
always true to nature though mindful of the traditions of Christian art,
earnest and simple in feeling, yet lifelike and powerful in expression.
Through him and his pupils the sentiment of religious art was preserved
and extended in the Munich school.

PETER HESS (1792-1871)--afterwards von Hess--was born at Düsseldorf and
accompanied his younger brother Heinrich Maria to Munich in 1806. Being
of an age to receive vivid impressions, he felt the stirring impulses of
the time and became a painter of skirmishes and battles. In 1813-1815 he
was allowed to join the staff of General Wrede, who commanded the
Bavarians in the military operations which led to the abdication of
Napoleon; and there he gained novel experiences of war and a taste for
extensive travel. In the course of years he successively visited
Austria, Switzerland and Italy. On Prince Otho's election to the Greek
throne King Louis sent Peter Hess to Athens to gather materials for
pictures of the war of liberation. The sketches which he then made were
placed, forty in number, in the Pinakothek, after being copied in wax on
a large scale (and little to the edification of German feeling) by
Nilsen, in the northern arcades of the Hofgarten at Munich. King Otho's
entrance into Nauplia was the subject of a large and crowded canvas now
in the Pinakothek, which Hess executed in person. From these, and from
battlepieces on a scale of great size in the Royal Palace, as well as
from military episodes executed for the czar Nicholas, and the battle of
Waterloo now in the Munich Gallery, we gather that Hess was a clever
painter of horses. His conception of subject was lifelike, and his
drawing invariably correct, but his style is not so congenial to modern
taste as that of the painters of touch. He finished almost too carefully
with thin medium and pointed tools; and on that account he lacked to a
certain extent the boldness of Horace Vernet, to whom he was not unaptly
compared. He died suddenly, full of honours, at Munich, in April 1871.
Several of his genre pictures, horse hunts, and brigand scenes may be
found in the gallery of Munich.

KARL HESS (1801-1874), the third son of Karl Christoph Hess, born at
Düsseldorf, was also taught by his father, who hoped that he would
obtain distinction as an engraver. Karl, however, after engraving one
plate after Adrian Ostade, turned to painting under the guidance of
Wagenbauer of Munich, and then studied under his elder brother Peter.
But historical composition proved to be as contrary to his taste as
engraving, and he gave himself exclusively at last to illustrations of
peasant life in the hill country of Bavaria. He became clever alike in
representing the people, the animals and the landscape of the Alps, and
with constant means of reference to nature in the neighbourhood of
Reichenhall, where he at last resided, he never produced anything that
was not impressed with the true stamp of a kindly realism. Some of his
pictures in the museum of Munich will serve as examples of his manner.
He died at Reichenhall on the 16th of November 1874.



HESS, HEINRICH HERMANN JOSEF, FREIHERR VON (1788-1870), Austrian
soldier, entered the army in 1805 and was soon employed as a staff
officer on survey work. He distinguished himself as a subaltern at
Aspern and Wagram, and in 1813, as a captain, again served on the staff.
In 1815 he was with Schwarzenberg. He had in the interval between the
two wars been employed as a military commissioner in Piedmont, and at
the peace resumed this post, gaining knowledge which later proved
invaluable to the Austrian army. In 1831, when Radetzky became
commander-in-chief in Austrian Italy, he took Hess as his
chief-of-staff, and thus began the connexion between two famous soldiers
which, like that of Blücher and Gneisenau, is a classical example of
harmonious co-operation of commander and chief-of-staff. Hess put into
shape Radetzky's military ideas, in the form of new drill for each arm,
and, under their guidance, the Austrian army in North Italy, always on a
war footing, became the best in Europe. From 1834 to 1848 Hess was
employed in Moravia, at Vienna, &c., but, on the outbreak of revolution
and war in the latter year, was at once sent out to Radetzky as
chief-of-staff. In the two campaigns against King Charles Albert which
followed, culminating in the victory of Novara, Hess's assistance to his
chief was made still more valuable by his knowledge of the enemy, and
the old field-marshal acknowledged his services in general orders.
Lieut.-Fieldmarshal Hess was at once promoted _Feldzeugmeister_, made a
member of the emperor's council, and _Freiherr_, assuming at the same
time the duties of the quartermaster-general. Next year he became chief
of the staff to the emperor. He was often employed in missions to
various capitals, and he appeared in the field in 1854 at the head of
the Austrian army which intervened so effectually in the Crimean war. In
1859 he was sent to Italy after the early defeats. He became
field-marshal in 1860, and a year later, on resigning his position as
chief-of-staff, he was made captain of the Trabant guard. He died in
Vienna in 1870.

  See "General Hess" in _Lebensgeschichtlichen Hinrissen_ (Vienna,
  1855).



HESSE (Lat. _Hessia_, Ger. _Hessen_), a grand duchy forming a state of
the German empire. It was known until 1866 as Hesse-Darmstadt, the
history of which is given under a separate heading below. It consists of
two main parts, separated from each other by a narrow strip of Prussian
territory. The northern part is the province of Oberhessen; the southern
consists of the contiguous provinces of Starkenburg and Rheinhessen.
There are also eleven very small exclaves, mostly grouped about Homburg
to the south-west of Oberhessen; but the largest is Wimpfen on the
north-west frontier of Württemberg. Oberhessen is hilly; though of no
great elevation it extends over the water-parting between the basins of
the Rhine and the Weser, and in the Vogelsberg it has as its culminating
point the Taufstein (2533 ft.). In the north-west it includes spurs of
the Taunus. Between these two systems of hills lies the fertile
undulating tract known as the Wetterau, watered by the Wetter, a
tributary of the Main. Starkenburg occupies the angle between the Main
and the Rhine, and in its south-eastern part includes some of the ranges
of the Odenwald, the highest part being the Seidenbucher Höhe (1965
ft.). Rheinhessen is separated from Starkenburg by the Rhine, and has
that river as its northern as well as its eastern frontier, though it
extends across it at the north-east corner, where the Rhine, on
receiving the Main, changes its course abruptly from south to west. The
territory consists of a fertile tract of low hills, rising towards the
south-west into the northern extremity of the Hardt range, but at no
point reaching a height of more than 1050 ft.

The area and population of the three provinces of Hesse are as follow:

  +-------------+------+---------------------+
  |             | Area.|     Population.     |
  |             +------+----------+----------+
  |             |sq. m.|   1895.  |   1905.  |
  |             +------+----------+----------+
  | Oberhessen  | 1267 |  271,524 |  296,755 |
  | Starkenburg | 1169 |  444,562 |  542,996 |
  | Rheinhessen |  530 |  322,934 |  369,424 |
  +-------------+------+----------+----------+
  |    Total    | 2966 |1,039,020 |1,209,175 |
  +-------------+------+----------+----------+

The chief towns of the grand duchy are Darmstadt (the capital) and
Offenbach in Starkenburg, Mainz and Worms in Rheinhessen and Giessen in
Oberhessen. More than two-thirds of the inhabitants are Protestants; the
majority of the remainder are Roman Catholics, and there are about
25,000 Jews. The grand duke is head of the Protestant church. Education
is compulsory, the elementary schools being communal, assisted by state
grants. There are a university at Giessen and a technical high school at
Darmstadt. Agriculture is important, more than three-fifths of the total
area being under cultivation. The largest grain crops are rye and
barley, and nearly 40,000 acres are under vines. Minerals, in which
Oberhessen is much richer than the two other provinces, include iron,
manganese, salt and some coal.

The constitution dates from 1820, but was modified in 1856, 1862, 1872
and 1900. There are two legislative chambers. The upper consists of
princes of the grand-ducal family, heads of mediatized houses, the head
of the Roman Catholic and the superintendent of the Protestant church,
the chancellor of the university, two elected representatives of the
land-owning nobility, and twelve members nominated by the grand duke.
The lower chamber consists of ten deputies from large towns and forty
from small towns and rural districts. They are indirectly elected, by
deputy electors (_Wahlmänner_) nominated by the electors, who must be
Hessians over twenty-five years old, paying direct taxes. The executive
ministry of state is divided into the departments of the interior,
justice and finance. The three provinces are divided for local
administration into 18 circles and 989 communes. The ordinary revenue
and expenditure amount each to about £4,000,000 annually, the chief
taxes being an income-tax, succession duties and stamp tax. The public
debt, practically the whole of which is on railways, amounted to
£19,097,468 in 1907.

_History_.--The name of Hesse, now used principally for the grand duchy
formerly known as Hesse-Darmstadt, refers to a country which has had
different boundaries and areas at different times. The name is derived
from that of a Frankish tribe, the Hessi. The earliest known inhabitants
of the country were the Chatti, who lived here during the 1st century
A.D. (Tacitus, _Germania_, c. 30), and whose capital, Mattium on the
Eder, was burned by the Romans about A.D. 15. "Alike both in race and
language," says Walther Schultze, "the Chatti and the Hessi are
identical." During the period of the _Völkerwanderung_ many of these
people moved westward, but some remained behind to give their name to
the country, although it was not until the 8th century that the word
Hesse came into use. Early Hesse was the district around the Fulda, the
Werra, the Eder and the Lahn, and was part of the Frankish kingdom both
during Merovingian and during Carolingian times. Soon _Hessegau_ is
mentioned, and this district was the headquarters of Charlemagne during
his campaigns against the Saxons. By the treaty of Verdun in 843 it fell
to Louis the German, and later it seems to have been partly in the duchy
of Saxony and partly in that of Franconia. The Hessians were converted
to Christianity mainly through the efforts of St Boniface; their land
was included in the archbishopric of Mainz; and religion and culture
were kept alive among them largely owing to the foundation of the
Benedictine abbeys of Fulda and Hersfeld. Like other parts of Germany
during the 9th century Hesse felt the absence of a strong central power,
and, before the time of the emperor Otto the Great, several counts,
among whom were Giso and Werner, had made themselves practically
independent; but after the accession of Otto in 936 the land quietly
accepted the yoke of the medieval emperors. About 1120 another Giso,
count of Gudensberg, secured possession of the lands of the Werners; on
his death in 1137 his daughter and heiress, Hedwig, married Louis,
landgrave of Thuringia; and from this date until 1247, when the
Thuringian ruling family became extinct, Hesse formed part of Thuringia.
The death of Henry Raspe, the last landgrave of Thuringia, in 1247,
caused a long war over the disposal of his lands, and this dispute was
not settled until 1264 when Hesse, separated again from Thuringia, was
secured by his niece Sophia (d. 1284), widow of Henry II., duke of
Brabant. In the following year Sophia handed over Hesse to her son Henry
(1244-1308), who, remembering the connexion of Hesse and Thuringia, took
the title of landgrave, and is the ancestor of all the subsequent rulers
of the country. In 1292 Henry was made a prince of the Empire, and with
him the history of Hesse properly begins.

For nearly 300 years the history of Hesse is comparatively uneventful.
The land, which fell into two main portions, upper Hesse round Marburg,
and lower Hesse round Cassel, was twice divided between two members of
the ruling family, but no permanent partition took place before the
Reformation. A _Landtag_ was first called together in 1387, and the
landgraves were constantly at variance with the electors of Mainz, who
had large temporal possessions in the country. They found time, however,
to increase the area of Hesse. Giessen, part of Schmalkalden,
Ziegenhain, Nidda and, after a long struggle, Katzenelnbogen were
acquired, while in 1432 the abbey of Hersfeld placed itself under the
protection of Hesse. The most noteworthy of the landgraves were perhaps
Louis I. (d. 1458), a candidate for the German throne in 1440, and
William II. (d. 1509), a comrade of the German king, Maximilian I. In
1509 William's young son, Philip (q.v.), became landgrave, and by his
vigorous personality brought his country into prominence during the
religious troubles of the 16th century. Following the example of his
ancestors Philip cared for education and the general welfare of his
land, and the Protestant university of Marburg, founded in 1527, owes to
him its origin. When he died in 1567 Hesse was divided between his four
sons into Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Marburg and
Hesse-Rheinfels. The lines ruling in Hesse-Rheinfels and Hesse-Marburg,
or upper Hesse, became extinct in 1583 and 1604 respectively, and these
lands passed to the two remaining branches of the family. The small
landgraviate of Hesse-Homburg was formed in 1622 from Hesse-Darmstadt.
After the annexation of Hesse-Cassel and Hesse-Homburg by Prussia in
1866 Hesse-Darmstadt remained the only independent part of Hesse, and it
generally receives the common name.

Hesse-Philippsthal is an offshoot of Hesse-Cassel, and was founded in
1685 by Philip (d. 1721), son of the Landgrave William VI. In 1909 the
representative of this family was the Landgrave Ernest (b. 1846).
Hesse-Barchfeld was founded in 1721 by Philip's son, William (d. 1761),
and in 1909 its representative was the Landgrave Clovis (b. 1876). The
lands of both these princes are now mediatized. Hesse-Nassau is a
province of Prussia formed in 1866 from part of Hesse-Cassel and part of
the duchy of Nassau.

  See H. B. Wenck, _Hessische Landesgeschichte_ (Frankfort, 1783-1803);
  C. von Rommel, _Geschichte von Hesse_ (Cassel, 1820-1858); F.
  Münscher, _Geschichte von Hesse_ (Marburg, 1894); F. Gundlach, _Hesse
  und die Mainzer Stiftsfehde_ (Marburg, 1899); Walther, _Literarisches
  Handbuch für Geschichte und Landeskunde von Hesse_ (Darmstadt, 1841;
  Supplement, 1850-1869); K. Ackermann, _Bibliotheca Hessiaca_ (Cassel,
  1884-1899); Hoffmeister, _Historischgenealogisches Handbuch über alle
  Linien des Regentenhauses Hesse_ (Marburg, 1874), and the _Zeitschrift
  des Vereins für hessische Geschichte_ (1837-1904).



HESSE-CASSEL (in German _Kurhessen_, i.e. Electoral Hesse), now the
government district of Cassel in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau.
It was till 1866 a landgraviate and electorate of Germany, consisting of
several detached masses of territory, to the N.E. of
Frankfort-on-the-Main. It contained a superficial area of 3699 sq. m.,
and its population in 1864 was 745,063.

_History._--The line of Hesse-Cassel was founded by William IV.,
surnamed the Wise, eldest son of Philip the Magnanimous. On his father's
death in 1567 he received one half of Hesse, with Cassel as his capital;
and this formed the landgraviate of Hesse-Cassel. Additions were made to
it by inheritance from his brother's possessions. His son, Maurice the
Learned (1592-1627), turned Protestant in 1605, became involved later in
the Thirty Years' War, and, after being forced to cede some of his
territories to the Darmstadt line, abdicated in favour of his son
William V. (1627-1637), his younger sons receiving apanages which
created several cadet lines of the house, of which that of
Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg survived till 1834. On the death of William
V., whose territories had been conquered by the Imperialists, his widow
Amalie Elizabeth, as regent for her son William VI. (1637-1663),
reconquered the country and, with the aid of the French and Swedes, held
it, together with part of Westphalia. At the peace of Westphalia (1648),
accordingly, Hesse-Cassel was augmented by the larger part of the
countship of Schaumburg and by the abbey of Hersfeld, secularized as a
principality of the Empire. The Landgravine Amalie Elizabeth introduced
the rule of primogeniture. William VI., who came of age in 1650, was an
enlightened patron of learning and the arts. He was succeeded by his son
William VII., an infant, who died in 1670, and was succeeded by his
brother Charles (1670-1730). Charles's chief claim to remembrance is
that he was the first ruler to adopt the system of hiring his soldiers
out to foreign powers as mercenaries, as a means of improving the
national finances. Frederick I., the next landgrave (1730-1751), had
become by marriage king of Sweden, and on his death was succeeded in the
landgraviate by his brother William VIII. (1751-1760), who fought as an
ally of England during the Seven Years' War. From his successor
Frederick II. (1760-1785), who had become a Roman Catholic, 22,000
Hessian troops were hired by England for about £3,191,000, to assist in
the war against the North American colonies. This action, often bitterly
criticized, has of late years found apologists (cf. v. Werthern, _Die
hessischen Hilfstruppen im nordamerikanischen Unabhängigkeitskriege_,
Cassel, 1895). It is argued that the troops were in any case
mercenaries, and that the practice was quite common. Whatever opinion
may be held as to this, it is certain that Frederick spent the money
well: he did much for the development of the economic and intellectual
improvement of the country. The reign of the next landgrave, William IX.
(1785-1821), was an important epoch in the history of Hesse-Cassel.
Ascending the throne in 1785, he took part in the war against France a
few years later, but in 1795 peace was arranged by the treaty of Basel.
For the loss in 1801 of his possessions on the left bank of the Rhine he
was in 1803 compensated by some of the former French territory round
Mainz, and at the same time was raised to the dignity of Elector
(_Kurfürst_) as William I. In 1806 he made a treaty of neutrality with
Napoleon, but after the battle of Jena the latter, suspecting William's
designs, occupied his country, and expelled him. Hesse-Cassel was then
added to Jerome Bonaparte's new kingdom of Westphalia; but after the
battle of Leipzig in 1813 the French were driven out and on the 21st of
November the elector returned in triumph to his capital. A treaty
concluded by him with the Allies (Dec. 2) stipulated that he was to
receive back all his former territories, or their equivalent, and at the
same time to restore the ancient constitution of his country. This
treaty, so far as the territories were concerned, was carried out by the
powers at the congress of Vienna. They refused, however, the elector's
request to be recognized as "King of the Chatti" (_König der Katten_), a
request which was again rejected at the conference of Aix-la-Chapelle
(1818). He therefore retained the now meaningless title of elector, with
the predicate of "royal highness."

The elector had signalized his restoration by abolishing with a stroke
of the pen all the reforms introduced under the French régime,
repudiating the Westphalian debt and declaring null and void the sale of
the crown domains. Everything was set back to its condition on the 1st
of November 1806; even the officials had to descend to their former
rank, and the army to revert to the old uniforms and powdered pigtails.
The estates, indeed, were summoned in March 1815, but the attempt to
devise a constitution broke down; their appeal to the federal diet at
Frankfort to call the elector to order in the matter of the debt and the
domains came to nothing owing to the intervention of Metternich; and in
May 1816 they were dissolved, never to meet again. William I. died on
the 27th of February 1821, and was succeeded by his son, William II.
Under him the constitutional crisis in Hesse-Cassel came to a head. He
was arbitrary and avaricious like his father, and moreover shocked
public sentiment by his treatment of his wife, a popular Prussian
princess, and his relations with his mistress, one Emilie Ortlöpp,
created countess of Reichenbach, whom he loaded with wealth. The July
revolution in Paris gave the signal for disturbances; the elector was
forced to summon the estates; and on the 5th of January 1831 a
constitution on the ordinary Liberal basis was signed. The elector now
retired to Hanau, appointed his son Frederick William regent, and took
no further part in public affairs.

The regent, without his father's coarseness, had a full share of his
arbitrary and avaricious temper. Constitutional restrictions were
intolerable to him; and the consequent friction with the diet was
aggravated when, in 1832, Hassenpflug (q.v.) was placed at the head of
the administration. The whole efforts of the elector and his minister
were directed to nullifying the constitutional control vested in the
diet; and the Opposition was fought by manipulating the elections,
packing the judicial bench, and a vexatious and petty persecution of
political "suspects," and this policy continued after the retirement of
Hassenpflug in 1837. The situation that resulted issued in the
revolutionary year 1848 in a general manifestation of public discontent;
and Frederick William, who had become elector on his father's death
(November 20, 1847), was forced to dismiss his reactionary ministry and
to agree to a comprehensive programme of democratic reform. This,
however, was but short-lived. After the breakdown of the Frankfort
National Parliament, Frederick William joined the Prussian Northern
Union, and deputies from Hesse-Cassel were sent to the Erfurt
parliament. But as Austria recovered strength, the elector's policy
changed. On the 23rd of February 1850 Hassenpflug was again placed at
the head of the administration and threw himself with renewed zeal into
the struggle against the constitution and into opposition to Prussia. On
the 2nd of September the diet was dissolved; the taxes were continued by
electoral ordinance; and the country was placed under martial law. It
was at once clear, however, that the elector could not depend on his
officers or troops, who remained faithful to their oath to the
constitution. Hassenpflug persuaded the elector to leave Cassel secretly
with him, and on the 15th of October appealed for aid to the
reconstituted federal diet, which willingly passed a decree of
"intervention." On the 1st of November an Austrian and Bavarian force
marched into the electorate.

This was a direct challenge to Prussia, which under conventions with the
elector had the right to the use of the military roads through Hesse
that were her sole means of communication with her Rhine provinces. War
seemed imminent; Prussian troops also entered the country, and shots
were actually exchanged between the outposts. But Prussia was in no
condition to take up the challenge; and the diplomatic contest that
followed issued in the Austrian triumph at Olmütz (1851). Hesse was
surrendered to the federal diet; the taxes were collected by the federal
forces, and all officials who refused to recognize the new order were
dismissed. In March 1852 the federal diet abolished the constitution of
1831, together with the reforms of 1848, and in April issued a new
provisional constitution. The new diet had, under this, very narrow
powers; and the elector was free to carry out his policy of amassing
money, forbidding the construction of railways and manufactories, and
imposing strict orthodoxy on churches and schools. In 1855, however,
Hassenpflug--who had returned with the elector--was dismissed; and five
years later, after a period of growing agitation, a new constitution was
granted with the consent of the federal diet (May 30, 1860). The new
chambers, however, demanded the constitution of 1831; and, after several
dissolutions which always resulted in the return of the same members,
the federal diet decided to restore the constitution of 1831 (May 24,
1862). This had been due to a threat of Prussian occupation; and it
needed another such threat to persuade the elector to reassemble the
chambers, which he had dismissed at the first sign of opposition; and he
revenged himself by refusing to transact any public business. In 1866
the end came. The elector, full of grievances against Prussia, threw in
his lot with Austria; the electorate was at once overrun with Prussian
troops; Cassel was occupied (June 20); and the elector was carried a
prisoner to Stettin. By the treaty of Prague Hesse-Cassel was annexed to
Prussia. The elector Frederick William (d. 1875) had been, by the terms
of the treaty of cession, guaranteed the entailed property of his house.
This was, however, sequestered in 1868 owing to his intrigues against
Prussia; part of the income was paid, however, to the eldest agnate, the
landgrave Frederick (d. 1884), and part, together with certain castles
and palaces, was assigned to the cadet lines of Philippsthal and
Philippsthal-Barchfeld.

  See K. W. Wippermann, _Kurhessen seit den Freiheitskriegen_ (Cassel,
  1850); Röth, _Geschichte von Hessen-Kassel_ (Cassel, 1856; 2nd ed.
  continued by Stamford, 1883-1885); H. Gräfe, _Der Verfassungskampf in
  Kurhessen_ (Leipzig, 1851) and works under HESSE.



HESSE-DARMSTADT, a grand-duchy in Germany, the history of which begins
with the partition of Hesse in 1567. George I. (1547-1597), the youngest
son of the landgrave Philip, received the upper county of
Katzenelnbogen, and, selecting Darmstadt as his residence, became the
founder of the Hesse-Darmstadt line. Additions to the landgraviate were
made both in the reigns of George and of his son and successor, Louis V.
(1577-1626), but in 1622 Hesse-Homburg was cut off to form an apanage
for George's youngest son, Frederick (d. 1638). Although Louis V., who
founded the university of Giessen in 1607, was a Lutheran, he and his
son, George II. (1605-1661), sided with the imperialists in the Thirty
Years' War, during which Hesse-Darmstadt suffered very severely from the
ravages of the Swedes. In this struggle Hesse-Cassel took the other
side, and the rivalry between the two landgraviates was increased by a
dispute over Hesse-Marburg, the ruling family of which had become
extinct in 1604. This quarrel was interwoven with the general thread of
the Thirty Years' War, and was not finally settled until 1648, when the
disputed territory was divided between the two claimants. Louis VI. (d.
1678), a careful and patriotic prince, followed the policy of the three
previous landgraves, but the anxiety of his son, Ernest Louis (d. 1739),
to emulate the French court under Louis XIV. led his country into debt.
Under Ernest Louis and his son and successor, Louis VIII. (d. 1768),
another dispute occurred between Darmstadt and Cassel; this time it was
over the succession to the county of Hanau, which was eventually
divided, Hesse-Darmstadt receiving Lichtenberg. During the 18th century
the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War dealt heavy
blows at the prosperity of the landgraviate, which was always loyal to
the house of Austria. Louis IX. (1719-1790), who served in the Prussian
army under Frederick the Great, is chiefly famous as the husband of
Caroline (1721-1774), "the great landgravine," who counted Goethe,
Herder and Grimm among her friends and was described by Frederick the
Great as _femina sexu, ingenio vir_. In April 1790, just after the
outbreak of the French Revolution, Louis X. (1753-1830), an educated
prince who shared the tastes and friendships of his mother, Caroline,
became landgrave. In 1792 he joined the allies against France, but in
1799 he was compelled to sign a treaty of neutrality. In 1803, having
formally surrendered the part of Hesse on the left bank of the Rhine
which had been taken from him in the early days of the Revolution, Louis
received in return a much larger district which had formerly belonged to
the duchy of Westphalia, the electorate of Mainz and the bishopric of
Worms. In 1806, being a member of the confederation of the Rhine, he
took the title of Louis I., grand-duke of Hesse; he supported Napoleon
with troops from 1805 to 1813, but after the battle of Leipzig he joined
the allies. In 1815 the congress of Vienna made another change in the
area and boundaries of Hesse-Darmstadt. Louis secured again a district
on the left bank of the Rhine, including the cities of Mainz and Worms,
but he made cessions of territory to Prussia and to Bavaria and he
recognized the independence of Hesse-Homburg, which had recently been
incorporated with his lands. However, his title of grand-duke was
confirmed, and as grand-duke of Hesse and of the Rhine he entered the
Germanic confederation. Soon the growing desire for liberty made itself
felt in Hesse, and in 1820 Louis gave a constitution to the land;
various forms were carried through; the system of government was
reorganized, and in 1828 Hesse-Darmstadt joined the Prussian
_Zollverein_. Louis I., who did a great deal for the welfare of his
country, died on the 6th of April 1830, and was followed on the throne
by his son, Louis II. (1777-1848). This grand-duke had some trouble with
his _Landtag_, but, dying on the 16th of June 1848, he left his son,
Louis III. (1806-1877), to meet the fury of the revolutionary year 1848.
Many concessions were made to the popular will, but during the
subsequent reaction these were withdrawn, and the period between 1850
and 1871, when Karl Friedrich Reinhard, Freiherr von Dalwigk
(1802-1880), was chiefly responsible for the government of
Hesse-Darmstadt, was one of repression, although some benefits were
conferred upon the people. Dalwigk was one of Prussia's enemies, and
during the war of 1866 the grand-duke fought on the Austrian side, the
result being that he was compelled to pay a heavy indemnity and to cede
certain districts, including Hesse-Homburg, which he had only just
acquired, to Prussia. In 1867 Louis entered the North German
Confederation, but only for his lands north of the Main, and in 1871
Hesse-Darmstadt became one of the states of the new German empire. After
the withdrawal of Dalwigk from public life at this time a more liberal
policy was adopted in Hesse. Many reforms in ecclesiastical,
educational, financial and administrative matters were introduced, and
in general the grand-duchy may be said to have passed largely under the
influence of Prussia, which, by an arrangement made in 1896, controls
the Hessian railway system. The constitution of 1820, subject to four
subsequent modifications, is still the law of the land, the legislative
power being vested in two chambers and the executive power being
exercised by the three departments of the ministry of state. Since the
annexation of Hesse-Cassel by Prussia in 1866 the grand-duchy has been
known simply as Hesse. Louis III. died on the 13th of June 1877, and was
succeeded by his nephew, Louis IV. (1837-1892), a son-in-law of Queen
Victoria; he died on the 13th of March 1892, and was succeeded by his
son, Ernest Louis (b. 1868). This grand-duke's marriage with Victoria
(b. 1876), daughter of Alfred, duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was
dissolved in 1901. The union was childless, and consequently in 1902 a
law regulating the succession was passed. By this the landgrave
Alexander Frederick (b. 1863), the representative of the family which
ruled Hesse-Cassel until 1866, was declared the heir to Hesse in case
the grand-duke died without sons. However, in 1905 Ernest Louis married
Elenore, princess of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich (b. 1871), by whom he had a
son George (b. 1906).

  See L. Baur, _Urkunden zur hessischen Landes-, Orts- und
  Familiengeschichte_ (Darmstadt, 1846-1873); Steiner, _Geschichte des
  Grossherzogtums Hesse_n (Darmstadt, 1833-1834); Klein, _Das
  Grossherzogtum Hessen_ (Mainz, 1861); Ewald, _Historische Übersicht
  der Territorialveränderungen der Landgrafschaft Hessen und des
  Grossherzogtums Hessen_ (Darmstadt, 1872); F. Soldan, _Geschichte des
  Grossherzogtums Hessen_ (Giessen, 1896); H. Heppe, _Kirchengeschichte
  beider Hessen_ (Marburg, 1876-1878); C. Hessler, _Geschichte von
  Hessen_ (Cassel, 1891), and _Hessische Landes- und Volkskunde_
  (Marburg, 1904-1906); F. Küchler, A. E. Braun and A. K. Weber,
  _Verfassungs- und Verwaltungsrecht des Grossherzogtums Hessen_
  (Darmstadt, 1894-1897); H. Künzel, _Grossherzogtum Hessen_ (Giessen,
  1893); and W. Zeller, _Handbuch der Verfassung und Verwaltung im
  Grossherzogtum Hessen_ (Darmstadt, 1885-1893). See also _Archiv für
  hessische Geschichte und Altertumskunde_ (Darmstadt, 1894 fol.) and
  _Hessisches Urkundenbuch_ (Leipzig, 1879 fol.).



HESSE-HOMBURG, formerly a small landgraviate in Germany. It consisted of
two parts, the district of Homburg on the right side of the Rhine, and the
district of Meisenheim, which was added in 1815, on the left side of the
same river. Its area was about 100 sq. m., and its population in 1864 was
27,374. Homburg now forms part of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau,
and Meisenheim of the province of the Rhine. Hesse-Homburg was formed into
a separate landgraviate in 1622 by Frederick I. (d. 1638), son of George
I., landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, although it did not become independent
of Hesse-Darmstadt until 1768. By two of Frederick's sons it was divided
into Hesse-Homburg and Hesse-Homburg-Bingenheim; but these parts were
again united in 1681 under the rule of Frederick's third son, Frederick
II. (d. 1708). In 1806, during the long reign of the landgrave Frederick
V., which extended from 1751 to 1820, Hesse-Homburg was mediatized, and
incorporated with Hesse-Darmstadt; but in 1815 by the congress of Vienna
the latter state was compelled to recognize the independence of
Hesse-Homburg, which was increased by the addition of Meisenheim.
Frederick V. joined the German confederation as a sovereign prince in
1817, and after his death his five sons in succession filled the throne.
The last of these, Ferdinand, who succeeded in 1848, granted a liberal
constitution to his people, but cancelled it during the reaction of 1852.
When he died on the 24th of March 1866, Hesse-Homburg was inherited by
Louis III., grand-duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, while Meisenheim fell to
Prussia. In the following September, however, Louis was forced to cede
his new possession to Prussia, as he had supported Austria during the war
between these two powers.

  See R. Schwartz, _Landgraf Friedrich V. von Hessen-Homburg und seine
  Familie_ (1878); and von Herget, _Das landgräfliche Haus Homburg_
  (Homburg, 1903).



HESSE-NASSAU (Ger. _Hessen-Nassau_), a province of Prussia, bounded,
from N. to E., S. and W., successively by Westphalia, Waldeck, Hanover,
the province of Saxony, the Thuringian States, Bavaria, Hesse and the
Rhine Province. There are small detached portions in Waldeck, Thuringia,
&c.; on the other hand the province enclaves the province of Oberhessen
belonging to the grand-duchy of Hesse, and the circle of Wetzlar
belonging to the Rhine Province. Hesse-Nassau was formed in 1867-1868
out of the territories which accrued to Prussia after the war of 1866,
namely, the landgraviate of Hesse-Cassel and the duchy of Nassau, in
addition to the greater part of the territory of Frankfort-on-Main,
parts of the grand-duchy of Hesse, the territory of Homburg and the
countship of Hesse-Homburg, together with certain small districts which
belonged to Bavaria. It is now divided into the governments of Cassel
and Wiesbaden, the second of which consists mainly of the former
territory of Nassau (q.v.).

The province has an area of 6062 sq. m., and had a population in 1905 of
2,070,052, being the fourth most densely populated province in Prussia,
after Berlin, the Rhine Province and Westphalia. The east and north
parts lie in the basin of the river Fulda, which near the north-eastern
boundary joins with the Werra to form the Weser. The Main forms part of
the southern boundary, and the Rhine the south-western; the western part
of the province lies mostly in the basin of the Lahn, a tributary of the
Rhine. The province is generally hilly, the highest hills occurring in
the east and west. The Fulda rises in the Wasserkuppe (3117 ft.), an
eminence of the Rhöngebirge, the highest in the province. In the
south-west are the Taunus, bordering the Main, and the Westerwald, west
of the Lahn, in which the highest points respectively are the Grosser
Feldberg (2887 ft.) and the Fuchskauten (2155 ft.). The congeries of
small groups of lower hills in the north are known as the Hessische
Bergland.

The province is not notably well suited to agriculture, but in forests
it is the richest in Prussia, and the timber trade is large. The chief
trees are beech, oak and conifers. Cattle-breeding is extensively
practised. The vine is cultivated chiefly on the slopes of the Taunus,
in the south-west, where the names of several towns are well known for
their wines--Schierstein, Erbach (Marcobrunner), Johannisberg,
Geisenheim, Rüdesheim, Assmannshausen. Iron, coal, copper and manganese
are mined. The mineral springs are important, including those at
Wiesbaden, Homburg, Langenschwalbach, Nenndorf, Schlangenbad and Soden.
The chief manufacturing centres are Cassel, Diez, Eschwege, Frankfort,
Fulda, Gross Almerode, Hanau and Hersfeld. The province is divided for
administration into 42 circles (_Kreise_), 24 in the government of
Cassel and 18 in that of Wiesbaden. It returns 14 representatives to the
Reichstag. Marburg is the seat of a university.



HESSE-ROTENBURG, a German landgraviate which was broken up in 1834. In
1627 Ernest (1623-1693), a younger son of Maurice, landgrave of
Hesse-Cassel (d. 1632), received Rheinsfels and lower Katzenelnbogen as
his inheritance, and some years later, on the deaths of two of his
brothers, he added Eschwege, Rotenburg, Wanfried and other districts to
his possessions. Ernest, who was a convert to the Roman Catholic Church,
was a great traveller and a voluminous writer. About 1700 his two sons,
William (d. 1725) and Charles (d. 1711), divided their territories, and
founded the families of Hesse-Rotenburg and Hesse-Wanfried. The latter
family died out in 1755, when William's grandson, Constantine (d. 1778),
reunited the lands except Rheinfels, which had been acquired by
Hesse-Cassel in 1735, and ruled them as landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg. At
the peace of Lunéville in 1801 the part of the landgraviate on the left
bank of the Rhine was surrendered to France, and in 1815 other parts
were ceded to Prussia, the landgrave Victor Amadeus being compensated
by the abbey of Corvey and the Silesian duchy of Ratibor. Victor was the
last male member of his family, so, with the consent of Prussia, he
bequeathed his allodial estates to his nephews the princes Victor and
Chlodwig of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst (see HOHENLOHE). When
the landgrave died on the 12th of November 1834 the remaining parts of
Hesse-Rotenburg were united with Hesse-Cassel according to the
arrangement of 1627. It may be noted that Hesse-Rotenburg was never
completely independent of Hesse-Cassel. Perhaps the most celebrated
member of this family was Charles Constantine (1752-1821), a younger son
of the landgrave Constantine, who was called "citoyen Hesse," and who
took part in the French Revolution.



HESSIAN, the name of a jute fabric made as a plain cloth, in various
degrees of fineness, width and quality. The common, or standard, hessian
is 40 in. wide, weighs 10½ oz. per yd., and in the finished state
contains about 12 threads and 12½ picks per in. The name is probably of
German origin, and the fabric was originally made from flax and tow.
Small quantities of cloth are still made from yarns of these fibres, but
the jute fibre, owing to its comparative cheapness, has now almost
supplanted all others.

This useful cloth is employed in countless ways, especially for packing
all kinds of dry goods, while large quantities, of different qualities,
are made up into bags for sugar, flour, coffee, grain, ore, manure,
sand, potatoes, onions, &c. Indeed, bags made from one or other quality
of this cloth, or from sacking, bagging or tarpaulin, form the most
convenient, and at the same time the cheapest covering for any kind of
goods which are not damaged by being crushed.

Certain types are specially treated, dyed black, tan or other colour, or
left in their natural colour, stiffened and used for paddings and
linings for cheap clothing, boots, shoes, bags and other articles. When
dyed in art shades the cloth forms an attractive decoration for stages
and platforms, and generally for any temporary erection, and in many
cases it is stencilled and then used for wall decoration.

The great linoleum industry depends upon certain types of this fabric
for the foundation of its products, while large quantities are used for
the backs of fringe rugs, spring mattresses and the upholstery of
furniture.

The great centres for the manufacture of this fabric are Dundee and
Calcutta, and every variety of the cloth, and all kinds of hand- and
machine-sewn, as well as seamless bags, are made in the former city. The
American name for hessian is burlap; this particular kind is 40 in.
wide, and is now largely made in Calcutta as well as in Dundee and other
places.



HESSUS, HELIUS EOBANUS (1488-1540), German Latin poet, was born at
Halgehausen in Hesse-Cassel, on the 6th of January 1488. His family name
is said to have been Koch; Eoban was the name of a local saint; Hessus
indicates the land of his birth, Helius the fact that he was born on
Sunday. In 1504 he entered the university of Erfurt, and soon after his
graduation was appointed rector of the school of St Severus. This post
he soon lost, and spent the years 1509-1513 at the court of the bishop
of Riesenburg. Returning to Erfurt, he was reduced to great straits
owing to his drunken and irregular habits. At length (in 1517) he was
appointed professor of Latin in the university. He was prominently
associated with the distinguished men of the time (Johann Reuchlin,
Conrad Peutinger, Ulrich von Hutten, Conrad Mutianus), and took part in
the political, religious and literary quarrels of the period, finally
declaring in favour of Luther and the Reformation, although his
subsequent conduct showed that he was actuated by selfish motives. The
university was seriously weakened by the growing popularity of the new
university of Wittenberg, and Hessus endeavoured (but without success)
to gain a living by the practice of medicine. Through the influence of
Camerarius and Melanchthon, he obtained a post at Nuremberg (1526), but,
finding a regular life distasteful, he again went back to Erfurt (1533).
But It was not the Erfurt he had known; his old friends were dead or had
left the place; the university was deserted. A lengthy poem gained him
the favour of the landgrave of Hesse, by whom he was summoned in 1536
as professor of poetry and history to Marburg, where he died on the 5th
of October 1540. Hessus, who was considered the foremost Latin poet of
his age, was a facile verse-maker, but not a true poet. He wrote what he
thought was likely to pay or secure him the favour of some important
person. He wrote local, historical and military poems, idylls, epigrams
and occasional pieces, collected under the title of _Sylvae_. His most
popular works were translations of the Psalms into Latin distichs (which
reached forty editions) and of the _Iliad_ into hexameters. His most
original poem was the _Heroïdes_ in imitation of Ovid, consisting of
letters from holy women, from the Virgin Mary down to Kunigunde, wife of
the emperor Henry II.

  His _Epistolae_ were edited by his friend Camerarius, who also wrote
  his life (1553). There are later accounts of him by M. Hertz (1860),
  G. Schwertzell (1874) and C. Krause (1879); see also D. F. Strauss,
  _Ulrich von Hutten_ (Eng. trans., 1874). His poems on Nuremberg and
  other towns have been edited with commentaries and 16th-century
  illustrations by J. Neff and V. von Loga in M. Herrmann and S.
  Szamatolski's _Lateinische Literaturdenkmäler des XV. u. XVI.
  Jahrhunderts_ (Berlin, 1896).



HESTIA, in Greek mythology, the "fire-goddess," daughter of Cronus and
Rhea, the goddess of hearth and home. She is not mentioned in Homer,
although the hearth is recognized as a place of refuge for suppliants;
this seems to show that her worship was not universally acknowledged at
the time of the Homeric poems. In post-Homeric religion she is one of
the twelve Olympian deities, but, as the abiding goddess of the
household, she never leaves Olympus. When Apollo and Poseidon became
suitors for her hand, she swore to remain a maiden for ever; whereupon
Zeus bestowed upon her the honour of presiding over all sacrifices. To
her the opening sacrifice was offered; to her at the sacrificial meal
the first and last libations were poured. The fire of Hestia was always
kept burning, and, if by any accident it became extinct, only sacred
fire produced by friction, or by burning glasses drawing fire from the
sun, might be used to rekindle it. Hestia is the goddess of the family
union, the personification of the idea of home; and as the city union is
only the family union on a large scale, she was regarded as the goddess
of the state. In this character her special sanctuary was in the
prytaneum, where the common hearth-fire round which the magistrates meet
is ever burning, and where the sacred rites that sanctify the concord of
city life are performed. From this fire, as the representative of the
life of the city, intending colonists took the fire which was to be
kindled on the hearth of the new colony. Hestia was closely connected
with Zeus, the god of the family both in its external relation of
hospitality and its internal unity round its own hearth; in the
_Odyssey_ a form of oath is by Zeus, the table and the hearth. Again,
Hestia is often associated with Hermes, the two representing home and
domestic life on the one hand, and business and outdoor life on the
other; or, according to others, the association is local--that of the
god of boundaries with the goddess of the house. In later philosophy
Hestia became the hearth of the universe--the personification of the
earth as the centre of the universe, identified with Cybele and Demeter.
As Hestia had her home in the prytaneum, special temples dedicated to
her are of rare occurrence. She is seldom represented in works of art,
and plays no important part in legend. It is not certain that any really
Greek statues of Hestia are in existence, although the Giustiniani Vesta
in the Torlonia Museum is usually accepted as such. In this she is
represented standing upright, simply robed, a hood over her head, the
left hand raised and pointing upwards. The Roman deity corresponding to
the Greek Hestia is Vesta (q.v.).

  See A. Preuner, _Hestia-Vesta_ (1864), the standard treatise on the
  subject, and his article in Roscher's _Lexikon der Mythologie_; J. G.
  Frazer, "The Prytaneum," &c., in _Journal of Philology_, xiv. (1885);
  G. Hagemann, _De Graecorum prytaneis_ (1881), with bibliography and
  notes; _Homeric Hymns_, xxix., ed. T. W. Allen and E. E. Sikes (1904);
  Farnell, _Cults, the Greek States_, v. (1909).



HESYCHASTS ([Greek: hêsychastai] or [Greek: hêsychazontes], from [Greek:
hêsychos], quiet, also called [Greek: omphalopsychoi], Umbilicanimi, and
sometimes referred to as Euchites, Massalians or Palamites), a
quietistic sect which arose, during the later period of the Byzantine
empire, among the monks of the Greek church, especially at Mount Athos,
then at the height of its fame and influence under the reign of
Andronicus the younger and the abbacy of Symeon. Owing to various
adventitious circumstances the sect came into great prominence
politically and ecclesiastically for a few years about the middle of the
14th century. Their opinion and practice will be best represented in the
words of one of their early teachers (quoted by Gibbon, _Decline and
Fall_, c. 63): "When thou art alone in thy cell shut thy door, and seat
thyself in a corner; raise thy mind above all things vain and
transitory; recline thy beard and chin on thy breast; turn thine eyes
and thy thought towards the middle of thy belly, the region of the navel
([Greek: omphalos]); and search the place of the heart, the seat of the
soul. At first all will be dark and comfortless; but if thou persevere
day and night, thou wilt feel an ineffable joy; and no sooner has the
soul discovered the place of the heart than it is involved in a mystic
and ethereal light." About the year 1337 this hesychasm, which is
obviously related to certain well-known forms of Oriental mysticism,
attracted the attention of the learned and versatile Barlaam, a
Calabrian monk, who at that time held the office of abbot in the
Basilian monastery of St Saviour's in Constantinople, and who had
visited the fraternities of Mount Athos on a tour of inspection. Amid
much that he disapproved, what he specially took exception to as
heretical and blasphemous was the doctrine entertained as to the nature
of this divine light, the fruition of which was the supposed reward of
hesychastic contemplation. It was maintained to be the pure and perfect
essence of God Himself, that eternal light which had been manifested to
the disciples on Mount Tabor at the transfiguration. This Barlaam held
to be polytheistic, inasmuch as it postulated two eternal substances, a
visible and an invisible God. On the hesychastic side the controversy
was taken up by Gregory Palamas, afterwards archbishop of Thessalonica,
who laboured to establish a distinction between eternal [Greek: ousia]
and eternal [Greek: energeia]. In 1341 the dispute came before a synod
held at Constantinople and presided over by the emperor Andronicus; the
assembly, influenced by the veneration in which the writings of the
pseudo-Dionysius were held in the Eastern Church, overawed Barlaam, who
recanted and returned to Calabria, afterwards becoming bishop of Hierace
in the Latin communion. One of his friends, Gregory Acindynus, continued
the controversy, and three other synods on the subject were held, at the
second of which the Barlaamites gained a brief victory. But in 1351
under the presidency of the emperor John Cantacuzenus, the uncreated
light of Mount Tabor was established as an article of faith for the
Greeks, who ever since have been ready to recognize it as an additional
ground of separation from the Roman Church. The contemporary historians
Cantacuzenus and Nicephorus Gregoras deal very copiously with this
subject, taking the Hesychast and Barlaamite sides respectively. It may
be mentioned that in the time of Justinian the word hesychast was
applied to monks in general simply as descriptive of the quiet and
contemplative character of their pursuits.

  See article "Hesychasten" in Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_ (3rd
  ed., 1900), where further references are given.



HESYCHIUS, grammarian of Alexandria, probably flourished in the 5th
century A.D. He was probably a pagan; and the explanations of words from
Gregory of Nazianzus and other Christian writers (_glossae sacrae_) are
interpolations of a later time. He has left a Greek dictionary,
containing a copious list of peculiar words, forms and phrases, with an
explanation of their meaning, and often with a reference to the author
who used them or to the district of Greece where they were current.
Hence the book is of great value to the student of the Greek dialects;
while in the restoration of the text of the classical authors generally,
and particularly of such writers as Aeschylus and Theocritus, who used
many unusual words, its value can hardly be exaggerated. The
explanations of many epithets and phrases reveal many important facts
about the religion and social life of the ancients. In a prefatory
letter Hesychius mentions that his lexicon is based on that of
Diogenianus (itself extracted from an earlier work by Pamphilus), but
that he has also used similar works by Aristarchus, Apion, Heliodorus
and others.

  The text is very corrupt, and the order of the words has often been
  disturbed. There is no doubt that many interpolations, besides the
  Christian glosses, have been made. The work has come down to us from a
  single MS., now in the library at Venice, from which the editio
  princeps was published. The best edition is by M. Schmidt (1858-1868);
  in a smaller edition (1867) he attempts to distinguish the additions
  made by Hesychius to the work of Diogenianus.



HESYCHIUS OF MILETUS, Greek chronicler and biographer, surnamed
_Illustrius_, son of an advocate, flourished at Constantinople in the
5th century A.D. during the reign of Justinian. According to Photius
(cod. 69) he was the author of three important works, (1) _A Compendium
of Universal History_ in six books, from Belus, the reputed founder of
the Assyrian empire, to Anastasius I. (d. 518). A considerable fragment
has been preserved from the sixth book, entitled [Greek: Patria
Kônstantinoupoleôs], a history of Byzantium from its earliest beginnings
till the time of Constantine the Great. (2) _A Biographical Dictionary_
([Greek: Onomatologos] or [Greek: Pinax]) _of Learned Men_, arranged
according to classes (poets, philosophers), the chief sources of which
were the [Greek: Mousikê historia] of Aelius Dionysius and the works of
Herennius Philo. Much of it has been incorporated in the lexicon of
Suidas, as we learn from that author. It is disputed, however, whether
the words in Suidas ("of which this book is an epitome") mean that
Suidas himself epitomized the work of Hesychius, or whether they are
part of the title of an already epitomized Hesychius used by Suidas. The
second view is more generally held. The epitome referred to, in which
alphabetical order was substituted for arrangement in classes and some
articles on Christian writers added as a concession to the times, is
assigned from internal indications to the years 829-837. Both it and the
original work are lost, with the exception of the excerpts in Photius
and Suidas. A smaller compilation, chiefly from Diogenes Laërtius and
Suidas, with a similar title, is the work of an unknown author of the
11th or 12th century. (3) A _History_ of the Reign of Justin I.
(518-527) and the early years of Justinian, completely lost. Photius
praises the style of Hesychius, and credits him with being a veracious
historian.

  Editions: J. C. Orelli (1820) and J. Flach (1882); fragments in C. W.
  Müller, _Frag. hist. Graec._ iv. 143 and in T. Preger's _Scriptores
  originis Constantinopolitanae_, i. (1901); _Pseudo-Hesychius_, by J.
  Flach (1880); see generally C. Krumbacher, _Geschichte der
  byzantinischen Literatur_ (1897).



HETAERISM (Gr. [Greek: hetaira] mistress), the term employed by
anthropologists to express the primitive condition of man in his sexual
relations. The earliest social organization of the human race was
characterized by the absence of the institution of marriage in any form.
Women were the common property of their tribe, and the children never
knew their fathers.



HETEROKARYOTA, a zoological name proposed by S. J. Hickson for the
Infusoria (q.v.) on the ground of the differentiation of their nuclear
apparatus into meganucleus and micronucleus (or nuclei).

  See Lankester's _Treatise of Zoology_, vol. i. fasc. 1 (1903).



HETERONOMY (from Gr. [Greek: heteros] and [Greek: nomos], the rule of
another), the state of being under the rule of another person. In ethics
the term is specially used as the antithesis of "autonomy," which,
especially in Kantian terminology, treats of the true self as will,
determining itself by its own law, the moral law. "Heteronomy" is
therefore applied by Kant to all other ethical systems, inasmuch as they
place the individual in subjection to external laws of conduct.



HETMAN (a Polish word, probably derived from the Ger. _Hauptmann_,
head-man or captain; the Russian form is _ataman_), a military title
formerly in use in Poland; the _Hetman Wielki_, or Great Hetman, was the
chief of the armed forces of the nation, and commanded in the field,
except when the king was present in person. The office was abolished in
1792. From Poland the word was introduced into Russia, in the form
_ataman_, and was adopted by the Cossacks, as a title for their head,
who was practically an independent prince, when under the suzerainty of
Poland. After the acceptance of Russian rule by the Cossacks in 1654,
the post was shorn of its power. The title of "ataman" or "hetman of all
the Cossacks" is held by the Cesarevitch. "Ataman" or "hetman" is also
the name of the elected elder of the _stanitsa_, the unit of Cossack
administration. (See COSSACKS.)



HETTNER, HERMANN THEODOR (1821-1882), German literary historian and
writer on the history of art, was born at Leisersdorf, near Goldberg, in
Silesia, on the 12th of March 1821. At the universities of Berlin, Halle
and Heidelberg he devoted himself chiefly to the study of philosophy, but
in 1843 turned his attention to aesthetics, art and literature. With a
view to furthering these studies, he spent three years in Italy, and, on
his return, published a _Vorschule zur bildenden Kunst der Alten_ (1848)
and an essay on _Die neapolitanischen Malerschulen_. He became
_Privatdozent_ for aesthetics and the history of art at Heidelberg and,
after the publication of his suggestive volume on _Die romantische Schule
in ihrem Zusammenhang mit Goethe und Schiller_ (1850), accepted a call as
professor to Jena where he lectured on the history of both art and
literature. In 1855 he was appointed director of the royal collections of
antiquities and the museum of plaster casts at Dresden, to which posts
were subsequently added that of director of the historical museum and a
professorship at the royal _Polytechnikum_. He died in Dresden on the
29th of May 1882. Hettner's chief work is his _Literaturgeschichte des
18ten Jahrhunderts_, which appeared in three parts, devoted respectively
to English, French and German literature, between 1856 and 1870 (5th ed.
of I. and II., revised by A. Brandl and H. Morf, 1894; 4th of III.,
revised by O. Harnack, 1894). Although to some extent influenced by the
political and literary theories of the Hegelian school, which, since
Hettner's day have fallen into discredit, and at times losing sight of
the main issues of literary development over questions of social
evolution, this work belongs to the best histories that the 19th century
produced. Hettner's judgment is sound and his point of view always
original and stimulating. His other works include _Griechische
Reiseskizzen_ (1853), _Das moderne Drama_ (1852)--a book that arose from
a correspondence with Gottfried Keller--_Italienische Studien_ (1879),
and several works descriptive of the Dresden art collections. His _Kleine
Schriften_ were collected and published in 1884.

  See A. Stern, _Hermann Hettner, ein Lebensbild_ (1885); H. Spitzer,
  _H. Hettners kunstphilosophische Anfänge und Literaturästhetik_
  (1903).



HETTSTEDT, a town of Germany, in Prussian Saxony, on the Wipper, and at
the junction of the railways Berlin-Blankenheim and Hettstedt-Halle, 23
m. N.W. of the last town. Pop. (1905), 9230. It has a Roman Catholic and
four Evangelical churches, and has manufactures of machinery,
pianofortes and artificial manure. In the neighbourhood are mines of
argentiferous copper, and the surrounding district and villages are
occupied with smelting and similar works. Silver and sulphuric acid are
the other chief products; nickel and gold are also found in small
quantities. In the Kaiser Friedrich mine close by, the first
steam-engine in Germany was erected on the 23rd of August 1785.
Hettstedt is mentioned as early as 1046; in 1220 it possessed a castle;
and in 1380 it received civic privileges. When the countship of Mansfeld
was sequestrated, Hettstedt came into the possession of Saxony, passing
to Prussia in 1815.



HEUGLIN, THEODOR VON (1824-1876), German traveller in north-east Africa,
was born on the 20th of March 1824 at Hirschlanden near Leonberg in
Württemberg. His father was a Protestant pastor, and he was trained to
be a mining engineer. He was ambitious, however, to become a scientific
investigator of unknown regions, and with that object studied the
natural sciences, especially zoology. In 1850 he went to Egypt where he
learnt Arabic, afterwards visiting Arabia Petraea. In 1852 he
accompanied Dr Reitz, Austrian consul at Khartum, on a journey to
Abyssinia, and in the next year was appointed Dr Reitz's successor in
the consulate. While he held this post he travelled in Abyssinia and
Kordofan, making a valuable collection of natural history specimens. In
1857 he journeyed through the coast lands of the African side of the Red
Sea, and along the Somali coast. In 1860 he was chosen leader of an
expedition to search for Eduard Vogel, his companions including Werner
Munzinger, Gottlob Kinzelbach, and Dr Hermann Steudner. In June 1861 the
party landed at Massawa, having instructions to go direct to Khartum and
thence to Wadai, where Vogel was thought to be detained. Heuglin,
accompanied by Dr Steudner, turned aside and made a wide detour through
Abyssinia and the Galla country, and in consequence the leadership of
the expedition was taken from him. He and Steudner reached Khartum in
1862 and there joined the party organized by Miss Tinné. With her or on
their own account, they travelled up the White Nile to Gondokoro and
explored a great part of the Bahr-el-Ghazal, where Steudner died of
fever on the 10th of April 1863. Heuglin returned to Europe at the end
of 1864. In 1870 and 1871 he made a valuable series of explorations in
Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya; but 1875 found him again in north-east
Africa, in the country of the Beni Amer and northern Abyssinia. He was
preparing for an exploration of the island of Sokotra, when he died, at
Stuttgart, on the 5th of November 1876. It is principally by his
zoological, and more especially his ornithological, labours that Heuglin
has taken rank as an independent authority.

  His chief works are _Systematische Übersicht der Vögel
  Nordost-Afrikas_ (1855); _Reisen in Nordost-Afrika, 1852-1853_ (Gotha,
  1857); _Syst. Übersicht der Säugetiere Nordost-Afrikas_ (Vienna,
  1867); _Reise nach Abessinien, den Gala-Ländern_, &c., _1861-1862_
  (Jena, 1868); _Reise in das Gebiet des Weissen Nil_, &c. _1862-1864_
  (Leipzig, 1869); _Reisen nach dem Nordpolarmeer, 1870-1871_
  (Brunswick, 1872-1874); _Ornithologie von Nordost-Afrika_ (Cassel,
  1869-1875); _Reise in Nordost-Afrika_ (Brunswick, 1877, 2 vols.) A
  list of the more important of his numerous contributions to
  _Petermann's Mitteilungen_ will be found in that serial for 1877 at
  the close of the necrological notice.



HEULANDITE, a mineral of the zeolite group, consisting of hydrous
calcium and aluminium silicate, H4CaAl2(SiO3)6 + 3H20. Small amounts of
sodium and potassium are usually present replacing part of the calcium.
Crystals are monoclinic, and have a characteristic coffin-shaped habit.
They have a perfect cleavage parallel to the plane of symmetry (M in the
figure), on which the lustre is markedly pearly; on other faces the
lustre is of the vitreous type. The mineral is usually colourless or
white, sometimes brick-red, and varies from transparent to translucent.
The hardness is 3½-4, and the specific gravity 2.2.

[Illustration]

Heulandite closely resembles stilbite (q.v.) in appearance, and differs
from it chemically only in containing rather less water of
crystallization. The two minerals may, however, be readily distinguished
by the fact that in heulandite the acute positive bisectrix of the optic
axes emerges perpendicular to the cleavage. Heulandite was first
separated from stilbite by A. Breithaupt in 1818, and named by him
euzeolite (meaning beautiful zeolite); independently, in 1822, H. J.
Brooke arrived at the same result, giving the name heulandite, after the
mineral collector, Henry Heuland.

Heulandite occurs with stilbite and other zeolites in the amygdaloidal
cavities of basaltic volcanic rocks, and occasionally in gneiss and
metalliferous veins. The best specimens are from the basalts of
Berufjord, near Djupivogr, in Iceland and the Faroe Islands, and the
Deccan traps of the Sahyadri mountains near Bombay. Crystals of a
brick-red colour are from Campsie Fells in Stirlingshire and the
Fassathal in Tirol. A variety known as beaumontite occurs as small
yellow crystals on syenitic schist near Baltimore in Maryland.

Isomorphous with heulandite is the strontium and barium zeolite
brewsterite, named after Sir David Brewster. The greyish monoclinic
crystals have the composition H4(Sr, Ba, Ca)Al2(SiO3)6 + 3H2O, and are
found in the basalt of the Giant's Causeway in Co. Antrim, and with
harmotome in the lead mines at Strontian in Argyllshire.     (L. J. S.)



HEUSCH, WILLEM, or GUILLIAM DE, a Dutch landscape painter in the 17th
century at Utrecht. The dates of this artist's birth and death are
unknown. Nothing certain is recorded of him except that he presided over
the gild of Utrecht, whilst Cornelis Poelemburg, Jan Both and Jan Weenix
formed the council of that body, in 1649. According to the majority of
historians, Heusch was born in 1638, and was taught by Jan Both. But
each of these statements seems open to doubt; and although it is obvious
that the style of Heusch is identical with that of Both, it may be that
the two masters during their travels in Italy fell under the influence
of Claude Lorraine, whose "Arcadian" art they imitated. Heusch certainly
painted the same effects of evening in wide expanses of country varied
by rock formations and lofty thin-leaved arborescence as Both. There is
little to distinguish one master from the other, except that of the two
Both is perhaps the more delicate colourist. The gild of Utrecht in the
middle of the 17th century was composed of artists who clung faithfully
to each other. Poelemburg, who painted figures for Jan Both, did the
same duty for Heusch. Sometimes Heusch sketched landscapes for the
battlepieces of Molenaer. The most important examples of Heusch are in
the galleries of the Hague and Rotterdam, in the Belvedere at Vienna,
the Städel at Frankfort and the Louvre. His pictures are signed with the
full name, beginning with a monogram combining a G (for Guilliam), D and
H. Heusch's etchings, of which thirteen are known, are also in the
character of those of Both.

After Guilliam there also flourished at Utrecht his nephew, Jacob de
Heusch, who signs like his uncle, substituting an initial J for the
initial G. He was born at Utrecht in 1657, learnt drawing from his
uncle, and travelled early to Rome, where he acquired friends and
patrons for whom he executed pictures after his return. He settled for a
time at Berlin, but finally retired to Utrecht, where he died in 1701.
Jacob was an "Arcadian," like his relative, and an imitator of Both, and
he chiefly painted Italian harbour views. But his pictures are now
scarce. Two of his canvases, the "Ponte Rotto" at Rome, in the Brunswick
Gallery, and a lake harbour with shipping in the Lichtenstein collection
at Vienna, are dated 1696. A harbour with a tower and distant mountains,
in the Belvedere at Vienna, was executed in 1699. Other examples may be
found in English private galleries, in the Hermitage of St Petersburg
and the museums of Rouen and Montpellier.



HEVELIUS [HEVEL or HÖWELCKE], JOHANN (1611-1687), German astronomer, was
born at Danzig on the 28th of January 1611. He studied jurisprudence at
Leiden in 1630; travelled in England and France; and in 1634 settled in
his native town as a brewer and town councillor. From 1639 his chief
interest became centred in astronomy, though he took, throughout his
life, a leading part in municipal affairs. In 1641 he built an
observatory in his house, provided with a splendid instrumental outfit,
including ultimately a tubeless telescope of 150 ft. focal length,
constructed by himself. It was visited, on the 29th of January 1660, by
John II. and Maria Gonzaga, king and queen of Poland. Hevelius made
observations of sun-spots, 1642-1645, devoted four years to charting the
lunar surface, discovered the moon's libration in longitude, and
published his results in _Selenographia_ (1647), a work which entitles
him to be called the founder of lunar topography. He discovered four
comets in the several years 1652, 1661, 1672 and 1677, and suggested the
revolution of such bodies in parabolic tracks round the sun. On the 26th
of September 1679, his observatory, instruments and books were
maliciously destroyed by fire, the catastrophe being described in the
preface to his _Annus climactericus_ (1685). He promptly repaired the
damage, so far as to enable him to observe the great comet of December
1680; but his health suffered from the shock, and he died on the 28th of
January 1687. Among his works were: _Prodromus cometicus_ (1665);
_Cometographia_ (1668); _Machina coelestis_ (first part, 1673),
containing a description of his instruments; the second part (1679) is
extremely rare, nearly the whole issue having perished in the
conflagration of 1679. The observations made by Hevelius on the variable
star named by him "Mira" are included in _Annus climactericus_. His
catalogue of 1564 stars appeared posthumously in _Prodromus astronomiae_
(1690). Its value was much impaired by his preference of the antique
"pinnules" to telescopic sights on quadrants. This led to an
acrimonious controversy with Robert Hooke. In an _Atlas_ of 56 sheets,
corresponding to his catalogue, and entitled _Firmamentum Sobiescianum_
(1690), he delineated seven new constellations, still in use. Hevelius
had his book printed in his own house, at lavish expense, and himself
not only designed but engraved many of the plates.

  See J. H. Westphal, _Leben, Studien, und Schriften des Astronomen
  Johann Hevelius_ (1820); C. B. Lengnich, _Anekdoten und Nachrichten_
  (1780); _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_ (C. Bruhns); J. B. J.
  Delambre, _Histoire de l'astronomie moderne_, ii. 471; J. F. Weidler,
  _Historia astronomiae_, p. 486; F. Baily's edition of the Catalogue of
  Hevelius, _Memoirs Roy. Astr. Society_, xiii. (1843); R. Wolf,
  _Geschichte der Astronomie_, p. 396; J. C. Poggendorff, _Biog.-lit.
  Handwörterbuch_. For an account of the epistolary remains of Hevelius,
  see C. G. Hecker, _Monatl. Correspondenz_, viii. 30; also _Astr.
  Nachrichten_, vols. xxiii., xxiv.     (A. M. C.)



HEWETT, SIR PRESCOTT GARDNER, Bart. (1812-1891), British surgeon, was
born on the 3rd of July 1812, being the son of a Yorkshire country
gentleman. He lived for some years in early life in Paris, and started
on a career as an artist, but abandoned it for surgery. He entered St
George's Hospital, London (where his half-brother, Dr Cornwallis Hewett,
was physician from 1825 to 1833) becoming demonstrator of anatomy and
curator of the museum. He was the pupil and intimate friend of Sir B. C.
Brodie, and helped him in much of his work. Eventually he rose to be
anatomical lecturer, assistant-surgeon and surgeon to the hospital. In
1876 he was president of the College of Surgeons; in 1877 he was made
serjeant-surgeon extraordinary to Queen Victoria, in 1884
serjeant-surgeon, and in 1883 he was created a baronet. He was a very
good lecturer, but shrank from authorship; his lectures on _Surgical
Affections of the Head_ were, however, embodied in his treatise on the
subject in Holmes's _System of Surgery_. As a surgeon he was always
extremely conservative, but hesitated at no operation, however severe,
when convinced of its expediency. He was a perfect operator, and one of
the most trustworthy of counsellors. He died on the 19th of June 1891.



HEWITT, ABRAM STEVENS (1822-1903), American manufacturer and political
leader, was born in Haverstraw, New York, on the 31st of July 1822. His
father, John, a Staffordshire man, was one of a party of four mechanics
who were sent by Boulton and Watt to Philadelphia about 1790 to set up a
steam engine for the city water-works and who in 1793-1794 built at
Belleville, N.J., the first steam engine constructed wholly in America;
he made a fortune in the manufacture of furniture, but lost it by the
burning of his factories. The boy's mother was of Huguenot descent. He
graduated with high rank from Columbia College in 1842, having supported
himself through his course. He taught mathematics at Columbia, and in
1845 was admitted to the bar, but, owing to defective eyesight, never
practised. With Edward Cooper (son of Peter Cooper, whom Hewitt greatly
assisted in organizing Cooper Union, and whose daughter he married) he
went into the manufacture of iron girders and beams under the firm name
of Cooper, Hewitt & Co. His study of the making of gun-barrel iron in
England enabled him to be of great assistance to the United States
government during the Civil War, when he refused any profit on such
orders. The men in his works never struck--indeed in 1873-1878 his plant
was run at an annual loss of $100,000. In politics he was a Democrat. In
1871 he was prominent in the re-organization of Tammany after the fall
of the "Tweed Ring"; from 1875 until the end of 1886 (except in
1879-1881) he was a representative in Congress; in 1876 he left Tammany
for the County Democracy; in the Hayes-Tilden campaign of that year he
was chairman of the Democratic National Committee, and in Congress he
was one of the House members of the joint committee which drew up the
famous Electoral Count Act providing for the Electoral Commission. In
1886 he was elected mayor of New York City, his nomination having been
forced upon the Democratic Party by the strength of the other nominees,
Henry George and Theodore Roosevelt; his administration (1887-1888) was
thoroughly efficient and creditable, but he broke with Tammany, was not
renominated, ran independently for re-election, and was defeated. In
1896 and 1900 he voted the Republican ticket, but did not ally himself
with the organization. He died in New York City on the 18th of January
1903. In Congress he was a consistent defender of sound money and civil
service reform; in municipal politics he was in favour of business
administrations and opposed to partisan nominations. He was a leader of
those who contended for reform in municipal government, was conspicuous
for his public spirit, and exerted a great influence for good not only
in New York City but in the state and nation. His most famous speech was
that made at the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge in 1883. He was a terse,
able and lucid speaker, master of wit and sarcasm, and a fearless
critic. He gave liberally to Cooper Union, of which he was trustee and
secretary, and which owes much of its success to him; was a trustee of
Columbia University from 1901 until his death, chairman of the board of
trustees of Barnard College, and was one of the original trustees, first
chairman of the board of trustees, and a member of the executive
committee of the Carnegie Institution.



HEWLETT, MAURICE HENRY (1861-   ), English novelist, was born on the 22nd
of January 1861, the eldest son of Henry Gay Hewlett, of Shaw Hall,
Addington, Kent. He was educated at the London International College,
Spring Grove, Isleworth, and was called to the bar in 1891. From 1896 to
1900 he was keeper of the land revenue records and enrolments. He
published in 1895 two books on Italy, _Earthwork out of Tuscany_, and
(in verse) _The Masque of Dead Florentines_. _Songs and Meditations_
followed in 1897, and in 1898 he won an immediate reputation by his
_Forest Lovers_, a romance of medieval England, full of rapid movement
and passion. In the same year he printed the pastoral and pagan drama of
_Pan and the Young Shepherd_, shortened for purposes of representation
and produced at the Court Theatre in March 1905, when it was followed by
the _Youngest of the Angels_, dramatized from a chapter in his _Fool
Errant_. In _Little Novels of Italy_ (1899), a collection of brilliant
short stories, he showed again his power of literary expression together
with a close knowledge of medieval Italy. The new and vivid portraits of
Richard Coeur de Lion in his _Richard Yea-and-Nay_ (1900), and of Mary,
queen of Scots, in _The Queen's Quair_ (1904) showed the combination of
fiction with real history at its best. _The New Canterbury Tales_ (1901)
was another volume of stories of English life, but he returned to
Italian subjects with _The Road in Tuscany_ (1904); in _Fond Adventures,
Tales of the Youth of the World_ (1905), two are Italian tales, and _The
Fool Errant_ (1905) purports to be the memoirs of Francis Antony
Stretley, citizen of Lucca. Later works were the novel _The Stooping
Lady_ (1907), and a volume of poems, _Artemision_ (1909).



HEXAMETER, the name of the earliest and most important form of classical
verse in dactylic rhythm. The word is due to each line containing six
feet or measures ([Greek: metra]), the last of which must be a spondee
and the penultimate a dactyl, though occasionally, for some special
effect, a spondee may be allowed in the fifth foot, when the line is
said to be spondaic. The four other feet may be either spondees or
dactyls. All the great heroic and epic verse of the Greek and Roman
poets is in this metre, of which the finest examples are to be found in
Homer and in Virgil. Varied cadences and varied caesura are essential to
this form of verse, otherwise the monotony is wearying to the ear. The
most usual places for the caesura are at the middle of the third, or the
middle of the fourth foot: the former is known as the penthemimeral and
the latter as hepthemimeral caesura. There are several more or less
successful examples of English poems in this metre, for example
Longfellow's _Evangeline_, Kingsley's _Andromeda_ and Clough's _Bothie
of Tober-na-Vuoilich_, but it does not really suit the genius of the
English language. In English the lack of true spondees is severely felt,
even though the English metre depends, not, as in Greek and Latin, on
the distinction between long and short syllables, but on that between
accented and unaccented syllables. The accent must always (or it sounds
very ugly) fall on the first syllable, whatever may have been the case
in Greek and Latin--Voss, Klopstock and Goethe have written hexameter
poems of varying merit and the metre suits the German language
distinctly better than the English. The customary form of hexameter in
English verse is exemplified by Coleridge's descriptive line:--

  "In the hex | ameter | rises the | fountain's | silvery | column."

Several modern poets, and in particular Robert Browning, and Lord Bowen
(1835-1894) have used with effect a truncated hexameter consisting of
the usual verse deprived of its last syllable. Thus Browning:--

  "Well, it is I gone at | last, the | palace of | music I | reared."

It is not sufficiently observed that even the classic Greek poets
introduced considerable variations into their treatment of the
hexameter. These have been treated with erudition in G. Hermann's _De
aetate scriptoris Argonauticorum_. The differences in the hexameters of
the Latin poets were not so remarkable, but even these varied, in
various epochs, their treatment of the separate feet, and the position
of the caesura. The satirists in particular allowed themselves an
extraordinary licence: these hexameters, from Persius, are as far
removed from the rhythm of Homer, or even of Virgil, as possible, if
they are to remain hexameters:--

  "Mane piger stertis. 'Surge!' inquit Avaritia, 'heia
   Surge!' negas; instat 'Surge!' inquit 'Non queo.' 'Surge!'
  'Et quid agam?' 'Rogitas? en saperdam advehe Ponto.'"

It is also to be noted that various prosodical liberties, due originally
to the extreme antiquity of the hexameter, and long reformed and
repressed by the culture of poets, were apt to be revived in later ages,
by writers who slavishly copied the most antique examples of the art of
verse.

  See Wilhelm Christ, _Metrik der Griechen und Römer_, 2te Aufl. (1879).



HEXAPLA (Gr. for "sixfold"), the term for an edition of the Bible in six
versions, and especially the edition of the Old Testament compiled by
Origen, which placed side by side (1) Hebrew, (2) Hebrew in Greek
character, (3) Aquila, (4) Symmachus, (5) Septuagint, (6) Theodotion.
See BIBLE: _Old Testament, Texts and Versions_.



HEXAPODA (Gr. [Greek: hex], six, and [Greek: pous], foot), a term used
in systematic zoology for that class of the ARTHROPODA, popularly known
as insects. Linnaeus in his _Systema naturae_ (1735) grouped under the
class Insecta all segmented animals with firm exoskeleton and jointed
limbs--that is to say, the insects, centipedes, millipedes, crustaceans,
spiders, scorpions and their allies. This assemblage is now generally
regarded as a great division (phylum or sub-phylum) of the animal
kingdom and known by K. T. E. von Siebold's (1848) name of Arthropoda.
For the class of the true insects included in this phylum, Linnaeus's
old term Insecta, first used in a restricted sense by M. J. Brisson
(1756), is still adopted by many zoologists, while others prefer the
name Hexapoda, first used systematically in its modern sense by P. A.
Latreille in 1825 (_Familles naturelles du règne animal_), since it has
the advantage of expressing, in a single word, an important
characteristic of the group. The terms "Hexapoda" and "hexapod" had
already been used by F. Willughby, J. Ray and others in the late 17th
century to include the active larvae of beetles, as well as bugs, lice,
fleas and other insects with undeveloped wings.


_Characters._

A true insect, or member of the class Hexapoda, may be known by the
grouping of its body-segments in three distinct regions--a head, a
thorax and an abdomen--each of which consists of a definite number of
segments. In the terminology proposed by E. R. Lankester the arrangement
is "nomomeristic" and "nomotagmic." The head of an insect carries
usually four pairs of conspicuous appendages--feelers, mandibles and two
pairs of maxillae, so that the presence of four primitive somites is
immediately evident. The compound eyes of insects resemble so closely
the similar organs in Crustaceans that there can hardly be reasonable
doubt of their homology, and the primitively appendicular nature of the
eyes in the latter class suggests that in the Hexapoda also they
represent the appendages of an anterior (protocerebral) segment. Behind
the antennal (or deutocerebral) segment an "intercalary" or
tritocerebral segment has been demonstrated by W. M. Wheeler (1893) and
others in various insect embryos, while in the lowest insect order--the
Aptera--a pair of minute jaws--the maxillulae--in close association with
the tongue are present, as has been shown by H. J. Hansen (1893) and J.
W. Folsom (1900). Distinct vestiges of the maxillulae exist also in the
earwigs and booklice, according to G. Enderlein and C. Börner (1904),
and they are very evident in larval may-flies. The number of
limb-bearing somites in the insectan head is thus seen to be seven. All
of these are to be regarded as primitively post-oral, but in the course
of development the mouth moves back to the mandibular segment, so that
the first three somites--ocular, antennal and intercalary--lie in front
of it. In Lankester's terminology, therefore, the head of an insect is
"triprosthomerous." The maxillae of the hinder pair become more or less
fused together to form a "lower lip" or labium, and the segment of these
appendages is, in some insects, only imperfectly united with the
head-capsule.

The thorax is composed of three segments; each bears a pair of jointed
legs, and in the vast majority of insects the two hindmost bear each a
pair of wings. From these three pairs of thoracic legs comes the
name--Hexapoda--which distinguishes the class. And the wings, though not
always present, are highly characteristic of the Hexapoda, since no
other group of the Arthropoda has acquired the power of flight. In the
more generalized insects the abdomen evidently consists of ten segments,
the hindmost of which often carries a pair of tail-feelers, (cerci or
cercopods) and a terminal anal segment. In some cases, however, it can
be shown that the cerci really belong to an eleventh abdominal segment
which usually becomes fused with the tenth. With very few exceptions the
abdomen is without locomotor limbs. Paired processes on the eighth and
ninth abdominal segments may be specialized as external organs of
reproduction, but these are probably not appendages. The female genital
opening usually lies in front of the eighth abdominal segment, the male
duct opens on the ninth.

In all main points of their internal structure the Hexapoda agree with
other Arthropoda. Specially characteristic of the class, however, is the
presence of a complex system of air-tubes (tracheae) for respiration,
usually opening to the exterior by a series of paired spiracles on
certain of the body segments. The possession of a variable number of
excretory tubes (Malpighian tubes), which are developed as outgrowths of
the hind-gut and pour their excretion into the intestine, is also a
distinctive character of the Hexapoda.

The wings of insects are, in all cases, developed after hatching, the
younger stages being wingless, and often unlike the parent in other
respects. In such cases the development of wings and the attainment of
the adult form depend upon a more or less profound transformation or
metamorphosis.

With this brief summary of the essential characters of the Hexapoda, we
may pass to a more detailed account of their structure.


  EXOSKELETON

  The outer cellular layer (ectoderm or "hypodermis") of insects as of
  other Arthropods, secretes a chitinous cuticle which has to be
  periodically shed and renewed during the growth of the animal. The
  regions of this cuticle have a markedly segmental arrangement, and the
  definite hardened pieces (sclerites) of the exoskeleton are in close
  contact with one another along linear sutures, or are united by
  regions of the cuticle which are less chitinous and more membranous,
  so as to permit freedom of movement.

  _Head._--The head-capsule of an insect (figs. 1, 2) is composed of a
  number of sclerites firmly sutured together, so that the primitive
  segmentation is masked. Above is the crown (_vertex_ or _epicranium_),
  on which or on the "front" may be seated three simple eyes (ocelli).
  Below this comes the front, and then the face or clypeus, to which a
  very distinct upper lip (_labrum_) is usually jointed. Behind the
  labrum arises a process--the _epipharynx_--which in some blood-sucking
  insects becomes a formidable piercing-organ. On either side a variable
  amount of convex area is occupied by the compound eye; in many insects
  of acute sense and accurate flight these eyes are very large and
  sub-globular, almost meeting on the middle line of the head. Below
  each eye is a cheek area (_gena_), often divided into an anterior and
  a posterior part, while a distinct chin-sclerite (_gula_) is often
  developed behind the mouth.

  [Illustration: From Miall and Denny, _The Cockroach_, Lovell Reeve &
  Co.

  FIG. 1.--Head and Jaws of Cockroach (_Blatta_). Magnified 10 times. A,
  Front; B, side; C, back; v, vertex; f, frons; cl, clypeus; lbr,
  labrum; oc, compound eye; ge, gena; mn, mandible; ca, st, pa, ga, la,
  cardo, stipes, palp, galea, lacinia of first maxilla; sm, m, pa´, pg,
  sub-mentum, mentum, palp, galea of 2nd maxilla.]

  _Feelers._--Most conspicuous among the appendages of the head are the
  feelers or antennae, which correspond to the anterior feelers
  (antennules) of Crustacea. In their simpler condition they are long
  and many-jointed, the segments bearing numerous olfactory and tactile
  nerve-endings. Elaboration in the form of the feelers, often a
  secondary sexual character in male insects, may result from a distal
  broadening of the segments, so that the appendage becomes serrate, or
  from the development of processes bearing sensory organs, so that the
  structure is pinnate or feather-like. On the other hand, the number of
  segments may be reduced, certain of them often becoming highly
  modified in form.

  [Illustration: After Marlatt, _Entom. Bull._ 14, n. s. (U.S. Dept.
  Agric.).

  FIG. 2.--Head of Cicad, front view. Ia, frons; b, clypeus (the pointed
  labrum beneath it); II, mandible; III, first maxilla; (a, base; b,
  sheath; c, piercer), III', inner view of sheath; IV, second maxillae
  forming rostrum (b, mentum; c, ligula).]

  _Jaws._--The mandibles of the Hexapoda are usually strong jaws with
  one or more teeth at the apex (fig. 1, A, B, mn), articulating at
  their bases with the head-capsule by sub-globular condyles, and
  provided with abductor and adductor muscles by means of which they can
  be separated or drawn together so as to bite solid food, or seize
  objects which have to be carried about. They never bear segmented
  limbs (palps) and only exceptionally (as in the chafers) is the
  skeleton composed of more than one sclerite. The mandibles often
  furnish a good example of "secondary sexual characters," being more
  strongly developed in the male than in the female of the same species.
  In most insects that feed by suction the mandibles are modified. In
  bugs (Heteroptera) and many flies, for example, they are changed into
  needle-like piercers (fig. 2, II), while in moths and caddis-flies
  they are reduced to mere vestiges or altogether suppressed.

  As previously mentioned, a pair of minute jaws--the _maxillulae_--are
  present in the lowest order of insects, between the mandibles and the
  first maxillae. They usually consist of an inner and an outer lobe
  arising from a basal piece, which bears also in some genera a small
  palp (see APTERA).

  In their typical state of development, the _first maxillae_ offer a
  striking contrast to the mandibles, being composed of a two-segmented
  basal piece (_cardo_ and _stipes_, fig. 1, C, ca, st) bearing a
  distinct inner and outer lobe (_lacinia_ and _galea_, fig. 1, C, la,
  ga) and externally a jointed limb or palp (fig. 1, C, pa). Such
  maxillae are found in most biting insects. In insects whose mouths are
  adapted for sucking and piercing, remarkable modifications may occur.
  In many blood-sucking flies, for example, the galea is absent, while
  the lacinia becomes a strong knife-like piercer and the palp is well
  developed. In bugs and aphids the lacinia is a slender needle-like
  piercer (fig. 2, III), while the palp is wanting. In butterflies and
  moths the lacinia is absent while the galea becomes a flexible
  process, grooved on its inner face, so as to make with its fellow a
  hollow sucking-trunk, and the palp is usually very small.

  The _second pair of maxillae_ are more or less completely fused
  together to form what is known as the _labium_ or "lower lip." In
  generalized biting insects, such as cockroaches and locusts
  (Orthoptera), the parts of a typical maxilla can be easily recognized
  in the labium. The fused cardines form a broad basal plate
  (_sub-mentum_) and the stipites a smaller plate (_mentum_)--see fig.
  1, C, sm, m--jointed on to the sub-mentum, while the galeae, laciniae
  and palps remain distinct. In specialized biting insects, such as
  beetles (Coleoptera), the labium tends to become a hard transverse
  plate bearing the pair of palps, a median structure--known as the
  _ligula_--formed of the conjoined laciniae, and a pair of small
  rounded processes--the reduced galeae--often called the "paraglossae,"
  a term better avoided since it has been applied also to the maxillulae
  of Aptera, entirely different structures. The long sucking "tongue" of
  bees is probably a modification of the ligula. In bugs and aphids
  (Hemiptera), the fused second maxillae form a jointed grooved beak or
  rostrum (fig. 2, IV) in which the slender piercers (mandibles and
  first maxillae) work to and fro.

  This second pair of maxillae (or labium) form then the hinder or lower
  boundary of the mouth. In front or above the mouth is bounded by the
  labrum, while the mandibles and first maxillae lie on either side of
  it. A median process, known as the _hypopharynx_ or tongue, arises
  from the floor of the mouth in front of the labium, and becomes most
  variously developed or specialized in different insects. The salivary
  duct opens on its hinder surface. It does not appear to represent a
  pair of appendages, but the maxillulae of the Aptera become closely
  associated with it. According to the view of R. Heymons, the
  hypopharynx represents the sterna of all the jaw-bearing somites, but
  other students consider that it belongs to the mandibular and first
  maxillary segments, or entirely to the segment of the first maxillae.

  _Neck._--The head is usually connected with the thorax by a distinct
  membranous neck, strengthened in the more generalized orders with
  small chitinous plates (_cervical sclerites_). These have been
  interpreted as indicating one or more primitive segments between the
  head and thorax. Probably, however, as suggested by T. H. Huxley
  (_Anat. Invert. Animals_, 1877), they really belong to the labial
  segment which has not become completely fused with the head-capsule.
  It has been shown by C. Janet (1889), from careful studies of the
  musculature, that the greater part of the head-capsule is built up of
  the four anterior head-segments, the hindmost of which has the
  mandibles for its appendages, and this conclusion is in the main
  supported by the recent work on the head skeleton of J. H. Comstock
  and C. Kochi (1902) and W. A. Riley (1904).

  _Thorax._--The three segments which make up the thorax or fore-trunk
  are known as the _prothorax_, _mesothorax_ and _metathorax_ (see fig.
  3). The dorsal area of the prothorax is occupied by a single sclerite,
  the _pronotum_ (fig. 3, d), which is large and conspicuous in those
  insects, such as cockroaches, bugs (Heteroptera) and beetles, which
  have the prothorax free--i.e. readily movable on the segment
  (mesothorax) immediately behind--smaller and of less importance where
  the prothorax is fixed to the mesothorax, as in bees and flies. The
  dorsal area of the mesothorax, and also of the metathorax, may be made
  up of a series of sclerites arranged one behind the
  other--_prescutum_, _scutum_, _scutellum_ and _post-scutellum_ (fig.
  3, e, f, g, h), the scutellum of the mesothorax being often especially
  conspicuous. Ventrally, each segment of the thorax has a _sternum_
  with which a median _pre-sternum_ and paired _episterna_ and _epimera_
  are often associated (see figs. 3, 4). The recent suggestion of K. W.
  Verhoeff (1904) that the hexapodan thorax in reality contains six
  primitive segments is entirely without embryological support.

  _Legs._--Each segment of the thorax carries a pair of legs. In most
  insects the leg is built up of nine segments: (1) a broad triangular,
  sub-globular, conical or cylindrical haunch (_coxa_); (2) a small
  _trochanter_; (3) an elongate stout thigh (_femur_); (4) a more
  slender shin (_tibia_); and (5-9) a foot consisting of five _tarsal
  segments_. The fifth (distal) tarsal segment carries a median adhesive
  pad--the _pulvillus_--on either side of which is a claw. The pulvillus
  is probably to be regarded as a true terminal (tenth) segment of the
  leg, while the claws are highly modified bristles. Numerous bristles
  are usually present on the thighs, shins and feet of insects, some of
  them so delicate as to be termed "hairs," others so stout and hard
  that they are named "spines" or "spurs." In the relative development
  and shape of the various segments of the leg there is almost endless
  variety, dependent on the order to which the insect belongs, and the
  special function--walking, running, climbing, digging or swimming--for
  which the limb is adapted. The walking of insects has been carefully
  studied by V. Graber (1877) and J. Demoor (1890), who find that the
  legs are usually moved in two sets of three, the first and third legs
  of one side moving with the second leg of the other. One tripod thus
  affords a firm base of support while the legs of the other tripod are
  brought forward to their new positions.

  [Illustration: After Marlat, _Ent. Bull._ 3, n.s. (U.S. Dept. Agr.).

  FIG. 3.--Thorax of Saw-Fly (_Pachynematus_).

      I, Dorsal view.
     II, Ventral view.
    III, Lateral view.
     IV, Lateral view with segments separated. _Prothorax_:
      a, Episternum.
      b, Sternum.
      c, Coxa of fore-leg.
      d, Pronotum. _Mesothorax_:
      e, Prescutum.
      f, Scutum.
      g, Scutellum.
      h, Post-scutellum.
      i, Mesophragma.
      j, _Epimeron_.
      k, _Episternum_.
      l, Coxa of middle leg. _Metathorax_:
      m, Scutum.
      o, Epimeron.
      p, Coxa of hind leg.
      n, _First Abdominal Segment_.
      t, Tegula at base of fore-wing.]

  [Illustration: After Miall and Denny, _The Cockroach_, Lovell Reeve &
  Co.

  FIG. 4.--Legs and Ventral Thoracic Sclerites of Female Cockroach

  (_Blatta_).

    I, Fore-leg and pro-sternum (S) in front of which are the ventral
       cervical sclerites (c).
      cx, Coxa.              tr, Trochanter.
      fe, Thigh.             tb, Shin.
      ta, Tarsal segments.
    II, Middle leg and mesosternum.
    III, Hind-leg and metasternum.
    In IIIA, the episternum (a) and epimeron (b) are slightly separated.]

  _Wings._--Two pairs of wings are present in the vast majority of
  insects, borne respectively on the mesothorax and metathorax. At the
  base of the wing, i.e. its attachment to the trunk, we find a highly
  complex series of small sclerites adapted for the varied movements
  necessary for flight. Those of the dragon-flies (Odonata) have been
  described in detail by R. von Lendenfeld (1881). The long axis of the
  wings, when at rest, lies parallel to the body axis. In this position
  the outer margin of the wing is the _costa_, the inner the _dorsum_,
  and the hind-margin the _termen_. The angle between the costa and
  termen is the _apex_. When the wing is spread, its long axis is more
  or less at a right angle to the body axis. A wing is an outgrowth from
  the dorsal and pleural regions of the thoracic segment that bears it,
  and microscopic examination shows it to consist of a double layer of
  cuticularized skin, the two layers being in contact except where they
  are thickened and folded to form the firm tubular nervures, which
  serve as a supporting framework for the wing membrane, enclose
  air-tubes, and convey blood. These nervures consist of a series of
  trunks radiating from the wing-base and usually branching as they
  approach the wing-margins, the branches being often connected by short
  transverse nervures, so that the wing-area is marked off into a number
  of "cells" or areolets.

  [Illustration: After Quail, _Natural Science_, vol. xiii., J. M. Dent
  & Co.

  FIG. 5.--Wing-Neuration in a Cossid Moth. 2, sub-costal; 3, radial; 4,
  median; 5, cubital; 6, 7, 8, anal nervures.]

  The details of the nervuration vary greatly in the different orders,
  but J. H. Comstock and J. G. Needham have lately (1898-1899) shown
  that a common arrangement underlies all, six series of longitudinal or
  radiating nervures being present in the typical wing (see fig. 5).
  Along the costa runs a costal nervure. This is followed by a
  sub-costal which sometimes shows two main branches. Then comes the
  radial--usually the most important nervure of the wing--typically with
  five branches, and the median with four. These sets arise from a main
  trunk towards the front region of the wing-base. From another hinder
  trunk arise the two-branched cubital nervure and three separate anal
  nervures. In the hind-wing of many insects the number of radial
  branches becomes reduced, while the anal area is especially well
  developed and undergoes a fan-like folding when the wings are closed.
  Great diversity exists in the texture and functions of fore and
  hind-wings in different insects; these differences are discussed in
  the descriptions of the various orders. The wings often afford
  secondary sexual characters, being not infrequently absent or reduced
  in the female when well developed in the male (see fig. 6). Rarely the
  male is the wingless sex.

  In addition to the wings there are smaller dorsal outgrowths of the
  thorax in many insects. Paired erectile plates (patagia) are borne on
  the prothorax in moths, while in moths, sawflies, wasps, bees and
  other insects there are small plates (tegulae)--see Fig. 3, t--on the
  mesothorax at the base of the fore-wings.

  _Abdomen._--In the abdominal exoskeleton the segmental structure is
  very clearly marked, a series of sclerites--dorsal terga and abdominal
  sterna--being connected by pale, feebly chitinized cuticle, so that
  considerable freedom of movement between the segments is possible. The
  first and second abdominal sterna are often suppressed or reduced, on
  account of the strong development of the hind-legs. In many insects
  ten, and in a few eleven, abdominal segments can be clearly
  distinguished in addition to a small terminal anal segment. The female
  genital opening usually lies between the seventh and eighth segments,
  the male on the ninth. Prominent paired limbs are often borne on the
  tenth segment, the elongate tail-feelers (cerci) of bristle-tails and
  may-flies, or the forceps of earwigs, for example. In the Embiidae, a
  family of Isoptera, it has been shown by G. Enderlein (1901) that
  these cerci clearly belong to a partially suppressed eleventh segment,
  and R. Heymons (1895-1896) has proved by embryological study that in
  all cases they really belong to this eleventh segment, which in the
  course of development becomes fused with the tenth. Smaller appendages
  (such as the stylets of male cockroaches) may be carried on the ninth
  segment. Pairs of processes carried on the eighth and ninth segments
  often become specialized to form the ovipositor of the female (see
  fig. 14) and the genital armature of the male. A marked modification
  of the hinder abdominal segments may be noticed in most insects, the
  sclerites of the eighth and ninth being frequently hidden by those of
  the seventh. In the higher orders several of the hinder segments may
  be altogether suppressed.

  [Illustration: From Miall and Denny, _The Cockroach_, Lovell Reeve &
  Co.

  FIG. 6.--Outline of Male ([Male sign]) and Female ([Female sign])
  Cockroaches (_Blatta_) from the side, showing Abdominal Segments
  (numbered 1-10).]

  [Illustration: From Miall and Denny (after Newton), _The Cockroach_,
  Lovell Reeve & Co.

  FIG. 7.--Brain of Cockroach from side. oe, Gullet; op, optic nerve;
  sb, sub-oesophageal ganglion; mn, mx, mx', nerves to jaws; t,
  tentorium.]


  INTERNAL ORGANS

  _Nervous System._--The nervous system in the Hexapoda is built up on
  the typical arthropodan plan of a double ventral nerve-cord with a
  pair of ganglia in each segment, the cords passing on either side of
  the gullet and connecting with an anterior nerve-centre or brain (fig.
  7) in the head. The brain innervates the eyes and feelers, and must be
  regarded as a "syncerebrum" representing the ganglia of the three
  foremost limb-bearing somites united with the primitive cephalic
  lobes. Behind the gullet lies the sub-oesophageal nerve-centre (fig.
  7, sb), composed of the ganglia of the four hinder head-somites and
  sending nerves to the jaws. A pair of ganglia in each thoracic segment
  is usual (fig. 8), and as many as eight distinct pairs of abdominal
  ganglia may often be distinguished, the hindmost of which represents
  the fused ganglia of the last four segments. But in many highly
  organized insects a remarkable concentration of the trunk-ganglia
  takes place, all the nerve-centres of the thorax and abdomen in the
  chafers and in the Hemiptera, for instance, being represented by a
  single mass situated in the thorax. The legs, wings and other organs
  of the trunk receive their nerves from the thoracic and abdominal
  ganglia, and the fusion of several pairs of these ganglia may be
  regarded as corresponding to a centralization of individuality. A
  special "sympathetic" system arises by paired nerves from the
  oesophageal connectives; these nerves unite, and send back a median
  recurrent nerve associated with ganglia on the gullet and crop, whence
  proceed cords to various parts of the digestive system.

  In connexion with the central nervous system there are usually
  numerous organs of special sense. Most insects possess a pair of
  compound eyes, and many have, in addition, three simple eyes or ocelli
  on the vertex. The nature of these organs is described in the article
  ARTHROPODA. The surface of a compound eye is seen to be covered with a
  large number of hexagonal corneal facets, each of which overlies an
  ommatidium or series of cell elements (fig. 9, A, B). There are over
  25,000 ommatidia in the eye of a hawk moth.

  [Illustration: After Miall and Denny, _The Cockroach_, Lovell Reeve &
  Co.

  FIG. 8.--Ventral Muscles and Nerve Cord of Cockroach.]

  Auditory organs of a simple type are present in most insects. These
  consist of fine rods suspended between two points of the cuticle, and
  connected with nerve-fibres; they are known as chordotonal organs. In
  many cases a more complex ear is developed, which may be situated in
  strangely diverse regions of the insect's body. In locusts
  (_Acridiidae_) a large ovate, tympanic membrane (fig. 9, G) is
  conspicuous on either side of the first abdominal segment; on the
  inner surface of this membrane are two horn-like processes in contact
  with a delicate sac containing fluid, connected with which are the
  actual nerve-endings. In the nearly-related crickets and long-horned
  grasshoppers (_Locustidae_) the ears are situated in the shins of the
  fore-legs (see fig. 9, F). Just below the knee-joint there is a
  swelling, along which two narrow slits run lengthwise. They lead into
  chambers, formed by inpushing of the cuticle, whose delicate inner
  walls are in contact with air-tubes; on the outer surface of these
  latter are ridges, along which the special nerve-endings are arranged.
  An ear of another type is found in the swollen second segment of the
  feeler in many male gnats and midges, the cuticle between this segment
  and the third forming an annular drum which is connected with numerous
  nerve-endings, while the fine bristles on the more distal segments
  vibrate in response to the note produced by the humming of the female.

  [Illustration: From Ridley, _Insect Life_, vol. 7 (U.S. Dept. Agr.).

  FIG. 9.--Single Ommatidium of Cockroach's Eye (after Grenacher). B,
  Section through compound eye (after Miall and Denny); C, organs of
  smell in cockchafer (after Kraepelin); D, a, b, sensory pits on
  cercopods of golden-eye fly; c, sensory pit on palp of stone-fly
  (after Packard); E, sensory hair (after Miall and Denny); F, ear of
  long-horned grasshopper; a, Front shin showing outer opening and
  air-tube; b, section (after Graber); G, ear of locust from within
  (after Graber). All highly magnified.]

  Many of the numerous hairs (fig. 9, E) that cover the body of an
  insect have a tactile function. The sense of smell resides chiefly in
  the feelers, on whose segments occur tiny pits, often guarded by
  peg-like or tooth-like structures and containing rod-like cells (fig.
  9, C) in connexion with large nerve-cells. It is said that 13,000 such
  olfactory organs are present on the feeler of a wasp, and 40,000 on
  the complex antennae of a male cockchafer. Organs of similar type on
  the maxillae and epipharynx appear to exercise the function of taste.

  [Illustration: After Miall and Denny, _The Cockroach_, Lovell Reeve &
  Co.

  FIG. 10.--Dorsal Muscles, Heart and Pericardial Tendons of Cockroach.]

  _Muscular System._--The muscles in the Hexapoda are striated, as in
  Arthropods generally, the large fibres being associated in bundles
  which are attached from point to point of the cuticle, so as to move
  adjacent sclerites with respect to one another (see figs. 8, 10). For
  example, the contraction of the tergo-sternal muscles, connecting the
  dorsal with the ventral sclerites of the abdomen, lessens the capacity
  of the abdominal region, while the contraction of the powerful muscles
  arising from the thoracic walls, and inserted into the proximal ends
  of the thighs, flexes or extends the legs.

  _Circulatory System._--Insects afford an excellent illustration of the
  remarkable type of blood-system characterizing the Arthropoda. The
  dorsal vessel is an elongate tube, whose abdominal portion is usually
  chambered, forming a contractile heart (fig. 10). At the constrictions
  between the chambers are paired slits, through which the blood passes
  from the surrounding pericardial sinus. The dorsal vessel is prolonged
  anteriorly into an aorta, through which the blood is propelled into
  the great body-cavity or haemocoel. After bathing the various tissues
  and organs, the blood returns dorsalwards into the pericardial sinus
  through fine perforations of its floor, and so makes its way into the
  heart again. Some water-bugs, e.g. of the families _Belostomatidae_,
  _Nepidae_, _Corixidae_ and _Hydrometridae_ have a pulsating sac at
  each knee-joint to assist the flow of blood through the legs, while in
  dragon-flies and locusts (_Acridiidae_) there is a ventral pulsating
  diaphragm, which forms the roof of a sinus enclosing the nerve-cords.

  [Illustration: After Miall and Denny, _The Cockroach_, Lovell Reeve &
  Co.

  FIG. 11.--Ventral Portion of Air-Tubes in Cockroach.]

  _Respiratory System._--As mentioned above, respiration by means of
  air-tubes (tracheae) is a most characteristic feature of the Hexapoda.
  An air-tube consists of an epithelium of large polygonal cells with a
  thin basement-membrane externally and a chitinous layer internally,
  the last-named being continuous with the outer cuticle. The chitinous
  layer is usually strengthened by thread-like thickenings which, in the
  region close to the outer opening of the tube, form a network
  enclosing polygonal areas, but which, through most of the tracheal
  system, are arranged spirally, the strengthening thread not forming a
  continuous spiral, but being interrupted after a few turns around the
  tube. The tracheal system in Hexapods is very complex, forming a
  series of longitudinal trunks with transverse anastomosing connexions
  (fig. 11), and extending by the finest sub-division and by repeated
  branching into all parts of the body. In insects of active flight the
  tubes swell out into numerous air-sacs, by which the breathing
  capacity is much increased.

  Atmospheric air gains access to the air-tubes through paired
  _spiracles_ or _stigmata_, which usually occur laterally on most of
  the body-segments. These spiracles have firm chitinous edges, and can
  be closed by valves moved by special muscles. When the spiracles are
  open and the body contracts, air is expired. The subsequent expansion
  of the body causes fresh air to enter the tracheal system, and if the
  spiracles be then closed and the body again contracted, this air is
  driven to the finest branches of the air-tubes, where a direct
  oxygenation of the tissues takes place. The physiology of respiration
  has been carefully studied by F. Plateau (1884). In aquatic insects
  various devices for obtaining or entangling air are found; these
  modifications are described in the special articles on the various
  orders of insects (COLEOPTERA, HEMIPTERA, &c.). Many insects have
  aquatic larvae, some of which take in atmospheric air at intervals,
  while others breathe dissolved air by means of tracheal gills. These
  modifications are mentioned below in the section on metamorphosis.

  [Illustration: From Miall and Denny, _The Cockroach_, Lovell Reeve &
  Co.

  FIG. 12.--Food Canal of Cockroach.

    s,   Salivary glands and reservoir.
    c,   Crop (the gizzard below it).
    coe, Caecal tubes (below them the stomach).
    k,   Kidney tubes.
    i,   Intestine.
    r,   Rectum.]

  _Digestive System._--A striking feature in the food-canal of the
  Hexapoda, as in other Arthropods, is the great extent of the
  "fore-gut" and "hind-gut," lined with a chitinous cuticle, continuous
  with the exoskeleton. The fore-gut is composed of a tubular gullet, a
  large sac-like crop (fig. 12, c) and a proventriculus or "gizzard,"
  whose function is to strain the food-substances before they pass on
  into the tubular stomach, which has no chitinous lining. This organ,
  usually regarded as a "mid-gut," gives off a number of secretory
  caecal tubes (fig. 12, coe). At its hinder end it is continuous with
  the hind-gut, which is usually differentiated into a tubular coiled
  intestine (fig. 12, i) and a swollen rectum (fig. 12, r). From the
  fore-end of the hind-gut arise the slender Malpighian tubes (fig. 12,
  k), which have a renal function.

  On either side of the gullet are from one to ten pairs of salivary
  glands (fig. 12, s) whose ducts open into the mouth. Some of these
  glands may be modified for special purposes--as silk-producing glands
  in caterpillars or as poison-glands in blood-sucking flies and bugs.
  The food passing into the crop is there acted on by the saliva and
  also by an acid gastric juice which passes forwards from the stomach
  through the proventriculus. As the various portions of the food
  undergo digestion, they are allowed to pass through the proventriculus
  into the stomach, where the nutrient substances are absorbed.

  _Excretory System._--Nitrogenous waste-matter is removed from the body
  by the Malpighian tubes which open into the food-canal, usually where
  the hind-gut joins the stomach. These tubes vary in number from four
  to over a hundred in different orders of insects. The cells which line
  them and also the cavities of the tubes contain urates, which are
  excreted from the blood in the surrounding body-cavity. This cavity
  contains an irregular mass of whitish tissue, the fat-body, consisting
  of fat-cells which undergo degradation and become more or less filled
  with urates. When the worn-out cells are broken down, the urates are
  carried dissolved in the blood to the Malpighian tubes for excretion.
  The fat-body is therefore the seat of important metabolic processes in
  the hexapod body.

  _Reproductive System._--All the Hexapoda are of separate sexes. The
  ovaries (fig. 13) in the female are paired, each ovary consisting of a
  variable number of tubes (one in the bristle-tail _Campodea_ and
  fifteen hundred in a queen termite) in which the eggs are developed.
  From each ovary an oviduct (fig. 13, od) leads, and in some of the
  more primitive insects (bristle-tails, earwigs, may-flies) the two
  oviducts open separately direct to the exterior. Usually they open
  into a median vagina, formed by an ectodermal inpushing and lined with
  chitin. The vagina usually opens in front of the eighth abdominal
  sternite. Behind it is situated a spermatheca (fig. 14, sp) and the
  ovipositor previously mentioned, with its three pairs of processes
  (Fig. 14, G, g).

  [Illustration: From Miall and Denny, _The Cockroach_, Lovell Reeve &
  Co.

  FIG. 13.--Ovaries of Cockroach, with Oviducts Od and Colleterial
  Glands CG.]

  [Illustration: From Miall and Denny, _The Cockroach_, Lovell Reeve &
  Co.

  FIG. 14.--Hinder Abdominal Segment and Ovipositor of Female Cockroach.
  Magnified.

    T^8 &c. Tergites.
    S^7, 7th Sternite.
    S^8, Sclerite between 7th and 8th sterna.
    S^9, 8th Sclerite.
    Od, Vagina.
    sp, Spermatheca.
    G, Anterior, and g, posterior gonapophyses.]

  The paired testes of the male consist of a variable number of seminal
  tubes, those of each testis opening into a _vas deferens_. In some
  bristle-tails and may-flies, the two _vasa deferentia_ open
  separately, but usually they lead into a sperm-reservoir, whence
  issues a median ejaculatory duet. The male opening is on the ninth
  abdominal segment, to which belong the processes that form the
  claspers or genital armature. Accessory glands are commonly present in
  connexion both with the male and the female reproductive organs. The
  poison-glands of the sting in wasps and bees are well-known examples
  of these.


  EMBRYOLOGY

  _The Egg._--Among the Hexapoda, as in Arthropods generally, the egg is
  large, containing an accumulation of yolk for the nourishment of the
  growing embryo. Most insect eggs are of an elongate oval shape; some
  are globular, others flattened, while others again are flask-shaped,
  and the outer envelope (_chorion_) is often beautifully sculptured
  (figs. 20, d; 21, a, b). Various devices are adopted for the
  protection of the eggs from mechanical injury or from the attacks of
  enemies, and for fixing them in appropriate situations. For example,
  the egg may be raised above the surface on which it is laid by an
  elongate stalk; the eggs may be protected by a secretion, which in
  some cases forms a hard protective capsule or "purse"; or they may be
  covered with shed hairs of the mother, while among water-insects a
  gelatinous envelope, often of rope-like form, is common. In various
  groups of the Hexapoda--aphids and some flesh-flies (_Sarcophaga_),
  for example--the egg undergoes development within the body of the
  mother, and the young insect is born in an active state; such insects
  are said to be "viviparous."

  _Parthenogenesis._--A number of cases are known among the Hexapoda of
  the development of young from the eggs of virgin females. In insects
  so widely separated as bristle-tails and moths this occurs
  occasionally. In certain gall-flies (_Cynipidae_) no males are known
  to exist at all, and the species seems to be preserved entirely by
  successive parthenogenetic generations. In other gall-flies and in
  aphids we find that a sexual generation alternates with one or with
  many virgin generations. The offspring of the virgin females are in
  most of these instances females; but among the bees and wasps
  parthenogenesis occurs normally and always results in the development
  of males, the "queen" insect laying either a fertilized or
  unfertilized egg at will.

  _Maturation, Fertilization and Segmentation._--Polar bodies were first
  observed in the eggs of Hexapoda by F. Blochmann in 1887. The two
  nuclei are successively divided from the egg nucleus in the usual way,
  but they frequently become absorbed in the peripheral protoplasm
  instead of being extruded from the egg-cell altogether. It appears
  that in parthenogenetic eggs two polar nuclei are formed. According to
  A. Petrunkevich (1901-1903), the second polar nucleus uniting with one
  daughter-nucleus of the first polar body gives rise to the germ-cells
  of the parthenogenetically-produced male. There is no reunion of the
  second polar nucleus with the female pronucleus, but, according to the
  recent work of L. Doncaster (1906-1907) on the eggs of sawflies, the
  number of chromosomes is not reduced in parthenogenetic egg-nuclei,
  while, in eggs capable of fertilization, the usual reduction-divisions
  occur. Fertilization takes place as the egg is laid, the spermatozoa
  being ejected from the spermatheca of the female and making their way
  to the protoplasm of the egg through openings (micropyles) in its firm
  envelope. The segmentation of the fertilized nucleus results in the
  formation of a number of nuclei which arrange themselves around the
  periphery of the egg and, the protoplasm surrounding them becoming
  constricted, a blastoderm or layer of cells, enclosing the central
  yolk, is formed. Within the yolk the nuclei of some "yolk cells" can
  be distinguished.

  [Illustration: From Nussbaum in Miall and Denny's, _Cockroach_,
  Lovell, Reeve & Co.

  FIG. 15.--Diagram showing Formation of Germinal Layers. E, ectoderm;
  M, inner layer. Magnified.]

  _Germinal Layers and Food-Canal._--The embryo begins to develop as an
  elongate, thickened, ventral region of the blastoderm which is known
  as the ventral plate or germ band. Along this band a median furrow
  appears, and a mass of cells sinks within, the one-layered germ band
  thus becoming transformed into a band of two cell-layers (fig. 15). In
  some cases the inner layer is formed not by invagination but by
  proliferation or by delamination. The outer of these two layers (fig.
  15, E) is the ectoderm. With regard to the inner layer (_endoblast_ of
  some authors, fig. 15, M) much difference of opinion has prevailed. It
  has usually been regarded as representing both endoderm and mesoderm,
  and the groove which usually leads to its formation has been compared
  to the abnormally elongated blastopore of a typical gastrula. No doubt
  can be entertained that the greater part of the inner layer
  corresponds to the mesoderm of more ordinary embryos, for the coelomic
  pouches, the germ-cells, the musculature and the vascular system all
  arise from it. Further, there is general agreement that the
  chitin-lined fore-gut and hind-gut, which form the greater part of
  the digestive tract, arise from ectodermal invaginations (stomodaeum
  and proctodaeum respectively) at the positions of the future mouth and
  anus. The origin of the mid-gut (mesenteron), that has no chitinous
  lining in the developed insect, is the disputed point. According to
  the classical researches of A. Kowalevsky (1871 and 1887) on the
  embryology of the water-beetle _Hydrophilus_ and of the muscid flies,
  an anterior and a posterior endoderm-rudiment both derived from the
  "endoblast" become apparent at an early stage, in close association
  with the stomodaeum and the proctodaeum respectively. These two
  endoderm-rudiments ultimately grow together and give rise to the
  epithelium of the mid-gut. These results were confirmed by the
  observations of K. Heider and W. M. Wheeler (1889) on the embryos of
  two beetles--_Hydrophilus_ and _Doryphora_ respectively. V. Graber,
  however (1889), stated that in the _Muscidae_, while the anterior
  endoderm-rudiment arises as Kowalevsky had observed, the posterior
  part of the "mid-gut" has its origin as a direct outgrowth from the
  proctodaeum. The recent researches of R. Heymons (1895) on the
  Orthoptera, and of A. Lécaillon (1898) on various leaf beetles, tend
  to show that the whole of the "mid-gut" arises from the proliferation
  of cells at the extremity of the stomodaeum and of the proctodaeum. On
  this view the entire food-canal in most Hexapoda must be regarded as
  of ectodermal origin, the "endoblast" represents mesoderm only, and
  the median furrow whence it arises can be no longer compared with the
  blastopore. According to Heymons, the yolk-cells must be regarded as
  the true endoderm in the hexapod embryo, for he states (1897) that in
  the bristle-tail _Lepisma_ and in dragon-flies they give rise to the
  mid-gut. These views are not, however, supported by other recent
  observers. J. Carrière's researches (1897) on the embryology of the
  mason bee (_Chalicodoma_) agree entirely with the interpretations of
  Kowalevsky and Heider, and so on the whole do those of F. Schwangart,
  who has studied (1904) the embryonic development of Lepidoptera. He
  finds that the endoderm arises from an anterior and a posterior
  rudiment derived from the "endoblast," that many of the cells of these
  rudiments wander into the yolk, and that the mesenteric epithelium
  becomes reinforced by cells that migrate from the yolk. K. Escherich
  (1901), after a new research on the embryology of the muscid Diptera,
  claims that the fore and hind endodermal rudiments arise from the
  blastoderm by invagination, and are from their origin distinct from
  the mesoderm. On the whole it seems likely that the endoderm is
  represented in part by the yolk, and in part by those anterior and
  posterior rudiments which usually form the mesenteron, but that in
  some Hexapoda the whole digestive tract may be ectodermal. It must be
  admitted that some or the later work on insect embryology has
  justified the growing scepticism in the universal applicability of the
  "germ-layer theory." Heider has suggested, however, that the apparent
  origin of the mid-gut from the stomodaeum and proctodaeum may be
  explained by the presence of a "latent endoderm-group" in those
  invaginations.

  [Illustration: From Nussbaum in Miall and Denny, _The Cockroach_,
  Lovell Reeve & Co.

  FIG. 16.--Cross section of Embryo of German Cockroach
  (_Phyllodromia_). S, serosa; A, amnion; E, ectoderm; N, rudiment of
  nerve-cord; M, mesodermal pouches.]

  _Embryonic Membranes._--A remarkable feature in the embryonic
  development of most Hexapoda is the formation of a protective membrane
  analogous to the amnion of higher Vertebrates and known by the same
  term. Usually there arises around the edge of the germ band a double
  fold in the undifferentiated blastoderm, which grows over the surface
  of the embryo, so that its inner and outer layers become continuous,
  forming respectively the _amnion_ and the _serosa_ (fig. 16, A, S).
  The embryo of a moth, a dragon-fly or a bug is invaginated into the
  yolk at the head end, the portion of the blastoderm necessarily pushed
  in with it forming the amnion. The embryo thus becomes transferred to
  the dorsal face of the egg, but at a later stage it undergoes
  reversion to its original ventral position. In some parasitic
  Hymenoptera there is only a single embryonic membrane formed by
  delamination from the blastoderm, while in a few insects, including
  the wingless spring-tails, the embryonic membranes are vestigial or
  entirely wanting. In the bristle-tails _Lepisma_ and _Machilis_, an
  interesting transitional condition of the embryonic membranes has
  lately been shown by Heymons. The embryo is invaginated into the yolk,
  but the surface edges of the blastoderm do not close over, so that a
  groove or pore puts the insunken space that represents the amniotic
  cavity into communication with the outside. Heymons believes that the
  "dorsal organ" in the embryos of the lower Arthropoda corresponds with
  the region invaginated to form the serosa of the hexapod embryo.
  Wheeler, however, compares with the "dorsal organ" the peculiar extra
  embryonic membrane or indusium which he has observed between serosa
  and amnion in the embryo of the grasshopper _Xiphidium_.

  _Metameric Segmentation._--The segments are perceptible at a very
  early stage of the development as a number of transverse bands
  arranged in a linear sequence. The first segmentation of the ventral
  plate is not, however, very definite, and the segmentation does not
  make its appearance simultaneously throughout the whole length of the
  plate; the anterior parts are segmented before the posterior. In
  Orthoptera and Thysanura, as well as some others of the lower insects,
  twenty-one of these divisions--not, however, all similar--may be
  readily distinguished, six of which subsequently enter into the
  formation of the head, three going to the thorax and twelve to the
  abdomen. In Hemiptera only eleven and in Collembola only six abdominal
  segments have been detected. The first and last of these twenty-one
  divisions are so different from the others that they can scarcely be
  considered true segments.

  _Head Segments._--In the adult insect the head is insignificant in
  size compared with the thorax or abdomen, but in the embryo it forms a
  much larger portion of the body than it does in the adult. Its
  composition has been the subject of prolonged difference of opinion.
  Formerly it was said that the head consisted of four divisions, viz.
  three segments and the procephalic or prae-oral lobes. It is now
  ascertained that the procephalic lobes consist of three divisions, so
  that the head must certainly be formed from at least six segments. The
  first of these, according to the nomenclature of Heymons (see fig.
  17), is the mouth or oral piece; the second, the antennal segment; the
  third, the intercalary or prae-mandibular segment; while the fourth,
  fifth, and sixth are respectively the segments of the mandibles and of
  the first and second maxillae. These six divisions of the head are
  diverse in kind, and subsequently undergo so much change that the part
  each of them takes in the formation of the head-capsule is not finally
  determined. The labrum and clypeus are developed as a single
  prolongation of the oral piece, not as a pair of appendages. The
  antennal segment apparently entirely disappears, with the exception of
  a pair of appendages it bears; these become the antennae; it is
  possible that the original segment, or some part of it, may even
  become a portion of the actual antennae. The intercalary segment has
  no appendages, nor rudiments thereof, except, according to H. Uzel
  (1897), in the thysanuran _Campodea_, and probably entirely
  disappears, though J. H. Comstock and C. Kochi believe that the labrum
  belongs to it. The appendages of the posterior three or trophal
  segments become the parts of the mouth. The appendages of the two
  maxillary segments arise as treble instead of single projections, thus
  differing from other appendages. From these facts it appears that the
  anterior three divisions of the head differ strongly from the
  posterior three, which greatly resemble thoracic segments; hence it
  has been thought possible that the anterior divisions may represent a
  primitive head, to which three segments and their leg-like appendages
  were subsequently added to form the head as it now exists. This is,
  however, very doubtful, and an entirely different inference is
  possible. Besides the five limb-bearing somites just enumerated, two
  others must now be recognized in the head. One of these is the ocular
  segment, in front of the antennal, and behind the primitive pre-oral
  segment. The other is the segment of the maxillulae (see above, under
  _Jaws_), behind the mandibular somite; the presence of this in the
  embryo of the collembolan _Anurida_ has been lately shown (1900) by J.
  W. Folsom (fig. 18, v. 5), who terms the maxillulae "superlinguae" on
  account of their close association with the hypopharynx or lingua. In
  reference to the structure of the head-capsule in the imago, it
  appears that the clypeus and labrum represent, as already said, an
  unpaired median outgrowth of the oral piece. According to W. A. Riley
  (1904) the epicranium or "vertex," the compound eyes and the front
  divisions of the genae are formed by the cephalic lobes of the embryo
  (belonging to the ocular segment), while the mandibular and maxillary
  segments form the hinder parts of the genae and the hypopharynx.

  [Illustration: After Heymons.

  FIG. 17.--Morphology of an Insect: the embryo of _Gryllotalpa_,
  somewhat diagrammatic. The longitudinal segmented band along the
  middle line represents the early segmentation of the nervous system
  and the subsequent median field of each sternite; the lateral
  transverse unshaded bands are the lateral fields of each segment; the
  shaded areas indicate the more internally placed mesoderm layer. The
  segments are numbered 1-21; 1-6 will form the head, 7-9 the thorax,
  10-21 the abdomen. A, anus; Abx1 Abx11, appendage of 1st and of 11th
  abdominal segments; Ans, anal piece = telson or 12th abdominal
  segment; Ant, antenna; De, deuterencephalon; Md, mandible; Mx1, first
  maxilla; Mx2, second maxilla or labium; O, mouth; Obcl, rudimentary
  labrum and clypeus; Pre, protencephalon; St1 St10, stigmata 1 and 10;
  Terg, tergite; Thx1, appendage of first thoracic segment; Tre,
  tritencephalon; Ul, a thickening at hinder margin of the mouth.]

  Great difference of opinion exists as to the hypopharynx, which has
  even been thought to represent a distinct segment, or the pair of
  appendages of a distinct segment. Heymons considers that it represents
  the sternites of the three trophal segments, and that the gula is
  merely a secondary development. Folsom looks on the hypopharynx as a
  secondary development. Riley holds that the hypopharynx belongs to the
  mandibular and maxillary segments, while the cervical sclerites or
  gula represent the sternum of the labial segment. The ganglia of the
  nervous system offer some important evidence as to the morphology of
  the head, and are alluded to below.

  _Thoracic Segments._--These are always three in number. The three
  pairs of legs appear very early as rudiments. Though the thoracic
  segments bear the wings, no trace of these appendages exists till the
  close of the embryonic life, nor even, in many cases, till much later.
  The thoracic segments, as seen in an early stage of the ventral plate,
  display in a well-marked manner the essential elements of the insect
  segment. These elements are a central piece or sternite, and a lateral
  field on each side bearing the leg-rudiment. The external part of the
  lateral field subsequently grows up, and by coalescence with its
  fellow forms the tergite or dorsal part of the segment.

  _Abdominal Segments and Appendages._--We have already seen that in
  numerous lower insects the abdomen is formed from twelve divisions
  placed in linear fashion. Eleven of these may perhaps be considered as
  true segments, but the twelfth or terminal one is different, and is
  called by Heymons a telson; in it is placed the anal orifice, and the
  mass subsequently becomes the upper and lower laminae anales. In
  Hemiptera this telson is absent, and the anal orifice is placed quite
  at the termination of the eleventh segment. Moreover, in this order
  the abdomen shows at first a division into only nine segments and a
  terminal mass, which last subsequently becomes divided into two. The
  appendages of the abdomen are called cerci, stylets and gonapophyses.
  They differ much according to the kind of insect, and in the adult
  according to sex. Difference of opinion as to the nature of the
  abdominal appendages prevails. The cerci, when present, appear in the
  mature insect to be attached to the tenth segment, but according to
  Heymons they are really appendages of the eleventh segment, their
  connexion with the tenth being secondary and the result of
  considerable changes that take place in the terminal segments. It has
  been disputed whether any true cerci exist in the higher insects, but
  they are probably represented in the Diptera and in the scorpion-flies
  (Mecaptera). In those insects in which a median terminal appendage
  exists between the two cerci this is considered to be a prolongation
  of the eleventh tergite. The stylets, when present, are placed on the
  ninth segment, and in some Thysanura exist also on the eighth segment;
  their development takes place later in life than that of the cerci.
  The gonapophyses are the projections near the extremity of the body
  that surround the sexual orifices, and vary extremely according to the
  kind of insect. They have chiefly been studied in the female, and form
  the sting and ovipositor, organs peculiar to this sex. They are
  developed on the ventral surface of the body and are six in number,
  one pair arising from the eighth ventral plate and two pairs from the
  ninth. This has been found to be the case in insects so widely
  different as Orthoptera and Aculeate Hymenoptera. The genital armature
  of the male is formed to a considerable extent by modifications of the
  segments themselves. The development of the armature has been little
  studied, and the question whether there may be present gonapophyses
  homologous with those of the female is open.

  [Illustration: A. After Wheeler, _Journ. Morph._ vol. viii., and
  Folsom, _Bull. Mus. Harvard_, xxxvi.

  B. After Folsom.

  FIG. 18.--Embryos of Springtail (_Anuridamaritima_). Magnified. A,
  Head-region of germ band. B, Section through head and thorax. The
  neuromeres are shown in Arabic, the appendages in Roman numerals.

    1, Ocular segment.
    2, Antennal.
    3, Trito-cerebral.
    4, Mandibular.
    5, Maxillular.
    6, Maxillary.
    7, Labial.
    8, Prothoracic.
    9, Mesothoracic.
    10, Metathoracic.]

  In the adult state no insect possesses more than six legs, and they
  are always attached to the thorax; in many Thysanura there are,
  however, processes on the abdomen that, as to their position, are
  similar to legs. In the embryos of many insects there are projections
  from the segments of the abdomen similar, to a considerable extent, to
  the rudimentary thoracic legs. The question whether these projections
  can be considered an indication of former polypody in insects has been
  raised. They do not long persist in the embryo, but disappear, and the
  area each one occupied becomes part of the sternite. In some embryos
  there is but a single pair of these rudiments (or vestiges) situate on
  the first abdominal segment, and in some cases they become
  invaginations of a glandular nature. Whether cerci, stylets and
  gonapophyses are developed from these rudiments has been much debated.
  It appears that it is possible to accept cerci and stylets as
  modifications of the temporary pseudopods, but it is more difficult to
  believe that this is the case with the gonapophyses, for they
  apparently commence their development considerably later than cerci
  and stylets and only after the apparently complete disappearance of
  the embryonic pseudopods. The fact that there are two pairs of
  gonapophyses on the ninth abdominal segment would be fatal to the view
  that they are in any way homologous with legs, were it not that there
  is some evidence that the division into two pairs is secondary and
  incomplete. But another and apparently insuperable objection may be
  raised--that the appendages of the ninth segment are the stylets, and
  that the gonapophyses cannot therefore be appendicular. The pseudopods
  that exist on the abdomen of numerous caterpillars may possibly arise
  from the embryonic pseudopods, but this also is far from being
  established.

  _Nervous System._--The nervous system is ectodermal in origin, and is
  developed and segmented to a large extent in connexion with the outer
  part of the body, so that it affords important evidence as to the
  segmentation thereof. The continuous layer of cells from which the
  nervous system is developed undergoes a segmentation analogous with
  that we have described as occurring in the ventral plate; there is
  thus formed a pair of contiguous ganglia for each segment of the body,
  but there is no ganglion for the telson. The ganglia become greatly
  changed in position during the later life, and it is usually said that
  there are only ten pairs of abdominal ganglia even in the embryo. In
  Orthoptera, Heymons has demonstrated the existence of eleven pairs,
  the terminal pair becoming, however, soon united with the tenth. The
  nervous system of the embryonic head exhibits three ganglionic masses,
  anterior to the thoracic ganglionic masses; these three masses
  subsequently amalgamate and form the sub-oesophageal ganglion, which
  supplies the trophal segments. In front of the three masses that will
  form the sub-oesophageal ganglion the mass of cells that is to form
  the nervous system is very large, and projects on each side; this
  anterior or "brain" mass consists of three lobes (the prot-, deut-,
  and tritencephalon of Viallanes and others), each of which might be
  thought to represent a segmental ganglion. But the protocerebrum
  contains the ganglia of the ocular segment in addition to those of the
  procephalic lobes. These three divisions subsequently form the
  supra-oesophageal ganglion or brain proper. There are other ganglia in
  addition to those of the ventral chain, and Janet supposes that the
  ganglia of the sympathetic system indicate the existence of three
  anterior head-segments; the remains of the segments themselves are, in
  accordance with this view, to be sought in the stomodaeum. Folsom has
  detected in the embryo of _Anurida_ a pair of ganglia (fig. 18, 5)
  belonging to the maxillular (or superlingual) segment, thus
  establishing seven sets of cephalic ganglia, and supporting his view
  as to the composition of the head.

  _Air-tubes._--The air-tubes, like the food-canal, are formed by
  invaginations of the ectoderm, which arise close to the developing
  appendages, the rudimentary spiracles appearing soon after the budding
  limbs. The pits leading from these lengthen into tubes, and undergo
  repeated branching as development proceeds.

  _Dorsal Closure._--The germ band evidently marks the ventral aspect of
  the developing insect, whose body must be completed by the extension
  of the embryo so as to enclose the yolk dorsally. The method of this
  dorsal closure varies in different insects. In the Colorado beetle
  (_Doryphora_), whose development has been studied by W. M. Wheeler,
  the amnion is ruptured and turned back from covering the germ band,
  enclosing the yolk dorsally and becoming finally absorbed, as the
  ectoderm of the germ band itself spreads to form the dorsal wall. In
  some midges and in caddis-flies the serosa becomes ruptured and
  absorbed, while the germ band, still clothed with the amnion, grows
  around the yolk. In moths and certain saw-flies there is no rupture of
  the membranes; the Russian zoologists Tichomirov and Kovalevsky have
  described the growth of both amnion and embryonic ectoderm around the
  yolk, the embryo being thus completely enclosed until hatching time by
  both amnion and serosa. V. Graber has described a similar method of
  dorsal closure in the saw-fly _Hylotoma_.

  [Illustration: After Heymons, _Zeit. Wiss. Zoolog._ vol. 53.

  FIG. 19.--Cross sections through Abdomen of German Cockroach Embryo. A
  (later than fig. 16) magnified. B (still more advanced, dorsal closure
  complete) magnified.

    ec, Ectoderm.
    en, Endoderm.
    sp, Splanchnic layer of mesoderm.
    y,  Yolk.
    h,  Heart.
    p,  Pericardial septum.
    c,  Coelom.
    g,  Germ-cells surrounded by rudiment-cells of ovarian tubes.
    m,  Muscle-rudiment.
    n,  Nerve-chain.
    f,  Fat body.
    s,  Inpushing of ectoderm to form air-tubes.
    x,  Secondary body-cavity.]

  _Mesoderm, Coelom and Blood-System._--From the mesoderm most of the
  organs of the body--muscular, circulatory, reproductive--take their
  origin. The mass of cells undergoes segmentation corresponding with
  the outer segmentation of the embryo, and a pair of cavities--the
  coelomic pouches (fig. 16, M)--are formed in each segment. Each
  coelomic pouch--as traced by Heymons in his study on the development
  of the cockroach (_Phyllodromia_)--divides into three parts, of which
  the most dorsal contains the primitive germ-cells, the median
  disappears, and the ventral loses its boundaries as it becomes filled
  up with the growing fat body (fig. 19). This latter, as well as the
  heart and the walls of the blood spaces, arises by the modification of
  mesodermal cells, and the body cavity is formed by the enlargement and
  coalescence of the blood channels and by the splitting of the fat
  body. It is therefore a haemocoel, the coelom of the developed insect
  being represented only by the cavities of the genital glands and their
  ducts.

  _Reproductive Organs._--In the cockroach embryo, before the
  segmentation of the germ-band has begun, the primitive germ-cells can
  be recognized at the hinder end of the mesoderm, from whose ordinary
  cells they can be distinguished by their larger size. At a later stage
  further germ-cells arise from the epithelium of the coelomic pouches
  from the second to the seventh abdominal segments, and become
  surrounded by other mesoderm cells which form the ovarian or
  testicular tubes and ducts (fig. 19, g). In the male of _Phyllodromia_
  the rudiment of a vestigial ovary becomes separated from the
  developing testis, indicating perhaps an originally hermaphrodite
  condition. An exceedingly early differentiation of the primitive
  germ-cells occurs in certain Diptera. E. Metchnikoff observed (1866)
  in the development of the parthenogenetic eggs produced by the
  precocious larva of the gall-midge _Cecidomyia_ that a large
  "polar-cell" appeared at one extremity during the primitive
  cell-segmentation. This by successive divisions forms a group of four
  to eight cells, which subsequently pass through the blastoderm, and
  dividing into two groups become symmetrically arranged and surrounded
  by the rudiments of the ovarian tubes. E. G. Balbiani and R. Ritter
  (1890) have since observed a similar early origin for the germ-cells
  in the midge _Chironomus_ and in the _Aphidae_.

  The paired oviducts and vasa deferentia are, as we have seen,
  mesodermal in origin. The median vagina, spermatheca and ejaculatory
  duct are, on the other hand, formed by ectodermal inpushings. The
  classical researches of J. A. Palmén (1884) on these ducts have shown
  that in may-flies and in female earwigs the paired mesodermal ducts
  open directly to the exterior, while in male earwigs there is a single
  mesodermal duct, due either to the coalescence of the two or to the
  suppression of one. In the absence of the external ectodermal ducts
  usual in winged insects, these two groups resemble therefore the
  primitive Aptera. The presence of rudiments of the genital ducts of
  both sexes in the embryo of either sex is interesting and suggestive.
  The ejaculatory duct which opens on the ninth abdominal sternum in the
  adult male arises in the tenth abdominal embryonic segment and
  subsequently moves forward.


GROWTH AND METAMORPHOSIS

[Illustration: After Marlatt, _Ent. Bull._ 4, n. s. (U.S. Dept. Agr.).

FIG. 20.--a, Bed-bug (_Cimex lectularis_, Linn.); newly hatched young
from beneath; b, from above; d, egg, magnified; c, foot with claws; e,
serrate spine, more highly magnified.]

[Illustration: From Mally, _Ent. Bull._ 24 (U.S. Dept. Agr.).

FIG. 21.--e, f, Owl moth (_Heliothis armigera_); a, b, egg, highly
magnified; c, larva or caterpillar; d, pupa in earthen cell.]

After hatching or birth an insect undergoes a process of growth and
change until the adult condition is reached. The varied details of this
post-embryonic development furnish some of the most interesting facts
and problems to the students of the Hexapoda. Wingless insects, such as
spring-tails and lice, make their appearance in the form of miniature
adults. Some winged insects--cockroaches, bugs (fig. 20) and earwigs,
for example--when young closely resemble their parents, except for the
absence of wings. On the other hand, we find in the vast majority of the
Hexapoda a very marked difference between the perfect insect (imago) and
the young animal when newly hatched and for some time after hatching.
From the moth's egg comes a crawling caterpillar (fig. 21, c), from the
fly's a legless maggot (fig. 25, a). Such a young insect is a _larva_--a
term used by zoologists for young animals generally that are decidedly
unlike their parents. It is obvious that the hatching of the young as a
larva necessitates a more or less profound transformation or
metamorphosis before the perfect state is attained. Usually this
transformation comes with apparent suddenness, at the penultimate stage
of the insect's life-history, when the passive pupa (fig. 21, d) is
revealed, exhibiting the wings and other imaginal structures, which have
been developed unseen beneath the cuticle of the larva. Hexapoda with
this resting pupal stage in their life-history are said to undergo "a
complete transformation," to be metabolic, or holometabolic, whereas
those insects in which the young form resembles the parent are said to
be ametabolic. Such insects as dragon-flies and may-flies, whose young,
though unlike the parent, develop into the adult form without a resting
pupal stage are said to undergo an "incomplete transformation" or to be
hemimetabolic. The absence of the pupal stage depends upon the fact that
in the ametabolic and hemimetabolic Hexapoda the wing-rudiments appear
as lateral outgrowths (fig. 22) of the two hinder thoracic segments and
are visible externally throughout the life-history, becoming larger
after each moult or casting of the cuticle. Hence, as has been pointed
out by D. Sharp (1898), the marked divergence among the Hexapoda, as
regards life-history, is between insects whose wings develop outside the
cuticle (Exopterygota) and those whose wings develop inside the cuticle
(Endopterygota), becoming visible only when the casting of the last
larval cuticle reveals the pupa. Metamorphosis among the Hexapoda
depends upon the universal acquisition of wings during post-embryonic
development--no insect being hatched with the smallest external
rudiments of those organs--and on the necessity for successive castings
or "moults" (ecdyses) of the cuticle.

[Illustration: After Howard, _Insect Life_, vol. vii.

FIG. 22.--Nymph of Locust (_Schistocera americana_), showing
wing-rudiments.]

_Ecdysis._--The embryonic ectoderm of an insect consists of a layer of
cells forming a continuous structure, the orifices in it--mouth,
spiracles, anus and terminal portions of the genital ducts--being
invaginations of the outer wall. This cellular layer is called the
hypodermis; it is protected externally by a cuticle, a layer of matter
it itself excretes, or in the excretion of which it plays, at any rate,
an important part. The cuticle is a dead substance, and is composed in
large part of chitin. The cuticle contrasts strongly in its nature with
the hypodermis it protects. It is different in its details in different
insects and in different stages of the life of the same insect. The
"sclerites" that make up the skeleton of the insect (which skeleton, it
should be remembered, is entirely external) are composed of this
chitinous excretion. The growth of an insect is usually rapid, and as
the cuticle does not share therein, it is from time to time cast off by
moulting or ecdysis. Before a moult actually occurs the cuticle becomes
separated from its connexion with the underlying hypodermis. Concomitant
with this separation there is commencement of the formation of a new
cuticle within the old one, so that when the latter is cast off the
insect appears with a partly completed new cuticle. The new instar--or
temporary form--is often very different from the old one, and this is
the essential fact of metamorphosis. Metamorphosis is, from this point
of view, the sum of the changes that take place under the cuticle of an
insect between the ecdyses, which changes only become externally
displayed when the cuticle is cast off. The hypodermis is the immediate
agent in effecting the external changes.

[Illustration: Adapted from Koerschelt and Herder and Lowne.

FIG. 23.--Diagram showing position of imaginal buds in larva of fly. I.,
II., III., the three thoracic segments of the larva; 1, 2, 3, buds of
the legs of the imago; h, bud of head-lobes; f, of feeler; e of eye; b,
brain.]

  The study of the physiology of ecdysis in its simpler forms has
  unfortunately been somewhat neglected, investigators having directed
  their attention chiefly to the cases that are most striking, such as
  the transformation of a maggot into a fly, or of a caterpillar into a
  butterfly. The changes have been found to be made up of two sets of
  processes: histolysis, by which the whole or part of a structure
  disappears: and histogenesis, or the formation of the new structure.
  By histolysis certain parts of the hypodermis are destroyed, while
  other portions of it develop into the new structures. The hypodermis
  is composed of parts of two different kinds, viz. (1) the larger part
  of the hypodermis that exists in the maggot or caterpillar and is
  dissolved at the metamorphosis; (2) parts that remain comparatively
  quiescent previously, and that grow and develop when the other parts
  degenerate. These centres of renovation are called imaginal disks or
  folds. The adult caterpillar may be described as a creature the
  hypodermis of which is studded with buds that expand and form the
  butterfly, while the parts around them degenerate. In some insects
  (e.g. the maggots of the blowfly, _Calliphora vomitoria_) the imaginal
  disks are to all appearance completely separated from the hypodermis,
  with which they are, however, really organically connected by strings
  or pedicels. This connexion was not at first recognized and the true
  nature of imaginal disks was not at first perceived, even by Weismann,
  to whom their discovery in Diptera is due. In other insects the
  imaginal disks are less completely disconnected from the superficies
  of the larval hypodermis, and may indeed be merely patches thereof.
  The number of imaginal disks in an individual is large, upwards of
  sixty having been discovered to take part in the formation of the
  outer body of a fly. With regard to the internal organs, we need only
  say that transformation occurs in an essentially similar manner, by
  means of a development from centres distributed in the various organs.
  The imaginal disks for the outer wall of the body, some of them, at
  any rate, include mesodermal rudiments (from which the muscles are
  developed) as well as hypodermis. The imaginal disks make their
  appearance (that is, have been first detected) at very different
  epochs in the life; their absolute origin has been but little
  investigated. Pratt has traced them in the sheep-tick (_Melophagus_)
  to an early stage of the embryonic life.

  _Histolysis and Histogenesis._--The process of destruction of the
  larval tissues was first studied in the forms where metamorphosis is
  greatest and most abrupt, viz. in the Muscid Diptera. It was found
  that the tissues were attacked by phagocytic cells that became
  enlarged and carried away fragments of the tissue; the cells were
  subsequently identified as leucocytes or blood-cells. Hence the
  opinion arose that histolysis is a process of phagocytosis. It has,
  however, since been found that in other kinds of insects the tissues
  degenerate and break down without the intervention of phagocytes. It
  has, moreover, been noticed that even in cases where phagocytosis
  exists a greater or less extent of degeneration of the tissue may be
  observed before phagocytosis occurs. This process can therefore only
  be looked on as a secondary one that hastens and perfects the
  destruction necessary to permit of the accompanying histogenesis. This
  view is confirmed by the fate of the phagocytic cells. These do not
  take a direct part in the formation of the new tissue, but it is
  believed merely yield their surplus acquisitions, becoming ordinary
  blood-cells or disappearing altogether. As to the nature of
  histogenesis, nothing more can be said than that it appears to be a
  phenomenon similar to embryonic growth, though limited to certain
  spots. Hence we are inclined to look on the imaginal disks as cellular
  areas that possess in a latent condition the powers of growth and
  development that exist in the embryo, powers that only become evident
  in certain special conditions of the organism. What the more essential
  of these conditions may be is a question on which very little light
  has been thrown, though it has been widely discussed.

Much consideration has been given to the nature of metamorphosis in
insects, to its value to the creatures and to the mode of its origin.
Insect metamorphosis may be briefly described as phenomena of
development characterized by abrupt changes of appearance and of
structure, occurring during the period subsequent to embryonic
development and antecedent to the reproductive state. It is, in short, a
peculiar mode of growth and adolescence. The differences in appearance
between the caterpillar and the butterfly, striking as they are to the
eye, do not sufficiently represent the phenomena of metamorphosis to the
intelligence. The changes that take place involve a revolution in the
being, and may be summarized under three headings: (1) The
food-relations of the individual are profoundly changed, an entirely
different set of mouth-organs appears and the kind and quantity of the
food taken is often radically different. (2) A wingless, sedentary
creature is turned into a winged one with superlative powers of aerial
movement. (3) An individual in which the reproductive organs and powers
are functionally absent becomes one in which these structures and powers
are the only reason for existence, for the great majority of insects die
after a brief period of reproduction. These changes are in the higher
insects so extreme that it is difficult to imagine how they could be
increased. In the case of the common drone-fly, _Eristalis tenax_, the
individual, from a sedentary maggot living in filth, without any
relations of sex, and with only unimportant organs for the ingestion of
its foul nutriment, changes to a creature of extreme alertness, with
magnificent powers of flight, living on the products of the flowers it
frequents, and endowed with highly complex sexual structures.

[Illustration: After Westwood, _Modern Classification_.

FIG. 24.--Campodeiform Larva of a Ground-Beetle (_Aepus marinus_).
Magnified.]

[Illustration: After Howard, _Ent. Bull._ 4, n. s. (_U.S. Dept. Agr._).

FIG. 25.--Vermiform Larva (maggot) of House-fly (_Musca domestica_).
Magnified. b, spiracle on prothorax; c, protruded head region; d,
tail-end with functional spiracles; e, f, head region with mouth hooks
protruded; g, hooks retracted; h, eggs. All magnified.]

_Forms of Larva._--The unlikeness of the young insect to its parent is
one of the factors that necessitates metamorphosis. It is instructive,
further, to trace among metabolic insects an increase in the degree of
this dissimilarity. An adult Hexapod is provided with a firm,
well-chitinized cuticle and six conspicuous jointed legs. Many larval
Hexapods might be defined in similar general terms, unlike as they are
to their parents in most points of detail. Examples of such are to be
seen in the grubs of may-flies, dragon-flies, lacewing-flies and
ground-beetles (fig. 24). This type of active, armoured larva--often
bearing conspicuous feelers on the head and long jointed cercopods on
the tenth abdominal segment--was styled campodeiform by F. Brauer
(1869), on account of its likeness in shape to the bristle-tail
_Campodea_. As an extreme contrast to this campodeiform type, we take
the maggot of the house-fly (fig. 25)--a vermiform larva, with soft,
white, feebly-chitinized cuticle and without either head-capsule or
legs. Between these two extremes, numerous intermediate forms can be
traced: the grub (wireworm) of a click-beetle, with narrow elongate
well-armoured body, but with the legs very short; the grub of a chafer,
with the legs fairly developed, but with the cuticle of all the
trunk-segments soft and feebly chitinized; the well-known caterpillar of
a moth (fig. 21, e) or saw-fly, with its long cylindrical body, bearing
the six shortened thoracic legs and a variable number of pairs of
"pro-legs" on the abdomen (this being the eruciform type of larva); the
soft, white, wood-boring grub of a longhorn-beetle or of the saw-fly
_Sirex_, with its stumpy vestiges of thoracic legs; the large-headed but
entirely legless, fleshy grub of a weevil; and the legless larva, with
greatly reduced head, of a bee. The various larvae of the above series,
however, have all a distinct head-capsule, which is altogether wanting
in the degraded fly maggot. These differences in larval form depend in
part on the surroundings among which the larva finds itself after
hatching; the active, armoured grub has to seek food for itself and to
fight its own battles, while the soft, defenceless maggot is provided
with abundant nourishment. But in general we find that elaboration of
imaginal structure is associated with degradation in the nature of the
larva, eruciform and vermiform larvae being characteristic of the
highest orders of the Hexapoda, so that unlikeness between parent and
offspring has increased with the evolution of the class.

_Hypermetamorphosis._--Among a few of the beetles or Coleoptera (q.v.),
and also in the neuropterous genus _Mantispa_, are found life-histories
in which the earliest instar is campodeiform and the succeeding larval
stages eruciform. These later stages, comprising the greater part of the
larval history, are adapted for an inquiline or a parasitic life, where
shelter is assured and food abundant, while the short-lived, active
condition enables the newly-hatched insect to make its way to the spot
favourable for its future development, clinging, for example, in the
case of an oil-beetle's larva, to the hairs of a bee as she flies
towards her nest. The presence of the two successive larval forms in the
life-history constitutes what is called hypermetamorphosis. Most
significant is the precedence of the eruciform by the campodeiform type.
In conjunction with the association mentioned above of the most highly
developed imaginal with the most degraded larval structure, it indicates
clearly that the active, armoured grub preceded the sluggish
soft-skinned caterpillar or maggot in the evolution of the Hexapoda.

_Nymph._--The term nymph is applied by many writers on the Hexapoda to
all young forms of insects that are not sufficiently unlike their
parents to be called larvae. Other writers apply the term to a "free"
pupa (see _infra_). It is in wellnigh universal use for those instars of
ametabolous and hemimetabolous insects in which the external
wing-rudiments have become conspicuous (fig. 27). The mature dragon-fly
nymph, for example, makes its way out of the water in which the early
stages have been passed and, clinging to some water-plant, undergoes the
final ecdysis that the imago may emerge into the air. Like most
ametabolic and hemimetabolic Hexapoda, such nymphs continue to move and
feed throughout their lives. But examples are not wanting of a more or
less complete resting habit during the latest nymphal instar. In some
cicads the mature nymph ceases to feed and remains quiescent within a
pillar-shaped earthen chamber. The nymph of a thrips-insect
(Thysanoptera) is sluggish, its legs and wings being sheathed by a
delicate membrane, while the nymph of the male scale-insect rests
enclosed beneath a waxy covering.

_Sub-imago._--Among the Hexapoda generally there is no subsequent
ecdysis nor any further growth after the assumption of the winged state.
The may-flies, however, offer a remarkable exception to this rule. After
a prolonged aquatic larval and nymphal life-history, the winged insect
appears as a sub-imago, whence, after the casting of a delicate cuticle,
the true imago emerges.

_Pupa._--In the metabolic Hexapoda the resting pupal instar shows
externally the wings and other characteristic imaginal organs which have
been gradually elaborated beneath the larval cuticle. It is usual to
distinguish between the free pupae (fig. 26, b)--of Coleoptera and
Hymenoptera, for example--in which the wings, legs and other appendages
are not fixed to the trunk, and the obtect pupae (fig. 21, d)--such as
may be noticed in the majority of the Lepidoptera--whose appendages are
closely and immovably pressed to the body by a general hardening and
fusion of the cuticle. In the degree of mobility there is great
diversity among pupae. A gnat pupa swims through the water by powerful
strokes of its abdomen, while the caddis-fly pupa, in preparation for
its final ecdysis, bites its way out of its subaqueous protective case
and rises through the water, so that the fly may emerge into the air.
Some pupae are thus more active than some nymphs; the essential
character of a pupa is not therefore its passivity, but that it is the
instar in which the wings first become evident externally. The division
of the winged Hexapoda into Exopteryga and Endopteryga is thus again
justified.

[Illustration: From Chittenden, _Bull._ 4 (n.s.) _Div. Ent. U.S. Dept.
Agr._

FIG. 26.--a, Saw-toothed Grain-Beetle (_Silvanus surinamensis_); b,
pupa; c, larva, magnified--; d, feeler of larva.]

  If we admit that the larva has, in the phylogeny of insects, gradually
  diverged from the imago, and if we recollect that in the ontogeny the
  larva has always to become the imago (and of course still does so)
  notwithstanding the increased difficulty of the transformation, we
  cannot but recognize that a period of helplessness in which the
  transformation may take place is to be expected. It is generally
  considered that this is sufficient as an explanation of the existence
  of the pupa. This, however, is not the case, because the greater part
  of the transformation precedes the disclosure of the pupa, which, as
  L. C. Miall remarks, is structurally little other "than the fly
  enclosed in a temporary skin." Moreover, in many insects with
  imperfect metamorphosis the change from larva or (as the later stage
  of the larva is called in these cases) nymph to imago is about as
  great as the corresponding change in the Holometabola, as the student
  will recognize if he recalls the histories of _Ephemeridae_, Odonata
  and male _Coccidae_. But in none of these latter cases have the wings
  to be changed from a position inside the body to become external and
  actively functional organs. The difference between the nymph or false
  pupa and the true pupa is that in the latter a whole stage is devoted
  to the perfecting of the wings and body-wall after the wings have
  become external organs; the stage is one in which no food is or can be
  taken, however prolonged may be its existence. Amongst insects with
  imperfect metamorphosis the nearest approximations to the true pupa of
  the Holometabola are to be found in the sub-imago of _Ephemeridae_ and
  in the quiescent or resting stages of Thysanoptera, _Aleurodidae_ and
  _Coccidae_. A much more thorough appreciation than we yet possess of
  the phenomena in these cases is necessary in order completely to
  demonstrate the special characteristics of the holometabolous
  transformation. But even at present we can correctly state that the
  true pupa is invariably connected with the transference of the wings
  from the interior to the exterior of the body. It cannot but suggest
  itself that this transference was induced by some peculiarity as to
  formation of cuticle, causing the growth of the wings to be directed
  inwards instead of outwards. We may remark that fleas possess no
  wings, but are understood to possess a true pupa. This is a most
  remarkable case, but unfortunately very little information exists as
  to the details of metamorphosis in this group.

_Life-Relations._--Only a brief reference can be made here to the
fascinating subject of the life-relations of the larva, nymph and pupa,
as compared with those of the imago. For details, the reader may consult
the special articles on the various orders and groups of insects. A
common result of metamorphosis is that the larva and imago differ
markedly in their habitat and mode of feeding. The larva may be aquatic,
or subterranean, or a burrower in wood, while the imago is aerial. It
may bite and devour solid food, while the imago sucks liquids. It may
eat roots or refuse, while the imago lives on leaves and flowers. The
aquatic habit of many larvae is associated with endless beautiful
adaptations for respiration. The series of paired spiracles on most of
the trunk-segments is well displayed, as a rule, in terrestrial
larvae--caterpillars and the grubs of most beetles, for example. In many
aquatic larvae we find that all the spiracles are closed up, or become
functionless, except a pair at the hinder end which are associated with
some arrangement--such as the valvular flaps of the gnat larva or the
telescopic "tail" of the drone-fly larva--for piercing the surface film
and drawing periodical supplies of atmospheric air. A similar
restriction of the functional spiracles to the tail-end (fig. 25, d) is
seen in many larvae of flies (Diptera) that live and feed buried in
carrion or excrement. Other aquatic larvae have the tracheal system
entirely closed, and are able to breathe dissolved air by means of
tubular or leaf-like gills. Such are the grubs of stone-flies, may-flies
(fig. 27) and some dragon-flies and midges. An interesting feature is
the difference often to be observed between an aquatic larva and pupa of
the same insect in the matter of breathing. The gnat larva, for example,
breathes at the tail-end, hanging head-downwards from the surface-film.
But the pupa hangs from the surface by means of paired respiratory
trumpets on the prothorax, the dorsal thoracic surface, where the
cuticle splits to allow the emergence of the fly, being thus directed
towards the upper air.

[Illustration: From Miall and Denny (after Vayssière), _The Cockroach_,
Lovell Reeve & Co.

FIG. 27.--Nymph of May-fly (_Chloeon dipterum_), with wing rudiments (a)
and tracheal gill-plates (b, b). Magnified--. (The feelers and legs are
cut short.)]

A marked disproportion between the life-term of larva and imago is
common; the former often lives for months or years, while the latter
only survives for weeks or days or hours. Generally the larval is the
feeding, the imaginal the breeding, stage of the life-cycle. The extreme
of this "division of labour" is seen in those insects whose jaws are
vestigial in the winged state, when, the need for feeding all behind
them, they have but to pair, to lay eggs and to die. The acquisition of
wings is the sign of developed reproductive power.

_Paedogenesis._--Nevertheless, the function of reproduction is
occasionally exercised by larvae. In 1865 N. Wagner made his classical
observations on the production of larvae from unfertilized eggs
developed in the precociously-formed ovaries of a larval gall-midge
(Cecidomyid), and subsequent observers have confirmed his results by
studies on insects of the same family and of the related _Chironomidae_.
The larvae produced by this remarkable method (paedogenesis) of
virgin-reproduction are hatched within the parent larva, and in some
cases escape by the rupture of its body.

_Polyembryony._--Occasionally the power of reproduction is thrown still
farther back in the life-history, and it is found that from a single egg
a large number of embryos may be formed. P. Marchal has (1904) described
this power in two small parasitic Hymenoptera--a Chalcid (_Encyrtus_)
which lays eggs in the developing eggs of the small moth _Hyponomeuta_,
and a Proctotrypid (_Polygnotus_) which infests a gall-midge
(Cecidomyid) larva. In the egg of these insects a small number of nuclei
are formed by the division of the nucleus, and each of these nuclei
originates by division the cell-layers of a separate embryo. Thus a mass
or chain of embryos is produced, lying in a common cyst, and developing
as their larval host develops. In this way over a hundred embryos may
result from a single egg. Marchal points out the analogy of this
phenomenon to the artificial polyembryony that has been induced in
Echinoderm and other eggs by separating the blastomeres, and suggests
that the abundant food-supply afforded by the host-larva is favourable
for this multiplication of embryos, which may be, in the first instance,
incited by the abnormal osmotic pressure on the egg.

_Duration of Life._--The flour-moth (_Ephestia kuhniella_) sometimes
passes through five or six generations in a single year. Although one of
the characteristics of insects is the brevity of their adult lives, a
considerable number of exceptions to the general rule have been
discovered. These exceptions may be briefly summarized as follows: (1)
Certain larvae, provided with food that may be adequate in quantity but
deficient in nutriment, may live and go on feeding for many years;
(2) certain stages of the life that are naturally "resting stages" may
be in exceptional cases prolonged, and that to a very great extent; in
this case no food is taken, and the activity of the individual is almost
_nil_; (3) the life of certain insects in the adult state may be much
prolonged if celibacy be maintained; a female of _Cybister roeselii_ (a
large water-beetle) has lived five and a half years in the adult state
in captivity. In addition to these abnormal cases, the life of certain
insects is naturally more prolonged than usual. The females of some
social insects have been known to live for many years. In _Tibicen
septemdecim_ the life of the larva extends over from thirteen to
seventeen years. The eggs of locusts may remain for years in the ground
before hatching; and there may thus arise the peculiar phenomenon of
some species of insect appearing in vast numbers in a locality where it
has not been seen for several years.


CLASSIFICATION

_Number of Species._--It is now considered that 2,000,000 is a moderate
estimate of the species of insects actually existing. Some authorities
consider this total to be too small, and extend the number to
10,000,000. Upwards of 300,000 species have been collected and
described, and at present the number of named forms increases at the
rate of about 8000 species per annum. The greater part by far of the
insects existing in the world is still quite unknown to science. Many of
the species are in process of extinction, owing to the extensive changes
that are taking place in the natural conditions of the world by the
extension of human population and of cultivation, and by the destruction
of forests; hence it is probable that a considerable proportion of the
species at present existing will disappear from the face of the earth
before we have discovered or preserved any specimens of them.
Nevertheless, the constant increase of our knowledge of insect forms
renders classification increasingly difficult, for gaps in the series
become filled, and while the number of genera and families increases,
the distinctions between these groups become dependent on characters
that must seem trivial to the naturalist who is not a specialist.

_Orders of Hexapoda._--In the present article it is only possible to
treat of the division of the Hexapoda into orders and sub-orders and of
the relations of these orders to each other. For further classificatory
details, reference must be made to the special articles on the various
orders. As regards the vast majority of insects, the orders proposed by
Linnaeus are acknowledged by modern zoologists. His classification was
founded mainly on the nature of the wings, and five of his orders--the
Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps, &c.), Coleoptera (beetles), Diptera
(two-winged flies), Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), and Hemiptera
(bugs, cicads, &c.)--are recognized to-day with nearly the same limits
as he laid down. His order of wingless insects (Aptera) included
Crustacea, spiders, centipedes and other creatures that now form classes
of the Arthropoda distinct from the Hexapoda; it also included Hexapoda
of parasitic and evidently degraded structure, that are now regarded as
allied more or less closely to various winged insects. Consequently the
modern order Aptera comprises only a very small proportion of Linnaeus's
"Aptera"--the spring-tails and bristle-tails, wingless Hexapoda that
stand evidently at a lower grade of development than the bulk of the
class. The earwigs, cockroaches and locusts, which Linnaeus included
among the Coleoptera, were early grouped into a distinct order, the
Orthoptera. The great advance in modern zoology as regards the
classification of the Hexapoda lies in the treatment of a heterogeneous
assembly which formed Linnaeus's order Neuroptera. The characters of the
wings are doubtless important as indications of relationship, but the
nature of the jaws and the course of the life-history must be considered
of greater value. Linnaeus's Neuroptera exhibit great diversity in these
respects, and the insects included in it are now therefore distributed
into a number of distinct orders. The many different arrangements that
have been proposed can hardly be referred to in this article. Of special
importance in the history of systematic entomology was the scheme of F.
Brauer (1885), who separated the spring tails and bristle-tails as a
sub-class Apterygogenea from all the other Hexapoda, these forming the
sub-class Pterygogenea distributed into sixteen orders. Brauer in his
arrangement of these orders laid special stress on the nature of the
metamorphosis, and was the first to draw attention to the number of
Malpighian tubes as of importance in classification. Subsequent writers
have, for the most part, increased the number of recognized orders; and
during the last few years several schemes of classification have been
published, in the most revolutionary of which--that of A. Handlirsch
(1903-1904)--the Hexapoda are divided into four classes and thirty-four
orders! Such excessive multiplication of the larger taxonomic divisions
shows an imperfect sense of proportion, for if the term "class" be
allowed its usual zoological value, no student can fail to recognize
that the Hexapoda form a single well-defined class, from which few
entomologists would wish to exclude even the Apterygogenea. In several
recent attempts to group the orders into sub-classes, stress has been
laid upon a few characters in the imago. C. Börner (1904), for example,
considers the presence or absence of cerci of great importance, while F.
Klapalek (1904) lays stress on a supposed distinction between
appendicular and non-appendicular genital processes. A natural system
must take into account the nature of the larva and of the metamorphosis
in conjunction with the general characters of the imago. Hence the
grouping of the orders of winged Hexapoda into the divisions
Exopterygota and Endopterygota, as suggested by D. Sharp, is unlikely to
be superseded by the result of any researches into minute imaginal
structure. Sharp's proposed association of the parasitic wingless
insects in a group Anapterygota cannot, however, be defended as natural;
and recent researches into the structure of these forms enables us to
associate them confidently with related winged orders. The
classification here adopted is based on Sharp's scheme, with the
addition of suggestions from some of the most recent authors--especially
Börner and Enderlein.

    Class: HEXAPODA.

    Sub-class: APTERYGOTA.

  Primitively (?) wingless Hexapods with cumacean mandibles, distinct
  maxillulae, and locomotor abdominal appendages. Without ectodermal
  genital ducts. Young closely resemble adults.

  The sub-class contains a single

    Order: _Aptera_,

  which is divided into two sub-orders:

  1. _Thysanura_ (Bristle-tails): with ten abdominal segments; number of
  abdominal appendages variable. Cerci prominent. Developed tracheal
  system.

  2. _Collembola_ (Spring-tails): with six abdominal segments;
  appendages of the first forming an adherent ventral tube, those of the
  third a minute "catch," those of the fourth (fused basally) a
  "spring." Tracheal system reduced or absent.

    Sub-class: EXOPTERYGOTA.

  Hexapoda mostly with wings, the wingless forms clearly degraded.
  Maxillulae rarely distinct. No locomotor abdominal appendages. The
  wing-rudiments develop visibly outside the cuticle. Young like or
  unlike parents.

    Order: _Dermaptera_.

  Biting mandibles; minute but distinct-maxillulae; second maxillae
  incompletely fused. When wings are present, the fore-wings are small
  firm elytra, beneath which the delicate hind-wings are complexly
  folded. Many forms wingless. Genital ducts entirely mesodermal. Cerci
  always present; usually modified into unjointed forceps. Numerous (30
  or more) Malpighian tubes. Young resembling parents.

  Includes two families--the _Forficulidae_ or _earwigs_ (q.v.) and the
  _Hemimeridae_.

    Order: _Orthoptera_.

  Biting mandibles; vestigial maxillulae; second maxillae incompletely
  fused. Wings usually well developed, net-veined; the fore-wings of
  firmer texture than the hind-wings, whose anal area folds fanwise
  beneath them. Jointed cerci always present; ovipositor well developed.
  Malpighian tubes numerous (100-150). Young resemble parents.

  Includes stick and leaf insects, cockroaches, mantids, grasshoppers,
  locusts and crickets (see ORTHOPTERA).

    Order: _Plecoptera_.

  Biting mandibles; second maxillae incompletely fused. Fore-wings
  similar in texture to hind-wings, whose anal area folds fanwise.
  Jointed, often elongate, cerci. Numerous (50-60) Malpighian tubes.
  Young resembling parents, but aquatic in habit, breathing dissolved
  air by thoracic tracheal gills.

  Includes the single family of the _Perlidae_ (Stone-flies), formerly
  grouped with the Neuroptera.

    Order: _Isoptera_.

  Biting mandibles; second maxillae incompletely fused. Fore-wings
  similar in shape and texture to hind-wings, which do not fold. In most
  species the majority of individuals are wingless. Short, jointed
  cerci. Six or eight Malpighian tubes. Young resembling adults;
  terrestrial throughout life.

  Includes two families, formerly reckoned among the Neuroptera--the
  _Embiidae_ and the _Termitidae_ or "White Ants" (see TERMITE).

    Order: _Corrodentia_.

  Biting mandibles; second maxillae incompletely fused; maxillulae often
  distinct. Cerci absent. Four Malpighian tubes.

  Includes two sub-orders, formerly regarded as Neuroptera:--

  1. _Copeognatha_: Corrodentia with delicate cuticle. Wings usually
  developed; the fore-wings much larger than the hind-wings. One family,
  the _Psocidae_ (Book-lice). These minute insects are found amongst old
  books and furniture.

  2. _Mallophaga_: Parasitic wingless Corrodentia (Bird-lice).

    Order: _Ephemeroptera_.

  Jaws vestigial. Fore-wings much larger than hind-wings. Elongate,
  jointed cerci. Genital ducts paired and entirely mesodermal.
  Malpighian tubes numerous (40). Aquatic larvae with distinct
  maxillulae, breathing dissolved air by abdominal tracheal gills.
  Penultimate instar a flying sub-imago. [Includes the single family of
  the _Ephemeridae_ or may-flies. See also NEUROPTERA, in which this
  order was formerly comprised.]

    Order: _Odonata_.

  Biting mandibles. Wings of both pairs closely alike; firm and glassy
  in texture. Prominent, unjointed cerci, male with genital armature on
  second abdominal segment. Malpighian tubes numerous (50-60). Aquatic
  larvae with caudal leaf-gills or with rectal tracheal system.

  Includes the three families of dragon-flies. Formerly comprised among
  the Neuroptera.

    Order: _Thysanoptera_.

  Piercing mandibles, retracted within the head-capsule. First maxillae
  also modified as piercers; maxillae of both pairs with distinct palps.
  Both pairs of wings similar, narrow and fringed. Four Malpighian
  tubes. Cerci absent. Ovipositor usually present. Young resembling
  parents, but penultimate instar passive and enclosed in a filmy
  pellicle.

  Includes three families of Thrips (see THYSANOPTERA).

    Order: _Hemiptera_.

  Mandibles and first maxillae modified as piercers; second maxillae
  fused to form a jointed, grooved rostrum. Wings usually present. Four
  Malpighian tubes. Cerci absent. Ovipositor developed.

  Includes two sub-orders:--

  1. _Heteroptera_: Rostrum not in contact with haunches of fore-legs.
  Fore-wings partly coriaceous. Young resembling adults.

  Includes the bugs, terrestrial and aquatic.

  2. _Homoptera_: Rostrum in contact with haunches of fore-legs.
  Fore-wings uniform in texture. Young often larvae. Penultimate instar
  passive in some cases.

  Includes the cicads, aphides and scale-insects (see HEMIPTERA).

    Order: _Anoplura_.

  Piercing jaws modified and reduced, a tubular, protrusible
  sucking-trunk being developed; mouth with hooks. Wingless, parasitic
  forms. Cerci absent. Four Malpighian tubes. Young resembling adults.

  Includes the family of the Lice (_Pediculidae_), often reckoned as
  Hemiptera (q.v.). See also LOUSE.

    Sub-class: ENDOPTERYGOTA.

  Hexapoda mostly with wings; the wingless forms clearly degraded or
  modified. Maxillulae vestigial or absent. No locomotor abdominal
  appendages (except in certain larvae). Young animals always unlike
  parents, the wing-rudiments developing beneath the larval cuticle and
  only appearing in a penultimate pupal instar, which takes no food and
  is usually passive.

    Order: _Neuroptera_.

  Biting mandibles; second maxillae completely fused. Prothorax large
  and free. Membranous, net-veined wings, those of the two pairs closely
  alike. Six or eight Malpighian tubes. Cerci absent. Larva
  campodeiform, usually feeding by suction (exceptionally
  hypermetamorphic with subsequent eruciform instars). Pupa free.

  Includes the alder-flies, ant-lions and lacewing-flies. See
  NEUROPTERA.

    Order: _Coleoptera_.

  Biting mandibles; second maxillae very intimately fused. Prothorax
  large and free. Fore-wings modified into firm elytra, beneath which
  the membranous hind-wings (when present) can be folded. Cerci absent.
  Four or six Malpighian tubes. Larva campodeiform or eruciform. Pupa
  free.

  Includes the beetles and the parasitic _Stylopidae_, often regarded as
  a distinct order (_Strepsiptera_). (See COLEOPTERA.)

    Order: _Mecaptera_.

  Biting mandibles; first maxillae elongate; second maxillae completely
  fused. Prothorax small. Two pairs of similar, membranous wings, with
  predominantly longitudinal neuration. Six Malpighian tubes. Larva
  eruciform. Pupa free. Cerci present.

  Includes the single family of _Panorpidae_ (scorpion-flies), often
  comprised among the Neuroptera.

    Order: _Trichoptera_.

  Mandibles present in pupa, vestigial in imago; maxillae suctorial
  without specialization; first maxillae with lacinia, galea and palp.
  Prothorax small. Two pairs of membranous, hair-covered wings, with
  predominantly longitudinal neuration. Larvae aquatic and eruciform.
  Pupa free. Six Malpighian tubes. Cerci absent.

  Includes the caddis-flies. See NEUROPTERA, among which these insects
  were formerly comprised.

    Order: _Lepidoptera_.

  Mandibles absent in imago, very exceptionally present in pupa; first
  maxillae nearly always without laciniae and often without palps, or
  only with vestigial palps, their galeae elongated and grooved inwardly
  so as to form a sucking trunk. Prothorax small. Wings with
  predominantly longitudinal neuration, covered with flattened scales.
  Fore-wings larger than hind-wings. Cerci absent. Four (rarely 6 or 8)
  Malpighian tubes. Larvae eruciform, with rarely more than five pairs
  of abdominal prolegs. Pupa free in the lowest families, in most cases
  incompletely or completely obtect.

  Includes the moths and butterflies. See LEPIDOPTERA.

    Order: _Diptera_.

  Mandibles rarely present, adapted for piercing; first maxillae with
  palps; second maxillae forming with hypopharynx a suctorial proboscis.
  Prothorax small, intimately united to mesothorax. Fore-wings well
  developed; hind-wings reduced to stalked knobs ("halteres"). Cerci
  present but usually reduced. Four Malpighian tubes. Larvae eruciform
  without thoracic legs, or vermiform without head-capsule. Pupa
  incompletely obtect or free, and enclosed in the hardened cuticle of
  the last larval instar (puparium).

  Includes the two-winged flies (see DIPTERA), which may be divided into
  two sub-orders:--

  1. _Orthorrhapha_: Larva eruciform. Cuticle of pupa or puparium
  splitting longitudinally down the back, to allow escape of imago.

  Comprises the midges, gnats, crane-flies, gad-flies, &c.

  2. _Cyclorrhapha_: Larva vermiform (no head-capsule). Puparium opening
  by an anterior "lid."

  Comprises the hover-flies, flesh-flies, bot-flies, &c.

    Order: _Siphonaptera_.

  Mandibles fused into a piercer; first maxillae developed as piercers;
  palps of both pairs of maxillae present; hypopharynx wanting.
  Prothorax large. Wings absent or vestigial. Larva eruciform, limbless.

  Includes the fleas.

    Order: _Hymenoptera_.

  Biting mandibles; second maxillae incompletely or completely fused;
  often forming a suctorial proboscis. Prothorax small, and united to
  mesothorax. First abdominal segment united to metathorax. Wings
  membranous, fore-wings larger than hind-wings. Ovipositor always well
  developed, and often modified into a sting. Numerous (20-150)
  Malpighian tubes (in rare cases, 6-12 only). Larva eruciform, with
  seven or eight pairs of abdominal prolegs, or entirely legless. Pupa
  free.

  Includes two sub-orders:--

  1. _Symphyta_: Abdomen not basally constricted. Larvae caterpillars
  with thoracic legs and abdominal prolegs.

  Comprises the saw-flies.

  2. _Apocrita_: Abdomen markedly constricted at second segment. Larvae
  legless grubs.

  Comprises gall-flies, ichneumon-flies, ants, wasps, bees. See
  HYMENOPTERA.


GEOLOGICAL HISTORY

The classification just given has been drawn up with reference to
existing insects, but the great majority of the extinct forms that have
been discovered can be referred with some confidence to the same orders,
and in many cases to recent families. The Hexapoda, being aerial,
terrestrial and fresh-water animals, are but occasionally preserved in
stratified rocks, and our knowledge of extinct members of the class is
therefore fragmentary, while the description, as insects, of various
obscure fossils, which are perhaps not even Arthropods, has not tended
to the advancement of this branch of zoology. Nevertheless, much
progress has been made. Several Silurian fossils have been identified as
insects, including a Thysanuran from North America, but upon these
considerable doubt has been cast.

The Devonian rocks of Canada (New Brunswick) have yielded several
fossils which are undoubtedly wings of Hexapods. These have been
described by S. H. Scudder, and include gigantic forms related to the
Ephemeroptera.

In the Carboniferous strata (Coal measures) remains of Hexapods become
numerous and quite indisputable. Many European forms of this age have
been described by C. Brongniart, and American by S. H. Scudder. The
latter has established, for all the Palaeozoic insects, an order
Palaeodictyoptera, there being a closer similarity between the
fore-wings and the hind-wings than is to be seen in most living orders
of Hexapoda, while affinities are shown to several of these
orders--notably the Orthoptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Hemiptera. It
is probable that many of these Carboniferous insects might be referred
to the Isoptera, while others would fall into the existing orders to
which they are allied, with some modification of our present diagnoses.
Of special interest are cockroach-like forms, with two pairs of similar
membranous wings and a long ovipositor, and gigantic insects allied to
the Odonata, that measured 2 ft. across the outspread wings. A
remarkable fossil from the Scottish Coal-measures (_Lithomantis_) had
apparently small wing-like structures on the prothorax, and in allied
genera small veined outgrowths--like tracheal gills--occurred on the
abdominal segments. To the Permian period belongs a remarkable genus
_Eugereon_, that combines hemipteroid jaws with orthopteroid
wing-neuration. With the dawn of the Mesozoic epoch we reach Hexapods
that can be unhesitatingly referred to existing orders. From the Trias
of Colorado, Scudder has described cockroaches intermediate between
their Carboniferous precursors and their present-day descendants, while
the existence of endopterygotous Hexapods is shown by the remains of
Coleoptera of several families. In the Jurassic rocks are found
Ephemeroptera and Odonata, as well as Hemiptera, referable to existing
families, some representatives of which had already appeared in the
oldest of the Jurassic ages--the Lias. To the Lias also can be traced
back the Neuroptera, the Trichoptera, the orthorrhaphous Diptera and,
according to the determination of certain obscure fossils, also the
Hymenoptera (ants). The Lithographic stone of Kimmeridgian age, at
Solenhofen in Bavaria, is especially rich in insect remains,
cyclorrhaphous Diptera appearing here for the first time. In Tertiary
times the higher Diptera, besides Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, referable
to existing families, become fairly abundant. Numerous fossil insects
preserved in the amber of the Baltic Oligocene have been described by G.
L. Mayr and others, while Scudder has studied the rich Oligocene faunas
of Colorado (Florissant) and Wyoming (Green River). The Oeningen beds of
Baden, of Miocene age, have also yielded an extensive insect fauna,
described fifty years ago by O. Heer. Further details of the geological
history of the Hexapoda will be found in the special articles on the
various orders. Fragmentary as the records are, they show that the
Exopterygota preceded the Endopterygota in the evolution of the class,
and that among the Endopterygota those orders in which the greatest
difference exists between imago and larva--the Lepidoptera, Diptera and
Hymenoptera--were the latest to take their rise.


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

The class Hexapoda has a world-wide range, and so have most of its
component orders. The Aptera have perhaps the most extensive
distribution of all animals, being found in Franz Josef Land and South
Victoria Land, on the snows of Alpine glaciers, and in the depths of the
most extensive caves. Most of the families and a large proportion of the
genera of insects are exceedingly widespread, but a study of the genera
and species in any of the more important families shows that faunas can
be distinguished whose headquarters agree fairly with the regions that
have been proposed to express the distribution of the higher
vertebrates. Many insects, however, can readily extend their range, and
a careful study of their distribution leads us to discriminate between
faunas rather than definitely to map regions. A large and dominant
Holoarctic fauna, with numerous subdivisions, ranges over the great
northern continents, and is characterized by the abundance of certain
families like the _Carabidae_ and _Staphylinidae_ among the Coleoptera
and the _Tenthredinidae_ among the Hymenoptera. The southern territory
held by this fauna is invaded by genera and species distinctly tropical.
Oriental types range far northwards into China and Japan. Ethiopian
forms invade the Mediterranean area. Neotropical and distinctively
Sonoran insects mingle with members of the Holoarctic fauna across a
wide "transition zone" in North America. "Wallace's line" dividing the
Indo-Malayan and Austro-Malayan sub-regions is frequently transgressed
in the range of Malayan insects. The Australian fauna is rich in
characteristic and peculiar genera, and New Zealand, while possessing
some remarkable insects of its own, lacks entirely several families with
an almost world-wide range--for example, the _Notodontidae_,
_Lasiocampidae_, and other families of Lepidoptera. Interesting
relationships between the Ethiopian and Oriental, the Neotropical and
West African, the Patagonian and New Zealand faunas suggest great
changes in the distribution of land and water, and throw doubt on the
doctrine of the permanence of continental areas and oceanic basins.
Holoarctic types reappear on the Andes and in South Africa, and even in
New Zealand. The study of the Hexapoda of oceanic islands is full of
interest. After the determination of a number of cosmopolitan insects
that may well have been artificially introduced, there remains a large
proportion of endemic species--sometimes referable to distinct
genera--which suggest a high antiquity for the truly insular faunas.


RELATIONSHIPS AND PHYLOGENY

The Hexapoda form a very clearly defined class of the Arthropoda, and
many recent writers have suggested that they must have arisen
independently of other Arthropods from annelid worms, and that the
Arthropoda must, therefore, be regarded as an "unnatural," polyphyletic
assemblage. The cogent arguments against this view are set forth in the
article on Arthropoda. A near relationship between the Apterygota and
the Crustacea has been ably advocated by H. J. Hansen (1893). It is
admitted on all hands that the Hexapoda are akin to the Chilopoda.
Verhoeff has lately (1904) put forward the view that there are really
six segments in the hexapodan thorax and twenty in the abdomen--the
cerci belonging to the seventeenth abdominal segment thus showing a
close agreement with the centipede _Scolopendra_. On the other hand, G.
H. Carpenter (1899, 1902-1904) has lately endeavoured to show an exact
numerical correspondence in segmentation between the Hexapoda, the
Crustacea, the Arachnida, and the most primitive of the Diplopoda. On
either view it may be believed that the Hexapoda arose with the allied
classes from a primitive arthropod stock, while the relationships of the
class are with the Crustacea, the Chilopoda and the Diplopoda, rather
than with the Arachnida.

_Nature of Primitive Hexapoda._--Two divergent views have been held as
to the nature of the original hexapod stock. Some of those zoologists
who look to _Peripatus_, or a similar worm-like form, as representing
the direct ancestors of the Hexapoda have laid stress on a larva like
the caterpillar of a moth or saw-fly as representing a primitive stage.
On the other hand, the view of F. Müller and F. Brauer, that the
Thysanura represent more nearly than any other existing insects the
ancestors of the class, has been accepted by the great majority of
students. And there can be little doubt that this belief is justified.
The caterpillar, or the maggot, is a specialized larval form
characteristic of the most highly developed orders, while the
campodeiform larva is the starting-point for the more primitive insects.
The occurrence in the hypermetamorphic Coleoptera (see _supra_) of a
campodeiform preceding an eruciform stage in the life-history is most
suggestive. Taken in connexion with the likeness of the young among the
more generalized orders to the adults, it indicates clearly a
thysanuroid starting-point for the evolution of the hexapod orders. And
we must infer further that the specialization of the higher orders has
been accompanied by an increase in the extent of the metamorphosis--a
very exceptional condition among animals generally, as has been ably
pointed out by L. C. Miall (1895).

_Origin of Wings._--The post-embryonic growth of Hexapods with or
without metamorphosis is accompanied in most cases by the acquisition of
wings. These organs, thus acquired during the lifetime of the
individual, must have been in some way acquired during the evolution of
the class. Many students of the group, following Brauer, have regarded
the Apterygota as representing the original wingless progenitors of the
Pterygota, and the many primitive characters shown by the former group
lend support to this view. On the other hand, it has been argued that
the presence of wings in a vast majority of the Hexapoda suggests their
presence in the ancestors of the whole class. It is most unlikely that
wings have been acquired independently by various orders of Hexapoda,
and if we regard the Thysanura as the slightly modified representatives
of a primitively wingless stock, we must postulate the acquisition of
wings by some early offshoot of that stock, an offshoot whence the whole
group of the Pterygota took its rise. How wings were acquired by these
primitive Pterygota must remain for the present a subject for
speculation. Insect wings are specialized outgrowths of certain thoracic
segments, and are quite unrepresented in any other class of Arthropods.
They are not, therefore, like the wings of birds, modified from some
pre-existing structures (the fore-limbs) common to their phylum; they
are new and peculiar structures. Comparison of the tracheated wings with
the paired tracheated outgrowths on the abdominal segments of the
aquatic campodeiform larva of may-flies (see fig. 27) led C. Gegenbaur
to the brilliant suggestion that wings might be regarded as specialized
and transformed gills. But a survey of the Hexapoda as a whole, and
especially a comparative study of the tracheal system, can hardly leave
room for doubt that this system is primitively adapted for atmospheric
breathing, and that the presence of tracheal gills in larvae must be
regarded as a special adaptation for temporary aquatic life. The origin
of insect wings remains, therefore, a mystery, deepened by the
difficulty of imagining any probable use for thoracic outgrowths,
comparable to the wing-rudiments of the Exopterygota, in the early
stages of their evolution.

_Origin of Metamorphosis._--In connexion with the question whether
metamorphosis has been gradually acquired, we have to consider two
aspects, viz. the bionomic nature of metamorphosis, and to what extent
it existed in primitive insects. Bionomically, metamorphosis may be
defined as the sum of adaptations that have gradually fitted the larva
(caterpillar or maggot) for one kind of life, the fly for another. So
that we may conclude that the factors of evolution would favour its
development. With regard to its occurrence in primitive insects, our
knowledge of the geological record is most imperfect, but so far as it
goes it supports the conclusion that holometabolism (i.e. extreme
metamorphosis) is a comparatively recent phenomenon of insect life. None
of the groups of existing Endopterygota have been traced with certainty
farther back than the Mesozoic epoch, and all the numerous Palaeozoic
insect-fossils seem to belong to forms that possessed only imperfect
metamorphosis. The only doubt arises from the existence of insect
remains, referred to the order Coleoptera, in the Silesian Culm of
Steinkunzendorf near Reichenbach. The oldest larva known, _Mormolucoides
articulatus_, is from the New Red Sandstone of Connecticut; it belongs
to the _Sialidae_, one of the lowest forms of Holometabola. It is now,
in fact, generally admitted that metamorphosis has been acquired
comparatively recently, and Scudder in his review of the earliest fossil
insects states that "their metamorphoses were simple and incomplete, the
young leaving the egg with the form of the parent, but without wings,
the assumption of which required no quiescent stage before maturity."

It has been previously remarked that the phenomena of holometabolism are
connected with the development of wings inside the body (except in the
case of the fleas, where there are no wings in the perfect insect). Of
existing insects 90% belong to the Endopterygota. At the same time we
have no evidence that any Endopterygota existed amongst Palaeozoic
insects, so that the phenomena of endopterygotism are comparatively
recent, and we are led to infer that the Endopterygota owe their origin
to the older Exopterygota. In Endopterygota the wings commence their
development as invaginations of the hypodermis, while in Exopterygota
the wings begin--and always remain--as external folds or evaginations.
The two modes of growth are directly opposed, and at first sight it
appears that this fact negatives the view that Endopterygota have been
derived from Exopterygota.

Only three hypotheses as to the origin of Endopterygota can be suggested
as possible, viz.:--(1) That some of the Palaeozoic insects, though we
infer them to have been exopterygotous, were really endopterygotous, and
were the actual ancestors of the existing Endopterygota; (2) that
Endopterygota are not descended from Exopterygota, but were derived
directly from ancestors that were never winged; (3) that the predominant
division--i.e. Endopterygota--of insects of the present epoch are
descended from the predominant--if not the sole--group that existed in
the Palaeozoic epoch, viz. the Exopterygota. The first hypothesis is not
negatived by direct evidence, for we do not actually know the ontogeny
of any of the Palaeozoic insects; it is, however, rendered highly
improbable by the modern views as to the nature and origin of wings in
insects, and by the fact that the Endopterygota include none of the
lower existing forms of insects. The second hypothesis--to the effect
that Endopterygota are the descendants of apterous insects that had
never possessed wings (i.e. the Apterygogenea of Brauer and others,
though we prefer the shorter term Apterygota)--is rendered improbable
from the fact that existing Apterygota are related to Exopterygota, not
to Endopterygota, and by the knowledge that has been gained as to the
morphology and development of wings, which suggest that--if we may so
phrase it--were an apterygotous insect gradually to develop wings, it
would be on the exopterygotous system. From all points of view it
appears, therefore, probable that Endopterygota are descended from
Exopterygota, and we are brought to the question as to the way in which
this has occurred.

It is almost impossible to believe that any species of insect that has
for a long period developed the wings outside the body could change this
mode of growth suddenly for an internal mode of development of the
organs in question, for, as we have already explained, the two modes of
growth are directly opposed. The explanation has to be sought in another
direction. Now there are many forms of Exopterygota in which the
creatures are almost or quite destitute of wings. This phenomenon occurs
among species found at high elevations, among others found in arid or
desert regions, and in some cases in the female sex only, the male being
winged and the female wingless. This last state is very frequent in
_Blattidae_, which were amongst the most abundant of Palaeozoic insects.
The wingless forms in question are always allied to winged forms, and
there is every reason to believe that they have been really derived from
winged forms. There are also insects (fleas, &c.) in which metamorphosis
of a "complete" character exists, though the insects never develop
wings. These cases render it highly probable that insects may in some
circumstances become wingless, though their ancestors were winged. Such
insects have been styled anapterygotous. In these facts we have one
possible clue to the change from exopterygotism to endopterygotism,
namely, by an intermediate period of anapterygotism.

Although we cannot yet define the conditions under which exopterygotous
wings are suppressed or unusually developed, yet we know that such
fluctuations occur. There are, in fact, existing forms of Exopterygota
that are usually wingless, and that nevertheless appear in certain
seasons or localities with wings. We are therefore entitled to assume
that the suppressed wings of Exopterygota tend to reappear; and,
speaking of the past, we may say that if after a period of suppression
the wings began to reappear as hypodermal buds while a more rigid
pressure was exerted by the cuticle, the growth of the buds would
necessarily be inwards, and we should have incipient endopterygotism.
The change that is required to transform Exopterygota into Endopterygota
is merely that a cell of hypodermis should proliferate inwards instead
of outwards, or that a minute hypodermal evaginated bud should be forced
to the interior of the body by the pressure of a contracted cuticle.

If it should be objected that the wings so developed would be
rudimentary, and that there would be nothing to encourage their
development into perfect functional organs, we may remind the reader
that we have already pointed out that imperfect wings of Exopterygota
do, even at the present time under certain conditions, become perfect
organs; and we may also add that there are, even among existing
Endopterygota, species in which the wings are usually vestiges and yet
sometimes become perfectly developed. In fact, almost every condition
that is required for the change from exopterygotism to endopterygotism
exists among the insects that surround us.

But it may perhaps be considered improbable that organs like the wings,
having once been lost, should have been reacquired on the large scale
suggested by the theory just put forward. If so, there is an alternative
method by which the endopterygotous may have arisen from the
exopterygotous condition. The sub-imago of the Ephemeroptera suggests
that a moult, after the wings had become functional, was at one time
general among the Hexapoda, and that the resting nymph of the
Thysanoptera or the pupa of the Endopterygota represents a formerly
active stage in the life-history. Further, although the wing-rudiments
appear externally in an early instar of an exopterygotous insect, the
earliest instars are wingless and wing-rudiments have been previously
developing beneath the cuticle, growing however outwards, not inwards as
in the larva of an endopterygote. The change from an exopterygote to an
endopterygote development could, therefore, be brought about by the
gradual postponement to a later and later instar of the appearance of
the wing-rudiments outside the body, and their correlated growth inwards
as imaginal disks. For in the post-embryonic development of the
ancestors of the Endopterygota we may imagine two or three instars with
wing-rudiments to have existed, the last represented by the sub-imago of
the may-flies. As the life-conditions and feeding-habits of the larva
and imago become constantly more divergent, the appearance of the
wing-rudiments would be postponed to the pre-imaginal instar, and that
instar would become predominantly passive.

_Relationships of the Orders._--Reasons have been given for regarding
the Thysanura as representing, more nearly than any other living group,
the primitive stock of the Hexapoda. It is believed that insects of this
group are represented among Silurian fossils. We may conclude,
therefore, that they were preceded, in Cambrian times or earlier, by
Arthropods possessing well developed appendages on all the
trunk-segments. Of such Arthropods the living Symphyla--of which the
delicate little _Scutigerella_ is a fairly well-known example--give us
some representation.

No indications beyond those furnished by comparative anatomy help us to
unravel the phylogeny of the Collembola. In most respects, the shortened
abdomen, for example, they are more specialized than the Thysanura, and
most of the features in which they appear to be simple, such as the
absence of a tracheal system and of compound eyes, can be explained as
the result of degradation. In their insunken mouth and their jaws
retracted within the head-capsule, the Collembola resemble the
entotrophous division of the Thysanura (see APTERA), from which they are
probably descended.

From the thysanuroid stock of the Apterygota, the Exopterygota took
their rise. We have undoubted fossil evidence that winged insects lived
in the Devonian and became numerous in the Carboniferous period. These
ancient Exopterygota were synthetic in type, and included insects that
may, with probability, be regarded as ancestral to most of the existing
orders. It is hard to arrange the Exopterygota in a linear series, for
some of the orders that are remarkably primitive in some respects are
rather highly specialized in others. As regards wing-structure, the
Isoptera with the two pairs closely similar are the most primitive of
all winged insects; while in the paired mesodermal genital ducts, the
elongate cerci and the conspicuous maxillulae of their larvae the
Ephemeroptera retain notable ancestral characters. But the vestigial
jaws, numerous Malpighian tubes, and specialized wings of may-flies
forbid us to consider the order as on the whole primitive. So the
Dermaptera, which retain distinct maxillulae and have no ectodermal
genital ducts, have either specialized or aborted wings and a large
number of Malpighian tubes. The Corrodentia retain vestigial maxillulae
and two pairs of Malpighian tubes, but the wings are somewhat
specialized in the Copeognatha and absent in the degraded and parasitic
Mallophaga. The Plecoptera and Orthoptera agree in their numerous
Malpighian tubes and in the development of a folding anal area in the
hind-wing. As shown by the number and variety of species, the Orthoptera
are the most dominant order of this group. Eminently terrestrial in
habit, the differentiation of their fore-wings and hind-wings can be
traced from Carboniferous, isopteroid ancestors through intermediate
Mesozoic forms. The Plecoptera resemble the Ephemeroptera and Odonata in
the aquatic habits of their larvae, and by the occasional presence of
tufted thoracic gills in the imago exhibit an aquatic character unknown
in any other winged insects. The Odonata are in many imaginal and larval
characters highly specialized; yet they probably arose with the
Ephemeroptera as a divergent offshoot of the same primitive isopteroid
stock which developed more directly into the living Isoptera,
Plecoptera, Dermaptera and Orthoptera.

All these orders agree in the possession of biting mandibles, while
their second maxillae have the inner and outer lobes usually distinct.
The Hemiptera, with their piercing mandibles and first maxillae and with
their second maxillae fused to form a jointed beak, stand far apart from
them. This order can be traced with certainty back to the early Jurassic
epoch, while the Permian fossil _Eugereon_, and the living
order--specially modified in many respects--of the Thysanoptera indicate
steps by which the aberrant suctorial and piercing mouth of the
Hemiptera may have been developed from the biting mouth of primitive
Isopteroids, by the elongation of some parts and the suppression of
others. The Anoplura may probably be regarded as a degraded offshoot of
the Hemiptera.

The importance of great cardinal features of the life-history as
indicative of relationship leads us to consider the Endopterygota as a
natural assemblage of orders. The occurrence of weevils--among the most
specialized of the Coleoptera--in Triassic rocks shows us that this
great order of metabolous insects had become differentiated into its
leading families at the dawn of the Mesozoic era, and that we must go
far back into the Palaeozoic for the origin of the Endopterygota. In
this view we are confirmed by the impossibility of deriving the
Endopterygota from any living order of Exopterygota. We conclude,
therefore, that the primitive stock of the former sub-class became early
differentiated from that of the latter. So widely have most of the
higher orders of the Hexapoda now diverged from each other, that it is
exceedingly difficult in most cases to trace their relationships with
any confidence. The Neuroptera, with their similar fore- and hind-wings
and their campodeiform larvae, seem to stand nearest to the presumed
isopteroid ancestry, but the imago and larva are often specialized. The
campodeiform larvae of many Coleoptera are indeed far more primitive
than the neuropteran larvae, and suggest to us that the
Coleoptera--modified as their wing-structure has become--arose very
early from the primitive metabolous stock. The antiquity of the
Coleoptera is further shown by the great diversity of larval form and
habit that has arisen in the order, and the proof afforded by the
hypermetamorphic beetles that the campodeiform preceded the eruciform
larva has already been emphasized.

In all the remaining orders of the Endopterygota the larva is eruciform
or vermiform. The Mecaptera, with their predominantly longitudinal
wing-nervuration, serve as a link between the Neuroptera and the
Trichoptera, their retention of small cerci being an archaic character
which stamps them as synthetic in type, but does not necessarily remove
them from orders which agree with them in most points of structure but
which have lost the cerci. The standing of the Trichoptera in a position
almost ancestral to the Lepidoptera is one of the assured results of
recent morphological study, the mobile mandibulate pupa and the
imperfectly suctorial maxillae of the Trichoptera reappearing in the
lowest families of the Lepidoptera. This latter order, which is not
certainly known to have existed before Tertiary times, has become the
most highly specialized of all insects in the structure of the pupa.
Diptera of the sub-order Orthorrhapha occur in the Lias and Cyclorrhapha
in the Kimmeridgian. The order must therefore be ancient, and as no
evidence is forthcoming as to the mode of reduction of the hind-wings,
nor as to the stages by which the suctorial mouth-organs became
specialized, it is difficult to trace the exact relationship of the
group, but the presence of cerci and a degree of correspondence in the
nervuration of the fore-wings suggest the Mecaptera as possible allies.
There seems no doubt that the suctorial mouth-organs of the Diptera have
arisen quite independently from those of the Lepidoptera, for in the
former order the sucker is formed from the second maxillae, in the
latter from the first. The eruciform larva of the Orthorrhapha leads on
to the headless vermiform maggot of the Cyclorrhapha, and in the latter
sub-order we find metamorphosis carried to its extreme point, the muscid
flies being the most highly specialized of all the Hexapoda as regards
structure, while their maggots are the most degraded of all insect
larvae. The Siphonaptera appear by the form of the larva and the nature
of the metamorphosis to be akin to the Orthorrhapha--in which division
they have indeed been included by many students. They differ from the
Diptera, however, in the general presence of palps to both pairs of
maxillae, and in the absence of a hypopharynx, so it is possible that
their relationship to the Diptera is less close than has been supposed.
The affinities of the Hymenoptera afford another problem of much
difficulty. They differ from other Endopterygota in the multiplication
of their Malpighian tubes, and from all other Hexapoda in the union of
the first abdominal segment with the thorax. Specialized as they are in
form, development and habit, they retain mandibles for biting, and in
their lower sub-order--the Symphyta--the maxillae are hardly more
modified than those of the Orthoptera. From the evidence of fossils it
seems that the higher sub-order--Apocrita--can be traced back to the
Lias, so that we believe the Hymenoptera to be more ancient than the
Diptera, and far more ancient than the Lepidoptera. They afford an
example--paralleled in other classes of the animal kingdom--of an order
which, though specialized in some respects, retains many primitive
characters, and has won its way to dominance rather by perfection of
behaviour, and specially by the development of family life and helpful
socialism, than by excessive elaboration of structure. We would trace
the Hymenoptera back therefore to the primitive endopterygote stock. The
specialization of form in the constricted abdomen and in the suctorial
"tongue" that characterizes the higher families of the order is
correlated with the habit of careful egg-laying and provision of food
for the young. In some way it is assured among the highest of the
Hexapoda--the Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera--that the larva finds
itself amid a rich food-supply. And thus perfection of structure and
instinct in the imago has been accompanied by degradation in the larva,
and by an increase in the extent of transformation and in the degree of
reconstruction before and during the pupal stage. The fascinating
difficulties presented to the student by the metamorphosis of the
Hexapoda are to some extent explained, as he ponders over the evolution
of the class.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--References to the older classical writings on the
  Hexapoda are given in the article on Entomology. At present about a
  thousand works and papers are published annually, and in this place it
  is possible to enumerate only a few of the most important among
  (mostly) recent memoirs that bear upon the Hexapoda generally. Further
  references will be found appended to the special articles on the
  orders (APTERA, COLEOPTERA, &c.).

  General Works.--A. S. Packard, _Text-book of Entomology_ (London,
  1898); V. Graber, _Die Insekten_ (Munich, 1877-1879); D. Sharp,
  _Cambridge Natural History_, vols. v., vi. (London, 1895-1899); L. C.
  Miall and A. Denny, _Structure and Life-history of the Cockroach_
  (London, 1886); B. T. Lowne, _The Anatomy, Physiology, Morphology and
  Development of the Blow-fly_ (2 vols., London, 1890-1895); G. H.
  Carpenter, _Insects: their Structure and Life_ (London, 1899); L. F.
  Henneguy, _Les Insectes_ (Paris, 1904); J. W. Folsom, _Entomology_
  (New York and London, 1906); A. Berlese, _Gli Insetti_ (Milan, 1906),
  &c. (Extensive bibliographies will be found in several of the above.)

  Head and Appendages.--J. C. Savigny, _Mémoires sur les animaux sans
  vertèbres_ (Paris, 1816); C. Janet, _Essai sur la constitution
  morphologique de la tête de l'insecte_ (Paris, 1899); J. H. Comstock
  and C. Kochi (_American Naturalist_, xxxvi., 1902); V. L. Kellogg
  (ibid.); W. A. Riley (_American Naturalist_, xxxviii., 1904); F.
  Meinert (_Entom. Tidsskr._ i., 1880); H. J. Hansen (_Zool. Anz._ xvi.,
  1893); J. B. Smith (_Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc._ xix., 1896); H. Holmgren
  (_Zeitsch. wiss. Zoolog._ lxxvi., 1904); K. W. Verhoeff (_Abhandl. K.
  Leop.-Carol. Akad._ lxxxiv., 1905).

  Thorax, Legs and Wings.--K. W. Verhoeff (_Abhandl. K. Leop.-Carol.
  Akad._ lxxxii., 1903); F. Voss (_Zeits. wiss. Zool._ lxxviii., 1905);
  F. Dahl (_Arch. f. Naturgesch._ 1, 1884); J. Demoor (_Arch. de biol._
  x., 1890); J. Redtenbacher (_Ann. Kais. naturhist. Museum, Wien_, i.,
  1886); R. von Lendenfeld (_S. B. Akad. Wissens., Wien_, lxxxiii.,
  1881); J. H. Comstock and J. G. Needham (_Amer. Nat._, xxxii.,
  xxxiii., 1898-1899); C. W. Woodworth (_Univ. California Entom. Bull._
  i., 1906).

  Abdomen and Appendages.--E. Haase (_Morph. Jahrb._ xv., 1889); R.
  Heymons (_Morph. Jahrb._ xxiv., 1896; _Abhandl. K. Leop.-Carol. Akad._
  lxxiv., 1899); K. W. Verhoeff (_Zool. Anz._ xix., xx., 1896-1897); S.
  A. Peytoureau, _Contribution à l'étude de la morphologie de l'armure
  génitale des insectes_ (Bordeaux, 1895); H. Dewitz (_Zeits. wiss.
  Zool._ xxv., xxviii., 1874, 1877); E. Zander (ibid. lxvi., lxvii.,
  1899-1900).

  Nervous System.--H. Viallanes (_Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool._ [6], xvii.,
  xviii., xix., [7] ii., iv., 1884-1887); S. J. Hickson (_Quart. Journ.
  Micr. Sci._ xxv., 1885); W. Patten (_Journ. Morph._ i., ii.,
  1887-1888); F. Plateau (_Mém. Acad. Belg._ xliii., 1888); V. Graber
  (_Arch. mikr. Anat._ xx., xxi., 1882).

  Respiratory System.--J. A. Palmén, _Zur Morphologie des
  Tracheensystems_ (Leipzig, 1877); F. Plateau (_Mém. Acad. Belg._ xiv.,
  1884); L. C. Miall, _Natural History of Aquatic Insects_ (London,
  1895).

  Digestive System, &c.--L. Dufour (_Ann. Sci. Nat._, 1824-1860); V.
  Faussek (_Zeits. wiss. Zool._ xlv., 1887).

  Malpighian Tubes.--E. Schindler (_Zeits. wiss. Zool._ xxx., 1878); W.
  M. Wheeler (_Psyche_ vi., 1893); L. Cuénot (_Arch. de biol._ xiv.,
  1895).

  Reproductive Organs.--H. V. Wielowiejski (Zool. Anz. ix., 1886); J. A.
  Palmén, _Über paarige Ausführungsgänge der Geschlechtsorgane bei
  Insekten_ (Helsingfors, 1884); H. Henking (_Zeits. wiss. Zool._ xlix.,
  li., liv., 1890-1892); F. Leydig (_Zool. Jahrb. Anat._ iii., 1889).

  Embryology.--F. Blochmann (_Morph. Jahrb._ xii., 1887); A. Kovalevsky
  (_Mém. Acad. St-Pétersbourg_, xvi., 1871; _Zeits. wiss. Zool._ xlv.,
  1887); V. Graber (_Denksch. Akad. Wissens., Wien_, lvi., 1889); K.
  Heider, _Die Embryonalentwicklung von Hydrophilus piceus_ (Jena,
  1889); W. M. Wheeler (_Journ. Morph._ iii., viii., 1889-1893); E.
  Korschelt and K. Heider, _Handbook of the Comparative Embryology of
  Invertebrates_ (trans. M. Bernard), (vol. iii., London, 1899); R.
  Heymons, _Die Embryonalentwicklung von Dermapteren und Orthopteren_
  (Jena, 1895) (also _Zeits. wiss. Zool._ liii., 1891, lxii., 1897;
  _Anhang zu den Abhandl. K. Akad. d. Wissens., Berlin_, 1896); A.
  Lécaillon (_Arch. d'anat. micr._ ii., 1898); J. Carrière and O. Burger
  (_Abhandl. K. Leop.-Carol. Akad._ lxix., 1897); K. Escherich (ibid.
  lxxvii., 1901); F. Schwangart (_Zeits. wiss. Zool._ lxxvi., 1904); R.
  Ritter (_ib._ li., 1890); E. Metchnikoff (_ib._ xvi., 1866); H. Uzel
  (_Zool. Anz._ xx., 1897); J. W. Folsom (_Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.
  Harvard_., xxxvi., 1900).

  Parthenogenesis and Paedogenesis.--T. H. Huxley (_Trans. Linn. Soc._
  xxii., 1858); R. Leuckart, _Zur Kenntnis des Generationswechsels und
  der Parthogenesis bei den Insekten_ (Frankfurt, 1858); N. Wagner
  (_Zeits. wiss. Zool._ xv., 1865); L. F. Henneguy (_Bull. Soc.
  Philomath._ [9], i. 1899); A. Petrunkevich (_Zool. Jahrb. Anat._ xiv.,
  xvii., 1901-1903); P. Marchal (_Arch. zool. exp. et gén._ [4], ii.,
  1904); L. Doncaster (_Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci._ xlix., li.,
  1906-1907).

  Growth and Metamorphosis.--A. Weismann (_Zeits. wiss. Zool._ xiii.,
  xiv., 1863-1864); F. Brauer (_Verh. zool.-bot. Gesellsch., Wien_,
  xix., 1869); Sir J. Lubbock (Lord Avebury), _Origin and Metamorphosis
  of Insects_ (London, 1874); L. C. Miall (_Nature_, liii., 1895); L. C.
  Miall and A. R. Hammond, _Structure and Life-history of the
  Harlequin-fly_ (Oxford, 1900); J. Gonin (_Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sci. Nat._
  xxx., 1894); C. de Bruyne (_Arch. de biol._ xv. (1898); D. Sharp
  (_Proc. Inter. Zool. Congress_, 1898); E. B. Poulton (_Trans. Linn.
  Soc._ v., 1891); T. A. Chapman (_Trans. Ent. Soc._, 1893).

  Classification.--F. Brauer (_S. B. Akad. Wiss., Wien_, xci., 1885); A.
  S. Packard (_Amer. Nat._ xx.; 1886); C. Börner, A. Handlirsch, F.
  Klapalek (_Zool. Anz._ xxvii., 1904); G. Enderlein (_Zool. Anz._
  xxvi., 1903).

  Palaeontology.--S. H. Scudder, in Zittel's _Palaeontology_ (French
  trans., vol. ii., Paris, 1887, and Eng. trans., vol. i., London,
  1900); C. Brongniart, _Insectes fossiles des temps primaires_
  (St-Étienne, 1894); A. Handlirsch, _Die fossilen Insekten und die
  Phylogenie der rezenten Formen_ (Leipzig, 1906).

  Phylogeny.--Brauer, Lubbock, Sharp, Börner, &c. (opp. cit.); P. Mayer
  (_Jena, Zeits. Naturw._ x., 1876); B. Grassi (_Atti R. Accad. dei
  Lincei, Roma_ [4], iv., 1888, and _Archiv ital. biol._ xi., 1889); F.
  Müller, _Facts and Arguments for Darwin_ (trans. W. S. Dallas, London,
  1869); N. Zograf (_Congr. Zool. Int._, 1892); E. R. Lankester (_Quart.
  Journ. Micr. Sci._ xlvii., 1904); G. H. Carpenter (_Proc. R. Irish
  Acad._ xxiv., 1903; _Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci._ xlix., 1905).
       (D. S.*; G. H. C.)



HEXASTYLE (Gr. [Greek: hex], six, and [Greek: stylos], column), an
architectural term given to a temple in the portico of which there are
six columns in front.



HEXATEUCH, the name given to the first six books of the Old Testament
(the Pentateuch and Joshua), to mark the fact that these form one
literary whole, describing the early traditional history of the
Israelites from the creation of the world to the conquest of Palestine
and the origin of their national institutions. These books are the
result of an intricate literary process, on which see BIBLE (Old
Testament: _Canon_), and the articles on the separate books (GENESIS,
EXODUS, LEVITICUS, NUMBERS, DEUTERONOMY and JOSHUA).



HEXHAM, a market town in the Hexham parliamentary division of
Northumberland, England, 21 m. W. from Newcastle by the Carlisle branch
of the North-Eastern railway, served also from Scotland by a branch of
the North British railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 7107. It is
pleasantly situated beneath the hills on the S. bank of the Tyne, and
its market square and narrow streets bear many marks of antiquity. It is
famous for its great abbey church of St Andrew. This building, as
renovated in the 12th century, was to consist of nave and transepts,
choir and aisles, and massive central tower. The Scots are believed to
have destroyed the nave in 1296, but it may be doubted if it was ever
completed. In 1536 the last prior was hanged for being concerned in the
insurrection called the Pilgrimage of Grace. The church as it stands is
a fine monument of Early English work, with Transitional details.
Within, although it suffered much loss during a restoration c. 1858,
there are several objects of interest. Among these are a Roman slab,
carved with figures of a horseman trampling upon an enemy, several fine
tombs and stones of the 13th and 14th centuries, the frith or fridstool
of stone, believed to be the original bishop's throne, and the fine
Perpendicular roodscreen of oak, retaining its loft. The crypt,
discovered in 1726, is part of the Saxon church, and a noteworthy
example of architecture of the period. Its material is Roman, some of
the stones having Roman inscriptions. These were brought from the Roman
settlement at Corbridge, 4 m. E. of Hexham on the N. bank of the Tyne;
for Hexham itself was not a Roman station. In 1832 a vessel containing
about 8000 Saxon coins was discovered in the churchyard. Fragments of
the monastic buildings remain, and west of the churchyard is the monks'
park, known as the Seal, and now a promenade, commanding beautiful
views. In the town are two strong castellated towers of the 14th
century, known as the Moot Hall and the Manor Office. Their names
explain their use, but they were doubtless also intended as defensive
works. In the interesting and beautiful neighbourhood of Hexham there
should be noticed Aydon castle near Corbridge, a fortified house of the
late 13th century; and Dilston or Dyvilston, a typical border fortress
dating from Norman times, of which only a tower and small chapel remain.
It is replete with memories of the last earl of Derwentwater, who was
beheaded in 1716 for his part in the Stuart rising of the previous year,
and was buried in the chapel. There is an Elizabethan grammar school.
Hexham and Newcastle form a Roman Catholic bishopric, with the cathedral
at Newcastle. There are manufactures of leather gloves and other goods,
and in the neighbourhood barytes and coal mines and extensive market
gardens.

The church and monastery at Hexham (Hextoldesham) were founded about 673
by Wilfrid, archbishop of York, who is said to have received a grant of
the whole of Hexhamshire from Æthelhryth, queen of Northumbria, and a
grant of sanctuary in his church from the king. The church in 678
became the head of the new see of Bernicia, which was united to that of
Lindisfarne about 821, when the bishop of Lindisfarne appears to have
taken possession of the lordship which he and his successors held until
it was restored to the archbishop of York by Henry II. The archbishops
appear to have had almost royal power throughout the liberty, including
the rights of trying all pleas of the crown in their court, of taking
inquisitions and of taxation. In 1545 the archbishop exchanged
Hexhamshire with the king for other property, and in 1572 all the
separate privileges which had belonged to him were taken away, and the
liberty was annexed to the county of Northumberland. Hexham was a
borough by prescription, and governed by a bailiff at least as early as
1276, and the same form of government continued until 1853. In 1343 the
men of Hexham were accused of pretending to be Scots and imprisoning
many people of Northumberland and Cumberland, killing some and extorting
ransoms for others. The Lancastrians were defeated in 1464 near Hexham,
and legend says that it was in the woods round the town that Queen
Margaret and her son hid until their escape to Flanders. In 1522 the
bishop of Carlisle complained to Cardinal Wolsey, then archbishop of
York, that the English thieves committed more thefts than "all the Scots
of Scotland," the men of Hexham being worst of all, and appearing 100
strong at the markets held in Hexham, so that the men whom they had
robbed dared not complain or "say one word to them." This state of
affairs appears to have continued until the accession of James I., and
in 1595 the bailiff and constables of Hexham were removed as being
"infected with combination and toleration of thieves." Hexham was at one
time the market town of a large agricultural district. In 1227 a market
on Monday and a fair on the vigil and day of St Luke the Evangelist were
granted to the archbishop, and in 1320 Archbishop Melton obtained the
right of holding two new fairs on the feasts of St James the Apostle
lasting five days and of SS. Simon and Jude lasting six days. The market
day was altered to Tuesday in 1662, and Sir William Fenwick, then lord
of the manor, received a grant of a cattle market on the Tuesday after
the feast of St Cuthbert in March and every Tuesday fortnight until the
feast of St Martin. The market rights were purchased from Wentworth B.
Beaumont, lord of the manor, in 1886. During the 17th and 18th centuries
Hexham was noted for the leather trade, especially for the manufacture
of gloves, but in the 19th century the trade began to decline. Coal
mines which had belonged to the archbishop, were sold to Sir John
Fenwick, Kt., in 1628. Hexham has never been represented in parliament,
but gives its name to one of the four parliamentary divisions of the
county.

  See Edward Bateson and A. B. Hinds, _A History of Northumberland_ vol.
  iii. (1893-1896); A. B. Wright, _An Essay towards the History of
  Hexham_ (1823); James Hewitt, _A Handbook to Hexham and its
  Antiquities_ (1879).



HEYDEN, JAN VAN DER (1637-1712), Dutch painter, was born at Gorcum in
1637, and died at Amsterdam on the 12th of September 1712. He was an
architectural landscape painter, a contemporary of Hobbema and Jacob
Ruysdael, with the advantage, which they lacked, of a certain
professional versatility; for, whilst they painted admirable pictures
and starved, he varied the practice of art with the study of mechanics,
improved the fire engine, and died superintendent of the lighting and
director of the firemen's company at Amsterdam. Till 1672 he painted in
partnership with Adrian van der Velde. After Adrian's death, and
probably because of the loss which that event entailed upon him, he
accepted the offices to which allusion has just been made. At no period
of artistic activity had the system of division of labour been more
fully or more constantly applied to art than it was in Holland towards
the close of the 17th century. Van der Heyden, who was perfect as an
architectural draughtsman in so far as he painted the outside of
buildings and thoroughly mastered linear perspective, seldom turned his
hand to the delineation of anything but brick houses and churches in
streets and squares, or rows along canals, or "moated granges," common
in his native country. He was a travelled man, had seen The Hague, Ghent
and Brussels, and had ascended the Rhine past Xanten to Cologne, where
he copied over and over again the tower and crane of the great
cathedral. But he cared nothing for hill or vale, or stream or wood. He
could reproduce the rows of bricks in a square of Dutch houses sparkling
in the sun, or stunted trees and lines of dwellings varied by steeples,
all in light or thrown into passing shadow by moving cloud. He had the
art of painting microscopically without loss of breadth or keeping. But
he could draw neither man nor beast, nor ships nor carts; and this was
his disadvantage. His good genius under these circumstances was Adrian
van der Velde, who enlivened his compositions with spirited figures; and
the joint labour of both is a delicate, minute, transparent work,
radiant with glow and atmosphere.



HEYLYN (or HEYLIN), PETER (1600-1662), English historian and
controversialist, was born at Burford in Oxfordshire. Having made great
progress in his studies, he entered Hart Hall, Oxford, in 1613,
afterwards joining Magdalen College; and in 1618 he began to lecture on
cosmography, being made fellow of Magdalen in the same year. His
lectures, under the title of [Greek: Mikrokosmos], were published in
1621, and many editions of this useful book, each somewhat enlarged,
subsequently appeared. Having been ordained in 1624 Heylyn attracted the
notice of William Laud, then bishop of Bath and Wells; and in 1628 he
married Laetitia, daughter of Thomas Highgate, or Heygate, of Hayes,
Middlesex; but he appears to have kept his marriage secret and did not
resign his fellowship. After serving as chaplain to Danby in the Channel
Islands, he became chaplain to Charles I. in 1630, and was appointed by
the king to the rectory of Hemingford, Huntingdonshire. John Williams,
bishop of Lincoln, however, refused to institute Heylyn to this living,
owing to his friendship with Laud; and in return Charles appointed him a
prebendary of Westminster, where he made himself very objectionable to
Williams, who held the deanery _in commendam_. In 1633 he became rector
of Alresford, soon afterwards vicar of South Warnborough, and he became
treasurer of Westminster Abbey in 1637; but before this date he was
widely known as one of the most prominent and able controversialists
among the high-church party. Entering with great ardour into the
religious controversies of the time he disputed with John Prideaux,
regius professor of divinity at Oxford, replied to the arguments of
Williams in his pamphlets, "A Coal from the Altar" and "Antidotum
Lincolnense," and was hostile to the Puritan element both within and
without the Church of England. He assisted William Noy to prepare the
case against Prynne for the publication of his _Histriomastix_, and made
himself useful to the Royalist party in other ways. However, when the
Long Parliament met he was allowed to retire to Alresford, where he
remained until he was disturbed by Sir William Waller's army in 1642,
when he joined the king at Oxford. At Oxford Heylyn edited _Mercurius
Aulicus_, a vivacious but virulent news-sheet, which greatly annoyed the
Parliamentarians; and consequently his house at Alresford was plundered
and his library dispersed. Subsequently he led for some years a
wandering life of poverty, afterwards settling at Winchester and then at
Minster Lovel in Oxfordshire; and he refers to his hardships in his
pamphlet "Extraneus Vapulans," the cleverest of his controversial
writings, which was written in answer to Hamon l'Estrange. In 1653 he
settled at Lacy's Court, Abingdon, where he resided undisturbed by the
government of the Commonwealth, and where he wrote several books and
pamphlets, both against those of his own communion, like Thomas Fuller,
whose opinions were less unyielding than his own, and against the
Presbyterians and others, like Richard Baxter.

His works, all of which are marred by political or theological rancour,
number over fifty. Among the most important are: a legendary and learned
_History of St. George of Cappadocia_, written in 1631; _Cyprianus
Anglicus, or the history of the Life and Death of William Laud_, a
defence of Laud and a valuable authority for his life; _Ecclesia
restaurata, or the History of the Reformation of the Church of England_
(1661; ed. J. C. Robertson, Cambridge, 1849); _Ecclesia vindicata, or
the Church of England justified_; _Aërius redivivus, or History of the
Presbyterians_; and _Help to English History_, an edition of which, with
additions by P. Wright, was published in 1773. In 1636 he wrote a
_History of the Sabbath_, by order of Charles I. to answer the Puritans;
and in consequence of a journey through France in 1625 he wrote _A
Survey of France_, a work, frequently reprinted, which was termed by
Southey "one of the liveliest books of travel in its lighter parts, and
one of the wisest and most replete with information that was ever
written by a young man." Some verses of merit also came from his active
pen, and his poetical memorial of William of Waynflete was published by
the Caxton Society in 1851.

Heylyn was a diligent writer and investigator, a good ecclesiastical
lawyer, and had always learning at his command. His principles, to which
he was honestly attached, were defended with ability; but his efforts to
uphold the church passed unrecognized at the Restoration, probably owing
to his physical infirmities. His sight had been very bad for several
years; yet he rejoiced that his "bad old eyes" had seen the king's
return, and upon this event he preached before a large audience in
Westminster Abbey on the 29th of May 1661. He died on the 8th of May
1662 and was buried in Westminster Abbey, where he had been sub-dean for
some years.

  Lives of Heylyn were written by his son-in-law Dr John Barnard or
  Bernard, and by George Vernon (1682). Bernard's work was reprinted
  with Robertson's edition of Heylyn's _History of the Reformation_ in
  1849.



HEYN, PIETER PIETERZOON [commonly abbreviated to PIET] (1578-1629),
Dutch admiral, was born at Delfshaven in 1578, the son of Pieter Hein,
who was engaged in the herring fishery. The son went early to sea. In
his youth he was taken prisoner by the Spaniards, and was forced to row
in the galleys during four years. Having recovered his freedom by an
exchange of prisoners, he worked for several years as a merchant skipper
with success. The then dangerous state of the seas at all times, and the
continuous war with Spain, gave him ample opportunity to gain a
reputation as a resolute fighting man. Wills which he made before 1623
show that he had been able to acquire considerable property. When the
Dutch West India Company was formed he was Director on the Rotterdam
Board, and in 1624 he served as second in command of the fleet which
took San Salvador in Bahia de Todos os Santos in Brazil. Till 1628 he
continued to serve the Company, both on the coast of Brazil, and in the
West Indies. In the month of September of that year he made himself
famous, gained immense advantage for the Company, and inflicted ruinous
loss on the Spaniards, by the capture of the fleet which was bringing
the bullion from the American mines home to Spain. The Spanish ships
were outnumbered chiefly because the convoy had become scattered by bad
management and bad seamanship. The more valuable part of it, consisting
of the four galleons, and eleven trading ships in which the king's share
of the treasure was being carried, became separated from the rest, and
on being chased by the superior force of Heyn endeavoured to take refuge
at Matanzas in the island of Cuba, hoping to be able to land the bullion
in the bush before the Dutchman could come up with them. But Juan de
Benavides, the Spanish commander, failed to act with decision, was
overtaken, and his ships captured in the harbour before the silver could
be discharged. The total loss was estimated by the Spaniards at four
millions of ducats. Piet Heyn now returned home, and bought himself a
house at Delft with the intention of retiring from the sea. In the
following year, however, he was chosen at a crisis to take command of
the naval force of the Republic, with the rank of Lieutenant-Admiral of
Holland, in order to clear the North Sea and Channel of the Dunkirkers,
who acted for the king of Spain in his possessions in the Netherlands.
In June of 1629 he brought the Dunkirkers to action, and they were
severely beaten, but Piet Heyn did not live to enjoy his victory. He was
struck early in the battle by a cannon shot on the shoulder and fell
dead on the spot. His memory has been preserved by his capture of the
Treasure Galleons, which had never been taken so far, but he is also
the traditional representative of the Dutch "sea dogs" of the 17th
century.

  See de Jonge, _Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Zeewezen_; I. Duro,
  _Armada espanola_, iv.; der Aa, _Biograph. Woordenboek der
  Nederlanden_.     (D. H.)



HEYNE, CHRISTIAN GOTTLOB (1729-1812), German classical scholar and
archaeologist, was born on the 25th of September 1729, at Chemnitz in
Saxony. His father was a poor weaver, and the expenses of his early
education were paid by one of his godfathers. In 1748 he entered the
university of Leipzig, where he was frequently in want of the
necessaries of life. His distress had almost amounted to despair, when
he procured the situation of tutor in the family of a French merchant in
Leipzig, which enabled him to continue his studies. After he had
completed his university course, he was for many years in very
straitened circumstances. An elegy written by him in Latin on the death
of a friend attracted the attention of Count von Brühl, the prime
minister, who expressed a desire to see the author. Accordingly, in
April 1752, Heyne journeyed to Dresden, believing that his fortune was
made. He was well received, promised a secretaryship and a good salary,
but nothing came of it. Another period of want followed, and it was only
by persistent solicitation that Heyne was able to obtain the post of
under-clerk in the count's library, with a salary of somewhat less than
twenty pounds sterling. He increased his scanty pittance by translation;
in addition to some French novels, he rendered into German the _Chaereas
and Callirrhoe_ of Chariton, the Greek romance writer. He published his
first edition of _Tibullus_ in 1755, and in 1756 his _Epictetus_. In the
latter year the Seven Years' War broke out, and Heyne was once more in a
state of destitution. In 1757 he was offered a tutorship in the
household of Frau Von Schönberg, where he met his future wife. In
January 1759 he accompanied his pupil to the university of Wittenberg,
from which he was driven in 1760 by the Prussian cannon. The bombardment
of Dresden (to which city he had meanwhile returned) on the 18th of July
1760, destroyed all his possessions, including an almost finished
edition of Lucian, based on a valuable codex of the Dresden Library. In
the summer of 1761, although still without any fixed income, he married,
and for some time he found it necessary to devote himself to the duties
of land-steward to the Baron von Löben in Lusatia. At the end of 1762,
however, he was enabled to return to Dresden, where he was commissioned
by P. D. Lippert to prepare the Latin text of the third volume of his
_Dactyliotheca_ (an account of a collection of gems). On the death of
Johann Matthias Gesner at Göttingen in 1761, the vacant chair was
refused first by Ernesti and then by Ruhnken, who persuaded Münchhausen,
the Hanoverian minister and principal curator of the university, to
bestow it on Heyne (1763). His emoluments were gradually augmented, and
his growing celebrity brought him most advantageous offers from other
German governments, which he persistently refused. After a long and
useful career, he died on the 14th of July 1812. Unlike Gottfried
Hermann, Heyne regarded the study of grammar and language only as the
means to an end, not as the chief object of philology. But, although not
a critical scholar, he was the first to attempt a scientific treatment
of Greek mythology, and he gave an undoubted impulse to philological
studies.

  Of Heyne's numerous writings, the following may be mentioned.
  Editions, with copious commentaries, of Tibullus (ed. E. C.
  Wunderlich, 1817), Virgil (ed. G. P. Wagner, 1830-1841), Pindar (3rd
  ed. by G. H. Schäfer, 1817), Apollodorus, _Bibliotheca Graeca_ (1803),
  Homer, _Iliad_ (1802); _Opuscula academica_ (1785-1812), containing
  more than a hundred academical dissertations, of which the most
  valuable are those relating to the colonies of Greece and the
  antiquities of Etruscan art and history. His _Antiquarische Aufsätze_
  (1778-1779) is a valuable collection of essays connected with the
  history of ancient art. His contributions to the _Göttingische
  gelehrte Anzeigen_ are said to have been between 7000 and 8000 in
  number. See biography by A. H. Heeren (1813) which forms the basis of
  the interesting essay by Carlyle (_Misc. Essays_, ii.); H. Sauppe,
  _Göttinger Professoren_ (1872); C. Bursian in _Allgemeine deutsche
  Biographie_, xii.; J. E. Sandys, _Hist. Class. Schol._ iii. 36-44.



HEYSE, PAUL JOHANN LUDWIG (1830-   ), German novelist, dramatist and
poet, was born at Berlin on the 15th of March 1830, the son of the
distinguished philologist Karl Wilhelm Ludwig Heyse (1797-1855). After
attending the Friedrich Wilhelm Gymnasium in Berlin, he went, in 1849,
to Bonn University as a student of the Romance languages, and in 1852
took his doctor's degree. He had already given proof of great literary
ability in the production in 1850 of _Der Jungbrunnen, Märchen eines
fahrenden Schülers_ and of the tragedy _Francesca von Rimini_, when
after a year's stay in Italy, he was summoned, early in 1854, by King
Maximilian II. to Munich, where he subsequently lived. Here he turned
his attention to novel-writing. He published at Munich in 1855 four
short stories in one volume, one of which, at least, _L'Arrabbiata_, was
a masterpiece of its kind. These were the precursors of a series of
similar volumes, necessarily unequal at times, but on the whole
constituting such a mass of highly complex miniature fiction as seldom
before had proceeded from the pen of a single writer. Heyse works in the
spirit of a sculptor; he seizes upon some picturesque incident or
situation, and chisels and polishes until all the effect which it is
capable of producing has been extracted from it. The success of the
story usually depends upon the theme, for the artist's skill is
generally much the same, and the situation usually leaves a deeper
impression than the characters. Heyse is also the author of several
novels on a larger scale, all of which have gained success and provoked
abundant discussion. The more important are _Kinder der Welt_ (1873),
_Im Paradiese_ (1875)--the one dealing with the religious and social
problems of its time, the other with artist-life in Munich--_Der Roman
der Stiftsdame_ (1888), and _Merlin_ (1892), a novel directed against
the modern realistic movement of which Heyse had been the leading
opponent in Germany. He has also been a prolific dramatist, but his
plays are deficient in theatrical qualities and are rarely seen on the
stage. Among the best of them are _Die Sabinerinnen_ (1859); _Hans
Lange_ (1866), _Kolberg_ (1868), _Die Weisheit Salomos_ (1886), and
_Maria von Magdala_ (1903). There are masterly translations by him of
Leopardi, Giusti, and other Italian poets (_Italienische Dichter seit
der Mitte des 18ten Jahrhundert_) (4 vols., 1889-1890).

  Heyse's _Gesammelte Werke_ appeared in 29 vols. (1897-1899); there is
  also a popular edition of his _Romane_ (8 vols., 1902-1904) and
  _Novellen_ (10 vols., 1904-1906). See his autobiography,
  _Jugenderinnerungen und Bekenntnisse_ (1901); also O. Kraus, _Paul
  Heyses Novellen und Romane_ (1888); E. Petzet, _Paul Heyse als
  Dramatiker_ (1904), and the essays by T. Ziegler (in _Studien und
  Studienköpfe_, 1877), and G. Brandes (in _Moderne Geister_, 1887).



HEYSHAM, a seaport in the Lancaster parliamentary division of
Lancashire, England, on the south shore of Morecambe Bay, served by the
Midland railway. Pop. (1901) 3381. Under powers obtained from parliament
in 1896, the Midland Railway Company constructed, and opened in 1904, a
harbour, enclosed by breakwaters, for the development of traffic with
Belfast and other Irish ports, a daily passenger-service of the first
class being established to Belfast. The harbour has a depth at low tide
of 17 ft., and extensive accommodation for live-stock and goods of all
kinds is provided. Heysham is in some favour as a watering-place. The
church of St Peter is mainly Norman, and has fragments of even earlier
date. Ruins of a very ancient oratory stand near it. This was dedicated
to St Patrick, and is traditionally said to have been erected as a place
of prayer for those at sea.



HEYWOOD, JOHN (b. 1497), English dramatist and epigrammatist, is
generally said to have been a native of North Mimms, near St Albans,
Hertfordshire, though Bale says he was born in London. A letter from a
John Heywood, who may fairly be identified with him, is dated from
Malines in 1575, when he called himself an old man of seventy-eight,
which would fix his birth in 1497. He was a chorister of the Chapel
Royal, and is said to have been educated at Broadgates Hall (Pembroke
College), Oxford. From 1521 onwards his name appears in the king's
accounts as the recipient of an annuity of ten marks as player of the
virginals, and in 1538 he received forty shillings for "playing an
interlude with his children" before the Princess Mary. He is said to
have owed his introduction to her to Sir Thomas More, at whose seat at
Gobions near St Albans he wrote his Epigrams, according to Henry
Peacham. More took a keen interest in the drama, and is represented by
tradition as stepping on to the stage and taking an impromptu part in
the dialogue. William Rastell, the printer of four of Heywood's plays,
was the son of More's brother-in-law, John Rastell, who organized
dramatic representations, and possibly wrote plays himself. Mr A. W.
Pollard sees in Heywood's firm adherence to Catholicism and his free
satire of legal and social abuses a reflection of the ideas of More and
his friends, which counts for much in his dramatic development. His
skill in music and his inexhaustible wit made him a favourite both with
Henry VIII. and Mary. Under Edward VI. he was accused of denying the
king's supremacy over the church, and had to make a public recantation
in 1554; but with the accession of Mary his prospects brightened. He
made a Latin speech to her in St Paul's Churchyard at her coronation,
and wrote a poem to celebrate her marriage. Shortly before her death she
granted him the lease of a manor and lands in Yorkshire. When Elizabeth
succeeded to the throne he fled to Malines, and is said to have returned
in 1577. In 1587 he is spoken of as "dead and gone" in Thomas Newton's
epilogue to his works.

John Heywood is important in the history of English drama as the first
writer to turn the abstract characters of the morality plays into real
persons. His interludes link the morality plays to the modern drama, and
were very popular in their day. They represent ludicrous incidents of a
homely kind in a style of the broadest farce, and approximate to the
French dramatic renderings of the subjects of the _fabliaux_. The fun in
them still survives in spite of the long arguments between the
characters and what one of their editors calls his "humour of filth."
Heywood's name was actually attached to four interludes. _The Playe
called the foure PP; a newe and a very mery interlude of a palmer, a
pardoner, a potycary, a pedler_ (not dated) is a contest in lying,
easily won by Palmer, who said he had never known a woman out of
patience. _The Play of the Wether, a new and a very mery interlude of
all maner of Wethers_ (printed 1533) describes the chaotic results of
Jupiter's attempts to suit the weather to the desires of a number of
different people. _The Play of Love_ (printed 1533) is an extreme
instance of the author's love of wire-drawn argument. It is a double
dispute between "Loving not Loved" and "Loved not Loving" as to which is
the more wretched, and between "Both Loved and Loving" and "Neither
Loving nor Loved" to decide which is the happier. The only action in
this piece is indicated by the stage direction marking the entrance of
"Neither loved nor loving," who is to run about the audience with a huge
copper tank on his head full of lighted squibs, and is to cry "Water,
water! Fire, fire!" _The Dialogue of Wit and Folly_ is more of an
academic dispute than a play. But two pieces universally assigned to
Heywood, although they were printed by Rastell without any author's
name, combine action with dialogue, and are much more dramatic. In _The
Mery Play between the Pardoner and the Frere, the Curate and Neybour
Pratte_ (printed 1533, but probably written much earlier) the Pardoner
and the Friar both try to preach at the same time, and, coming at last
to blows, are separated by the other two personages of the piece. The
_Mery Play betwene Johan Johan the Husbande, Tyb the Wyfe, and Syr Jhan
the Preest_ (printed 1533) is the best constructed of all his pieces.
Tyb and Syr Jhan eat the "Pye" which is the central "property" of the
piece, while Johan Johan is made to chafe wax at the fire to stop a hole
in a pail. This incident occurs in a French _Farce nouvelle très bonne
et fort joyeuse de Pernet qui va au vin_. Heywood has sometimes been
credited with the authorship of the dialogue of _Gentylnes and Nobylyte_
printed by Rastell without date, and Mr Pollard adduces some ground for
attributing to him the anonymous _New Enterlude called Thersytes_
(played 1538). Heywood's other works are a collection of proverbs and
epigrams, the earliest extant edition of which is dated 1562; some
ballads, one of them being the "Willow Garland," known to Desdemona;
and a long verse allegory of over 7000 lines entitled _The Spider and
the Flie_ (1556). A contemporary writer in Holinshed's _Chronicle_ said
that neither its author nor any one else could "reach unto the meaning
thereof." But the flies are generally taken to represent the Roman
Catholics and the spiders the Protestants, while Queen Mary is
represented by the housemaid who with her broom (the sword) executes the
commands of her master (Christ) and her mistress (the church). Dr A. W.
Ward speaks of its "general lucidity and relative variety of treatment."
Heywood says that he laid it aside for twenty years before he finished
it, and, whatever may be the final interpretation put upon it, it
contains a very energetic statement of the social evils of the time, and
especially of the deficiencies of English law.

  The proverbs and epigrams were reprinted by the Spenser Society in
  1867, the _Dialogue on Wit and Folly_ by the Percy Society from an MS.
  in the British Museum in 1846, with an account of Heywood by F. W.
  Fairholt, and there are modern reprints of _Johan Johan_ (Chiswick
  Press, 1819), _The Foure PP_. (Dodsley's _Old Plays_, 1825, 1874), and
  _The Pardoner and the Frere_ (Dodsley's _Old Plays_, 1874). _The
  Spider and the Flie_ was edited by A. W. Ward for the Spenser Society
  in 1894. For notes and strictures on that edition see J. Haber in
  _Litterärhistorische Forschungen_, vol. xv. (1900). See also A. W.
  Pollard's introduction to the reprint of the _Play of the Wether_ and
  _Johan Johan in Representative English Comedies_ (1903), and _The
  Dramatic Writings of John Heywood_, edited by John S. Farmer for the
  Early English Drama Society (1905).

His son, JASPER HEYWOOD (1535-1598), who translated into English three
plays of Seneca, the _Troas_ (1559), the _Thyestes_ (1560) and _Hercules
Furens_ (1561), was a fellow of Merton College, Oxford, but was
compelled to resign from that society in 1558. In the same year he was
elected a fellow of All Souls College, but, refusing to conform to the
changes in religion at the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth, he gave
up his fellowship and went to Rome, where he was received into the
Society of Jesus. For seventeen years he was professor of moral theology
and controversy in the Jesuit College at Dillingen, Bavaria. In 1581 he
was sent to England as superior of the Jesuit mission, but his leniency
in that position led to his recall. He was on his way back to the
Continent when a violent storm drove him back to the English coast. He
was arrested on the charge of being a priest, but, although
extraordinary efforts were made to induce him to abjure his opinions, he
remained firm. He was condemned to perpetual exile on pain of death, and
died at Naples on the 9th of January 1598. His translations of Seneca
were supplemented by other plays contributed by Alexander Neville,
Thomas Nuce, John Studley and Thomas Newton. Newton collected these
translations in one volume, _Seneca, his tenne tragedies translated into
Englysh_ (1581). The importance of this work in the development of
English drama can hardly be over-estimated.

  See Dr J. W. Cunliffe, _On the Influence of Seneca upon Elizabethan
  Tragedy_ (1893).



HEYWOOD, THOMAS (d. c. 1650), English dramatist and miscellaneous
author, was a native of Lincolnshire, born about 1575, and said to have
been educated at Cambridge and to have become a fellow of Peterhouse.
Heywood is mentioned by Philip Henslowe as having written a book or play
for the Lord Admiral's company of actors in October 1596; and in 1598 he
was regularly engaged as a player in the company, in which he presumably
had a share, as no wages are mentioned. He was also a member of other
companies, of Lord Southampton's, of the earl of Derby's and of the earl
of Worcester's players, afterwards known as the Queen's Servants. In his
preface to the _English Traveller_ (1633) he describes himself as having
had "an entire hand or at least a main finger in two hundred and twenty
plays." Of this number, probably considerably increased before the close
of his dramatic career, only twenty-three survive. He wrote for the
stage, not for the press, and protested against the printing of his
works, which he said he had no time to revise. He was, said Tieck, the
"model of a light and rapid talent," and his plays, as might be expected
from his rate of production, bear little trace of artistic elaboration.
Charles Lamb called him a "prose Shakespeare"; Professor Ward, one of
Heywood's most sympathetic editors, points out that this epigrammatic
statement can only be accepted with reservations. Heywood had a keen eye
for dramatic situations and great constructive skill, but his powers of
characterization were not on a par with his stagecraft. He delighted in
what he called "merry accidents," that is, in coarse, broad farce; his
fancy and invention were inexhaustible. It was in the domestic drama of
sentiment that he won his most distinctive success. For this he was
especially fitted by his genuine tenderness and his freedom from
affectation, by the sweetness and gentleness for which Lamb praised him.
His masterpiece, _A Woman kilde with kindnesse_ (acted 1603; printed
1607), is a type of the _comédie larmoyante_, and _The English
Traveller_ (1633) is a domestic tragedy scarcely inferior to it in
pathos and in the elevation of its moral tone. His first play was
probably _The Foure Prentises of London: With the Conquest of Jerusalem_
(printed 1615, but acted some fifteen years earlier). This may have been
intended as a burlesque of the old romances, but it is more likely that
it was meant seriously to attract the apprentice public to whom it was
dedicated, and its popularity was no doubt aimed at in Beaumont and
Fletcher's travesty of the City taste in drama in their _Knight of the
Burning Pestle_. The two parts of _King Edward the Fourth_ (printed
1600), and of _If you know not me, you know no bodie; Or, The Troubles
of Queene Elizabeth_ (1605 and 1606) are chronicle histories. His other
comedies include: _The Royall King, and the Loyall subject_ (acted c.
1600; printed 1637); the two parts of _The Fair Maid of the West; Or, A
Girle worth Gold_ (two parts, printed 1631); _The Fayre Maid of the
Exchange_ (printed anonymously 1607); _The Late Lancashire Witches_
(1634), written with Richard Brome, and prompted by an actual trial in
the preceding year; _A Pleasant Comedy, called A Mayden-Head well lost_
(1634); _A Challenge for Beautie_ (1636); _The Wise-Woman of Hogsdon_
(printed 1638), the witchcraft in this case being matter for comedy, not
seriously treated as in the Lancashire play; and _Fortune by Land and
Sea_ (printed 1655), with William Rowley. The five plays called
respectively _The Golden_, _The Silver_, _The Brazen_ and _The Iron Age_
(the last in two parts), dated 1611, 1613, 1613, 1632, are series of
classical stories strung together with no particular connexion except
that "old Homer" introduces the performers of each act in turn. _Loves
Maistresse; Or, The Queens Masque_ (printed 1636) is on the story of
Cupid and Psyche as told by Apuleius; and the tragedy of the _Rape of
Lucrece_ (1608) is varied by a "merry lord," Valerius, who lightens the
gloom of the situation by singing comic songs. A series of pageants,
most of them devised for the City of London, or its guilds, by Heywood,
were printed in 1637. In vol. iv. of his _Collection of Old English
Plays_ (1885), Mr A. H. Bullen printed for the first time a comedy by
Heywood, _The Captives, or The Lost Recovered_ (licensed 1624), and in
vol. ii. of the same series, _Dicke of Devonshire_, which he tentatively
assigns to the same hand.

Besides his dramatic works, twelve of which were reprinted by the
"Shakespeare Society," and were published by Mr John Pearson in a
complete edition of six vols. with notes and illustrations in 1874, he
was the author of _Troia Britannica, or Great Britain's Troy_ (1609), a
poem in seventeen cantos "intermixed with many pleasant poetical tales"
and "concluding with an universal chronicle from the creation until the
present time"; _An Apology for Actors, containing three brief treatises_
(1612) edited for the Shakespeare Society in 1841; [Greek: Gynaikeion]
_or nine books of various history concerning women_ (1624); _England's
Elizabeth, her Life and Troubles during her minority from the Cradle to
the Crown_ (1631); _The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels_ (1635), a
didactic poem in nine books; _Pleasant Dialogue, and Dramas selected out
of Lucian_, &c. (1637; ed. W. Bang, Louvain, 1903); and _The Life of
Merlin surnamed Ambrosius_ (1641).

  See A. W. Ward, _History of English Dram. Lit._ ii. 550 seq. (1899);
  the same author's Introduction to _A woman killed with kindness_
  ("Temple Dramatists," 1897); J. A. Symonds in the Introduction to
  _Thomas Heywood_ in the "Mermaid" series (new issue, 1903).



HEYWOOD, a municipal borough in the Heywood parliamentary division of
Lancashire, England, 9 m. N. of Manchester on the Lancashire and
Yorkshire railway. Pop. (1901) 25,458. It is of modern growth and
possesses several handsome churches, chapels and public buildings. The
Queen's Park, purchased and laid out at a cost of £11,000 with money
which devolved to Queen Victoria in right of her duchy and county
palatine of Lancaster, was opened in 1879. Heywood Hall in the
neighbourhood of the town was the residence of Peter Heywood, who
contributed to the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot. Heywood owes its
rise to the enterprise of the Peels, its first manufactures having been
introduced by the father of the first Sir Robert Peel. It is an
important seat of the cotton manufacture, and there are power-loom
factories, iron foundries, chemical works, boiler-works and railway
wagon works. Coal is worked extensively in the neighbourhood. Heywood
was incorporated in 1881, and the corporation consists of a mayor, 6
aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 3660 acres.



HEZEKIAH (Heb. for "[my] strength is [of] Yah"), in the Bible son of
Ahaz, one of the greatest of the kings of Judah. He flourished at the
end of the 8th and beginning of the 7th century B.C., when Palestine
passed through one of the most eventful periods of its history. There is
much that is uncertain in his reign, and with the exception of the great
crisis of 701 B.C. its chronology has not been unanimously fixed.
Whether he came to the throne before or after the fall of Samaria
(722-721 B.C.) is disputed,[1] nor is it clear what share Judah took in
the Assyrian conflicts down to 701.[2] Shortly before this date the
whole of western Asia was in a ferment; Sargon had died and Sennacherib
had come to the throne (in 705); vassal kings plotted to recover their
independence and Assyrian puppets were removed by their opponents. Judah
was in touch with a general rising in S.W. Palestine, in which Ekron,
Lachish, Ascalon (Ashkelon) and other towns of the Philistines were
supported by the kings of Musri and Meluhha.[3] Sennacherib completely
routed them at Eltekeh (a Danite city), and thence turned against
Hezekiah, who had been in league with Ekron and had imprisoned its king
Padi, an Assyrian vassal. In this invasion of Judah the Assyrian claims
entire success; 46 towns of Judah were captured, 200,150 men and many
herds of cattle were carried off among the spoil, and Jerusalem itself
was closely invested. Hezekiah was imprisoned "like a bird in a
cage"[4]--to quote Sennacherib, and the Urbi (Arabian?) troops in
Jerusalem laid down their arms. Thirty talents of gold, eight hundred of
silver, precious stones, couches and seats of ivory--"all kinds of
valuable treasure",--the ladies of the court, male and female attendants
(perhaps "singers") were carried away to Nineveh. Here the Assyrian
record ends somewhat abruptly, for, in the meanwhile, Babylonia had
again revolted (700 B.C.) and Sennacherib's presence was urgently needed
nearer home.

At what precise period the Babylonian Merodach (i.e. Marduk)-Baladan
sent his embassy to Hezekiah is disputed. Although ostensibly to
congratulate the king upon his recovery from a sickness, it was really
sent in the hope of enlisting his support, and the excessive courtesy
and complaisance with which it was received suggest that it found a
ready ally in Judah (2 Kings xx. 12 sqq.; Isa. xxxix.). Merodach-Baladan
was overthrown by Sargon in 710 B.C., but succeeded in making a fresh
revolt some years later (704-703 B.C.), and opinion is much divided
whether his embassy was to secure the friendship of the youthful
Hezekiah at his succession or is to be associated with the later
widespread attempt to remove the Assyrian yoke.[5]

The brief account of the Assyrian invasion, Hezekiah's submission, and
the payment of tribute in 2 Kings xviii. 14-16, supplements the Assyrian
record by the statement that Sennacherib besieged Lachish, a fact which
is confirmed by a bas-relief (now in the British Museum) depicting the
king in the act of besieging that town.[6] This thoroughly historical
fragment is followed by two narratives which tell how the king sent an
official from Lachish to demand the submission of Hezekiah and conclude
with the unexpected deliverance of Jerusalem. Both these stories appear
to belong to a biography of Isaiah, and, like the similar biographies of
Elijah and Elisha, are open to the suspicion that historical facts have
been subordinated to idealize the work of the prophet. See KINGS, BOOKS
OF.

  The narratives are (a) 2 Kings xviii. 13, 17-xix. 8; cf. Isa. xxxvi.
  1-xxxvii. 8, and (b) xix. 9b-35; cp. Isa. xxxvii. 9-36 (2 Chron.
  xxxii. 9 sqq. is based on both), and Jerusalem's deliverance is
  attributed to a certain rumour (xix. 7), to the advance of Tirhakah,
  king of Ethiopia (v. 9), and to a remarkable pestilence (v. 35) which
  finds an echo in a famous story related, not without some confusion of
  essential facts, by Herodotus (ii. 141; cf. Josephus _Antiq._ x. i.
  5).[7] It is difficult to decide whether xix. 9a belongs to the first
  or second of these narratives; and whether the "rumour" refers to the
  approach of Tirhakah, or rather to the serious troubles which had
  arisen in Babylonia. It is equally difficult to determine whether
  Tirhakah actually appeared on the scene in 701, and the precise
  application of the term Musri (Mizraim) is much debated. Unless the
  two narratives are duplicates of the same event, it may be urged that
  Sennacherib's attack upon Arabia (apparently about 689) involved an
  invasion of Judah, by which time Egypt was in a position to be of
  material assistance (cf. Isa. xxx. 1-5, xxxi. 1-3?). This theory of a
  second campaign (first suggested by Sir Henry Rawlinson) has been
  contested, although it is pointed out that Sennacherib at all events
  did not invade Egypt, and that 2 Kings xix. 24 (Isa. xxxvii. 25) can
  only refer to his successor. The allusion to the murder of Sennacherib
  (xix. 36 sq.)[8] points to the year 681, but it is uncertain to which
  of the above narratives it belongs. On the whole, the question must be
  left open, and with it both the problem of the extension of the name
  Musri and Mizraim outside Egypt in the Assyrian and Hebrew records of
  this period and the true historical background of a number of the
  Isaianic prophecies. It is quite possible that later events which
  belong to the time of the Egyptian supremacy and the wars of
  Esarhaddon have been confused with the history of Sennacherib's
  invasion.

It is not certain whether Hezekiah's conflict with the Philistines as
far as Gaza or his preparations to secure for Jerusalem a good water
supply (xviii. 8, xx. 20; 2 Chron. xxxii. 30; Ecclus. xlviii. 17 sq.)[9]
should precede or follow the events which have been discussed. On the
other hand, the reforms which the compiler of the book has attributed to
the early part of the reign were doubtless much later (2 Kings xviii.
1-8). Not the fall of Samaria, but the crisis of 701, is the earliest
date that could safely be chosen, and the extent of these reforms must
not be overestimated. They are related in terms that imply an
acquaintance with the great "Deuteronomic" movement (see DEUTERONOMY),
and are magnified further with characteristic detail by the chronicler
(2 Chron. xxix.-xxxi.). The most remarkable was the destruction of a
brazen serpent, the cult of which was traditionally traced back to the
time of Moses (Num. xxi. 9).[10] This persistence of serpent-cult, and
the idolatry (necromancy, tree-worship) which the contemporary prophets
denounce, do not support the view that the apparently radical reforms of
Hezekiah were extensive or permanent, and Jer. xxvi. 17-19 (which
suggests that Micah had a greater influence than Isaiah) throws another
light upon the conditions during his reign. Hezekiah was succeeded by
his son MANASSEH (q.v.).

  See further W. R. Smith, _Prophets_, 359-364, and HEBREW RELIGION.
  According to PROV. xxv. 1, Hezekiah was a patron of literature (see
  PROVERBS). The hymn which is ascribed to the king (Isa. xxxviii. 9-20,
  wanting in 2 Kings) is of post-exilic origin (see Cheyne, _Introd. to
  Isaiah_, 222 sq.), but is further proof of the manner in which the
  Judaean king was idealized in subsequent ages, partly, perhaps, in the
  belief that the deliverance of Jerusalem was the reward for his piety.
  For special discussions, see Stade, _Zeits. d. alttest. Wissenschaft_,
  1886, pp. 173 sqq.; Winckler, _Alttest. Untersuch_., 26 sqq.;
  Schrader, _Cuneiform Inscr. and Old Test_. (on 2 Kings, _l.c_.);
  Driver, _Isaiah, his Life and Times_, pp. 43-83; A. Jeremias, _Alte
  Test_. 304-310; Nagel, _Zug d. Sanherib gegen Jerus_. (Leipzig, 1903,
  conservative); and especially Prásek, Sanherib's "Feldzüge gegen Juda"
  (_Mitteil. d. Vorderasiat. Gesell_., 1903, pp. 113-158), K. Fullerton,
  _Bibliotheca sacra_, 1906, pp. 577-634, A. Alt, _Israel u. Ägypten_
  (Leipzig, 1909); also the bibliography to ISAIAH.     (S. A. C.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See W. R. Smith, Prophets of Israel,[2] 415 sqq.; O. C.
    Whitehouse, _Isaiah_, pp. 20 sqq., 372; J. Skinner, _Kings_, p. 43
    seq.; T. K. Cheyne, _Ency. Bib._ col. 2058, n. 1, and references.

  [2] The chief dates are: 720, defeat of a coalition (Hamath, Gaza and
    Musri) at Karkar in north Syria and Raphia (S. Palestine); 715, a
    rising of Musri and Arabian tribes; 713-711, revolt and capture of
    Ashdod (cp. Is. xx.). That Judah was invaded on this latter occasion
    is not improbable.

  [3] Meluhha is held by many critics to be N.W. Arabia; the
    identification of Musri is uncertain, see below.

  [4] The phrase was a favourite one of Rib-Addi, king of Gebal
    (Byblus), in the 15th century B.C.; _Tell-el-Amarna Letters_ (ed.
    Knudtzon), Nos. 74, 79, &c. Jeremiah (v. 27) uses the simile in a
    different way. For a discussion of Sennacherib's record, see Wilke,
    _Jesaja u. Assur_ (Leipzig, 1905), pp. 97 sqq.

  [5] For the early date (between 720 and 710), Winckler, _Alttest.
    Unt._ 139 sqq., Burney, _Kings_, 350 sq.; Driver; Küchler, &c.; for
    the later, Whitehouse, _Isaiah_, 29 sq., in agreement with Schrader,
    Wellhausen, W. R. Smith, Cheyne, M'Curdy, Paton, &c.

  [6] Isa. x. 28-32 may perhaps refer to this invasion. Allusions to
    the Assyrian oppression are found in Isa. x. 5-15, xiv. 24-27, xvii.
    12-14; and to internal Judaean intrigues perhaps in Isa. xxii. 15-18,
    xxix. 15. For a picture of the ruins in Jerusalem, see Isa. xxii.
    9-11. But see further ISAIAH (BOOK).

  [7] See, on the story, Griffith, in D. Hogarth's _Authority and
    Archaeology_, p. 167, n. 1.

  [8] The house of _Nisroch_ should probably be that of the god
    _Nusku_; see also Driver in Hogarth, _op. cit._ p. 109; Winckler,
    _op. cit._ p. 84.

  [9] It is commonly believed that Hezekiah constructed the conduit of
    Siloam, famous for its Hebrew inscription (see INSCRIPTIONS,
    JERUSALEM). But Isa. viii. 6, would seem to show that the pool was
    already in existence, and, for palaeographical details, see _Pal.
    Explor. Fund, Quart. Stat._ (1909), pp. 289, 305 sqq.

  [10] The name Nehushtan (2 Kings xviii. 4, cp. _nahash_, "serpent")
    is obscure: see the commentaries.



HIATUS (Lat. for gaping, or gap), a break in continuity, whether in
speech, thought or events, a lacuna. In anatomy the term is used for an
opening or foramen, as the _hiatus Fallopii_, a foramen of the temporal
bone. In logic a hiatus occurs when a step or link in reasoning is
wanting; and in grammar it is the pause made for the sake of euphony in
pronouncing two successive vowels, which are not separated by a
consonant.



HIAWATHA ("he makes rivers"), a legendary chief (_c_. 1450) of the
Onondaga tribe of North American Indians. The formation of the League of
Six Nations, known as the Iroquois, is attributed to him by Indian
tradition. In his miraculous character Hiawatha is the incarnation of
human progress and civilization. He teaches agriculture, navigation,
medicine and the arts, conquering by his magic all the powers of nature
which war against man.

  See J. N. B. Hewitt, in _Amer. Anthrop_. for April 1892.



HIBBING, a village of St Louis county, Minnesota, U.S.A., 75 m. N.W. of
Duluth. Pop. (1900) 2481; (1905 state census) 6566, of whom 3537 were
foreign-born (1169 Finns, 516 Swedes, 498 Canadians, 323 Austrians and
314 Norwegians); (1910) 8832. Hibbing is served by the Great Northern
and the Duluth, Missabe & Northern railways. It lies in the midst of the
great Mesabi iron-ore deposits of the state; in 1907 forty iron mines
were in operation within 10 m. of the village. Lumbering and farming are
also important industries. The village owns and operates the water-works
and electric-lighting plant. Hibbing was settled in 1892 and was
incorporated in 1893.



HIBERNACULUM (Lat. for winter quarters), in botany a term for a winter
bud; in botanic gardens, the winter quarters for plants; in zoology, the
winter bud of a polyzoan.



HIBERNATION (winter sleep), the dormant condition in which certain
animals pass the winter in cold latitudes. Aestivation (summer sleep) is
the similar condition in which other species pass periods of heat or
drought in warm latitudes. The origins of these kindred phenomena are
probably to be sought in the regularly recurrent failure of food supply
or of other factors essential to existence due to the seasonal onset of
cold in the one case and of excessively dry hot weather in the other.
They are means whereby certain non-migratory species are enabled to live
through unfavourable climatic conditions which would end fatally in
starvation or desiccation were the animals to maintain their normal
state of activity.

I. _The Physiology of Hibernation. Hibernation and Aestivation_.--The
physiology of hibernation, as exemplified in mammalia, has been worked
out in detail by several observers in the case of some European species,
notably bats, hedgehogs, dormice and marmots. Of the physiology of
aestivation nothing definite appears to have been ascertained. It seems
probable, however, from observations upon the dormant animals that the
physiological accompaniments of winter and summer sleep are to all
intents and purposes the same. The state of hibernation, for example,
in the European hedgehog (_Erinaceus europaeus_) is not distinguished by
external signs from the state of aestivation of the allied Mascarene
genus, the tenrec (_Centetes ecaudatus_). The lethargy in both cases
appears to be directly due to fall in the temperature of the organisms;
and the fall in temperature proceeds _pari passu_ with the slowing down
and weakening of the respiration and with retardation in the circulation
of the blood. Similarity, moreover, between hibernation and aestivation
is shown not only in their physiological accompaniments but also in the
species of animals which become seasonally dormant. Birds neither
hibernate nor aestivate. The tenrec (_Centetes_) of Madagascar, which
aestivates, closely resembles the hedgehog (_Erinaceus_) in habits and
belongs to the same order of mammalia. In the case of reptiles and
batrachians, snakes, lizards, tortoises, frogs and toads sleep the
winter through in cold countries; and some species of these groups
habitually bury themselves in the sand or mud in tropical latitudes
where drought is of periodical occurrence. Terrestrial molluscs lie
dormant in the winter in cold and temperate latitudes and their tropical
allies aestivate in districts where conditions enforce the habit. Some
fresh-water molluscs bury themselves in the mud at the bottom of ponds
when the surface is covered with ice; others take refuge in the same way
when pools and tanks become exhausted during the dry season in the
tropics. In temperate and north temperate countries insects and
arachnida either die or retire to winter quarters during the cold
weather, and in the tropics they similarly disappear during times of
drought.

_Predisposing Causes of Hibernation._--The likeness between hibernation
and aestivation and the coincidence of the one with cold and of the
other with heat arrest the conclusion that the temperature of the
surrounding medium, whether atmospheric or aquatic, is the prime, much
less the sole, cause of either. The effect of extreme cold is to rouse
the hibernating animal from its slumber; and its continuance thereafter
brings about a state of torpor which proves fatal. This at least appears
to be the case with mammals, where actual freezing of the tissues is
followed by death because the gases are expelled from the fluids as
bubbles and the salts separate in the form of crystals. Some
cold-blooded animals, however, may be cooled to 0° C. Fish have been
resuscitated after solidification in blocks of ice, and frogs have been
known to recover when ice has been formed in the blood and in the lymph
of the peritoneal cavity (Landois).

For the reasons given, all hibernating mammals take precautions against
exposure to extreme cold. They either bury themselves in the soil or
under the snow or seek the shelter of hollow trees or of caves, not
infrequently congregating in the same spot so that the temperature is
kept up by corporeal contact. Again the hibernating instinct may be
suspended unless the conditions are favourable for safely entering upon
winter sleep. It is alleged that bears in Scandinavia do not hibernate
unless food has been sufficiently plentiful during the summer and autumn
to fatten them for their winter fast; and hedgehogs and dormice in
captivity have been known to remain active in the cold until warm
sleeping-quarters were insured by placing hay and cotton-wool in their
cages. Finally the wood-chucks (_Arctomys monax_) in the Adirondacks
retire to winter quarters at about the time of the autumnal equinox,
when the weather is warm and pleasant, and emerge at the vernal equinox
before the snows of winter have vanished from the ground. These and
other facts justify Marshall Hall's conclusion that cold is merely a
predisposing cause of hibernation in the sense that it is a predisposing
cause of ordinary sleep. It has also been shown that the state of
hibernation cannot be forced upon snails in summer by submitting them to
artificial cold even almost to freezing point; but that at the proper
season they prepare for winter quarters at temperatures varying from 37°
to 77° Fahr. Again insects sometimes retire to winter quarters in the
autumn when the temperature of the atmosphere is higher than that of
preceding days during which they retain their activity.

Thus the oncoming and ceasing both of winter and summer sleep depend to
a considerable extent upon conditions of existence other than those of
temperature. Darwin saw scarcely a sign of a living thing on his arrival
at Bahia Blanca, Argentina, on the 7th of Sept., although by digging
several insects, large spiders and lizards were found in a half-torpid
state. During the days of his visit when nature was dormant the mean
temperature was 51°, the thermometer seldom rising above 55° at mid-day.
But during the succeeding days when the mean temperature was 58° and
that of the middle of the day between 60° and 70° both insect and
reptilian life was in a state of activity. Nevertheless at Montevideo,
lying only four degrees further north, between the 26th of July and the
19th of August when the mean temperature was 58.4° and the mean highest
temperature of mid-day 65.5° almost every beetle, several genera of
spiders, land molluscs, toads and lizards were all lying dormant beneath
stones. Thus the animal-life at Montevideo remained dormant at a
temperature which roused that at Bahia Blanca from its torpidity. Darwin
unfortunately does not record whether the species observed were
identical in the two localities.

The temperature of animals in a profound state of hibernation is
approximately the same as that of the surrounding medium or at most a
degree or two higher. If, however, the temperature of the chosen
hibernaculum (winter quarters) falls as low as freezing point, life is
endangered at least in the case of mammals.

In most cold-blooded animals, like reptiles, the temperature is normally
only a little above that of the atmosphere, the two rising and falling
together. But, setting aside the young, especially of those species in
which the offspring are born or hatched at a comparatively early stage
of development, the majority of warm-blooded animals are able to
maintain a high and approximately level temperature irrespective of
decline in the temperature of the surrounding medium. This faculty of
temperature adjustment, however, appears to be absent or weakened in
most if not in all hibernating mammals both in their normal nocturnal or
diurnal sleep and in their winter sleep. In the case of European bats it
has been shown that the ordinary day sleep in summer differs only in the
matter of duration from the prolonged slumber of the same animals in
winter. The temperature falls with that of the atmosphere, respiration
practically ceases and immersion in water for as many as eleven minutes
has been known to prove innocuous. At moderate temperatures ranging from
45° to 50° F., dormice (_Muscardinus avellanarius_) and hedgehogs
(_Erinaceus europaeus_) alternately wake to feed and sink into slumber.
Dormice awake once in every twenty-four hours; the sleep of the
hedgehogs may last for two or three days. The temperature of the
hedgehog, when awake and active, rises to about 87° F., that of the
dormouse to 92° or 94° F.; but during sleep the temperature of both
species falls to about that of the atmosphere. In other words, all the
phenomena characteristic of hibernation are exhibited in these animals
during the periods of sleep interrupting their periods of wakeful
activity. Sleep of this nature, for which the term "diurnation" has been
proposed, because it has only been observed in nocturnal animals, lies
phenomenally midway between the normal sleep of non-hibernating mammals
and the dormant condition in winter of hibernating species. The stimulus
of hunger appears to be the prime cause of its periodic cessation. Since
then the faculty of temperature adjustment is in abeyance during the
ordinary diurnal summer sleep in hibernating mammals, which in this
physiological particular resemble reptiles, it seems probable that
hibernation can only be practised by those species in which the power to
maintain, when sleeping, a permanent average high temperature has been
lost or perhaps never acquired. That there is no broad line of
demarcation between the ordinary sleep of these hibernating mammals in
which the temperature is known to drop considerably and that of
non-hibernating species is indicated by the fact that the temperature of
human beings and possibly of all non-hibernating species falls to a
certain, though to a limited, extent in ordinary sleep.

The relation between the internal body-temperature and the respiratory
movements has been worked out in hibernating dormice, hedgehogs, marmots
and bats. When the temperature is below 12° C., the torpid animal
exhibits long periods of apnoea of several minutes' duration and
interrupted by a few respirations. With the temperature rising above 13°
C., the periods of apnoea in the still inactive animal become shorter,
the respiration suddenly commencing and ceasing (Biot's type), or
gradually waxing and waning (Cheyne-Stokes' type). When the temperature
is at about 16° C., the periods of apnoea in the gradually awaking
animal are very short and infrequent. When the temperature is about 20°
and rising apace, respiration becomes continuous and rapid and the
animal is awake. These stages have been especially recorded in the case
of dormice. In the last stage the respiration of hedgehogs and marmots
is somewhat different, there being a series of rapid respirations, often
followed by a single deep sighing respiration.

_Respiration_ appears to be totally suspended in animals in a complete
state of hibernation, if left undisturbed. It may however, be readily
re-excited by the slightest stimulus; and to this fact may perhaps be
attributed the belief that breathing does not actually cease. If a
hibernating hedgehog be lightly touched it draws a deep breath, and
breathing is maintained for a longer or shorter time before again
ceasing; but if at the same time the temperature of the atmosphere be
raised, respiration becomes continuous and lethargy is succeeded by
activity (Marshall Hall). The opinion that respiration is totally
suspended is supported by a number of facts. Hibernating marmots and
bats, for example, have been known to live four hours in carbon dioxide,
a gas which proves almost instantly fatal to mammals in a state of
normal activity (Spallanzani). A hedgehog which may be drowned in about
three minutes when awake and active, has been removed from water
uninjured when in deep winter sleep after twenty-two and a half minutes'
submergence. A hibernating noctule bat, when similarly treated, survived
sixteen minutes' immersion. Further proof of the suspension of
respiration has been furnished by experiments upon a bat which while in
a deep and undisturbed state of lethargy was kept in a pneumatometer for
ten hours without appreciably affecting the percentage of oxygen in the
air. The same animal, when active, removed over 5 cub. in. of oxygen in
the space of one hour from the instrument.

As in the case of respiration, _alimentation_ and _excretion_ are
suspended during hibernation.

The _circulation of the blood_, on the other hand, continues without
interruption, though its rapidity is greatly retarded. This fact may be
observed by microscopic examination of the wings of bats in a state of
winter sleep. Moreover, in the case of a hedgehog lethargic from
hibernation, it was experimentally shown that when the spinal cord was
severed behind the occipital foramen, the brain removed and the entire
spinal cord gently destroyed, the heart continued to beat strongly and
regularly for several hours, the contraction of the auricles and
ventricles being quite perceptible, though feeble, even after the lapse
of ten hours. After eleven hours the organ was motionless; but resumed
its activity when stimulated by a knife-point. Even after twelve hours
both auricles responded to the same stimulus, though the ventricles
remained motionless. Shortly afterwards the auricles gave no response.
On the other hand, when the spinal cord of a hedgehog in a normal state
of activity was severed at the occiput, the left ventricle ceased to
beat almost at once, and the left auricle in less than fifteen minutes;
the right auricle was the next to cease, whereas the right ventricle
continued its contraction for about two hours. Experiments upon marmots
have yielded very similar results. The heart of a marmot decapitated in
a state of lethargy continued to beat for over three hours. The
pulsations, at first strong and frequent and varying from 16 to 18 per
minute, became gradually weaker and less frequent, until at the end of
the third hour only 3 were recorded in the same length of time. Excised
pieces of voluntary muscular tissue contracted vigorously three hours
after death under electric stimulus. Only at the end of four hours did
they cease to respond. The heart of an active marmot killed in the same
way contracted about 28 times a minute at first, the number of
pulsations falling to about 12 at the end of fifteen minutes, to 8 at
the end of thirty minutes, and ceasing altogether at the end of fifty
minutes. Similarly the response of the muscles to galvanic shock failed
at a correspondingly rapid rate. It is evident, therefore, that during
hibernation the irritability of the heart is augmented in a marked
degree, and that the irritability of the left side of the organ is
scarcely less pronounced than that of the right side. Similar reduction
in the rate of the circulation has been demonstrated in certain
hibernating mollusca, Mr C. Ashford having proved experimentally that
the number of pulsations of the heart per minute gradually lessens with
a falling temperature. At a temperature of 52° F. the number was 22 in
the common garden snail (_Helix hortensis_), and 21 in the cellar slug
(_Hyalinia cellaria_). At a temperature of 30° F. the pulsation fell to
4 in the former and to 3 in the latter animal.

The nature of hibernation, and probably also of aestivation, and the
principal physiological phenomena connected with them, may be briefly
summarized as follows:--

  1. During hibernation death from starvation and wasting of the tissues
  is prevented by the absorption of fat, which, at least in the case of
  mammalia, is stored in considerable quantities, sometimes in definite
  parts of the body, during the weeks of activity immediately preceding
  the period of winter sleep.

  2. Every gradation seems to exist between ordinary sleep and
  hibernation; the differences between the ordinary diurnal or nocturnal
  sleep in summer of hibernating animals and their prolonged and
  lethargic quiescence in winter are merely differences of degree,
  differences, that is to say, of intensity and duration.

  3. The physiological accompaniments of hibernation are: (a)
  Cessation of all activities associated with alimentation and
  excretion; (b) lowering of the body temperature to that of the
  surrounding medium or to within a few degrees of it; (c) total or
  almost total cessation of respiration, accompanied by power to survive
  immersion for a considerable time in water or asphyxiating gases,
  which prove rapidly fatal to the same animals when normally active;
  (d) marked increase in the irritability of the muscles, especially
  of those of the left side of the heart, whereby the pulsations of that
  organ, although retarded, are uninterruptedly maintained; (e) a
  slight exchange of gases in the lungs is kept up by the
  cardio-pneumatic movement.

  4. Amongst cold-blooded animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate,
  devoid of the faculty of temperature adjustment, the phenomenon of
  hibernation or aestivation is of general occurrence wherever the
  conditions of existence accompanying the onset of cold or drought are
  inimical to active life. In hot-blooded vertebrates, on the contrary,
  the phenomena are non-existent so far as birds are concerned;
  aestivation is of very rare occurrence in mammalia, while hibernation
  is practised by a comparatively small number of species; and in these
  the faculty of temperature adjustment appears to be temporarily at all
  events in abeyance.

II. _The Zoology of Hibernation and Aestivation._--Owing to the extreme
difficulty of keeping wild animals under observation in their natural
haunts for any lengthened time, it is almost impossible to get accurate
knowledge of the details of this state of existence. In a general way it
is known, or assumed from their disappearance, that certain species
retire to winter quarters in particular districts, but on such important
points as whether the winter sleep is continuous or interrupted, light
or profound, assured information is for the most part not forthcoming.
This is true even of familiar species inhabiting Europe and North
America, which have been objects of study for many years. It is still
more true of species occurring in countries uninhabited and rarely
visited, especially in winter, by naturalists interested in such
questions. The Chiroptera (bats) furnish an illustration of this truth.
It was formerly assumed that the winter sleep of these animals in north
and temperate Europe was complete and uninterrupted. Marshall Hall, for
example, remarked that "perhaps the bat may be the only animal which
sleeps profoundly the winter through without awaking to take food." It
was known, it is true, that in countries where gnats and other winged
insects disappear with the first frosts of winter, bats which feed upon
them retire to winter quarters in hollow trees, caves, sheds or other
places likely to afford them sufficient shelter. Here they hang
suspended, solitary or in companies according to the species. But a mild
spell of weather in mid-winter will sometimes entice a few to take wing
while it lasts, although they never appear in any numbers until
crepuscular and nocturnal insects are plentiful. But Mr T. A. Coward
has recently shown in the case of the greater and lesser horseshoe bats
(_Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum_ and _R. hipposiderus_), that during the
early period of their occupation of the winter retreat, hibernation, in
the strict sense of the word, does not take place, and that even later
in the season the sleep is constantly interrupted, especially when the
temperature of the air rises above 46° F., and that during their wakeful
intervals they crawl about and feed apparently upon the insects which
live throughout the year in the caves. This is also true of the
long-eared bat (_Plecotus auritus_), and probably of other species of
this group. At Mussoorie in the Himalayas, and in other parts of
northern India, insectivorous bats, such as _Rhinolophus luctus_ and
_Rh. affinis_, pass the winter in a semi-torpid state, and are rarely
seen abroad during the cold season. The fruit-eating bats, on the
contrary (_Pteropidae_), which are more southern in their distribution
and are restricted in the Himalayas to the warmer valleys and lower
slopes of the mountains, are as active in the winter as at other times
of the year (Blanford).

Although almost as exclusively insectivorous as bats, moles and shrews
do not, so far as is known, hibernate. This distinction between two
groups so nearly alike in diet, no doubt depends upon the difference in
their habitats and in those of the creatures they live upon. By
tunnelling deeper in winter than in summer, moles are still able to find
worms and various insects buried in the earth beyond the reach of frost;
and shrews hunt out spiders, centipedes and insects which in their
larval, pupal or sexual stages have taken shelter and lie dormant in
holes and crannies of the soil, beneath the leaves of ground plants or
under stones and logs of wood. In view of the perennially active life of
the two insectivora just mentioned, it is a singular fact that the
common hedgehog (_Erinaceus europaeus_)--the only member of this order
besides genera referable to the moles (_Talpidae_) and shrews
(_Soricidae_) that inhabits temperate and north-temperate latitudes in
Europe and Asia--passes the winter in a state of torpor unsurpassed in
profundity by that of any species of mammal so far as is known. Possibly
the explanation of this seeming anomaly may be found in the bionomial
differences between the three animals. The subterranean feeding habits
of the mole render hibernation unnecessary on his part. Therefore the
shrew and the hedgehog, both surface feeders for the most part, need
only be considered in this connexion. As compared with shrews, amongst
the smallest of palaearctic mammals, the hedgehog is of considerable
size. Moreover, in point of vivacious energy it would be difficult to
find two mammals of the same order more utterly unlike. Hence in winter
when insects are scarce and demand active and diligent search, it is
quite intelligible that the shrews, in virtue of their smallness and
rapidity of movement, are able to procure sufficient food for their
needs; whereas the hedgehogs, requiring a far larger quantity and
handicapped by lack of activity, would probably starve under the same
conditions. Like the common hedgehog of Europe, the long-eared hedgehog
(_Erinaceus megalotis_) hibernates in Afghanistan from November till
February. The tenrec (_Centetes ecaudatus_), a large insectivore from
Madagascar, aestivates during the hottest weeks of the year; and
specimens exhibited in the Zoological Gardens in London preserved the
habit although kept at a uniform temperature and regularly supplied with
food.

Amongst the Rodentia, no members of the Lagomorpha (hares, rabbits and
picas) are known to hibernate, although some of the species, like the
mountain hare (_Lepus timidus_), extend far to the north in the
palaearctic region, and the picas (_Ochotona_) live at high altitudes in
the Himalayas and Central Asia, where the cold of winter is excessive,
and where the snow lies deep for many months. It is probable that the
picas live in fissures and burrows beneath the snow, and feed on stores
of food accumulated during the summer and autumn. The Hystrico-morpha
also are non-hibernators. It is true that the common porcupine (_Hystrix
cristata_) of south Europe and north Africa is alleged to hibernate; the
statement cannot, however, be accepted without confirmation, because the
cold is seldom excessive in the countries it frequents, and specimens
exhibited in the Zoological Gardens in London remain active throughout
the year, although kept in enclosures without artificial heat of any
kind. Even the most northerly representative of this group, the Canadian
porcupine (_Erethizon dorsatus_), which inhabits forest-covered tracts
in the United States and Canada, may be trapped and shot in the winter.
Some members of this group, like capybaras (_Hydrochaerus capybara_) and
coypus (_Myocastors coypus_) which live in tropical America, are
unaffected by the winter cold of temperate countries, and live in the
open all the year round in parks and zoological gardens in England.
Several of the genera of Myomorpha contain species inhabiting the
northern hemisphere, which habitually hibernate. The three European
genera of dormice (_Myoxidae_), namely _Muscardinus_, _Eliomys_ and
_Glis_, sleep soundly practically throughout the winter; and examples of
the South African genus _Graphiurus_ practise the same habit when
imported to Europe. If a warm spell in the winter rouses dormice from
their slumbers, they feed upon nuts or other food accumulated during the
autumn, but do not as a rule leave the nests constructed for shelter
during the winter. According to the weather, the sleep lasts from about
five to seven months. In the family _Muridae_, the true mice and rats
(_Murinae_) and the voles and lemmings (_Arvicolinae_) seem to remain
active through the winter, although some species, like the lemmings,
range far to the north in Europe and Asia; but the white-footed mice
(_Hesperomys_) of North America, belonging to the _Cricetinae_, spend
the winter sleeping in underground burrows, where food is laid up for
consumption in the early spring. The Canadian jumping mouse (_Zapus
hudsonianus_), one of the Jaculidae, also hibernates, although the sleep
is frequently interrupted by milder days. Some of the most northerly
species of jerboas (Jaculidae), namely _Alactaga decumana_ of the
Kirghiz Steppes and _A. indica_ of Afghanistan, sleep from September or
October till April; and the Egyptian species (_Jaculus jaculus_) and the
Cape jumping hare (_Pedetes caffer_), one of the Hystrico-morpha, remain
in their burrows during the wet season in a state analogous to winter
sleep. The sub-order Sciuromorpha also contains many hibernating
species. None of the true squirrels, however, appear to sleep throughout
the winter. Even the red squirrel (_Sciurus hudsonianus_) of North
America retains its activity in spite of the sub-arctic conditions that
prevail. The same is true of its European ally _Sc. vulgaris_. The North
American grey squirrel (_Sc. cinereus_), although more southerly in its
distribution than the red squirrel of that country, hibernates
partially. Specimens running wild in the Zoological Gardens in London
disappear for a day or two when the cold is exceptionally keen, but for
the most part they may be seen abroad throughout the season. On the
other hand, ground squirrels like the chipmunks (_Tamias_) and the
susliks or gophers (_Spermophilus_) of North America and Central Asia,
at all events in the more northern districts of their range, sleep from
the late autumn till the spring in their subterranean burrows, where
they accumulate food for use in early spring and for spells of warmer
weather in the winter which may rouse them from their slumbers. The
North American flying squirrel (_Sciuropterus volucella_) and its ally
_Pteromys inornatus_ are believed to hibernate in hollow trees. All the
true marmots (_Arctomys_), a genus of which the species live at
tolerably high altitudes in Central Europe, Asia and North America,
appear to spend the winter in uninterrupted slumber buried deep in their
burrows. They apparently lay up no store of food, but accumulate a
quantity of fat as the summer and autumn advance, and frequently, as in
the case of the woodchuck (_A. monax_) of the Adirondacks, retire to
winter quarters in the autumn long before the onset of the winter cold.
The prairie marmots or prairie dogs (_Cynomys ludovicianus_) of North
America, which live in the plains, do not hibernate to the same extent
as the true marmots, although they appear to remain in their burrows
during the coldest portions of the winter. Beavers (_Castor_), although
formerly at all events extending in North America from the tropic of
Cancer up to the Arctic circle, do not hibernate. When the ground is
deep in snow and the river frozen over, they are still able to feed on
aquatic plants beneath the ice.

Amongst the terrestrial carnivora hibernation appears to be practised,
with one possible exception, only by species belonging to the group
Arctoidea. In north temperate latitudes both in Europe and Asia, as well
as in the Himalayas, brown bears (_Ursus arctos_) hibernate, so also
does the North American grizzly bear (_U. horribilis_), at least in the
more northern districts of its range. The smaller black bear of the
Himalayas (_U. tibetanus_) appears to lapse into a state of semi-torpor
during the winter, only emerging from his retreat to hunt for food when
occasional breaks in the weather occur. In the case of the American
black bear (_U. americanus_) the female seeks winter quarters
comparatively early in the season in preparation for the birth of her
progeny soon after the turn of the year; but the males remain active so
long as plenty of food is to be found. In the case of all bears, except
the Polar bear (_U. maritimus_), the site chosen as the hibernaculum is
either a cave or hole or some sheltered spot beneath a ledge of rock, or
the roots of large trees, more or less overgrown with brushwood which
holds the snow until it freezes into a solid roof over the hollow where
the sleeping animal lies. In the hibernating brown and black bears the
intestine is blocked by a plug commonly called "tappen" and composed
principally of pine leaves, which is usually not evacuated until the
spring. There is much diversity of opinion on the subject of the
hibernation of Polar bears. Their absence during the winter from
particular spots in the Arctic regions where icebound ships have spent
the winter, and the occasional discovery of specimens buried beneath the
snow, have led to the belief that these animals habitually retire to
winter quarters through the cold sunless months of the year. This may
possibly be the true explanation at least for certain districts. But it
has been alleged that bears, both adult and half-grown, may be seen
throughout the winter; and it is known that pregnant females bury
themselves in the autumn under the snow, where they remain without
feeding with their newly-born young until the spring of the following
year. Hence the absence of bears in the winter from the neighbourhood of
icebound ships may be explained on the supposition that the adult
females alone hibernate for breeding purposes, while the full-grown
males and half-grown specimens of both sexes migrate in the winter to
the edges of the ice-floes and to coast lines, where the water is open.
Before retiring to winter quarters the pregnant females store up
sufficient quantity of fat in their tissues not only to sustain
themselves but also to supply milk for their cubs. In the Adirondack
region and probably in other districts of the same or more northern
latitudes in North America, raccoons (_Procyon lotor_) retire in the
winter to some sheltered place, such as a hollow tree-trunk, and pass
the severest part of the season in sleep, emerging in February or March
when the snow has begun to disappear. In the same country, the skunks
(_Mephitis mephitica_), a member of the weasel family, also seek shelter
during the coldest portion of the winter. Merriam believes that the
hibernation of this animal is determined by cold, and not by failure of
food-supply, for he observes that skunks may frequently be seen in
numbers on snow lying 5 ft. deep at a time of the year when they feed
almost entirely upon mice and shrews which do not hibernate even when
the thermometer registers over twelve degrees of frost. In British North
America the badger (_Taxidea americana_) is said to hibernate from
October till April; but the duration of the period probably depends, as
in the case of its European ally (_Meles meles_), upon the length and
severity of the inclement season. In the last-named species the winter
repose is not as a rule sufficiently profound to prevent a break in the
weather rousing the animal from sleep to sally forth in search of food.
This interrupted hibernation takes place at least in England and even in
Scandinavia; but in countries where frost is continuous throughout the
winter it is probable that the badger's sleep is unbroken.

The one exception to the general rule that hibernation in the Carnivora
is restricted to the Arctoidea, is supplied by the raccoon dog
(_Nyctereutes procyonoides_) of Japan and north-eastern Asia, which is
said by Radde to hibernate in burrows in Amurland if food has been
sufficiently plentiful in late summer and autumn to enable the animal to
lay on enough fat to resist the cold and sustain a long period of fast.
If, however, food has been scarce, this dog is compelled to remain
active all through the winter. The Arctic fox (_Vulpes lagopus_),
although considerably more northern in range than the raccoon dog, does
not hibernate. It was long a mystery how these animals obtained food in
winter, but it has been ascertained that in some districts they migrate
southwards in large numbers in the late autumn, whereas in other
districts apparently they lay up stores of dead lemmings or hares, for
food during the winter months. In Australia the porcupine ant-eater
(_Echidna aculeata_) hibernates; and the habit is retained by specimens
imported to Europe if exposed to the cold in outdoor cages.

Instances of quasi-hibernation have been recorded in the case of man.
For example, in the government of Pskov in Russia, where food is scarce
throughout the year and in danger of exhaustion during the winter, the
peasants are said to resort to a practice closely akin to hibernation,
spending at least one-half of the cold weather in sleep. From time
immemorial it has been the custom when the first snows fall for families
to shut themselves up in their huts, huddle round the stove and lapse
into slumber, each member taking his turn to keep the fire alight. Once
a day only do the inmates rouse themselves from sleep to eat a little
dry bread.

Reptiles in which the body-temperature falls with that of the
surrounding medium pass the winter in temperate countries in a state of
lethargy; and specimens exported from the tropics into northern
latitudes become dormant when exposed to cold in virtue of their
inability to maintain their temperature at a higher level than that of
the atmosphere. The common land tortoise (_Testudo graeca_) of South
Europe buries itself in the soil during the winter in its natural
habitat, and even when imported to England is able, in some cases at
least, to withstand the more rigorous winter by practising the same
habit, as Gilbert White originally recorded. In Pennsylvania the
box-tortoise (_Cistudo carolina_) passes the winter in a burrow; and
_Testudo elegans_, which inhabits dry hilly districts in north India,
takes shelter beneath tufts of grass or bushes as the cold weather
approaches and remains in a semi-lethargic state until the return of the
warmth. The European pond tortoise (_Emys orbicularis_) also hibernates
buried in the soil; and the North American salt-water terrapin
(_Malacoclemmys concentrica_), abundant in the salt-marshes round
Charleston, S. Carolina, retires into the muddy banks to spend the cold
months of the year. In certain parts of the tropics tortoises protect
themselves from the excessive heat by burrowing into the soil which
afterwards becomes indurated. When drought sets in with the dry season
and the tanks become exhausted and food unobtainable, crocodiles and
alligators sometimes wander across country in search of water, but more
commonly bury themselves in the mud and remain in a state of quiescence
until the return of the rains; and according to Humboldt, large snakes,
anacondas or boa constrictors are often found by the Indians in South
America buried in the same lethargic state. Snakes and lizards in all
countries where there is any considerable seasonal variation in
temperature become dormant or semi-dormant during the colder months.

Batrachians, like reptiles, hibernate in Europe and other countries
situated in temperate latitudes. Frogs bury themselves in the mud at the
bottom of tanks and ponds, often congregating in numbers in the same
spot. Toads retire to burrows or other secluded places on the land, and
newts either bury themselves in the mud of ponds, like frogs, or lie up
beneath stones and pieces of wood on the land. According to Mr G. A.
Boulenger, however, European frogs and toads do not pass the winter in
profound torpor, but merely in a state of sluggish quiescence. In
tropical countries, where wet and dry seasons alternate, frogs which,
like the rest of the batrachians, are for the most part intolerant of
great heat, especially when accompanied by dryness of atmosphere, bury
themselves deep in the soil during the time of drought and emerge from
their retreats in numbers with the breaking of the rains.

This habit of passing the dry season in the hardened mud forming the
bottom of exhausted pools and rivers is practised by several species of
tropical freshwater fishes, belonging principally to the family
_Siluridae_. The members of this group are able to exist and thrive in
moist mud, and can even support life for a comparatively long time out
of water altogether. The instinct is exhibited by species occurring both
in the eastern and western hemispheres, as is shown by its record in the
case of species of _Callicthys_ and _Loricaria_ in Guiana and by
_Clarias lazera_ in Senegambia. It is also met with, according to
Tennent, in a species of climbing perch (_Anabas oligolepis_) found in
Ceylon and belonging to the family _Anabantidae_, all the species of
which are able to live for a certain length of time out of water, and
may sometimes be found crawling across land in search of fresh pools.
The habit is also common to some species of mud fishes of the order
Dipneusti, in which the air bladder plays the part of lungs.
_Protopterus_, from tropical Africa, for instance, burrows into the mud
and remains for nearly half the year coiled up at the bottom in a
slightly enlarged chamber. The walls of this are lined with a layer of
slime secreted from the fish's skin, and the orifice is closed with a
lid the centre of which is perforated and forms an inturned tube by
means of which air is conducted to the fish's mouth. The aestivating
burrow of the Brazilian mudfish (_Lepidosiren_) is similar, except that
the lid is perforated with several apertures. The Australian mudfish
(_Ceratodus_) is not known to hibernate or aestivate.

In countries where winter frosts arrest the growth of vegetation
terrestrial mollusca seek hibernacula beneath stones or fallen tree
trunks, in rock crannies, holes in walls, in heaps of dead leaves, in
moss or under the soil, and remain quiescent until the coming of spring.
Amongst pulmonate gastropods, most species of snails (_Helix_,
_Clausilia_) close the mouth of the shell at this period with a
membranous or calcified plate, the epiphragm. Slugs (_Limax_, _Arion_),
on the contrary, lie buried in the earth encysted in a coating of slime.
Similarly in the tropics members of this group, such as _Achatina_ in
tropical Africa and _Orthalicus_ in Brazil, aestivate during the dry
season, the epiphragm preserving them against desiccation; and examples
of two species of _Achatina_ from east and west Africa exhibited in the
Zoological Gardens in London remained concealed in their shells during
the winter, although kept in an artificially warmed house, and resumed
their activity in the summer.

Freshwater Pulmonata do not appear to hibernate, such forms as _Limnaea_
and _Planorbis_ having been frequently seen crawling about beneath the
ice of frozen ponds. During periods of drought in England, however, they
commonly bury themselves in the mud, a habit which is also practised
during the dry season in the tropics by species of Prosobranchiate
Gastropods belonging to the genera _Ampullaria_, _Melania_ and others,
which lie dormant until the first rains rouse them from their lethargy.
Freshwater Pelecypoda (_Anodonta_, _Unio_) spend the European winter
buried deep in the muddy bottom of ponds and streams.

In cold and temperate latitudes a great majority of insects pass the
winter in a dormant state, either in the larval, pupal or imaginal
(reproductive) stages. In some the state of hibernation is complete in
the sense that although the insects may be roused from their lethargy to
the extent of movement by spells of warm weather, they do not leave
their hibernacula to feed; in others it is incomplete in the sense that
the insects emerge to feed, as in the case of the caterpillar of
_Euprepia fuliginosa_, or to take the wing as in the case of the midge
_Trichocera hiemalis_. Others again, like _Podura nivalis_ and _Boreus
hiemalis_, never appear to hibernate, at least in England. The insects
which hibernate as larvae belong to those species which pass more than
one season in that stage, such as the goat-moth (_Cossus ligniperda_),
cockchafers (_Melolontha_), stagbeetles (_Lucanus_) and dragon-flies
(_Libellula_), &c.; and to some species which, although they only live a
few months in this immature state, are hatched in the autumn or summer
and only reach the final stage of growth in the following spring, like
the butterflies of the genus _Argynnis_ (_paphia_, _aglaia_, &c.) in
England. As an instance of species which survive the winter in the
pupal or chrysalis stage may be cited the swallow-tailed butterfly of
Europe (_Papilio machaon_); while to the category of species which
hibernate as perfect insects belong many of the Coleoptera (Rhyncophora,
_Coccinellidae_), &c., as well as some Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera
and Lepidoptera (_Vanessa io_, _urticae_, &c.). In the case of the
social Hymenoptera it is only the fertilized queen wasp out of the nest
that survives the frost of winter, all the workers dying with the onset
of cold in the autumn; the common hive bees (_Apis mellifica_), although
they retire to the hive, do not hibernate, the numbers and activity of
the individuals within the hive being sufficient to keep up the
temperature above soporific point. Ants also remain actively at work
underground unless the temperature falls several degrees below zero.

Spiders, like nearly all insects, hibernate in cold temperate latitudes.
Burrowing species like trap-door spiders of the family _Ctenizidae_ and
some species of _Lycosidae_ seal the doors of their burrows with silk or
close up the orifice with a sheet of that material. Other non-burrowing
species, like some species of _Clubionidae_ and _Drassidae_, lie up in
silken cases attached to the underside of stones or of pieces of loose
bark, or buried under dead leaves or concealed in the cracks of walls.
Other species, on the contrary, pass the winter in an immature state
protected from the cold by the silken cocoon spun by the mother for her
eggs before she dies in the late autumn, as in the "garden spider"
(_Aranea diadema_). Commonly, however, when the cocoons are later in the
making, or the cold weather sets in early, the eggs of this and of
allied species do not hatch until the spring; but in either case the
young emerge in the warm weather, become adult during the summer and die
in the autumn after pairing and oviposition. Some members of this
family, nevertheless, like _Zilla x-notata_, which live in the corners
of windows, or in outhouses where the habitat affords a certain degree
of protection from the cold, may survive the winter in the adult stage
and be roused from lethargy by breaks in the weather and tempted by the
warmth to spin new webs. Typical members of the Opiliones or harvest
spiders, belonging to the family _Phalangiidae_, do not hibernate in
temperate and more northern latitudes in Europe and America, but perish
in the autumn, leaving their eggs buried in the soil to hatch in the
succeeding spring. During the early summer, therefore, only immature
individuals are found. Other species of this order, belonging to the
family _Trogulidae_, spend the winter in a dormant state under stones or
buried in the soil. False scorpions (_Pseudo-scorpiones_) also hibernate
in temperate latitudes, passing the cold months, like many spiders,
enclosed in silken cases attached to the underside of stones or loosened
pieces of bark. Centipedes and millipedes bury themselves in the earth,
or lie up in some secluded shelter such as stones or fallen tree trunks
afford during the winter; and in the tropics millipedes lie dormant
during seasons of drought.

What is true of the dormant condition of arthropod life in the winter of
the northern hemisphere is also true in a general way of that of the
southern hemisphere at the same season of the year. This is proved--to
mention no other cases--by the observations of Darwin on the hibernation
of insects and spiders at Montevideo and Bahia Blanca in South America,
and by Distant's account of the paucity of insect life in the winter in
South Africa; by his discovery under stones of hibernating semi-torpid
Coleoptera and Hemiptera at the end of August in the Transvaal, and of
the gradual increase in the numbers of individuals and species of
insects in that country as the spring advanced and the dry season came
to an end.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--T. Bell, _A History of British Reptiles (and
  Amphibians)_ (1849); W. T. Blanford, _Fauna of British India:
  Mammalia_ (1889-1891); G. A. Boulenger, _Monograph of the Tailless
  Batrachians of Europe_, edited by the Ray Society; "Teleostei" in
  _Cambridge Natural History_, vii. 541-727 (1904); T. W. Bridge,
  "Dipneustei" in _Cambridge Natural History_, vii. 505-520 (1904); A.
  H. Cooke, "Molluscs" in _Cambridge Natural History_, iii. 25-27
  (1895); T. A. Coward, _P.Z.S._ pp. 849-855 (1906), and pp. 312-324
  (1907); C. Darwin, _A Naturalist's Voyage Round the World_, pp.
  97-98 (1907 ed.); W. L. Distant, _A Naturalist in the Transvaal_, ch.
  iii. (1892); Marshall Hall, "Hibernation," in _Todd's Cyclopaedia of
  Anatomy and Physiology_, pp. 764-776 (1839) (Bibliography); _Phil.
  Trans. Roy. Soc._ (1832); John Hunter, _Observations on parts of the
  Animal Economy_ (1837); _Index Catalogue of the Library of the
  Surgeon-General's Office of the U.S. Army_, vii. (1902), Bibliography
  relating to physiology of Hibernation; W. Kirby and W. Spence, _An
  Introduction to Entomology_, ed. 17, pp. 517-533 (1856); L. Landois,
  _A Text-book of Human Physiology_, translated by W. Stirling, i. 410
  (1904); V. Laporte, "Suspension of Vitality in Animals," _Pop. Sci.
  Monthly_, xxxvi. 257-259 (New York, 1889-1890); Mangili, "Essai sur la
  léthargie périodique," _Annales du Muséum_, x. 453-456 (1807); C. Hart
  Merriam, _North American Pocket Mice_ (Washington, 1889); W. Miller,
  "Hibernation and Allied States in Animals," _Trans. Pan-Amer. Med.
  Congr._ (1893), pt. ii. pp. 1274-1285 (Washington, 1895); M. S.
  Pembrey and A. G. Pitts, "The Relation between the Internal
  Temperature and the Respiratory Movements of Hibernating Animals,"
  _Journ. Physiol._ (London, 1899), pp. 305-316; Prunelle, "Recherches
  sur les phénomènes et sur les causes du sommeil hivernal," _Annales du
  Muséum_, xviii.; J. A. Saissy, _Recherches sur les animaux hivernans_
  (1808); L. Spallanzani, _Mémoires sur la respiration_ (1803); J.
  Emerson Tennent, _Sketches of the Natural History of Ceylon_, pp.
  351-358 (1861); Volkov, "Le Sommeil hivernal chez les paysans russes,"
  _Bull. Mem. Soc. Anthropol._ (Paris, 1900), i. 67; abstract in _Brit.
  Med. Journ._ (1900), i. 1554.     (R. I. P.)



HIBERNIA, in ancient geography, one of the names by which Ireland was
known to Greek and Roman writers. Other names were Ierne, Iuverna,
Iberio. All these are adaptations of a stem from which also Erin is
descended. The island was well known to the Romans through the reports
of traders, so far at least as its coasts. But it never became part of
the Roman empire. Agricola (about A.D. 80) planned its conquest, which
he judged an easy task, but the Roman government vetoed the enterprise.
During the Roman occupation of Britain, Irish pirates seem to have been
an intermittent nuisance, and Irish emigrants may have settled
occasionally in Wales; the best attested emigration is that of the Scots
into Caledonia. It was only in post-Roman days that Roman civilization,
brought perhaps by Christian missionaries like Patrick, entered the
island.



HICKERINGILL (or HICKHORNGILL), EDMUND (1631-1708), English divine,
lived an eventful life in the days of the Commonwealth and the
Restoration. After graduating at Caius College, Cambridge, where he was
junior fellow in 1651-1652, he joined Lilburne's regiment as chaplain,
and afterwards served in the ranks in Scotland and in the Swedish
service, ultimately becoming a captain in Fleetwood's regiment. He then
lived for a time in Jamaica, of which he published an account in 1661.
In the same year he was ordained by Robert Sanderson, bishop of Lincoln,
having already passed through such shades of belief as are connoted by
the terms Baptist, Quaker and Deist. From 1662 until his death in 1708
he was vicar of All Saints', Colchester. He was a vigorous pamphleteer,
and came into collision with Henry Compton, bishop of London, to whom he
had to pay heavy damages for slander in 1682. He made a public
recantation in 1684, was excluded from his living in 1685-1688, and
ended his career by being convicted for forgery in 1707.



HICKES, GEORGE (1642-1715), English divine and scholar, was born at
Newsham near Thirsk, Yorkshire, on the 20th of June 1642. In 1659 he
entered St John's College, Oxford, whence after the Restoration he
removed to Magdalen College and then to Magdalen Hall. In 1664 he was
elected fellow of Lincoln College, and in the following year proceeded
M.A. In 1673 he graduated in divinity, and in 1675 he was appointed
rector of St Ebbe's, Oxford. In 1676, as private chaplain, he
accompanied the duke of Lauderdale, the royal commissioner, to Scotland,
and shortly afterwards received the degree of D.D. from St Andrews. In
1680 he became vicar of All Hallows, Barking, London; and after having
been made chaplain to the king in 1681, he was in 1683 promoted to the
deanery of Worcester. He opposed both James II.'s declaration of
indulgence and Monmouth's rising, and he tried in vain to save from
death his nonconformist brother John Hickes (1633-1685), one of the
Sedgemoor refugees harboured by Alice Lisle. At the revolution of 1688,
having declined to take the oath of allegiance, Hickes was first
suspended and afterwards deprived of his deanery. When he heard of the
appointment of a successor he affixed to the cathedral doors a
"protestation and claim of right." After remaining some time in
concealment in London, he was sent by Sancroft and the other nonjurors
to James II. in France on matters connected with the continuance of
their episcopal succession; upon his return in 1694 he was himself
consecrated suffragan bishop of Thetford. His later years were largely
occupied in controversies and in writing, while in 1713 he persuaded two
Scottish bishops, James Gadderar and Archibald Campbell, to assist him
in consecrating Jeremy Collier, Samuel Hawes and Nathaniel Spinckes as
bishops among the nonjurors. He died on the 15th of December 1715.

  The chief writings of Hickes are the _Institutiones Grammaticae
  Anglo-Saxonicae et Moeso-Gothicae_ (1689), and _Linguarum veterum
  Septentrionalium Thesaurus grammatico-criticus et archaeologicus_
  (1703-1705), a work of great learning and industry.

  Apart from these two works Hickes was a voluminous and laborious
  author. His earliest writings, which were anonymous, were suggested by
  contemporary events in Scotland that gave him great satisfaction--the
  execution of James Mitchell on a charge of having attempted to murder
  Archbishop Sharp, and that of John Kid and John King, Presbyterian
  ministers, "for high treason and rebellion" (_Ravillac Redivivus_,
  1678; _The Spirit of Popery speaking out of the Mouths of Phanatical
  Protestant_s, 1680). In his _Jovian_ (an answer to S. Johnson's
  _Julian the Apostate_, 1683), he endeavoured to show that the Roman
  empire was not hereditary, and that the Christians under Julian had
  recognized the duty of passive obedience. His two treatises, one _Of
  the Christian Priesthood_ and the other _Of the Dignity of the
  Episcopal Order_, originally published in 1707, have been more than
  once reprinted, and form three volumes of the _Library of
  Anglo-Catholic Theology_ (1847). In 1705 and 1710 were published
  _Collections of Controversial Letters_, in 1711 a collection of
  _Sermons_, and in 1726 a volume of _Posthumous Discourses_. Other
  treatises, such as the _Apologetical Vindication of the Church of
  England_, are to be met with in Edmund Gibson's _Preservative against
  Popery_. There is a manuscript in the Bodleian Library which sketches
  his life to the year 1689, and many of his letters are extant in
  various collections. A posthumous publication of his _The Constitution
  of the Catholick Church and the Nature and Consequences of Schism_
  (1716) gave rise to the celebrated Bangorian controversy.

  See the article by the Rev. W. D. Macray in the _Dictionary of
  National Biography_, vol. xxvi. (1891); and J. H. Overton, _The
  Nonjurors_ (1902).



HICKOK, LAURENS PERSEUS (1798-1888), American philosopher and divine,
was born at Bethel, Connecticut, on the 29th of December 1798. He took
his degree at Union College in 1820. Until 1836 he was occupied in
active pastoral work, and was then appointed professor of theology at
the Western Reserve College, Ohio, and later (1844-1852) at the Auburn
(N.Y.) Theological Seminary. From this post he was elected
vice-president of Union College and professor of mental and moral
science. In 1866 he succeeded Dr E. Nott as president, but in July 1868
retired to Amherst, Massachusetts, where he devoted himself to writing
and study. A collected edition of his principal works was published at
Boston in 1875. He died at Amherst on the 7th of May 1888. He wrote
_Rational Psychology_ (1848), _System of Moral Science_ (1853),
_Empirical Psychology_ (1854), _Rational Cosmology_ (1858), _Creator and
Creation, or the Knowledge in the Reason of God and His Work_ (1872),
_Humanity Immortal_ (1872), _Logic of Reason_ (1874).



HICKORY, a shortened form of the American Indian name _pohickery_.
Hickory trees are natives of North America, and belong to the genus
_Carya_. They are closely allied to the walnuts (_Juglans_), the chief
or at least one very obvious difference being that, whilst in _Carya_
the husk which covers the shell of the nut separates into four valves,
in _Juglans_ it consists of but one piece, which bursts irregularly. The
timber is both strong and heavy, and remarkable for its extreme
elasticity, but it decays rapidly when exposed to heat and moisture, and
is peculiarly subject to the attacks of worms. It is very extensively
employed in manufacturing musket stocks, axle-trees, screws, rake teeth,
the bows of yokes, the wooden rings used on the rigging of vessels,
chair-backs, axe-handles, whip-handles and other purposes requiring
great strength and elasticity. Its principal use in America is for
hoop-making; and it is the only American wood found perfectly fit for
that purpose.

The wood of the hickory is of great value as fuel, on account of the
brilliancy with which it burns and the ardent heat which it gives out,
the charcoal being heavy, compact and long-lived. The species which
furnish the best wood are _Carya alba_ (shell-bark hickory), _C.
tomentosa_ (mockernut), _C. olivaeformis_ (pecan or pacane nut), and _C.
porcina_ (pig-nut), that of the last named, on account of its extreme
tenacity, being preferred for axle-trees and axle-handles. The wood of
_C. alba_ splits very easily and is very elastic, so that it is much
used for making whip-handles and baskets. The wood of this species is
also used in the neighbourhood of New York and Philadelphia for making
the back bows of Windsor chairs. The timber of _C. amara_ and _C.
aquatica_ is considered of inferior quality.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Shell-bark Hickory (_Carya alba_) in flower.]

Most of the hickories form fine-looking noble trees of from 60 to 90 ft.
in height, with straight, symmetrical trunks, well-balanced ample heads,
and bold, handsome, pinnated foliage. When confined in the forest they
shoot up 50 to 60 ft. without branches, but when standing alone they
expand into a fine head, and produce a lofty round-headed pyramid of
foliage. They have all the qualities necessary to constitute fine
graceful park trees. The most ornamental of the species are _C.
olivaeformis_, _C. alba_ and _C. porcina_, the last two also producing
delicious nuts, and being worthy of cultivation for their fruit alone.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--1, Fruit of _Carya alba_; 2, Hickory Nut; 3,
Cross Section of Nut; 4, Vertical Section of the Seed.]

The husk of the hickory nut, as already stated, breaks up into four
equal valves or separates into four equal portions in the upper part,
while the nut itself is tolerably even on the surface, but has four or
more blunt angles in its transverse outline. The hickory nuts of the
American markets are the produce of _C. alba_, called the shell-bark
hickory because of the roughness of its bark, which becomes loosened
from the trunk in long scales bending outwards at the extremities and
adhering only by the middle. The nuts are much esteemed in all parts of
the States, and are exported in considerable quantities to Europe. The
pecan-nuts, which come from the Western States, are from 1 in. to 1½
in. long, smooth, cylindrical, pointed at the ends and thin-shelled,
with the kernels full, not like those of most of the hickories divided
by partitions, and of delicate and agreeable flavour. The thick-shelled
fruits of the pig-nut are generally left on the ground for swine,
squirrels, &c., to devour. In _C. amara_ the kernel is so bitter that
even squirrels refuse to eat it.



HICKS, ELIAS (1748-1830), American Quaker, was born in Hempstead
township, Long Island, on the 19th of March 1748. His parents were
Friends, but he took little interest in religion until he was about
twenty; soon after that time he gave up the carpenter's trade, to which
he had been apprenticed when seventeen, and became a farmer. By 1775 he
had "openings leading to the ministry" and was "deeply engaged for the
right administration of discipline and order in the church," and in 1779
he first set out on his itinerant preaching tours between Vermont and
Maryland. He attacked slavery, even when preaching in Maryland; wrote
_Observations on the Slavery of the Africans and their Descendants_
(1811); and was influential in procuring the passage (in 1817) of the
act declaring free after 1827 all negroes born in New York and not freed
by the Act of 1799. He died at Jericho, Long Island, on the 27th of
February 1830. His preaching was practical rather than doctrinal and he
was heartily opposed to any set creed; hence his successful opposition
at the Baltimore yearly meeting of 1817 to the proposed creed which
would make the Society in America approach the position of the English
Friends by definite doctrinal statements. His _Doctrinal Epistle_ (1824)
stated his position, and a break ensued in 1827-1828, Hicks's followers,
who call themselves the "Liberal Branch," being called "Hicksites" by
the "Orthodox" party, which they for a time outnumbered. The village of
Hicksville, in Nassau County, New York, 15 m. E. of Jamaica, lies in the
centre of the Quaker district of Long Island and was named in honour of
Elias Hicks.

  See _A Series of Extemporaneous Discourses ... by Elias Hicks_
  (Philadelphia, 1825); _The Journal of the Life and Labors of Elias
  Hicks_ (Philadelphia, 1828), and his _Letters_ (Philadelphia, 1834).



HICKS, HENRY (1837-1899), British physician and geologist, was born on
the 26th of May 1837 at St David's, in Pembrokeshire, where his father,
Thomas Hicks, was a surgeon. He studied medicine at Guy's Hospital,
London, qualifying as M.R.C.S. in 1862. Returning to his native place he
commenced a practice which he continued until 1871, when he removed to
Hendon. He then devoted special attention to mental diseases, took the
degree of M.D. at St Andrews in 1878, and continued his medical work
until the close of his life. In Wales he had been attracted to geology
by J. W. Salter (then palaeontologist to the Geological Survey), and his
leisure time was given to the study of the older rocks and fossils of
South Wales. In conjunction with Salter, he established in 1865 the
Menevian group (Middle Cambrian) characterized by the trilobite
_Paradoxides_. Subsequently Hicks contributed a series of important
papers on the Cambrian and Lower Silurian rocks, and figured and
described many new species of fossils. Later he worked at the
Pre-Cambrian rocks of St David's, describing the Dimetian (granitoid
rock) and the Pebidian (volcanic series), and his views, though
contested, have been generally accepted. At Hendon Dr Hicks gave much
attention to the local geology and also to the Pleistocene deposits of
the Denbighshire caves. For a few years before his death he had laboured
at the Devonian rocks. With his keen eye for fossils he detected organic
remains in the Morte slates, previously regarded as unfossiliferous, and
these he regarded as including representatives of Lower Devonian and
Silurian. His papers were mostly published in the _Geol. Mag._ and
_Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc._ He was elected F.R.S. in 1885, and president
of the Geological Society of London 1896-1898. He died at Hendon on the
18th of November 1899.



HICKS, WILLIAM (1830-1883), British soldier, entered the Bombay army in
1849, and served through the Indian mutiny, being mentioned in
despatches for good conduct at the action of Sitka Ghaut in 1859. In
1861 he became captain, and in the Abyssinian expedition of 1867-68 was
a brigade major, being again mentioned in despatches and given a brevet
majority. He retired with the honorary rank of colonel in 1880. After
the close of the Egyptian war of 1882, he entered the khedive's service
and was made a pasha. Early in 1883 he went to Khartum as chief of the
staff of the army there, then commanded by Suliman Niazi Pasha. Camp was
formed at Omdurman and a new force of some 8000 fighting men
collected--mostly recruited from the fellahin of Arabi's disbanded
troops, sent in chains from Egypt. After a month's vigorous drilling
Hicks led 5000 of his men against an equal force of dervishes in Sennar,
whom he defeated, and cleared the country between the towns of Sennar
and Khartum of rebels. Relieved of the fear of an immediate attack by
the mahdists the Egyptian officials at Khartum intrigued against Hicks,
who in July tendered his resignation. This resulted in the dismissal of
Suliman Niazi and the appointment of Hicks as commander-in-chief of an
expeditionary force to Kordofan with orders to crush the mahdi, who in
January 1883 had captured El Obeid, the capital of that province. Hicks,
aware of the worthlessness of his force for the purpose contemplated,
stated his opinion that it would be best to "wait for Kordofan to settle
itself" (telegram of the 5th of August). The Egyptian ministry, however,
did not then believe in the power of the mahdi, and the expedition
started from Khartum on the 9th of September. It was made up of 7000
infantry, 1000 cavalry and 2000 camp followers and included thirteen
Europeans. On the 20th the force left the Nile at Duem and struck inland
across the almost waterless wastes of Kordofan for Obeid. On the 5th of
November the army, misled by treacherous guides and thirst-stricken, was
ambuscaded in dense forest at Kashgil, 30 m. south of Obeid. With the
exception of some 300 men the whole force was killed. According to the
story of Hicks's cook, one of the survivors, the general was the last
officer to fall, pierced by the spear of the khalifa Mahommed Sherif.
After emptying his revolver, the pasha kept his assailants at bay for
some time with his sword, a body of Baggara who fled before him being
known afterwards as "Baggar Hicks" (the cows driven by Hicks), a play on
the words _baggara_ and _baggar_, the former being the herdsmen and the
latter the cows. Hicks's head was cut off and taken to the mahdi.

  See _Mahdiism and the Egyptian Sudan_, book iv., by Sir F. R. Wingate
  (London, 1891), and _With Hicks Pasha in the Soudan_, by J. Colborne
  (London, 1884), Also EGYPT: _Military Operations_.



HIDALGO, an inland state of Mexico, bounded N. by San Luis Potosi and
Vera Cruz, E. by Vera Cruz and Puebla, S. by Tlaxcala and Mexico
(state), and W. by Querétaro. Pop. (1895) 551,817, (1900) 605,051. Area,
8917 sq. m. The northern and eastern parts are elevated and mountainous,
culminating in the Cerro de Navajas (10,528 ft.). A considerable area of
this region on the eastern side of the state is arid and semi-barren,
being part of the elevated tableland of Apam where the _maguey_
(American aloe) has been grown for centuries. The southern and western
parts of the state consist of rolling plains, in the midst of which is
the large lake of Metztitlan. Hidalgo produces cereals in the more
elevated districts, sugar, maguey, coffee, beans, cotton and tobacco.
Maguey is cultivated for the production of _pulque_, the national drink.
The chief industry, however, is mining, the mineral districts of
Pachuca, El Chico, Real del Monte, San José del Oro, and Zimapán being
among the richest in Mexico. The mineral products include silver, gold,
mercury, copper, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, manganese and plumbago.
Coal, marble and opals are also found. Railway facilities are afforded
by a branch of the Vera Cruz and Mexico line, which runs from Ometusco
to Pachuca, the capital of the state, and by the Mexican Central. Among
the principal towns are Tulancingo (pop. 9037), a rich mining centre 24
m. E. of Pachuca, Ixmiquilpán (about 9000) with silver mines 80 m. N. by
W. of the Federal Capital, and Actópan (2666), the chief town of the
district N.N.W. of Pachuca, inhabited principally by Indians of the
Othomies nation.



HIDALGO (a Spanish word, contracted from _hijo d'algo_ or _hijo de
algo_, son of something, or somewhat), originally a Spanish title of the
lower nobility; the hidalgo being the lowest grade of nobility which was
entitled to use the prefix "don." The term is now used generally to
denote one of gentle birth. The Portuguese _fidalgo_ has a similar
history and meaning.



HIDALGO Y COSTILLA, MIGUEL (1753-1811), Mexican patriot, was born on the
8th of May 1753, on a farm at Corralejos, near Guanajuato. His mother's
maiden name was Gallaga, but contrary to the usual custom of the
Spaniards he used only the surname of his father, Cristobal Hidalgo y
Costilla. He was educated at Valladolid in Mexico, and was ordained
priest in 1779. Until 1809 he was known only as a man of pious life who
exerted himself to introduce various forms of industry, including the
cultivation of silk, among his parishioners at Dolores. But Napoleon's
invasion of Spain in 1808 caused a widespread commotion. The colonists
were indisposed to accept a French ruler and showed great zeal in
proclaiming Ferdinand VII. as king. The societies they formed for their
professedly loyal purpose were regarded, however, by the Spanish
authorities with suspicion as being designed to prepare the independence
of Mexico. Hidalgo and several of his friends, among whom was Miguel
Dominguez, mayor of Querétaro, engaged in consultation and preparations
which the authorities considered treasonable. Dominguez was arrested,
but Hidalgo was warned in time. He collected some hundred of his
parishioners, and on the 16th of September 1810 they seized the prison
at Dolores. This action began what was in fact a revolt against the
Spanish and Creole elements of the population. With what is known as the
"_grito_" or cry of Dolores as their rallying shout, a multitude
gathered round Hidalgo, who took for his banner a wonder-working picture
of the Virgin belonging to a popular shrine. At first he met with some
success. A regiment of dragoons of the militia joined him, and some
small posts were stormed. The whole tumultuous host moved on the city of
Mexico. But here the Spaniards and Creoles were concentrated. Hidalgo
lost heart and retreated. Many of his followers deserted, and on the
march to Querétaro he was attacked at Aculco by General Felix Calleja on
the 7th of November 1810, and routed. He endeavoured to continue the
struggle, and did succeed in collecting a mob estimated at 100,000 about
Guadalajara. With this ill-armed and undisciplined crowd he took up a
position on the bridge of Calderon on the river Santiago. On the 17th of
January 1811 he was completely beaten by Calleja and a small force of
soldiers. Hidalgo was deposed by the other leaders, and soon afterwards
all of them were betrayed to the Spaniards. They were tried at
Chihuahua, and condemned. Hidalgo was first degraded from the priesthood
and then shot as a rebel, on the 31st of July or the 1st of August 1811.

  See H. H. Bancroft, _The Pacific States_, vol. vii., which contains a
  copious bibliography.



HIDDENITE, a green transparent variety of spodumene, (q.v.) used as a
gem-stone. It was discovered by William E. Hidden (b. 1853) about 1879
at Stonypoint, Alexander county, North Carolina, and was at first taken
for diopside. In 1881 J. Lawrence Smith proved it to be spodumene, and
named it. Hiddenite occurs in small slender monoclinic crystals of
prismatic habit, often pitted on the surface. A well-marked prismatic
cleavage renders the mineral rather difficult to cut. Its colour passes
from an emerald green to a greenish-yellow, and is often unevenly
distributed through the stone. The mineral is dichroic in a marked
degree, and shows much "fire" when properly cut. The composition of the
mineral is represented by the formula LiAl(SiO3)2, the green colour
being probably due to the presence of a small proportion of chromium.
The presence of lithia in this green mineral suggested the inappropriate
name of lithia emerald, by which it is sometimes known. Hiddenite was
originally found as loose crystals in the soil, but was afterwards
worked in a veinstone, where it occurred in association with beryl,
quartz, garnet, mica, rutile, &c.



HIDE[1] (Lat. _hida_, A.-S. _higíd_, _híd_ or _hiwisc_, members of a
household), a measure of land. The word was in general use in England in
Anglo-Saxon and early English times, although its meaning seems to have
varied somewhat from time to time. Among its Latin equivalents are
_terra unius familiae_, _terra unius cassati_ and _mansio_; the first of
these forms is used by Bede, who, like all early writers, gives to it no
definite area. In its earliest form the hide was the typical holding of
the typical family. Gradually, this typical holding came to be regarded
as containing 120 "acres" (not 120 acres of 4840 sq. yds. each, but 120
times the amount of land which a ploughteam of eight oxen could plough
in a single day). This definition appears to have been very general in
England before the Norman Conquest, and in Domesday Book 30, 40, 50 and
80 acres are repeatedly mentioned as fractions of a hide. Some
historians, however, have thought that the hide only contained 30 acres
or thereabouts.

  "The question about the hide," says Professor Maitland in _Domesday
  Book and Beyond_, "is 'pre-judicial' to all the great questions of
  early English history." The main argument employed by J. M. Kemble
  (_The Saxons in England_) in favour of the "small" hide is that the
  number of hides stated to have existed in the various parts of England
  gives an acreage far in excess of the total acreage of these parts,
  making due allowance for pasture and for woodland, an allowance
  necessary because the hide was only that part of the land which came
  under the plough, and each hide must have carried with it a certain
  amount of pasture. Two illustrations in support of Kemble's theory
  must suffice. Bede says the Isle of Wight contained 1200 hides. Now
  1200 hides of 120 acres each gives a total acreage of 144,000 acres,
  while the total acreage of the island to-day is only 93,000 acres.
  Again a document called _The Tribal Hidage_ puts the number of hides
  in the whole of England at nearly a quarter of a million. This gives
  in acres a figure about equal to the total acreage of England at the
  present time, but it leaves no room for pasture and for the great
  proportion of land which was still woodland. On these grounds Kemble
  regarded the hide as containing 30 or 33, certainly not more than 40
  acres, and thought that each acre contained about 4000 sq. yds., i.e.
  that it was roughly equal to the modern acre. Another argument brought
  forward is that 30 or 40 acres was enough land for the support of the
  average family, in other words that it was the _terra unius familiae_
  of Bede. Another Domesday student, R. W. Eyton, puts down the hide at
  48 acres.

  But formidable arguments have been advanced against the "small" hide.
  There is no doubt that at the time of Domesday the hide was equated
  with 120 and not with 30 acres. Then, taking the word _familia_ in its
  proper sense, a household with many dependent members, and making an
  allowance for primitive methods of agriculture, it is questionable
  whether 30 or 40 acres were sufficient for its support; and again if
  the equation 1 hide = 120 acres is rejected there is no serious
  evidence in favour of any other. A possible explanation is that,
  although in early Anglo-Saxon times the hide consisted of 30 acres or
  thereabouts, it had come before the time of Domesday to contain 120
  acres. But no trace of such change can be found; there is no break in
  the continuity of the land-charters which refer to hides and manses.
  Reviewing the whole question Professor Maitland accepts the view that
  the hide contained 120 acres. The difficulties are serious but they
  are not insuperable. Bede, writing in a primitive age and speaking for
  the most part of lands far away from Northumbria, uses figures in a
  vague and general fashion; then the hide of 120 acres does not mean
  120 times 4840 yds., it means much less; and lastly at the time of
  Domesday the hide was not a unit of measurement, it was a unit for
  purposes of taxation. On the other hand, Mr. H. M. Chadwick (_Studies
  on Anglo-Saxon Institutions_) says there is no evidence that the hide
  contained 120 acres before the 10th century. He suggests that possibly
  the size of the hide in Mercia may have been fixed at 40 acres, while
  in Wessex it was regarded as containing 120 acres. Dr Stubbs (_Const.
  Hist._ i.) suggests that the confusion may have arisen because the
  word was used "to express the whole share of one man in all the fields
  of the village." Thus it might refer to 30 acres, his share in one
  field, or to 120 acres, his share in the four fields. He adds,
  however, that this explanation is not adequate for all cases. But
  these differences about the size of the hide are not peculiar to
  modern times. Henry of Huntingdon says, _Hida Anglice vocatur terra
  unius aratri culturae sufficiens per annum_, while the _Dialogus de
  scaccario puts its size at 100 acres, though this may be the long
  hundred, or_ 120. Perhaps, therefore, Selden is wisest when he says,
  "hides were of an incertain quantity." Certainly he gives a very good
  description of the early hide when he says (_Titles of Honour_): "Now
  a hide of land regularly is and was (as I think) as much land as might
  be well manured with one plough, together with pasture, meadow and
  wood competent for the maintenance of that plough, and the servants of
  the family." The view that the size of the hide varied from district
  to district is borne out by Professor Vinogradoff's more recent
  researches. In his _English Society in the Eleventh Century_ he
  mentions that there was a hide of 48 acres in Wiltshire and one of 40
  acres in Dorset. In addition some authorities distinguish between
  English hides and Welsh hides, and in Sussex the hide often contained
  8 virgates. Sometimes again in the 11th century hides were not merely
  fiscal units; they were shares in the land itself.

The fact that the hide was a unit of assessment, has been established by
Mr J. H. Round in his _Feudal England_, and is regarded as throwing a
most valuable light upon the many problems which present themselves to
the student of Domesday. The process which converted the hide from a
unit of measurement to a unit for assessment purposes is probably as
follows. Being in general use to denote a large piece of land, and such
pieces of land being roughly equal all over England, the hide was a
useful unit on which to levy taxation, a use which dates doubtless from
the time of the Danegeld. For some time the two meanings were used side
by side, but before the Norman Conquest the hide, a unit for taxation,
had quite supplanted the hide, a measure of land, and this was the state
of affairs when in 1086 William I. ordered his great inquest to be made.
The formula used in Domesday varies from county to county, but a single
illustration may be given. _Huntedun Burg defendebat se ad geldum regis
pro quarta parte de Hyrstingestan hundred pro L. hidis_. This does not
mean that the town of Huntingdon contained a certain fixed number of
square yards multiplied by 50, but that for purposes of taxation
Huntingdon was regarded as worth 50 times a certain fiscal unit.

  This view of the nature of the hide was hinted at by R. W. Eyton in _A
  Key to Domesday_ and was accepted by Maitland. Its proof rests
  primarily upon the prevalence of the five-hide unit. By collating
  various documents which formed part of the Domesday inquest Mr Round
  has brought together for certain parts of England, especially for
  Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire, the holdings of the various lords in
  the different vills, and vill after vill shows a total of 5 hides or
  10 hides or only a slight discrepancy therefrom. A similar result is
  shown for the hundreds where multiples of 5 are almost universal, and
  the total hidage for the county of Worcester is very near the round
  figure of 1200. This arrangement is obviously artificial; it must have
  been imposed upon the counties or the hundreds by the central
  authority and then divided among the vills. Another proof is found in
  what is called "beneficial hidation." It is shown that in certain
  cases the number of hides in a hundred has been reduced since the time
  of Edward the Confessor, and that this reduction had been transferred
  _pro rata_ to the vills in the hundred. Thus Mr Round concludes that
  the hide was fixed "independently of area or value." Some slight
  criticism has been directed against the idea of "artificial hidation,"
  but the most that can be said against it is that its proof rests upon
  isolated cases, a reproach which further research will doubtless
  remove. However, Professor Vinogradoff accepts the hide primarily as a
  fiscal unit "which corresponds only in a very rough way to the
  agrarian reality," and Maitland says the fiscal hide is "at its best a
  lame compromise between a unit of area and a unit of value."

What is the origin of the five-hide unit? Various conjectures have been
hazarded, and the unit is undoubtedly older than the Danegeld. Rejecting
the idea that it is of Roman or of British origin, and pointing to the
serious difference in the rates at which the various counties were
assessed, Mr Round thinks that it dates from the time when the various
Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were independent. Possibly it was the unit of
assessment for military service, possibly it was the recognized
endowment of a Saxon thegn. In Anglo-Saxon times a man's standing in
society was dependent to a great extent upon the number of hides which
he possessed; this statement is fully proved from the laws. Moreover, in
the laws of the Wessex king, Ine, the value of a man's oath is expressed
in hides, the oath for a king's thegn being probably worth 60 hides and
that of a ceorl 5 hides.

The usual division of the hide was into virgates, a virgate being, after
the Conquest at least, the normal holding of the villein with two oxen.
Mr Round holds that in Domesday at all events the hide always consisted
of four virgates; Mr F. Seebohm in _The English Village Community_,
although thinking that the normal hide "consisted as a rule of four
virgates of 30 acres each," says that the Hundred Rolls for
Huntingdonshire show that "the hide did not always contain the same
number of virgates." The virgate, it may be noted, consisted of a strip
of land in _each_ acre of the hide, and there is undoubtedly a strong
case in favour of the equation 1 hide = 4 virgates.

Mr Seebohm, propounding his theory that English institutions are rooted
in those of Rome, argues for some resemblance between the methods of
taxation of land in Rome and in England; he sees some connexion between
the Roman _centuria_ and the hide, and between the Roman system of
taxation called _jugatio_ and the English hidage. Professor Vinogradoff
(_Villainage in England_) summarizes the views of those who hold a
contrary opinion thus: "The curious fact that the normal holding, the
hide, was equal all over England can be explained only by its origin; it
came full-formed from Germany and remained unchanged in spite of all
diversities of geographical and economical conditions."

  In the Danish parts of England, or rather in the district of the "Five
  Boroughs," the carucate takes the place of the hide as the unit of
  value, and six supplants five, six carucates being the unit of
  assessment. In Leicestershire and in part of Lancashire the hide is
  quite different from what it is elsewhere in England. According to Mr
  Round the Leicestershire hide consisted of 18 carucates; Mr W. H.
  Stevenson (_English Historical Review_, vol. v.) argues that it
  contained only 12 and that it was a hundred and not a hide. Mr Seebohm
  thinks there was a _solanda_ or double hide of 240 acres in Essex and
  other southern counties, but Mr Round does not think that this word
  refers to a measure or unit of assessment at all. For Kent, however,
  the word _sullung_ or solin, is used in _Domesday Book_ and in the
  charters instead of hide and carucate as elsewhere, and Vinogradoff
  thinks that this contained from 180 to 200 acres.

Under the Norman and early Plantagenet kings a levy of two or more
shillings on each hide of land was a usual and recognized method of
raising money, royal and some other estates, however, as is seen from
Domesday, not being hidated and not paying the tax. This geld, or tax,
received several names, one of the most general being _hidage_ (Lat.
_hidagium_). "Hidage," says Vinogradoff, "is historically connected with
the old English Danegeld system," and as Danegeld and then hidage it was
levied long after its original purpose was forgotten, and was during the
11th century "the most sweeping and the heaviest of all the taxes."
Henry of Huntingdon says its usual rate was 2s. on each hide of land,
and this was evidently the rate at the time of the famous dispute
between Henry II. and Becket at Woodstock in 1163, but it was not always
kept at this figure, as in 1084 William I. had levied a tax of 6s. on
each hide, an unusual extortion. The feudal aids were levied on the
hide. Thus in 1109 Henry I. raised one at the rate of 3s. per hide for
the marriage of his daughter Matilda with the emperor Henry V., and in
1194, when money was collected for the ransom of Richard I., some of the
taxation for this purpose seems to have been assessed according to the
hidage given in Domesday Book.

By this time the word hidage as the designation of the tax was
disappearing, its place being taken by the word _carucage_. The carucate
(Lat. _caruca_, a plough) was a measure of land which prevailed in the
north of England, the district inhabited by people of Danish descent.
Some authorities regard it as equivalent to the hide, others deny this
identity. In 1198, however, when Richard I. imposed a tax of 5s. on each
_carucata terrae sive hyda_, the two words were obviously
interchangeable, and about the same time the size of the carucate was
fixed at 100 acres. The word carucage remained in use for some time
longer, and then other names were given to the various taxes on land.

  One or two other questions with regard to the hide still remain
  unsolved. What is the connexion, if any, between the hundred and a
  hundred hides? Again, was the size of the hide fixed at 120 acres to
  make the work of reckoning the amount of Danegeld, or hidage, a simple
  process? 120 acres to the hide, 240 pence to the pound, makes
  calculations easy. Lastly, is the English hide derived from the German
  _hufe_ or _huba_?     (A. W. H.*)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The homonym "hide," meaning to conceal, is in O. Eng. _hýdan_;
    the word appears in various forms in Old Teutonic languages. The root
    is probably seen in Gr. [Greek: keuthein] to hide, or may be the same
    as in "hide," skin, O. Eng. _hýd_, which is also seen in Ger. _Haut_,
    Dutch _huid_; the root appears in Lat. _cutis_, Gr. [Greek: kytos].
    The Indo-European root _ku_-, weakened form of _sku_-, seen in "sky,"
    and meaning "to cover," may be the ultimate source of both words. The
    slang use of "to hide," to flog or whip, means "to take the skin off,
    to flay."



HIEL, EMMANUEL (1834-1899), Belgian-Dutch poet and prose writer, was
born at Dendermonde, in Flanders, in May 1834. He acted in various
functions, from teacher and government official to journalist and
bookseller, busily writing all the time both for the theatre and the
magazines of North and South Netherlands. His last posts were those of
librarian at the Industrial Museum and professor of declamation at the
Conservatoire in Brussels. Among his better-known poetic works may be
cited _Looverkens_ ("Leaflets," 1857); _Nieuwe Liedekens_ ("New
Poesies," 1861); _Gedichten_ ("Poems," 1863); _Psalmen, Zangen, en
Oratorios_ ("Psalms, Songs, and Oratorios," 1869); _De Wind_ (1869), an
inspiriting cantata, which had a large measure of success and was
crowned; _De Liefde in 't Leven_ ("Love in Life," 1870); _Elle_ and
_Isa_ (two musical dramas, 1874); _Liederen voor Groote en Kleine
Kinderen_ ("Songs for Big and Small Folk," 1879); _Jakoba van Beieren_
("Jacqueline of Bavaria," a poetic drama, 1880); _Mathilda van
Denemarken_ (a lyrical drama, 1890). His collected poetical works were
published in three volumes at Rousselaere in 1885. Hiel took an active
and prominent part in the so-called "Flemish movement" in Belgium, and
his name is constantly associated with those of Jan van Beers, the
Willems and Peter Benoit. The last wrote some of his compositions to
Hiel's verses, notably to his oratorios _Lucifer_ (performed in London
at the Royal Albert Hall and elsewhere) and _De Schelde_ ("The
Scheldt"); whilst the Dutch composer, Richard Hol (of Utrecht), composed
the music to Hiel's "Ode to Liberty," and van Gheluwe to the poet's
"Songs for Big and Small Folk" (second edition, much enlarged, 1879),
which has greatly contributed to their popularity in schools and among
Belgian choral societies. Hiel also translated several foreign lyrics.
His rendering of Tennyson's _Dora_ appeared at Antwerp in 1871. For the
national festival of 1880 at Brussels, to commemorate the fiftieth
anniversary of Belgian independence, Hiel composed two cantatas,
_Belgenland_ ("The Land of the Belgians") and _Eer Belgenland_ ("Honour
to Belgium"), which, set to music, were much appreciated. He died at
Schaerbeek, near Brussels, on the 27th of August 1899. Hiel's efforts to
counteract Walloon influences and bring about a _rapprochement_ between
the Netherlanders in the north and the Teutonic racial sympathizers
across the Rhine made him very popular with both, and a volume of his
best poems was in 1874 the first in a collection of Dutch authors
published at Leipzig.



HIEMPSAL, the name of the two kings of Numidia. For Hiempsal I. see
under JUGURTHA. Hiempsal II. was the son of Gauda, the half-brother of
Jugurtha. In 88 B.C., after the triumph of Sulla, when the younger
Marius fled from Rome to Africa, Hiempsal received him with apparent
friendliness, his real intention being to detain him as a prisoner.
Marius discovered this intention in time and made good his escape with
the assistance of the king's daughter. In 81 Hiempsal was driven from
his throne by the Numidians themselves, or by Hiarbas, ruler of part of
the kingdom, supported by Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, the leader of the
Marian party in Africa. Soon afterwards Pompey was sent to Africa by
Sulla to reinstate Hiempsal, whose territory was subsequently increased
by the addition of some land on the coast in accordance with a treaty
concluded with L. Aurelius Cotta. When the tribune P. Servilius Rullus
introduced his agrarian law (63), these lands, which had been originally
assigned to the Roman people by Scipio Africanus, were expressly
exempted from sale, which roused the indignation of Cicero (_De lege
agraria_, i. 4, ii. 22). From Suetonius (_Caesar_, 71) it is evident
that Hiempsal was alive in 62. According to Sallust (_Jugurtha_, 17), he
was the author of an historical work in the Punic language.

  Plutarch, _Marius_, 40, _Pompey_, 12; Appian, _Bell. civ._, i. 62. 80;
  Dio Cassius xli. 41.



HIERAPOLIS. 1. (Arabic _Manbij_ or _Mumbij_) an ancient Syrian town
occupying one of the finest sites in Northern Syria, in a fertile
district about 16 m. S.W. of the confluence of the Sajur and Euphrates.
There is abundant water supply from large springs. In 1879, after the
Russo-Turkish war, a colony of Circassians from Vidin (Widdin) was
planted in the ruins, and the result has been the constant discovery of
antiquities, which find their way into the bazaars of Aleppo and Aintab.
The place first appears in Greek as _Bambyce_, but Pliny (v. 23) tells
us its Syrian name was _Mabog_. It was doubtless an ancient Commagenian
sanctuary; but history knows it first under the Seleucids, who made it
the chief station on their main road between Antioch and
Seleucia-on-Tigris; and as a centre of the worship of the Syrian Nature
Goddess, Atargatis (q.v.), it became known to the Greeks as the city of
the sanctuary [Greek: Hieropolis], and finally as the Holy City [Greek:
Hierapolis]. Lucian, a native of Commagene (or some anonymous writer)
has immortalized this worship in the tract _De Dea Syria_, wherein are
described the orgiastic luxury of the shrine and the tank of sacred
fish, of which Aelian also relates marvels. According to the _De Dea
Syria_, the worship was of a phallic character, votaries offering little
male figures of wood and bronze. There were also huge _phalli_ set up
like obelisks before the temple, which were climbed once a year with
certain ceremonies, and decorated. For the rest the temple was of Ionic
character with golden plated doors and roof and much gilt decoration.
Inside was a holy chamber into which priests only were allowed to enter.
Here were statues of a goddess and a god in gold, but the first seems to
have been the more richly decorated with gems and other ornaments.
Between them stood a gilt _xoanon_, which seems to have been carried
outside in sacred processions. Other rich furniture is described, and a
mode of divination by movements of a _xoanon_ of Apollo. A great bronze
altar stood in front, set about with statues, and in the forecourt lived
numerous sacred animals and birds (but not swine) used for sacrifice.
Some three hundred priests served the shrine and there were numerous
minor ministrants. The lake was the centre of sacred festivities and it
was customary for votaries to swim out and decorate an altar standing in
the middle of the water. Self-mutilation and other orgies went on in the
temple precinct, and there was an elaborate ritual on entering the city
and first visiting the shrine under the conduct of local guides, which
reminds one of the Meccan Pilgrimage.

The temple was sacked by Crassus on his way to meet the Parthians (53
B.C.); but in the 3rd century of the empire the city was the capital of
the Euphratensian province and one of the great cities of Syria.
Procopius called it the greatest in that part of the world. It was,
however, ruinous when Julian collected his troops there ere marching to
his defeat and death in Mesopotamia, and Chosroes I. held it to ransom
after Justinian had failed to put it in a state of defence. Harun
restored it at the end of the 8th century and it became a bone of
contention between Byzantines, Arabs and Turks. The crusaders captured
it from the Seljuks in the 12th century, but Saladin retook it (1175),
and later it became the headquarters of Hulagu and his Mongols, who
completed its ruin. The remains are extensive, but almost wholly of late
date, as is to be expected in the case of a city which survived into
Moslem times. The walls are Arab, and no ruins of the great temple
survive. The most noteworthy relic of antiquity is the sacred lake, on
two sides of which can still be seen stepped quays and water-stairs. The
first modern account of the site is in a short narrative appended by H.
Maundrell to his _Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem_. He was at Mumbij in
1699.

The coinage of the city begins in the 4th century B.C. with an Aramaic
series, showing the goddess, either as a bust with mural crown or as
riding on a lion. She continues to supply the chief type even during
imperial times, being generally shown seated with the _tympanum_ in her
hand. Other coins substitute the legend [Greek: Theas Surias
Hieropolitôn], within a wreath. It is interesting to note that from
_Bambyce_ (near which much silk was produced) were derived the
_bombycina vestis_ of the Romans and, through the crusaders, the
bombazine of modern commerce.

  See F. R. Chesney, _Euphrates Expedition_ (1850); W. F. Ainsworth,
  _Personal Narrative of the Euphrates Expedition_ (1888); E. Sachau,
  _Reise in Syrien_, &c. (1883); D. G. Hogarth in _Journal of Hellenic
  Studies_ (1909).

2. A Phrygian city, altitude 1200 ft. on the right bank of the Churuk Su
(Lycus), about 8 m. above its junction with the Menderes (Maeander),
situated on a broad terrace, 200 ft. above the valley and 6 m. N. of
Laodicea. On the terrace rise calcareous springs, that have deposited
vast incrustations of snowy whiteness. To these springs, which are warm
and slightly sulphureous, and to the "Plutonium"--a hole reaching deep
into the earth, from which issued a mephitic vapour--the place owed its
celebrity and sanctity. Here, at an early date, a religious
establishment (_hieron_) existed in connexion with the old Phrygian
Kydrara, a settlement of the tribe Hydrelitae; and the town which grew
round it became one of the greatest centres of Phrygian native life but
of non-political importance. The chief religious festival was the
Letoia, named after the goddess Leto, a local variety of the Mother
Goddess (Cybele), who was honoured with orgiastic rites in which
elements of the original Anatolian matriarchate and Nature-cult
survived: there was also a worship of Apollo Lairbenos. Hierapolis was
the seat of an early church (Col. iv. 13), with which tradition closely
connects the apostle Philip. Epictetus, the philosopher, and Papias, a
disciple of St John and author of a lost work on the Sayings of Jesus,
were born there. Hierapolis is now easily reached from Gonjeli, a
station on the Dineir railway about 7 m. distant. A village of Yuruks
has gradually grown below the site. The native name for the place is
apparently _Pambuk Kale_ (though doubt has been thrown on the
statement), and this has always been explained by the cotton-like
appearance of the white incrustations. It should be noted, however, that
this name, if genuine, is curiously like that given by the Syrians to
the Commagenian Hierapolis (above), _Bambyce_, the origin of which it
has been suggested was a native name of the goddess Pambe or Mambe
(whence Mabog). Considering that cotton is a comparatively modern
phenomenon in Anatolia, it is worth suggesting that _Pambuk_ in this
case may be a survival of a primitive name, derived from the same
goddess, Pambe. The goddesses of the two Hierapoleis were in any case
closely akin. If an old native name has reappeared here after the
decline of Greek influence, and been given a meaning in modern Turkish,
it affords another instance of a very common feature of west Asian
nomenclature. Combined with the petrified terraces, the ruins of
Hierapolis present the most attractive of the easily accessible
spectacles in Asia Minor. They are remarkable for the long avenue of
tombs, mostly inscribed sarcophagi on plinths, by which the city is
approached from the W., and for a very perfect theatre partly excavated
in the hill at the N. side of the site. Stage buildings as well as
auditorium are well preserved. On the S., just above the white terraces
and largely blocked with petrified deposit, stand large baths, into
which the natural warm spring was once conducted. Behind these is a fine
triumphal arch, whence runs a colonnade. Ruins of several churches
survive, and also of a large basilica. There is a sulphureous pool which
may represent the "Plutonium," but it has no such deadly power as was
ascribed to that pond. Ramsay thinks that the "Plutonium" was
obliterated by Christians in the 4th century. Over 300 inscriptions have
been collected, mostly sepulchral, whence Ramsay has deduced interesting
facts about the very early Christian community which existed here. The
site has been often visited and described, and was systematically
examined in 1887 by parties under W. M. Ramsay and K. Humann
respectively.

  See K. Humann, _Altertümer v. Hierapolis_ (1888); Sir W. M. Ramsay,
  _Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia_, vol. i. (1895).
       (C. W. W.; D. G. H.)



HIERARCHY (Gr. [Greek: hieros], holy, and [Greek: archein], to rule),
the office of a steward or guardian of holy things, not a "ruler of
priests" or "priestly ruler" (see Boeckh, _Corp. inscr. Gr._ No. 1570),
a term commonly used in ecclesiastical language to denote the aggregate
of those persons who exercise authority within the Christian Church, the
patriarchate, episcopate or entire three-fold order of the clergy. The
word [Greek: hierarchia], which does not occur in any classical Greek
writer, owes its present extensive currency to the celebrated writings
of Dionysius Areopagiticus. Of these the most important are the two
which treat of the celestial and of the ecclesiastical hierarchy
respectively. Defining hierarchy as the "function which comprises all
sacred things," or, more fully, as "a sacred order and science and
activity, assimilated as far as possible to the godlike, and elevated to
the imitation of God proportionately to the Divine illuminations
conceded to it," the author proceeds to enumerate the nine orders of the
heavenly host, which are subdivided again into hierarchies or triads, in
descending order, thus: Seraphim, Cherubim, Thrones; Dominations,
Virtues, Powers; Principalities, Archangels, Angels. These all exist for
the common object of raising men through ascending stages of
purification and illumination to perfection. The ecclesiastical or
earthly hierarchy is the counterpart of the other. In it the first or
highest triad is formed by baptism, communion and chrism. The second
triad consists of the three orders of the ministry, bishop or hierarch,
priest and minister or deacon ([Greek: hierarchês, hiereus,
leitourgos]); this is the earliest known instance in which the title
hierarch is applied to a bishop. The third or lowest triad is made up of
monks, "initiated" and catechumens. To Dionysius may be traced, through
Thomas Aquinas and other Catholic writers of the intervening period, the
definition of the term usually given by Roman Catholic writers--"coëtus
seu ordo praesidum et sacrorum ministrorum ad regendam ecclesiam
gignendamque in hominibus sanctitatem divinitus institutus"[1]--although
it immediately rests upon the authority of the sixth canon of the
twenty-third session of the council of Trent, in which anathema is
pronounced upon all who deny the existence within the Catholic Church of
a hierarchy instituted by divine appointment, and consisting of bishops,
priests and ministers.[2] (See ORDER, HOLY).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Perrone, _De locis theologicis_, pt. i., sec. i. cap. 2.

  [2] Si quis dixerit in ecclesia catholica non esse hierarchiam divina
    ordinatione institutam, quae constat ex episcopis, presbyteris, et
    ministris: anathema sit.



HIERATIC, priestly or sacred (Gr. [Greek: hieratikos, hieros], sacred),
a term particularly applied to a style of ancient Egyptian writing,
which is a simplified cursive form of hieroglyphic. The name was first
given by Champollion (see EGYPT, § _Language_).



HIERAX, or HIERACAS, a learned ascetic who flourished about the end of
the 3rd century at Leontopolis in Egypt, where he lived to the age of
ninety, supporting himself by calligraphy and devoting his leisure to
scientific and literary pursuits, especially to the study of the Bible.
He was the author of Biblical commentaries both in Greek and Coptic, and
is said to have composed many hymns. He became leader of the so-called
sect of the Hieracites, an ascetic society from which married persons
were excluded, and of which one of the leading tenets was that only the
celibate could enter the kingdom of heaven. He asserted that the
suppression of the sexual impulse was emphatically the new revelation
brought by the Logos, and appealed to 1 Cor. vii., Heb. xii. 14, and
Matt. xix. 12, xxv. 21. Hierax may be called the connecting link between
Origen and the Coptic monks. A man of deep learning and prodigious
memory, he seems to have developed Origen's Christology in the direction
of Athanasius. He held that the Son was a torch lighted at the torch of
the Father, that Father and Son are a bipartite light. He repudiated the
ideas of a bodily resurrection and a material paradise, and on the
ground of 2 Tim. ii. 5 questioned the salvation of even baptized
infants, "for without knowledge no conflict, without conflict no
reward." In his insistence on virginity as the specifically Christian
virtue he set up the great theme of the church of the 4th and 5th
centuries.



HIERO (strictly HIERON), the name of two rulers of Syracuse.

HIERO I. was the brother of Gelo, and tyrant of Syracuse from 478 to
467/6 B.C. During his reign he greatly increased the power of Syracuse.
He removed the inhabitants of Naxos and Catana to Leontini, peopled
Catana (which he renamed Aetna) with Dorians, concluded an alliance with
Acragas (Agrigentum), and espoused the cause of the Locrians against
Anaxilaus, tyrant of Rhegium. His most important achievement was the
defeat of the Etruscans at Cumae (474), by which he saved the Greeks of
Campania. A bronze helmet (now in the British Museum), with an
inscription commemorating the event, was dedicated at Olympia. Though
despotic in his rule Hiero was a liberal patron of literature. He died
at Catana in 467.

  See Diod. Sic. xi. 38-67; Xenophon, _Hiero_, 6. 2; E. Lübbert,
  _Syrakus zur Zeit des Gelon und Hieron_ (1875); for his coins see
  NUMISMATICS (section _Sicily_).



HIERO II., tyrant of Syracuse from 270 to 216 B.C., was the illegitimate
son of a Syracusan noble, Hierocles, who claimed descent from Gelo. On
the departure of Pyrrhus from Sicily (275) the Syracusan army and
citizens appointed him commander of the troops. He materially
strengthened his position by marrying the daughter of Leptines, the
leading citizen. In the meantime, the Mamertines, a body of Campanian
mercenaries who had been employed by Agathocles, had seized the
stronghold of Messana, whence they harassed the Syracusans. They were
finally defeated in a pitched battle near Mylae by Hiero, who was only
prevented from capturing Messana by Carthaginian interference. His
grateful countrymen then chose him king (270). In 264 he again returned
to the attack, and the Mamertines called in the aid of Rome. Hiero at
once joined the Punic leader Hanno, who had recently landed in Sicily;
but being defeated by the consul Appius Claudius, he withdrew to
Syracuse. Pressed by the Roman forces, in 263 he was compelled to
conclude a treaty with Rome, by which he was to rule over the south-east
of Sicily and the eastern coast as far as Tauromenium (Polybius i. 8-16;
Zonaras viii. 9). From this time till his death in 216 he remained loyal
to the Romans, and frequently assisted them with men and provisions
during the Punic wars (Livy xxi. 49-51, xxii. 37, xxiii. 21). He kept up
a powerful fleet for defensive purposes, and employed his famous kinsman
Archimedes in the construction of those engines that, at a later date,
played so important a part during the siege of Syracuse by the Romans.

  A picture of the prosperity of Syracuse during his rule is given in
  the sixteenth idyll of Theocritus, his favourite poet. See Diod. Sic.
  xxii. 24-xxvi. 24; Polybius i. 8-vii. 7; Justin xxiii. 4.



HIEROCLES, proconsul of Bithynia and Alexandria, lived during the reign
of Diocletian (A.D. 284-305). He is said to have been the instigator of
the fierce persecution of the Christians under Galerius in 303. He was
the author of a work (not extant) entitled [Greek: logoi philalêtheis
pros tous Christianous] in two books, in which he endeavoured to
persuade the Christians that their sacred books were full of
contradictions, and that in moral influence and miraculous power Christ
was inferior to Apollonius of Tyana. Our knowledge of this treatise is
derived from Lactantius (_Instit. div._ v. 2) and Eusebius, who wrote a
refutation entitled [Greek: Antirrhêtikos pros ta Hierokleous].



HIEROCLES OF ALEXANDRIA, Neoplatonist writer, flourished c. A.D. 430. He
studied under the celebrated Neoplatonist Plutarch at Athens, and taught
for some years in his native city. He seems to have been banished from
Alexandria and to have taken up his abode in Constantinople, where he
gave such offence by his religious opinions that he was thrown into
prison and cruelly flogged. The only complete work of his which has been
preserved is the commentary on the _Carmina Aurea_ of Pythagoras. It
enjoyed a great reputation in middle age and Renaissance times, and
there are numerous translations in various European languages. Several
other writings, especially one on providence and fate, a consolatory
treatise dedicated to his patron Olympiodorus of Thebes, author of
[Greek: historikoi logoi], are quoted or referred to by Photius and
Stobaeus. The collection of some 260 witticisms ([Greek: asteia]) called
[Greek: Philogelôs] (ed. A. Eberhard, Berlin, 1869), attributed to
Hierocles and Philagrius, has no connexion with Hierocles of Alexandria,
but is probably a compilation of later date, founded on two older
collections. It is now agreed that the fragments of the _Elements of
Ethics_ ([Greek: Êthikê stoicheiôsis]) preserved in Stobaeus are from a
work by a Stoic named Hierocles, contemporary of Epictetus, who has been
identified with the "Hierocles Stoicus vir sanctus et gravis" in Aulus
Gellius (ix. 5. 8). This theory is confirmed by the discovery of a
papyrus (ed. H. von Arnim in _Berliner Klassikertexte_, iv. 1906; see
also C. Prächter, _Hierokles der Stoiker_, 1901).


  There is an edition of the commentary by F. W. Mullach in _Fragmenta
  philosophorum Graecorum_ (1860), i. 408, including full information
  concerning Hierocles, the poem and the commentary; see also E. Zeller,
  _Philosophie der Griechen_ (2nd ed.), iii. 2, pp. 681-687; W. Christ,
  _Geschichte der griechischen Literatur_ (1898), pp. 834, 849.

  Another Hierocles, who flourished during the reign of Justinian, was
  the author of a list of provinces and towns in the Eastern Empire,
  called [Greek: Synekdêmos] ("fellow-traveller"; ed. A. Burckhardt,
  1893); it was one of the chief authorities used by Constantine
  Porphyrogenitus in his work on the "themes" of the Roman Empire (see
  C. Krumbacher, _Geschichte der byzantinischen Literatur_, 1897, p.
  417). In Fabricius's _Bibliotheca Graeca_ (ed. Harles), i. 791,
  sixteen persons named Hierocles, chiefly literary, are mentioned.



HIEROGLYPHICS (Gr. [Greek: hieros], sacred, and [Greek: glyphê],
carving), the term used by Greek and Latin writers to describe the
sacred characters of the ancient Egyptian language in its classical
phase. It is now also used for various systems of writing in which
figures of objects take the place of conventional signs. Such characters
which symbolize the idea of a thing without expressing the name of it
are generally styled "ideographs" (Gr. [Greek: idea], idea, and [Greek:
graphein], to write), e.g. the Chinese characters.

  See EGYPT, _Language_; CUNEIFORM; INSCRIPTIONS and WRITING.



HIERONYMITES, a common name for three or four congregations of hermits
living according to the rule of St Augustine with supplementary
regulations taken from St Jerome's writings. Their habit was white, with
a black cloak. (1) The Spanish Hieronymites, established near Toledo in
1374. The order soon became popular in Spain and Portugal, and in 1415
it numbered 25 houses. It possessed some of the most famous monasteries
in the Peninsula, including the royal monastery of Belem near Lisbon,
and the magnificent monastery built by Philip II. at the Escurial.
Though the manner of life was very austere the Hieronymites devoted
themselves to studies and to the active work of the ministry, and they
possessed great influence both at the Spanish and the Portuguese courts.
They went to Spanish and Portuguese America and played a considerable
part in Christianizing and civilizing the Indians. There were
Hieronymite nuns founded in 1375, who became very numerous. The order
decayed during the 18th century and was completely suppressed in 1835.
(2) Hieronymites of the Observance, or of Lombardy: a reform of (1)
effected by the third general in 1424; it embraced seven houses in Spain
and seventeen in Italy, mostly in Lombardy. It is now extinct. (3) Poor
Hermits of St Jerome, established near Pisa in 1377: it came to embrace
nearly fifty houses whereof only one in Rome and one in Viterbo survive.
(4) Hermits of St Jerome of the congregation of Fiesole, established in
1406: they had forty houses but in 1668 they were united to (3).

  See Helyot, _Histoire des ordres religieux_ (1714), iii. cc. 57-60,
  iv. cc. 1-3; Max Heimbucher, _Orden und Kongregationen_ (1896), i. §
  70; and art. "Hieronymiten" in Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_ (ed.
  3), and in Welte and Wetzer, _Kirchenlexicon_ (ed. 2).     (E. C. B.)



HIERONYMUS OF CARDIA, Greek general and historian, contemporary of
Alexander the Great. After the death of the king he followed the
fortunes of his friend and fellow-countryman Eumenes. He was wounded and
taken prisoner by Antigonus, who pardoned him and appointed him
superintendent of the asphalt beds in the Dead Sea. He was treated with
equal friendliness by Antigonus's son Demetrius, who made him polemarch
of Thespiae, and by Antigonus Gonatas, at whose court he died at the age
of 104. He wrote a history of the Diadochi and their descendants,
embracing the period from the death of Alexander to the war with Pyrrhus
(323-272 B.C.), which is one of the chief authorities used by Diodorus
Siculus (xviii.-xx.) and also by Plutarch in his life of Pyrrhus. He
made use of official papers and was careful in his investigation of
facts. The simplicity of his style rendered his work unpopular, but it
is probable that it was on a high level as compared with that of his
contemporaries. In the last part of his work he made a praiseworthy
attempt to acquaint the Greeks with the character and early history of
the Romans. He is reproached by Pausanias (i. 9. 8) with unfairness
towards all rulers with the exception of Antigonus Gonatas.

  See Lucian, _Macrobii_, 22; Plutarch, _Demetrius_, 39; Diod. Sic.
  xviii. 42. 44. 50, xix. 100; Dion. Halic. _Antiq. Rom._ i. 6; F.
  Brückner, "De vita et scriptis Hieronymi Cardii" in _Zeitschrift für
  die Alterthumswissenschaft_ (1842); F. Reuss, _Hieronymus von Kardia_
  (Berlin, 1876); C. Wachsmuth, _Einleitung in das Studium der alten
  Geschichte_ (1895); fragments in C. W. Müller, _Frag. hist. Graec._
  ii. 450-461.



HIERRO, or FERRO, an island in the Atlantic Ocean, forming part of the
Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands (q.v.). Pop. (1900) 6508; area
107 sq. m. Hierro, the most westerly and the smallest island of the
group, is somewhat crescent-shaped. Its length is about 18 m., its
greatest breadth about 15 m., and its circumference 50 m. It lies 92 m.
W.S.W. of Teneriffe. Its coast is bound by high, steep rocks, which only
admit of one harbour, but the interior is tolerably level. Its hill-tops
in winter are sometimes wrapped in snow. Better and more abundant grass
grows here than on any of the other islands. Hierro is exposed to
westerly gales which frequently inflict great damage. Fresh water is
scarce, but there is a sulphurous spring, with a temperature of 102°
Fahr. The once celebrated and almost sacred Til tree, which was reputed
to be always distilling water in great abundance from its leaves, no
longer exists. Only a small part of the cultivable land is under
tillage, the inhabitants being principally employed in pasturage.
Valverde (pop. about 3000) is the principal town. Geographers were
formerly in the habit of measuring all longitudes from Ferro, the most
westerly land known to them. The longitude assigned at first has,
however, turned out to be erroneous; and the so-called "Longitude of
Ferro" does not coincide with the actual longitude of the island.



HIGDON (or HIGDEN), RANULF (c. 1299-c. 1363), English chronicler, was a
Benedictine monk of the monastery of St Werburg in Chester, in which he
lived, it is said, for sixty-four years, and died "in a good old age,"
probably in 1363. Higdon was the author of a long chronicle, one of
several such works based on a plan taken from Scripture, and written for
the amusement and instruction of his society. It closes the long series
of general chronicles, which were soon superseded by the invention of
printing. It is commonly styled the _Polychronicon_, from the longer
title _Ranulphi Castrensis, cognomine Higdon, Polychronicon (sive
Historia Polycratica) ab initio mundi usque ad mortem regis Edwardi III.
in septem libros dispositum_. The work is divided into seven books, in
humble imitation of the seven days of Genesis, and, with exception of
the last book, is a summary of general history, a compilation made with
considerable style and taste. It seems to have enjoyed no little
popularity in the 15th century. It was the standard work on general
history, and more than a hundred MSS. of it are known to exist. The
Christ Church MS. says that Higdon wrote it down to the year 1342; the
fine MS. at Christ's College, Cambridge, states that he wrote to the
year 1344, after which date, with the omission of two years, John of
Malvern, a monk of Worcester, carried the history on to 1357, at which
date it ends. According, however, to its latest editor, Higdon's part of
the work goes no further than 1326 or 1327 at latest, after which time
it was carried on by two continuators to the end. Thomas Gale, in his
_Hist. Brit. &c., scriptores_, xv. (Oxon., 1691), published that portion
of it, in the original Latin, which comes down to 1066. Three early
translations of the _Polychronicon_ exist. The first was made by John of
Trevisa, chaplain to Lord Berkeley, in 1387, and was printed by Caxton
in 1482; the second by an anonymous writer, was written between 1432 and
1450; the third, based on Trevisa's version, with the addition of an
eighth book, was prepared by Caxton. These versions are specially
valuable as illustrating the change of the English language during the
period they cover.

  The _Polychronicon_, with the continuations and the English versions,
  was edited for the Rolls Series (No. 41) by Churchill Babington (vols.
  i. and ii.) and Joseph Rawson Lumby (1865-1886). This edition was
  adversely criticized by Mandell Creighton in the _Eng. Hist. Rev._ for
  October 1888.



HIGGINS, MATTHEW JAMES (1810-1868), British writer over the nom-de-plume
"Jacob Omnium," which was the title of his first magazine article, was
born in County Meath, Ireland, on the 4th of December 1810. His letters
in _The Times_ were instrumental in exposing many abuses. He was a
frequent contributor to the _Cornhill_, and was a friend of Thackeray,
who dedicated to him _The Adventures of Philip_, and one of his ballads,
"Jacob Omnium's Hoss," deals with an incident in Higgins's career. He
died on the 14th of August 1868. Some of his articles were published in
1875 as _Essays on Social Subjects_.



HIGGINSON, THOMAS WENTWORTH (1823-1911), American author and soldier,
was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on the 22nd of December 1823. He
was a descendant of Francis Higginson (1588-1630), who emigrated from
Leicestershire to the colony of Massachusetts Bay and was a minister of
the church of Salem, Mass., in 1629-1630; and a grandson of Stephen
Higginson (1743-1828), a Boston merchant, who was a member of the
Continental Congress in 1783, took an active part in suppressing Shay's
Rebellion, was the author of the "Laco" letters (1789), and rendered
valuable services to the United States government as navy agent from the
11th of May to the 22nd of June 1798. Graduating from Harvard in 1841,
he was a schoolmaster for two years, studied theology at the Harvard
Divinity School, and was pastor in 1847-1850 of the First Religious
Society (Unitarian) of Newburyport, Massachusetts, and of the Free
Church at Worcester in 1852-1858. He was a Free Soil candidate for
Congress (1850), but was defeated; was indicted with Wendell Phillips
and Theodore Parker for participation in the attempt to release the
fugitive slave, Anthony Burns, in Boston (1853); was engaged in the
effort to make Kansas a free state after the passage of the
Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854; and during the Civil War was captain in
the 51st Massachusetts Volunteers, and from November 1862 to October
1864, when he was retired because of a wound received in the preceding
August, was colonel of the First South Carolina Volunteers, the first
regiment recruited from former slaves for the Federal service. He
described his experiences in _Army Life in a Black Regiment_ (1870). In
politics Higginson was successively a Republican, an Independent and a
Democrat. His writings show a deep love of nature, art and humanity, and
are marked by vigour of thought, sincerity of feeling, and grace and
finish of style. In his _Common Sense About Women_ (1881) and his _Women
and Men_ (1888) he advocated equality of opportunity and equality of
rights for the two sexes.

  Among his numerous books are _Outdoor Papers_ (1863); _Malbone: an
  Oldport Romance_ (1869); Life of _Margaret Fuller Ossoli_ (in
  "American Men of Letters" series, 1884); _A Larger History of the
  United States of America to the Close of President Jackson's
  Administration_ (1885); _The Monarch of Dreams_ (1886); _Travellers
  and Outlaws_ (1889); _The Afternoon Landscape_ (1889), poems and
  translations; _Life of Francis Higginson_ (in "Makers of America,"
  1891); _Concerning All of Us_ (1892); _The Procession of the Flowers
  and Kindred Papers_ (1897); _Henry Wadsworth Longfellow_ (in "American
  Men of Letters" series, 1902); _John Greenleaf Whittier_ (in "English
  Men of Letters" series, 1902); _A Reader's History of American
  Literature_ (1903), the Lowell Institute lectures for 1903, edited by
  Henry W. Boynton; and _Life and Times of Stephen Higginson_ (1907).
  His volumes of reminiscence, _Cheerful Yesterdays_ (1898), _Old
  Cambridge_ (1899), _Contemporaries_ (1899), and _Part of a Man's Life_
  (1905), are characteristic and charming works. His collected works
  were published in seven vols. (1900).



HIGHAM FERRERS, a market town and municipal borough in the Eastern
parliamentary division of Northamptonshire, England, 63 m. N.N.W. from
London, on branches of the London & North-Western and Midland railways.
Pop. (1901), 2540. It is pleasantly situated on high ground above the
south bank of the river Nene. The church of St Mary is among the most
beautiful of the many fine churches in Northamptonshire. To the Early
English chancel a very wide north aisle, resembling a second nave, was
added in the Decorated period, and the general appearance of the
chancel, with its north aisle and Lady-chapel, is Decorated. The tower
with its fine spire and west front was partially but carefully rebuilt
in the 17th century. Close to the church, but detached from it, stands a
beautiful Perpendicular building, the school-house, founded by
Archbishop Chichele in 1422. The Bede House, a somewhat similar
structure by the same founder, completes a striking group of buildings.
In the town are remains of Chichele's college. Higham Ferrers shares in
the widespread local industry of shoemaking. The town is governed by a
mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors. Area, 1945 acres.

Higham (Hecham, Heccam, Hegham Ferers) was evidently a large village
before the Domesday Survey. It was then held by William Peverel of the
king, but on the forfeiture of the lordship by his son it was granted in
1199 to William Ferrers, earl of Derby. On the outlawry of Robert his
grandson it passed to Edmund, earl of Lancaster, and, reverting to the
crown in 1322, was granted to Aymer de Valence, earl of Pembroke, but
escheated to the crown in 1327, and was granted to Henry, earl of
Lancaster. The castle, which may have been built before Henry III.
visited Higham in 1229, is mentioned in 1322, but had been destroyed by
1540. It appears by the confirmation of Henry III. in 1251 that the
borough originated in the previous year when William de Ferrers, earl of
Derby, manumitted by charter ninety-two persons, granting they should
have a free borough. A mayor was elected from the beginning of the reign
of Richard II., while a town hall is mentioned in 1395. The revenues of
Chichele's college were given to the corporation by the charter of 1566,
whereby the borough returned one representative to parliament, a
privilege enjoyed until 1832. James I. in 1604 gave the mayor the
commission of the peace with other privileges which were confirmed by
Charles II. in 1664. The old charters were surrendered in 1684 and a new
grant obtained; a further charter was granted in 1887.



HIGHGATE, a northern district of London, England, partly in the
metropolitan borough of St Pancras, but extending into Middlesex. It is
a high-lying district, the greatest elevation being 426 ft. The Great
North Road passes through Highgate, which is supposed to have received
its name from the toll-gate erected by the bishop of London when the
road was formed through his demesne in the 14th century. It is possible,
however, that "gate" is used here in its old signification, and that the
name means simply high road. The road rose so steeply here that in 1812
an effort was made to lessen the slope for coaches by means of an
archway, and a new way was completed in 1900. In the time of
stage-coaches a custom was introduced of making ignorant persons believe
that they required to be sworn and admitted to the freedom of the
Highgate before being allowed to pass the gate, the fine of admission
being a bottle of wine. Not a few famous names occur among the former
residents of Highgate. Bacon died here in 1626; Coleridge and Andrew
Marvell, the poets, were residents. Cromwell House, now a convalescent
home, was presented by Oliver Cromwell to his eldest daughter Bridget on
her marriage with Henry Ireton (January 15, 1646/7). Lauderdale House,
now attached to the public grounds of Waterlow Park, belonged to the
Duke of Lauderdale, one of the "Cabal" of Charles II. Among various
institutions may be mentioned Whittington's almshouses, near Whittington
Stone, at the foot of Highgate Hill, on which the future mayor of London
is reputed to have been resting when he heard the peal of Bow bells and
"turned again." Highgate grammar school was founded (1562-1565) by Sir
Roger Cholmley, chief-justice. St Joseph's Retreat is the mother-house
of the Passionist Fathers in England. There is an extensive and
beautiful cemetery on the slope below the church of St Michael.



HIGHLANDS, THE, that part of Scotland north-west of a line drawn from
Dumbarton to Stonehaven, including the Inner and Outer Hebrides and the
county of Bute, but excluding the Orkneys and Shetlands, Caithness, the
flat coastal land of the shires of Nairn, Elgin and Banff, and all East
Aberdeenshire (see SCOTLAND). This area is to be distinguished from the
Lowlands by language and race, the preservation of the Gaelic speech
being characteristic. Even in a historical sense the Highlanders were a
separate people from the Lowlanders, with whom, during many centuries,
they shared nothing in common. The town of Inverness is usually regarded
as the capital of the Highlands. The Highlands consist of an old
dissected plateau, or block, of ancient crystalline rocks with incised
valleys and lochs carved by the action of mountain streams and by ice,
the resulting topography being a wide area of irregularly distributed
mountains whose summits have nearly the same height above sea-level, but
whose bases depend upon the amount of denudation to which the plateau
has been subjected in various places. The term "highland" is used in
physical geography for any elevated mountainous plateau.



HIGHNESS, literally the quality of being lofty or high, a term used, as
are so many abstractions, as a title of dignity and honour, to signify
exalted rank or station. These abstractions arose in great profusion in
the Roman empire, both of the East and West, and "highness" is to be
directly traced to the _altitudo_ and _celsitudo_ of the Latin and the
[Greek: hypsêlotês] of the Greek emperors. Like other "exorbitant and
swelling attributes" of the time, they were conferred on ruling princes
generally. In the early middle ages such titles, couched in the second
or third person, were "uncertain and much more arbitrary (according to
the fancies of secretaries) than in the later times" (Selden, _Titles of
Honour_, pt. i. ch. vii. 100). In English usage, "Highness" alternates
with "Grace" and "Majesty," as the honorific title of the king and queen
until the time of James I. Thus in documents relating to the reign of
Henry VIII. all three titles are used indiscriminately; an example is
the king's judgment against Dr Edward Crome (d. 1562), quoted, from the
lord chamberlain's books, ser. 1, p. 791, in _Trans. Roy. Hist. Soc._
N.S. xix. 299, where article 15 begins with "Also the Kinges Highness"
hath ordered, 16 with "Kinges Majestie," and 17 with "Kinges Grace." In
the Dedication of the Authorized Version of the Bible of 1611 James I.
is still styled "Majesty" and "Highness"; thus, in the first paragraph,
"the appearance of Your Majesty, as of the Sun in his strength,
instantly dispelled those supposed and surmised mists ... especially
when we beheld the government established in Your Highness and Your
hopeful Seed, by an undoubted title." It was, however, in James I.'s
reign that "Majesty" became the official title. It may be noted that
Cromwell, as lord protector, and his wife were styled "Highness." In
present usage the following members of the British Royal Family are
addressed as "Royal Highness" (H.R.H.): all sons and daughters, brothers
and sisters, uncles and aunts of the reigning sovereign, grandsons and
granddaughters if children of sons, and also great grandchildren (decree
of 31st of May 1898) if children of an eldest son of any prince of
Wales. Nephews, nieces and cousins and grandchildren, offspring of
daughters, are styled "Highness" only. A change of sovereign does not
entail the forfeiture of the title "Royal Highness," once acquired,
though the father of the bearer has become a nephew and not a grandson
of the sovereign. The principal feudatory princes of the Indian empire
are also styled "Highness."

As a general rule the members of the blood royal of an Imperial or Royal
house are addressed as "Imperial" or "Royal Highness" (_Altesse
Impériale_, _Royale_, _Kaiserliche_, _Königliche Hoheit_) respectively.
In Germany the reigning heads of the Grand Duchies bear the title of
Royal or Grand Ducal Highness (_Königliche_ or _Gross-Herzogliche
Hoheit_), while the members of the family are addressed as _Hoheit_,
Highness, simply. _Hoheit_ is borne by the reigning dukes and the
princes and princesses of their families. The title "Serene Highness"
has also an antiquity equal to that of "highness," for [Greek:
galênotês] and [Greek: hêmerotês] were titles borne by the Byzantine
rulers, and serenitas and _serenissimus_ by the emperors Honorius and
Arcadius. The doge of Venice was also styled _Serenissimus_. Selden
(_op. cit._ pt. ii. ch. x. 739) calls this title "one of the greatest
that can be given to any Prince that hath not the superior title of
King." In modern times "Serene Highness" (_Altesse Sérénissime_) is used
as the equivalent of the German _Durchlaucht_, a stronger form of
_Erlaucht_, illustrious, represented in the Latin honorific
_superillustris_. Thackeray's burlesque title "Transparency" in the
court at Pumpernickel very accurately gives the meaning. The title of
_Durchlaucht_ was granted in 1375 by the emperor Charles IV. to the
electoral princes (_Kurfürsten_). In the 17th century it became the
general title borne by the heads of the reigning princely states of the
empire (_reichsländische Fürsten_), as _Erlaucht_ by those of the
countly houses (_reichständische Grafen_). In 1825 the German Diet
agreed to grant the title _Durchlaucht_ to the heads of the mediatized
princely houses whether domiciled in Germany or Austria, and it is now
customary to use it of the members of those houses. Further, all those
who are elevated to the rank of prince (_Fürst_) in the secondary
meaning of that title (see PRINCE) are also styled _Durchlaucht_. In
1829 the title of _Erlaucht_, which had formerly been borne by the
reigning counts of the empire, was similarly granted to the mediatized
countly families (see _Almanack de Gotha_, 1909, 107).



HIGH PLACE, in the English version of the Old Testament, the literal
translation of the Heb. _bamah_. This rendering is etymologically
correct, as appears from the poetical use of the plural in such
expressions as to ride, or stalk, or stand on the high places of the
earth, the sea, the clouds, and from the corresponding usage in
Assyrian; but in prose _bamah_ is always a place of worship. It has been
surmised that it was so called because the places of worship were
originally upon hill-tops, or that the _bamah_ was an artificial
platform or mound, perhaps imitating the natural eminence which was the
oldest holy place, but neither view is historically demonstrable. The
development of the religious significance of the word took place
probably not in Israel but among the Canaanites, from whom the
Israelites, in taking possession of the holy places of the land, adopted
the name also.

In old Israel every town and village had its own place of sacrifice, and
the common name for these places was _bamah_, which is synonymous with
_mikdash_, holy place (Amos vii. 9; Isa. xvi. 12, &c.). From the Old
Testament and from existing remains a good idea may be formed of the
appearance of such a place of worship. It was often on the hill above
the town, as at Ramah (I Sam. ix. 12-14); there was a stelè
(_massebah_), the seat of the deity, and a wooden post or pole
(_asherah_), which marked the place as sacred and was itself an object
of worship; there was a stone altar, often of considerable size and hewn
out of the solid rock[1] or built of unhewn stones (Ex. xx. 25; see
ALTAR), on which offerings were burnt (_mizbeh_, lit. "slaughter
place"); a cistern for water, and perhaps low stone tables for dressing
the victims; sometimes also a hall (_lishkah_) for the sacrificial
feasts.

Around these places the religion of the ancient Israelite centred; at
festival seasons, or to make or fulfil a vow, he might journey to more
famous sanctuaries at a distance from his home, but ordinarily the
offerings which linked every side of his life to religion were paid at
the _bamah_ of his own town. The building of royal temples in Jerusalem
or in Samaria made no change in this respect; they simply took their
place beside the older sanctuaries, such as Bethel, Dan, Gilgal,
Beersheba, to which they were, indeed, inferior in repute.

The religious reformers of the 8th century assail the popular religion
as corrupt and licentious, and as fostering the monstrous delusion that
immoral men can buy the favour of God by worship; but they make no
difference in this respect between the high places of Israel and the
temple in Jerusalem (cf. Amos v. 21 sqq.; Hos. iv.; Isa. i. 10 sqq.);
Hosea stigmatizes the whole cultus as pure heathenism--Canaanite
baal-worship adopted by apostate Israel. The fundamental law in Deut.
xii. prohibits sacrifice at every place except the temple in Jerusalem;
in accordance with this law Josiah, in 621 B.C., destroyed and
desecrated the altars (_bamoth_) throughout his kingdom, where Yahweh
had been worshipped from time immemorial, and forcibly removed their
priests to Jerusalem, where they occupied an inferior rank in the temple
ministry. In the prophets of the 7th and 6th centuries the word _bamoth_
connotes "seat of heathenish or idolatrous worship"; and the historians
of the period apply the term in this opprobrious sense not only to
places sacred to other gods but to the old holy places of Yahweh in the
cities and villages of Judah, which, in their view, had been
illegitimate from the building of Solomon's temple, and therefore not
really seats of the worship of Yahweh; even the most pious kings of
Judah are censured for tolerating their existence. The reaction which
followed the death of Josiah (608 B.C.) restored the old altars of
Yahweh; they survived the destruction of the temple in 586, and it is
probable that after its restoration (520-516 B.C.) they only slowly
disappeared, in consequence partly of the natural predominance of
Jerusalem in the little territory of Judaea, partly of the gradual
establishment of the supremacy of the written law over custom and
tradition in the Persian period.

It may not be superfluous to note that the deuteronomic dogma that
sacrifice can be offered to Yahweh only at the temple in Jerusalem was
never fully established either in fact or in legal theory. The Jewish
military colonists in Elephantine in the 5th century B.C. had their
altar of Yahweh beside the high way; the Jews in Egypt in the Ptolemaic
period had, besides many local sanctuaries, one greater temple at
Leontopolis, with a priesthood whose claim to "valid orders" was much
better than that of the High Priests in Jerusalem, and the legitimacy of
whose worship is admitted even by the Palestinian rabbis.

  See Baudissin, "Höhendienst," _Protestantische Realencyklopädie_³
  (viii. 177-195); Hoonacker, _Le Lieu du culte dans la législation
  rituelle des Hébreux_ (1894); v. Gall, _Altisraelitische Kultstädte_
  (1898).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Several altars of this type have been preserved.



HIGH SEAS, an expression in international law meaning all those parts of
the sea not under the sovereignty of adjacent states. Claims have at
times been made to exclusive dominion over large areas of the sea as
well as over wide margins, such as a 100 m., 60 m., range of vision,
&c., from land. The action and reaction of the interests of navigation,
however, have brought states to adopt a limitation first enunciated by
Bynkershoek in the formula "terrae dominium finitur ubi finitur armorum
vis." Thenceforward cannon-shot range became the determining factor in
the fixation of the margin of sea afterwards known as "territorial
waters" (q.v.). With the exception of these territorial waters, bays of
certain dimensions and inland waters surrounded by territory of the same
state, and serving only as a means of access to ports of the state by
whose territory they are surrounded, and some waters allowed by
immemorial usage to rank as territorial, all seas and oceans form part
of the high sea. The usage of the high sea is free to all the nations of
the world, subject only to such restrictions as result from respect for
the equal rights of others, and to those which nations may contract with
each other to observe. An interesting case affecting land-locked seas
was that of the _Emperor of Japan_ v. _The Peninsular and Oriental Steam
Navigation Company_, in which a collision had taken place in the inland
sea of Japan. The British Supreme Court at Shanghai declared this sea to
form part of the high sea. On appeal to the privy council, the
appellants were successful. Though the decision of the Shanghai court on
the point in question was not dealt with by the privy council, Japan
continues to treat her inland sea as under her exclusive jurisdiction.
     (T. Ba.)



HIGHWAY, a public road over which all persons have full right of
way--walking, riding or driving. Such roads in England for the most part
either are of immemorial antiquity or have been created under the
authority of an act of parliament. But a private owner may create a
highway at common law by dedicating the soil to the use of the public
for that purpose; and the using of a road for a number of years, without
interruption, will support the presumption that the soil has been so
dedicated. At common law the parish is required to maintain all highways
within its bounds; but by special custom the obligation may attach to a
particular township or district, and in certain cases the owner of land
is bound by the conditions of his holding to keep a highway in repair.
Breach of the obligation is treated as a criminal offence, and is
prosecuted by indictment. Bridges, on the other hand, and so much of the
highway as is immediately connected with them, are as a general rule a
charge on the county; and by 22 Henry VIII. c. 5 the obligation of the
county is extended to 300 yds. of the highway on either side of the
bridge. A bridge, like a highway, may be a burden on neighbouring land
_ratione tenurae_. Private owners so burdened may sometimes claim a
special toll from passengers, called a "toll traverse."

Extensive changes in the English law of highways have been made by
various highway acts, viz. the Highway Act 1835, and amending acts of
1862, 1864, 1878 and 1891. The leading principle of the Highway Act 1835
is to place the highways under the direction of parish surveyors, and to
provide for the necessary expenses by a rate levied on the occupiers of
land. It is the duty of the surveyor to keep the highways in repair; and
if a highway is out of repair, the surveyor may be summoned before
justices and convicted in a penalty not exceeding £5, and ordered to
complete the repairs within a limited time. The surveyor is likewise
specially charged with the removal of nuisances on the highway. A
highway nuisance may be abated by any person, and may be made the
subject of indictment at common law. The amending acts, while not
interfering with the operation of the principal act, authorize the
creation of highway districts on a larger scale. The justices of a
county may convert it or any portion of it into a highway district to be
governed by a highway board, the powers and responsibilities of which
will be the same as those of the parish surveyor under the former act.
The board consists of representatives of the various parishes, called
"way wardens" together with the justices for the county residing within
the district. Salaries and similar expenses incurred by the board are
charged on a district fund to which the several parishes contribute; but
each parish remains separately responsible for the expenses of
maintaining its own highways. By the Local Government Act 1888 the
entire maintenance of main roads was thrown upon county councils. The
Public Health Act 1875 vested the powers and duties of surveyors of
highways and vestries in urban authorities, while the Local Government
Act 1894 transferred to the district councils of every rural district
all the powers of rural sanitary authorities and highway authorities
(see ENGLAND: _Local Government_).

The Highway Act of 1835 specified as offences for which the driver of a
carriage on the public highway might be punished by a fine, in addition
to any civil action that might be brought against him--riding upon the
cart, or upon any horse drawing it, and not having some other person to
guide it, unless there be some person driving it; negligence causing
damage to person or goods being conveyed on the highway; quitting his
cart, or leaving control of the horses, or leaving the cart so as to be
an obstruction on the highway; not having the owner's name painted up;
refusing to give the same; and not keeping on the left or near side of
the road, when meeting any other carriage or horse. This rule does not
apply in the case of a carriage meeting a foot-passenger, but a driver
is bound to use due care to avoid driving against any person crossing
the highway on foot. At the same time a passenger crossing the highway
is also bound to use due care in avoiding vehicles, and the mere fact of
a driver being on the wrong side of the road would not be evidence of
negligence in such a case.

The "rule of the road" given above is peculiar to the United Kingdom.
Cooley's treatise on the _American Law of Torts_ states that "the custom
of the country, in some states enacted into statute law, requires that
when teams approach and are about to pass on the highway, each shall
keep to the right of the centre of the travelled portion of the road."
This also appears to be the general rule on the continent of Europe.

By the Lights on Vehicles Act 1907, all vehicles on highways in England
and Wales must display to the front a white light during the period
between one hour after sunset and one hour before sunrise. Locomotives
and motor cars, being dealt with by special acts, are excluded from the
operation of the act, as are bicycles and tricycles (dealt with by the
Local Government Act 1888), and vehicles drawn or propelled by hand, but
every machine or implement drawn by animals comes within the act. There
are two exceptions: (1) vehicles carrying inflammable goods in the
neighbourhood of places where inflammable goods are stored, and (2)
vehicles engaged in harvesting. The public have a right to pass along a
highway freely, safely and conveniently, and any wrongful act or
omission which prevents them doing so is a nuisance, for the prevention
and abatement of which the highways and other acts contain provisions.
Generally, nuisance to highway may be caused by encroachment, by
interfering with the soil of the highway, by attracting crowds, by
creating danger or inconvenience on or near the highway, by placing
obstacles on the highway, by unreasonable user, by offences against
decency and good order, &c.

The use of locomotives, motor cars and other vehicles on highways is
regulated by acts of 1861-1903.

Formerly under the Turnpike Acts many of the more important highways
were placed under the management of boards of commissioners or trustees.
The trustees were required and empowered to maintain, repair and improve
the roads committed to their charge, and the expenses of the trust were
met by tolls levied on persons using the road. The various grounds of
exemption from toll on turnpike roads were all of a public character,
e.g. horses and carriages attending the sovereign or royal family, or
used by soldiers or volunteers in uniform, were free from toll. In
general horses and carriages used in agricultural work were free from
toll. By the Highways and Locomotives Act of 1878 disturnpiked roads
became "main roads." Ordinary highways might be declared to be "main
roads," and "main roads" be reduced to the status of ordinary highways.

In Scotland the highway system is regulated by the Roads and Bridges Act
1878 and amending acts. The management and maintenance of the highways
and bridges is vested in county road trustees, viz. the commissioners of
supply, certain elected trustees representing ratepayers in parishes and
others. One of the consequences of the act was the abolition of tolls,
statute-labour, causeway mail and other exactions for the maintenance of
bridges and highways, and all turnpike roads became highways, and all
highways became open to the public free of tolls and other exactions.
The county is divided into districts under district committees, and
county and district officers are appointed. The expenses of highway
management in each district (or parish), together with a proportion of
the general expenses of the act, are levied by the trustees by an
assessment on the lands and heritages within the district (or parish).

Highway, in the law of the states of the American Union, generally means
a lawful public road, over which all citizens are allowed to pass and
repass on foot, on horseback, in carriages and waggons. Sometimes it is
held to be restricted to county roads as opposed to town-ways. In
statutes dealing with offences connected with the highway, such as
gaming, negligence of carriers, &c., "highway" includes navigable
rivers. But in a statute punishing with death robbery on the highway,
railways were held not to be included in the term. In one case it has
been held that any way is a highway which has been used as such for
fifty years.

  See Glen, _Law Relating to Highways_; Pratt, _Law of Highways, Main
  Roads and Bridges_.



HIGINBOTHAM, GEORGE (1827-1893), chief-justice of Victoria, Australia,
sixth son of T. Higinbotham of Dublin, was born on the 19th of April
1827, and educated at the Royal School, Dungannon, and at Trinity
College, Dublin. After entering as a law student at Lincoln's Inn, and
being engaged as reporter on the _Morning Chronicle_ in 1849, he
emigrated to Victoria, where he contributed to the _Melbourne Herald_
and practised at the bar (having been "called" in 1853) with much
success. In 1850 he became editor of the _Melbourne Argus_, but resigned
in 1859 and returned to the bar. He was elected to the legislative
assembly in 1861 for Brighton as an independent Liberal, was rejected at
the general election of the same year, but was returned nine months
later. In 1863 he became attorney-general. Under his influence measures
were passed through the legislative assembly of a somewhat extreme
character, completely ignoring the rights of the legislative council,
and the government was carried on without any Appropriation Act for more
than a year. Mr Higinbotham, by his eloquence and earnestness, obtained
great influence amongst the members of the legislative assembly, but his
colleagues were not prepared to follow him as far as he desired to go.
He contended that in a constitutional colony like Victoria the secretary
of state for the colonies had no right to fetter the discretion of the
queen's representative. Mr Higinbotham did not return to power with his
chief, Sir James M'Culloch, after the defeat of the short-lived Sladen
administration; and being defeated for Brighton at the next general
election by a comparatively unknown man, he devoted himself to his
practice at the bar. Amongst his other labours as attorney-general he
had codified all the statutes which were in force throughout the colony.
In 1874 he was returned to the legislative assembly for Brunswick, but
after a few months he resigned his seat. In 1880 he was appointed a
puisne judge of the supreme court, and in 1886, on the retirement of Sir
William Stawell, he was promoted to the office of chief justice. Mr
Higinbotham was appointed president of the International Exhibition held
at Melbourne in 1888-1889, but did not take any active part in its
management. One of his latest public acts was to subscribe a sum of £10,
10s. a week towards the funds of the strikers in the great Australian
labour dispute of 1890, an act which did not meet with general approval.
He died in 1893.



HILARION, ST (c. 290-371), abbot, the first to introduce the monastic
system into Palestine. The chief source of information is a life written
by St Jerome; it was based upon a letter, no longer extant, written by
St Epiphanius, who had known Hilarion. The accounts in Sozomen are
mainly based on Jerome's _Vita_; but Otto Zöcker has shown that Sozomen
also had at his disposal authentic local traditions (see "Hilarion von
Gaza" in the _Neue Jahrbücher für deutsche Theologie_, 1894), the most
important study on Hilarion, which is written against the hypercritical
school of Weingarten and shows that Hilarion must be accepted as an
historical personage and the _Vita_ as a substantially correct account
of his career. He was born of heathen parents at Tabatha near Gaza about
290; he was sent to Alexandria for his education and there became a
convert to Christianity; about 306 he visited St Anthony and became his
disciple, embracing the eremitical life. He returned to his native place
and for many years lived as a hermit in the desert by the marshes on the
Egyptian border. Many disciples put themselves under his guidance; but
his influence must have been limited to south Palestine, for there is no
mention of him in Palladius or Cassian. In 356 he left Palestine and
went again to Egypt; but the accounts given in the _Vita_ of his travels
during the last fifteen years of his life must be taken with extreme
caution. It is there said that he went from Egypt to Sicily, and thence
to Epidaurus, and finally to Cyprus where he met Epiphanius and died in
371.

  An abridged story of his life will be found in Alban Butler's _Lives
  of the Saints_, on the 21st of October, and a critical sketch with
  full references in Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_ (ed. 3).
       (E. C. B.)



HILARIUS (HILARY[1]), ST (c. 300-367), bishop of Pictavium (Poitiers),
an eminent "doctor" of the Western Church, sometimes referred to as the
"malleus Arianorum" and the "Athanasius of the West," was born at
Poitiers about the end of the 3rd century A.D. His parents were pagans
of distinction. He received a good education, including what had even
then become somewhat rare in the West, some knowledge of Greek. He
studied, later on, the Old and New Testament writings, with the result
that he abandoned his neo-platonism for Christianity, and with his wife
and his daughter received the sacrament of baptism. So great was the
respect in which he was held by the citizens of Poitiers that about 353,
although still a married man, he was unanimously elected bishop. At that
time Arianism was threatening to overrun the Western Church; to repel
the irruption was the great task which Hilary undertook. One of his
first steps was to secure the excommunication, by those of the Gallican
hierarchy who still remained orthodox, of Saturninus, the Arian bishop
of Arles and of Ursacius and Valens, two of his prominent supporters.
About the same time he wrote to the emperor Constantius a remonstrance
against the persecutions by which the Arians had sought to crush their
opponents (_Ad Constantium Augustum liber primus_, of which the most
probable date is 355). His efforts were not at first successful, for at
the synod of Biterrae (Beziers), summoned in 356 by Constantius with
the professed purpose of settling the longstanding disputes, Hilary was
by an imperial rescript banished with Rhodanus of Toulouse to Phrygia,
in which exile he spent nearly four years. Thence, however, he continued
to govern his diocese; while he found leisure for the preparation of two
of the most important of his contributions to dogmatic and polemical
theology, the _De synodis_ or _De fide Orientalium_, an epistle
addressed in 358 to the Semi-Arian bishops in Gaul, Germany and Britain,
expounding the true views (sometimes veiled in ambiguous words) of the
Oriental bishops on the Nicene controversy, and the _De trinitate libri
xii._,[2] composed in 359 and 360, in which, for the first time, a
successful attempt was made to express in Latin the theological
subtleties elaborated in the original Greek. The former of these works
was not entirely approved by some members of his own party, who thought
he had shown too great forbearance towards the Arians; to their
criticisms he replied in the _Apologetica ad reprehensores libri de
synodis responsa_. In 359 Hilary attended the convocation of bishops at
Seleucia In Isauria, where, with the Egyptian Athanasians, he joined the
Homoiousian majority against the Arianizing party headed by Acacius of
Caesarea; thence he went to Constantinople, and, in a petition (_Ad
Constantium Augustum liber secundus_) personally presented to the
emperor in 360, repudiated the calumnies of his enemies and sought to
vindicate his trinitarian principles. His urgent and repeated request
for a public discussion with his opponents, especially with Ursacius and
Valens, proved at last so inconvenient that he was sent back to his
diocese, which he appears to have reached about 361, within a very short
time of the accession of Julian. He was occupied for two or three years
in combating Arianism within his diocese; but in 364, extending his
efforts once more beyond Gaul, he impeached Auxentius, bishop of Milan,
and a man high in the imperial favour, as heterodox. Summoned to appear
before the emperor (Valentinian) at Milan and there maintain his
charges, Hilary had the mortification of hearing the supposed heretic
give satisfactory answers to all the questions proposed; nor did his
(doubtless sincere) denunciation of the metropolitan as a hypocrite save
himself from an ignominious expulsion from Milan. In 365 he published
the _Contra Arianos vel Auxentium Mediolanensem liber_, in connexion
with the controversy; and also (but perhaps at a somewhat earlier date)
the _Contra Constantium Augustum liber_, in which he pronounced that
lately deceased emperor to have been Antichrist, a rebel against God, "a
tyrant whose sole object had been to make a gift to the devil of that
world for which Christ had suffered." Hilary is sometimes regarded as
the first Latin Christian hymn-writer, but none of the compositions
assigned to him is indisputable. The later years of his life were spent
in comparative quiet, devoted in part to the preparation of his
expositions of the Psalms (_Tractatus super Psalmos_), for which he was
largely indebted to Origen; of his _Commentarius in Evangelium
Matthaei_, a work on allegorical lines of no exegetical value; and of
his no longer extant translation of Origen's commentary on Job. While he
thus closely followed the two great Alexandrians, Origen and Athanasius,
in exegesis and Christology respectively, his work shows many traces of
vigorous independent thought. He died in 367; no more exact date is
trustworthy. He holds the highest rank among the Latin writers of his
century. Designated already by Augustine as "the illustrious doctor of
the churches," he by his works exerted an increasing influence in later
centuries; and by Pius IX. he was formally recognized as "universae
ecclesiae doctor" at the synod of Bordeaux in 1851. Hilary's day in the
Roman calendar is the 13th of January.[3]

  EDITIONS.--Erasmus (Basel, 1523, 1526, 1528); P. Coustant
  (Benedictine, Paris, 1693); Migne (_Patrol. Lat._ ix., x.). The
  _Tractatus de mysteriis_, ed. J. F. Gamurrini (Rome, 1887), and the
  _Tractatus super Psalmos_, ed. A. Zingerle in the Vienna _Corpus
  scrip. eccl. Lat._ xxii. Translation by E. W. Watson in _Nicene and
  Post-Nicene Fathers_, ix.

  LITERATURE.--The life by (Venantius) Fortunatus c. 550 is almost
  worthless. More trustworthy are the notices in Jerome (_De vir.
  illus._ 100), Sulpicius Severus (_Chron._ ii. 39-45) and in Hilary's
  own writings. H. Reinkens, _Hilarius von Poictiers_ (1864); O.
  Bardenhewer, _Patrologie_; A. Harnack, _Hist. of Dogma_, esp. vol.
  iv.; F. Loofs, in Herzog-Hauck's _Realencyk._ viii.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The name is derived from Gr. [Greek: hilaros], gay, cheerful,
    whence hilarious, hilarity.

  [2] Hilary's own title was _De fide contra Arianos_. It really deals
    less with the doctrine of the Trinity than with that of the
    Incarnation. That it is not an easy work to read is due partly to the
    nature of the subject, partly to the fact that it was issued in
    detached portions.

  [3] "Hilary" was the name of one of the four terms of the English
    legal year. These terms were abolished by the Judicature Act, 1873,
    s. 26, and "sittings" substituted. It is now the name of the sitting
    of the Supreme Court of Judicature which commences on the 11th of
    January and terminates on the Wednesday before Easter. In the Inns of
    Court, Hilary is one of the four dining terms; it begins on the 11th
    of January and ends on the 1st of February. It is also the name of
    one of the terms at the universities of Oxford (more usually "Lent
    term") and Dublin.



HILARIUS, or HILARUS (HILARY), bishop of Rome from 461 to 468, is known
to have been a deacon and to have acted as legate of Leo the Great at
the "robber" synod of Ephesus in 449. There he so vigorously defended
the conduct of Flavian in deposing Eutyches that he was thrown into
prison, whence he had great difficulty in making his escape to Rome. He
was chosen to succeed Leo on the 19th of November 461. In 465 he held at
Rome a council which put a stop to some abuses, particularly to that of
bishops appointing their own successors. His pontificate was also marked
by a successful encroachment of the papal authority on the metropolitan
rights of the French and Spanish hierarchy, and by a resistance to the
toleration edict of Anthemius, which ultimately caused it to be
recalled. Hilarius died on the 17th of November 467, and was succeeded
by Simplicius.



HILARIUS (fl. 1125), a Latin poet who is supposed to have been an
Englishman. He was one of the pupils of Abelard at his oratory of
Paraclete, and addressed to him a copy of verses with its refrain in the
vulgar tongue, "_Tort avers vos li mestre_," Abelard having threatened
to discontinue his teaching because of certain reports made by his
servant about the conduct of the scholars. Later Hilarius made his way
to Angers. His poems are contained in MS. supp. lat. 1008 of the
Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, purchased in 1837 at the sale of M. de
Rosny. Quotations from this MS. had appeared before, but in 1838 it was
edited by Champollion Figeac as _Hilarii versus et ludi_. His works
consist chiefly of light verses of the goliardic type. There are verses
addressed to an English nun named Eva, lines to Rosa, "_Ave splendor
puellarum, generosa domina_," and another poem describes the beauties of
the priory of Chaloutre la Petite, in the diocese of Sens, of which the
writer was then an inmate. One copy of satirical verses seems to aim at
the pope himself. He also wrote three miracle plays in rhymed Latin with
an admixture of French. Two of them, _Suscitatio Lazari_ and _Historia
de Daniel repraesentanda_, are of purely liturgical type. At the end of
_Lazarus_ is a stage direction to the effect that if the performance has
been given at matins, Lazarus should proceed with the _Te Deum_, if at
vespers, with the _Magnificat_. The third, _Ludus super iconia Sancti
Nicholai_, is founded on a sufficiently foolish legend. Petit de
Julleville sees in the play a satiric intention and a veiled incredulity
that put the piece outside the category of liturgical drama.

  A rhymed Latin account of a dispute in which the nuns of Ronceray at
  Angers were concerned, contained in a cartulary of Ronceray, is also
  ascribed to the poet, who there calls himself Hilarius Canonicus. The
  poem is printed in the _Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes_ (vol.
  xxxvii. 1876), and is dated by P. Marchegay from 1121. See also a
  notice in _Hist. litt. de la France_ (xii. 251-254), supplemented (in
  xx. 627-630), s.v. Jean Bodel, by Paulin Paris; also Wright,
  _Biographia Britannica literaria, Anglo-Norman Period_ (1846); and
  Petit de Julleville, _Les Mystères_ (vol. i. 1880).



HILARIUS (HILARY), ST (c. 403-449), bishop of Arles, was born about 403.
In early youth he entered the abbey of Lérins, then presided over by his
kinsman Honoratus (St Honoré), and succeeded Honoratus in the bishopric
of Arles in 429. Following the example of St Augustine, he is said to
have organized his cathedral clergy into a "congregation," devoting a
great part of their time to social exercises of ascetic religion. He
held the rank of metropolitan of Vienne and Narbonne, and attempted to
realize the sort of primacy over the church of south Gaul which seemed
implied in the vicariate granted to his predecessor Patroclus (417).
Hilarius deposed the bishop of Besançon (Chelidonus), for ignoring this
primacy, and for claiming a metropolitan dignity for Besançon. An appeal
was made to Rome, and Leo I. used it to extinguish the Gallican
vicariate (A.D. 444). Hilarius was deprived of his rights as
metropolitan to consecrate bishops, call synods, or exercise
ecclesiastical oversight in the province, and the pope secured the edict
of Valentinian III., so important in the history of the Gallican church,
"ut episcopis Gallicanis omnibusque pro lege esset quidquid apostolicae
sedis auctoritas sanxisset." The papal claims were made imperial law,
and violation of them subject to legal penalties (_Novellae Valent._
iii. tit. 16). Hilarius died in 449, and his name was afterwards
introduced into the Roman martyrology for commemoration on the 5th of
May. He enjoyed during his lifetime a high reputation for learning and
eloquence as well as for piety; his extant works (_Vita S. Honorati
Arelatensis episcopi_ and _Metrum in Genesin_) compare favourably with
any similar literary productions of that period.

  A poem, _De Providentia_, usually included among the writings of
  Prosper, is sometimes attributed to Hilary of Arles.



HILDA, ST, strictly Hild (614-680), was the daughter of Hereric, a
nephew of Edwin, king of Northumbria. She was converted to Christianity
before 633 by the preaching of Paulinus. According to Bede she took the
veil in 614, when Oswio was king of Northumbria and Aidan bishop of
Lindisfarne, and spent a year in East Anglia, where her sister Hereswith
had married Æthelhere, who was to succeed his brother Anna, the reigning
king. In 648 or 649 Hilda was recalled to Northumbria by Aidan, and
lived for a year in a small monastic community north of the Wear. She
then succeeded Heiu, the foundress, as abbess of Hartlepool, where she
remained several years. From Hartlepool Hilda moved to Whitby, where in
657 she founded the famous double monastery which in the time of the
first abbess included among its members five future bishops, Bosa, Ætta,
Oftfor, John and Wilfrid II. as well as the poet Cædmon. Hilda exercised
great influence in Northumbria, and ecclesiastics from all over
Christian England and from Strathclyde and Dalriada visited her
monastery. In 655 after the battle of Winwæd Oswio entrusted his
daughter Ælfled to Hilda, with whom she went to Whitby. At the synod of
Whitby in 664 Hilda sided with Colman and Cedd against Wilfrid. In spite
of the defeat of the Celtic party she remained hostile to Wilfrid until
679 at any rate. Hilda died in 680 after a painful illness lasting for
seven years.

  See Bede, _Hist. eccl._ (ed. C. Plummer, Oxford, 1869), iii. 24, 25,
  iv. 23; Eddius, _Vita Wilfridi_ (Raine, _Historians of Church of
  York_, Rolls Series, vol. i., 1879), c. liv.



HILDBURGHAUSEN, a town of Germany, in the duchy of Saxe-Meiningen,
situated in a wide and fruitful valley on the river Werra, 19 m. S.E. of
Meiningen, on the railway Eisenach-Lichtenfels. Pop. (1905) 7456. The
principal buildings are a ducal palace, erected 1685-1695, now used as
barracks, with a park in which there is a monument to Queen Louisa of
Prussia, the old town hall, two Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church
and a theatre. A technical college occupies the premises in which
Meyer's Bibliographisches Institut carried on business from 1828, when
it removed hither from Gotha, until 1874, when it was transferred to
Leipzig. A monument has been erected to those citizens who died in the
Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71. The manufactures include linen fabrics,
cloth, toys, buttons, optical instruments, agricultural machines,
knives, mineral waters, condensed soups and condensed milk.
Hildburghausen (in records _Hilpershusia_ and _Villa Hilperti_) belonged
in the 13th century to the counts of Henneberg, from whom it passed to
the landgraves of Thuringia and then to the dukes of Saxony. In 1683 it
became the capital of a principality which in 1826 was united to
Saxe-Meiningen.

  See R. A. Human, _Chronik der Stadt Hildburghausen_ (Hildburghausen,
  1888).



HILDEBERT, HYDALBERT, GILDEBERT or ALDEBERT (c. 1055-1133), French
writer and ecclesiastic, was born of poor parents at Lavardin, near
Vendôme, and was intended for the church. He was probably a pupil of
Berengarius of Tours, and became master (_scholasticus_) of the school
at Le Mans; in 1091 he was made archdeacon and in 1096 bishop of Le
Mans. He had to face the hostility of a section of his clergy and also
of the English king, William II., who captured Le Mans and carried the
bishop with him to England for about a year. Hildebert then travelled to
Rome and sought permission to resign his bishopric, which Pope Paschal
II. refused. In 1116 his diocese was thrown into great confusion owing
to the preaching of Henry of Lausanne, who was denouncing the higher
clergy, especially the bishop. Hildebert compelled him to leave the
neighbourhood of Le Mans, but the effects of his preaching remained. In
1125 Hildebert was translated very unwillingly to the archbishopric of
Tours, and there he came into conflict with the French king Louis VI.
about the rights of ecclesiastical patronage and with the bishop of Dol
about the authority of his see in Brittany. He presided over the synod
of Nantes, and died at Tours probably on the 18th of December 1133.
Hildebert, who built part of the cathedral at Le Mans, has received from
some writers the title of saint, but there appears to be no authority
for this. He was not a man of very strict life; his contemporaries,
however, had a very high opinion of him and he was called _egregius
versificator_.

The extant writings of Hildebert consist of letters, poems, a few
sermons, two lives and one or two treatises. An edition of his works
prepared by the Maurist, Antoine Beaugendre, and entitled _Venerabilis
Hildeberti, primo Cenomannensis episcopi, deinde Turonensis
archiepiscopi, opera tam edita quam inedita_, was published in Paris in
1708 and was reprinted with additions by J. J. Bourassé in 1854. These
editions, however, are very faulty. They credit Hildebert with numerous
writings which are the work of others, while some genuine writings are
omitted. The revelation of this fact has affected Hildebert's position
in the history of medieval thought. His standing as a philosopher rested
upon his supposed authorship of the important _Tractatus theologicus_;
but this is now regarded as the work of Hugh of St Victor, and
consequently Hildebert can hardly be counted among the philosophers. His
genuine writings include many letters. These _Epistolae_ enjoyed great
popularity in the 12th and 13th centuries, and were frequently used as
classics in the schools of France and Italy. Those which concern the
struggle between the emperor Henry V. and Pope Paschal II. have been
edited by E. Sackur and printed in the _Monumenta Germaniae historica.
Libelli de lite ii._ (1893). His poems, which deal with various
subjects, are disfigured by many defects of style and metre, but they
too were very popular. Hildebert attained celebrity also as a preacher
both in French and Latin, but only a few of his sermons are in
existence, most of the 144 attributed to him by his editors being the
work of Peter Lombard and others. The _Vitae_ written by Hildebert are
the lives of Hugo, abbot of Cluny, and of St Radegunda. Undoubtedly
genuine is also his _Liber de querimonia et conflictu carnis et spiritus
seu animae_. Hildebert was an excellent Latin scholar, being acquainted
with Cicero, Ovid and other authors, and his spirit is rather that of a
pagan than of a Christian writer.

  See B. Hauréau, _Les Mélanges poétiques d'Hildebert de Lavardin_
  (Paris, 1882), and _Notices et extraits de quelques manuscrits latins
  de la Bibliothèque nationale_ (Paris, 1890-1893); Comte P. de
  Déservillers, _Un Évêque au XII^e siècle, Hildebert et son temps_
  (Paris, 1876); E. A. Freeman, _The Reign of Rufus_, vol. ii. (Oxford,
  1882); tome xi. of the _Histoire littéraire de la France_, and H.
  Böhmer in Band viii. of Herzog-Hauck's _Realencyklopädie_ (1900). The
  most important work, however, to be consulted is L. Dieudonné's
  _Hildebert de Lavardin, évêque du Mans, archévêque de Tours. Sa vie,
  ses lettres_ (Paris, 1898).



HILDEBRAND, LAY OF (_Das Hildebrandslied_), a unique example of Old
German alliterative poetry, written about the year 800 on the first and
last pages of a theological manuscript, by two monks of the monastery of
Fulda. The fragment, or rather fragments, only extend to sixty-eight
lines, and the conclusion of the poem is wanting. The theory propounded
by Karl Lachmann, that the poem had been written in its present form
from memory, has been discredited by later philological investigation;
it is clearly a transcript of an older original, which the copyists--or
more probably the writer to whom we owe the older version--imperfectly
understood. The language of the poem shows a curious mixture of Low and
High German forms; as the High German elements point to the dialect of
Fulda, the inference is that the copyists were reproducing an originally
Low German lay in the form in which it was sung in Franconia.

The fragment is mainly taken up with a dialogue between Hildebrand and
his son Hadubrand. When Hildebrand followed his master, Theodoric the
Great, who was fleeing eastwards before Odoacer, he left his young wife
and an infant child behind him. At his return to his old home, after
thirty years' absence among the Huns, he is met by a young warrior and
challenged to single combat. Before the fight begins, Hildebrand asks
for the name of his opponent, and discovering his own son in him, tries
to avert the fight, but in vain; Hadubrand only regards the old man's
words as the excuse of cowardice. "In sharp showers the ashen spears
fall on the shields, and then the warriors seize their swords and hew
vigorously at the white shields until these are beaten to pieces...."
With these words the fragment breaks off abruptly, giving no clue as to
the issue of the combat. There is little doubt, however, that, as in the
Old Norse _Asmundar saga_, where the tale is alluded to, the fight must
have been fatal to Hadubrand. But in the later traditions, both of the
Old Norse _Thidreks saga_ (13th century), and the so-called _Jüngere
Hildebrandslied_--a German popular lay, preserved in several versions
from the 15th to the 17th century--Hadubrand is simply represented as
defeated, and obliged to recognize his father. The Old High German
_Hildebrandslied_ is dramatically conceived, and written in a terse,
vigorous style; it is the only remnant that has come down from early
Germanic times of an undoubtedly extensive ballad literature, dealing
with the national sagas.

  The MS. of the _Hildebrandslied_, originally in Fulda, is now
  preserved in the Landesbibliothek at Cassel. The literature on the
  poem will be found most conveniently in K. Müllenhoff and W. Scherer,
  _Denkmäler deutscher Poesie und Prosa aus dem VIII. bis XI. Jahrh._,
  3rd ed. (1892), and in W. Braune, _Althochdeutsches Lesebuch_, 5th ed.
  (1902), to which authorities the reader is referred for a critical
  text. The poem was discovered and first printed (as prose) by J. G.
  von Eckhart, _Commentarii de rebus Franciae orientalis_ (1729), i. 864
  ff.; the first scholarly edition was that of the brothers Grimm
  (1812). Facsimile reproductions of the MS. have been published by W.
  Grimm (1830), E. Sievers (1872), G. Könnecke in his _Bilderatlas_
  (1887; 2nd ed., 1895) and M. Enneccerus (1897). See also K. Lachmann,
  _Über das Hildebrandslied_ (1833) in _Kleine Schriften_, i. 407 ff.;
  C. W. M. Grein, _Das Hildebrandslied_ (1858; 2nd ed., 1880); O.
  Schröder, _Bemerkungen zum Hildebrandslied_ (1880); H. Möller, _Zur
  althochdeutschen Alliterationspoesie_ (1888); R. Heinzel, _Über die
  ostgotische Heldensage_ (1889); B. Busse, "Sagengeschichtliches zum
  Hildebrandslied," in Paul und Braune's _Beiträge_, xxvi. (1901), pp. 1
  ff.; R. Koegel, _Geschichte der deutschen Literatur bis zum Ausgang
  des Mittelalters_, i. (1894), pp. 210 ff.; and R. Koegel and W.
  Brückner, in Paul's _Grundriss der germanischen Philologie_, 2nd ed.,
  ii. (1901), pp. 71 ff.     (J. G. R.)



HILDEBRANDT, EDUARD (1818-1868), German painter, was born in 1818, and
served as apprentice to his father, a house-painter at Danzig. He was
not twenty when he came to Berlin, where he was taken in hand by Wilhelm
Krause, a painter of sea pieces. Several early pieces exhibited after
his death--a breakwater, dated 1838, ships in a breeze off Swinemünde
(1840), and other canvases of this and the following year--show
Hildebrandt to have been a careful student of nature, with inborn
talents kept down by the conventionalisms of the formal school to which
Krause belonged. Accident made him acquainted with masterpieces of
French art displayed at the Berlin Academy, and these awakened his
curiosity and envy. He went to Paris, where, about 1842, he entered the
atelier of Isabey and became the companion of Lepoittevin. In a short
time he sent home pictures which might have been taken for copies from
these artists. Gradually he mastered the mysteries of touch and the
secrets of effect in which the French at this period excelled. He also
acquired the necessary skill in painting figures, and returned to
Germany, skilled in the rendering of many kinds of landscape forms. His
pictures of French street life, done about 1843, while impressed with
the stamp of the Paris school, reveal a spirit eager for novelty, quick
at grasping, equally quick at rendering, momentary changes of tone and
atmosphere. After 1843 Hildebrandt, under the influence of Humboldt,
extended his travels, and in 1864-1865 he went round the world. Whilst
his experience became enlarged his powers of concentration broke down.
He lost the taste for detail in seeking for scenic breadth, and a fatal
facility of hand diminished the value of his works for all those who
look for composition and harmony of hue as necessary concomitants of
tone and touch. In oil he gradually produced less, in water colours
more, than at first, and his fame must rest on the sketches which he
made in the latter form, many of them represented by chromo-lithography.
Fantasies in red, yellow and opal, sunset, sunrise and moonshine,
distances of hundreds of miles like those of the Andes and the Himalaya,
narrow streets in the bazaars of Cairo or Suez, panoramas as seen from
mastheads, wide cities like Bombay or Pekin, narrow strips of desert
with measureless expanses of sky--all alike display his quality of
bravura. Hildebrandt died at Berlin on the 25th of October 1868.



HILDEBRANDT, THEODOR (1804-1874), German painter, was born at Stettin.
He was a disciple of the painter Schadow, and, on Schadow's appointment
to the presidency of a new academy in the Rhenish provinces in 1828,
followed that master to Düsseldorf. Hildebrandt began by painting
pictures illustrative of Goethe and Shakespeare; but in this form he
followed the traditions of the stage rather than the laws of nature. He
produced rapidly "Faust and Mephistopheles" (1824), "Faust and Margaret"
(1825), and "Lear and Cordelia" (1828). He visited the Netherlands with
Schadow in 1829, and wandered alone in 1830 to Italy; but travel did not
alter his style, though it led him to cultivate alternately eclecticism
and realism. At Düsseldorf, about 1830, he produced "Romeo and Juliet,"
"Tancred and Clorinda," and other works which deserved to be classed
with earlier paintings; but during the same period he exhibited (1829)
the "Robber" and (1832) the "Captain and his Infant Son," examples of an
affected but kindly realism which captivated the public, and marked to a
certain extent an epoch in Prussian art. The picture which made
Hildebrandt's fame is the "Murder of the Children of King Edward"
(1836), of which the original, afterwards frequently copied, still
belongs to the Spiegel collection at Halberstadt. Comparatively late in
life Hildebrandt tried his powers as an historical painter in pictures
representing Wolsey and Henry VIII., but he lapsed again into the
romantic in "Othello and Desdemona." After 1847 Hildebrandt gave himself
up to portrait-painting, and in that branch succeeded in obtaining a
large practice. He died at Düsseldorf in 1874.



HILDEGARD, ST (1098-1179), German abbess and mystic, was born of noble
parents at Böckelheim, in the countship of Sponheim, in 1098, and from
her eighth year was educated at the Benedictine cloister of
Disibodenberg by Jutta, sister of the count of Sponheim, whom she
succeeded as abbess in 1136. From earliest childhood she was accustomed
to see visions, which increased in frequency and vividness as she
approached the age of womanhood; these, however, she for many years kept
almost secret, nor was it until she had reached her forty-third year
(1141) that she felt constrained to divulge them. Committed to writing
by her intimate friend the monk Godefridus, they now form the first and
most important of her printed works, entitled _Scivias_ (probably an
abbreviation for "sciens vias" or "nosce vias Domini") _s. visionum et
revelatianum libri iii._, and completed in 1151. In 1147 St Bernard of
Clairvaux, while at Bingen preaching the new crusade, heard of
Hildegard's revelations, and became so convinced of their reality that
he not only wrote to her a letter cordially acknowledging her as a
prophetess of God, but also successfully advocated her recognition as
such by his friend and former pupil Pope Eugenius III. in the synod of
Trèves (1148). In the same year Hildegard migrated along with eighteen
of her nuns to a new convent on the Rupertsberg near Bingen, over which
she presided during the remainder of her life. By means of voluminous
correspondence, as well as by extensive journeys, in the course of
which she was unwearied in the exercise of her gift of prophecy, she
wielded for many years an increasing influence upon her
contemporaries--an influence doubtless due to the fact that she was
imbued with the most widely diffused feelings and beliefs, fears and
hopes, of her time. Amongst her correspondents were Popes Anastasius IV.
and Adrian IV., the emperors Conrad III. and Frederick I., and also the
theologian Guibert of Gembloux, who submitted numerous questions in
dogmatic theology for her determination. She died in 1179, but has never
been canonized; her name, however, was received into the Roman
martyrology in the 15th century, September 17th being the day fixed for
her commemoration.

  Her biography, which was written by two contemporaries, Godefridus and
  Theodoricus, was first printed at Cologne in 1566. Hildegard's
  writings, besides the _Scivias_ already mentioned and first printed in
  Paris in 1513, include the _Liber divinorum operum_, _Explanatio
  regulae S. Benedicti_, _Physica_ and _the Letters_, &c., are contained
  in Migne, _Patr. Lat._ t. cxcvii., and in Cardinal Pitra's _Analecta
  sacra spicilegio Solesmensi parata; Nova S. Hildegardis opera_ (Paris,
  1882).

  For a modern study of the saint's writings, see _Sainte Hildegarde_ by
  Pal Franche, "_Les Saints_" series (Paris, 1903); and U. Chevalier,
  _Répertoire des sources historiques, bio.-bibl._ 2153.



HILDEN, a town in the Prussian Rhine province on the Itter, 9 m. S.E. of
Düsseldorf by rail. Pop. (1905) 13,946. It possesses an Evangelical and
a Roman Catholic church and a monument to the emperor William I. Its
manufactures include silks, velvets, carpets, calico-printing, machinery
and brick-making.



HILDESHEIM, a town and episcopal see of Germany, in the Prussian
province of Hanover, beautifully situated at the north foot of the Harz
Mountains, on the right bank of the Innerste, 18 m. S.E. of Hanover by
railway, and on the main line from Berlin, via Magdeburg to Cologne.
Pop. (1885) 20,386, (1905) 47,060. The town consists of an old and a new
part, and is surrounded by ramparts which have been converted into
promenades. Its streets are for the most part narrow and irregular, and
contain many old houses with overhanging upper storeys and richly and
curiously adorned wooden façades. Its religious edifices are five Roman
Catholic and four Evangelical churches and a synagogue. The most
interesting is the Roman Catholic cathedral, which dates from the middle
of the 11th century and occupies the site of a building founded by the
emperor Louis the Pious early in the 9th century. It is famous for its
antiquities and works of art. These include the bronze doors executed by
Bishop Bernward, with reliefs from the history of Adam and of Jesus
Christ; a brazen font of the 13th century; two large candelabra of the
11th century; the sarcophagus of St Godehard; and the tomb of St
Epiphanius. In the cathedral also there is a bronze column 15 ft. high,
adorned with reliefs from the life of Christ and dating from 1022, and
another column, at one time thought to be an Irminsäule erected in
honour of the Saxon idol Irmin, but now regarded as belonging to a Roman
aqueduct. On the wall of the Romanesque crypt, which was restored in
1896, is a rose-bush, alleged to be a thousand years old; this sends its
branches to a height of 24 ft. and a breadth of 30 ft., and they are
trained to interlace one of the windows. Before the cathedral is the
pretty cloister garth, with the chapel of St Anne, erected in 1321 and
restored in 1888. The Romanesque church of St Godehard was built in the
12th century and restored in the 19th. The church of St Michael, founded
by Bishop Bernward early in the 11th century and restored after injury
by fire in 1186, contains a unique painted ceiling of the 12th century,
the sarcophagus and monument of Bishop Bernward, and a bronze font; it
is now a Protestant parish church, but the crypt is used by the Roman
Catholics. The church of the Magdalene possesses two candelabra, a gold
cross, and various other works in metal by Bishop Bernward; and the
Lutheran church of St Andrew has a choir dating from 1389 and a tower
385 ft. high. In the suburb of Moritzberg there is an abbey church
founded in 1040, the only pure columnar basilica in north Germany.

The chief secular buildings are the town-hall (Rathaus), which dates
from the 15th century and was restored in 1883-1892, adorned with
frescoes illustrating the history of the city; the Tempelherrenhaus, in
Late Gothic erroneously said to have been built by the Knights Templars;
the Knochenhaueramthaus, formerly the gild-house of the butchers, which
was restored after being damaged by fire in 1884, and is probably the
finest specimen of a wooden building in Germany; the Michaelis
monastery, used as a lunatic asylum; and the old Carthusian monastery.
The Römer museum of antiquities and natural history is housed in the
former church of St Martin; the buildings of Trinity hospital, partly
dating from the 14th century, are now a factory; and the Wedekindhaus
(1598) is now a savings-bank. The educational establishments include a
Roman Catholic and a Lutheran gymnasium, a Roman Catholic school and
college and two technical institutions, the Georgstift for daughters of
state servants and a conservatoire of music. Hildesheim is the seat of
considerable industry. Its chief productions are sugar, tobacco and
cigars, stoves, machines, vehicles, agricultural implements and bricks.
Other trades are brewing and tanning. It is connected with Hanover by an
electric tram line, 19 m. in length.

Hildesheim owes its rise and prosperity to the fact that in 822 it was
made the seat of the bishopric which Charlemagne had founded at Elze a
few years before. Its importance was greatly increased by St Bernward,
who was bishop from 993 to 1022 and walled the town. By his example and
patronage the art of working in metals was greatly stimulated. In the
13th century Hildesheim became a free city of the Empire; in 1249 it
received municipal rights and about the same time it joined the
Hanseatic league. Several of its bishops belonged to one or other of the
great families of Germany; and gradually they became practically
independent. The citizens were frequently quarrelling with the bishops,
who also carried on wars with neighbouring princes, especially with the
house of Brunswick-Lüneburg, under whose protection Hildesheim placed
itself several times. The most celebrated of these struggles is the one
known as the _Hildesheimer Stiftsfehde_, which broke out early in the
16th century when John, duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, was bishop. At first the
bishop and his allies were successful, but in 1521 the king of Denmark
and the duke of Brunswick overran his lands and in 1523 he made peace,
surrendering nearly all his possessions. Much, however, was restored
when Ferdinand, prince of Bavaria, was bishop (1612-1650), as this
warlike prelate took advantage of the disturbances caused by the Thirty
Years' War to seize the lost lands, and at the beginning of the 19th
century the extent of the prince bishopric was 682 sq. m. In 1801 the
bishopric was secularized and in 1803 was granted to Prussia; in 1807 it
was incorporated with the kingdom of Westphalia and in 1813 was
transferred to Hanover. In 1866, along with Hanover, it was annexed by
Prussia. In 1803 a new bishopric of Hildesheim, a spiritual organization
only, was established, and this has jurisdiction over all the Roman
Catholic churches in the centre of north Germany.

In October 1868 a unique collection of ancient Augustan silver plate was
discovered on the Galgenberg near Hildesheim by some soldiers who were
throwing up earthworks. This _Hildesheimer Silberfund_ excited great
interest among classical archaeologists. Some authorities think that it
is the actual plate which belonged to Drusus himself. The most
noteworthy pieces are a crater richly ornamented with arabesques and
figures of children, a platter with a representation of Minerva, another
with one of the boy Hercules and another with one of Cybele. The
collection is in the Kunstgewerbemuseum in Berlin.

  See the _Urkundenbuch der Stadt Hildesheim_, edited by R. Döbner
  (Hildesheim, 1881-1901); the _Urkundenbuch des Hochstifts Hildesheim_,
  edited by K. Janicke and H. Hoogeweg (Leipzig and Hanover, 1896-1903);
  C. Bauer, _Geschichte von Hildesheim_ (Hildesheim, 1892); A. Bertram,
  _Geschichte des Bistums Hildesheim_ (Hildesheim, 1899 fol.); C.
  Euling, _Hildesheimer Land und Leute des 16ten Jahrhunderts_
  (Hildesheim, 1892); O. Fischer, _Die Stadt Hildesheim während des
  dreissigjährigen Krieges_ (Hildesheim, 1897); A. Grebe, _Auf
  Hildesheimschem Boden_ (Hildesheim, 1884); H. Cuno, _Hildesheims
  Künstler im Mittelalter_ (Hildesheim, 1886); W. Wachsmuth,
  _Geschichte von Hochstift und Stadt Hildesheim_ (Hildesheim, 1863); R.
  Döbner, _Studien zur Hildesheimischen Geschichte_ (Hildesheim, 1901);
  Lachner, _Die Holzarchitektur Hildesheims_ (Hildesheim, 1882);
  Seifart, _Sagen, Märchen, Schwänke und Gebräuche aus Stadt und Stift
  Hildesheims_ (Hildesheim, 1889). For the _Hildesheimer Stiftsfehde_,
  see H. Delius, _Die Hildesheimische Stiftsfehde_ 1519 (Leipzig, 1803).
  For the _Hildesheimer Silberfund_, see Wieseler, _Der Hildesheimer
  Silberfund_ (Göttingen, 1869); Holzer, _Der Hildesheimer antike
  Silberfund_ (Hildesheim, 1871); and E. Pernice and F. Winter, _Der
  Hildesheimer Silberfund der königlichen Museen zu Berlin_ (Berlin,
  1901).



HILDRETH, RICHARD (1807-1865), American journalist and author, was born
at Deerfield, Massachusetts, on the 28th of June 1807, the son of Hosea
Hildreth (1782-1835), a teacher of mathematics and later a
Congregational minister. Richard graduated at Harvard in 1826, and,
after studying law at Newburyport, was admitted to the bar at Boston in
1830. He had already taken to journalism, and in 1832 he became joint
founder and editor of a daily newspaper, the Boston Atlas. Having in
1834 gone to the South for the benefit of his health, he was led by what
he witnessed of the evils of slavery (chiefly in Florida) to write the
anti-slavery novel _The Slave: or Memoir of Archy Moore_ (1836; enlarged
edition, 1852, _The White Slave_). In 1837 he wrote for the _Atlas_ a
series of articles vigorously opposing the annexation of Texas. In the
same year he published _Banks, Banking, and Paper Currencies_, a work
which helped to promote the growth of the free banking system in
America. In 1838 he resumed his editorial duties on the _Atlas_, but in
1840 removed, on account of his health, to British Guiana, where he
lived for three years and was editor of two weekly newspapers in
succession at Georgetown. He published in this year (1840) a volume in
opposition to slavery, _Despotism in America_ (2nd ed., 1854). In 1849
he published the first three volumes of his _History of the United
States_, two more volumes of which were published in 1851 and the sixth
and last in 1852. The first three volumes of this history, his most
important work, deal with the period 1492-1789, and the second three
with the period 1789-1821. The history is notable for its painstaking
accuracy and candour, but the later volumes have a strong Federalist
bias. Hildreth's _Japan as It Was and Is_ (1855) was at the time a
valuable digest of the information contained in other works on that
country (new ed., 1906). He also wrote a campaign biography of William
Henry Harrison (1839); _Theory of Morals_ (1844); and _Theory of
Politics_ (1853), as well as _Lives of Atrocious Judges_ (1856),
compiled from Lord Campbell's two works. In 1861 he was appointed United
States consul at Trieste, but ill-health compelled him to resign and
remove to Florence, where he died on the 11th of July 1865.



HILGENFELD, ADOLF BERNHARD CHRISTOPH (1823-1907), German Protestant
divine, was born at Stappenbeck near Salzwedel in Prussian Saxony on the
2nd of June 1823. He studied at Berlin and Halle, and in 1890 became
professor ordinarius of theology at Jena. He belonged to the Tübingen
school. "Fond of emphasizing his independence of Baur, he still, in all
important points, followed in the footsteps of his master; his method,
which he is wont to contrast as _Literarkritik_ with Baur's
_Tendenzkritik_, is nevertheless essentially the same as Baur's" (Otto
Pfleiderer). On the whole, however, he modified the positions of the
founder of the Tübingen school, going beyond him only in his
investigations into the Fourth Gospel. In 1858 he became editor of the
_Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Theologie_. He died on the 12th of
January 1907.

  His works include: _Die elementarischen Recognitionen und Homilien_
  (1848); _Die Evangelien und die Briefe des Johannes nach ihrem
  Lehrbegriff_ (1849); _Das Markusevangelium_ (1850); _Die Evangelien
  nach ihrer Entstehung und geschichtlichen Bedeutung_ (1854); _Das
  Unchristentum_ (1855); _Jüd. Apokalyptik_ (1857); _Novum Testamentum
  extra canonem receptum_ (4 parts, 1866; 2nd ed., 1876-1884);
  _Histor.-kritische Einleitung in das Neue Testament_ (1875); _Acta
  Apostolorum graece et latine secundum antiquissimos testes_ (1899);
  the first complete edition of the _Shepherd of Hermas_ (1887);
  _Ignatii et Polycarpi epistolae_ (1902).



HILL, AARON (1685-1750), English author, was born in London on the 10th
of February 1685. He was the son of George Hill of Malmesbury Abbey,
Wiltshire, who contrived to sell an estate entailed on his son. In his
fourteenth year he left Westminster School to go to Constantinople,
where William, Lord Paget de Beaudesert (1637-1713), a relative of his
mother, was ambassador. Paget sent him, under care of a tutor, to travel
in Palestine and Egypt, and he returned to England in 1703. He was
estranged from his patron by the "envious fears and malice of a certain
female," and again went abroad as companion to Sir William Wentworth. On
his return home in 1709 he published _A Full and Just Account of the
Present State of the Ottoman Empire_, a production of which he was
afterwards much ashamed, and he addressed his poem of _Camillus_ to
Charles Mordaunt, earl of Peterborough. In the same year he is said to
have been manager of Drury Lane theatre and in 1710 of the Haymarket.
His first play, _Elfrid: or The Fair Inconstant_ (afterwards revised as
_Athelwold_), was produced at Drury Lane in 1709. His connexion with the
theatre was of short duration, and the rest of his life was spent in
ingenious commercial enterprises, none of which were successful, and in
literary pursuits. He formed a company to extract oil from beechmast,
another for the colonization of the district to be known later as
Georgia, a third to supply wood for naval construction from Scotland,
and a fourth for the manufacture of potash. In 1730 he wrote _The
Progress of Wit, being a caveat for the use of an Eminent Writer_. The
"eminent writer" was Pope, who had introduced him into _The Dunciad_ as
one of the competitors for the prize offered by the goddess of Dullness,
though the satire was qualified by an oblique compliment. A note in the
edition of 1729 on the obnoxious passage, in which, however, the
original initial was replaced by asterisks, gave Hill great offence. He
wrote to Pope complaining of his treatment, and received a reply in
which Pope denied responsibility for the notes. Hill appears to have
been a persistent correspondent, and inflicted on Pope a series of
letters, which are printed in Elwin & Courthope's edition (x. 1-78).
Hill died on the 8th of February 1750, and was buried in Westminster
Abbey. The best of his plays were _Zara_ (acted 1735) and _Merope_
(1749), both adaptations from Voltaire. He also published two series of
periodical essays, _The Prompter_ (1735) and, with William Bond, _The
Plaindealer_ (1724). He was generous to fellow-men of letters, and his
letters to Richard Savage, whom he helped considerably, show his
character in a very amiable light.

  _The Works of the late Aaron Hill, consisting of letters ..., original
  poems.... With an essay on the Art of Acting_ appeared in 1753, and
  his _Dramatic Works_ in 1760. His _Poetical Works_ are included in
  Anderson's and other editions of the British poets. A full account of
  his life is provided by an anonymous writer in Theophilus Cibber's
  _Lives of the Poets_, vol. v.



HILL, AMBROSE POWELL (1825-1865), American Confederate soldier, was born
in Culpeper county, Virginia, on the 9th of November 1825, and graduated
from West Point in 1847, being appointed to the 1st U.S. artillery. He
served in the Mexican and Seminole Wars, was promoted first lieutenant
in September 1851, and in 1855-1860 was employed on the United States'
coast survey. In March 1861, just before the outbreak of the Civil War,
he resigned his commission, and when his state seceded he was made
colonel of a Virginian infantry regiment, winning promotion to the rank
of brigadier-general on the field of Bull Run. In the Peninsular
campaign of 1862 he gained further promotion, and as a major-general
Hill was one of the most prominent and successful divisional commanders
of Lee's army in the Seven Days', Second Bull Run, Antietam and
Fredericksburg campaigns. His division formed part of "Stonewall"
Jackson's corps, and he was severely wounded in the flank attack of
Chancellorsville in May 1863. After Jackson's death Hill was made a
lieutenant-general and placed in command of the 3rd corps of Lee's army,
which he led in the Gettysburg campaign of 1863, the autumn campaign of
the same year, and the Wilderness and Petersburg operations of 1864-65.
He was killed in front of the Petersburg lines on the 2nd of April 1865.
His reputation as a troop leader in battle was one of the highest
amongst the generals of both sides, and both Lee and Jackson, when on
their death-beds their thoughts wandered in delirium to the battlefield,
called for "A. P. Hill" to deliver the decisive blow.



HILL, DANIEL HARVEY (1821-1889), American Confederate soldier, was born
in York district, South Carolina, on the 12th of July 1821, and
graduated at the United States Military Academy in 1842, being appointed
to the 1st United States artillery. He distinguished himself in the
Mexican War, being breveted captain and major for bravery at Contreras
and Churubusco and at Chapultepec respectively. In February 1849 he
resigned his commission and became a professor of mathematics at
Washington College (now Washington and Lee University), Lexington,
Virginia. In 1854 he joined the faculty of Davidson College, North
Carolina, and was in 1859 made superintendent of the North Carolina
Military Institute of Charlotte. At the outbreak of the Civil War, D. H.
Hill was made colonel of a Confederate infantry regiment, at the head of
which he won the action of Big Bethel, near Fortress Monroe, Va., on the
10th of June 1861. Shortly after this he was made a brigadier-general.
He took part in the Yorktown and Williamsburg operations in the spring
of 1862, and as a major-general led a division with great distinction in
the battle of Fair Oaks and the Seven Days. He took part in the Second
Bull Run campaign in August-September 1862, and in the Antietam campaign
the stubborn resistance of D. H. Hill's division in the passes of South
Mountain enabled Lee to concentrate for battle. The division bore a
conspicuous part in the battles of the Antietam and Fredericksburg. On
the reorganization of the army of Northern Virginia after Jackson's
death, D. H. Hill was not appointed to a corps command, but somewhat
later in 1863 he was sent to the west as a lieutenant-general and
commanded one of Bragg's corps in the brilliant victory of Chickamauga.
D. H. Hill surrendered with Gen. J. E. Johnston on the 26th of April
1865. In 1866-1869 he edited a magazine, _The Land we Love_, at
Charlotte, N.C., which dealt with social and historical subjects and had
a great influence in the South. In 1877 he became president of the
university of Arkansas, a post which he held until 1884, and in 1885
president of the Military and Agricultural College of Milledgeville,
Georgia. General Hill died at Charlotte, N.C., on the 24th of September
1889.



HILL, DAVID BENNETT (1843-1910), American politician, was born at
Havana, New York, on the 29th of August 1843. In 1862 he removed to
Elmira, New York, where in 1864 he was admitted to the bar. He at once
became active in the affairs of the Democratic party, attracting the
attention of Samuel J. Tilden, one of whose shrewdest and ablest
lieutenants he became. In 1871 and 1872 he was a member of the New York
State Assembly, and in 1877 and again in 1881, presided over the
Democratic State Convention. In 1882 he was elected mayor of Elmira, and
in the same year was chosen lieutenant-governor of the state, having
been defeated for nomination as governor by Grover Cleveland. In January
1885, however, Cleveland having resigned to become president, Hill
became governor, and in November was elected for a three-year term, and
subsequently re-elected. In 1891-1897 he was a member of the United
States Senate. During these years, and in 1892, when he tried to get the
presidential nomination, he was prominent in working against Cleveland.
In 1896 he opposed the free silver plank in the platform adopted by the
Democratic National Convention which nominated W. J. Bryan; in the
National Convention of 1900, however, the free-silver issue having been
subordinated to anti-imperialism, he seconded Bryan's nomination. After
1897 he devoted himself to his law practice, and in 1905 retired from
politics. He died in Albany on the 30th of October 1910.



HILL, GEORGE BIRKBECK NORMAN (1835-1903), English author, son of Arthur
Hill, head master of Bruce Castle school, was born at Tottenham,
Middlesex, on the 7th of June 1835. Arthur Hill, with his brothers
Rowland Hill, the postal reformer, and Matthew Davenport Hill,
afterwards recorder of Birmingham, had worked out a system of education
which was to exclude compulsion of any kind. The school at Bruce Castle,
of which Arthur Hill was head master, was founded to carry into
execution their theories, known as the Hazelwood system. George Birkbeck
Hill was educated in his father's school and at Pembroke College,
Oxford. In 1858 he began to teach at Bruce Castle school, and from 1868
to 1877 was head master. In 1869 he became a regular contributor to the
_Saturday Review_, with which he remained in connexion until 1884. On
his retirement from teaching he devoted himself to the study of English
18th-century literature, and established his reputation as the most
learned commentator on the works of Samuel Johnson. He settled at Oxford
in 1887, but from 1891 onwards his winters were usually spent abroad. He
died at Hampstead, London, on the 27th of February 1903. His works
include: _Dr Johnson, his Friends and his Critics_ (1878); an edition of
Boswell's _Correspondence_ (1879); a laborious edition of _Boswell's
Life of Johnson, including Boswell's Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides,
and Johnson's Diary of a Journey into North Wales_ (Clarendon Press, 6
vols., 1887); _Wit and Wisdom of Samuel Johnson_ (1888); _Select Essays
of Dr Johnson_ (1889); _Footsteps of Dr Johnson in Scotland_ (1890);
_Letters of Johnson_ (1892); _Johnsonian Miscellanies_ (2 vols., 1897);
an edition (1900) of Edward Gibbon's _Autobiography_; Johnson's _Lives
of the Poets_ (3 vols., 1905), and other works on the 18th-century
topics. Dr Birkbeck Hill's elaborate edition of Boswell's _Life_ is a
monumental work, invaluable to the student.

  See a memoir by his nephew, Harold Spencer Scott, in the edition of
  the _Lives of the English Poets_ (1905), and the _Letters_ edited by
  his daughter, Lucy Crump, in 1903.



HILL, JAMES J. (1838-   ), American railway capitalist, was born near
Guelph, Ontario, Canada, on the 16th of September 1838, and was educated
at Rockwood (Ont.) Academy, a Quaker institution. In 1856 he settled in
St Paul, Minnesota. Abandoning, because of his father's death, his plans
to study medicine, he became a clerk in the office of a firm of river
steamboat agents and shippers, and later the agent for a line of river
packets; he established about 1870 transportation lines on the
Mississippi and on the Red River (of the North). He effected a traffic
arrangement between the St Paul Pacific Railroad and his steamboat
lines; and when the railway failed in 1873 for $27,000,000, Hill
interested Sir Donald A. Smith (Lord Strathcona), George Stephen (Lord
Mount Stephen), and other Canadian capitalists, in the road and in the
wheat country of the Red River Valley; he got control of the bonds
(1878), foreclosed the mortgage, reorganized the road as the St Paul,
Minneapolis & Manitoba, and began to extend the line, then only 380 m.
long, toward the Pacific; and in 1883 he became its president. He was
president of the Great Northern Railway (comprehending all his secondary
lines) from 1893 to April 1907, when he became chairman of its board of
directors. In the extension (1883-1893) of this railway westward to
Puget Sound (whence it has direct steamship connexions with China and
Japan), the line was built by the company itself, none of the work being
handled by contractors. Subsequently his financial interests in American
railways caused constant sensations in the stock-markets. The Hill
interests obtained control not only of the Great-Northern system, but of
the Northern Pacific and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, and proposed
the construction of another northern line to the Pacific coast. Hill was
the president of the Northern Securities Company, which in 1904 was
declared by the United States Supreme Court to be in conflict with the
Sherman Anti-Trust Law. (See Vol. 27, p. 733.) Among Hill's gifts to
public institutions was one of $500,000 to the St. Paul Theological
Seminary (Roman Catholic).



HILL, JOHN (c. 1716-1775), called from his Swedish honours, "Sir" John
Hill, English author, son of the Rev. Theophilus Hill, is said to have
been born in Peterborough in 1716. He was apprenticed to an apothecary
and on the completion of his apprenticeship he set up in a small shop in
St Martin's Lane, Westminster. He also travelled over the country in
search of rare herbs, with a view to publishing a _hortus siccus_, but
the plan failed. His first publication was a translation of
Theophrastus's _History of Stones_ (1746). From this time forward he was
an indefatigable writer. He edited the _British Magazine_ (1746-1750),
and for two years (1751-1753) he wrote a daily letter, "The Inspector,"
for the _London Advertiser and Literary Gazette_. He also produced
novels, plays and scientific works, and was a large contributor to the
supplement of Ephraim Chambers's _Cyclopaedia_. His personal and
scurrilous writings involved him in many quarrels. Henry Fielding
attacked him in the _Covent Garden Journal_, Christopher Smart wrote a
mock-epic, _The Hilliad_, against him, and David Garrick replied to his
strictures against him by two epigrams, one of which runs:--

  "For physics and farces, his equal there scarce is;
   His farces are physic, his physic a farce is."

He had other literary passages-at-arms with John Rich, who accused him
of plagiarizing his _Orpheus_, also with Samuel Foote and Henry
Woodward. From 1759 to 1775 he was engaged on a huge botanical
work--_The Vegetable System_ (26 vols. fol.)--adorned by 1600
copperplate engravings. Hill's botanical labours were undertaken at the
request of his patron, Lord Bute, and he was rewarded by the order of
Vasa from the king of Sweden in 1774. He had a medical degree from
Edinburgh, and he now practised as a quack doctor, making considerable
sums by the preparation of vegetable medicines. He died in London on the
21st of November 1775.

  Of the seventy-six separate works with which he is credited in the
  _Dictionary of National Biography_, the most valuable are those that
  deal with botany. He is said to have been the author of the second
  part of _The Oeconomy of Human Life_ (1751), the first part of which
  is by Lord Chesterfield, and Hannah Glasse's famous manual of cookery
  was generally ascribed to him (see Boswell, ed. Hill, iii. 285). Dr
  Johnson said of him that he was "an ingenious man, but had no
  veracity."

  See a _Short Account of the Life, Writings and Character of the late
  Sir John Hill_ (1779), which is chiefly occupied with a descriptive
  catalogue of his works; also _Temple Bar_ (1872, xxxv. 261-266).



HILL, MATTHEW DAVENPORT (1792-1872), English lawyer and penologist, was
born on the 6th of August 1792, at Birmingham, where his father, T. W.
Hill, for long conducted a private school. He was a brother of Sir
Rowland Hill. He early acted as assistant in his father's school, but in
1819 was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn. He went the midland
circuit. In 1832 he was elected one of the Liberal members for
Kingston-upon-Hull, but he lost his seat at the next election in 1834.
On the incorporation of Birmingham in 1839 he was chosen recorder; and
in 1851 he was appointed commissioner in bankruptcy for the Bristol
district. Having had his interest excited in questions relating to the
treatment of criminal offenders, he ventilated in his charges to the
grand juries, as well as in special pamphlets, opinions which were the
means of introducing many important reforms in the methods of dealing
with crime. One of his principal coadjutors in these reforms was his
brother Frederick Hill (1803-1896), whose _Amount, Causes and Remedies
of Crime_, the result of his experience as inspector of prisons for
Scotland, marked an era in the methods of prison discipline. Hill was
one of the chief promoters of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful
Knowledge, and the originator of the _Penny Magazine_. He died at
Stapleton, near Bristol, on the 7th of June 1872.

  His principal works are _Practical Suggestions to the Founders of
  Reformatory Schools_ (1855); _Suggestions for the Repression of Crime_
  (1857), consisting of charges addressed to the grand juries of
  Birmingham; _Mettray_ (1855); _Papers on the Penal Servitude Acts_
  (1864); _Journal of a Third Visit to the Convict Gaols, Refuges and
  Reformatories of Dublin_ (1865); _Addresses delivered at the
  Birmingham and Midland Institute_ (1867). See _Memoir of Matthew
  Davenport Hill_, by his daughters Rosamond and Florence Davenport Hill
  (1878).



HILL, OCTAVIA (1838-   ) and MIRANDA (1836-1910), English philanthropic
workers, were born in London, being daughters of Mr James Hill and
granddaughters of Dr Southwood Smith, the pioneer of sanitary reform.
Miss Octavia Hill's attention was early drawn to the evils of London
housing, and the habits of indolence and lethargy induced in many of the
lower classes by their degrading surroundings. She conceived the idea of
trying to free a few poor people from such influences, and Mr Ruskin,
who sympathized with her plans, supplied the money for starting the
work. For £750 Miss Hill purchased the 56 years' lease of three houses
in one of the poorest courts of Marylebone. Another £78 was spent in
building a large room at the back of her own house where she could meet
the tenants. The houses were put in repair, and let out in sets of two
rooms. At the end of eighteen months it was possible to pay 5%
interest, to repay £48 of the capital, as well as meet all expenses for
taxes, ground rent and insurance. What specially distinguished this
scheme was that Miss Hill herself collected the rents, thus coming into
contact with the tenants and helping to enforce regular and
self-respecting habits. The success of her first attempt encouraged her
to continue. Six more houses were bought and treated in a similar
manner. A yearly sum was set aside for the repairs of each house, and
whatever remained over was spent on such additional appliances as the
tenants themselves desired. This encouraged them to keep their tenements
in good repair. By the help of friends Miss Hill was now enabled to
enlarge the scope of her work. In 1869 eleven more houses were bought.
The plan was to set a visitor over a small court or block of buildings
to do whatever work in the way of rent-collecting, visiting for the
School Board, &c., was required. As years went on Miss Octavia Hill's
work was largely increased. Numbers of her friends bought and placed
under her care small groups of houses, over which she fulfilled the
duties of a conscientious landlord. Several large owners of tenement
houses, notably the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, entrusted to her the
management of such property, and consulted her about plans of
rebuilding; and a number of fellow-workers were trained by her in the
management of houses for the poor. The results in Southwark (where Red
Cross Hall was established) and elsewhere were very beneficial. Both
Miss Miranda and Miss Octavia Hill took an interest in the movement for
bringing beauty into the homes of the poor, and the former was
practically the founder of the Kyrle Society, the first suggestion of
which was contained in a paper read to a small circle of friends. Both
sisters worked for the preservation of open spaces, and helped to
promote the work of the Charity Organization Society, and for several
years Miss Miranda Hill (who died on the 31st of May 1910) did admirable
work in Marylebone as a member of the Board of Guardians.



HILL, ROWLAND (1744-1833), English preacher, sixth son of Sir Rowland
Hill, Bart. (d. 1783), was born at Hawkstone, Shropshire, on the 23rd of
August 1744. He was educated at Shrewsbury, Eton and St John's College,
Cambridge. Stimulated by George Whitefield's example, he scandalized the
university authorities and his own friends by preaching and visiting the
sick before he had taken orders. In 1773 he was appointed to the parish
of Kingston, Somersetshire, where he soon attracted great crowds to his
open-air services. Having inherited considerable property, he built for
his own use Surrey Chapel, in the Blackfriars Road, London (1783). Hill
conducted his services in accordance with the forms of the Church of
England, in whose communion he always remained. Both at Surrey Chapel
and in his provincial "gospel tours" he had great success. His oratory
was specially adapted for rude and uncultivated audiences. He possessed
a voice of great power, and according to Southey "his manner" was "that
of a performer as great in his own line as Kean or Kemble." His earnest
and pure purposes more than made up for his occasional lapses from good
taste and the eccentricity of his wit. He helped to found the Religious
Tract Society, the British and Foreign Bible Society, and the London
Missionary Society, and was a stout advocate of vaccination. His
best-known work is the _Village Dialogues_, which first appeared in
1810, and reached a 34th edition in 1839. He died on the 11th of April
1833.

  See _Life_ by E. Sidney (1833); _Memoirs_, by William Jones (1834);
  and _Memorials_, by Jas. Sherman (1857).



HILL, SIR ROWLAND (1795-1879), English administrator, author of the
penny postal system, a younger brother of Matthew Davenport Hill, and
third son of T. W. Hill, who named him after Rowland Hill the preacher,
was born on the 3rd of December 1795 at Kidderminster. As a young child
he had, on account of an affection of the spine, to maintain a recumbent
position, and his principal method of relieving the irksomeness of his
situation was to repeat figures aloud consecutively until he had reached
very high totals. A similar bent of mind was manifested when he entered
school in 1802, his aptitude for mathematics being quite exceptional.
But he was indebted for the direction of his abilities in no small
degree to the guidance of his father, a man of advanced political and
social views, which were qualified and balanced by the strong practical
tendency of his mind. At the age of twelve Rowland began to assist in
teaching mathematics in his father's school at Hilltop, Birmingham, and
latterly he had the chief management of the school. On his suggestion
the establishment was removed in 1819 to Hazelwood, a more commodious
building in the Hagley Road, in order to have the advantages of a large
body of boys, for the purpose of properly carrying out an improved
system of education. That system, which was devised principally by
Rowland, was expounded in a pamphlet entitled _Plans for the Government
and Education of Boys in Large Numbers_, the first edition of which
appeared in 1822, and a second with additions in 1827. The principal
feature of the system was "to leave as much as possible all power in the
hands of the boys themselves"; and it was so successful that, in a
circular issued six years after the experiment had been in operation, it
was announced that "the head master had never once exercised his right
of veto on their proceedings." It may be said that Rowland Hill, as an
educationist, is entitled to a place side by side with Arnold of Rugby,
and was equally successful with him in making moral influence of the
highest kind the predominant power in school discipline. After his
marriage in 1827 Hill removed to a new school at Bruce Castle,
Tottenham, which he conducted until failing health compelled him to
retire in 1833. About this time he became secretary of Gibbon
Wakefield's scheme for colonizing South Australia, the objects of which
he explained in 1832 in a pamphlet on _Home Colonies_, afterwards partly
reprinted during the Irish famine under the title _Home Colonies for
Ireland_. It was in 1835 that his zeal as an administrative reformer was
first directed to the postal system. The discovery which resulted from
these investigations is when stated so easy of comprehension that there
is great danger of losing sight of its originality and thoroughness. A
fact which enhances its merit was that he was not a post-office
official, and possessed no practical experience of the details of the
old system. After a laborious collection of statistics he succeeded in
demonstrating that the principal expense of letter carriage was in
receiving and distributing, and that the cost of conveyance differed so
little with the distance that a uniform rate of postage was in reality
the fairest to all parties that could be adopted. Trusting also that the
deficiency in the postal rate would be made up by the immense increase
of correspondence, and by the saving which would be obtained from
prepayment, from improved methods of keeping accounts, and from
lessening the expense of distribution, he in his famous pamphlet
published in 1837 recommended that within the United Kingdom the rate
for letters not exceeding half an ounce in weight should be only one
penny. The employment of postage stamps is mentioned only as a
suggestion, and in the following words: "Perhaps the difficulties might
be obviated by using a bit of paper just large enough to bear the stamp,
and covered at the back with a glutinous wash which by applying a little
moisture might be attached to the back of the letter." Proposals so
striking and novel in regard to a subject in which every one had a
personal interest commanded immediate and general attention. So great
became the pressure of public opinion against the opposition offered to
the measure by official prepossessions and prejudices that in 1838 the
House of Commons appointed a committee to examine the subject. The
committee having reported favourably, a bill to carry out Hill's
recommendations was brought in by the government. The act received the
royal assent in 1839, and after an intermediate rate of four-pence had
been in operation from the 5th of December of that year, the penny rate
commenced on the 10th of January 1840. Hill received an appointment in
the Treasury in order to superintend the introduction of his reforms,
but he was compelled to retire when the Liberal government resigned
office in 1841. In consideration of the loss he thus sustained, and to
mark the public appreciation of his services, he was in 1846 presented
with the sum of £13,360. On the Liberals returning to office in the
same year he was appointed secretary to the postmaster-general and in
1854 he was made chief secretary. His ability as a practical
administrator enabled him to supplement his original discovery by
measures realizing its benefits in a degree commensurate with
continually improving facilities of communication, and in a manner best
combining cheapness with efficiency. In 1860 his services were rewarded
with the honour of knighthood; and when failing health compelled him to
resign his office in 1864, he received from parliament a grant of
£20,000 and was also allowed to retain his full salary of £2000 a year
as retiring pension. In 1864 the university of Oxford conferred on him
the degree of D.C.L., and on the 6th of June 1879 he was presented with
the freedom of the city of London. The presentation, on account of his
infirm health, took place at his residence at Hampstead, and he died on
the 27th of August following. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  He wrote, in conjunction with his brother, Arthur Hill, a _History of
  Penny Postage_, published in 1880, with an introductory memoir by his
  nephew, G. Birkbeck Hill. See also _Sir Rowland Hill, the Story of a
  Great Reform_, told by his daughter (1907). To commemorate his memory
  the Rowland Hill Memorial and Benevolent Fund was founded shortly
  after his death for the purpose of relieving distressed persons
  connected with the post office who were outside the scope of the
  Superannuation Act. See also POST AND POSTAL SERVICE.



HILL, ROWLAND HILL, 1ST VISCOUNT (1772-1842), British general, was the
second son of (Sir) John Hill, of Hawkstone, Shropshire, and nephew of
the Rev. Rowland Hill (1744-1833), was born at Prees Hall near Hawkstone
on the 11th of August 1772. He was gazetted to the 38th regiment in
1790, obtaining permission at the same time to study in a military
academy at Strassburg, where he continued after removing into the 53rd
regiment with the rank of lieutenant in 1791. In the beginning of 1793
he raised a company, and was promoted to the rank of captain. The same
year he acted as assistant secretary to the British minister at Genoa,
and served with distinction as a staff officer in the siege of Toulon.
Hill took part in many minor expeditions in the following years. In
1800, when only twenty-eight, he was made a brevet colonel, and in 1801
he served with distinction in Sir Ralph Abercromby's expedition to
Egypt, and was wounded at the battle of Alexandria. He continued to
command his regiment, the 90th, until 1803, when he became a
brigadier-general. During his regimental command he introduced a
regimental school and a sergeants' mess. He held various commands as
brigadier, and after 1805 as major-general, in Ireland. In 1805 he
commanded a brigade in the abortive Hanover expedition. In 1808 he was
appointed to a brigade in the force sent to Portugal, and from Vimeira
to Vittoria, in advance or retreat, he proved himself Wellington's
ablest and most indefatigable coadjutor. He led a brigade at Vimeira, at
Corunna and at Oporto, and a division at Talavera (see PENINSULAR WAR).
His capacity for independent command was fully demonstrated in the
campaigns of 1810, 1811 and 1812. In 1811 he annihilated a French
detachment under Girard at Arroyo-dos-Molinos, and early in 1812, having
now attained a rank of lieutenant-general (January 1812) and become a
K.B. (March), he carried by assault the important works of Almaraz on
the Tagus. Hill led the right wing of Wellington's army in the Salamanca
campaign in 1812 and at the battle of Vittoria in 1813. Later in this
year he conducted the investment of Pampeluna and fought with the
greatest distinction at the Nivelle and the Nive. In the invasion of
France in 1814 his corps was victoriously engaged both at Orthez and at
Toulouse. Hill was one of the general officers rewarded for their
services by peerages, his title being at first Baron Hill of Almaraz and
Hawkstone, and he received a pension, the thanks of parliament and the
freedom of the city of London. For about two years previous to his
elevation to the peerage, he had been M.P. for Shrewsbury. In 1815 the
news of Napoleon's return from Elba was followed by the assembly of an
Anglo-Allied army (see WATERLOO CAMPAIGN) in the Netherlands, and Hill
was appointed to one of the two corps commands in this army. At Waterloo
he led the famous charge of Sir Frederick Adams's brigade against the
Imperial Guard, and for some time it was thought that he had fallen in
the mêlée. He escaped, however, without a wound, and continued with the
army in France until its withdrawal in 1818. Hill lived in retirement
for some years at his estate of Hardwicke Grange. He carried the royal
standard at the coronation of George IV. and became general in 1825.
When Wellington became premier in 1828, he received the appointment of
general commanding-in-chief, and on resigning this office in 1842 he was
created a viscount. He died on the 10th of December of the same year.
Lord Hill was, next to Wellington, the most popular and able soldier of
his time in the British service, and was so much beloved by the troops,
especially those under his immediate command, that he gained from them
the title of "the soldier's friend." He was a G.C.B, and G.C.H., and
held the grand crosses of various foreign orders, amongst them the
Russian St George and the Austrian Maria Theresa.

  The _Life of Lord Hill, G.C.B._, by Rev. Edwin Sidney, appeared in
  1845.



HILL (O. Eng. _hyll_; cf. Low Ger. _hull_, Mid. Dutch _hul_, allied to
Lat. _celsus_, high, _collis_, hill, &c.), a natural elevation of the
earth's surface. The term is now usually confined to elevations lower
than a mountain, but formerly was used for all such elevations, high or
low.



HILLAH, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in the pashalik of Bagdad, 60 m. S. of
the city of Bagdad, in 32° 2´ 35´´ N., 44° 48´ 40½´´ E., formerly the
capital of a sanjak and the residence of a mutasserif, who in 1893 was
transferred to Diwanieh. It is situated on both banks of the Euphrates,
the two parts of the town being connected by a floating bridge, 450 ft.
in length, in the midst of a very fertile district. The estimated
population, which includes a large number of Jews, varies from 6000 to
12,000. The town has suffered much from the periodical breaking of the
Hindieh dam and the consequent deflection of the waters of the Euphrates
to the westward, as a result of which at times the Euphrates at this
point has been entirely dry. This deflection of water has also seriously
interfered with the palm groves, the cultivation of which constitutes a
large part of the industry of the surrounding country along the river.
The bazaars of Hillah are relatively large and well supplied. Many of
the houses in the town are built of brick, not a few bearing an
inscription of Nebuchadrezzar, obtained from the ruins of Babylon, which
lie less than an hour away to the north.

  Bibliography.--C. J. Rich, _Babylon and Persepolis_ (1839); J. R.
  Peters, _Nippur_ (1857); H. Rassam, _Asshur and the Land of Nimrod_
  (1897); H. V. Geere, _By Nile and Euphrates_ (1904).     (J. P. Pe.)



HILLARD, GEORGE STILLMAN (1808-1879), American lawyer and author, was
born at Machias, Maine, on the 22nd of September 1808. After graduating
at Harvard College in 1828, he taught in the Round Hill School at
Northampton, Massachusetts. He graduated at the Harvard Law School in
1832, and in 1833 he was admitted to the bar in Boston, where he entered
into partnership with Charles Sumner. He was a member of the state House
of Representatives in 1836, of the state Senate in 1850, and of the
state constitutional convention of 1853, and in 1866-70 was United
States district attorney for Massachusetts. He devoted a large portion
of his time to literature. He became a member of the editorial staff of
the _Christian Register_, a Unitarian weekly, in 1833; in 1834 he became
editor of The _American Jurist_ (1829-1843), a legal journal to which
Sumner, Simon Greenleaf and Theron Metcalf contributed; and from 1856 to
1861 he was an associate editor of the Boston _Courier_. His
publications include an edition of Edmund Spenser's works (in 5 vols.,
1839); _Selections from the Writings of Walter Savage Landor_ (1856);
_Six Months in Italy_ (2 vols., 1853); _Life and Campaigns of George B.
McClellan_ (1864); a part of the _Life, Letters, and Journals of George
Ticknor_ (1876); besides a series of school readers and many articles in
periodicals and encyclopaedias. He died in Boston on the 21st of January
1879.



HILLEBRAND, KARL (1829-1884), German author, was born at Giessen on the
17th of September 1829, his father Joseph Hillebrand (1788-1871) being a
literary historian and writer on philosophic subjects. Karl Hillebrand
became involved, as a student in Heidelberg, in the Baden revolutionary
movement, and was imprisoned in Rastatt. He succeeded in escaping and
lived for a time in Strassburg, Paris--where for several months he was
Heine's secretary--and Bordeaux. He continued his studies, and after
obtaining the doctor's degree at the Sorbonne, he was appointed teacher
of German in the _École militaire_ at St Cyr, and shortly afterwards,
professor of foreign literatures at Douai. On the outbreak of the
Franco-German War he resigned his professorship and acted for a time as
correspondent to _The Times_ in Italy. He then settled in Florence, where
he died on the 19th of October 1884. Hillebrand wrote with facility and
elegance in French, English and Italian, besides his own language. His
essays, collected under the title _Zeiten, Völker und Menschen_ (Berlin,
1874-1885), show clear discernment, a finely balanced cosmopolitan
judgment and grace of style. He undertook to write the _Geschichte
Frankreichs von der Thronbesteigung Ludwig Philipps bis zum Fall
Napoleons III._, but only two volumes were completed (to 1848) (2nd ed.,
1881-1882). In French he published _Des conditions de la bonne comédie_
(1863), _La Prusse contemporaine_ (1867), _Études italiennes_ (1868), and
a translation of O. Müller's _Griechische Literaturgeschichte_ (3rd ed.,
1883). In English he published his Royal Institution Lectures on _German
Thought during the Last Two Hundred Years_ (1880). He also edited a
collection of essays dealing with Italy, under the title _Italia_ (4
vols., Leipzig, 1824-1877).

  See H. Homberger, _Karl Hillebrand_ (Berlin, 1884).



HILLEL, Jewish rabbi, of Babylonian origin, lived at Jerusalem in the
time of King Herod. Though hard pressed by poverty, he applied himself
to study in the schools of Shemaiah and Abtalion (Sameas and Pollion in
Josephus). On account of his comprehensive learning and his rare
qualities he was numbered among the recognized leaders of the Pharisaic
scribes. Tradition assigns him the highest dignity of the Sanhedrin,
under the title of nasi ("prince"), about a hundred years before the
destruction of Jerusalem, i.e. about 30 B.C. The date at least can be
recognized as historic; the fact that Hillel took a leading position in
the council can also be established. The epithet _ha-zaken_ ("the
elder"), which usually accompanies his name, proves him to have been a
member of the Sanhedrin, and according to a trustworthy authority Hillel
filled his leading position for forty years, dying, therefore, about
A.D. 10. His descendants remained, with few exceptions, at the head of
Judaism in Palestine until the beginning of the 5th century, two of
them, his grandson Gamaliel I. and the latter's son Simon, during the
time when the Temple was still standing. The fact that Josephus (_Vita_
38) ascribes to Simon descent from a very distinguished stock ([Greek:
genous sphodra lamprou]), shows in what degree of estimation Hillel's
descendants stood. When the dignity of _nasi_ became afterwards
hereditary among them, Hillel's ancestry, perhaps on the ground of old
family traditions, was traced back to David. Hillel is especially noted
for the fact that he gave a definite form to the Jewish traditional
learning, as it had been developed and made into the ruling and
conserving factor of Judaism in the latter days of the second Temple,
and particularly in the centuries following the destruction of the
Temple. He laid down seven rules for the interpretation of the
Scriptures, and these became the foundation of rabbinical hermeneutics;
and the ordering of the traditional doctrines into a whole, effected in
the Mishna by his successor Judah I., two hundred years after Hillel's
death, was probably likewise due to his instigation. The tendency of his
theory and practice in matters pertaining to the Law is evidenced by the
fact that in general he advanced milder and more lenient views in
opposition to his colleague Shammai, a contrast which after the death of
the two masters, but not until after the destruction of the Temple, was
maintained in the strife kept up between the two schools named the House
of Hillel and the House of Shammai. The well-known institution of the
Prosbol ([Greek: prosbolê]), introduced by Hillel, was intended to avert
the evil consequences of the scriptural law of release in the seventh
year (Deut. xv. 1). He was led to this, as is expressly set forth (_M.
Gittin_, iv. 3), by a regard for the welfare of the community. Hillel
lived in the memory of posterity chiefly as the great teacher who
enjoined and practised the virtues of charity, humility and true piety.
His proverbial sayings, in particular, a great number of which were
written down partly in Aramaic, partly in Hebrew, strongly affected the
spirit both of his contemporaries and of the succeeding generations. In
his Maxims (_Aboth,_ i. 12) he recommends the love of peace and the love
of mankind beyond all else, and his own love of peace sprang from the
tenderness and deep humility which were essential features in his
character, as has been illustrated by many anecdotes. Hillel's patience
has become proverbial. One of his sayings commends humility in the
following paradox: "My abasement is my exaltation." His charity towards
men is given its finest expression in the answer which he made to a
proselyte who asked to be taught the commandments of the Torah in the
shortest possible form: "What is unpleasant to thyself that do not to
thy neighbour; this is the whole Law, all else is but its exposition."
This allusion to the scriptural injunction to love one's neighbour (Lev.
xix. 18) as the fundamental law of religious morals, became in a certain
sense a commonplace of Pharisaic scholasticism. For the Pharisee who
accepts the answer of Jesus regarding that fundamental doctrine which
ranks the love of one's neighbour as the highest duty after the love of
God (Mark xii. 33), does so because as a disciple of Hillel the idea is
familiar to him. St Paul also (Gal. v. 14) doubtless learned this in the
school of Gamaliel. Hillel emphasized the connexion between duty towards
one's neighbour and duty towards oneself in the epigrammatic saying: "If
I am not for myself, who is for me? And if I am for myself alone, what
then am I? And if not now, then when?" (_Aboth_, i. 14). The duty of
working both with and for men he teaches in the sentence: "Separate not
thyself from the congregation" (_ib._ ii. 4). The duty of considering
oneself part of common humanity, of not differing from others by any
peculiarity of behaviour, he sums up in the words: "Appear neither naked
nor clothed, neither sitting nor standing, neither laughing nor weeping"
(_Tosef. Ber._ c. ii.). The command to love one's neighbour inspired
also Hillel's injunction (_Aboth_, ii. 4): "Judge not thy neighbour
until thou art in his place" (cf. Matt. vii. 1). The disinterested
pursuit of learning, study for study's sake, is commended in many of
Hillel's sayings as being what is best in life: "He who wishes to make a
name for himself loses his name; he who does not increase [his
knowledge] decreases it; he who does not learn is worthy of death; he
who works for the sake of a crown is lost" (_Aboth_, i. 13). "He who
occupies himself much with learning makes his life" (_ib._ ii. 7). "He
who has acquired the words of doctrine has acquired the life of the
world to come" (_ib._). "Say not: When I am free from other occupations
I shall study; for may be thou shalt never at all be free" (_ib._ 4).
One of his strings of proverbs runs as follows: "The uncultivated man is
not innocent; the ignorant man is not devout; the bashful man learns
not; the wrathful man teaches not; he who is much absorbed in trade
cannot become wise; where no men are, there strive thyself to be a man"
(_ib._ 5). The almost mystical profundity of Hillel's consciousness of
God is shown in the words spoken by him on the occasion of a feast in
the Temple--words alluding to the throng of people gathered there which
he puts into the mouth of God Himself: "If I am here every one is here;
if I am not here no one is here" (_Sukkah_ 53a). In like manner Hillel
makes God say to Israel, referring to Exodus xx. 24: "Whither I please,
thither will I go; if thou come into my house I come into thy house; if
thou come not into my house, I come not into thine" (_ib._).

It is noteworthy that no miraculous legends are connected with Hillel's
life. A scholastic tradition, however, tells of a voice from heaven
which made itself heard when the wise men had assembled in Jericho,
saying: "Among those here present is one who would have deserved the
Holy Spirit to rest upon him, if his time had been worthy of it." And
all eyes turned towards Hillel (_Tos. Sotah_, xiii. 3). When he died
lamentation was made for him as follows: "Woe for the humble, woe for
the pious, woe for the disciple of Ezra!" (_ib._)

  HILLEL II., one of the patriarchs belonging to the family of Hillel
  I., lived in Tiberias about the middle of the 4th century, and
  introduced the arrangement of the calendar through which the Jews of
  the Diaspora became independent of Palestine in the uniform fixation
  of the new moons and feasts.

  The Rabbi HILLEL, who in the 4th century made the remarkable
  declaration that Israel need not expect a Messiah, because the promise
  of a Messiah had already been fulfilled in the days of King Hezekiah
  (Babli, _Sanhedrin_, 99a), is probably Hillel, the son of Samuel ben
  Nahman, a well-known expounder of the scriptures.     (W. Ba.)



HILLER, FERDINAND (1811-1885), German composer, was born at
Frankfort-on-Main, on the 24th of October 1811. His first master was
Aloys Schmitt, and when he was ten years of age his compositions and
talent led his father, a well-to-do man, to send him to Hummel in
Weimar. There he devoted himself to composition, among his work being
the entr'actes to _Maria Stuart_, through which he made Goethe's
acquaintance. Under Hummel, Hiller made great strides as a pianist, so
much so that early in 1827 he went on a tour to Vienna, where he met
Beethoven and produced his first quartet. After a brief visit home
Hiller went to Paris in 1829, where he lived till 1836. His father's
death necessitated his return to Frankfort for a time, but on the 8th of
January 1839 he produced at Milan his opera _La Romilda_, and began to
write his oratorio _Die Zerstörung Jerusalems_, one of his best works.
Then he went to Leipzig, to his friend Mendelssohn, where in 1843-1844
he conducted a number of the Gewandhaus concerts and produced his
oratorio. After a further visit to Italy to study sacred music, Hiller
produced two operas, _Ein Traum_ and _Conradin_, at Dresden in 1845 and
1847 respectively; he went as conductor to Düsseldorf in 1847 and
Cologne in 1850, and conducted at the Opéra Italien in Paris in 1851 and
1852. At Cologne he became a power as conductor of the Gürzenich
concerts and head of the Conservatorium. In 1884 he retired, and died on
the 12th of May in the following year. Hiller frequently visited
England. He composed a work for the opening of the Royal Albert Hall,
his _Nala and Damayanti_ was performed at Birmingham, and he gave a
series of pianoforte recitals of his own compositions at the Hanover
Square Rooms in 1871. He had a perfect mastery over technique and form
in musical composition, but his works are generally dry. He was a sound
pianist and teacher, and occasionally a brilliant writer on musical
matters. His compositions, numbering about two hundred, include six
operas, two oratorios, six or seven cantatas, much chamber music and a
once-popular pianoforte concerto.



HILLER, JOHANN ADAM (1728-1804), German musical composer, was born at
Wendisch-Ossig near Görlitz in Silesia on the 25th of December 1728. By
the death of his father in 1734 he was left dependent to a large extent
on the charity of friends. Entering in 1747 the Kreuzschule in Dresden,
the school attended many years afterwards by Richard Wagner, he
subsequently went to the university of Leipzig, where he studied
jurisprudence, supporting himself by giving music lessons, and also by
performing at concerts both on the flute and as a vocalist. Gradually he
adopted music as his sole profession, and devoted himself more
especially to the permanent establishment of a concert institute at
Leipzig. It was he who in 1781 originated the celebrated Gewandhaus
concerts which still flourish at Leipzig. In 1789 he became "cantor" of
the Thomas school there, a position previously held by John Sebastian
Bach. He died in Leipzig on the 16th of June 1804. Two of his pupils
placed a monument to his memory in front of the Thomas school. Hiller's
compositions comprise almost every kind of church music, from the
cantata to the simple chorale. But much more important are his
operettas, 14 in number, which for a long time retained their place on
the boards, and had considerable influence on the development of light
dramatic music in Germany. The _Jolly Cobbler_, _Love in the Country_
and the _Village Barber_ were amongst the most popular of his works.
Hiller also excelled in sentimental songs and ballads. With great
simplicity of structure his music combines a considerable amount of
genuine melodic invention. Although an admirer and imitator of the
Italian school, Hiller fully appreciated the greatness of Handel, and
did much for the appreciation of his music in Germany. It was under his
direction that the _Messiah_ was for the first time given at Berlin,
more than forty years after the composition of that great work. Hiller
was also a writer on music, and for some years (1766-1770) edited a
musical weekly periodical named _Wöchentliche Nachrichten und
Anmerkungen die Musik betreffend_.



HILLIARD, LAWRENCE (d. 1640), English miniature painter. The date of his
birth is not known, but he died in 1640. He was the son of Nicholas
Hilliard, and evidently derived his Christian name from that of his
grandmother. He adopted his father's profession and worked out the
unexpired time of his licence after Nicholas Hilliard died. It was from
Lawrence Hilliard that Charles I. received the portrait of Queen
Elizabeth now at Montagu House, since van der Dort's catalogue describes
it as "done by old Hilliard, and bought by the king of young Hilliard."
In 1624 he was paid £42 from the treasury for five pictures, but the
warrant does not specify whom they represented. His portraits are of
great rarity, two of the most beautiful being those in the collections
of Earl Beauchamp and Mr J. Pierpont Morgan. They are as a rule signed
L.H., but are also to be distinguished by the beauty of the calligraphy
in which the inscriptions round the portraits are written. The writing
is as a rule very florid, full of exquisite curves and flourishes, and
more elaborate than the more formal handwriting of Nicholas Hilliard.
The colour scheme adopted by the son is richer and more varied than that
used by the father, and Lawrence Hilliard's miniatures are not so hard
as are those of Nicholas, and are marked by more shade and a greater
effect of atmosphere.     (G. C. W.)



HILLIARD, NICHOLAS (c. 1537-1619), the first true English miniature
painter, is said to have been the son of Richard Hilliard of Exeter,
high sheriff of the city and county in 1560, by Lawrence, daughter of
John Wall, goldsmith, of London, and was born probably about 1537. He
was appointed goldsmith, carver and portrait painter to Queen Elizabeth,
and engraved the Great Seal of England in 1586. He was in high favour
with James I. as well as with Elizabeth, and from the king received a
special patent of appointment, dated the 5th of May 1617, and granting
him a sole licence for the royal work for twelve years. He is believed
to have been the author of an important treatise on miniature painting,
now preserved in the Bodleian Library, but it seems more probable that
the author of that treatise was John de Critz, Serjeant Painter to James
I. It is probable, however, that the treatise was taken down from the
instructions of Hilliard, for the benefit of one of his pupils, perhaps
Isaac Oliver.

The esteem of his countrymen for Hilliard is testified to by Dr Donne,
who in a poem called "The Storm" (1597) praises the work of this artist.
He painted a portrait of himself at the age of thirteen, and is said to
have executed one of Mary queen of Scots when he was eighteen years old.
He died on the 7th of January 1619, and was buried in St
Martin's-in-the-Fields, Westminster, leaving by his will twenty
shillings to the poor of the parish, £30 between his two sisters, some
goods to his maidservant, and all the rest of his effects to his son,
Lawrence Hilliard, his sole executor.

It seems to be pretty certain that he visited France, and that he is the
artist alluded to in the papers of the duc d'Alençon under the name of
"Nicholas Belliart, peintre anglois" who was painter to this prince in
1577, receiving a stipend of 200 livres. The miniature of Mademoiselle
de Sourdis, in the collection of Mr J. Pierpont Morgan, is certainly the
work of Hilliard, and is dated 1577, in which year she was a maid of
honour at the French Court; and other portraits which are his work are
believed to represent Gabrielle d'Estrées, niece of Madame de Sourdis,
la Princesse de Condé and Madame de Montgomery.

  For further information respecting Hilliard's sojourn in France, see
  the privately printed catalogue of the collection of miniatures
  belonging to Mr J. Pierpont Morgan, compiled by Dr G. C. Williamson.
       (G. C. W.)



HILLSDALE, a city and the county-seat of Hillsdale county, Michigan,
U.S.A., about 87 m. W. by S. of Detroit. Pop. (1900) 4151, of whom 300
were foreign-born; (1904) 4809; (1910) 5001. Hillsdale is served by the
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railway. It has a public library, and is
the seat of Hillsdale College (co-educational, Free Baptist), which was
opened as Michigan Central College, at Spring Arbor, Michigan, in 1844,
was removed to Hillsdale and received its present name in 1853 and was
re-opened here in 1855. The college in 1907-1908 had 22 instructors and
345 students. The city is a centre for a rich farming region; among its
manufactures are gasoline and gas engines, screen doors, wagons,
barrels, shoes, fur-coats and flour. Hillsdale was first settled in
1837, was incorporated as a village in 1847, and was chartered as a city
in 1869.



HILL TIPPERA, or TRIPURA, a native state of India, adjoining the British
district of Tippera, in Eastern Bengal and Assam. Area, 4086 sq. m.;
pop, (1901) 173,325; estimated revenue, £55,000. Six parallel ranges of
hill cross it from north to south, at an average distance of 12 m.
apart. The hills are covered for the most part with bamboo jungle, while
the low ground abounds with trees of various kinds, canebrakes and
swamps. The principal crop and food staple is rice. The other articles
of produce are cotton, chillies and vegetables. The chief exports are
cotton, timber, oilseeds, bamboo canes, thatching-grass and firewood, on
all of which tolls are levied. The chief rivers are the Gumti, Haora,
Khoyai, Dulai, Manu and Fenny (Pheni). During the heavy rains the people
in the plains use boats as almost the sole means of conveyance.

The history of the state includes two distinct periods--the traditional
period described in the _Rajmala_, or "Chronicles of the Kings of
Tippera," and the period since A.D. 1407. The _Rajmala_ is a history in
Bengali verse, compiled by the Brahmans of the court of Tripura. In the
early history of the state, the rajas were in a state of chronic feud
with all the neighbouring countries. The worship of Siva was here, as
elsewhere in India, associated with the practice of human sacrifice, and
in no part of India were more victims offered. It was not until the
beginning of the 17th century that the Moguls obtained any footing in
this country. When the East India Company obtained the _diwani_ or
financial administration of Bengal in 1765, so much of Tippera as had
been placed on the Mahommedan rent-roll came under British rule. Since
1808, each successive ruler has received investiture from the British
government. In October 1905 the state was attached to the new province
of Eastern Bengal and Assam. It has a chronological era of its own,
adopted by Raja Birraj, from whom the present raja is 93rd in descent.
The year 1875 corresponded with 1285 of the Tippera era.

Besides being the ruler of Hill Tippera, the raja holds an estate in the
British district of Tippera, called _chakla_ Roshnabad, which is far the
most valuable of his possessions. The capital is Agartala (pop. 9513),
where there is an Arts College. The raja's palace and other public
buildings were seriously damaged by the earthquake of the 12th of June
1897. The late raja, who died from the result of a motor-car accident in
1909, succeeded his father in 1896, but he had taken a large share in
the administration of the state for some years previously. The principle
of succession, which had often caused serious disputes, was defined in
1904, to the effect that the chief may nominate any male descendant
through males from himself or from any male ancestor, but failing such
nomination, then the rule of primogeniture applies.



HILTON, JOHN (1804-1878), British surgeon, was born at Castle Hedingham,
in Essex, in 1804. He entered Guy's Hospital in 1824. He was appointed
demonstrator of anatomy in 1828, assistant-surgeon in 1845, surgeon
1849. In 1867 he was president of the Royal College of Surgeons, of
which he became member in 1827 and fellow in 1843, and he also delivered
the Hunterian oration in 1867. As Arris and Gale professor (1859-1862)
he delivered a course of lectures on "Rest and Pain," which have become
classics. He was also surgeon-extraordinary to Queen Victoria. Hilton
was the greatest anatomist of his time, and was nick named "Anatomical
John." It was he who, with Joseph Towne the artist, enriched Guy's
Hospital with its unique collection of models. In his grasp of the
structure and functions of the brain and spinal cord he was far in
advance of his contemporaries. As an operator he was more cautious than
brilliant. This was doubtless due partly to his living in the
pre-anaesthetics period, and partly to his own consummate anatomical
knowledge, as is indicated by the method for opening deep abscesses
which is known by his name. But he could be bold when necessary; he was
the first to reduce a case of obturator hernia by abdominal section, and
one of the first to practise lumbar colostomy. He died at Clapham on the
14th of September 1878.



HILTON, WILLIAM (1786-1839), English painter, was born in Lincoln on the
3rd of June 1786, son of a portrait-painter. In 1800 he was placed with
the engraver J. R. Smith, and about the same time began studying in the
Royal Academy school. He first exhibited in this institution in 1803,
sending a "Group of Banditti"; and he soon established a reputation for
choice of subject, and qualities of design and colour superior to the
great mass of his contemporaries. He made a tour in Italy with Thomas
Phillips, the portrait-painter. In 1813, having exhibited "Miranda and
Ferdinand with the Logs of Wood," he was elected an associate of the
Academy, and in 1820 a full academician, his diploma-picture
representing "Ganymede." In 1823 he produced "Christ crowned with
Thorns," a large and important work, subsequently bought out of the
Chantrey Fund; this may be regarded as his masterpiece. In 1827 he
succeeded Henry Thomson as keeper of the Academy. He died in London on
the 30th of December 1839, Some of his best pictures remained on his
hands at his decease--such as the "Angel releasing Peter from Prison"
(life-size), painted in 1831, "Una with the Lion entering Corceca's
Cave" (1832), the "Murder of the Innocents," his last exhibited work
(1838), "Comus," and "Amphitrite." The National Gallery now owns "Edith
finding the Body of Harold" (1834), "Cupid Disarmed," "Rebecca and
Abraham's Servant" (1829), "Nature blowing Bubbles for her Children"
(1821), and "Sir Calepine rescuing Serena" (from the _Faerie Queen_)
(1831). In the National Portrait Gallery is his likeness of John Keats,
with whom he was acquainted. In a great school or period Hilton could
not count as more than a respectable subordinate; but in the British
school of the earlier part of the 19th century he had sufficient
elevation of aim and width of attainment to stand conspicuous.



HILVERSUM, a town in the province of North Holland, 18 m. by rail S.E.
of Amsterdam. It is connected with Amsterdam by a steam tramway, passing
by way of the small fortified towns of Naarden and Muiden on the Zuider
Zee. Pop. (1900) 20,238. It is situated in the middle of the Gooi, a
stretch of hilly country extending from the Zuider Zee to about 5 m.
south of Hilversum, and composed of pine woods and sandy heaths. A
convalescent home, the Trompenberg, was established here in 1874, and
there are a town hall, middle-class and technical schools, and various
places of worship, including a synagogue. Hilversum manufactures large
quantities of floor-cloths and horse-blankets.



HIMALAYA, the name given to the mountains which form the northern
boundary of India. The word is Sanskrit and literally signifies
"snow-abode," from _him_, snow, and _álaya_, abode, and might be
translated "snowy-range," although that expression is perhaps more
nearly the equivalent of _Himachal_, another Sanskrit word derived from
_him_, snow, and _áchal_, mountain, which is practically synonymous with
Himalaya and is often used by natives of northern India. The name was
converted by the Greeks into _Emodos_ and _Imaos_.

Modern geographers restrict the term Himalaya to that portion of the
mountain region between India and Tibet enclosed within the arms of the
Indus and the Brahmaputra. From the bend of the Indus southwards towards
the plains of the Punjab to the bend of the Brahmaputra southwards
towards the plains of Assam, through a length of 1500 m., is Himachal or
Himalaya. Beyond the Indus, to the north-west, the region of mountain
ranges which stretches to a junction with the Hindu Kush south of the
Pamirs, is usually known as Trans-Himalaya. Thus the Himalaya represents
the southern face of the great central upheaval--the plateau of
Tibet--the northern face of which is buttressed by the Kuen Lun.


  Structure of the Himalaya.

Throughout this vast space of elevated plateau and mountain face
geologists now trace a system of main chains, or axes, extending from
the Hindu Kush to Assam, arranged in approximately parallel lines, and
traversed at intervals by main lines of drainage obliquely.
Godwin-Austen indicates six of these geological axes as follows:

  1. The main Central Asian axis, the Kuen Lun forming the northern edge
  or ridge of the Tibetan plateau.

  2. The Trans-Himalayan chain of Muztagh (or Karakoram), which is lost
  in the Tibetan uplands, passing to the north of the sources of the
  Indus.

  3. The Ladakh chain, partly north and partly south of the Indus--for
  that river breaks across it about 100 m. above Leh. This chain
  continues south of the Tsanpo (or Upper Brahmaputra), and becomes part
  of the Himalayan system.

  4. The Zaskar, or main chain of the Himalaya, i.e. the "snowy range"
  _par excellence_ which is indicated by Nanga Parbat (overlooking the
  Indus), and passes in a south-east direction to the southern side of
  the Deosai plains. Thence, bending slightly south, it extends in the
  line of snowy peaks which are seen from Simla to the famous peaks of
  Gangotri and Nanda Devi. This is the best known range of the Himalaya.

  5. The outer Himalaya or Pir Panjal-Dhaoladhar ridge.

  6. The Sub-Himalaya, which is "easily defined by the fringing line of
  hills, more or less broad, and in places very distinctly marked off
  from the main chain by open valleys (dhúns) or narrow valleys,
  parallel to the main axis of the chain." These include the Siwaliks.

Interspersed between these main geological axes are many other minor
ridges, on some of which are peaks of great elevation. In fact, the
geological axis seldom coincides with the line of highest elevation, nor
must it be confused with the main lines of water-divide of the Himalaya.


  The great northern watershed of India.

On the north and north-west of Kashmir the great water-divide which
separates the Indus drainage area from that of the Yarkand and other
rivers of Chinese Turkestan has been explored by Sir F. Younghusband,
and subsequently by H. H. P. Deasy. The general result of their
investigations has been to prove that the Muztagh range, as it trends
south-eastwards and finally forms a continuous mountain barrier together
with the Karakoram, is the true water-divide west of the Tibetan
plateau. Shutting off the sources of the Indus affluents from those of
the Central Asian system of hydrography, this great water-parting is
distinguished by a group of peaks of which the altitude is hardly less
than that of the Eastern Himalaya. Mount Godwin-Austen (28,250 ft.
high), only 750 ft. lower than Everest, affords an excellent example in
Asiatic geography of a dominating, peak-crowned water-parting or divide.
From Kailas on the far west to the extreme north-eastern sources of the
Brahmaputra, the great northern water-parting of the Indo-Tibetan
highlands has only been occasionally touched. Littledale, du Rhins and
Bonvalot may have stood on it as they looked southwards towards Lhasa,
but for some 500 or 600 m. east of Kailas it appears to be lost in the
mazes of the minor ranges and ridges of the Tibetan plateau. Nor can it
be said to be as yet well defined to the east of Lhasa.


  Eastern Tibet.

The Tibetan plateau, or Chang, breaks up about the meridian of 92° E.,
and to the east of this meridian the affluents of the Tsanpo (the same
river as the Dihong and subsequently as the Brahmaputra) drain no longer
from the elevated plateau, but from the rugged slopes of a wild region
of mountains which assumes a systematic conformation where its
successive ridges are arranged in concentric curves around the great
bend of the Brahmaputra, wherein are hidden the sources of all the great
rivers of Burma and China. Neither immediately beyond this great bend,
nor within it in the Himalayan regions lying north of Assam and east of
Bhutan, have scientific investigations yet been systematically carried
out; but it is known that the largest of the Himalayan affluents of the
Brahmaputra west of the bend derive their sources from the Tibetan
plateau, and break down through the containing bands of hills, carrying
deposits of gold from their sources to the plains, as do all the rivers
of Tibet.


  Himalaya north of the central chain of snowy peaks.

Although the northern limits of the Tsanpo basin are not sufficiently
well known to locate the Indo-Tibetan watershed even approximately,
there exists some scattered evidence of the nature of that strip of
Northern Himalaya on the Tibeto-Nepalese border which lies between the
line of greatest elevation and the trough of the Tsanpo. Recent
investigations show that all the chief rivers of Nepal flowing
southwards to the Tarai take their rise north of the line of highest
crests, the "main range" of the Himalaya; and that some of them drain
long lateral high-level valleys enclosed between minor ridges whose
strike is parallel to the axis of the Himalaya and, occasionally, almost
at right angles to the course of the main drainage channels breaking
down to the plains. This formation brings the southern edge of the
Tsanpo basin to the immediate neighbourhood of the banks of that river,
which runs at its foot like a drain flanking a wall. It also affords
material evidence of that wrinkling or folding action which accompanied
the process of upheaval, when the Central Asian highlands were raised,
which is more or less marked throughout the whole of the north-west
Indian borderland. North of Bhutan, between the Himalayan crest and
Lhasa, this formation is approximately maintained; farther east,
although the same natural forces first resulted in the same effect of
successive folds of the earth's crust, forming extensive curves of ridge
and furrow, the abundant rainfall and the totally distinct climatic
conditions which govern the processes of denudation subsequently led to
the erosion of deeper valleys enclosed between forest-covered ranges
which rise steeply from the river banks.


  Height of Himalayan peaks.

Although suggestions have been made of the existence of higher peaks
north of the Himalaya than that which dominates the Everest group, no
evidence has been adduced to support such a contention. On the other
hand the observations of Major Ryder and other surveyors who explored
from Lhasa to the sources of the Brahmaputra and Indus, at the
conclusion of the Tibetan mission in 1904, conclusively prove that Mount
Everest, which appears from the Tibetan plateau as a single dominating
peak, has no rival amongst Himalayan altitudes, whilst the very
remarkable investigations made by permission of the Nepal durbar from
peaks near Kathmandu in 1903, by Captain Wood, R.E., not only place the
Everest group apart from other peaks with which they have been confused
by scientists, isolating them in the topographical system of Nepal, but
clearly show that there is no one dominating and continuous range
indicating a main Himalayan chain which includes both Everest and
Kinchinjunga. The main features of Nepalese topography are now fairly
well defined. So much controversy has been aroused on the subject of
Himalayan altitudes that the present position of scientific analysis in
relation to them may be shortly stated. The heights of peaks determined
by exact processes of trigonometrical observation are bound to be more
or less in error for three reasons: (1) the extraordinary geoidal
deformation of the level surface at the observing stations in submontane
regions; (2) ignorance of the laws of refraction when rays traverse
rarefied air in snow-covered regions; (3) ignorance of the variations in
the actual height of peaks due to the increase, or decrease, of snow.
The value of the heights attached to the three highest mountains in the
world are, for these reasons, adjudged by Colonel S. G. Burrard, the
Supt. Trigonometrical Surveys in India, to be in probable error to the
following extent:

  +-------------------+-----------------+---------------+
  |                   | Present Survey  | Most probable |
  |                   | Value of Height.|     Value.    |
  +-------------------+-----------------+---------------+
  | Mount Everest     |      29,002     |     29,141    |
  | K2 (Godwin Austen)|      28,250     |     28,191    |
  | Kinchinjunga      |      28,146     |     28,225    |
  +-------------------+-----------------+---------------+

These determinations have the effect of placing Kinchinjunga second and
K2 third on the list.     (T. H. H.*)

  _Geology._--The Himalaya have been formed by violent crumpling of the
  earth's crust along the southern margin of the great tableland of
  Central Asia. Outside the arc of the mountain chain no sign of this
  crumpling is to be detected except in the Salt Range, and the
  Peninsula of India has been entirely free from folding of any
  importance since early Palaeozoic times, if not since the Archean
  period itself. But the contrast between the Himalaya and the Peninsula
  is not confined to their structure: the difference in the rocks
  themselves is equally striking. In the Himalaya the geological
  sequence, from the Ordovician to the Eocene, is almost entirely
  marine; there are indeed occasional breaks in the series, but during
  nearly the whole of this long period the Himalayan region, or at least
  its northern part, must have been beneath the sea--the Central
  Mediterranean Sea of Neumayr or Tethys of Suess. In the peninsula,
  however, no marine fossils have yet been found of earlier date than
  Jurassic and Cretaceous, and these are confined to the neighbourhood
  of the coasts; the principal fossiliferous deposits are the
  plant-bearing beds of the Gondwana series, and there can be no doubt
  that, at least since the Carboniferous period, nearly the whole of the
  Peninsula has been land. Between the folded marine beds of the
  Himalaya and the nearly horizontal strata of the peninsula lies the
  Indo-Gangetic plain, covered by an enormous thickness of alluvial and
  wind-blown deposits of recent date. The deep boring at Lucknow passed
  through 1336 ft. of sands--reaching nearly to 1000 ft. below
  sea-level--without any sign of approaching the base of the alluvial
  series. It is clear, then, that in front of the Himalaya there is a
  great depression, but as yet there is no indication that this
  depression was ever beneath the sea.

  In the light thrown by recent researches on the structure and origin
  of mountain chains the explanation of these facts is no longer
  difficult. From early Palaeozoic times the peninsula of India has been
  dry land, a part, indeed, of a great continent which in Mesozoic times
  extended across the Indian Ocean towards South Africa. Its northern
  shores were washed by the Sea of Tethys, which, at least in Jurassic
  and Cretaceous times, stretched across the Old World from west to
  east, and in this sea were laid down the marine deposits of the
  Himalaya. The tangential pressures which are known to be set up in the
  earth's crust--either by the contraction of the interior or in some
  other way--caused the deposits of this sea to be crushed up against
  the rigid granites and other old rocks of the peninsula and finally
  led to the whole mass being pushed forward over the edge of the part
  which did not crumple. The Indo-Gangetic depression was formed by the
  weight of the over-riding mass bending down the edge over which it
  rode, or else it is the lower limb of the S-shaped fold which would
  necessarily result if there were no fracture--the Himalaya
  representing the upper limb of the S.

  Geologically, the Himalaya may be divided into three zones which
  correspond more or less with orographical divisions. The northern zone
  is the Tibetan, in which fossiliferous beds of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic
  age are largely developed--excepting in the north-west no such rocks
  are known on the southern flanks. The second is the zone of the snowy
  peaks and of the lower Himalaya, and is composed chiefly of
  crystalline and metamorphic rocks together with unfossiliferous
  sedimentary beds supposed to be of Palaeozoic age. The southern zone
  comprises the Sub-Himalaya and consists entirely of Tertiary beds, and
  especially of the upper Tertiaries. The oldest beds which have
  hitherto yielded fossils, belong to the Ordovician system, but it is
  highly probable that the underlying "Haimantas" of the central
  Himalaya are of Cambrian age. From these beds up to the top of the
  Carboniferous there appears to be no break; but the Carboniferous beds
  were in some places eroded before the deposition of the _Productus_
  shales, which belong to the Permian period. It is, however, possible
  that this erosion was merely local, for in other places there seems to
  be a complete passage from the Carboniferous to the Permian. From the
  Permian to the Lias the sequence in the central Himalaya shows no sign
  of a break, nor has any unconformity been proved between the Liassic
  beds and the overlying Spiti shales, which contain fossils of Middle
  and Upper Jurassic age. The Spiti shales are succeeded conformably by
  Cretaceous beds (Gieumal sandstone below and Chikkim limestone above),
  and these are followed without a break by Nummulitic beds of Eocene
  age, much disturbed and altered by intrusions of gabbro and syenite.
  Thus, in the Spiti area at least, there appears to have been
  continuous deposition of marine beds from the Permian _Productus_
  shales to the Eocene Nummulitic formation. The next succeeding deposit
  is a sandstone, often highly inclined, which rests unconformably upon
  the Nummulitic beds and resembles the Lower Siwaliks of the
  Sub-Himalaya (Pliocene) but which as yet has yielded no fossils of any
  kind. The whole is overlaid unconformably by the younger Tertiaries of
  Hundes, which are perfectly horizontal and have been quite unaffected
  by any of the folds.

  From the absence of any well-marked unconformity it is evident that in
  the northern part of the Himalayan belt, at least in the Spiti area,
  there can have been no post-Archaean folding of any magnitude until
  after the deposition of the Nummulitic beds, and that the folding was
  completed before the later Tertiaries of Hundes were laid down. It
  was, therefore, during the Miocene period that the elevation of this
  part of the chain began, while the disturbance of the Siwalik-like
  sandstone indicates that the folding continued into the Pliocene
  period. Along the southern flanks of the Himalaya the history of the
  chain is still more clearly shown. The sub-Himalaya are formed of
  Tertiary beds, chiefly Siwalik or upper Tertiary, while the lower
  Himalaya proper consist mainly of pre-Tertiary rocks without fossils.
  Throughout the whole length of the chain, wherever the junction of the
  Siwaliks with the pre-Tertiary rocks has been seen, it is a great
  reversed fault. West of the Blas river a similar reversed fault forms
  the boundary between the lower Tertiaries and the pre-Tertiary rocks
  of the Himalaya, while between the Sutlej and the Jumna rivers, where
  the lower Tertiaries help to form the lower Himalaya, the fault lies
  between them and the Siwaliks. The hade of the fault is constantly
  inwards, towards the centre of the chain, and the older rocks which
  form the Himalaya proper, have been pushed forward over the later beds
  of the sub-Himalaya. But the fault is more than an ordinary reversed
  fault: it was, nearly everywhere, the northern boundary of deposition
  of the Siwalik beds, and only in a few instances do any of the Siwalik
  deposits extend even to a short distance beyond it. The fault in fact
  was being formed during the deposition of the Siwalik beds, and as the
  beds were laid down, the Himalaya were pushed forward over them, the
  Siwaliks themselves being folded and upturned during the process.
  Accordingly, in some places the Siwaliks now form a continuous and
  conformable series from base to summit, in other places the middle
  beds are absent and the upper beds of the series rest upon the
  upturned and denuded edges of the lower beds. The Siwaliks are
  fluviatile and torrential deposits similar to those which are now
  being formed at the foot of the mountains, in the Indo-Gangetic plain;
  and their relations to the older rocks of the Himalaya proper were
  very similar to those which now exist between the deposits of the
  plain and the Siwaliks themselves. But the great fault just described
  is not the only one of this character. There is a series of such
  faults, approximately parallel to one another, and although they have
  not been traced throughout the whole chain, yet wherever they occur
  they seem to have formed the northern boundary of deposition of the
  deposits immediately to the south of them. It appears, therefore, that
  the Himalaya grew southwards in a series of stages. A reversed fault
  was formed at the foot of the chain, and upon this fault the
  mountains were pushed forward over the beds deposited at their base,
  crumpling and folding them in the process, and forming a sub-Himalayan
  ridge in front of the main chain. After a time a new fault originated
  at the foot of the sub-Himalayan zone thus raised, which now became
  part of the Himalaya themselves, and a new sub-Himalayan chain was
  formed in front of the previous one. The earthquakes of the present
  day show that the process is still in operation, and in time the
  deposits of the present Indo-Gangetic plain will be involved in the
  folds.

  The regular form of the Himalaya, constituting an arc of a true
  circle, appears to indicate that the whole chain has been pushed
  forward as one mass upon a gigantic thrust-plane; but, if so, the dip
  of the plane must be low, for a line drawn along the southern foot of
  the Himalaya would coincide with the outcrop of a plane inclined to
  the surface at an angle of about 14°. The thrust-plane, then, does not
  coincide with any of the boundary faults already mentioned, which are
  usually inclined at angles of 50° or 60°. The latter are due to the
  fact that, although, perhaps, the whole mass above the thrust-plane
  may move, yet the pressure which pushes it forwards necessarily
  proceeds from behind. The back, accordingly, moves faster than the
  front, and the whole is packed together; as when an ice-floe drives
  against the shore, the ice breaks and the outer fragments ride over
  those within. The great thrust-plane which is thus imagined to exist
  at the base of the Himalaya, corresponds with the "major thrusts" of
  the N.W. Highlands of Scotland, and the reversed faults which appear
  at the surface with the "minor thrusts."     (P. La.)


    Topographical results of evolution.

  Such is the general outline of Himalayan evolution as now understood,
  and the process of it has led to certain marked features of scenery
  and topography. Within the area of the trans-Indus mountains we have
  beds of hard limestone or sandstone alternating with soft shales,
  which leads to the scooping out by erosion of long narrow valleys
  where the shales occur, and the passage of the streams through deep
  rifts or gorges across the hard limestone anticlinals, which stand in
  irregular series of parallel ridges with the eroded valleys between.
  The great mass of the Himalaya exhibits the same structure, due to the
  same conditions acting for longer periods and on a much larger scale;
  but the structure is varied in the eastern portions of the mountains
  by the effect of different climatic conditions, and especially by the
  greater rainfall. Instead of wide, barren, wind-swept valleys, here
  are found fertile alluvial plains--such as Manipur--but for the most
  part the erosive action of the river has been able to keep pace with
  the rise of the river bed, and we have deep, steep-sided valleys
  arranged between the same parallel system of folds as we see on the
  western frontier, connected by short transverse gaps where the rivers
  cross the folds, frequently to resume a course parallel to that
  originally held. An instance of this occurs where the Indus suddenly
  breaks through the well-defined Ladakh range in the North-west
  Himalaya to resume its north-westerly course after passing from the
  northern to the southern side of the range. The reason assigned for
  these extraordinary diversions of the drainage right across the
  general strike of the ridges is that it is antecedent--i.e. that the
  lines of drainage were formed ere the folds or anticlinals were
  raised; and that the drainage has merely maintained the course
  originally held, by the power of erosion during the gradual process of
  upheaval.

  In the outer valleys of the Himalaya the sides are generally steep, so
  steep as to be liable to landslip, whilst the streams are still
  cutting down the river beds and have not yet reached the stage of
  equilibrium. Here and there a valley has become filled with alluvial
  detritus owing to some local impediment in the drainage, and when this
  occurs there is usually to be found a fertile and productive field for
  agriculture. The straits of the Jhelum, below Baramulla, probably
  account for the lovely vale of Kashmir, which is in form (if not in
  principles of construction) a repetition on grand scale of the Maidan
  of the Afridi Tirah, where the drainage from the slopes of a great
  amphitheatre of hills is collected and then arrested by the gorge
  which marks the outlet to the Bara.


    General Himalayan formation is typical.

  Other rivers besides the Indus and the Brahmaputra begin by draining a
  considerable area north of the snowy range--the Sutlej, the Kosi, the
  Gandak and the Subansiri, for example. All these rivers break through
  the main snowy range ere they twist their way through the southern
  hills to the plains of India. Here the "antecedent" theory will not
  suffice, for there is no sufficient catchment area north of the snows
  to support it. Their formation is explained by a process of "cutting
  back," by which the heads of these streams are gradually eating their
  way northwards owing to the greater rainfall on the southern than on
  the northern slopes. The result of this process is well exhibited in
  the relative steepness of slope on the Indian and Tibetan sides of the
  passes to the Indus plateau. On the southern or Indian side the routes
  to Tibet and Ladakh follow the levels of Himalayan valleys with no
  remarkably steep gradients till they near the approach to the
  water-divide. The slope then steepens with the ascending curve to the
  summit of the pass, from which point it falls with a comparatively
  gentle gradient to the general level of the plateau. The Zoji La, the
  Kashmir water-divide between the Jhelum and the Indus, is a prominent
  case in point, and all the passes from the Kumaon and Garhwal hills
  into Tibet exhibit this formation in a marked degree. Taking the
  average elevation of the central axial line of snowy peaks as 19,000
  ft., the average height of the passes is not more than 10,000 owing to
  this process of cutting down by erosion and gradual encroachment into
  the northern basin.

  [Illustration: Section across the sub-Himalayan zone.]

  _Meteorology._--Independently of the enormous variety of topographical
  conformation contained in the Himalayan system, the vast altitude of
  the mountains alone is sufficient to cause modifications of climate in
  ascending over their slopes such as are not surpassed by those
  observed in moving from the equator to the poles. One half of the
  total mass of the atmosphere and three-fourths of the water suspended
  in it in the form of vapour lie below the average altitude of the
  Himalaya; and of the residue, one-half of the air and virtually almost
  all the vapour come within the influence of the highest peaks. The
  regular variations in pressure of the air indicated by the barometer
  and the annual and diurnal oscillations are as well marked in the
  Himalaya as elsewhere, but the amount of vapour held in suspension
  diminishes so rapidly with the altitude that not more than one-sixth
  (sometimes only one-tenth) of that observed at the foot of the
  mountains is found at the greatest heights. This is dependent on the
  temperature of the air which rapidly decreases with altitude. On the
  mountains every altitude has its corresponding temperature, an
  elevation of 1000 ft. producing a fall of 3½°, or about 1° to each 300
  ft. The mean winter temperature at 7000 ft. (which is about the
  average height of Himalayan "hill stations") is 44° F. and the summer
  mean about 65° F. At 9000 ft. the mean temperature of the coldest
  month is 32° F. At 12,000 ft. the thermometer never falls below
  freezing-point from the end of May to the middle of October, and at
  15,000 ft. it is seldom above that point even in the height of summer.
  It should be noted that the thermometrical conditions of Tibet vary
  considerably from those of the Himalaya. At 12,000 ft. in Tibet the
  mean of the hottest month is about 60° F. and of the coldest about 10°
  F. whilst, at 15,000 ft. the frost is only permanent from the end of
  October to the end of April. The distribution of vegetation and
  topographical conformation largely influence the question of local
  temperature. For instance it may be found that the difference of
  temperature between forest-clad ranges and the Indian plains is twice
  as much in April and May as in December or January; and the difference
  between the temperature of a well-wooded hill top and the open valley
  below may vary from 9° to 24° within twenty-four hours. The general
  relations of temperature to altitude as determined by Himalayan
  observations are as follows: (1) The decrease of temperature with
  altitude is most rapid in summer. (2) The annual range diminishes with
  the elevation. (3) The diurnal range diminishes with the elevation.
  Comparisons are, however, apt to become anomalous when applied to
  elevated zones with a dense covering of forest and a great quantity of
  cloud and open and uncloudy regions both above and below the
  forest-clad tracts.


    Rainfall.

  The chief rainfall occurs in the summer months between May and October
  (i.e. the period of the monsoon rains of India), the remainder of the
  year being comparatively dry. The fall of rain over the great plain of
  northern India gradually diminishes in quantity, and begins later, as
  we pass from east to west. At the same time the rain is heavier as we
  approach the Himalaya and the greatest falls are measured in its outer
  ranges; but the quantity again diminishes as we pass onward across the
  chain, and on arriving at the border of Tibet, behind the great line
  of snowy peaks, the rain falls in such small quantities as to be
  hardly susceptible of measurement. Diurnal currents of wind, which are
  established from the plains to the mountains during the day, and from
  the hills to the plains during the night, are important agents in
  distributing the rainfall. The condensation of vapour from the
  ascending currents and their gradual exhaustion as they are
  precipitated on successive ranges is very obvious in the cloud effects
  produced during the monsoon, the southern or windward face of each
  range being clothed day after day with a white crest of cloud whilst
  the northern slopes are often left entirely free. This shows how large
  a proportion of the vapour is arrested and how it is that only by
  drifting through the deeper gorges can any moisture find its way to
  the Tibetan table-land.

  The yearly rainfall, which amounts to between 60 and 70 in. in the
  delta of the Ganges, is reduced to about 40 in. when that river issues
  from the mountains, and diminishes to 30 in. at the debouchment of the
  Indus into the plains. At Darjeeling (7000 ft. altitude) on the outer
  ranges of the eastern Himalaya it amounts to about 120 in. At Naini
  Tal north of the United Provinces it is about 90 in.; at Simla about
  80 in., diminishing still further as one approaches the north-western
  hills. All these stations are about the same altitude.


    Snowfall.

  In the eastern Himalaya the ordinary winter limit of snow is 6000 ft.
  and it never lies for many days even at 7000 ft. In Kumaon, on the
  west, it usually reaches down to the 5000 ft. level and occasionally
  to 2500 ft. Snow has been known to fall at Peshawar. At Leh, in
  western Tibet, hardly 2 ft. of snow are usually registered and the
  fall on the passes between 17,000 and 19,000 ft. is not generally more
  than 3 ft., but on the Himalayan passes farther east the falls are
  much heavier. Even in September these passes may be quite blocked and
  they are not usually open till the middle of June. The snow-line, or
  the level to which snow recedes in the course of the year, ranges from
  15,000 to 16,000 ft. on the southern exposures of the Himalaya that
  carry perpetual snow, along all that part of the system that lies
  between Sikkim and the Indus. It is not till December that the snow
  begins to descend for the winter, although after September light falls
  occur which cover the mountain sides down to 12,000 ft., but these
  soon disappear. On the snowy range the snow-line is not lower than
  18,500 ft. and on the summit of the table-land it reaches to 20,000
  ft. On all the passes into Tibet vegetation reaches to about 17,500
  ft., and in August they may be crossed in ordinary years up to 18,400
  ft. without finding any snow upon them; and it is as impossible to
  find snow in the summer in Tibet at 15,500 ft. above the sea as on the
  plains of India.

  _Glaciers._--The level to which the Himalayan glaciers extend is
  greatly dependent on local conditions, principally the extent and
  elevation of the snow basins which feed them, and the slope and
  position of the mountain on which they are formed. Glaciers on the
  outer slopes of the Himalaya descend much lower than is commonly the
  case in Tibet, or in the most elevated valleys near the snowy range.
  The glaciers of Sikkim and the eastern mountains are believed not to
  reach a lower level than 13,500 or 14,000 ft. In Kumaon many of them
  descend to between 11,500 and 12,500 ft. In the higher valleys and
  Tibet 15,000 and 16,000 ft. is the ordinary level at which they end,
  but there are exceptions which descend far lower. In Europe the
  glaciers descend between 3000 and 5000 ft. below the snow-line, and in
  the Himalaya and Tibet about the same holds good. The summer
  temperatures of the points where the glaciers end on the Himalaya also
  correspond fairly with those of the corresponding positions in
  European glaciers, viz. for July a little below 60° F., August 58° and
  September 55°.

  Measurements of the movement of Himalayan glaciers give results
  according closely with those obtained under analogous conditions in
  the Alps, viz. rates from 9½ to 14¼ in. in twenty-four hours. The
  motion of one glacier from the middle of May to the middle of October
  averaged 8 in. in the twenty-four hours. The dimensions of the
  glaciers on the outer Himalaya, where, as before remarked, the valleys
  descend rapidly to lower levels, are fairly comparable with those of
  Alpine glaciers, though frequently much exceeding them in length--8 or
  10 m. not being unusual. In the elevated valleys of northern Tibet,
  where the destructive action of the summer heat is far less, the
  development of the glaciers is enormous. At one locality in
  north-western Ladakh there is a continuous mass of snow and ice
  extending across a snowy ridge, measuring 64 m. between the
  extremities of the two glaciers at its opposite ends. Another single
  glacier has been surveyed 36 m. long.

  The northern tributaries of the Gilgit river, which joins the Indus
  near its south-westerly bend towards the Punjab, take their rise from
  a glacier system which is probably unequalled in the world for its
  extent and magnificent proportions. Chief amongst them are the
  glaciers which have formed on the southern slopes of the Muztagh
  mountains below the group of gigantic peaks dominated by Mount
  Godwin-Austen (28,250 ft. high). The Biafo glacier system, which lies
  in a long narrow trough extending south-west from Nagar on the Hunza
  to near the base of the Muztagh peaks, may be traced for 90 m. between
  mountain walls which tower to a height of from 20,000 to 25,000 ft.
  above sea-level on either side.

  In connexion with almost all the Himalayan glaciers of which precise
  accounts are forthcoming are ancient moraines indicating some previous
  condition in which their extent was much larger than now. In the east
  these moraines are very remarkable, extending 8 or 10 m. In the west
  they seem not to go beyond 2 or 3 m. reach. They have been observed on
  the summit of the table-land as well as on the Himalayan slope. The
  explanation suggested to account for the former great extension of
  glaciers in Norway would seem applicable here. Any modification of the
  coast-line which should submerge the area now occupied by the North
  Indian plain, or any considerable part of it, would be accompanied by
  a much wetter and more equable climate on the Himalaya; more snow
  would fall on the highest ranges, and less summer heat would be
  brought to bear on the destruction of the glaciers, which would
  receive larger supplies and descend lower.

  _Botany._--Speaking broadly, the general type of the flora of the
  lower, hotter and wetter regions, which extend along the great plain
  at the foot of the Himalaya, and include the valleys of the larger
  rivers which penetrate far into the mountains, does not differ from
  that of the contiguous peninsula and islands, though the tropical and
  insular character gradually becomes less marked going from east to
  west, where, with a greater elevation and distance from the sea and
  higher latitude, the rainfall and humidity diminish and the winter
  cold increases. The vegetation of the western part of the plain and of
  the hottest zone of the western mountains thus becomes closely allied
  to, or almost identical with, that of the drier parts of the Indian
  peninsula, more especially of its hilly portions; and, while a general
  tropical character is preserved, forms are observed which indicate the
  addition of an Afghan as well as of an African element, of which last
  the gay lily _Gloriosa superba_ is an example, pointing to some
  previous connexion with Africa.

  The European flora, which is diffused from the Mediterranean along the
  high lands of Asia, extends to the Himalaya; many European species
  reach the central parts of the chain, though few reach its eastern
  end, while genera common to Europe and the Himalaya are abundant
  throughout and at all elevations. From the opposite quarter an influx
  of Japanese and Chinese forms, such as the rhododendrons, the tea
  plant, _Aucuba_, _Helwingia_, _Skimmia_, _Adamia_, _Goughia_ and
  others, has taken place, these being more numerous in the east and
  gradually disappearing in the west. On the higher and therefore cooler
  and less rainy ranges of the Himalaya the conditions of temperature
  requisite for the preservation of the various species are readily
  found by ascending or descending the mountain slopes, and therefore a
  greater uniformity of character in the vegetation is maintained along
  the whole chain. At the greater elevations the species identical with
  those of Europe become more frequent, and in the alpine regions many
  plants are found identical with species of the Arctic zone. On the
  Tibetan plateau, with the increased dryness, a Siberian type is
  established, with many true Siberian species and more genera; and some
  of the Siberian forms are further disseminated, even to the plains of
  Upper India. The total absence of a few of the more common forms of
  northern Europe and Asia should also be noticed, among which may be
  named _Tilia_, _Fagus_, _Arbutus_, _Erica_, _Azalea_ and _Cistacae_.

  In the more humid regions of the east the mountains are almost
  everywhere covered with a dense forest which reaches up to 12,000 or
  13,000 ft. Many tropical types here ascend to 7000 ft. or more. To the
  west the upper limit of forest is somewhat lower, from 11,500 to
  12,000 ft. and the tropical forms usually cease at 5000 ft.

  In Sikkim the mountains are covered with dense forest of tall
  umbrageous trees, commonly accompanied by a luxuriant growth of under
  shrubs, and adorned with climbing and epiphytal plants in wonderful
  profusion. In the tropical zone large figs abound, _Terminalia_,
  _Shorea_ (sál), laurels, many _Leguminosae_, _Bombax_, _Artocarpus_,
  bamboos and several palms, among which species of Calamus are
  remarkable, climbing over the largest trees; and this is the western
  limit of _Cycas_ and _Myristica_ (nutmeg). Plantains ascend to 7000
  ft. _Pandanus_ and tree-ferns abound. Other ferns, _Scitamineae_,
  orchids and climbing _Aroideae_ are very numerous, the last named
  profusely adorning the forests with their splendid dark-green foliage.
  Various oaks descend within a few hundred feet of the sea-level,
  increasing in numbers at greater altitudes, and becoming very frequent
  at 4000 ft., at which elevation also appear _Aucuba_, _Magnolia_,
  cherries, _Pyrus_, maple, alder and birch, with many _Araliaceae_,
  _Hollböllea_, _Skimmia_, _Daphne_, _Myrsine_, _Symplocos_ and _Rubus_.
  Rhododendrons begin at about 6000 ft. and become abundant at 8000 ft.,
  from 10,000 to 14,000 ft. forming in many places the mass of the
  shrubby vegetation which extends some 2000 ft. above the forest.
  Epiphytal orchids are extremely numerous between 6000 and 8000 ft. Of
  the Coniferae, _Podocarpus_ and _Pinus longifolia_ alone descend to
  the tropical zone; _Abies Brunoniana_ and _Smithiana_ and the larch (a
  genus not seen in the western mountains) are found at 8000, and the
  yew and _Picea Webbiana_ at 10,000 ft. _Pinus excelsa_, which occurs
  in Bhutan, is absent in the wetter climate of Sikkim.

  On the drier and higher mountains of the interior of the chain, the
  forests become more open, and are spread less uniformly over the
  hill-sides, a luxuriant herbaceous vegetation appears, and the number
  of shrubby _Leguminosae_, such as _Desmodium_ and _Indigofera_,
  increases, as well as _Ranunculaceae_, _Rosaceae_, _Umbelliferae_,
  _Labiatae_, _Gramineae_, _Cyperaceae_ and other European genera.

  Passing to the westward, and viewing the flora of Kumaon, which
  province holds a central position on the chain, on the 80th meridian,
  we find that the gradual decrease of moisture and increase of high
  summer heat are accompanied by a marked change of the vegetation. The
  tropical forest is characterized by the trees of the hotter and drier
  parts of southern India, combined with a few of European type. Ferns
  are more rare, and the tree-ferns have disappeared. The species of
  palm are also reduced to two or three, and bamboos, though abundant,
  are confined to a few species.

  The outer ranges of mountains are mainly covered with forests of
  _Pinus longifolia_, rhododendron, oak and _Pieris_. At Naini Tal
  cypress is abundant. The shrubby vegetation comprises _Rosa_, _Rubus_,
  _Indigofera_, _Desmodium_, _Berberis_, _Boehmeria_, _Viburnum_,
  _Clematis_, with an _Arundinaria_. Of herbaceous plants species of
  _Ranunculus_, _Potentilla_, _Geranium_, _Thalictrum_, _Primula_,
  _Gentiana_ and many other European forms are common. In the less
  exposed localities, on northern slopes and sheltered valleys, the
  European forms become more numerous, and we find species of alder,
  birch, ash, elm, maple, holly, hornbeam, _Pyrus_, &c. At greater
  elevations in the interior, besides the above are met _Corylus_, the
  common walnut, found wild throughout the range, horse chestnut, yew,
  also _Picea Webbiana_, _Pinus excelsa_, _Abies Smithiana_, _Cedrus
  Deodara_ (which tree does not grow spontaneously east of Kumaon), and
  several junipers. The denser forests are commonly found on the
  northern faces of the higher ranges, or in the deeper valleys, between
  8000 and 10,500 ft. The woods on the outer ranges from 3000 up to 7000
  ft. are more open, and consist mainly of evergreen trees.

  The herbaceous vegetation does not differ greatly, generically, from
  that of the east, and many species of _Primulaceae_, _Ranunculaceae_,
  _Cruciferae_, _Labiatae_ and _Scrophulariaceae_ occur; balsams abound,
  also beautiful forms of _Campanulaceae_, _Gentiana_, _Meconopsis_,
  _Saxifraga_ and many others.

  Cultivation hardly extends above 7000 ft., except in the valleys
  behind the great snowy peaks, where a few fields of buckwheat and
  Tibetan barley are sown up to 11,000 or 12,000 ft. At the lower
  elevations rice, maize and millets are common, wheat and barley at a
  somewhat higher level, and buckwheat and amaranth usually on the
  poorer lands, or those recently reclaimed from forest. Besides these,
  most of the ordinary vegetables of the plains are reared, and potatoes
  have been introduced in the neighbourhood of all the British stations.

  As we pass to the west the species of rhododendron, oak and _Magnolia_
  are much reduced in number as compared to the eastern region, and both
  the Malayan and Japanese forms are much less common. The herbaceous
  tropical and semi-tropical vegetation likewise by degrees disappears,
  the _Scitamineae_, epiphytal and terrestrial _Orchideae_, _Araceae_,
  _Cyrtandraceae_ and _Begoniae_ only occur in small numbers in Kumaon,
  and scarcely extend west of the Sutlej. In like manner several of the
  western forms suited to drier climates find their eastern limit in
  Kumaon. In Kashmir the plane and Lombardy poplar flourish, though
  hardly seen farther east, the cherry is cultivated in orchards, and
  the vegetation presents an eminently European cast. The alpine flora
  is slower in changing its character as we pass from east to west, but
  in Kashmir the vegetation of the higher mountains hardly differs from
  that of the mountains of Afghanistan, Persia and Siberia, even in
  species.

  The total number of flowering plants inhabiting the range amounts
  probably to 5000 or 6000 species, among which may be reckoned several
  hundred common English plants chiefly from the temperate and alpine
  regions; and the characteristic of the flora as a whole is that it
  contains a general and tolerably complete illustration of almost all
  the chief natural families of all parts of the world, and has
  comparatively few distinctive features of its own.

  The timber trees of the Himalaya are very numerous, but few of them
  are known to be of much value. The "Sál" is one of the most valuable
  of the trees; with the "Toon" and "Sissoo," it grows in the outer
  ranges most accessible from the plains. The "Deodar" is also much
  used, but the other pines produce timber that is not durable. Bamboos
  grow everywhere along the outer ranges, and rattans to the eastward,
  and are largely exported for use in the plains of India.

  Though one species of coffee is indigenous in the hotter Himalayan
  forests, the climate does not appear suitable for the growth of the
  plant which supplies the coffee of commerce. The cultivation of tea,
  however, is carried on successfully on a large scale, both in the east
  and west of the mountains. In the western Himalaya the cultivated
  variety of the tea plant of China succeeds well; on the east the
  indigenous tea of Assam, which is not specifically different, and is
  perhaps the original parent of the Chinese variety, is now almost
  everywhere preferred. The produce of the Chinese variety in the hot
  and wet climate of the eastern Himalaya, Assam and eastern Bengal is
  neither so abundant nor so highly flavoured as that of the indigenous
  plant.

  The cultivation of the cinchona, several species of which have been
  introduced from South America and naturalized in the Sikkim Himalaya,
  promises to yield at a comparatively small cost an ample supply of the
  febrifuge extracted from its bark. At present the manufacture is
  almost wholly in the hands of the Government, and the drug prepared is
  all disposed of in India.

  _Zoology._--The general distribution of animal life is determined by
  much the same conditions that have controlled the vegetation. The
  connexion with Europe on the north-west, with China on the north-east,
  with Africa on the south-west, and with the Malayan region on the
  south-east is manifest; and the greater or less prevalence of the
  European and Eastern forms varies according to more western or eastern
  position on the chain. So far as is known these remarks will apply to
  the extinct as well as to the existing fauna. The Palaeozoic forms
  found in the Himalaya are very close to those of Europe, and in some
  cases identical. The Triassic fossils are still more closely allied,
  more than a third of the species being identical. Among the Jurassic
  Mollusca, also, are many species that are common in Europe. The
  Siwalik fossils contain 84 species of mammals of 45 genera, the whole
  bearing a marked resemblance to the Miocene fauna of Europe, but
  containing a larger number of genera still existing, especially of
  ruminants, and now held to be of Pliocene age.

  The fauna of the Tibetan Himalaya is essentially European or rather
  that of the northern half of the old continent, which region has by
  zoologists been termed Palaearctic. Among the characteristic animals
  may be named the yak, from which is reared a cross breed with the
  ordinary horned cattle of India, many wild sheep, and two antelopes,
  as well as the musk-deer; several hares and some burrowing animals,
  including pikas (_Lagomys_) and two or three species of marmot;
  certain arctic forms of carnivora--fox, wolf, lynx, ounce, marten and
  ermine; also wild asses. Among birds are found bustard and species of
  sand-grouse and partridge; water-fowl in great variety, which breed on
  the lakes in summer and migrate to the plains of India in winter; the
  raven, hawks, eagles and owls, a magpie, and two kinds of chough; and
  many smaller birds of the passerine order, amongst which are several
  finches. Reptiles, as might be anticipated, are far from numerous, but
  a few lizards are found, belonging for the most part to types, such as
  _Phrynocephalus_, characteristic of the Central-Asiatic area. The
  fishes from the headwaters of the Indus also belong, for the most
  part, to Central-Asiatic types, with a small admixture of purely
  Himalayan forms. Amongst the former are several peculiar small-scaled
  carps, belonging to the genus _Schizothorax_ and its allies.

  The ranges of the Himalaya, from the border of Tibet to the plains,
  form a zoological region which is one of the richest of the world,
  particularly in respect to birds, to which the forest-clad mountains
  offer almost every range of temperature.

  Only two or three forms of monkey enter the mountains, the langur, a
  species of _Semnopithecus_, ranging up to 12,000 ft. No lemurs occur,
  although a species is found in Assam, and another in southern India.
  Bats are numerous, but the species are for the most part not peculiar
  to the area; several European forms are found at the higher
  elevations. Moles, which are unknown in the Indian peninsula, abound
  in the forest regions of the eastern Himalayas at a moderate altitude,
  and shrews of several species are found almost everywhere; amongst
  them are two very remarkable forms of water-shrew, one of which,
  however, _Nectogale_, is probably Tibetan rather than Himalayan. Bears
  are common, and so are a marten, several weasels and otters, and cats
  of various kinds and sizes, from the little spotted _Felis
  bengalensis_, smaller than a domestic cat, to animals like the clouded
  leopard rivalling a leopard in size. Leopards are common, and the
  tiger wanders to a considerable elevation, but can hardly be
  considered a permanent inhabitant, except in the lower valleys.
  Civets, the mungoose (_Herpestes_), and toddy cats (_Paradoxurus_) are
  only found at the lower elevations. Wild dogs (_Cyon_) are common, but
  neither foxes nor wolves occur in the forest area. Besides these
  carnivora some very peculiar forms are found, the most remarkable of
  which is Aelurus, sometimes called the cat-bear, a type akin to the
  American racoon. Two other genera, _Helictis_, an aberrant badger, and
  linsang, an aberrant civet, are representatives of Malayan types.
  Amongst the rodents squirrels abound, and the so-called flying
  squirrels are represented by several species. Rats and mice swarm,
  both kinds and individuals being numerous, but few present much
  peculiarity, a bamboo rat (_Rhizomys_) from the base of the eastern
  Himalaya being perhaps most worthy of notice. Two or three species of
  vole (_Arvicola_) have been detected, and porcupines are common. The
  elephant is found in the outer forests as far as the Jumna, and the
  rhinoceros as far as the Sarda; the spread of both of these animals as
  far as the Indus and into the plains of India, far beyond their
  present limits, is authenticated by historical records; they have
  probably retreated before the advance of cultivation and fire-arms.
  Wild pigs are common in the lower ranges, and one peculiar species of
  pigmy-hog (_Sus salvanius_) of very small size inhabits the forests at
  the base of the mountains in Nepál and Sikim. Deer of several kinds
  are met with, but do not ascend very high on the hillsides, and belong
  exclusively to Indian forms. The musk deer keeps to the greater
  elevations. The chevrotains of India and the Malay countries are
  unrepresented. The gaur or wild ox is found at the base of the hills.
  Three very characteristic ruminants, having some affinities with
  goats, inhabit the Himalaya; these are the "serow" (_Nemorhaedus_),
  "goral" (_Cemas_) and "tahr" (_Hemitragus_), the last-named ranging to
  rather high elevations. Lastly, the pangolin (_Manis_) is represented
  by two species in the eastern Himalaya. A dolphin (_Platanista_)
  living in the Ganges ascends that river and its affluents to their
  issue from the mountains.

  Almost all the orders of birds are well represented, and the
  marvellous variety of forms found in the eastern Himalaya is only
  rivalled in Central and South America. Eagles, vultures and other
  birds of prey are seen soaring high over the highest of the
  forest-clad ranges. Owls are numerous, and a small species,
  _Glaucidium_, is conspicuous, breaking the stillness of the night by
  its monotonous though musical cry of two notes. Several kinds of
  swifts and nightjars are found, and gorgeously-coloured trogons,
  bee-eaters, rollers, and beautiful kingfishers and barbets are common.
  Several large hornbills inhabit the highest trees in the forest. The
  parrots are restricted to parrakeets, of which there are several
  species, and a single small lory. The number of woodpeckers is very
  great and the variety of plumage remarkable, and the voice of the
  cuckoo, of which there are numerous species, resounds in the spring as
  in Europe. The number of passerine birds is immense. Amongst them the
  sun-birds resemble in appearance and almost rival in beauty the
  humming-birds of the New Continent. Creepers, nuthatches, shrikes, and
  their allied forms, flycatchers and swallows, thrushes, dippers and
  babblers (about fifty species), bulbuls and orioles, peculiar types of
  redstart, various sylviads, wrens, tits, crows, jays and magpies,
  weaver-birds, avadavats, sparrows, crossbills and many finches,
  including the exquisitely coloured rose-finches, may also be
  mentioned. The pigeons are represented by several wood-pigeons, doves
  and green pigeons. The gallinaceous birds include the peacock, which
  everywhere adorns the forest bordering on the plains, jungle fowl and
  several pheasants; partridges, of which the chikor may be named as
  most abundant, and snow-pheasants and partridges, found only at the
  greatest elevations. Waders and waterfowl are far less abundant, and
  those occurring are nearly all migratory forms which visit the
  peninsula of India--the only important exception being two kinds of
  solitary snipe and the red-billed curlew.

  Of the reptiles found in these mountains many are peculiar. Some of
  the snakes of India are to be seen in the hotter regions, including
  the python and some of the venomous species, the cobra being found as
  high up as 8000 or 9000 ft., though not common. Lizards are numerous,
  and as well as frogs are found at all elevations from the plains to
  the upper Himalayan valleys, and even extend to Tibet.

  The fishes found in the rivers of the Himalaya show the same general
  connexion with the three neighbouring regions, the Palaearctic, the
  African and the Malayan. Of the principal families, the
  _Acanthopterygii_, which are abundant in the hotter parts of India,
  hardly enter the mountains, two genera only being found, of which one
  is the peculiar amphibious genus _Ophiocephalus_. None of these fishes
  are found in Tibet. The _Siluridae_, or scaleless fishes, and the
  _Cyprinidae_, or carp and loach, form the bulk of the mountain fish,
  and the genera and species appear to be organized for a
  mountain-torrent life, being almost all furnished with suckers to
  enable them to maintain their positions in the rapid streams which
  they inhabit. A few _Siluridae_ have been found in Tibet, but the
  carps constitute the larger part of the species. Many of the Himalayan
  forms are Indian fish which appear to go up to the higher streams to
  deposit their ova, and the Tibetan species as a rule are confined to
  the rivers on the table-land or to the streams at the greatest
  elevations, the characteristics of which are Tibetan rather than
  Himalayan. The _Salmonidae_ are entirely absent from the waters of the
  Himalaya proper, of Tibet and of Turkestan east of the Terektag.

  The Himalayan butterflies are very numerous and brilliant, for the
  most part belonging to groups that extend both into the Malayan and
  European regions, while African forms also appear. There are large and
  gorgeous species of _Papilio_, _Nymphalidae_, _Morphidae_ and
  _Danaidae_, and the more favoured localities are described as being
  only second to South America in the display of this form of beauty and
  variety in insect life. Moths, also, of strange forms and of great
  size are common. The cicada's song resounds among the woods in the
  autumn; flights of locusts frequently appear after the summer, and
  they are carried by the prevailing winds even among the glaciers and
  eternal snows. Ants, bees and wasps of many species, and flies and
  gnats abound, particularly during the summer rainy season, and at all
  elevations.

  _Mountain Scenery._--Much has been written about the impressiveness
  of Himalayan scenery. It is but lately, however, that any adequate
  conception of the magnitude and majesty of the most stupendous of the
  mountain groups which mass themselves about the upper tributaries and
  reaches of the Indus has been presented to us in the works of Sir F.
  Younghusband, Sir W. M. Conway, H. C. B. Tanner and D. Freshfield. It
  is not in comparison with the picturesque beauty of European Alpine
  scenery that the Himalaya appeals to the imagination, for amongst the
  hills of the outer Himalaya--the hills which are known to the majority
  of European residents and visitors--there is often a striking absence
  of those varied incidents and sharp contrasts which are essential to
  picturesqueness in mountain landscape. Too often the brown, barren,
  sun-scorched ridges are obscured in the yellow dust haze which drifts
  upwards from the plains; too often the whole perspective of hill and
  vale is blotted out in the grey mists that sweep in soft, resistless
  columns against these southern slopes, to be condensed and
  precipitated in ceaseless, monotonous rainfall. Few Europeans really
  see the Himalaya; fewer still are capable of translating their
  impressions into language which is neither exaggerated nor inadequate.

  Some idea of the magnitude of Himalayan mountain construction--a
  magnitude which the eye totally fails to appreciate--may, however, be
  gathered from the following table of comparison of the absolute height
  of some peaks above sea-level with the actual amount of their slopes
  exposed to view:--

    _Relative Extent of Snow Slopes Visible._

    +---------------------+----------------------+--------+----------+
    |                     |                      | Height |  Amount  |
    |  Name of Mountain.  | Place of Observation.|  above | of Slope |
    |                     |                      |   sea. | exposed. |
    +---------------------+----------------------+--------+----------+
    | Everest             | Dewanganj            | 29,002 |    8,000 |
    |    "                | Sandakphu            |    "   |   12,000 |
    | K2 or Godwin-Austen | Between Gilgit and   |        |          |
    |                     |   Gor, 16,000 ft.    | 28,250 |          |
    | Pk. XIII. or Makalu | Purnea, 200 ft       | 27,800 |    8,000 |
    |                     | Sandakphu, 12,000 ft.|    "   |    9,000 |
    | Nanga Parbat        | Gor, 16,000 ft.      | 26,656 |   23,000 |
    | Tirach Mir          | Between Gilgit and   |        |          |
    |                     |   Chitral, 8000 ft.  | 25,400 |17-18,000 |
    | Rakapushi           | Chaprot (Gilgit),    |        |          |
    |                     |   13,000 ft.         | 25,560 |   18,000 |
    | Kinchinjunga        | Darjeeling, 7000 ft. | 28,146 |   16,000 |
    | Mont Blanc          | Above Chamonix, 7000 |        |          |
    |                     |   ft.                | 15,781 |   11,500 |
    +---------------------+----------------------+--------+----------+

  It will be observed from this table that it is not often that a
  greater slope of snow-covered mountain side is observable in the
  Himalaya than that which is afforded by the familiar view of Mont
  Blanc from Chamonix.     (T. H. H.*)

  AUTHORITIES.--Drew, _Jammu and Kashmir_ (London, 1875); G. W. Leitner,
  _Dardistan_ (1887); J. Biddulph, _Tribes of the Hindu Kush_ (Calcutta,
  1880); H. H. Godwin-Austen, "Mountain Systems of the Himalaya," vols.
  v. and vi. _Proc. R. G. S._ (1883-1884); C. Ujfalvy, _Aus dem
  westlichen Himalaya_ (Leipzig, 1884); H. C. B. Tanner, "Our Present
  Knowledge of the Himalaya," vol. xiii. _Proc. R. G. S._ (1891); R. D.
  Oldham, "The Evolution of Indian Geography," vol. iii. _Jour. R. G.
  S._; W. Lawrence, _Kashmir_ (Oxford, 1895); Sir W. M. Conway,
  _Climbing and Exploring in the Karakoram_ (London, 1898); F. Bullock
  Workman, _In the Ice World of Himalaya_ (1900); F. B. and W. H.
  Workman, _Ice-bound Heights of the Mustagh_ (1908); D. W. Freshfield,
  _Round Kangchenjunga_ (1903).

  For geology see R. Lydekker, "The Geology of Káshmir," &c., _Mem.
  Geol. Surv. India_, vol. xxii. (1883); C. S. Middlemiss, "Physical
  Geology of the Sub-Himálaya of Gahrwal and Kumaon," ibid., vol. xxiv.
  pt. 2 (1890); C. L. Griesbach, _Geology of the Central Himálayas_,
  vol. xxiii. (1891); R. D. Oldham, _Manual of the Geology of India_,
  chap. xviii. (2nd ed., 1893). Descriptions of the fossils, with some
  notes on stratigraphical questions, will be found in several of the
  volumes of the _Palaeontologia Indica_, published by the Geological
  Survey of India, Calcutta.



HIMERA, a city on the north coast of Sicily, on a hill above the east
bank of the Himeras Septentrionalis. It was founded in 648 B.C. by the
Chalcidian inhabitants of Zancle, in company with many Syracusan exiles.
Early in the 5th century the tyrant Terillas, son-in-law of Anaxilas of
Rhegium and Zancle, appealed to the Carthaginians, who came to his
assistance, but were utterly defeated by Gelon of Syracuse in 480
B.C.--on the same day, it is said, as the battle of Salamis.
Thrasydaeus, son of Theron of Agrigentum, seems to have ruled the city
oppressively, but an appeal made to Hiero of Syracuse, Gelon's brother,
was betrayed by him to Theron; the latter massacred all his enemies and
in the following year resettled the town. In 415 it refused to admit the
Athenian fleet and remained an ally of Syracuse. In 408 the Carthaginian
invading army under Hannibal, after capturing Selinus, invested and took
Himera and razed the city to the ground, founding a new town close to
the hot springs (Thermae Himeraeae), 8 m. to the west. The only relic of
the ancient town now visible above ground is a small portion (four
columns, lower diameter 7 ft.) of a Doric temple, the date of which
(whether before or after 480 B.C.) is uncertain.



HIMERIUS (c. A.D. 315-386), Greek sophist and rhetorician, was born at
Prusa in Bithynia. He completed his education at Athens, whence he was
summoned to Antioch in 362 by the emperor Julian to act as his private
secretary. After the death of Julian in the following year Himerius
returned to Athens, where he established a school of rhetoric, which he
compared with that of Isocrates and the Delphic oracle, owing to the
number of those who flocked from all parts of the world to hear him.
Amongst his pupils were Gregory of Nazianzus and Basil the Great, bishop
of Caesarea. In recognition of his merits, civic rights and the
membership of the Areopagus were conferred upon him. The death of his
son Rufinus (his lament for whom, called [Greek: monôdia], is extant)
and that of a favourite daughter greatly affected his health; in his
later years he became blind and he died of epilepsy. Although a heathen,
who had been initiated into the mysteries of Mithra by Julian, he shows
no prejudice against the Christians. Himerius is a typical
representative of the later rhetorical schools. Photius (cod. 165, 243
Bekker) had read 71 speeches by him, of 36 of which he has given an
epitome; 24 have come down to us complete and fragments of 10 or 12
others. They consist of epideictic or "display" speeches after the style
of Aristides, the majority of them having been delivered on special
occasions, such as the arrival of a new governor, visits to different
cities (Thessalonica, Constantinople), or the death of friends or
well-known personages. The _Polemarchicus_, like the _Menexenus_ of
Plato and the _Epitaphios Logos_ of Hypereides, is a panegyric of
those who had given their lives for their country; it is so called
because it was originally the duty of the polemarch to arrange the
funeral games in honour of those who had fallen in battle. Other
declamations, only known from the excerpts in Photius, were imaginary
orations put into the mouth of famous persons--Demosthenes advocating
the recall of Aeschines from banishment, Hypereides supporting the
policy of Demosthenes, Themistocles inveighing against the king of
Persia, an orator unnamed attacking Epicurus for atheism before Julian
at Constantinople. Himerius is more of a poet than a rhetorician, and
his declamations are valuable as giving prose versions or even the
actual words of lost poems by Greek lyric writers. The prose poem on the
marriage of Severus and his greeting to Basil at the beginning of spring
are quite in the spirit of the old lyric. Himerius possesses vigour of
language and descriptive powers, though his productions are spoilt by
too frequent use of imagery, allegorical and metaphorical obscurities,
mannerism and ostentatious learning. But they are valuable for the
history and social conditions of the time, although lacking the
sincerity characteristic of Libanius.

  See Eunapius, _Vitae sophistarum_; Suidas, _s.v._; editions by G.
  Wernsdorf (1790), with valuable introduction and commentaries, and by
  F. Dübner (1849) in the Didot series; C. Teuber, _Quaestiones
  Himerianae_ (Breslau, 1882); on the style, E. Norden, _Die antike
  Kunstprosa_ (1898).



HIMLY (LOUIS), AUGUSTE (1823-1906), French historian and geographer, was
born at Strassburg on the 28th of March 1823. After studying in his
native town and taking the university course in Berlin (1842-1843) he
went to Paris, and passed first in the examination for fellowship
(_agrégation_) of the _lycées_ (1845), first in the examinations on
leaving the École des Chartes, and first in the examination for
fellowship of the faculties (1849). In 1849 he took the degree of doctor
of letters with two theses, one of which, _Wala et Louis le Débonnaire_
(published in Paris in 1849), placed him in the front rank of French
scholars in the province of Carolingian history. Soon, however, he
turned his attention to the study of geography. In 1858 he obtained an
appointment as teacher of geography at the Sorbonne, and henceforth
devoted himself to that subject. It was not till 1876 that he published,
in two volumes, his remarkable _Histoire de la formation territoriale
des états de l'Europe centrale_, in which he showed with a firm, but
sometimes slightly heavy touch, the reciprocal influence exerted by
geography and history. While the work gives evidence throughout of wide
and well-directed research, he preferred to write it in the form of a
student's manual; but it was a manual so original that it gained him
admission to the Institute in 1881. In that year he was appointed dean
of the faculty of letters, and for ten years he directed the
intellectual life of that great educational centre during its
development into a great scientific body. He died at Sèvres on the 6th
of October 1906.



HIMMEL, FREDERICK HENRY (1765-1814), German composer, was born on the
20th of November 1765 at Treuenbrietzen in Brandenburg, Prussia, and
originally studied theology at Halle. During a temporary stay at Potsdam
he had an opportunity of showing his self-acquired skill as a pianist
before King Frederick William II., who thereupon made him a yearly
allowance to enable him to complete his musical studies. This he did
under Naumann, a German composer of the Italian school, and the style of
that school Himmel himself adopted in his serious operas. The first of
these, a pastoral opera, _Il Primo Navigatore_, was produced at Venice
in 1794 with great success. In 1792 he went to Berlin, where his
oratorio _Isaaco_ was produced, in consequence of which he was made
court Kapellmeister to the king of Prussia, and in that capacity wrote a
great deal of official music, including cantatas, and a coronation Te
Deum. His Italian operas, successively composed for Stockholm, St
Petersburg and Berlin, were all received with great favour in their day.
Of much greater importance than these is an operetta to German words by
Kotzebue, called _Fanchon_, an admirable specimen of the primitive form
of the musical drama known in Germany as the _Singspiel_. Himmel's gift
of writing genuine simple melody is also observable in his songs,
amongst which one called "To Alexis" is the best. He died in Berlin on
the 8th of June 1814.



HINCKLEY, a market town in the Bosworth parliamentary division of
Leicestershire, England, 14½ m. S.W. from Leicester on the
Nuneaton-Leicester branch of the London & North-Western railway, and
near the Ashby-de-la-Zouch canal. Pop. of urban district (1901), 11,304.
The town is well situated on a considerable eminence. Among the
principal buildings are the church of St Mary, a Decorated and
Perpendicular structure, with lofty tower and spire; the Roman Catholic
academy named St Peter's Priory, and a grammar school. The ditch of a
castle erected by Hugh de Grentismenil in the time of William Rufus is
still to be traced. Hinckley is the centre of a stocking-weaving
district, and its speciality is circular hose. It also possesses a
boot-making industry, brick and tile works, and lime works. There are
mineral springs in the neighbourhood.



HINCKS, EDWARD (1792-1866), British assyriologist, was born at Cork,
Ireland, and educated at Trinity College, Dublin. He took orders in the
Protestant Church of Ireland, and was rector of Killyleagh, Down, from
1825 till his death on the 3rd of December 1866. Hincks devoted his
spare time to the study of hieroglyphics, and to the deciphering of the
cuneiform script (see CUNEIFORM), in which he was a pioneer, working out
contemporaneously with Sir H. Rawlinson, and independently of him, the
ancient Persian vowel system. He published a number of original and
scholarly papers on assyriological questions of the highest value,
chiefly in the _Transactions_ of the Royal Irish Academy.



HINCKS, SIR FRANCIS (1807-1885), Canadian statesman, was born at Cork,
Ireland, the son of an Irish Presbyterian minister. In 1832 he engaged
in business in Toronto, became a friend of Robert Baldwin, and in 1835
was chosen to examine the accounts of the Welland Canal, the management
of which was being attacked by W. L. Mackenzie. This turned his
attention to political life and in 1838 he founded the _Examiner_, a
weekly paper in the Liberal interest. In 1841 he was elected M.P. for
the county of Oxford, and in the following year was appointed
inspector-general, the title then borne by the finance minister, but in
1843 resigned with Baldwin and the other ministers on the question of
responsible government. In 1848 he again became inspector-general in the
Baldwin-Lafontaine ministry, and on their retirement in 1851 became
premier of Canada, his chief colleague being A. N. Morin (1803-1865).
While premier he was prominent in the negotiations which led to the
construction of the Grand Trunk railway, and in co-operation with Lord
Elgin negotiated with the United States the reciprocity treaty of 1854.
In the same year the bitter hostility of the "Clear Grits" under George
Brown compelled his resignation, and he was prominent in the formation
of the Liberal-Conservative Party. In 1855 he was chosen governor of
Barbados and the Windward Islands, and subsequently governor of British
Guiana. In 1869 he was created K.C.M.G. and returned to Canada, becoming
till 1873 finance minister in the cabinet of Sir John Macdonald. In
February of that year he resigned, but continued to take an active part
in public life. In 1879 the failure of the Consolidated Bank of Canada,
of which he was president, led to his being tried for issuing false
statements. Though found guilty on a technicality (see _Journal_ of the
Canadian Bankers' Association, April 1906) judgment was suspended, his
personal credit remained unimpaired, and he continued to take part in
the discussion of public questions till his death on the 18th of August
1885.

  His writings include: _The Political History of Canada between 1840
  and 1855_ (1877); _The Political Destiny of Canada_ (1878), and his
  _Reminiscences_ (1884).



HINCMAR (c. 805-882), archbishop of Reims, one of the most remarkable
figures in the ecclesiastical history of France, belonged to a noble
family of the north or north-east of Gaul. Destined, doubtless, to the
monastic life, he was brought up at St Denis under the direction of the
abbot Hilduin (d. 844), who brought him in 822 to the court of the
emperor Louis the Pious. When Hilduin was disgraced in 830 for having
joined the party of Lothair, Hincmar accompanied him into exile at
Corvey in Saxony, but returned with him to St Denis when the abbot was
reconciled with the emperor, and remained faithful to the emperor during
his struggle with his sons. After the death of Louis the Pious (840)
Hincmar supported Charles the Bald, and received from him the abbacies
of Notre-Dame at Compiègne and St Germer de Fly. In 845 he obtained
through the king's support the archbishopric of Reims, and this choice
was confirmed at the synod of Beauvais (April 845). Archbishop Ebbo,
whom he replaced, had been deposed in 835 at the synod of Thionville
(Diedenhofen) for having broken his oath of fidelity to the emperor
Louis, whom he had deserted to join the party of Lothair. After the
death of Louis, Ebbo succeeded in regaining possession of his see for
some years (840-844), but in 844 Pope Sergius II. confirmed his
deposition. It was in these circumstances that Hincmar succeeded, and in
847 Pope Leo IV. sent him the pallium.

One of the first cares of the new prelate was the restitution to his
metropolitan see of the domains that had been alienated under Ebbo and
given as benefices to laymen. From the beginning of his episcopate
Hincmar was in constant conflict with the clerks who had been ordained
by Ebbo during his reappearance. These clerks, whose ordination was
regarded as invalid by Hincmar and his adherents, were condemned in 853
at the council of Soissons, and the decisions of that council were
confirmed in 855 by Pope Benedict III. This conflict, however, bred an
antagonism of which Hincmar was later to feel the effects. During the
next thirty years the archbishop of Reims played a very prominent part
in church and state. His authoritative and energetic will inspired, and
in great measure directed, the policy of the west Frankish kingdom until
his death. He took an active part in all the great political and
religious affairs of his time, and was especially energetic in defending
and extending the rights of the church and of the metropolitans in
general, and of the metropolitan of the church of Reims in particular.
In the resulting conflicts, in which his personal interest was in
question, he displayed great activity and a wide knowledge of canon law,
but did not scruple to resort to disingenuous interpretation of texts.
His first encounter was with the heresiarch Gottschalk, whose
predestinarian doctrines claimed to be modelled on those of St
Augustine. Hincmar placed himself at the head of the party that
regarded Gottschalk's doctrines as heretical, and succeeded in procuring
the arrest and imprisonment of his adversary (849). For a part at least
of his doctrines Gottschalk found ardent defenders, such as Lupus of
Ferrières, the deacon Florus and Amolo of Lyons. Through the energy and
activity of Hincmar the theories of Gottschalk were condemned at Quierzy
(853) and Valence (855), and the decisions of these two synods were
confirmed at the synods of Langres and Savonnières, near Toul (859). To
refute the predestinarian heresy Hincmar composed his _De
praedestinatione Dei et libero arbitrio_, and against certain
propositions advanced by Gottschalk on the Trinity he wrote a treatise
called _De una et non trina deitate_. Gottschalk died in prison in 868.
The question of the divorce of Lothair II., king of Lorraine, who had
repudiated his wife Theutberga to marry his concubine Waldrada, engaged
Hincmar's literary activities in another direction. At the request of a
number of great personages in Lorraine he composed in 860 his _De
divortio Lotharii et Teutbergae_, in which he vigorously attacked, both
from the moral and the legal standpoints, the condemnation pronounced
against the queen by the synod of Aix-la-Chapelle (February 860).
Hincmar energetically supported the policy of Charles the Bald in
Lorraine, less perhaps from devotion to the king's interests than from a
desire to see the whole of the ecclesiastical province of Reims united
under the authority of a single sovereign, and in 869 it was he who
consecrated Charles at Metz as king of Lorraine.

In the middle of the 9th century there appeared in Gaul the collection
of false decretals commonly known as the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals. The
exact date and the circumstances of the composition of the collection
are still an open question, but it is certain that Hincmar was one of
the first to know of their existence, and apparently he was not aware
that the documents were forged. The importance assigned by these
decretals to the bishops and the provincial councils, as well as to the
direct intervention of the Holy See, tended to curtail the rights of the
metropolitans, of which Hincmar was so jealous. Rothad, bishop of
Soissons, one of the most active members of the party in favour of the
pseudo-Isidorian theories, immediately came into collision with his
archbishop. Deposed in 863 at the council of Soissons, presided over by
Hincmar, Rothad appealed to Rome. Pope Nicholas I. supported him
zealously, and in 865, in spite of the protests of the archbishop of
Reims, Arsenius, bishop of Orta and legate of the Holy See, was
instructed to restore Rothad to his episcopal see. Hincmar experienced
another check when he endeavoured to prevent Wulfad, one of the clerks
deposed by Ebbo, from obtaining the archbishopric of Bourges with the
support of Charles the Bald. After a synod held at Soissons, Nicholas I.
pronounced himself in favour of the deposed clerks, and Hincmar was
constrained to make submission (866). He was more successful in his
contest with his nephew Hincmar, bishop of Laon, who was at first
supported both by the king and by his uncle, the archbishop of Reims,
but soon quarrelled with both. Hincmar of Laon refused to recognize the
authority of his metropolitan, and entered into an open struggle with
his uncle, who exposed his errors in a treatise called _Opusculum LV.
capitulorum_, and procured his condemnation and deposition at the synod
of Douzy (871). The bishop of Laon was sent into exile, probably to
Aquitaine, where his eyes were put out by order of Count Boso. Pope
Adrian protested against his deposition, but it was confirmed in 876 by
Pope John VIII., and it was not until 878, at the council of Troyes,
that the unfortunate prelate was reconciled with the Church. A serious
conflict arose between Hincmar on the one side and Charles and the pope
on the other in 876, when Pope John VIII., at the king's request,
entrusted Ansegisus, archbishop of Sens, with the primacy of the Gauls
and of Germany, and created him vicar apostolic. In Hincmar's eyes this
was an encroachment on the jurisdiction of the archbishops, and it was
against this primacy that he directed his treatise _De jure
metropolitanorum_. At the same time he wrote a life of St Remigius, in
which he endeavoured by audacious falsifications to prove the supremacy
of the church of Reims over the other churches. Charles the Bald,
however, upheld the rights of Ansegisus at the synod of Ponthion.
Although Hincmar had been very hostile to Charles's expedition into
Italy, he figured among his testamentary executors and helped to secure
the submission of the nobles to Louis the Stammerer, whom he crowned at
Compiègne (8th of December 877).

During the reign of Louis, Hincmar played an obscure part. He supported
the accession of Louis III. and Carloman, but had a dispute with Louis,
who wished to instal a candidate in the episcopal see of Beauvais
without the archbishop's assent. To Carloman, on his accession in 882,
Hincmar addressed his _De ordine palatii_, partly based on a treatise
(now lost) by Adalard, abbot of Corbie (c. 814), in which he set forth
his system of government and his opinion of the duties of a sovereign, a
subject he had already touched in his _De regis persona et regio
ministerio_, dedicated to Charles the Bald at an unknown date, and in
his _Instructio ad Ludovicum regem_, addressed to Louis the Stammerer on
his accession in 877. In the autumn of 832 an irruption of the Normans
forced the old archbishop to take refuge at Epernay, where he died on
the 21st of December 882. Hincmar was a prolific writer. Besides the
works already mentioned, he was the author of several theological
tracts; of the _De villa Noviliaco_, concerning the claiming of a domain
of his church; and he continued from 861 the _Annales Bertiniani_, of
which the first part was written by Prudentius, bishop of Troyes, the
best source for the history of Charles the Bald. He also wrote a great
number of letters, some of which are extant, and others embodied in the
chronicles of Flodoard.

  Hincmar's works, which are the principal source for the history of his
  life, were collected by Jacques Sirmond (Paris, 1645), and reprinted
  by Migne, _Patrol. Latina_, vol. cxxv. and cxxvi. See also C. von
  Noorden, _Hinkmar, Erzbischof von Reims_ (Bonn, 1863), and,
  especially, H. Schrörs, _Hinkmar, Erzbischof von Reims_
  (Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1884). For Hincmar's political and
  ecclesiastical theories see preface to Maurice Prou's edition of the
  _De ordine palatii_ (Paris, 1885), and the abbé Lesné, _La Hiérarchie
  épiscopale en Gaule et en Germanie_ (Paris, 1905).     (R. Po.)



HIND, the female of the red-deer, usually taken as being three years old
and over, the male being known as a "hart." It is sometimes also applied
to the female of other species of deer. The word appears in several
Teutonic languages, cf. Dutch and Ger. _Hinde_, and has been connected
with the Goth. _hinÞan_ (_hinthan_), to seize, which may be connected
ultimately with "hand" and "hunt." "Hart," from the O.E. _heort_, may be
in origin connected with the root of Gr. [Greek: keras], horn. "Hind"
(O.E. _hine_, probably from the O.E. _hinan_, members of a family or
household), meaning a servant, especially a labourer on a farm, is
another word. In Scotland the "hind" is a farm servant, with a cottage
on the farm, and duties and responsibilities that make him superior to
the rest of the labourers. Similarly "hind" is used in certain parts of
northern England as equivalent to "bailiff."



HINDERSIN, GUSTAV EDUARD VON (1804-1872), Prussian general, was born at
Wernigerode near Halberstadt on the 18th of July 1804. He was the son of
a priest and received a good education. His earlier life was spent in
great poverty, and the struggle for existence developed in him an iron
strength of character. Entering the Prussian artillery in 1820 he became
an officer in 1825. From 1830 to 1837 he attended the Allgemeine
Kriegsakademie at Berlin, and in 1841, while still a subaltern, he was
posted to the great General Staff, in which he afterwards directed the
topographical section. In 1849 he served with the rank of major on the
staff of General Peucker, who commanded a federal corps in the
suppression of the Baden insurrection. He fell into the hands of the
insurgents at the action of Ladenburg, but was released just before the
fall of Rastadt. In the Danish war of 1864 Hindersin, now
lieutenant-general, directed the artillery operations against the lines
of Düppel, and for his services was ennobled by the king of Prussia.
Soon afterwards he became inspector-general of artillery. His experience
at Düppel had convinced him that the days of the smooth-bore gun were
past, and he now devoted himself with unremitting zeal to the rearmament
and reorganization of the Prussian artillery. The available funds were
small, and grudgingly voted by the parliament. There was a strong
feeling moreover that the smooth-bore was still tactically superior to
its rival (see ARTILLERY, § 19). There was no practical training for war
in either the field or the fortress artillery units. The latter had made
scarcely any progress since the days of Frederick the Great, and before
von Hindersin's appointment had practised with the same guns in the same
bastion year after year. All this was altered, the whole
"foot-artillery" was reorganized, manoeuvres were instituted, and the
smooth-bores were, except for ditch defence, eliminated from the
armament of the Prussian fortresses. But far more important was his work
in connexion with the field and horse batteries. In 1864 only one
battery in four had rifled guns, but by the unrelenting energy of von
Hindersin the outbreak of war with Austria one and a half years later
found the Prussians with ten in every sixteen batteries armed with the
new weapon. But the battles of 1866 showed, besides the superiority of
the rifled gun, a very marked absence of tactical efficiency in the
Prussian artillery, which was almost always outmatched by that of the
enemy. Von Hindersin had pleaded, in season and out of season, for the
establishment of a school of gunnery; and in spite of want of funds,
such a school had already been established. After 1866, however, more
support was obtained, and the improvement in the Prussian field
artillery between 1866 and 1870 was extraordinary, even though there had
not been time for the work of the school to leaven the whole arm.
Indeed, the German artillery played by far the most important part in
the victories of the Franco-German war. Von Hindersin accompanied the
king's headquarters as chief of artillery, as he had done in 1866, and
was present at Gravelotte, Sedan and the siege of Paris. But his work,
which was now accomplished, had worn out his physical powers, and he
died on the 23rd of January 1872 at Berlin.

  See Bartholomäus, _Der General der Infanterie von Hindersin_ (Berlin,
  1895), and Prince Kraft zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, _Letters on
  Artillery_ (translated by Major Walford, R.A.), No. xi.



HINDI, EASTERN, one of the "intermediate" Indo-Aryan languages (see
HINDOSTANI). It is spoken in Oudh, Baghelkhand and Chhattisgarh by over
22,000,000 people. It is derived from the Apabhramsa form of
Ardhamagadhi Prakrit (see PRAKRIT), and possesses a large and important
literature. Its most famous writer was Tulsi Das, the poet and reformer,
who died early in the 17th century, and since his time it has been the
North-Indian language employed for epic poetry.



HINDI, WESTERN, the Indo-Aryan language of the middle and upper Gangetic
Doab, and of the country to the north and south. It is the vernacular of
over 40,000,000 people. Its standard dialect is Braj Bhasha, spoken near
Muttra, which has a considerable literature mainly devoted to the
religion founded on devotion to Krishna. Another dialect spoken near
Delhi and in the upper Gangetic Doab is the original from which
Hindostani, the great _lingua franca_ of India, has developed (see
HINDOSTANI). Western Hindi, like Punjabi, its neighbour to the west, is
descended from the Apabhramsa form of Sauraseni Prakrit (see PRAKRIT),
and represents the language of the Madhyadesa or Midland, as distinct
from the intermediate and outer Indo-Aryan languages.



HINDKI, the name given to the Hindus who inhabit Afghanistan. They are
of the Khatri class, and are found all over the country even amongst the
wildest tribes. Bellew in his _Races of Afghanistan_ estimates their
number at about 300,000. The name Hindki is also loosely used on the
upper Indus, in Dir, Bajour, &c., to denote the speakers of Punjabi or
any of its dialects. It is sometimes applied in a historical sense to
the Buddhist inhabitants of the Peshawar Valley north of the Kabul
river, who were driven thence about the 5th or 6th century and settled
in the neighbourhood of Kandahar.



HINDLEY, an urban district in the Ince parliamentary division of
Lancashire, England, 2 m. E.S.E. of Wigan, on the Lancashire & Yorkshire
and Great Central railways. Pop. (1901) 23,504. Cotton spinning and the
manufacture of cotton goods are the principal industries, and there are
extensive coal-mines in the neighbourhood. It is recorded that in the
time of the Puritan revolution Hindley church was entered by the
Cavaliers, who played at cards in the pews, pulled down the pulpit and
tore the Bible in pieces.



HINDOSTANI (properly _Hindostani_, of or belonging to Hindostan[1]), the
name given by Europeans to an Indo-Aryan dialect (whose home is in the
upper Gangetic Doab and near the city of Delhi), which, owing to
political causes, has become the great _lingua franca_ of modern India.
The name is not employed by natives of India, except as an imitation of
the English nomenclature. Hindostani is by origin a dialect of Western
Hindi, and it is first of all necessary to explain what we mean by the
term "Hindi" as applied to language. Modern Indo-Aryan languages fall
into three groups,--an outer band, the language of the Midland and an
intermediate band. The Midland consists of the Gangetic Doab and of the
country to its immediate north and south, extending, roughly speaking,
from the Eastern Punjab on the west, to Cawnpore on its east. The
language of this tract is called "Western Hindi"; to its west we have
Panjabi (of the Central Punjab), and to the east, reaching as far as
Benares, Eastern Hindi, both Intermediate languages. These three will
all be dealt with in the present article. Panjabi and Western Hindi are
derived from Sauraseni, and Eastern Hindi from Ardham gadha Prakrit,
through the corresponding Apabhramsas (see PRAKRIT). Eastern Hindi
differs in many respects from the two others, but it is customary to
consider it together with the language of the Midland, and this will be
followed on the present occasion. In 1901 the speakers of these three
languages numbered: Panjabi, 17,070,961; Western Hindi, 40,714,925;
Eastern Hindi, 22,136,358.

_Linguistic Boundaries._--Taking the tract covered by these three forms
of speech, it has to its west, in the western Punjab, Lannda (see
SINDHI), a language of the Outer band. The parent of Lahnda once no
doubt covered the whole of the Punjab, but, in the process of expansion
of the tribes of the Midland described in the article INDO-ARYAN
LANGUAGES, it was gradually driven back, leaving traces of its former
existence which grow stronger as we proceed westwards, until at about
the 74th degree of east longitude there is a mixed, transition dialect.
To the west of that degree Lahnda may be said to be established, the
deserts of the west-central Punjab forming a barrier and protecting it,
just as, farther south, a continuation of the same desert has protected
Sindhi from Rajasthani. It is the old traces of Lahnda which mainly
differentiate Panjabi from Hindostani. To the south of Panjabi and
Western Hindi lies Rajasthani. This language arose in much the same way
as Panjabi. The expanding Midland language was stopped by the desert
from reaching Sindhi, but to the south-west it found an unobstructed way
into Gujarat, where, under the form of Gujarati, it broke the
continuity of the Outer band. Eastern Hindi, as an Intermediate form of
speech, is of much older lineage. It has been an Intermediate language
since, at least, the institution of Jainism (say, 500 B.C.), and is much
less subject to the influence of the Midland than is Panjabi. To its
east it has Bihari, and, stretching far to the south, it has Marathi as
its neighbour in that direction, both of these being Outer languages.

_Dialects._--The only important dialect of Eastern Hindi is Awadhi,
spoken in Oudh, and possessing a large literature of great excellence.
Chhattisgarhi and Bagheli, the other dialects, have scanty literatures
of small value. Western Hindi has four main dialects, Bundeli of
Bundelkhand, Braj Bhasha (properly "Braj Bhasa") of the country round
Mathura (Muttra), Kanauji of the central Doab and the country to its
north, and vernacular Hindostani of Delhi and the Upper Doab. West of
the Upper Doab, across the Jumna, another dialect, Bangaru, is also
found. It possesses no literature. Kanauji is very closely allied to
Braj Bhasha, and these two share with Awadhi the honour of being the
great literary speeches of northern India. Nearly all the classical
literature of India is religious in character, and we may say that, as a
broad rule, Awadhi literature is devoted to the Ramaite religion and the
epic poetry connected with it, while that of Braj Bhasha is concerned
with the religion of Krishna. Vernacular Hindostani has no literature of
its own, but as the _lingua franca_ now to be described it has a large
one. Panjabi has one dialect, Dogri, spoken in the Himalayas.

_Hindostani as a Lingua Franca._--It has often been said that Hindostani
is a mongrel "pigeon" form of speech made up of contributions from the
various languages which met in Delhi bazaar, but this theory has now
been proved to be unfounded, owing to the discovery of the fact that it
is an actual living dialect of Western Hindi, existing for centuries in
its present habitat, and the direct descendant of Sauraseni Prakrit. It
is not a typical dialect of that language, for, situated where it is, it
represents Western Hindi merging into Panjabi (Braj Bhasha being
admittedly the standard of the language), but to say that it is a
mongrel tongue thrown together in the market is to reverse the order of
events. It was the natural language of the people in the neighbourhood
of Delhi, who formed the bulk of those who resorted to the bazaar, and
hence it became the bazaar language. From here it became the _lingua
franca_ of the Mogul camp and was carried everywhere in India by the
lieutenants of the empire. It has several recognized varieties, amongst
which we may mention Dakhini, Urdu, Rekhta and Hindi. Dakhini or
"southern," is the form current in the south of India, and was the first
to be employed for literature. It contains many archaic expressions now
extinct in the standard dialect. Urdu, or _Urdu zaban_, "the language of
the camp," is the name usually employed for Hindostani by natives, and
is now the standard form of speech used by Mussulmans. All the early
Hindostani literature was in poetry, and this literary form of speech
was named "Rekhta," or "scattered," from the way in which words borrowed
from Persian were "scattered" through it. The name is now reserved for
the dialect used in poetry, Urdu being the dialect of prose and of
conversation. The introduction of these borrowed words, which has been
carried to even a greater extent in Urdu, was facilitated by the facts
that the latter was by origin a "camp" language, and that Persian was
the official language of the Mogul court. In this way Persian (and, with
Persian, Arabic) words came into current use, and, though the language
remained Indo-Aryan in its grammar and essential characteristics, it
soon became unintelligible to any one who had not at least a moderate
acquaintance with the vocabulary of Iran. This extreme Persianization of
Urdu was due rather to Hindu than to Persian influence. Although Urdu
literature was Mussulman in its origin, the Persian element was first
introduced in excess by the pliant Hindu officials employed in the Mogul
administration, and acquainted with Persian, rather than by Persians and
Persianized Moguls, who for many centuries used only their own languages
for literary purposes.[2] Prose Urdu literature took its origin in the
English occupation of India and the need for text-books for the college
of Fort William. It has had a prosperous career since the commencement
of the 19th century, but some writers, especially those of Lucknow, have
so overloaded it with Persian and Arabic that little of the original
Indo-Aryan character remains, except, perhaps, an occasional pronoun or
auxiliary verb. The Hindi form of Hindostani was invented simultaneously
with Urdu prose by the teachers at Fort William. It was intended to be a
Hindostani for the use of Hindus, and was derived from Urdu by ejecting
all words of Persian or Arabic birth, and substituting for them words
either borrowed from Sanskrit (_tatsamas_) or derived from the old
primary Prakrit (_tadbhavas_) (see INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES). Owing to the
popularity of the first book written in it, and to its supplying the
need for a _lingua franca_ which could be used by the most patriotic
Hindus without offending their religious prejudices, it became widely
adopted, and is now the recognized vehicle for writing prose by those
inhabitants of northern India who do not employ Urdu. This Hindi, which
is an altogether artificial product of the English, is hardly ever used
for poetry. For this the indigenous dialects (usually Awadhi or Braj
Bhasha) are nearly always employed by Hindus. Urdu, on the other hand,
having had a natural growth, has a vigorous poetical literature. Modern
Hindi prose is often disfigured by that too free borrowing of Sanskrit
words instead of using home-born _tadbhavas_, which has been the ruin of
Bengali, and it is rapidly becoming a Hindu counterpart of the
Persianized Urdu, neither of which is intelligible except to persons of
high education.

Not only has Urdu adopted a Persian vocabulary, but even a few
peculiarities of Persian construction, such as reversing the positions
of the governing and the governed word (e.g. _báp mera_ for _mera bap_),
or of the adjective and the substantive it qualifies, or such as the use
of Persian phrases with the preposition _ba_ instead of the native
postposition of the ablative case (e.g. _ba-khushí_ for _khushi-se_, or
_ba-hukm sarkar-ke_ instead of _sarkar-ke hukm-se_) are to be met with
in many writings; and these, perhaps, combined with the too free
indulgence on the part of some authors in the use of high-flown and
pedantic Persian and Arabic words in place of common and yet chaste
Indian words, and the general use of the Persian instead of the Nagari
character, have induced some to regard Hindostani or Urdu as a language
distinct from Hindi. But such a view betrays a radical misunderstanding
of the whole question. We must define Urdu as the Persianized Hindostani
of educated Mussulmans, while Hindi is the Sanskritized Hindostani of
educated Hindus. As for the written character, Urdu, from the number of
Persian words which it contains, can only be written conveniently in the
Persian character, while Hindi, for a parallel reason, can only be
written in the Nagari or one of its related alphabets (see SANSKRIT). On
the other hand, "Hindostani" implies the great _lingua franca_ of India,
capable of being written in either character, and, without purism,
avoiding the excessive use of either Persian or Sanskrit words when
employed for literature. It is easy to write this Hindostani, for it has
an opulent vocabulary of _tadbhava_ words understood everywhere by both
Mussulmans and Hindus. While "Hindostani," "Urdu" and "Hindi" are thus
names of dialects, it should be remembered that the terms "Western
Hindi" and "Eastern Hindi" connote, not dialects, but languages.

The epoch of Akbar, which first saw a regular revenue system
established, with toleration and the free use of their religion to the
Hindus, was, there can be little doubt, the period of the formation of
the language. But its final consolidation did not take place till the
reign of Shah Jahan. After the date of this monarch the changes are
comparatively immaterial until we come to the time when European sources
began to mingle with those of the East. Of the contributions from these
sources there is little to say. Like the greater part of those from
Arabic and Persian, they are chiefly nouns, and may be regarded rather
as excrescences which have sprung up casually and have attached
themselves to the original trunk than as ingredients duly incorporated
in the body. In the case of the Persian and Arabic element, indeed, we
do find not a few instances in which nouns have been furnished with a
Hindi termination, e.g. _kharidna_, _badalna_, _guzarna_, _daghna_,
_bakhshnaa_, _kaminapan_, &c.; but the European element cannot be said
to have at all woven itself into the grammar of the language. It
consists, as has been observed, solely of nouns, principally substantive
nouns, which on their admission into the language are spelt
phonetically, or according to the corrupt pronunciation they receive in
the mouths of the natives, and are declined like the indigenous nouns by
means of the usual postpositions or case-affixes. A few examples will
suffice. The Portuguese, the first in order of seniority, contributes a
few words, as _kamara_ or _kamra_ (_camera_), a room; _martol_
(_martello_), a hammer; _nilam_ (_leilão_), an auction, &c. &c. Of
French and Dutch influence scarcely a trace exists. English has
contributed a number of words, some of which have even found a place in
the literature of the language; e.g. _kamishanar_ (commissioner); _jaj_
(judge); _daktar_ (doctor); _daktari_, "the science of medicine" or "the
profession of physicians"; _inspektar_ (inspector); _istant_
(assistant); _sosayatí_ (society); _apil_ (appeal); _apil karna_, "to
appeal"; _dikri_ or _digri_ (decree); _digri_ (degree); _inc_ (inch);
_fut_ (foot); and many more, are now words commonly used. Some borrowed
words are distorted into the shape of genuine Hindostani words familiar
to the speakers; e.g. the English railway term "signal" has become
_sikandar_, the native name for Alexander the Great, and "signal-man" is
_sikandar-man_, or "the pride of Alexander." How far the free use of
Anglicisms will be adopted as the language progresses is a question upon
which it would be hazardous to pronounce an opinion, but of late years
it has greatly increased in the language of the educated, especially in
the case of technical terms. A native veterinary surgeon once said to
the present writer, "_kutte-ka saliva bahut antiseptic hai_" for "a
dog's saliva is very antiseptic," and this is not an extravagant
example.[3]

The vocabulary of Panjabi and Eastern Hindi is very similar to that of
Western Hindi. Panjabi has no literature to speak of and is free from
the burden of words borrowed from Persian or Sanskrit, only the
commonest and simplest of such being found in it. Its vocabulary is thus
almost entirely _tadbhava_, and, while capable of expressing all ideas,
it has a charming rustic flavour, like the Lowland Scotch of Burns,
indicative of the national character of the sturdy peasantry that
employs it. Eastern Hindi is very like Panjabi in this respect, but for
a different reason. In it were written the works of Tulsi Das, one of
the greatest writers that India has produced, and his influence on the
language has been as great as that of Shakespeare on English. The
peasantry are continually quoting him without knowing it, and his style,
simple and yet vigorous, thoroughly Indian and yet free from purism, has
set a model which is everywhere followed except in the large towns where
Urdu or Sanskritized Hindi prevails. Eastern Hindi is written in the
Nagari alphabet, or in the current character related to it called
"Kaithi" (see BIHARI). The indigenous alphabet of the Punjab is called
_Landa_ or "clipped." It is related to Nagari, but is hardly legible to
any one except the original writer, and sometimes not even to him. To
remedy this defect an improved form of the alphabet was devised in the
16th century by Angad, the fifth Sikh Guru, for the purpose of recording
the Sikh scriptures. It was named _Gurmukhi_, "proceeding from the mouth
of the Guru," and is now generally used for writing the language.

  _Grammar._--In the following account we use these contractions: Skr. =
  Sanskrit; Pr. = Prakrit; Ap. = Apabhramsa; W.H. = Western Hindi; E.H.
  = Eastern Hindi; H. = Hindostani; Br. = Braj Bhasha; P. = Panjabi.

  (A) _Phonetics._--The phonetic system of all three languages is nearly
  the same as that of the Apabhramsas from which they are derived. With
  a few exceptions, to be noted below, the letters of the alphabets of
  the three languages are the same as in Sanskrit. Panjabi, and the
  western dialects of Western Hindi, have preserved the old Vedic
  cerebral l. There is a tendency for concurrent vowels to run into each
  other, and for the semi-vowels y and v to become vowels. Thus, Skr.
  _carmakaras_, Ap. _cammaaru_, a leather-worker, becomes H. _camar_;
  Skr. _rajani_, Ap. _ra(y)ani_, H. _rain_, night; Skr. _dhavalakas_,
  Ap. _dhavalau_, H. _dhaula_, white. Sometimes the semi-vowel is
  retained, as in Skr. _kataras_, Ap. _ka(y)aru_, H. _kayar_, a coward.
  Almost the only compound consonants which survived in the Pr. stage
  were double letters, and in W.H. and E.H. these are usually
  simplified, the preceding vowel being lengthened and sometimes
  nasalized, in compensation. P., on the other hand, prefers to retain
  the double consonant. Thus, Skr. _karma_, Ap. _kammu_, W.H. and E.H.
  _kam_, but P. _kamm_, a work; Skr. _satyas_, Ap. _saccu_, W.H. and
  E.H. _sac_, but P. _sacc_, true (H., being the W.H. dialect which lies
  nearest to P., often follows that language, and in this instance has
  _sacc_, usually written _sac_); Skr. _hastas_, Ap. _hatthu_, W.H. and
  E.H. _hath_, but P. _hatth_, a hand. The nasalization of vowels is
  very frequent in all three languages, and is here represented by the
  sign ~ over the vowel. Sometimes it is compensatory, as in _sac_, but
  it often represents an original _m_, as in _kawãl_ from Skr.
  _kamalas_, a lotus. Final short vowels quiesce in prose pronunciation,
  and are usually not written in transliteration; thus the final _a_,
  _i_ or _u_ has been lost in all the examples given above, and other
  _tatsama_ examples are Skr. _mati_-which becomes _mat_, mind, and Skr.
  _vastu_-, which becomes _bast_, a thing. In all poetry, however
  (except in the Urdu poetry formed on Persian models, and under the
  rules of Persian prosody), they reappear and are necessary for the
  scansion.

  In _tadbhava_ words an original long vowel in any syllable earlier
  than the penultimate is shortened. In P. and H. when the long vowel is
  _e_ or _o_ it is shortened to _i_ or _u_ respectively, but in other
  W.H. dialects and in E.H. it is shortened to _e_ or _o_; thus, _beti_,
  daughter, long form H. _bitiya_, E.H. _betiya_; _ghori_, mare, long
  form H. _ghuriya_, E.H. _ghoriya_. The short vowels _e_ and _o_ are
  very rare in P. and H., but are not uncommon (though ignored by most
  grammars) in E.H. and the other W.H. dialects. A medial _d_ is
  pronounced as a strongly burred cerebral _r_, and is then written as
  shown, with a supposited dot. All these changes and various
  contractions of Prakrit syllables have caused considerable variations
  in the forms of words, but generally not so as to obscure the origin.

  (B) _Declension._--The nominative form of a _tadbhava_ word is derived
  from the nominative form in Sanskrit and Prakrit, but _tatsama_ words
  are usually borrowed in the form of the Skr. crude base; thus, Skr.
  _hastin_-, nom. _hasti_, Ap. nom. _hatthi_, H. _hathi_, an elephant;
  Skr. base _mati_-, nom. _matis_, H. (_tatsama_) _mati_, or, with
  elision of the final short vowel, _mat_. Some _tatsamas_ are, however,
  borrowed in the nominative form, as in Skr. _dhanin_-, nom. _dhani_,
  H. _dhani_, a rich man. As another example of a _tadbhava_ word, we
  may take the Skr. nom. _ghotas_, Ap. _ghodu_, H. _ghor_, a horse. Here
  again the final short vowel has been elided, but in old poetry we
  should find _ghoru_, and corresponding forms in u are occasionally met
  with at the present day.

  In the article PRAKRIT attention is drawn to the frequent use of
  pleonastic suffixes, especially -_ka_- (fem.-(i)_ka_). With such a
  suffix we have the Skr. _ghota-kas_, Ap. _ghoda-u_, Western Hindi
  _ghorau_, or in P. and H. (which is the W.H. dialect nearest in
  locality to P.) _ghora_, a horse; Skr. _ghoti-ka_, Ap. _ghodi-a_, W.H.
  and P. _ghodi_, a mare. Such modern forms made with one pleonastic
  suffix are called "strong forms," while those made without it are
  called "weak forms." All strong forms end in _au_ (or _a_) in the
  masculine, and in _i_ in the feminine, whereas, in Skr., and hence in
  _tatsamas_, both _a_ and _i_ are generally typical of feminine words,
  though sometimes employed for the masculine. It is shown in the
  article PRAKRIT that these pleonastic suffixes can be doubled, or even
  trebled, and in this way we have a new series of _tadbhava_ forms. Let
  us take the imaginary Skr. *_ghota-ka-kas_ with a double suffix. From
  this we have the Ap. _ghoda-a-u_, and modern _ghorawa_ (with euphonic
  _w_ inserted), a horse. Similarly for the feminine we have Skr.
  *_ghoti-ka-ka_, Ap. _ghodi-a-a_, modern _ghoriya_ (with euphonic _y_
  inserted), a mare. Such forms, made with two suffixes, are called
  "long forms," and are heard in familiar conversation, the feminine
  also serving as diminutives. There is a further stage, built upon
  three suffixes, and called the "redundant form," which is mainly used
  by the vulgar. As a rule masculine long forms end in -_awa_, -_iya_ or
  -_ua_, and feminines in -_iya_, although the matter is complicated by
  the occasional use of pleonastic suffixes other than the -_ka_- which
  we have taken for our example, and is the most common. Strong forms
  are rarely met with in E.H., but on the other hand long forms are more
  common in that language.

  There are a few feminine terminations of weak nouns which may be
  noted. These are -_ini_, -_in_, -_an_, -_ni_ (Skr. -_ini_, Pr.
  _-ini_); and -_ani_, -_ani_, -_ain_ (Skr. -_ani_, Pr. -_ani_). These
  are found not only in words derived from Prakrit, but are added to
  Persian and even Arabic words; thus, _hathini_, _hathni_, _hathin_
  (Skr. _hastini_, Pr. _hatthini_), a she-elephant; _sunarin_,
  _sunaran_, a female goldsmith (_sonar_); _sherni_, a tigress (Persian
  _sher_, a tiger); _Nasiban_, a proper name (Arabic _nasib_);
  _panditani_, the wife of a _pandit_; _caudhrain_, the wife of a
  _caudhri_ or head man; _mehtrani_, the wife of a sweeper (Pres.
  _mehtar_, a sweeper). With these exceptions weak forms rarely have any
  terminations distinctive of gender.[4]

  The synthetic declension of Sanskrit and Prakrit has disappeared. We
  see it in the actual stage of disappearance in Apabhramsa (see
  PRAKRIT), in which the case terminations had become worn down to
  -_hu_, -_ho_, -_hi_, -_hi_ and -_hã_, of which -_hi_ and -_hi_ were
  employed for several cases, both singular and plural. There was also a
  marked tendency for these terminations to be confused, and in the
  earliest stages of the modern vernaculars we find -_hi_ freely
  employed for any oblique case of the singular, and -_hi_ for any
  oblique case of the plural, but more especially for the genitive and
  the locative. In the case of modern weak nouns these terminations have
  disappeared altogether in W.H. and P. except in sporadic forms of the
  locative such as _gawe_ (for _gawahi_), in the village. In E.H. they
  are still heard as the termination of a form which can stand for any
  oblique case, and is called the "oblique form" or the "oblique case."
  Thus, from _ghar_, a house (a weak noun), we have W.H. and P. oblique
  form _ghar_, E.H. _gharahi_, _ghare_ or _ghar_. In the plural, the
  oblique form is sometimes founded on the Ap. terminations -_hã_ and
  -_hu_, and sometimes on the Skr. termination of the genitive plural
  -_anam_ (Pr. -_ana_, -_anham_), as in P. _ghara_, W.H. _gharau_,
  _gharo_, _gharani_, E.H. _gharan_. In the case of masculine weak
  forms, the plural nominative has dropped the old termination, except
  in E.H., where it has adopted the oblique plural form for this case
  also, thus _gharan_. The nominative plural of feminine weak forms
  follows the example of the masculine in E.H. In P. it also takes the
  oblique plural form, while in W.H. it takes the old singular oblique
  form in -_ahi_, which it weakens to _ai_ or (H.) _e_; thus _bat_
  (fem.), a word, nom. plur. E.H. _bat-an_, P. _bat-a_, W.H. _batai_ or
  (H.) _bate_.

  Strong masculine bases in Ap. ended in -_a-a_ (nom. -_a-u_); thus
  _ghoda-a_- (nom. _ghoda-u_), and adding -_hi_ we get _ghoda-a-hi_,
  which becomes contracted _ghodahi_ and finally to _ghore_. The
  nominative plural is the same as the oblique singular, except in E.H.
  where it follows the oblique plural. The oblique plural of all closely
  follows in principle the weak forms. Feminine strong forms in Ap.
  ended in -_i-a_, contracted to _i_ in the modern languages. Except in
  E.H. the -_hi_ of the original oblique form singular disappears, so
  that we have E.H. _ghorihi_ or _ghori_, others only _ghori_. The
  nominative plural of feminine strong forms exhibits some
  irregularities. In E.H., as usual, it follows the plural oblique
  forms. In W.H. (except Hindostani) it simply nasalizes the oblique
  form singular (i.e. adds -_hi_ instead of -_hi_), as in _ghori_, but
  first on line looks like -hi]. P. and H. adopt the oblique long form
  for the plural and nasalize it, thus, P. _ghoria_, H. _ghoriya_. The
  oblique plurals call for no further remarks. We thus get the following
  summary, illustrating the way in which these nominative and oblique
  forms are made.

    +-------------------+----------+------------+--------------------+---------------+
    |                   | Panjabi. | Hindostani.|    Braj Bhasha.    | Eastern Hindi.|
    +-------------------+----------+------------+--------------------+---------------+
    |Weak Noun Masc.--  |          |            |                    |               |
    |  Nom. Sing.       | ghar     | ghar       | ghar               | ghar          |
    |  Obl. Sing.       | ghar     | ghar       | ghar               | ghar, gharahi |
    |  Nom. Plur.       | ghar     | ghar       | ghar               | gharan        |
    |  Obl. Plur.       | ghara    | gharo      | gharau, gharani    | gharan        |
    |Strong Noun Masc.--|          |            |                    |               |
    |  Nom. Sing.       | ghora    | ghora      | ghorau             | ghora         |
    |  Obl. Sing.       | ghore    | ghore      | ghore, ghorai      | ghora, ghore  |
    |  Nom. Plur.       | ghore    | ghore      | ghore              | ghoran        |
    |  Obl. Plur.       | ghoria   | ghoro      | ghorau, ghorani    | ghoran        |
    |Weak Noun Fem.--   |          |            |                    |               |
    |  Nom. Sing.       | bat      | bat        | bat                | bat           |
    |  Obl. Sing.       | bat      | bat        | bat                | bat           |
    |  Nom. Plur.       | bata     | bate       | batai              | batan         |
    |  Obl. Plur.       | bata     | bato       | batau, batani      | batan         |
    |Strong Noun Fem.-- |          |            |                    |               |
    |  Nom. Sing.       | ghori    | ghori      | ghori              | ghori         |
    |  Obl. Sing.       | ghori    | ghori      | ghori              | ghori, ghorihi|
    |  Nom. Plur.       | ghoria   | ghoriya    | ghori              | ghorin        |
    |  Obl. Plur.       | ghoria   | ghoriyo    | ghoriyau, ghoriyani| ghorin        |
    +-------------------+----------+------------+--------------------+---------------+

  We have seen that the oblique form is the resultant of a general
  melting down of all the oblique cases of Sanskrit and Prakrit, and
  that in consequence it can be used for any oblique case. It is obvious
  that if it were so employed it would often give rise to great
  confusion. Hence, when it is necessary to show clearly what particular
  case is intended, it is usual to add defining particles corresponding
  to the English prepositions "of," "to," "from," "by," &c., which, as
  in all Indo-Aryan languages they follow the main word, are here called
  "postpositions." The following are the postpositions commonly employed
  to form cases in our three languages:--

    +--------------+-------+----------+--------+----------+-----------+
    |              | Agent.| Genitive.| Dative.| Ablative.| Locative. |
    +--------------+-------+----------+--------+----------+-----------+
    | Panjabi      | nai   | da       | nu     | te       | vicc      |
    | Hindostani   | ne    | ka       | ko     | se       | me        |
    | Braj Bhasha  | ne    | kau      | kau    | te, sau  | mai       |
    | Eastern Hindi| None  | ker, k   | ka     | se       | me, bikhe |
    +--------------+-------+----------+--------+----------+-----------+

  The agent case is the case which a noun takes when it is the subject
  of a transitive verb in a tense formed from the past participle. This
  participle is passive in origin, and must be construed passively. In
  the Prakrit stage the subject was in such cases put into the
  instrumental case (see PRAKRIT), as in the phrase _aham tena mario_, I
  by-him (was) struck, i.e. he struck me. In Eastern Hindi this is still
  the case, the old instrumental being represented by the oblique form
  without any suffix. The other two languages define the fact that the
  subject is in the instrumental (or agent) case by the addition of the
  postposition _ne_, &c., an old form employed elsewhere to define the
  dative. It is really the oblique form (by origin a locative) of _na_
  or _no_, which is employed in Gujarati (q.v.) for the genitive. As
  this suffix is never employed to indicate a material instrument but
  here only to indicate the agent or subject of a verb, it is called the
  postposition of the "agent" case.

  The genitive postpositions have an interesting origin. In Buddhist
  Sanskrit the words _krtas_, done, and _krtyas_, to be done, were added
  to a noun to form a kind of genitive. A synonym of _krtyas_ was
  _karyas_. These three words were all adjectives, and agreed with the
  thing possessed in gender, number, and case; thus, _mala-krte_
  _karande_, in the basket of the garland, literally, in the
  garland-made basket. In the various dialects of Apabhramsa Prakrit
  _krtas_ became (strong form) _kida-u_ or _kia-u_, _krtyas_ became
  _kicca-u_, and _karyas_ became _kera-u_ or _kajja-u_, the initial _k_
  of which is liable to elision after a vowel. With the exception of
  Gujarati (and perhaps Marathi, q.v.) every Indo-Aryan language has
  genitive postpositions derived from one or other of these forms. Thus
  from _(ki)da-u_ we have Panjabi _da_; from _kia-u_ we have H. _ka_,
  Br. kau, E.H. and Bihari _k_ and Naipali _ko_; from _(ki)cca-u_ we
  have perhaps Marathi _ca_; from _kera-u_, E.H. and Bihari _ker_,
  _kar_, Bengali Oriya and Assamese -_r_, and Rajasthani -_ro_; while
  from _(ka)jja-u_ we have the Sindhi _jo_. It will be observed that
  while _k_, _ker_, _kar_, and _r_ are weak forms, the rest are strong.
  As already stated, the genitive is an adjective. _Bap_ means "father,"
  and _bap-ka ghora_ is literally "the paternal horse." Hence (while
  the weak forms as usual do not change) these genitives agree with the
  thing possessed in gender, number, and case. Thus, _bap-ka ghora_, the
  horse of the father, but _bap-ki ghori_, the mare of the father, and
  _bap-ke ghore-ko_, to the horse of the father, the _ka_ being put into
  the oblique case masculine _ke_, to agree with _ghore_, which is
  itself in an oblique case. The details of the agreement vary slightly
  in P. and W.H., and must be learnt from the grammars. The E.H. weak
  forms do not change in the modern language. Finally, in Prakrit it was
  customary to add these postpositions (_kera-u_, &c.) to the genitive,
  as in _mama_ or _mama kera-u_, of me. Similarly these postpositions
  are, in the modern languages, added to the oblique form.

  The locative of the Sanskrit _krtas_, _krte_, was used in that
  language as a dative postposition, and it can be shown that all the
  dative postpositions given above are by origin old oblique forms of
  some genitive postposition. Thus H. _ko_, Br. _kau_, is a contraction
  of _kahu_, an old oblique form of _kia-u_. Similarly for the others.
  The origin of the ablative postpositions is obscure. To the present
  writer they all seem (like the Bengal _haïte_) to be connected with
  the verb substantive, but their derivation has not been definitely
  fixed. The locative postpositions _me_ and _mai_ are derived from the
  Skr. _madhye_, in, through _majjhi_, _mahi_, and so on. The derivation
  of _vicc_ and _bikhe_ is obscure.

    +-------------+------------+---------+------------+--------+---------+
    |             | Apabhramsa.| Panjabi.| Hindostani.|  Braj  | Eastern |
    |             |            |         |            | Bhasha.|  Hindi. |
    +-------------+------------+---------+------------+--------+---------+
    | I,     Nom. | hau        | mai     | mai        | hau    | mai     |
    |        Obl. | mai, mahu, | mai     | mujh       | mohi   | mo      |
    |             |   majjhu   |         |            |        |         |
    | WE,    Nom. | amhe       | asi     | ham        | ham    | ham     |
    |        Obl. | amaha      | asa     | hamo       | hamau, | ham     |
    |             |            |         |            |  hamani|         |
    | THOU,  Nom. | tuhu       | tu      | tu         | tu     | tai     |
    |        Obl. | tai, tuha, | tai     | tujh       | tohi   | to      |
    |             |   tujjhu   |         |            |        |         |
    | YOU,   Nom. | tumhe      | tusi    | tum        | tum    | tum     |
    |        Obl. | tumhahã    | tusa    | tumho      | tumhau | tum     |
    +-------------+------------+---------+------------+--------+---------+

  The pronouns closely follow the Prakrit originals. This will be
  evident from the preceding table of the first two personal pronouns
  compared with Apabhramsa.

  It will be observed that in most of the nominatives of the first
  person, and in the E.H. nominative of the second person, the old
  nominative has disappeared, and its place has been supplied by an
  oblique form, exactly as we have observed in the nominative plural of
  nouns substantive. The P. _asi_, _tusi_, &c., are survivals from the
  old Lahnda (see _Linguistic Boundaries_, above). The genitives of
  these two pronouns are rarely used, possessive pronouns (in H. _mera_,
  my; _hamara_, our; _tera_, thy; _tumhara_, your) being employed
  instead. They can all (except P. _asada_, our; _tusada_, your, which
  are Lahnda) be referred to corresponding Ap. forms.

  There is no pronoun of the third person, the demonstrative pronouns
  being used instead. The following table shows the principal remaining
  pronominal forms, with their derivation from Ap.:--

    +--------------------+--------------+----------+------------+--------+---------+
    |                    |  Apabhramsa. | Panjabi. | Hindostani.|  Braj  | Eastern |
    |                    |              |          |            | Bhasha.|  Hindi. |
    +--------------------+--------------+----------+------------+--------+---------+
    | THAT, HE,     Nom. |       ?      | uh       | woh        | wo     | u       |
    |               Obl. |       ?      |  uh      |  us        |  wa    |  o      |
    | THOSE, THEY,  Nom. | oi           |  oh      |  we        |  wai   |  unh    |
    |               Obl. |       ?      |  unha    |  unh       |  uni   |  unh    |
    | THIS, HE,     Nom. | ehu          | ih       | yeh        | yah    | i       |
    |               Obl. |  ehasu, ehaho| ih       |  is        |  ya    |  e      |
    | THESE, THEY,  Nom. | ei           |  eh      |  ye        |  yai   |  inh    |
    |               Obl. |  ehana       |  inha    |  inh       |  ini   |  inh    |
    | THAT,         Nom. | so           | so       | so         | so     | se      |
    |               Obl. |  tasu, taho  |  tih     |  tis       |  ta    |  te     |
    | THOSE,        Nom. |  se          |  so      |  so        |  so    |  se     |
    |               Obl. |  tana        |  tinha   |  tinh      |  tini  |  tenh   |
    | WHO,          Nom. | jo           | jo       | jo         | jo     | je      |
    |               Obl. |  jasu, jaho  |  jih     |  jis       |  ja    |  je     |
    | WHO (pl.),    Nom. |  je          |   jo     |  jo        |  jo    |  je     |
    |               Obl. |  jana        |   jinha  |  jinh      |  jini  |  jenh   |
    | WHO?          Nom. | ko, kawanu   | kaun     | kaun       | ko     | ke      |
    |               Obl. |  kasu, kaho  |  kih     |  kis       |  ka    |  ke     |
    | WHO? (pl.),   Nom. |  ke          |  kaun    |  kaun      |  ko    |  ke     |
    |               Obl. |  kana        |  kinha   |  kinh      |  kini  |  kenh   |
    | WHAT?(Neut.), Nom. | kim          | kia      | kya        | kaha   | ka      |
    |               Obl. |  kaha, kasu  |  kah, kas|  kahe      |  kahe  |  kahe   |
    +--------------------+--------------+----------+------------+--------+---------+

  The origin of the first pronoun given above (that, he; those, they)
  cannot be referred to Sanskrit. It is derived from an Indo-Aryan base
  which was not admitted to the classical literary language, but of
  which we find sporadic traces in Apabhramsa. The existence of this
  base is further vouched for by its occurrence in the Iranian language
  of the Avesta under the form _ava-_. The base of the second pronoun is
  the same as the base of the first syllable in the Skr. _e-sas_, this,
  and other connected pronouns, and also occurs in the Avesta. Ap. _ehu_
  is directly derived from _e-sas_.

  There are other pronominal forms upon which, except perhaps _koi_ (Pr.
  _ko-vi_, Skr. _ko-'pi_), any one, it is unnecessary to dwell. The
  phrase _koi hai_? "Is any one (there)?" is the usual formula for
  calling a servant in upper India, and is the origin of the
  Anglo-Indian word "Qui-hi." The reflexive pronoun is _ap_ (Ap. _appu_,
  Skr. _atma_), self, which, something like the Latin _suus_ (Skr.
  _svas_), always refers to the subject of the sentence, but to all
  persons, not only to the third. Thus _mai apne_ (not _mere_) _bap-ko
  dekhta-hu_, "I see my father."

  C. _Conjugation_.--The synthetic conjugation was already commencing to
  disappear in Prakrit, and in the modern languages the only original
  tenses which remain are the present, the imperative, and here and
  there the future. The first is now generally employed as a present
  subjunctive. In the accompanying table we have the conjugation of this
  tense, and also the three participles, present active, and past and
  future passive, compared with Apabhramsa, the verb selected being the
  intransitive root _call_ or _cal_, go. In Ap. the word may be spelt
  with one or with two _ls_, which accounts for the variations of
  spelling in the modern languages.

  The imperative closely resembles the old present, except that it drops
  all terminations in the 2nd person singular; thus, _cal_, go thou.

  In P. and H. a future is formed by adding the syllable _ga_ (fem.
  _gi_) to the simple present. Thus, H. _calu-ga_, I shall go. The _ga_
  is commonly said to be derived from the Skr. _gatas_ (Pr. _gao_),
  gone, but this suggestion is not altogether acceptable to the present
  writer, although he is not now able to propose a better. Under the
  form of _-gau_ the same termination is used in Br., but in that
  dialect the old future has also survived, as in _calihau_ (Ap.
  _calihau_, Skr. _calisyami_), I shall go, which is conjugated like the
  simple present. The E.H. formation of the future is closely analogous
  to what we find in Bihari (q.v.). The third person is formed as in
  Braj Bhasha, but the first and second persons are formed by adding
  pronominal suffixes, meaning "by me," "by thee," &c., to the future
  passive participle.

    +---------------------+------------+---------+------------+--------+---------+
    |                     | Apabhramsa.| Panjabi.| Hindostani.|  Braj  | Eastern |
    |                     |            |         |            | Bjasja.|  Hindi. |
    +---------------------+------------+---------+------------+--------+---------+
    | Old Present--       |            |         |            |        |         |
    |  Singular 1.        | callau     | calla   | calu       | calau  | calau   |
    |     "     2.        | callasi,   | calle   | cale       | calai  | calas   |
    |                     |   callahi  |         |            |        |         |
    |     "     3.        | callai     | calle   | cale       | calai  | calai   |
    |  Plural   1.        | callahu    | calliye | cale       | calai  | calai   |
    |     "     2.        | callahu    | callo   | calo       | calau  | calau   |
    |     "     3.        | callanti,  | callan  | cale       | calai  | calai   |
    |                     |   callahi  |         |            |        |         |
    | Present Participle  | callanta-u | callda  | calta      | calatu | calat   |
    | Past Part. Passive  | callia-u   | callia  | cala       | calyau | cala    |
    | Future Part. Passive| callania-u | callna  | calna      | calnau |         |
    |                     | calliavva-u|   ..    |     ..     | caliwau| calab   |
    +---------------------+------------+---------+------------+--------+---------+

  Thus, _calab-u_, it-is-to-be-gone by-me, I shall go. We thus get the
  following forms. It will be observed that, as in many other Indo-Aryan
  languages, the first person plural has no suffix:--

      Sing.        Plur.
    1. alabu     calab
    2. calabe    calabo
    3. calihai   calihai

  In old E.H. the future participle passive, _calab_, takes no suffix
  for any person, and is used for all persons.

  The last remark leads us to a class of tenses in P. and W.H., in which
  a participle, by itself, can be employed for any person of a finite
  tense. A few examples of the use of the present and past participles
  will show the construction. They are all taken from Hindostani. _Woh
  calta_, he goes; _woh calti_, she goes; _mai cala_, I went; _woh
  cali_, she went; _we cale_, they went. The present participle in this
  construction, though it may be used to signify the present, is more
  commonly employed to signify a past conditional "(if) he had gone." It
  will have been observed that in the above examples, in all of which
  the verb is intransitive, the past as well as the present participle
  agrees with the subject in gender and number; but, if the verb be
  transitive, the passive meaning of the past participle comes into
  force. The subject must be put into the case of the agent, and the
  participle inflects to agree with the object. If the object be not
  expressed, or, as sometimes happens, be expressed in the dative case,
  the participle is construed impersonally, and takes the masculine (for
  want of a neuter) form. Thus, _mai-ne kaha_, by-me it-was-said, i.e. I
  said; _us-ne citthi likhi_, by-him a-letter (fem.) was-written, he
  wrote a letter; _raja-ne sherni-ko mara_, the king killed the tigress,
  lit., by-the-king, with-reference-to-the-tigress, it (impersonal)
  -was-killed. In the article PRAKRIT it is shown that the same
  construction is obtained in that language.

  In E.H. the construction is the same, but is obscured by the fact that
  (as in the future) pronominal suffixes are added to the participle to
  indicate the person of the subject or of the agent, as in _calat-eu_,
  (if) I had gone; _cal-eu_, I went; _mar-eu_ (transitive), I struck,
  lit., struck-by-me; _mar-es_, struck-by-him, he struck. If the
  participle has to be feminine, it (although a weak form) takes the
  feminine termination _i_, as in _mari-u_, I struck her; _calati-u_,
  (if) I (fem.) had gone; _cali-u_, I (fem.) went.

  Further tenses are formed by adding the verb substantive to these
  participles, as in H. _mai calta-hu_, I am going; _mai calta-tha_, I
  was going; _mai cala-hu_, I have gone; _mai cala-tha_, I had gone.
  These and other auxiliary verbs need not detain us long. They differ
  in the various languages. For "I am" we have P. _ha_, H. _hu_, Br.
  _hau_, E.H. _batyeu_ or _aheu_. For "I was" we have P. _si_ or _sa_,
  H. _tha_, Br. _hau_ or _hutau_, E.H. _raheu_. The H. _hu_ is thus
  conjugated:--

      Sing.    Plur.
    1. hu     hai
    2. hai    ho
    3. hai    hai

  The derivation of _ha_, _hu_, _hau_, and _aheu_ is uncertain. They are
  usually derived from the Skr. _asmi_, I am; but this presents many
  difficulties. An old form of the third person singular is _hwai_, and
  this points to the Pr. _havaï_, he is, equivalent to the Skr.
  _bhavati_, he becomes. On the other hand this does not account for the
  initial _a_ of _aheu_. This last word is in the _form_ of a past
  tense, and it may be a secondary formation from _asmi_. The P. _si_ is
  not a feminine of _sa_, as usually stated, but is a survival of the
  Skr. _asit_, Pr. _asi_, was. As in the Prakrit form, _si_ is employed
  for both genders, both numbers and all persons. _Sa_ is a secondary
  formation from this, on the analogy of the H. _tha_, which is from the
  Skr. _sthitas_, Pr. _thio_, stood, and is a participial form like
  _cal_a; thus, _woh tha_, he was; _woh thi_, she was. The Br. _hau_ is
  a modern past of _hau_, while _hutau_ is probably by origin a present
  participle of the Skr. _bhu_, become, Pr. _huntao_. The E.H. _bateu_,
  is the Skr. _varte_, Ap. _vattau_. _Raheu_ is the past tense of the
  root _rah_, remain.

  The future participle passive is everywhere freely used as an
  infinitive or verbal noun; thus, H. _calna_, E.H. _calab_, the act of
  going, to go. There is a whole series of derivative verbal forms,
  making potential passives and transitives from intransitives, and
  causals (and even double causals) from transitives. Thus _dikhna_, to
  be seen; potential passive, _dikhana_, to be visible; transitive,
  _dekhna_, to see; causal, _dikhlana_, to show.

  D. _Literature._--The literatures of Western and Eastern Hindi form
  the subject of a separate article (see HINDOSTANI LITERATURE). Panjabi
  has no formal literature. Even the _Granth_, the sacred book of the
  Sikhs, is mainly in archaic Western Hindi, only a small portion being
  in Panjabi. On the other hand, the language is peculiarly rich in
  folksongs and ballads, some of considerable length and great poetic
  beauty. The most famous is the ballad of _Hir_ and _Ranjha_ by Waris
  Shah, which is considered to be a model of pure Panjabi. Colonel Sir
  Richard Temple has published an important collection of these songs
  under the title of _The Legends of the Punjab_ (3 vols., Bombay and
  London, 1884-1900), in which both texts and translations of nearly all
  the favourite ones are to be found.

  AUTHORITIES.--(a) General: The two standard authorities are the
  comparative grammars of J. Beames (1872-1879) and A. F. R. Hoernle
  (1880), mentioned in the article INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES. To these may be
  added G. A. Grierson, "On the Radical and Participial Tenses of the
  Modern Indo-Aryan Languages" in the _Journal of the Asiatic Society of
  Bengal_, vol. lxiv. (1895), part i. pp. 352 et seq.; and "On Certain
  Suffixes in the Modern Indo-Aryan Vernaculars" in the _Zeitschrift für
  vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der indogermanischen
  Sprachen_ for 1903, pp. 473 et seq.

  (b) For the separate languages, see C. J. Lyall, _A Sketch of the
  Hindustani Language_ (Edinburgh, 1880); S. H. Kellogg, _A Grammar of
  the Hindi Language_ (for both Western and Eastern Hindi), (2nd ed.,
  London, 1893); J. T. Platts, _A Grammar of the Hindustani or Urdu
  Language_ (London, 1874); and _A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi
  and English_ (London, 1884); E. P. Newton, _Panjabi Grammar: with
  Exercises and Vocabulary_ (Ludhiana, 1898); and Bhai Maya Singh, _The
  Panjabi Dictionary_ (Lahore, 1895). _The Linguistic Survey of India_,
  vol. vi., describes Eastern Hindi, and vol. ix., Hindostani and
  Panjabi, in each instance in great detail.     (G. A. Gr.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] "Hindostan" is a Persian word, and in modern Persian is
    pronounced "Hindustan." It means the country of the Hindus. In
    medieval Persian the word was "Hindostan," with an _o_, but in the
    modern language the distinctions between _e_ and _i_ and between _o_
    and _u_ have been lost. Indian languages have borrowed Persian words
    in their medieval form. Thus in India we have _sher_, a tiger, as
    compared with modern Persian _shir_; _go_, but modern Pers. _gu_;
    _bostan_, but modern Pers. _bustan_. The word "Hindu" is in medieval
    Persian "Hindo" representing the ancient Avesta _hendava_ (Sanskrit,
    _saindhava_), a dweller on the _Sindhu_ or Indus. Owing to the
    influence of scholars in modern Persian the word "Hindu" is now
    established in English and, through English, in the Indian literary
    languages; but "Hindo" is also often heard in India. "Hindostan" with
    _o_ is much more common both in English and in Indian languages,
    although "Hindustan" is also employed. Up to the days of Persian
    supremacy inaugurated in Calcutta by Gilchrist and his friends, every
    traveller in India spoke of "Indostan" or some such word, thus
    bearing testimony to the current pronunciation. Gilchrist introduced
    "Hindoostan," which became "Hindustan" in modern spelling. The word
    is not an Indian one, and both pronunciations, with _o_ and with _u_,
    are current in India at the present day, but that with _o_ is
    unquestionably the one demanded by the history of the word and of the
    form which other Persian words take on Indian soil. On the other hand
    "Hindu" is too firmly established in English for us to suggest the
    spelling "Hindo.". The word "Hindi" has another derivation, being
    formed from the Persian _Hind_, India (Avesta _hindu_, Sanskrit
    _sindhu_, the Indus). "Hindi" means "of or belonging to India," while
    "Hindu" now means "a person of the Hindu religion." (Cf. Sir C. J.
    Lyall, _A Sketch of the Hindustani Language_, p. 1).

  [2] Sir C. J. Lyall, _op. cit._ p. 9.

  [3] This and the preceding paragraph are partly taken from Mr
    Platts's article in vol. xi. of the 9th edition of this
    encyclopaedia.

  [4] In some dialects of W.H. weak forms have masculines ending in u
    and corresponding feminines in _i_, but these are nowadays rarely met
    in the literary forms of speech. In old poetry they are common. In
    Braj Bhasha they have survived in the present participle.



HINDOSTANI LITERATURE. The writings dealt with in this article are those
composed in the vernacular of that part of India which is properly
called Hindostan,--that is, the valleys of the Jumna and Ganges rivers
as far east as the river Kos, and the tract to the south including
Rajputana, Central India (Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand), the Narmada
(Nerbudda) valley as far west as Khandwa, and the northern half of the
Central Provinces. It does not include the Punjab proper (though the
town population there speak Hindostani), nor does it extend to Lower
Bengal.

In this region several different dialects prevail. The people of the
towns everywhere use chiefly the form of the language called _Urdu_ or
_Rekhta_,[1] stocked with Persian words and phrases, and ordinarily
written in a modification of the Persian character. The country folk
(who form the immense majority) speak different varieties of _Hindi_, of
which the word-stock derives from the Prakrits and literary Sanskrit,
and which are written in the Devanagari or Kaithi character. Of these
the most important from a literary point of view, proceeding from west
to east, are _Marwari_ and _Jaipuri_ (the languages of Rajputana),
_Brajbhasha_ (the language of the country about Mathura and Agra),
_Kanauji_ (the language of the lower Ganges-Jumna Doab and western
Rohilkhand), _Eastern Hindi_, also called _Awadhi_ and _Baiswari_ (the
language of Eastern Rohilkhand, Oudh and the Benares division of the
United Provinces) and _Bihari_ (the language of Bihar or Mithila,
comprising several distinct dialects). What is called _High Hindi_ is a
modern development, for literary purposes, of the dialect of Western
Hindi spoken in the neighbourhood of Delhi and thence northwards to the
Himalaya, which has formed the vernacular basis of Urdu; the Persian
words in the latter have been eliminated and replaced by words of
Sanskritic origin, and the order of words in the sentence which is
proper to the indigenous speech is more strictly adhered to than in
Urdu, which under the influence of Persian constructions has admitted
many inversions.

As in many other countries, nearly all the early vernacular literature
of Hindostan is in verse, and works in prose are a modern growth.[2]
Both Hindi and Urdu are, in their application to literary purposes, at
first intruders upon the ground already occupied by the learned
languages Sanskrit and Persian, the former representing Hindu and the
latter Musalman culture. But there is this difference between them,
that, whereas Hindi has been raised to the dignity of a literary speech
chiefly by impulses of revolt against the monopoly of the Brahmans, Urdu
has been cultivated with goodwill by authors who have themselves highly
valued and dexterously used the polished Persian. Both Sanskrit and
Persian continue to be employed occasionally for composition by Indian
writers, though much fallen from their former estate; but for popular
purposes it may be said that their vernacular rivals are now almost in
sole possession of the field.

The subject may be conveniently divided as follows:--

  1. Early Hindi, of the period during which the language was being
  fashioned as a literary medium out of the ancient Prakrits,
  represented by the old heroic poems of Rajputana and the literature of
  the early _Bhagats_ or Vaishnava reformers, and extending from about
  A.D. 1100 to 1550;

  2. Middle Hindi, representing the best age of Hindi poetry, and
  reaching from about 1550 to the end of the 18th century;

  3. The rise and development of literary Urdu, beginning about the end
  of the 16th century, and reaching its height during the 18th;

  4. The modern period, marked by the growth of a prose literature in
  both dialects, and dating from the beginning of the 19th century.

1. _Early Hindi._--Our knowledge of the ancient metrical chronicles of
Rajputana is still very imperfect, and is chiefly derived from the
monumental work of Colonel James Tod, called _The Annals and Antiquities
of Rajasthan_ (published in 1829-1832), which is founded on them. It is
in the nature of compositions of this character to be subjected to
perpetual revision and recasting; they are the production of the family
bards of the dynasties whose fortunes they record, and from generation
to generation they are added to, and their language constantly modified
to make it intelligible to the people of the time. Round an original
nucleus of historical fact a rich growth of legend accumulates; later
redactors endeavour to systematize and to assign dates, but the result
is not often such as to inspire confidence; and the mass has more the
character of ballad literature than of serious history. The materials
used by Tod are nearly all still unprinted; his manuscripts are now
deposited in the library of the Royal Asiatic Society in London; and one
of the tasks which, on linguistic and historical grounds, should first
be undertaken by the investigator of early Hindi literature is the
examination and sifting, and the publication in their original form, of
these important texts.

Omitting a few fragments of more ancient bards given by compilers of
accounts of Hindi literature, the earliest author of whom any portion
has as yet been published in the original text is Chand Bardai, the
court bard of Prithwi-Raj, the last Hindu sovereign of Delhi. His poem,
entitled _Prithi-Raj Rasau_ (or _Raysa_), is a vast chronicle in 69
books or cantos, comprising a general history of the period when he
wrote. Of this a small portion has been printed, partly under the
editorship of the late Mr John Beames and partly under that of Dr Rudolf
Hoernle, by the Asiatic Society of Bengal; but the excessively difficult
nature of the task prevented both scholars from making much progress.[3]
Chand, who came of a family of bards, was a native of Lahore, which had
for nearly 170 years (since 1023) been under Muslim rule when he
flourished, and the language of the poem exhibits a considerable leaven
of Persian words. In its present form the work is a redaction made by
Amar Singh of Mewar, about the beginning of the 17th century, and
therefore more than 400 years after Chand's death, with his patron
Prithwi-Raj, in 1193. There is, therefore, considerable reason to doubt
whether we have in it much of Chand's composition in its original shape;
and the nature of the incidents described enhances this doubt. The
detailed dates contained in the Chronicle have been shown by Kabiraj
Syamal Das[4] to be in every case about ninety years astray. It tells of
repeated conflicts between the hero Prithwi-Raj and Sultan Shihabuddin,
of Ghor (Muhammad Ghori), in which the latter always, except in the last
great battle, comes off the worst, is taken prisoner and is released on
payment of a ransom; these seem to be entirely unhistorical, our
contemporary Persian authorities knowing of only one encounter (that of
Tirauri (Tirawari) near Thenesar, fought in 1191) in which the Sultan
was defeated, and even then he escaped uncaptured to Lahore. The Mongols
(Book XV.) are brought on the stage more than thirty years before they
actually set foot in India, and are related to have been vanquished by
the redoubtable Prithwi-Raj. It is evident that such a record cannot
possibly be, in its entirety, a contemporary chronicle; but nevertheless
it appears to contain a considerable element which, from its language,
may belong to Chand's own age, and represents the earliest surviving
document in Hindi. "Though we may not possess the actual text of Chand,
we have certainly in his writings some of the oldest known specimens of
Gaudian literature, abounding in pure Apabhramsa Sauraseni Prakrit
forms" (Grierson).

  It is very difficult now to form a just estimate of the poem as
  literature. The language, essentially transitional in character,
  consists largely of words which have long since died out of the
  vernacular speech. Even the most learned Hindus of the present day are
  unable to interpret it with confidence; and the meaning of the verses
  must be sought by investigating the processes by which Sanskrit and
  Prakrit forms have been transfigured in their progress into Hindi.
  Chand appears, on the whole, to exhibit the merits and defects of
  ballad chroniclers in general. There is much that is lively and
  spirited in his descriptions of fight or council; and the characters
  of the Rajput warriors who surround his hero are often sketched in
  their utterances with skill and animation. The sound, however,
  frequently predominates over the sense; the narrative is carried on
  with the wearisome iteration and tedious unfolding of familiar themes
  and images which characterize all such poetry in India; and his value,
  for us at least, is linguistic rather than literary.

Chand may be taken as the representative of a long line of successors,
continued even to the present day in the Rajput states. Many of their
compositions are still widely popular as ballad literature, but are known
only in oral versions sung in Hindostan by professional singers. One of
the most famous of these is the _Alha-khand_, reputed to be the work of a
contemporary of Chand called Jagnik or Jagnayak, of Mahoba in Bundelkhand,
who sang the praises of Raja-Parmal, a ruler whose wars with Prithwi-Raj
are recorded in the Mahoba-Khand of Chand's work. Alha and Udal, the
heroes of the poem, are famous warriors in popular legend, and the stories
connected with them exist in an eastern recension, current in Bihar, as
well as in the Bundelkhandi or western form which is best known. Two
versions of the latter have been printed, having been taken down as
recited by illiterate professional rhapsodists. Another celebrated bard
was Sarangdhar of Rantambhor, who flourished in 1363, and sang the praises
of Hammir Deo (Hamir Deo), the Chauhan chief of Rantambhor who fell in a
heroic struggle against Sultan 'Ala'uddin Khilji in 1300. He wrote the
_Hammir Kavya_ and _Hammir Rasau_, of which an account is given by Tod;[5]
he was also a poet in Sanskrit, in which language he compiled, in 1363,
the anthology called _Sarngadhara-Paddhati_. Another work which may be
mentioned (though much more modern) is the long chronicle entitled
_Chhattra-Prakas_, or the history of Raja Chhatarsal, the Bundela raja of
Panna, who was killed, fighting on behalf of Prince Dara-Shukoh, in the
battle of Dholpur won by Aurangzeb in 1658. The author, Lal Kabi, has
given in this work a history of the valiant Bundela nation which was
rendered into English by Captain W. R. Pogson in 1828, and printed at
Calcutta.

Before passing on to the more important branch of early Hindi
literature, the works of the _Bhagats_, mention may be made here of a
remarkable composition, a poem entitled the _Padmawat_, the materials of
which are derived from the heroic legends of Rajputana, but which is not
the work of a bard nor even of a Hindu. The author, Malik Muhammad of
Ja'is, in Oudh, was a venerated Muslim devotee, to whom the Hindu raja
of Amethi was greatly attached. Malik Muhammad wrote the Padmawat in
1540, the year in which Sher Shah Sur ousted Humayan from the throne of
Delhi. The poem is composed in the purest vernacular Awadhi, with no
admixture of traditional Hindu learning, and is generally to be found
written in the Persian character, though the metres and language are
thoroughly Indian. It professes to tell the tale of Padmawati or
Padmini, a princess celebrated for her beauty who was the wife of the
Chauhan raja of Chitor in Mewar. The historical Padmini's husband was
named Bhim Singh, but Malik Muhammad calls him Ratan Sen; and the story
turns upon the attempts of 'Ala'uddin Khilji, the sovereign of Delhi, to
gain possession of her person. The tale of the siege of Chitor in 1303
by 'Ala'uddin, the heroic stand made by its defenders, who perished to
the last man in fight with the Sultan's army, and the self-immolation of
Padmini and the other women, the wives and daughters of the warriors, by
the fiery death called _johar_, will be found related in Tod's
_Rajasthan_, i. 262 sqq. Malik Muhammad takes great liberties with the
history, and explains at the end of the poem that all is an allegory,
and that the personages represent the human soul, Divine wisdom, Satan,
delusion and other mystical characters.

  Both on account of its interest as a true vernacular work, and as the
  composition of a Musalman who has taken the incidents of his morality
  from the legends of his country and not from an exotic source, the
  poem is memorable. It has often been lithographed, and is very
  popular; a translation has even been made into Sanskrit. A critical
  edition has been prepared by Dr G. A. Grierson and Pandit Sudhakar
  Dwivedi.

The other class of composition which is characteristic of the period of
early Hindi, the literature of the _Bhagats_, or Vaishnava saints, who
propagated the doctrine of _bhakti_, or faith in Vishnu, as the popular
religion of Hindostan, has exercised a much more powerful influence both
upon the national speech and upon the themes chosen for poetic
treatment. It is also, as a body of literature, of high intrinsic
interest for its form and content. Nearly the whole of subsequent
poetical composition in Hindi is impressed with one or other type of
Vaishnava doctrine, which, like Buddhism many centuries before, was
essentially a reaction against Brahmanical influence and the chains of
caste, a claim for the rights of humanity in face of the monopoly which
the "twice-born" asserted of learning, of worship, of righteousness. A
large proportion of the writers were non-Brahmans, and many of them of
the lowest castes. As Siva was the popular deity of the Brahmans, so was
Vishnu of the people; and while the literature of the Saivas and
Saktas[6] is almost entirely in Sanskrit, and exercised little or no
influence on the popular mind in northern India, that of the Vaishnavas
is largely in Hindi, and in itself constitutes the great bulk of what
has been written in that language.

The Vaishnava doctrine is commonly carried back to Ramanuja, a Brahman
who was born about the end of the 11th century, at Perambur in the
neighbourhood of the modern Madras, and spent his life in southern
India. His works, which are in Sanskrit and consist of commentaries on
the Vedanta Sutras, are devoted to establishing "the personal existence
of a Supreme Deity, possessing every gracious attribute, full of love
and pity for the sinful beings who adore him, and granting the released
soul a home of eternal bliss near him--a home where each soul never
loses its identity, and whose state is one of perfect peace."[7] In the
Deity's infinite love and pity he has on several occasions become
incarnate for the salvation of mankind, and of these incarnations two,
Ramachandra, the prince of Ayodhya, and Krishna, the chief of the Yadava
clan and son of Vasudeva, are pre-eminently those in which it is most
fitting that he should be worshipped. Both of these incarnations had for
many centuries[8] attracted popular veneration, and their histories had
been celebrated by poets in epics and by weavers of religious myths in
_Puranas_ or "old stories"; but it was apparently Ramanuja's teaching
which secured for them, and especially for Ramachandra, their exclusive
place as the objects of _bhakti_--ardent faith and personal devotion
addressed to the Supreme. The adherents of Ramanuja were, however, all
Brahmans, and observed very strict rules in respect of food, bathing and
dress; the new doctrine had not yet penetrated to the people.

Whether Ramanuja himself gave the preference to Rama against Krishna as
the form of Vishnu most worthy of worship is uncertain. He dealt mainly
with philosophic conceptions of the Divine Nature, and probably busied
himself little with mythological legend. His _mantra_, or formula of
initiation, if Wilson[9] was correctly informed, implies devotion to
Rama; but Vasudeva (Krishna) is also mentioned as a principal object of
adoration, and Ramanuja himself dwelt for several years in Mysore, at a
temple erected by the raja, at Yadavagiri in honour of Krishna in his
form Ranchhor.[10] It is stated that in his worship of Krishna he joined
with that god as his _Sakti_, or Energy, his wife Rukmini; while the
later varieties of Krishna-worship prefer to honour his mistress Radha.
The great difference, in temper and influence upon life, between these
two forms of Vaishnava faith appears to be a development subsequent to
Ramanuja; but by the time of Jaideo (about 1250) it is clear that the
theme of Krishna and Radha, and the use of passionate language drawn
from the relations of the sexes to express the longings of the soul for
God, had become fully established; and from that time onwards the two
types of Vaishnava religious emotion diverged more and more from one
another.

The cult of Rama is founded on family life, and the relation of the
worshipper to the Deity is that of a child to a father. The morality it
inculcates springs from the sacred sources of human piety which in all
religions have wrought most in favour of pureness of life, of fraternal
helpfulness and of humble devotion to a loving and tender Parent, who
desires the good of mankind, His children, and hates violence and wrong.
That of Krishna, on the other hand, had for its basis the legendary
career of a less estimable human hero, whose exploits are marked by a
kind of elvish and fantastic wantonness; it has more and more spent its
energy in developing that side of devotion which is perilously near to
sensual thought, and has allowed the imagination and ingenuity of poets
to dwell on things unmeet for verse or even for speech. It is claimed
for those who first opened this way to faith that their hearts were pure
and their thoughts innocent, and that the language of erotic passion
which they use as the vehicle of their religious emotion is merely
mystical and allegorical. This is probable; but that these beginnings
were followed by corruption in the multitude, and that the fervent
impulses of adoration made way in later times for those of lust and
lasciviousness, seems beyond dispute.

The worship of Krishna, especially in his infant and youthful form
(which appeals chiefly to women), is widely popular in the neighbourhood
of Mathura, the capital of that land of Braj where as a boy he lived.
Its literature is mainly composed in the dialect of this region, called
Brajbhasha. That of Rama, though general throughout Hindostan, has
since the time of Tulsi Das adopted for poetic use the language of Oudh,
called Awadhi or Baiswari, a form of Eastern Hindi easily understood
throughout the whole of the Gangetic valley. Thus these two dialects
came to be, what they are to this day, the standard vehicles of poetic
expression.

Subsequently to Ramanuja his doctrine appears to have been set forth,
about 1250, in the vernacular of the people by Jaideo, a Brahman born at
Kinduvilva, the modern Kenduli, in the Birbhum district of Bengal,
author of the Sanskrit _Gita Govinda_, and by Namdeo or Nama, a
tailor[11] of Maharashtra, of both of whom verses in the popular speech
are preserved in the _Adi Granth_ of the Sikhs. But it was not until the
beginning of the 15th century that the Brahman Ramanand, a prominent
_Gosain_ of the sect of Ramanuja, having had a dispute with the members
of his order in regard to the stringent rules observed by them, left the
community, migrated to northern India (where he is said to have made his
headquarters Galta in Rajputana), and addressed himself to those outside
the Brahman caste, thus initiating the teaching of Vaishnavism as the
popular faith of Hindostan. Among his twelve disciples or apostles were
a Rajput, a Jat, a leather-worker, a barber and a Musalman weaver; the
last-mentioned was the celebrated KABIR (see separate article). One
short Hindi poem by Ramanand is contained in the _Adi Granth_, and Dr
Grierson has collected hymns (_bhajans_) attributed to him and still
current in Mithila or Tirhut. Both Ramanand and Kabir were adherents of
the form of Vaishnavism where devotion is specially addressed to Raama,
who is regarded not only as an incarnation, but as himself identical
with the Deity. A contemporary of Ramanand, Bidyapati Thakur, is
celebrated as the author of numerous lyrics in the Maithili dialect of
Bihar, expressive of the other side of Vaishnavism, the passionate
adoration of the Deity in the person of Krishna, the aspirations of the
worshipper being mystically conveyed in the character of Radha, the
cowherdess of Braj and the beloved of the son of Vasudeva. These stanzas
of Bidyapati (who was a Brahman and author of several works in Sanskrit)
afterwards inspired the Vaishnava literature of Bengal, whose most
celebrated exponent was Chaitanya (b. 1484). Another famous adherent of
the same cult was Mira Bai, "the one great poetess of northern India"
(Grierson). This lady, daughter of Raja Ratiya Rana, Rathor, of Merta in
Rajputana, must have been born about the beginning of the 15th century;
she was married in 1413 to Raja Kumbhkaran of Mewar, who was killed by
his son Uday Rana in 1469. She was devoted to Krishna in the form of
Ranchhor, and her songs have a wide currency in northern India.

  An important compilation of the utterances of the early Vaishnava
  saints or _Bhagats_ is contained in the sacred book, or _Adi Granth_,
  of the Sikh _Gurus_. Nanak, the founder of this sect (1469-1538),
  though a native of the Punjab (born at Talvandi on the Ravi near
  Lahore), took his doctrine from the _Bhagats_ (see KABIR); and each of
  the thirty-one _rags_, forming the body of the _Granth_, is followed
  by a compilation of texts from the utterances of Vaishnava saints,
  chiefly of Kabir, in confirmation of the teaching of the _Gurus_,
  while the whole book is closed by a _bhog_ or conclusion, containing
  more verses by the same authors, as well as by a celebrated Indian
  Sufi, Shekh Farid of Pakpattan. The body of the _Granth_ (q.v.), being
  in old Panjabi, falls outside the scope of this article; but the
  extracts included in it from the early writers of old Hindi are a
  precious store of specimens of authors some of whom have left no other
  record in the surviving literature. The _Adi Granth_, which was put
  together about 1600 by Arjun, the fifth _Guru_ of the Sikhs, sets
  forth the creed of the sect in its original pietistic form, before it
  assumed the militant character which afterwards distinguished it under
  the five _Gurus_ who succeeded him.

2. _Middle Hindi._--The second period, that of middle Hindi, begins with
the reign of the Emperor Akbar (1556-1605); and it is not improbable
that the broad and liberal views of this great monarch, his active
sympathy with his Hindu subjects, the interest which he took in their
religion and literature, and the peace which his organization of the
empire secured for Hindostan, had an important effect on the great
development of Hindi poetry which now set in.[12] Akbar's court was
itself a centre of poetical composition. The court musician Tan Sen (who
was also a poet) is still renowned, and many verses composed by him in
the Emperor's name live to this day in the memory of the people. Akbar's
favourite minister and companion, Raja Birbal (who fell in battle on the
north-western frontier in 1583), was a musician and a poet as well as a
politician, and held the title, conferred by the Emperor, of _Kabi-Ray_,
or poet laureate; his verses and witty sayings are still extremely
popular in northern India, though no complete work by him is known to
exist. Other nobles of the court were also poets, among them the
_Khan-khanan_ 'Abdur-Rahim, son of Bairam Khan, whose Hindi _dohas_ and
_kabittas_ are still held in high estimation, and Faizi, brother of the
celebrated Abul-Fazl, the Emperor's annalist.

By this time the worship of Krishna as the lover of Radha
_(Radha-ballabh)_ had been systematized, and a local habitation found
for it at Gokul, opposite Mathura on the Jumna, some 30 m. upstream from
Agra, Akbar's capital, by Vallabhacharya, a Tailinga Brahman from
Madras. Born in 1478, in 1497 he chose the land of Braj as his
headquarters, thence making missionary tours throughout India. He wrote
chiefly, if not entirely, in Sanskrit; but among his immediate
followers, and those of his son Bitthalnath (who succeeded his father on
the latter's death in 1530), were some of the most eminent poets in
Hindi. Four disciples of Vallabhacharya and four of Bitthalnath, who
flourished between 1550 and 1570, are known as the _Asht Chhap_, or
"Eight Seals," and are the acknowledged masters of the literature of
Braj-bhasha, in which dialect they all wrote. Their names are
Krishna-Das Pay-ahari, Sur Das (the Bhat), Parmanand Das, Kumbhan Das,
Chaturbhuj Das, Chhit Swami, Nand Das and Gobind Das. Of these much the
most celebrated, and the only one whose verses are still popular, is Sur
Das. The son of Baba Ram Das, who was a singer at Akbar's court, Sur Das
was descended, according to his own statement, from the bard of
Prithwi-Raj, Chand Bardai. A tradition gives the date of his birth as
1483, and that of his death as 1573; but both seem to be placed too
early, and in Abul-Fazl's _Ain-i Akbari_ he is mentioned as living when
that work was completed (1596/7). He was blind, and entirely devoted to
the worship of Krishna, to whose address he composed a great number of
hymns (_bhajans_), which have been collected in a compilation entitled
the _Sur Sagar_, said to contain 60,000 verses; this work is very highly
esteemed as the high-water mark of Braj devotional poetry, and has been
repeatedly printed in India. Other compositions by him were a
translation in verse of the _Bhagavata Purana_, and a poem dealing with
the famous story of Nala and Damayanti; of the latter no copies are now
known to exist.

The great glory of this age is Tulsi Das (q.v.). He and Sur Das between
them are held to have exhausted the possibilities of the poetic art. It
is somewhat remarkable that the time of their appearance coincided with
the Elizabethan age of English literature.

To these great masters succeeded a period of artifice and reflection,
when many works were composed dealing with the rules of poetry and the
analysis and the appropriate language of sentiment. Of their writers the
most famous is Kesab Das, a Brahman of Bundelkhand, who flourished
during the latter part of Akbar's reign and the beginning of that of
Jahangir. His works are the _Rasik-priya_, on composition (1591), the
_Kavi-priya_, on the laws of poetry (1601), a highly esteemed poem
dedicated to Parbin Rai Paturi, a celebrated courtesan of Orchha in
Bundelkhand, the _Ramachandrika_, dealing with the history of Rama,
(1610), and the _Vigyan-gita_ (1610). The fruit of this elaboration of
the poetic art reached its highest perfection in BIHARI LAL, whose
_Sat-sai_, or "seven centuries" (1662), is the most remarkable example
in Hindi of the rhetorical style in poetry (see separate article).

Side by side with this cultivation of the literary use of the themes of
Rama and Krishna, there grew up a class of compositions dealing, in a
devotional spirit, with the lives and doings of the holy men from whose
utterances and example the development of the popular religion
proceeded. The most famous of these is the _Bhakta-mala_, or "Roll of
the _Bhagats_," by Narayan Das, otherwise called Nabha Das, or Nabhaji.
This author, who belonged to the despised caste of Doms and was a native
of the Deccan, had in his youth seen Tulsi Das at Mathura, and himself
flourished in the first half of the 17th century. His work consists of
108 stanzas in _chhappai_ metre, each setting forth the characteristics
of some holy personage, and expressed in a style which is extremely
brief and obscure. Its exact date is unknown, but it falls between 1585
and 1623. The book was furnished with a _ika_ (supplement or gloss) in
the _kabitta_ metre, by Priya Das in 1713, gathering up, in an allusive
and disjointed fashion, all the legendary stories related of each saint.
This again was expanded about a century later by a modern author named
Lachhman into a detailed work of biography, called the _Bhakta-sindhu_.
From these nearly all our knowledge (such as it is) of the lives of the
Vaishnava authors, both of the Rama and the Krishna cults, is derived,
and much of it is of a very legendary and untrustworthy character.
Another work, somewhat earlier in date than the _Bhakta-mala_, named the
_Chaurasi Varta_, is devoted exclusively to stories of the followers of
Vallabhacharya. It is reputed to have been written by Gokulnath, son of
Bitthalnath, son of Vallabhacharya, and is dated in 1551.

  The matter of these tales is justly characterized by Professor
  Wilson[13] (who gives some translated specimens) as "marvellous and
  insipid anecdotes"; but the book is remarkable for being in very
  artless prose, and, though written more than 300 years ago, shows that
  the current language of Braj was then almost precisely identical with
  that now spoken in that region. A specimen of the text will be found
  at p. 296 of Mr F. S. Growse's _Mathura, a District Memoir_ (3rd ed.,
  1883).

It would be tedious to enumerate the many authors who succeeded the
great period of Hind poetical composition which extended through the
reigns of Akbar, Jahangir and Shahjahan. None of them attained to the
fame of Sur Das, Tuls Das or Bihari Lal. Their themes exhibit no
novelty, and they repeat with a wearisome monotony the sentiments of
their predecessors. The list of Hindi authors drawn up by Dr G. A.
Grierson, and printed in the _Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal_
in 1889, may be consulted for the names and works of these _epigoni_.
The courts of Chhatarsal, raja of Panna in Bundelkhand, who was killed
in battle with Aurangzeb in 1658, and of several rajas of Bandho (now
called Riwan or Rewah) in Baghelkhand, were famous for their patronage
of poets; and the Mogul court itself kept up the office of _Kabi-Ray_ or
poet laureate even during the fanatical reign of Aurangzeb.

Such, in the briefest outline, is the character of Hind literature
during the period when it grew and flourished through its own original
forces. Founded by a popular and religious impulse in many respects
comparable to that which, nearly 1600 years before, had produced the
doctrine and literature, in the vernacular tongue, of Jainism and
Buddhism, and cultivated largely (though by no means exclusively) by
authors not belonging to the Brahmanical order, it was the legitimate
descendant in spirit, as Hindi is the legitimate descendant in speech,
of the Prakrit literature which preceded it. Entirely in verse, it
adopted and elaborated the Prakrit metrical forms, and carried them to a
pitch of perfection too often overlooked by those who concern themselves
rather with the substance than the form of the works they read. It
covers a wide range of style, and expresses, in the works of its
greatest masters, a rich variety of human feeling. Little studied by
Europeans in the past, it deserves much more attention than it has
received. The few who have explored it speak of it as an "enchanted
garden" (Grierson), abounding in beauties of thought and phrase. Above
all it is to be remembered that it is genuinely popular, and has reached
strata of society scarcely touched by literature in Eur