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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 13, Slice 3 - "Helmont, Jean" to "Hernosand"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 13, Slice 3 - "Helmont, Jean" to "Hernosand"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE HEMIMORPHITE: "Hemimorphite occurs with other ores of zinc
      (calamine and blende), forming veins and beds in sedimentary
      limestones." 'sedimentary' amended from 'sedimentry'.

    ARTICLE HEMP: "But typically the drug is an intoxicant, resembling
      alcohol in many features of its action, but differing in others."
      'is' amended from 'in'.

    ARTICLE HENLEY, WILLIAM ERNEST: "In 1890 Henley published Views and
      Reviews, a volume of notable criticisms, described by himself as
      'less a book than a mosaic of scraps and shreds recovered from the
      shot rubbish of some fourteen years of journalism.'" 'mosaic'
      amended from 'mosiac'.

    ARTICLE HENRY VIII.: "... and the Councils of Wales and of the
      North were given summary powers derived from the Roman civil law
      similar to those exercised by the Star Chamber at Westminster and
      the court of Castle Chamber at Dublin." 'similar' amended from
      'similiar'.

    ARTICLE HERBARIUM: "... some species being almost always found
      parasitical on particular plants." Duplicated 'found'.

    ARTICLE HERCULES: "Hera sent two serpents to destroy the new-born
      Hercules, but he strangled them." 'destroy' amended from 'destory'.

    ARTICLE HEREDITAMENT: "An example of a corporeal hereditament is
      land held in freehold, of incorporeal hereditaments, tithes,
      advowsons, pensions, annuities, rents, franchises, &c."
      'hereditaments' amended from 'herditaments'.

    ARTICLE HEREFORDSHIRE: "Herefordshire probably originated as a
      shire in the time of Æthelstan, and is mentioned in the Saxon
      Chronicle in 1051." 'Chronicle' amended from 'Chroncile'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


           VOLUME XIII, SLICE III

         HELMONT, JEAN to HERNÖSAND



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  HELMONT, JEAN BAPTISTE VAN        HENRY, ROBERT
  HELMSTEDT                         HENRY, VICTOR
  HELMUND                           HENRY, WILLIAM
  HELM WIND                         HENRYSON, ROBERT
  HELOTS                            HENSCHEL, GEORGE
  HELPS, SIR ARTHUR                 HENSELT, ADOLF VON
  HELSINGBORG                       HENSLOW, JOHN STEVENS
  HELSINGFORS                       HENSLOWE, PHILIP
  HELST, BARTHOLOMAEUS VAN DER      HENTY, GEORGE ALFRED
  HELSTON                           HENWOOD, WILLIAM JORY
  HELVETIC CONFESSIONS              HENZADA
  HELVETII                          HEPBURN, SIR JOHN
  HELVÉTIUS, CLAUDE ADRIEN          HEPHAESTION (Macedonian general)
  HELVIDIUS PRISCUS                 HEPHAESTION (Alexandrian grammarian)
  HELY-HUTCHINSON, JOHN             HEPHAESTUS
  HELYOT, PIERRE                    HEPPENHEIM
  HEMANS, FELICIA DOROTHEA          HEPPLEWHITE, GEORGE
  HEMEL HEMPSTEAD                   HEPTARCHY
  HEMEROBAPTISTS                    HERA
  HEMICHORDA                        HERACLEA
  HEMICYCLE                         HERACLEON
  HEMIMERUS                         HERACLEONAS
  HEMIMORPHITE                      HERACLIDAE
  HEMINGBURGH, WALTER OF            HERACLIDES PONTICUS
  HEMIPTERA                         HERACLITUS
  HEMLOCK                           HERACLIUS
  HEMP                              HERALD
  HEMSTERHUIS, FRANÇOIS             HERALDRY
  HEMSTERHUIS, TIBERIUS             HERAT
  HEMY, CHARLES NAPIER              HÉRAULT
  HEN                               HÉRAULT DE SÉCHELLES, MARIE JEAN
  HÉNAULT, CHARLES JEAN FRANÇOIS    HERB
  HENBANE                           HERBARIUM
  HENCHMAN                          HERBART, JOHANN FRIEDRICH
  HENDERSON, ALEXANDER              HERBELOT DE MOLAINVILLE, BARTHÉLEMY D'
  HENDERSON, EBENEZER               HERBERAY DES ESSARTS, NICOLAS DE
  HENDERSON, GEORGE FRANCIS ROBERT  HERBERT (Family)
  HENDERSON, JOHN                   HERBERT, GEORGE
  HENDERSON (Kentucky, U.S.A.)      HERBERT, HENRY WILLIAM
  HENDIADYS                         HERBERT, SIR THOMAS
  HENDON                            HERBERT OF CHERBURY, EDWARD HERBERT
  HENDRICKS, THOMAS ANDREWS         HERBERT OF LEA, SIDNEY HERBERT
  HENGELO                           HERBERTON
  HENGEST and HORSA                 HERCULANEUM
  HENGSTENBERG, ERNST WILHELM       HERCULANO DE CARVALHO, ALEXANDRE
  HENKE, HEINRICH PHILIPP KONRAD    HERCULES (hero of Hellas)
  HENLE, FRIEDRICH GUSTAV JAKOB     HERCULES (constellation)
  HENLEY, JOHN                      HERD
  HENLEY, WILLIAM ERNEST            HERDER, JOHANN GOTTFRIED VON
  HENLEY-ON-THAMES                  HEREDIA, JOSÉ MARIA DE
  HENNA                             HEREDIA Y CAMPUZANO, JOSÉ MARIA
  HENNEBONT                         HEREDITAMENT
  HENNEQUIN, PHILIPPE AUGUSTE       HEREDITY
  HENNER, JEAN JACQUES              HEREFORD
  HENRIETTA MARIA                   HEREFORDSHIRE
  HENRY (name origin)               HERERO
  HENRY I. (German king)            HERESY
  HENRY II. (Roman emperor)         HEREWARD
  HENRY III. (Roman emperor)        HERFORD
  HENRY IV. (Roman emperor)         HERGENRÖTHER, JOSEPH VON
  HENRY V. (Roman emperor)          HERINGSDORF
  HENRY VI. (Roman emperor)         HERIOT, GEORGE
  HENRY VII. (Roman emperor)        HERIOT
  HENRY VII. (German king)          HERISAU
  HENRY RASPE                       HERITABLE JURISDICTIONS
  HENRY (emperor of Romania)        HERKIMER
  HENRY I. (king of England)        HERKOMER, SIR HUBERT VON
  HENRY II. (king of England)       HERLEN, FRITZ
  HENRY III. (king of England)      HERMAE
  HENRY IV. (king of England)       HERMAGORAS
  HENRY V. (king of England)        HERMANDAD
  HENRY VI. (king of England)       HERMAN DE VALENCIENNES
  HENRY VII. (king of England)      HERMANN I.
  HENRY VIII. (king of England)     HERMANN OF REICHENAU
  HENRY I. (king of Castile)        HERMANN OF WIED
  HENRY I. (king of France)         HERMANN, FRIEDRICH WILHELM VON
  HENRY II. (king of France)        HERMANN, JOHANN GOTTFRIED JAKOB
  HENRY III. (king of France)       HERMANN, KARL FRIEDRICH
  HENRY IV. (king of France)        HERMAPHRODITUS
  HENRY I. (king of Navarre)        HERMAS, SHEPHERD OF
  HENRY II. (king of Navarre)       HERMENEUTICS
  HENRY I. (king of Portugal)       HERMES (Greek god)
  HENRY II. (duke of Brunswick-W.)  HERMES, GEORG
  HENRY (the Proud, duke of Saxony) HERMES TRISMEGISTUS
  HENRY (the Lion, duke of Saxony)  HERMESIANAX
  HENRY (Prince of Battenberg)      HERMIAS
  HENRY FITZ HENRY                  HERMIPPUS
  HENRY (Cardinal York)             HERMIT
  HENRY OF PORTUGAL                 HERMOGENES
  HENRY OF ALMAIN                   HERMON
  HENRY OF BLOIS                    HERMSDORF
  HENRY OF GHENT                    HERNE, JAMES A.
  HENRY OF HUNTINGDON               HERNE (town of Germany)
  HENRY OF LAUSANNE                 HERNE BAY
  HENRY, EDWARD LAMSON              HERNE THE HUNTER
  HENRY, JAMES                      HERNIA
  HENRY, JOSEPH                     HERNICI
  HENRY, MATTHEW                    HERNÖSAND
  HENRY, PATRICK



HELMONT, JEAN BAPTISTE VAN (1577-1644), Belgian chemist, physiologist
and physician, a member of a noble family, was born at Brussels in
1577.[1] He was educated at Louvain, and after ranging restlessly from
one science to another and finding satisfaction in none, turned to
medicine, in which he took his doctor's degree in 1599. The next few
years he spent in travelling through Switzerland, Italy, France and
England. Returning to his own country he was at Antwerp at the time of
the great plague in 1605, and having contracted a rich marriage settled
in 1609 at Vilvorde, near Brussels, where he occupied himself with
chemical experiments and medical practice until his death on the 30th of
December 1644. Van Helmont presents curious contradictions. On the one
hand he was a disciple of Paracelsus (though he scornfully repudiates
his errors was well as those of most other contemporary authorities), a
mystic with strong leanings to the supernatural, an alchemist who
believed that with a small piece of the philosopher's stone he had
transmuted 2000 times as much mercury into gold; on the other hand he
was touched with the new learning that was producing men like Harvey,
Galileo and Bacon, a careful observer of nature, and an exact
experimenter who in some cases realized that matter can neither be
created nor destroyed. As a chemist he deserves to be regarded as the
founder of pneumatic chemistry, even though it made no substantial
progress for a century after his time, and he was the first to
understand that there are gases distinct in kind from atmospheric air.
The very word "gas" he claims as his own invention, and he perceived
that his "gas sylvestre" (our carbon dioxide) given off by burning
charcoal is the same as that produced by fermenting must and that which
sometimes renders the air of caves irrespirable. For him air and water
are the two primitive elements of things. Fire he explicitly denies to
be an element, and earth is not one because it can be reduced to water.
That plants, for instance, are composed of water he sought to show by
the ingenious quantitative experiment of planting a willow weighing 5
lb. in 200 lb. of dry soil and allowing it to grow for five years; at
the end of that time it had become a tree weighing 169 lb., and since it
had received nothing but water and the soil weighed practically the same
as at the beginning, he argued that the increased weight of wood, bark
and roots had been formed from water alone. It was an old idea that the
processes of the living body are fermentative in character, but he
applied it more elaborately than any of his predecessors. For him
digestion, nutrition and even movement are due to ferments, which
convert dead food into living flesh in six stages. But having got so far
with the application of chemical principles to physiological problems,
he introduces a complicated system of supernatural agencies like the
_archei_ of Paracelsus, which preside over and direct the affairs of the
body. A central _archeus_ controls a number of subsidiary _archei_ which
move through the ferments, and just as diseases are primarily caused by
some affection (_exorbitatio_) of the _archeus_, so remedies act by
bringing it back to the normal. At the same time chemical principles
guided him in the choice of medicines--undue acidity of the digestive
juices, for example, was to be corrected by alkalies and _vice versa_;
he was thus a forerunner of the iatrochemical school, and did good
service to the art of medicine by applying chemical methods to the
preparation of drugs. Over and above the _archeus_ he taught that there
is the sensitive soul which is the husk or shell of the immortal mind.
Before the Fall the _archeus_ obeyed the immortal mind and was directly
controlled by it, but at the Fall men received also the sensitive soul
and with it lost immortality, for when it perishes the immortal mind can
no longer remain in the body. In addition to the _archeus_, which he
described as "aura vitalis seminum, vitae directrix," Van Helmont had
other governing agencies resembling the _archeus_ and not always clearly
distinguished from it. From these he invented the term _blas_, defined
as the "vis motus tam alterivi quam localis." Of _blas_ there were
several kinds, e.g. _blas humanum_ and _blas meteoron_; the heavens he
said "constare gas materiâ et blas efficiente." He was a faithful
Catholic, but incurred the suspicion of the Church by his tract _De
magnetica vulnerum curatione_ (1621), which was thought to derogate from
some of the miracles. His works were collected and published at
Amsterdam as _Ortus medicinae, vel opera et opuscula omnia_ in 1668 by
his son Franz Mercurius (b. 1618 at Vilvorde, d. 1699 at Berlin), in
whose own writings, e.g. _Cabbalah Denudata_ (1677) and _Opuscula
philosophica_ (1690), mystical theosophy and alchemy appear in still
wilder confusion.

  See M. Foster, _Lectures on the History of Physiology_ (1901); also
  Chevreul in _Journ. des savants_ (Feb. and March 1850), and Cap in
  _Journ. pharm. chim._ (1852). Other authorities are Poultier d'Elmoth,
  _Mémoire sur J. B. van Helmont_ (1817); Rixner and Sieber, _Beiträge
  zur Geschichte der Physiologie_ (1819-1826), vol. ii.; Spiers,
  _Helmont's System der Medicin_ (1840); Melsens, _Leçons sur van
  Helmont_ (1848); Rommelaere, _Études sur J. B. van Helmont_ (1860).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] An alternative date for his birth is 1579 and for his death 1635
    (see _Bull. Roy. Acad. Belg._, 1907, 7, p. 732).



HELMSTEDT, or more rarely Helmstädt, a town of Germany, in the duchy of
Brunswick, 30 m. N.W. of Magdeburg on the main line of railway to
Brunswick. Pop. (1905) 15,415. The principal buildings are the Juleum,
the former university, built in the Renaissance style towards the close
of the 16th century, and containing a library of 40,000 volumes; the
fine Stephanskirche dating from the 12th century; the Walpurgiskirche
restored in 1893-1894; the Marienberger Kirche, a beautiful church in
the Roman style, and the Roman Catholic church. The Augustinian nunnery
of Marienberg founded in 1176 is now a Lutheran school. The town
contains the ruins of the Benedictine abbey of St Ludger, which was
secularized in 1803. The educational institutions include several
schools. The principal manufactures are furniture, yarn, soap, tobacco,
sugar, vitriol and earthenware. Near the town is Bad Helmstedt, which
has an iron mineral spring, and the Lübbensteine, two blocks of granite
on which sacrifices to Woden are said to have been offered. Near Bad
Helmstedt a monument has been erected to those who fell in the
Franco-German War; in the town there is one to those killed at Waterloo.
Helmstedt originated, according to legend, in connexion with the
monastery founded by Ludger or Liudger (d. 809), the first bishop of
Münster. There appears, however, little doubt that this tradition is
mythical and that Helmstedt was not founded until about 900. It obtained
civic rights in 1099 and, although destroyed by the archbishop of
Magdeburg in 1199, it was soon rebuilt. In 1457 it joined the Hanseatic
League, and in 1490 it came into the possession of Brunswick. In 1576
Julius, duke of Brunswick, founded a university here, and throughout the
17th century this was one of the chief seats of Protestant learning. It
was closed by Jerome, king of Westphalia, in 1809.

  See Ludewig, _Geschichte und Beschreibung der Stadt Helmstedt_
  (Helmstedt, 1821).



HELMUND, a river of Afghanistan, in length about 600 m. The Helmund,
which is identical with the ancient Etymander, is the most important
river in Afghanistan, next to the Kabul river, which it exceeds both in
volume and length. It rises in the recesses of the Koh-i-Baba to the
west of Kabul, its infant stream parting the Unai pass from the Irak,
the two chief passes on the well-known road from Kabul to Bamian. For 50
m. from its source its course is ascertained, but beyond that point for
the next 50 no European has followed it. About the parallel of 33° N. it
enters the Zamindawar province which lies to the N.W. of Kandahar, and
thenceforward it is a well-mapped river to its termination in the lake
of Seistan. Till about 40 m. above Girishk the character of the Helmund
is that of a mountain river, flowing through valleys which in summer are
the resort of pastoral tribes. On leaving the hills it enters on a flat
country, and extends over a gravelly bed. Here also it begins to be used
in irrigation. At Girishk it is crossed by the principal route from
Herat to Kandahar. Forty-five miles below Girishk the Helmund receives
its greatest tributary, the Arghandab, from the high Ghilzai country
beyond Kandahar, and becomes a very considerable river, with a width of
300 or 400 yds. and an occasional depth of 9 to 12 ft. Even in the dry
season it is never without a plentiful supply of water. The course of
the river is more or less south-west from its source till in Seistan it
crosses meridian 62°, when it turns nearly north, and so flows for 70 or
80 m. till it falls into the Seistan hamuns, or swamps, by various
mouths. In this latter part of its course it forms the boundary between
Afghan and Persian Seistan, and owing to constant changes in its bed and
the swampy nature of its borders it has been a fertile source of
frontier squabbles. Persian Seistan was once highly cultivated by means
of a great system of canal irrigation; but for centuries, since the
country was devastated by Timur, it has been a barren, treeless waste of
flat alluvial plain. In years of exceptional flood the Seistan lakes
spread southwards into an overflow channel called the Shelag which,
running parallel to the northern course of the Helmund in the opposite
direction, finally loses its waters in the Gaod-i-Zirreh swamp, which
thus becomes the final bourne of the river. Throughout its course from
its confluence with the Arghandab to the ford of Chahar Burjak, where it
bends northward, the Helmund valley is a narrow green belt of fertility
sunk in the midst of a wide alluvial desert, with many thriving villages
interspersed amongst the remains of ancient cities, relics of Kaiani
rule. The recent political mission to Seistan under Sir Henry McMahon
(1904-1905) added much information respecting the ancient and modern
channels of the lower Helmund, proving that river to have been
constantly shifting its bed over a vast area, changing the level of the
country by silt deposits, and in conjunction with the terrific action of
Seistan winds actually altering its configuration.     (T. H. H.*)



HELM WIND, a wind that under certain conditions blows over the
escarpment of the Pennines, near Cross Fell from the eastward, when a
helm (helmet) cloud covers the summit. The helm bar is a roll of cloud
that forms in front of it, to leeward.

  See "Report on the Helm Wind Inquiry," by W. Marriott, _Quart. Journ.
  Roy. Met. Soc._ xv. 103.



HELOTS (Gr. [Greek: heilôtes] or [Greek: heilôtai]), the serfs of the
ancient Spartans. The word was derived in antiquity from the town of
Helos in Laconia, but is more probably connected with [Greek: helos], a
fen, or with the root of [Greek: helein], to capture. Some scholars
suppose them to have been of Achaean race, but they were more probably
the aborigines of Laconia who had been enslaved by the Achaeans before
the Dorian conquest. After the second Messenian war (see SPARTA) the
conquered Messenians were reduced to the status of helots, from which
Epaminondas liberated them three centuries later after the battle of
Leuctra (371 B.C.). The helots were state slaves bound to the
soil--_adscripti glebae_--and assigned to individual Spartiates to till
their holdings ([Greek: klêroi]); their masters could neither emancipate
them nor sell them off the land, and they were under an oath not to
raise the rent payable yearly in kind by the helots. In time of war they
served as light-armed troops or as rowers in the fleet; from the
Peloponnesian War onwards they were occasionally employed as heavy
infantry ([Greek: hoplitai]), distinguished bravery being rewarded by
emancipation. That the general attitude of the Spartans towards them was
one of distrust and cruelty cannot be doubted. Aristotle says that the
ephors of each year on entering office declared war on the helots so
that they might be put to death at any time without violating religious
scruple (Plutarch, _Lycurgus_ 28), and we have a well-attested record of
2000 helots being freed for service in war and then secretly
assassinated (Thuc. iv. 80). But when we remember the value of the
helots from a military and agricultural point of view we shall not
readily believe that the _crypteia_ was really, as some authors
represent it, an organized system of massacre; we shall see in it "a
good police training, inculcating hardihood and vigour in the young,"
while at the same time getting rid of any helots who were found to be
plotting against the state (see further CRYPTEIA).

Intermediate between Helots and Spartiates were the two classes of
_Neodamodes_ and _Mothones_. The former were emancipated helots, or
possibly their descendants, and were much used in war from the end of
the 5th century; they served especially on foreign campaigns, as those
of Thibron (400-399 B.C.) and Agesilaus (396-394 B.C.) in Asia Minor.
The _mothones_ or _mothakes_ were usually the sons of Spartiates and
helot mothers; they were free men sharing the Spartan training, but were
not full citizens, though they might become such in recognition of
special merit.

  See C. O. Müller, _History and Antiquities of the Doric Race_ (Eng.
  trans.), bk. iii. ch. 3.; G. Gilbert, _Greek Constitutional
  Antiquities_ (Eng. trans.), pp. 30-35; A. H. J. Greenidge, _Handbook
  of Greek Constitutional History_, pp. 83-85; G. Busolt, _Die griech.
  Staats- u. Rechtsaltertümer_, § 84; _Griechische Geschichte_, i.[2]
  525-528; G. F. Schömann, _Antiquities of Greece: The State_ (Eng.
  trans.) pp. 194 ff.     (M. N. T.)



HELPS, SIR ARTHUR (1813-1875), English writer and clerk of the Privy
Council, youngest son of Thomas Helps, a London merchant, was born near
London on the 10th of July 1813. He was educated at Eton and at Trinity
College, Cambridge, coming out 31st wrangler in the mathematical tripos
in 1835. He was recognized by the ablest of his contemporaries there as
a man of superior gifts, and likely to make his mark in after life. As a
member of the Conversazione Society, better known as the "Apostles," a
society established in 1820 for the purposes of discussion on social and
literary questions by a few young men attracted to each other by a
common taste for literature and speculation, he was associated with
Charles Buller, Frederick Maurice, Richard Chenevix Trench, Monckton
Milnes, Arthur Hallam and Alfred Tennyson. His first literary effort,
_Thoughts in the Cloister and the Crowd_ (1835), was a series of
aphorisms upon life, character, politics and manners. Soon after leaving
the university Arthur Helps became private secretary to Spring Rice
(afterwards Lord Monteagle), then chancellor of the exchequer. This
appointment he filled till 1839, when he went to Ireland as private
secretary to Lord Morpeth (afterwards earl of Carlisle), chief secretary
for Ireland. In the meanwhile (28th October 1836) Helps had married
Bessy, daughter of Captain Edward Fuller. He was one of the
commissioners for the settlement of certain Danish claims which dated so
far back as the siege of Copenhagen; but with the fall of the Melbourne
administration (1841) his official experience closed for a period of
nearly twenty years. He was not, however, forgotten by his political
friends. He possessed admirable tact and sagacity; his fitness for
official life was unmistakable, and in 1860 he was appointed clerk of
the Privy Council, on the recommendation of Lord Granville.

His _Essays written in the Intervals of Business_ had appeared in 1841,
and his _Claims of Labour, an Essay on the Duties of the Employers to
the Employed_, in 1844. Two plays, _King Henry the Second, an Historical
Drama_, and _Catherine Douglas, a Tragedy_, published in 1843, have no
particular merit. Neither in these, nor in his only other dramatic
effort, _Oulita the Serf_ (1858) did he show any real qualifications as
a playwright.

Helps possessed, however, enough dramatic power to give life and
individuality to the dialogues with which he enlivened many of his other
books. In his _Friends in Council, a Series of Readings and Discourse
thereon_ (1847-1859), Helps varied his presentment of social and moral
problems by dialogues between imaginary personages, who, under the names
of Milverton, Ellesmere and Dunsford, grew to be almost as real to
Helps's readers as they certainly became to himself. The book was very
popular, and the same expedient was resorted to in _Conversations on War
and General Culture_, published in 1871. The familiar speakers, with
others added, also appeared in his _Realmah_ (1868) and in the best of
its author's later works, _Talk about Animals and their Masters_ (1873).

A long essay on slavery in the first series of _Friends in Council_ was
subsequently elaborated into a work in two volumes published in 1848 and
1852, called _The Conquerors of the New World and their Bondsmen_. Helps
went to Spain in 1847 to examine the numerous MSS. bearing upon his
subject at Madrid. The fruits of these researches were embodied in an
historical work based upon his _Conquerors of the New World_, and called
_The Spanish Conquest in America, and its Relation to the History of
Slavery and the Government of Colonies_ (4 vols., 1855-1857-1861). But
in spite of his scrupulous efforts after accuracy, the success of the
book was marred by its obtrusively moral purpose and its discursive
character.

_The Life of Las Casas, the Apostle of the Indians_ (1868), _The Life of
Columbus_ (1869), _The Life of Pizarro_ (1869), and _The Life of
Hernando Cortes_ (1871), when extracted from the work and published
separately, proved successful. Besides the books which have been already
mentioned he wrote: _Organization in Daily Life, an Essay_ (1862),
_Casimir Maremma_ (1870), _Brevia_, _Short Essays and Aphorisms_ (1871),
_Thoughts upon Government_ (1872), _Life and Labours of Mr Thomas
Brassey_ (1872), _Ivan de Biron_ (1874), _Social Pressure_ (1875).

His appointment as clerk of the Council brought him into personal
communication with Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort, both of whom
came to regard him with confidence and respect. After the Prince's
death, the Queen early turned to Helps to prepare an appreciation of her
husband's life and character. In his introduction to the collection
(1862) of the Prince Consort's speeches and addresses Helps adequately
fulfilled his task. Some years afterwards he edited and wrote a preface
to the Queen's _Leaves from a Journal of our Life in the Highlands_
(1868). In 1864 he received the honorary degree of D.C.L. from the
university of Oxford. He was made a C.B. in 1871 and K.C.B. in the
following year. His later years were troubled by financial
embarrassments, and he died on the 7th of March 1875.



HELSINGBORG, a seaport of Sweden in the district (_län_) of Malmöhus, 35
m. N. by E. of Copenhagen by rail and water. Pop. (1900), 24,670. It is
beautifully situated at the narrowest part of Öresund, or the Sound,
here only 3 m. wide, opposite Helsingör (Elsinore) in Denmark. Above the
town the brick tower of a former castle crowns a hill, commanding a fine
view over the Sound. On the outskirts are the Öresund Park, gardens
containing iodide and bromide springs, and frequented sea-baths. On the
coast to the north is the royal _château_ of Sofiero; to the south, the
small spa of Ramlösa. A system of electric trams is maintained. North
and east of Helsingborg lies the only coalfield in Sweden, extending
into the lofty Kullen peninsula, which forms the northern part of the
east shore of the Sound. Potter's clay is also found. Helsingborg ranks
among the first manufacturing towns of Sweden, having copper works,
using ore from Sulitelma in Norway, india-rubber works and breweries.
The artificial harbour has a depth of 24 ft., and there are extensive
docks. The chief exports are timber, butter and iron. The town is the
headquarters of the first army division.

The original site of the town is marked by the tower of the old
fortress, which is first mentioned in 1135. In the 14th century it was
several times besieged. From 1370 along with other towns in the province
of Skåne, it was united for fifteen years with the Hanseatic League. The
fortress was destroyed by fire in 1418, and about 1425 Eric XIII. built
another near the sea, and caused the town to be transported thither,
bestowing upon it important privileges. Until 1658 it belonged to
Denmark, and it was again occupied by the Danes in 1676 and 1677. In
1684 its fortifications were dismantled. It was taken by Frederick IV.
of Denmark in November 1709, but on the 28th of February 1710 the Danes
were defeated in the neighbourhood, and the town came finally into the
possession of Sweden, though in 1711 it was again bombarded by the
Danes. A tablet on the quay commemorates the landing of Bernadotte after
his election as successor to the throne in 1810.



HELSINGFORS (Finnish _Helsinki_), a seaport and the capital of Finland
and of the province of Nyland, centre of the administrative, scientific,
educational and industrial life of Finland. The fine harbour is divided
into two parts by a promontory, and is protected at its entrance by a
group of small islands, on one of which stands the fortress of Sveaborg.
A third harbour is situated on the west side of the promontory, and all
three have granite quays. The city, which in 1810 had only 4065
inhabitants, Åbo the then capital having 10,224, has increased with
great rapidity, having 22,228 inhabitants in 1860, 61,530 in 1890 and
111,654 in 1904. It is the centre of an active shipping trade with the
Baltic ports and with England, and of a railway system connecting it
with all parts of the grand duchy and with St Petersburg. Helsingfors is
handsome and well laid out with wide streets, parks, gardens and
monuments. The principal square contains the cathedral of St Nicholas,
the Senate House and the university, all striking buildings of
considerable architectural distinction. In the centre is the statue of
the Tsar Alexander II., who is looked upon as the protector of the
liberties of Finland, the monument being annually decorated with wreaths
and garlands. The university has a teaching staff of 141 with (1906)
1921 students, of whom 328 were women. The university is well provided
with museums and laboratories and has a library of over 250,000 volumes.
Other public institutions are the Athenaeum, with picture gallery, a
Swedish theatre and opera house, a Finnish theatre, the Archives, the
Senate House, the Nobles' House (_Riddarhuset_) and the House of the
Estates, the German (Lutheran) church and the Russian church. Some of
the scientific societies of Helsingfors have a wide repute, such as the
academy of sciences, the geographical, historical, Finno-Ugrian,
biblical, medical, law, arts and forestry societies, as also societies
for the spread of popular education and of arts and crafts. There are a
polytechnic, ten high schools, navigation and trade schools, institutes
for the blind and the mentally deficient, and numerous elementary
schools. The general standard of education is high, the publication of
books, reviews and newspapers being very active. The language of culture
is Swedish, but owing to recent manufacturing developments the majority
of the population is Finnish-speaking. Helsingfors displays great
manufacturing and commercial activity, the imports being coal,
machinery, sugar, grain and clothing. The manufactures of the city
consist largely of tobacco, beer and spirits, carpets, machinery and
sugar.



HELST, BARTHOLOMAEUS VAN DER, Dutch painter, was born in Holland at the
opening of the 17th century, and died at Amsterdam in 1670. The date and
place of his birth are uncertain; and it is equally difficult to confirm
or to deny the time-honoured statement that he was born in 1613 at
Amsterdam. It has been urged indeed by competent authority that Van der
Helst was not a native of Amsterdam, because a family of that name lived
as early as 1607 at Haarlem, and pictures are shown as works of Van der
Helst in the Haarlem Museum which might tend to prove that he was in
practice there before he acquired repute at Amsterdam. Unhappily
Bartholomew has not been traced amongst the children of Severijn van der
Helst, who married at Haarlem in 1607, and there is no proof that the
pictures at Haarlem are really his; though if they were so they would
show that he learnt his art from Frans Hals and became a skilled master
as early as 1631. Scheltema, a very competent judge in matters of Dutch
art chronology, supposes that Van der Heist was a resident at Amsterdam
in 1636. His first great picture, representing a gathering of civic
guards at a brewery, is variously assigned to 1639 and 1643, and still
adorns the town-hall of Amsterdam. His noble portraits of the
burgomaster Bicker and Andreas Bicker the younger, in the gallery of
Amsterdam, of the same date no doubt as Bicker's wife lately in the Ruhl
collection at Cologne, were completed in 1642. From that time till his
death there is no difficulty in tracing Van der Helst's career at
Amsterdam. He acquired and kept the position of a distinguished
portrait-painter, producing indeed little or nothing besides portraits
at any time, but founding, in conjunction with Nicolaes de Helt Stokade,
the painters' guild at Amsterdam in 1654. At some unknown date he
married Constance Reynst, of a good patrician family in the Netherlands,
bought himself a house in the Doelenstrasse and ended by earning a
competence. His likeness of Paul Potter at the Hague, executed in 1654,
and his partnership with Backhuysen, who laid in the backgrounds of some
of his pictures in 1668, indicate a constant companionship with the best
artists of the time. Wagen has said that his portrait of Admiral
Kortenaar, in the gallery of Amsterdam, betrays the teaching of Frans
Hals, and the statement need not be gainsaid; yet on the whole Van der
Helst's career as a painter was mainly a protest against the systems of
Hals and Rembrandt. It is needless to dwell on the pictures which
preceded that of 1648, called the Peace of Münster, in the gallery of
Amsterdam. The Peace challenges comparison at once with the so-called
Night Watch by Rembrandt and the less important but not less
characteristic portraits of Hals and his wife in a neighbouring room.
Sir Joshua Reynolds was disappointed by Rembrandt, whilst Van der Helst
surpassed his expectation. But Bürger asked whether Reynolds had not
already been struck with blindness when he ventured on this criticism.
The question is still an open one. But certainly Van der Helst attracts
by qualities entirely differing from those of Rembrandt and Frans Hals.
Nothing can be more striking than the contrast between the strong
concentrated light and the deep gloom of Rembrandt and the contempt of
chiaroscuro peculiar to his rival, except the contrast between the
rapid sketchy touch of Hals and the careful finish and rounding of van
der Helst. "The Peace" is a meeting of guards to celebrate the signature
of the treaty of Münster. The members of the Doele of St George meet to
feast and congratulate each other not at a formal banquet but in a spot
laid out for good cheer, where de Wit, the captain of his company, can
shake hands with his lieutenant Waveren, yet hold in solemn state the
great drinking-horn of St George. The rest of the company sit, stand or
busy themselves around--some eating, others drinking, others carving or
serving--an animated scene on a long canvas, with figures large as life.
Well has Bürger said, the heads are full of life and the hands
admirable. The dresses and subordinate parts are finished to a nicety
without sacrifice of detail or loss of breadth in touch or impast. But
the eye glides from shape to shape, arrested here by expressive
features, there by a bright stretch of colours, nowhere at perfect rest
because of the lack of a central thought in light and shade, harmonies
or composition. Great as the qualities of van der Helst undoubtedly are,
he remains below the line of demarcation which separates the second from
the first-rate masters of art.

  His pictures are very numerous, and almost uniformly good; but in his
  later creations he wants power, and though still amazingly careful, he
  becomes grey and woolly in touch. At Amsterdam the four regents in the
  Werkhuys (1650), four syndics in the gallery (1656), and four syndics
  in the town-hall (1657) are masterpieces, to which may be added a
  number of fine single portraits. Rotterdam, notwithstanding the fire
  of 1864, still boasts of three of van der Helst's works. The Hague
  owns but one. St Petersburg, on the other hand, possesses ten or
  eleven, of various shades of excellence. The Louvre has three, Munich
  four. Other pieces are in the galleries of Berlin, Brunswick,
  Brussels, Carlsruhe, Cassel, Darmstadt, Dresden, Frankfort, Gotha,
  Stuttgart and Vienna.



HELSTON, a market town and municipal borough in the Truro parliamentary
division of Cornwall, England, 11 m. by road W.S.W. of Falmouth, on a
branch of the Great Western railway. Pop. (1901) 3088. It is pleasantly
situated on rising ground above the small river Cober, which, a little
below the town, expands into a picturesque estuary called Looe Pool, the
water being banked up by the formation of Looe Bar at the mouth.
Formerly, when floods resulted from this obstruction, the townsfolk of
Helston acquired the right of clearing a passage through it by
presenting leathern purses containing three halfpence to the lord of the
manor. The mining industry on which the town formerly depended is
extinct, but the district is agricultural and dairy farming is carried
on, while the town has flour mills, tanneries and iron foundries. As
Helston has the nearest railway station to the Lizard, with its
magnificent coast-scenery, there is a considerable tourist traffic in
summer. Some trade passes through the small port of Porthleven, 3 m.
S.W., where the harbour admits vessels of 500 tons. On the 8th of May a
holiday is still observed in Helston and known as Flora or Furry day. It
has been regarded as a survival of the Roman _Floralia_, but its origin
is believed by some to be Celtic. Flowers and branches were gathered,
and dancing took place in the streets and through the houses, all being
thrown open, while a pageant was also given and a special ancient
folk-song chanted. This ceremony, after being almost forgotten, has been
revived in modern times. The borough is under a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12
councillors. Area, 309 acres.

Helston (Henliston, Haliston, Helleston), the capital of the Meneage
district of Cornwall, was held by Earl Harold in the time of the
Confessor and by King William at the Domesday Survey. At the latter date
besides seventy-three villeins, bordars and serfs there were forty
_cervisarii_, a species of unfree tenants who rendered their custom in
the form of beer. King John (1201) constituted Helleston a free borough,
established a gild merchant, and granted the burgesses freedom from toll
and other similar dues throughout the realm, and the cognizance of all
pleas within the borough except crown pleas. Richard, king of the Romans
(1260), extended the boundaries of the borough and granted permission
for the erection of an additional mill. Edward I. (1304) granted the
pesage of tin, and Edward III. a Saturday market and four fairs. Of
these the Saturday market and a fair on the feast of SS. Simon and Jude
are still held, also five other fairs of uncertain origin. In 1585
Elizabeth granted a charter of incorporation under the name of the mayor
and commonalty of Helston. This was confirmed in 1641, when it was also
provided that the mayor and recorder should be _ipso facto_ justices of
the peace. From 1294 to 1832 Helston returned two members to parliament.
In 1774 the number of electors (which by usage had been restricted to
the mayor, aldermen and freemen elected by them) had dwindled to six,
and in 1790 to one person only, whose return of two members, however,
was rejected and that of the general body of the freemen accepted. In
1832 Helston lost one of its members, and in 1885 it lost the other and
became merged in the county.



HELVETIC CONFESSIONS, the name of two documents expressing the common
belief of the reformed churches of Switzerland. The first, known also as
the Second Confession of Basel, was drawn up at that city in 1536 by
Bullinger and Leo Jud of Zürich, Megander of Bern, Oswald Myconius and
Grynaeus of Basel, Bucer and Capito of Strassburg, with other
representatives from Schaffhausen, St Gall, Mühlhausen and Biel. The
first draft was in Latin and the Zürich delegates objected to its
Lutheran phraseology.[1] Leo Jud's German translation was, however,
accepted by all, and after Myconius and Grynaeus had modified the Latin
form, both versions were agreed to and adopted on the 26th of February
1536.

The Second Helvetic Confession was written by Bullinger in 1562 and
revised in 1564 as a private exercise. It came to the notice of the
elector palatine Friedrich III., who had it translated into German and
published. It gained a favourable hold on the Swiss churches, who had
found the First Confession too short and too Lutheran. It was adopted by
the Reformed Church not only throughout Switzerland but in Scotland
(1566), Hungary (1567), France (1571), Poland (1578), and next to the
Heidelberg Catechism is the most generally recognized Confession of the
Reformed Church.

  See L. Thomas, _La Confession helvétique_ (Geneva, 1853); P. Schaff,
  _Creeds of Christendom_, i. 390-420, iii. 234-306; Müller, _Die
  Bekenntnisschriften der reformierten Kirche_ (Leipzig, 1903).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Some of the delegates, especially Bucer, were anxious to effect a
    union of the Reformed and Lutheran Churches. There was also a desire
    to lay the Confession before the council summoned at Mantua by Pope
    Paul III.



HELVETII ([Greek: Helouêtioi], [Greek: Helbêttioi]), a Celtic people,
whose original home was the country between the Hercynian forest
(probably the Rauhe Alp), the Rhine and the Main (Tacitus, _Germania_,
28). In Caesar's time they appear to have been driven farther west,
since, according to him (_Bell. Gall._ i. 2. 3) their boundaries were on
the W. the Jura, on the S. the Rhone and the Lake of Geneva, on the N.
and E. the Rhine as far as Lake Constance. They thus inhabited the
western part of modern Switzerland. They were divided into four cantons
(_pagi_), common affairs being managed by the cantonal assemblies. They
possessed the elements of a higher civilization (gold coinage, the Greek
alphabet), and, according to Caesar, were the bravest people of Gaul.
The reports of gold and plunder spread by the Cimbri and Teutones on
their way to southern Gaul induced the Helvetii to follow their example.
In 107, under Divico, two of their tribes, the Tougeni and Tigurini,
crossed the Jura and made their way as far as Aginnum (Agen on the
Garonne), where they utterly defeated the Romans under L. Cassius
Longinus, and forced them to pass under the yoke (Livy, _Epit._ 65;
according to a different reading, the battle took place near the Lake of
Geneva). In 102 the Helvetii joined the Cimbri in the invasion of Italy,
but after the defeat of the latter by Marius they returned home. In 58,
hard pressed by the Germans and incited by one of their princes,
Orgetorix, they resolved to found a hew home west of the Jura. Orgetorix
was thrown into prison, being suspected of a design to make himself
king, but the Helvetii themselves persisted in their plan. Joined by the
Rauraci, Tulingi, Latobrigi and some of the Boii--according to their own
reckoning 368,000 in all--they agreed to meet on the 28th of March at
Geneva and to advance through the territory of the Allobroges. They were
overtaken, however, by Caesar at Bibracte, defeated and forced to
submit. Those who survived were sent back home to defend the frontier of
the Rhine against German invaders. During the civil wars and for some
time after the death of Caesar little is heard of the Helvetii.

Under Augustus Helvetia (not so called till later times, earlier _ager
Helvetiorum_) proper was included under Gallia Belgica. Two Roman
colonies had previously been founded at Noviodunum (Colonia Julia
Equestris, mod. _Nyon_) and at Colonia Rauracorum (afterwards Augusta
Rauracorum, _Augst_ near Basel) to keep watch over the inhabitants, who
were treated with generosity by their conquerors. Under the name of
_foederati_ they retained their original constitution and division into
four cantons. They were under an obligation to furnish a contingent to
the Roman army for foreign service, but were allowed to maintain
garrisons of their own, and their magistrates had the right to call out
a militia. Their religion was not interfered with; they managed their
own local affairs and kept their own language, although Latin was used
officially. Their chief towns were Aventicum (_Avenches_) and Vindonissa
(_Windisch_). Under Tiberius the Helvetii were separated from Gallia
Belgica and made part of Germania Superior. After the death of Galba
(A.D. 69), having refused submission to Vitellius, their land was
devastated by Alienus Caecina, and only the eloquent appeal of one of
their leaders named Claudius Cossus saved them from annihilation. Under
Vespasian they attained the height of their prosperity. He greatly
increased the importance of Aventicum, where his father had carried on
business. Its inhabitants, with those of other towns, probably obtained
the _ius Latinum_, had a senate, a council of _decuriones_, a prefect of
public works and flamens of Augustus. After the extension of the eastern
frontier, the troops were withdrawn from the garrisons and fortresses,
and Helvetia, free from warlike disturbances, gradually became
completely romanized. Aventicum had an amphitheatre, a public gymnasium
and an academy with Roman professors. Roads were made wherever possible,
and commerce rapidly developed. The old Celtic religion was also
supplanted by the Roman. The west of the country, however, was more
susceptible to Roman influence, and hence preserved its independence
against barbarian invaders longer than its eastern portion. During the
reign of Gallienus (260-268) the Alamanni overran the country; and
although Probus, Constantius Chlorus, Julian, Valentinian I. and Gratian
to some extent checked the inroads of the barbarians, it never regained
its former prosperity. In the subdivision of Gaul in the 4th century,
Helvetia, with the territory of the Sequani and Rauraci, formed the
Provincia Maxima Sequanorum, the chief town of which was Vesontio
(_Besançon_). Under Honorius (395-423) it was probably definitely
occupied by the Alamanni, except in the west, where the small portion
remaining to the Romans was ceded in 436 by Aëtius to the Burgundians.

  See L. von Haller, _Helvetien unter den Römern_ (Bern, 1811); T.
  Mommsen, _Die Schweiz in römischer Zeit_ (Zürich, 1854); J. Brosi,
  _Die Kelten und Althelvetier_ (Solothurn, 1851); L. Hug and R. Stead,
  "Switzerland" in _Story of the Nations_, xxvi.; C. Dändliker,
  _Geschichte der Schweiz_ (1892-1895), and English translation (of a
  shorter history by the same) by E. Salisbury (1899); _Die Schweiz
  unter den Römern_ (anonymous) published by the Historischer Verein of
  St Gall (Scheitlin and Zollikofer, St Gall, 1862); and G. Wyss, "Über
  das römische Helvetien" in _Archiv für schweizerische Geschichte_,
  vii. (1851). For Caesar's campaign against the Helvetii, see T. R.
  Holmes, _Caesar's Conquest of Gaul_ (1899) and Mommsen, _Hist. of
  Rome_ (Eng. trans.), bk. v. ch. 7; ancient authorities in A. Holder,
  _Altkeltischer Sprachschatz_ (1896), _s.v._ Elvetii.



HELVÉTIUS, CLAUDE ADRIEN (1715-1771), French philosopher and
littérateur, was born in Paris in January 1715. He was descended from a
family of physicians, whose original name was Schweitzer (latinized as
Helvetius). His grandfather introduced the use of ipecacuanha; his
father was first physician to Queen Marie Leczinska of France. Claude
Adrien was trained for a financial career, but he occupied his spare
time with writing verses. At the age of twenty-three, at the queen's
request, he was appointed farmer-general, a post of great responsibility
and dignity worth a 100,000 crowns a year. Thus provided for, he
proceeded to enjoy life to the utmost, with the help of his wealth and
liberality, his literary and artistic tastes. As he grew older, however,
his social successes ceased, and he began to dream of more lasting
distinctions, stimulated by the success of Maupertuis as a
mathematician, of Voltaire as a poet, of Montesquieu as a philosopher.
The mathematical dream seems to have produced nothing; his poetical
ambitions resulted in the poem called _Le Bonheur_ (published
posthumously, with an account of Helvétius's life and works, by C. F. de
Saint-Lambert, 1773), in which he develops the idea that true happiness
is only to be found in making the interest of one that of all; his
philosophical studies ended in the production of his famous book _De
l'esprit_. It was characteristic of the man that, as soon as he thought
his fortune sufficient, he gave up his post of farmer-general, and
retired to an estate in the country, where he employed his large means
in the relief of the poor, the encouragement of agriculture and the
development of industries. _De l'esprit_ (Eng. trans. by W. Mudford,
1807), intended to be the rival of Montesquieu's _L'Esprit des lois_,
appeared in 1758. It attracted immediate attention and aroused the most
formidable opposition, especially from the dauphin, son of Louis XV. The
Sorbonne condemned the book, the priests persuaded the court that if was
full of the most dangerous doctrines, and the author, terrified at the
storm he had raised, wrote three separate retractations; yet, in spite
of his protestations of orthodoxy, he had to give up his office at the
court, and the book was publicly burned by the hangman. The virulence of
the attacks upon the work, as much as its intrinsic merit, caused it to
be widely read; it was translated into almost all the languages of
Europe. Voltaire said that it was full of commonplaces, and that what
was original was false or problematical; Rousseau declared that the very
benevolence of the author gave the lie to his principles; Grimm thought
that all the ideas in the book were borrowed from Diderot; according to
Madame du Deffand, Helvétius had raised such a storm by saying openly
what every one thought in secret; Madame de Graffigny averred that all
the good things in the book had been picked up in her own _salon_. In
1764 Helvétius visited England, and the next year, on the invitation of
Frederick II., he went to Berlin, where the king paid him marked
attention. He then returned to his country estate and passed the
remainder of his life in perfect tranquillity. He died on the 26th of
December 1771.

His philosophy belongs to the utilitarian school. The four discussions
of which his book consists have been thus summed up: (1) All man's
faculties may be reduced to physical sensation, even memory, comparison,
judgment; our only difference from the lower animals lies in our
external organization. (2) Self-interest, founded on the love of
pleasure and the fear of pain, is the sole spring of judgment, action,
affection; self-sacrifice is prompted by the fact that the sensation of
pleasure outweighs the accompanying pain; it is thus the result of
deliberate calculation; we have no liberty of choice between good and
evil; there is no such thing as absolute right--ideas of justice and
injustice change according to customs. (3) All intellects are equal;
their apparent inequalities do not depend on a more or less perfect
organization, but have their cause in the unequal desire for
instruction, and this desire springs from passions, of which all men
commonly well organized are susceptible to the same degree; and we can,
therefore, all love glory with the same enthusiasm and we owe all to
education. (4) In this discourse the author treats of the ideas which
are attached to such words as _genius_, _imagination_, _talent_,
_taste_, _good sense_, &c. The only original ideas in his system are
those of the natural equality of intelligences and the omnipotence of
education, neither of which, however, is generally accepted, though both
were prominent in the system of J. S. Mill. There is no doubt that his
thinking was unsystematic; but many of his critics have entirely
misrepresented him (e.g. Cairns in his _Unbelief in the Eighteenth
Century_). As J. M. Robertson (_Short History of Free Thought_) points
out, he had great influence upon Bentham, and C. Beccaria states that he
himself was largely inspired by Helvétius in his attempt to modify penal
laws. The keynote of his thought was that public ethics has a
utilitarian basis, and he insisted strongly on the importance of culture
in national development.

  A sort of supplement to the _De l'esprit_, called _De l'homme, de ses
  facultés intellectuelles et de son éducation_ (Eng. trans. by W.
  Hooper, 1777), found among his manuscripts, was published after his
  death, but created little interest. There is a complete edition of the
  works of Helvétius, published at Paris, 1818. For an estimate of his
  work and his place among the philosophers of the 18th century see
  Victor Cousin's _Philosophie sensualiste_ (1863); P. L. Lezaud,
  _Résumés philosophiques_ (1853); F. D. Maurice, in his _Modern
  Philosophy_ (1862), pp. 537 seq.; J. Morley, _Diderot and the
  Encyclopaedists_ (London, 1878); D. G. Mostratos, _Die Pädagogik des
  Helvétius_ (Berlin, 1891); A. Guillois, _Le Salon de Madame Helvétius_
  (1894); A. Piazzi, _Le Idee filosofiche specialmente pedagogiche de C.
  A. Helvétius_ (Milan, 1889); G. Plekhanov, _Beiträge zur Geschichte
  des Materialismus_ (Stuttgart, 1896); L. Limentani, _Le Teorie
  psicologiche di C. A. Helvétius_ (Verona, 1902); A. Keim, _Helvétius,
  sa vie et son oeuvre_ (1907).



HELVIDIUS PRISCUS, Stoic philosopher and statesman, lived during the
reigns of Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian. Like his
father-in-law, Thrasea Paetus, he was distinguished for his ardent and
courageous republicanism. Although he repeatedly offended his rulers, he
held several high offices. During Nero's reign he was quaestor of Achaea
and tribune of the plebs (A.D. 56); he restored peace and order in
Armenia, and gained the respect and confidence of the provincials. His
declared sympathy with Brutus and Cassius occasioned his banishment in
66. Having been recalled to Rome by Galba in 68, he at once impeached
Eprius Marcellus, the accuser of Thrasea Paetus, but dropped the charge,
as the condemnation of Marcellus would have involved a number of
senators. As praetor elect he ventured to oppose Vitellius in the senate
(Tacitus, _Hist._ ii. 91), and as praetor (70) he maintained, in
opposition to Vespasian, that the management of the finances ought to be
left to the discretion of the senate; he proposed that the capitol,
which had been destroyed in the Neronian conflagration, should be
restored at the public expense; he saluted Vespasian by his private
name, and did not recognize him as emperor in his praetorian edicts. At
length he was banished a second time, and shortly afterwards was
executed by Vespasian's order. His life, in the form of a warm
panegyric, written at his widow's request by Herennius Senecio, caused
its author's death in the reign of Domitian.

  Tacitus, _Hist._ iv. 5, _Dialogus_, 5; Dio Cassius lxvi. 12, lxvii.
  13; Suetonius, _Vespasian_, 15; Pliny, _Epp._ vii. 19.



HELY-HUTCHINSON, JOHN (1724-1794), Irish lawyer, statesman, and provost
of Trinity College, Dublin, son of Francis Hely, a gentleman of County
Cork, was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and was called to the
Irish bar in 1748. He took the additional name of Hutchinson on his
marriage in 1751 with Christiana Nixon, heiress of her uncle, Richard
Hutchinson. He was elected member of the Irish House of Commons for the
borough of Lanesborough in 1759, but after 1761 he represented the city
of Cork. He at first attached himself to the "patriotic" party in
opposition to the government, and although he afterwards joined the
administration he never abandoned his advocacy of popular measures. He
was a man of brilliant and versatile ability, whom Lord Townshend, the
lord lieutenant, described as "by far the most powerful man in
parliament." William Gerard Hamilton said of him that "Ireland never
bred a more able, nor any country a more honest man." Hely-Hutchinson
was, however, an inveterate place-hunter, and there was point in Lord
North's witticism that "if you were to give him the whole of Great
Britain and Ireland for an estate, he would ask the Isle of Man for a
potato garden." After a session or two in parliament he was made a privy
councillor and prime serjeant-at-law; and from this time he gave a
general, though by no means invariable, support to the government. In
1767 the ministry contemplated an increase of the army establishment in
Ireland from 12,000 to 15,000 men, but the Augmentation Bill met with
strenuous opposition, not only from Flood, Ponsonby and the habitual
opponents of the government, but from the Undertakers, or proprietors of
boroughs, on whom the government had hitherto relied to secure them a
majority in the House of Commons. It therefore became necessary for
Lord Townshend to turn to other methods for procuring support. Early In
1768 an English act was passed for the increase of the army, and a
message from the king setting forth the necessity for the measure was
laid before the House of Commons in Dublin. An address favourable to the
government policy was, however, rejected; and Hely-Hutchinson, together
with the speaker and the attorney-general, did their utmost both in
public and private to obstruct the bill. Parliament was dissolved in May
1768, and the lord lieutenant set about the task of purchasing or
otherwise securing a majority in the new parliament. Peerages, pensions
and places were bestowed lavishly on those whose support could be thus
secured; Hely-Hutchinson was won over by the concession that the Irish
army should be established by the authority of an Irish act of
parliament instead of an English one. The Augmentation Bill was carried
in the session of 1769 by a large majority. Hely-Hutchinson's support
had been so valuable that he received as reward an addition of £1000 a
year to the salary of his sinecure of Alnagar, a major's commission in a
cavalry regiment, and a promise of the secretaryship of state. He was at
this time one of the most brilliant debaters in the Irish parliament,
and he was enjoying an exceedingly lucrative practice at the bar. This
income, however, together with his well-salaried sinecure, and his place
as prime serjeant, he surrendered in 1774, to become provost of Trinity
College, although the statute requiring the provost to be in holy orders
had to be dispensed with in his favour.

For this great academic position Hely-Hutchinson was in no way
qualified, and his appointment to it for purely political service to the
government was justly criticized with much asperity. His conduct in
using his position as provost to secure the parliamentary representation
of the university for his eldest son brought him into conflict with
Duigenan, who attacked him in _Lacrymae academicae_, and involved him in
a duel with a Mr Doyle; while a similar attempt on behalf of his second
son in 1790 led to his being accused before a select committee of the
House of Commons of impropriety as returning officer. But although
without scholarship Hely-Hutchinson was an efficient provost, during
whose rule material benefits were conferred on Trinity College. He
continued to occupy a prominent place in parliament, where he advocated
free trade, the relief of the Catholics from penal legislation, and the
reform of parliament. He was one of the very earliest politicians to
recognize the soundness of Adam Smith's views on trade; and he quoted
from the _Wealth of Nations_, adopting some of its principles, in his
_Commercial Restraints of Ireland_, published in 1779, which Lecky
pronounces "one of the best specimens of political literature produced
in Ireland in the latter half of the 18th century." In the same year,
the economic condition of Ireland being the cause of great anxiety, the
government solicited from several leading politicians their opinion on
the state of the country with suggestions for a remedy.
Hely-Hutchinson's response was a remarkably able state paper (MS. in the
Record Office), which also showed clear traces of the influence of Adam
Smith. The _Commercial Restraints_, condemned by the authorities as
seditious, went far to restore Hely-Hutchinson's popularity which had
been damaged by his greed of office. Not less enlightened were his views
on the Catholic question. In a speech in parliament on Catholic
education in 1782 the provost declared that Catholic students were in
fact to be found at Trinity College, but that he desired their presence
there to be legalized on the largest scale. "My opinion," he said, "is
strongly against sending Roman Catholics abroad for education, nor would
I establish Popish colleges at home. The advantage of being admitted
into the university of Dublin will be very great to Catholics; they need
not be obliged to attend the divinity professor, they may have one of
their own; and I would have a part of the public money applied to their
use, to the support of a number of poor lads as sizars, and to provide
premiums for persons of merit, for I would have them go into
examinations and make no distinction between them and the Protestants
but such as merit might claim." And after sketching a scheme for
increasing the number of diocesan schools where Roman Catholics might
receive free education, he went on to urge that "it is certainly a
matter of importance that the education of their priests should be as
perfect as possible, and that if they have any prejudices they should be
prejudices in favour of their own country. The Roman Catholics should
receive the best education in the established university at the public
expense; but by no means should Popish colleges be allowed, for by them
we should again have the press groaning with themes of controversy, and
subjects of religious disputation that have long slept in oblivion would
again awake, and awaken with them all the worst passions of the human
mind."[1]

In 1777 Hely-Hutchinson became secretary of state. When Grattan in 1782
moved an address to the king containing a declaration of Irish
legislative independence, Hely-Hutchinson supported the
attorney-general's motion postponing the question; but on the 16th of
April, after the Easter recess, he read a message from the lord
lieutenant, the duke of Portland, giving the king's permission for the
House to take the matter into consideration, and he expressed his
personal sympathy with the popular cause which Grattan on the same day
brought to a triumphant issue (see GRATTAN, HENRY). Hely-Hutchinson
supported the opposition on the regency question in 1788, and one of his
last votes in the House was in favour of parliamentary reform. In 1790
he exchanged the constituency of Cork for that of Taghmon in County
Wexford, for which borough he remained member till his death at Buxton
on the 4th of September 1794.

In 1785 his wife had been created Baroness Donoughmore and on her death
in 1788, his eldest son Richard (1756-1825) succeeded to the title. Lord
Donoughmore was an ardent advocate of Catholic emancipation. In 1797 he
was created Viscount Donoughmore,[2] and in 1800 (having voted for the
Union, hoping to secure Catholic emancipation from the united
parliament) he was further created earl of Donoughmore of Knocklofty,
being succeeded first by his brother John Hely-Hutchinson (1757-1832)
and then by his nephew John, 3rd earl (1787-1851), from whom the title
descended.

  See W. E. H. Lecky, _Hist. of Ireland in the Eighteenth Century_ (5
  vols., London, 1892); J. A. Froude, _The English in Ireland in the
  Eighteenth Century_ (3 vols., London, 1872-1874); H. Grattan, _Memoirs
  of the Life and Times of Henry Grattan_ (8 vols., London, 1839-1846);
  _Baratariana_, by various writers (Dublin, 1773).     (R. J. M.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _Irish Parl. Debates_, i. 309, 310.

  [2] It is generally supposed that the title conferred by this patent
    was that of Viscount Suirdale, and such is the courtesy title by
    which the heir apparent of the earls of Donoughmore is usually
    styled. This, however, appears to be an error. In all the three
    creations (barony 1783, viscountcy 1797, earldom 1800) the title is
    "Donoughmore of Knocklofty." In 1821 the 1st earl was further created
    Viscount Hutchinson of Knocklofty in the peerage of the United
    Kingdom. The courtesy title of the earl's eldest son should,
    therefore, apparently be either "Viscount Hutchinson" or "Viscount
    Knocklofty." See G. E. C. _Complete Peerage_ (London, 1890).



HELYOT, PIERRE (1660-1716), Franciscan friar and historian, was born at
Paris in January 1660, of supposed English ancestry. After spending his
youth in study, he entered in his twenty-fourth year the convent of the
third order of St Francis, founded at Picpus, near Paris, by his uncle
Jérôme Helyot, canon of St Sepulchre. There he took the name of Père
Hippolyte. Two journeys to Rome on monastic business afforded him the
opportunity of travelling over most of Italy; and after his final return
he saw much of France, while acting as secretary to various provincials
of his order there. Both in Italy and France he was engaged in
collecting materials for his great work, which occupied him about
twenty-five years, _L'Histoire des ordres monastiques, religieux, et
militaires, et des congrégations séculières, de l'un et de l'autre sexe,
qui ont été établies jusqu'à présent_, published in 8 volumes in
1714-1721. Helyot died on the 5th of January 1716, before the fifth
volume appeared, but his friend Maximilien Bullot completed the edition.
Helyot's only other noteworthy work is _Le Chrétien mourant_ (1695).

  The _Histoire_ is a work of first importance, being the great
  repertory of information for the general history of the religious
  orders up to the end of the 17th century. It is profusely illustrated
  by large plates exhibiting the dress of the various orders, and in
  the edition of 1792 the plates are coloured. It was translated into
  Italian (1737) and into German (1753). The material has been arranged
  in dictionary form in Migne's _Encyclopédie théologique_, under the
  title "Dictionnaire des orders religieux" (4 vols., 1858).



HEMANS, FELICIA DOROTHEA (1793-1835), English poet, was born in Duke
Street, Liverpool, on the 25th of September 1793. Her father, George
Browne, of Irish extraction, was a merchant in Liverpool, and her
mother, whose maiden name was Wagner, was the daughter of the Austrian
and Tuscan consul at Liverpool. Felicia, the fifth of seven children,
was scarcely seven years old when her father failed in business, and
retired with his family to Gwrych, near Abergele, Denbighshire; and
there the young poet and her brothers and sisters grew up in a romantic
old house by the sea-shore, and in the very midst of the mountains and
myths of Wales. Felicia's education was desultory. Books of chronicle
and romance, and every kind of poetry, she read with avidity; and she
also studied Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and German. She played both
harp and piano, and cared especially for the simple national melodies of
Wales and Spain. In 1808, when she was only fourteen, a quarto volume of
her _Juvenile Poems_, was published by subscription, and was harshly
criticized in the _Monthly Review_. Two of her brothers were fighting in
Spain under Sir John Moore; and Felicia, fired with military enthusiasm,
wrote _England and Spain, or Valour and Patriotism_, a poem afterwards
translated into Spanish. Her second volume, _The Domestic Affections and
other Poems_, appeared in 1812, on the eve of her marriage to Captain
Alfred Hemans. She lived for some time at Daventry, where her husband
was adjutant of the Northamptonshire militia. About this time her father
went to Quebec on business and died there; and, after the birth of her
first son, she and her husband went to live with her mother at
Bronwylfa, a house near St Asaph. Here during the next six years four
more children--all boys--were born; but in spite of domestic cares arid
failing health she still read and wrote indefatigably. Her poem entitled
_The Restoration of Works of Art to Italy_ was published in 1816, her
_Modern Greece_ in 1817, and in 1818 _Translations from Camoens and
other Poets_.

In 1818 Captain Hemans went to Rome, leaving his wife, shortly before
the birth of their fifth child, with her mother at Bronwylfa. There
seems to have been a tacit agreement, perhaps on account of their
limited means, that they should separate. Letters were interchanged, and
Captain Hemans was often consulted about his children; but the husband
and wife never met again. Many friends--among them the bishop of St
Asaph and Bishop Heber--gathered round Mrs Hemans and her children. In
1819 she published _Tales and Historic Scenes in Verse_, and gained a
prize of £50 offered for the best poem on _The Meeting of Wallace and
Bruce on the Banks of the Carron_. In 1820 appeared _The Sceptic and
Stanzas to the Memory of the late King_. In June 1821 she won the prize
awarded by the Royal Society of Literature for the best poem on the
subject of _Dartmoor_, and began her play, _The Vespers of Palermo_. She
now applied herself to a course of German reading. Körner was her
favourite German poet, and her lines on the grave of Körner were one of
the first English tributes to the genius of the young soldier-poet. In
the summer of 1823 a volume of her poems was published by Murray,
containing "The Siege of Valencia," "The Last Constantine" and
"Belshazzar's Feast." _The Vespers of Palermo_ was acted at Covent
Garden, December 12, 1823, and Mrs Hemans received £200 for the
copyright; but, though the leading parts were taken by Young and Charles
Kemble, the play was a failure, and was withdrawn after the first
performance. It was acted again in Edinburgh in the following April with
greater success, when an epilogue, written for it by Sir Walter Scott at
Joanna Baillie's request, was spoken by Harriet Siddons. This was the
beginning of a cordial friendship between Mrs Hemans and Scott. In the
same year she wrote _De Chatillon, or the Crusaders_; but the manuscript
was lost, and the poem was published after her death, from a rough copy.
In 1824 she began "The Forest Sanctuary," which appeared a year later
with the "Lays of Many Lands" and miscellaneous pieces collected from
the _New Monthly Magazine_ and other periodicals.

In the spring of 1825 Mrs Hemans removed from Bronwylfa, which had been
purchased by her brother, to Rhyllon, a house on an opposite height
across the river Clwyd. The contrast between the two houses suggested
her _Dramatic Scene between Bronwylfa and Rhyllon_. The house itself was
bare and unpicturesque, but the beauty of its surroundings has been
celebrated in "The Hour of Romance," "To the River Clwyd in North
Wales," "Our Lady's Well" and "To a Distant Scene." This time seems to
have been the most tranquil in Mrs Hemans's life. But the death of her
mother in January 1827 was a second great breaking-point in her life.
Her heart was affected, and she was from this time an acknowledged
invalid. In the summer of 1828 the _Records of Woman_ was published by
Blackwood, and in the same year the home in Wales was finally broken up
by the marriage of Mrs Hemans's sister and the departure of her two
elder boys to their father in Rome. Mrs Hemans removed to Wavertree,
near Liverpool. But, although she had a few intimate friends
there--among them her two subsequent biographers, Henry F. Chorley and
Mrs Lawrence of Wavertree Hall--she was disappointed in her new home.
She thought the people of Liverpool stupid and provincial; and they, on
the other hand, found her uncommunicative and eccentric. In the
following summer she travelled by sea to Scotland with two of her boys,
to visit the Hamiltons of Chiefswood.

Here she enjoyed "constant, almost daily, intercourse" with Sir Walter
Scott, with whom she and her boys afterwards stayed some time at
Abbotsford. "There are some whom we meet, and should like ever after to
claim as kith and kin; and you are one of those," was Scott's compliment
to her at parting. One of the results of her Edinburgh visit was an
article, full of praise, judiciously tempered with criticism, by Jeffrey
himself for the _Edinburgh Review_. Mrs Hemans returned to Wavertree to
write her _Songs of the Affections_, which were published early in 1830.
In the following June, however, she again left home, this time to visit
Wordsworth and the Lake country; and in August she paid a second visit
to Scotland. In 1831 she removed to Dublin. Her poetry of this date is
chiefly religious. Early in 1834 her _Hymns for Childhood_, which had
appeared some years before in America, were published in Dublin. At the
same time appeared her collection of _National Lyrics_, and shortly
afterwards _Scenes and Hymns of Life_. She was planning also a series of
German studies, one of which, on Goethe's _Tasso_, was completed and
published in the _New Monthly Magazine_ for January 1834. In intervals
of acute suffering she wrote the lyric _Despondency and Aspiration_, and
dictated a series of sonnets called _Thoughts during Sickness_, the last
of which, "Recovery," was written when she fancied she was getting well.
After three months spent at Redesdale, Archbishop Whately's country
seat, she was again brought into Dublin, where she lingered till spring.
Her last poem, the _Sabbath Sonnet_, was dedicated to her brother on
Sunday April 26th, and she died in Dublin on the 16th of May 1835 at the
age of forty-one.

Mrs Hemans's poetry is the production of a fine imaginative and
enthusiastic temperament, but not of a commanding intellect or very
complex or subtle nature. It is the outcome of a beautiful but
singularly circumscribed life, a life spent in romantic seclusion,
without much worldly experience, and warped and saddened by domestic
unhappiness and physical suffering. An undue preponderance of the
emotional is its prevailing characteristic. Scott complained that it was
"too poetical," that it contained "too many flowers" and "too little
fruit." Many of her short poems, such as "The Treasures of the Deep,"
"The Better Land," "The Homes of England," "Casabianca," "The Palm
Tree," "The Graves of a Household," "The Wreck," "The Dying
Improvisatore," and "The Lost Pleiad," have become standard English
lyrics. It is on the strength of these that her reputation must rest.

  Mrs Hemans's _Poetical Works_ were collected in 1832; her _Memorials_
  &c., by H. F. Chorley (1836).



HEMEL HEMPSTEAD, a market-town and municipal borough in the Watford
parliamentary division of Hertfordshire, England, 25 m. N.W. from
London, with a station on a branch of the Midland railway from
Harpenden, and near Boxmoor station on the London and North Western main
line. Pop. (1891) 9678; (1901) 11,264. It is pleasantly situated in the
steep-sided valley of the river Gade, immediately above its junction
with the Bulbourne, near the Grand Junction canal. The church of St Mary
is a very fine Norman building with Decorated additions. Industries
include the manufacture of paper, iron founding, brewing and tanning.
Boxmoor, within the parish, is a considerable township of modern growth.
Hemel Hempstead is governed by a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors.
Area, 7184 acres.

Settlements in the neighbourhood of Hemel Hempstead (_Hamalamstede_,
_Hemel Hampsted_) date from pre-Roman times, and a Roman villa has been
discovered at Boxmoor. The manor, royal demesne in 1086, was granted by
Edmund Plantagenet in 1285 to the house of Ashridge, and the town
developed under monastic protection. In 1539 a charter incorporated the
bailiff and inhabitants. A mayor, aldermen and councillors received
governing power by a charter of 1898. The town has never had
parliamentary representation. A market on Thursday and a fair on the
feast of Corpus Christi were conferred in 1539. A statute fair, for long
a hiring fair, originated in 1803.



HEMEROBAPTISTS, an ancient Jewish sect, so named from their observing a
practice of daily ablution as an essential part of religion. Epiphanius
(_Panarion_, i. 17), who mentions their doctrine as the fourth heresy
among the Jews, classes the Hemerobaptists doctrinally with the
Pharisees (q.v.) from whom they differed only in, like the Sadducees,
denying the resurrection of the dead. The name has been sometimes given
to the Mandaeans on account of their frequent ablutions; and in the
_Clementine Homilies_ (ii. 23) St John the Baptist is spoken of as a
Hemerobaptist. Mention of the sect is made by Hegesippus (see Euseb.
_Hist. Eccl._ iv. 22) and by Justin Martyr in the _Dialogue with
Trypho_, § 80. They were probably a division of the Essenes.



HEMICHORDA, or HEMICHORDATA, a zoological term introduced by W. Bateson
in 1884, without special definition, as equivalent to Enteropneusta,
which then included the single genus _Balanoglossus_, and now generally
employed to cover a group of marine worm-like animals believed by many
zoologists to be related to the lower vertebrates and so to represent
the invertebrate stock from which Vertebrates have been derived.
Vertebrates, or as they are sometimes termed Chordates, are
distinguished from other animals by several important features. The
chief of these is the presence of an elastic rod, the notochord, which
forms the longitudinal axis of the body, and which persists throughout
life in some of the lowest forms, but which appears only in the embryo
of the higher forms, being replaced by the jointed backbone or vertebral
column. A second feature is the development of outgrowths of the pharynx
which unite with the skin of the neck and form a series of perforations
leading to the exterior. These structures are the gill-slits, which in
fishes are lined with vascular tufts, but which in terrestrial breathing
animals appear only in the embryo. The third feature of importance is
the position of structure of the central nervous system, which in all
the Chordates lies dorsally to the alimentary canal and is formed by the
sinking in of a longitudinal media dorsal groove. Of these structures
the Vertebrata or Craniata possess all three in a typical form; the
Cephalochordata (see Amphioxus) also possess them, but the notochord
extends throughout the whole length of the body to the extreme tip of
the snout; the Urochordata (see TUNICATA) possess them in a larval
condition, but the notochord is present only in the tail, whilst in the
adult the notochord disappears and the nervous system becomes profoundly
modified; in the Hemichorda, the respiratory organs very closely
resemble gill-slits, and structures comparable with the notochord and
the tubular dorsal nervous system are present.

The Hemichorda include three orders, the Phoronidea (q.v.), the
Pterobranchia (q.v.) and the Enteropneusta (see BALANOGLOSSUS), but the
relationship to the Chordata expressed in the designation Hemichordata
cannot be regarded as more than an attractive theory with certain
arguments in its favour.     (P. C. M.)



HEMICYCLE (Gr. [Greek: hêmi-], half, and [Greek: kyklos], circle), a
semicircular recess of considerable size which formed one of the most
conspicuous features in the Roman Thermae, where it was always covered
with a hemispherical vault. A small example exists in Pompeii, in the
street of tombs, with a seat round inside, where those who came to pay
their respects to the departed could rest. An immense hemicycle was
designed by Bramante for the Vatican, where it constitutes a fine
architectural effect at the end of the great court.



HEMIMERUS, an Orthopterous or Dermapterous insect, the sole
representative of the family _Hemimeridae_, which has affinities with
both the _Forficulidae_ (earwigs) and the _Blattidae_ (cockroaches).
Only two species have been discovered, both from West Africa. The better
known of these (_H. hanseni_) lives upon a large rat-like rodent
(_Cricetomys gambianus_) feeding perhaps upon its external parasites,
perhaps upon scurf and other dermal products. Like many epizoic or
parasitic insects, _Hemimerus_ is wingless, eyeless and has relatively
short and strong legs. Correlated also with its mode of life is the
curious fact that it is viviparous, the young being born in an advanced
stage of growth.



HEMIMORPHITE, a mineral consisting of hydrous zinc silicate, H2Zn2SiO5,
of importance as an ore of the metal, of which it contains 54.4%. It is
interesting crystallographically by reason of the hemimorphic
development of its orthorhombic crystals; these are prismatic in habit
and are differently terminated at the two ends. In the figure, the faces
at the upper end of the crystal are the basal plane k and the domes o,
p, l, m, whilst at the lower end there are only the four faces of the
pyramid P. Connected with this polarity of the crystals is their
pyroelectric character--when a crystal is subjected to changes of
temperature it becomes positively electrified at one end and negatively
at the opposite end. There are perfect cleavages parallel to the prism
faces (d in the figure). Crystals are usually colourless, sometimes
yellowish or greenish, and transparent; they have vitreous lustre. The
hardness is 5, and the specific gravity 3.45. The mineral also occurs as
stalactitic or botryoidal masses with a fibrous structure, or in a
massive, cellular or granular condition intermixed with calamine and
clay. It is decomposed by hydrochloric acid with gelatinization; this
property affords a ready means of distinguishing hemimorphite from
calamine (zinc carbonate), these two minerals being, when not
crystallized, very like each other in appearance. The water contained in
hemimorphite is expelled only at a red heat, and the mineral must
therefore be considered as a basic metasilicate, (ZnOH)2SiO3.

[Illustration]

The name hemimorphite was given by G. A. Kenngott in 1853 because of the
typical hemimorphic development of the crystals. The mineral had long
been confused with _calamine_ (q.v.) and even now this name is often
applied to it. On account of its pyroelectric properties, it was called
_electric calamine_ by J. Smithson in 1803.

Hemimorphite occurs with other ores of zinc (calamine and blende),
forming veins and beds in sedimentary limestones. British localities are
Matlock, Alston, Mendip Hills and Leadhills; at Roughten Gill, Caldbeck
Fells, Cumberland, it occurs as mammillated incrustations of a sky-blue
colour. Well-crystallized specimens have been found in the zinc mines at
Altenberg near Aachen in Rhenish Prussia, Nerchinsk mining district in
Siberia, and Elkhorn in Montana.     (L. J. S.)



HEMINGBURGH, WALTER OF, also commonly, but erroneously, called WALTER
HEMINGFORD, a Latin chronicler of the 14th century, was a canon regular
of the Austin priory of Gisburn in Yorkshire. Hence he is sometimes
known as Walter of Gisburn (Walterus Gisburnensis). Bale seems to have
been the first to give him the name by which he became more commonly
known. His chronicle embraces the period of English history from the
Conquest (1066) to the nineteenth year of Edward III., with the
exception of the years 1316-1326. It ends with the title of a chapter in
which it was proposed to describe the battle of Creçy (1346); but the
chronicler seems to have died before the required information reached
him. There is, however, some controversy as to whether the later
portions which are lacking in some of the MSS. are by him. In compiling
the first part, Hemingburgh apparently used the histories of Eadmer,
Hoveden, Henry of Huntingdon, and William of Newburgh; but the reigns of
the three Edwards are original, composed from personal observation and
information. There are several manuscripts of the history extant--the
best perhaps being that presented to the College of Arms by the earl of
Arundel. The work is correct and judicious, and written in a pleasing
style. One of its special features is the preservation in its pages of
copies of the great charters, and Hemingburgh's versions have more than
once supplied deficiencies and cleared up obscurities in copies from
other sources.

  The first three books were published by Thomas Gale in 1687, in his
  _Historiae Anglicanae scriptores quinque_, and the remainder by Thomas
  Hearne in 1731. The first portion was again published in 1848 by the
  English Historical Society, under the title _Chronicon Walteri de
  Hemingburgh, vulgo Hemingford nuncupati, de gestis regum Angliae_,
  edited by H. C. Hamilton.



HEMIPTERA (Gr. [Greek: hêmi-], half and [Greek: pteron], a wing), the
name applied in zoological classification to that order of the class
Hexapoda (q.v.) which includes bugs, cicads, aphids and scale-insects.
The name was first used by Linnaeus (1735), who derived it from the
half-coriaceous and half-membranous condition of the forewing in many
members of the order. But the wings vary considerably in different
families, and the most distinctive feature is the structure of the jaws,
which form a beak-like organ with stylets adapted for piercing and
sucking. Hence the name _Rhyngota_ (or _Rhynchota_), proposed by J. C.
Fabricius (1775), is used by many writers in preference to Hemiptera.

[Illustration: After Marlatt, _Bull._ 14 (N.S.) _Div. Ent. U.S. Dept.
Agr._

FIG. 1.--Head and Prothorax of Cicad from side.

    I., Frons.
   II., Base of mandible.
  III., Base of first maxillae.
   IV., Second maxillae forming rostrum.
    V., Pronotum.]

_Structure._--The head varies greatly in shape, and the feelers have
usually but few segments--often only four or five. The arrangement of
the jaws is remarkably constant throughout the order, if we exclude from
it the lice (_Anoplura_). Taking as our type the head of a cicad, we
find a jointed rostrum or beak (figs. 1 and 2, IV. b, c) with a deep
groove on its anterior face; this organ is formed by the second pair of
maxillae and corresponds therefore to the labium or "lower lip" of
biting insects. Within the groove of the rostrum two pairs of slender
piercers--often barbed at the tip--work to and fro. One of these pairs
(fig. 2, II. a, b, c) represents the mandibles, the other (fig. 2, III.
a, b, c) the first maxillae. The piercing portions of the
latter--representing their inner lobes or laciniae--lie median to the
mandibular piercers in the natural position of the organs. These
homologies of the hemipterous jaws were determined by J. C. Savigny in
1816, and though disputed by various subsequent writers, they have been
lately confirmed by the embryological researches of R. Heymons (1899).
Vestigial palps have been described in various species of Hemiptera, but
the true nature of these structures is doubtful. In front of the rostrum
and the piercers lies the pointed flexible labrum and within its base a
small hypopharynx (fig. 2, IV. d) consisting of paired conical
processes which lie dorsal to the "syringe" of the salivary glands. This
latter organ injects a secretion into the plant or animal tissue from
which the insect is sucking. The point of the rostrum is pressed against
the surface to be pierced; then the stylets come into play and the fluid
food is believed to pass into the mouth by capillary attraction.

[Illustration: After Marlatt, _Bull. 14_ (N.S.) _Div. Ent. U.S. Dept.
Agr._

FIG. 2.--Head and Prothorax of Cicad, parts separated.

    I., a, frons; b, clypeus; c, labrum; d, epipharynx.
   I'., Same from behind.
   II., Mandible.
  III., 1st maxillae, a, base; b, sheath; c, stylet; c´, muscle.
   IV., 2nd maxillae, a, sub-mentum; b, mentum; c, ligula, forming beak;
          d, hypopharynx (shown also from front d´, and behind d´´).
    V., Prothorax, b, haunch; a, trochanter.]

The prothorax (figs. 1 and 2, V.) in Hemiptera is large and free, and
the mesothoracic scutellum is usually extensive. The number of tarsal
segments is reduced; often three, two or only one may be present instead
of the typical insectan number five. The wings will be described in
connexion with the various sub-orders, but an interesting peculiarity of
the Hemiptera is the occasional presence of winged and wingless races of
the same species. Eleven abdominal segments can be recognized, at least
in the early stages; as the adult condition is reached, the hinder
segments become reduced or modified in connexion with the external
reproductive organs, and show, in some male Hemiptera, a marked
asymmetry. The typical insectan ovipositor with its three pairs of
processes, one pair belonging to the eighth and two pairs to the ninth
abdominal segment, can be distinguished in the female.

[Illustration: After Marlatt, _Bull. 4_ (N.S.) _Div. Ent. U.S. Dept.
Agr._

FIG. 3.--a, Cast-off nymphal skin of Bed-bug (_Cimex lectularius_); b,
Second instar after emergence from a; c, The same after a meal.]

In the nervous system the concentration of the trunk ganglia into a
single nerve-centre situated in the thorax is remarkable. The digestive
system has a slender gullet, a large crop and no gizzard; in some
Hemiptera the hinder region of the mid-gut forms a twisted loop with the
gullet. Usually there are four excretory (Malpighian) tubes; but there
are only two in the _Coccidae_ and none in the _Aphidae_. "Stink
glands," which secrete a nauseous fluid with a defensive function, are
present in many Hemiptera. In the adult there is a pair of such glands
opening ventrally on the hindmost thoracic segment, or at the base of
the abdomen; but in the young insect the glands are situated dorsally
and open to the exterior on a variable number of the abdominal terga.

_Development._--In most Hemiptera the young insect (fig. 3) resembles
its parents except for the absence of wings, and is active through all
stages of its growth. In all Hemiptera the wing-rudiments develop
externally on the nymphal cuticle, but in some families--the cicads for
example--the young insect (fig. 10) is a larva differing markedly in
form from its parent, and adapted for a different mode of life, while
the nymph before the final moult is sluggish and inactive. In the male
_Coccidae_ (Scale-insects) the nymph (fig. 4) remains passive and takes
no food. The order of the Hemiptera affords, therefore, some interesting
transition stages towards the complete metamorphosis of the higher
insects.

[Illustration: After Riley and Howard, _Insect Life_, vol. i. (U.S.
Dept. Agr.).

FIG. 4.--Passive Nymph or "Pupa" of male scale-insect (_Icerya_).]

_Distribution and Habits._--Hemiptera are widely distributed, and are
plentiful in most quarters of the globe, though they probably have not
penetrated as far into remote and inhospitable regions as have the
Coleoptera, Diptera and Aptera. They feed entirely by suction, and the
majority of the species pierce plant tissues and suck sap. The leaves of
plants are for the most part the objects of attack, but many aphids and
scale-insects pierce stems, and some go underground and feed on roots.
The enormous rate at which aphids multiply under favourable conditions
makes them of the greatest economic importance, since the growth of
immense numbers of the same kind of plant in close proximity--as in
ordinary farm-crops--is especially advantageous to the insects that feed
on them. Several families of bugs are predaceous in habit, attacking
other insects--often members of their own order--and sucking their
juices. Others are scavengers feeding on decaying organic matter; the
pond skaters, for example, live mostly on the juices of dead floating
insects. And some, like the bed-bugs, are parasites of vertebrate
animals, on whose bodies they live temporarily or permanently, and whose
blood they suck.

The Hemiptera are especially interesting as an order from the variety of
aquatic insects included therein. Some of these--the _Hydrometridae_ or
pond-skaters, for example--move over the surface-film, on which they are
supported by their elongated, slender legs, the body of the insect being
raised clear of the water. They are covered with short hairs which form
a velvet-like pile, so dense that water cannot penetrate. Consequently
when the insect dives, an air-bubble forms around it, a supply of oxygen
is thus secured for breathing and the water is kept away from the
spiracles. In many of these insects, while most individuals of the
species are wingless, winged specimens are now and then met with. The
occasional development of wings is probably of service to the species in
enabling the insects to reach new fresh-water breeding-grounds. This
family of Hemiptera (the _Hydrometridae_) and the _Saldidae_ contain
several insects that are marine, haunting the tidal margin. One genus of
_Hydrometridae_ (_Halobates_) is even oceanic in its habit, the species
being met with skimming over the surface of the sea hundreds of miles
from land. Probably they dive when the surface becomes ruffled. In these
marine genera the abdomen often undergoes excessive reduction (fig. 5).

Other families of Hemiptera--such as the "Boatmen" (_Notonectidae_) and
the "Water-scorpions" (fig. 6) and their allies (_Nepidae_) dive and
swim through the water. They obtain their supply of air from the
surface. The _Nepidae_ breathe by means of a pair of long, grooved tail
processes (really outgrowths of the abdominal pleura) which when
pressed together form a tube whose point can pierce the surface film and
convey air to the hindmost spiracles which are alone functional in the
adult. The _Notonectidae_ breathe mostly through the thoracic spiracles;
the air is conveyed to these from the tail-end, which is brought to the
surface, along a kind of tunnel formed by overlapping hairs.

[Illustration: After Carpenter, _Proc. R. Dublin Soc._, vol. viii.

FIG. 5.--A reef-haunting hemipteron (_Hermatobates haddonii_) with
excessively reduced abdomen. Magnified.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Water-scorpion (_Nepa cinerea_) with raptorial
fore-legs, heteropterous wings, and long siphon for conveying air to
spiracles. Somewhat magnified. sc, scutellum; co, cl, m, corium, clavus
and membrane of forewing.]

[Illustration: From Marlatt, _Bull._ 14 (N.S.) _Div. Ent. U.S. Dept.
Agr._

FIG. 7.

  a, Body of male Cicad from below, showing cover-plates of musical
       organs;
  b, From above showing drums, natural size;
  c, Section showing muscles which vibrate drum (magnified);
  d, A drum at rest;
  e, Thrown into vibration, more highly magnified.]

_Sound-producing Organs._--The Hemiptera are remarkable for the variety
of their stridulating organs. In many genera of the _Pentatomidae_,
bristle-bearing tubercles on the legs are scraped across a set of fine
striations on the abdominal sterna. In _Halobates_ a comb-like series of
sharp spines on the fore-shin can be drawn across a set of blunt
processes on the shin of the opposite leg. Males of the little
water-bugs of the genus _Corixa_ make a shrill chirping note by drawing
a row of teeth on the flattened fore-foot across a group of spines on
the haunch of the opposite leg. But the loudest and most remarkable
vocal organs of all insects are those of the male cicads, which "sing"
by the rapid vibration of a pair of "drums" or membranes within the
metathorax. These drums are worked by special muscles, and the cavities
in which they lie are protected by conspicuous plates visible beneath
the base of the abdomen (see fig. 7).

_Fossil History._--The Heteroptera can be traced back farther than any
other winged insects if the fossil _Protocimex silurica_ Moberg, from
the Ordovician slates of Sweden is rightly regarded as the wing of a
bug. But according to the recent researches of A. Handlirsch it is not
insectan at all. Both Heteropterous and Homopterous genera have been
described from the Carboniferous, but the true nature of some of these
is doubtful. _Eugereon_ is a remarkable Permian fossil, with jaws that
are typically hemipterous except that the second maxillae are not fused
and with cockroach-like wings. In the Jurassic period many of the
existing families, such as the _Cicadidae_, _Fulgoridae_, _Aphidae_,
_Nepidae_, _Reduviidae_, _Hydrometridae_, _Lygaeidae_ and _Coreidae_,
had already become differentiated.

  _Classification._--The number of described species of Hemiptera must
  now be nearly 20,000. The order is divided into two sub-orders, the
  Heteroptera and the Homoptera. The Anoplura or lice should not be
  included among the Hemiptera, but it has been thought convenient to
  refer briefly to them at the close of this article.


    HETEROPTERA

  In this sub-order are included the various families of bugs and their
  aquatic relations. The front of the head is not in contact with the
  haunches of the fore-legs. There is usually a marked difference
  between the wings of the two pairs. The fore-wing is generally divided
  into a firm coriaceous basal region, occupying most of the area, and a
  membranous terminal portion, while the hind-wing is delicate and
  entirely membranous (see fig. 6). In the firm portion of the fore-wing
  two distinct regions can usually be distinguished; most of the area is
  formed by the _corium_ (fig. 6, co), which is separated by a
  longitudinal suture from the _clavus_ (fig. 6, cl) on its hinder edge,
  and in some families there is also a _cuneus_ (fig. 9 cu) external to
  and an _embolium_ in front of the _corium_.

  [Illustration: After Marlatt, _Bull._ 4 (N.S.) _Div. Ent. U.S. Dept.
  Agr._

  FIG. 8.--Bed-bug (_Cimex lectularius_, Linn.).

    a, Female from above;
    b, From beneath;
    c, Vestigial wing;
    d, Jaws, very highly magnified (tips of mandibles and 1st maxillae
         still more highly magnified).]

  Most Heteroptera are flattened in form, and the wings lie flat, or
  nearly so, when closed. The young Heteropteron is hatched from the egg
  in a form not markedly different from that of its parent; it is active
  and takes food through all the stages of its growth. It is usual to
  divide the Heteroptera into two tribes--the Gymnocerata and the
  Cryptocerata.

  _Gymnocerata._--This tribe includes some eighteen families of
  terrestrial, arboreal and marsh-haunting bugs, as well as those
  aquatic Heteroptera that live on the surface-film of water. The
  feelers are elongate and conspicuous. The _Pentatomidae_
  (shield-bugs), some of which are metallic or otherwise brightly
  coloured, are easily recognized by the great development of the
  scutellum, which reaches at least half-way back towards the tip of the
  abdomen, and in some genera covers the whole of the hind body, and
  also the wings when these are closed. The _Coreidae_ have a smaller
  scutellum, and the feelers are inserted high on the head, while in the
  _Lygaeidae_ they are inserted lower down. These three families have
  the foot with three segments. In the curious little _Tingidae_, whose
  integuments exhibit a pattern of network-like ridges, the feet are
  two-segmented and the scutellum is hidden by the pronotum. The
  _Aradidae_ have two segmented feet, and a large visible scutellum. The
  _Hydrometridae_ are a large family including the pond-skaters and
  other dwellers on the surface-film of fresh water, as well as the
  remarkable oceanic genus _Halobates_ already referred to. The
  _Reduviidae_ are a family of predaceous bugs that attack other
  insects and suck their juices; the beak is short, and carried under
  the head in a hook-like curve, not--as in the preceding
  families--lying close against the breast. The _Cimicidae_ have the
  feet three-segmented and the forewings greatly reduced; most of the
  species are parasites on birds and bats, but one--_Cimex lectidarius_
  (figs. 3, 8)--is the well-known "bed-bug" which abounds in unclean
  dwellings and sucks human blood (see BUG). The _Anthocoridae_ are
  nearly related to the _Cimicidae_, but the wings are usually well
  developed and the forewing possesses cuneus and embolium as well as
  corium and clavus. The _Capsidae_ are a large family of rather
  soft-skinned bugs mostly elongate in form with the two basal segments
  of the feelers stouter than the two terminal. The forewing in this
  family has a cuneus (fig. 9 cu), but not an embolium. These insects
  are often found in large numbers on plants whose juices they suck.

  [Illustration: After M. V. Slingerland, _Cornell Univ. Ent. Bull._ 58.

  FIG. 9.--Capsid Leaf-bug (_Poecilocapsus lineatus_) N. America.
  Magnified--, cu cuneus.]

  [Illustration: From Mariatt, _Bull._ 14 (N. S.), _Div. Ent. U.S. Dept.
  Agr._

  FIG. 10.--a, Nymph (4th stage) of Cicad, magnified; c, d, inner and
  outer faces of front leg, magnified--; b, teeth on thigh, more highly
  magnified.]

  _Cryptocerata._--In this tribe are included five or six families of
  aquatic Heteroptera which spend the greater part of their lives
  submerged, diving and swimming through the water. The feelers are very
  small and are often hidden in cavities beneath the head. The
  _Naucoridae_ and _Belostomatidae_ are flattened insects, with
  four-segmented feelers and fore-legs inserted at the front of the
  prosternum. Two species of the former family inhabit our islands, but
  the _Belostomatidae_ are found only in the warmer regions of the
  globe; some of them, attaining a length of 4 to 5 in., are giants
  among insects. The _Nepidae_ (fig. 6) or water-scorpions (q.v.)--two
  British species--are distinguished by their three-segmented feelers,
  their raptorial fore-legs (in which the shin and foot, fused together,
  work like a sharp knife-blade on the grooved thigh), and their
  elongate tail-processes formed of the abdominal pleura and used for
  respiration. The _Notonectidae_, or "water-boatmen" (q.v.) have convex
  ovoid bodies admirably adapted for aquatic life. By means of the
  oar-like hind-legs they swim actively through the water with the
  ventral surface upwards; the fore-legs are inserted at the hinder edge
  of the prosternum. The _Corixidae_ are small flattened water-bugs,
  with very short unjointed beak, the labrum being enclosed within the
  second maxillae, and the foot in the fore and intermediate leg having
  but a single segment. The hinder abdominal segments in the male show a
  curious asymmetrical arrangement, the sixth segment bearing on its
  upper side a small stalked plate (_strigil_) of unknown function,
  furnished with rows of teeth. On account of the reduction and
  modification of the jaws in the _Corixidae_, C. Börner has lately
  suggested that they should form a special sub-order of Hemiptera--the
  Sandaliorrhyncha.


    HOMOPTERA

  This sub-order includes the cicads, lantern-flies, frog-hoppers,
  aphids and scale-insects. The face has such a marked backward slope
  (see fig. 1) as to bring the beak into close contact with the haunches
  of the fore-legs. The feelers have one or more thickened basal
  segments, while the remaining segments are slender and thread-like.
  The fore-wings are sometimes membranous like the hind-wings, usually
  they are firmer in texture, but they never show the distinct areas
  that characterize the wings of Heteroptera. When at rest the wings of
  Homoptera slope roofwise across the back of the insect. In their
  life-history the Homoptera are more specialized than the Heteroptera;
  the young insect often differs markedly from its parent and does not
  live in the same situations; while in some families there is a passive
  stage before the last moult.

  [Illustration: After Weed, Riley and Howard, _Insect Life_, vol iii.

  FIG. 11.--Cabbage Aphid (_Aphisbrassicae_). a, Male; c, female
  (wingless). Magnified. b and d, Head and feelers of male and female,
  more highly magnified.]

  [Illustration: After Howard, _Year Book U.S. Dept. Agr._, 1894.

  FIG. 12.--Apple Scale Insect (_Mytilaspis pomorum_). a, Male; e,
  female; c, larva magnified--; b, foot of male; d, feeler of larva,
  more highly magnified.]

  The _Cicadidae_ are for the most part large insects with ample wings;
  they are distinguished from other Homoptera by the front thighs being
  thickened and toothed beneath. The broad head carries, in addition to
  the prominent compound eyes, three simple eyes (ocelli) on the crown,
  while the feeler consists of a stout basal segment, followed by five
  slender segments. The female, by means of her serrated ovipositor,
  lays her eggs in slits cut in the twigs of plants. The young have
  simple feelers and stout fore-legs (fig. 10) adapted for digging; they
  live underground and feed on the roots of plants. In the case of a
  North American species it is known that this larval life lasts for
  seventeen years. The "song" of the male cicads is notorious and the
  structures by which it is produced have already been described (see
  also CICADA). There are about 900 known species, but the family is
  mostly confined to warm countries; only a single cicad is found in
  England, and that is restricted to the south.

  The _Fulgoridae_ and _Membracidae_ are two allied families most of
  whose members are also natives of hot regions. The _Fulgoridae_ have
  the head with two ocelli and three-segmented feelers; frequently as in
  the tropical "lantern-flies" (q.v.) the head is prolonged into a
  conspicuous bladder, or trunk-like process. The _Membracidae_ are
  remarkable on account of the backward prolongation of the pronotum
  into a process or hood-like structure which may extend far behind the
  tail-end of the abdomen. Two other allied families, the _Cercopidae_
  and _Jassidae_, are more numerously represented in our islands. The
  young of many of these insects are green and soft-skinned, protecting
  themselves by the well-known frothy secretion that is called
  "cuckoo-spit."

  [Illustration: After Howard, _Year Book U.S. Dept. Agr._, 1894.

  FIG. 13.--Apple Scale Insect (_Mytilaspis pomorum_). a, Scale from
  beneath showing female and eggs; b, from above, magnified--; c and e,
  female and male scales on twigs, natural size; d, male scale
  magnified.]

  [Illustration: From Osborn (after Denny), _Bull._ 5 (N.S.), _Div. Ent.
  U.S. Dept. Agr._

  FIG. 14.--Louse (_Pediculus vestimenti_). Magnified.]

  [Illustration: From Osborn (after Schiödte), _Bull._ 5; (N.S.), _Div.
  Ent. U.S. Dept. Agr._

  FIG. 15.--Proboscis of Pediculus. Highly magnified.]

  In all the above-mentioned families of Homoptera there are three
  segments in each foot. The remaining four families have feet with only
  two segments. They are of very great zoological interest on account of
  the peculiarities of their life-history--parthenogenesis being of
  normal occurrence among most of them. The families _Psyllidae_ (or
  "jumpers") with eight or ten segments in the feeler and the
  _Aleyrodidae_ (or "snowy-flies") distinguished by their white mealy
  wings, are of comparatively slight importance. The two families to
  which special attention has been paid are the _Aphidae_ or plant-lice
  ("green fly") and the _Coccidae_ or scale-insects. The aphids (fig.
  11) have feelers with seven or fewer distinct segments, and the fifth
  abdominal segment usually carries a pair of tubular processes through
  which a waxy secretion is discharged. The sweet "honey-dew," often
  sought as a food by ants, is secreted from the intestines of aphids.
  The peculiar life-cycle in which successive generations are produced
  through the summer months by virgin females--the egg developing within
  the body of the mother--is described at length in the articles APHIDES
  and PHYLLOXERA. The _Coccidae_ have only a single claw to the foot;
  the males (fig. 12 _a_) have the fore-wings developed and the
  hind-wings greatly reduced, while in the female wings are totally
  absent and the body undergoes marked degradation (figs. 12, _e_, 13,
  _a_, _b_). In the Coccids the formation of a protective waxy
  secretion--present in many genera of Homoptera--reaches its most
  extreme development. In some coccids--the "mealy-bugs" (_Dactylopius_,
  &c.) for example--the secretion forms a white thread-like or
  plate-like covering which the insect carries about. But in most
  members of the family, the secretion, united with cast cuticles and
  excrement, forms a firm "scale," closely attached by its edges to the
  surface of the plant on which the insect lives, and serving as a
  shield beneath which the female coccid, with her eggs (fig. 13 _a_)
  and brood, finds shelter. The male coccid passes through a passive
  stage (fig. 4) before attaining the perfect condition. Many
  scale-insects are among the most serious of pests, but various species
  have been utilized by man for the production of wax (lac) and red dye
  (cochineal). See ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY, SCALE-INSECT.


    ANOPLURA

  The Anoplura or lice (see LOUSE) are wingless parasitic insects (fig.
  14) forming an order distinct from the Hemiptera, their sucking and
  piercing mouth-organs being apparently formed on quite a different
  plan from those of the Heteroptera and Homoptera. In front of the head
  is a short tube armed with strong recurved hooks which can be fixed
  into the skin of the host, and from the tube an elongate more slender
  sucking-trunk can be protruded (fig. 15). Each foot is provided with a
  single strong claw which, opposed to a process on the shin, serves to
  grasp a hair of the host, all the lice being parasites on different
  mammals. Although G. Enderlein has recently shown that the jaws of the
  Hemiptera can be recognized in a reduced condition in connexion with
  the louse's proboscis, the modification is so excessive that the group
  certainly deserves ordinal separation.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--A recent standard work on the morphology of the
  Hemiptera by R. Heymons (_Nova Acta Acad. Leop. Carol._ lxxiv. 3,
  1899) contains numerous references to older literature. An excellent
  survey of the order is given by D. Sharp (_Cambridge Nat. Hist._ vol.
  vi., 1898). For internal structure of Heteroptera see R. Dufour, _Mem.
  savans étrangers_ (Paris, iv., 1833); of Homoptera, E. Witlaczil
  (_Arb. Zool. Inst. Wien_, iv., 1882, _Zeits. f. wiss. Zool._ xliii.,
  1885). The development of Aphids has been dealt with by T. H. Huxley
  (_Trans. Linn. Soc._ xxii., 1858) and E. Witlaczil (_Zeits. f. wiss.
  Zool._ xl., 1884). Fossil Hemiptera are described by S. H. Scudder in
  K. Zittel's _Paléontologie_ (French translation, vol. ii. Paris, 1887,
  and English edition, vol. i., London, 1900), and by A. Handlirsch
  (_Verh. zool. bot. Gesell. Wien_, lii., 1902). Among general
  systematic works on Heteroptera may be mentioned J. C. Schiödte (_Ann.
  Mag. Nat. Hist._ (4) vi., 1870); C. Stal's _Enumeratio Hemipterorum_
  (_K. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Handl._ ix.-xiv., 1870-1876); L. Lethierry and
  G. Severin's _Catalogue générale des hémiptères_ (Brussels 1893, &c.);
  G. C. Champion's volumes in the _Biologia Centrali-Americana_; W. L.
  Distant's Oriental Cicadidae (London, 1889-1892), and many other
  papers; M. E. Fernald's _Catalogue of the Coccidae_ (Amherst, U.S.A.,
  1903). European Hemiptera have been dealt with in numerous papers by
  A. Puton. For British species we have E. Saunders's
  _Hemiptera-Heteroptera of the British Isles_ (London, 1892); J.
  Edwards's Hemiptera-Homoptera of the British Isles (London, 1896); J.
  B. Buckton's _British Aphidae_ (London, Ray Society, 1875-1882); and
  R. Newstead's _British Coccidae_ (London, Ray Society, 1901-1903).
  Aquatic Hemiptera are described by L. C. Miall (_Nat. History Aquatic
  Insects_; London, 1895), and by G. W. Kirkaldy in numerous recent
  papers (_Entomologist_, &c.). For marine Hemiptera (_Halobates_) see
  F. B. White (_Challenger Reports_, vii., 1883); J. J. Walker (_Ent.
  Mo. Mag._, 1893); N. Nassonov (Warsaw, 1893), and G. H. Carpenter
  (_Knowledge_, 1901, and _Report, Pearl Oyster Fisheries, Royal
  Society_, 1906). Sound-producing organs of Heteroptera are described
  by A. Handlirsch (_Ann. Hofmus. Wien_, xv. 1900), and G. W. Kirkaldy
  (_Journ. Quekett Club_ (2) viii. 1901); of Cicads by G. Carlet (_Ann.
  Sci. Nat. Zool._ (6) v. 1877). For the Anoplura see E. Piaget's
  _Pediculines_ (Leiden, 1880-1905), and G. Enderlein (_Zool. Anz._
  xxviii., 1904).     (G. H. C.)



HEMLOCK (in O. Eng. _hemlic_ or _hymlice_; no cognate is found in any
other language, and the origin is unknown), the _Conium maculatum_ of
botanists, a biennial umbelliferous plant, found wild in many parts of
Great Britain and Ireland, where it occurs in waste places on
hedge-banks, and by the borders of fields, and also widely spread over
Europe and temperate Asia, and naturalized in the cultivated districts
of North and South America. It is an erect branching plant, growing from
3 to 6 ft. high, and emitting a disagreeable smell, like that of mice.
The stems are hollow, smooth, somewhat glaucous green, spotted with dull
dark purple, as alluded to in the specific name, _maculatum_. The
root-leaves have long furrowed footstalks, sheathing the stem at the
base, and are large, triangular in outline, and repeatedly divided or
compound, the ultimate and very numerous segments being small, ovate,
and deeply incised at the edge. These leaves generally perish after the
growth of the flowering stem, which takes place in the second year,
while the leaves produced on the stem became gradually smaller upwards.
The branches are all terminated by compound many-rayed umbels of small
white flowers, the general involucres consisting of several, the partial
ones of about three short lanceolate bracts, the latter being usually
turned towards the outside of the umbel. The flowers are succeeded by
broadly ovate fruits, the mericarps (half-fruits) having five ribs
which, when mature, are waved or crenated; and when cut across the
albumen is seen to be deeply furrowed on the inner face, so as to
exhibit in section a reniform outline. The fruits when triturated with a
solution of caustic potash evolve a most unpleasant odour.

Hemlock is a virulent poison, but it varies much in potency according to
the conditions under which it has grown, and the season or stage of
growth at which it is gathered. In the first year the leaves have little
power, nor in the second are their properties developed until the
flowering period, at which time, or later on when the fruits are fully
grown, the plant should be gathered. The wild plant growing in exposed
situations is to be preferred to garden-grown samples, and is more
potent in dry warm summers than in those which are dull and moist.

The poisonous property of hemlock resides chiefly in the alkaloid
_conine_ or _conia_ which is found in both the fruits and the leaves,
though in exceedingly small proportions in the latter. Conine resembles
nicotine in its deleterious action, but is much less powerful. No
chemical antidote for it is known. The plant also yields a second less
poisonous crystallizable base called _conhydrine_, which may be
converted into conine by the abstraction of the elements of water. When
collected for medicinal purposes, for which both leaves and fruits are
used, the former should be gathered at the time the plant is in full
blossom, while the latter are said to possess the greatest degree of
energy just before they ripen. The fruits are the chief source whence
conine is prepared. The principal forms in which hemlock is employed are
the extract and juice of hemlock, hemlock poultice, and the tincture of
hemlock fruits. Large doses produce vertigo, nausea and paralysis; but
in smaller quantities, administered by skilful hands, it has a sedative
action on the nerves. It has also some reputation as an alterative and
resolvent, and as an anodyne.

The acrid narcotic properties of the plant render it of some importance
that one should be able to identify it, the more so as some of the
compound-leaved umbellifers, which have a general similarity of
appearance to it, form wholesome food for man and animals. Not only is
this knowledge desirable to prevent the poisonous plant being
detrimentally used in place of the wholesome one; it is equally
important in the opposite case, namely, to prevent the inert being
substituted for the remedial agent. The plant with which hemlock is most
likely to be confounded is _Anthriscus sylvestris_, or cow-parsley, the
leaves of which are freely eaten by cattle and rabbits; this plant, like
the hemlock, has spotted stems but they are hairy, not hairless; it has
much-divided leaves of the same general form, but they are downy and
aromatic, not smooth and nauseous when bruised; and the fruit of
_Anthriscus_ is linear-oblong and not ovate.



HEMP (in O. Eng. _henep_, cf. Dutch _hennep_, Ger. _Hanf_, cognate with
Gr. [Greek: kannabis], Lat. _cannabis_), an annual herb (_Cannabis
sativa_) having angular rough stems and alternate deeply lobed leaves.
The bast fibres of _Cannabis_ are the hemp of commerce, but,
unfortunately, the products from many totally different plants are often
included under the general name of hemp. In some cases the fibre is
obtained from the stem, while in others it comes from the leaf. Sunn
hemp, Manila hemp, Sisal hemp, and Phormium (New Zealand flax, which is
neither flax nor hemp) are treated separately. All these, however, are
often classed under the above general name, and so are the
following:--Deccan or Ambari hemp, _Hibiscus cannabinus_, an Indian and
East Indian malvaceous plant, the fibre from which is often known as
brown hemp or Bombay hemp; Pité hemp, which is obtained from the
American aloe, _Agave americana_; and Moorva or bowstring-hemp,
_Sansevieria zeylanica_, which is obtained from an aloe-like plant, and
is a native of India and Ceylon. Then there are Canada hemp, _Apocynum
cannabinum_, Kentucky hemp, _Urtica cannabina_, and others.

The hemp plant, like the hop, which is of the same natural order,
Cannabinaceae, is dioecious, i.e. the male and female flowers are borne
on separate plants. The female plant grows to a greater height than the
male, and its foliage is darker and more luxuriant, but the plant takes
from five to six weeks longer to ripen. When the male plants are ripe
they are pulled, put up into bundles, and steeped in a similar manner to
flax, but the female plants are allowed to remain until the seed is
perfectly ripe. They are then pulled, and after the seed has been
removed are retted in the ordinary way. The seed is also a valuable
product; the finest is kept for sowing, a large quantity is sold for the
food of cage birds, while the remainder is sent to the oil mills to be
crushed. The extracted oil is used in the manufacture of soap, while the
solid remains, known as oil-cake, are valuable as a food for cattle. The
leaves of hemp have five to seven leaflets, the form of which is
lanceolate-acuminate, with a serrate margin. The loose panicles of male
flowers, and the short spikes of female flowers, arise from the axils of
the upper leaves. The height of the plant varies greatly with season,
soil and manuring; in some districts it varies from 3 to 8 ft., but in
the Piedmont province it is not unusual to see them from 8 to 16 ft. in
height, whilst a variety (_Cannabis sativa_, variety gigantea) has
produced specimens over 17 ft. in height.

All cultivated hemp belongs to the same species, _Cannabis sativa_; the
special varieties such as _Cannabis indica_, _Cannabis chinensis_, &c.,
owe their differences to climate and soil, and they lose many of their
peculiarities when cultivated in temperate regions. Rumphius (in the
17th century) had noticed these differences between Indian and European
hemp.

Wild hemp still grows on the banks of the lower Ural, and the Volga,
near the Caspian Sea. It extends to Persia, the Altai range and northern
and western China. The authors of the _Pharmacographia_ say:--"It is
found in Kashmir and in the Himalaya, growing 10 to 12 ft. high, and
thriving vigorously at an elevation of 6000 to 10,000 ft." Wild hemp is,
however, of very little use as a fibre producer, although a drug is
obtained from it.

It would appear that the native country of the hemp plant is in some
part of temperate Asia, probably near the Caspian Sea. It spread
westward throughout Europe, and southward through the Indian peninsula.

The names given to the plant and to its products in different countries
are of interest in connexion with the utilization of the fibre and
resin. In Sans. it is called _goni_, _sana_, _shanapu_, _banga_ and
_ganjika_; in Bengali, _ganga_; Pers. _bang_ and _canna_; Arab. _kinnub_
or _cannub_; Gr. _kannabis_; Lat. _cannabis_; Ital. _canappa_; Fr.
_chanvre_; Span. _cáñamo_; Portuguese, _cánamo_; Russ. _konópel_;
Lettish and Lithuanian, _kannapes_; Slav. _konopi_; Erse, _canaib_ and
_canab_; A. Sax. _hoenep_; Dutch, _hennep_; Ger. _Hanf_; Eng. _hemp_;
Danish and Norwegian, _hamp_; Icelandic, _hampr_; and in Swed. _hampa_.
The English word _canvas_ sufficiently reveals its derivation from
_cannabis_.

Very little hemp is now grown in the British Isles, although this
variety was considered to be of very good quality, and to possess great
strength. The chief continental hemp-producing countries are Italy,
Russia and France; it is also grown in several parts of Canada and the
United States and India. The Central Provinces, Bengal and Bombay are
the chief centres of hemp cultivation in India, where the plant is of
most use for narcotics. The satisfactory growth of hemp demands a light,
rich and fertile soil, but, unlike most substances, it may be reared for
a few years in succession. The time of sowing, the quantity of seed per
acre (about three bushels) and the method of gathering and retting are
very similar to those of flax; but, as a rule, it is a hardier plant
than flax, does not possess the same pliability, is much coarser and
more brittle, and does not require the same amount of attention during
the first few weeks of its growth.

The very finest hemp, that grown in the province of Piedmont, Italy,
is, however, very similar to flax, and in many cases the two fibres are
mixed in the same material. The hemp fibre has always been valuable for
the rope industry, and it was at one time very extensively used in the
production of yarns for the manufacture of sail cloth, sheeting, covers,
bagging, sacking, &c. Much of the finer quality is still made into
cloth, but almost all the coarser quality finds its way into ropes and
similar material.

A large quantity of hemp cloth is still made for the British navy. The
cloth, when finished, is cut up into lengths, made into bags and tarred.
They are then used as coal sacks. There is also a quantity made into
sacks which are intended to hold very heavy material. Hemp yarns are
also used in certain classes of carpets, for special bags for use in cop
dyeing and for similar special purposes, but for the ordinary bagging
and sacking the employment of hemp yarns has been almost entirely
supplanted by yarns made from the jute fibre.

Hemp is grown for three products--(1) the fibre of its stem; (2) the
resinous secretion which is developed in hot countries upon its leaves
and flowering heads; (3) its oily seeds.

Hemp has been employed for its fibre from ancient times. Herodotus (iv.
74) mentions the wild and cultivated hemp of Scythia, and describes the
hempen garments made by the Thracians as equal to linen in fineness.
Hesychius says the Thracian women made sheets of hemp. Moschion (about
200 B.C.) records the use of hempen ropes for rigging the ship
"Syracusia" built for Hiero II. The hemp plant has been cultivated in
northern India from a considerable antiquity, not only as a drug but for
its fibre. The Anglo-Saxons were well acquainted with the mode of
preparing hemp. Hempen cloth became common in central and southern
Europe in the 13th century.

_Hemp-resin._--Hemp as a drug or intoxicant for smoking and chewing
occurs in the three forms of bhang, ganja and charas.

1. _Bhang_, the Hindustani _siddhi_ or _sabzi_, consists of the dried
leaves and small stalks of the hemp; a few fruits occur in it. It is of
a dark brownish-green colour, and has a faint peculiar odour and but a
slight taste. It is smoked with or without tobacco; or it is made into a
sweetmeat with honey, sugar and aromatic spices; or it is powdered and
infused in cold water, yielding a turbid drink, _subdschi_. _Hashish_ is
one of the Arabic names given to the Syrian and Turkish preparations of
the resinous hemp leaves. One of the commonest of these preparations is
made by heating the bhang with water and butter, the butter becoming
thus charged with the resinous and active substances of the plant.

2. _Ganja_, the guaza of the London brokers, consists of the flowering
and fruiting heads of the female plant. It is brownish-green, and
otherwise resembles bhang, as in odour and taste. Some of the more
esteemed kinds of hashish are prepared from this ganja. Ganja is met
with in the Indian bazaars in dense bundles of 24 plants or heads
apiece. The hashish in such extensive use in Central Asia is often seen
in the bazaars of large cities in the form of cakes, 1 to 3 in. thick, 5
to 10 in. broad and 10 to 15 in. long.

3. _Charas_, or churrus, is the resin itself collected, as it exudes
naturally from the plant, in different ways. The best sort is gathered
by the hand like opium; sometimes the resinous exudation of the plant is
made to stick first of all to cloths, or to the leather garments of men,
or even to their skin, and is then removed by scraping, and afterwards
consolidated by kneading, pressing and rolling. It contains about
one-third or one-fourth its weight of the resin. But the churrus
prepared by different methods and in different countries differs greatly
in appearance and purity. Sometimes it takes the form of egg-like masses
of greyish-brown colour, having when of high quality a shining resinous
fracture. Often it occurs in the form of irregular friable lumps, like
pieces of impure linseed oil-cake.

The medicinal and intoxicating properties of hemp have probably been
known in Oriental countries from a very early period. An ancient Chinese
herbal, part of which was written about the 5th century B.C., while the
remainder is of still earlier date, notices the seed and flower-bearing
kinds of hemp. Other early writers refer to hemp as a remedy. The
medicinal and dietetic use of hemp spread through India, Persia and
Arabia in the early middle ages. The use of hemp (bhang) in India was
noticed by Garcia d'Orta in 1563. Berlu in his _Treasury of Drugs_
(1690) describes it as of "an infatuating quality and pernicious use."
Attention was recalled to this drug, in consequence of Napoleon's
Egyptian expedition, by de Sacy (1809) and Rouger (1810). Its modern
medicinal use is chiefly due to trials by Dr O'Shaughnessy in Calcutta
(1838-1842). The plant is grown partly and often mainly for the sake of
its resin in Persia, northern India and Arabia, in many parts of Africa
and in Brazil.

_Pharmacology and Therapeutics._--The composition of this drug is still
extremely obscure; partly, perhaps, because it varies so much in
individual specimens. It appears to contain at least two
alkaloids--cannabinine and tetano-cannabine--of which the former is
volatile. The chief active principle may possibly be neither of these,
but the substance cannabinon. There are also resins, a volatile oil and
several other constituents. Cannabis indica--as the drug is termed in
the pharmacopoeias--may be given as an extract (dose ¼-1 gr.) or
tincture (dose 5-15 minims).

The drug has no external action. The effects of its absorption, whether
it be swallowed or smoked, vary within wide limits in different
individuals and races. So great is this variation as to be inexplicable
except on the view that the nature and proportions of the active
principles vary greatly in different specimens. But typically the drug
is an intoxicant, resembling alcohol in many features of its action, but
differing in others. The early symptoms are highly pleasurable, and it
is for these, as in the case of other stimulants, that the drug is so
largely consumed in the East. There is a subjective sensation of mental
brilliance, but, as in other cases, this is not borne out by the
objective results. It has been suggested that the incoordination of
nervous action under the influence of Indian hemp may be due to
independent and non-concerted action on the part of the two halves of
the cerebrum. Following on a decided lowering of the pain and touch
senses, which may even lead to complete loss of cutaneous sensation,
there comes a sleep which is often accompanied by pleasant dreams. There
appears to be no evidence in the case of either the lower animals or the
human subject that the drug is an aphrodisiac. Excessive indulgence in
cannabis indica is very rare, but may lead to general ill-health and
occasionally to insanity. The apparent impossibility of obtaining pure
and trustworthy samples of the drug has led to its entire abandonment in
therapeutics. When a good sample is obtained it is a safe and efficient
hypnotic, at any rate in the case of a European. The tincture should not
be prescribed unless precautions are taken to avoid the precipitation of
the resin which follows its dilution with water.

  See Watt, _Dictionary of the Economic Products of India_.



HEMSTERHUIS, FRANÇOIS (1721-1790), Dutch writer on aesthetics and moral
philosophy, son of Tiberius Hemsterhuis, was born at Franeker in
Holland, on the 27th of December 1721. He was educated at the university
of Leiden, where he studied Plato. Failing to obtain a professorship, he
entered the service of the state, and for many years acted as secretary
to the state council of the United Provinces. He died at the Hague on
the 7th of July 1790. Through his philosophical writings he became
acquainted with many distinguished persons--Goethe, Herder, Princess
Amalia of Gallitzin, and especially Jacobi, with whom he had much in
common. Both were idealists, and their works suffer from a similar lack
of arrangement, although distinguished by elegance of form and refined
sentiment. His most valuable contributions are in the department of
aesthetics or the general analysis of feeling. His philosophy has been
characterized as Socratic in content and Platonic in form. Its
foundation was the desire for self-knowledge and truth, untrammelled by
the rigid bonds of any particular system.

  His most important works, all of which were written in French, are:
  _Lettre sur la sculpture_ (1769), in which occurs the well-known
  definition of the Beautiful as "that which gives us the greatest
  number of ideas in the shortest space of time"; its continuation,
  _Lettre sur les désirs_ (1770); _Lettre sur l'homme et ses rapports_
  (1772), in which the "moral organ" and the theory of knowledge are
  discussed; _Sopyle_ (1778), a dialogue on the relation between the
  soul and the body, and also an attack on materialism; _Aristée_
  (1779), the "theodicy" of Hemsterhuis, discussing the existence of God
  and his relation to man; _Simon_ (1787), on the four faculties of the
  soul, which are the will, the imagination, the moral principle (which
  is both passive and active); _Alexis_ (1787), an attempt to prove that
  there are three golden ages, the last being the life beyond the grave;
  _Lettre sur l'athéisme_ (1787).

  The best collected edition of his works is by P. S. Meijboom
  (1846-1850); see also S. A. Gronemann, _F. Hemsterhuis, de
  Nederlandische Wijsgeer_ (Utrecht, 1867); E. Grucker, _François
  Hemsterhuis, sa vie et ses oeuvres_ (Paris, 1866); E. Meyer, _Der
  Philosoph Franz Hemsterhuis_ (Breslau, 1893), with bibliographical
  notice.



HEMSTERHUIS, TIBERIUS (1685-1766), Dutch philologist and critic, was
born on the 9th of January 1685 at Groningen in Holland. His father, a
learned physician, gave him so good an early education that, when he
entered the university of his native town in his fifteenth year, he
speedily proved himself to be the best student of mathematics. After a
year or two at Groningen, he was attracted to the university of Leiden
by the fame of Perizonius; and while there he was entrusted with the
duty of arranging the manuscripts in the library. Though he accepted an
appointment as professor of mathematics and philosophy at Amsterdam in
his twentieth year, he had already directed his attention to the study
of the ancient languages. In 1706 he completed the edition of Pollux's
_Onomasticon_ begun by Lederlin; but the praise he received from his
countrymen was more than counterbalanced by two letters of criticism
from Bentley, which mortified him so keenly that for two months he
refused to open a Greek book. In 1717 Hemsterhuis was appointed
professor of Greek at Franeker, but he did not enter on his duties there
till 1720. In 1738 he became professor of national history also. Two
years afterwards he was called to teach the same subjects at Leiden,
where he died on the 7th of April 1766. Hemsterhuis was the founder of a
laborious and useful Dutch school of criticism, which had famous
disciples in Valckenaer, Lennep and Ruhnken.

  His chief writings are the following: _Luciani colloquia et Timon_
  (1708); _Aristophanis Plutus_ (1744); _Notae, &c., ad Xenophontem
  Ephesium in the Miscellanea critica_ of Amsterdam, vols. iii. and iv.;
  _Observationes ad Chrysostomi homilias; Orationes_ (1784); a Latin
  translation of the _Birds_ of Aristophanes, in Küster's edition; notes
  to Bernard's _Thomas Magister_, to Alberti's _Hesychius_, to Ernesti's
  _Callimachus_ and to Burmann's _Propertius_. See _Elogium T.
  Hemsterhusii_ (with Bentley's letters) by Ruhnken (1789), and
  _Supplementa annotationis ad elogium T. Hemsterhusii, &c._ (Leiden,
  1874); also J. E. Sandys' _Hist. Class. Scholarship_, ii. (1908).



HEMY, CHARLES NAPIER (1841-   ), British painter, born at
Newcastle-on-Tyne, was trained in the Newcastle school of art, in the
Antwerp academy and in the studio of Baron Leys. He has produced some
figure subjects and landscapes, but is best known by his admirable
marine paintings. He was elected an associate of the Royal Academy in
1898, associate of the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours in
1890 and member in 1897. Two of his paintings, "Pilchards" (1897) and
"London River" (1904), are in the National Gallery of British Art.



HEN, a female bird, especially the female of the common fowl (q.v.). The
O. Eng. _hæn_ is the feminine form of _hana_, the male bird, a
correlation of words which is represented in other Teutonic languages,
cf. Ger. _Hahn_, _Henne_, Dutch _haan_, _hen_, Swed. _hane_, _hönne_,
&c. The O. Eng. name for the male bird has disappeared, its place being
taken by "cock," a word probably of onomatopoeic origin, being from a
base _kuk_- or _kik_-, seen also in "chicken." This word also appears in
Fr. _coq_, and medieval Lat. _coccus_.



HÉNAULT, CHARLES JEAN FRANÇOIS (1685-1770), French historian, was born
in Paris on the 8th of February 1685. His father, a farmer-general of
taxes, was a man of literary tastes, and young Hénault obtained a good
education at the Jesuit college. Captivated by the eloquence of
Massillon, in his fifteenth year he entered the Oratory with the view of
becoming a preacher, but after two years' residence he changed his
intention, and, inheriting a position which secured him access to the
most select society of Paris, he achieved distinction at an early period
by his gay, witty and graceful manners. His literary talent, manifested
in the composition of various light poetical pieces, an opera, a tragedy
(_Cornélie vestale_, 1710), &c., obtained his entrance to the Academy
(1723). _Petit-maître_ as he was, he had also serious capacity, for he
became councillor of the _parlement_ of Paris (1705), and in 1710 he was
chosen president of the court of _enquêtes_. After the death of the
count de Rieux (son of the famous financier, Samuel Bernard) he became
(1753) superintendent of the household of Queen Marie Leszczynska, whose
intimate friendship he had previously enjoyed. On his recovery in his
eightieth year from a dangerous malady (1765) he professed to have
undergone religious conversion and retired into private life, devoting
the remainder of his days to study and devotion. His religion was,
however, according to the marquis d'Argenson, "exempt from fanaticism,
persecution, bitterness and intrigue"; and it did not prevent him from
continuing his friendship with Voltaire, to whom it is said he had
formerly rendered the service of saving the manuscript of _La Henriade_,
when its author was about to commit it to the flames. The literary work
on which Hénault bestowed his chief attention was the _Abrégé
chronologique de l'histoire de France_, first published in 1744 without
the author's name. In the compass of two volumes he comprised the whole
history of France from the earliest times to the death of Louis XIV. The
work has no originality. Hénault had kept his note-books of the history
lectures at the Jesuit college, of which the substance was taken from
Mézeray and P. Daniel. He revised them first in 1723, and later put them
in the form of question and answer on the model of P. le Ragois, and by
following Dubos and Boulainvilliers and with the aid of the abbé Boudot
he compiled his _Abrégé_. The research is all on the surface and is only
borrowed. But the work had a prodigious success, and was translated into
several languages, even into Chinese. This was due partly to Hénault's
popularity and position, partly to the agreeable style which made the
history readable. He inserted, according to the fashion of the period,
moral and political reflections, which are always brief and generally as
fresh and pleasing as they are just. A few masterly strokes reproduced
the leading features of each age and the characters of its illustrious
men; accurate chronological tables set forth the most interesting events
in the history of each sovereign and the names of the great men who
flourished during his reign; and interspersed throughout the work are
occasional chapters on the social and civil state of the country at the
close of each era in its history. Continuations of the work have been
made at separate periods by Fantin des Odoards, by Anguis with notes by
Walckenaer, and by Michaud. He died at Paris on the 24th of November
1770.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Hénault's _Mémoires_ have come down to us in two
  different versions, both claiming to be authentic. One was published
  in 1855 by M. du Vigan; the other was owned by the Comte de Coutades,
  who permitted Lucien Perey to give long extracts in his work on
  President Hénault (Paris, 1893). The memoirs are fragmentary and
  disconnected, but contain interesting anecdotes and details concerning
  persons of note. See the _Correspondance_ of Grimm, of Madame du
  Deffand and of Voltaire; the notice by Walckenaer in the edition of
  the _Abrégé_; Sainte-Beuve, _Causeries du lundi_, vol. xi.; and the
  _Origines de l'abrégé_ (_Ann. Bulletin de la Société de l'histoire de
  France_, 1901). Also H. Lion, _Le Président Hénault_ (Paris, 1903).



HENBANE (Fr. _jusquiaume_, from the Gr. [Greek: hyoskuamos], or
hog's-bean; Ital. _giusquiamo_; Ger. _Schwarzes Bilsenkraut_,
_Hühnertod_, _Saubohne_ and _Zigeuner-Korn_ or "gipsies' corn"), the
common name of the plant _Hyoscyamus niger_, a member of the natural
order Solanaceae, indigenous to Britain, found wild in waste places, on
rubbish about villages and old castles, and cultivated for medicinal use
in various counties in the south and east of England. It occurs also in
central and southern Europe and in western Asia extending to India and
Siberia, and has long been naturalized in the United States. There are
two forms of the plant, an annual and a biennial, which spring
indifferently from the same crop of seed--the one growing on during
summer to a height of from 1 to 2 ft., and flowering and perfecting
seed; the other producing the first season only a tuft of radical
leaves, which disappear in winter, leaving underground a thick fleshy
root, from the crown of which arises in spring a branched flowering
stem, usually much taller and more vigorous than the flowering stems of
the annual plants. The biennial form is that which is considered
officinal. The radical leaves of this biennial plant spread out flat on
all sides from the crown of the root; they are ovate-oblong, acute,
stalked, and more or less incisely-toothed, of a greyish-green colour,
and covered with viscid hairs; these leaves perish at the approach of
winter. The flowering stem pushes up from the root-crown in spring,
ultimately reaching from 3 to 4 ft. in height, and as it grows becoming
branched, and furnished with alternate sessile leaves, which are
stem-clasping, oblong, unequally-lobed, clothed with glandular clammy
hairs, and of a dull grey-green, the whole plant having a powerful
nauseous odour. The flowers are shortly-stalked, the lower ones growing
in the fork of the branches, the upper ones sessile in one-sided leafy
spikes which are rolled back at the top before flowering, the leaves
becoming smaller upwards and taking the place of bracts. The flowers
have an urn-shaped calyx which persists around the fruit and is strongly
veined, with five stiff, broad, almost prickly lobes; these, when the
soft matter is removed by maceration, form very elegant specimens when
associated with leaves prepared in a similar way. The corollas are
obliquely funnel-shaped, of a dirty yellow or buff, marked with a close
reticulation of purple veins. The capsule opens transversely by a convex
lid and contains numerous seeds. Both the leaves and the seeds are
employed in pharmacy. The Mahommedan doctors of India are accustomed to
prescribe the seeds. Henbane yields a poisonous alkaloid, _hyoscyamine_,
which is stated to have properties almost identical with those of
atropine, from which it differs in being more soluble in water. It is
usually obtained in an amorphous, scarcely ever in a crystalline state.
Its properties have been investigated in Germany by T. Husemann,
Schroff, Höhn, &c. Höhn finds its chemical composition expressed by
C18H28N2O3. (Compare Hellmann, _Beiträge zur Kenntnis der physiolog.
Wirkung des Hyoscyamins_, &c., Jena, 1874.) In small and repeated doses
henbane has been found to have a tranquillizing effect upon persons
affected by severe nervous irritability. In poisonous doses it causes
loss of speech, distortion and paralysis. In the form of extract or
tincture it is a valuable remedy in the hands of a medical man, either
as an anodyne, a hypnotic or a sedative. The extract of henbane is rich
in nitrate of potassium and other inorganic salts. The smoking of the
seeds and capsules of henbane is noted in books as a somewhat dangerous
remedy adopted by country people for toothache. Accidental poisoning
from henbane occasionally occurs, owing sometimes to the apparent
edibility and wholesomeness of the root.

  See Bentley and Trumen, _Medicinal Plants_, 194 (1880).



HENCHMAN, originally, probably, one who attended on a horse, a groom,
and hence, like groom (q.v.), a title of a subordinate official in royal
or noble households. The first part of the word is the O. Eng.
_hengest_, a horse, a word which occurs in many Teutonic languages, cf.
Ger. and Dutch _hengst_. The word appears in the name, Hengest, of the
Saxon chieftain (see HENGEST AND HORSA) and still survives in English in
place and other names beginning with Hingst- or Hinx-. Henchmen, pages
of honour or squires, rode or walked at the side of their master in
processions and the like, and appear in the English royal household from
the 14th century till Elizabeth abolished the royal henchmen, known also
as the "children of honour." The word was obsolete in English from the
middle of the 17th century, and seems to have been revived through Sir
Walter Scott, who took the word and its derivation, according to the
_New English Dictionary_, from Edward Burt's _Letters from a Gentleman
in the North of Scotland_, together with its erroneous derivation from
"haunch." The word is, in this sense, used as synonymous with "gillie,"
the faithful personal follower of a Highland chieftain, the man who
stands at his master's "haunch," ready for any emergency. It is this
sense that usually survives in modern usage of the word, where it is
often used of an out-and-out adherent or partisan, ready to do anything.



HENDERSON, ALEXANDER (1583-1646), Scottish ecclesiastic, was born in
1583 at Criech, Fifeshire. He graduated at the university of St Andrews
in 1603, and in 1610 was appointed professor of rhetoric and philosophy
and questor of the faculty of arts. Shortly after this he was presented
to the living of Leuchars. As Henderson was forced upon his parish by
Archbishop George Gladstanes, and was known to sympathize with
episcopacy, his settlement was at first extremely unpopular; but he
subsequently changed his views and became a Presbyterian in doctrine and
church government, and one of the most esteemed ministers in Scotland.
He early made his mark as a church leader, and took an active part in
petitioning against the "five acts" and later against the introduction
of a service-book and canons drawn up on the model of the English
prayer-book. On the 1st of March 1638 the public signing of the
"National Covenant" began in Greyfriars Church, Edinburgh. Henderson was
mainly responsible for the final form of this document, which consisted
of (1) the "king's confession" drawn up in 1581 by John Craig, (2) a
recital of the acts of parliament against "superstitious and papistical
rites," and (3) an elaborate oath to maintain the true reformed
religion. Owing to the skill shown on this occasion he seems to have
been applied to when any manifesto of unusual ability was required. In
July of the same year he proceeded to the north to debate on the
"Covenant" with the famous Aberdeen doctors; but he was not well
received by them. "The voyd church was made fast, and the keys keeped by
the magistrate," says Baillie. Henderson's next public opportunity was
in the famous Assembly which met in Glasgow on the 21st of November
1638. He was chosen moderator by acclamation, being, as Baillie says,
"incomparablie the ablest man of us all for all things." James Hamilton,
3rd marquess of Hamilton, was the king's commissioner; and when the
Assembly insisted on proceeding with the trial of the bishops, he
formally dissolved the meeting under pain of treason. Acting on the
constitutional principle that the king's right to convene did not
interfere with the church's independent right to hold assemblies, they
sat till the 20th of December, deposed all the Scottish bishops,
excommunicated a number of them, repealed all acts favouring episcopacy,
and reconstituted the Scottish Kirk on thorough Presbyterian principles.
During the sitting of this Assembly it was carried by a majority of
seventy-five votes that Henderson should be transferred to Edinburgh. He
had been at Leuchars for about twenty-three years, and was extremely
reluctant to leave it.

While Scotland and England were preparing for the "First Bishops' War,"
Henderson drew up two papers, entitled respectively _The Remonstrance of
the Nobility_ and _Instructions for Defensive Arms_. The first of these
documents he published himself; the second was published against his
wish by John Corbet (1603-1641), a deposed minister. The "First Bishops'
War" did not last long. At the Pacification of Birks the king virtually
granted all the demands of the Scots. In the negotiations for peace
Henderson was one of the Scottish commissioners, and made a very
favourable impression on the king. In 1640 Henderson was elected by the
town council rector of Edinburgh University--an office to which he was
annually re-elected till his death. The Pacification of Birks had been
wrung from the king; and the Scots, seeing that he was preparing for the
"Second Bishops' War," took the initiative, and pressed into England so
vigorously that Charles had again to yield everything. The maturing of
the treaty of peace took a considerable time, and Henderson was again
active in the negotiations, first at Ripon (October 1st) and afterwards
in London. While he was in London he had a personal interview with the
king, with the view of obtaining assistance for the Scottish
universities from the money formerly applied to the support of the
bishops. On Henderson's return to Edinburgh in July 1641 the Assembly
was sitting at St Andrews. To suit the convenience of the parliament,
however, it removed to Edinburgh; Henderson was elected moderator of the
Edinburgh meeting. In this Assembly he proposed that "a confession of
faith, a catechism, a directory for all the parts of the public worship,
and a platform of government, wherein possibly England and we might
agree," should be drawn up. This was unanimously approved of, and the
laborious undertaking was left in Henderson's hands; but the "notable
motion" did not lead to any immediate results. During Charles's second
state-visit to Scotland, in the autumn of 1641, Henderson acted as his
chaplain, and managed to get the funds, formerly belonging to the
bishopric of Edinburgh, applied to the metropolitan university. In 1642
Henderson, whose policy was to keep Scotland neutral in the war which
had now broken out between the king and the parliament, was engaged in
corresponding with England on ecclesiastical topics; and, shortly
afterwards, he was sent to Oxford to mediate between the king and his
parliament; but his mission proved a failure.

A memorable meeting of the General Assembly was held in August 1643.
Henderson was elected moderator for the third time. He presented a draft
of the famous "Solemn League and Covenant," which was received with
great enthusiasm. Unlike the "National Covenant" of 1638, which applied
to Scotland only, this document was common to the two kingdoms.
Henderson, Baillie, Rutherford and others were sent up to London to
represent Scotland in the Assembly at Westminster. The "Solemn League
and Covenant," which pledged both countries to the extirpation of
prelacy, leaving further decision as to church government to be decided
by the "example of the best reformed churches," after undergoing some
slight alterations, passed the two Houses of Parliament and the
Westminster Assembly, and thus became law for the two kingdoms. By means
of it Henderson has had considerable influence on the history of Great
Britain. As Scottish commissioner to the Westminster Assembly, he was in
England from August 1643 till August 1646; his principal work was the
drafting of the directory for public worship. Early in 1645 Henderson
was sent to Uxbridge to aid the commissioners of the two parliaments in
negotiating with the king; but nothing came of the conference. In 1646
the king joined the Scottish army; and, after retiring with them to
Newcastle, he sent for Henderson, and discussed with him the two systems
of church government in a number of papers. Meanwhile Henderson was
failing in health. He sailed to Scotland, and eight days after his
arrival died, on the 19th of August 1646. He was buried in Greyfriars
churchyard, Edinburgh; and his death was the occasion of national
mourning in Scotland. On the 7th of August Baillie had written that he
had heard that Henderson was dying "most of heartbreak." A document was
published in London purporting to be a "Declaration of Mr Alexander
Henderson made upon his Death-bed"; and, although this paper was
disowned, denounced and shown to be false in the General Assembly of
August 1648, the document was used by Clarendon as giving the impression
that Henderson had recanted. Its foundation was probably certain
expressions lamenting Scottish interference in English affairs.

Henderson is one of the greatest men in the history of Scotland and,
next to Knox, is certainly the most famous of Scottish ecclesiastics. He
had great political genius; and his statesmanship was so influential
that "he was," as Masson well observes, "a cabinet minister without
office." He has made a deep mark on the history, not only of Scotland,
but of England; and the existing Presbyterian churches in Scotland are
largely indebted to him for the forms of their dogmas and their
ecclesiastical organization. He is thus justly considered the second
founder of the Reformed Church in Scotland.

  See M'Crie's _Life of Alexander Henderson_ (1846); Aiton's _Life and
  Times of Alexander Henderson_ (1836); _The Letters and Journals of
  Robert Baillie_ (1841-1842) (an exceedingly valuable work, from an
  historical point of view); J. H. Burton's _History of Scotland_; D.
  Masson's _Life of Drummond of Hawthornden_; and, above all, Masson's
  _Life of Milton_; Andrew Lang, _Hist. of Scotland_ (1907), vol. iii.
  Henderson's own works are chiefly contributions to current
  controversies, speeches and sermons.     (T. Gi.; D. Mn.)



HENDERSON, EBENEZER (1784-1858), a Scottish divine, was born at the Linn
near Dunfermline on the 17th of November 1784, and died at Mortlake on
the 17th of May 1858. He was the youngest son of an agricultural
labourer, and after three years' schooling spent some time at
watchmaking and as a shoemaker's apprentice. In 1803 he joined Robert
Haldane's theological seminary, and in 1805 was selected to accompany
the Rev. John Paterson to India; but as the East India Company would not
allow British vessels to convey missionaries to India, Henderson and his
colleague went to Denmark to await the chance of a passage to Serampur,
then a Danish port. Being unexpectedly delayed, and having begun to
preach in Copenhagen, they ultimately decided to settle in Denmark, and
in 1806 Henderson became pastor at Elsinore. From this time till about
1817 he was engaged in encouraging the distribution of Bibles in the
Scandinavian countries, and in the course of his labours he visited
Sweden and Lapland (1807-1808), Iceland (1814-1815) and the mainland of
Denmark and part of Germany (1816). During most of this time he was an
agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society. On the 6th of October
1811 he formed the first Congregational church in Sweden. In 1818, after
a visit to England, he travelled in company with Paterson through Russia
as far south as Tiflis, but, instead of settling as was proposed at
Astrakhan, he retraced his steps, having resigned his connexion with the
Bible Society owing to his disapproval of a translation of the
Scriptures which had been made in Turkish. In 1822 he was invited by
Prince Alexander (Galitzin) to assist the Russian Bible Society in
translating the Scriptures into various languages spoken in the Russian
empire. After twenty years of foreign labour Henderson returned to
England, and in 1825 was appointed tutor of the Mission College,
Gosport. In 1830 he succeeded Dr William Harrison as theological
lecturer and professor of Oriental languages in Highbury Congregational
College. In 1850, on the amalgamation of the colleges of Homerton,
Coward and Highbury, he retired on a pension. In 1852-1853 he was pastor
of Sheen Vale chapel at Mortlake. His last work was a translation of the
book of Ezekiel. Henderson was a man of great linguistic attainment. He
made himself more or less acquainted, not only with the ordinary
languages of scholarly accomplishment and the various members of the
Scandinavian group, but also with Hebrew, Syriac, Ethiopic, Russian,
Arabic, Tatar, Persian, Turkish, Armenian, Manchu, Mongolian and Coptic.
He organized the first Bible Society in Denmark (1814), and paved the
way for several others. In 1817 he was nominated by the Scandinavian
Literary Society a corresponding member; and in 1840 he was made D.D. by
the university of Copenhagen. He was honorary secretary for life of the
Religious Tract Society, and one of the first promoters of the British
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel among the Jews. The records of
his travels in Iceland (1818) were valuable contributions to our
knowledge of that island. His other principal works are: _Iceland, or
the Journal of a Residence in that Island_ (2 vols., 1818); _Biblical
Researches and Travels in Russia_ (1826); _Elements of Biblical
Criticism and Interpretation_ (1830); _The Vaudois, a Tour of the
Valleys of Piedmont_ (1845).

  See _Memoirs of Ebenezer Henderson_, by Thulia S. Henderson (his
  daughter) (London, 1859); _Congregational Year Book_ (1859).



HENDERSON, GEORGE FRANCIS ROBERT (1854-1903), British soldier and
military writer, was born in Jersey in 1854. Educated at Leeds Grammar
School, of which his father, afterwards Dean of Carlisle, was
headmaster, he was early attracted to the study of history, and obtained
a scholarship at St John's College, Oxford. But he soon left the
University for Sandhurst, whence he obtained his first commission in
1878. One year later, after a few months' service in India, he was
promoted lieutenant and returned to England, and in 1882 he went on
active service with his regiment, the York and Lancaster (65th/84th) to
Egypt. He was present at Tell-el-Mahuta and Kassassin, and at
Tell-el-Kebir was the first man of his regiment to enter the enemy's
works. His conduct attracted the notice of Sir Garnet (afterwards Lord)
Wolseley, and he received the 5th class of the Medjidieh order. His name
was, further, noted for a brevet-majority, which he did not receive till
he became captain in 1886. During these years he had been quietly
studying military art and history at Gibraltar, in Bermuda and in Nova
Scotia, in spite of the difficulties of research, and in 1889 appeared
(anonymously) his first work, _The Campaign of Fredericksburg_. In the
same year he became Instructor in Tactics, Military Law and
Administration at Sandhurst. From this post he proceeded as Professor of
Military Art and History to the Staff College (1892-1899), and there
exercised a profound influence on the younger generation of officers.
His study on _Spicheren_ had been begun some years before, and in 1898
appeared, as the result of eight years' work, his masterpiece,
_Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War_. In the South African War
Lieutenant-Colonel Henderson served with distinction on the staff of
Lord Roberts as Director of Intelligence. But overwork and malaria broke
his health, and he had to return home, being eventually selected to
write the official history of the war. But failing health obliged him to
go to Egypt, where he died at Assuan on the 5th of March 1903. He had
completed the portion of the history of the South African War dealing
with the events up to the commencement of hostilities, amounting to
about a volume, but the War Office decided to suppress this, and the
work was begun _de novo_ and carried out by Sir F. Maurice.

  Various lectures and papers by Henderson were collected and published
  in 1905 by Captain Malcolm, D.S.O., under the title _The Science of
  War_; to this collection a memoir was contributed by Lord Roberts. See
  also Journal of the Royal United Service Institution, vol. xlvii. No.
  302.



HENDERSON, JOHN (1747-1785), English actor, of Scottish descent, was
born in London. He made his first appearance on the stage at Bath on the
6th of October 1772 as Hamlet. His success in this and other
Shakespearian parts led to his being called the "Bath Roscius." He had
great difficulty in getting a London engagement, but finally appeared at
the Haymarket in 1777 as Shylock, and his success was a source of
considerable profit to Colman, the manager. Sheridan then engaged him to
play at Drury Lane, where he remained for two years. When the companies
joined forces he went to Covent Garden, appearing as Richard III. in
1778, and creating original parts in many of the plays of Cumberland,
Shirley, Jephson and others. His last appearance was in 1785 as Horatius
in _The Roman Father_, and he died on the 25th of November of that year
and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Garrick was very jealous of
Henderson, and the latter's power of mimicry separated him also from
Colman, but he was always gratefully remembered by Mrs. Siddons and
others of his profession whom he had encouraged. He was a close friend
of Gainsborough, who painted his portrait, as did also Stewart and
Romney. He was co-author of Sheridan and Henderson's _Practical Method
of Reading and Writing English Poetry_.



HENDERSON, a city and the county-seat of Henderson county, Kentucky,
U.S.A., on the S. bank of the Ohio river, about 142 m. W.S.W. of
Louisville. Pop. (1890), 8835; (1900), 10,272, of whom 4029 were
negroes; (1910 census) 11,452. It is served by the Illinois Central, the
Louisville & Nashville, and the Louisville, Henderson & St. Louis
railways, and has direct communication by steamboat with Louisville,
Evansville, Cairo, Memphis and New Orleans. Henderson is built on the
high bank of the river, above the flood level; the river is spanned here
by a fine steel bridge, designed by George W. G. Ferris (1859-1896), the
designer of the Ferris Wheel. The city has a public park of 80 acres and
a Carnegie library. It is situated in the midst of a region whose soil
is said to be the best in the world for the raising of dark,
heavy-fibred tobacco, and is well adapted also for the growing of fruit,
wheat and Indian corn. Bituminous coal is obtained from the surrounding
country. Immense quantities of stemmed tobacco are shipped from here,
and the city is an important market for Indian corn. The manufactures of
the city include cotton and woollen goods, hominy, meal, flour, tobacco
and cigars, carriages, baskets, chairs and other furniture, bricks, ice,
whisky and beer; the value of the city's factory products in 1905 was
$1,365,120. The municipality owns and operates its water works, gas
plant and electric-lighting plant. Henderson, named in honour of Richard
Henderson (1734-1785), was settled as early as 1784, was first known as
Red Banks, was laid out as a town by Henderson's company in 1797, was
incorporated as a town in 1810, and was first chartered as a city in
1854. The city boundary lines were extended in 1905 by the annexation of
Audubon and Edgewood. Henderson was for some time the home of John James
Audubon, the ornithologist.



HENDIADYS, the name adopted from the Gr. [Greek: hen dia duoin] ("one by
means of two") for a rhetorical figure, in which two words connected by
a copulative conjunction are used of a single idea; usually the figure
takes the form of two substantives instead of a substantive and
adjective, as in the classical example _pateris libamus et auro_
(Virgil, _Georgics_, ii. 192), "we pour libations in cups and gold" for
"cups of gold."



HENDON, an urban district in the Harrow parliamentary division of
Middlesex, England, on the river Brent, 8 m. N.W. of St Paul's
Cathedral, London, served by the Midland railway. Pop. (1891), 15,843;
(1901), 22,450. The nucleus of the township lies on high ground to the
east of the Edgware road, which crosses the Welsh Harp reservoir of
Regent's Canal, a favourite fishing and skating resort. The church of St
Mary is mainly Perpendicular, and contains a Norman font and monuments
of the 18th century. To the north of the village, which has extended
greatly as a residential suburb of the metropolis, is Mill Hill, with a
Roman Catholic Missionary College, opened in 1871, with branches at
Rosendaal, Holland and Brixen, Austria, and a preparatory school at
Freshfield near Liverpool; and a large grammar school founded by
Nonconformists in 1807. The manor belonged at an early date to the abbot
of Westminster.



HENDRICKS, THOMAS ANDREWS (1819-1885), American political leader,
vice-president of the United States in 1885, was born near Zanesville,
Ohio, on the 7th of September 1819. He graduated at Hanover College,
Hanover, Indiana, in 1841, and began in 1843 a successful career at the
bar. Identifying himself with the Democratic party, he served in the
state House of Representatives in 1848, and was a prominent member of
the convention for the revision of the state constitution in 1850-1851,
a representative in Congress (1851-1855), commissioner of the United
States General Land Office (1855-1859), a United States senator
(1863-1869), and governor of Indiana (1873-1877). From 1868 until his
death he was put forward for nomination for the presidency at every
national Democratic Convention save in 1872. Both in 1876 and 1884,
after his failure to receive the nomination for the presidency, he was
nominated by the Democratic National Convention for vice-president, his
nomination in each of these conventions being made partly, it seems,
with the hope of gaining "greenback" votes--Hendricks had opposed the
immediate resumption of specie payments. In 1876, with S. J. Tilden, he
lost the disputed election by the decision of the electoral commission,
but he was elected with Grover Cleveland in 1884. He died at
Indianapolis on the 25th of November 1885.



HENGELO, or HENGELOO, a town in the province of Overyssel, Holland, and
a junction station 5 m. by rail N.W. of Enschede. Pop. (1900), 14,968.
The castle belonging to the ancient territorial lords of Hengelo has
long since disappeared, and the only interest the town now possesses is
as the centre of the flourishing industries of the Twente district. The
manufacture of cotton in all its branches is very actively carried on,
and there are dye-works and breweries, besides the engineering works of
the state railway company.



HENGEST and HORSA, the brother chieftains who led the first Saxon bands
which settled in England. They were apparently called in by the British
king Vortigern (q.v.) to defend him against the Picts. The place of
their landing is said to have been Ebbsfleet in Kent. Its date is not
certainly known, 450-455 being given by the English authorities, 428 by
the Welsh (see KENT). The settlers of Kent are described by Bede as
Jutes (q.v.), and there are traces in Kentish custom of differences from
the other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Hengest and Horsa were at first given
the island of Thanet as a home, but soon quarrelled with their British
allies, and gradually possessed themselves of what became the kingdom of
Kent. In 455 the Saxon Chronicle records a battle between Hengest and
Horsa and Vortigern at a place called Aegaels threp, in which Horsa was
slain. Thenceforward Hengest reigned in Kent, together with his son Aesc
(Oisc). Both the _Saxon Chronicle_ and the _Historia Brittonum_ record
three subsequent battles, though the two authorities disagree as to
their issue. There is no doubt, however, that the net result was the
expulsion of the Britons from Kent. According to the _Chronicle_, which
probably derived its information from a lost list of Kentish kings,
Hengest died in 488, while his son Aesc continued to reign until 512.

  Bede, _Hist. Eccl._ (Plummer, 1896), i. 15, ii. 5; _Saxon Chronicle_
  (Earle and Plummer, 1899), s.a. 449, 455, 457, 465, 473; Nennius,
  _Historia Brittonum_ (San Marte, 1844), §§ 31, 37, 38, 43-46, 58.



HENGSTENBERG, ERNST WILHELM (1802-1869), German Lutheran divine and
theologian, was born at Fröndenberg, a Westphalian village, on the 20th
of October 1802. He was educated by his father, who was a minister of
the Reformed Church, and head of the Fröndenberg convent of canonesses
(Fräuleinstift). Entering the university of Bonn in 1819, he attended
the lectures of G. G. Freytag for Oriental languages and of F. K. L.
Gieseler for church history, but his energies were principally devoted
to philosophy and philology, and his earliest publication was an edition
of the Arabic _Moallakat_ of Amru'l-Qais, which gained for him the prize
at his graduation in the philosophical faculty. This was followed in
1824 by a German translation of Aristotle's _Metaphysics_. Finding
himself without the means to complete his theological studies under
Neander and Tholuck in Berlin, he accepted a post at Basel as tutor in
Oriental languages to J. J. Stähelin, who afterwards became professor at
the university. Then it was that he began to direct his attention to a
study of the Bible, which led him to a conviction, never afterwards
shaken, not only of the divine character of evangelical religion, but
also of the unapproachable adequacy of its expression in the Augsburg
Confession. In 1824 he joined the philosophical faculty of Berlin as a
_Privatdozent_, and in 1825 he became a licentiate in theology, his
theses being remarkable for their evangelical fervour and for their
emphatic protest against every form of "rationalism," especially in
questions of Old Testament criticism. In 1826 he became professor
extraordinarius in theology; and in July 1827 appeared, under his
editorship, the _Evangelische Kirchenzeitung_, a strictly orthodox
journal, which in his hands acquired an almost unique reputation as a
controversial organ. It did not, however, attain to great notoriety
until in 1830 an anonymous article (by E. L. von Gerlach) appeared,
which openly charged Wilhelm Gesenius and J. A. L. Wegscheider with
infidelity and profanity, and on the ground of these accusations
advocated the interposition of the civil power, thus giving rise to the
prolonged _Hallische Streit_. In 1828 the first volume of Hengstenberg's
_Christologie des Alten Testaments_ passed through the press; in the
autumn of that year he became professor ordinarius in theology, and in
1829 doctor of theology. He died on the 28th of May 1869.

  The following is a list of his principal works: _Christologie des
  Alten Testaments_ (1829-1835; 2nd ed., 1854-1857; Eng. trans. by R.
  Keith, 1835-1839, also in Clark's "Foreign Theological Library," by T.
  Meyer and J. Martin, 1854-1858), a work of much learning, the estimate
  of which varies according to the hermeneutical principles of the
  individual critic; _Beiträge zur Einleitung in das Alte Testament_
  (1831-1839); Eng. trans., _Dissertations on the Genuineness of Daniel
  and the Integrity of Zechariah_ (Edin., 1848), and _Dissertations on
  the Genuineness of the Pentateuch_ (Edin., 1847), in which the
  traditional view on each question is strongly upheld, and much capital
  is made of the absence of harmony among the negative critics; _Die
  Bücher Moses und Ägypten_ (1841); _Die Geschichte Bileams u. seiner
  Weissagungen_ (1842; translated along with the Dissertations on Daniel
  and Zechariah); _Commentar über die Psalmen_ (1842-1847; 2nd ed.,
  1849-1852; Eng. trans. by P. Fairbairn and J. Thomson, Edin.,
  1844-1848), which shares the merits and defects of the _Christologie;
  Die Offenbarung Johannis erläutert_ (1849-1851; 2nd ed., 1861-1862;
  Eng. trans. by P. Fairbairn, also in Clark's "Foreign Theological
  Library," 1851-1852); _Das Hohe Lied ausgelegt_ (1853); _Der Prediger
  Salomo ausgelegt_ (1859); _Das Evangelium Johannis erläutert_
  (1861-1863; 2nd ed., 1867-1871; Eng. trans., 1865) and _Die
  Weissagungen des Propheten Ezechiel erläutert_ (1867-1868). Of minor
  importance are _De rebus Tyriorum commentatio academica_ (1832); _Über
  den Tag des Herrn_ (1852); _Das Passa, ein Vortrag_ (1853); and _Die
  Opfer der heiligen Schrift_ (1859). Several series of papers also, as,
  for example, on "The Retention of the Apocrypha," "Freemasonry"
  (1854), "Duelling" (1856) and "The Relation between the Jews and the
  Christian Church" (1857; 2nd ed., 1859), which originally appeared in
  the _Kirchenzeitung_, were afterwards printed in a separate form.
  _Geschichte des Reiches Gottes unter dem Alten Bunde_ (1869-1871),
  _Das Buch Hiob erläutert_ (1870-1875) and _Vorlesungen über die
  Leidensgeschichte_ (1875) were published posthumously.

  See J. Bachmann's _Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg_ (1876-1879); also his
  article in Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_ (1899), and the article in
  the _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_. Also F. Lichtenberger, _History
  of German Theology in the Nineteenth Century_ (1889), pp. 212-217;
  Philip Schaff, _Germany; its Universities, Theology and Religion_
  (1857), pp. 300-319.



HENKE, HEINRICH PHILIPP KONRAD (1752-1809), German theologian, best known
as a writer on church history, was born at Hehlen, Brunswick, on the 3rd
of July 1752. He was educated at the gymnasium of Brunswick and the
university of Helmstädt, and from 1778 to 1809 he was professor, first of
philosophy, then of theology, in that university. In 1803 he was
appointed principal of the Carolinum in Brunswick as well. He died on the
2nd of May 1809. Henke belonged to the rationalistic school. His
principal work (_Allgemeine Geschichte der christl. Kirche_, 6 vols.,
1788-1804; 2nd ed., 1795-1806) is commended by F. C. Baur for fullness,
accuracy and artistic composition. His other works are _Lineamenta
institutionum fidei Christianae historico-criticarum_ (1783), _Opuscula
academica_ (1802) and two volumes of _Predigten_. He was also editor of
the _Magazin für die Religionsphilosophie, Exegese und Kirchengeschichte_
(1793-1802) and the _Archiv für die neueste Kirchengeschichte_
(1794-1799).

His son, ERNST LUDWIG THEODOR HENKE (1804-1872), after studying at the
university of Jena, became _professor extraordinarius_ there in 1833,
and professor ordinarius of Marburg in 1839. He is known as the author
of monographs upon _Georg Calixt u. seine Zeit_ (1853-1860), _Papst Pius
VII._ (1860), _Konrad von Marburg_ (1861), _Kaspar Peucer u. Nik. Krell_
(1865), _Jak. Friedr. Fries_ (1867), _Zur neuern Kirchengeschichte_
(1867).



HENLE, FRIEDRICH GUSTAV JAKOB (1809-1885), German pathologist and
anatomist, was born on the 9th of July 1809 at Fürth, in Franconia.
After studying medicine at Heidelberg and at Bonn, where he took his
doctor's degree in 1832, he became prosector in anatomy to Johannes
Müller at Berlin. During the six years he spent in that position he
published a large amount of work, including three anatomical monographs
on new species of animals, and papers on the structure of the lacteal
system, the distribution of epithelium in the human body, the structure
and development of the hair, the formation of mucus and pus, &c. In 1840
he accepted the chair of anatomy at Zürich, and in 1844 he was called to
Heidelberg, where he taught not only anatomy, but physiology and
pathology. About this period he was engaged on his complete system of
general anatomy, which formed the sixth volume of the new edition of S.
T. von Sömmerring's treatise, published at Leipzig between 1841 and
1844. While at Heidelberg he published a zoological monograph on the
sharks and rays, in conjunction with his master Müller, and in 1846 his
famous _Manual of Rational Pathology_ began to appear; this marked the
beginning of a new era in pathological study, since in it physiology and
pathology were treated, in Henle's own words, as "branches of one
science," and the facts of disease were systematically considered with
reference to their physiological relations. In 1852 he moved to
Göttingen, whence he issued three years later the first instalment of
his great _Handbook of Systematic Human Anatomy_, the last volume of
which was not published till 1873. This work was perhaps the most
complete and comprehensive of its kind that had so far appeared, and it
was remarkable not only for the fullness and minuteness of the
anatomical descriptions, but also for the number and excellence of the
illustrations with which they were elucidated. During the latter half of
his life Henle's researches were mainly histological in character, his
investigations embracing the minute anatomy of the blood vessels, serous
membranes, kidney, eye, nails, central nervous system, &c. He died at
Göttingen on the 13th of May 1885.



HENLEY, JOHN (1692-1759), English clergyman, commonly known as "Orator
Henley," was born on the 3rd of August 1692 at Melton-Mowbray, where his
father was vicar. After attending the grammar schools of Melton and
Oakham, he entered St John's College, Cambridge, and while still an
undergraduate he addressed in February 1712, under the pseudonym of
Peter de Quir, a letter to the _Spectator_ displaying no small wit and
humour. After graduating B.A., he became assistant and then headmaster
of the grammar school of his native town, uniting to these duties those
of assistant curate. His abundant energy found still further expression
in a poem entitled _Esther, Queen of Persia_ (1714), and in the
compilation of a grammar of ten languages entitled _The Complete
Linguist_ (2 vols., London, 1719-1721). He then decided to go to London,
where he obtained the appointment of assistant preacher in the chapels
of Ormond Street and Bloomsbury. In 1723 he was presented to the rectory
of Chelmondiston in Suffolk; but residence being insisted on, he
resigned both his appointments, and on the 3rd of July 1726 opened what
he called an "oratory" in Newport Market, which he licensed under the
Toleration Act. In 1729 he transferred the scene of his operations to
Lincoln's Inn Fields. Into his services he introduced many peculiar
alterations: he drew up a "Primitive Liturgy," in which he substituted
for the Nicene and Athanasian creeds two creeds taken from the
Apostolical Constitutions; for his "Primitive Eucharist" he made use of
unleavened bread and mixed wine; he distributed at the price of one
shilling medals of admission to his oratory, with the device of a sun
rising to the meridian, with the motto _Ad summa_, and the words
_Inveniam viam aut faciam_ below. But the most original element in the
services was Henley himself, who is described by Pope in the _Dunciad_
as

  "Preacher at once and zany of his age."

He possessed some oratorical ability and adopted a very theatrical style
of elocution, "tuning his voice and balancing his hands"; and his
addresses were a strange medley of solemnity and buffoonery, of clever
wit and the wildest absurdity, of able and original disquisition and the
worst artifices of the oratorical charlatan. His services were much
frequented by the "free-thinkers," and he himself expressed his
determination "to die a rational." Besides his Sunday sermons, he
delivered Wednesday lectures on social and political subjects; and he
also projected a scheme for connecting with the "oratory" a university
on quite a utopian plan. For some time he edited the _Hyp Doctor_, a
weekly paper established in opposition to the _Craftsman_, and for this
service he enjoyed a pension of £100 a year from Sir Robert Walpole. At
first the orations of Henley drew great crowds, but, although he never
discontinued his services, his audience latterly dwindled almost
entirely away. He died on the 13th of October 1759.

  Henley is the subject of several of Hogarth's prints. His life,
  professedly written by A. Welstede, but in all probability by himself,
  was inserted by him in his _Oratory Transactions_. See J. B. Nichols,
  _History of Leicestershire_; I. Disraeli, _Calamities of Authors_.



HENLEY, WILLIAM ERNEST (1849-1903), British poet, critic and editor, was
born on the 23rd of August 1849 at Gloucester, and was educated at the
Crypt Grammar School in that city. The school was a sort of Cinderella
sister to the Cathedral School, and Henley indicated its shortcomings in
his article (_Pall Mall Magazine_, Nov. 1900) on T. E. Brown the poet,
who was headmaster there for a brief period. Brown's appointment,
uncongenial to himself, was a stroke of luck for Henley, for whom, as he
said, it represented a first acquaintance with a man of genius. "He was
singularly kind to me at a moment when I needed kindness even more than
I needed encouragement." Among other kindnesses Brown did him the
essential service of lending him books. To the end Henley was no
classical scholar, but his knowledge and love of literature were vital.
Afflicted with a physical infirmity, he found himself in 1874, at the
age of twenty-five, an inmate of the hospital at Edinburgh. From there
he sent to the _Cornhill Magazine_ poems in irregular rhythms,
describing with poignant force his experiences in hospital. Leslie
Stephen, then editor, being in Edinburgh, visited his contributor in
hospital and took Robert Louis Stevenson, another recruit of the
_Cornhill_, with him. The meeting between Stevenson and Henley, and the
friendship of which it was the beginning, form one of the best-known
episodes in recent literature (see especially Stevenson's letter to Mrs
Sitwell, Jan. 1875, and Henley's poems "An Apparition" and "Envoy to
Charles Baxter"). In 1877 Henley went to London and began his editorial
career by editing _London_, a journal of a type more usual in Paris than
London, written for the sake of its contributors rather than of the
public. Among other distinctions it first gave to the world _The New
Arabian Nights_ of Stevenson. Henley himself contributed to his journal
a series of verses chiefly in old French forms. He had been writing
poetry since 1872, but (so he told the world in his "advertisement" to
his collected _Poems_, 1898) he "found himself about 1877 so utterly
unmarketable that he had to own himself beaten in art and to addict
himself to journalism for the next ten years." After the decease of
_London_, he edited the _Magazine of Art_ from 1882 to 1886. At the end
of that period he came before the public as a poet. In 1887 Mr Gleeson
White made for the popular series of _Canterbury Poets_ (edited by Mr
William Sharp) a selection of poems in old French forms. In his
selection Mr Gleeson White included a considerable number of pieces from
_London_, and only after he had completed the selection did he discover
that the verses were all by one hand, that of Henley. In the following
year, Mr H. B. Donkin in his volume _Voluntaries_, done for an East End
hospital, included Henley's unrhymed rhythms quintessentializing the
poet's memories of the old Edinburgh Infirmary. Mr Alfred Nutt read
these, and asked for more; and in 1888 his firm published _A Book of
Verse_. Henley was by this time well known in a restricted literary
circle, and the publication of this volume determined for them his fame
as a poet, which rapidly outgrew these limits, two new editions of this
volume being called for within three years. In this same year (1888) Mr
Fitzroy Bell started the _Scots Observer_ in Edinburgh, with Henley as
literary editor, and early in 1889 Mr Bell left the conduct of the paper
to him. It was a weekly review somewhat on the lines of the old
_Saturday Review_, but inspired in every paragraph by the vigorous and
combative personality of the editor. It was transferred soon after to
London as the _National Observer_, and remained under Henley's
editorship until 1893. Though, as Henley confessed, the paper had almost
as many writers as readers, and its fame was mainly confined to the
literary class, it was a lively and not uninfluential feature of the
literary life of its time. Henley had the editor's great gift of
discerning promise, and the "Men of the _Scots Observer_," as Henley
affectionately and characteristically called his band of contributors,
in most instances justified his insight. The paper found utterance for
the growing imperialism of its day, and among other services to
literature gave to the world Mr Kipling's _Barrack-Room Ballads_. In
1890 Henley published _Views and Reviews_, a volume of notable
criticisms, described by himself as "less a book than a mosaic of scraps
and shreds recovered from the shot rubbish of some fourteen years of
journalism." The criticisms, covering a wide range of authors (except
Heine and Tolstoy, all English and French), though wilful and often
one-sided were terse, trenchant and picturesque, and remarkable for
insight and gusto. In 1892 he published a second volume of poetry, named
after the first poem, _The Song of the Sword_, but on the issue of the
second edition (1893) re-christened _London Voluntaries_ after another
section. Stevenson wrote that he had not received the same thrill of
poetry since Mr Meredith's "Joy of Earth" and "Love in the Valley," and
he did not know that that was so intimate and so deep. "I did not guess
you were so great a magician. These are new tunes; this is an undertone
of the true Apollo. These are not verse; they are poetry." In 1892
Henley published also three plays written with Stevenson--_Beau Austin_,
_Deacon Brodie_ and _Admiral Guinea_. In 1895 followed _Macaire_,
afterwards published in a volume with the other plays. _Deacon Brodie_
was produced in Edinburgh in 1884 and later in London. Beerbohm Tree
produced _Beau Austin_ at the Haymarket on the 3rd of November 1890 and
_Macaire_ at His Majesty's on the 2nd of May 1901. _Admiral Guinea_ also
achieved stage performance. In the meantime Henley was active in the
magazines and did notable editorial work for the publishers: the _Lyra
Heroica_, 1891; _A Book of English Prose_ (with Mr Charles Whibley),
1894; the centenary Burns (with Mr T. F. Henderson) in 1896-1897, in
which Henley's Essay (published separately 1898) roused considerable
controversy. In 1892 he undertook for Mr Nutt the general editorship of
the _Tudor Translations_; and in 1897 began for Mr Heinemann an edition
of Byron, which did not proceed beyond one volume of letters. In 1898 he
published a collection of his _Poems_ in one volume, with the
autobiographical "advertisement" above quoted; in 1899 _London Types_,
Quatorzains to accompany Mr William Nicolson's designs; and in 1900
during the Boer War, a patriotic poetical brochure, _For England's
Sake_. In 1901 he published a second volume of collected poetry with the
title _Hawthorn and Lavender_, uniform with the volume of 1898. In 1902
he collected his various articles on painters and artists and published
them as a companion volume of _Views and Reviews: Art_. These with "A
Song of Speed" printed in May 1903 within two months of his death make
up his tale of work. At the close of his life he was engaged upon his
edition of the Authorized Version of the Bible for his series of _Tudor
Translations_. There remained uncollected some of his scattered articles
in periodicals and reviews, especially the series of literary articles
contributed to the _Pall Mall Magazine_ from 1899 until his death. These
contain the most outspoken utterances of a critic never mealy-mouthed,
and include the splenetic attack on the memory of his dead friend R. L.
Stevenson, which aroused deep regret and resentment. In 1894 Henley lost
his little six-year-old daughter Margaret; he had borne the
"bludgeonings of chance" with "the unconquerable soul" of which he
boasted, not unjustifiably, in a well-known poem; but this blow broke
his heart. With the knowledge of this fact, some of these outbursts may
be better understood; yet we have the evidence of a clear-eyed critic
who knew Henley well, that he found him more generous, more sympathetic
at the close of his life than he had been before. He died on the 11th of
July 1903. In spite of his too boisterous mannerism and prejudices, he
exercised by his originality, independence and fearlessness an inspiring
and inspiriting influence on the higher class of journalism. This
influence he exercised by word of mouth as well as by his pen, for he
was a famous talker, and figures as "Burly" in Stevenson's essay on
_Talk and Talkers_. As critic he was a good hater and a good fighter.
His virtue lay in his vital and vitalizing love of good literature, and
the vivid and pictorial phrases he found to give it expression. But his
fame must rest on his poetry. He excelled alike in his delicate
experiments in complicated metres, and the strong impressionism of
_Hospital Sketches_ and _London Voluntaries_. The influence of Heine may
be discerned in these "unrhymed rhythms"; but he was perhaps a truer and
more successful disciple of Heine in his snatches of passionate song,
the best of which should retain their place in English literature.

  See also references in _Stevenson's Letters_; _Cornhill Magazine_
  (1903) (Sidney Low); _Fortnightly Review_ (August 1892) (Arthur
  Symons); and for bibliography, _English Illustrated Magazine_, vol.
  xxix. p. 548.     (W. P. J.)



HENLEY-ON-THAMES, a market town and municipal borough in the Henley
parliamentary division of Oxfordshire, England, on the left bank of the
Thames, the terminus of a branch of the Great Western railway, by which
it is 35¾ m. W. of London, while it is 57½ m. by river. Pop. (1901)
5984. It occupies one of the most beautiful situations on the Thames, at
the foot of the finely wooded Chiltern Hills. The river is crossed by an
elegant stone bridge of five arches, constructed in 1786. The parish
church (Decorated and Perpendicular) possesses a lofty tower of
intermingled flint and stone, attributed to Cardinal Wolsey, but more
probably erected by Bishop Longland. The grammar school, founded in
1605, is incorporated with a Blue Coat school. Henley is a favourite
summer resort, and is celebrated for the annual Henley Royal Regatta,
the principal gathering of amateur oarsmen in England, first held in
1839 and usually taking place in July. Henley is governed by a mayor, 4
aldermen and 12 councillors. Area, 549 acres.

Henley-on-Thames (Hanlegang, Henle, Handley), not mentioned in Domesday,
was a manor or ancient demesne of the crown and was granted (1337) to
John de Molyns, whose family held it for about 250 years. It is said
that members for Henley sat in parliaments of Edward I. and Edward III.,
but no writs have been found. Henry VIII. having granted the use of the
titles "mayor" and "burgess," the town was incorporated in 1570-1571 by
the name of the warden, portreeves, burgesses and commonalty. Henley
suffered from both parties in the Civil War. William III. on his march
to London (1688) rested here and received a deputation from the Lords.
The period of prosperity in the 17th and 18th centuries was due to
manufactures of glass and malt, and to trade in corn and wool. The
existing Thursday market was granted by a charter of John and the
existing Corpus Christi fair by a charter of Henry VI.

  See J. S. Burn, _History of Henley-on-Thames_ (London, 1861).



HENNA, the Persian name for a small shrub found in India, Persia, the
Levant and along the African coasts of the Mediterranean, where it is
frequently cultivated. It is the _Lawsonia alba_ of botanists, and from
the fact that young trees are spineless, while older ones have the
branchlets hardened into spines, it has also received the names of
_Lawsonia inermis_ and _L. spinosa_. It forms a slender shrubby plant of
from 8 to 10 ft. high, with opposite lance-shaped smooth leaves, which
are entire at the margins, and bears small white four-petalled
sweet-scented flowers disposed in panicles. Its Egyptian name is
_Khenna_, its Arabic name _Al Khanna_, its Indian name _Mendee_, while
in England it is called _Egyptian privet_, and in the West Indies, where
it is naturalized, _Jamaica mignonette_.

Henna or Henné is of ancient repute as a cosmetic. This consists of the
leaves of the _Lawsonia_ powdered and made up into a paste; this is
employed by the Egyptian women, and also by the Mahommedan women in
India, to dye their fingernails and other parts of their hands and feet
of an orange-red colour, which is considered to add to their beauty. The
colour lasts for three or four weeks, when it requires to be renewed. It
is moreover used for dyeing the hair and beard, and even the manes of
horses; and the same material is employed for dyeing skins and
morocco-leather a reddish-yellow, but it contains no tannin. The
practice of dyeing the nails was common amongst the Egyptians, and not
to conform to it would have been considered indecent. It has descended
from very remote ages, as is proved by the evidence afforded by Egyptian
mummies, the nails of which are most commonly stained of a reddish hue.
Henna is also said to have been held in repute amongst the Hebrews,
being considered to be the plant referred to as camphire in the Bible
(Song of Solomon i. 14, iv. 13). "The custom of dyeing the nails and
palms of the hands and soles of the feet of an iron-rust colour with
henna," observes Dr J. Forbes Royle, "exists throughout the East from
the Mediterranean to the Ganges, as well as in northern Africa. In some
parts the practice is not confined to women and children, but is also
followed by men, especially in Persia. In dyeing the beard the hair is
turned to red by this application, which is then changed to black by a
preparation of indigo. In dyeing the hair of children, and the tails and
manes of horses and asses, the process is allowed to stop at the red
colour which the henna produces." Mahomet, it is said, used henna as a
dye for his beard, and the fashion was adopted by the caliphs. "The use
of henna," remarks Lady Callcott in her _Scripture Herbal_, "is scarcely
to be called a caprice in the East. There is a quality in the drug which
gently restrains perspiration in the hands and feet, and produces an
agreeable coolness equally conducive to health and comfort." She further
suggests that if the Jewish women were not in the habit of using this
dye before the time of Solomon, it might probably have been introduced
amongst them by his wife, the daughter of Pharaoh, and traces to this
probability the allusion to "camphire" in the passages in Canticles
above referred to.

The preparation of henna consists in reducing the leaves and young twigs
to a fine powder, catechu or lucerne leaves in a pulverized state being
sometimes mixed with them. When required for use, the powder is made
into a pasty mass with hot water, and is then spread upon the part to be
dyed, where it is generally allowed to remain for one night. According
to Lady Callcott, the flowers are often used by the Eastern women to
adorn their hair. The distilled water from the flowers is used as a
perfume.



HENNEBONT, a town of western France, in the department of Morbihan, 6 m.
N.E. of Lorient by road. Pop. (1906) 7250. It is situated about 10 m.
from the mouth of the Blavet, which divides it into two parts--the
_Ville Close_, the medieval military town, and the _Ville Neuve_ on the
left bank and the _Vieille Ville_ on the right bank. The Ville Close,
surrounded by ramparts and entered by a massive gateway flanked by
machicolated towers, consists of narrow quiet streets bordered by houses
of the 16th and 17th centuries. The Ville Neuve, which lies nearer the
river, developed during the 17th century and later than the Ville Close,
while the Vieille Ville is older than either. The only building of
architectural importance is the church of Notre-Dame de Paradis (16th
century) preceded by a tower with an ornamented stone spire. There are
scanty remains of the old fortress. Hennebont has a small but busy
river-port accessible to vessels of 200 to 300 tons. An important
foundry in the environs of the town employs 1400 work-people in the
manufacture of tin-plate for sardine boxes and other purposes.
Boat-building, tanning, distilling and the manufacture of earthenware,
white lead and chemical manures are also carried on. Granite is worked
in the neighbourhood. Hennebont is famed for the resistance which it
made, under the widow of Jean de Montfort, when besieged in 1342 by the
armies of Philip of Valois and Charles of Blois during the War of the
Succession in Brittany (see BRITTANY).



HENNEQUIN, PHILIPPE AUGUSTE (1763-1833), French painter, was a pupil of
David. He was born at Lyons in 1763, distinguished himself early by
winning the "Grand Prix," and left France for Italy. The disturbances at
Rome, during the course of the Revolution, obliged him to return to
Paris, where he executed the Federation of the 14th of July, and he was
at work on a large design commissioned for the town-hall of Lyons, when
in July 1794 he was accused before the revolutionary tribunal and thrown
into prison. Hennequin escaped, only to be anew accused and imprisoned
in Paris, and after running great danger of death, seems to have devoted
himself thenceforth wholly to his profession. At Paris he finished the
picture ordered for the municipality of Lyons, and in 1801 produced his
chief work, "Orestes pursued by the Furies" (Louvre, engraved by Landon,
_Annales du Musée_, vol. i. p. 105). He was one of the four painters who
competed when in 1802 Gros carried off the official prize for a picture
of the Battle of Nazareth, and in 1808 Napoleon himself ordered
Hennequin to illustrate a series of scenes from his German campaigns,
and commanded that his picture of the "Death of General Salomon" should
be engraved. After 1815 Hennequin retired to Liége, and there, aided by
subventions from the Government, carried out a large historical picture
of the "Death of the Three Hundred in defence of Liége"--a sketch of
which he himself engraved. In 1824 Hennequin settled at Tournay, and
became director of the academy; he exhibited various works at Lille in
the following year, and continued to produce actively up to the day of
his death in May 1833.



HENNER, JEAN JACQUES (1829-1905), French painter, was born on the 5th of
March 1829 at Dornach (Alsace). At first a pupil of Drolling and of
Picot, he entered the École des Beaux-Arts in 1848, and took the Prix de
Rome with a painting of "Adam and Eve finding the Body of Abel" (1858).
At Rome he was guided by Flandrin, and, among other works, painted four
pictures for the gallery at Colmar. He first exhibited at the Salon in
1863 a "Bather Asleep," and subsequently contributed "Chaste Susanna"
(1865); "Byblis turned into a Spring" (1867); "The Magdalene" (1878);
"Portrait of M. Hayem" (1878); "Christ Entombed" (1879); "Saint Jerome"
(1881); "Herodias" (1887); "A Study" (1891); "Christ in His Shroud," and
a "Portrait of Carolus-Duran" (1896); a "Portrait of Mlle Fouquier"
(1897); "The Levite of the Tribe of Ephraim" (1898), for which a
first-class medal was awarded to him; and "The Dream" (1900). Among
other professional distinctions Henner also took a Grand Prix for
painting at the Paris International Exhibition of 1900. He was made
Knight of the Legion of Honour in 1873, Officer in 1878 and Commander in
1889. In 1889 he succeeded Cabanel in the Institut de France.

  See E. Bricon, _Psychologie d'art_ (Paris, 1900); C. Phillips, _Art
  Journal_ (1888); F. Wedmore, _Magazine of Art_ (1888).



HENRIETTA MARIA (1609-1666), queen of Charles I. of England, born on the
25th of November 1609, was the daughter of Henry IV. of France. When the
first serious overtures for her hand were made on behalf of Charles,
prince of Wales, in the spring of 1624, she was little more than
fourteen years of age. Her brother, Louis XIII., only consented to the
marriage on the condition that the English Roman Catholics were relieved
from the operation of the penal laws. When therefore she set out for her
new home in June 1625, she had already pledged the husband to whom she
had been married by proxy on the 1st of May to a course of action which
was certain to bring unpopularity on him as well as upon herself.

That husband was now king of England. The early years of the married
life of Charles I. were most unhappy. He soon found an excuse for
breaking his promise to relieve the English Catholics. His young wife
was deeply offended by treatment which she naturally regarded as
unhandsome. The favourite Buckingham stirred the flames of his master's
discontent. Charles in vain strove to reduce her to tame submission.
After the assassination of Buckingham in 1628 the barrier between the
married pair was broken down, and the bond of affection which from that
moment united them was never loosened. The children of the marriage were
Charles II. (b. 1630), Mary, princess of Orange (b. 1631), James II (b.
1633), Elizabeth (b. 1636) Henry, duke of Gloucester (b. 1640), and
Henrietta, duchess at Orleans (b. 1644).

For some years Henrietta Maria's chief interests lay in her young
family, and in the amusements of a gay and brilliant court. She loved to
be present at dramatic entertainments, and her participation in the
private rehearsals of the _Shepherd's Pastoral_, written by her
favourite Walter Montague, probably drew down upon her the savage attack
of Prynne. With political matters she hardly meddled as yet. Even her
co-religionists found little aid from her till the summer of 1637. She
had then recently opened a diplomatic communication with the see of
Rome. She appointed an agent to reside at Rome, and a papal agent, a
Scotsman named George Conn, accredited to her, was soon engaged in
effecting conversions amongst the English gentry and nobility. Henrietta
Maria was well pleased to become a patroness of so holy a work,
especially as she was not asked to take any personal trouble in the
matter. Protestant England took alarm at the proceedings of a queen who
associated herself so closely with the doings of "the grim wolf with
privy paw."

When the Scottish troubles broke out, she raised money from her
fellow-Catholics to support the king's army on the borders in 1639.
During the session of the Short Parliament in the spring of 1640, the
queen urged the king to oppose himself to the House of Commons in
defence of the Catholics. When the Long Parliament met, the Catholics
were believed to be the authors and agents of every arbitrary scheme
which was supposed to have entered into the plans of Strafford or Laud.
Before the Long Parliament had sat for two months, the queen was urging
upon the pope the duty of lending money to enable her to restore her
husband's authority. She threw herself heart and soul into the schemes
for rescuing Strafford and coercing the parliament. The army plot, the
scheme for using Scotland against England, and the attempt upon the five
members were the fruits of her political activity.

In the next year the queen effected her passage to the Continent. In
February 1643 she landed at Burlington Quay, placed herself at the head
of a force of loyalists, and marched through England to join the king
near Oxford. After little more than a year's residence there, on the 3rd
of April 1644, she left her husband, to see his face no more. Henrietta
Maria found a refuge in France. Richelieu was dead, and Anne of Austria
was compassionate. As long as her husband was alive the queen never
ceased to encourage him to resistance.

During her exile in France she had much to suffer. Her husband's
execution in 1649 was a terrible blow. She brought up her youngest child
Henrietta in her own faith, but her efforts to induce her youngest son,
the duke of Gloucester, to take the same course only produced discomfort
in the exiled family. The story of her marriage with her attached
servant Lord Jermyn needs more confirmation than it has yet received to
be accepted, but all the information which has reached us of her
relations with her children points to the estrangement which had grown
up between them. When after the Restoration she returned to England, she
found that she had no place in the new world. She received from
parliament a grant of £30,000 a year in compensation for the loss of her
dower-lands, and the king added a similar sum as a pension from himself.
In January 1661 she returned to France to be present at the marriage of
her daughter Henrietta to the duke of Orleans. In July 1662 she set out
again for England, and took up her residence once more at Somerset
House. Her health failed her, and on the 24th of June 1665, she departed
in search of the clearer air of her native country. She died on the 31st
of August 1666, at Colombes, not far from Paris.

  See I. A. Taylor, _The Life of Queen Henrietta Maria_ (1905).



HENRY (Fr. _Henri_; Span. _Enrique_; Ger. _Heinrich_; Mid. H. Ger.
_Heinrîch_ and _Heimrîch_; O.H.G. _Haimi-_ or _Heimirîh_, i.e. "prince,
or chief of the house," from O.H.G. _heim_, the Eng. _home_, and _rîh_,
Goth. _reiks_; compare Lat. _rex_ "king"--"rich," therefore "mighty,"
and so "a ruler." Compare Sans. _radsh_ "to shine forth, rule, &c." and
mod. _raj_ "rule" and _raja_, "king"), the name of many European
sovereigns, the more important of whom are noticed below in the
following order: (1) emperors and German kings; (2) kings of England;
(3) other kings in the alphabetical order of their states; (4) other
reigning princes in the same order; (5) non-reigning princes; (6)
bishops, nobles, chroniclers, &c.



HENRY I. (c. 876-936), surnamed the "Fowler," German king, son of Otto
the Illustrious, duke of Saxony, grew to manhood amid the disorders
which witnessed to the decay of the Carolingian empire, and in early
life shared in various campaigns for the defence of Saxony. He married
Hatburg, a daughter of Irwin, count of Merseburg, but as she had taken
the veil on the death of a former husband this union was declared
illegal by the church, and in 909 he married Matilda, daughter of a
Saxon count named Thiederich, and a reputed descendant of the hero
Widukind. On his father's death in 912 he became duke of Saxony, which
he ruled with considerable success, defending it from the attacks of the
Slavs and resisting the claims of the German king Conrad I. (see
SAXONY). He afterwards won the esteem of Conrad to such an extent that
in 918 the king advised the nobles to make the Saxon duke his successor.
After Conrad's death the Franks and the Saxons met at Fritzlar in May
919 and chose Henry as German king, after which the new king refused to
allow his election to be sanctioned by the church. His authority, save
in Saxony, was merely nominal; but by negotiation rather than by warfare
he secured a recognition of his sovereignty from the Bavarians and the
Swabians. A struggle soon took place between Henry and Charles III., the
Simple, king of France, for the possession of Lorraine. In 921 Charles
recognized Henry as king of the East Franks, and when in 923 the French
king was taken prisoner by Herbert, count of Vermandois, Lorraine came
under Henry's authority, and Giselbert, who married his daughter
Gerberga, was recognized as duke. Turning his attention to the east,
Henry reduced various Slavonic tribes to subjection, took Brennibor, the
modern Brandenburg, from the Hevelli, and secured both banks of the Elbe
for Saxony. In 923 he had bought a truce for ten years with the
Hungarians, by a promise of tribute, but on its expiration he gained a
great victory over these formidable foes in March 933. The Danes were
defeated, and territory as far as the Eider secured for Germany; and the
king sought further to extend his influence by entering into relations
with the kings of England, France and Burgundy. He is said to have been
contemplating a journey to Rome, when he died at Memleben on the 2nd of
July 936, and was buried at Quedlinburg. By his first wife, Hatburg, he
left a son, Thankmar, who was excluded from the succession as
illegitimate; and by Matilda he left three sons, the eldest of whom,
Otto (afterwards the emperor Otto the Great), succeeded him, and two
daughters. Henry was a successful ruler, probably because he was careful
to undertake only such enterprises as he was able to carry through.
Laying more stress on his position as duke of Saxony than king of
Germany, he conferred great benefits on his duchy. The founder of her
town life and the creator of her army, he ruled in harmony with her
nobles and secured her frontiers from attack. The story that he received
the surname of "Fowler" because the nobles, sent to inform him of his
election to the throne, found him engaged in laying snares for the
birds, appears to be mythical.

  See Widukind of Corvei, _Res gestae Saxonicae_, edited by G. Waitz in
  the _Monumenta Germaniae historica. Scriptores_, Band iii. (Hanover
  and Berlin, 1826 seq.); "Die Urkunde des deutschen Königs Heinrichs
  I.," edited by T. von Sickel in the _Monumenta Germaniae historica.
  Diplomata_ (Hanover, 1879); W. von Giesebrecht, _Geschichte der
  deutschen Kaiserzeit_, Bände i., ii. (Leipzig, 1881); G. Waitz,
  _Jahrbücher des deutschen Reichs unter König Heinrich I._ (Leipzig,
  1885); and F. Löher, _Die deutsche Politik König Heinrich I._ (Munich,
  1857).



HENRY II. (973-1024), surnamed the "Saint," Roman emperor, son of Henry
II, the Quarrelsome, duke of Bavaria, and Gisela, daughter of Conrad,
king of Burgundy, or Arles (d. 993), and great-grandson of the German
king Henry I., the Fowler, was born on the 6th of May 973. When his
father was driven from his duchy in 976 it was intended that Henry
should take holy orders, and he received the earlier part of a good
education at Hildesheim. This idea, however, was abandoned when his
father was restored to Bavaria in 985; but young Henry, whose education
was completed at Regensburg, retained a lively interest in
ecclesiastical affairs. He became duke of Bavaria on his father's death
in 995, and appears to have governed his duchy quietly and successfully
for seven years. He showed a special regard for monastic reform and
church government, accompanied his kinsman, the emperor Otto III., on
two occasions to Italy, and about 1001 married Kunigunde (d. 1037),
daughter of Siegfried, count of Luxemburg. When Otto III. died childless
in 1002, Henry sought to secure the German throne, and seizing the
imperial insignia made an arrangement with Otto I., duke of Carinthia.
There was considerable opposition to his claim; but one rival, Ekkard
I., margrave of Meissen, was murdered, and, hurrying to Mainz, Henry was
chosen German king by the Franks and Bavarians on the 7th of June 1002,
and subsequently crowned by Willigis, archbishop of Mainz, who had been
largely instrumental in securing his election. Having ravaged the lands
of another rival, Hermann II., duke of Swabia, Henry purchased the
allegiance of the Thuringians and the Saxons; and when shortly
afterwards the nobles of Lorraine did homage and Hermann of Swabia
submitted, he was generally recognized as king. Danger soon arose from
Boleslaus I., the Great, king of Poland, who had extended his authority
over Meissen and Lusatia, seized Bohemia, and allied himself with some
discontented German nobles, including the king's brother, Bruno, bishop
of Augsburg. Henry easily crushed his domestic foes; but the incipient
war with Boleslaus was abandoned in favour of an expedition into Italy,
where Arduin, margrave of Ivrea, had been elected king. Crossing the
Alps Henry met with no resistance from Arduin, and in May 1004 he was
chosen and crowned king of the Lombards at Pavia; but a tumult caused by
the presence of the Germans soon arose in the city, and having received
the homage of several cities of Lombardy the king returned to Germany.
He then freed Bohemia from the rule of the Poles, led an expedition into
Friesland, and was successful in compelling Boleslaus to sue for peace
in 1005. A struggle with Baldwin IV., count of Flanders, in 1006 and
1007 was followed by trouble with the king's brothers-in-law, Dietrich
and Adalbero of Luxemburg, who had seized respectively the bishopric of
Metz and the archbishopric of Trier (Treves). Henry sought to dislodge
them, but aided by their elder brother Henry, who had been made duke of
Bavaria in 1004, they held their own in a desultory warfare in Lorraine.
In 1009, however, the eldest of the three brothers was deprived of
Bavaria, while Adalbero had in the previous year given up his claim to
Trier, but Dietrich retained the bishopric of Metz. The Polish war had
been renewed in 1007, but it was not until 1010 that the king was able
to take a personal part in these campaigns. Meeting with indifferent
success, he made peace with Boleslaus early in 1013, when the duke
retained Lusatia, but did homage to Henry at Merseburg.

In 1013 the king made a second journey to Italy where two popes were
contending for the papal chair, and meeting with no opposition was
received with great honour at Rome. Having recognized Benedict VIII. as
the rightful pope, he was crowned emperor on the 14th of February 1014,
and soon returned to Germany laden with treasures from Italian cities.
But the struggle with the Poles now broke out afresh, and in 1015 and
1017 the king, having obtained assistance from the heathen Liutici, led
formidable armies against Boleslaus. During the campaign of 1017 he had
as an ally the grand duke of Russia, but his troops suffered
considerable loss, and on the 30th of January 1018 he made peace at
Bautzen with Boleslaus, who again retained Lusatia. As early as 1006
Henry had concluded a succession treaty with his uncle Rudolph III., the
childless king of Burgundy, or Arles; but when Rudolph desired to
abdicate in 1016 Henry's efforts to secure possession of the territory
were foiled by the resistance of the nobles. In 1020 the emperor was
visited at Bamberg by Pope Benedict, in response to whose entreaty for
assistance against the Greeks of southern Italy he crossed the Alps in
1021 for the third and last time. With the aid of the Normans he
captured many fortresses and seriously crippled the power of the Greeks,
but was compelled by the ravages of pestilence among his troops to
return to Germany in 1022. It was probably about this time that Henry
gave Benedict the diploma which ratified the gifts made by his
predecessors to the papacy. Spending his concluding years in disputes
over church reform he died on the 13th of July 1024 at Grona near
Göttingen, and was buried at Bamberg, where he had founded and richly
endowed a bishopric.

Henry was an enthusiast for church reform, and under the influence of
his friend Odilo, abbot of Cluny, sought to further the principles of
the Cluniacs, and seconded the efforts of Benedict VIII. to prevent the
marriage of the clergy and the sale of spiritual dignities. He was
energetic and capable, but except in his relations with the church was
not a strong ruler. But though devoted to the church and a strict
observer of religious rites, he was by no means the slave of the clergy.
He appointed bishops without the formality of an election, and attacked
clerical privileges although he made clerics the representatives of the
imperial power. He held numerous diets and issued frequent ordinances
for peace, but feuds among the nobles were common, and the frontiers of
the empire were insecure. Henry, who was the last emperor of the Saxon
house, was the first to use the title "King of the Romans." He died
childless, and a tradition of the 12th century says he and his wife took
vows of chastity. He was canonized in 1146 by Pope Eugenius III.

  See Adalbold of Utrecht, _Vita Heinrici II._, Thietmar of Merseburg,
  _Chronicon_, both in the _Monumenta Germaniae historica, Scriptores_,
  Bände iii. and iv. (Hanover and Berlin, 1826 seq.); W. von
  Giesebrecht, _Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit_ (Leipzig,
  1881-1890); S. Hirsch, continued by R. Usinger, H. Pabst and H.
  Bresslau, _Jahrbücher des deutschen Reichs unter Kaiser Heinrich II_.
  (Leipzig, 1874); A. Cohn, _Kaiser Heinrich II_. (Halle, 1867); H.
  Zeissberg, _Die Kriege Kaiser Heinrichs II. mit Boleslaw I. von Polen_
  (Vienna, 1868); and G. Matthaei, _Die Klosterpolitik Kaiser Heinrichs
  II_. (Göttingen, 1877).



HENRY III. (1017-1056), surnamed the "Black," Roman emperor, only son of
the emperor Conrad II., and Gisela, widow of Ernest I., duke of Swabia,
was born on the 28th of October 1017, designated as his father's
successor in 1026, and crowned German king at Aix-la-Chapelle by
Pilgrim, archbishop of Cologne, on the 14th of April 1028. In 1027 he
was appointed duke of Bavaria, and his early years were mainly spent in
this country, where he received an excellent education under the care of
Bruno, bishop of Augsburg and, afterwards, of Egilbert, bishop of
Freising. He soon began to take part in the business of the empire. In
1032 he took part in a campaign in Burgundy; in 1033 led an expedition
against Ulalrich, prince of the Bohemians; and in June 1036 was married
at Nijmwegen to Gunhilda, afterwards called Kunigunde, daughter of
Canute, king of Denmark and England. In 1038 he followed his father to
Italy, and in the same year the emperor formally handed over to him the
kingdom of Burgundy, or Arles, and appointed him duke of Swabia. In
spite of the honours which Conrad heaped upon Henry the relations
between father and son were not uniformly friendly, as Henry disapproved
of the emperor's harsh treatment of some of his allies and adherents.
When Conrad died in June 1039, Henry became sole ruler of the empire,
and his authority was at once recognized in all parts of his dominions.
Three of the duchies were under his direct rule, no rival appeared to
contest his claim, and the outlying parts of the empire, as well as
Germany, were practically free from disorder. This peaceful state of
affairs was, however, soon broken by the ambition of Bretislaus, prince
of the Bohemians, who revived the idea of an independent Slavonic state,
and conquered various Polish towns. Henry took up arms, and having
suffered two defeats in 1040 renewed the struggle with a stronger force
in the following year, when he compelled Bretislaus to sue for peace and
to do homage for Bohemia at Regensburg. In 1042 he received the homage
of the Burgundians and his attention was then turned to the Hungarians,
who had driven out their king Peter, and set up in his stead one Aba
Samuel, or Ovo, who attacked the eastern border of Bavaria.

In 1043 and the two following years Henry crushed the Hungarians,
restored Peter, and brought Hungary completely under the power of the
German king. In 1038 Queen Kunigunde had died in Italy, and in 1043 the
king was married at Ingelheim to Agnes, daughter of William V., duke of
Guienne, a union which drew him much nearer to the reforming party in
the church. In 1044 Gothelon (Gozelo), duke of Lorraine, died, and some
disturbance arose over Henry's refusal to grant the whole of the duchy
to his son Godfrey, called the Bearded. Godfrey took up arms, but after
a short imprisonment was released and confirmed in the possession of
Upper Lorraine in 1046 which, however, he failed to secure. About this
time Henry was invited to Italy where three popes were contending for
power, and crossing the Alps with a large army he marched to Rome.
Councils held at Sutri and at Rome having declared the popes deposed,
the king secured the election of Suidger, bishop of Bamberg, who took
the name of Clement II., and by this pontiff Henry was crowned as
emperor on the 25th of December 1046. He was immediately recognized by
the Romans as _Patricius_, an office which carried with it at this time
the right to appoint the pope. Supreme in church and state alike, ruler
of Germany, Italy and Burgundy, overlord of Hungary and Bohemia, Henry
occupied a commanding position, and this time may be regarded as marking
the apogee of the power of the Roman empire of the Germans. The emperor
assisted Pope Clement in his efforts to banish simony. He made a
victorious progress in southern Italy, where he restored Pandulph IV. to
the principality of Capua, and asserted his authority over the Normans
in Apulia and Aversa. Returning to Germany in 1047 he appointed two
popes, Damasus II. and Leo IX., in quick succession, and turned to face
a threatening combination in the west of the empire, where Godfrey of
Lorraine was again in revolt, and with the help of Baldwin V., count of
Flanders and Dirk IV., count of Holland, who had previously caused
trouble to Henry, was ravaging the lands of the emperor's
representatives in Lorraine. Assisted by the kings of England and
Denmark, Henry succeeded with some difficulty in bringing the rebels to
submission in 1050. Godfrey was deposed; but Baldwin soon found an
opportunity for a further revolt, which an expedition undertaken by the
emperor in 1054 was unable to crush.

Meanwhile a reaction against German influence had taken place in
Hungary. King Peter had been driven out in 1046 and his place taken by
Andreas I. Inroads into Bavaria followed, and in 1051 and 1052 Henry led
his forces against the Hungarians, and after the pope had vainly
attempted to mediate, peace was made in 1053. It was quickly broken,
however, and the emperor, occupied elsewhere, soon lost most of his
authority in the east; although in 1054 he made peace between Brestislav
of Bohemia and Casimir I., duke of the Poles. Henry had not lost sight
of affairs in Italy during these years, and had received several visits
from the pope, whose aim was to bring southern Italy under his own
dominion. Henry had sent military assistance to Leo, and had handed over
to him the government of the principality of Benevento in return for the
bishopric of Bamberg. But the pope's defeat by the Normans was followed
by his death. Henry then nominated Gebhard, bishop of Eichstädt, who
took the name of Victor II., to the vacant chair, and promised his
assistance to the reluctant candidate. In 1055 the emperor went a second
time to Italy, where his authority was threatened by Godfrey of
Lorraine, who had married Beatrice, widow of Boniface III., margrave of
Tuscany, and was ruling her vast estates. Godfrey fled, however, on the
appearance of Henry, who only remained a short time in Italy, during
which he granted the duchy of Spoleto to Pope Victor, and negotiated for
an attack upon the Normans. Before the journey to Italy, Henry had found
it necessary to depose Conrad III., duke of Bavaria, and to suppress a
rising in southern Germany. During his absence Conrad formed an alliance
with Welf, duke of Carinthia, and Gebhard III., bishop of Regensburg. A
conspiracy to depose the emperor, support for which was found in
Lorraine, was quickly discovered, and Henry, leaving Victor as his
representative in Italy, returned in 1055 to Germany to receive the
submission of his foes. In 1056, the emperor was visited by the pope;
and on the 5th of October in the same year he died at Bodfeld and was
buried at Spires. Henry was a pious and peace-loving prince, who
favoured church reform, sought earnestly to suppress private warfare,
and alone among the early emperors is said to have been innocent of
simony. Although under his rule Germany enjoyed considerable
tranquillity, and a period of wealth and progress set in for the towns,
yet his secular and ecclesiastical policy showed signs of weakness.
Unable, or unwilling, seriously to curb the increasing power of the
church, he alienated the sympathies of the nobles as a class, and by
allowing the southern duchies to pass into other hands restored a power
which true to its traditions was not always friendly to the royal house.
Henry was a patron of learning, a founder of schools, and built or
completed cathedrals at Spires, Worms and Mainz.

  The chief original authorities for the life and reign of Henry III.
  are the _Chronicon_ of Herimann of Reichenau, the _Annales
  Sangallenses majores_, the _Annales Hildesheimenses_, all in the
  _Monumenta Germaniae historica. Scriptores_ (Hanover and Berlin, 1826
  fol.). The best modern authorities are W. von Giesebrecht, _Geschichte
  der deutschen Kaiserzeit_, Band ii. (Leipzig, 1888); M. Perlbach, "Die
  Kriege Heinrichs III. gegen Böhmen," in the _Forschungen zur deutschen
  Geschichte_, Band x. (Göttingen, 1862-1886); E. Steindorff,
  _Jahrbücher des deutschen Reichs unter Heinrich III._ (Leipzig,
  1874-1881); and F. Steinhoff, _Das Königthum und Kaiserthum Heinrichs
  III._ (Göttingen, 1865).



HENRY IV. (1050-1106), Roman emperor, son of the emperor Henry III. and
Agnes, daughter of William V., duke of Guienne, was born on the 11th of
November 1050, chosen German king at Tribur in 1053, and crowned at
Aix-la-Chapelle on the 17th of July 1054. In 1055 he was appointed duke
of Bavaria, and on his father's death in October 1056 inherited the
kingdoms of Germany, Italy and Burgundy. These territories were governed
in his name by his mother, who was unable to repress the internal
disorder or to take adequate measures for their defence. Some opposition
was soon aroused, and in 1062 Anno, archbishop of Cologne, and others
planned to seize the person of the young king and to deprive Agnes of
power. This plot met with complete success. Henry, who was at
Kaiserwerth, was persuaded to board a boat lying in the Rhine; it was
immediately unmoored and the king sprang into the stream, but was
rescued by one of the conspirators and carried to Cologne. Agnes made no
serious effort to regain her control, and the chief authority was
exercised for a time by Anno; but his rule proved unpopular, and he was
soon compelled to share his power with Adalbert, archbishop of Bremen.
The education and training of Henry were supervised by Anno, who was
called his _magister_, while Adalbert was styled _patronus_; but Anno
was disliked by Henry, and during his absence in Italy the chief power
passed into the hands of Adalbert. Henry's education seems to have been
neglected, and his wilful and headstrong nature was developed by the
conditions under which his early years were passed. In March 1065 he was
declared of age, and in the following year a powerful coalition of
ecclesiastical and lay nobles brought about the banishment of Adalbert
from court and the return of Anno to power. In 1066 Henry was persuaded
to marry Bertha, daughter of Otto, count of Savoy, to whom he had been
betrothed since 1055. For some time he regarded his wife with strong
dislike and sought in vain for a divorce, but after she had borne him a
son in 1071 she gained his affections, and became his most trusted
friend and companion.

In 1069 the king took the reins of government into his own hands. He
recalled Adalbert to court; led expeditions against the Liutici, and
against Dedo or Dedi II., margrave of a district east of Saxony; and
soon afterwards quarrelled with Rudolph, duke of Swabia, and Berthold,
duke of Carinthia. Much more serious was Henry's struggle with Otto of
Nordheim, duke of Bavaria. This prince, who occupied an influential
position in Germany, was accused in 1070 by a certain Egino of being
privy to a plot to murder the king. It was decided that a trial by
battle should take place at Goslar, but when the demand of Otto for a
safe conduct for himself and his followers, to and from the place of
meeting, was refused, he declined to appear. He was thereupon declared
deposed in Bavaria, and his Saxon estates were plundered. He obtained
sufficient support, however, to carry on a struggle with the king in
Saxony and Thuringia until 1071, when he submitted at Halberstadt. Henry
aroused the hostility of the Thuringians by supporting Siegfried,
archbishop of Mainz, in his efforts to exact tithes from them; but still
more formidable was the enmity of the Saxons, who had several causes of
complaint against the king. He was the son of one enemy, Henry III., and
the friend of another, Adalbert of Bremen. He had ordered a restoration
of all crown lands in Saxony and had built forts among this people,
while the country was ravaged to supply the needs of his courtiers, and
its duke Magnus was a prisoner in his hands. All classes were united
against him, and when the struggle broke out in 1073 the Thuringians
joined the Saxons; and the war, which lasted with slight intermissions
until 1088, exercised a most potent influence upon Henry's fortunes
elsewhere (see SAXONY).

Henry soon found himself confronted by an abler and more stubborn
antagonist than either Thuringian or Saxon. In 1073 Hildebrand became
pope as Gregory VII. Two years later this great ecclesiastic issued his
memorable prohibition of lay investiture, and the blow then struck at
the secular power by the papacy threatened seriously to undermine the
imperial authority. Spurred on by his advisers, Henry did not refuse the
challenge. Threatened with the papal ban, he summoned a synod of German
bishops which met at Worms in January 1076 and declared Gregory deposed;
and he wrote his famous letter to the pope, in which he referred to him
as "not pope, but false monk." The king was at once excommunicated. His
adherents gradually fell away, the Saxons were again in arms, and Otto
of Nordheim succeeded in uniting the malcontents of north and south
Germany. In October 1076 an important diet met at Tribur, and after
discussing the deposition of the king, decided that he should be judged
by an assembly to be held at Augsburg in the following February under
the presidency of the pope. This union of the temporal and spiritual
forces was too strong for the king, and he decided to submit.

Crossing the Alps, Henry appeared in January 1077 as a penitent before
the castle of Canossa, where Gregory had taken refuge. The story of
this famous occurrence, which represents the king as standing in the
courtyard of the castle for three days in the snow, clad as a penitent,
and entreating to be admitted to the pope's presence, is now regarded as
mythical in its details; but there is no doubt that the king visited the
castle at intervals, and prayed for admission for three days until the
28th of January, when he was received by Gregory and absolved, after
promising to submit to the pope's authority and to secure for him a safe
journey to Germany. No historical incident has more profoundly impressed
the imagination of the Western world. It marked the highest point
reached by papal authority, and presents a vivid picture of the awe
inspired during the middle ages by the supernatural powers supposed to
be wielded by the church.

Scorned by his Lombard allies, Henry left Italy to find that in his
absence Rudolph, duke of Swabia, had been chosen German king; and
although Gregory had taken no part in this election, Henry sought to
prevent the pope's journey to Germany, and regaining courage, tried to
recover his former position. Supported by most of the German bishops and
by the Lombards, now reconciled to him, and recognized in Burgundy,
Bavaria and Franconia, Henry (who at this time is referred to by Bruno,
the author of _De bello Saxonico_, as _exrex_) appeared stronger than
his rival Rudolph; but the ensuing war was waged with varying success.
He was beaten at Mellrichstadt in 1078, and at Flarchheim in 1080, but
these defeats were due rather to the fierce hostility of the Saxons, and
the military skill of Otto of Nordheim, than to any general sympathy
with Rudolph. Gregory's attitude remained neutral, in spite of appeals
from both sides, until March 1080, when he again excommunicated Henry,
but without any serious effect on the fortunes of the king. At Henry's
initiative, Gregory was declared deposed on three occasions, and an
anti-pope was elected in the person of Wibert, archbishop of Ravenna,
who took the name of Clement III.

The death of Rudolph in October 1080, and a consequent lull in the war,
enabled the king to go to Italy early in 1081. He found considerable
support in Lombardy; placed Matilda, marchioness of Tuscany, the
faithful friend of Gregory, under the imperial ban; took the Lombard
crown at Pavia; and secured the recognition of Clement by a council.
Marching to Rome, he undertook the siege of the city, but was soon
compelled to retire to Tuscany, where he granted privileges to various
cities, and obtained monetary assistance from a new ally, the eastern
emperor, Alexius I. A second and equally unsuccessful attack on Rome was
followed by a war of devastation in northern Italy with the adherents of
Matilda; and towards the end of 1082 the king made a third attack on
Rome. After a siege of seven months the Leonine city fell into his
hands. A treaty was concluded with the Romans, who agreed that the
quarrel between king and pope should be decided by a synod, and secretly
bound themselves to induce Gregory to crown Henry as emperor, or to
choose another pope. Gregory, however, shut up in the castle of St
Angelo, would hear of no compromise; the synod was a failure, as Henry
prevented the attendance of many of the pope's supporters; and the king,
in pursuance of his treaty with Alexius, marched against the Normans.
The Romans soon fell away from their allegiance to the pope; and,
recalled to the city, Henry entered Rome in March 1084, after which
Gregory was declared deposed and Clement was recognized by the Romans.
On the 31st of March 1084 Henry was crowned emperor by Clement, and
received the patrician authority. His next step was to attack the
fortresses still in the hands of Gregory. The pope was saved by the
advance of Robert Guiscard, duke of Apulia, with a large force, which
compelled Henry to return to Germany.

Meanwhile the German rebels had chosen a fresh anti-king, Hermann, count
of Luxemburg, whom Henry's supporters had already driven to his last
line of defence in Saxony. During the campaign of 1086 Henry was
defeated near Würzburg, but in 1088 Hermann abandoned the struggle and
the emperor was generally recognized in Saxony, to which country he
showed considerable clemency. Although Henry's power was in the
ascendent, a few powerful nobles adhered to the cause of Gregory's
successor, Urban II. Among them was Welf, son of Welf I., the deposed
duke of Bavaria, whose marriage with Matilda of Tuscany rendered him too
formidable to be neglected. The emperor accordingly returned to Italy in
1090, where Mantua and Milan were taken, and Pope Clement was restored
to Rome. Henry's communications with Germany were, however, threatened
by a league of the Lombard cities, and his anxieties were soon augmented
by domestic troubles.

Henry's first wife had died in 1087, and in 1089 he had married a
Russian princess, Praxedis, afterwards called Adelaide. Her conduct soon
aroused his suspicions, and his own eldest son, Conrad, who had been
crowned German king in 1087, was thought to be a partner in her guilt.
Escaping from prison, Adelaide fled to Henry's enemies and brought grave
charges against her husband; while the papal party induced Conrad to
desert his father and to be crowned king of Italy at Monza in 1093.
Crushed by this blow, Henry remained almost helpless and inactive in
northern Italy for five years, until 1097, when having lost every shred
of authority in that country, he returned to Germany, where his position
was stronger than ever. Welf had submitted, had forsaken the cause of
Matilda and had been restored to Bavaria, and in 1098 the diet assembled
at Mainz declared Conrad deposed, and chose the emperor's second son,
Henry, afterwards the emperor Henry V., as German king. The crusade of
1096 had freed Germany from many turbulent spirits, and the emperor,
meeting with some success in his efforts to restore order, could afford
to ignore his repeated excommunication. A successful campaign in
Flanders was followed in 1103 by a diet at Mainz, where serious efforts
were made to restore peace, and Henry himself promised to go on crusade.
But this plan was shattered by the revolt of the younger Henry in 1104,
who, encouraged by the adherents of the pope, declared he owed no
allegiance to an excommunicated father. Saxony and Thuringia were soon
in arms, the bishops held mainly to the younger Henry, while the emperor
was supported by the towns. A desultory warfare was unfavourable,
however, to the emperor, who, deceived by false promises, became a
prisoner in the hands of his son in 1105. The diet met at Mainz in
December, when he was compelled to abdicate; but contrary to the
conditions, he was detained at Ingelheim and denied his freedom.
Escaping to Cologne, he found considerable support in the lower
Rhineland; he entered into negotiations with England, France and
Denmark, and was engaged in collecting an army when he died at Liége on
the 7th of August 1106. His body was buried by the bishop of Liége with
suitable ceremony, but by command of the papal legate it was unearthed,
taken to Spires, and placed in an unconsecrated chapel. After being
released from the sentence of excommunication the remains were buried in
the cathedral of Spires in August 1111.

Henry IV. was very licentious and in his early years was careless and
self-willed, but better qualities were developed in his later life. He
displayed much diplomatic ability, and his abasement at Canossa may
fairly be regarded as a move of policy to weaken the pope's position at
the cost of a personal humiliation to himself. He was always regarded as
a friend of the lower orders, was capable of generosity and gratitude,
and showed considerable military skill. Unfortunate in the time in which
he lived, and in the troubles with which he had to contend, he holds an
honourable position in history as a monarch who resisted the excessive
pretensions both of the papacy and of the ambitious feudal lords of
Germany.

  The authorities for the life and reign of Henry are Lambert of
  Hersfeld, _Annales_; Bernold of Reichenau, Chronicon; Ekkehard of
  Aura, _Chronicon_; and Bruno, _De bello Saxonico_, which gives several
  of the more important letters that passed between Henry and Gregory
  VII. These are all found in the _Monumenta Germaniae historica.
  Scriptores_, Bände v. and vi. (Hanover and Berlin, 1826-1892). There
  is an anonymous _Vita Heinrici IV._, edited by W. Wattenbach (Hanover,
  1876). The best modern authorities are: G. Meyer von Knonau,
  _Jahrbücher des deutschen Reiches unter Heinrich IV._ (Leipzig, 1890);
  H. Floto, _Kaiser Heinrich IV. und sein Zeitalter_ (Stuttgart, 1855);
  E. Kilian, _Itinerar Kaiser Heinrichs IV._ (Karlsruhe, 1886); K. W.
  Nitzsch, "Das deutsche Reich und Heinrich IV.," in the _Historische
  Zeitschrift_, Band xlv. (Munich, 1859); H. Ulmann, _Zum Verständniss
  der sächsischen Erhebung gegen Heinrich IV._ (Hanover, 1886), W. von
  Giesebrecht, _Geschichte_ _der deutschen Kaiserzeit_ (Leipzig,
  1881-1890); B. Gebhardt, _Handbuch der deutschen Geschichte_ (Berlin,
  1901). For a list of other works, especially those on the relations
  between Henry and Gregory, see Dahlmann-Waitz, _Quellenkunde der
  deutschen Geschichte_ (Göttingen, 1894).     (A. W. H.*)



HENRY V. (1081-1125), Roman emperor, son of the emperor Henry IV., was
born on the 8th of January 1081, and after the revolt and deposition of
his elder brother, the German king Conrad (d. 1101), was chosen as his
successor in 1098. He promised to take no part in the business of the
Empire during his father's lifetime, and was crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle
on the 6th of January 1099. In spite of his oath Henry was induced by
his father's enemies to revolt in 1104, and some of the princes did
homage to him at Mainz in January 1106. In August of the same year the
elder Henry died, when his son became sole ruler of the Empire. Order
was soon restored in Germany, the citizens of Cologne were punished by a
fine, and an expedition against Robert II., count of Flanders, brought
this rebel to his knees. In 1107 a campaign, which was only partially
successful, was undertaken to restore Boriwoj II. to the dukedom of
Bohemia, and in the year following the king led his forces into Hungary,
where he failed to take Pressburg. In 1109 he was unable to compel the
Poles to renew their accustomed tribute, but in 1110 he succeeded in
securing the dukedom of Bohemia for Ladislaus I.

The main interest of Henry's reign centres in the controversy over lay
investiture, which had caused a serious dispute during the previous
reign. The papal party who had supported Henry in his resistance to his
father hoped he would assent to the decrees of the pope, which had been
renewed by Paschal II. at the synod of Guastalla in 1106. The king,
however, continued to invest the bishops, but wished the pope to hold a
council in Germany to settle the question. Paschal after some hesitation
preferred France to Germany, and, after holding a council at Troyes,
renewed his prohibition of lay investiture. The matter slumbered until
1110, when, negotiations between king and pope having failed, Paschal
renewed his decrees and Henry went to Italy with a large army. The
strength of his forces helped him to secure general recognition in
Lombardy, and at Sutri he concluded an arrangement with Paschal by which
he renounced the right of investiture in return for a promise of
coronation, and the restoration to the Empire of all lands given by
kings, or emperors, to the German church since the time of Charlemagne.
It was a treaty impossible to execute, and Henry, whose consent to it is
said to have been conditional on its acceptance by the princes and
bishops of Germany, probably foresaw that it would occasion a breach
between the German clergy and the pope. Having entered Rome and sworn
the usual oaths, the king presented himself at St Peter's on the 12th of
February 1111 for his coronation and the ratification of the treaty. The
words commanding the clergy to restore the fiefs of the crown to Henry
were read amid a tumult of indignation, whereupon the pope refused to
crown the king, who in return declined to hand over his renunciation of
the right of investiture. Paschal was seized by Henry's soldiers and, in
the general disorder into which the city was thrown, an attempt to
liberate the pontiff was thwarted in a struggle during which the king
himself was wounded. Henry then left the city carrying the pope with
him; and Paschal's failure to obtain assistance drew from him a
confirmation of the king's right of investiture and a promise to crown
him emperor. The coronation ceremony accordingly took place on the 13th
of April 1111, after which the emperor returned to Germany, where he
sought to strengthen his power by granting privileges to the inhabitants
of the region of the upper Rhine.

In 1112 Lothair, duke of Saxony, rose in arms against Henry, but was
easily quelled. In 1113, however, a quarrel over the succession to the
counties of Weimar and Orlamünde gave occasion for a fresh outbreak on
the part of Lothair, whose troops were defeated at Warnstädt, after
which the duke was pardoned. Having been married at Mainz on the 7th of
January 1114 to Matilda, or Maud, daughter of Henry I., king of England,
the emperor was confronted with a further rising, initiated by the
citizens of Cologne, who were soon joined by the Saxons and others.
Henry failed to take Cologne, his forces were defeated at Welfesholz on
the 11th of February 1115, and complications in Italy compelled him to
leave Germany to the care of Frederick II. of Hohenstaufen, duke of
Swabia, and his brother Conrad, afterwards the German king Conrad III.
After the departure of Henry from Rome in 1111 a council had declared
the privilege of lay investiture, which had been extorted from Paschal,
to be invalid, and Guido, archbishop of Vienne, excommunicated the
emperor and called upon the pope to ratify this sentence. Paschal,
however, refused to take so extreme a step; and the quarrel entered upon
a new stage in 1115 when Matilda, daughter and heiress of Boniface,
margrave of Tuscany, died leaving her vast estates to the papacy.
Crossing the Alps in 1116 Henry won the support of town and noble by
privileges to the one and presents to the other, took possession of
Matilda's lands, and was gladly received in Rome. By this time Paschal
had withdrawn his consent to lay investiture and the excommunication had
been published in Rome; but the pope was compelled to fly from the city.
Some of the cardinals withstood the emperor, but by means of bribes he
broke down the opposition, and was crowned a second time by Burdinas,
archbishop of Braga. Meanwhile the defeat at Welfesholz had given heart
to Henry's enemies; many of his supporters, especially among the
bishops, fell away; the excommunication was published at Cologne, and
the pope, with the assistance of the Normans, began to make war. In
January 1118 Paschal died and was succeeded by Gelasius II. The emperor
immediately returned from northern Italy to Rome. But as the new pope
escaped from the city, Henry, despairing of making a treaty, secured the
election of an antipope who took the name of Gregory VIII., and who was
left in possession of Rome when the emperor returned across the Alps in
1118. The opposition in Germany was gradually crushed and a general
peace declared at Tribur, while the desire for a settlement of the
investiture dispute was growing. Negotiations, begun at Würzburg, were
continued at Worms, where the new pope, Calixtus II., was represented by
Cardinal Lambert, bishop of Ostia. In the concordat of Worms, signed in
September 1122, Henry renounced the right of investiture with ring and
crozier, recognized the freedom of election of the clergy and promised
to restore all church property. The pope agreed to allow elections to
take place in presence of the imperial envoys, and the investiture with
the sceptre to be granted by the emperor as a symbol that the estates of
the church were held under the crown. Henry, who had been solemnly
excommunicated at Reims by Calixtus in October 1119, was received again
into the communion of the church, after he had abandoned his nominee,
Gregory, to defeat and banishment. The emperor's concluding years were
occupied with a campaign in Holland, and with a quarrel over the
succession to the margraviate of Meissen, two disputes in which his
enemies were aided by Lothair of Saxony. In 1124 he led an expedition
against King Louis VI. of France, turned his arms against the citizens
of Worms, and on the 23rd of May 1125 died at Utrecht and was buried at
Spires. Having no children, he left his possessions to his nephew,
Frederick II. of Hohenstaufen, duke of Swabia, and on his death the line
of Franconian, or Salian, emperors became extinct.

The character of Henry is unattractive. His love of power was
inordinate; he was wanting in generosity, and he did not shrink from
treachery in pursuing his ends.

  The chief authority for the life and reign of Henry V. is Ekkehard of
  Aura, _Chronicon_, edited by G. Waitz in the _Monumenta Germaniae
  historica. Scriptores_, Band vi. (Hanover and Berlin, 1826-1892), See
  also W. von Giesebrecht, _Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit_, Band
  iii. (Leipzig, 1881-1890); L. von Ranke, _Weltgeschichte_, pt. vii.
  (Leipzig, 1886); M. Manitius, _Deutsche Geschichte_ (Stuttgart, 1889);
  G. Meyer von Knonau, _Jahrbücher des deutschen Reiches unter Heinrich
  IV. und Heinrich V._ (Leipzig, 1890); E. Gervais, _Politische
  Geschichte Deutschlands unter der Regierung der Kaiser Heinrich V. und
  Lothar III._ (Leipzig, 1841-1842); G. Peiser, _Der deutsche
  Investiturstreit unter Kaiser Heinrich V._ (Berlin, 1883); C. Stutzer,
  "Zur Kritik der Investiturverhandlungen im Jahre 1119," in the
  _Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte_, Band xviii. (Göttingen,
  1862-1886); T. von Sickel and H. Bresslau, "Die kaiserliche
  Ausfertigung des Wormser Konkordats," in the _Mittheilungen des
  Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung_ (Innsbruck, 1880);
  B. Gebhardt, _Handbuch der deutschen Geschichte_, Band i. (Berlin,
  1901), and E. Bernheim, _Zur Geschichte des Wormser Konkordats_
  (Göttingen, 1878).



HENRY VI. (1165-1197), Roman emperor, son of the emperor Frederick I.
and Beatrix, daughter of Renaud III., count of upper Burgundy, was born
at Nijmwegen, and educated under the care of Conrad of Querfurt,
afterwards bishop of Hildesheim and Würzburg. Chosen German king, or
king of the Romans, at Bamberg in June 1169, he was crowned at
Aix-la-Chapelle on the 15th of August 1169, invested with lands in
Germany in 1179, and at Whitsuntide 1184 his knighthood was celebrated
in the most magnificent manner at Mainz. Frederick was anxious to
associate his son with himself in the government of the empire, and when
he left Germany in 1184 Henry remained behind as regent, while his
father sought to procure his coronation from Pope Lucius III. The pope
was hesitating when he heard that the emperor had arranged a marriage
between Henry and Constance, daughter of the late king of Sicily, Roger
I., and aunt and heiress of the reigning king, William II.; and this
step, which threatened to unite Sicily with Germany, decided him to
refuse the proposal. This marriage took place at Milan on the 27th of
January 1186, and soon afterwards Henry was crowned king of Italy. The
claim of Henry and his wife on Sicily was recognized by the barons of
that kingdom; and having been recognized by the pope as Roman emperor
elect, Henry returned to Germany, and was again appointed regent when
Frederick set out on crusade in May 1189. His attempts to bring peace to
Germany were interrupted by the return of Henry the Lion, duke of
Saxony, in October 1189, and a campaign against him was followed by a
peace made at Fulda in July 1190.

Henry's desire to make this peace was due to the death of William of
Sicily, which was soon followed by that of the emperor Frederick.
Germany and Italy alike seemed to need the king's presence, but for him,
like all the Hohenstaufen, Italy had the greater charm, and having
obtained a promise of his coronation from Pope Clement III. he crossed
the Alps in the winter of 1190. He purchased the support of the cities
of northern Italy, but on reaching Rome he found Clement was dead and
his successor, Celestine III., disinclined to carry out the engagement
of his predecessor. The strength of the German army and a treaty made
between the king and the Romans induced him, however, to crown Henry as
emperor on the 14th of April 1191. The aid of the Romans had been
purchased by the king's promise to place in their possession the city of
Tusculum, which they had attacked in vain for three years. After the
ceremony the emperor fulfilled this contract, when the city was
destroyed and many of the inhabitants massacred. Meanwhile a party in
Sicily had chosen Tancred, an illegitimate son of Roger, son of King
Roger II., as their king, and he had already won considerable authority
and was favoured by the pope. Leaving Rome Henry met with no resistance
until he reached Naples, which he was unable to take, as the ravages of
fever and threatening news from Germany, where his death was reported,
compelled him to raise the siege. In December 1191 he returned to
Germany. Disorder was general and a variety of reasons induced both the
Welfs and their earlier opponents to join in a general league against
the emperor. Vacancies in various bishoprics added to the confusion, and
Henry's enemies gained in numbers and strength when it was suspected
that he was implicated in the murder of Albert, bishop of Liége. Henry
acted energetically in fighting this formidable combination, but his
salvation came from the captivity of Richard I., king of England, and
the skill with which he used this event to make peace with his foes;
and, when Henry the Lion came to terms in March 1194, order was restored
to Germany.

In the following May, Henry made his second expedition to Italy, where
Pope Celestine had definitely espoused the cause of Tancred. The ransom
received from Richard enabled him to equip a large army, and aided by a
fleet fitted out by Genoa and Pisa he soon secured a complete mastery
over the Italian mainland. When he reached Sicily he found Tancred
dead, and, meeting with very little resistance, he entered Palermo,
where he was crowned king on Christmas day 1194. A stay of a few months'
duration enabled Henry to settle the affairs of the kingdom; and leaving
his wife, Constance, as regent, and appointing many Germans to positions
of influence, he returned to Germany in June 1195.

Having established his position in Germany and Italy, Henry began to
cherish ideas of universal empire. Richard of England had already owned
his supremacy, and declaring he would compel the king of France to do
the same Henry sought to stir up strife between France and England. Nor
did the Spanish kingdoms escape his notice. Tunis and Tripoli were
claimed, and when the eastern emperor, Isaac Angelus, asked his help, he
demanded in return the cession of the Balkan peninsula. The kings of
Cyprus and Armenia asked for investiture at his hands; and in general
Henry, in the words of a Byzantine chronicler, put forward his demands
as "the lord of all lords, the king of all kings." To complete this
scheme two steps were necessary, a reconciliation with the pope and the
recognition of his young son, Frederick, as his successor in the Empire.
The first was easily accomplished; the second was more difficult. After
attempting to suppress the renewed disorder in Germany, Henry met the
princes at Worms in December 1195 and put his proposal before them. In
spite of promises they disliked the suggestion as tending to draw them
into Sicilian troubles, and avoided the emperor's displeasure by
postponing their answer. By threats or negotiations, however, Henry won
the consent of about fifty princes; but though the diet which met at
Würzburg in April 1196 agreed to the scheme, the vigorous opposition of
Adolph, archbishop of Cologne, and others rendered it inoperative. In
June 1196 Henry went again to Italy, sought vainly to restore order in
the north, and tried to persuade the pope to crown his son who had been
chosen king of the Romans at Frankfort. Celestine, who had many causes
of complaint against the emperor and his vassals, refused. The emperor
then went to the south, where the oppression of his German officials had
caused an insurrection, which was put down with terrible cruelty. At
Messina on the 28th of September 1197 Henry died from a cold caught
whilst hunting, and was buried at Palermo. He was a man of small frame
and delicate constitution, but possessed considerable mental gifts and
was skilled in knightly exercises. His ambition was immense, and to
attain his ends he often resorted deliberately to cruelty and treachery.
His chief recreation was hunting, and he also found pleasure in the
society of the Minnesingers and in writing poems, which appear in F. H.
von der Hagen's _Minnesinger_ (Leipzig, 1838). He left an only son
Frederick, afterwards the emperor Frederick II.

  The chief authorities for the life and reign of Henry VI. are Otto of
  Freising, _Chronicon_, continued by Otto of St Blasius; Godfrey of
  Viterbo, _Gesta Friderici I._ and _Gesta Heinrici VI._; Giselbert of
  Mons, _Chronicon Hanoniense_, all of which appear in the _Monumenta
  Germaniae historica. Scriptores_, Bände xx., xxi., xxii. (Hanover and
  Berlin, 1826-1892), and the various annals of the time.

  The best modern authorities are: W. von Giesebrecht, _Geschichte der
  deutschen Kaiserzeit_, Band iv. (Brunswick, 1877); T. Toeche, _Kaiser
  Heinrich VI._ (Leipzig, 1867); H. Bloch, _Forschungen zur Politik
  Kaiser Heinrichs VI._ (Berlin, 1892), and K. A. Kneller, _Des Richard
  Löwenherz deutsche Gefangenschaft_ (Freiburg, 1893).



HENRY VII. (c. 1269-1313), Roman emperor, son of Henry III., count of
Luxemburg, was knighted by Philip IV., king of France, and passed his
early days under French influences, while the French language was his
mother-tongue. His father was killed in battle in 1288, and Henry ruled
his tiny inheritance with justice and prudence, but came into collision
with the citizens of Trier over a question of tolls. In 1292 he married
Margaret (d. 1311), daughter of John I., duke of Brabant, and after the
death of the German king, Albert I., he was elected to the vacant throne
on the 27th of November 1308. Recognized at once by the German princes
and by Pope Clement V., the aspirations of the new king turned to Italy,
where he hoped by restoring the imperial authority to prepare the way
for the conquest of the Holy Land. Meanwhile he strove to secure his
position in Germany. The Rhenish archbishops were pacified by the
restoration of the Rhine tolls, negotiations were begun with Philip IV.,
king of France, and with Robert, king of Naples, and the Habsburgs were
confirmed in their possessions. At this time Bohemia was ruled by Henry
V., duke of Carinthia, but the terrible disorder which prevailed induced
some of the Bohemians to offer the crown, together with the hand of
Elizabeth, daughter of the late king Wenceslas II., to John, the son of
the German king. Henry accepted the offer, and in August 1310 John was
invested with Bohemia and his marriage was celebrated. Before John's
coronation at Prague, however, in February 1311, Henry had crossed the
Alps. His hopes of reuniting Germany and Italy and of restoring the
empire of the Hohenstaufen were flattered by an appeal from the
Ghibellines to come to their assistance, and by the fact that many
Italians, sharing the sentiments expressed by Dante in his _De
Monarchia_, looked eagerly for a restoration of the imperial authority.
In October 1310 he reached Turin where, on receiving the homage of the
Lombard cities, he declared that he favoured neither Guelphs nor
Ghibellines, but only sought to impose peace. Having entered Milan he
placed the Lombard crown upon his head on the 6th of January 1311. But
trouble soon showed itself. His poverty compelled him to exact money
from the citizens; the peaceful professions of the Guelphs were
insincere, and Robert, king of Naples, watched his progress with
suspicion. Florence was fortified against him, and the mutual hatred of
Guelph and Ghibelline was easily renewed. Risings took place in various
places and, after the capture of Brescia, Henry marched to Rome only to
find the city in the hands of the Guelphs and the troops of King Robert.
Some street fighting ensued, and the king, unable to obtain possession
of St Peter's, was crowned emperor on the 29th of June 1312 in the
church of St John Lateran by some cardinals who declared they only acted
under compulsion. Failing to subdue Florence, the emperor from his
headquarters at Pisa prepared to attack Robert of Naples, for which
purpose he had allied himself with Frederick III., king of Sicily. But
Clement, anxious to protect Robert, threatened Henry with
excommunication. Undeterred by the threat the emperor collected fresh
forces, made an alliance with the Venetians, and set out for Naples. On
the march he was, however, taken ill, and died at Buonconvento near
Siena on the 24th of August 1313, and was buried at Pisa. His death was
attributed, probably without reason, to poison given him by a Dominican
friar in the sacramental wine. Henry is described by his contemporary
Albertino Mussato, in the _Historia Augusta_, as a handsome man, of
well-proportioned figure, with reddish hair and arched eyebrows, but
disfigured by a squint. He adds, among other details, that he was slow
and laconic in his speech, magnanimous and devout, but impatient of any
compacts with his subjects, loathing the mention of the Guelph and
Ghibelline factions, and insisting on the absolute authority of the
Empire over all (_cuncta absoluto complectens Imperio_). He was,
however, a lover of justice, and as a knight both bold and skilful. He
was hailed by Dante as the deliverer of Italy, and in the _Paradiso_ the
poet reserved for him a place marked by a crown.

  The contemporary documents for the life and reign of Henry VII. are
  very numerous. Many of them are found in the _Rerum Italicarum
  scriptores_, edited by L. A. Muratori (Milan, 1723-1751), others in
  _Fontes rerum Germanicarum_, edited by J. F. Böhmer (Stuttgart,
  1843-1868), and in _Die Geschichtsschreiber der deutschen Vorzeit_,
  Bände 79 and 80 (Leipzig, 1884). The following modern works may also
  be consulted: _Acta Henrici VII. imperatoris Romanorum_, edited by G.
  Dönniges (Berlin, 1839); F. Bonaini, _Acta Henrici VII. Romanorum
  imperatoris_ (Florence, 1877); T. Lindner, _Deutsche Geschichte unter
  den Habsburgern und Luxemburgern_ (Stuttgart, 1888-1893); J.
  Heidemann, "Die Königswahl Heinrichs von Luxemburg," in the
  _Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte_, Band xi. (Göttingen,
  1862-1886); B. Thomas, _Zur Königswahl des Grafen Heinrich von
  Luxemburg_ (Strassburg, 1875); D. König, _Kritische Erörterungen zu
  einigen italienischen Quellen für die Geschichte des Römerzuges Königs
  Heinrich VII._ (Göttingen, 1874); K. Wenck, _Clemens V. und Heinrich
  VII._ (Halle, 1882); F. W. Barthold, _Der Römerzug König Heinrichs von
  Lützelburg_ (Königsberg, 1830-1831); R. Pöhlmann, _Der Römerzug König
  Heinrichs VII. und die Politik der Curie_ (Nuremberg, 1875); W.
  Dönniges, _Kritik der Quellen für die Geschichte Heinrichs VII. des
  Luxemburgers_ (Berlin, 1841), and G. Sommerfeldt, _Die Romfahrt Kaiser
  Heinrichs VII._ (Königsberg, 1888).



HENRY VII. (1211-1242), German king, son of the emperor Frederick II.
and his first wife Constance, daughter of Alphonso II., king of Aragon,
was crowned king of Sicily in 1212 and made duke of Swabia in 1216. Pope
Innocent III. had favoured his coronation as king of Sicily in the hope
that the union of this island with the Empire would be dissolved, and
had obtained a promise from Frederick to this effect. In spite of this,
however, Henry was chosen king of the Romans, or German king, at
Frankfort in April 1220, and crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on the 8th of
May 1222 by his guardian Engelbert, archbishop of Cologne. He appears to
have spent most of his youth in Germany, and on the 18th of November
1225 was married at Nuremberg to Margaret (d. 1267), daughter of Leopold
VI., duke of Austria. Henry's marriage was the occasion of some
difference of opinion, as Engelbert wished him to marry an English
princess, and the name of a Bohemian princess was also mentioned in this
connexion, but Frederick insisted upon the union with Margaret. The
murder of Engelbert in 1225 was followed by an increase of disorder in
Germany in which Henry soon began to participate, and in 1227 he took
part in a quarrel which had arisen on the death of Henry V., the
childless count palatine of the Rhine. About this time the relations
between Frederick and his son began to be somewhat strained. The emperor
had favoured the Austrian marriage because Margaret's brother, Duke
Frederick II., was childless; but Henry took up a hostile attitude
towards his brother-in-law and wished to put away his wife and marry
Agnes, daughter of Wenceslaus I., king of Bohemia. Other causes of
trouble probably existed, for in 1231 Henry not only refused to appear
at the diet at Ravenna, but opposed the privileges granted by Frederick
to the princes at Worms. In 1232, however, he submitted to his father,
promising to adopt the emperor's policy and to obey his commands. He did
not long keep his word and was soon engaged in thwarting Frederick's
wishes in several directions, until in 1233 he took the decisive step of
issuing a manifesto to the princes, and the following year raised the
standard of revolt at Boppard. He obtained very little support in
Germany, however, while the suspicion that he favoured heresy deprived
him of encouragement from the pope. On the other hand, he succeeded in
forming an alliance with the Lombards in December 1234, but his few
supporters fell away when the emperor reached Germany in 1235, and,
after a vain attack on Worms, Henry submitted and was kept for some time
as a prisoner in Germany, though his formal deposition as German king
was not considered necessary, as he had broken the oath taken in 1232.
He was soon removed to San Felice in Apulia, and afterwards to Martirano
in Calabria, where he died, probably by his own hand, on the 12th of
February 1242, and was buried at Cosenza. He left two sons, Frederick
and Henry, both of whom died in Italy about 1251.

  See J. Rohden, _Der Sturz Heinrichs VII._ (Göttingen, 1883); F. W.
  Schirrmacher, _Die letzten Hohenstaufen_ (Göttingen, 1871), and E.
  Winkelmann, _Kaiser Friedrich II._ (Leipzig, 1889).



HENRY RASPE (c. 1202-1247), German king and landgrave of Thuringia, was
the second surviving son of Hermann I., landgrave of Thuringia, and
Sophia, daughter of Otto I., duke of Bavaria. When his brother the
landgrave Louis IV. died in Italy in September 1227, Henry seized the
government of Thuringia and expelled his brother's widow, St Elizabeth
of Hungary, and her son Hermann. With some trouble Henry made good his
position, although his nephew Hermann II. was nominally the landgrave,
and was declared of age in 1237. Henry, who governed with a zealous
regard for his own interests, remained loyal to the emperor Frederick
II. during his quarrel with the Lombards and the revolt of his son
Henry. In 1236 he accompanied the emperor on a campaign against
Frederick II., duke of Austria, and took part in the election of his son
Conrad as German king at Vienna in 1237. He appears, however, to have
become somewhat estranged from Frederick after this expedition, for he
did not appear at the diet of Verona in 1238; and it is not improbable
that he disliked the betrothal of his nephew Hermann to the emperor's
daughter Margaret. At all events, when the projected marriage had been
broken off the landgrave publicly showed his loyalty to the emperor in
1239 in opposition to a plan formed by various princes to elect an
anti-king. Henry, whose attitude at this time was very important to
Frederick, was probably kept loyal by the influence which his brother
Conrad, grand-master of the Teutonic Order, exercised over him, for
after the death of this brother in 1241 Henry's loyalty again wavered,
and he was himself mentioned as a possible anti-king. Frederick's visit
to Germany in 1242 was successful in preventing this step for a time,
and in May of that year the landgrave was appointed administrator of
Germany for King Conrad; and by the death of his nephew in this year he
became the nominal, as well as the actual, ruler of Thuringia. Again he
contemplated deserting the cause of Frederick, and in April 1246 Pope
Innocent IV. wrote to the German princes advising them to choose Henry
as their king in place of Frederick who had just been declared deposed.
Acting on these instructions, Henry was elected at Veitshöchheim on the
22nd of May 1246, and owing to the part played by the spiritual princes
in this election was called the _Pfaffenkönig_, or parsons' king.
Collecting an army, he defeated King Conrad near Frankfort on the 5th of
August 1246, and then, after holding a diet at Nuremberg, undertook the
siege of Ulm. But he was soon compelled to give up this enterprise, and
returning to Thuringia died at the Wartburg on the 17th of February
1247. Henry married Gertrude, sister of Frederick II., duke of Austria,
but left no children, and on his death the male line of his family
became extinct.

  See F. Reuss, _Die Wahl Heinrich Raspes_ (Lüdenscheid, 1878); A.
  Rübesamen, _Landgraf Heinrich Raspe von Thüringen_ (Halle, 1885); F.
  W. Schirrmacher, _Die letzten Hohenstaufen_ (Göttingen, 1871); E.
  Winkelmann, _Kaiser Friedrich II._ (Leipzig, 1889), and T.
  Knochenhauer, _Geschichte Thüringens zur Zeit des ersten
  Landgrafenhauses_ (Gotha, 1871).



HENRY (c. 1174-1216), emperor of Romania, or Constantinople, was a
younger son of Baldwin, count of Flanders and Hainaut (d. 1195). Having
joined the Fourth Crusade about 1201, he distinguished himself at the
siege of Constantinople in 1204 and elsewhere, and soon became prominent
among the princes of the new Latin empire of Constantinople. When his
brother, the emperor Baldwin I., was captured at the battle of
Adrianople in April 1205, Henry was chosen regent of the empire,
succeeding to the throne when the news of Baldwin's death arrived. He
was crowned on the 20th of August 1205. Henry was a wise ruler, whose
reign was largely passed in successful struggles with the Bulgarians and
with his rival, Theodore Lascaris I., emperor of Nicaea. Henry appears
to have been brave but not cruel, and tolerant but not weak; possessing
"the superior courage to oppose, in a superstitious age, the pride and
avarice of the clergy." The emperor died, poisoned, it is said, by his
Greek wife, on the 11th of June 1216.

  See Gibbon's _Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire_, vol. vi. (ed. J.
  B. Bury, 1898).



HENRY I. (1068-1135), king of England, nicknamed Beauclerk, the fourth
and youngest son of William I. by his queen Matilda of Flanders, was
born in 1068 on English soil. Of his life before 1086, when he was
solemnly knighted by his father at Westminster, we know little. He was
his mother's favourite, and she bequeathed to him her English estates,
which, however, he was not permitted to hold in his father's lifetime.
Henry received a good education, of which in later life he was proud; he
is credited with the saying that an unlettered king is only a crowned
ass. His attainments included Latin, which he could both read and write;
he knew something of the English laws and language, and it may have been
from an interest in natural history that he collected, during his reign,
the Woodstock menagerie which was the admiration of his subjects. But
from 1087 his life was one of action and vicissitudes which left him
little leisure. Receiving, under the Conqueror's last dispositions, a
legacy of five thousand pounds of silver, but no land, he traded upon
the pecuniary needs of Duke Robert of Normandy, from whom he purchased,
for the small sum of £3000, the district of the Cotentin. He negotiated
with Rufus to obtain the possession of their mother's inheritance, but
only incurred thereby the suspicions of the duke, who threw him into
prison. In 1090 the prince vindicated his loyalty by suppressing, on
Robert's behalf, a revolt of the citizens of Rouen which Rufus had
fomented. But when his elder brothers were reconciled in the next year
they combined to evict Henry from the Cotentin. He dissembled his
resentment for a time, and lived for nearly two years in the French
Vexin in great poverty. He then accepted from the citizens of Domfront
an invitation to defend them against Robert of Bellême; and
subsequently, coming to an agreement with Rufus, assisted the king in
making war on their elder brother Robert. When Robert's departure for
the First Crusade left Normandy in the hands of Rufus (1096) Henry took
service under the latter, and he was in the royal hunting train on the
day of Rufus's death (August 2nd, 1100). Had Robert been in Normandy the
claim of Henry to the English crown might have been effectually opposed.
But Robert only returned to the duchy a month after Henry's coronation.
In the meantime the new king, by issuing his famous charter, by
recalling Anselm, and by choosing the Anglo-Scottish princess
Edith-Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III., king of the Scots, as his
future queen, had cemented that alliance with the church and with the
native English which was the foundation of his greatness. Anselm
preached in his favour, English levies marched under the royal banner
both to repel Robert's invasion (1101) and to crush the revolt of the
Montgomeries headed by Robert of Bellême (1102). The alliance of crown
and church was subsequently imperilled by the question of Investitures
(1103-1106). Henry was sharply criticized for his ingratitude to Anselm
(q.v.), in spite of the marked respect which he showed to the
archbishop. At this juncture a sentence of excommunication would have
been a dangerous blow to Henry's power in England. But the king's
diplomatic skill enabled him to satisfy the church without surrendering
any rights of consequence (1106); and he skilfully threw the blame of
his previous conduct upon his counsellor, Robert of Meulan. Although the
Peterborough Chronicle accuses Henry of oppression in his early years,
the nation soon learned to regard him with respect. William of
Malmesbury, about 1125, already treats Tinchebrai (1106) as an English
victory and the revenge for Hastings. Henry was disliked but feared by
the baronage, towards whom he showed gross bad faith in his disregard of
his coronation promises. In 1110 he banished the more conspicuous
malcontents, and from that date was safe against the plots of his
English feudatories.

With Normandy he had more trouble, and the military skill which he had
displayed at Tinchebrai was more than once put to the test against
Norman rebels. His Norman, like his English administration, was popular
with the non-feudal classes, but doubtless oppressive towards the
barons. The latter had abandoned the cause of Duke Robert, who remained
a prisoner in England till his death (1134); but they embraced that of
Robert's son William the Clito, whom Henry in a fit of generosity had
allowed to go free after Tinchebrai. The Norman conspiracies of 1112,
1118, and 1123-24 were all formed in the Clito's interest. Both France
and Anjou supported this pretender's cause from time to time; he was
always a thorn in Henry's side till his untimely death at Alost (1128),
but more especially after the catastrophe of the White Ship (1120)
deprived the king of his only lawful son. But Henry emerged from these
complications with enhanced prestige. His campaigns had been uneventful,
his chief victory (Brémule, 1119) was little more than a skirmish. But
he had held his own as a general, and as a diplomatist he had shown
surpassing skill. The chief triumphs of his foreign policy were the
marriage of his daughter Matilda to the emperor Henry V. (1114) which
saved Normandy in 1124; the detachment of the pope, Calixtus II., from
the side of France and the Clito (1119), and the Angevin marriages which
he arranged for his son William Aetheling (1119) and for the widowed
empress Matilda (1129) after her brother's death. This latter match,
though unpopular in England and Normandy, was a fatal blow to the
designs of Louis VI., and prepared the way for the expansion of English
power beyond the Loire. After 1124 the disaffection of Normandy was
crushed. The severity with which Henry treated the last rebels was
regarded as a blot upon his fame; but the only case of merely vindictive
punishment was that of the poet Luke de la Barre, who was sentenced to
lose his eyes for a lampoon upon the king, and only escaped the sentence
by committing suicide.

Henry's English government was severe and grasping; but he "kept good
peace" and honourably distinguished himself among contemporary statesmen
in an age when administrative reform was in the air. He spent more time
in Normandy than in England. But he showed admirable judgment in his
choice of subordinates; Robert of Meulan, who died in 1118, and Roger of
Salisbury, who survived his master, were statesmen of no common order;
and Henry was free from the mania of attending in person to every
detail, which was the besetting sin of medieval sovereigns. As a
legislator Henry was conservative. He issued few ordinances; the
unofficial compilation known as the _Leges Henrici_ shows that, like the
Conqueror, he made it his ideal to maintain the "law of Edward." His
itinerant justices were not altogether a novelty in England or Normandy.
It is characteristic of the man that the exchequer should be the chief
institution created in his reign. The eulogies of the last _Peterborough
Chronicle_ on his government were written after the anarchy of Stephen's
reign had invested his predecessor's "good peace" with the glamour of a
golden age. Henry was respected and not tyrannous. He showed a lofty
indifference to criticism such as that of Eadmer in the _Historia
novorum_, which was published early in the reign. He showed, on some
occasions, great deference to the opinions of the magnates. But dark
stories, some certainly unfounded, were told of his prison-houses. Men
thought him more cruel and more despotic than he actually was.

Henry was twice married. After the death of his first wife, Matilda
(1080-1118), he took to wife Adelaide, daughter of Godfrey, count of
Louvain (1121), in the hope of male issue. But the marriage proved
childless, and the empress Matilda was designated as her father's
successor, the English baronage being compelled to do her homage both in
1126, and again, after the Angevin marriage, in 1131. He had many
illegitimate sons and daughters by various mistresses. Of these bastards
the most important is Robert, earl of Gloucester, upon whom fell the
main burden of defending Matilda's title against Stephen.

Henry died near Gisors on the 1st of December, 1135, in the thirty-sixth
year of his reign, and was buried in the abbey of Reading which he
himself had founded.

  ORIGINAL AUTHORITIES.--_The Peterborough Chronicle_ (ed. Plummer,
  Oxford, 1882-1889); _Florence of Worcester_ and his first continuator
  (ed. B. Thorpe, 1848-1849); Eadmer, _Historia novorum_ (ed. Rule,
  Rolls Series, 1884); William of Malmesbury, _Gesta regum_ and
  _Historia novella_ (ed. Stubbs, Rolls Series, 1887-1889); Henry of
  Huntingdon, _Historia Anglorum_ (ed. Arnold, Rolls Series, 1879);
  Simeon of Durham (ed. Arnold, Rolls Series, 1882-1885); Orderic
  Vitalis, _Historia ecclesiastica_ (ed. le Prévost, Paris, 1838-1855);
  Robert of Torigni, _Chronica_ (ed. Howlett, Rolls Series, 1889), and
  _Continuatio Willelmi Gemmeticensis_ (ed. Duchesne, _Hist. Normannorum
  scriptores_, pp. 215-317, Paris, 1619). See also the Pipe Roll of 31
  H. I. (ed. Hunter, _Record Commission_, 1833); the documents in W.
  Stubbs's _Select Chapters_ (Oxford, 1895); the _Leges Henrici_ in
  Liebermann's _Gesetze der Angel-Sachsen_ (Halle, 1898, &c.); and the
  same author's monograph, _Leges Henrici_ (Halle, 1901); the treaties,
  &c., in the Record Commission edition of Thomas Rymer's _Foedera_,
  vol. i. (1816).

  MODERN AUTHORITIES.--E. A. Freeman, _History of the Norman Conquest_,
  vol. v.; J. M. Lappenberg, _History of England under the Norman Kings_
  (tr. Thorpe, Oxford, 1857); Kate Norgate, _England under the Angevin
  Kings_, vol. i. (1887); Sir James Ramsay, _Foundations of England_,
  vol. ii.; W. Stubbs, _Constitutional History_, vol. i.; H. W. C.
  Davis, _England under the Normans and Angevins_; Hunt and Poole,
  _Political History of England_, vol. ii.     (H. W. C. D.)



HENRY II. (1133-1189), king of England, son of Geoffrey Plantagenet,
count of Anjou, by Matilda, daughter of Henry I., was born at Le Mans on
the 25th of March 1133. He was brought to England during his mother's
conflict with Stephen (1142), and was placed under the charge of a tutor
at Bristol. He returned to Normandy in 1146. He next appeared on English
soil in 1149[1] when he came to court the help of Scotland and the
English baronage against King Stephen. The second visit was of short
duration. In 1150 he was invested with Normandy by his father, whose
death in the next year made him also count of Anjou. In 1152 by a
marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine, the divorced wife of the French king
Louis VII., he acquired Poitou, Guienne and Gascony; but in doing so
incurred the ill-will of his suzerain from which he suffered not a
little in the future. Lastly in 1153 he was able, through the aid of the
Church and his mother's partisans, to extort from Stephen the
recognition of his claim to the English succession; and this claim was
asserted without opposition immediately after Stephen's death (25th of
October 1154). Matilda retired into seclusion, although she possessed,
until her death (1167), great influence with her son.

The first years of the reign were largely spent in restoring the public
peace and recovering for the crown the lands and prerogatives which
Stephen had bartered away. Amongst the older partisans of the Angevin
house the most influential were Archbishop Theobald, whose good will
guaranteed to Henry the support of the Church, and Nigel, bishop of Ely,
who presided at the exchequer. But Thomas Becket, archdeacon of
Canterbury, a younger statesman whom Theobald had discovered and
promoted, soon became all-powerful. Becket lent himself entirely to his
master's ambitions, which at this time centred round schemes of
territorial aggrandizement. In 1155 Henry asked and obtained from Adrian
IV. a licence to invade Ireland, which the king contemplated bestowing
upon his brother, William of Anjou. This plan was dropped; but Malcolm
of Scotland was forced to restore the northern counties which had been
ceded to David; North Wales was invaded in 1157; and in 1159 Henry made
an attempt, which was foiled by the intervention of Louis VII., to
assert his wife's claims upon Toulouse. After vainly invoking the aid of
the emperor Frederick I., the young king came to terms with Louis
(1160), whose daughter was betrothed to Henry's namesake and heir. The
peace proved unstable, and there was desultory skirmishing in 1161. The
following year was chiefly spent in reforming the government of the
continental provinces. In 1163 Henry returned to England, and almost
immediately embarked on that quarrel with the Church which is the
keynote to the middle period of the reign.

Henry had good cause to complain of the ecclesiastical courts, and had
only awaited a convenient season to correct abuses which were admitted
by all reasonable men. But he allowed the question to be complicated by
personal issues. He was bitterly disappointed that Becket, on whom he
bestowed the primacy, left vacant by the death of Theobald (1162), at
once became the champion of clerical privilege; he and the archbishop
were no longer on speaking terms when the Constitutions of Clarendon
came up for debate. The king's demands were not intrinsically
irreconcilable with the canon law, and the papacy would probably have
allowed them to take effect _sub silentio_, if Becket (q.v.) had not
been goaded to extremity by persecution in the forms of law. After
Becket's flight (1164), the king put himself still further in the wrong
by impounding the revenues of Canterbury and banishing at one stroke a
number of the archbishop's friends and connexions. He showed, however,
considerable dexterity in playing off the emperor against Alexander III.
and Louis VII., and contrived for five years, partly by these means,
partly by insincere negotiations with Becket, to stave off a papal
interdict upon his dominions. When, in July 1170, he was forced by
Alexander's threats to make terms with Becket, the king contrived that
not a word should be said of the Constitutions. He undoubtedly hoped
that in this matter he would have his way when Becket should be more in
England and within his grasp. For the murder of Becket (Dec. 29, 1170)
the king cannot be held responsible, though the deed was suggested by
his impatient words. It was a misfortune to the royal cause; and Henry
was compelled to purchase the papal absolution by a complete surrender
on the question of criminous clerks (1172). When he heard of the murder
he was panic-stricken; and his expedition to Ireland (1171), although so
momentous for the future, was originally a mere pretext for placing
himself beyond the reach of Alexander's censures.

Becket's fate, though it supplied an excuse, was certainly not the real
cause of the troubles with his sons which disturbed the king's later
years (1173-1189). But Henry's misfortunes were largely of his own
making. Queen Eleanor, whom he alienated by his faithlessness, stirred
up her sons to rebellion; and they had grievances enough to be easily
persuaded. Henry was an affectionate but a suspicious and close-handed
father. The titles which he bestowed on them carried little power, and
served chiefly to denote the shares of the paternal inheritance which
were to be theirs after his death. The excessive favour which he showed
to John, his youngest-born, was another cause of heart-burning; and
Louis, the old enemy, did his utmost to foment all discords. It must,
however, be remembered in Henry's favour, that the supporters of the
princes, both in England and in the foreign provinces, were animated by
resentment against the soundest features of the king's administration;
and that, in the rebellion of 1173, he received from the English commons
such hearty support that any further attempt to raise a rebellion in
England was considered hopeless. Henry, like his grandfather, gained in
popularity with every year of his reign. In 1183 the death of Prince
Henry, the heir-apparent, while engaged in a war against his brother
Richard and their father, secured a short interval of peace. But in 1184
Geoffrey of Brittany and John combined with their father's leave to make
war upon Richard, now the heir-apparent. After Geoffrey's death (1186)
the feud between John and Richard drove the latter into an alliance with
Philip Augustus of France. The ill-success of the old king in this war
aggravated the disease from which he was suffering; and his heart was
broken by the discovery that John, for whose sake he had alienated
Richard, was in secret league with the victorious allies. Henry died at
Chinon on the 6th of July 1189, and was buried at Fontevraud. By Eleanor
of Aquitaine the king had five sons and three daughters. His eldest son,
William, died young; his other sons, Henry, Richard, Geoffrey and John,
are all mentioned above. His daughters were: Matilda (1156-1189), who
became the wife of Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony; Eleanor (1162-1214),
who married Alphonso III., king of Castile; and Joanna, who, after the
death of William of Sicily in 1189, became the wife of Raymund VI.,
count of Toulouse, having previously accompanied her brother, Richard,
to Palestine. He had also three illegitimate sons: Geoffrey, archbishop
of York; Morgan; and William Longsword, earl of Salisbury.

Henry's power impressed the imagination of his contemporaries, who
credited him with aiming at the conquest of France and the acquisition
of the imperial title. But his ambitions of conquest were comparatively
moderate in his later years. He attempted to secure Maurienne and Savoy
for John by a marriage-alliance, for which a treaty was signed in 1173.
But the project failed through the death of the intended bride; nor did
the marriage of his third daughter, the princess Joanna (1165-1199),
with William II., king of Sicily (1177) lead to English intervention in
Italian politics. Henry once declined an offer of the Empire, made by
the opponents of Frederick Barbarossa; and he steadily supported the
young Philip Augustus against the intrigues of French feudatories. The
conquest of Ireland was carried out independently of his assistance, and
perhaps against his wishes. He asserted his suzerainty over Scotland by
the treaty of Falaise (1175), but not so stringently as to provoke
Scottish hostility. This moderation was partly due to the embarrassments
produced by the ecclesiastical question and the rebellions of the
princes. But Henry, despite a violent and capricious temper, had a
strong taste for the work of a legislator and administrator. He devoted
infinite pains and thought to the reform of government both in England
and Normandy. The legislation of his reign was probably in great part
of his own contriving. His supervision of the law courts was close and
jealous; he transacted a great amount of judicial business in his own
person, even after he had formed a high court of justice which might sit
without his personal presence. To these activities he devoted his scanty
intervals of leisure. His government was stern; he over-rode the
privileges of the baronage without regard to precedent; he persisted in
keeping large districts under the arbitrary and vexatious jurisdiction
of the forest-courts. But it is the general opinion of historians that
he had a high sense of his responsibilities and a strong love of
justice; despite the looseness of his personal morals, he commanded the
affection and respect of Gilbert Foliot and Hugh of Lincoln, the most
upright of the English bishops.

  ORIGINAL AUTHORITIES.--Henry's laws are printed in W. Stubb's _Select
  Charters_ (Oxford, 1895). The chief chroniclers of his reign are
  William of Newburgh, Ralph de Diceto, the so-called Benedict of
  Peterborough, Roger of Hoveden, Robert de Torigni (or de Monte),
  Jordan Fantosme, Giraldus Cambrensis, Gervase of Canterbury; all
  printed in the Rolls Series. The biographies and letters contained in
  the 7 vols. of _Materials for the History of Thomas Becket_ (ed. J. C.
  Robertson, Rolls Series, 1875-1885) are valuable for the early and
  middle part of the reign. For Irish affairs the _Song of Dermot_ (ed.
  Orpen, Oxford, 1892), for the rebellions of the princes the metrical
  _Histoire de Guillaume le Maréchal_ (ed. Paul Meyer, 3 vols., Paris,
  1891, &c.) are of importance. Henry's legal and administrative reforms
  are illustrated by the _Tractatus de legibus_ attributed to Ranulph
  Glanville, his chief justiciar (ed. G. Phillips, Berlin, 1828); by the
  _Dialogus de scaccario_ of Richard fitz Nigel (Oxford, 1902); the
  _Pipe Rolls_, printed by J. Hunter for the Record Commission (1844)
  and by the Pipe-Roll Society (London, 1884, &c.) supply valuable
  details. The works of John of Salisbury (ed. Giles, 1848), Peter of
  Blois (ed. Migne), Walter Map (Camden Society, 1841, 1850) and the
  letters of Gilbert Foliot (ed. J. A. Giles, Oxford, 1845) are useful
  for the social and Church history of the reign.

  MODERN AUTHORITIES.--R. W. Eyton, _Itinerary of Henry II._ (London,
  1878); W. Stubbs, _Constitutional History_, vol. i. (Oxford, 1893),
  _Lectures on Medieval and Modern History_ (Oxford, 1886) and _Early
  Plantagenets_ (London, 1876); the same author's introduction to the
  Rolls editions of "Benedict," Gervase, Diceto, Hoveden; Mrs J. R.
  Green, Henry II. (London, 1888); Miss K. Norgate, _England under the
  Angevin Kings_ (2 vols., London, 1887); Sir J. H. Ramsay's _The
  Angevin Empire_ (London, 1893); H. W. C. Davis's _England under the
  Normans and Angevins_ (London, 1905); Sir F. Pollock and F. W.
  Maitland, _History of English Law_ (2 vols., Cambridge, 1898); and F.
  Hardegen, _Imperialpolitik König Heinrichs II. von England_
  (Heidelberg, 1905).     (H. W. C. D.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] For a supposed visit in 1147, see J. H. Round in _English
    Historical Review_, v. 747.



HENRY III. (1207-1272), king of England, was the eldest son of King John
by Isabella of Angoulême. Born on the 1st of October 1207, the prince
was but nine years old at the time of his father's death. The greater
part of eastern England being in the hands of the French pretender,
Prince Louis, afterwards King Louis VIII., and the rebel barons, Henry
was crowned by his supporters at Gloucester, the western capital. John
had committed his son to the protection of the Holy See; and a share in
the government was accordingly allowed to the papal legates, Gualo and
Pandulf, both during the civil war and for some time afterwards. But the
title of regent was given by the loyal barons to William Marshal, the
aged earl of Pembroke; and Peter des Roches, the Poitevin bishop of
Winchester, received the charge of the king's person. The cause of the
young Henry was fully vindicated by the close of the year 1217. Defeated
both by land and sea, the French prince renounced his pretensions and
evacuated England, leaving the regency to deal with the more difficult
questions raised by the lawless insolence of the royal partisans. Henry
remained a passive spectator of the measures by which William Marshal
(d. 1219), and his successor, the justiciar Hubert de Burgh, asserted
the royal prerogative against native barons and foreign mercenaries. In
1223 Honorius III. declared the king of age, but this was a mere
formality, intended to justify the resumption of the royal castles and
demesnes which had passed into private hands during the commotions of
the civil war.

The personal rule of Henry III. began in 1227, when he was again
proclaimed of age. Even then he remained for some time under the
influence of Hubert de Burgh, whose chief rival, Peter des Roches, found
it expedient to quit the kingdom for four years. But Henry was ambitions
to recover the continental possessions which his father had lost.
Against the wishes of the justiciar he planned and carried out an
expedition to the west of France (1230); when it failed he laid the
blame upon his minister. Other differences arose soon afterwards. Hubert
was accused, with some reason, of enriching himself at the expense of
the crown, and of encouraging popular riots against the alien clerks for
whom the papacy was providing at the expense of the English Church. He
was disgraced in 1232; and power passed for a time into the hands of
Peter des Roches, who filled the administration with Poitevins. So began
the period of misrule by which Henry III. is chiefly remembered in
history. The Poitevins fell in 1234; they were removed at the demand of
the barons and the primate Edmund Rich, who held them responsible for
the tragic fate of the rebellious Richard Marshal. But the king replaced
them with a new clique of servile and rapacious favourites. Disregarding
the wishes of the Great Council, and excluding all the more important of
the barons and bishops from office, he acted as his own chief minister
and never condescended to justify his policy except when he stood in
need of subsidies. When these were refused, he extorted aids from the
towns, the Jews or the clergy, the three most defenceless interests in
the kingdom. Always in pecuniary straits through his extravagance, he
pursued a foreign policy which would have been expensive under the most
careful management. He hoped not only to regain the French possessions
but to establish members of his own family as sovereigns in Italy and
the Empire. These plans were artfully fostered by the Savoyard kinsmen
of Eleanor, daughter of Raymond Berenger, count of Provence, whom he
married at Canterbury in January 1236, and by his half-brothers, the
sons of Queen Isabella and Hugo, count of la Marche. These favourites,
not content with pushing their fortunes in the English court, encouraged
the king in the wildest designs. In 1242 he led an expedition to Gascony
which terminated disastrously with the defeat of Taillebourg; and
hostilities with France were intermittently continued for seventeen
years. The Savoyards encouraged his natural tendency to support the
Papacy against the Empire; at an early date in the period of misrule he
entered into a close alliance with Rome, which resulted in heavy
taxation of the clergy and gave great umbrage to the barons. A
cardinal-legate was sent to England at Henry's request, and during four
years (1237-1241) administered the English Church in a manner equally
profitable to the king and to the pope. After the recall of the legate
Otho the alliance was less open and less cordial. Still the pope
continued to share the spoils of the English clergy with the king, and
the king to enforce the demands of Roman tax-collectors.

Circumstances favoured Henry's schemes. Archbishop Edmund Rich was timid
and inexperienced; his successor, Boniface of Savoy, was a kinsman of
the queen; Grosseteste, the most eminent of the bishops, died in 1253,
when he was on the point of becoming a popular hero. Among the lay
barons, the first place naturally belonged to Richard of Cornwall who,
as the king's brother, was unwilling to take any steps which might
impair the royal prerogative; while Simon de Montfort, earl of
Leicester, the ablest man of his order, was regarded with suspicion as a
foreigner, and linked to Henry's cause by his marriage with the princess
Eleanor. Although the Great Council repeatedly protested against the
king's misrule and extravagance, their remonstrances came to nothing for
want of leaders and a clear-cut policy. But between 1248 and 1252 Henry
alienated Montfort from his cause by taking the side of the Gascons,
whom the earl had provoked to rebellion through his rigorous
administration of their duchy. A little later, when Montfort was
committed to opposition, Henry foolishly accepted from Innocent IV. the
crown of Sicily for his second son Edmund Crouchback (1255). Sicily was
to be conquered from the Hohenstaufen at the expense of England; and
Henry pledged his credit to the papacy for enormous subsidies, although
years of comparative inactivity had already overwhelmed him with debts.
On the publication of the ill-considered bargain the baronage at length
took vigorous action. They forced upon the king the Provisions of Oxford
(1258), which placed the government in the hands of a feudal oligarchy;
they reduced expenditure, expelled the alien favourites from the
kingdom, and insisted upon a final renunciation of the French claims.
The king submitted for the moment, but at the first opportunity
endeavoured to cancel his concessions. He obtained a papal absolution
from his promises; and he tricked the opposition into accepting the
arbitration of the French king, Louis IX., whose verdict was a foregone
conclusion. But Henry was incapable of protecting with the strong hand
the rights which he had recovered by his double-dealing. Ignominiously
defeated by Montfort at Lewes (1264) he fell into the position of a
cipher, equally despised by his opponents and supporters. He acquiesced
in the earl's dictatorship; left to his eldest son, Edward, the
difficult task of reorganizing the royal party; marched with the
Montfortians to Evesham; and narrowly escaped sharing the fate of his
gaoler. After Evesham he is hardly mentioned by the chroniclers. The
compromise with the surviving rebels was arranged by his son in concert
with Richard of Cornwall and the legate Ottobuono; the statute of
Marlborough (1267), which purchased a lasting peace by judicious
concessions, was similarly arranged between Edward and the earl of
Gloucester. Edward was king in all but name for some years before the
death of his father, by whom he was alternately suspected and adored.

Henry had in him some of the elements of a fine character. His mind was
cultivated; he was a discriminating patron of literature, and
Westminster Abbey is an abiding memorial of his artistic taste. His
personal morality was irreproachable, except that he inherited the
Plantagenet taste for crooked courses and dissimulation in political
affairs; even in this respect the king's reputation has suffered unduly
at the hands of Matthew Paris, whose literary skill is only equalled by
his malice. The ambitions which Henry cherished, if extravagant, were
never sordid; his patriotism, though seldom attested by practical
measures, was thoroughly sincere. Some of his worst actions as a
politician were due to a sincere, though exaggerated, gratitude for the
support which the Papacy had given him during his minority. But he had
neither the training nor the temper of a statesman. His dreams of
autocracy at home and far-reaching dominion abroad were anachronisms in
a century of constitutional ideas and national differentiation. Above
all he earned the contempt of Englishmen and foreigners alike by the
instability of his purpose. Matthew Paris said that he had a heart of
wax; Dante relegated him to the limbo of ineffectual souls; and later
generations have endorsed these scathing judgments.

Henry died at Westminster on the 16th of November 1272; his widow,
Eleanor, took the veil in 1276 and died at Amesbury on the 25th of June
1291. Their children were: the future king Edward I.; Edmund, earl of
Lancaster; Margaret (1240-1275), the wife of Alexander III., king of
Scotland; Beatrice; and Katherine.

  ORIGINAL AUTHORITIES.--Roger of Wendover, _Flores historiarum_ (ed. H.
  O. Coxe, 4 vols., 1841-1844); and Matthew of Paris, _Chronica majora_
  (ed. H. R. Luard, Rolls Series, 7 vols., 1872-1883) are the chief
  narrative sources. See also the _Annales monastici_ (ed. H. R. Luard,
  Rolls Series, 5 vols., 1864-1869); the collection of _Royal and other
  Historical Letters_ edited by W. Shirley (Rolls Series, 2 vols.,
  1862-1866); the Close and Patent Rolls edited for the Record
  Commission and the Master of the Rolls; the _Epistolae Roberti
  Grosseteste_ (ed. H. R. Luard, Rolls Series, 1861); the _Monumenta
  Franciscana_, vol. i. (ed. J. S. Brewer, Rolls Series, 1858); the
  documents in the new _Foedera_, vol. i. (Record Commission, 1816).

  MODERN WORKS.--G. J. Turner's article on the king's minority in
  _Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, New Series_, vol.
  xviii.; Dom Gasquet's _Henry III. and the Church_ (1905); the lives of
  Simon de Montfort by G. W. Prothero (1871), R. Pauli (Eng. ed., 1876)
  and C. Bémont (Paris, 1884); W. Stubbs's _Constitutional History of
  England_, vol. ii. (1887); R. Pauli's _Geschichte von England_, vol.
  iii. (Hamburg, 1853); T. F. Tout in the _Political History of
  England_, vol. iii. (1905), and H. W. C. Davis in _England under the
  Normans and Angevins_ (1905).     (H. W. C. D.)



HENRY IV. (1367-1413), king of England, son of John of Gaunt, by
Blanche, daughter of Henry, duke of Lancaster, was born on the 3rd of
April 1367, at Bolingbroke in Lincolnshire. As early as 1377 he is
styled earl of Derby, and in 1380 he married Mary de Bohun (d. 1394)
one of the co-heiresses of the last earl of Hereford. In 1387 he
supported his uncle Thomas, duke of Gloucester, in his armed opposition
to Richard II. and his favourites. Afterwards, probably through his
father's influence, he changed sides. He was already distinguished for
his knightly prowess, and for some years devoted himself to adventure.
He thought of going on the crusade to Barbary; but instead, in July
1390, went to serve with the Teutonic knights in Lithuania. He came home
in the following spring, but next year went again to Prussia, whence he
journeyed by way of Venice to Cyprus and Jerusalem. After his return to
England he sided with his father and the king against Gloucester, and in
1397 was made duke of Hereford. In January 1398 he quarrelled with the
duke of Norfolk, who charged him with treason. The dispute was to have
been decided in the lists at Coventry in September; but at the last
moment Richard intervened and banished them both.

When John of Gaunt died in February 1399 Richard, contrary to his
promise, confiscated the estates of Lancaster. Henry then felt himself
free, and made friends with the exiled Arundels. Early in July, whilst
Richard was absent in Ireland, he landed at Ravenspur in Yorkshire. He
was at once joined by the Percies; and Richard, abandoned by his
friends, surrendered at Flint on the 19th of August. In the parliament,
which assembled on the 30th of September, Richard was forced to
abdicate. Henry then made his claim as coming by right line of blood
from King Henry III., and through his right to recover the realm which
was in point to be undone for default of governance and good law.
Parliament formally accepted him, and thus Henry became king, "not so
much by title of blood as by popular election" (Capgrave). The new
dynasty had consequently a constitutional basis. With this Henry's own
political sympathies well accorded. But though the revolution of 1399
was popular in form, its success was due to an oligarchical faction.
From the start Henry was embarrassed by the power and pretensions of the
Percies. Nor was his hereditary title so good as that of the Mortimers.
To domestic troubles was added the complication of disputes with
Scotland and France. The first danger came from the friends of Richard,
who plotted prematurely, and were crushed in January 1400. During the
summer of 1400 Henry made a not over-successful expedition to Scotland.
The French court would not accept his overtures, and it was only in the
summer of 1401 that a truce was patched up by the restoration of
Richard's child-queen, Isabella of Valois. Meantime a more serious
trouble had arisen through the outbreak of the Welsh revolt under Owen
Glendower (q.v.). In 1400 and again in each of the two following autumns
Henry invaded Wales in vain. The success of the Percies over the Scots
at Homildon Hill (Sept. 1402) was no advantage. Henry Percy (Hotspur)
and his father, the earl of Northumberland, thought their services
ill-requited, and finally made common cause with the partisans of
Mortimer and the Welsh. The plot was frustrated by Hotspur's defeat at
Shrewsbury (21st of July 1403); and Northumberland for the time
submitted. Henry had, however, no one on whom he could rely outside his
own family, except Archbishop Arundel. The Welsh were unsubdued; the
French were plundering the southern coast; Northumberland was fomenting
trouble in the north. The crisis came in 1405. A plot to carry off the
young Mortimers was defeated; but Mowbray, the earl marshal, who had
been privy to it, raised a rebellion in the north supported by
Archbishop Scrope of York. Mowbray and Scrope were taken and beheaded;
Northumberland escaped into Scotland. For the execution of the
archbishop Henry was personally responsible, and he could never free
himself from its odium. Popular belief regarded his subsequent illness
as a judgment for his impiety. Apart from ill-health and unpopularity
Henry had succeeded--relations with Scotland were secured by the capture
of James, the heir to the crown; Northumberland was at last crushed at
Bramham Moor (Feb. 1408); and a little later the Welsh revolt was
mastered.

Henry, stricken with sore disease, was unable to reap the advantage. His
necessities had all along enabled the Commons to extort concessions in
parliament, until in 1406 he was forced to nominate a council and govern
by its advice. However, with Archbishop Arundel as his chancellor, Henry
still controlled the government. But in January 1410 Arundel had to give
way to the king's half-brother, Thomas Beaufort. Beaufort and his
brother Henry, bishop of Winchester, were opposed to Arundel and
supported by the prince of Wales. For two years the real government
rested with the prince and the council. Under the prince's influence the
English intervened in France in 1411 on the side of Burgundy. In this,
and in some matters of home politics, the king disagreed with his
ministers. There is good reason to suppose that the Beauforts had gone
so far as to contemplate a forced abdication on the score of the king's
ill-health. However, in November 1411 Henry showed that he was still
capable of vigorous action by discharging the prince and his supporters.
Arundel again became chancellor, and the king's second son, Thomas, took
his brother's place. The change was further marked by the sending of an
expedition to France in support of Orleans. But Henry's health was
failing steadily. On the 20th of March 1413, whilst praying in
Westminster Abbey he was seized with a fainting fit, and died that same
evening in the Jerusalem Chamber. At the time he was believed to have
been a leper, but as it would appear without sufficient reason.

As a young man Henry had been chivalrous and adventurous, and in
politics anxious for good government and justice. As king the loss and
failure of friends made him cautious, suspicious and cruel. The
persecution of the Lollards, which began with the burning statute of
1401, may be accounted for by Henry's own orthodoxy, or by the influence
of Archbishop Arundel, his one faithful friend. But that political
Lollardry was strong is shown by the proposal in the parliament of 1410
for a wholesale confiscation of ecclesiastical property. Henry's faults
may be excused by his difficulties. Throughout he was practical and
steadfast, and he deserved credit for maintaining his principles as a
constitutional ruler. So after all his troubles he founded his dynasty
firmly, and passed on the crown to his son with a better title. He is
buried under a fine tomb at Canterbury.

By Mary Bohun Henry had four sons: his successor Henry V., Thomas, duke
of Clarence, John, duke of Bedford, and Humphrey, duke of Gloucester;
and two daughters, Blanche, who married Louis III., elector palatine of
the Rhine, and Philippa, who married Eric XIII., king of Sweden. Henry's
second wife was Joan, or Joanna, (c. 1370-1437), daughter of Charles the
Bad, king of Navarre, and widow of John IV. or V., duke of Brittany, who
survived until July 1437. By her he had no children.

  The chief contemporary authorities are the _Annales Henrici Quarti_
  and T. Walsingham's _Historia Anglicana_ (Rolls Series), Adam of Usk's
  _Chronicle_ and the various _Chronicles of London_. The life by John
  Capgrave (_De illustribus Henricis_) is of little value. Some personal
  matter is contained in _Wardrobe Accounts of Henry, Earl of Derby_
  (Camden Soc.). For documents consult T. Rymer's _Foedera_; Sir N. H.
  Nicolas, _Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council_; Sir H.
  Ellis, _Original Letters illustrative of English History_ (London,
  1825-1846); _Rolls of Parliament_; _Royal and Historical Letters,
  Henry IV._ (Rolls Series) and the _Calendars of Patent Rolls_. Of
  modern authorities the foremost is J. H. Wylie's minute and learned
  _Hist. of England under Henry IV._ (4 vols., London, 1884-1898). See
  also W. Stubbs, _Constitutional History_; Sir J. Ramsay, _Lancaster
  and York_ (2 vols., Oxford, 1892), and C. W. C. Oman, _The Political
  History of England_, vol. iv.     (C. L. K.)



HENRY V. (1387-1422), king of England, son of Henry IV. by Mary de
Bohun, was born at Monmouth, in August 1387. On his father's exile in
1398 Richard II. took the boy into his own charge, and treated him
kindly. Next year the Lancastrian revolution forced Henry into
precocious prominence as heir to the throne. From October 1400 the
administration of Wales was conducted in his name; less than three years
later he was in actual command of the English forces and fought against
the Percies at Shrewsbury. The Welsh revolt absorbed his energies till
1408. Then through the king's ill-health he began to take a wider share
in politics. From January 1410, helped by his uncles Henry and Thomas
Beaufort, he had practical control of the government. Both in foreign
and domestic policy he differed from the king, who in November 1411
discharged the prince from the council. The quarrel of father and son
was political only, though it is probable that the Beauforts had
discussed the abdication of Henry IV., and their opponents certainly
endeavoured to defame the prince. It may be that to political enmity the
tradition of Henry's riotous youth, immortalized by Shakespeare, is
partly due. To that tradition Henry's strenuous life in war and politics
is a sufficient general contradiction. The most famous incident, his
quarrel with the chief-justice, has no contemporary authority and was
first related by Sir Thomas Elyot in 1531. The story of Falstaff
originated partly in Henry's early friendship for Oldcastle (q.v.). That
friendship, and the prince's political opposition to Archbishop Arundel,
perhaps encouraged Lollard hopes. If so, their disappointment may
account for the statements of ecclesiastical writers, like Walsingham,
that Henry on becoming king was changed suddenly into a new man.

Henry succeeded his father on the 20th of March 1413. With no past to
embarrass him, and with no dangerous rivals, his practical experience
had full scope. He had to deal with three main problems--the restoration
of domestic peace, the healing of schism in the Church and the recovery
of English prestige in Europe. Henry grasped them all together, and
gradually built upon them a yet wider policy. From the first he made it
clear that he would rule England as the head of a united nation, and
that past differences were to be forgotten. Richard II. was honourably
reinterred; the young Mortimer was taken into favour; the heirs of those
who had suffered in the last reign were restored gradually to their
titles and estates. With Oldcastle Henry used his personal influence in
vain, and the gravest domestic danger was Lollard discontent. But the
king's firmness nipped the movement in the bud (Jan. 1414), and made his
own position as ruler secure. Save for the abortive Scrope and Cambridge
plot in favour of Mortimer in July 1415, the rest of his reign was free
from serious trouble at home. Henry could now turn his attention to
foreign affairs. A writer of the next generation was the first to allege
that Henry was encouraged by ecclesiastical statesmen to enter on the
French war as a means of diverting attention from home troubles. For
this story there is no foundation. The restoration of domestic peace was
the king's first care, and until it was assured he could not embark on
any wider enterprise abroad. Nor was that enterprise one of idle
conquest. Old commercial disputes and the support which the French had
lent to Glendower gave a sufficient excuse for war, whilst the
disordered state of France afforded no security for peace. Henry may
have regarded the assertion of his own claims as part of his kingly
duty, but in any case a permanent settlement of the national quarrel was
essential to the success of his world policy. The campaign of 1415, with
its brilliant conclusion at Agincourt (October 25), was only the first
step. Two years of patient preparation followed. The command of the sea
was secured by driving the Genoese allies of the French out of the
Channel. A successful diplomacy detached the emperor Sigismund from
France, and by the Treaty of Canterbury paved the way to end the schism
in the Church. So in 1417 the war was renewed on a larger scale. Lower
Normandy was quickly conquered, Rouen cut off from Paris and besieged.
The French were paralysed by the disputes of Burgundians and Armagnacs.
Henry skilfully played them off one against the other, without relaxing
his warlike energy. In January 1419 Rouen fell. By August the English
were outside the walls of Paris. The intrigues of the French parties
culminated in the assassination of John of Burgundy by the dauphin's
partisans at Montereau (September 10, 1419). Philip, the new duke, and
the French court threw themselves into Henry's arms. After six months'
negotiation Henry was by the Treaty of Troyes recognized as heir and
regent of France, and on the 2nd of June 1420 married Catherine, the
king's daughter. He was now at the height of his power. His eventual
success in France seemed certain. He shared with Sigismund the credit of
having ended the Great Schism by obtaining the election of Pope Martin
V. All the states of western Europe were being brought within the web of
his diplomacy. The headship of Christendom was in his grasp, and
schemes for a new crusade began to take shape. He actually sent an envoy
to collect information in the East; but his plans were cut short by
death. A visit to England in 1421 was interrupted by the defeat of
Clarence at Baugé. The hardships of the longer winter siege of Meaux
broke down his health, and he died at Bois de Vincennes on the 31st of
August 1422.

Henry's last words were a wish that he might live to rebuild the walls
of Jerusalem. They are significant. His ideal was founded consciously on
the models of Arthur and Godfrey as national king and leader of
Christendom. So he is the typical medieval hero. For that very reason
his schemes were doomed to end in disaster, since the time was come for
a new departure. Yet he was not reactionary. His policy was
constructive: a firm central government supported by parliament; church
reform on conservative lines; commercial development; and the
maintenance of national prestige. His aims in some respects anticipated
those of his Tudor successors, but he would have accomplished them on
medieval lines as a constitutional ruler. His success was due to the
power of his personality. He could train able lieutenants, but at his
death there was no one who could take his place as leader. War,
diplomacy and civil administration were all dependent on his guidance.
His dazzling achievements as a general have obscured his more sober
qualities as a ruler, and even the sound strategy, with which he aimed
to be master of the narrow seas. If he was not the founder of the
English navy he was one of the first to realize its true importance.
Henry had so high a sense of his own rights that he was merciless to
disloyalty. But he was scrupulous of the rights of others, and it was
his eager desire to further the cause of justice that impressed his
French contemporaries. He has been charged with cruelty as a religious
persecutor; but in fact he had as prince opposed the harsh policy of
Archbishop Arundel, and as king sanctioned a more moderate course.
Lollard executions during his reign had more often a political than a
religious reason. To be just with sternness was in his eyes a duty. So
in his warfare, though he kept strict discipline and allowed no wanton
violence, he treated severely all who had in his opinion transgressed.
In his personal conduct he was chaste, temperate and sincerely pious. He
delighted in sport and all manly exercises. At the same time he was
cultured, with a taste for literature, art and music. Henry lies buried
in Westminster Abbey. His tomb was stripped of its splendid adornment
during the Reformation. The shield, helmet and saddle, which formed part
of the original funeral equipment, still hang above it.

  Of original authorities the best on the English side is the _Gesta
  Henrici Quinti_ (down to 1416), printed anonymously for the English
  Historical Society, but probably written by Thomas Elmham, one of
  Henry's chaplains. Two lives edited by Thomas Hearne under the names
  of Elmham and Titus Livius Forojuliensis come from a common source;
  the longer, which Hearne ascribed incorrectly to Elmham, is perhaps
  the original work of Livius, who was an Italian in the service of
  Humphrey of Gloucester, and wrote about 1440. Other authorities are
  the Chronicles of Walsingham and Otterbourne, the _English Chronicle_
  or _Brut_, and the various _London Chronicles_. On the French side the
  most valuable are Chronicles of Monstrelet and St Rémy (both
  Burgundian) and the _Chronique du religieux de S. Denys_ (the official
  view of the French court). For documents and modern authorities see
  under HENRY IV. See also Sir N. H. Nicolas, _Hist. of the Battle of
  Agincourt and the Expedition of 1415_ (London, 1833); C. L. Kingsford,
  _Henry V., the Typical Medieval Hero_ (New York, 1901), where a fuller
  bibliography will be found.     (C. L. K.)



HENRY VI. (1421-1471), king of England, son of Henry V. and Catherine of
Valois, was born at Windsor on the 6th of December 1421. He became king
of England on the 1st of September 1422, and a few weeks later, on the
death of his grandfather Charles VI., was proclaimed king of France
also. Henry V. had directed that Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick
(q.v.), should be his son's preceptor; Warwick took up his charge in
1428; he trained his pupil to be a good man and refined gentleman, but
he could not teach him kingship. As early as 1423 the baby king was made
to appear at public functions and take his place in parliament. He was
knighted by his uncle Bedford at Leicester in May 1426, and on the 6th
of November 1429 was crowned at Westminster. Early in the next year he
was taken over to France, and after long delay crowned in Paris on the
16th of December 1431. His return to London on the 14th of February 1432
was celebrated with a great pageant devised by Lydgate.

During these early years Bedford ruled France wisely and at first with
success, but he could not prevent the mischief which Humphrey of
Gloucester (q.v.) caused both at home and abroad. Even in France the
English lost ground steadily after the victory of Joan of Arc before
Orleans in 1429. The climax came with the death of Bedford, and
defection of Philip of Burgundy in 1435. This closed the first phase of
Henry's reign. There followed fifteen years of vain struggle in France,
and growing disorder at home. The determining factor in politics was the
conduct of the war. Cardinal Beaufort, and after him Suffolk, sought by
working for peace to secure at least Guienne and Normandy. Gloucester
courted popularity by opposing them throughout; with him was Richard of
York, who stood next in succession to the crown. Beaufort controlled the
council, and it was under his guidance that the king began to take part
in the government. Thus it was natural that as Henry grew to manhood he
seconded heartily the peace policy. That policy was wise, but national
pride made it unpopular and difficult. Henry himself had not the
strength or knowledge to direct it, and was unfortunate in his advisers.
The cardinal was old, his nephews John and Edmund Beaufort were
incompetent, Suffolk, though a man of noble character, was tactless.
Suffolk, however, achieved a great success by negotiating the marriage
of Henry to Margaret of Anjou (q.v.) in 1445. Humphrey of Gloucester and
Cardinal Beaufort both died early in 1447. Suffolk was now all-powerful
in the favour of the king and queen. But his home administration was
unpopular, whilst the incapacity of Edmund Beaufort ended in the loss of
all Normandy and Guienne. Suffolk's fall in 1450 left Richard of York
the foremost man in England. Henry's reign then entered on its last
phase of dynastic struggle. Cade's rebellion suggested first that
popular discontent might result in a change of rulers. But York, as heir
to the throne, could abide his time. The situation was altered by the
mental derangement of the king, and the birth of his son in 1453. York
after a struggle secured the protectorship, and for the next year ruled
England. Then Henry was restored to sanity, and the queen and Edmund
Beaufort, now Duke of Somerset, to power. Open war followed, with the
defeat and death of Somerset at St Albans on the 22nd of May 1455.
Nevertheless a hollow peace was patched up, which continued during four
years with lack of all governance. In 1459 war broke out again. On the
10th of July 1460 Henry was taken prisoner at Northampton, and forced to
acknowledge York as heir, to the exclusion of his own son. Richard of
York's death at Wakefield (Dec. 29, 1460), and the queen's victory at St
Albans (Feb. 17, 1461), brought Henry his freedom and no more. Edward of
York had himself proclaimed king, and by his decisive victory at Towton
on the 29th of March, put an end to Henry's reign. For over three years
Henry was a fugitive in Scotland. He returned to take part in an
abortive rising in 1464. A year later he was captured in the north, and
brought a prisoner to the Tower. For six months in 1470-1471 he emerged
to hold a shadowy kingship as Warwick's puppet. Edward's final victory
at Tewkesbury was followed by Henry's death on the 21st of May 1471,
certainly by violence, perhaps at the hands of Richard of Gloucester.

Henry was the most hapless of monarchs. He was so honest and
well-meaning that he might have made a good ruler in quiet times. But he
was crushed by the burden of his inheritance. He had not the genius to
find a way out of the French entanglement or the skill to steer a
constitutional monarchy between rival factions. So the system and policy
which were the creations of Henry IV. and Henry V. led under Henry VI.
to the ruin of their dynasty. Henry's very virtues added to his
difficulties. He was so trusting that any one could influence him, so
faithful that he would not give up a minister who had become impossible.
Thus even in the middle period he had no real control of the government.
In his latter years he was mentally too weak for independent action. At
his best he was a "good and gentle creature," but too kindly and
generous to rule others. Religious observances and study were his chief
occupations. His piety was genuine; simple and pure, he was shocked at
any suggestion of impropriety, but his rebuke was only "Fie, for shame!
forsooth ye are to blame." For education he was really zealous. Even as
a boy he was concerned for the upbringing of his half-brothers, his
mother's children by Owen Tudor. Later, the planning of his great
foundations at Eton and King's College, Cambridge, was the one thing
which absorbed his interest. To both he was more than a royal founder,
and the credit of the whole scheme belongs to him. The charter for Eton
was granted on the 11th of October 1440, and that for King's College in
the following February. Henry himself laid the foundation-stones of both
buildings. He frequently visited Cambridge to superintend the progress
of the work. When at Windsor he loved to send for the boys from his
school and give them good advice.

Henry's only son was Edward, prince of Wales (1453-1471), who, having
shared the many journeys and varying fortunes of his mother, Margaret,
was killed after the battle of Tewkesbury (May 4, 1471) by some noblemen
in attendance on Edward IV.

  There is a life of Henry by his chaplain John Blakman (printed at the
  end of Hearne's edition of Otterbourne); but it is concerned only with
  his piety and patience in adversity. English chronicles for the reign
  are scanty; the best are the _Chronicles of London_ (ed. C. L.
  Kingsford), with the analogous _Gregory's Chronicle_ (ed. J. Gairdner
  for Camden Soc.) and _Chronicle of London_ (ed. Sir H. N. Nicolas).
  _The Paston Letters_, with James Gairdner's valuable Introductions,
  are indispensable. Other useful authorities are Joseph Stevenson's
  _Letters and Papers illustrative of the Wars of the English in France
  during the Reign of Henry VI._; and _Correspondence of T. Bekynton_
  (both in "Rolls" series). For the French war the chief sources are the
  _Chronicles_ of Monstrelet, D'Escouchy and T. Basin. For other
  documents and modern authorities see under HENRY IV. For Henry's
  foundations see Sir H. C. Maxwell-Lyte, _History of Eton College_
  (London, 1899), and J. B. Mullinger, _History of the University of
  Cambridge_ (London, 1888).     (C. L. K.)



HENRY VII. (1457-1509), king of England, was the first of the Tudor
dynasty. His claim to the throne was through his mother from John of
Gaunt and Catherine Swynford, whose issue born before their marriage had
been legitimated by parliament. This, of course, was only a Lancastrian
claim, never valid, even as such, till the direct male line of John of
Gaunt had become extinct. By his father the genealogists traced his
pedigree to Cadwallader, but this only endeared him to the Welsh when he
had actually become king. His grandfather, Owen Tudor, however, had
married Catherine, the widow of Henry V. and daughter to Charles VI. of
France. Their son Edmund, being half brother of Henry VI., was created
by that king earl of Richmond, and having married Margaret Beaufort,
only daughter of John, duke of Somerset, died more than two months
before their only child, Henry, was born in Pembroke Castle in January
1457. The fatherless child had sore trials. Edward IV. won the crown
when he was four years old, and while Wales partly held out against the
conqueror, he was carried for safety from one castle to another. Then
for a time he was made a prisoner; but ultimately he was taken abroad by
his uncle Jasper, who found refuge in Brittany. At one time the duke of
Brittany was nearly induced to surrender him to Edward IV.; but he
remained safe in the duchy till the cruelties of Richard III. drove more
and more Englishmen abroad to join him. An invasion of England was
planned in 1483 in concert with the duke of Buckingham's rising; but
stormy weather at sea and an inundation in the Severn defeated the two
movements. A second expedition, two years later, aided this time by
France, was more successful. Henry landed at Milford Haven among his
Welsh allies and defeated Richard at the battle of Bosworth (August 22,
1485). He was crowned at Westminster on the 30th of October following.
Then, in fulfilment of pledges by which he had procured the adhesion of
many Yorkist supporters, he was married at Westminster to Elizabeth
(1465-1503), eldest daughter and heiress of Edward IV. (Jan. 18, 1486),
whose two brothers had both been murdered by Richard III. Thus the Red
and White Roses were united and the pretexts for civil war done away
with.

Nevertheless, Henry's reign was much disturbed by a succession of
Yorkist conspiracies and pretenders. Of the two most notable impostors,
the first, Lambert Simnel, personated the earl of Warwick, son of the
duke of Clarence, a youth of seventeen whom Henry had at his accession
taken care to imprison in the Tower. Simnel, who was but a boy, was
taken over to Ireland to perform his part, and the farce was wonderfully
successful. He was crowned as Edward VI. in Christchurch Cathedral,
Dublin, and received the allegiance of every one--bishops, nobles and
judges, alike with others. From Ireland, accompanied by some bands of
German mercenaries procured for him in the Low Countries, he invaded
England; but the rising was put down at Stoke near Newark in
Nottinghamshire, and, Simnel being captured, the king made him a menial
of his kitchen.

This movement had been greatly assisted by Margaret, duchess dowager of
Burgundy, sister of Edward IV., who could not endure to see the House of
York supplanted by that of Tudor. The second pretender, Perkin Warbeck,
was also much indebted to her support; but he seems to have entered on
his career at first without it. And his story, which was more prolonged,
had to do with the attitude of many countries towards England. Anxious
as Henry was to avoid being involved in foreign wars, it was not many
years before he was committed to a war with France, partly by his desire
of an alliance with Spain, and partly by the indignation of his own
subjects at the way in which the French were undermining the
independence of Brittany. Henry gave Brittany defensive aid; but after
the duchess Anne had married Charles VIII. of France, he felt bound to
fulfil his obligations to Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, and also to
the German king Maximilian, by an invasion of France in 1492. His
allies, however, were not equally scrupulous or equally able to fulfil
their obligations to him; and after besieging Boulogne for some little
time, he received very advantageous offers from the French king and made
peace with him.

Now Perkin Warbeck had first appeared in Ireland in 1491, and had
somehow been persuaded there to personate Richard, duke of York, the
younger of the two princes murdered in the Tower, pretending that he had
escaped, though his brother had been killed. Charles VIII., then
expecting war with England, called him to France, recognized his
pretensions and gave him a retinue; but after the peace he dismissed
him. Then Margaret of Burgundy received him as her nephew, and
Maximilian, now estranged from Henry, recognized him as king of England.
With a fleet given him by Maximilian he attempted to land at Deal, but
sailed away to Ireland and, not succeeding very well there either,
sailed farther to Scotland, where James IV. received him with open arms,
married him to an earl's daughter and made a brief and futile invasion
of England along with him. But in 1497 he thought best to dismiss him,
and Perkin, after attempting something again in Ireland, landed in
Cornwall with a small body of men.

Already Cornwall had risen in insurrection that year, not liking the
taxation imposed for the purpose of repelling the Scotch invasion. A
host of the country people, led first by a blacksmith, but afterwards by
a nobleman, marched up towards London and were only defeated at
Blackheath. But the Cornishmen were quite ready for another revolt, and
indeed had invited Perkin to their shores. He had little fight in him,
however, and after a futile siege of Exeter and an advance to Taunton he
stole away and took sanctuary at Beaulieu in Hampshire. But, being
assured of his life, he surrendered, was brought to London, and was only
executed two years later, when, being imprisoned near the earl of
Warwick in the Tower, he inveigled that simple-minded youth into a
project of escape. For this Warwick, too, was tried, condemned and
executed--no doubt to deliver Henry from repeated conspiracies in his
favour.

Henry had by this time several children, of whom the eldest, Arthur, had
been proposed in infancy for a bridegroom to Catherine, daughter of
Ferdinand of Aragon. The match had always been kept in view, but its
completion depended greatly on the assurance Ferdinand and Isabella
could feel of Henry's secure position upon the throne. At last Catherine
was brought to England and was married to Prince Arthur at St Paul's on
the 14th of November 1501. The lad was just over fifteen and the
co-habitation of the couple was wisely delayed; but he died on the 2nd
of April following. Another match was presently proposed for Catherine
with the king's second son, Henry, which only took effect when the
latter had become king himself. Meanwhile Henry's eldest daughter
Margaret was married to James IV. of Scotland--a match distinctly
intended to promote international peace, and make possible that ultimate
union which actually resulted from it. The espousals had taken place at
Richmond in 1502, and the marriage was celebrated in Scotland the year
after. In the interval between these two events Henry lost his queen,
who died on the 11th of February 1503, and during the remainder of his
reign he made proposals in various quarters for a second
marriage--proposals in which political objects were always the chief
consideration; but none of them led to any result. In his latter years
he became unpopular from the extortions practised by his two
instruments, Empson and Dudley, under the authority of antiquated
statutes. From the beginning of his reign he had been accumulating
money, mainly for his own security against intrigues and conspiracies,
and avarice had grown upon him with success. He died in April 1509,
undoubtedly the richest prince in Christendom. He was not a niggard,
however, in his expenditure. Before his death he had finished the
hospital of the Savoy and made provision for the magnificent chapel at
Westminster which bears his name. His money-getting was but part of his
statesmanship, and for his statesmanship his country owes him not a
little gratitude. He not only terminated a disastrous civil war and
brought under control the spirit of ancient feudalism, but with a clear
survey of the conditions of foreign powers he secured England in almost
uninterrupted peace while he developed her commerce, strengthened her
slender navy and built, apparently for the first time, a naval dock at
Portsmouth.

In addition to his sons Arthur and Henry, Henry VII. had several
daughters, one of whom, Margaret, married James IV., king of Scotland,
and another, Mary, became the wife of Louis XII. of France, and
afterwards of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk.

  The popular view of Henry VII.'s reign has always been derived from
  Bacon's _History_ of that king. This has been edited by J. R. Lumby
  (Cambridge, 1881). But during the last half century large accessions
  to our knowledge have been made from foreign and domestic archives,
  and the sources of Bacon's work have been more critically examined.
  For a complete account of those sources the reader may be referred to
  W. Busch's _England under the Tudors_, published in German in 1892 and
  in an English translation in 1895. Some further information of a
  special kind will be found in M. Oppenheim's _Naval Accounts and
  Inventories_, published by the Navy Records Society in 1896. See also
  J. Gairdner's _Henry VII._ (1889).     (J. Ga.)



HENRY VIII. (1491-1547), king of England and Ireland, the third child
and second son of Henry VII. and Elizabeth of York, was born on the 28th
of June 1491 and, like all the Tudor sovereigns except Henry VII., at
Greenwich. His two brothers, Prince Arthur and Edmund, duke of Somerset,
and two of his sisters predeceased their father; Henry was the only son,
and Margaret, afterwards queen of Scotland, and Mary, afterwards queen
of France and duchess of Suffolk, were the only daughters who survived.
Henry is said, on authority which has not been traced farther back than
Paolo Sarpi, to have been destined for the church; but the story is
probably a mere surmise from his theological accomplishments, and from
his earliest years high secular posts such as the viceroyalty of Ireland
were conferred upon the child. He was the first English monarch to be
educated under the influence of the Renaissance, and his tutors included
the poet Skelton; he became an accomplished scholar, linguist, musician
and athlete, and when by the death of his brother Arthur in 1502 and of
his father on the 22nd of April 1509 Henry VIII. succeeded to the
throne, his accession was hailed with universal acclamation.

He had been betrothed to his brother's widow Catherine of Aragon, and in
spite of the protest which he had been made to register against the
marriage, and of the doubts expressed by Julius II. and Archbishop
Warham as to its validity, it was completed in the first few months of
his reign. This step was largely due to the pressure brought to bear by
Catherine's father Ferdinand upon Henry's council; he regarded England
as a tool in his hands and Catherine as his resident ambassador. The
young king himself at first took little interest in politics, and for
two years affairs were managed by the pacific Richard Fox (q.v.) and
Warham. Then Wolsey became supreme, while Henry was immersed in the
pursuit of sport and other amusements. He took, however, the keenest
interest from the first in learning and in the navy, and his inborn
pride easily led him to support Wolsey's and Ferdinand's warlike designs
on France. He followed an English army across the Channel in 1513, and
personally took part in the successful sieges of Therouanne and Tournay
and the battle of Guinegate which led to the peace of 1514. Ferdinand,
however, deserted the English alliance, and amid the consequent
irritation against everything Spanish, there was talk of a divorce
between Henry and Catherine (1514), whose issue had hitherto been
attended with fatal misfortune. But the renewed antagonism between
England and France which followed the accession of Francis I. (1515) led
to a rapprochement with Ferdinand; the birth of the lady Mary (1516)
held out hopes of the male issue which Henry so much desired; and the
question of a divorce was postponed. Ferdinand died in that year (1516)
and the emperor Maximilian in 1519. Their grandson Charles V. succeeded
them both in all their realms and dignities in spite of Henry's hardly
serious candidature for the empire; and a lifelong rivalry broke out
between him and Francis I. Wolsey used this antagonism to make England
arbiter between them; and both monarchs sought England's favour in 1520,
Francis at the Field of Cloth of Gold and Charles V. more quietly in
Kent. At the conference of Calais in 1521 English influence reached its
zenith; but the alliance with Charles destroyed the balance on which
that influence depended. Francis was overweighted, and his defeat at
Pavia in 1525 made the emperor supreme. Feeble efforts to challenge his
power in Italy provoked the sack of Rome in 1527; and the peace of
Cambrai in 1529 was made without any reference to Wolsey or England's
interests.

Meanwhile Henry had been developing a serious interest in politics, and
he could brook no superior in whatever sphere he wished to shine. He
began to adopt a more critical attitude towards Wolsey's policy, foreign
and domestic; and to give ear to the murmurs against the cardinal and
his ecclesiastical rule. Parliament had been kept at arm's length since
1515 lest it should attack the church; but Wolsey's expensive foreign
policy rendered recourse to parliamentary subsidies indispensable. When
it met in 1523 it refused Wolsey's demands, and forced loans were the
result which increased the cardinal's unpopularity. Nor did success
abroad now blunt the edge of domestic discontent. His fate, however, was
sealed by his failure to obtain a divorce for Henry from the papal
court. The king's hopes of male issue had been disappointed, and by 1526
it was fairly certain that Henry could have no male heir to the throne
while Catherine remained his wife. There was Mary, but no queen regnant
had yet ruled in England; Margaret Beaufort had been passed over in
favour of her son in 1485, and there was a popular impression that women
were excluded from the throne. No candidate living could have secured
the succession without a recurrence of civil war. Moreover the
unexampled fatality which had attended Henry's issue revived the
theological scruples which had always existed about the marriage; and
the breach with Charles V. in 1527 provoked a renewal of the design of
1514. All these considerations were magnified by Henry's passion for
Anne Boleyn, though she certainly was not the sole or the main cause of
the divorce. That the succession was the main point is proved by the
fact that Henry's efforts were all directed to securing a wife and not a
mistress. Wolsey persuaded him that the necessary divorce could be
obtained from Rome, as it had been in the case of Louis XII. of France
and Margaret of Scotland. For a time Clement VII. was inclined to
concede the demand, and Campeggio in 1528 was given ample powers. But
the prospect of French success in Italy which had encouraged the pope
proved delusive, and in 1529 he had to submit to the yoke of Charles V.
This involved a rejection of Henry's suit, not because Charles cared
anything for his aunt, but because a divorce would mean disinheriting
Charles's cousin Mary, and perhaps the eventual succession of the son of
a French princess to the English throne.

Wolsey fell when Campeggio was recalled, and his fall involved the
triumph of the anti-ecclesiastical party in England. Laymen who had
resented their exclusion from power were now promoted to offices such as
those of lord chancellor and lord privy seal which they had rarely held
before; and parliament was encouraged to propound lay grievances against
the church. On the support of the laity Henry relied to abolish papal
jurisdiction and reduce clerical privilege and property in England; and
by a close alliance with Francis I. he insured himself against the
enmity of Charles V. But it was only gradually that the breach was
completed with Rome. Henry had defended the papacy against Luther in
1521 and had received in return the title "defender of the faith." He
never liked Protestantism, and he was prepared for peace with Rome on
his own terms. Those terms were impossible of acceptance by a pope in
Clement VII.'s position; but before Clement had made up his mind to
reject them, Henry had discovered that the papacy was hardly worth
conciliating. His eyes were opened to the extent of his own power as the
exponent of national antipathy to papal jurisdiction and ecclesiastical
privilege; and his appetite for power grew. With Cromwell's help he
secured parliamentary support, and its usefulness led him to extend
parliamentary representation to Wales and Calais, to defend the
privileges of Parliament, and to yield rather than forfeit its
confidence. He had little difficulty in securing the Acts of Annates,
Appeals and Supremacy which completed the separation from Rome, or the
dissolution of the monasteries which, by transferring enormous wealth
from the church to the crown, really, in Cecil's opinion, ensured the
reformation.

The abolition of the papal jurisdiction removed all obstacles to the
divorce from Catherine and to the legalization of Henry's marriage with
Anne Boleyn (1533). But the recognition of the royal supremacy could
only be enforced at the cost of the heads of Sir Thomas More, Bishop
Fisher and a number of monks and others among whom the Carthusians
signalized themselves by their devotion (1535-1536). Anne Boleyn fared
no better than the Catholic martyrs; she failed to produce a male heir
to the throne, and her conduct afforded a jury of peers, over which her
uncle, the duke of Norfolk, presided, sufficient excuse for condemning
her to death on a charge of adultery (1536). Henry then married Jane
Seymour, who was obnoxious to no one, gave birth to Edward VI., and then
died (1537). The dissolution of the monasteries had meanwhile evoked a
popular protest in the north, and it was only by skilful and
unscrupulous diplomacy that Henry was enabled to suppress so easily the
Pilgrimage of Grace. Foreign intervention was avoided through the
renewal of war between Francis and Charles; and the insurgents were
hampered by having no rival candidate for the throne and no means of
securing the execution of their programme.

Nevertheless their rising warned Henry against further doctrinal change.
He had authorized the English Bible and some approach towards Protestant
doctrine in the Ten Articles. He also considered the possibility of a
political and theological alliance with the Lutheran princes of Germany.
But in 1538 he definitely rejected their theological terms, while in
1539-1540 they rejected his political proposals. By the statute of Six
Articles (1539) he took his stand on Catholic doctrine; and when the
Lutherans had rejected his alliance, and Cromwell's nominee, Anne of
Cleves, had proved both distasteful on personal grounds and unnecessary
because Charles and Francis were not really projecting a Catholic
crusade against England, Anne was divorced and Cromwell beheaded. The
new queen Catherine Howard represented the triumph of the reactionary
party under Gardiner and Norfolk; but there was no idea of returning to
the papal obedience, and even Catholic orthodoxy as represented by the
Six Articles was only enforced by spasmodic outbursts of persecution and
vain attempts to get rid of Cranmer.

The secular importance of Henry's activity has been somewhat obscured by
his achievements in the sphere of ecclesiastical politics; but no small
part of his energies was devoted to the task of expanding the royal
authority at the expense of temporal competitors. Feudalism was not yet
dead, and in the north and west there were medieval franchises in which
the royal writ and common law hardly ran at all. Wales and its marches
were brought into legal union with the rest of England by the statutes
of Wales (1534-1536); and after the Pilgrimage of Grace the Council of
the North was set up to bring into subjection the extensive
jurisdictions of the northern earls. Neither they nor the lesser chiefs
who flourished on the lack of common law and order could be reduced by
ordinary methods, and the Councils of Wales and of the North were given
summary powers derived from the Roman civil law similar to those
exercised by the Star Chamber at Westminster and the court of Castle
Chamber at Dublin. Ireland had been left by Wolsey to wallow in its own
disorder; but disorder was anathema to Henry's mind, and in 1535 Sir
William Skeffington was sent to apply English methods and artillery to
the government of Ireland. Sir Anthony St Leger continued his policy
from 1540; Henry, instead of being merely lord of Ireland dependent on
the pope, was made by an Irish act of parliament king, and supreme head
of the Irish church. Conciliation was also tried with some success;
plantation schemes were rejected in favour of an attempt to Anglicize
the Irish; their chieftains were created earls and endowed with monastic
lands; and so peaceful was Ireland in 1542 that the lord-deputy could
send Irish kernes and gallowglasses to fight against the Scots.

Henry, however, seems to have believed as much in the coercion of
Scotland as in the conciliation of Ireland. Margaret Tudor's marriage
had not reconciled the realms; and as soon as James V. became a possible
pawn in the hands of Charles V., Henry bethought himself of his old
claims to suzerainty over Scotland. At first he was willing to
subordinate them to an attempt to win over Scotland to his anti-papal
policy, and he made various efforts to bring about an interview with his
nephew. But James V. was held aloof by Beaton and two French marriages;
and France was alarmed by Henry's growing friendliness with Charles V.,
who was mollified by his cousin Mary's restoration to her place in the
succession to the throne. In 1542 James madly sent a Scottish army to
ruin at Solway Moss; his death a few weeks later left the Scottish
throne to his infant daughter Mary Stuart, and Henry set to work to
secure her hand for his son Edward and the recognition of his own
suzerainty. A treaty was signed with the Scottish estates; but it was
torn up a few months later under the influence of Beaton and the
queen-dowager Mary of Guise, and Hertford was sent in 1544 to punish
this breach of promise by sacking Edinburgh.

Perhaps to prevent French intervention in Scotland Henry joined Charles
V. in invading France, and captured Boulogne (Sept. 1544). But Charles
left his ally in the lurch and concluded the peace of Crépy that same
month; and in 1545 Henry had to face alone a French invasion of the Isle
of Wight. This attack proved abortive, and peace between England and
France was made in 1546. Charles V.'s desertion inclined Henry to listen
to the proposals of the threatened Lutheran princes, and the last two
years of his reign were marked by a renewed tendency to advance in a
Protestant direction. Catherine Howard had been brought to the block
(1542) on charges in which there was probably a good deal of truth, and
her successor, Catherine Parr, was a patroness of the new learning. An
act of 1545 dissolved chantries, colleges and other religious
foundations; and in the autumn of 1546 the Spanish ambassador was
anticipating further anti-ecclesiastical measures. Gardiner had almost
been sent to the Tower, and Norfolk and Surrey were condemned to death,
while Cranmer asserted that it was Henry's intention to convert the mass
into a communion service. An opportunist to the last, he would readily
have sacrificed any theological convictions he may have had in the
interests of national uniformity. He died on the 28th of January 1547,
and was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor.

The atrocity of many of Henry's acts, the novelty and success of his
religious policy, the apparent despotism of his methods, or all
combined, have made it difficult to estimate calmly the importance of
Henry's work or the conditions which made it possible. Henry's egotism
was profound, and personal motives underlay his public action. While
political and ecclesiastical conditions made the breach with Rome
possible--and in the view of most Englishmen desirable--Henry VIII. was
led to adopt the policy by private considerations. He worked for the
good of the state because he thought his interests were bound up with
those of the nation; and it was the real coincidence of this private and
public point of view that made it possible for so selfish a man to
achieve so much for his country. The royal supremacy over the church and
the means by which it was enforced were harsh and violent expedients;
but it was of the highest importance that England should be saved from
religious civil war, and it could only be saved by a despotic
government. It was necessary for the future development of England that
its governmental system should be centralized and unified, that the
authority of the monarchy should be more firmly extended over Wales and
the western and northern borders, and that the still existing feudal
franchises should be crushed; and these objects were worth the price
paid in the methods of the Star Chamber and of the Councils of the North
and of Wales. Henry's work on the navy requires no apology; without it
Elizabeth's victory over the Spanish Armada, the liberation of the
Netherlands and the development of English colonies would have been
impossible; and "of all others the year 1545 best marks the birth of the
English naval power" (Corbett, _Drake_, i. 59). His judgment was more at
fault when he conquered Boulogne and sought by violence to bring
Scotland into union with England. But at least Henry appreciated the
necessity of union within the British Isles; and his work in Ireland
relaid the foundations of English rule. No less important was his
development of the parliamentary system. Representation was extended to
Wales, Cheshire, Berwick and Calais; and parliamentary authority was
enhanced, largely that it might deal with the church, until men began to
complain of this new parliamentary infallibility. The privileges of the
two Houses were encouraged and expanded, and parliament was led to
exercise ever wider powers. This policy was not due to any belief on
Henry's part in parliamentary government, but to opportunism, to the
circumstance that parliament was willing to do most of the things which
Henry desired, while competing authorities, the church and the old
nobility, were not. Nevertheless, to the encouragement given by Henry
VIII. parliament owed not a little of its future growth, and to the aid
rendered by parliament Henry owed his success.

He has been described as a "despot under the forms of law"; and it is
apparently true that he committed no illegal act. His despotism consists
not in any attempt to rule unconstitutionally, but in the extraordinary
degree to which he was able to use constitutional means in the
furtherance of his own personal ends. His industry, his remarkable
political insight, his lack of scruple, and his combined strength of
will and subtlety of intellect enabled him to utilize all the forces
which tended at that time towards strong government throughout western
Europe. In Michelet's words, "le nouveau Messie est le roi"; and the
monarchy alone seemed capable of guiding the state through the social
and political anarchy which threatened all nations in their transition
from medieval to modern organization. The king was the emblem, the focus
and the bond of national unity; and to preserve it men were ready to put
up with vagaries which to other ages seem intolerable. Henry could thus
behead ministers and divorce wives with comparative impunity, because
the individual appeared to be of little importance compared with the
state. This impunity provoked a licence which is responsible for the
unlovely features of Henry's reign and character. The elevation and the
isolation of his position fostered a detachment from ordinary virtues
and compassion, and he was a remorseless incarnation of Machiavelli's
_Prince_. He had an elastic conscience which was always at the beck and
call of his desire, and he cared little for principle. But he had a
passion for efficiency, and for the greatness of England and himself.
His mind, in spite of its clinging to the outward forms of the old
faith, was intensely secular; and he was as devoid of a moral sense as
he was of a genuine religious temperament. His greatness consists in his
practical aptitude, in his political perception, and in the
self-restraint which enabled him to confine within limits tolerable to
his people an insatiable appetite for power.

  The original materials for Henry VIII.'s biography are practically all
  incorporated in the monumental _Letters and Papers of the Reign of
  Henry VIII._ (21 vols.), edited by Brewer and Gairdner and completed
  after fifty years' labour in 1910. A few further details may be
  gleaned from such contemporary sources as Hall's _Chronicle_,
  Cavendish's _Life of Wolsey_, W. Thomas's _The Pilgrim_ and others;
  and some additions have been made to the documentary sources contained
  in the _Letters and Papers_ by recent works, such as Ehses' _Römische
  Dokumente_, and Merriman's _Life and Letters of Thomas Cromwell_. Lord
  Herbert of Cherbury's _Life and Reign of Henry VIII._ (1649), while
  good for its time, is based upon a very partial knowledge of the
  sources and somewhat antiquated principles of historical scholarship.
  Froude's famous portraiture of Henry is coloured by the ideas of
  hero-worship and history which the author imbibed from Carlyle, and
  the rival portraits in Lingard, R. W. Dixon's _Church History_ and
  Gasquet's _Henry VIII. and the Monasteries_ by strong religious
  feeling. A more discriminating estimate is attempted by H. A. L.
  Fisher in Messrs Longmans' _Political History of England_, vol. v.
  (1906). Of the numerous paintings of Henry none is by Holbein, who,
  however, executed the striking chalk-drawing of Henry's head, now at
  Munich, and the famous but decaying cartoon at Devonshire House. The
  well-known three-quarter length at Windsor, usually attributed to
  Holbein, is by an inferior artist. The best collection of Henry's
  portraits was exhibited at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1909, and
  the catalogue of that exhibition contains the best description of
  them; several are reproduced in Pollard's _Henry VIII._ (Goupil)
  (1902), the letterpress of which was published by Longmans in a
  cheaper edition (1905). Henry composed numerous state papers still
  extant; his only book was his _Assertio septem sacramentorum contra M.
  Lutherum_ (1521), a copy of which, signed by Henry himself, is at
  Windsor. Several anthems composed by him are extant; and one at least,
  _O Lord, the Maker of all Things_, is still occasionally rendered in
  English cathedrals.     (A. F. P.)



HENRY I. (1214-1217), king of Castile, son of Alphonso VIII. of Castile,
and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, daughter of Henry II. of England,
after whom he was named, was born about 1207. He was killed, while still
a boy, by the fall of a tile from a roof.

HENRY II. of Trastamara (1369-1379), king of Castile, founder of the
dynasty known as "the new kings," was the eldest son of Alphonso XI. and
of his mistress Leonora de Guzman. He was born in 1333. His father
endowed him with great lordships in northern Spain, and made him count
of Trastamara. After the death of Alphonso XI. in 1350, Leonora was
murdered to satisfy the revenge of the king's neglected wife. Several of
the numerous children she had borne to Alphonso were slain at different
times by Peter the Cruel, the king's legitimate son and successor. Henry
preserved his life by submissions and by keeping out of the king's way.
At last, after taking part in several internal commotions, he fled to
France in 1356. In 1366 he persuaded the mercenary soldiers paid off by
the kings of England and France to accompany him on an expedition to
upset Peter, who was driven out. The Black Prince having intervened on
behalf of Peter, Henry was defeated at Najera (3rd of April 1367) and
had again to flee to Aragon. When the Black Prince was told that "the
Bastard" had neither been slain nor taken, he said that nothing had been
done. And so it turned out; for, when the Black Prince had left Spain,
Henry came back with a body of French soldiers of fortune under du
Guesclin, and drove his brother into the castle of Montiel in La Mancha.
Peter was tempted out by du Guesclin, and the half brothers met in the
Frenchman's tent. They rushed at one another, and Peter, the stronger
man, threw Henry down, and fell on him. One of Henry's pages seized the
king by the leg and threw him on his back. Henry then pulled up Peter's
hauberk and stabbed him mortally in the stomach, on the 23rd of March
1369. He reigned for ten years, with some success both in pacifying the
kingdom and in war with Portugal. But as his title was disputed he was
compelled to purchase support by vast grants to the nobles and
concessions to the cities, by which he gained the title of _El de las
Mercedes_--he of the largesse. Henry was a strong ally of the French
king in his wars with the English, who supported the claims of Peter's
natural daughters. He died on the 30th of May 1379.

HENRY III. (1390-1406) king of Castile, called _El Doliente_, the
Sufferer, was the son of John I. of Castile and Leon, and of his wife
Beatrice, daughter of Ferdinand of Portugal. He was born in 1379. The
period of minority was exceptionally anarchical, even for Castile, but
as the cities, always the best supporters of the royal authority, were
growing in strength, Henry was able to reduce his kingdom to obedience,
and, when he took the government into his own hands after 1393, to
compel his nobles with comparative ease to surrender the crown lands
they had seized. The meeting of the Cortes summoned by him at Madrid in
1394 marked a great epoch in the establishment of a practically despotic
royal authority, based on the consent of the commons, who looked to the
crown to protect them against the excesses of the nobles. Henry
strengthened his position still further by his marriage with Catherine,
daughter of John of Gaunt and of Constance, elder daughter of Peter the
Cruel and Maria de Padilla. This union combined the rival claims of the
descendants of Peter and of Henry of Trastamara. The king's bodily
weakness limited his real capacity, and his early death on the 25th of
December 1406 cut short the promise of his reign.

HENRY IV. (1453-1474), king of Castile, surnamed the Impotent, or the
Spendthrift, was the son of John II. of Castile and Leon, and of his
wife, Mary, daughter of Ferdinand I. of Aragon and Sicily. He was born
at Valladolid on the 6th of January 1425. The surnames given to this
king by his subjects are of much more than usual accuracy. His personal
character was one of mere weakness, bodily and mental. Henry was an
undutiful son, and his reign was one long period of confusion, marked by
incidents of the most ignominious kind. He divorced his first wife
Blanche of Navarre in 1453 on the ground of "mutual impotence." Yet in
1468 he married Joan of Portugal, and when she bore a daughter, first
repudiated her as adulterine, and then claimed her for his own. In 1468
he was solemnly deposed in favour of his brother Alphonso, on whose
death in the same year his authority was again recognized. The last
years of his life were spent in vain endeavours, first to force his
half-sister Isabella, afterwards queen, to marry his favourite, the
Master of Santiago, and then to exclude her from the throne. Henry died
at Madrid on the 12th of December 1474.



HENRY I. (1008-1060), king of France, son of King Robert and his queen,
Constance of Aquitaine, and grandson of Hugh Capet, came to the throne
upon the death of his father in 1031, although in 1027 he had been
anointed king at Reims and associated in the government with his father.
His mother, who favoured her younger son Robert, and had retired from
court upon Henry's coronation, formed a powerful league against him, and
he was forced to take refuge with Robert II., duke of Normandy. In the
civil war which resulted, Henry was able to break up the league of his
opponents in 1032. Constance died in 1034, and the rebel brother Robert
was given the duchy of Burgundy, thus founding that great collateral
line which was to rival the kings of France for three centuries. Henry
atoned for this by a reign marked by unceasing struggle against the
great barons. From 1033 to 1043 he was involved in a life and death
contest with those nobles whose territory adjoined the royal domains,
especially with the great house of Blois, whose count, Odo II., had been
the centre of the league of Constance, and with the counts of Champagne.
Henry's success in these wars was largely due to the help given him by
Robert of Normandy, but upon the accession of Robert's son William (the
Conqueror), Normandy itself became the chief danger. From 1047 to the
year of his death, Henry was almost constantly at war with William, who
held his own against the king's formidable leagues and beat back two
royal invasions, in 1055 and 1058. Henry's reign marks the height of
feudalism. The Normans were independent of him, with their frontier
barely 25 m. west of Paris; to the south his authority was really
bounded by the Loire; in the east the count of Champagne was little more
than nominally his subject, and the duchy of Burgundy was almost
entirely cut off from the king. Yet Henry maintained the independence of
the clergy against the pope Leo IX., and claimed Lorraine from the
emperor Henry III. In an interview at Ivois, he reproached the emperor
with the violation of promises, and Henry III. challenged him to a
single combat. According to the German chronicle--which French
historians doubt--the king of France declined the combat and fled from
Ivois during the night. In 1059 he had his eldest son Philip crowned as
joint king, and died the following year. Henry's first wife was Maud,
niece of the emperor Henry III., whom he married in 1043. She died
childless in 1044. Historians have sometimes confused her with Maud (or
Matilda), the emperor Conrad II.'s daughter, to whom Henry was affianced
in 1033, but who died before the marriage. In 1051 Henry married the
Russian princess Anne, daughter of Yaroslav I., grand duke of Kiev. She
bore him two sons, Philip, his successor, and Hugh the great, count of
Vermandois.

  See the _Historiae_ of Rudolph Glaber, edited by M. Prou (Paris,
  1886); F. Sochnée, _Catalogue des actes d'Henri I^er_ (1907); de Caiz
  de Saint Aymour, _Anne de Russie, reine de France_ (1896); E. Lavisse,
  _Histoire de France_, tome ii. (1901), and the article on Henry I. in
  _La Grande Encyclopédie_ by M. Prou.



HENRY II. (1519-1559), king of France, the second son of Francis I. and
Claude, succeeded to the throne in 1547. When only seven years old he
was sent by his father, with his brother the dauphin Francis, as a
hostage to Spain in 1526, whence they returned after the conclusion of
the peace of Cambrai in 1530. Henry was too young to have carried away
any abiding impressions, yet throughout his life his character, dress
and bearing were far more Spanish than French. In 1533 his father
married him to Catherine de' Medici, from which match, as he said,
Francis hoped to gain great advantage, even though it might be somewhat
of a misalliance. In 1536 Henry, hitherto duke of Orleans, became
dauphin by the death of his elder brother Francis. From that time he was
under the influence of two personages, who dominated him completely for
the remainder of his life--Diane de Poitiers, his mistress, and Anne de
Montmorency, his mentor. Moreover, his younger brother, Charles of
Orleans, who was of a more sprightly temperament, was his father's
favourite; and the rivalry of Diane and the duchesse d'Étampes helped to
make still wider the breach between the king and the dauphin. Henry
supported the constable Montmorency when he was disgraced in 1541;
protested against the treaty of Crépy in 1544; and at the end of the
reign held himself completely aloof. His accession in 1547 gave rise to
a veritable revolution at the court. Diane, Montmorency and the Guises
were all-powerful, and dismissed Cardinal de Tournon, de Longueval, the
duchesse d'Étampes and all the late king's friends and officials. At
that time Henry was twenty-eight years old. He was a robust man, and
inherited his father's love of violent exercise; but his character was
weak and his intelligence mediocre, and he had none of the superficial
and brilliant gifts of Francis I. He was cold, haughty, melancholy and
dull. He was a bigoted Catholic, and showed to the Protestants even less
mercy than his father. During his reign the royal authority became more
severe and more absolute than ever. Resistance to the financial
extortions of the government was cruelly chastised, and the "Chambre
Ardente" was instituted against the Reformers. Abroad, the struggle was
continued against Charles V. and Philip II., which ended in the
much-discussed treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis. Some weeks afterwards high
feast was held on the occasion of the double marriage of the king's
daughter Elizabeth with the king of Spain, and of his sister Margaret
with the duke of Savoy. On the 30th of June 1559, when tilting with the
count of Montgomery, Henry was wounded in the temple by a lance. In
spite of the attentions of Ambroise Paré he died on the 10th of July. By
his wife Catherine de' Medici he had seven children living: Elizabeth,
queen of Spain; Claude, duchess of Lorraine; Francis (II), Charles
(IX.) and Henry (III.), all of whom came to the throne; Marguerite, who
became queen of Navarre in 1572; and Francis, duke of Alençon and
afterwards of Anjou, who died in 1584.

  The bulk of the documents for the reign of Henry II. are unpublished,
  and are in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Of the published
  documents, see especially the correspondence of Catherine de' Medici
  (ed. by de la Ferrière, Paris, 1880), of Diane de Poitiers (ed. by
  Guiffrey, Paris, 1866), of Antoine de Bourbon and Jeanne d'Albret (ed.
  by Rochambeau, Paris, 1877), of Odet de Selve, ambassador to England
  (ed. by Lefèvre-Pontalis, Paris, 1888) and of Dominique du Gabre,
  ambassador to Venice (ed. by Vitalis, Paris, 1903); Ribier, _Lettres
  et mémoires d'estat_ (Paris, 1666); _Relations des ambassadeurs
  vénitiens_, &c. Of the contemporary memoirs and histories, see
  Brantôme (ed. by Lalanne, Paris, 1864-1882), François de Lorraine (ed.
  by Michaud and Poujoulat, Paris, 1839), Montluc (ed. by de Ruble,
  Paris, 1864), F. de Boyvin du Villars (Michaud and Poujoulat), F. de
  Rabutin (_Panthéon littéraire_, Paris, 1836). See also de Thou,
  _Historia sui temporis_ ... (London, 1733); Decrue, _Anne de
  Montmorency_ (Paris, 1889); H. Forneron, _Les Ducs de Guise et leur
  époque_, vol. i. (Paris, 1877); and H. Lemonnier, "La France sous
  Henri II" (Paris, 1904), in the _Histoire de France_, by E. Lavisse,
  which contains a fuller bibliography of the subject.



HENRY III. (1551-1589), king of France, third son of Henry II. and
Catherine de' Medici, was born at Fontainebleau on the 19th of September
1551, and succeeded to the throne of France on the death of his brother
Charles IX. in 1574. In his youth, as duke of Anjou, he was warmly
attached to the Huguenot opinions, as we learn from his sister
Marguerite de Valois; but his unstable character soon gave way before
his mother's will, and both Henry and Marguerite remained choice
ornaments of the Catholic Church. Henry won, under the direction of
Marshal de Tavannes, two brilliant victories at Jarnac and Moncontour
(1569). He was the favourite son of his mother, and took part with her
in organizing the massacre of St Bartholomew. In 1573 Catherine procured
his election to the throne of Poland. Passionately enamoured of the
princess of Condé, he set out reluctantly to Warsaw, but, on the death
of his brother Charles IX. in 1574, he escaped from his Polish subjects,
who endeavoured to retain him by force, came back to France and assumed
the crown. He returned to a wretched kingdom, torn with civil war. In
spite of his good intentions, he was incapable of governing, and
abandoned the power to his mother and his favourites. Yet he was no
dullard. He was a man of keen intelligence and cultivated mind, and
deserves as much as Francis I. the title of patron of letters and art.
But his incurable indolence and love of pleasure prevented him from
taking any active part in affairs. Surrounded by his _mignons_, he
scandalized the people by his effeminate manners. He dressed himself in
women's clothes, made a collection of little dogs and hid in the cellars
when it thundered. The disgust aroused by the vices and effeminacy of
the king increased the popularity of Henry of Guise. After the "day of
the barricades" (the 12th of May 1588), the king, perceiving that his
influence was lost, resolved to rid himself of Guise by assassination;
and on the 23rd of December 1588 his faithful bodyguard, the
"forty-five," carried out his design at the château of Blois. But the
fanatical preachers of the League clamoured furiously for vengeance, and
on the 1st of August 1589, while Henry III. was investing Paris with
Henry of Navarre, Jacques Clement, a Dominican friar, was introduced
into his presence on false letters of recommendation, and plunged a
knife into the lower part of his body. He died a few hours afterwards
with great fortitude. By his wife Louise of Lorraine, daughter of the
count of Vaudémont, he had no children, and on his deathbed he
recognized Henry of Navarre as his successor.

  See the memoirs and chronicles of l'Estoile, Villeroy, Ph. Hurault de
  Cheverny, Brantôme, Marguerite de Valois, la Huguerye, du
  Plessis-Mornay, &c.; _Archives curieuses_ of Cimber and Danjou, vols.
  x. and xi.; _Mémoires de la Ligue_ (new ed., Amsterdam, 1758); the
  histories of T. A. d'Aubigné and J. A. de Thou; Correspondence of
  Catherine de' Medici and of Henry IV. (in the _Collection de documents
  inédits_), and of the Venetian ambassadors, &c.; P. Matthieu,
  _Histoire de France_, vol. i. (1631); Scipion Dupleix, _Histoire de
  Henri III_ (1633); Robiquet, _Paris et la Ligue_ (1886); and J. H.
  Mariéjol, "La Réforme et la Ligue," in the _Histoire de France_, by E.
  Lavisse (Paris, 1904), which contains a more complete bibliography.



HENRY IV. (1553-1610), king of France, the son of Antoine de Bourbon,
duke of Vendôme, head of the younger branch of the Bourbons, descendant
of Robert of Clermont, sixth son of St Louis and of Jeanne d'Albret,
queen of Navarre, was born at Pau (Basses Pyrénées) on the 14th of
December 1553. He was educated as a Protestant, and in 1557 was sent to
the court at Amiens. In 1561 he entered the Collège de Navarre at Paris,
returning in 1565 to Béarn. During the third war of religion in France
(1568-1570) he was taken by his mother to Gaspard de Coligny, leader of
the Protestant forces since the death of Louis I., prince of Condé, at
Jarnac, and distinguished himself at the battle of Arnay-le-Duc in
Burgundy in 1569. On the 9th of June 1572, Jeanne d'Albret died and
Henry became king of Navarre, marrying Margaret of Valois, sister of
Charles IX. of France, on the 18th of August of that year. He escaped
the massacre of St Bartholomew on the 24th of August by a feigned
abjuration. On the 2nd of February 1576, after several vain attempts, he
escaped from the court, joined the combined forces of Protestants and of
opponents of the king, and obtained by the treaty of Beaulieu (1576) the
government of Guienne. In 1577 he secured the treaty of Bergerac, which
foreshadowed the edict of Nantes. As a result of quarrels with his
unworthy wife, and the unwelcome intervention of Henry III., he
undertook the seventh war of religion, known as the "war of the lovers"
(_des amoureux_), seized Cahors on the 5th of May 1580, and signed the
treaty of Fleix on the 26th of November 1580. On the 10th of June 1584
the death of Monsieur, the duke of Anjou, brother of King Henry III.,
made Henry of Navarre heir presumptive to the throne of France. Excluded
from it by the treaty of Nemours (1585) he began the "war of the three
Henrys" by a campaign in Guienne (1586) and defeated Anne, duc de
Joyeuse, at Coutras on the 20th of October 1587. Then Henry III., driven
from Paris by the League on account of his murder of the duke of Guise
at Blois (1588), sought the aid of the king of Navarre to win back his
capital, recognizing him as his heir. The assassination of Henry III. on
the 1st of August 1589 left Henry king of France; but he had to struggle
for ten more years against the League and against Spain before he won
his kingdom. The main events in that long struggle were the victory of
Arques over Charles, duke of Mayenne, on the 28th of September 1589; of
Ivry, on the 14th of March 1590; the siege of Paris (1590); of Rouen
(1592); the meeting of the Estates of the League (1593), which the
_Satire Ménippée_ turned to ridicule; and finally the conversion of
Henry IV. to Catholicism in July 1593--an act of political wisdom, since
it brought about the collapse of all opposition. Paris gave in to him on
the 22nd of March 1594 and province by province yielded to arms or
negotiations; while the victory of Fontaine-Française (1595) and the
capture of Amiens forced Philip II. of Spain to sign the peace of
Vervins on the 2nd of May 1598. On the 13th of April of that year Henry
IV. had promulgated the Edict of Nantes.

Then Henry set to work to pacify and restore prosperity to his kingdom.
Convinced by the experience of the wars that France needed an energetic
central power, he pushed at times his royal prerogatives to excess,
raising taxes in spite of the Estates, interfering in the administration
of the towns, reforming their constitutions, and holding himself free to
reject the advice of the notables if he consulted them. Aided by his
faithful friend Maximilien de Béthune, baron de Rosny and duc de Sully
(q.v.), he reformed the finances, repressed abuses, suppressed useless
offices, extinguished the formidable debt and realized a reserve of
eighteen millions. To alleviate the distress of the people, he undertook
to develop both agriculture and industry: planting colonies of Dutch and
Flemish settlers to drain the marshes of Saintonge, issuing prohibitive
measures against the importation of foreign goods (1597), introducing
the silk industry, encouraging the manufacture of cloth, of glass-ware,
of tapestries (Gobelins), and under the direction of Sully--named
_grand-voyer de France_--improving and increasing the routes for
commerce. A complete system of canals was planned, that of Briare partly
dug. New capitulations were concluded with the sultan Ahmed I. (1604)
and treaties of commerce with England (1606), with Spain and Holland.
Attempts were made in 1604 and 1608 to colonize Canada (see CHAMPLAIN,
SAMUEL DE). The army was reorganized, its pay raised and assured, a
school of cadets formed to supply it with officers, artillery
constituted and strongholds on the frontier fortified. While lacking the
artistic tastes of the Valois, Henry beautified Paris, building the
great gallery of the Louvre, finishing the Tuileries, building the Pont
Neuf, the Hôtel-de-Ville and the Place Royale.

The foreign policy of Henry IV. was directed against the Habsburgs.
Without declaring war, he did all possible harm to them by alliances and
diplomacy. In Italy he gained the grand duke of Tuscany--marrying his
niece Marie de' Medici in 1600--the duke of Mantua, the republic of
Venice and Pope Paul V. The duke of Savoy, who had held back from the
treaty of Vervins in 1598, signed the treaty of Lyons in 1601; in
exchange for the marquisate of Saluzzo, France acquired Bresse, Bugey,
Valromey and the bailliage of Gex. In the Low Countries, Henry sent
subsidies to the Dutch in their struggle against Spain. He concluded
alliances with the Protestant princes in Germany, with the duke of
Lorraine, the Swiss cantons (treaty of Soleure, 1602) and with Sweden.

The opening on the 25th of March 1609 of the question of the succession
of John William the Good, duke of Cleves, of Jülich and of Berg, led
Henry, in spite of his own hesitations and those of his German allies,
to declare war on the emperor Rudolph II. But he was assassinated by
Ravaillac (q.v.) on the 14th of May 1610, upon the eve of his great
enterprise, leaving his policy to be followed up later by Richelieu.
Sully in his _Économies royales_ attributes to his master the "great
design" of constituting, after having defeated Austria, a vast European
confederation of fifteen states--a "Christian Republic"--directed by a
general council of sixty deputies reappointed every three years. But
this "design" has been attributed rather to the imagination of Sully
himself than to the more practical policy of the king.

No figure in France has been more popular than that of "Henry the
Great." He was affable to the point of familiarity, quick-witted like a
true Gascon, good-hearted, indulgent, yet skilled in reading the
character of those around him, and he could at times show himself severe
and unyielding. His courage amounted almost to recklessness. He was a
better soldier than strategist. Although at bottom authoritative he
surrounded himself with admirable advisers (Sully, Sillery, Villeroy,
Jeannin) and profited from their co-operation. His love affairs,
undoubtedly too numerous (notably with Gabrielle d'Estrées and Henriette
d'Entragues), if they injure his personal reputation, had no bad effect
on his policy as king, in which he was guided only by an exalted ideal
of his royal office, and by a sympathy for the common people, his
reputation for which has perhaps been exaggerated somewhat in popular
tradition by the circumstances of his reign.

Henry IV. had no children by his first wife, Margaret of Valois. By
Marie de' Medici he had Louis, later Louis XIII.; Gaston, duke of
Orleans; Elizabeth, who married Philip IV. of Spain; Christine, duchess
of Savoy; and Henrietta, wife of Charles I. of England. Among his
bastards the most famous were the children of Gabrielle
d'Estrées--Caesar, duke of Vendôme, Alexander of Vendôme, and Catherine
Henriette, duchess of Elbeuf.

Several portraits of Henry are preserved at Paris, in the Bibliothèque
Nationale (cf. Bouchot, _Portraits au crayon_, p. 189), at the Louvre
(by Probus, bust by Barthélemy Prieur) at Versailles, Geneva (Henry at
the age of fifteen), at Hampton Court, at Munich and at Florence.

  The works dealing with Henry IV. and his reign are too numerous to be
  enumerated here. For sources, see the _Recueil des lettres missives de
  Henri IV_, published from 1839 to 1853 by B. de Xivrey, in the
  _Collection de documents inédits relatifs à l'histoire de France_, and
  the various researches of Galitzin, Bautiot, Halphen, Dussieux and
  others. Besides their historic interest, the letters written
  personally by Henry, whether love notes or letters of state, reveal a
  charming writer. Mention should be made of Auguste Poirson's _Histoire
  du règne de Henri IV_ (2nd ed., 4 vols., Paris, 1862-1867) and of J.
  H. Mariéjol's volume (vi.) in the _Histoire de France_, edited by
  Ernest Lavisse (Paris, 1905), where main sources and literature are
  given with each chapter. A _Revue Henri IV_ has been founded at Paris
  (1905). Finally, a complete survey of the sources for the period
  1494-1610 is given by Henri Hauser in vol. vii. of _Sources de
  l'histoire de France_ (Paris, 1906) in continuation of A. Molinier's
  collection of the sources for French history during the middle ages.



HENRY I. (c. 1210-1274), surnamed _le Gros_, king of Navarre and count
of Champagne, was the youngest son of Theobald I. king of Navarre by
Margaret of Foix, and succeeded his eldest brother Theobald III. as king
of Navarre and count of Champagne in December 1270. His proclamation at
Pamplona, however, did not take place till March of the following year,
and his coronation was delayed until May 1273. After a brief reign,
characterized, it is said, by dignity and talent, he died in July 1274,
suffocated, according to the generally received accounts, by his own
fat. In him the male line of the counts of Champagne and kings of
Navarre, became extinct. He married in 1269 Blanche, daughter of Robert,
count of Artois, and niece of King Louis IX. and was succeeded by his
only legitimate child, Jeanne or Joanna, by whose marriage to Philip IV.
afterwards king of France in 1284, the crown of Navarre became united to
that of France.



HENRY II. (1503-1555), titular king of Navarre, was the eldest son of
Jean d'Albret (d. 1516) by his wife Catherine de Foix, sister and
heiress of Francis Phoebus, king of Navarre, and was born at Sanquesa in
April 1503. When Catherine died in exile in 1517 Henry succeeded her in
her claim on Navarre, which was disputed by Ferdinand I. king of Spain;
and under the protection of Francis I. of France he assumed the title of
king. After ineffectual conferences at Noyon in 1516 and at Montpellier
in 1518, an active effort was made in 1521 to establish him in the _de
facto_ sovereignty; but the French troops which had seized the country
were ultimately expelled by the Spaniards. In 1525 Henry was taken
prisoner at the battle of Pavia, but he contrived to escape, and in 1526
married Margaret, the sister of Francis I. and widow of Charles, duke of
Alençon. By her he was the father of Jeanne d'Albret (d. 1572), and was
consequently the grandfather of Henry IV. of France. Henry, who had some
sympathy with the Huguenots, died at Pau on the 25th of May 1555.



HENRY I. (1512-1580), king of Portugal, third son of Emanuel the
Fortunate, was born in Lisbon, on the 31st of January 1512. He was
destined for the church, and in 1532 was raised to the archiepiscopal
see of Braga. In 1542 he received the cardinal's hat, and in 1578 when
he was called to succeed his grandnephew Sebastian on the throne, he
held the archbishoprics of Lisbon and Coimbra as well as that of Braga,
in addition to the wealthy abbacy of Alcobazar. As an ecclesiastic he
was pious, pure, simple in his mode of life, charitable, and a learned
and liberal patron of letters; but as a sovereign he proved weak, timid
and incapable. On his death in 1580, after a brief reign of seventeen
months, the male line of the royal family which traced its descent from
Henry, first count of Portugal (c. 1100), came to an end; and all
attempts to fix the succession during his lifetime having ignominiously
failed, Portugal became an easy prey to Philip II. of Spain.



HENRY II. (1489-1568), duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, was a son of Duke
Henry I., and was born on the 10th of November 1489. He began to reign in
1514, but his brother William objected to the indivisibility of the duchy
which had been decreed by the elder Henry, and it was only in 1535, after
an imprisonment of eleven years, that William recognized his brother's
title. Sharing in an attack on John, bishop of Hildesheim, Henry was
defeated at the battle of Soltau in June 1519, but afterwards he was more
successful, and when peace was made received some lands from the bishop.
In 1525 he assisted Philip, landgrave of Hesse, to crush the rising of
the peasants in north Germany, and in 1528 took help to Charles V. in
Italy, where he narrowly escaped capture. As a pronounced opponent of the
reformed doctrines, he joined the Catholic princes in concerting measures
for defence at Dessau and elsewhere, but on the other hand promised
Philip of Hesse to aid him in restoring his own brother-in-law Ulrich,
duke of Württemberg, to his duchy. However he gave no assistance when
this enterprise was undertaken in 1534, and subsequently the hostility
between Philip and himself was very marked. Henry was attacked by Luther
with unmeasured violence in a writing _Wider Hans Worst_; but more
serious was his isolation in north Germany. The duke soon came into
collision with the Protestant towns of Goslar and Brunswick, against the
former of which a sentence of restitution had been pronounced by the
imperial court of justice (_Reichskammergericht_). To conciliate the
Protestants Charles V. had suspended the execution of this sentence, a
proceeding which Henry declared was _ultra vires_. The league of
Schmalkalden, led by Philip of Hesse and John Frederick, elector of
Saxony, then took up arms to defend the towns; and in 1542 Brunswick was
overrun and the duke forced to flee. In September 1545 he made an attempt
to regain his duchy, but was taken prisoner by Philip, and only released
after the victory of Charles V. at Mühlberg in April 1547. Returning to
Brunswick, where he was very unpopular, he soon quarrelled with his
subjects both on political and religious questions, while his duchy was
ravaged by Albert Alcibiades, prince of Bayreuth. Henry was among the
princes who banded themselves together to crush Albert, and after the
death of Maurice, elector of Saxony, at Sievershausen in July 1553, he
took command of the allied troops and defeated Albert in two engagements.
In his later years he became more tolerant, and was reconciled with his
Protestant subjects. He died at Wolfenbüttel on the 11th of June 1568.
The duke was twice married, firstly in 1515 to Maria (d. 1541), sister of
Ulrich of Württemberg, and secondly in 1556 to Sophia (d. 1575) daughter
of Sigismund I., king of Poland. He attained some notoriety through his
romantic attachment to Eva von Trott, whom he represented as dead and
afterwards kept concealed at Staufenburg. Henry was succeeded by his only
surviving son, Julius (1528-1589).

  See F. Koldewey, _Heinz von Wolfenbüttel_ (Halle, 1883); and F. Bruns,
  _Die Vertreibung Herzog Heinrichs von Braunschweig durch den
  Schmalkaldischen Bund_ (Marburg, 1889).



HENRY (c. 1108-1139), surnamed the "Proud," duke of Saxony and Bavaria,
second son of Henry the Black, duke of Bavaria, and Wulfhild, daughter
of Magnus Billung, duke of Saxony, was a member of the Welf family. His
father and mother both died in 1126, and as his elder brother Conrad had
entered the church, Henry became duke of Bavaria and shared the family
possessions in Saxony, Bavaria and Swabia with his younger brother,
Welf. At Whitsuntide 1127 he was married to Gertrude, the only child of
the German king, Lothair the Saxon, and at once took part in the warfare
between the king and the Hohenstaufen brothers, Frederick II., duke of
Swabia, and Conrad, afterwards the German king Conrad III. While engaged
in this struggle Henry was also occupied in suppressing a rising in
Bavaria, led by Frederick, count of Bogen, during which both duke and
count sought to establish their own candidates in the bishopric of
Regensburg. After a war of devastation, Frederick submitted in 1133, and
two years later the Hohenstaufen brothers made their peace with Lothair.
In 1136 Henry accompanied his father-in-law to Italy, and taking command
of one division of the German army marched into southern Italy,
devastating the land as he went. It was probably about this time that he
was invested with the margraviate of Tuscany and the lands of Matilda,
the late margravine. Having distinguished himself by his military genius
during this campaign Henry left Italy with the German troops, and was
appointed by the emperor as his successor in the dukedom of Saxony. When
Lothair died in December 1137 Henry's wealth and position made him a
formidable candidate for the German throne; but the same qualities which
earned for him the surname of "Proud," aroused the jealousy of the
princes, and so prevented his election. The new king, Conrad III.,
demanded the imperial _insignia_ which were in Henry's possession, and
the duke in return asked for his investiture with the Saxon duchy. But
Conrad, who feared his power, refused to assent to this on the pretext
that it was unlawful for two duchies to be in one hand. Attempts at a
settlement failed, and in July 1138 the duke was placed under the ban,
and Saxony was given to Albert the Bear, afterwards margrave of
Brandenburg. War broke out in Saxony and Bavaria, but was cut short by
Henry's sudden death at Quedlinburg on the 20th of October 1139. He was
buried at Königslutter. Henry was a man of great ability, and his early
death alone prevented him from playing an important part in German
history. Conrad the Priest, the author of the _Rolandslied_, was in
Henry's service, and probably wrote this poem at the request of the
duchess, Gertrude.

  See S. Riezler, _Geschichte Bayerns_, Band i. (Gotha, 1878); W.
  Bernhardi, _Lothar von Supplinburg_ (Leipzig, 1879); W. von
  Giesebrecht, _Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit_, Band iv.
  (Brunswick, 1877).



HENRY (1129-1195), surnamed the "Lion," duke of Saxony and Bavaria, only
son of Henry the Proud, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, and Gertrude,
daughter of the emperor Lothair the Saxon, was born at Ravensburg, and
was a member of the family of Welf. In 1138 the German king Conrad III.
had sought to deprive Henry the Proud of his duchies, and when the duke
died in the following year the interests of his young son were
maintained in Saxony by his mother, and his grandmother Richenza, widow
of Lothair, and in Bavaria by his uncle, Count Welf VI. This struggle
ended in May 1142 when Henry was invested as duke of Saxony at
Frankfort, and Bavaria was given to Henry II., Jasomirgott, margrave of
Austria, who married his mother Gertrude. In 1147 he married Clementia,
daughter of Conrad, duke of Zähringen (d. 1152), and began to take an
active part in administering his dukedom and extending its area. He
engaged in a successful expedition against the Abotrites, or Obotrites,
in 1147, and won a considerable tract of land beyond the Elbe, in which
were re-established the bishoprics of Mecklenburg,[1] Oldenburg[2] and
Ratzeburg. Hartwig, archbishop of Bremen, wished these sees to be under
his authority, but Henry contested this claim, and won the right to
invest these bishops himself, a privilege afterwards confirmed by the
emperor Frederick I. Henry, meanwhile, had not forgotten Bavaria. In
1147 he made a formal claim on this duchy, and in 1151 sought to take
possession, but failing to obtain the aid of his uncle Welf, did not
effect his purpose. The situation was changed in his favour when
Frederick I., who was anxious to count the duke among his supporters,
succeeded Conrad as German king in February 1152. Frederick was unable
at first to persuade Henry Jasomirgott to abandon Bavaria, but in June
1154 he recognized the claim of Henry the Lion, who accompanied him on
his first Italian campaign and distinguished himself in suppressing a
rising at Rome, Henry's formal investiture as duke of Bavaria taking
place in September 1156 on the emperor's return to Germany. Henry soon
returned to Saxony, where he found full scope for his untiring energy.
Adolph II., count of Holstein, was compelled to cede Lübeck to him in
1158; campaigns in 1163 and 1164 beat down further resistance of the
Abotrites; and Saxon garrisons were established in the conquered lands.
The duke was aided in this work by the alliance of Valdemar I., king of
Denmark, and, it is said, by engines of war brought from Italy. During
these years he had also helped Frederick I. in his expedition of 1157
against the Poles, and in July 1159 had gone to his assistance in Italy,
where he remained for about two years.

The vigorous measures taken by Henry to increase his power aroused
considerable opposition. In 1166 a coalition was formed against him at
Merseburg under the leadership of Albert the Bear, margrave of
Brandenburg, and Archbishop Hartwig. Neither side met with much success
in the desultory warfare that ensued, and Frederick made peace between
the combatants at Würzburg in June 1168. Having obtained a divorce from
his first wife in 1162, Henry was married at Minden in February 1168 to
Matilda (1156-1189), daughter of Henry II., king of England, and was
soon afterwards sent by the emperor Frederick I. on an embassy to the
kings of England and France. A war with Valdemar of Denmark, caused by a
quarrel over the booty obtained from the conquest of Rügen, engaged
Henry's activity until June 1171, when, in pursuance of a treaty which
restored peace, Henry's daughter, Gertrude, married the Danish prince,
Canute. Henry, whose position was now very strong, made a pilgrimage to
Jerusalem in 1172, was received with great respect by the eastern
emperor Manuel Comnenus at Constantinople, and returned to Saxony in
1173.

A variety of reasons were leading to a rupture in the harmonious
relations between Frederick and Henry, whose increasing power could not
escape the emperor's notice, and who showed little inclination to
sacrifice his interests in Germany in order to help the imperial cause
in Italy. He was not pleased when he heard that his uncle, Welf, had
bequeathed his Italian and Swabian lands to the emperor, and the crisis
came after Frederick's check before Alessandria in 1175. The emperor
appealed personally to Henry for help in February, or March 1176, but
Henry made no move in response, and his defection contributed in some
measure to the emperor's defeat at Legnano. The peace of Venice provided
for the restoration of Ulalrich to his see of Halberstadt. Henry,
however, refused to give up the lands which he had seized belonging to
the bishopric, and this conduct provoked a war in which Ulalrich was
soon joined by Philip, archbishop of Cologne. No attack on Henry appears
to have been contemplated by Frederick to whom both parties carried
their complaints, and a day was fixed for the settlement of the dispute
at Worms. But neither then, nor on two further occasions, did Henry
appear to answer the charges preferred against him; accordingly in
January 1180 he was placed under the imperial ban at Würzburg, and was
declared deprived of all his lands.

Meanwhile the war with Ulalrich continued, but after his victory at
Weissensee Henry's allies began to fall away, and his cause to decline.
When Frederick took the field in June 1181 the struggle was soon over.
Henry sought for peace, and the conditions were settled at Erfurt in
November 1181, when he was granted the counties of Lüneburg and
Brunswick, but was banished under oath not to return without the
emperor's permission. In July 1182 he went to his father-in-law's court
in Normandy, and afterwards to England, returning to Germany with
Frederick's permission in 1185. He was soon regarded once more as a
menace to the peace of Germany, and of the three alternatives presented
to him by the emperor in 1188 he rejected the idea of making a formal
renunciation of his claim, or of participating in the crusade, and chose
exile, going again to England in 1189. In October of the same year,
however, he returned to Saxony, excusing himself by asserting that his
lands had not been defended according to the emperor's promise. He found
many allies, took Lübeck, and soon almost the whole of Saxony was in his
power. King Henry VI. was obliged to take the field against him, after
which the duke's cause declined, and in July 1190 a peace was arranged
at Fulda, by which he retained Brunswick and Lüneburg, received half the
revenues of Lübeck, and gave two of his sons as hostages. Still hoping
to regain his former position, he took advantage of a league against
Henry VI. in 1193 to engage in a further revolt; but the captivity of
his brother-in-law Richard I., king of England, led to a reconciliation.
Henry passed his later years mainly at his castle of Brunswick, where he
died on the 6th of August 1195, and was buried in the church of St
Blasius which he had founded in the town. He had by his first wife a son
and a daughter, and by his second wife five sons and a daughter. One of
his sons was Otto, afterwards the emperor Otto IV., and another was
Henry (d. 1227) count palatine of the Rhine.

Henry was a man of great ambition, and won his surname of "Lion" by his
personal bravery. His influence on the fortunes of Saxony and northern
Germany was very considerable. He planted Flemish and Dutch settlers in
the land between the Elbe and the Oder, fostered the growth and trade of
Lübeck, and in other ways encouraged trade and agriculture. He sought to
spread Christianity by introducing the Cistercians, founding bishoprics,
and building churches and monasteries. In 1874 a colossal statue was
erected to his memory at Brunswick.

  The authorities for the life of Henry the Lion are those dealing with
  the reign of the emperor Frederick I., and the early years of his son
  King Henry VI. The chief modern works are H. Prutz, _Heinrich der
  Löwe_ (Leipzig, 1865); M. Philippson, _Geschichte Heinrichs des Löwen_
  (Leipzig, 1867); and L. Weiland, _Das sächsische Herzogthum unter
  Lothar und Heinrich dem Löwen_ (Greifswald, 1866).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The see was transferred to Schwerin by Henry in 1167.

  [2] Transferred to Lübeck in 1163.



HENRY, PRINCE OF BATTENBERG (1858-1896), was the third son of Prince
Alexander of Hesse and his morganatic wife, the beautiful Countess Julia
von Hauke, to whom was granted in 1858 the title of princess of
Battenberg, which her children inherited. He was born at Milan on the
5th of October 1858, was educated with a special view to military
service, and in due time became a lieutenant in the first regiment of
Rhenish hussars. By their relationship to the grand dukes of Hesse the
princes of Battenberg were brought into close contact with the English
court, and Prince Henry paid several visits to England, where he soon
became popular both in public and in private circles. It therefore
created but little surprise when, towards the close of 1884, it was
announced that Queen Victoria had sanctioned his engagement to the
Princess Beatrice. The wedding took place at Whippingham on the 23rd of
July 1885, and after the honeymoon the prince and princess settled down
to a quiet home life with the queen, being seldom absent from the court,
and accompanying her majesty in her annual visits to the continent.
Three sons and a daughter were the issue of the marriage. On the 31st of
July 1885 a bill to naturalize Prince Henry was passed by the House of
Lords, and he received the title of royal highness. He was made a Knight
of the Garter and a member of the Privy Council, and also appointed a
colonel in the army, and afterwards captain-general and governor of the
Isle of Wight and governor of Carisbrooke Castle. He adapted himself
very readily to English country life, for he was an excellent shot and
an enthusiastic yachtsman. Coming of a martial race, the prince would
gladly have embraced an active military career, and when the Ashanti
expedition was organized in November 1895 he volunteered to join it. But
when the expedition reached Prahsu, about 30 m. from Kumasi, he was
struck down by fever, and being promptly conveyed back to the coast, was
placed on board H.M.S. "Blonde." On the 17th of January he seemed to
recover slightly, but a relapse occurred on the 19th, and he died on the
evening of the 20th off the coast of Sierra Leone.



HENRY FITZ HENRY (1155-1183), second son of Henry II., king of England,
by Eleanor of Aquitaine, became heir to the throne on the death of his
brother William (1156), and at the age of five was married to
Marguerite, the infant daughter of Louis VII. In 1170 he was crowned at
Westminster by Roger of York. The protests of Becket against this
usurpation of the rights of Canterbury were the ultimate cause of the
primate's murder. The young king soon quarrelled with his father, who
allowed him no power and a wholly inadequate revenue, and headed the
great baronial revolt of 1173. He was assisted by his father-in-law, to
whose court he had repaired; but, failing to shake the old king's power
either in Normandy or England, made peace in 1174. Despite the generous
terms which he received, he continued to intrigue with Louis VII., and
was in consequence jealously watched by his father. In 1182 he and his
younger brother Geoffrey took up arms, on the side of the Poitevin
rebels, against Richard Coeur de Lion; apparently from resentment at the
favour which Henry II. had shown to Richard in giving him the government
of Poitou while they were virtually landless. Henry II. took the field
in aid of Richard; but the young king and Geoffrey had no scruples about
withstanding their father, and continued to aid the Aquitanian rising
until the young king fell ill of a fever which proved fatal to him (June
11, 1183). His death was bitterly regretted by his father and by all who
had known him. Though of a fickle and treacherous nature, he had all the
personal fascination of his family, and is extolled by his
contemporaries as a mirror of chivalry. His train was full of knights
who served him without pay for the honour of being associated with his
exploits in the tilting-lists and in war.

  The original authorities for Henry's life are Robert de Torigni,
  _Chronica_; Giraldus Cambrensis, _De instructione principum, Guillaume
  le Maréchal_ (ed. P. Meyer, Paris, 1891, &c.); Benedict, _Gesta
  Henrici_, William of Newburgh. See also Kate Norgate, _England under
  the Angevin Kings_ (1887); Sir James Ramsay, _Angevin Empire_ (1903);
  and C. E. Hodgson, _Jung Heinrich, König von England_ (Jena, 1906).



HENRY, or in full, HENRY BENEDICT MARIA CLEMENT STUART (1725-1807),
usually known as Cardinal York, the last prince of the royal house of
Stuart, was the younger son of James Stuart, and was born in the Palazzo
Muti at Rome on the 6th of March 1725. He was created duke of York by
his father soon after his birth, and by this title he was always alluded
to by Jacobite adherents of his house. British visitors to Rome speak of
him as a merry high-spirited boy with martial instincts; nevertheless,
he grew up studious, peace-loving and serious. In order to be of
assistance to his brother Charles, who was then campaigning in Scotland,
Henry was despatched in the summer of 1745 to France, where he was
placed in nominal command of French troops at Dunkirk, with which the
marquis d'Argenson had some vague idea of invading England. Seven months
after Charles's return from Scotland Henry secretly departed to Rome
and, with the full approval of his father, but to the intense disgust of
his brother, was created a cardinal deacon under the title of the
cardinal of York by Pope Benedict XIV. on the 3rd of July 1747. In the
following year he was ordained priest, and nominated arch-priest of the
Vatican Basilica. In 1759 he was consecrated archbishop of Corinth _in
partibus_, and in 1761 bishop of Frascati (the ancient Tusculum) in the
Alban Hills near Rome. Six years later he was appointed vice-chancellor
of the Holy See. Henry Stuart likewise held sinecure benefices in
France, Spain and Spanish America, so that he became one of the
wealthiest churchmen of the period, his annual revenue being said to
amount to £30,000 sterling. On the death of his father, James Stuart
(whose affairs he had managed during the last five years of his life),
Henry made persistent attempts to induce Pope Clement XIII. to
acknowledge his brother Charles as legitimate king of Great Britain, but
his efforts were defeated, chiefly through the adverse influence of
Cardinal Alessandro Albani, who was bitterly opposed to the Stuart
cause. On Charles's death in 1788 Henry issued a manifesto asserting his
hereditary right to the British crown, and likewise struck a medal,
commemorative of the event, with the legend "Hen. IX. Mag. Brit. Fr. et
Hib. Rex. Fid. Def. Card. Ep. Tusc:" (Henry the Ninth of Great Britain,
France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, Cardinal, Bishop of
Frascati). In February 1798, at the approach of the invading French
forces, Henry was forced to fly from Frascati to Naples, whence at the
close of the same year he sailed to Messina. From Messina he proceeded
by sea in order to be present at the expected conclave at Venice, where
he arrived in the spring of 1799, aged, ill and almost penniless. His
sad plight was now made known by Cardinal Stefano Borgia to Sir John
Coxe Hippisley (d. 1825), who had formerly acted semi-officially on
behalf of the British government at the court of Pius VI. Sir John
Hippisley appealed to George III., who on the warm recommendation of
Prince Augustus Frederick, duke of Sussex, gave orders for the annual
payment of a pension of £4000 to the last of the Royal Stuarts. Henry
received the proffered assistance gratefully, and in return for the
king's kindness subsequently left by his will certain British crown
jewels in his possession to the prince regent. In 1800 Henry was able to
return to Rome, and in 1803, being now senior cardinal bishop, he became
_ipso facto_ dean of the Sacred College and bishop of Ostia and
Velletri. He died at Frascati on the 13th of July 1807, and was buried
in the _Grotte Vaticane_ of St Peter's in an urn bearing the title of
"Henry IX."; he is also commemorated in Canova's well-known monument to
the Royal Stuarts (see JAMES). The Stuart archives, once the property of
Cardinal York, were subsequently presented by Pope Pius VII. to the
prince regent, who placed them in the royal library at Windsor Castle.

  See B. W. Kelly, _Life of Cardinal York_; H. M. Vaughan, _Last of the
  Royal Stuarts_; and A. Shield, _Henry Stuart, Cardinal of York, and
  his Times_ (1908).     (H. M. V.)



HENRY OF PORTUGAL, surnamed the "Navigator" (1394-1460), duke of Viseu,
governor of the Algarve, was born at Oporto on the 4th of March 1394. He
was the third (or, counting children who died in infancy, the fifth) son
of John (João) I., the founder of the Aviz dynasty, under whom Portugal,
victorious against Castile and against the Moors of Morocco, began to
take a prominent place among European nations; his mother was Philippa,
daughter of John of Gaunt. When Ceuta, the "African Gibraltar," was
taken in 1415, Prince Henry performed the most distinguished service of
any Portuguese leader, and received knighthood; he was now created duke
of Viseu and lord of Covilham, and about the same time began his
explorations, which, however, limited in their original conception,
certainly developed into a search for a better knowledge of the western
ocean and for a sea-way along the unknown coast of Africa to the
supposed western Nile (our Senegal), to the rich negro lands beyond the
Sahara desert, to the half-true, half-fabled realm of Prester John, and
so ultimately to the Indies.

Disregarding the traditions which assign 1412 or even 1410 as the
commencement of these explorations, it appears that in 1415, the year of
Ceuta, the prince sent out one John de Trasto on a voyage which brought
the Portuguese to Grand Canary. There was no discovery here, for the
whole Canarian archipelago was now pretty well known to French and
Spanish mariners, especially since the conquest of 1402-06 by French
adventurers under Castillan overlordship; but in 1418 Henry's captain,
João Gonçalvez Zarco rediscovered Porto Santo, and in 1420 Madeira, the
chief members of an island group which had originally been discovered
(probably by Genoese pioneers) before 1351 or perhaps even before 1339,
but had rather faded from Christian knowledge since. The story of the
rediscovery of Madeira by the Englishman Robert Machim or Machin,
eloping from Bristol with his lady-love, Anne d'Arfet, in the reign of
Edward III. (about 1370), has been the subject of much controversy; in
any case it does not affect the original Italian discovery, nor the
first sighting of Porto Santo by Zarco, who, while exploring the west
African mainland coast, was driven by storms to this island. In
1424-1425 Prince Henry attempted to purchase the Canaries, and began the
colonization of the Madeira group, both in Madeira itself and in Porto
Santo; to aid this latter movement he procured the famous charters of
1430 and 1433 from the Portuguese crown. In 1427, again, with the
co-operation of his father King John, he seems to have sent out the
royal pilot Diogo de Sevill, followed in 1431 by Gonçalo Velho Cabral,
to explore the Azores, first mentioned and depicted in a Spanish
treatise of 1345 (the _Conosçimiento de todos los Reynos_) and in an
Italian map of 1351 (the _Laurentian Portolano_, also the first
cartographical work to give us the Madeiras with modern names), but
probably almost unvisited from that time to the advent of Sevill. This
rediscovery of the far western archipelago, and the expeditions which,
even within Prince Henry's life (as in 1452) pushed still deeper into
the Atlantic, seem to show that the infante was not entirely forgetful
of the possibility of such a western route to Asia as Columbus attempted
in 1492, only to find America across his path. Meantime, in 1418, Henry
had gone in person to relieve Ceuta from an attack of Morocco and
Granada Mussulmans; had accomplished his task, and had planned, though
he did not carry out, a seizure of Gibraltar. About this time, moreover,
it is probable that he had begun to gather information from the Moors
with regard to the coast of "Guinea" and the interior of Africa. In
1419, after his return to Portugal, he was created governor of the
"kingdom" of Algarve, the southernmost province of Portugal; and his
connexion now appears to have begun with what afterwards became known as
the "Infante's Town" (_Villa do Iffante_) at Sagres, close to Cape St
Vincent; where, before 1438, a _Tercena Nabal_ or naval arsenal grew up;
where, from 1438, after the Tangier expedition, the prince certainly
resided for a great part of his later life; and where he died in 1460.

In 1433 died King John, exhorting his son not to abandon those schemes
which were now, in the long-continued failure to round Cape Bojador,
ridiculed by many as costly absurdities; and in 1434 one of the
prince's ships, commanded by Gil Eannes, at length doubled the cape. In
1435 Affonso Gonçalvez Baldaya, the prince's cup-bearer, passed fifty
leagues beyond; and before the close of 1436 the Portuguese had almost
reached Cape Blanco. Plans of further conquest in Morocco, resulting in
1437 in the disastrous attack upon Tangier, and followed in 1438 by the
death of King Edward (Duarte) and the domestic troubles of the earlier
minority of Affonso V., now interrupted Atlantic and African exploration
down to 1441, except only in the Azores. Here rediscovery and
colonization both progressed, as is shown by the royal licence of the
2nd of July 1439, to people "the seven islands" of the group then known.
In 1441 exploration began again in earnest with the venture of Antam
Gonçalvez, who brought to Portugal the first slaves and gold-dust from
the Guinea coasts beyond Bojador; while Nuno Tristam in the same year
pushed on to Cape Blanco. These successes produced a great effect; the
cause of discovery, now connected with boundless hopes of profit, became
popular; and many volunteers, especially merchants and seamen from
Lisbon and Lagos, came forward. In 1442 Nuno Tristam reached the Bay or
Bight of Arguim, where the infante erected a fort in 1448, and where for
years the Portuguese carried on vigorous slave-raiding. Meantime the
prince, who had now, in 1443, been created by Henry VI. a knight of the
Garter of England, proceeded with his Sagres buildings, especially the
palace, church and observatory (the first in Portugal) which formed the
nucleus of the "Infante's Town," and which were certainly commenced soon
after the Tangier fiasco (1437), if not earlier. In 1444-1446 there was
an immense burst of maritime and exploring activity; more than 30 ships
sailed with Henry's licence to Guinea; and several of their commanders
achieved notable success. Thus Diniz Diaz, Nuno Tristam, and others
reached the Senegal in 1445; Diaz rounded Cape Verde in the same year;
and in 1446 Alvaro Fernandez pushed on almost to our Sierra Leone, to a
point 110 leagues beyond Cape Verde. This was perhaps the most distant
point reached before 1461. In 1444, moreover, the island of St Michael
in the Azores was sighted (May 8), and in 1445 its colonization was
begun. During this latter year also John Fernandez (q.v.) spent seven
months among the natives of the Arguim coast, and brought back the first
trustworthy first-hand European account of the Sahara hinterland.
Slave-raiding continued ceaselessly; by 1446 the Portuguese had carried
off nearly a thousand captives from the newly surveyed coasts; but
between this time and the voyages of Cadamosto (q.v.) in 1455-1456, the
prince altered his policy, forbade the kidnapping of the natives (which
had brought about fierce reprisals, causing the death of Nuno Tristam in
1446, and of other pioneers in 1445, 1448, &c.), and endeavoured to
promote their peaceful intercourse with his men. In 1445-1446, again,
Dom Henry renewed his earlier attempts (which had failed in 1424-1425)
to purchase or seize the Canaries for Portugal; by these he brought his
country to the verge of war with Castile; but the home government
refused to support him, and the project was again abandoned. After 1446
our most voluminous authority, Azurara, records but little; his
narrative ceases altogether in 1448; one of the latest expeditions
noticed by him is that of a foreigner in the prince's service, "Vallarte
the Dane," which ended in utter destruction near the Gambia, after
passing Cape Verde in 1448. After this the chief matters worth notice in
Dom Henry's life are, first, the progress of discovery and colonization
in the Azores--where Terceira was discovered before 1450, perhaps in
1445, and apparently by a Fleming, called "Jacques de Bruges" in the
prince's charter of the 2nd of March 1450 (by this charter Jacques
receives the captaincy of this isle as its intending colonizer);
secondly, the rapid progress of civilization in Madeira, evidenced by
its timber trade to Portugal, by its sugar, corn and honey, and above
all by its wine, produced from the Malvoisie or Malmsey grape,
introduced from Crete; and thirdly, the explorations of Cadamosto and
Diogo Gomez (q.v.). Of these the former, in his two voyages of 1455 and
1456, explored part of the courses of the Senegal and the Gambia,
discovered the Cape Verde Islands (1456), named and mapped more
carefully than before a considerable section of the African littoral
beyond Cape Verde, and gave much new information on the trade-routes of
north-west Africa and on the native races; while Gomez, in his first
important venture (after 1448 and before 1458), though not accomplishing
the full Indian purpose of his voyage (he took a native interpreter with
him for use "in the event of reaching India"), explored and observed in
the Gambia valley and along the adjacent coasts with fully as much care
and profit. As a result of these expeditions the infante seems to have
sent out in 1458 a mission to convert the Gambia negroes. Gomez' second
voyage, resulting in another "discovery" of the Cape Verde Islands, was
probably in 1462, after the death of Prince Henry; it is likely that
among the infante's last occupations were the necessary measures for the
equipment and despatch of this venture, as well as of Pedro de Sintra's
important expedition of 1461.

The infante's share in home politics was considerable, especially in the
years of Affonso V.'s minority (1438, &c.) when he helped to make his
elder brother Pedro regent, reconciled him with the queen-mother, and
worked together with them both in a council of regency. But when Dom
Pedro rose in revolt (1447), Henry stood by the king and allowed his
brother to be crushed. In the Morocco campaigns of his last years,
especially at the capture of Alcazar the Little (1458), he restored the
military fame which he had founded at Ceuta and compromised at Tangier,
and which brought him invitations from the pope, the emperor and the
kings of Castile and England, to take command of their armies. The
prince was also grand master of the Order of Christ, the successor of
the Templars in Portugal; and most of his Atlantic and African
expeditions sailed under the flag of his order, whose revenues were at
the service of his explorations, in whose name he asked and obtained the
official recognition of Pope Eugenius IV. for his work, and on which he
bestowed many privileges in the new-won lands--the tithes of St Michael
in the Azores and one-half of its sugar revenues, the tithe of all
merchandise from Guinea, the ecclesiastical dues of Madeira, &c. As
"protector of Portuguese studies," Dom Henry is credited with having
founded a professorship of theology, and perhaps also chairs of
mathematics and medicine, in Lisbon--where also, in 1431, he is said to
have provided house-room for the university teachers and students. To
instruct his captains, pilots and other pioneers more fully in the art
of navigation and the making of maps and instruments he procured, says
Barros, the aid of one Master Jacome from Majorca, together with that of
certain Arab and Jewish mathematicians. We hear also of one Master
Peter, who inscribed and illuminated maps for the infante; the
mathematician Pedro Nunes declares that the prince's mariners were well
taught and provided with instruments and rules of astronomy and geometry
"which all map-makers should know"; Cadamosto tells us that the
Portuguese caravels in his day were the best sailing ships afloat;
while, from several matters recorded by Henry's biographers, it is clear
that he devoted great attention to the study of earlier charts and of
any available information he could gain upon the trade-routes of
north-west Africa. Thus we find an Oran merchant corresponding with him
about events happening in the negro-world of the Gambia basin in 1458.
Even if there were never a formal "geographical school" at Sagres, or
elsewhere in Portugal, founded by Prince Henry, it appears certain that
his court was the centre of active and useful geographical study, as
well as the source of the best practical exploration of the time.

The prince died on the 13th of November 1460, in his town near Cape St
Vincent, and was buried in the church of St Mary in Lagos, but a year
later his body was removed to the superb monastery of Batalha. His
great-nephew, King Dom Manuel, had a statue of him placed over the
centre column of the side gate of the church of Belem. On the 24th of
July 1840, a monument was erected to him at Sagres at the instance of
the marquis de Sá da Bandeira.

The glory attaching to the name of Prince Henry does not rest merely on
the achievements effected during his own lifetime, but on the subsequent
results to which his genius and perseverance had lent the primary
inspiration. To him the human race is indebted, in large measure, for
the maritime exploration, within one century (1420-1522), of more than
half the globe, and especially of the great waterways from Europe to
Asia both by east and by west. His own life only sufficed for the
accomplishment of a small portion of his task. The complete opening out
of the African or south-east route to the Indies needed nearly forty
years of somewhat intermittent labour after his death (1460-1498), and
the prince's share has often been forgotten in that of pioneers who were
really his executors--Diogo Cam, Bartholomew Diaz or Vasco da Gama. Less
directly, other sides of his activity may be considered as fulfilled by
the Portuguese penetration of inland Africa, especially of Abyssinia,
the land of the "Prester John" for whom Dom Henry sought, and even by
the finding of a western route to Asia through the discoveries of
Columbus, Balboa and Magellan.

  See _Alguns documentos do archivo nacional da Torre do Tombo acerca
  das navegações ... portuguezas_ (Lisbon, 1892); Alves, _Dom Henrique o
  Infante_ (Oporto, 1894); _Archivo dos Açores_ (Ponta Delgada,
  1878-1894); Gomes Eannes de Azurara, _Chronica do descobrimento e
  conquista de Guiné_, ed. Carreira and Santarem (Paris, 1841; Eng.
  trans. by Raymond Beazley and Edgar Prestage, Hakluyt Society, London,
  1896-1899); João de Barros, _Decadas da Asia_ (Lisbon, 1652); Raymond
  Beazley, _Prince Henry the Navigator_ (London, 1895), and introduction
  to Azurara, vol. ii., in Hakluyt Soc. trans. (see above); Antonio
  Cordeiro, _Historia Insultana_ (Lisbon, 1717); Freire (Candido
  Lusitano), _Vida do Infante D. Henrique_ (Lisbon, 1858); "Diogo
  Gomez," in Dr Schmeller's _Über Valentim Fernandez Alemão_, vol. iv.
  pt. iii., in the publications of the 1st class of the Royal Bavarian
  Academy of Sciences (Munich, 1845); R. H. Major, _The Life of Henry of
  Portugal, surnamed the Navigator_ (London, 1868); Jules Mees, _Henri
  le Navigateur et l'académie ... de Sagres_ (Brussels, 1901), and
  _Histoire de la découverte des îles Açores_ (Ghent, 1901); Duarte
  Pacheco Pereira, _Esmeraldo de situ orbis_ (Lisbon, 1892); Sophus
  Ruge, "Prinz Heinrich der Seefahrer," in vol. 65 of _Globus_, p. 153
  (Brunswick, 1894); Gustav de Veer, _Prinz Heinrich der Seefahrer_
  (Danzig, 1863); H. E. Wauwerman, _Henri le Navigateur et l'académie
  portugaise de Sagres_ (Antwerp and Brussels, 1890).     (C. R. B.)



HENRY OF ALMAIN (1235-1271), so called from his father's German
connexions, was the son of Richard, earl of Cornwall and king of the
Romans. As a nephew of both Henry III. and Simon de Montfort he wavered
between the two at the beginning of the Barons' War, but finally took
the royalist side and was among the prisoners taken by Montfort at Lewes
(1264). In 1268 he took the cross with his cousin Edward, who, however,
sent him back from Sicily to pacify the unruly province of Gascony.
Henry took the land route with the kings of France and Sicily. While
attending mass at Viterbo (13 March 1271) he was attacked by Guy and
Simon de Montfort, sons of Earl Simon, and foully murdered. This revenge
was the more outrageous since Henry had personally exerted himself on
behalf of the Montforts after Evesham. The deed is mentioned by Dante,
who put Guy de Montfort in the seventh circle of hell.

  See W. H. Blaauw's _The Barons' War_ (ed. 1871); Ch. Bémont's _Simon
  de Montfort_ (1884).



HENRY OF BLOIS, bishop of Winchester (1101-1171), was the son of
Stephen, count of Blois, by Adela, daughter of William I., and brother
of King Stephen. He was educated at Cluny, and consistently exerted
himself for the principles of Cluniac reform. If these involved high
claims of independence and power for the Church, they also asserted a
high standard of devotion and discipline. Henry was brought to England
by Henry I. and made abbot of Glastonbury. In 1129 he was given the
bishopric of Winchester and allowed to hold his abbey in conjunction
with it. His hopes of the see of Canterbury were disappointed, but he
obtained in 1139 a legatine commission which gave him a higher rank than
the primate. In fact as well as in theory he became the master of the
Church in England. He even contemplated the erection of a new province,
with Winchester as its centre, which was to be independent of
Canterbury. Owing both to local and to general causes the power of the
Church in England has never been higher than in the reign of Stephen
(1135-1154), Henry as its leader and a legate of the pope was the real
"lord of England," as the chronicles call him. Indeed, one of the
ecclesiastical councils over which he presided formally declared that
the election of the king in England was the special privilege of the
clergy. Stephen owed his crown to Henry (1135), but they quarrelled
when Stephen refused to give Henry the primacy; and the bishop took up
the cause of Roger of Salisbury (1139). After the battle of Lincoln
(1141) Henry declared for Matilda; but finding his advice treated with
contempt, rejoined his brother's side, and his successful defence of
Winchester against the empress (Aug.-Sept. 1141) was the turning-point
of the civil war. The expiration of his legatine commission of 1144
deprived him of much of his power. He spent the rest of Stephen's reign
in trying to procure its renewal. But his efforts were unsuccessful,
though he made a personal visit to Rome. At the accession of Henry II.
(1154) he retired from the world and spent the rest of his life in works
of charity and penitence. He died in 1171. Henry seems to have been a
man of high character, great courage, resolution and ability. Like most
great bishops of his age he had a passion for architecture. He built,
among other castles, that of Farnham; and he began the hospital of St
Cross at Winchester.

  AUTHORITIES.--Original: William of Malmesbury, _De gestis regum_; the
  _Gesta Stephani_. Modern: Sir James Ramsay, _Foundations of England_,
  vol. ii.; Kate Norgate's _Angevin Kings_; Kitchin's _Winchester_.



HENRY OF GHENT [Henricus a Gandavo] (c. 1217-1293), scholastic
philosopher, known as "Doctor Solennis," was born in the district of
Mude, near Ghent, and died at Tournai (or Paris). He is said to have
belonged to an Italian family named Bonicolli, in Flemish Goethals, but
the question of his name has been much discussed (see authorities
below). He studied at Ghent and then at Cologne under Albertus Magnus.
After obtaining the degree of doctor he returned to Ghent, and is said
to have been the first to lecture there publicly on philosophy and
theology. Attracted to Paris by the fame of the university, he took part
in the many disputes between the orders and the secular priests, and
warmly defended the latter. A contemporary of Aquinas, he opposed
several of the dominant theories of the time, and united with the
current Aristotelian doctrines a strong infusion of Platonism. He
distinguished between knowledge of actual objects and the divine
inspiration by which we cognize the being and existence of God. The
first throws no light upon the second. Individuals are constituted not
by the material element but by their independent existence, i.e.
ultimately by the fact that they are created as separate entities.
Universals must be distinguished according as they have reference to our
minds or to the divine mind. In the divine intelligence exist exemplars
or types of the genera and species of natural objects. On this subject
Henry is far from clear; but he defends Plato against the current
Aristotelian criticism, and endeavours to show that the two views are in
harmony. In psychology, his view of the intimate union of soul and body
is remarkable. The body he regards as forming part of the substance of
the soul, which through this union is more perfect and complete.

  WORKS.--_Quodlibeta theologica_ (Paris, 1518; Venice, 1608 and 1613);
  _Summa theologiae_ (Paris, 1520; Ferrara, 1646); _De scriptoribus
  ecclesiasticis_ (Cologne, 1580).

  AUTHORITIES.--F. Huet's _Recherches hist. et crit. ... de H. de G._
  (Paris, 1838) has been superseded by F. Ehrle's monograph in _Archiv
  für Lit. u. Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters_, i. (1885); see also
  A. Wauters and N. de Pauw in the _Bull. de la Com. royale d'histoire
  de Belgique_ (4th series, xiv., xv., xvi., 1887-1889); H. Delehaye,
  _Nouvelles Recherches sur Henri de Gand_ (1886); C. Werner, _Heinrich
  von Gent als Repräsentant des christlichen Platonismus im 13ten
  Jahrh._ (Vienna, 1878); A. Stöckl, _Phil. d. Mittelalters_, ii.
  738-758; C. Bréchillet Jourdain, _La Philosophie de St Thomas d'Aquin_
  (1858), ii. 29-46; Alphonse le Roy in _Biographie nationale de
  Belgique_, vii. (Brussels, 1880); and article SCHOLASTICISM.



HENRY OF HUNTINGDON, English chronicler of the 12th century, was born,
apparently, between the years 1080 and 1090. His father, by name
Nicholas, was a clerk, who became archdeacon of Cambridge, Hertford and
Huntingdon, in the time of Remigius, bishop of Lincoln (d. 1092). The
celibacy of the clergy was not strictly enforced in England before 1102.
Hence the chronicler makes no secret of his antecedents, nor did they
interfere with his career. At an early age Henry entered the household
of Bishop Robert Bloet, who appointed him, immediately after the death
of Nicholas (1110), archdeacon of Hertford and Huntingdon. Henry was on
familiar terms with his patron; and also, it would seem, with Bloet's
successor, by whom he was encouraged to undertake the writing of an
English history from the time of Julius Caesar. This work, undertaken
before 1130, was first published in that year; the author subsequently
published in succession four more editions, of which the last ends in
1154 with the accession of Henry II. The only recorded fact of the
chronicler's later life is that he went with Archbishop Theobald to Rome
in 1139. On the way Henry halted at Bec, and there made the acquaintance
of Robert de Torigni, who mentions their encounter in the preface to his
Chronicle.

  The _Historia Anglorum_ was first printed in Savile, _Rerum Anglicarum
  scriptores post Bedam_ (London, 1596). The first six books excepting
  the third, which is almost entirely taken from Bede, are given in
  _Monumenta historica Britannica_, vol. i. (ed. H. Petrie and J.
  Sharpe, London, 1848). The standard edition is that of T. Arnold in
  the Rolls Series (London, 1879). There is a translation by T. Forester
  in Bohn's _Antiquarian Library_ (London, 1853). The Historia is of
  little independent value before 1126. Up to that point the author
  compiles from Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, Nennius, Bede and the
  English chronicles, particularly that of Peterborough; in some cases
  he professes to supplement these sources from oral tradition; but most
  of his amplifications are pure rhetoric (see F. Liebermann in
  _Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte_ for 1878, pp. 265 seq.). Arnold
  prints, in an appendix, a minor work from Henry's pen, the _Epistola
  ad Walterum de contemptu mundi_, which was written in 1135. It is a
  moralizing tract, but contains some interesting anecdotes about
  contemporaries. Henry also wrote epistles to Henry I. (on the
  succession of kings and emperors in the great monarchies of the world)
  and to "Warinus, a Briton" (on the early British kings, after Geoffrey
  of Monmouth). A book, _De miraculis_, composed of extracts from Bede,
  was appended along with these three epistles to the later recensions
  of the _Historia_. Henry composed eight books of Latin epigrams; two
  books survive in the Lambeth MS., No. 118. His value as a historian,
  formerly much overrated, is discussed at length by Liebermann and in
  T. Arnold's introduction to the Rolls edition of the _Historia_.
       (H. W. C. D.)



HENRY OF LAUSANNE (variously known as of Bruys, of Cluny, of Toulouse,
and as the Deacon), French heresiarch of the first half of the 12th
century. Practically nothing is known of his origin or early life. He
may have been one of those hermits who at that time swarmed in the
forests of western Europe, and particularly in France, always surrounded
by popular veneration, and sometimes the founders of monasteries or
religious orders, such as those of Prémontré or Fontevrault. If St
Bernard's reproach (_Ep._ 241) be well founded, Henry was an apostate
monk--a "black monk" (Benedictine) according to the chronicler Alberic
de Trois Fontaines. The information we possess as to his degree of
instruction is scarcely more precise or less conflicting. When he
arrived at Le Mans in 1101, his _terminus a quo_ was probably Lausanne.
At that moment Hildebert, the bishop of Le Mans, was absent from his
episcopal town, and this is one of the reasons why Henry was granted
permission to preach (March to July 1101), a function jealously guarded
by the regular clergy. Whether by his prestige as a hermit and ascetic
or by his personal charm, he soon acquired enormous influence over the
people. His doctrine at that date appears to have been very vague; he
seemingly rejected the invocation of saints and also second marriages,
and preached penitence. Women, inflamed by his words, gave up their
jewels and luxurious apparel, and young men married courtesans in the
hope of reclaiming them. Henry was peculiarly fitted for a popular
preacher. In person he was tall and had a long beard; his voice was
sonorous, and his eyes flashed fire. He went bare-footed, preceded by a
man carrying a staff surmounted with an iron cross; he slept on the bare
ground, and lived by alms. At his instigation the inhabitants of Le Mans
soon began to slight the clergy of their town and to reject all
ecclesiastical authority. On his return from Rome, Hildebert had a
public disputation with Henry, in which, according to the bishop's _Acta
episcoporum Cenomannensium_, Henry was shown to be less guilty of heresy
than of ignorance. He, however, was forced to leave Le Mans, and went
probably to Poitiers and afterwards to Bordeaux. Later we find him in
the diocese of Arles, where the archbishop arrested him and had his case
referred to the tribunal of the pope. In 1134 Henry appeared before Pope
Innocent III. at the council of Pisa, where he was compelled to abjure
his errors and was sentenced to imprisonment. It appears that St Bernard
offered him an asylum at Clairvaux; but it is not known if he reached
Clairvaux, nor do we know when or in what circumstances he resumed his
activities. Towards 1139, however, Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny,
wrote a treatise called _Epistola seu tractatus adversus Petrobrusianos_
(Migne, _Patr. Lat._ clxxxix.) against the disciples of Peter of Bruys
and Henry of Lausanne, whom he calls Henry of Bruys, and whom, at the
moment of writing, he accuses of preaching, in all the dioceses in the
south of France, errors which he had inherited from Peter of Bruys.
According to Peter the Venerable, Henry's teaching is summed up as
follows: rejection of the doctrinal and disciplinary authority of the
church; recognition of the Gospel freely interpreted as the sole rule of
faith; condemnation of the baptism of infants, of the eucharist, of the
sacrifice of the mass, of the communion of saints, and of prayers for
the dead; and refusal to recognize any form of worship or liturgy. The
success of this teaching spread very rapidly in the south of France.
Speaking of this region, St Bernard (_Ep._ 241) says: "The churches are
without flocks, the flocks without priests, the priests without honour;
in a word, nothing remains save Christians without Christ." On several
occasions St Bernard was begged to fight the innovator on the scene of
his exploits, and in 1145, at the instance of the legate Alberic,
cardinal bishop of Ostia, he set out, passing through the diocese of
Angoulême and Limoges, sojourning for some time at Bordeaux, and finally
reaching the heretical towns of Bergerac, Périgueux, Sarlat, Cahors and
Toulouse. At Bernard's approach Henry quitted Toulouse, leaving there
many adherents, both of noble and humble birth, and especially among the
weavers. But Bernard's eloquence and miracles made many converts, and
Toulouse and Albi were quickly restored to orthodoxy. After inviting
Henry to a disputation, which he refused to attend, St Bernard returned
to Clairvaux. Soon afterwards the heresiarch was arrested, brought
before the bishop of Toulouse, and probably imprisoned for life. In a
letter to the people of Toulouse, undoubtedly written at the end of
1146, St Bernard calls upon them to extirpate the last remnants of the
heresy. In 1151, however, some Henricians still remained in Languedoc,
for Matthew Paris relates (_Chron. maj._, at date 1151) that a young
girl, who gave herself out to be miraculously inspired by the Virgin
Mary, was reputed to have converted a great number of the disciples of
Henry of Lausanne. It is impossible to designate definitely as
Henricians one of the two sects discovered at Cologne and described by
Everwin, provost of Steinfeld, in his letter to St Bernard (Migne,
_Patr. Lat._, clxxxii. 676-680), or the heretics of Périgord mentioned
by a certain monk Heribert (Martin Bouquet, _Recueil des historiens des
Gaules et de la France_, xii. 550-551).

  See "Les Origines de l'hérésie albigeoise," by Vacandard in the _Revue
  des questions historiques_ (Paris, 1894, pp. 67-83).     (P. A.)



HENRY, EDWARD LAMSON (1841-   ), American genre painter, was born in
Charleston, South Carolina, on the 12th of January 1841. He was a pupil
of the schools of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia,
and of Gleyre and Courbet in Paris, and in 1870 was elected to the
National Academy of Design, New York. As a painter of colonial and early
American themes and incidents of rural life, he displays a quaint humour
and a profound knowledge of human nature. Among his best-known
compositions are some of early railroad travel, incidents of stage coach
and canal boat journeys, rendered with much detail on a minute scale.



HENRY, JAMES (1798-1876), Irish classical scholar, was born in Dublin on
the 13th of December 1798. He was educated at Trinity College, and until
1845 practised as a physician in the city. In spite of his
unconventionally and unorthodox views on religion and his own
profession, he was very successful. His accession to a large fortune
enabled him to devote himself entirely to the absorbing occupation of
his life--the study of Virgil. Accompanied by his wife and daughter, he
visited all those parts of Europe where he was likely to find rare
editions or MSS. of the poet. He died near Dublin on the 14th of July
1876. As a commentator on Virgil Henry will always deserve to be
remembered, notwithstanding the occasional eccentricity of his notes and
remarks. The first fruits of his researches were published at Dresden in
1853 under the quaint title _Notes of a Twelve Years' Voyage of
Discovery in the first six Books of the Eneis_. These were embodied,
with alterations and additions, in the _Aeneidea, or Critical,
Exegetical and Aesthetical Remarks on the Aeneis_ (1873-1892), of which
only the notes on the first book were published during the author's
lifetime. As a textual critic Henry was exceedingly conservative. His
notes, written in a racy and interesting style, are especially valuable
for their wealth of illustration and references to the less-known
classical authors. Henry was also the author of several poems, some of
them descriptive accounts of his travels, and of various pamphlets of a
satirical nature.

  See obituary notice by J. P. Mahaffy in the _Academy_ of the 12th of
  August 1876, where a list of his works, nearly all of which were
  privately printed, is given.



HENRY, JOSEPH (1797-1878), American physicist, was born in Albany, N.Y.,
on the 17th of December 1797. He received his education at an ordinary
school, and afterwards at the Albany Academy, which enjoyed considerable
reputation for the thoroughness of its classical and mathematical
courses. On finishing his academic studies he contemplated adopting the
medical profession, and prosecuted his studies in chemistry, anatomy and
physiology with that view. He occasionally contributed papers to the
Albany Institute, in the years 1824 and 1825, on chemical and mechanical
subjects; and in the latter year, having been unexpectedly appointed
assistant engineer on the survey of a route for a state road from the
Hudson river to Lake Erie, a distance somewhat over 300 m., he at once
embarked with zeal and success in the new enterprise. This diversion
from his original bent gave him an inclination to the career of civil
and mechanical engineering; and in the spring of 1826 he was elected by
the trustees of the Albany Academy to the chair of mathematics and
natural philosophy in that institution. In the latter part of 1827 he
read before the Albany Institute his first important contribution, "On
Some Modifications of the Electro-Magnetic Apparatus." Struck with the
great improvements then recently introduced into such apparatus by
William Sturgeon of Woolwich, he had still further extended their
efficiency, with considerable reduction of battery-power, by adopting in
all the experimental circuits (where applicable) the principle of J. S.
C. Schweigger's "multiplier," that is, by substituting for single wire
circuits, voluminous coils (_Trans. Albany Institute_, 1827, 1, p. 22).
In June 1828 and in March 1829 he exhibited before the institute small
electro-magnets closely and repeatedly wound with silk-covered wire,
which had a far greater lifting power than any then known. Henry appears
to have been the first to adopt insulated or silk-covered wire for the
magnetic coil; and also the first to employ what may be called the
"spool" winding for the limbs of the magnet. He was also the first to
demonstrate experimentally the difference of action between what he
called a "quantity" magnet excited by a "quantity" battery of a single
pair, and an "intensity" magnet with long fine wire coil excited by an
"intensity" battery of many elements, having their resistances suitably
proportioned. He pointed out that the latter form alone was applicable
to telegraphic purposes. A detailed account of these experiments and
exhibitions was not, however, published till 1831 (_Sill. Journ._, 19,
p. 400). Henry's "quantity" magnets acquired considerable celebrity at
the time, from their unprecedented attractive power--one (August 1830)
lifting 750 lb., another (March 1831) 2300, and a third (1834) 3500.

Early in 1831 he arranged a small office-bell to be tapped by the
polarized armature of an "intensity" magnet, whose coil was in
continuation of a mile of insulated copper wire, suspended about one of
the rooms of his academy. This was the first instance of magnetizing
iron at a distance, or of a suitable combination of magnet and battery
being so arranged as to be capable of such action. It was, therefore,
the earliest example of a true "magnetic" telegraph, all preceding
experiments to this end having been on the galvanometer or needle
principle. About the same time he devised and constructed the first
electromagnetic engine with automatic polechanger (_Sill. Journ._, 1831,
20, p. 340; and Sturgeon's _Annals Electr._, 1839, 3, p. 554). Early in
1832 he discovered the induction of a current on itself, in a long
helical wire, giving greatly increased intensity of discharge (_Sill.
Journ._, 1832, 22, p. 408). In 1832 he was elected to the chair of
natural philosophy in the New Jersey college at Princeton. In 1834 he
continued and extended his researches "On the Influence of a Spiral
Conductor in increasing the Intensity of Electricity from a Galvanic
Arrangement of a Single Pair," a memoir of which was read before the
American Philosophical Society on the 5th of February 1835. In 1835 he
combined the short circuit of his monster magnet (of 1834) with the
small "intensity" magnet of an experimental telegraph wire, thereby
establishing the fact that very powerful mechanical effects could be
produced at a great distance by the agency of a very feeble magnet used
as a circuit maker and breaker, or as a "trigger"--the precursor of
later forms of relay and receiving magnets. In 1837 he paid his first
visit to England and Europe. In 1838 he made important investigations in
regard to the conditions and range of induction from electrical
currents--showing that induced currents, although merely momentary,
produce still other or tertiary currents, and thus on through successive
orders of induction, with alternating signs, and with reversed initial
and terminal signs. He also discovered similar successive orders of
induction in the case of the passage of frictional electricity (_Trans.
Am. Phil. Soc._, 6, pp. 303-337). Among many minor observations, he
discovered in 1842 the oscillatory nature of the electrical discharge,
magnetizing about a thousand needles in the course of his experiments
(_Proc. Am. Phil. Soc._, 1, p. 301). He traced the influence of
induction to surprising distances, magnetizing needles in the lower
story of a house through several intervening floors by means of
electrical discharges in the upper story, and also by the secondary
current in a wire 220 ft. distant from the wire of the primary circuit.
The five numbers of his _Contributions to Electricity and Magnetism_
(1835-1842) were separately republished from the _Transactions_. In 1843
he made some interesting original observations on "Phosphorescence"
(_Proc. Am. Phil. Soc._, 3, pp. 38-44). In 1844, by experiments on the
tenacity of soap-bubbles, he showed that the molecular cohesion of water
is equal (if not superior) to that of ice, and hence, generally, that
solids and their liquids have practically the same amount of cohesion
(_Proc. Am. Phil. Soc._, 4, pp. 56 and 84). In 1845 he showed, by means
of a thermo-galvanometer, that the solar spots radiate less heat than
the general solar surface (_Proc. Am. Phil. Soc._, 4, pp. 173-176).

In December 1846 Henry was elected secretary and director of the
Smithsonian Institution, then just established. While closely occupied
with the exacting duties of that office, he still found time to
prosecute many original inquiries--as into the application of acoustics
to public buildings, and the best construction and arrangement of
lecture-rooms, into the strength of various building materials, &c.
Having early devoted much attention to meteorology, both in observing
and in reducing and discussing observations, he (among his first
administrative acts) organized a large and widespread corps of
observers, and made arrangements for simultaneous reports by means of
the electric telegraph, which was yet in its infancy (_Smithson. Report_
for 1847, pp. 146, 147). He was the first to apply the telegraph to
meteorological research, to have the atmospheric conditions daily
indicated on a large map, to utilize the generalizations made in weather
forecasts, and to embrace a continent under a single system--British
America and Mexico being included in the field of observation. In 1852,
on the reorganization of the American lighthouse system, he was
appointed a member of the new board; and in 1871 he became the presiding
officer of the establishment--a position he continued to hold during the
rest of his life. His diligent investigations into the efficiency of
various illuminants in differing circumstances, and into the best
conditions for developing their several maximum powers of brilliancy,
while greatly improving the usefulness of the line of beacons along the
extensive coast of the United States, effected at the same time a great
economy of administration. His equally careful experiments on various
acoustic instruments also resulted in giving to his country the most
serviceable system of fog-signals known to maritime powers. In the
course of these varied and prolonged researches from 1865 to 1877, he
also made important contributions to the science of acoustics; and he
established by several series of laborious observations, extending over
many years and along a wide coast range, the correctness of G. G.
Stokes's hypothesis (_Report Brit. Assoc._, 1857, part ii. 27) that the
wind exerts a very marked influence in refracting sound-beams. From 1868
Henry continued to be annually chosen as president of the National
Academy of Sciences; and he was also president of the Philosophical
Society of Washington from the date of its organization in 1871.

Henry was by general concession the foremost of American physicists. He
was a man of varied culture, of large breadth and liberality of views,
of generous impulses, of great gentleness and courtesy of manner,
combined with equal firmness of purpose and energy of action. He died at
Washington on the 13th of May 1878.     (S. F. B.)



HENRY, MATTHEW (1662-1714), English nonconformist divine, was born at
Broad Oak, a farm-house on the confines of Flintshire and Shropshire, on
the 18th of October 1662. He was the son of Philip Henry, who had, two
months earlier, been ejected by the Act of Uniformity. Unlike most of
his fellow-sufferers, Philip Henry possessed some private means, and was
thus enabled to give a good education to his son, who went first to a
school at Islington, and then to Gray's Inn. He soon relinquished his
legal studies for theology, and in 1687 became minister of a
Presbyterian congregation at Chester, removing in 1712 to Mare Street,
Hackney. Two years later (22nd of June 1714), he died suddenly of
apoplexy at Nantwich while on a journey from Chester to London. Henry's
well-known _Exposition of the Old and New Testaments_ (1708-1710) is a
commentary of a practical and devotional rather than of a critical kind,
covering the whole of the Old Testament, and the Gospels and Acts in the
New. Here it was broken off by the author's death, but the work was
finished by a number of ministers, and edited by G. Burder and John
Hughes in 1811. Of no value as criticism, its unfailing good sense, its
discriminating thought, its high moral tone, its simple piety and its
singular felicity of practical application, combine with the
well-sustained flow of its racy English style to secure for it the
foremost place among works of its class.

His _Miscellaneous Writings_, including a _Life of Mr Philip Henry_,
_The Communicant's Companion_, _Directions for Daily Communion with
God_, _A Method for Prayer_, _A Scriptural Catechism_, and numerous
sermons, were edited in 1809 and in 1830. See biographies by W. Tong
(1816), C. Chapman (1859), J. B. Williams (1828, new ed. 1865); and M.
H. Lee's _Diaries and Letters of Philip Henry_ (1883).



HENRY, PATRICK (1736-1799), American statesman and orator, was born at
Studley, Hanover county, Virginia, on the 29th of May 1736. He was the
son of John Henry, a well-educated Scotsman, among whose relatives was
the historian William Robertson, and who served in Virginia as county
surveyor, colonel and judge of a county court. His mother was one of a
family named Winston, of Welsh descent, noted for conversational and
musical talent. At the age of ten Patrick was making slow progress in
the study of reading, writing and arithmetic at a small country school,
when his father became his tutor and taught him Latin, Greek and
mathematics for five years, but with limited success. His school days
being then terminated, he was employed as a store-clerk for one year.
Within the seven years next following he failed twice as a storekeeper
and once as a farmer; but in the meantime acquired a taste for reading,
of history especially, and read and re-read the history of Greece and
Rome, of England, and of her American colonies. Then, poor but not
discouraged, he resolved to be a lawyer, and after reading _Coke upon
Littleton_ and the Virginia laws for a few weeks only, he strongly
impressed one of his examiners, and was admitted to the bar at the age
of twenty-four, on condition that he spend more time in study before
beginning to practise. He rapidly acquired a considerable practice, his
fee books shewing that for the first three years he charged fees in 1185
cases. Then in 1763 was delivered his speech in "The Parson's Cause"--a
suit brought by a clergyman, Rev. James Maury, in the Hanover County
Court, to secure restitution for money considered by him to be due on
account of his salary (16,000 pounds of tobacco by law) having been paid
in money calculated at a rate less than the current market price of
tobacco. This speech, which, according to reports, was extremely radical
and denied the right of the king to disallow acts of the colonial
legislature, made Henry the idol of the common people of Virginia and
procured for him an enormous practice. In 1765 he was elected a member
of the Virginia legislature, where he became in the same year the author
of the "Virginia Resolutions," which were no less than a declaration of
resistance to the Stamp Act and an assertion of the right of the
colonies to legislate for themselves independently of the control of the
British parliament, and gave a most powerful impetus to the movement
resulting in the War of Independence. In a speech urging their adoption
appear the often-quoted words: "Tarquin and Caesar had each his Brutus,
Charles the First his Cromwell, and George the Third [here he was
interrupted by cries of "Treason"] and George the Third may profit by
their example! If _this_ be treason, make the most of it." Until 1775 he
continued to sit in the House of Burgesses, as a leader during all that
eventful period. He was prominent as a radical in all measures in
opposition to the British government, and was a member of the first
Virginia committee of correspondence. In 1774 and 1775 he was a delegate
to the Continental Congress and served on three of its most important
committees: that on colonial trade and manufactures, that for drawing up
an address to the king, and that for stating the rights of the colonies.
In 1775, in the second revolutionary convention of Virginia, Henry,
regarding war as inevitable, presented resolutions for arming the
Virginia militia. The more conservative members strongly opposed them as
premature, whereupon Henry supported them in a speech familiar to the
American school-boy for several generations following, closing with the
words, "Is life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the
price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what
course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me
death!" The resolutions were passed and their author was made chairman
of the committee for which they provided. The chief command of the newly
organized army was also given to him, but previously, at the head of a
body of militia, he had demanded satisfaction for powder removed from
the public store by order of Lord Dunmore, the royal governor, with the
result that £330 was paid in compensation. But his military appointment
required obedience to the Committee of Public Safety, and this body,
largely dominated by Edmund Pendleton, so restrained him from active
service that he resigned on the 28th of February 1776. In the Virginia
convention of 1776 he favoured the postponement of a declaration of
independence, until a firm union of the colonies and the friendship of
France and Spain had been secured. In the same convention he served on
the committee which drafted the first constitution for Virginia, and was
elected governor of the State--to which office he was re-elected in 1777
and 1778, thus serving as long as the new constitution allowed any man
to serve continuously. As governor he gave Washington able support and
sent out the expedition under George Rogers Clark (q.v.) into the
Illinois country. In 1778 he was chosen a delegate to Congress, but
declined to serve. From 1780 to 1784 and from 1787 to 1790 he was again
a member of his State legislature; and from 1784 to 1786 was again
governor. Until 1786 he was a leading advocate of a stronger central
government but when chosen a delegate to the Philadelphia constitutional
convention of 1787, he had become cold in the cause and declined to
serve. Moreover, in the state convention called to decide whether
Virginia should ratify the Federal Constitution he led the opposition,
contending that the proposed Constitution, because of its centralizing
character, was dangerous to the liberties of the country. This change of
attitude is thought to have been due chiefly to his suspicion of the
North aroused by John Jay's proposal to surrender to Spain for
twenty-five or thirty years the navigation of the Mississippi. From 1794
until his death he declined in succession the following offices: United
States senator (1794), secretary of state in Washington's cabinet
(1795), chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1795),
governor of Virginia (1796), to which office he had been elected by the
Assembly, and envoy to France (1799). In 1799, however, he consented to
serve again in his State legislature, where he wished to combat the
Virginia Resolutions; he never took his seat, since he died, on his Red
Hill estate in Charlotte county, Virginia, on the 6th of June of that
year. Henry was twice married, first to Sarah Skelton, and second to
Dorothea Spotswood Dandridge, a grand-daughter of Governor Alexander
Spotswocd.

  See Moses Coit Tyler, _Patrick Henry_ (Boston, 1887; new ed., 1899),
  and William Wirt Henry (Patrick Henry's grandson), _Patrick Henry:
  Life, Correspondence and Speeches_ (New York, 1890-1891); these
  supersede the very unsatisfactory biography by William Wirt, _Sketches
  of the Life and Character of Patrick Henry_ (Philadelphia, 1817). See
  also George Morgan, _The True Patrick Henry_ (Philadelphia, 1907).
       (N. D. M.)



HENRY, ROBERT (1718-1790), British historian, was the son of James
Henry, a farmer of Muirton, near Stirling. Born on the 18th of February
1718 he was educated at the parish school of St Ninians, and at the
grammar school of Stirling, and, after completing his course at
Edinburgh University, became master of the grammar school at Annan. In
1746 he was licensed to preach, and in 1748 was chosen minister of a
Presbyterian congregation at Carlisle, where he remained until 1760,
when he removed to a similar charge at Berwick-on-Tweed. In 1768 he
became minister of the New Greyfriars' Church, Edinburgh, and having
received the degree of D.D. from Edinburgh University in 1771, and
served as moderator of the general assembly of the church of Scotland in
1774, he was appointed one of the ministers of the Old Greyfriars'
Church, Edinburgh, in 1776, remaining in this charge until his death on
the 24th of November 1790. During his residence in Berwick, Henry
commenced his _History of Great Britain, written on a new plan_; but,
owing to the difficulty of consulting the original authorities, he did
not make much progress with the work until his removal to Edinburgh in
1768. The first five volumes appeared between 1771 and 1785, and the
sixth, edited and completed by Malcolm Laing, was published three years
after the author's death. A life of Henry was prefixed to this volume.
The _History_ covers the years between the Roman invasion and the death
of Henry VIII., and the "new plan" is the combination of an account of
the domestic life and commercial and social progress of the people with
the narrative of the political events of each period. The work was
virulently assailed by Dr Gilbert Stuart (1742-1786), who appeared
anxious to damage the sale of the book; but the injury thus effected was
only slight, as Henry received £3300 for the volumes published during
his lifetime. In 1781, through the influence of the earl of Mansfield,
he obtained a pension of £100 a year from the British government.

  The _History of Great Britain_ has been translated into French, and
  has passed into several English editions. An account of Stuart's
  attack on Henry is given in Isaac D'Israeli's _Calamities of Authors_.



HENRY, VICTOR (1850-   ), French philologist, was born at Colmar in
Alsace. Having held appointments at Douai and Lille, he was appointed
professor of Sanskrit and comparative grammar in the university of
Paris. A prolific and versatile writer, he is probably best known by the
English translations of his _Précis de Grammaire comparée de l'anglais
et de l'allemand_ and _Précis ... du Grec et du Latin_. Important works
by him on India and Indian languages are: _Manuel pour étudier le
Sanscrit vedique_ (with A. Bergaigne, 1890); _Éléments de Sanscrit
classique_ (1902); _Précis de grammaire Pâlie_ (1904); _Les Littératures
de l'Inde: Sanscrit, Pâli, Prâcrit_ (1904); _La Magie dans l'Inde
antique_ (1904); _Le Parsisme_ (1905); _L'Agnistoma_ (1906). Obscure
languages (such as Innok, Quichua, Greenland) and local dialects
(_Lexique étymologique du Breton moderne; Le Dialecte Alaman de Colmar_)
also claimed his attention. _Le Langage Martien_ is a curious book. It
contains a discussion of some 40 phrases (amounting to about 300 words),
which a certain Mademoiselle Hélène Smith (a well-known spiritualist
medium of Geneva), while on a hypnotic visit to the planet Mars, learnt
and repeated and even wrote down during her trance as specimens of a
language spoken there, explained to her by a disembodied interpreter.



HENRY, WILLIAM (1775-1836), English chemist, son of Thomas Henry
(1734-1816), an apothecary and writer on chemistry, was born at
Manchester on the 12th of December 1775. He began to study medicine at
Edinburgh in 1795, taking his doctor's degree in 1807, but ill-health
interrupted his practice as a physician, and he devoted his time mainly
to chemical research, especially in regard to gases. One of his
best-known papers (_Phil. Trans._, 1803) describes experiments on the
quantity of gases absorbed by water at different temperatures and under
different pressures, the conclusion he reached ("Henry's law") being
that "water takes up of gas condensed by one, two or more additional
atmospheres, a quantity which, ordinarily compressed, would be equal to
twice, thrice, &c. the volume absorbed under the common pressure of the
atmosphere." Others of his papers deal with gas-analysis, fire-damp,
illuminating gas, the composition of hydrochloric acid and of ammonia,
urinary and other morbid concretions, and the disinfecting powers of
heat. His _Elements of Experimental Chemistry_ (1799) enjoyed
considerable vogue in its day, going through 11 editions in 30 years. He
died at Pendlebury, near Manchester, on the 2nd of September 1836.



HENRYSON, ROBERT (c. 1425-c. 1500), Scottish poet, was born about 1425.
It has been surmised that he was connected with the family of Henderson
of Fordell, but of this there is no evidence. He is described, on the
title-page of the 1570 edition of his _Fables_, as "scholemaister of
Dunfermeling," probably of the grammar-school of the Benedictine Abbey
there. There is no record of his having studied at St Andrews, the only
Scottish university at this time; but in 1462 a "Master Robert Henryson"
is named among those incorporated in the recently founded university of
Glasgow. It is therefore likely that his first studies were completed
abroad, at Paris or Louvain. He would appear to have been in lower
orders, if, in addition to being master of the grammar-school, he is the
notary Robert Henryson who subscribes certain deeds in 1478. As Dunbar
(q.v.) refers to him as deceased in his _Lament for the Makaris_, his
death may be dated about 1500.

Efforts have been made to draw up a chronology of his poems; but every
scheme of this kind, is, in a stronger sense than in the case of Dunbar,
mere guess-work. There are no biographical or bibliographical facts to
guide us, and the "internal evidence" is inconclusive.

Henryson's longest, and in many respects his most original and effective
work, is his _Morall Fabillis of Esope_, a collection of thirteen
fables, chiefly based on the versions of Anonymus, Lydgate and Caxton.
The outstanding merit of the work is its freshness of treatment. The old
themes are retold with such vivacity, such fresh lights on human
character, and with so much local "atmosphere," that they deserve the
credit of original productions. They are certainly unrivalled in English
fabulistic literature. The earliest available texts are the Charteris
text printed by Lekpreuik in Edinburgh in 1570 and the Harleian MS. No.
3865 in the British Museum.

In the _Testament of Cresseid_ Henryson supplements Chaucer's tale of
Troilus with the story of the tragedy of Cresseid. Here again his
literary craftsmanship saves him from the disaster which must have
overcome another poet in undertaking to continue the part of the story
which Chaucer had intentionally left untold. The description of
Cresseid's leprosy, of her meeting with Troilus, of his sorrow and
charity, and of her death, give the poem a high place in writings of
this _genre_.

The poem entitled _Orpheus and Eurydice_, which is drawn from Boethius,
contains some good passages, especially the lyrical lament of Orpheus,
with the refrains "Quhar art thow gane, my luf Erudices?" and "My lady
quene and luf, Erudices." It is followed by a long _moralitas_, in the
manner of the _Fables_.

Thirteen shorter poems have been ascribed to Henryson. Of these the
pastoral dialogue "Robene and Makyne," perhaps the best known of his
work, is the most successful. Its model may perhaps be found in the
_pastourelles_, but it stands safely on its own merits. Unlike most of
the minor poems it is independent of Chaucerian tradition. The other
pieces deal with the conventional 15th-century topics: Age, Death, Hasty
Credence, Want of Wise Men and the like. The verses entitled "Sum
Practysis of Medecyne," in which some have failed to see Henryson's
hand, is an example of that boisterous alliterative burlesque which is
represented by a single specimen in the work of the greatest makers,
Dunbar, Douglas and Lyndsay. For this reason, if not for others, the
difference of its manner is no argument against its authenticity.

  The MS. authorities for the text are the Asloan, Bannatyne, Maitland
  Folio, Makculloch, Gray and Riddell. Chepman and Myllar's Prints
  (1508) have preserved two of the minor poems and a fragment of
  _Orpheus and Eurydice_. The first complete edition was prepared by
  David Laing (1 vol., Edinburgh, 1865). A more exhaustive edition in
  three volumes, containing all the texts, was undertaken by the
  Scottish Text Society (ed. G. Gregory Smith), the first volume of the
  text (vol. ii. of the work) appearing in 1907. For a critical account
  of Henryson, see Irving's _History of Scottish Poetry_, Henderson's
  _Vernacular Scottish Literature_, Gregory Smith's _Transition Period_,
  J. H. Millar's _Literary History of Scotland_, and the second volume
  of the _Cambridge History of English Literature_ (1908).     (G. G. S.)



HENSCHEL, GEORGE [ISIDOR GEORG] (1850-   ), English musician (naturalized
1890), of German family, was born at Breslau, and educated as a pianist,
making his first public appearance in Berlin in 1862. He subsequently,
however, took up singing, having developed a fine baritone voice; and in
1868 he sang the part of Hans Sachs in _Meistersinger_ at Munich. In
1877 he began a successful career in England, singing at the principal
concerts; and in 1881 he married the American soprano, Lilian Bailey (d.
1901), who was associated with him in a number of vocal recitals. He was
also prominent as a conductor, starting the London symphony concerts in
1886, and both in England and America (where he was the first conductor
of the Boston symphony concerts, 1881) he took a leading part in
advancing his art. He composed a number of instrumental works, a fine
_Stabat Mater_ (Birmingham festival, 1894), &c., and an opera, _Nubia_
(Dresden, 1899).



HENSELT, ADOLF VON (1814-1889), German composer, was born at Schwabach,
in Bavaria, on the 12th of May 1814. At three years old he began to
learn the violin, and at five the pianoforte under Frau v. Fladt. On
obtaining financial help from King Louis I. he went to study under
Hummel in Weimar, and thence in 1832 to Vienna, where, besides studying
composition under Simon Sechter, he made a great success as a concert
pianist. In order to recruit his health he made a prolonged tour in 1836
through the chief German towns. In 1837 he settled at Breslau, where he
had married, but in the following year he migrated to St Petersburg,
where previous visits had made him _persona grata_ at Court. He then
became court pianist and inspector of musical studies in the Imperial
Institute of Female Education, and was ennobled. In 1852 and again in
1867 he visited England, though in the latter year he made no public
appearance. St Petersburg was his home practically until his death,
which took place at Warmbrunn on the 10th of October 1889. The
characteristic of Henselt's playing was a combination of Liszt's
sonority with Hummel's smoothness. It was full of poetry, remarkable for
the great use he made of extended chords, and for his perfect technique.
He excelled in his own works and in those of Weber and Chopin. His
concerto in F minor is frequently played on the continent; and of his
many valuable studies, _Si oiseau j'étais_ is very familiar. His A minor
trio deserves to be better known. At one time Henselt was second to
Rubinstein in the direction of the St Petersburg Conservatorium.



HENSLOW, JOHN STEVENS (1796-1861), English botanist and geologist, was
born at Rochester on the 6th of February 1796. From his father, who was
a solicitor in that city, he imbibed a love of natural history which
largely influenced his career. He was educated at St John's College,
Cambridge, where he graduated as sixteenth wrangler in 1818, the year in
which Sedgwick became Woodwardian professor of geology. He accompanied
Sedgwick in 1819 during a tour in the Isle of Wight, and there he
learned his first lessons in geology. He also studied chemistry under
Professor James Cumming and mineralogy under E. D. Clarke. In the autumn
of 1819 he made some valuable observations on the geology of the Isle of
Man (_Trans. Geol. Soc._, 1821), and in 1821 he investigated the geology
of parts of Anglesey, the results being printed in the first volume of
the _Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society_ (1821), the
foundation of which society was originated by Sedgwick and Henslow.
Meanwhile, Henslow had studied mineralogy with considerable zeal, so
that on the death of Clarke he was in 1822 appointed professor of
mineralogy in the university at Cambridge. Two years later he took holy
orders. Botany, however, had claimed much of his attention, and to this
science he became more and more attached, so that he gladly resigned the
chair of mineralogy in 1825, to succeed to that of botany. As a teacher
both in the class-room and in the field he was eminently successful. To
him Darwin largely owed his attachment to natural history, and also his
introduction to Captain Fitzroy of H.M.S. "Beagle." In 1832 Henslow was
appointed vicar of Cholsey-cum-Moulsford in Berkshire, and in 1837
rector of Hitcham in Suffolk, and at this latter parish he lived and
laboured, endeared to all who knew him, until the close of his life. His
energies were devoted to the improvement of his parishioners, but his
influence was felt far and wide. In 1843 he discovered nodules of
coprolitic origin in the Red Crag at Felixstowe in Suffolk, and two
years later he called attention to those also in the Cambridge Greensand
and remarked that they might be of use in agriculture. Although Henslow
derived no benefit, these discoveries led to the establishment of the
phosphate industry in Suffolk and Cambridgeshire; and the works proved
lucrative until the introduction of foreign phosphates. The museum at
Ipswich, which was established in 1847, owed much to Henslow, who was
elected president in 1850, and then superintended the arrangement of the
collections. He died at Hitcham on the 16th of May 1861. His
publications included _A Catalogue of British Plants_ (1829; ed. 2,
1835); _Principles of Descriptive and Physiological Botany_ (1835);
_Flora of Suffolk_ (with E. Skepper) (1860).

  _Memoir_, by the Rev. Leonard Jenyns (1862).



HENSLOWE, PHILIP (d. 1616), English theatrical manager, was the son of
Edmund Henslowe of Lindfield, Sussex, master of the game in Ashdown
Forest and Broil Park. He was originally a servant in the employment of
the bailiff to Viscount Montague, whose property included Montague House
in Southwark, and his duties led him to settle there before 1577. He
subsequently married the bailiff's widow, and, with the fortune he got
with her, he developed into a clever business man and became a
considerable owner of Southwark property. He started his connexion with
the stage when, on the 24th of March 1584, he bought land near what is
now the southern end of Southwark Bridge, on which stood the Little Rose
playhouse, afterwards rebuilt as the Rose. Successive companies played
in it under Henslowe's financial management between 1592 and 1603. The
theatre at Newington Butts was also under him in 1594. A share of the
control in the Swan theatre, which like the Rose was on the Bankside,
fell to Henslowe before the close of the 16th century. With the actor
Edward Alleyn, who married his step-daughter Joan Woodward, he built in
Golden Lane, Cripplegate Without, the Fortune Playhouse, opened in
November 1600. In December of 1594, they had secured the Paris Garden, a
place for bear-baiting, on the Bankside, and in 1604 they bought the
office of master of the royal game of bears, bulls and mastiffs from the
holder, and obtained a patent. Alleyn sold his share to Henslowe in
February 1610, and three years later Henslowe formed a new partnership
with Jacob Meade and built the Hope playhouse, designed for stage
performances as well as bull and bear-baiting, and managed by Meade.

In Henslowe's theatres were first produced many plays by the famous
Elizabethan dramatists. What is known as "Henslowe's Diary" contains
some accounts referring to Ashdown Forest between 1576 and 1581, entered
by John Henslowe, while the later entries by Philip Henslowe from 1592
to 1609 are those which throw light on the theatrical matters of the
time, and which have been subjected to much controversial criticism as a
result of injuries done to the manuscript. "Henslowe's Diary" passed
into the hands of Edward Alleyn, and thence into the Library of Dulwich
College, where the manuscript remained intact for more than a hundred
and fifty years. In 1780 Malone tried to borrow it, but it had been
mislaid; in 1790 it was discovered and given into his charge. He was
then at work on his _Variorum Shakespeare_. Malone had a transcript made
of certain portions, and collated it with the original; and this
transcript, with various notes and corrections by Malone, is now in the
Dulwich Library. An abstract of this transcript he also published with
his _Variorum Shakespeare_. The MS. of the diary was eventually returned
to the library in 1812 by Malone's executor. In 1840 it was lent to J.
P. Collier, who in 1845 printed for the Shakespeare Society what
purported to be a full edition, but it was afterwards shown by G. F.
Warner (_Catalogue_ of the Dulwich Library, 1881) that a number of
forged interpolations have been made, the responsibility for which rests
on Collier.

  The complicated history of the forgeries and their detection has been
  exhaustively treated in Walter W. Greg's edition of _Henslowe's Diary_
  (London, 1904; enlarged 1908).



HENTY, GEORGE ALFRED (1832-1902), English war-correspondent and author,
was born at Trumpington, near Cambridge, in December 1832, and educated
at Westminster School and Caius College, Cambridge. He served in the
Crimea in the Purveyor's department, and after the peace filled various
posts in the department in England and Ireland, but he found the routine
little to his taste, and drifted into journalism for the London
_Standard_. He volunteered as Special Correspondent for the
Austro-Italian War of 1866, accompanied Garibaldi in his Tirolese
Campaign, followed Lord Napier through the mountain gorges to Magdala,
and Lord Wolseley across bush and swamp to Kumassi. Next he reported the
Franco-German War, starved in Paris through the siege of the Commune,
and then turned south to rough it in the Pyrenees during the Carlist
insurrection. He was in Asiatic Russia at the time of the Khiva
expedition, and later saw the desperate hand-to-hand fighting of the
Turks in the Servian War. He found his real vocation in middle life.
Invited to edit a magazine for boys called the _Union Jack_, he became
the mainstay of the new periodical, to which he contributed several
serials in succession. The stories pleased their public, and had ever
increasing circulation in book form, until Henty became a name to
conjure with in juvenile circles. Altogether he wrote about eighty of
these books. Henty was an enthusiastic yachtsman, having spent at least
six months afloat each year, and he died on board his yacht in Weymouth
Harbour on the 16th of November 1902.



HENWOOD, WILLIAM JORY (1805-1875), English mining geologist, was born at
Perron Wharf, Cornwall, on the 16th of January 1805. In 1822 he
commenced work as a clerk in a mining office, and soon took an active
interest in the working of mines and in the metalliferous deposits. In
1832 he was appointed to the office of assay-master and supervisor of
tin in the duchy of Cornwall, a post from which he retired in 1838.
Meanwhile he had commenced in 1826 to communicate papers on mining
subjects to the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, and the Geological
Society of London, and in 1840 he was elected F.R.S. In 1843 he went to
take charge of the Gongo-Soco mines in Brazil; afterwards he proceeded
to India to report on certain metalliferous deposits for the Indian
government; and in 1858, impaired in health, he retired and settled at
Penzance. His most important memoirs on the metalliferous deposits of
Cornwall and Devon were published in 1843 by the Royal Geological
Society of Cornwall. At a much later date he communicated with enlarged
experience a second series of _Observations on Metalliferous Deposits,
and on Subterranean Temperature_ (reprinted from _Trans. R. Geol. Soc.
Cornwall_, 2 vols., 1871). In 1874 he contributed a paper on the
_Detrital Tin-ore of Cornwall_ (_Journ. R. Inst. Cornwall_). The
Murchison medal of the Geological Society was awarded to him in 1875,
and the mineral Henwoodite was named after him. He died at Penzance on
the 5th of August 1875.



HENZADA, a district of Lower Burma, formerly in the Pegu, but now in the
Irrawaddy division. Area, 2870 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 484,558. It stretches
from north to south in one vast plain, forming the valley of the
Irrawaddy, and is divided by that river into two nearly equal portions.
This country is protected from inundation by immense embankments, so
that almost the whole area is suitable for rice cultivation. The chief
mountains are the Arakan and Pegu Yoma ranges. The greatest elevation of
the Arakan Yomas in Henzada, attained in the latitude of Myan-aung, is
4003 ft. above sea-level. Numerous torrents pour down from the two
boundary ranges, and unite in the plains to form large streams, which
fall into the chief streams of the district, which are the Irrawaddy,
Hlaing and Bassein, all of them branches of the Irrawaddy. The forests
comprise almost every variety of timber found in Burma. The bulk of the
cultivation is rice, but a number of acres are under tobacco. The chief
town of the district is HENZADA, which had in 1901 a population of
24,756. It is a municipal town, with ten elective and three _ex-officio_
members. Other municipal towns in the district are Zalun, with a
population of 6642; Myan-aung, with a population of 6351; and Kyangin,
with a population of 7183, according to the 1901 census. The town of
Lemyethna had a population of 5831. The steamers of the Irrawaddy
Flotilla Company call at Henzada and Myan-aung.

The district was once a portion of the Talaing kingdom of Pegu,
afterwards annexed to the Burmese empire in 1753, and has no history of
its own. During the second Burmese war, after Prome had been seized, the
Burmese on the right bank of the Irrawaddy crossed the river and offered
resistance to the British, but were completely routed. Meanwhile, in
Tharawaddy, or the country east of the Irrawaddy, and in the south of
Henzada, much disorder was caused by a revolt, the leaders of which
were, however, defeated by the British and their gangs dispersed.



HEPBURN, SIR JOHN (c. 1598-1636), Scottish soldier in the Thirty Years'
War, was a son of George Hepburn of Athelstaneford near Haddington. In
1620 and in the following years he served in Bohemia, on the lower Rhine
and in the Netherlands, and in 1623 he entered the service of Gustavus
Adolphus, who, two years later, appointed him colonel of a Scottish
regiment of his army. He took part with his regiment in Gustavus's
Polish wars, and in 1631, a few months before the battle of Breitenfeld
he was placed in command of the "Scots" or "Green" brigade of the
Swedish army. At Breitenfeld it was Hepburn's brigade which delivered
the decisive stroke, and after this he remained with the king, who
placed the fullest reliance on his skill and courage, until the battle
of the Alte Veste near Nuremberg. He then entered the French service,
and raised two thousand men in Scotland for the French army, to which
force was added in France the historic Scottish archer bodyguard of the
French kings. The existing Royal Scots (Lothian) regiment (late 1st
Foot) represents in the British army of to-day Hepburn's French
regiment, and indirectly, through the amalgamation referred to, the
Scottish contingent of the Hundred Years' War. Hepburn's claim to the
right of the line of battle was bitterly resented by the senior French
regiments. Shortly after this, in 1633, Hepburn was under a _maréchal de
camp_, and he took part in the campaigns in Alsace and Lorraine
(1634-36). In 1635 Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, on entering the French
service, brought with him Hepburn's former Swedish regiment, which was
at once amalgamated with the French "régiment d'Hébron," the latter thus
attaining the unusual strength of 8300 men. Sir John Hepburn was killed
shortly afterwards during the siege of Saverne (Zabern) on the 8th of
July 1636. He was buried in Toul cathedral. With his friend Sir Robert
Monro, Hepburn was the foremost of the Scottish soldiers of fortune who
bore so conspicuous a part in the Thirty Years' War. He was a sincere
Roman Catholic. It is stated that he left Gustavus owing to a jest about
his religion, and at any rate he found in the French service, in which
he ended his days, the opportunity of reconciling his beliefs with the
desire of military glory which had led him into the Swedish army, and
with the patriotic feeling which had first brought him out to the wars
to fight for the Stuart princess, Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia.

  See James Grant, _Memoirs of Sir John Hepburn_.



HEPHAESTION, a Macedonian general, celebrated as the friend of Alexander
the Great, who, comparing himself with Achilles, called Hephaestion his
Patroclus. In the later campaigns in Bactria and India, he was entrusted
with the task of founding cities and colonies, and built the fleet
intended to sail down the Indus. He was rewarded with a golden crown and
the hand of Drypetis, the sister of Alexander's wife Stateira (324). In
the same year he died suddenly at Ecbatana. A general mourning was
ordered throughout Asia; at Babylon a funeral pile was erected at
enormous cost, and temples were built in his honour (see ALEXANDER THE
GREAT).



HEPHAESTION, a grammarian of Alexandria, who flourished in the age of
the Antonines. He was the author of a manual (abridged from a larger
work in 48 books) of Greek metres ([Greek: Hegcheiridion peri metrôn]),
which is most valuable as the only complete treatise on the subject that
has been preserved. The concluding chapter ([Greek: Peri poiêmatos])
discusses the various kinds of poetical composition. It is written in a
clear and simple style, and was much used as a school-book.

  Editions by T. Gaisford (1855, with the valuable scholia); R. Westphal
  (1886, in _Scriptores metrici Graeci_) and M. Consbruch (1906);
  translation by T. F. Barham (1843); see also W. Christ, _Gesch. der
  griech. Litt._ (1898); M. Consbruch, _De veterum_ [Greek: Peri
  poiêmatos] _doctrina_ (1890); J. E. Sandys, _Hist. Class. Schol._ i.
  (1906).



HEPHAESTUS, in Greek mythology, the god of fire, analogous to, and by
the ancients often confused with, the Roman god Vulcan (q.v.); the
derivation of the name is uncertain, but it may well be of Greek origin.
The elemental character of Hephaestus is far more apparent than is the
case with the majority of the Olympian gods; the word Hephaestus was
used as a synonym for fire not only in poetry (Homer, _Il._ ii. 426 and
later), but also in common speech (Diod. v. 74). It is doubtful whether
the origin of the god can be traced to any specific form of fire. As all
earthly fire was thought to have come from heaven, Hephaestus has been
identified with the lightning. This is supported by the myth of his fall
from heaven, and by the fact that, according to the Homeric tradition,
his father was Zeus, the heaven-god. On the other hand, the lightning is
not associated with him in literature or cult, and his connexion with
volcanic fires is so close as to suggest that he was originally a
volcano-god. The connexion, however, though it may be early, is probably
not primitive, and it seems reasonable to conclude that Hephaestus was a
general fire-god, though some of his characteristics were due to
particular manifestations of the element.

In Homer the fire-god was the son of Zeus and Hera, and found a place in
the Olympian system as the divine smith. The _Iliad_ contains two
versions of his fall from heaven. In one account (i. 590) he was cast
out by Zeus and fell on Lemnos; in the other, Hera threw him down
immediately after his birth in disgust at his lameness, and he was
received by the sea-goddesses Eurynome and Thetis. The Lemnian version
is due to the prominence of his cult at Lemnos in very early times; and
his fall into the sea may have been suggested by volcanic activity in
Mediterranean islands, as at Lipara and Thera. The subsequent return of
Hephaestus to Olympus is a favourite theme in early art. His wife was
Charis, one of the Graces (in the _Iliad_) or Aphrodite (in the
_Odyssey_). The connexion of the rough Hephaestus with these goddesses
is curious; it may be due to the beautiful works of the smith-god
([Greek: charienta erga]), but it is possibly derived from the supposed
fertilizing and productive power of fire, in which case Hephaestus is a
natural mate of Charis, a goddess of spring, and Aphrodite the goddess
of love. In Homer, the skill of Hephaestus in metallurgy is often
mentioned; his forge was on Olympus, where he was served by images of
golden handmaids which he had animated. Similar myths are found in
relation to the Finnish smith-god Ilmarinen, who made a golden woman,
and the Teutonic Wieland; a belief in the magical power of metal-workers
is a common survival from an age in which their art was new and
mysterious. In epic poetry Hephaestus is rather a comic figure, and his
limping gait provokes "Homeric laughter" among the gods. In Vedic poetry
Agni, the fire-god, is footless; and the ancients themselves attributed
this lameness to the crooked appearance of flame (Servius on _Aen._
viii. 814), and possibly no better explanation can be found, though it
has been suggested that in an early stage of society the trade of a
smith would be suitable for the lame; Hephaestus and the lame Wieland
would thus conform to the type of their human counterparts.

Except in Lemnos and Attica, there are few indications of any cult of
Hephaestus. His association with Lemnos can be traced from Homer to the
Roman age. A town in the island was called Hephaestia, and the functions
of the god must have been wide, as we are told that his Lemnian priests
could cure snake-bites. Once a year every fire was extinguished on the
island for nine days, during which period sacrifice was offered to the
gods of the underworld and the dead. After the nine days were passed,
new fire was brought from the sacred hearth at Delos. The significance
of this and similar customs is examined by J. G. Frazer, _Golden Bough_,
iii. ch. 4. The close connexion of Hephaestus with Lemnos and especially
with its mountain Mosychlus has been explained by the supposed existence
of a volcano; but no crater or other sign of volcanic agency is now
apparent, and the "Lemnian fire"--a phenomenon attributed to
Hephaestus--may have been due to natural gas (see LEMNOS). In Sicily,
however, the volcanic nature of the god is prominent in his cult at
Etna, as well as in the neighbouring Liparaean isles. The Olympian forge
had been transferred to Etna or some other volcano, and Hephaestus had
become a subterranean rather than a celestial power.

The divine smith naturally became a "culture-god"; in Crete the
invention of forging in iron was attributed to him, and he was honoured
by all metal-workers. But we have little record of his cult in this
aspect, except at Athens, where his worship was of real importance,
belonging to the oldest stratum of Attic religion. A tribe was called
after his name, and Erichthonius, the mythical father of the Attic
people, was the son of Hephaestus. Terra-cotta statuettes of the god
seem to have been placed before the hearths of Athenian houses. This
temple has been identified, not improbably, with the so-called
"Theseum"; it contained a statue of Athena, and the two deities are
often associated, in literature and cult, as the joint givers of
civilization to the Athenians. The class of artisans was under their
special protection; and the joint festival of the two divinities--the
Chalceia--commemorated the invention of bronze-working by Hephaestus. In
the Hephaesteia (the particular festival of the god) there was a torch
race, a ceremonial not indeed confined to fire-gods like Hephaestus and
Prometheus, but probably in its origin connected with them, whether its
object was to purify and quicken the land, or (according to another
theory) to transmit a new fire with all possible speed to places where
the fire was polluted. If the latter view is correct, the torch race
would be closely akin to the Lemnian fire-ritual which has been
mentioned. The relation between Hephaestus and Prometheus is in some
respects close, though the distinction between these gods is clearly
marked. The fire, as an element, belongs to the Olympian Hephaestus; the
Titan Prometheus, a more human character, steals it for the use of man.
Prometheus resembles the Polynesian Maui, who went down to fetch fire
from the volcano of Mahuika, the fire-god. Hephaestus is a culture-god
mainly in his secondary aspect as the craftsman, whereas Prometheus
originates all civilization with the gift of fire. But the importance of
Prometheus is mainly mythological; the Titan belonged to a fallen
dynasty, and in actual cult was largely superseded by Hephaestus.

In archaic art Hephaestus is generally represented as bearded, though
occasionally a younger beardless type is found, as on a vase (in the
British Museum), on which he appears as a young man assisting Athena in
the creation of Pandora. At a later time the bearded type prevails. The
god is usually clothed in a short sleeveless tunic, and wears a round
close-fitting cap. His face is that of a middle-aged man, with unkempt
hair. He is in fact represented as an idealized Greek craftsman, with
the hammer, and sometimes the pincers. Some mythologists have compared
the hammer of Hephaestus with that of Thor, and have explained it as the
emblem of a thunder-god; but it is Zeus, not Hephaestus, who causes the
thunder, and the emblems of the latter god are merely the signs of his
occupation as a smith. In art no attempt was made, as a rule, to
indicate the lameness of Hephaestus; but one sculptor (Alcamenes) is
said to have suggested the deformity without spoiling the statue.

  AUTHORITIES.--L. Preller (ed. C. Robert), _Griech. Mythologie_, i. 174
  f. (Berlin, 1894); W. H. Roscher, _Lex. der griech. u. röm.
  Mythologie_, s.v. "Hephaistos" (Leipzig, 1884-1886); Harrison, _Myth.
  and Mon. of Ancient Athens_, p. 119 f. (London, 1890); O. Gruppe,
  _Griech. Mythologie u. Religionsgesch._ p. 1304 f. (Munich, 1906); O.
  Schrader and F. B. Jevons, _Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan
  People_, p. 161, &c. (London, 1890); L. R. Farnell, _Cults of the
  Greek States_, v. (1909).     (E. E. S.)



HEPPENHEIM, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on
the Bergstrasse, between Darmstadt and Heidelberg, 21 m. N. of the
latter by rail. Pop. (1905), 6364. It possesses a parish church,
occupying the site of one reputed to have been built by Charlemagne
about 805, an interesting town hall and several schools. On an isolated
hill close by stand the extensive ruins of the castle of Starkenburg,
built by the abbot, Ulrich von Lorsch, about 1064 and destroyed during
the Seven Years' War, and another hill, the Landberg, was a place of
assembly in the middle ages. Heppenheim, at first the property of the
abbey of Lorsch, became a town in 1318. After belonging to the Rhenish
Palatinate, it came into the possession of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1803.
Hops, wine and tobacco are grown, and there are large stone quarries,
and several small industries in the town.



HEPPLEWHITE, GEORGE (d. 1786), one of the most famous English
cabinet-makers of the 18th century. There is practically no biographical
material relating to Hepplewhite. The only facts that are known with
certainty are that he was apprenticed to Gillow at Lancaster, that he
carried on business in the parish of Saint Giles, Cripplegate, and that
administration of his estate was granted to his widow Alice on the 27th
of June 1786. The administrator's accounts, which were filed in the
Prerogative Court of Canterbury a year later, indicate that his property
was of considerable value. After his death the business was continued by
his widow under the style of A. Hepplewhite & Co. Our only approximate
means of identifying his work are _The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer's
Guide_, which was first published in 1788, two years after his death,
and ten designs in _The Cabinet-maker's London Book of Prices_ (1788),
issued by the London Society of Cabinet-Makers. It is, however,
exceedingly difficult to earmark any given piece of furniture as being
the actual work or design of Hepplewhite, since it is generally
recognized that to a very large extent the name represents rather a
fashion than a man. Lightness, delicacy and grace are the distinguishing
characteristics of Hepplewhite work. The massiveness of Chippendale had
given place to conceptions that, especially in regard to chairs--which
had become smaller as hoops went out of fashion--depended for their
effect more upon inlay than upon carving. In one respect at least the
Hepplewhite style was akin to that of Chippendale--in both cases the
utmost ingenuity was lavished upon the chair, and if Hepplewhite was not
the originator he appears to have been the most constant and successful
user of the shield back. This elegant form was employed by the school in
a great variety of designs, and nearly always in a way artistically
satisfying. Where Chippendale, his contemporaries and his immediate
successors had used the cabriole and the square leg with a good deal of
carving, the Hepplewhite manner preferred a slighter leg, plain, fluted
or reeded, tapering to a spade foot which often became the "spider leg"
that characterized much of the late 18th-century furniture; this form of
leg was indeed not confined to chairs but was used also for tables and
sideboards. Of the dainty drawing-room grace of the style there can be
no question. The great majority of modern chairs are of Hepplewhite
inspiration, while he, or those who worked with him, appears to have a
clear claim to have originated, or at all events popularized, the winged
easy-chair, in which the sides are continued to the same height as the
back. This is probably the most comfortable type of chair that has ever
been made. The backs of Hepplewhite chairs were often adorned with
galleries and festoons of wheat-ears or pointed fern leaves, and not
infrequently with the prince of Wales's feathers in some more or less
decorative form. The frequency with which this badge was used has led to
the suggestion either that A. Hepplewhite & Co. were employed by George
IV. when prince of Wales, or that the feathers were used as a political
emblem. The former suggestion is obviously the more feasible, but there
is little doubt that the feathers were used by other makers working in
the same style. It has been objected as an artistic flaw in
Hepplewhite's chairs that they have the appearance of fragility. They
are, however, constructionally sound as a rule. The painted and japanned
work has been criticized on safer grounds. This delicate type of
furniture, often made of satinwood, and painted with wreaths and
festoons, with amorini and musical instruments or floral motives, is the
most elegant and pleasing that can be imagined. It has, however, no
elements of decorative permanence. With comparatively little use the
paintings wear off and have to be renewed. A piece of untouched painted
satinwood is almost unknown, and one of the essential charms of old
furniture as of all other antiques is that it should retain the patina
of time. A large proportion of Hepplewhite furniture is inlaid with the
exotic woods which had come into high favour by the third quarter of the
18th century. While the decorative use upon furniture of so evanescent a
medium as paint is always open to criticism, any form of marquetry is
obviously legitimate, and, if inlaid furniture be less ravishing to the
eye, its beauty is but enhanced by time. It was not in chairs alone that
the Hepplewhite manner excelled. It acquired, for instance, a speciality
of seats for the tall, narrow Georgian sash windows, which in the
Hepplewhite period had almost entirely superseded the more picturesque
forms of an earlier time. These window-seats had ends rolling over
outwards, and no backs, and despite their skimpiness their elegant
simplicity is decidedly pleasing. Elegance, in fact, was the note of a
style which on the whole was more distinctly English than that which
preceded or immediately followed it. The smaller Hepplewhite pieces are
much prized by collectors. Among these may be included urn-shaped
knife-boxes in mahogany and satinwood, charming in form and decorative
in the extreme; inlaid tea-caddies, varying greatly in shape and
material, but always appropriate and _coquet_; delicate little
fire-screens with shaped poles; painted work-tables, and inlaid stands.
Hepplewhite's bedsteads with carved and fluted pillars were very
handsome and attractive. The evolution of the dining-room sideboard made
rapid progress towards the end of the 18th century, but neither
Hepplewhite nor those who worked in his style did much to advance it.
Indeed they somewhat retarded its development by causing it to revert to
little more than that side-table which had been its original form. It
was, however, a very delightful table with its undulating front, its
many elegant spade-footed legs and its delicate carving. If we were
dealing with a less elusive personality it would be just to say that
Hepplewhite's work varies from the extreme of elegance and the most
delicious simplicity to an unimaginative commonplace, and sometimes to
actual ugliness. As it is, this summary may well be applied to the style
as a whole--a style which was assuredly not the creation of any one man,
but owed much alike of excellence and of defect to a school of
cabinet-makers who were under the influence of conflicting tastes and
changing ideals. At its best the taste was so fine and so full of
distinction, so simple, modest and sufficient, that it amounted to
genius. On its lower planes it was clearly influenced by commercialism
and the desire to make what tasteless people preferred. Yet this is no
more than to say that the Hepplewhite style succumbed sometimes, perhaps
very often, to the eternal enemy of all art--the uninspired banality of
the average man.     (J. P.-B.)



HEPTARCHY (Gr. [Greek: hepta], seven, and [Greek: archê], rule), a word
which is frequently used to designate the period of English history
between the coming of the Anglo-Saxons in 449 and the union of the
kingdoms under Ecgbert in 828. It was first used during the 16th century
because of the belief held by Camden and other older historians, that
during this period there were exactly seven kingdoms in England, these
being Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex and Wessex.
This belief is erroneous, as the number of kingdoms varied considerably
from time to time; nevertheless the word still serves a useful purpose
to denote the period.



HERA, in Greek mythology, the sister and wife of Zeus and queen of the
Olympian gods; she was identified by the Romans with Juno. The
derivation of the name is obscure, but there is no reason to doubt that
she was a genuine Greek deity. There are no signs of Oriental influence
in her cults, except at Corinth, where she seems to have been identified
with Astarte. It is probable that she was originally a personification
of some department of nature; but the traces of her primitive
significance are vague, and have been interpreted to suit various
theories. Some of the ancients connected her with the earth; Plato,
followed by the Stoics, derived her name from [Greek: aêr], the air.
Both theories have been revived in modern times, the former notably by
F. G. Welcker, the latter by L. Preller. A third view, that Hera is the
moon, is held by W. H. Roscher and others. Of these explanations, that
advanced by Preller has little to commend it, even if, with O. Gruppe,
we understand the air-goddess as a storm deity; some of the arguments in
support of the two other theories will be examined in this article.

Whatever may have been the origin of Hera, to the historic Greeks
(except a few poets or philosophers) she was a purely anthropomorphic
goddess, and had no close relation to any province of nature. In
literature, from the times of Homer and Hesiod, she played an important
part, appearing most frequently as the jealous and resentful wife of
Zeus. In this character she pursues with vindictive hatred the heroines,
such as Alcmene, Leto and Semele, who were beloved by Zeus. She visits
his sins upon the children born of his intrigues, and is thus the
constant enemy of Heracles and Dionysus. This character of the offended
wife was borrowed by later poets from the Greek epic; but it belongs to
literature rather than to cult, in which the dignity and power of the
goddess is naturally more emphasized.

The worship of Hera is found, in different degrees of prominence,
throughout the Greek world. It was especially important in the ancient
Achaean centres, Argos, Mycenae and Sparta, which she claims in the
_Iliad_ (iv. 51) as her three dearest cities. Whether Hera was also
worshipped by the early Dorians is uncertain; after the Dorian invasion
she remained the chief deity of Argos, but her cult at Sparta was not so
conspicuous. She received honour, however, in other parts of the
Peloponnese, particularly in Olympia, where her temple was the oldest,
and in Arcadia. In several Boeotian cities she seems to have been one of
the principal objects of worship, while the neighbouring island of
Euboea probably derived its name from a title of Hera, who was "rich in
cows" ([Greek: Euboia]). Among the islands of the Aegean, Samos was
celebrated for the cult of Hera; according to the local tradition, she
was born in the island. As Hera Lacinia (from her Lacinian temple near
Croton) she was extensively worshipped in Magna Graecia.

The connexion of Zeus and Hera was probably not primitive, since Dione
seems to have preceded Hera as the wife of Zeus at Dodona. The origin of
the connexion may possibly be due to the fusion of two "Pelasgic"
tribes, worshipping Zeus and Hera respectively; but speculation on the
earliest cult of the goddess, before she became the wife of Zeus, must
be largely conjectural. The close relation of the two deities appears in
a frequent community of altars and sacrifices, and also in the [Greek:
hieros gamos], a dramatic representation of their sacred marriage. The
festival, which was certainly ancient, was held not only in Argos,
Samos, Euboea and other centres of Hera-worship, but also in Athens,
where the goddess was obscured by the predominance of Athena. The
details of the [Greek: hieros gamos] may have varied locally, but the
main idea of the ritual was the same. In the Daedala, as the festival
was called at Plataea, an effigy was made from an oak-tree, dressed in
bridal attire, and carried in a cart with a woman who acted as
bridesmaid. The image was called Daedale, and the ritual was explained
by a myth: Hera had left Zeus in her anger; in order to win her back,
Zeus announced that he was about to marry, and dressed up a puppet to
imitate a bride; Hera met the procession, tore the veil from the false
bride, and, on discovering the ruse, became reconciled to her husband.
The image was put away after each occasion; every sixty years a large
number of such images, which had served in previous celebrations, were
carried in procession to the top of Mount Cithaeron, and were burned on
an altar together with animals and the altar itself. As Frazer notes
(_Golden Bough_,² i. 227), this festival appears to belong to the large
class of mimetic charms designed to quicken the growth of vegetation;
the marriage of Zeus and Hera would in this case represent the union of
the king and queen of May. But it by no means follows that Hera was
therefore originally a goddess of the earth or of vegetation. When the
real nature of the ritual had become lost or obscured, it was natural to
explain it by the help of an aetiological myth; in European folklore,
images, corresponding to those burnt at the Daedala, were sometimes
called Judas Iscariot or Luther (_Golden Bough_,² iii. 315). At Samos
the [Greek: hieros gamos] was celebrated annually; the image of Hera was
concealed on the sea-shore and solemnly discovered. This rite seems to
reflect an actual custom of abduction; or it may rather refer to the
practice of intercourse between the betrothed before marriage. Such
intercourse was sanctioned by the Samians, who excused it by the example
of Zeus and Hera (schol. on _Il._ xiv. 296). There is nothing in the
Samian [Greek: hieros gamos] to suggest a marriage of heaven and earth,
or of two vegetation-spirits; as Dr Farnell points out, the ritual
appears to explain the custom of human nuptials. The sacred marriage,
therefore, though connected with vegetation at the Daedala, was not
necessarily a vegetation-charm in its origin; consequently, it does not
prove that Hera was an earth-goddess or tree-spirit. It is at least
remarkable that, except at Argos, Hera had little to do with
agriculture, and was not closely associated with such deities as Cybele,
Demeter, Persephone and Dionysus, whose connexion with the earth, or
with its fruits, is beyond doubt.

In her general cult Hera was worshipped in two main capacities: (1) as
the consort of Zeus and queen of heaven; (2) as the goddess who presided
over marriage, and, in a wider sense, over the various phases of a
woman's life. Dionysius of Halicarnassus (_Ars rhet._ ii. 2) calls Zeus
and Hera the first wedded pair, and a sacrifice to Zeus [Greek: teleios]
and Hera [Greek: teleia] was a regular feature of the Greek wedding.
Girls offered their hair or veils to Hera before marriage. In
Aristophanes (_Thesm._ 973) she "keeps the keys of wedlock." The
marriage-goddess naturally became the protector of women in childbed,
and bore the title of the birth-goddess (Eileithyia), at Argos and
Athens. In Homer (_Il._ xi. 270) and Hesiod (_Theog._ 922) she is the
mother of the Eileithyiae, or the single Eileithyia. Her cult-titles
[Greek: parthenos] (or [Greek: pais]), [Greek: teleia] and [Greek:
chêra] the "maiden," "wife," and "widow" (or "divorced") have been
interpreted as symbolical of the earth in spring, summer, and winter;
but they may well express the different conditions in the lives of her
human worshippers. The Argives believed that Hera recovered her
virginity every year by bathing in a certain spring (Paus. viii. 22, 2),
a belief which probably reflects the custom of ceremonial purification
after marriage (see Frazer, _Adonis_, p. 176). Although Hera was not the
bestower of feminine charm to the same extent as Aphrodite, she was the
patron of a contest for beauty in a Lesbian festival ([Greek:
kallisteia]). This intimate relation with women has been held a proof
that Hera was originally a moon-goddess, as the moon is often thought to
influence childbirth and other aspects of feminine life. But Hera's
patronage of women, though undoubtedly ancient, is not necessarily
primitive. Further, the Greeks themselves, who were always ready to
identify Artemis with the moon, do not seem to have recognized any lunar
connexion in Hera.

Among her particular worshippers, at Argos and Samos, Hera was much more
than the queen of heaven and the marriage-goddess. As the patron of
these cities ([Greek: poliouchos]) she held a place corresponding to
that of Athena in Athens. The Argives are called "the people of Hera" by
Pindar; the Heraeum, situated under a mountain significantly called Mt.
Euboea, was the most important temple in Argolis. Here the agricultural
character of her ritual is well marked; the first oxen used in ploughing
were, according to an Argive myth, dedicated to her as [Greek:
zeuxidia]; and the sprouting ears of corn were called "the flowers of
Hera." She was worshipped as the goddess of flowers ([Greek: antheia]);
girls served in her temple under the name of "flower-bearers," and a
flower festival ([Greek: Hêrosantheia, Hêroanthia]) was celebrated by
Peloponnesian women in spring. These rites recall our May day
observance, and give colour to the earth-goddess theory. On the other
hand it must be remembered that the patron deity of a Greek state had
very wide functions; and it is not surprising to find that Hera
(whatever her origin may have been) assumed an agricultural character
among her own people whose occupations were largely agricultural. So,
although the warlike character of Hera was not elsewhere prominent, she
assumed a militant aspect in her two chief cities; a festival called the
Shield ([Greek: aspis], in Pindar [Greek: agôn chalkeos]) was part of
the Argive cult, and there was an armed procession in her honour at
Samos. The city-goddess, whether Hera or Athena, must be chief alike in
peace and war.

The cow was the animal specially sacred to Hera both in ritual and in
mythology. The story of Io, metamorphosed into a cow, is familiar; she
was priestess of Hera, and was originally, no doubt, a form of the
goddess herself. The Homeric epithet [Greek: boôpis] may have meant
"cow-faced" to the earliest worshippers of Hera, though by Homer and the
later Greeks it was understood as "large-eyed," like the cow. A car
drawn by oxen seems to have been widely used in the processions of Hera,
and the cow was her most frequent sacrifice. The origin of Hera's
association with the cow is uncertain, but there is no need to see in
it, with Roscher, a symbol of the moon. The cuckoo was also sacred to
Hera, who, according to the Argive legend, was wooed by Zeus in the form
of the bird. In later times the peacock, which was still unfamiliar to
the Greeks in the 5th century, was her favourite, especially at Samos.

The earliest recorded images of Hera preceded the rise of Greek
sculpture; a log at Thespiae, a plank at Samos, a pillar at Argos served
to represent the goddess. In the archaic period of sculpture the [Greek:
xoanon] or wooden statue of the Samian Hera by Smilis was famous. In the
first half of the 5th century the sacred marriage was represented on an
extant metope from a temple at Selinus. The most celebrated statue of
Hera was the chryselephantine work of Polyclitus, made for the Heraeum
at Argos soon after 423 B.C. It is fully described by Pausanias, who
says that Hera was seated on a throne, wearing a crown ([Greek:
stephanos]), and carrying a sceptre in one hand and a pomegranate in the
other. Various ancient writers testify to the beauty and dignity of the
statue, which was considered equal to the Zeus of Pheidias. Polyclitus
seems to have fixed the type of Hera as a youthful matron, but
unfortunately the exact character of her head cannot be determined. A
majestic and rather severe beauty marks the conception of Hera in later
art, of which the Farnese bust at Naples and the Ludovisi Hera are the
most conspicuous examples.

  AUTHORITIES.--F. G. Welcker, _Griech. Götterl._ i. 362 f. (Göttingen,
  1857-1863); L. Preller (ed. C. Robert), _Griech. Mythologie_, i. 160
  f. (Berlin, 1894); W. H. Roscher, _Lex. der griech. u. röm.
  Mythologie_, s.v. (Leipzig, 1884); C. Daremberg and E. Saglio, _Dict.
  des ant. grecques et rom._ s.v. "Juno" (Paris, 1877); L. R. Farnell,
  _Cults of the Greek States_, i. 179 f. (Oxford, 1896); A. B. Cook in
  _Class. Rev._ xx. 365 f. 416 f.; O. Gruppe, _Griech. Mythologie u.
  Religionsgesch._ p. 1121 f. (Munich, 1903). In the article GREEK ART,
  fig. 24, will be found a roughly executed head of Hera, from the
  pediment of the treasury of the Megarians.     (E. E. S.)



HERACLEA, the name of a large number of ancient cities founded by the
Greeks.

1. HERACLEA (Gr. [Greek: Hêrakleia]), an ancient city of Lucania,
situated near the modern Policoro, 3 m. from the coast of the gulf of
Tarentum, between the rivers Aciris (Agri) and Siris (Sinni) about 13 m.
S.S.W. of Metapontum. It was a Greek colony founded by the Tarentines
and Thurians in 432 B.C., the former being predominant. It was chosen as
the meeting-place of the general assembly of the Italiot Greeks, which
Alexander of Epirus, after his alienation from Tarentum, tried to
transfer to Thurii. Here Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, defeated the consul
Laevinus in 280 B.C., after he had crossed the river Siris. In 278 B.C.,
or possibly in 282 B.C., probably in order to detach it from Tarentum,
the Romans made a special treaty with Heraclea, on such favourable terms
that in 89 B.C. the Roman citizenship given to the inhabitants by the
Lex Plautia Papiria was only accepted after considerable hesitation. We
hear that Heraclea surrendered under compulsion to Hannibal in 212 B.C.
and that in the Social war the public records were destroyed by fire.
Cicero in his defence of the poet Archias, an adopted citizen of
Heraclea, speaks of it as a flourishing town. As a consequence of its
having accepted Roman citizenship, it became a _municipium_; part of a
copy of the Lex Iulia Municipalis of 46 B.C. (engraved on the back of
two bronze tablets, on the front of which is a Greek inscription of the
3rd century B.C. defining the boundaries of lands belonging to various
temples), which was found between Heraclea and Metapontum, is of the
highest importance for our knowledge of that law. It was still a place
of some importance under the empire; a branch road from Venusia joined
the coast road here. The circumstances of its destruction and
abandonment was unknown; the site is now marked by a few heaps of ruins.
Its medieval representative was Anglona, once a bishopric, but now
itself a heap of ruins, among which are those of an 11th-century church.

2. HERACLEA MINOA, an ancient town on the south coast of Sicily, at the
mouth of the river Halycus, near the modern Montallegro, some 20 m. N.W.
of Girgenti. It was at first an outpost of Selinus (Herod. v. 46), then
overthrown by Carthage, later a border town of Agrigentum. It passed
into Carthaginian hands by the treaty of 405 B.C., was won back by
Dionysius in his first Punic war, but recovered by Carthage in 383. From
this date onwards coins bearing its Semitic name, _Ras Melkart_, become
common, and it was obviously an important border fortress. It was here
that Dion landed in 357 B.C., when he attacked Syracuse. The
Agrigentines won it back in 309, but it soon fell under the power of
Agathocles. It was temporarily recovered for Greece by Pyrrhus.
     (T. As.)

3. HERACLEA PONTICA (mod. _Bender Eregli_), an ancient city on the coast
of Bithynia in Asia Minor, at the mouth of the Kilijsu. It was founded
by a Megarian colony, which soon subjugated the native Mariandynians and
extended its power over a considerable territory. The prosperity of the
city, rudely shaken by the Galatians and the Bithynians, was utterly
destroyed in the Mithradatic war. It was the birthplace of Heraclides
Ponticus. The modern town is best known for its lignite coal-mines, from
which Constantinople receives a good part of its supply.

4. HERACLEA SINTICA, a town in Thracian Macedonia, to the south of the
Strymon, the site of which is marked by the village of Zervokhori, and
identified by the discovery of local coins.

5. HERACLEA, a town on the borders of Caria and Ionia, near the foot of
Mount Latmus. In its neighbourhood was the burial cave of Endymion.

6. HERACLEA-CYBISTRA (mod. _Eregli_ in the vilayet of Konia), under the
name Cybistra, had some importance in Hellenistic times owing to its
position near the point where the road to the Cilician Gates enters the
hills. It lay in the way of armies and was more than once sacked by the
Arab invaders of Asia Minor (A.D. 805 and 832). It became Turkish
(Seljuk) in the 11th century. Modern Eregli had grown from a large
village to a town since the railway reached it from Konia and Karaman in
1904; and it has now an hotel and good shops. Three hours' ride S. is
the famous "Hittite" rock-relief of Ivriz, representing a king (probably
of neighbouring Tyana) adoring a god (see HITTITES). This was the first
"Hittite" monument discovered in modern times (early 18th century, by
the Swede Otter, an emissary of Louis XIV.).

  For Heraclea Trachinia see TRACHIS, and for Heraclea Perinthus see
  PERINTHUS.

HERACLEA was also the name of one of the Sporades, between Naxos and
Ios, which is still called Raklia, and bears traces of a Greek township
with temples to Tyche and Zeus Lophites.     (D. G. H.)



HERACLEON, a Gnostic who flourished about A.D. 125, probably in the
south of Italy or in Sicily, and is generally classed by the early
heresiologists with the Valentinian school of heresy. In his system he
appears to have regarded the divine nature as a vast abyss in whose
_pleroma_ were aeons of different orders and degrees,--emanations from
the source of being. Midway between the supreme God and the material
world was the Demiurgus, who created the latter, and under whose
jurisdiction the lower, animal soul of man proceeded after death, while
his higher, celestial soul returned to the pleroma whence at first it
issued. Though conspicuously uniting faith in Christ with spiritual
maturity, there are evidences that, like other Valentinians, Heracleon
did not sufficiently emphasize abstinence from the moral laxity and
worldliness into which his followers fell. He seems to have received the
ordinary Christian scriptures; and Origen, who treats him as a notable
exegete, has preserved fragments of a commentary by him on the fourth
gospel (brought together by Grabe in the second volume of his
_Spicilegium_), while Clement of Alexandria quotes from him what appears
to be a passage from a commentary on Luke. These writings are remarkable
for their intensely mystical and allegorical interpretations of the
text.



HERACLEONAS, east-Roman emperor (Feb.-Sept. 641), was the son of
Heraclius (q.v.) and Martina. At the end of Heraclius' reign he obtained
through his mother's influence the title of Augustus (638), and after
his father's death was proclaimed joint emperor with his half-brother
Constantine III. The premature death of Constantine, in May 641, left
Heracleonas sole ruler. But a suspicion that he and Martina had murdered
Constantine led soon after to a revolt, and to the mutilation and
banishment of the supposed offenders. Nothing further is known about
Heracleonas subsequent to 641.



HERACLIDAE, the general name for the numerous descendants of Heracles
(Hercules), and specially applied in a narrower sense to the descendants
of Hyllus, the eldest of his four sons by Deïaneirathe, conquerors of
Peloponnesus. Heracles, whom Zeus had originally intended to be ruler of
Argos, Lacedaemon and Messenian Pylos, had been supplanted by the
cunning of Hera, and his intended possessions had fallen into the hands
of Eurystheus, king of Mycenae. After the death of Heracles, his
children, after many wanderings, found refuge from Eurystheus at Athens.
Eurystheus, on his demand for their surrender being refused, attacked
Athens, but was defeated and slain. Hyllus and his brothers then invaded
Peloponnesus, but after a year's stay were forced by a pestilence to
quit. They withdrew to Thessaly, where Aegimius, the mythical ancestor
of the Dorians, whom Heracles had assisted in war against the Lapithae,
adopted Hyllus and made over to him a third part of his territory. After
the death of Aegimius, his two sons, Pamphilus and Dymas, voluntarily
submitted to Hyllus (who was, according to the Dorian tradition in
Herodotus v. 72, really an Achaean), who thus became ruler of the
Dorians, the three branches of that race being named after these three
heroes. Being desirous of reconquering his paternal inheritance, Hyllus
consulted the Delphic oracle, which told him to wait for "the third
fruit," and then enter Peloponnesus by "a narrow passage by sea."
Accordingly, after three years, Hyllus marched across the isthmus of
Corinth to attack Atreus, the successor of Eurystheus, but was slain in
single combat by Echemus, king of Tegea. This second attempt was
followed by a third under Cleodaeus and a fourth under Aristomachus,
both of which were equally unsuccessful. At last, Temenus, Cresphontes
and Aristodemus, the sons of Aristomachus, complained to the oracle that
its instructions had proved fatal to those who had followed them. They
received the answer that by the "third fruit" the "third generation" was
meant, and that the "narrow passage" was not the isthmus of Corinth, but
the straits of Rhium. They accordingly built a fleet at Naupactus, but
before they set sail, Aristodemus was struck by lightning (or shot by
Apollo) and the fleet destroyed, because one of the Heraclidae had slain
an Acarnanian soothsayer. The oracle, being again consulted by Temenus,
bade him offer an expiatory sacrifice and banish the murderer for ten
years, and look out for a man with three eyes to act as guide. On his
way back to Naupactus, Temenus fell in with Oxylus, an Aetolian, who had
lost one eye, riding on a horse (thus making up the three eyes) and
immediately pressed him into his service. According to another account,
a mule on which Oxylus rode had lost an eye. The Heraclidae repaired
their ships, sailed from Naupactus to Antirrhium, and thence to Rhium in
Peloponnesus. A decisive battle was fought with Tisamenus, son of
Orestes, the chief ruler in the peninsula, who was defeated and slain.
The Heraclidae, who thus became practically masters of Peloponnesus,
proceeded to distribute its territory among themselves by lot. Argos
fell to Temenus, Lacedaemon to Procles and Eurysthenes, the twin sons of
Aristodemus; and Messene to Cresphontes. The fertile district of Elis
had been reserved by agreement for Oxylus. The Heraclidae ruled in
Lacedaemon till 221 B.C., but disappeared much earlier in the other
countries. This conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians, commonly called
the "Return of the Heraclidae," is represented as the recovery by the
descendants of Heracles of the rightful inheritance of their hero
ancestor and his sons. The Dorians followed the custom of other Greek
tribes in claiming as ancestor for their ruling families one of the
legendary heroes, but the traditions must not on that account be
regarded as entirely mythical. They represent a joint invasion of
Peloponnesus by Aetolians and Dorians, the latter having been driven
southward from their original northern home under pressure from the
Thessalians. It is noticeable that there is no mention of these
Heraclidae or their invasion in Homer or Hesiod. Herodotus (vi. 52)
speaks of poets who had celebrated their deeds, but these were limited
to events immediately succeeding the death of Heracles. The story was
first amplified by the Greek tragedians, who probably drew their
inspiration from local legends, which glorified the services rendered by
Athens to the rulers of Peloponnesus.

  Apollodorus ii. 8; Diod. Sic. iv. 57, 58; Pausanias i. 32, 41, ii. 13,
  18, iii. 1, iv. 3, v. 3; Euripides, _Heraclidae_; Pindar, _Pythia_,
  ix. 137; Herodotus ix. 27. See Müller's _Dorians_, i. ch. 3;
  Thirlwall, _History of Greece_, ch. vii.; Grote, _Hist. of Greece_,
  pt. i. ch. xviii.; Busolt, _Griechische Geschichte_, i. ch. ii. sec.
  7, where a list of modern authorities is given.



HERACLIDES PONTICUS, Greek philosopher and miscellaneous writer, born at
Heraclea in Pontus, flourished in the 4th century B.C. He studied
philosophy at Athens under Speusippus, Plato and Aristotle. According to
Suidas, Plato, on his departure for Sicily, left his pupils in charge of
Heraclides. The latter part of his life was spent at Heraclea. He is
said to have been vain and fat, and to have been so fond of display that
he was nicknamed Pompicus, or the Showy (unless the epithet refers to
his literary style). Various idle stories are related about him. On one
occasion, for instance, Heraclea was afflicted with famine, and the
Pythian priestess at Delphi, bribed by Heraclides, assured his inquiring
townsmen that the dearth would be stayed if they granted a golden crown
to that philosopher. This was done; but just as Heraclides was receiving
his honour in a crowded assembly, he was seized with apoplexy, while the
dishonest priestess perished at the same moment from the bite of a
serpent. On his death-bed he is said to have requested a friend to hide
his body as soon as life was extinct, and, by putting a serpent in its
place, induce his townsmen to suppose that he had been carried up to
heaven. The trick was discovered, and Heraclides received only ridicule
instead of divine honours (Diogenes Laërtius v. 6). Whatever may be the
truth about these stories, Heraclides seems to have been a versatile and
prolific writer on philosophy, mathematics, music, grammar, physics,
history and rhetoric. Many of the works attributed to him, however, are
probably by one or more persons of the same name.

  The extant fragment of a treatise _On Constitutions_ (C. W. Müller,
  _F.H.G._ ii. 197-207) is probably a compilation from the _Politics_ of
  Aristotle by Heraclides Lembos, who lived in the time of Ptolemy VI.
  Philometor (181-146). See Otto Voss, _De Heraclidis Pontici vita et
  scriptis_ (1896).



HERACLITUS ([Greek: Hêrakleitos]; c. 540-475 B.C.), Greek philosopher,
was born at Ephesus of distinguished parentage. Of his early life and
education we know nothing; from the contempt with which he spoke of all
his fellow-philosophers and of his fellow-citizens as a whole we may
gather that he regarded himself as self-taught and a pioneer of wisdom.
So intensely aristocratic (hence his nickname [Greek: ochloloidoros],
"he who rails at the people") was his temperament that he declined to
exercise the regal-hieratic office of [Greek: Basileus] which was
hereditary in his family, and presented it to his brother. It is
probable, however, that he did occasionally intervene in the affairs of
the city at the period when the rule of Persia had given place to
autonomy; it is said that he compelled the usurper Melancomas to
abdicate. From the lonely life he led, and still more from the extreme
profundity of his philosophy and his contempt for mankind in general, he
was called the "Dark Philosopher" ([Greek: ho skoteinos]), or the
"Weeping Philosopher," in contrast to Democritus, the "Laughing
Philosopher."

Heraclitus is in a real sense the founder of metaphysics. Starting from
the physical standpoint of the Ionian physicists, he accepted their
general idea of the unity of nature, but entirely denied their theory of
being. The fundamental uniform fact in nature is constant change
([Greek: panta chôrei kai ouden menei]); everything both is and is not
at the same time. He thus arrives at the principle of Relativity;
harmony and unity consist in diversity and multiplicity. The senses are
"bad witnesses" ([Greek: kakoi martyres]); only the wise man can obtain
knowledge.

To appreciate the significance of the doctrines of Heraclitus, it must
be borne in mind that to Greek philosophy the sharp distinction between
subject and object which pervades modern thought was foreign, a
consideration which suggests the conclusion that, while it is a great
mistake to reckon Heraclitus with the materialistic cosmologists of the
Ionic schools, it is, on the other hand, going too far to treat his
theory, with Hegel and Lassalle, as one of pure Panlogism. Accordingly,
when he denies the reality of Being, and declares Becoming, or eternal
flux and change, to be the sole actuality, Heraclitus must be understood
to enunciate not only the unreality of the abstract notion of being,
except as the correlative of that of not-being, but also the physical
doctrine that all phenomena are in a state of continuous transition from
non-existence to existence, and vice versa, without either
distinguishing these propositions or qualifying them by any reference to
the relation of thought to experience. "Every thing is and is not"; all
things are, and nothing remains. So far he is in general agreement with
Anaximander (q.v.), but he differs from him in the solution of the
problem, disliking, as a poet and a mystic, the primary matter which
satisfied the patient researcher, and demanding a more vivid and
picturesque element. Naturally he selects fire, according to him the
most complete embodiment of the process of Becoming, as the principle of
empirical existence, out of which all things, including even the soul,
grow by way of a _quasi_ condensation, and into which all things must in
course of time be again resolved. But this primordial fire is in itself
that divine rational process, the harmony of which constitutes the law
of the universe (see LOGOS). Real knowledge consists in comprehending
this all-pervading harmony as embodied in the manifold of perception,
and the senses are "bad-witnesses," because they apprehend phenomena,
not as its manifestation, but as "stiff and dead." In like manner real
virtue consists in the subordination of the individual to the laws of
this harmony as the universal reason wherein alone true freedom is to be
found. "The law of things is a law of Reason Universal ([Greek: logos]),
but most men live as though they had a wisdom of their own." Ethics here
stands to sociology in a close relation, similar, in many respects, to
that which we find in Hegel and in Comte. For Heraclitus the soul
approaches most nearly to perfection when it is most akin to the fiery
vapour out of which it was originally created, and as this is most so in
death, "while we live our souls are dead in us, but when we die our
souls are restored to life." The doctrine of immortality comes
prominently forward in his ethics, but whether this must not be reckoned
with the figurative accommodation to the popular theology of Greece
which pervades his ethical teaching, is very doubtful.

The school of disciples founded by Heraclitus flourished for long after
his death, the chief exponent of his teaching being Cratylus. A good
deal of the information in regard to his doctrines has been gathered
from the later Greek philosophy, which was deeply influenced by it.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The only authentic extant work of Heraclitus is the
  [Greek: peri physeôs]. The best edition (containing also the probably
  spurious [Greek: Epistolai]) is that of I. Bywater, _Heracliti Ephesii
  reliquiae_ (Oxford, 1877); of the epistles alone by A. Westermann
  (Leipzig, 1857). See also in A. H. Ritter and L. Preller's _Historia
  philosophiae Graecae_ (8th ed. by E. Wellmann, 1898); F. W. A.
  Mullach, _Fragm. philos. Graec._ (Paris, 1860); A. Fairbanks, _The
  First Philosophers of Greece_ (1898); H. Diels, _Heraklit von Ephesus_
  (2nd ed., 1909), Greek and German. English translation of Bywater's
  edition with introduction by G. T. W. Patrick (Baltimore, 1889). For
  criticism see, in addition to the histories of philosophy, F.
  Lassalle, _Die Philosophie Herakleitos' des Dunklen_ (Berlin, 1858;
  2nd ed., 1892), which, however, is too strongly dominated by modern
  Hegelianism; Paul Schuster, _Heraklit von Ephesus_ (Leipzig, 1873); J.
  Bernays, _Die heraklitischen Briefe_ (Berlin, 1869); T. Gomperz, _Zu
  Heraclits Lehre und den Überresten seines Werkes_ (Vienna, 1887), and
  in his _Greek Thinkers_ (English translation, L. Magnus, vol. i.
  1901); J. Burnet, _Early Greek Philosophy_ (1892); A. Patin,
  _Heraklits Einheitslehre_ (Leipzig, 1886); E. Pfleiderer, _Die
  Philosophie des Heraklitus von Ephesus im Lichte der Mysterienidee_
  (Berlin, 1886); G. T. Schäfer, _Die Philosophie des Heraklit von
  Ephesus und die moderne Heraklitforschung_ (Leipzig, 1902); Wolfgang
  Schultz, _Studien zur antiken Kultur_, i.; _Pythagoras und Heraklit_
  (Leipzig, 1905); O. Spengler, _Heraklit. Eine Studie über den
  energetischen Grundgedanken seiner Philosophie_ (Halle, 1904); A.
  Brieger, "Die Grundzüge der heraklitischen Physik" in _Hermes_, xxxix.
  (1904), 182-223, and "Heraklit der Dunkle" in _Neue Jahrb. f. das
  klass. Altertum_ (1904), p. 687. For his place in the development of
  early philosophy see also articles IONIAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY and
  LOGOS. Ancient authorities: Diog. Laërt. ix.; Sext. Empiric., _Adv.
  mathem._ vii. 126, 127, 133; Plato, _Cratylus_, 402 A and
  _Theaetetus_, 152 E; Plutarch, _Isis and Osiris_, 45, 48; Arist. _Nic.
  Eth._ vii. 3, 4; Clement of Alexandria, _Stromata_, v. 599, 603 (ed.
  Paris).     (J. M. M.)



HERACLIUS ([Greek: Hêrakleios]) (c. 575-642), East Roman emperor, was
born in Cappadocia. His father held high military command under the
emperor Maurice, and as governor of Africa maintained his independence
against the usurper Phocas (q.v.). When invited to head a rebellion
against the latter, he sent his son with a fleet which reached
Constantinople unopposed, and precipitated the dethronement of Phocas.
Proclaimed emperor, Heraclius set himself to reorganize the utterly
disordered administration. At first he found himself helpless before the
Persian armies (see PERSIA: _Ancient History_; and CHOSROËS II.) of
Chosroës II., which conquered Syria and Egypt and since 616 had encamped
opposite Constantinople; in 618 he even proposed in despair to abandon
his capital and seek a refuge in Carthage, but at the entreaty of the
patriarch he took courage. By securing a loan from the Church and
suspending the corn-distribution at Constantinople, he raised sufficient
funds for war, and after making a treaty with the Avars, who had nearly
surprised the capital during an incursion in 619, he was at last able to
take the field against Persia. During his first expedition (622) he
failed to secure a footing in Armenia, whence he had hoped to take the
Persians in flank, but by his unwearied energy he restored the
discipline and efficiency of the army. In his second campaign (624-26)
he penetrated into Armenia and Albania, and beat the enemy in the open
field. After a short stay at Constantinople, which his son Constantine
had successfully defended against renewed incursions by the Avars,
Heraclius resumed his attacks upon the Persians (627). Though deserted
by the Khazars, with whom he had made an alliance upon entering into
Pontus, he gained a decisive advantage by a brilliant march across the
Armenian highlands into the Tigris plain, and a hard-fought victory over
Chosroës' general, Shahrbaraz, in which Heraclius distinguished himself
by his personal bravery. A subsequent revolution at the Persian court
led to the dethronement of Chosroës in favour of his son Kavadh II.
(q.v.); the new king promptly made peace with the emperor, whose troops
were already advancing upon the Persian capital Ctesiphon (628). Having
thus secured his eastern frontier, Heraclius returned to Constantinople
with ample spoils, including the true cross, which in 629 he brought
back in person to Jerusalem. On the northern frontier of the empire he
kept the Avars in check by inducing the Serbs to migrate from the
Carpathians to the Balkan lands so as to divert the attention of the
Avars.

The triumphs which Heraclius had won through his own energy and skill
did not bring him lasting popularity. In his civil administration he
followed out his own ideas without deferring to the nobles or the
Church, and the opposition which he encountered from these quarters went
far to paralyse his attempts at reform. Worn out by continuous fighting
and weakened by dropsy, Heraclius failed to show sufficient energy
against the new peril that menaced his eastern provinces towards the end
of his reign. In 629 the Saracens made their first incursion into Syria
(see CALIPHATE, section A, § 1); in 636 they won a notable victory on
the Yermuk (Hieromax), and in the following years conquered all Syria,
Palestine and Egypt. Heraclius made no attempt to retrieve the
misfortunes of his generals, but evacuated his possessions in sullen
despair. The remaining years of his life he devoted to theological
speculation and ecclesiastical reforms. His religious enthusiasm led him
to oppress his Jewish subjects; on the other hand he sought to reconcile
the Christian sects, and to this effect propounded in his _Ecthesis_ a
conciliatory doctrine of monothelism. Heraclius died of his disease in
642. He had been twice married; his second union, with his niece
Martina, was frequently made a matter of reproach to him. In spite of
his partial failures, Heraclius must be regarded as one of the greatest
of Byzantine emperors, and his early campaigns were the means of saving
the realm from almost certain destruction.

  AUTHORITIES.--G. Finlay, _History of Greece_ (Oxford, 1877) i.
  311-358; J. B. Bury, _The Later Roman Empire_ (London, 1889), ii.
  207-273; T. E. Evangelides, [Greek: Hêrakleios ho autokratôr tou
  Byzantiou] (Odessa, 1903); A. Pernice, _L'Imperatore Eraclio_
  (Florence, 1905). On the Persian campaigns: the epic of George Pisides
  (ed. 1836, Bonn); F. Macler, _Histoire d'Héraclius par l'évêque
  Sebèos_ (Paris, 1904); E. Gerland in _Byzantinische Zeitschrift_, iii.
  (1894) 330-337; N. H. Baynes in the _English Historical Review_
  (1904), pp. 694-702.     (M. O. B. C.)



HERALD (O. Fr. _heraut_, _herault_; the origin is uncertain, but O.H.G.
_heren_, to call, or _hariwald_, leader of an army, have been proposed;
the Gr. equivalent is [Greek: kêryx]: Lat. _praeco_, _caduceator_,
_fetialis_), in Greek and Roman antiquities, the term for the officials
described below; in modern usage, while the word "herald" is often used
generally in a sense analogous to that of the ancients, it is more
specially restricted to that dealt with in the article HERALDRY.

The Greek heralds, who claimed descent from Hermes, the messenger of the
gods, through his son Keryx, were public functionaries of high
importance in early times. Like Hermes, they carried a staff of olive or
laurel wood surrounded by two snakes (or with wool as messengers of
peace); their persons were inviolable; and they formed a kind of
priesthood or corporation. In the Homeric age, they summoned the
assemblies of the people, at which they preserved order and silence;
proclaimed war; arranged the cessation of hostilities and the conclusion
of peace; and assisted at public sacrifices and banquets. They also
performed certain menial offices for the kings (mixing and pouring out
the wine for the guests), by whom they were treated as confidential
servants. In later times, their position was a less honourable one;
they were recruited from the poorer classes, and were mostly paid
servants of the various officials. Pollux in his _Onomasticon_
distinguishes four classes of heralds: (1) the sacred heralds at the
Eleusinian mysteries;[1] (2) the heralds at the public games, who
announced the names of the competitors and victors; (3) those who
superintended the arrangements of festal processions; (4) those who
proclaimed goods for sale in the market (for which purpose they mounted
a stone), and gave notice of lost children and runaway slaves. To these
should be added (5) the heralds of the boule and demos, who summoned the
members of the council and ecclesia, recited the solemn formula of
prayer before the opening of the meeting, called upon the orators to
speak, counted the votes and announced the results; (6) the heralds of
the law courts, who gave notice of the time of trials and summoned the
parties. The heralds received payment from the state and free meals
together with the officials to whom they were attached. Their
appointment was subject to some kind of examination, probably of the
quality of their voice. Like the earlier heralds, they were also
employed in negotiations connected with war and peace.

Among the Romans the _praecones_ or "criers" exercised their profession
both in private and official business. As private criers they were
especially concerned with auctions; they advertized the time, place and
conditions of sale, called out the various bids, and like the modern
auctioneer varied the proceedings with jokes. They gave notice in the
streets of things that had been lost, and took over various commissions,
such as funeral arrangements. Although the calling was held in little
estimation, some of these criers amassed great wealth. The state criers,
who were mostly freedmen and well paid, formed the lowest class of
_apparitores_ (attendants on various magistrates). On the whole, their
functions resembled those of the Greek heralds. They called the popular
assemblies together, proclaimed silence and made known the result of the
voting; in judicial cases, they summoned the plaintiff, defendant,
advocates and witnesses; in criminal executions they gave out the
reasons for the punishment and called on the executioner to perform his
duty; they invited the people to the games and announced the names of
the victors. Public criers were also employed at state auctions in the
municipia and colonies, but, according to the lex Julia municipalis of
Caesar, they were prohibited from holding office.

Amongst the Romans the settlement of matters relating to war and peace
was entrusted to a special class of heralds called _Fetiales_ (not
_Feciales_), a word of uncertain etymology, possibly connected with
_fateor_, _fari_, and meaning "the speakers." They formed a priestly
college of 20 (or 15) members, the institution of which was ascribed to
one of the kings. They were chosen from the most distinguished families,
held office for life, and filled up vacancies in their number by
co-optation. Their duties were to demand redress for insult or injury to
the state, to declare war unless satisfaction was obtained within a
certain number of days and to conclude treaties of peace. A deputation
of four (or two), one of whom was called _pater patratus_, wearing
priestly garments, with sacred herbs plucked from the Capitoline hill
borne in front, proceeded to the frontier of the enemy's territory and
demanded the surrender of the guilty party. This demand was called
_clarigatio_ (perhaps from its being made in a loud, clear voice). If no
satisfactory answer was given within 30 days, the deputation returned to
Rome and made a report. If war was decided upon, the deputation again
repaired to the frontier, pronounced a solemn formula, and hurled a
charred and blood-stained javelin across the frontier, in the presence
of three witnesses, which was tantamount to a declaration of war (Livy
i. 24, 32). With the extension of the Roman empire, it became
impossible to carry out this ceremonial, for which was substituted the
hurling of a javelin over a column near the temple of Bellona in the
direction of the enemy's territory. When the termination of a war was
decided upon, the fetiales either made an arrangement for the suspension
of hostilities for a definite term of years, after which the war
recommenced automatically or they concluded a solemn treaty with the
enemy. Conditions of peace or alliance proposed by the general on his
own responsibility (_sponsio_) were not binding upon the people, and in
case of rejection the general, with hands bound, was delivered by the
fetiales to the enemy (Livy ix. 10). But if the terms were agreed to, a
deputation carrying the sacred herbs and the flint stones, kept in the
temple of Jupiter Feretrius for sacrificial purposes, met a deputation
of fetiales from the other side. After the conditions of the treaty had
been read, the sacrificial formula was pronounced and the victims slain
by a blow from a stone (hence the expression _foedus ferire_). The
treaty was then signed and handed over to the keeping of the fetial
college. These ceremonies usually took place in Rome, but in 201 a
deputation of fetiales went to Africa to ratify the conclusion of peace
with Carthage. From that time little is heard of the fetiales, although
they appear to have existed till the end of the 4th century A.D. The
_caduceator_ (from _caduceus_, the latinized form of [Greek: kêrykeion])
was the name of a person who was sent to treat for peace. His person was
considered sacred; and like the fetiales he carried the sacred herbs,
instead of the caduceus, which was not in use amongst the Romans.

  For the Greek heralds, see Ch. Ostermann, _De praeconibus Graecorum_
  (1845); for the Roman Praecones, Mommsen, _Römisches Staatsrecht_, i.
  363 (3rd ed., 1887); also article PRAECONES in Pauly's
  _Realencyclopädie_ (1852 edition); for the Fetiales, monographs by F.
  C. Conradi (1734, containing all the necessary material), and G.
  Fusinato (1884, from _Atti della R. Accad. dei Lincei_, series iii.
  vol. 13); also Marquardt, _Römische Staatsverwaltung_, iii. 415 (3rd
  ed., 1885), and A. Weiss in Daremberg and Saglio's _Dictionnaire des
  antiquités_.     (J. H. F.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] These heralds are regarded by some as a branch of the Eumolpidae,
    by others as of Athenian origin. They enjoyed great prestige and
    formed a hieratic caste like the Eumolpidae, with whom they shared
    the most important liturgical functions. From them were selected the
    [Greek: dadouchos] or torch-bearer, the [Greek: hierokêryx], whose
    chief duty was to proclaim silence, and [Greek: ho epi bômô], an
    official connected with the service at the altar (see L. R. Farnell,
    Cults of the Greek States, iii. 161; J. Töpffer, _Attische
    Genealogie_ (1889); Dittenberger in _Hermes_, xx.; P. Foucart, "Les
    Grands Mystères d'Eleusis" in _Mém. de l'Institut National de
    France_, xxxvii. (1904).



HERALDRY. Although the word Heraldry properly belongs to all the
business of the herald (q.v.), it has long attached itself to that which
in earlier times was known as armory, the science of armorial bearings.

_History of Armorial Bearings._--In all ages and in all quarters of the
world distinguishing symbols have been adopted by tribes or nations, by
families or by chieftains. Greek and Roman poets describe the devices
borne on the shields of heroes, and many such painted shields are
pictured on antique vases. Rabbinical writers have supported the fancy
that the standards of the tribes set up in their camps bore figures
devised from the prophecy of Jacob, the ravening wolf for Benjamin, the
lion's whelp for Judah and the ship of Zebulon. In the East we have such
ancient symbols as the five-clawed dragon of the Chinese empire and the
chrysanthemum of the emperor of Japan. In Japan, indeed, the
systematized badges borne by the noble clans may be regarded as akin to
the heraldry of the West, and the circle with the three asarum leaves of
the Tokugawa shoguns has been made as familiar to us by Japanese lacquer
and porcelain as the red pellets of the Medici by old Italian fabrics.
Before the landing of the Spaniards in Mexico the Aztec chiefs carried
shields and banners, some of whose devices showed after the fashion of a
phonetic writing the names of their bearers; and the eagle on the new
banner of Mexico may be traced to the eagle that was once carved over
the palace of Montezuma. That mysterious business of totemism, which
students of folk-lore have discovered among most primitive peoples, must
be regarded as another of the forerunners of true heraldry, the totem of
a tribe supplying a badge which was sometimes displayed on the body of
the tribesman in paint, scars or tattooing. Totemism so far touches our
heraldry that some would trace to its symbols the white horse of
Westphalia, the bull's head of the Mecklenburgers and many other ancient
armories.

When true heraldry begins in Western Europe nothing is more remarkable
than the suddenness of its development, once the idea of hereditary
armorial symbols was taken by the nobles and knights. Its earliest
examples are probably still to be discovered by research, but certain
notes may be made which narrow the dates between which we must seek its
origin. The older writers on heraldry, lacking exact archaeology, were
wont to carry back the beginnings to the dark ages, even if they lacked
the assurance of those who distributed blazons among the angelic host
before the Creation. Even in our own times old misconceptions give
ground slowly. Georg Ruexner's _Thurnier Buch_ of 1522 is still cited
for its evidence of the tournament laws of Henry the Fowler, by which
those who would contend in tournaments were forced to show four
generations of arms-bearing ancestors. Yet modern criticism has
shattered the elaborated fiction of Ruexner. In England many legends
survive of arms borne by the Conqueror and his companions. But nothing
is more certain than that neither armorial banners nor shields of arms
were borne on either side at Hastings. The famous record of the Bayeux
tapestry shows shields which in some cases suggest rudely devised
armorial bearings, but in no case can a shield be identified as one
which is recognized in the generations after the Conquest. So far is the
idea of personal arms from the artist, that the same warrior, seen in
different parts of the tapestry's history, has his shield with differing
devices. A generation later, Anna Comnena, the daughter of the Byzantine
emperor, describing the shields of the French knights who came to
Constantinople, tells us that their polished faces were plain.

Of all men, kings and princes might be the first to be found bearing
arms. Yet the first English sovereign who appears on his great seal with
arms on his shield is Richard I. His seal of 1189 shows his shield
charged with a lion ramping towards the sinister side. Since one half
only is seen of the rounded face of the shield, English antiquaries have
perhaps too hastily suggested that the whole bearing was two lions face
to face. But the mounted figure of Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders,
on his seal of 1164 bears a like shield charged with a like lion, and in
this case another shield on the counterseal makes it clear that this is
the single lion of Flanders. Therefore we may take it that, in 1189,
King Richard bore arms of a lion rampant, while, nine years later,
another seal shows him with a shield of the familiar bearings which have
been borne as the arms of England by each one of his successors.

That seal of Philip of Alsace is the earliest known example of the arms
of the great counts of Flanders. The ancient arms of the kings of
France, the blue shield powdered with golden fleurs-de-lys, appear even
later. Louis le Jeune, on the crowning of his son Philip Augustus,
ordered that the young prince should be clad in a blue dalmatic and blue
shoes, sewn with golden fleurs-de-lys, a flower whose name, as "Fleur de
Loys," played upon that of his own, and possibly upon his epithet name
of Florus. A seal of the same king has the device of a single lily. But
the first French royal seal with the shield of the lilies is that of
Louis VIII. (1223-1226). The eagle of the emperors may well be as
ancient a bearing as any in Europe, seeing that Charlemagne is said, as
the successor of the Caesars, to have used the eagle as his badge. The
emperor Henry III. (1039-1056) has the sceptre on his seal surmounted by
an eagle; in the 12th century the eagle was embroidered upon the
imperial gloves. At Mölsen in 1080 the emperor's banner is said by
William of Tyre to have borne the eagle, and with the beginning of
regular heraldry this imperial badge would soon be displayed on a
shield. The double-headed eagle is not seen on an imperial seal until
after 1414, when the bird with one neck becomes the recognized arms of
the king of the Romans.

There are, however, earlier examples of shields of arms than any of
these. A document of the first importance is the description by John of
Marmoustier of the marriage of Geoffrey of Anjou with Maude the empress,
daughter of Henry I., when the king is said to have hung round the neck
of his son-in-law a shield with golden "lioncels." Afterwards the monk
speaks of Geoffrey in fight, "pictos leones preferens in clypeo." Two
notes may be added to this account. The first is that the enamelled
plate now in the museum at Le Mans, which is said to have been placed
over the tomb of Geoffrey after his death in 1151, shows him bearing a
long shield of azure with six golden lioncels, thus confirming the
monk's story. The second is the well-known fact that Geoffrey's bastard
grandson, William with the Long Sword, undoubtedly bore these same arms
of the six lions of gold in a blue field, even as they are still to be
seen upon his tomb at Salisbury. Some ten years before Richard I. seals
with the three leopards, his brother John, count of Mortain, is found
using a seal upon which he bears two leopards, arms which later
tradition assigns to the ancient dukes of Normandy and to their
descendants the kings of England before Henry II., who is said to have
added the third leopard in right of his wife, a legend of no value. Mr
Round has pointed out that Gilbert of Clare, earl of Hertford, who died
in 1152, bears on his seal to a document sealed after 1138 and not later
than 1146, the three cheverons afterwards so well known in England as
the bearings of his successors. An old drawing of the seal of his uncle
Gilbert, earl of Pembroke (_Lansdowne MS._ 203), shows a cheveronny
shield used between 1138 and 1148. At some date between 1144 and 1150,
Waleran, count of Meulan, shows on his seal a pennon and saddle-cloth
with a checkered pattern: the house of Warenne, sprung from his mother's
son, bore shields checky of gold and azure. If we may trust the
inventory of Norman seals made by M. Demay, a careful antiquary, there
is among the archives of the Manche a grant by Eudes, seigneur du Pont,
sealed with a seal and counterseal of arms, to which M. Demay gives a
date as early as 1128. The writer has not examined this seal, the
earliest armorial evidence of which he has any knowledge, but it may be
remarked that the arms are described as varying on the seal and
counterseal, a significant touch of primitive armory. Another type of
seal common in this 12th century shows the personal device which had not
yet developed into an armorial charge. A good example is that of
Enguerrand de Candavène, count of St Pol, where, although the shield of
the horseman is uncharged, sheaves of oats, playing on his name, are
strewn at the foot of the seal. Five of these sheaves were the arms of
Candavène when the house came to display arms. In the same fashion three
different members of the family of Armenteres in England show one, two
or three swords upon their seals, but here the writer has no evidence of
a coat of arms derived from these devices.

From the beginning of the 13th century arms upon shields increase in
number. Soon the most of the great houses of the west display them with
pride. Leaders in the field, whether of a royal army or of a dozen
spears, saw the military advantage of a custom which made shield and
banner things that might be recognized in the press. Although it is
probable that armorial bearings have their first place upon the shield,
the charges of the shield are found displayed on the knight's long
surcoat, his "coat of arms," on his banner or pennon, on the trappers of
his horse and even upon the peaks of his saddle. An attempt has been
made to connect the rise of armory with the adoption of the
barrel-shaped close helm; but even when wearing the earlier Norman
helmet with its long nasal the knight's face was not to be recognized.
The Conqueror, as we know, had to bare his head before he could persuade
his men at Hastings that he still lived. Armory satisfied a need which
had long been felt. When fully armed, one galloping knight was like
another; but friend and foe soon learned that the gold and blue checkers
meant that Warenne was in the field and that the gold and red vair was
for Ferrers. Earl Simon at Evesham sent up his barber to a spying place
and, as the barber named in turn the banners which had come up against
him, he knew that his last fight was at hand. In spite of these things
the growth of the custom of sealing deeds and charters had at least as
much influence in the development of armory as any military need. By
this way, women and clerks, citizens and men of peace, corporations and
colleges, came to share with the fighting man in the use of armorial
bearings. Arms in stone, wood and brass decorated the tombs of the dead
and the houses of the living; they were broidered in bed-curtains,
coverlets and copes, painted on the sails of ships and enamelled upon
all manner of goldsmiths' and silversmiths' work. And, even by warriors,
the full splendour of armory was at all times displayed more fully in
the fantastic magnificence of the tournament than in the rougher
business of war.

[Illustration: PLATE I.

PART OF A ROLL OF ARMS PAINTED IN ENGLAND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 14TH
CENTURY. THE NAMES HAVE BEEN ADDED BY A SOMEWHAT LATER HAND, AND ARE IN
MANY CASES MISTAKEN AND MIS-SPELLED.

_Drawn by William Gibb for the_ ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA.]

There can be little doubt that ancient armorial bearings were chosen at
will by the man who bore them, many reasons guiding his choice. Crosses
in plenty were taken. Old writers have asserted that these crosses
commemorate the badge of the crusaders, yet the fact that the cross was
the symbol of the faith was reason enough. No symbolism can be found in
such charges as bends and fesses; they are on the shield because a broad
band, aslant or athwart, is a charge easily recognized. Medieval wisdom
gave every noble and magnanimous quality to the lion, and therefore this
beast is chosen by hundreds of knights as their bearing. We have already
seen how the arms of a Candavène play upon his name. Such an example was
imitated on all sides. Salle of Bedfordshire has two _sal_amanders
_sal_tirewise; Belet has his namesake the weasel. In ancient shields
almost all beasts and birds other than the lion and the eagle play upon
the bearer's name. No object is so humble that it is unwelcome to the
knight seeking a pun for his shield. Trivet has a three-legged trivet;
Trumpington two trumps; and Montbocher three pots. The legends which
assert that certain arms were "won in the Holy Land" or granted by
ancient kings for heroic deeds in the field are for the most part
worthless fancies.

Tenants or neighbours of the great feudal lords were wont to make their
arms by differencing the lord's shield or by bringing some charge of it
into their own bearings. Thus a group of Kentish shields borrow lions
from that of Leyborne, which is azure with six lions of silver. Shirland
of Minster bore the same arms differenced with an ermine quarter.
Detling had the silver lions in a sable field. Rokesle's lions are azure
in a golden field with a fesse of gules between them; while Wateringbury
has six sable lions in a field of silver, and Tilmanstone six ermine
lions in a field of azure. The Vipont ring or annelet is in several
shields of Westmorland knights, and the cheverons of Clare, the
cinquefoil badge of Beaumont and the sheaves of Chester can be traced in
the coats of many of the followers of those houses. Sometimes the lord
himself set forth such arms in a formal grant, as when the baron of
Greystock grants to Adam of Blencowe a shield in which his own three
chaplets are charges. The Whitgreave family of Staffordshire still show
a shield granted to their ancestor in 1442 by the earl of Stafford, in
which the Stafford red cheveron on a golden field is four times
repeated.

_Differences._--By the custom of the middle ages the "whole coat," which
is the undifferenced arms, belonged to one man only and was inherited
whole only by his heirs. Younger branches differenced in many ways,
following no rule. In modern armory the label is reckoned a difference
proper only to an eldest son. But in older times, although the label was
very commonly used by the son and heir apparent, he often chose another
distinction during his father's lifetime, while the label is sometimes
found upon the shields of younger sons. Changing the colours or varying
the number of charges, drawing a bend or baston over the shield or
adding a border are common differences of cadet lines. Beauchamp, earl
of Warwick, bore "Gules with a fesse and six crosslets gold." His
cousins are seen changing the crosslets for martlets or for billets.
Bastards difference their father's arms, as a rule, in no more striking
manner than the legitimate cadets. Towards the end of the 14th century
we have the beginning of the custom whereby certain bastards of princely
houses differenced the paternal arms by charging them upon a bend, a
fesse or a chief, a cheveron or a quarter. Before his legitimation the
eldest son of John of Gaunt by Katharine Swinford is said to have borne
a shield party silver and azure with the arms of Lancaster on a bend.
After his legitimation in 1397 he changed his bearings to the royal arms
of France and England within a border gobony of silver and azure. Warren
of Poynton, descended from the last earl Warenne and his concubine,
Maude of Neirford, bore the checkered shield of Warenne with a quarter
charged with the ermine lion of Neirford. By the end of the middle ages
the baston under continental influence tended to become a bastard's
difference in England and the jingle of the two words may have helped
to support the custom. About the same time the border gobony began to
acquire a like character. The "bar sinister" of the novelists is
probably the baston sinister, with the ends couped, which has since the
time of Charles II. been familiar on the arms of certain descendants of
the royal house. But it has rarely been seen in England over other
shields; and, although the border gobony surrounds the arms granted to a
peer of Victorian creation, the modern heralds have fallen into the
habit of assigning, in nineteen cases out of twenty, a wavy border as
the standard difference for illegitimacy.

Although no general register of arms was maintained it is remarkable
that there was little conflict between persons who had chanced to assume
the same arms. The famous suit in which Scrope, Grosvenor and Carminow
all claimed the blue shield with the golden bend is well known, and
there are a few cases in the 14th century of like disputes which were
never carried to the courts. But the men of the middle ages would seem
to have had marvellous memories for blazonry; and we know that rolls of
arms for reference, some of them the records of tournaments, existed in
great numbers. A few examples of these remain to us, with painted
shields or descriptions in French blazon, some of them containing many
hundreds of names and arms.

[Illustration: Shield from seal of Robert de Pinkeny, an early example
of parted arms.]

[Illustration: Shield of Joan atte Pole, widow of Robert of Hemenhale,
from her seal (1403), showing parted arms.]

To women were assigned, as a rule, the undifferenced arms of their
fathers. In the early days of armory married women--well-born spinsters
of full age were all but unknown outside the walls of religious
houses--have seals on which appear the shield of the husband or the
father or both shields side by side. But we have some instances of the
shield in which two coats of arms are parted or, to use the modern
phrase, "impaled." Early in the reign of King John, Robert de Pinkeny
seals with a parted shield. On the right or dexter side--the right hand
of a shield is at the right hand of the person covered by it--are two
fusils of an indented fesse: on the left or sinister side are three
waves. The arms of Pinkeny being an indented fesse, we may see in this
shield the parted arms of husband and wife--the latter being probably a
Basset. In many of the earliest examples, as in this, the dexter half of
the husband's shield was united with the sinister half of that of the
wife, both coats being, as modern antiquaries have it, dimidiated. This
"dimidiation," however, had its inconvenience. With some coats it was
impossible. If the wife bore arms with a quarter for the only charge,
her half of the shield would be blank. Therefore the practice was early
abandoned by the majority of bearers of parted shields although there is
a survival of it in the fact that borders and tressures continue to be
"dimidiated" in order that the charges within them shall not be cramped.
Parted shields came into common use from the reign of Edward II., and
the rule is established that the husband's arms should take the dexter
side. There are, however, several instances of the contrary practice. On
the seal (1310) of Maude, wife of John Boutetort of Halstead, the
engrailed saltire of the Boutetorts takes the sinister place. A
twice-married woman would sometimes show a shield charged with her
paternal arms between those of both of her husbands, as did Beatrice
Stafford in 1404, while in 1412 Elizabeth, Lady of Clinton, seals with a
shield paled with five coats--her arms of la Plaunche between those of
four husbands. In most cases the parted shield is found on the wife's
seal alone. Even in our own time it is recognized that the wife's arms
should not appear upon the husband's official seal, upon his banner or
surcoat or upon his shield when it is surrounded by the collar of an
order. Parted arms, it may be noted, do not always represent a husband
and wife. Richard II. parted with his quartered arms of France and
England those ascribed to Edward the Confessor, and parting is often
used on the continent where quartering would serve in England. In 1497
the seal of Giles Daubeney and Reynold Bray, fellow justices in eyre,
shows their arms parted in one shield. English bishops, by a custom
begun late in the 14th century, part the see's arms with their own. By
modern English custom a husband and wife, where the wife is not an heir,
use the parted coat on a shield, a widow bearing the same upon the
lozenge on which, when a spinster, she displayed her father's coat
alone. When the wife is an heir, her arms are now borne in a little
scocheon above those of her husband. If the husband's arms be in an
unquartered shield the central charge is often hidden away by this
scocheon.

[Illustration: Shield of Beatrice Stafford from her seal (1404), showing
her arms of Stafford between those of her husbands--Thomas, Lord Roos,
and Sir Richard Burley.]

[Illustration: Shield of John Talbot, first earl of Shrewsbury (d.
1453), showing four coats quartered.]

The practice of marshalling arms by quartering spread in England by
reason of the example given by Eleanor, wife of Edward I., who displayed
the castle of Castile quartered with the lion of Leon. Isabel of France,
wife of Edward II., seals with a shield in whose four quarters are the
arms of England, France, Navarre and Champagne. Early In the 14th
century Simon de Montagu, an ancestor of the earls of Salisbury,
quartered with his own arms a coat of azure with a golden griffon. In
1340 we have Laurence Hastings, earl of Pembroke, quartering with the
Hastings arms the arms of Valence, as heir of his great-uncle Aymer,
earl of Pembroke. In the preceding year the king had already asserted
his claim to another kingdom by quartering France with England, and
after this quartered shields became common in the great houses whose
sons were carefully matched with heirs female. When the wife was an heir
the husband would quarter her arms with his own, displaying, as a rule,
the more important coat in the first quarter. Marshalling becomes more
elaborate with shields showing both quarterings and partings, as in the
seal (1368) of Sibil Arundel, where Arundel (Fitzalan) is quartered with
Warenne and parted with the arms of Montagu. In all, save one, of these
examples the quartering is in its simplest form, with one coat repeated
in the first and fourth quarters of the shield and another in the second
and third. But to a charter of 1434 Sir Henry Bromflete sets a seal upon
which Bromflete quarters Vesci in the second quarter, Aton in the third
and St John in the fourth, after the fashion of the much earlier seal of
Edward II.'s queen. Another development is that of what armorists style
the "grand quarter," a quarter which is itself quartered, as in the
shield of Reynold Grey of Ruthyn, which bears Grey in the first and
fourth quarters and Hastings quartered with Valence in the third and
fourth. Humphrey Bourchier, Lord Cromwell, in 1469, bears one grand
quarter quartered with another, the first having Bourchier and Lovaine,
the second Tatershall and Cromwell.

[Illustration: Shield of Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, from his
garter stall-plate (after 1423). The arms are Beauchamp quartering
Newburgh, with a scocheon of Clare quartering Despenser.]

The last detail to be noted in medieval marshalling is the introduction
into the shield of another surmounting shield called by old armorists
the "innerscocheon" and by modern blazoners the "inescutcheon." John the
Fearless, count of Flanders, marshalled his arms in 1409 as a quartered
shield of the new and old coats of Burgundy. Above these coats a little
scocheon, borne over the crossing of the quartering lines, had the black
lion of Flanders, the arms of his mother. Richard Beauchamp, the
adventurous earl of Warwick, who had seen most European courts during
his wanderings, may have had this shield in mind when, over his arms of
Beauchamp quartering Newburgh, he set a scocheon of Clare quartering
Despenser, the arms of his wife Isabel Despenser, co-heir of the earls
of Gloucester. The seal of his son-in-law, the King-Maker, shows four
quarters--Beauchamp quartering Clare, Montagu quartering Monthermer,
Nevill alone, and Newburgh quartering Despenser. An interesting use of
the scocheon _en surtout_ is that made by Richard Wydvile, Lord Rivers,
whose garter stall-plate has a grand quarter of Wydvile and Prouz
quartering Beauchamp of Hache, the whole surmounted by a scocheon with
the arms of Reviers or Rivers, the house from which he took the title of
his barony. On the continent the common use of the scocheon is to bear
the paternal arms of a sovereign or noble, surmounting the quarterings
of his kingdoms, principalities, fiefs or seigniories. Our own prince of
Wales bears the arms of Saxony above those of the United Kingdom
differenced with his silver label. Marshalling takes its most elaborate
form, the most removed from the graceful simplicity of the middle ages,
in such shields as the "Great Arms" of the Austrian empire, wherein are
nine grand quarters each marshalling in various fashions from three to
eleven coats, six of the grand-quarters bearing scocheons _en surtout_,
each scocheon ensigned with a different crown.

_Crests._--The most important accessory of the arms is the crested helm.
Like the arms it has its pre-heraldic history in the crests of the Greek
helmets, the wings, the wild boar's and bull's heads of Viking
headpieces. A little roundel of the arms of a Japanese house was often
borne as a crest in the Japanese helmet, stepped in a socket above the
middle of the brim. The 12th-century seal of Philip of Alsace, count of
Flanders, shows a demi-lion painted or beaten on the side of the upper
part of his helm, and on his seal of 1198 our own Richard Coeur de
Lion's barrel-helm has a leopard upon the semicircular comb-ridge, the
edge of which is set off with feathers arranged as two wings. Crests,
however, came slowly into use in England, although before 1250 Roger de
Quincy, earl of Winchester, is seen on his seal with a wyver upon his
helm. Of the long roll of earls and barons sealing the famous letter to
the pope in 1301 only five show true crests on their seals. Two of them
are the earl of Lancaster and his brother, each with a wyver crest like
that of Quincy. One, and the most remarkable, is John St John of
Halnaker, whose crest is a leopard standing between two upright palm
branches. Ralph de Monthermer has an eagle crest, while Walter de
Moncy's helm is surmounted by a fox-like beast. In three of these
instances the crest is borne, as was often the case, by the horse as
well as the rider. Others of these seals to the barons' letter have the
fan-shaped crest without any decoration upon it. But as the furniture of
tournaments grew more magnificent the crest gave a new field for
display, and many strange shapes appear in painted and gilded wood,
metal, leather or parchment above the helms of the jousters. The
Berkeleys, great patrons of abbeys, bore a mitre as their crest painted
with their arms, like crests being sometimes seen on the continent where
the wearer was _advocatus_ of a bishopric or abbey. The whole or half
figures or the heads and necks of beasts and birds were employed by
other families. Saracens' heads topped many helms, that of the great
Chandos among them. Astley bore for his crest a silver harpy standing in
marsh-sedge, a golden chain fastened to a crown about her neck. Dymoke
played pleasantly on his name with a long-eared moke's scalp. Stanley
took the eagle's nest in which the eagle is lighting down with a
swaddled babe in his claws. Burnell had a burdock bush, la Vache a cow's
leg, and Lisle's strange fancy was to perch a huge millstone on edge
above his head. Many early helms, as that of Sir John Loterel, painted
in the Loterel psalter, repeat the arms on the sides of a fan-crest.
Howard bore for a crest his arms painted on a pair of wings, while
simple "bushes" or feathers are seen in great plenty. The crest of a
cadet is often differenced like the arms, and thus a wyver or a leopard
will have a label about its neck. The Montagu griffon on the helm of
John, marquess of Montagu, holds in its beak the gimel ring with which
he differenced his father's shield. His brother, the King-Maker,
following a custom commoner abroad than at home, shows two crested helms
on his seal, one for Montagu and one for Beauchamp--none for his
father's house of Nevill. It is often stated that a man, unless by some
special grace or allowance, can have but one crest. This, however, is
contrary to the spirit of medieval armory in which a man, inheriting the
coat of arms of another house than his own, took with it all its
belongings, crest, badge and the like. The heraldry books, with more
reason, deny crests to women and to the clergy, but examples are not
wanting of medieval seals in which even this rule is broken. It is
perhaps unfair to cite the case of the bishops of Durham who ride in
full harness on their palatinate seals; but Henry Despenser, bishop of
Norwich, has a helm on which the winged griffon's head of his house
springs from a mitre, while Alexander Nevill, archbishop of York, seals
with shield, supporters and crowned and crested helm like those of any
lay magnate. Richard Holt, a Northamptonshire clerk in holy orders,
bears on his seal in the reign of Henry V. a shield of arms and a
mantled helm with the crest of a collared greyhound's head. About the
middle of the same century a seal cut for the wife of Thomas Chetwode, a
Cheshire squire, has a shield of her husband's arms parted with her own
and surmounted by a crowned helm with the crest of a demi-lion; and this
is not the only example of such bearings by a woman.

[Illustration: Ralph de Monthermer (1301), showing shield of arms, helm
with crest and mantle, horse-crest and armorial trappers.]

Before passing from the crest let us note that in England the juncture
of crest and helm was commonly covered, especially after the beginning
of the 15th century, by a torse or "wreath" of silk, twisted with one,
two or three colours. Coronets or crowns and "hats of estate" often take
the place of the wreath as a base for the crest, and there are other
curious variants. With the wreath may be considered the mantle, a
hanging cloth which, in its earliest form, is seen as two strips of silk
or sendal attached to the top of the helm below the crest and streaming
like pennants as the rider bent his head and charged. Such strips are
often displayed from the conical top of an uncrested helm, and some
ancient examples have the air of the two ends of a stole or of the
_infulae_ of a bishop's mitre. The general opinion of antiquaries has
been that the mantle originated among the crusaders as a protection for
the steel helm from the rays of an Eastern sun; but the fact that
mantles take in England their fuller form after our crusading days were
over seems against this theory. When the fashion for slittering the
edges of clothing came in, the edges of the mantle were slittered like
the edge of the sleeve or skirt, and, flourished out on either side of
the helm, it became the delight of the painter of armories and the seal
engraver. A worthless tale, repeated by popular manuals, makes the
slittered edge represent the shearing work of the enemy's sword, a fancy
which takes no account of the like developments in civil dress. Modern
heraldry in England paints the mantle with the principal colour of the
shield, lining it with the principal metal. This in cases where no old
grant of arms is cited as evidence of another usage. The mantles of the
king and of the prince of Wales are, however, of gold lined with ermine
and those of other members of the royal house of gold lined with silver.
In ancient examples there is great variety and freedom. Where the crest
is the head of a griffon or bird the feathering of the neck will be
carried on to cover the mantle. Other mantles will be powdered with
badges or with charges from the shield, others checkered, barred or
paled. More than thirty of the mantles enamelled on the stall-plates of
the medieval Garter-knights are of red with an ermine lining, tinctures
which in most cases have no reference to the shields below them.

[Illustration: Shield and crested helm with hat and mantle of Thomas of
Hengrave (1401).]

_Supporters._--Shields of arms, especially upon seals, are sometimes
figured as hung round the necks of eagles, lions, swans and griffons, as
strapped between the horns of a hart or to the boughs of a tree. Badges
may fill in the blank spaces at the sides between the shield and the
inscription on the rim, but in the later 13th and early 14th centuries
the commonest objects so serving are sprigs of plants, lions, leopards,
or, still more frequently, lithe-necked wyvers. John of Segrave in 1301
flanks his shields with two of the sheaves of the older coat of Segrave:
William Marshal of Hingham does the like with his two marshal's staves.
Henry of Lancaster at the same time shows on his seal a shield and a
helm crested with a wyver, with two like wyvers ranged on either side of
the shield as "supporters." It is uncertain at what time in the 14th
century these various fashions crystallize into the recognized use of
beasts, birds, reptiles, men or inanimate objects, definitely chosen as
"supporters" of the shield, and not to be taken as the ornaments
suggested by the fancy of the seal engraver. That supporters originate
in the decoration of the seal there can be little doubt. Some writers,
the learned Menêtrier among them, will have it that they were first the
fantastically clad fellows who supported and displayed the knight's
shield at the opening of the tournament. If the earliest supporters were
wild men, angels or Saracens, this theory might be defended; but lions,
boars and talbots, dogs and trees are guises into which a man would put
himself with difficulty. By the middle of the 14th century we find what
are clearly recognizable as supporters. These, as in a lesser degree the
crest, are often personal rather than hereditary, being changed
generation by generation. The same person is found using more than one
pair of them. The kings of France have had angels as supporters of the
shield of the fleurs de lys since the 15th century, but the angels have
only taken their place as the sole royal supporters since the time of
Louis XIV. Sovereigns of England from Henry IV. to Elizabeth changed
about between supporters of harts, leopards, antelopes, bulls,
greyhounds, boars and dragons. James I. at his accession to the English
throne brought the Scottish unicorn to face the English leopard rampant
across his shield, and, ever since, the "lion and unicorn" have been the
royal supporters.

[Illustration: Arms of William, Lord Hastings, from his seal (1477),
showing shield, crowned and crested helm with mantle and supporters.]

[Illustration: Badge of John of Whethamstede, abbot of St Albans (d.
1465), from his tomb in the abbey church.]

[Illustration: Rudder badge of Willoughby.]

An old herald wrote as his opinion that "there is little or nothing in
precedent to direct the use of supporters." Modern custom gives them, as
a rule, only to peers, to knights of the Garter, the Thistle and St
Patrick, and to knights who are "Grand Crosses" or Grand Commanders of
other orders. Royal warrants are sometimes issued for the granting of
supporters to baronets, and, in rare cases, they have been assigned to
untitled persons. But in spite of the jealousy with which official
heraldry hedges about the display of these supporters once assumed so
freely, a few old English families still assert their right by
hereditary prescription to use these ornaments as their forefathers were
wont to use them.

[Illustration: Badge of Dacre of Gilsland and Dacre of the North.]

_Badges._--The badge may claim a greater antiquity and a wider use than
armorial bearings. The "Plantagenet" broom is an early example in
England, sprigs of it being figured on the seal of Richard I. In the
14th and 15th centuries every magnate had his badge, which he displayed
on his horse-furniture, on the hangings of his bed, his wall and his
chair of state, besides giving it as a "livery" to his servants and
followers. Such were the knots of Stafford, Bourchier and Wake, the
scabbard-crampet of La Warr, the sickle of Hungerford, the swan of
Toesni, Bohun and Lancaster, the dun-bull of Nevill, the blue boar of
Vere and the bear and ragged staff of Beauchamp, Nevill of Warwick and
Dudley of Northumberland. So well known of all were these symbols that a
political ballad of 1449 sings of the misfortunes of the great lords
without naming one of them, all men understanding what signified the
Falcon, the Water Bowge and the Cresset and the other badges of the
doggerel. More famous still were the White Hart, the Red Rose, the White
Rose, the Sun, the Falcon and Fetterlock, the Portcullis and the many
other badges of the royal house. We still call those wars that blotted
out the old baronage the Wars of the Roses, and the Prince of Wales's
feathers are as well known to-day as the royal arms. The Flint and Steel
of Burgundy make a collar for the order of the Golden Fleece.

[Illustration: Ostrich feather badge of Beaufort, from a garter
stall-plate of 1440. The silver feather has a quill gobony silver and
azure.]

_Mottoes._--The motto now accompanies every coat of arms in these
islands. Few of these Latin aphorisms, these bald assertions of virtue,
high courage, patriotism, piety and loyalty have any antiquity. Some
few, however, like the "Espérance" of Percy, were the war-cries of
remote ancestors. "I mak' sicker" of Kirkpatrick recalls pridefully a
bloody deed done on a wounded man, and the "Dieu Ayde," "Agincourt" and
"D'Accomplir Agincourt" of the Irish "Montmorencys" and the English
Wodehouses and Dalisons, glorious traditions based upon untrustworthy
genealogy. The often-quoted punning mottoes may be illustrated by that
of Cust, who says "Qui Cust-odit caveat," a modern example and a fair
one. Ancient mottoes as distinct from the war or gathering cry of a
house are often cryptic sentences whose meaning might be known to the
user and perchance to his mistress. Such are the "Plus est en vous" of
Louis de Bruges, the Flemish earl of Winchester, and the "So have I
cause" and "Till then thus" of two Englishmen. The word motto is of
modern use, our forefathers speaking rather of their "word" or of their
"reason."

_Coronets of Rank._--Among accessories of the shield may now be counted
the coronets of peers, whose present form is post-medieval. When Edward
III. made dukes of his sons, gold circlets were set upon their heads in
token of their new dignity. In 1385 John de Vere, marquess of Dublin,
was created in the same fashion. Edward VI. extended the honour of the
gold circle to earls. Caps of honour were worn with these circles or
coronets, and viscounts wore the cap by appointment of James I., Vincent
the herald stating that "a verge of pearls on top of the circulet of
gold" was added at the creation of Robert Cecil as Viscount Cranborne.
At the coronation of Charles I. the viscounts walked in procession with
their caps and coronets. A few days before the coronation of Charles II.
the privilege of the cap of honour was given to the lowest rank of the
peerage, and letters patent of January 1661 assign to them both cap and
coronet. The caps of velvet turned up with miniver, which are now always
worn with the peer's coronet, are therefore the ancient caps of honour,
akin to that "cap of maintenance" worn by English sovereigns on their
coronation days when walking to the Abbey Church, and borne before them
on occasions of royal state.

[Illustration: PLATE II.

SIXTEEN SHIELDS FROM A ROLL OF ARMS OF ENGLISH KNIGHTS AND BARONS MADE
BY AN ENGLISH PAINTER EARLY IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD III.

  _Drawn by William Gibb._
  _Niagara Litho. Co., Buffalo, N. Y._]

The ancient circles were enriched according to the taste of the bearer,
and, although used at creations as symbols of the rank conferred, were
worn in the 14th and 15th centuries by men and women of rank without the
use signifying a rank in the peerage. Edmund, earl of March, in his will
of 1380, named his _sercle ove roses, emeraudes et rubies d'alisaundre
en les roses_, and bequeathed it to his daughter. Modern coronets are of
silver-gilt, without jewels, set upon caps of crimson velvet turned up
with ermine, with a gold tassel at the top. A duke's coronet has the
circle decorated with eight gold "strawberry leaves"; that of a marquess
has four gold strawberry leaves and four silver balls. The coronet of an
earl has eight silver balls, raised upon points, with gold strawberry
leaves between the points. A viscount's coronet has on the circle
sixteen silver balls, and a baron's coronet six silver balls. On the
continent the modern use of coronets is not ordered in the precise
English fashion, men of gentle birth displaying coronets which afford
but slight indication of the bearer's rank.

_Lines._--Eleven varieties of lines, other than straight lines, which
divide the shield, or edge our cheverons, pales, bars and the like, are
pictured in the heraldry books and named as engrailed, embattled,
indented, invected, wavy or undy, nebuly, dancetty, raguly, potenté,
dovetailed and urdy.

As in the case of many other such lists of the later armorists these
eleven varieties need some pruning and a new explanation.

The most commonly found is the line engrailed, which for the student of
medieval armory must be associated with the line indented. In its
earliest form the line which a roll of arms will describe indifferently
as indented or engrailed takes almost invariably the form to which the
name indented is restricted by modern armorists.

[Illustration: Mohun.]

The cross may serve as our first example. A cross, engrailed or
indented, the words being used indifferently, is a cross so deeply
notched at the edges that it seems made up of so many lozenge-shaped
wedges or fusils. About the middle of the 14th century begins a
tendency, resisted in practice by many conservative families, to draw
the engrailing lines in the fashion to which modern armorists restrict
the word "engrailed," making shallower indentures in the form of lines
of half circles. Thus the engrailed cross of the Mohuns takes either of
the two forms which we illustrate. Bends follow the same fashion, early
bends engrailed or indented being some four or more fusils joined
bendwise by their blunt sides, bends of less than four fusils being very
rare. Thus also the engrailed or indented saltires, pales or cheverons,
the exact number of the fusils which go to the making of these being
unconsidered. For the fesse there is another law. The fesse indented or
engrailed is made up of fusils as is the engrailed bend. But although
early rolls of arms sometimes neglect this detail in their blazon, the
fusils making a fesse must always be of an ascertained number. Montagu,
earl of Salisbury, bore a fesse engrailed or indented of three fusils
only, very few shields imitating this. Medieval armorists will describe
his arms as a fesse indented of three indentures, as a fesse fusilly of
three pieces, or as a fesse engrailed of three points or pieces, all of
these blazons having the same value. The indented fesse on the red
shield of the Dynhams has four such fusils of ermine. Four, however, is
almost as rare a number as three, the normal form of a fesse indented
being that of five fusils as borne by Percys, Pinkenys, Newmarches and
many other ancient houses. Indeed, accuracy of blazon is served if the
number of fusils in a fesse be named in the cases of threes and fours.
Fesses of six fusils are not to be found. Note that bars indented or
engrailed are, for a reason which will be evident, never subject to this
counting of fusils. Fauconberg, for example, bore "Silver with two bars
engrailed, or indented, sable." Displayed on a shield of the flat-iron
outline, the lower bar would show fewer fusils than the upper, while on
a square banner each bar would have an equal number--usually five or
six.

[Illustration: Montagu. Dynham. Percy. Fauconberg.]

While bends, cheverons, crosses, saltires and pales often follow,
especially in the 15th century, the tendency towards the rounded
"engrailing," fesses keep, as a rule, their bold indentures--neither
Percy nor Montagu being ever found with his bearings in aught but their
ancient form. Borders take the newer fashion as leaving more room for
the charges of the field. But indented chiefs do not change their
fashion, although many saw-teeth sometimes take the place of the three
or four strong points of early arms, and parti-coloured shields whose
party line is indented never lose the bold zig-zag.

[Illustration: West.]

While bearing in mind that the two words have no distinctive force in
ancient armory, the student and the herald of modern times may
conveniently allow himself to blazon the sharp and saw-toothed line as
"indented" and the scolloped line as "engrailed," especially when
dealing with the debased armory in which the distinction is held to be a
true one and one of the first importance. One error at least he must
avoid, and that is the following of the heraldry-book compilers in their
use of the word "dancetty." A "dancetty" line, we are told, is a line
having fewer and deeper indentures than the line indented. But no
dancetty line could make a bolder dash across the shield than do the
lines which the old armorists recognized as "indented." In old armory we
have fesses dancy--commonly called "dances"--bends dancy, or cheverons
dancy; there are no chiefs dancy nor borders dancy, nor are there
shields blazoned as parted with a dancy line. Waved lines, battled lines
and ragged lines need little explanation that a picture cannot give. The
word invecked or invected is sometimes applied by old-fashioned heraldic
pedants to engrailed lines; later pedants have given it to a line found
in modern grants of arms, an engrailed line reversed. Dove-tailed and
urdy lines are mere modernisms. Of the very rare nebuly or clouded line
we can only say that the ancient form, which imitated the conventional
cloud-bank of the old painters, is now almost forgotten, while the bold
"wavy" lines of early armory have the word "nebuly" misapplied to them.

_The Ordinary Charges._--The writers upon armory have given the name of
Ordinaries to certain conventional figures commonly charged upon
shields. Also they affect to divide these into Honourable Ordinaries and
Sub-Ordinaries without explaining the reason for the superior honour of
the Saltire or for the subordination of the Quarter. Disregarding such
distinctions, we may begin with the description of the "Ordinaries" most
commonly to be found.

From the first the Cross was a common bearing on English shields,
"Silver a cross gules" being given early to St George, patron of knights
and of England, for his arms; and under St George's red cross the
English were wont to fight. Our armorial crosses took many shapes, but
the "crosses innumerabill" of the Book of St Albans and its successors
may be left to the heraldic dictionary makers who have devised them. It
is more important to define those forms in use during the middle ages,
and to name them accurately after the custom of those who bore them in
war, a task which the heraldry books have never as yet attempted with
success.

The cross in its simple form needs no definition, but it will be noted
that it is sometimes borne "voided" and that in a very few cases it
appears as a lesser charge with its ends cut off square, in which case
it must be clearly blazoned as "a plain Cross."

  Andrew Harcla, the march-warden, whom Edward II. made an earl and
  executed as a traitor, bore the arms of St George with a martlet sable
  in the quarter.

  Crevequer of Kent bore "Gold a voided cross gules."

  Newsom (14th century) bore "Azure a fesse silver with three plain
  crosses gules."

[Illustration: St George. Harcla. Crevequer. Latimer.]

Next to the plain Cross may be taken the Cross paty, the _croiz patee_
or _pate_ of old rolls of arms. It has several forms, according to the
taste of the artist and the age. So, in the 13th and early 14th
centuries, its limbs curve out broadly, while at a later date the limbs
become more slender and of even breadth, the ends somewhat resembling
fleurs-de-lys. Each of these forms has been seized by the heraldic
writers as the type of a distinct cross for which a name must be found,
none of them, as a rule, being recognized as a cross paty, a word which
has its misapplication elsewhere. Thus the books have "cross patonce"
for the earlier form, while "cross clechée" and "cross fleurie" serve
for the others. But the true identification of the various crosses is of
the first importance to the antiquary, since without it descriptions of
the arms on early seals or monuments must needs be valueless. Many
instances of this need might be cited from the British Museum catalogue
of seals, where, for example, the cross paty of Latimer is described
twice as a "cross flory," six times as a "cross patonce," but not once
by its own name, although there is no better known example of this
bearing in England.

  Latimer bore "Gules a cross paty gold."

The cross formy follows the lines of the cross paty save that its
broadening ends are cut off squarely.

  Chetwode bore "Quarterly silver and gules with four crosses formy
  countercoloured"--that is to say, the two crosses in the gules are of
  silver and the two in the silver of gules.

The cross flory or flowered cross, the "cross with the ends
flowered"--_od les boutes floretes_ as some of the old rolls have
it--is, like the cross paty, a mark for the misapprehension of writers
on armory, who describe some shapes of the cross paty by its name.
Playing upon discovered or fancied variants of the word, they bid us
mark the distinctions between crosses "fleur-de-lisée," "fleury" and
"fleurettée," although each author has his own version of the value
which must be given these precious words. But the facts of the medieval
practice are clear to those who take their armory from ancient examples
and not from phrases plagiarized from the hundredth plagiarist. The
flowered cross is one whose limbs end in fleur-de-lys, which spring
sometimes from a knop or bud but more frequently issue from the square
ends of a cross of the "formy" type.

  Swynnerton bore "Silver a flowered cross sable."

[Illustration: Mill-rinds.]

The mill-rind, which takes its name from the iron of a mill-stone--_fer
de moline_--must be set with the crosses. Some of the old rolls call it
_croiz recercele_, from which armorial writers have leaped to imagine a
distinct type. Also they call the mill-rind itself a "cross moline"
keeping the word mill-rind for a charge having the same origin but of
somewhat differing form. Since this charge became common in Tudor armory
it is perhaps better that the original mill-rind should be called for
distinction a mill-rind cross.

  Willoughby bore "Gules a mill-rind cross silver."

[Illustration: Chetwode. Swynnerton. Willoughby. Brerelegh.]

The crosslet, cross botonny or cross crosletted, is a cross whose limbs,
of even breadth, end as trefoils or treble buds. It is rarely found in
medieval examples in the shape--that of a cross with limbs ending in
squarely cut plain crosses--which it took during the 16th-century
decadence. As the sole charge of a shield it is very rare; otherwise it
is one of the commonest of charges.

  Brerelegh bore "Silver a crosslet gules."

Within these modest limits we have brought the greater part of that
monstrous host of crosses which cumber the dictionaries. A few rare
varieties may be noticed.

  Dukinfield bore "Silver a voided cross with sharpened ends."

  Skirlaw, bishop of Durham (d. 1406), the son of a basket-weaver, bore
  "Silver a cross of three upright wattles sable, crossed and interwoven
  by three more."

  Drury bore "Silver a chief vert with a St Anthony's cross gold between
  two golden molets, pierced gules."

  Brytton bore "Gold a patriarch's cross set upon three degrees or steps
  of gules."

  Hurlestone of Cheshire bore "Silver a cross of four ermine tails
  sable."

  Melton bore "Silver a Toulouse cross gules." By giving this cross a
  name from the counts of Toulouse, its best-known bearers, some
  elaborate blazonry is spared.

[Illustration: Skirlaw. Drury. St Anthony's Cross. Brytton.]

The crosses paty and formy, and more especially the crosslets, are often
borne fitchy, that is to say, with the lower limb somewhat lengthened
and ending in a point, for which reason the 15th-century writers call
these "crosses fixabill." In the 14th-century rolls the word "potent" is
sometimes used for these crosses fitchy, the long foot suggesting a
potent or staff. From this source modern English armorists derive many
of their "crosses potent," whose four arms have the T heads of
old-fashioned walking staves.

  Howard bore "Silver a bend between six crosslets fitchy gules."

  Scott of Congerhurst in Kent bore "Silver a crosslet fitchy sable."

[Illustration: Hurlestone. Melton. Howard. Scott.]

The Saltire is the cross in the form of that on which St Andrew
suffered, whence it is borne on the banner of Scotland, and by the
Andrew family of Northamptonshire.

  Nevile of Raby bore "Gules a saltire silver."

  Nicholas Upton, the 15th-century writer on armory, bore "Silver a
  saltire sable with the ends couped and five golden rings thereon."

  Aynho bore "Sable a saltire silver having the ends flowered between
  four leopards gold."

  "Mayster Elwett of Yorke chyre" in a 15th-century roll bears "Silver a
  saltire of chains sable with a crescent in the chief."

[Illustration: Nevile. Upton. Aynho. Elwett.]

  Restwolde bore "Party saltirewise of gules and ermine."

[Illustration: Fenwick.]

The chief is the upper part of the shield and, marked out by a line of
division, it is taken as one of the Ordinaries. Shields with a plain
chief and no more are rare in England, but Tichborne of Tichborne has
borne since the 13th century "Vair a chief gold." According to the
heraldry books the chief should be marked off as a third part of the
shield, but its depth varies, being broader when charged with devices
and narrower when, itself uncharged, it surmounts a charged field.
Fenwick bore "Silver a chief gules with six martlets countercoloured,"
and in this case the chief would be the half of the shield. Clinging to
the belief that the chief must not fill more than a third of the shield,
the heraldry books abandon the word in such cases, blazoning them as
"party per fesse."

  Hastang bore "Azure a chief gules and a lion with a forked tail over
  all."

  Walter Kingston seals in the 13th century with a shield of "Two rings
  or annelets in the chief."

  Hilton of Westmoreland bore "Sable three rings gold and two saltires
  silver in the chief."

With the chief may be named the Foot, the nether part of the shield
marked off as an Ordinary. So rare is this charge that we can cite but
one example of it, that of the shield of John of Skipton, who in the
14th century bore "Silver with the foot indented purple and a lion
purple." The foot, however, is a recognized bearing in France, whose
heralds gave it the name of _champagne_.

[Illustration: Restwolde. Hastang. Hilton. Provence.]

The Pale is a broad stripe running the length of the shield. Of a single
pale and of three pales there are several old examples. Four red pales
in a golden shield were borne by Eleanor of Provence, queen of Henry
III.; but the number did not commend itself to English armorists. When
the field is divided evenly into six pales it is said to be paly; if
into four or eight pales, it is blazoned as paly of that number of
pieces. But paly of more or less than six pieces is rarely found.

  The Yorkshire house of Gascoigne bore "Silver a pale sable with a
  golden conger's head thereon, cut off at the shoulder."

  Ferlington bore "Gules three pales vair and a chief gold."

  Strelley bore "Paly silver and azure."

  Rothinge bore "Paly silver and gules of eight pieces."

When the shield or charge is divided palewise down the middle into two
tinctures it is said to be "party." "Party silver and gules" are the
arms of the Waldegraves. Bermingham bore "Party silver and sable
indented." Caldecote bore "Party silver and azure with a chief gules."
Such partings of the field often cut through charges whose colours
change about on either side of the parting line. Thus Chaucer the poet
bore "Party silver and gules with a bend countercoloured."

[Illustration: Gascoigne. Ferlington. Strelley. Rothinge.]

The Fesse is a band athwart the shield, filling, according to the rules
of the heraldic writers, a third part of it. By ancient use, however, as
in the case of the chief and pale, its width varies with the taste of
the painter, narrowing when set in a field full of charges and
broadening when charges are displayed on itself. When two or three
fesses are borne they are commonly called Bars. "Ermine _four_ bars
gules" is given as the shield of Sir John Sully, a 14th-century Garter
knight, on his stall-plate at Windsor: but the plate belongs to a later
generation, and should probably have three bars only. Little bars borne
in couples are styled Gemels (twins). The field divided into an even
number of bars of alternate colours is said to be barry, barry of six
pieces being the normal number. If four or eight divisions be found the
number of pieces must be named; but with ten or more divisions the
number is unreckoned and "burely" is the word.

[Illustration: Bermingham. Caldecote. Colevile. Fauconberg.]

  Colevile of Bitham bore "Gold a fesse gules."

  West bore "Silver a dance (or fesse dancy) sable."

  Fauconberg bore "Gold a fesse azure with three pales gules in the
  chief."

  Cayvile bore "Silver a fesse gules, flowered on both sides."

[Illustration: Cayvile. Devereux. Chamberlayne. Harcourt.]

  Devereux bore "Gules a fesse silver with three roundels silver in the
  chief."

  Chamberlayne of Northamptonshire bore "Gules a fesse and three
  scallops gold."

  Harcourt bore "Gules two bars gold."

  Manners bore "Gold two bars azure and a chief gules."

  Wake bore "Gold two bars gules with three roundels gules in the
  chief."

  Bussy bore "Silver three bars sable."

  Badlesmere of Kent bore "Silver a fesse between two gemels gules."

  Melsanby bore "Sable two gemels and a chief silver."

[Illustration: Manners. Wake. Melsanby. Grey.]

  Grey bore "Barry of silver and azure."

  Fitzalan of Bedale bore "Barry of eight pieces gold and gules."

  Stutevile bore "Burely of silver and gules."

The Bend is a band traversing the shield aslant, arms with one, two or
three bends being common during the middle ages in England. Bendy
shields follow the rule of shields paly and barry, but as many as ten
pieces have been counted in them. The bend is often accompanied by a
narrow bend on either side, these companions being called Cotices. A
single narrow bend, struck over all other charges, is the Baston, which
during the 13th and 14th centuries was a common difference for the
shields of the younger branches of a family, coming in later times to
suggest itself as a difference for bastards.

[Illustration: Fitzalan of Bedale. Mauley. Harley. Wallop.]

The Bend Sinister, the bend drawn from right to left beginning at the
"sinister" corner of the shield, is reckoned in the heraldry books as a
separate Ordinary, and has a peculiar significance accorded to it by
novelists. Medieval English seals afford a group of examples of Bends
Sinister and Bastons Sinister, but there seems no reason for taking them
as anything more than cases in which the artist has neglected the common
rule.

  Mauley bore "Gold a bend sable."

  Harley bore "Gold a bend with two cotices sable."

  Wallop bore "Silver a bend wavy sable."

  Ralegh bore "Gules a bend indented, or engrailed, silver."

[Illustration: Ralegh. Tracy. Bodrugan. St Philibert.]

  Tracy bore "Gold two bends gules with a scallop sable in the chief
  between the bends."

  Bodrugan bore "Gules three bends sable."

  St Philibert bore "Bendy of six pieces, silver and azure."

  Bishopsdon bore "Bendy of six pieces, gold and azure, with a quarter
  ermine."

  Montfort of Whitchurch bore "Bendy of ten pieces gold and azure."

[Illustration: Bishopsdon. Montfort. Lancaster. Fraunceys.]

  Henry of Lancaster, second son of Edmund Crouchback, bore the arms of
  his cousin, the king of England, with the difference of "a baston
  azure."

  Adam Fraunceys (14th century) bore "Party gold and sable bendwise with
  a lion countercoloured." The parting line is here commonly shown as
  "sinister."

The Cheveron, a word found In medieval building accounts for the
barge-boards of a gable, is an Ordinary whose form is explained by its
name. Perhaps the very earliest of English armorial charges, and
familiarized by the shield of the great house of Clare, it became
exceedingly popular in England. Like the bend and the chief, its width
varies in different examples. Likewise its angle varies, being sometimes
so acute as to touch the top of the shield, while in post-medieval
armory the point is often blunted beyond the right angle. One, two or
three cheverons occur in numberless shields, and five cheverons have
been found. Also there are some examples of the bearing of cheveronny.

  The earls of Gloucester of the house of Clare bore "Gold three
  cheverons gules" and the Staffords derived from them their shield of
  "Gold a cheveron gules."

  Chaworth bore "Azure two cheverons gold."

  Peytevyn bore "Cheveronny of ermine and gules."

  St Quintin of Yorkshire bore "Gold two cheverons gules and a chief
  vair."

  Sheffield bore "Ermine a cheveron gules between three sheaves gold."

  Cobham of Kent bore "Gules a cheveron gold with three fleurs-de-lys
  azure thereon."

  Fitzwalter bore "Gold a fesse between two cheverons gules."

[Illustration: Chaworth. Peytevyn. Sheffield. Cobham.]

Shields parted cheveronwise are common in the 15th century, when they
are often blazoned as having chiefs "enty" or grafted. Aston of Cheshire
bore "Party sable and silver cheveronwise" or "Silver a chief enty
sable."

The Pile or stake (_estache_) is a wedge-shaped figure jutting from the
chief to the foot of the shield, its name allied to the pile of the
bridge-builder. A single pile is found in the notable arms of Chandos,
and the black piles in the ermine shield of Hollis are seen as an
example of the bearing of two piles. Three piles are more easily found,
and when more than one is represented the points are brought together at
the foot. In ancient armory piles in a shield are sometimes reckoned as
a variety of pales, and a Basset with three piles on his shield is seen
with three pales on his square banner.

  Chandos bore "Gold a pile gules."

  Bryene bore "Gold three piles azure."

The Quarter is the space of the first quarter of the shield divided
crosswise into four parts. As an Ordinary it is an ancient charge and a
common one in medieval England, although it has all but disappeared from
modern heraldry books, the "Canton," an alleged "diminutive," unknown to
early armory, taking its place. Like the other Ordinaries, its size is
found to vary with the scheme of the shield's charges, and this has
persuaded those armorists who must needs call a narrow bend a "bendlet,"
to the invention of the "Canton," a word which in the sense of a quarter
or small quarter appears for the first time in the latter part of the
15th century. Writers of the 14th century sometimes give it the name of
the Cantel, but this word is also applied to the void space on the
opposite side of the chief, seen above a bend.

[Illustration: Aston. Hollis. Bryene. Blencowe.]

  Blencowe bore "Gules a quarter silver."

  Basset of Drayton bore "Gold three piles (or pales) gules with a
  quarter ermine."

  Wydvile bore "Silver a fesse and a quarter gules."

  Odingseles bore "Silver a fesse gules with a molet gules in the
  quarter."

  Robert Dene of Sussex (14th century) bore "Gules a quarter azure
  'embelif,' or aslant, and thereon a sleeved arm and hand of silver."

Shields or charges divided crosswise with a downward line and a line
athwart are said to be quarterly. An ancient coat of this fashion is
that of Say who bore (13th century) "Quarterly gold and gules"--the
first and fourth quarters being gold and the second and third red. Ever
or Eure bore the same with the addition of "a bend sable with three
silver scallops thereon." Phelip, Lord Bardolf, bore "Quarterly gules
and silver with an eagle gold in the quarter."

[Illustration: PLATE III.

SHIELDS OF ARMS OF "LE ROY DARRABE," "LE ROY DE TARSSE," AND OTHER
SOVEREIGNS. MOSTLY MYTHICAL. TAKEN FROM A ROLL OF ARMS MADE BY AN
ENGLISH PAINTER IN THE TIME OF HENRY VI.

  _Drawn by William Gibb._
  _Niagara Litho. Co., Buffalo, N. Y._]

[Illustration: Basset. Wydvile. Odingseles. Ever.]

With the 15th century came a fashion of dividing the shield into more
than four squares, six and nine divisions being often found in arms of
that age. The heraldry books, eager to work out problems of blazonry,
decide that a shield divided into six squares should be described as
"Party per fesse with a pale counterchanged," and one divided into nine
squares as bearing "a cross quarter-pierced." It seems a simpler
business to follow a 15th-century fashion and to blazon such shields as
being of six or nine "pieces." Thus John Garther (15th century) bore
"Nine pieces erminees and ermine" and Whitgreave of Staffordshire "Nine
pieces of azure and of Stafford's arms, which are gold with a cheveron
gules." The Tallow Chandlers of London had a grant in 1456 of "Six
pieces azure and silver with three doves in the azure, each with an
olive sprig in her beak."

Squared into more than nine squares the shield becomes checky or
checkered and the number is not reckoned. Warenne's checker of gold and
azure is one of the most ancient coats in England and checkered fields
and charges follow in great numbers. Even lions have been borne
checkered.

  Warenne bore "Checky gold and azure."

  Clifford bore the like with "a fesse gules."

  Cobham bore "Silver a lion checky gold and sable."

  Arderne bore "Ermine a fesse checky gold and gules."

[Illustration: Phelip Lord Bardolf. Whitgreave. Tallow Chandlers.
Warenne.]

Such charges as this fesse of Arderne's and other checkered fesses,
bars, bends, borders and the like, will commonly bear but two rows of
squares, or three at the most. The heraldry writers are ready to note
that when two rows are used "counter-compony" is the word in place of
checky, and "compony-counter-compony" in the case of three rows. It is
needless to say that these words have neither practical value nor
antiquity to commend them. But bends and bastons, labels, borders and
the rest are often coloured with a single row of alternating tinctures.
In this case the pieces are said to be "gobony." Thus John Cromwell
(14th century) bore "Silver a chief gules with a baston gobony of gold
and azure."

The scocheon or shield used as a charge is found among the earliest
arms. Itself charged with arms, it served to indicate alliance by blood
or by tenure with another house, as in the bearings of St Owen whose
shield of "Gules with a cross silver" has a scocheon of Clare in the
quarter. In the latter half of the 15th century it plays an important
part in the curious marshalling of the arms of great houses and
lordships.

  Erpingham bore "Vert a scocheon silver with an orle (or border) of
  silver martlets."

  Davillers bore at the battle of Boroughbridge "Silver three scocheons
  gules."

The scocheon was often borne voided or pierced, its field cut away to a
narrow border. Especially was this the case in the far North, where the
Balliols, who bore such a voided scocheon, were powerful. The voided
scocheon is wrongly named in all the heraldry books as an orle, a term
which belongs to a number of small charges set round a central charge.
Thus the martlets in the shield of Erpingham, already described, may be
called an orle of martlets or a border of martlets. This misnaming of
the voided scocheon has caused a curious misapprehension of its form,
even Dr Woodward, in his _Heraldry, British and Foreign_, describing the
"orle" as "a narrow border detached from the edge of the shield."
Following this definition modern armorial artists will, in the case of
quartered arms, draw the "orle" in a first or second quarter of a
quartered shield as a rectangular figure and in a third or fourth
quarter as a scalene triangle with one arched side. Thereby the original
voided scocheon changes into forms without meaning.

  Balliol bore "Gules a voided scocheon silver."

  Surtees bore "Ermine with a quarter of the arms of Balliol."

[Illustration: Clifford. Arderne. Cromwell. Erpingham.]

The _Tressure_ or flowered tressure is a figure which is correctly
described by Woodward's incorrect description of the orle as cited
above, being a narrow inner border of the shield. It is distinguished,
however, by the fleurs-de-lys which decorate it, setting off its edges.
The double tressure which surrounds the lion in the royal shield of
Scotland, and which is borne by many Scottish houses who have served
their kings well or mated with their daughters, is carefully described
by Scottish heralds as "flowered and counter-flowered," a blazon which
is held to mean that the fleurs-de-lys show head and tail in turn from
the outer rim of the outer tressure and from the inner rim of the
innermost. But this seems to have been no essential matter with medieval
armorists and a curious 15th-century enamelled roundel of the arms of
Vampage shows that in this English case the flowering takes the more
convenient form of allowing all the lily heads to sprout from the outer
rim.

  Vampage bore "Azure an eagle silver within a flowered tressure
  silver."

  The king of Scots bore "Gold a lion within a double tressure flowered
  and counterflowered gules."

  Felton bore "Gules two lions passant within a double tressure flory
  silver."

[Illustration: Davillers. Balliol. Surtees. Vampage.]

The Border of the shield when marked out in its own tincture is counted
as an Ordinary. Plain or charged, it was commonly used as a difference.
As the principal charge of a shield it is very rare, so rare that in
most cases where it apparently occurs we may, perhaps, be following
medieval custom in blazoning the shield as one charged with a scocheon
and not with a border. Thus Hondescote bore "Ermine a border gules" or
"Gules a scocheon ermine."

  Somerville bore "Burely silver and gules and a border azure with
  golden martlets."

  Paynel bore "Silver two bars sable with a border, or orle, of martlets
  gules."

The Flaunches are the flanks of the shield which, cut off by rounded
lines, are borne in pairs as Ordinaries. These charges are found in many
coats devised by 15th-century armorists. "Ermine two flaunches azure
with six golden wheat-ears" was borne by John Greyby of Oxfordshire
(15th century).

The Label is a narrow fillet across the upper part of the chief, from
which hang three, four, five or more pendants, the pendants being, in
most old examples, broader than the fillet. Reckoned with the
Ordinaries, it was commonly used as a means of differencing a cadet's
shield, and in the heraldry books it has become the accepted difference
for an eldest son, although the cadets often bore it in the middle ages.
John of Hastings bore in 1300 before Carlaverock "Gold a sleeve (or
maunche) gules," while Edmund his brother bore the same arms with a
sable label. In modern armory the pendants are all but invariably
reduced to three, which, in debased examples, are given a dovetailed
form while the ends of the fillet are cut off.

[Illustration: Scotland. Hondescote. Greyby. Hastings.]

The Fret, drawn as a voided lozenge interlaced by a slender saltire, is
counted an Ordinary. A charge in such a shape is extremely rare in
medieval armory, its ancient form when the field is covered by it being
a number of bastons--three being the customary number--interlaced by as
many more from the sinister side. Although the whole is described as a
fret in certain English blazons of the 15th century, the adjective
"fretty" is more commonly used. Trussel's fret is remarkable for its
bezants at the joints, which stand, doubtless, for the golden nail-heads
of the "trellis" suggested by his name. Curwen, Wyvile and other
northern houses bearing a fret and a chief have, owing to their fashion
of drawing their frets, often seen them changed by the heraldry books
into "three cheverons braced or interlaced."

  Huddlestone bore "Gules fretty silver."

  Trussel bore "Silver fretty gules, the joints bezanty."

  Hugh Giffard (14th century) bore "Gules with an engrailed fret of
  ermine."

  Wyvile bore "Gules fretty vair with a chief gold."

  Boxhull bore "Gold a lion azure fretty silver."

[Illustration: Trussel. Giffard. Wyvile. Mortimer.]

Another Ordinary is the Giron or Gyron--a word now commonly
mispronounced with a hard "g." It may be defined as the lower half of a
quarter which has been divided bendwise. No old example of a single
giron can be found to match the figure in the heraldry books. Gironny,
or gyronny, is a manner of dividing the field into sections, by lines
radiating from a centre point, of which many instances may be given.
Most of the earlier examples have some twelve divisions although later
armory gives eight as the normal number, as Campbell bears them.

  Bassingbourne bore "Gironny of gold and azure of twelve pieces."

  William Stoker, who died Lord Mayor of London in 1484, bore "Gironny
  of six pieces azure and silver with three popinjays in the silver
  pieces."

  A pair of girons on either side of a chief were borne in the strange
  shield of Mortimer, commonly blazoned as "Barry azure and gold of six
  pieces, the chief azure with two pales and two girons gold, a scocheon
  silver over all." An early example shows that this shield began as a
  plain field with a gobony border.

With the Ordinaries we may take the Roundels or Pellets, disks or balls
of various colours. Ancient custom gives the name of a bezant to the
golden roundel, and the folly of the heraldic writers has found names
for all the others, names which may be disregarded together with the
belief that, while bezants and silver roundels, as representing coins,
must be pictured with a flat surface, roundels of other hues must needs
be shaded by the painter to represent rounded balls. Rings or Annelets
were common charges in the North, where Lowthers, Musgraves and many
more, differenced the six rings of Vipont by bearing them in various
colours.

[Illustration: Campbell. Bassingbourne. Stoker. Burlay.]

  Burlay of Wharfdale bore "Gules a bezant."

  Courtenay, earl of Devon, bore "Gold three roundels gules with a label
  azure."

  Caraunt bore "Silver three roundels azure, each with three cheverons
  gules."

  Vipont bore "Gold six annelets gules."

  Avenel bore "Silver a fesse and six annelets (_aunels_) gules."

  Hawberk of Stapleford bore "Silver a bend sable charged with three
  pieces of a mail hawberk, each of three linked rings of gold."

  Stourton bore "Sable a bend gold between six fountains." The fountain
  is a roundel charged with waves of white and blue.

[Illustration: Courtenay. Caraunt. Vipont. Avenel.]

The Lozenge is linked in the heraldry book with the Fusil. This Fusil is
described as a lengthened and sharper lozenge. But it will be understood
that the Fusil, other than as part of an engrailed or indented bend,
pale or fesse, is not known to true armory. Also it is one of the
notable achievements of the English writers on heraldry that they should
have allotted to the lozenge, when borne voided, the name of Mascle.
This "mascle" is the word of the oldest armorists for the unvoided
charge, the voided being sometimes described by them as a lozenge,
without further qualifications. Fortunately the difficulty can be solved
by following the late 14th-century custom in distinguishing between
"lozenges" and "voided lozenges" and by abandoning altogether this
misleading word Mascle.

[Illustration: Hawberk. Stourton. Charles. Fitzwilliam.]

  Thomas of Merstone, a clerk, bore on his seal in 1359 "Ermine a
  lozenge with a pierced molet thereon."

  Braybroke bore "Silver seven voided lozenges gules."

  Charles bore "Ermine a chief gules with five golden lozenges.
  thereon."

  Fitzwilliam bore "Lozengy silver and gules."

Billets are oblong figures set upright. Black billets in the arms of
Delves of Cheshire stand for "delves" of earth and the gads of steel in
the arms of the London Ironmongers' Company took a somewhat similar
form.

  Sir Ralph Mounchensy bore in the 14th century "Silver a cheveron
  between three billets sable."

  Haggerston bore "Azure a bend with cotices silver and three billets
  sable on the bend."

With the Billet, the Ordinaries, uncertain as they are in number, may be
said to end. But we may here add certain armorial charges which might
well have been counted with them.

First of these is the Molet, a word corrupted in modern heraldry to
Mullet, a fish-like change with nothing to commend it. This figure is as
a star of five or six points, six points being perhaps the commonest
form in old examples, although the sixth point is, as a rule, lost
during the later period. Medieval armorists are not, it seems, inclined
to make any distinction between molets of five and six points, but some
families, such as the Harpedens and Asshetons, remained constant to the
five-pointed form. It was generally borne pierced with a round hole, and
then represents, as its name implies, the rowel of a spur. In ancient
rolls of arms the word Rowel is often used, and probably indicated the
pierced molet. That the piercing was reckoned an essential difference is
shown by a roll of the time of Edward II., in which Sir John of Pabenham
bears "Barry azure and silver, with a bend gules and three molets gold
thereon," arms which Sir John his son differences by piercing the
molets. Beside these names is that of Sir Walter Baa with "Gules a
cheveron and three rowels silver," rowels which are shown on seals of
this family as pierced molets. Probably an older bearing than the molet,
which would be popularized when the rowelled spur began to take the
place of the prick-spur, is the Star or Estoile, differing from the
molet in that its five or six points are wavy. It is possible that
several star bearings of the 13th century were changed in the 14th for
molets. The star is not pierced in the fashion of the molet; but, like
the molet, it tends to lose its sixth point in armory of the decadence.
Suns, sometimes blazoned in old rolls as Sun-rays--_rays de soleil_--are
pictured as unpierced molets of many points, which in rare cases are
waved.

  Harpeden bore "Silver a pierced molet gules."

  Gentil bore "Gold a chief sable with two molets goles pierced gules."

  Grimston bore "Silver a fesse sable and thereon three molets silver
  pierced gules."

  Ingleby of Yorkshire bore "Sable a star silver."

  Sir John de la Haye of Lincolnshire bore "Silver a sun gules."

[Illustration: Mounchensy. Haggerston. Harpeden. Gentil.]

The Crescent is a charge which has to answer for many idle tales
concerning the crusading ancestors of families who bear it. It is
commonly borne with both points uppermost, but when representing the
waning or the waxing moon--decrescent or increscent--its horns are
turned to the sinister or dexter side of the shield.

  Peter de Marines (13th century) bore on his seal a shield charged with
  a crescent in the chief.

  William Gobioun (14th century) bore "A bend between two waxing moons."

  Longchamp bore "Ermine three crescents gules, pierced silver."

_Tinctures._--The tinctures or hues of the shield and its charges are
seven in number--gold or yellow, silver or white, red, blue, black,
green and purple. Medieval custom gave, according to a rule often
broken, "gules," "azure" and "sable" as more high-sounding names for the
red, blue and black. Green was often named as "vert," and sometimes as
"synobill," a word which as "sinople" is used to this day by French
armorists. The song of the siege of Carlaverock and other early
documents have red, gules or "vermeil," sable or black, azure or blue,
but gules, azure, sable and vert came to be recognized as armorists'
adjectives, and an early 15th-century romance discards the simple words
deliberately, telling us of its hero that

  "His shield was black and blue, sanz fable,
   Barred of azure and of sable."

But gold and silver served as the armorists' words for yellows and
whites until late in the 16th century, when gold and silver made way for
"or" and "argent," words which those for whom the interest of armory
lies in its liveliest days will not be eager to accept. Likewise the
colours of "sanguine" and "tenné" brought in by the pedants to bring the
tinctures to the mystical number of nine may be disregarded.

[Illustration: Grimston. Ingilby. Gobioun. Longchamp.]

A certain armorial chart of the duchy of Brabant, published in 1600, is
the earliest example of the practice whereby later engravers have
indicated colours in uncoloured plates by the use of lines and dots.
Gold is indicated by a powdering of dots; silver is left plain. Azure is
shown by horizontal shading lines; gules by upright lines; sable by
cross-hatching of upright and horizontal lines. Diagonal lines from
sinister to dexter indicate purple; vert is marked with diagonal lines
from dexter to sinister. The practice, in spite of a certain
convenience, has been disastrous in its cramping effects on armorial
art, especially when applied to seals and coins.

Besides the two "metals" and five "colours," fields and charges are
varied by the use of the furs ermine and vair. Ermine is shown by a
white field flecked with black ermine tails, and vair by a conventional
representation of a fur of small skins sewn in rows, white and blue
skins alternately. In the 15th century there was a popular variant of
ermine, white tails upon a black field. To this fur the books now give
the name of "ermines"--a most unfortunate choice, since ermines is a
name used in old documents for the original ermine. "Erminees," which
has at least a 15th-century authority, will serve for those who are not
content to speak of "sable ermined with silver." Vair, although silver
and blue be its normal form, may be made up of gold, silver or ermine,
with sable or gules or vert, but in these latter cases the colours must
be named in the blazon. To the vairs and ermines of old use the heraldry
books have added "erminois," which is a gold field with black ermine
fails, "pean," which is "erminois" reversed, and "erminites," which is
ermine with a single red hair on either side of each black tail. The
vairs, mainly by misunderstanding of the various patterns found in old
paintings, have been amplified with "countervair," "potent,"
"counter-potent" and "vair-en-point," no one of which merits
description.

No shield of a plain metal or colour has ever been borne by an
Englishman, although the knights at Carlaverock and Falkirk saw Amaneu
d'Albret with his banner all of red having no charge thereon. Plain
ermine was the shield of the duke of Brittany and no Englishman
challenged the bearing. But Beauchamp of Hatch bore simple vair, Ferrers
of Derby "Vairy gold and gules," and Ward "Vairy silver and sable."
Gresley had "Vairy ermine and gules," and Beche "Vairy silver and
gules."

Only one English example has hitherto been discovered of a field covered
not with a fur but with overlapping feathers. A 15th-century book of
arms gives "Plumetty of gold and purple" for "Mydlam in Coverdale."

Drops of various colours which variegate certain fields and charges are
often mistaken for ermine tails when ancient seals are deciphered. A
simple example of such spattering is in the shield of Grayndore, who
bore "Party ermine and vert, the vert dropped with gold." Sir Richard
le Brun (14th century) bore "Azure a silver lion dropped with gules."

[Illustration: Brittany. Beauchamp. Mydlam. Grayndorge.]

A very common variant of charges and fields is the sowing or "powdering"
them with a small charge repeated many times. Mortimer of Norfolk bore
"gold powdered with fleurs-de-lys sable" and Edward III. quartered for
the old arms of France "Azure powdered with fleurs-de-lys gold," such
fields being often described as flowered or flory. Golden billets were
scattered in Cowdray's red shield, which is blazoned as "Gules billety
gold," and bezants in that of Zouche, which is "Gules bezanty with a
quarter ermine." The disposition of such charges varied with the users.
Zouche as a rule shows ten bezants placed four, three, two and one on
his shield, while the old arms of France in the royal coat allows the
pattern of flowers to run over the edge, the shield border thus showing
halves and tops and stalk ends of the fleurs-de-lys. But the commonest
of these powderings is that with crosslets, as in the arms of John la
Warr "Gules crusily silver with a silver lion."

[Illustration: Mortimer. Cowdray. Zouche. La Warr. Cheyndut. Applegarth.
Chester. Rye.]

_Trees, Leaves and Flowers._--Sir Stephen Cheyndut, a 13th-century
knight, bore an oak tree, the _cheyne_ of his first syllable, while for
like reasons a Piriton had a pear tree on his shield. Three pears were
borne (_temp._ Edward III.) by Nicholas Stivecle of Huntingdonshire, and
about the same date is Applegarth's shield of three red apples in a
silver field. Leaves of burdock are in the arms (14th century) of Sir
John de Lisle and mulberry leaves in those of Sir Hugh de Morieus. Three
roots of trees are given to one Richard Rotour in a 14th-century roll.
Malherbe (13th century) bore the "evil herb"--a teazle bush. Pineapples
are borne here and there, and it will be noted that armorists have not
surrendered this, our ancient word for the "fir-cone," to the foreign
_ananas_. Out of the cornfield English armory took the sheaf, three
sheaves being on the shield of an earl of Chester early in the 13th
century and Sheffield bearing sheaves for a play on his name. For a like
reason Peverel's sheaves were sheaves of pepper. Rye bore three ears of
rye on a bend, and Graindorge had barley-ears. Flowers are few in this
field of armory, although lilies with their stalks and leaves are in the
grant of arms to Eton College. Ousethorpe has water flowers, and now and
again we find some such strange charges as those in the 15th-century
shield of Thomas Porthelyne who bore "Sable a cheveron gules between
three 'popyebolles,' or poppy-heads vert."

The fleur-de-lys, a conventional form from the beginnings of armory,
might well be taken amongst the "ordinaries." In England as in France it
is found in great plenty.

  Aguylon bore "Gules a fleur-de-lys silver."

  Peyferer bore "Silver three fleur-de-lys sable."

[Illustration: Eton College.]

Trefoils are very rarely seen until the 15th century, although Hervey
has them, and Gausill, and a Bosville coat seems to have borne them.
They have always their stalk left hanging to them. Vincent, Hattecliffe
and Massingberd all bore the quatrefoil, while the Bardolfs, and the
Quincys, earls of Winchester, had cinqfoils. The old rolls of arms made
much confusion between cinqfoils and sixfoils (_quintefoilles e
sisfoilles_) and the rose. It is still uncertain how far that confusion
extended amongst the families which bore these charges. The cinqfoil and
sixfoil, however, are all but invariably pierced in the middle like the
spur rowel, and the rose's blunt-edged petals give it definite shape
soon after the decorative movement of the Edwardian age began to carve
natural buds and flowers in stone and wood.

[Illustration: Aguylon. Peyferer. Hervey. Vincent.]

  Hervey bore "Gules a bend silver with three trefoils vert thereon."

  Vincent bore "Azure three quatrefoils silver."

  Quincy bore "Gules a cinqfoil silver."

  Bardolf of Wormegay bore "Gules three cinqfoils silver."

  Cosington bore "Azure three roses gold."

  Hilton bore "Silver three chaplets or garlands of red roses."

[Illustration: Quincy. Bardolf. Cosington. Hilton.]

_Beasts and Birds._--The book of natural history as studied in the
middle ages lay open at the chapter of the lion, to which royal beast
all the noble virtues were set down. What is the oldest armorial seal of
a sovereign prince as yet discovered bears the rampant lion of Flanders.
In England we know of no royal shield earlier than that first seal of
Richard I. which has a like device. A long roll of our old earls, barons
and knights wore the lion on their coats--Lacy, Marshal, Fitzalan and
Montfort, Percy, Mowbray and Talbot. By custom the royal beast is shown
as rampant, touching the ground with but one foot and clawing at the air
in noble rage. So far is this the normal attitude of a lion that the
adjective "rampant" was often dropped, and we have leave and good
authority for blazoning the rampant beast simply as "a lion," leave
which a writer on armory may take gladly to the saving of much
repetition. In France and Germany this licence has always been the rule,
and the modern English herald's blazon of "Gules a lion rampant or" for
the arms of Fitzalan, becomes in French _de gueules au lion d'or_ and in
German _in Rot ein goldener Loewe_. Other positions must be named with
care and the prowling "lion passant" distinguished from the rampant
beast, as well as from such rarer shapes as the couchant lion, the lion
sleeping, sitting or leaping. Of these the lion passant is the only one
commonly encountered. The lion standing with his forepaws together is
not a figure for the shield, but for the crest, where he takes this
position for greater stableness upon the helm, and the sitting lion is
also found rather upon helms than in shields. For a couchant lion or a
dormant lion one must search far afield, although there are some
medieval instances. The leaping lion is in so few shields that no maker
of a heraldry book has, it would appear, discovered an example. In the
books this "lion salient" is described as with the hind paws together on
the ground and the fore paws together in the air, somewhat after the
fashion of a diver's first movement. But examples from seals and
monuments of the Felbrigges and the Merks show that the leaping lion
differed only from the rampant in that he leans somewhat forward in his
eager spring. The compiler of the British Museum catalogue of medieval
armorial seals, and others equally unfamiliar with medieval armory,
invariably describe this position as "rampant," seeing no distinction
from other rampings. As rare as the leaping lion is the lion who looks
backward over his shoulder. This position is called "regardant" by
modern armorists. The old French blazon calls it _rere regardant or
turnaunte le visage arere_, "regardant" alone meaning simply "looking,"
and therefore we shall describe it more reasonably in plain English as
"looking backward." The two-headed lion occurs in a 15th-century coat of
Mason, and at the same period a monstrous lion of three bodies and one
head is borne, apparently, by a Sharingbury.

[Illustration: PLATE IV.

THE BEGINNING OF A ROLL OF THE ARMS OF THOSE JOUSTING IN A TOURNAMENT
HELD ON THE FIELD OF THE CLOTH OF GOLD. BESIDES THE ARMS OF THE KINGS OF
FRANCE AND ENGLAND ARE TWO COLUMNS OF "CHEQUES," MARKED WITH THE NAMES
AND SCORING POINTS OF THE JOUSTERS.

  _Drawn by William Gibb._
  _Niagara Litho. Co., Buffalo, N. Y._]

[Illustration: England.]

The lion's companion is the leopard. What might be the true form of this
beast was a dark thing to the old armorist, yet knowing from the report
of grave travellers that the leopard was begotten in spouse-breach
between the lion and the pard, it was felt that his shape would favour
his sire's. But nice distinctions of outline, even were they
ascertainable, are not to be marked on the tiny seal, or easily
expressed by the broad strokes of the shield painter. The leopard was
indeed lesser than the lion, but in armory, as in the Noah's arks
launched by the old yards, the bear is no bigger than the badger. Then a
happy device came to the armorist. He would paint the leopard like the
lion at all points. But as the lion looks forward the leopard should
look sidelong, showing his whole face. The matter was arranged, and
until the end of the middle ages the distinction held and served. The
disregarded writers on armory, Nicholas Upton, and his fellows,
protested that a lion did not become a leopard by turning his face
sidelong, but none who fought in the field under lion and leopard
banners heeded this pedantry from cathedral closes. The English king's
beasts were leopards in blazon, in ballad and chronicle, and in the
mouths of liegeman and enemy. Henry V.'s herald, named from his master's
coat, was Leopard Herald; and Napoleon's gazettes never fail to speak of
the English leopards. In our own days, those who deal with armory as
antiquaries and students of the past will observe the old custom for
convenience' sake. Those for whom the interest of heraldry lies in the
nonsense-language brewed during post-medieval years may correct the
medieval ignorance at their pleasure. The knight who saw the king's
banner fly at Falkirk or Crécy tells us that it bore "Gules with three
leopards of gold." The modern armorist will shame the uninstructed
warrior with "Gules three lions passant gardant in pale or."

As the lion rampant is the normal lion, so the normal leopard is the
leopard passant, the adjective being needless. In a few cases only the
leopard rises up to ramp in the lion's fashion, and here he must be
blazoned without fail as a leopard rampant.

Parts of the lion and the leopard are common charges. Chief of these are
the demi-lion and the demi-leopard, beasts complete above their slender
middles, even to the upper parts of their lashing tails. Rampant or
passant, they follow the customs of the unmaimed brute. Also the heads
of lion and leopard are in many shields, and here the armorist of the
modern handbooks stumbles by reason of his refusal to regard clearly
marked medieval distinctions. The instructed will know a lion's head
because it shows but half the face and a leopard's head because it is
seen full-face. But the handbooks of heraldry, knowing naught of
leopards, must judge by absence or presence of a mane, speaking
uncertainly of leopards' faces and lions' heads and faces. Here again
the old path is the straighter. The head of a lion, or indeed of any
beast, bird or monster, is generally painted as "razed," or torn away
with a ragged edge which is pleasantly conventionalized. Less often it
is found "couped" or cut off with a sheer line. But the leopard's head
is neither razed nor couped, for no neck is shown below it. Likewise the
lion's fore leg or paw--"gamb" is the book word--may be borne, razed or
coupled. Its normal position is raided upright, although Newdegate seems
to have borne "Gules three lions' legs razed silver, the paws downward."
With the strange bearing of the lion's whip-like tail cut off at the
rump, we may end the list of these oddments.

  Fitzalan, earl of Arundel, bore "Gules a lion gold."

  Simon de Montfort bore "Gules a silver lion with a forked tail."

  Segrave bore "Sable a lion silver crowned gold."

  Havering bore "Silver a lion rampant gules with a forked tail, having
  a collar azure."

  Felbrigge of Felbrigge bore "Gold a leaping lion gules."

  Esturmy bore "Silver a lion sable (or purple) looking backward."

  Marmion bore "Gules a lion vair."

  Mason bore "Silver a two-headed lion gules."

  Lovetot bore "Silver a lion parted athwart of sable and gules."

  Richard le Jen bore "Vert a lion gold"--the arms of Wakelin of
  Arderne--"with a fesse gules on the lion."

  Fiennes bore "Azure three lions gold."

  Leyburne of Kent bore "Azure six lions silver."

[Illustration: Fitzalan. Felbrigge. Fiennes. Leyburne.]

  Carew bore "Gold three lions passant sable."

  Fotheringhay bore "Silver two lions passant sable, looking backward."

  Richard Norton of Waddeworth (1357) sealed with arms of "A lion
  dormant."

  Lisle bore "Gules a leopard silver crowned gold."

  Ludlowe bore "Azure three leopards silver."

  Brocas bore "Sable a leopard rampant gold."

[Illustration: Carew. Fotheringhay. Brocas. Lisle.]

  John Hardrys of Kent seals in 1372 with arms of "a sitting leopard."

  John Northampton, Lord Mayor of London in 1381, bore "Azure a crowned
  leopard gold with two bodies rampant against each other."

  Newenham bore "Azure three demi-lions silver."

  A deed delivered at Lapworth in Warwickshire in 1466 is sealed with
  arms of "a molet between three demi-leopards."

  Kenton bore "Gules three lions' heads razed sable."

[Illustration: Kenton. Pole. Cantelou. Pynchebek.]

  Pole, earl and duke of Suffolk, bore "Azure a fesse between three
  leopards' heads gold."

  Cantelou bore "Azure three leopards' heads silver with silver
  fleurs-de-lys issuing from them."

  Wederton bore "Gules a cheveron between three lions' legs razed
  silver."

  Pynchebek bore "silver three forked tails of lions sable."

The tiger is rarely named in collections of medieval arms. Deep mystery
wrapped the shape of him, which was never during the middle ages
standardized by artists. A crest upon a 15th-century brass shows him as
a lean wolf-like figure, with a dash of the boar, gazing after his vain
wont into a looking-glass; and the 16th-century heralds gave him the
body of a lion with the head of a wolf, head and body being tufted here
and there with thick tufts of hair. But it is noteworthy that the arms
of Sir John Norwich, a well-known knight of the 14th century, are
blazoned in a roll of that age as "party azure and gules with a tiger
rampant ermine." Now this beast in the arms of Norwich has been commonly
taken for a lion, and the Norwich family seem in later times to have
accepted the lion as their bearing. But a portion of a painted roll of
Sir John's day shows on careful examination that his lion has been given
two moustache-like tufts to the nose. A copy made about 1600 of another
roll gives the same decoration to the Norwich lion, and it is at least
possible we have here evidence that the economy of the medieval armorist
allowed him to make at small cost his lion, his leopard and his tiger
out of a single beast form.

Take away the lions and the leopards, and the other beasts upon medieval
shields are a little herd. In most cases they are here to play upon the
names of their bearers. Thus Swinburne of Northumberland has the heads
of swine in his coat and Bacon has bacon pigs. Three white bears were
borne by Barlingham, and a bear ramping on his hind legs is for Barnard.
Lovett of Astwell has three running wolves, Videlou three wolves' heads,
Colfox three foxes' heads.

[Illustration: Lovett. Talbot. Saunders.]

Three hedgehogs were in the arms of Heriz. Barnewall reminds us of
extinct natives of England by bearing two beavers, and Otter of
Yorkshire had otters. Harewell had hares' heads, Cunliffe conies,
Mitford moles or moldiwarps. A Talbot of Lancashire had three purple
squirrels in a silver shield. An elephant was brought to England as
early as the days of Henry III., but he had no immediate armorial
progeny, although Saunders of Northants may have borne before the end of
the middle ages the elephants' heads which speak of Alysaunder the
Great, patron of all Saunderses. Bevil of the west had a red bull, and
Bulkeley bore three silver bulls' heads. The heads in Neteham's
14th-century shield are neat's heads, ox heads are for Oxwyk. Calves are
for Veel, and the same mild beasts are in the arms of that fierce knight
Hugh Calveley. Stansfeld bore three rams with bells at their necks, and
a 14th-century Lecheford thought no shame to bear the head of the ram
who is the symbol of lechery. Lambton had lambs. Goats were borne by
Chevercourt to play on his name, a leaping goat by Bardwell, and goats'
heads by Gateshead. Of the race of dogs the greyhound and the talbot, or
mastiff, are found most often. Thus Talbot of Cumberland had talbots,
and Mauleverer, running greyhounds or "leverers" for his name's sake.
The alaund, a big, crop-eared dog, is in the 15th-century shield of John
Woode of Kent, and "kenets," or little tracking dogs, in a 13th-century
coat of Kenet. The horse is not easily found as an English charge, but
Moyle's white mule seems an old coat; horses' heads are in Horsley's
shield, and ass heads make crests for more than one noble house. Askew
has three asses in his arms. Three bats or flittermice are in the shield
of Burninghill and in that of Heyworth of Whethamstede.

As might be looked for in a land where forest and greenwood once linked
from sea to sea, the wild deer is a common charge in the shield. Downes
of Cheshire bore a hart "lodged" or lying down. Hertford had harts'
heads, Malebis, fawns' heads (_testes de bis_), Bukingham, heads of
bucks. The harts in Rotherham's arms are the roes of his name's first
syllable. Reindeer heads were borne by Bowet in the 14th century.
Antelopes, fierce beasts with horns that have something of the ibex,
show by their great claws, their lion tails, and their boar muzzles and
tusks that they are midway between the hart and the monster.

[Illustration: Griffin.]

Of the outlandish monsters the griffon is the oldest and the chief. With
the hinder parts of a lion, the rest of him is eagle, head and
shoulders, wings and fore legs. The long tuft under the beak and his
pointed ears mark him out from the eagle when his head alone is borne.
At an early date a griffon rampant, his normal position, was borne by
the great house of Montagu as a quartering, and another griffon played
upon Griffin's name.

[Illustration: Drake.]

The wyver, who becomes wyvern in the 16th century, and takes a new form
under the care of inventive heralds, was in the middle ages a
lizard-like dragon, generally with small wings. Sir Edmund Mauley in the
14th century is found differencing the black bend of his elder brother
by charging it with three wyvers of silver. During the middle ages there
seems small distinction between the wyver and the still rarer dragon,
which, with the coming of the Tudors, who bore it as their badge, is
seen as a four-legged monster with wings and a tail that ends like a
broad arrow. The monster in the arms of Drake, blazoned by Tudor heralds
as a wyvern, is clearly a fire-drake or dragon in his origin.

The unicorn rampant was borne by Harlyn of Norfolk, unicorn's heads by
the Cambridgeshire family of Paris. The mermaid with her comb and
looking-glass makes a 14th-century crest for Byron, while "Silver a bend
gules with three silver harpies thereon" is found in the 15th century
for Entyrdene.

Concerning beasts and monsters the heraldry books have many adjectives
of blazonry which may be disregarded. Even as it was once the pride of
the cook pedant to carve each bird on the board with a new word for the
act, so it became the delight of the pedant herald to order that the
rampant horse should be "forcené," the rampant griffon "segreant," the
passant hart "trippant"; while the same hart must needs be "attired" as
to its horns and "unguled" as to its hoofs. There is ancient authority
for the nice blazonry which sometimes gives a separate colour to the
tongue and claws of the lion, but even this may be set aside. Though a
black lion in a silver field may be armed with red claws, and a golden
leopard in a red field given blue claws and tongues, these trifles are
but fancies which follow the taste of the painter, and are never of
obligation. The tusks and hoofs of the boar, and often the horns of the
hart, are thus given in some paintings a colour of their own which
elsewhere is neglected.

As the lion is among armorial beasts, so is the eagle among the birds. A
bold convention of the earliest shield painters displayed him with
spread wing and claw, the feat of a few strokes of the brush, and after
this fashion he appears on many scores of shields. Like the claws and
tongue of the lion, the beak and claws of the eagle are commonly painted
of a second colour in all but very small representations. Thus the
golden eagle of Lymesey in a red field may have blue beak and claws, and
golden beak and claws will be given to Jorce's silver eagle upon red. A
lure, or two wings joined and spread like those of an eagle, is a rare
charge sometimes found. When fitted with the cord by which a falconer's
lure is swung, the cord must be named.

  Monthermer bore "Gold an eagle vert."

  Siggeston bore "Silver a two-headed eagle sable."

  Gavaston, earl of Cornwall, bore "Vert six eagles gold."

  Bayforde of Fordingbridge sealed (in 1388) with arms of "An eagle
  bendwise, with a border engrailed and a baston."

  Graunson bore "Paly silver and azure with a bend gules and three
  golden eagles thereon."

  Seymour bore "Gules a lure of two golden wings."

Commoner than the eagle as a charge is the martlet, a humbler bird which
is never found as the sole charge of a shield. In all but a few early
representations the feathers of the legs are seen without the legs or
claws. The martlet indicates both swallow and martin, and in the arms of
the Cornish Arundels the martlets must stand for "hirundels" or
swallows.

[Illustration: Monthermer. Siggeston. Gavaston. Graunson. Arundel.]

The falcon or hawk is borne as a rule with close wings, so that he may
not be taken for the eagle. In most cases he is there to play on the
bearer's name, and this may be said of most of the flight of lesser
birds.

  Naunton bore "Sable three martlets silver."

  Heron bore "Azure three herons silver."

  Fauconer bore "Silver three falcons gules."

  Hauvile bore "Azure a dance between three hawks gold."

  Twenge bore "Silver a fesse gules between three popinjays (or parrots)
  vert."

  Cranesley bore "Silver a cheveron gules between three cranes azure."

  Asdale bore "Gules a swan silver."

  Dalston bore "Silver a cheveron engrailed between three daws' heads
  razed sable."

  Corbet bore "Gold two corbies sable."

[Illustration: Seymour. Naunton. Fauconer. Twenge.]

  Cockfield bore "Silver three cocks gules."

  Burton bore "Sable a cheveron sable between three silver owls."

  Rokeby bore "Silver a cheveron sable between three rooks."

  Duffelde bore "Sable a cheveron silver between three doves."

  Pelham bore "Azure three pelicans silver."

[Illustration: Asdale. Corbet. Cockfield. Burton.]

  Sumeri (13th century) sealed with arms of "A peacock with his tail
  spread."

  John Pyeshale of Suffolk (14th century) sealed with arms of "Three
  magpies."

_Fishes, Reptiles and Insects._--Like the birds, the fishes are borne
for the most part to call to mind their bearers' names. Unless their
position be otherwise named, they are painted as upright in the shield,
as though rising towards the water surface. The dolphin is known by his
bowed back, old artists making him a grotesquely decorative figure.

  Lucy bore "Gules three luces (or pike) silver."

  Heringaud bore "Azure, crusilly gold, with six golden herrings."

  Fishacre bore "Gules a dolphin silver."

  La Roche bore "Three roach swimming."

  John Samon (14th century) sealed with arms of "Three salmon swimming."

  Sturgeon bore "Azure three sturgeon swimming gold, with a fret gules
  over all."

  Whalley bore "Silver three whales' heads razed sable."

Shell-fish would hardly have place in English armory were it not for the
abundance of scallops which have followed their appearance in the
banners of Dacre and Scales. The crest of the Yorkshire Scropes,
playing upon their name, was a pair of crabs' claws.

  Dacre bore "Gules three scallops silver."

  Shelley bore "Sable a fesse engrailed between three whelk-shells
  gold."

[Illustration: Rokeby. Pelham. Lucy. Fishacre. Roche.]

Reptiles and insects are barely represented. The lizards in the crest
and supporters of the Ironmongers of London belong to the 15th century.
Gawdy of Norfolk may have borne the tortoise in his shield in the same
age. "Silver three toads sable" was quartered as a second coat for
Botreaux of Cornwall in the 16th century--Botereau or Boterel signifying
a little toad in the old French tongue--but the arms do not appear on
the old Botreaux seals beside their ancient bearing of the griffon.
Beston bore "Silver a bend between six bees sable" and a 15-century
Harbottle seems to have sealed with arms of three bluebottle flies.
Three butterflies are in the shield of Presfen of Lancashire in 1415,
while the winged insect shown on the seal of John Mayre, a King's Lynn
burgess of the age of Edward I., is probably a mayfly.

[Illustration: Dacre. Shelley. See of Salisbury. Isle of Man.]

_Human Charges._--Man and the parts of him play but a small part in
English shields, and we have nothing to put beside such a coat as that
of the German Manessen, on which two armed knights attack each other's
hauberks with their teeth. But certain arms of religious houses and the
like have the whole figure, the see of Salisbury bearing the Virgin and
Child in a blue field. And old crests have demi-Saracens and falchion
men, coal-miners, monks and blackamoors. Sowdan bore in his shield a
turbaned soldan's head; Eady, three old men's "'eads"! Heads of maidens,
the "winsome marrows" of the ballad, are in the arms of Marow. The
Stanleys, as kings of Man, quartered the famous three-armed legs
whirling mill-sail fashion, and Tremayne of the west bore three men's
arms in like wise. "Gules three hands silver" was for Malmeyns as early
as the 13th century, and Tynte of Colchester displayed hearts.

_Miscellaneous Charges._--Other charges of the shield are less frequent
but are found in great variety, the reason for most of them being the
desire to play upon the bearer's name.

Weapons and the like are rare, having regard to the military
associations of armory. Daubeney bore three helms; Philip Marmion took
with his wife, the coheir of Kilpek, the Kilpek shield of a sword
(_espek_). Tuck had a stabbing sword or "tuck." Bent bows were borne by
Bowes, an arblast by Arblaster, arrows by Archer, birding-bolts or
_bosouns_ by Bosun, the mangonel by Mangnall. The three lances of
Amherst is probably a medieval coat; Leweston had battle-axes.

A scythe was in the shield of Praers; Picot had picks; Bilsby a hammer
or "beal"; Malet showed mallets. The chamberlain's key is in the shield
of a Chamberlain, and the spenser's key in that of a Spenser. Porter
bore the porter's bell, Boteler the butler's cup. Three-legged pots were
borne by Monbocher. Crowns are for Coroun. Yarde had yard-wands;
Bordoun a burdon or pilgrim's staff.

Of horse-furniture we have the stirrups of Scudamore and Giffard, the
horse-barnacles of Bernake, and the horse-shoes borne by many branches
and tenants of the house of Ferrers.

Of musical instruments there are pipes, trumps and harps for Pipe,
Trumpington and Harpesfeld. Hunting horns are common among families
bearing such names as Forester or Horne. Remarkable charges are the
three organs of Grenville, who held of the house of Clare, the lords of
Glamorgan.

Combs play on the name of Tunstall, and gloves (_wauns_ or _gauns_) on
that of Wauncy. Hose were borne by Hoese; buckles by a long list of
families. But the most notable of the charges derived from clothing is
the hanging sleeve familiar in the arms of Hastings, Conyers and Mansel.

Chess-rooks, hardly to be distinguished from the _roc_ or _roquet_ at
the head of a jousting-lance, were borne by Rokewode and by many more.
Topcliffe had pegtops in his shield, while Ambesas had a cast of three
dice which should each show the point of one, for "to throw ambesace" is
an ancient phrase used of those who throw three aces.

Although we are a sea-going people, there are few ships in our armory,
most of these in the arms of sea-ports. Anchors are commoner.

Castles and towers, bridges, portcullises and gates have all examples,
and a minster-church was the curious charge borne by the ancient house
of Musters of Kirklington.

Letters of the alphabet are very rarely found in ancient armory; but
three capital T's, in old English script, were borne by Toft of Cheshire
in the 14th century. In the period of decadence whole words or
sentences, commonly the names of military or naval victories, are often
seen.

_Blazonry._--An ill-service has been done to the students of armory by
those who have pretended that the phrases in which the shields and their
charges are described or blazoned must follow arbitrary laws devised by
writers of the period of armorial decadence. One of these laws, and a
mischievous one, asserts that no tincture should be named a second time
in the blazon of one coat. Thus if gules be the hue of the field any
charge of that colour must thereafter be styled "of the first." Obeying
this law the blazoner of a shield of arms elaborately charged may find
himself sadly involved among "of the first," "of the second," and "of
the third." It is needless to say that no such law obtained among
armorists of the middle ages. The only rule that demands obedience is
that the brief description should convey to the reader a true knowledge
of the arms described.

The examples of blazonry given in that part of this article which deals
with armorial charges will be more instructive to the student than any
elaborated code of directions. It will be observed that the description
of the field is first set down, the blazoner giving its plain tincture
or describing it as burely, party, paly or barry, as powdered or sown
with roses, crosslets or fleurs-de-lys. Then should follow the main or
central charges, the lion or griffon dominating the field, the cheveron
or the pale, the fesse, bend or bars, and next the subsidiary charges in
the field beside the "ordinary" and those set upon it. Chiefs and
quarters are blazoned after the field and its contents, and the border,
commonly an added difference, is taken last of all. Where there are
charges both upon and beside a bend, fesse or the like, a curious
inversion is used by pedantic blazoners. The arms of Mr Samuel Pepys of
the Admiralty Office would have been described in earlier times as
"Sable a bend gold between two horses' heads razed silver, with three
fleurs-de-lys sable on the bend." Modern heraldic writers would give the
sentence as "Sable, on a bend or between two horses' heads erased
argent, three fleurs-de-lys of the first." Nothing is gained by this
inversion but the precious advantage of naming the bend but once. On the
other side it may be said that, while the newer blazon couches itself in
a form that seems to prepare for the naming of the fleurs-de-lys as the
important element of the shield, the older form gives the fleurs-de-lys
as a mere postscript, and rightly, seeing that charges in such a
position are very commonly the last additions to a shield by way of
difference. In like manner when a crest is described it is better to say
"a lion's head out of a crown" than "out of a crown a lion's head." The
first and last necessity in blazonry is lucidity, which is cheaply
gained at the price of a few syllables repeated.

_Modern Heraldry._--With the accession of the Tudors armory began a
rapid decadence. Heraldry ceased to play its part in military affairs,
the badges and banners under which the medieval noble's retinue came
into the field were banished, and even the tournament in its later days
became a renascence pageant which did not need the painted shield and
armorial trappers. Treatises on armory had been rare in the days before
the printing press, but even so early a writer as Nicholas Upton had
shown himself as it were unconcerned with the heraldry that any man
might see in the camp and the street. From the Book of St Albans onward
the treatises on armory are informed with a pedantry which touches the
point of crazy mysticism in such volumes as that of Sylvanus Morgan.
Thus came into the books those long lists of "diminutions of
ordinaries," the closets and escarpes, the endorses and ribands, the
many scores of strange crosses and such wild fancies as the rule, based
on an early German pedantry, that the tinctures in peers shields should
be given the names of precious stones and those in the shields of
sovereigns the names of planets. Blazon became cumbered with that
vocabulary whose French of Stratford atte Bowe has driven serious
students from a business which, to use a phrase as true as it is
hackneyed, was at last "abandoned to the coachpainter and the
undertaker."

With the false genealogy came in the assumption or assigning of shields
to which the new bearers had often no better claim than lay in a surname
resembling that of the original owner. The ancient system of
differencing arms disappeared. Now and again we see a second son obeying
the book-rules and putting a crescent in his shield or a third son
displaying a molet, but long before our own times the practice was
disregarded, and the most remote kinsman of a gentle house displayed the
"whole coat" of the head of his family.

The art of armory had no better fate. An absurd rule current for some
three hundred years has ordered that the helms of princes and knights
should be painted full-faced and those of peers and gentlemen sidelong.
Obeying this, the herald painters have displayed the crests of knights
and princes as sideways upon a full-faced helm; the torse or wreath,
instead of being twisted about the brow of the helm, has become a
sausage-shaped bar see-sawing above the helm; and upon this will be
balanced a crest which might puzzle the ancient craftsman to mould in
his leather or parchment. A ship on a lee-shore with a thunderstorm
lowering above its masts may stand as an example of such devices.
"Tastes, of course, differ," wrote Dr Woodward, "but the writer can
hardly think that the épergne given to Lieut.-General Smith by his
friends at Bombay was a fitting ornament for a helmet." As with the
crest, so with the shield. It became crowded with ill-balanced figures
devised by those who despised and ignored the ancient examples whose
painters had followed instinctively a simple and pleasant convention.
Landscapes and seascapes, musical lines, military medals and corrugated
boiler-flues have all made their appearance in the shield. Even as on
the signs of public houses, written words have taken the place of
figures, and the often-cited arms exemplified to the first Earl Nelson
marked, it may be hoped, the high watermark of these distressing
modernisms. Of late years, indeed, official armory in England has shown
a disposition to follow the lessons of the archaeologist, although the
recovery of medieval use has not yet been as successful as in Germany,
where for a long generation a school of vigorous armorial art has
flourished.

_Officers of Arms._--Officers of arms, styled kings of arms, heralds and
pursuivants, appear at an early period of the history of armory as the
messengers in peace and war of princes and magnates. It is probable that
from the first they bore in some wise their lord's arms as the badge of
their office. In the 14th century we have heralds with the arms on a
short mantle, witness the figure of the duke of Gelderland's herald
painted in the _Armorial de Gelre_. The title of Blue Mantle
pursuivant, as old as the reign of Edward III., suggests a like usage in
England. When the tight-laced coat of arms went out of fashion among the
knighthood the loose tabard of arms with its wide sleeves was at once
taken in England as the armorial dress of both herald and cavalier, and
the fashion of it has changed but little since those days. Clad in such
a coat the herald was the image of his master and, although he himself
was rarely chosen from any rank above that of the lesser gentry, his
person, as a messenger, acquired an almost priestly sacredness. To
injure or to insult him was to affront the coat that he wore.

We hear of kings of arms in the royal household of the 13th century, and
we may compare their title with those of such officers as the King of
the Ribalds and the King of the Minstrels; but it is noteworthy that,
even in modern warrants for heralds' patents, the custom of the reign of
Edward III. is still cited as giving the necessary precedents for the
officers' liveries. Officers of arms took their titles from their
provinces or from the titles and badges of their masters. Thus we have
Garter, Norroy and Clarenceux, March, Lancaster, Windsor, Leicester,
Leopard, Falcon and Blanc Sanglier as officers attached to the royal
house; Chandos, the herald of the great Sir John Chandos; Vert Eagle of
the Nevill earls of Salisbury, Esperance and Crescent of the Percys of
Northumberland. The spirit of Henry VII.'s legislation was against such
usages in baronial houses, and in the age of the Tudors the last of the
private heralds disappears.

In England the royal officers of arms were made a corporation by Richard
III. Nowadays the members of this corporation, known as the College of
Arms or Heralds' College, are Garter Principal King of Arms, Clarenceux
King of Arms South of Trent, Norroy King of Arms North of Trent, the
heralds Windsor, Chester, Richmond, Somerset, York and Lancaster, and
the pursuivants Rouge Croix, Bluemantle, Rouge Dragon and Portcullis.
Another king of arms, not a member of this corporation, has been
attached to the order of the Bath since the reign of George I., and an
officer of arms, without a title, attends the order of St Michael and St
George.

There is no college or corporation of heralds in Scotland or Ireland. In
Scotland "Lyon-king-of-arms," "Lyon rex armorum," or "Leo fecialis," so
called from the lion on the royal shield, is the head of the office of
arms. When first the dignity was constituted is not known, but Lyon was
a prominent figure in the coronation of Robert II. in 1371. The office
was at first, as in England, attached to the earl marshal, but it has
long been conferred by patent under the great seal, and is held direct
from the crown. Lyon is also king-of-arms for the national order of the
Thistle. He is styled "Lord Lyon," and the office has always been held
by men of family, and frequently by a peer who would appoint a "Lyon
depute." He is supreme in all matters of heraldry in Scotland. Besides
the "Lyon depute," there are the Scottish heralds, Albany, Ross and
Rothesay, with precedence according to date of appointment; and the
pursuivants, Carrick, March and Unicorn. Heralds and pursuivants are
appointed by Lyon.

In Ireland also there is but one king-of-arms, Ulster. The office was
instituted by Edward VI. in 1553. The patent is given by Rymer, and
refers to certain emoluments as "praedicto officio ... ab antiquo
spectantibus." The allusion is to an Ireland king-of-arms mentioned in
the reign of Richard II. and superseded by Ulster. Ulster holds office
by patent, during pleasure; under him the Irish office of arms consists
of two heralds, Cork and Dublin; and a pursuivant, Athlone. Ulster is
king-of-arms to the order of St Patrick. He held visitations in parts of
Ireland from 1568 to 1620, and these and other records, including all
grants of arms from the institution of the office, are kept in the
Birmingham Tower, Dublin.

The armorial duties of the ancient heralds are not clearly defined. The
patent of Edward IV., creating John Wrythe king of arms of England with
the style of Garter, speaks vaguely of the care of the office of arms
and those things which belong to that office. We know that the heralds
had their part in the ordering of tournaments, wherein armory played its
greatest part, and that their expert knowledge of arms gave them such
duties as reckoning the noble slain on a battlefield. But it is not
until the 15th century that we find the heralds following a recognized
practice of granting or assigning arms, a practice on which John of
Guildford comments, saying that such arms given by a herald are not of
greater authority than those which a man has taken for himself. The Book
of St Albans, put forth in 1486, speaking of arms granted by princes and
lords, is careful to add that "armys bi a mannys proper auctorite take,
if an other man have not borne theym afore, be of strength enogh,"
repeating, as it seems, Nicholas Upton's opinion which, in this matter,
does not conflict with the practice of his day. It is probable that the
earlier grants of arms by heralds were made by reason of persons
uncunning in armorial lore applying for a suitable device to experts in
such matters--and that such setting forth of arms may have been
practised even in the 14th century.

The earliest known grants of arms in England by sovereigns or private
persons are, as a rule, the conveyance of a right in a coat of arms
already existing or of a differenced version of it. Thus in 1391 Thomas
Grendale, a squire who had inherited through his grandmother the right
in the shield of Beaumeys, granted his right in it to Sir William
Moigne, a knight who seems to have acquired the whole or part of the
Beaumeys manor in Sawtry. Under Henry VI. we have certain rare and
curious letters of the crown granting nobility with arms "_in signum
hujusmodi nobilitatis_" to certain individuals, some, and perhaps all of
whom, were foreigners who may have asked for letters which followed a
continental usage. After this time we have a regular series of grants by
heralds who in later times began to assert that new arms, to be valid,
must necessarily be derived from their assignments, although ancient use
continued to be recognized.

An account of the genealogical function of the heralds, so closely
connected with their armorial duties will be found in the article
GENEALOGY. In spite of the work of such distinguished men as Camden and
Dugdale they gradually fell in public estimation until Blackstone could
write of them that the marshalling of coat-armour had fallen into the
hands of certain officers called heralds, who had allowed for lucre such
falsity and confusion to creep into their records that even their common
seal could no longer be received as evidence in any court of justice.
From this low estate they rose again when the new archaeology included
heraldry in its interests, and several antiquaries of repute have of
late years worn the herald's tabard.

In spite of the vast amount of material which the libraries catalogue
under the head of "Heraldry," the subject has as yet received little
attention from antiquaries working in the modern spirit. The old books
are as remarkable for their detachment from the facts as for their
folly. The work of Nicholas Upton, _De studio militari_, although
written in the first half of the 15th century, shows, as has been
already remarked, no attempt to reconcile the conceits of the author
with the armorial practice which he must have seen about him on every
side. Gerard Leigh, Bossewell, Ferne and Morgan carry on this bad
tradition, each adding his own extravagances. The _Display of Heraldry_,
first published in 1610 under the name of John Guillim, is more
reasonable if not more learned, and in its various editions gives a
valuable view of the decadent heraldry of the 17th century. In the 19th
century many important essays on the subject are to be found in such
magazines as the _Genealogist_, the _Herald and Genealogist_ and the
_Ancestor_, while Planché's _Pursuivant of Arms_ contains some slight
but suggestive work which attempts original enquiry. But Dr Woodward's
_Treatise on Heraldry, British and Foreign_ (1896), in spite of many
errors arising from the author's reliance upon unchecked material, must
be counted the only scholarly book in English upon a matter which has
engaged so many pens. Among foreign volumes may be cited those of
Menestrier and Spener, and the vast compilation of the German
Siebmacher. Notable ordinaries of arms are those of Papworth and
Renesse, companions to the armorials of Burke and Rietstap. The student
may be advised to turn his attention to all works dealing with the
effigies, brasses and other monuments of the middle ages, to the ancient
heraldic seals and to the heraldry of medieval architecture and
ornament.     (O. Ba.)



HERAT, a city and province of Afghanistan. The city of Herat lies in
340° 20´ 30´´ N., and 62° 11´ 0´´ E., at an altitude of 2500 ft. above
sea-level. Estimated pop. about 10,000. It is a city of great interest
historically, geographically, politically and strategically, but in
modern days it has quite lost its ancient commercial importance. From
this central point great lines of communication radiate in all
directions to Russian, British, Persian and Afghan territory. Sixty-six
miles to the north lies the terminus of the Russian railway system; to
the south-east is Kandahar (360 m.) and about 70 m. beyond that, New
Chaman, the terminus of the British railway system. Southward lies
Seistan (200 m.), and eastward Kabul (550 m.); while on the west four
routes lead into Persia by Turbet to Meshed (215 m.), and by Birjend to
Kerman (400 m.), to Yezd (500 m.), or to Isfahan (600 m.). The city
forms a quadrangle of nearly 1 m. square (more accurately about 1600
yds. by 1500 yds.); on the western, southern and eastern faces the line
of defence is almost straight, the only projecting points being the
gateways, but on the northern face the contour is broken by a double
outwork, consisting of the _Ark_ or citadel, which is built of sun-dried
brick on a high artificial mound within the enceinte, and a lower work
at its foot, called the _Ark-i-nao_, or "new citadel," which extends 100
yds. beyond the line of the city wall. That which distinguishes Herat
from all other Oriental cities, and at the same time constitutes its
main defence, is the stupendous character of the earthwork upon which
the city wall is built. This earthwork averages 250 ft. in width at the
base and about 50 ft. in height, and as it is crowned by a wall 25 ft.
high and 14 ft. thick at the base, supported by about 150 semicircular
towers, and is further protected by a ditch 45 ft. in width and 16 in
depth, it presents an appearance of imposing strength. When the royal
engineers of the Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission entered Herat in 1885
they found its defences in various stages of disrepair. The gigantic
rampart was unflanked, and the covered ways in the face of it subject to
enfilade from end to end. The ditch was choked, the gates were
unprotected; the tumbled mass of irregular mud buildings which
constituted the city clung tightly to the walls; there were no gun
emplacements. Outside, matters were almost worse than inside. To the
north of the walls the site of old Herat was indicated by a vast mass of
débris--mounds of bricks and pottery intersected by a network of shallow
trenches, where the only semblance of a protective wall was the
irregular line of the Tal-i-Bangi. South of the city was a vast area
filled in with the graveyards of centuries. Here the trenches dug by the
Persians during the last siege were still in a fair state of
preservation; they were within a stone's-throw of the walls. Round about
the city on all sides were similar opportunities for close approach;
even the villages stretched out long irregular streets towards the city
gates. To the north-west, beyond the Tal-i-Bangi, the magnificent
outlines of the Mosalla filled a wide space with the glorious curves of
dome and gateway and the stately grace of tapering minars, but the
impressive beauty of this, by far the finest architectural structure in
all Afghanistan, could not be permitted to weigh against the fact that
the position occupied by this pile of solid buildings was fatal to the
interests of effective defence. By the end of August 1885, when a
political crisis had supervened between Great Britain and Russia, under
the orders of the Amir the Mosalla was destroyed; but four minars
standing at the corners of the wide plinth still remain to attest to the
glorious proportions of the ancient structure, and to exhibit samples of
that decorative tilework, which for intricate beauty of design and
exquisite taste in the blending of colour still appeals to the memory as
unique. At the same time the ancient graveyards round the city were
swept smooth and levelled; obstructions were demolished, outworks
constructed, and the defences generally renovated. Whether or no the
strength of this bulwark of North-Western Afghanistan should ever be
practically tested, the general result of the most recent investigations
into the value of Herat as a strategic centre has been largely to
modify the once widely-accepted view that the key to India lies within
it. Abdur Rahman and his successor Habibullah steadfastly refused the
offer of British engineers to strengthen its defences; and though the
Afghans themselves have occasionally undertaken repairs, it is doubtful
whether the old walls of Herat are maintained in a state of efficiency.

The exact position of Herat, with reference to the Russian station of
Kushk (now the terminus of a branch railway from Merv), is as follows:
From Herat, a gentle ascent northwards for 3 m. reaches to the foot of
the Koh-i-Mulla Khwaja, crossing the Jui Nao or "new" canal, which here
divides the gravel-covered foot hills from the alluvial flats of the
Hari Rud plain. The crest of the outer ridges of this subsidiary range
is about 700 ft. above the city, at a distance of 4 m. from it. For 28
m. farther the road winds first amongst the broken ridges of the
Koh-i-Mulla Khwaja, then over the intervening _dasht_ into the southern
spurs of the Paropamisus to the Ardewan pass. This is the highest point
it attains, and it has risen about 2150 ft. from Herat. From the pass it
drops over the gradually decreasing grades of a wide sweep of Chol
(which here happens to be locally free from the intersecting network of
narrow ravines which is generally a distinguishing feature of Turkestan
loess formations) for a distance of 35 m. into the Russian railway
station, falling some 2700 ft. from the crest of the Paropamisus. To the
south the road from Herat to India through Kandahar lies across an open
plain, which presents no great engineering difficulties, but is of a
somewhat waterless and barren character.

The city possesses five gates, two on the northern face, the Kutab-chak
near the north-east angle of the wall, and the Malik at the re-entering
angle of the Ark-i-nao; and three others in the centres of the remaining
faces, the Irak gate on the west, the Kandahar gate on the south and the
Kushk gate on the east face. Four streets called the _Chahar-súk_,
running from the centre of each face, meet in the centre of the town in
a small domed quadrangle. The principal street runs from the south or
Kandahar gate to the market in front of the citadel, and is covered in
with a vaulted roof through its entire length, the shops and buildings
of this bazaar being much superior to those of the other streets, and
the merchants' caravanserais, several of which are spacious and well
built, all opening out on this great thoroughfare. Near the central
quadrangle of the city is a vast reservoir of water, the dome of which
is of bold and excellent proportions. The only other public building of
any consequence in Herat is the great mosque or _Mesjid-i-Juma_, which
comprises an area of 800 yds. square, and must have been a most
magnificent structure. It was erected towards the close of the 15th
century, during the reign of Shah Sultan Hussein of the family of Timur,
and is said when perfect to have been 465 ft. long by 275 ft. wide, to
have had 408 cupolas, 130 windows, 444 pillars and 6 entrances, and to
have been adorned in the most magnificent manner with gilding, carving,
precious mosaics and other elaborate and costly embellishments. Now,
however, it is falling rapidly into ruin, the ever-changing provincial
governors who administer Herat having neither the means nor the
inclination to undertake the necessary repairs. Neither the palace of
the Charbagh within the city wall, which was the residence of the
British mission in 1840-1841, nor the royal quarters in the citadel
deserve any special notice. At the present day, with the exception of
the _Chahar-súk_, where there is always a certain amount of traffic, and
where the great diversity of race and costume imparts much liveliness to
the scene, Herat presents a very melancholy and desolate appearance. The
mud houses in rear of the bazaars are for the most part uninhabited and
in ruins, and even the burnt brick buildings are becoming everywhere
dilapidated. The city is also one of the filthiest in the East, as there
are no means of drainage or sewerage, and garbage of every description
lies in heaps in the open streets.

Along the slopes of the northern hills there is a space of some 4 m. in
length by 3 m. in breadth, the surface of the plain, strewn over its
whole extent with pieces of pottery and crumbling bricks, and also
broken here and there by earthen mounds and ruined walls, the débris of
palatial structures which at one time were the glory and wonder of the
East. Of these structures indeed some have survived to the present day
in a sufficiently perfect state to bear witness to the grandeur and
beauty of the old architecture of Herat. Such was the mosque of the
Mosalla before its destruction. Scarcely inferior in beauty of design
and execution, though of more moderate dimensions, is the tomb of the
saint Abdullah Ansari, in the same neighbourhood. This building, which
was erected by Shah Rukh Mirza, the grandson of Timur, over 500 years
ago, contains some exquisite specimens of sculpture in the best style of
Oriental art. Adjoining the tomb also are numerous marble mausoleums,
the sepulchres of princes of the house of Timur; and especially
deserving of notice is a royal building tastefully decorated by an
Italian artist named Geraldi, who was in the service of Shah Abbas the
Great. The locality, which is further enlivened by gardens and running
streams, is named _Gazir-gáh_, and is a favourite resort of the Heratis.
It is held indeed in high veneration by all classes, and the famous Dost
Mahommed Khan is himself buried at the foot of the tomb of the saint.
Two other royal palaces named respectively _Bagh-i-Shah_ and
_Takht-i-Sefer_, are situated on the same rising ground somewhat farther
to the west. The buildings are now in ruins, but the view from the
pavilions, shaded by splendid plane trees on the terraced gardens formed
on the slope of the mountain, is said to be very beautiful.

The population of Herat and the neighbourhood is of a very mixed
character. The original inhabitants of Ariana were no doubt of the Aryan
family, and immediately cognate with the Persian race, but they were
probably intermixed at a very early period with the Sacae and
Massagetae, who seem to have held the mountains from Kabul to Herat from
the first dawn of history, and to whom must be ascribed--rather than to
an infusion of Turco-Tartaric blood introduced by the armies of Jenghiz
and Timur--the peculiar broad features and flattish countenance which
distinguish the inhabitants of Herat, Seistan and the eastern provinces
of Persia from their countrymen farther to the west. Under the
government of Herat, however, there are a very large number cf tribes,
ruled over by separate and semi-independent chiefs, and belonging
probably to different nationalities. The principal group of tribes is
called the _Chahar-Aimák_, or "four races," the constituent parts of
which, however, are variously stated by different authorities both as to
strength and nomenclature. The Heratis are an agricultural race, and are
not nearly so warlike as the Pathans from the neighbourhood of Kabul or
Kandahar.


  Environs of Herat.

The long narrow valley of the Hari Rud, starting from the western slopes
of the Koh-i-Baba, extends almost due west for 300 m. before it takes
its great northern bend at Kuhsan, and passes northwards through the
broken ridges of the Siah Bubuk (the western extremity of the range
which we now call Paropamisus) towards Sarakhs. For the greater part of
its length it drains the southern slopes only of the Paropamisus and the
northern slopes of a parallel range called Koh-i-Safed. The Paropamisus
forms the southern face of the Turkestan plateau, which contains the
sources of the Murghab river; the northern face of the same plateau is
defined by the Band-i-Turkestan. On the south of the plateau we find a
similar succession of narrow valleys dividing parallel flexures, or
anticlinals, formed under similar geological conditions to those which
appear to be universally applicable to the Himalaya, the Hindu Kush, and
the Indus frontier mountain systems. From one of these long lateral
valleys the Hari Rud receives its principal tributary, which joins the
main river below Obeh, 180 m. from its source; and it is this tributary
(separated from the Hari Rud by the narrow ridges of the Koh-i-Safed and
Band-i-Baian) that offers the high road from Herat to Kabul, and not the
Hari Rud itself. From its source to Obeh the Hari Rud is a valley of
sandy desolation. There are no glaciers near its sources, although they
must have existed there in geologically recent times, but masses of
melting snow annually give rise to floods, which rush through the midst
of the valley in a turbid red stream, frequently rendering the river
impassable and cutting off the crazy brick bridges at Herat and Tirpul.
It is impossible, whilst watching the rolling, seething volume of
flood-water which swirls westwards in April, to imagine the waste
stretches of dry river-bed which in a few months' time (when every
available drop of water is carried off for irrigation) will represent
the Hari Rud. The soft shales or clays of the hills bounding the valley
render these hills especially subject to the action of denudation, and
the result, in rounded slopes and easily accessible crests, determines
the nature of the easy tracks and passes which intersect them. At the
same time, any excessive local rainfall is productive of difficulty and
danger from the floods of liquid mud and loose boulders which sweep like
an avalanche down the hill sides. The intense cold which usually
accompanies these sudden northern blizzards of Herat and Turkestan is a
further source of danger.

From Obeh, 50 m. east of Herat, the cultivated portion of the valley
commences, and it extends, with a width which varies from 8 to 16 m., to
Kuhsan, 60 m. west of the city. But the great stretch of highly
irrigated and valuable fruit-growing land, which appears to spread from
the walls of Herat east and west as far as the eye can reach, and to
sweep to the foot of the hills north and south with an endless array of
vineyards and melon-beds, orchards and villages, varied with a brilliant
patchwork of poppy growth brightening the width of green wheat-fields
with splashes of scarlet and purple--all this is really comprised within
a narrow area which does not extend beyond a ten-miles' radius from the
city. The system of irrigation by which these agricultural results are
attained is most elaborate. The despised Herati Tajik, in blue shirt and
skull-cap, and with no instrument better than a three-cornered spade, is
as skilled an agriculturist as is the Ghilzai engineer, but he cannot
effect more than the limits of his water-supply will permit. He adopts
the karez (or, Persian, _kanát_) system of underground irrigation, as
does the Ghilzai, and brings every drop of water that he can find to the
surface; but it cannot be said that he is more successful than the
Ghilzai. It is the startling contrast of the Herati oasis with the vast
expanse of comparative sterility that encloses it which has given such a
fictitious value to the estimates of the material wealth of the valley
of the Hari Rud.

The valley about Herat includes a flat alluvial plain which might, for
some miles on any side except the north, be speedily reduced to an
impassable swamp by means of flood-water from the surrounding canals.
Three miles to the south of the city the river flows from east to west,
spanned by the Pal-i-Malun, a bridge possessing grand proportions, but
which was in 1885 in a state of grievous disrepair and practically
useless. East and west stretches the long vista of the Hari Rud. Due
north the hills called the Koh-i-Mulla Khwaja appear to be close and
dominating, but the foot of these hills is really about 3 m. distant
from the city. This northern line of barren, broken sandstone hills is
geographically no part of the Paropamisus range, from which it is
separated by a stretch of sandy upland about 20 m. in width, called the
Dasht-i-Hamdamao, or Dasht-i-Ardewán, formed by the talus or drift of
the higher mountains, which, washed down through centuries of
denudation, now forms long sweeping spurs of gravel and sand, scantily
clothed with wormwood scrub and almost destitute of water. Through this
stretch of _dasht_ the drainage from the main water-divide breaks
downwards to the plains of Herat, where it is arrested and utilized for
irrigation purposes. To the north-east of the city a very considerable
valley has been formed between the Paropamisus and the subsidiary
Koh-i-Mulla Khwaja range, called Korokh. Here there are one or two
important villages and a well-known shrine marked by a group of pine
trees which is unique in this part of Afghanistan. The valley leads to a
group of passes across the Paropamisus into Turkestan, of which the
Zirmast is perhaps the best known. The main water-divide between Herat
and the Turkestan Chol (the loess district) has been called Paropamisus
for want of any well-recognized general name. To the north of the Korokh
valley it exhibits something of the formation of the Hindu Kush (of
which it is apparently a geological extension), but as it passes
westwards it becomes broken into fragments by processes of denudation,
until it is hardly recognizable as a distinct range at all. The direct
passes across it from Herat (the Baba and the Ardewán) wind amongst
masses of disintegrating sandstone for some miles on each side of the
dividing watershed, but farther west the rounded knolls of the
rain-washed downs may be crossed almost at any point without difficulty.
The names applied to this débris of a once formidable mountain system
are essentially local and hardly distinctive. Beyond this range the sand
and clay loess formation spreads downwards like a tumbled sea, hiding
within the folds of its many-crested hills the twisting course of the
Kushk and its tributaries.

_History._--The origin of Herat is lost in antiquity. The name first
appears in the list of primitive Zoroastrian settlements contained in
the _Vendidad Sade_, where, however, like most of the names in the same
list,--such as _Sughudu_ (Sogdiana), _Mouru_ (Merv or Margus),
_Haraquiti_ (Arachotus or Arghand-ab), _Haetumant_ (Etymander or
Helmund), and _Ragha_ (or Argha-stan),--it seems to apply to the river
or river-basin, which was the special centre of population. This name of
_Haroyu_, as it is written in the _Vendidad_, or _Hariwa_, as it appears
in the inscriptions of Darius, is a cognate form with the Sanskrit
_Sarayu_, which signifies "a river," and its resemblance to the ethnic
title of Aryan (Sans. _Arya_) is purely fortuitous; though from the
circumstance of the city being named "Aria Metropolis" by the Greeks,
and being also recognized as the capital of Ariana, "the country of the
Arians," the two forms have been frequently confounded. Of the
foundation of Herat (or Heri, as it is still often called) nothing is
known. We can only infer from the colossal character of the earth-works
which surround the modern town, that, like the similar remains at Bost
on the Helmund and at Ulan Robat of Arachosia, they belong to that
period of Central-Asian history which preceded the rise of Achaemenian
power, and which in Grecian romance is illustrated by the names of
Bacchus, of Hercules and of Semiramis. To trace in any detail the
fortunes of Herat would be to write the modern history of the East, for
there has hardly been a dynastic revolution, or a foreign invasion, or a
great civil war in Central Asia since the time of the prophet, in which
Herat has not played a conspicuous part and suffered accordingly. Under
the Tahirids of Khorasan, the Saffarids of Seistan and the Samanids of
Bokhara, it flourished for some centuries in peace and progressive
prosperity; but during the succeeding rule of the Ghaznevid kings its
metropolitan character was for a time obscured by the celebrity of the
neighbouring capital of Ghazni, until finally in the reign of Sultan
Sanjar of Merv about 1157 the city was entirely destroyed by an
irruption of the Ghuzz, the predecessors, in race as well as in habitat,
of the modern Turkomans. Herat gradually recovered under the enlightened
Ghorid kings, who were indeed natives of the province, though they
preferred to hold their court amid their ancestral fortresses in the
mountains of Ghor, so that at the time of Jenghiz Khan's invasion it
equalled or even exceeded in populousness and wealth its sister capitals
Of Balkh, Merv and Nishapur, the united strength of the four cities
being estimated at three millions of inhabitants. But this Mogul
visitation was most calamitous; forty persons, indeed, are stated to
have alone survived the general massacre of 1232, and as a similar
catastrophe overtook the city at the hands of Timur in 1398, when the
local dynasty of Kurt, which had succeeded the Ghorides in eastern
Khorasan, was put an end to, it is astonishing to find that early in the
15th century Herat was again flourishing and populous, and the favoured
seat of the art and literature of the East. It was indeed under the
princes of the house of Timur that most of the noble buildings were
erected, of which the remains still excite our admiration at Herat,
while all the great historical works relative to Asia, such as the
_Rozetes-Sefa_, the _Habib-es-seir_, _Hafiz Abru's Tarikh_, the _Matla'
a-es-Sa'adin_, &c., date from the same place and the same age. Four
times was Herat sacked by Turkomans and Usbegs during the centuries
which intervened between the Timuride princes and the rise of the Afghan
power, and it has never in modern times attained to anything like its
old importance. Afghan tribes, who had originally dwelt far to the
east, were first settled at Herat by Nadir Shah, and from that time they
have monopolized the government and formed the dominant element in the
population. It will be needless to trace the revolutions and
counter-revolutions which have followed each other in quick succession
at Herat since Ahmad Shah Durani founded the Afghan monarchy about the
middle of the 18th century. Let it suffice to say that Herat has been
throughout the seat of an Afghan government, sometimes in subordination
to Kabul and sometimes independent. Persia indeed for many years showed
a strong disposition to reassert the supremacy over Herat which was
exercised by the Safawid kings, but great Britain, disapproving of the
advance of Persia towards the Indian frontier, steadily resisted the
encroachment; and, indeed, after helping the Heratis to beat off the
attack of the Persian army in 1838, the British at length compelled the
shah in 1857 at the close of his war with them to sign a treaty
recognizing the further independence of the place, and pledging Persia
against any further interference with the Afghans. In 1863 Herat, which
for fifty years previously had been independent of Kabul, was
incorporated by Dost Mahomed Khan in the Afghan monarchy, and the Amir,
Habibullah of Afghanistan, like his father Abdur Rahman before him,
remained Amir of Herat and Kandahar, as well as Kabul.

  See Holdich, _Indian Borderland_ (1901); C. E. Yate, _Northern
  Afghanistan_ (1888).     (T. H. H.*)



HÉRAULT, a department in the south of France, formed from Lower
Languedoc. Pop. (1906) 482,779. Area, 2403 sq. m. It is bounded N.E. by
Gard, N.W. by Aveyron and Tarn, and S. by Aude and the Golfe du Lion.
The southern prolongation of the Cévennes mountains occupies the
north-western zone of the department, the highest point being about 4250
ft. above the sea-level. South-east of this range comes a region of
hills and plateaus decreasing in height as they approach the sea, from
which they are separated by the rich plains at the mouth of the Orb and
the Hérault and, farther to the north-east, by the line of
intercommunicating salt lagoons (Etang de Thau, &c.) which fringes the
coast. The region to the north-west of Montpellier comprises an
extensive tract of country known as the Garrigues, a district of dry
limestone plateaus and hills, which stretches into the neighbouring
department of Gard. The mountains of the north-west form the watershed
between the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins. From them flow the
Hérault, its tributary the Lergue, and more to the south-west the Livron
and the Orb, which are the main rivers of the department. Dry summers,
varied by occasional violent storms, are characteristic of Hérault. The
climate is naturally colder and more rainy in the mountains.

A third of the surface of Hérault is planted with vines, which are the
chief source of agricultural wealth, the department ranking first in
France with respect to the area of its vineyards; the red wines of St
Georges, Cazouls-lès-Béziers, Picpoul and Maranssan, and the white wines
of Frontignan and Lunel (pop. in 1906, 6769) are held in high
estimation. The area given over to arable land and pasture is small in
extent. Fruit trees of various kinds, but especially mulberries, olives
and chestnuts flourish. The rearing of silk-worms is largely carried on.
Considerable numbers of sheep are raised, their milk being utilized for
the preparation of Roquefort cheeses. The mineral wealth of the
department is considerable. There are mines of lignite, coal in the
vicinity of Graissessac, iron, calamine and copper, and quarries of
building-stone, limestone, gypsum, &c.; the marshes supply salt. Mineral
springs are numerous, the most important being those of
Lamalon-les-Bains and Balaruc-les-Bains. The chief manufactures are
woollen and cotton cloth, especially for military use, silk (Ganges),
casks, soap and fertilizing stuffs. There are also oil-works,
distilleries (Béziers) and tanneries (Bédarieux). Fishing is an
important industry. Cette and Mèze (pop. in 1906, 5574) are the chief
ports. Hérault exports salt fish, wine, liqueurs, timber, salt,
building-material, &c. It imports cattle, skins, wool, cereals,
vegetables, coal and other commodities. The railway lines belong chiefly
to the Southern and Paris-Lyon-Méditerranée companies. The Canal du
Midi traverses the south of the department for 44 m. and terminates at
Cette. The Canal des Étangs traverses the department for about 20 m.,
forming part of a line of communication between Cette and Aigues-Mortes.
Montpellier, the capital, is the seat of a bishopric of the province of
Avignon, and of a court of appeal and centre of an academic (educational
division). The department belongs to the 16th military region, which has
its headquarters at Montpellier. It is divided into the arrondissements
of Montpellier, Béziers, Lodève and St Pons, with 36 cantons and 340
communes.

Montpellier, Béziers, Lodève, Bédarieux, Cette, Agde, Pézenas,
Lamalou-les-Bains and Clermont-l'Hérault are the more noteworthy towns
and receive separate treatment. Among the other interesting places in
the department are St Pons, with a church of the 12th century, once a
cathedral, Villemagne, which has several old houses and two ruined
churches, one of the 13th, the other of the 14th century; Pignan, a
medieval town, near which is the interesting abbey-church of Vignogoul
in the early Gothic style; and St Guilhem-le-Désert, which has a church
of the 11th and 12th centuries. Maguelonne, which in the 6th century
became the seat of a bishopric transferred to Montpellier in 1536, has a
cathedral of the 12th century.



HÉRAULT DE SÉCHELLES, MARIE JEAN (1759-1794), French politician, was
born at Paris on the 20th of September 1759, of a noble family connected
with those of Contades and Polignac. He made his début as a lawyer at
the Châtelet, and delivered some very successful speeches; later he was
_avocat général_ to the parlement of Paris. His legal occupations did
not prevent him from devoting himself also to literature, and after 1789
he published an account of a visit he had made to the comte de Buffon at
Montbard. Hérault's account is marked by a delicate irony, and it has
with some justice been called a masterpiece of interviewing, before the
day of journalists. Hérault, who was an ardent champion of the
Revolution, took part in the taking of the Bastille, and on the 8th of
December 1789 was appointed judge of the court of the first
arrondissement in the department of Paris. From the end of January to
April 1791 Hérault was absent on a mission in Alsace, where he had been
sent to restore order. On his return he was appointed _commissaire du
roi_ in the court of cassation. He was elected as a deputy for Paris to
the Legislative Assembly, where he gravitated more and more towards the
extreme left; he was a member of several committees, and, when a member
of the diplomatic committee, presented a famous report demanding that
the nation should be declared to be in danger (11th June 1793). After
the revolution of the 10th of August 1792 (see FRENCH REVOLUTION), he
co-operated with Danton, one of the organizers of this rising, and on
the 2nd of September was appointed president of the Legislative
Assembly. He was a deputy to the National Convention for the department
of Seine-et-Oise, and was sent on a mission to organize the new
department of Mont Blanc. He was thus absent during the trial of Louis
XVI., but he made it known that he approved of the condemnation of the
king, and would probably have voted for the death penalty. On his return
to Paris, Hérault was several times president of the Convention, notably
on the 2nd of June 1793, the occasion of the attack on the Girondins,
and on the 10th of August 1793, on which the passing of the new
constitution was celebrated. On this occasion Hérault, as president of
the Convention, had to make several speeches. It was he, moreover, who,
on the rejection of the projected constitution drawn up by Condorcet,
was entrusted with the task of preparing a fresh one; this work he
performed within a few days, and his plan, which, however, differed very
little from that of Condorcet, became the Constitution of 1793, which
was passed, but never applied. As a member of the Committee of Public
Safety, it was with diplomacy that Hérault was chiefly concerned, and
from October to December 1793 he was employed on a diplomatic and
military mission in Alsace. But this mission helped to make him an
object of suspicion to the other members of the Committee of Public
Safety, and especially to Robespierre, who as a deist and a fanatical
follower of the ideas of Rousseau, hated Hérault, the follower of the
naturalism of Diderot. He was accused of treason, and after being tried
before the revolutionary tribunal, was condemned at the same time as
Danton, and executed on the 16th Germinal in the year II. (5th April
1794). He was handsome, elegant and a lover of pleasure, and was one of
the most individual figures of the Revolution.

  See the _Voyage à Montbard_, published by A. Aulard (Paris, 1890); A.
  Aulard, _Les Orateurs de la Législative et de la Convention_, 2nd ed.
  (Paris, 1906); J. Claretie, _Camille Desmoulins ... étude sur les
  Dantonistes_ (Paris, 1875); Dr Robinet, _Le Procès des Dantonistes_
  (Paris, 1879); "Hérault de Séchelles, sa première mission en Alsace"
  in the review _La Révolution Française_, tome 22; E. Daudet, _Le Roman
  d'un conventionnel. Hérault de Séchelles et les dames de Bellegarde_
  (1904). His _Oeuvres littéraires_ were edited (Paris, 1907) by E.
  Dard.     (R. A.*)



HERB (Lat. _herba_, grass, food for cattle, generally taken to represent
the Old Lat. _forbea_, Gr. [Greek: phorbê], pasture, [Greek: pherbein],
to feed, Sans. _bharb_, to eat), in botany, the name given to those
plants whose stem or stalk dies entirely or down to the root each year,
and does not become, as in shrubs or trees, woody or permanent, such
plants are also called "herbaceous." The term "herb" is also used of
those herbaceous plants, which possess certain properties, and are used
for medicinal purposes, for flavouring or garnishing in cooking, and
also for perfumes (see HORTICULTURE and PHARMACOLOGY).



HERBARIUM, or HORTUS SICCUS, a collection of plants so dried and
preserved as to illustrate as far as possible their characters. Since
the same plant, owing to peculiarities of climate, soil and situation,
degree of exposure to light and other influences may vary greatly
according to the locality in which it occurs, it is only by gathering
together for comparison and study a large series of examples of each
species that the flora of different regions can be satisfactorily
represented. Even in the best equipped botanical garden it is impossible
to have, at one and the same time, more than a very small percentage of
the representatives of the flora of any given region or of any large
group of plants. Hence a good herbarium forms an indispensable part of a
botanical museum or institution. There are large herbaria at the British
Museum and at the Royal Gardens, Kew, and smaller collections at the
botanical institutions at the principal British universities. The
original herbarium of Linnaeus is in the possession of the Linnaean
Society of London. It was purchased from the widow of Linnaeus by Dr
(afterwards Sir) J. E. Smith, one of the founders of the Linnaean
Society, and after his death was purchased by the society. Herbaria are
also associated with the more important botanic gardens and museums in
other countries. The value of a herbarium is much enhanced by the
possession of "types," that is, the original specimens on the study of
which a species was founded. Thus the herbarium at the British Museum,
which is especially rich in the earlier collections made in the 18th and
early 19th centuries, contains the types of many species founded by the
earlier workers in botany. It is also rich in the types of Australian
plants in the collections of Sir Joseph Banks and Robert Brown, and
contains in addition many valuable modern collections. The Kew
herbarium, founded by Sir William Hooker and greatly increased by his
son Sir Joseph Hooker, is also very rich in types, especially those of
plants described in the _Flora of British India_ and various colonial
floras. The collection of Dillenius is deposited at Oxford, and that of
Professor W. H. Harvey at Trinity College, Dublin. The collections of
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, his son Adrien, and of Auguste de St
Hilaire, are included in the large herbarium of the Jardin des Plantes
at Paris, and in the same city is the extensive private collection of Dr
Ernest Cosson. At Geneva are three large collections--Augustin Pyrame de
Candolle's, containing the typical specimens of the _Prodromus_, a large
series of monographs of the families of flowering plants, Benjamin
Delessert's fine series at the Botanic Garden, and the Boissier
Herbarium, which is rich in Mediterranean and Oriental plants. The
university of Göttingen has had bequeathed to it the largest collection
(exceeding 40,000 specimens) ever made by a single individual--that of
Professor Grisebach. At the herbarium in Brussels are the specimens
obtained by the traveller Karl Friedrich Philipp von Martius, the
majority of which formed the groundwork of his _Flora Brasiliensis_. The
Berlin herbarium is especially rich in more recent collections, and
other national herbaria sufficiently extensive to subserve the
requirements of the systematic botanist exist at St Petersburg, Vienna,
Leiden, Stockholm, Upsala, Copenhagen and Florence. Of those in the
United States of America, the chief, formed by Asa Gray, is the property
of Harvard university; there is also a large one at the New York
Botanical Garden. The herbarium at Melbourne, Australia, under Baron
Müller, attained large proportions; and that of the Botanical Garden of
Calcutta is noteworthy as the repository of numerous specimens described
by writers on Indian botany.

Specimens of flowering plants and vascular cryptograms are generally
mounted on sheets of stout smooth paper, of uniform quality; the size
adopted at Kew is 17 in. long by 11 in. broad, that at the British
Museum is slightly larger; the palms and their allies, however, and some
ferns, require a larger size. The tough but flexible coarse grey paper
(German _Fliesspapier_), upon which on the Continent specimens are
commonly fixed by gummed strips of the same, is less hygroscopic than
ordinary cartridge paper, but has the disadvantage of affording
harbourage in the inequalities of its surface to a minute insect,
_Atropos pulsatoria_, which commits great havoc in damp specimens, and
which, even if noticed, cannot be dislodged without difficulty. The
majority of plant specimens are most suitably fastened on paper by a
mixture of equal parts of gum tragacanth and gum arabic made into a
thick paste with water. Rigid leathery leaves are fixed by means of
glue, or, if they present too smooth a surface, by stitching at their
edges. Where, as in private herbaria, the specimens are not liable to be
handled with great frequency, a stitch here and there round the stem,
tied at the back of the sheet, or slips of paper passed over the stem
through two slits in the sheet and attached with gum to its back, or
simply strips of gummed paper laid across the stem, may be resorted to.

To preserve from insects, the plants, after mounting, are often brushed
over with a liquid formed by the solution of ¼ lb. each of corrosive
sublimate and carbolic acid in 1 gallon of methylated spirits. They are
then laid out to dry on shelves made of a network of stout galvanized
iron wire. The use of corrosive sublimate is not, however, recommended,
as it forms on drying a fine powder which when the plants are handled
will rub off and, being carried into the air, may prove injurious to
workers. If the plants are subjected to some process, before mounting,
by which injurious organisms are destroyed, such as exposure in a closed
chamber to vapour of carbon bisulphide for some hours, the presence of
pieces of camphor or naphthalene in the cabinet will be found a
sufficient preservative. After mounting are written--usually in the
right-hand corner of the sheet, or on a label there affixed--the
designation of each species, the date and place of gathering, and the
name of the collector. Other particulars as to habit, local abundance,
soil and claim to be indigenous may be written on the back of the sheet
or on a slip of writing paper attached to its edge. It is convenient to
place in a small envelope gummed to an upper corner of the sheet any
flowers, seeds or leaves needed for dissection or microscopical
examination, especially where from the fixation of the specimen it is
impossible to examine the leaves for oil-receptacles and where seed is
apt to escape from ripe capsules and be lost. The addition of a careful
dissection of a flower greatly increases the value of the specimen. To
ensure that all shall lie evenly in the herbarium the plants should be
made to occupy as far as possible alternately the right and left sides
of their respective sheets. The species of each genus are then arranged
either systematically or alphabetically in separate covers of stout,
usually light brown paper, or, if the genus be large, in several covers
with the name of the genus clearly indicated in the lower left-hand
corner of each, and opposite it the names or reference numbers of the
species. Undetermined species are relegated to the end of the genus.
Thus prepared, the specimens are placed on shelves or movable trays, at
intervals of about 6 in., in an air-tight cupboard, on the inner side of
the door of which, as a special protection against insects, is suspended
a muslin bag containing a piece of camphor.

The systematic arrangement varies in different herbaria. In the great
British herbaria the orders and genera of flowering plants are usually
arranged according to Bentham and Hooker's _Genera plantarum_; the
species generally follow the arrangement of the most recent complete
monograph of the family. In non-flowering plants the works usually
followed are for ferns, Hooker and Baker's _Synopsis filicum_; for
mosses, Müller's _Synopsis muscorum frondosorum_, Jaeger & Sauerbeck's
_Genera et species muscorum_, and Engler & Prantl's _Pflanzenfamilien_;
for algae, de Toni's _Sylloge algarum_; for hepaticae, Gottsche,
Lindenberg and Nees ab Esenbeck's _Synopsis hepaticarum_, supplemented
by Stephani's _Species hepaticarum_; for fungi, Saccardo's _Sylloge
fungorum_, and for mycetozoa Lister's monograph of the group. For the
members of large genera, e.g. _Piper_ and _Ficus_, since the number of
cosmopolitan or very widely distributed species is comparatively few, a
geographical grouping is found specially convenient by those who are
constantly receiving parcels of plants from known foreign sources. The
ordinary systematic arrangement possesses the great advantage, in the
case of large genera, of readily indicating the affinities of any
particular specimen with the forms most nearly allied to it. Instead of
keeping a catalogue of the species contained in the herbarium, which,
owing to the constant additions, would be almost impossible, such
species are usually ticked off with a pencil in the systematic work
which is followed in arranging them, so that by reference to this work
it is possible to see at a glance whether the specimen sought is in the
herbarium and what species are still wanted.

  Specimens intended for the herbarium should be collected when possible
  in dry weather, care being taken to select plants or portions of
  plants in sufficient number and of a size adequate to illustrate all
  the characteristic features of the species. When the root-leaves and
  roots present any peculiarities, they should invariably be collected,
  but the roots should be dried separately in an oven at a moderate
  heat. Roots and fruits too bulky to be placed on the sheet of the
  herbarium may be conveniently arranged in glass-covered boxes
  contained in drawers. The best and most effective mode of drying
  specimens is learned only by experience, different species requiring
  special treatment according to their several peculiarities. The chief
  points to be attended to are to have a plentiful supply of botanical
  drying paper, so as to be able to use about six sheets for each
  specimen; to change the paper at intervals of six to twelve hours; to
  avoid contact of one leaf or flower with another; and to increase the
  pressure applied only in proportion to the dryness of the specimen. To
  preserve the colour of flowers pledgets of cotton wool, which prevent
  bruising, should be introduced between them, as also, if the stamens
  are thick and succulent, as in _Digitalis_, between these and the
  corolla. A flower dissected and gummed on the sheets will often retain
  the colour which it is impossible to preserve in a crowded
  inflorescence. A flat sheet of lead or some other suitable weight
  should be laid upon the top of the pile of specimens, so as to keep up
  a continuous pressure. Succulent specimens, as many of the
  _Orchidaceae_ and sedums and various other Crassulaceous plants,
  require to be killed by immersion in boiling water before being placed
  in drying paper, or, instead of becoming dry, they will grow between
  the sheets. When, as with some plants like _Verbascum_, the thick hard
  stems are liable to cause the leaves to wrinkle in drying by removing
  the pressure from them, small pieces of bibulous paper or cotton wool
  may be placed upon the leaves near their point of attachment to the
  stem. When a number of specimens have to be submitted to pressure,
  ventilation is secured by means of frames corresponding in size to the
  drying paper, and composed of strips of wood or wires laid across each
  other so as to form a kind of network. Another mode of drying is to
  keep the specimens in a box of dry sand in a warm place for ten or
  twelve hours, and then press them in drying paper. A third method
  consists in placing the specimen within bibulous paper, and enclosing
  the whole between two plates of coarsely perforated zinc supported in
  a wooden frame. The zinc plates are then drawn close together by means
  of straps, and suspended before a fire until the drying is effected.
  By the last two methods the colour of the flowers may be well
  preserved. When the leaves are finely divided, as in _Conium_, much
  trouble will be experienced in lifting a half-dried specimen from one
  paper to another; but the plant may be placed in a sheet of thin
  blotting paper, and the sheet containing the plant, instead of the
  plant itself, can then be moved. Thin straw-coloured paper, such as is
  used for biscuit bags, may be conveniently employed by travellers
  unable to carry a quantity of bibulous paper. It offers the advantage
  of fitting closely to thick-stemmed specimens and of rapidly drying. A
  light but strong portfolio, to which pressure by means of straps can
  be applied, and a few quires of this paper, if the paper be changed
  night and morning, will be usually sufficient to dry all except very
  succulent plants. When a specimen is too large for one sheet, and it
  is necessary, in order to show its habit, &c., to dry the whole of it,
  it may be divided into two or three portions, and each placed on a
  separate sheet for drying. Specimens may be judged to be dry when they
  no longer cause a cold sensation when applied to the cheek, or assume
  a rigidity not evident in the earlier stages of preparation.

  Each class of flowerless or cryptogamic plants requires special
  treatment for the herbarium.

  Marine algae are usually mounted on tough smooth white cartridge paper
  in the following manner. Growing specimens of good colour and in fruit
  are if possible selected, and cleansed as much as practicable from
  adhering foreign particles, either in the sea or a rocky pool. Some
  species rapidly change colour, and cause the decay of any others with
  which they come in contact. This is especially the case with the
  _Ectocarpi_, _Desmarestiae_, and a few others, which should therefore
  be brought home in a separate vessel. In mounting, the specimen is
  floated out in a flat white dish containing sea-water, so that foreign
  matter may be detected, and a piece of paper of suitable size is
  placed under it, supported either by the fingers of the left hand or
  by a palette. It is then pruned, in order clearly to show the mode of
  branching, and is spread out as naturally as possible with the right
  hand. For this purpose a bone knitting-needle answers well for the
  coarse species, and a camel's-hair pencil for the more delicate ones.
  The paper with the specimen is then carefully removed from the water
  by sliding it over the edge of the dish so as to drain it as much as
  possible. If during this process part of the fronds run together, the
  beauty of the specimen may be restored by dipping the edge into water,
  so as to float out the part and allow it to subside naturally on the
  paper. The paper, with the specimen upwards, is then laid on bibulous
  paper for a few minutes to absorb as much as possible of the
  superfluous moisture. When freed from excess of water it is laid on a
  sheet of thick white blotting-paper, and a piece of smooth washed
  calico is placed upon it (unwashed calico, on account of its "facing,"
  adheres to the sea-weed). Another sheet of blotting-paper is then laid
  over it; and, a number of similar specimens being formed into a pile,
  the whole is submitted to pressure, the paper being changed every hour
  or two at first. The pressure is increased, and the papers are changed
  less frequently as the specimens become dry, which usually takes place
  in thirty-six hours. Some species, especially those of a thick or
  leathery texture, contract so much in drying that without strong
  pressure the edges of the paper become puckered. Other species of a
  gelatinous nature, like _Nemalion_ and _Dudresnaya_, may be allowed to
  dry on the paper, and need not be submitted to pressure until they no
  longer present a gelatinous appearance. Large coarse algae, such, for
  instance, as the _Fucaceae_ and _Laminariae_, do not readily adhere to
  paper, and require soaking for some time in fresh water before being
  pressed. The less robust species, such as _Sphacelaria scoparia_,
  which do not adhere well to paper, may be made to do so by brushing
  them over either with milk carefully skimmed, or with a liquid formed
  by placing isinglass (¼ oz.) and water (1½ oz.) in a wide-mouthed
  bottle, and the bottle in a small glue-pot or saucepan containing cold
  water, heating until solution is effected, and then adding 1 oz. of
  rectified spirits of wine; the whole is next stirred together, and
  when cold is kept in a stoppered bottle. For use, the mixture is
  warmed to render it fluid, and applied by means of a camel's hair
  brush to the under side of the specimen, which is then laid neatly on
  paper. For the more delicate species, such as the _Callithamnia_ and
  _Ectocarpi_, it is an excellent plan to place a small fruiting
  fragment, carefully floated out in water, on a slip of mica of the
  size of an ordinary microscopical slide, and allow it to dry. The
  plant can then be at any time examined under the microscope without
  injuring the mounted specimen. Many of the fresh-water algae which
  form a mere crust, such as _Palmella cruenta_, may be placed in a
  vessel of water, where after a time they float like a scum, the earthy
  matter settling down to the bottom, and may then be mounted by
  slipping a piece of mica under them and allowing it to dry.
  _Oscillatoriae_ may be mounted by laying a portion on a silver coin
  placed on a piece of paper in a plate, and pouring in water until the
  edge of the coin is just covered. The alga by its own peculiar
  movement will soon form a radiating circle, perfectly free from dirt,
  around the coin, which may then be removed. There is considerable
  difficulty in removing mounted specimens of algae from paper, and
  therefore a small portion preserved on mica should accompany each
  specimen, enclosed for safety in a small envelope fastened at one
  corner of the sheet of paper. Filamentous diatoms may be mounted like
  ordinary sea-weeds, and, as well as all parasitic algae, should
  whenever possible be allowed to remain attached to a portion of the
  alga on which they grow, some species being almost always found
  parasitical on particular plants. Ordinary diatoms and desmids may be
  mounted on mica, as above described, by putting a portion in a vessel
  of water and exposing it to sunlight, when they rise to the surface,
  and may be thus removed comparatively free from dirt or impurity.
  Owing to their want of adhesiveness, they are, however, usually
  mounted on glass as microscopic slides, either in glycerin jelly,
  Canada balsam or some other suitable medium.

  Lichens are generally mounted on sheets of paper of the ordinary size,
  several specimens from different localities being laid upon one sheet,
  each specimen having been first placed on a small square of paper
  which is gummed on the sheet, and which has the locality, date, name
  of collector, &c., written upon it. This mode has some disadvantages
  attending it; such sheets are difficult to handle; the crustaceous
  species are liable to have their surfaces rubbed; the foliaceous
  species become so compressed as to lose their characteristic
  appearance; and the spaces between the sheets caused by the thickness
  of the specimen permit the entrance of dust. A plan which has been
  found to answer well is to arrange them in cardboard boxes, either
  with glass tops or in sliding covers, in drawers--the name being
  placed outside each box and the specimens gummed into the boxes.
  Lichens for the herbarium should, whenever possible, be sought for on
  a slaty or laminated rock, so as to procure them on flat thin pieces
  of the same, suitable for mounting. Specimens on the bark of trees
  require pressure until the bark is dry, lest they become curled; and
  those growing on sand or friable soil, such as _Coniocybe furfuracea_,
  should be laid carefully on a layer of gum in the box in which they
  are intended to be kept. Many lichens, such as the _Verrucariae_ and
  _Collemaceae_, are found in the best condition during the winter
  months. In mounting collemas it is advisable to let the specimen
  become dry and hard, and then to separate a portion from adherent
  mosses, earth, &c., and mount it separately so as to show the
  branching of the thallus. _Pertusariae_ should be represented by both
  fruiting and sorediate specimens.

  The larger species of fungi, such as the _Agaricini_ and _Polyporei_,
  &c., are prepared for the herbarium by cutting a slice out of the
  centre of the plant so as to show the outline of the cap or pileus,
  the attachment of the gills, and the character of the interior of the
  stem. The remaining portions of the pileus are then lightly pressed,
  as well as the central slices, between bibulous paper until dry, and
  the whole is then "poisoned," and gummed on a sheet of paper in such a
  manner as to show the under surface of the one and the upper surface
  of the other half of the pileus on the same sheet. A "map" of the
  spores should be taken by separating a pileus and placing it flat on a
  piece of thin paper for a few hours when the spores will fall and
  leave a nature print of the arrangement of the gills which may be
  fixed by gumming the other side of the paper. As it is impossible to
  preserve the natural colours of fungi, the specimens should, whenever
  possible, be accompanied by a coloured drawing of the plant.
  Microscopic fungi are usually preserved in envelopes, or simply
  attached to sheets of paper or mounted as microscopic slides. Those
  fungi which are of a dusty nature, and the _Myxomycetes_ or
  _Mycetozoa_ may, like the lichens, be preserved in small boxes and
  arranged in drawers. Fungi under any circumstances form the least
  satisfactory portion of an herbarium.

  Mosses when growing in tufts should be gathered just before the
  capsules have become brown, divided into small flat portions, and
  pressed lightly in drying paper. During this process the capsules
  ripen, and are thus obtained in a perfect state. They are then
  preserved in envelopes attached to a sheet of paper of the ordinary
  size, a single perfect specimen being washed, and spread out under the
  envelope so as to show the habit of the plant. For attaching it to the
  paper a strong mucilage of gum tragacanth, containing an eighth of its
  weight of spirit of wine, answers best. If not preserved in an
  envelope the calyptra and operculum are very apt to fall off and
  become lost. Scale-mosses are mounted in the same way, or may be
  floated out in water like sea-weeds, and dried in white blotting paper
  under strong pressure before gumming on paper, but are best mounted as
  microscopic slides, care being taken to show the stipules. The
  specimens should be collected when the capsules are just appearing
  above or in the colesule or calyx; if kept in a damp saucer they soon
  arrive at maturity, and can then be mounted in better condition, the
  fruit-stalks being too fragile to bear carriage in a botanical tin
  case without injury.

  Of the _Characeae_ many are so exceedingly brittle that it is best to
  float them out like sea-weeds, except the prickly species, which may
  be carefully laid out on bibulous paper, and when dry fastened on
  sheets of white paper by means of gummed strips. Care should be taken
  in collecting charae to secure, in the case of dioecious species,
  specimens of both forms, and also to get when possible the roots of
  those species on which the small granular starchy bodies or gemmae are
  found, as in _C. fragifera_. Portions of the fructification may be
  preserved in small envelopes attached to the sheets.



HERBART, JOHANN FRIEDRICH (1776-1841), German philosopher and
educationist, was born at Oldenburg on the 4th of May 1776. After
studying under Fichte at Jena he gave his first philosophical lectures
at Göttingen in 1805, whence he removed in 1809 to occupy the chair
formerly held by Kant at Königsberg. Here he also established and
conducted a seminary of pedagogy till 1833, when he returned once more
to Göttingen, and remained there as professor of philosophy till his
death on the 14th of August 1841.

  Philosophy, according to Herbart, begins with reflection upon our
  empirical conceptions, and consists in the reformation and elaboration
  of these--its three primary divisions being determined by as many
  distinct forms of elaboration. Logic, which stands first, has to
  render our conceptions and the judgments and reasonings arising from
  them clear and distinct. But some conceptions are such that the more
  distinct they are made the more contradictory their elements become;
  so to change and supplement these as to make them at length thinkable
  is the problem of the second part of philosophy, or metaphysics. There
  is still a class of conceptions requiring more than a logical
  treatment, but differing from the last in not involving latent
  contradictions, and in being independent of the reality of their
  objects, the conceptions, viz. that embody our judgments of approval
  and disapproval; the philosophic treatment of these conceptions falls
  to Aesthetic.

  In Herbart's writings logic receives comparatively meagre notice; he
  insisted strongly on its purely formal character, and expressed
  himself in the main at one with Kantians such as Fries and Krug.

  As a metaphysician he starts from what he terms "the higher
  scepticism" of the Hume-Kantian sphere of thought, the beginnings of
  which he discerns in Locke's perplexity about the idea of substance.
  By this scepticism the real validity of even the _forms_ of experience
  is called in question on account of the contradictions they are found
  to involve. And yet that these forms are "given" to us, as truly as
  sensations are, follows beyond doubt when we consider that we are as
  little able to control the one as the other. To attempt at this stage
  a psychological inquiry into the origin of these conceptions would be
  doubly a mistake; for we should have to use these unlegitimated
  conceptions in the course of it, and the task of clearing up their
  contradictions would still remain, whether we succeeded in our enquiry
  or not. But how are we to set about this task? We have given to us a
  conception A uniting among its constituent marks two that prove to be
  contradictory, say M and N; and we can neither deny the unity nor
  reject one of the contradictory members. For to do either is forbidden
  by experience; and yet to do nothing is forbidden by logic. We are
  thus driven to the assumption that the conception is contradictory
  because incomplete; but how are we to supplement it? What we have must
  point the way to what we want, or our procedure will be arbitrary.
  Experience asserts that M is the same (i.e. a mark of the same
  concept) as N, while logic denies it; and so--it being impossible for
  one and the same M to sustain these contradictory positions--there is
  but one way open to us; we must posit _several_ Ms. But even now we
  cannot say one of these Ms is the same as N, another is not; for every
  M must be both thinkable and valid. We may, however, take the Ms not
  singly but together; and again, no other course being open to us, this
  is what we must do; we must assume that N results from a combination
  of Ms. This is Herbart's method of relations, the counterpart in his
  system of the Hegelian dialectic.

  In the _Ontology_ this method is employed to determine what in reality
  corresponds to the empirical conceptions of substance and cause, or
  rather of inherence and change. But first we must analyse this notion
  of reality itself, to which our scepticism had already led us, for,
  though we could doubt whether "the given" is what it appears, we
  cannot doubt that it is something; the conception of the real thus
  consists of the two conceptions of being and quality. That which we
  are compelled to "posit," which cannot be sublated, is that which
  _is_, and in the recognition of this lies the simple conception of
  being. But when is a thing thus posited? When it is posited as we are
  wont to posit the things we see and taste and handle. If we were
  without sensations, i.e. were never bound against our will to endure
  the persistence of a presentation, we should never know what being is.
  Keeping fast hold of this idea of absolute position, Herbart leads us
  next to the quality of the real. (1) This must exclude everything
  negative; for non-A sublates instead of positing, and is not absolute,
  but relative to A. (2) The real must be absolutely simple; for if it
  contain two determinations, A and B, then either these are reducible
  to one, which is the true quality, or they are not, when each is
  conditioned by the other and their position is no longer absolute. (3)
  All quantitative conceptions are excluded, for quantity implies parts,
  and these are incompatible with simplicity. (4) But there may be a
  plurality of "reals," albeit the mere conception of being can tell us
  nothing as to this. The doctrine here developed is the first cardinal
  point of Herbart's system, and has obtained for it the name of
  "pluralistic realism."

  The contradictions he finds in the common-sense conception of
  inherence, or of "a thing with several attributes," will now become
  obvious. Let us take some thing, say A, having n attributes, a, b,
  c...: we are forced to posit each of these because each is presented
  in intuition. But in conceiving A we make, not n positions, still less
  n + 1 positions, but one position simply; for common sense removes the
  absolute position from its original source, sensation. So when we ask,
  What is the one posited? we are told--the possessor of a, b, c..., or
  in other words, their seat or substance. But if so, then A, as a real,
  being simple, must = a; similarly it must = b; and so on. Now this
  would be possible if a, b, c ... were but "contingent aspects" of A,
  as e.g. 2³, [root]64, 4 + 3 + 1 are contingent aspects of 8. Such, of
  course, is not the case, and so we have as many contradictions as
  there are attributes; for we must say A is a, is not a, is b, is not
  b, &c. There must then, according to the method of relations, be
  several As. For a let us assume A1 + A1 + A1...; for b, A2 + A2 +
  A2...; and so on for the rest. But now what relation can there be
  among these several As, which will restore to us the unity of our
  original A or substance? There is but one; we must assume that the
  first A of every series is identical, just as the centre is the same
  point in every radius. By way of concrete illustration Herbart
  instances "the common observation that the properties of things exist
  only under external conditions. Bodies, we say, are coloured, but
  colour is nothing without light, and nothing without eyes. They sound,
  but only in a vibrating medium, and for healthy ears. Colour and tone
  present the appearance of inherence, but on looking closer we find
  they are not really immanent in things but rather presuppose a
  communion among several." The result then is briefly thus: In place of
  the one absolute position, which in some unthinkable way the common
  understanding substitutes for the absolute positions of the n
  attributes, we have really a series of two or more positions for each
  attribute, every series, however, beginning with the same (as it were,
  central) real (hence the unity of substance in a group of attributes),
  but each being continued by different reals (hence the plurality and
  difference of attributes in unity of substance). Where there is the
  appearance of inherence, therefore, there is always a plurality of
  reals; no such correlative to substance as attribute or accident can
  be admitted at all. Substantiality is impossible without causality,
  and to this as its true correlative we now turn.

  The common-sense conception of change involves at bottom the same
  contradiction of opposing qualities in one real. The same A that was
  a, b, c ... becomes a, b, d...; and this, which experience thrusts
  upon us, proves on reflection unthinkable. The metaphysical
  supplementing is also fundamentally as before. Since c depended on a
  series of reals A3 + A3 + A3 ... in connexion with A, and d may be
  said similarly to depend on a series A4 + A4 + A4..., then the change
  from c to d means, not that the central real A or any real has
  changed, but that A is now in connexion with A4, &c., and no longer in
  connexion with A3, &c.

  But to think a number of reals "in connexion" (_Zusammensein_) will
  not suffice as an explanation of phenomena; something or other must
  happen when they are in connexion; what is it? The answer to this
  question is the second hinge-point of Herbart's theoretical
  philosophy. What "actually happens" as distinct from all that seems to
  happen, when two reals A and B are together is that, assuming them to
  differ in quality, they tend to disturb each other to the extent of
  that difference, at the same time that each preserves itself intact by
  resisting, as it were, the other's disturbance. And so by coming into
  connexion with different reals the "self-preservations" of A will vary
  accordingly, A remaining the same through all; just as, by way of
  illustration, hydrogen remains the same in water and in ammonia, or as
  the same line may be now a normal and now a tangent. But to indicate
  this opposition in the qualities of the reals A + B, we must
  substitute for these symbols others, which, though only "contingent
  aspects" of A and B, i.e. representing their relations, not
  themselves, yet like similar devices in mathematics enable thought to
  advance. Thus we may put A = [alpha] + [beta] - [gamma], B = m + n +
  [gamma]; [gamma] then represents the character of the
  self-preservations in this case, and [alpha] + [beta] + m + n
  represents all that could be observed by a spectator who did not know
  the simple qualities, but was himself involved in the relations of A
  to B; and such is exactly our position.

  Having thus determined what really is and what actually happens, our
  philosopher proceeds next to explain synthetically the objective
  semblance (_der objective Schein_) that results from these. But if
  this construction is to be truly objective, i.e. valid for all
  intelligences, ontology must furnish us with a clue. This we have in
  the forms of Space, Time and Motion which are involved whenever we
  think the reals as being in, or coming into, connexion and the
  opposite. These forms then cannot be merely the products of our
  psychological mechanism, though they may turn out to coincide with
  these. Meanwhile let us call them "intelligible," as being valid for
  all who comprehend the real and actual by thought, although no such
  forms are predicable of the real and actual themselves. The elementary
  spatial relation Herbart conceives to be "the contiguity
  (_Aneinander_) of two points," so that every "pure and independent
  line" is discrete. But an investigation of dependent lines which are
  often incommensurable forces us to adopt the contradictory fiction of
  partially overlapping, i.e. divisible points, or in other words, the
  conception of Continuity.[1] But the contradiction here is one we
  cannot eliminate by the method of relations, because it does not
  involve anything real; and in fact as a necessary outcome of an
  "intelligible" form, the fiction of continuity is valid for the
  "objective semblance," and no more to be discarded than say
  [root](-1). By its help we are enabled to comprehend what actually
  happens among reals to produce the appearance of matter. When three or
  more reals are together, each disturbance and self-preservation will
  (in general) be imperfect, i.e. of less intensity than when only two
  reals are together. But "objective semblance" corresponds with
  reality; the spatial or external relations of the reals in this case
  must, therefore, tally with their inner or actual states. Had the
  self-preservations been perfect, the coincidence in space would have
  been complete, and the group of reals would have been inextended; or
  had the several reals been simply contiguous, i.e. without connexion,
  then, as nothing would actually have happened, nothing would appear.
  As it is we shall find a continuous molecule manifesting attractive
  and repulsive forces; attraction corresponding to the tendency of the
  self-preservations to become perfect, repulsion to the frustration of
  this. Motion, even more evidently than space, implicates the
  contradictory conception of continuity, and cannot, therefore, be a
  real predicate, though valid as an intelligible form and necessary to
  the comprehension of the objective semblance. For we have to think of
  the reals as absolutely independent and yet as entering into
  connexions. This we can only do by conceiving them as originally
  moving through intelligible space in rectilinear paths and with
  uniform velocities. For such motion no cause need be supposed; motion,
  in fact, is no more a state of the moving real than rest is, both
  alike being but relations, with which, therefore, the real has no
  concern. The changes in this motion, however, for which we _should_
  require a cause, would be the objective semblance of the
  self-preservations that actually occur when reals meet. Further, by
  means of such motion these actual occurrences, which are in themselves
  timeless, fall for an observer in a definite time--a time which
  becomes continuous through the partial coincidence of events.

  But in all this it has been assumed that we are spectators of the
  objective semblance; it remains to make good this assumption, or, in
  other words, to show the possibility of knowledge; this is the problem
  of what Herbart terms Eidolology, and forms the transition from
  metaphysic to psychology. Here, again, a contradictory conception
  blocks the way, that, viz. of the Ego as the identity of knowing and
  being, and as such the stronghold of idealism. The contradiction
  becomes more evident when the ego is defined to be a subject (and so a
  real) that is its own object. As real and not merely formal, this
  conception of the ego is amenable to the method of relations. The
  solution this method furnishes is summarily that there are several
  objects which mutually modify each other, and so constitute that ego
  we take for the presented real. But to explain this modification is
  the business of psychology; it is enough now to see that the subject
  like all reals is necessarily unknown, and that, therefore, the
  idealist's theory of knowledge is unsound. But though the simple
  quality of the subject or soul is beyond knowledge, we know what
  actually happens when it is in connexion with other's reals, for its
  self-preservations then are what we call sensations. And these
  sensations are the sole material of our knowledge; but they are not
  given to us as a chaos but in definite groups and series, whence we
  come to know the relations of those reals, which, though themselves
  unknown, our sensations compel us to posit absolutely.

  In his _Psychology_ Herbart rejects altogether the doctrine of mental
  faculties as one refuted by his metaphysics, and tries to show that
  all psychical phenomena whatever result from the action and
  interaction of elementary ideas or presentations (_Vorstellungen_).
  The soul being one and simple, its separate acts of self-preservation
  or primary presentations must be simple too, and its several
  presentations must become united together. And this they can do at
  once and completely when, as is the case, for example, with the
  several attributes of an object, they are not of opposite quality. But
  otherwise there ensues a conflict in which the opposed presentations
  comport themselves like forces and mutually suppress or obscure each
  other. The act of presentation (_Vorstellen_) then becomes partly
  transformed into an effort, and its product, the idea, becomes in the
  same proportion less and less intense till a position of equilibrium
  is reached; and then at length the remainders coalesce. We have thus a
  statics and a mechanics of mind which investigate respectively the
  conditions of equilibrium and of movement among presentations. In the
  statics two magnitudes have to be determined: (1) the amount of the
  suppression or inhibition (_Hemmungssumme_), and (2) the ratio in
  which this is shared among the opposing presentations. The first must
  obviously be as small as possible; thus for two totally-opposed
  presentations a and b, of which a is the greater, the _inhibendum_ =
  b. For a given degree of opposition this burden will be shared between
  the conflicting presentations in the inverse ratio of their strength.
  When its remainder after inhibition = 0, a presentation is said to be
  on the threshold of consciousness, for on a small diminution of the
  inhibition the "effort" will become actual presentation in the same
  proportion. Such total exclusion from consciousness is, however,
  manifestly impossible with only two presentations,[2] though with
  three or a greater number the residual value of one may even be
  negative. The first and simplest law in psychological mechanics
  relates to the "sinking" of inhibited presentations. As the
  presentations yield to the pressure, the pressure itself diminishes,
  so that the velocity of sinking decreases, i.e. we have the equation
  (S - [sigma]) dt = d[sigma], where S is the total _inhibendum_, and
  [sigma] the intensity actually inhibited after the time t. Hence t =
  log (S/S - [sigma]), and [sigma] = S[1 - e^(-t)]. From this law it
  follows, for example, that equilibrium is never quite obtained for
  those presentations which continue above the threshold of
  consciousness, while the rest which cannot so continue are very
  speedily driven beyond the threshold. More important is the law
  according to which a presentation freed from inhibition and rising
  anew into consciousness tends to raise the other presentations with
  which it is combined. Suppose two presentations p and [pi] united by
  the residua r and [rho]; then the amount of p's "help" to [pi] is r,
  the portion of which appropriated by [pi] is given by the ratio [rho]:
  [pi]; and thus the initial help is r[rho]/[pi].

  But after a time t, when a portion of [rho] represented by [omega] has
  been actually brought into consciousness, the help afforded in the
  next instant will be found by the equation

    r[rho]   [rho] - [omega]
    ------ · --------------- dt = d[omega],
     [pi]        [rho]

  from which by integration we have the value of [omega].

    [omega] = [rho] {1 - [epsilon]^(-rt/[pi])}.

  So that if there are several [pi]s connected with p by smaller and
  smaller parts, there will be a definite "serial" order in which they
  will be revived by p; and on this fact Herbart rests all the phenomena
  of the so-called faculty of memory, the development of spatial and
  temporal forms and much besides. Emotions and volitions, he holds, are
  not directly self-preservations of the soul, as our presentations are,
  but variable states of such presentations resulting from their
  interaction when above the threshold of consciousness. Thus when some
  presentations tend to force a presentation into consciousness, and
  others at the same time tend to drive it out, that presentation is the
  seat of painful feeling; when, on the other hand, its entrance is
  favoured by all, pleasure results. Desires are presentations
  struggling into consciousness against hindrances, and when accompanied
  by the supposition of success become volitions. Transcendental freedom
  of will in Kant's sense is an impossibility. Self-consciousness is the
  result of an interaction essentially the same in kind as that which
  takes place when a comparatively simple presentation finds the field
  of consciousness occupied by a long-formed and well-consolidated
  "mass" of presentations--as, e.g. one's business or garden, the
  theatre, &c., which promptly inhibit the isolated presentation if
  incongruent, and unite it to themselves if not. What we call Self is,
  above all, such a central mass, and Herbart seeks to show with great
  ingenuity and detail how this position is occupied at first chiefly by
  the body, then by the seat of ideas and desires, and finally by that
  first-personal Self which recollects the past and resolves concerning
  the future. But at any stage the actual constituents of this
  "complexion" are variable; the concrete presentation of Self is never
  twice the same. And, therefore, finding on reflection any particular
  concrete factor contingent, we abstract the position from that which
  occupies it, and so reach the speculative notion of the pure Ego.

  _Aesthetics_ elaborates the "ideas" involved in the expression of
  taste called forth by those relations of object which acquire for them
  the attribution of beauty or the reverse. The beautiful ([Greek:
  kalon]) is to be carefully distinguished from the allied conceptions
  of the useful and the pleasant, which vary with time, place and
  person; whereas beauty is predicated absolutely and involuntarily by
  all who have attained the right standpoint. Ethics, which is but one
  branch of aesthetics, although the chief, deals with such relations
  among volitions (_Willensverhältnisse_) as thus unconditionally please
  or displease. These relations Herbart finds to be reducible to five,
  which do not admit of further simplification; and corresponding to
  them are as many moral ideas (_Musterbegriffe_), viz.: (1) _Internal
  Freedom_, the underlying relation being that of the individual's will
  to his judgment of it; (2) _Perfection_, the relation being that of
  his several volitions to each other in respect of intensity, variety
  and concentration; (3) _Benevolence_, the relation being that between
  his own will and the thought of another's; (4) _Right_, in case of
  actual conflict with another; and (5) _Retribution_ or _Equity_, for
  intended good or evil done. The ideas of a final society, a system of
  rewards and punishments, a system of administration, a system of
  culture and a "unanimated society," corresponding to the ideas of law,
  equity, benevolence, perfection and internal freedom respectively,
  result when we take account of a number of individuals. Virtue is the
  perfect conformity of the will with the moral ideas; of this the
  single virtues are but special expressions. The conception of duty
  arises from the existence of hindrances to the attainment of virtue. A
  general scheme of principles of conduct is possible, but the
  subsumption of special cases under these must remain matter of tact.
  The application of ethics to things as they are with a view to the
  realization of the moral ideas is moral technology (_Tugendlehre_), of
  which the chief divisions are Paedagogy and Politics.

  In _Theology_ Herbart held the argument from design to be as valid for
  divine activity as for human, and to justify the belief in a
  super-sensible real, concerning which, however, exact knowledge is
  neither attainable nor on practical grounds desirable.

  Among the post-Kantian philosophers Herbart doubtless ranks next to
  Hegel in importance, and this without taking into account his very
  great contributions to the science of education. His disciples speak
  of theirs as the "exact philosophy," and the term well expresses their
  master's chief excellence and the character of the chief influence he
  has exerted upon succeeding thinkers of his own and other schools. His
  criticisms are worth more than his constructions; indeed for exactness
  and penetration of thought he is quite on a level with Hume and Kant.
  His merits in this respect, however, can only be appraised by the
  study of his works at first hand. But we are most of all indebted to
  Herbart for the enormous advance psychology has been enabled to make,
  thanks to his fruitful treatment of it, albeit as yet but few among
  the many who have appropriated and improved his materials have
  ventured to adopt his metaphysical and mathematical foundations.
       (J. W.*)

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Herbart's works were collected and published by his
  disciple G. Hartenstein (Leipzig, 1850-1852; reprinted at Hamburg,
  with supplementary volume, 1883-1893); another edition by K. Kehrbach
  (Leipzig, 1882, and Langensalza, 1887). The following are the most
  important: _Allgemeine Pädagogik_ (1806; new ed., 1894); _Hauptpunkte
  der Metaphysik_ (1808); _Allgemeine praktische Philosophie_ (1808);
  _Lehrbuch zur Einleitung in die Philosophie_ (1813; new ed. by
  Hartenstein, 1883); _Lehrbuch der Psychologie_ (1816; new ed. by
  Hartenstein, 1887); _Psychologie als Wissenschaft_ (1824-1825);
  _Allgemeine Metaphysik_ (1828-1829); _Encyklopädie der Philosophie_
  (2nd ed., 1841); _Umriss pädagogischer Vorlesungen_ (2nd ed., 1841);
  _Psychologische Untersuchungen_ (1839-1840).

  Some of his works have been translated into English under the
  following titles: _Textbook in Psychology_, by M. K. Smith (1891);
  _The Science of Education and the Aesthetic Revelation of the World_
  (1892), and _Letters and Lectures on Education_ (1898), by H. M. and
  E. Felkin; _A B C of Sense Perception and minor pedagogical works_
  (New York, 1896), by W. J. Eckhoff and others; _Application of
  Psychology to the Science of Education_ (1898), by B. C. Mulliner;
  _Outlines of Educational Doctrine_, by A. F. Lange (1901).

  There is a life of Herbart in Hartenstein's introduction to his
  _Kleinere philosophische Schriften und Abhandlungen_ (1842-1843) and
  by F. H. T. Allihn in _Zeitschrift für exacte Philosophie_ (Leipzig,
  1861), the organ of Herbart and his school, which ceased to appear in
  1873. In America the National Society for the Scientific Study of
  Education was originally founded as the National Herbart Society.

  Of the large number of writings dealing with Herbart's works and
  theories, the following may be mentioned: H. A. Fechner, _Zur Kritik
  der Grundlagen von Herbart's Metaphysik_ (Leipzig, 1853); J. Kaftan,
  _Sollen und Sein in ihrem Verhältniss zu einander: eine Studie zur
  Kritik Herbarts_ (Leipzig, 1872); M. W. Drobisch, _Über die
  Fortbildung der Philosophie durch Herbart_ (Leipzig, 1876); K. S.
  Just, _Die Fortbildung der Kant'schen Ethik durch Herbart_ (Eisenach,
  1876); C. Ufer, _Vorschule der Pädagogik Herbarts_ (1883; Eng. tr. by
  J. C. Zinser, 1895); G. Közle, _Die pädagogische Schule Herbarts und
  ihre Lehre_ (Gutersloh, 1889); L. Strümpell, _Das System der Pädagogik
  Herbarts_ (Leipzig, 1894); J. Christinger, _Herbarts Erziehungslehre
  und ihre Fortbildner_ (Zürich, 1895); O. H. Lang, _Outline of
  Herbart's Pedagogics_ (1894); H. M. and E. Felkin, _Introduction to
  Herbart's Science and Practice of Education_ (1895); C. de Garmo,
  _Herbart and the Herbartians_ (New York, 1895); E. Wagner, _Die Praxis
  der Herbartianer_ (Langensalza, 1897) and _Vollständige Darstellung
  der Lehre Herbarts_ (ib., 1899); J. Adams, _The Herbartian Psychology
  applied to Education_ (1897); F. H. Hayward, _The Student's Herbart_
  (1902), _The Critics of Herbartianism_ (1903), _Three Historical
  Educators: Pestalozzi, Fröbel, Herbart_ (1905), _The Secret of
  Herbart_ (1907), _The Meaning of Education as interpreted by Herbart_
  (1907); W. Kinkel, _J. F. Herbart: sein Leben und seine Philosophie_
  (1903); A. Darroch, _Herbart and the Herbartian Theory of Education_
  (1903); C. J. Dodd, _Introduction to the Herbartian Principles of
  Teaching_ (1904); J. Davidson, _A new Interpretation of Herbart's
  Psychology and Educational Theory through the Philosophy of Leibnitz_
  (1906); see also J. M. Baldwin, _Dictionary of Psychology and
  Philosophy_ (1901-1905).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Hence Herbart gave the name Synechology to this branch of
    metaphysics, instead of the usual one, Cosmology.

  [2] Thus, taking the case above supposed, the share of the inhibendum
    falling to the smaller presentation b is the fourth term of the
    proportion a + b : a :: b : ab/(a + b); and so b's remainder is b
    - ab/(a + b) = b^2/(a + b), which only = 0 when a = [infinity].



HERBELOT DE MOLAINVILLE, BARTHÉLEMY D' (1625-1695), French orientalist,
was born on the 14th of December 1625 at Paris. He was educated at the
university of Paris, and devoted himself to the study of oriental
languages, going to Italy to perfect himself in them by converse with
the orientals who frequented its sea-ports. There he also made the
acquaintance of Holstenius, the Dutch humanist (1596-1661), and Leo
Allatius, the Greek scholar (1586-1669). On his return to France after a
year and a half, he was received into the house of Fouquet,
superintendent of finance, who gave him a pension of 1500 livres. Losing
this on the disgrace of Fouquet in 1661, he was appointed secretary and
interpreter of Eastern languages to the king. A few years later he again
visited Italy, when the grand-duke Ferdinand II. of Tuscany presented
him with a large number of valuable Oriental MSS., and tried to attach
him to his court. Herbelot, however, was recalled to France by Colbert,
and received from the king a pension equal to the one he had lost. In
1692 he succeeded D'Auvergne in the chair of Syriac, in the Collège de
France. He died in Paris on the 8th of December 1695. His great work is
the _Bibliothèque orientale, ou dictionnaire universel contenant tout
ce qui regarde la connaissance des peuples de l'Orient_, which occupied
him nearly all his life, and was completed in 1697 by A. Galland. It is
based on the immense Arabic dictionary of Hadji Khalfa, of which indeed
it is largely an abridged translation, but it also contains the
substance of a vast number of other Arabic and Turkish compilations and
manuscripts.

  The _Bibliothèque_ was reprinted at Maestricht (fol. 1776), and at the
  Hague (4 vols. 4to, 1777-1799). The latter edition is enriched with
  the contributions of the Dutch orientalist Schultens, Johann Jakob
  Reiske (1716-1774), and by a supplement provided by Visdelow and
  Galland. Herbelot's other works, none of which have been published,
  comprise an _Oriental Anthology_, and an _Arabic, Persian, Turkish and
  Latin Dictionary_.



HERBERAY DES ESSARTS, NICOLAS DE (d. about 1557), French translator, was
born in Picardy. He served in the artillery, and at the expressed desire
of Francis I. he translated into French the first eight books of _Amadis
de Gaul_ (1540-1548). The remaining books were translated by other
authors. His other translations from the Spanish include _L'Amant
maltraité de sa mye_ (1539); _Le Premier Livre de la chronique de dom
Florès de Grèce_ (1552); and _L'Horloge des princes_ (1555) from
Guevara. He also translated the works of Josephus (1557). He died about
1557. The _Amadis de Gaul_ was translated into English by Anthony Munday
in 1619.



HERBERT (FAMILY). The sudden rising of this English family to great
wealth and high place is the more remarkable in that its elevation
belongs to the 15th century and not to that age of the Tudors when many
new men made their way upwards into the ranks of the nobility. Earlier
generations of a pedigree which carries the origin of the Herberts to
Herbert the Chamberlain, a Domesday tenant, being disregarded, their
patriarch may be taken to be one Jenkin ap Adam (temp. Edward III.), who
had a small Monmouthshire estate at Llanvapley and the office of master
sergeant of the lordship of Abergavenny, a place which gave him
precedence after the steward of that lordship. Jenkin's son, Gwilim ap
Jenkin, who followed his father as master sergeant, is given six sons by
the border genealogists, no less than six score pedigrees finding their
origin in these six brothers. Their order is uncertain, although the
Progers of Werndee, the last of whom sold his ancestral estate in 1780,
are reckoned as the senior line of Gwilim's descendants. But Thomas ap
Gwilim Jenkin, called the fourth son, is ancestor of all those who bore
the surname of Herbert.

Thomas's fifth son, William or Gwilim ap Thomas, who died in 1446, was
the first man of the family to make any figure in history. This Gwilim
ap Thomas was steward of the lordships of Usk and Caerleon under
Richard, duke of York. Legend makes him a knight on the field of
Agincourt, but his knighthood belongs to the year 1426. He appears to
have married twice, his first wife being Elizabeth Bluet of Raglan,
widow of Sir James Berkeley, and his second a daughter of David Gam, a
valiant Welsh squire slain at Agincourt. Royal favour enriched Sir
William, and he was able to buy Raglan Castle from the Lord Berkeley,
his first wife's son, the deed, which remains among the Beaufort
muniments, refuting the pedigree-maker's statement that he inherited the
castle as heir of his mother "Maude, daughter of Sir John Morley." His
sons William and Richard, both partisans of the White Rose, took the
surname of Herbert in or before 1461. Playing a part in English affairs
remote from the Welsh Marches, their lack of a surname may well have
inconvenienced them, and their choice of the name Herbert can only be
explained by the suggestion that their long pedigree from Herbert the
Chamberlain, absurdly represented as a bastard son of Henry I., must
already have been discovered for them. Copies exist of an alleged
commission issued by Edward IV. to a committee of Welsh bards for the
ascertaining of the true ancestry of William Herbert, earl of Pembroke,
whom "the chiefest men of skill" in the province of South Wales declare
to be the descendant of "Herbert, a noble lord, natural son to King
Henry the first," and it is recited that King Edward, after the creation
of the earldom, commanded the earl and Sir Richard his brother to "take
their surnames after their first progenitor Herbert fitz Roy and to
forego the British order and manner." But this commission, whose date
anticipates by some years the true date of the creation of the earldom,
is the work of one of the many genealogical forgers who flourished under
the Tudors.

Sir William Herbert, called by the Welsh Gwilim Ddu or Black William,
was a baron in 1461 and a Knight of the Garter in the following year.
With many manors and castles on the Marches he had the castle, town and
lordship of Pembroke, and after the attainder of Jasper Tudor in 1468
was created earl of Pembroke. When in July 1469 he was taken by Sir John
Conyers and the northern Lancastrians on Hedgecote, he was beheaded with
his brother Sir Richard Herbert of Coldbrook. The second earl while
still a minor exchanged at the king's desire in 1479 his earldom of
Pembroke for that of Huntingdon. In 1484 this son of one whom Hall not
unjustly describes as born "a mean gentleman" contracted to marry
Katharine the daughter of King Richard III., but her death annulled the
contract and the earl married Mary, daughter of the Earl Rivers, by whom
he had a daughter Elizabeth, whose descendants, the Somersets, lived in
the Herbert's castle of Raglan until the cannon of the parliament broke
it in ruins. With the second earl's death in 1491 the first Herbert
earldom became extinct. No claim being set up among the other
descendants of the first earl, it may be taken that their lines were
illegitimate. One of the chief difficulties which beset the genealogist
of the Herberts lies in their Cambrian disregard of the marriage tie,
bastards and legitimate issue growing up, it would seem, side by side in
their patriarchal households. Thus the ancestor of the present earls of
Pembroke and Carnarvon and of the Herbert who was created marquess of
Powis was a natural son of the first earl, one Richard Herbert, whom the
restored inscription on his tomb at Abergavenny incorrectly describes as
a knight. He was constable and porter of Abergavenny Castle, and his son
William, "a mad fighting fellow" in his youth, married a sister of
Catherine Parr and thus in 1543 became nearly allied to the king, who
made him one of the executors of his will. The earldom of Pembroke was
revived for him in 1551. It is worthy of note that all traces of
illegitimacy have long since been removed from the arms of the noble
descendants of Richard Herbert.

The honours and titles of this clan of marchmen make a long list. They
include the marquessate of Powis, two earldoms with the title of
Pembroke, two with that of Powis, and the earldoms of Huntingdon and
Montgomery, Torrington and Carnarvon, the viscountcies of Montgomery and
Ludlow, fourteen baronies and seven baronetcies. Seven Herberts have
worn the Garter. The knights and rich squires of the stock can hardly be
reckoned, more especially as they must be sought among Raglans, Morgans,
Parrys, Vaughans, Progers, Hugheses, Thomases, Philips, Powels, Gwyns,
Evanses and Joneses, as well as among those who have borne the surname
of Herbert, a surname which in the 19th century was adopted by the
Joneses of Llanarth and Clytha, although they claim no descent from
those sons of Sir William ap Thomas for whom it was devised.     (O. Ba.)



HERBERT, GEORGE (1593-1633), English poet, was born at Montgomery Castle
on the 3rd of April 1593. He was the fifth son of Sir Richard Herbert
and a brother of Lord Herbert of Cherbury. His mother, Lady Magdalen
Herbert, a woman of great good sense and sweetness of character, and a
friend of John Donne, exercised great influence over her son. Educated
privately until 1605, he was then sent to Westminster School, and in
1609 he became a scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was
made B.A. in 1613, M.A. and major fellow of the college in 1616. In 1618
he became Reader in Rhetoric, and in 1619 orator for the university. In
this capacity he was several times brought into contact with King James.
From Cambridge he wrote some Latin satiric verses[1] in defence of the
universities and the English Church against Andrew Melville, a Scottish
Presbyterian minister. He numbered among his friends Dr Donne, Sir
Henry Wotton, Izaak Walton, Bishop Andrewes and Francis Bacon, who
dedicated to him his translation of the Psalms. Walton tells us that
"the love of a court conversation, mixed with a laudable ambition to be
something more than he was, drew him often from Cambridge to attend the
king wheresoever the court was," and James I. gave him in 1623 the
sinecure lay rectory of Whitford, Flintshire, worth £120 a year. The
death of his patrons, the duke of Richmond and the marquess of Hamilton,
and of King James put an end to his hopes of political preferment;
moreover he probably distrusted the conduct of affairs under the new
reign. Largely influenced by his mother, he decided to take holy orders,
and in July 1626 he was appointed prebendary of Layton Ecclesia
(Leighton Bromswold), Huntingdon. Here he was within two miles of Little
Gidding, and came under the influence of Nicholas Ferrar. It was at
Ferrar's suggestion that he undertook to rebuild the church at Layton,
an undertaking carried through by his own gifts and the generosity of
his friends. There is little doubt that the close friendship with Ferrar
had a large share in Herbert's adoption of the religious life. In 1630
Charles I., at the instance of the earl of Pembroke, whose kinsman
Herbert was, presented him to the living of Fugglestone with Bemerton,
near Salisbury, and he was ordained priest in September. A year before,
after three days' acquaintance, he had married Jane Danvers, whose
father had been set on the marriage for a long time. He had often spoken
of his daughter Jane to Herbert, and "so much commended Mr Herbert to
her, that Jane became so much a Platonic as to fall in love with Mr
Herbert unseen." The story of the poet's life at Bemerton, as told by
Walton, is one of the most exquisite pictures in literary biography. He
devoted much time to explaining the meaning of the various parts of the
Prayer-Book, and held services twice every day, at which many of the
parishioners attended, and some "let their plough rest when Mr Herbert's
saints-bell rung to prayers, that they might also offer their devotions
to God with him." Next to Christianity itself he loved the English
Church. He was passionately fond of music, and his own hymns were
written to the accompaniment of his lute or viol. He usually walked
twice a week to attend the cathedral at Salisbury, and before returning
home, would "sing and play his part" at a meeting of music lovers.
Walton illustrates Herbert's kindness to the poor by many touching
anecdotes, but he had not been three years in Bemerton when he succumbed
to consumption. He was buried beneath the altar of his church on the 3rd
of March 1633.

None of Herbert's English poems was published during his lifetime. On
his death-bed he gave to Nicholas Ferrar a manuscript with the title
_The Temple: Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations_. This was published
at Cambridge, apparently for private circulation, almost immediately
after Herbert's death, and a second imprint followed in the same year.
On the title-page of both is the quotation "In his Temple doth every man
speak of his honour." _The Temple_ is a collection of religious poems
connected by unity of sentiment and inspiration. Herbert tried to
interpret his own devout meditations by applying images of all kinds to
the ritual and beliefs of the Church. Nothing in his own church at
Bemerton was too commonplace to serve as a starting-point for the
epigrammatic expression of his piety. The church key reminds him that
"it is my sin that locks his handes," and the stones of the floor are
patience and humility, while the cement that binds them together is love
and charity. The chief faults of the book are obscurity, verbal conceits
and a forced ingenuity which shows itself in grotesque puns, odd metres
and occasional want of taste. But the quaint beauty of Herbert's style
and its musical quality give _The Temple_ a high place. "The Church
Porch," "The Agony," "Sin," "Sunday," "Virtue," "Man," "The British
Church," "The Quip," "The Collar," "The Pulley," "The Flower," "Aaron"
and "The Elixir" are among the best known of these poems. Herbert and
Keble are the poets of Anglican theology. No book is fuller of devotion
to the Church of England than _The Temple_, and no poems in our language
exhibit more of the spirit of true Christianity. Every page is marked by
transparent sincerity, and reflects the beautiful character of "holy
George Herbert."

  Nicholas Ferrar's translation (Oxford, 1638) of the _Hundred and Ten
  Considerations ..._ of Juan de Valdes contained a letter and notes by
  Herbert. In 1652 appeared _Herbert's Remains; or, Sundry Pieces of
  that Sweet Singer of the Temple, Mr George Herbert_. This included _A
  Priest to the Temple; or, The Country Parson, his Character, and Rule
  of Holy Life_, in prose; _Jacula prudentum_, a collection of proverbs
  with a separate title-page dated 1651, which had appeared in a shorter
  form as _Outlandish Proverbs_ in 1640; and some miscellaneous matter.
  The completest edition of his works is that by Dr A. B. Grosart in
  1874, this edition of the Poetical works being reproduced in the
  "Aldine edition" in 1876. _The English Works of George Herbert ..._ (3
  vols., 1905) were edited in much detail by G. H. Palmer. A
  contemporary account of Herbert's life by Barnabas Oley was prefixed
  to the _Remains_ of 1652, but the classic authority is Izaak Walton's
  _Life of Mr George Herbert_, published in 1670, with some letters from
  Herbert to his mother. See also A. G. Hyde, _George Herbert and his
  Times_ (1907), and the "Oxford" edition of his poems by A. Waugh
  (1908).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Printed in 1662 as an appendix to J. Vivian's _Ecclesiastes
    Solomonis_.



HERBERT, HENRY WILLIAM ["Frank Forester"] (1807-1858), English novelist
and writer on sport, son of the Hon. and Rev. William Herbert, dean of
Manchester, a son of the first earl of Carnarvon, was born in London on
the 3rd of April 1807. He was educated at Eton and at Caius College,
Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1830. Having become involved in
debt, he emigrated to America, and from 1831 to 1839 was teacher of
Greek in a private school in New York. In 1833 he started the _American
Monthly Magazine_, which he edited, in conjunction with A. D. Patterson,
till 1835. In 1834 he published his first novel, _The Brothers: a Tale
of the Fronde_, which was followed by a number of others which obtained
a certain degree of popularity. He also wrote a series of historical
studies, including _The Cavaliers of England_ (1852), _The Knights of
England, France and Scotland_ (1852), _The Chevaliers of France_ (1853),
and _The Captains of the Old World_ (1851); but he is best known for his
works on sport, published under the pseudonym of "Frank Forester." These
include _The Field Sports of the United States and British Provinces_
(1849), _Frank Forester and his Friends_ (1849), _The Fish and Fishing
of the United States_ (1850), _The Young Sportsman's Complete Manual_
(1852), and _The Horse and Horsemanship in the United States and British
Provinces of North America_ (1858). He also translated many of the
novels of Eugene Sue and Alexandre Dumas. Herbert was a man of varied
accomplishments, but of somewhat dissipated habits. He died by his own
hand in New York on the 17th of May 1858.



HERBERT, SIR THOMAS (1606-1682), English traveller and author, was born
at York in 1606. Several of his ancestors were aldermen and merchants in
that city--e.g. his grandfather and benefactor, Alderman Herbert (d.
1614)--and they traced a connexion with the earls of Pembroke. Thomas
became a commoner of Jesus College, Oxford, in 1621, but afterwards
removed to Cambridge, through the influence of his uncle Dr Ambrose
Akroyd. In 1627 the earl of Pembroke procured his appointment in the
suite of Sir Dodmore Cotton, then starting as ambassador for Persia with
Sir Robert Shirley. Sailing in March they visited the Cape, Madagascar,
Goa and Surat; landing at Gambrun (10th of January 1627-1628), they
travelled inland to Ashraf and thence to Kazvin, where both Cotton and
Shirley died, and whence Herbert made extensive travels in the Persian
_Hinterland_, visiting Kashan, Bagdad, &c. On his return voyage he
touched at Ceylon, the Coromandel coast, Mauritius and St Helena. He
reached England in 1629, travelled in Europe in 1630-1631, married in
1632 and retired from court in 1634 (his prospects perhaps blighted by
Pembroke's death in 1630); after this he resided on his Tintern estate
and elsewhere till the Civil War, siding with the parliament till his
appointment to attend on the king in 1646. Becoming a devoted royalist,
he was rewarded with a baronetcy at the Restoration (1660). He resided
mainly in York Street, Westminster, till the Great Plague (1666), when
he retired to York, where he died (at Petergate House) on the 1st of
March 1682.

  Herbert's chief work is the _Description of the Persian Monarchy now
  beinge: the Orientall Indyes, Iles and other parts of the Greater Asia
  and Africk_ (1634), reissued with additions, &c., in 1638 as _Some
  Yeares Travels into Africa and Asia the Great_ (al. _into divers parts
  of Asia and Afrique_); a third edition followed in 1664, and a fourth
  in 1677. This is one of the best records of 17th-century travel. Among
  its illustrations are remarkable sketches of the dodo, cuneiform
  inscriptions and Persepolis. Herbert's _Threnodia Carolina; or,
  Memoirs of the two last years of the reign of that unparallell'd
  prince of ever blessed memory King Charles I._, was in great part
  printed at the author's request in Wood's _Athenae Oxonienses_; in
  full by Dr C. Goodall in his _Collection of Tracts_ (1702, repr. G. &
  W. Nicol, 1813). Sir William Dugdale is understood to have received
  assistance from Herbert in the _Monasticon Anglicanum_, vol. iv.; see
  two of Herbert's papers on St John's, Beverley and Ripon collegiate
  church, now cathedral, in Drake's _Eboracum_ (appendix). Cf. also
  Robert Davies' account of Herbert in _The Yorkshire Archaeological and
  Topographical Journal_, part iii., pp. 182-214 (1870), containing a
  facsimile of the inscription on Herbert's tomb; Wood's _Athenae_, iv.
  15-41; and _Fasti_, ii. 26, 131, 138, 143-144, 150.



HERBERT OF CHERBURY, EDWARD HERBERT, BARON (1583-1648), English soldier,
diplomatist, historian and religious philosopher, eldest son of Richard
Herbert of Montgomery Castle (a member of a collateral branch of the
family of the earls of Pembroke) and of Magdalen, daughter of Sir
Richard Newport, was born at Eyton-on-Severn near Wroxeter on the 3rd of
March 1583. After careful private tuition he matriculated at University
College, Oxford, as a gentleman commoner, in May 1596. On the 28th of
February 1599 he married his cousin Mary, daughter and heiress of Sir
William Herbert (d. 1593). He returned to Oxford with his wife and
mother, continued his studies, and obtained proficiency in modern
languages as well as in music, riding and fencing. On the accession of
James I. he presented himself at court and was created a knight of the
Bath on the 24th of July 1603. In 1608 he went to Paris, enjoying the
friendship and hospitality of the old constable de Montmorency, and
being entertained by Henry IV. On his return, as he says himself with
naïve vanity, he was "in great esteem both in court and city, many of
the greatest desiring my company." In 1610 he served as a volunteer in
the Low Countries under the prince of Orange, whose intimate friend he
became, and distinguished himself at the capture of Juliers from the
emperor. He offered to decide the war by engaging in single combat with
a champion chosen from among the enemy, but his challenge was declined.
During an interval in the fighting he paid a visit to Spinola, in the
Spanish camp near Wezel, and afterwards to the elector palatine at
Heidelberg, subsequently travelling in Italy. At the instance of the
duke of Savoy he led an expedition of 4000 Huguenots from Languedoc into
Piedmont to help the Savoyards against Spain, but after nearly losing
his life in the journey to Lyons he was imprisoned on his arrival there,
and the enterprise came to nothing. Thence he returned to the
Netherlands and the prince of Orange, arriving in England in 1617. In
1619 he was made by Buckingham ambassador at Paris, but a quarrel with
de Luynes and a challenge sent by him to the latter occasioned his
recall in 1621. After the death of de Luynes Herbert resumed his post in
February 1622. He was very popular at the French court and showed
considerable diplomatic ability, his chief objects being to accomplish
the union between Charles and Henrietta Maria and secure the assistance
of Louis XIII. for the unfortunate elector palatine. This latter
advantage he could not obtain, and he was dismissed in April 1624. He
returned home greatly in debt and received little reward for his
services beyond the Irish peerage of Castle island in 1624 and the
English barony of Cherbury, or Chirbury, on the 7th of May 1629. In 1632
he was appointed a member of the council of war. He attended the king at
York in 1639, and in May 1642 was imprisoned by the parliament for
urging the addition of the words "without cause" to the resolution that
the king violated his oath by making war on parliament. He determined
after this to take no further part in the struggle, retired to
Montgomery Castle, and declined the king's summons. On the 5th of
September 1644 he surrendered the castle to the parliamentary forces,
returned to London, submitted, and was granted a pension of £20 a week.
In 1647 he paid a visit to Gassendi at Paris, and died in London on the
20th of August, 1648, being buried in the church of St Giles's in the
Fields.

Lord Herbert left two sons, Richard (c. 1600-1655), who succeeded him as
2nd Lord Herbert of Cherbury, and Edward, the title becoming extinct in
the person of Henry Herbert, the 4th baron, grandson of the 1st Lord
Herbert in 1691. In 1694, however, it was revived in favour of Henry
Herbert (1654-1709), son of Sir Henry Herbert (1595-1673), brother of
the 1st Lord Herbert of Cherbury. Sir Henry was master of the revels to
Charles I. and Charles II., being busily employed in reading and
licensing plays and in supervising all kinds of public entertainments.
He died in April 1673; his son Henry died in January 1709, when the
latter's son Henry became 2nd Lord Herbert of Cherbury of the second
creation. He died without issue in April 1738, and again the barony
became extinct. In 1743 it was revived for Henry Arthur Herbert (c.
1703-1772), who five years later was created earl of Powis. This
nobleman was a great-grandson of the 2nd Lord Herbert of Cherbury of the
first creation, and since his time the barony has been held by the earls
of Powis.

Lord Herbert's cousin, Sir Edward Herbert (c. 1591-1657), was a member
of parliament under James I. and Charles I. Having become
attorney-general he was instructed by Charles to take proceedings
against some members of parliament who had been concerned in the passing
of the Grand Remonstrance; the only result, however, was Herbert's own
impeachment by the House of Commons and his imprisonment. Later in life
he was with the exiled royal family in Holland and in France, becoming
lord keeper of the great seal to Charles II., an office which he had
refused in 1645. He died in Paris in December 1657. One of Herbert's son
was Arthur Herbert, earl of Torrington, and another was Sir Edward
Herbert (c. 1648-1698), titular earl of Portland, who was made chief
justice of the king's bench in 1685 in succession to Lord Jeffreys. It
was Sir Edward who declared for the royal prerogative in the case of
_Godden_ v. _Hales_, asserting that the kings of England, being
sovereign princes, could dispense with particular laws in particular
cases. After the escape of James II. to France this king made Herbert
his lord chancellor and created him earl of Portland, although he was a
Protestant and had exhibited a certain amount of independence during
1687.

  The first Lord Herbert's real claim to fame and remembrance is derived
  from his writings. Herbert's first and most important work is the _De
  veritate prout distinguitur a revelatione, a verisimili, a possibili,
  et a falso_ (Paris, 1624; London, 1633; translated into French 1639,
  but never into English; a MS. in add. MSS. 7081. Another, Sloane MSS.
  3957, has the author's dedication to his brother George in his own
  hand, dated 1622). It combines a theory of knowledge with a partial
  psychology, a methodology for the investigation of truth, and a scheme
  of natural religion. The author's method is prolix and often far from
  clear; the book is no compact system, but it contains the skeleton and
  much of the soul of a complete philosophy. Giving up all past theories
  as useless, Herbert professedly endeavours to constitute a new and
  true system. Truth, which he defines as a just conformation of the
  faculties with one another and with their objects, he distributed into
  four classes or stages: (1) truth in the thing or the truth of the
  object; (2) truth of the appearance; (3) truth of the apprehension
  (_conceptus_); (4) truth of the intellect. The faculties of the mind
  are as numerous as the differences of their objects, and are
  accordingly innumerable; but they may be arranged in four groups. The
  first and fundamental and most certain group is the _Natural
  Instinct_, to which belong the [Greek: koinai ennoiai], the _notitiae
  communes_, which are innate, of divine origin and indisputable. The
  second group, the next in certainty, is the _sensus internus_ (under
  which head Herbert discusses amongst others love, hate, fear,
  conscience with its _communis notitia_, and free will); the third is
  the _sensus externus_; and the fourth is _discursus_, reasoning, to
  which, as being the least certain, we have recourse when the other
  faculties fail. The ratiocinative faculties proceed by division and
  analysis, by questioning, and are slow and gradual in their movement;
  they take aid from the other faculties, those of the _instinctus
  naturalis_ being always the final test. Herbert's categories or
  questions to be used in investigation are ten in number whether (a
  thing is), what, of what sort, how much, in what relation, how, when,
  where, whence, wherefore. No faculty, rightly used, can err "even in
  dreams"; badly exercised, reasoning becomes the source of almost all
  our errors. The discussion of the _notitiae communes_ is the most
  characteristic part of the book. The exposition of them, though highly
  dogmatic, is at times strikingly Kantian in substance. "So far are
  these elements or sacred principles from being derived from experience
  or observation that without some of them, or at least some one of
  them, we can neither experience nor even observe." Unless we felt
  driven by them to explore the nature of things, "it would never occur
  to us to distinguish one thing from another." It cannot be said that
  Herbert proves the existence of the common notions; he does not deduce
  them or even give any list of them. But each faculty has its common
  notion; and they may be distinguished by six marks, their _priority_,
  _independence_, _universality_, _certainty_, _necessity_ (for the
  well-being of man), and _immediacy_. Law is based on certain _common
  notions_; so is religion. Though Herbert expressly defines the scope
  of his book as dealing with the intellect, not faith, it is the common
  notions of religion he has illustrated most fully; and it is plain
  that it is in this part of his system that he is chiefly interested.
  The common notions of religion are the famous five articles, which
  became the charter of the English deists (see DEISM). There is little
  polemic against the received form of Christianity, but Herbert's
  attitude towards the Church's doctrine is distinctly negative, and he
  denies revelation except to the individual soul. In the _De religione
  gentilium_ (completed 1645, published Amsterdam, 1663, translated into
  English by W. Lewis, London, 1705) he gives what may be called, in
  Hume's words, "a natural history of religion." By examining the
  heathen religions Herbert finds, to his great delight, the
  universality of his five great articles, and that these are clearly
  recognizable under their absurdities as they are under the rites,
  ceremonies and polytheism invented by sacerdotal superstition. The
  same vein is maintained in the tracts _De causis errorum_, an
  unfinished work on logical fallacies, _Religio laici_, and _Ad
  sacerdotes de religione laici_ (1645). In the _De veritate_ Herbert
  produced the first purely metaphysical treatise written by an
  Englishman, and in the _De religione gentilium_ one of the earliest
  studies extant in comparative theology; while both his metaphysical
  speculations and his religious views are throughout distinguished by
  the highest originality and provoked considerable controversy. His
  achievements in historical writing are vastly inferior, and vitiated
  by personal aims and his preoccupation to gain the royal favour.
  Herbert's first historical work is the _Expeditio Buckinghami ducis_
  (published in a Latin translation in 1656 and in the original English
  by the earl of Powis for the Philobiblon Society in 1860), a defence
  of Buckingham's conduct of the ill-fated expedition of 1627. _The Life
  and Raigne of King Henry VIII._ (1649) derives its chief value from
  its composition from original documents, but is ill-proportioned, and
  the author judges the character and statesmanship of Henry with too
  obvious a partiality.

  His poems, published in 1665 (reprinted and edited by J. Churton
  Collins in 1881), show him in general a faithful disciple of Donne,
  obscure and uncouth. His satires are miserable compositions, but a few
  of his lyrical verses show power of reflection and true inspiration,
  while his use of the metre afterwards employed by Tennyson in his "In
  Memoriam" is particularly happy and effective. His Latin poems are
  evidence of his scholarship. Three of these had appeared together with
  the _De causis errorum_ in 1645. To these works must be added _A
  Dialogue between a Tutor and a Pupil_ (1768; a treatise on education,
  MS. in the Bodleian Library); a treatise on the king's supremacy in
  the Church (MS. in the Record Office and at Queen's College, Oxford),
  and his well-known autobiography, first published by Horace Walpole in
  1764, a naïve and amusing narrative, too much occupied, however, with
  his duels and amorous adventures, to the exclusion of more creditable
  incidents in his career, such as his contributions to philosophy and
  history, his intimacy with Donne, Ben Jonson, Selden and Carew,
  Casaubon, Gassendi and Grotius, or his embassy in France, in relation
  to which he only described the splendour of his retinue and his social
  triumphs.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The autobiography edited by Sidney Lee with
  correspondence from add. MSS. 7082 (1886); article in the _Dict. of
  Nat. Biog._ by the same writer and the list of authorities there
  collated; _Hist. MSS. Comm. Rep._ x. app. iv., 378; _Lord Herbert de
  Cherbury_, by Charles de Rémusat (1874); _Eduard, Lord Herbert von
  Cherbury_, by C. Güttler (a criticism of his philosophy; 1897);
  _Collections Historical and Archaeological_ relating to
  Montgomeryshire, vols. vii., xi., xx.; R. Warner's _Epistolary
  Curiosities_, i. ser.; Reid's works, edited by Sir William Hamilton;
  _National Review_, xxxv. 661 (Leslie Stephen); Locke's _Essay on Human
  Understanding_; Wood, _Ath. Oxon._ (Bliss), iii. 239; _Gentleman's
  Magazine_ (1816), i. 201 (print of remains of his birthplace); _Lord
  Herbert's Poems_, ed. by J. Churton Collins (1881); Aubrey's _Lives of
  Eminent Men_; also works quoted under DEISM.



HERBERT OF LEA, SIDNEY HERBERT, 1ST BARON (1810-1861), English
statesman, was the younger son of the 11th earl of Pembroke. Educated at
Harrow and Oriel, Oxford, he made a reputation at the Oxford Union as a
speaker, and entered the House of Commons as Conservative member for a
division of Wiltshire in 1832. Under Peel he held minor offices, and in
1845 was included in the cabinet as secretary at war, and again held
this office in 1852-1855, being responsible for the War Office during
the Crimean difficulties, and in 1859. It was Sidney Herbert who sent
Florence Nightingale out to the Crimea, and he led the movement for War
Office reform after the war, the hard work entailed causing his
breakdown in health, so that in July 1861, having been created a baron,
he had to resign office, and died on the 2nd of August 1861. His statue
was placed in front of the War Office in Pall Mall. He was succeeded in
the title by his eldest son, who later became 13th earl of Pembroke, and
the barony is now merged in that earldom; his second son became 14th
earl. Another son, the Hon. Michael Herbert (1857-1904), was British
Ambassador at Washington in succession to Lord Pauncefote.

  A life of Lord Herbert by Lord Stanmore was published in 1906.



HERBERTON, a mining town of Cardwell county, Queensland, Australia, 55
m. S.W. of Cairns. Pop. (1901) 2806. Tin was discovered in the locality
in 1879, and to this mineral the town chiefly owes its prosperity,
though copper, bismuth and some silver and gold are also found.
Atherton, 12 m. from the town, is served by rail from Cairns, which is
the port for the Herberton district.



HERCULANEUM, an ancient city of Italy, situated about two-thirds of a
mile from the Portici station of the railway from Naples to Pompeii. The
ruins are less frequently visited than those of Pompeii, not only
because they are smaller in extent and of less obvious interest, but
also because they are more difficult of access. The history of their
discovery and exploration, and the artistic and literary relics which
they have yielded, are worthy, however, of particular notice. The small
part of the city, which was investigated at the spot called _Gli scavi
nuovi_ (the new excavations) was discovered in the 19th century. But the
more important works were executed in the 18th century; and of the
buildings then explored at a great depth, by means of tunnels, none is
visible except the theatre, the orchestra of which lies 85 ft. below the
surface.

The brief notices of the classical writers inform us that Herculaneum[1]
was a small city of Campania between Neapolis and Pompeii, that it was
situated between two streams at the foot of Vesuvius on a hill
overlooking the sea, and that its harbour was at all seasons safe. With
regard to its earlier history nothing is known. The account given by
Dionysius repeats a tradition which was most natural for a city bearing
the name of Hercules. Strabo follows up the topographical data with a
few brief historical statements--[Greek: Oskoi eichon kai tautên kai tên
ephexês Pompêian ... eita Turrhênoi kai Pelasgoi, meta tauta Saunitai].
But leaving the questions suggested by these names (see ETRURIA,
&c.),[2] as well as those which relate to the origin of Pompeii (q.v.),
it is sufficient here to say that the first historical record about
Herculaneum has been handed down by Livy (viii. 25), where he relates
how the city fell under the power of Rome during the Samnite wars. It
remained faithful to Rome for a long time, but it joined the Italian
allies in the Social War. Having submitted anew in June of the year 665
(88 B.C.), it appears to have been less severely treated than Pompeii,
and to have escaped the imposition of a colony of Sulla's veterans,
although Zumpt has suspected the contrary (_Comm. epigr._ i. 259). It
afterwards became a municipium, and enjoyed great prosperity towards the
close of the republic and in the earlier times of the empire, since many
noble families of Rome selected this pleasant spot for the construction
of splendid villas, one of which indeed belonged to the imperial house
(Seneca, _De ira_, iii.), and another to the family of Calpurnius Piso.
By means of the Via Campana it had easy communication north-westward
with Neapolis, Puteoli and Capua, and thence by the Via Appia with Rome;
and southwards with Pompeii and Nuceria, and thence with Lucania and the
Bruttii. In the year A.D. 63 it suffered terribly from the earthquake
which, according to Seneca, "Campaniam nunquam securam huius mali,
indemnem tamen, et toties defunctam metu magna strage vastavit. Nam et
Herculanensis oppidi pars ruit dubieque stant etiam quae relicta sunt"
(_Nat. quaest._ vi. 1). Hardly had Herculaneum completed the restoration
of some of its principal buildings (cf. Mommsen, I.N. n. 2384; _Catalogo
del Museo Nazionale di Napoli_, n. 1151) when it fell beneath the great
eruption of the year 79, described by Pliny the younger (_Ep._ vi. 16,
20), in which Pompeii also was destroyed, with other flourishing cities
of Campania. According to the commonest account, on the 23rd of August
of that year Pliny the elder, who had command of the Roman fleet at
Misenum, set out to render assistance to a young lady of noble family
named Rectina and others dwelling on that coast, but, as there was no
escape by sea, the little harbour having been on a sudden filled up so
as to be inaccessible, he was obliged to abandon to their fate those
people of Herculaneum who had managed to flee from their houses,
overwhelmed in a moment by the material poured forth by Vesuvius. But
the text of Pliny the younger, where this account is given, has been
subjected to various interpretations; and from the comparison of other
classical testimonies and the study of the excavations it has been
concluded that it is impossible to determine the date of the
catastrophe, though there are satisfactory arguments to justify the
statement that the event took place in the autumn. The opinion that
immediately after the first outbreak of Vesuvius a torrent of lava was
ejected over Herculaneum was refuted by the scholars of the 18th
century, and their refutation is confirmed by Beulé (_Le Drame du
Vésuve_, p. 240 seq.). And the last recensions of the passage quoted
from Pliny, aided by an inscription,[3] prove that Rectina cannot have
been the name of the harbour described by Beulé (ib. pp. 122, 247), but
the name of a lady who had implored succour, the wife of Caesius Bassus,
or rather Tascius (cf. Pliny, ed. Keil, Leipzig, 1870; Aulus Persius,
ed. Jahn, _Sat._ vi.). The shore, moreover, according to the accurate
studies of the engineer Michele Ruggiero, director of the excavations,
was not altered by the causes adduced by Beulé (p. 125), but by a
simpler event. "It is certain," he says (_Pompei e la regione sotterrata
dal Vesuvio l'anno 79_, Naples, 1879, p. 21 seq.), "that the districts
between the south and west, and those between the south and east, were
overwhelmed in two quite different ways. From Torre Annunziata (which is
believed to be the site of the ancient Oplontii) to San Giovanni a
Teduccio, for a distance of about 9 m., there flowed a muddy eruption
which in Herculaneum and the neighbouring places, where it was most
abundant, raised the level of the country more than 65 ft. The matter
transported consisted of soil of various kinds--sand, ashes, fragments
of lava, pozzolana and whitish pumice, enclosing grains of uncalcined
lime, similar in every respect to those of Pompeii. In the part of
Herculaneum already excavated the corridors in the upper portions of the
theatre are compactly filled, up to the head of the arches, with
pozzolana and pumice transformed into tufa (which proves that the
formation of this stone may take place in a comparatively short time).
Tufa is also found in the lowest part of the city towards the sea in
front of the few houses that have been discovered; and in the very high
banks that surround them, as also in the lowest part of the theatre,
there are plainly to be seen earth, sand, ashes, fragments of lava and
pumice, with little distinction of strata, almost always confused and
mingled together, and varying from spot to spot in degree of
compactness. It is clear that this immense congeries of earth and stones
could not flow in a dry state over those 5 m. of country (in the
beginning very steep, and at intervals almost level), where certainly it
would have been arrested and all accumulated in a mound; but it must
have been borne along by a great quantity of water, the effects of which
may be distinctly recognized, not only in the filling and choking up
even of the most narrow, intricate and remote parts of the buildings,
but also in the formation of the tufa, in which water has so great a
share; for it cannot be supposed that enough of it has filtered through
so great a depth of earth. The torrent ran in a few hours to the sea,
and formed that shallow or lagoon called by Pliny _Subitum Vadum_, which
prevented the ships approaching the shores." Hence it is that, while
many made their escape from Pompeii (which was overwhelmed by the fall
of the small stones and afterwards by the rain of ashes), comparatively
few can have managed to escape from Herculaneum, and these, according to
the interpretation given to the inscription preserved in the National
Museum (Mommsen, _I.N._ n. 2455), found shelter in the neighbouring city
of Neapolis, where they inhabited a quarter called that of the buried
city (Suetonius, _Titus_, 8; _C.I.L._ x. No. 1492, in Naples: "Regio
primaria splendidissima Herculanensium"). The name of Herculaneum, which
for some time remained attached to the site of the disaster, is
mentioned in the later itineraries; but in the course of the middle ages
all recollection of it perished.

  In 1719, while Prince Elbeuf of the house of Lorraine, in command of
  the armies of Charles VI., was seeking crushed marble to make plaster
  for his new villa near Portici, he learned from the peasants that
  there were in the vicinity some pits from which they not only quarried
  excellent marble, but had extracted many statues in the course of
  years (see Jorio, _Notizia degli scavi d' Ercolano_, Naples, 1827). In
  1738, while Colonel D. Rocco de Alcubierre was directing the works for
  the construction of the "Reali Delizie" at Portici, he received orders
  from Charles IV. (later, Charles III. of Spain) to begin excavations
  on the spot where it had been reported to the king that the Elbeuf
  statues had been found. At first it was believed that a temple was
  being explored, but afterwards the inscriptions proved that the
  building was a theatre. This discovery excited the greatest commotion
  among the scholars of all nations; and many of them hastened to Naples
  to see the marvellous statues of the Balbi and the paintings on the
  walls. But everything was kept private, as the government wished to
  reserve to itself the right of illustrating the monuments. First of
  all Monsignor Bayardi was brought from Rome and commissioned to write
  about the antiquities which were being collected in the museum at
  Portici under the care of Camillo Paderni, and when it was recognized
  that the prelate had not sufficient learning, and by the progress of
  the excavations other most abundant material was accumulated, about
  which at once scholars and courtiers were anxious to be informed,
  Bernardo Tanucci, having become secretary of state in 1755, founded
  the Accademia Ercolanese, which published the principal works on
  Herculaneum (_Le Pitture ed i bronzi d' Ercolano_, 8 vols., 1757,
  1792; _Dissertations isagogicae ad Herculanensium voluminum
  explanationem pars prima_, 1797). The criterion which guided the
  studies of the academicians was far from being worthy of unqualified
  praise, and consequently their work did not always meet the approval
  of the best scholars who had the opportunity of seeing the monuments.
  Among these was Winckelmann, who in his letters gave ample notices of
  the excavations and the antiquities which he was able to visit on
  several occasions. Other notices were furnished by Gori, _Symbolae
  litterariae Florentinae_ (1748, 1751), by Marcello Venuti,
  _Descrizione delle prime scoperte d' Ercolano_ (Rome, 1748), and
  Scipione Maffei, _Tre lettere intorno alle scoperte d' Ercolano_
  (Verona, 1748). The excavations, which continued for more than forty
  years (1738-1780), were executed at first under the immediate
  direction of Alcubierre (1738-1741), and then with the assistance of
  the engineers Rorro and Bardet (1741-1745), Carl Weber (1750-1764),
  and Francesco La Vega. After the death of Alcubierre (1780) the
  last-named was appointed director-in-chief of the excavations; but
  from that time the investigations at Herculaneum were intermitted, and
  the researches at Pompeii were vigorously carried on. Resumed in 1827,
  the excavations at Herculaneum were shortly after suspended, nor were
  the new attempts made in 1866 with the money bestowed by King Victor
  Emmanuel attended with success, being impeded by the many dangers
  arising from the houses built overhead. The meagreness of the results
  obtained by the occasional works executed in the last century, and the
  fact that the investigators were unfortunate enough to strike upon
  places already explored, gave rise to the opinion that the whole area
  of the city had been crossed by tunnels in the time of Charles III.
  and in the beginning of the reign of Ferdinand IV. And although it is
  recognized that the works had not been prosecuted with the caution
  that they required, yet in view of the serious difficulties that would
  attend the collection of the little that had been left by the first
  excavators, every proposal for new investigations has been abandoned.
  But in a memoir which Professor Barnabei read in the Reale Accademia
  dei Lincei (_Atti della R. Ac._ series iii. vol. ii. p. 751) he
  undertook to prove that the researches made by the government in the
  18th century did not cover any great area. The antiquities excavated
  at Herculaneum in that century (i.e. the 18th) form a collection of
  the highest scientific and artistic value. They come partly from the
  buildings of the ancient city (theatre, basilica, houses and forum),
  and partly from the private villa of a great Roman family (cf.
  Comparetti and de Petra, _La Villa Ercolanese dei Pisoni_, Turin,
  1883). From the city come, among many other marble statues, the two
  equestrian statues of the Balbi (_Museo Borbonico_, vol. ii. pl.
  xxxviii.-xxxix.), and the great imperial and municipal bronze statues.
  Mural paintings of extraordinary beauty were also discovered here,
  such as those that represent Theseus after the slaughter of the
  Minotaur (Helbig, _Wandgemälde_, Leipzig, 1878, No. 1214), Chiron
  teaching Achilles the art of playing on the lyre (ibid. No. 1291), and
  Hercules finding Telephus who is being suckled by the hind (ibid. No.
  1143).

  Notwithstanding subsequent discoveries of stupendous paintings in the
  gardens of the Villa Farnesina on the banks of the Tiber, the
  monochromes of Herculaneum remain among the finest specimens of the
  exquisite taste and consummate skill displayed by the ancient artists.
  Among the best preserved is Leto and Niobe, which has been the subject
  of so many studies and so many publications (ibid. No. 1706). There is
  also a considerable number of lapidary inscriptions edited in vol. ii.
  of the epigraphic collection of the _Cat. del Mus. Naz. di Napoli_.
  The Villa Suburbana has given us a good number of marble busts, and
  the so-called statue of Aristides, but above all that splendid
  collection of bronze statues and busts mostly reproductions of famous
  Greek works now to be found in the Naples Museum. It is thence that we
  have obtained the reposing Hermes, the drunken Silenus, the sleeping
  Faunus, the dancing girls, the bust called Plato's, that believed to
  be Seneca's, the two quoit-throwers or discoboli, and so many
  masterpieces more, figured by the academicians in their volume on the
  bronzes. But a still further discovery made in the Villa Suburbana
  contributed to magnify the greatness of Herculaneum; within its walls
  was found the famous library, of which, counting both entire and
  fragmentary volumes, 1803 papyri are preserved. Among the nations
  which took the greatest interest in the discovery of the Herculaneum
  library, the most honourable rank belongs to England, which sent
  Hayter and other scholars to Naples to solicit the publication of the
  volumes. Of the 341 papyri which have been unrolled, 195 have been
  published (_Herculanensium voluminum quae supersunt_ (Naples,
  1793-1809); _Collectio altera_, 1862-1876). They contain works by
  Epicurus, Demetrius, Polystratus, Colotes, Chrysippus, Carniscus and
  Philodemus. The names of the authors are in themselves sufficient to
  show that the library belonged to a person whose principal study was
  the Epicurean philosophy. But of the great master of this school only
  a few works have been found. Of his treatise [Greek: Peri physeôs],
  divided into 37 books, it is known that there were three copies in the
  library (_Coll. alt._ vi.). Professor Comparetti, studying the first
  fasciculus of volume xi. of the same new collection, recognized most
  important fragments of the _Ethics_ of Epicurus, and these he
  published in 1879 in Nos. ix. and xi. of the _Rivista di filologia e
  d' istruzione classica_ (Turin). Even the other authors above
  mentioned are but poorly represented, with the exception of
  Philodemus, of whom 26 different treatises have been recognized. But
  all these philosophic discussions, belonging for the most part to an
  author less than secondary among the Epicureans, fall short of the
  high expectations excited by the first discovery of the library. Among
  the many volumes unrolled only a few are of historical
  importance--that edited by Bücheler, which treats of the philosophers
  of the academy (_Acad. phil. index Hercul._, Greifswald, 1859), and
  that edited by Comparetti, which deals with the Stoics ("Papiro
  ercolanese inedito," in _Rivista di fil. e d' ist. class._ anno iii.
  fasc. x.-xii.). To appreciate the value of the volumes unrolled but
  not yet published (for 146 vols. were only copied and not printed) the
  student must read Comparetti's paper, "Relazione sui papiri
  ercolanesi." Contributions of some value have been made to the study
  of Herculaneum fragments by Spengel ("Die hercul. Rollen," in
  _Philologus_, 1863, suppl. vol.), and Gomperz (_Hercul. Studien_,
  Leipzig, 1865-1866, cf. _Zeitschr. f. österr. Gymn._, 1867-1872).
  There are in the library some volumes written in Latin, which,
  according to Boot (_Notice sur les manuscrits trouvés à Herculaneum_,
  Amsterdam, 1845), were found tied up in a bundle apart. Of these we
  know 18, but they are all so damaged that hardly any of them can be
  deciphered. One with verses relating to the battle of Actium is
  believed to belong to a poem of Rabirius. The numerical preponderance
  of the works of Philodemus led some people to believe that this had
  been the library of that philosopher. Professor Comparetti has thrown
  out a conjecture (cf. Comparetti and de Petra, op. cit.) that the
  library was collected by Lucius Piso Caesoninus (see _Regione
  sotterrata dal Vesuvio_, Naples, 1879, p. 159 sq.), but this
  conjecture has not found many supporters. Professor de Petra (in the
  same work) has also published the official notices upon the
  antiquities unearthed in the sumptuous villa, giving the plan
  executed by Weber and recovered by chance by the director of
  excavations, Michele Ruggiero. This plan, which is here reproduced
  from de Petra[4] is the only satisfactory document for the topography
  of Herculaneum; for the plan of the theatre published in the
  _Bullettino archeologico italiano_ (Naples, 1861, i. 53, tab. iii.)
  was executed in 1747, when the excavations were not completed. And
  even for the history of the "finds" made in the Villa Suburbana the
  necessity for further studies makes itself felt, since there is a lack
  of agreement between the accounts given by Alcubierre and Weber and
  those communicated to the _Philosophical Transactions_ (London, vol.
  x.) by Camillo Paderni, conservator of the Portici Museum.

  [Illustration: Plan of Villa Erolanese, Herculaneum.]

  Among the older works relating to Herculaneum, in addition to those
  already quoted, may be mentioned de Brosses, _Lettre sur l'état actuel
  de la ville souterraine d'Héracléa_ (Paris, 1750); Seigneux de
  Correvon, _Lettre sur la découverte de l'ancienne ville d'Herculane_
  (Yverdon, 1770); David, _Les Antiquités d'Herculaneum_ (Paris, 1780);
  D' Ancora Gaetano, _Prospetto storico-fisico degli scavi d' Ercolano e
  di Pompei_ (Naples, 1803); Venuti, _Prime Scoverte di Ercolano_ (Rome,
  1748); and Romanelli, _Viaggio ad Ercolano_ (Naples, 1811). A full
  list will be found in vol. i. of _Museo Borbonico_ (Naples, 1824), pp.
  1-11.

  The most important reference work is C. Waldstein and L. Shoobridge,
  _Herculaneum, Past, Present and Future_ (London, 1908); it contains
  full references to the history and the explorations, and to the
  buildings and objects found (with illustrations). Miss E. R. Barker's
  _Buried Herculaneum_ (1908) is exceedingly useful.

  In 1904 Professor Waldstein expounded both in Europe and in America an
  international scheme for thorough investigation of the site.
  Negotiations of a highly complex character ensued with the Italian
  government, which ultimately in 1908 decided that the work should be
  undertaken by Italian scholars with Italian funds. The work was begun
  in the autumn of 1908, but financial difficulties with property owners
  in Resina immediately arose with the result that progress was
  practically stopped.     (F. B.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] A fragment of L. Sisenna calls it "Oppidum tumulo in excelso loco
    propter mare, parvis moenibus, inter duas fluvias, infra Vesuvium
    collocatum" (lib. iv., fragm. 53, Peters). Of one of these rivers
    this historian again makes mention in the passage where probably he
    related the capture of Herculaneum by Minatius Magius and T. Didius
    (Velleius Paterculus ii. 16). Further topographical details are
    supplied by Strabo, who, after speaking about Naples,
    continues--[Greek: hechomenon de phrourion estin Hrakleion ekkeimenên
    eis tên thalattan akran echon, katapneomenon Libi thaumastôs hoshth
    hugieinên poiein tên katoikian]. Dionysius of Halicarnassus relates
    that Heracles, in the place where he stopped with his fleet on the
    return voyage from Iberia, founded a little city ([Greek:
    polichnên]), to which he gave his own name; and he adds that this
    city was in his time inhabited by the Romans, and that, situated
    between Neapolis and Pompeii, it had [Greek: limenas en panti kairô
    bebaious] (i. 44).

  [2] See also Niebuhr, _Hist. of Rome_, i. 76, and Mommsen, _Die
    unteritalischen Dialekte_ (1850), p. 314; for later discussions see
    OSCA LINGUA, PELASGIANS.

  [3] _C.I.L._ ii. No. 3866. This Spanish inscription refers to a
    Rectina who died at the age of 18 and was the wife of Voconius
    Romanus. It is quite possible that she was the Rectina whom Pliny the
    elder wished to assist during the disaster of Vesuvius, for her
    husband, Voconius Romanus, was an intimate friend of Pliny the
    younger. The latter addressed four letters to Voconius (i. 5, ii. 1,
    iii. 13, ix. 28), in another letter commended him to the emperor
    Trajan (x. 3), and in another (ii. 13) says of him: "Hunc ego cum
    simul studere, mus arte familiariterque dilexi; ille meus in urbe,
    ille in secessu contubernalis; cum hoc seria et jocos miscui."

  [4] The diagram shows the arrangement and proportions of the Villa
    Ercolanese. The dotted lines show the course taken by the
    excavations, which began at the lower part of the plan.



HERCULANO DE CARVALHO E ARAUJO, ALEXANDRE (1810-1877), Portuguese
historian, was born in Lisbon of humble stock, his grandfather having
been a foreman stonemason in the royal employ. He received his early
education, comprising Latin, logic and rhetoric, at the Necessidades
Monastery, and spent a year at the Royal Marine Academy studying
mathematics with the intention of entering on a commercial career. In
1828 Portugal fell under the absolute rule of D. Miguel, and Herculano,
becoming involved in the unsuccessful military _pronunciamento_ of
August 1831, had to leave Portugal clandestinely and take refuge in
England and France. In 1832 he accompanied the Liberal expedition to
Terceira as a volunteer, and was one of D. Pedro's famous army of 7500
men who landed at the Mindello and occupied Oporto. He took part in all
the actions of the great siege, and at the same time served as a
librarian in the city archives. He published his first volume of verses,
_A Voz de Propheta_, in 1832, and two years later another entitled _A
Harpa do Crente_. Privation had made a man of him, and in these little
books he proves himself a poet of deep feeling and considerable power of
expression. The stirring incidents in the political emancipation of
Portugal inspired his muse, and he describes the bitterness of exile,
the adventurous expedition to Terceira, the heroic defence of Oporto,
and the final combats of liberty. In 1837 he founded the _Panorama_ in
imitation of the _English Penny Magazine_, and there and in
_Illustração_ he published the historical tales which were afterwards
collected into _Lendas e Narratives_; in the same year he became royal
librarian at the Ajuda Palace, which enabled him to continue his studies
of the past. The _Panorama_ had a large circulation and influence, and
Herculano's biographical sketches of great men and his articles of
literary and historical criticism did much to educate the middle class
by acquainting them with the story of their nation, and with the
progress of knowledge and the state of letters in foreign countries. On
entering parliament in 1840 he resigned the editorship to devote himself
to history, but he still remained its most important contributor.

Up to the age of twenty-five Herculano had been a poet, but he then
abandoned poetry to Garrett, and after several essays in that direction
he definitely introduced the historical novel into Portugal in 1844 by a
book written in imitation of Walter Scott. _Eurico_ treats of the fall
of the Visigothic monarchy and the beginnings of resistance in the
Asturias which gave birth to the Christian kingdoms of the Peninsula,
while the _Monge de Cister_, published in 1848, describes the time of
King John I., when the middle class and the municipalities first
asserted their power and elected a king in opposition to the nobility.
From an artistic standpoint, these stories are rather laboured
productions, besides being ultra-romantic in tone; but it must be
remembered that they were written mainly with an educational object,
and, moreover, they deserve high praise for their style. Herculano had
greater book learning than Scott, but lacked descriptive talent and
skill in dialogue. His touch is heavy, and these novels show no dramatic
power, which accounts for his failure as a playwright, but their
influence was as great as their followers were many, and they still find
readers. These and editions of two old chronicles, the _Chronica de D.
Sebastião_ (1839) and the _Annaes del rei D. João III_ (1844), prepared
Herculano for his life's work, and the year 1846 saw the first volume of
his _History of Portugal from the Beginning of the Monarchy to the end
of the Reign of Affonso III._, a book written on critical lines and
based on documents. The difficulties he encountered in producing it were
very great, for the foundations had been ill-prepared by his
predecessors, and he was obliged to be artisan and architect at the same
time. He had to collect MSS. from all parts of Portugal, decipher,
classify and weigh them before he could begin work, and then he found it
necessary to break with precedents and destroy traditions. Serious
students in Portugal and abroad welcomed the book as an historical work
of the first rank, for its evidence of careful research, its able
marshalling of facts, its learning and its painful accuracy, while the
sculptural simplicity of the style and the correctness of the diction
have made it a Portuguese classic. The first volume, however, gave rise
to a celebrated controversy, because Herculano had reduced the famous
battle of Ourique, which was supposed to have seen the birth of the
Portuguese monarchy, to the dimensions of a mere skirmish, and denied
the apparition of Christ to King Affonso, a fable first circulated in
the 15th century. Herculano was denounced from the pulpit and the press
for his lack of patriotism and piety, and after bearing the attack for
some time his pride drove him to reply. In a letter to the cardinal
patriarch of Lisbon entitled _Eu e o Clero_ (1850), he denounced the
fanaticism and ignorance of the clergy in plain terms, and this provoked
a fierce pamphlet war marked by much personal abuse. The professor of
Arabic in Lisbon intervened to sustain the accepted view of the battle,
and charged Herculano and his supporter Gayangos with ignorance of the
Arab historians and of their language. The conduct of the controversy,
which lasted some years, did credit to none of the contending parties,
but Herculano's statement of the facts is now universally accepted as
correct. The second volume of his history appeared in 1847, the third in
1849 and the fourth in 1853. In his youth, the excesses of absolutism
had made Herculano a Liberal, and the attacks on his history turned this
man, full of sentiment and deep religious conviction, into an
anti-clerical who began to distinguish between political Catholicism and
Christianity. His _History of the Origin and Establishment of the
Inquisition_ (1854-1855), relating the thirty years' struggle between
King John III. and the Jews--he to establish the tribunal and they to
prevent him--was compiled, as the preface showed, to stem the
Ultramontane reaction, but none the less carried weight because it was a
recital of events with little or no comment or evidence of passion in
its author. Next to these two books his study, _Do Estado das classes
servas na Peninsula desde o VII. até o XII. seculo_, is Herculano's most
valuable contribution to history. In 1856 he began editing a series of
_Portugalliae monumenta historica_, but personal differences between him
and the keeper of the Archive office, which he was forced to frequent,
caused him to interrupt his historical studies, and on the death of his
friend King Pedro V. he left the Ajuda and retired to a country house
near Santarem.

Disillusioned with men and despairing of the future of his country, he
spent the rest of his life devoted to agricultural pursuits, and rarely
emerged from his retirement; when he did so, it was to fight political
and religious reaction. Once he had defended the monastic orders,
advocating their reform and not their suppression, supported the rural
clergy and idealized the village priest in his _Parocho da Aldeia_,
after the manner of Goldsmith in the _Vicar of Wakefield_.
Unfortunately, however, the brilliant epoch of the alliance of
Liberalism and Catholicism, represented on its literary side by
Chateaubriand and by Lamartine, to whose poetic school Herculano had
belonged, was past, and fanatical attacks and the progress of events
drove this former champion of the Church into conflict with the
ecclesiastical authorities. His protest against the Concordat of the
21st of February 1857 between Portugal and the Holy See, regulating the
Portuguese Padroado in the East, his successful opposition to the entry
of foreign religious orders, and his advocacy of civil marriage, were
the chief landmarks in his battle with Ultra-montanism, and his _Estudos
sobre o Casamento Civil_ were put on the Index. Finally in 1871 he
attacked the dogmas of the Immaculate Conception and papal
infallibility, and fell into line with the Old Catholics. In the domain
of letters he remained until his death a veritable pontiff, and an
article or book of his was an event celebrated from one end of Portugal
to the other. The nation continued to look up to him for mental
leadership, but, in his later years, lacking hope himself, he could not
stimulate others or use to advantage the powers conferred upon him. In
politics he remained a constitutional Liberal of the old type, and for
him the people were the middle classes in opposition to the lower, which
he saw to have been the supporters of tyranny in all ages, while he
considered Radicalism to mean a return via anarchy to absolutism.
However, though he conducted a political propaganda in the newspaper
press in his early days, Herculano never exercised much influence in
politics. Grave as most of his writings are, they include a short
description of a crossing from Jersey to Granville, in which he
satirizes English character and customs, and reveals an unexpected sense
of humour. A rare capacity for tedious work, a dour Catonian rectitude,
a passion for truth, pride, irritability at criticism and independence
of character, are the marks of Herculano as a man. He could be broken
but never bent, and his rude frankness accorded with his hard, sombre
face, and alienated men's sympathies though it did not lose him their
respect. His lyrism is vigorous, feeling, austere and almost entirely
subjective and personal, while his pamphlets are distinguished by energy
of conviction, strength of affirmation, and contempt for weaker and more
ignorant opponents. His _History of Portugal_ is a great but incomplete
monument. A lack of imagination and of the philosophic spirit prevented
him from penetrating or drawing characters, but his analytical gift,
joined to persevering toil and honesty of purpose enabled him to present
a faithful account of ascertained facts and a satisfactory and lucid
explanation of political and economic events. His remains lie in a
majestic tomb in the Jeronymos at Belem, near Lisbon, which was raised
by public subscription to the greatest modern historian of Portugal and
of the Peninsula. His more important works have gone through many
editions and his name is still one to conjure with.

  AUTHORITIES.--Antonio de Serpa Pimentel, _Alexandre Herculano e o seu
  tempo_ (Lisbon, 1881); A. Romero Ortiz, _La Litteratura Portuguesa en
  el siglo XIX._ (Madrid, 1869); Moniz Barreto, _Revista de Portugal_
  (July 1889).     (E. Pr.)



HERCULES (O. Lat. _Hercoles_, _Hercles_), the latinized form of the
mythical Heracles, the chief national hero of Hellas. The name [Greek:
Heraklês] ([Greek: Hera], and [Greek: kleos] = glory) is explained as
"renowned through Hera" (i.e. in consequence of her persecution) or "the
glory of Hera" i.e. of Argos. The thoroughly national character of
Heracles is shown by his being the mythical ancestor of the Dorian
dynastic tribe, while revered by Ionian Athens, Lelegian Opus and
Aeolo-Phoenician Thebes, and closely associated with the Achaean heroes
Peleus and Telamon. The Perseid Alcmena, wife of Amphitryon of Tiryns,
was Hercules' mother, Zeus his father. After his father he is often
called Amphitryoniades, and also Alcides, after the Perseid Alcaeus,
father of Amphitryon. His mother and her husband lived at Thebes in
exile as guests of King Creon. By the craft of Hera, his foe through
life, his birth was delayed, and that of Eurystheus, son of Sthenelus of
Argos, hastened, Zeus having in effect sworn that the elder of the two
should rule the realm of Perseus. Hera sent two serpents to destroy the
new-born Hercules, but he strangled them. He was trained in all manly
accomplishments by heroes of the highest renown in each, until in a
transport of anger at a reprimand he slew Linus, his instructor in
music, with the lyre. Thereupon he was sent to tend Amphitryon's oxen,
and at this period slew the lion of Mount Cithaeron. By freeing Thebes
from paying tribute to the Minyans of Orchomenus he won Creon's
daughter, Megara, to wife. Her children by him he killed in a frenzy
induced by Hera. After purification he was sent by the Pythia to serve
Eurystheus. Thus began the cycle of the twelve labours.

  1. Wrestling with the Nemean lion.

  2. Destruction of the Lernean hydra.

  3. Capture of the Arcadian hind (a _stag_ in art).

  4. Capture of the boar of Erymanthus, while chasing which he fought
  the Centaurs and killed his friends Chiron and Pholus, this homicide
  leading to Demeter's institution of _mysteries_.

  5. Cleansing of the stables of Augeas.

  6. Shooting the Stymphalian birds.

  7. Capture of the Cretan bull subsequently slain by Theseus at
  Marathon.

  8. Capture of the man-eating mares of the Thracian Diomedes.

  9. Seizure of the girdle of Hippolyte, queen of the Amazons.

  10. Bringing the oxen of Geryones from Erythia in the far west, which
  errand involved many adventures in the coast lands of the
  Mediterranean, and the setting up of the "Pillars of Hercules" at the
  Straits of Gibraltar.

  11. Bringing the golden apples from the garden of the Hesperides.

  12. Carrying Cerberus from Hades to the upper world.

Most of the labours lead to various adventures called [Greek: parerga].
On Hercules' return to Thebes he gave his wife Megara to his friend and
charioteer Iolaus, son of Iphicles, and by beating Eurytus of Oechalia
and his sons in a shooting match won a claim to the hand of his daughter
Iole, whose family, however, except her brother Iphitus, withheld their
consent to the union. Iphitus persuaded Hercules to search for Eurytus'
lost oxen, but was killed by him at Tiryns in a frenzy. He consulted the
Pythia about a cure for the consequent madness, but she declined to
answer him. Whereupon he seized the oracular tripod, and so entered upon
a contest with Apollo, which Zeus stopped by sending a flash of
lightning between the combatants. The Pythia then sent him to serve the
Lydian queen Omphale. He then, with Telamon, Peleus and Theseus, took
Troy. He next helped the gods in the great battle against the giants. He
destroyed sundry sea-monsters, set free the bound Prometheus, took part
in the Argonautic voyage and the Calydonian boar hunt, made war against
Augeas, and against Nestor and the Pylians, and restored Tyndareus to
the sovereignty of Lacedaemon. He sustained many single combats, one
very famous struggle being the wrestling with the Libyan Antaeus, son of
Poseidon and Ge (Earth), who had to be held in the air, as he grew
stronger every time he touched his mother, Earth. Hercules withstood
Ares, Poseidon and Hera, as well as Apollo. The close of his career is
assigned to Aetolia and Trachis. He wrestles with Achelous for Deianeira
("destructive to husband"), daughter of Oeneus, king of Calydon,
vanquishes the river god, and breaks off one of his horns, which as a
horn of plenty is found as an attribute of Hercules in art. Driven from
Calydon for homicide, he goes with Deianeira to Trachis. On the way he
slays the centaur Nessus, who persuades Deianeira that his blood is a
love-charm. From Trachis he wages successful war against the Dryopes and
Lapithae as ally of Aegimius, king of the Dorians, who promised him a
third of his realm, and after his death adopted Hyllus, his son by
Deianeira. Finally Hercules attacks Eurytus, takes Oechalia and carries
off Iola. Thereupon Deianeira, prompted by love and jealousy, sends him
a tunic dipped in the blood of Nessus, and the unsuspecting hero puts it
on just before sacrificing at the headland of Cenaeum in Euboea. (So far
the dithyramb of Bacchylides xv. [xvi.], agrees with Sophocles'
_Trachiniae_ as to the hero's end.) Mad with pain, he seizes Lichas, the
messenger who had brought the fatal garment, and hurls him on the rocks;
and then he wanders in agony to Mount Oeta, where he mounts a pyre,
which, however, no one will kindle. At last Poeas, father of
Philoctetes, takes pity on him, and is rewarded with the gift of his bow
and arrows. The immortal part of Hercules passes to Olympus, where he is
reconciled to Hera and weds her daughter Hebe. This account of the
hero's principal labours, exploits and crimes is derived from the
mythologists Apollodorus and Diodorus, who probably followed the
_Heracleia_ by Peisander of Rhodes as to the twelve labours or that of
Panyasis of Halicarnassus, but sundry variations of order and incident
are found in classical literature.

In one aspect Hercules is clearly a sun-god, being identified,
especially in Cyprus and in Thasos (as Makar), with the Tyrian Melkarth.
The third and twelfth labours may be solar, the horned hind representing
the moon, and the carrying of Cerberus to the upper world an eclipse,
while the last episode of the hero's tragedy is possibly a complete
solar myth developed at Trachis. The winter sun is seen rising over the
Cenaean promontory to toil across to Mount Oeta and disappear over it in
a bank of fiery cloud. But more important and less speculative is the
hero's aspect as a national type or an amalgamation of tribal types of
physical force, of dauntless effort and endurance, of militant
civilization, and of Hellenic enterprise, "stronger than everything
except his own passions," and "at once above and below the noblest type
of man" (Jebb). The fifth labour seems to symbolize some great
improvement in the drainage of Elis. Strenuous devotion to the
deliverance of mankind from dangers and pests is the "virtue" which, in
Prodicus' famous apologue on the _Choice of Hercules_, the hero
preferred to an easy and happy life. Ethically, Hercules symbolizes the
attainment of glory and immortality by toil and suffering.

The Old-Dorian Hercules is represented in three cycles of myth, the
Argive, the Boeotian and the Thessalian; the legends of Arcadia,
Aetolia, Lydia, &c., and Italy are either local or symbolical and
comparatively late. The fatality by which Hercules kills so many friends
as well as foes recalls the destroying Apollo; while his career
frequently illustrates the Delphic views on blood-guiltiness and
expiation. As Apollo's champion Hercules is Daphnephoros, and fights
Cycnus and Amyntor to keep open the sacred way from Tempe to Delphi. As
the Dorian tutelar he aids Tyndareus and Aegimius. As patron of maritime
adventure ([Greek: hêgemonios]) he struggles with Nereus and Triton,
slays Eryx and Busiris, and perhaps captures the wild horses and oxen,
which may stand for pirates. As a god of athletes he is often a wrestler
([Greek: palaimôn]), and founds the Olympian games. In comedy and
occasionally in myths he is depicted as voracious ([Greek: bouphagos]).
He is also represented as the companion of Dionysus, especially in Asia
Minor. The "Resting" ([Greek: anapauomenos]) Hercules is, as at
Thermopylae and near Himera, the natural tutelar of hot springs in
conjunction with his protectress Athena, who is usually depicted
attending him on ancient vases. The glorified Hercules was worshipped
both as a god and a hero. In the Attic deme Melita he was invoked as
[Greek: alexikakos] ("Helper in ills"), at Olympia as [Greek:
kallinikos] ("Nobly-victorious"), in the rustic worship of the Oetaeans
as [Greek: kornopiôn] ([Greek: kornopes], "locusts"), by the Erythraeans
of Ionia as [Greek: ipoktonos] ("Canker-worm-slayer"). He was [Greek:
sôtêr] ("Saviour"), i.e. a protector of voyagers, at Thasos and Smyrna.
Games in his honour were held at Thebes and Marathon and annual
festivals in every deme of Attica, in Sicyon and Agyrium (Sicily). His
guardian goddess was Athena (Homer, _Il._ viii. 638; Bacchylides v. 91
f.). In early poetry, as often in art, he is an archer, afterwards a
club-wielder and fully-armed warrior. In early art the adult Hercules is
bearded, but not long-haired. Later he is sometimes youthful and
beardless, always with short curly hair and thick neck, the lower part
of the brow prominent. A lion's skin is generally worn or carried.
Lysippus worked out the finest type of sculptured Hercules, of which the
Farnese by Glycon is a grand specimen. The infantine struggle with
serpents was a favourite subject.

Quite distinct was the Idaean Hercules, a Cretan Dactyl connected with
the cult of Rhea or Cybele. The Greeks recognized Hercules in an
Egyptian deity _Chons_ and an Indian _Dorsanes_, not to mention
personages of other mythologies.

Hercules is supposed to have visited Italy on his return from Erythia,
when he slew Cacus, son of Vulcan, the giant of the Aventine mount of
Rome, who had stolen his oxen. To this victory was assigned the founding
of the _Ara maxima_ by Evander. His worship, introduced from the Greek
colonies in Etruria and in the south of Italy, seems to have been
established in Rome from the earliest times, as two old Patrician
_gentes_ were associated with his cult and the Fabii claimed him as
their ancestor. The tithes vowed to him by Romans and men of Sora and
Reate, for safety on journeys and voyages, furnished sacrifices and (in
Rome) public entertainment (_polluctum_). Tibur was a special seat of
his cult. In Rome he was patron of gladiators, as of athletes in Greece.
With respect to the Roman relations of the hero, it is manifest that the
native myths of Recaranus, or Sancus, or Dius Fidius, were transferred
to the Hellenic Hercules.     (C. A. M. F.)

  See L. Preller, _Griechische Mythologie_ (4th ed., Berlin, 1900); W.
  H. Roscher, _Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen
  Mythologie_ (1884); Sir R. C. Jebb, _Trachiniae_ of Sophocles
  (Introd.), (1892); Ch. Daremberg and E. Saglio, _Dictionnaire des
  antiquités grecques et romaines_; Bréal, _Hercule et Cacus_, 1863; J.
  G. Winter, _Myth of Hercules at Rome_ (New York, 1910).

  In the article GREEK ART, fig. 16 represents Heracles wrestling with
  the river-god Achelous; fig. 20 (from a small pediment, possibly of a
  shrine of the hero) the slaying of the Hydra; fig. 35 Heracles holding
  up the sky on a cushion.

  Hercules was a favourite figure in French medieval literature. In the
  romance of Alexander the tent of the hero is decorated with incidents
  from his adventures. In the prose romance _Les Prouesses et vaillances
  du preux Hercule_ (Paris, 1500), the hero's labours are represented as
  having been performed in honour of a Boeotian princess; Pluto is a
  king dwelling in a dismal castle; the Fates are duennas watching
  Proserpine; the entrance to Pluto's castle is watched by the giant
  Cerberus. Hercules conquers Spain and takes Merida from Geryon. The
  book is translated into English as _Hercules of Greece_ (n. d.).
  Fragments of a French poem on the subject will be found in the
  _Bulletin de la soc. des anciens textes français_ (1877). Don Enrique
  de Villena took from _Les Prouesses_ his prose _Los Doze Trabajos de
  Hercules_ (Zamora, 1483 and 1499), and Fernandez de Heredia wrote
  _Trabajos y afanes de Hercules_ (Madrid, 1682), which belies its
  title, being a collection of adages and allegories. _Le Fatiche
  d'Ercole_ (1475) is a romance in poetic prose by Pietro Bassi, and the
  _Dodeci Travagli di Ercole_ (1544) a poem by J. Perillos.



HERCULES, in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere,
mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.)
and catalogued by Ptolemy (29 stars) and Tycho Brahe (28 stars).
Represented by a man kneeling, this constellation was first known as
"the man on his knees," and was afterwards called Cetheus, Theseus and
Hercules by the ancient Greeks. Interesting objects in this
constellation are: [alpha] _Herculis_, a fine coloured double star,
composed of an orange star of magnitude 2½, and a blue star of magnitude
6; [zeta] _Herculis_, a binary star, discovered by Sir William Herschel
in 1782; one component is a yellow star of the third magnitude, the
other a bluish, which appears to vary from red to blue, of magnitude 6;
g and u _Herculis_, irregularly variable stars; and the cluster _M. 13
Herculis_, the finest globular cluster in the northern hemisphere,
containing at least 5000 stars and of the 1000 determined only 2 are
variable.



HERD (a word common to Teutonic languages; the O. Eng. form was _heord_;
cf. Ger. _Herde_, Swed. and Dan. _hjord_; the Sans. _ca'rdhas_, which
shows the pre-Teutonic form, means a troop), a number of animals of one
kind driven or fed together, usually applied to cattle as "flock" is to
sheep, but used also of whales, porpoises, &c., and of birds, as swans,
cranes and curlews. A "herd-book" is a book containing the pedigree and
other information of any breed of cattle or pigs, like the "flock-book"
for sheep or "stud-book" for horses. Formerly the word "herdwick" was
applied to the pasture ground under the care of a shepherd, and it is
now used of a special hardy breed of sheep in Cumberland and
Westmorland. The word "herd" is also applied in a disparaging sense to a
company of people, a mob or rabble, as "the vulgar herd." As the name
for a keeper of a herd or flock of domestic animals, the herdsman, it is
usually qualified to denote the kind of animal under his protection, as
swine-herd, shepherd, &c., but in Ireland, Scotland and the north of
England, "herd" alone is commonly used.



HERDER, JOHANN GOTTFRIED VON (1744-1803), one of the most prolific and
influential writers that Germany has produced, was born in Mohrungen, a
small town in East Prussia, on the 25th of August 1744. Like his
contemporary Lessing, Herder had throughout his life to struggle against
adverse circumstances. His father was poor, having to put together a
subsistence by uniting the humble offices of sexton, choir-singer and
petty schoolmaster. After receiving some rudimentary instruction from
his father, the boy was sent to the grammar school of his native town.
The mode of discipline practised by the pedantic and irritable old man
who stood at the head of this institution was not at all to the young
student's liking, and the impression made upon him stimulated him later
on to work out his projects of school reform. The hardships of his early
years drove him to introspection and to solitary communion with nature,
and thus favoured a more than proportionate development of the
sentimental and poetic side of his mind. When quite young he expressed a
wish to become a minister of the gospel, but his aspirations were
discouraged by the local clergyman. In 1762, at the age of eighteen, he
went up to Königsberg with the intention of studying medicine, but
finding himself unequal to the operations of the dissecting-room, he
abandoned this object, and, by the help of one or two friends and his
own self-supporting labours, followed out his earlier idea of the
clerical profession by joining the university. There he came under the
influence of Kant, who was just then passing from physical to
metaphysical problems. Without becoming a disciple of Kant, young Herder
was deeply stimulated to fresh critical inquiry by that thinker's
revolutionary ideas in philosophy. To Kant's lectures and conversations
he further owed something of his large interest in cosmological and
anthropological problems. Among the writers whom he most carefully read
were Plato, Hume, Shaftesbury, Leibnitz, Diderot and Rousseau. Another
personal influence under which he fell at Königsberg, and which was
destined to be far more permanent, was that of J. G. Hamann, "the
northern Mage." This writer had already won a name, and in young Herder
he found a mind well fitted to be the receptacle and vehicle of his new
ideas on literature. From this vague, incoherent, yet gifted writer our
author acquired some of his strong feeling for the naïve element in
poetry, and for the earliest developments of national literature. Even
before he went to Königsberg he had begun to compose verses, and at the
age of twenty he took up the pen as a chief occupation. His first
published writings were occasional poems and reviews contributed to the
_Königsbergische Zeitung_. Soon after this he got an appointment at
Riga, as assistant master at the cathedral school, and a few years
later, became assistant pastor. In this busy commercial town, in
somewhat improved pecuniary and social circumstances, he developed the
main ideas of his writings. In the year 1767 he published his first
considerable work _Fragmente über die neuere deutsche Literatur_, which
at once made him widely known and secured for him the favourable
interest of Lessing. From this time he continued to pour forth a number
of critical writings on literature, art, &c. His bold ideas on these
subjects, which were a great advance even on Lessing's doctrines,
naturally excited hostile criticism, and in consequence of this
opposition, which took the form of aspersions on his religious
orthodoxy, he resolved to leave Riga. He was much carried away at this
time by the idea of a radical reform of social life in Livonia, which
(after the example of Rousseau) he thought to effect by means of a
better method of school-training. With this plan in view he began (1769)
a tour through France, England, Holland, &c., for the purpose of
collecting information respecting their systems of education. It was
during the solitude of his voyage to France, when on deck at night, that
he first shaped his idea of the genesis of primitive poetry, and of the
gradual evolution of humanity. Having received an offer of an
appointment as travelling tutor and chaplain to the young prince of
Eutin-Holstein, he abandoned his somewhat visionary scheme of a social
reconstruction of a Russian province. He has, however, left a curious
sketch of his projected school reforms. His new duties led him to
Strassburg, where he met the young Goethe, on whose poetical development
he exercised so potent an influence. At Darmstadt he made the
acquaintance of Caroline Flachsland, to whom he soon became betrothed,
and who for the rest of his life supplied him with that abundance of
consolatory sympathy which his sensitive and rather querulous nature
appeared to require. The engagement as tutor did not prove an agreeable
one, and he soon threw it up (1771) in favour of an appointment as court
preacher and member of the consistory at Bückeburg. Here he had to
encounter bitter opposition from the orthodox clergy and their
followers, among whom he was regarded as a freethinker. His health
continued poor, and a fistula in the eye, from which he had suffered
from early childhood, and to cure which he had undergone a number of
painful operations, continued to trouble him. Further, pecuniary
difficulties, from which he never long managed to keep himself free, by
delaying his marriage, added to his depression. Notwithstanding these
trying circumstances he resumed literary work, which his travels had
interrupted. For some time he had been greatly interested by the poetry
of the north, more particularly Percy's _Reliques_, the poems of
"Ossian" (in the genuineness of which he like many others believed) and
the works of Shakespeare. Under the influence of this reading he now
finally broke with classicism and became one of the leaders of the new
_Sturm und Drang_ movement. He co-operated with a band of young writers
at Darmstadt and Frankfort, including Goethe, who in a journal of their
own sought to diffuse the new ideas. His marriage took place in 1773. In
1776 he obtained through Goethe's influence the post of general
superintendent and court preacher at Weimar, where he passed the rest of
his life. There he enjoyed the society of Goethe, Wieland, Jean Paul
(who came to Weimar in order to be near Herder), and others, the
patronage of the court, with whom as a preacher he was very popular, and
an opportunity of carrying out some of his ideas of school reform. Yet
the social atmosphere of the place did not suit him. His personal
relations with Goethe again and again became embittered. This, added to
ill-health, served to intensify a natural irritability of temperament,
and the history of his later Weimar days is a rather dreary page in the
chronicles of literary life. He had valued more than anything else a
teacher's influence over other minds, and as he began to feel that he
was losing it he grew jealous of the success of those who had outgrown
this influence. Yet while presenting these unlovely traits, Herder's
character was on the whole a worthy and attractive one. This seems to be
sufficiently attested by the fact that he was greatly liked and
esteemed, not only in the pulpit but in private intercourse, by
cultivated women like the countess of Bückeburg, the duchess of Weimar
and Frau von Stein, and, what perhaps is more, was exceedingly popular
among the gymnasium pupils, in whose education he took so lively an
interest. While much that Herder produced after settling in Weimar has
little value, he wrote also some of his best works, among others his
collection of popular poetry on which he had been engaged for many
years, _Stimmen der Völker in Liedern_ (1778-1779); his translation of
the Spanish romances of the _Cid_ (1805); his celebrated work on Hebrew
poetry, _Vom Geist der hebräischen Poesie_ (1782-1783); and his _opus
magnum_, the _Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit_
(1784-1791). Towards the close of his life he occupied himself, like
Lessing, with speculative questions in philosophy and theology. The
boldness of some of his ideas cost him some valuable friendships, as
that of Jacobi, Lavater and even of his early teacher Hamann. He died on
the 18th of December 1803, full of new literary plans up to the very
last.

Herder's writings were for a long time regarded as of temporary value
only, and fell into neglect. Recent criticism, however, has tended very
much to raise their value by tracing out their wide and far-reaching
influence. His works are very voluminous, and to a large extent
fragmentary and devoid of artistic finish; nevertheless they are nearly
always worth investigating for the brilliant suggestions in which they
abound. His place in German literature has already been indicated in
tracing his mental development. Like Lessing, whose work he immediately
continued, he was a pioneer of the golden age of this literature.
Lessing had given the first impetus to the formation of a national
literature by exposing the folly of the current imitation of French
writers. But in doing this he did not so much call his fellow-countrymen
to develop freely their own national sentiments and ideas as send them
back to classical example and principle. Lessing was the exponent of
German classicism; Herder, on the contrary, was a pioneer of the
romantic movement. He fought against all imitation as such, and bade
German writers be true to themselves and their national antecedents. As
a sort of theoretic basis for this adhesion to national type in
literature, he conceived the idea that literature and art, together with
language and national culture as a whole, are evolved by a natural
process, and that the intellectual and emotional life of each people is
correlated with peculiarities of physical temperament and of material
environment. In this way he became the originator of that genetic or
historical method which has since been applied to all human ideas and
institutions. Herder was thus an evolutionist, but an evolutionist still
under the influence of Rousseau. That is to say, in tracing back the
later acquisitions of civilization to impulses which are as old as the
dawn of primitive culture, he did not, as the modern evolutionist does,
lay stress on the superiority of the later to the earlier stages of
human development, but rather became enamoured of the simplicity and
spontaneity of those early impulses which, since they are the oldest,
easily come to look like the most real and precious. Yet even in this
way he helped to found the historical school in literature and science,
for it was only after an excessive and sentimental interest in primitive
human culture had been awakened that this subject would receive the
amount of attention which was requisite for the genetic explanation of
later developments. This historical idea was carried by Herder into the
regions of poetry, art, religion, language, and finally into human
culture as a whole. It colours all his writings, and is intimately
connected with some of the most characteristic attributes of his mind, a
quick sympathetic imagination, a fine feeling for local differences, and
a scientific instinct for seizing the sequences of cause and effect.

  Herder's works may be arranged in an ascending series, corresponding
  to the way in which the genetic or historical idea was developed and
  extended. First come the works on poetic literature, art, language and
  religion as special regions of development. Secondly, we have in the
  _Ideen_ a general account of the process of human evolution. Thirdly,
  there are a number of writings which, though inferior in interest to
  the others, may be said to supply the philosophic basis of his leading
  ideas.

  1. In the region of poetry Herder sought to persuade his countrymen,
  both by example and precept, to return to a natural and spontaneous
  form of utterance. His own poetry has but little value; Herder was a
  skilful verse-maker but hardly a creative poet. He was most successful
  in his translation of popular song, in which he shows a rare
  sympathetic insight into the various feelings and ideas of peoples as
  unlike as Greenlanders and Spaniards, Indians and Scots. In the
  _Fragmente_ he aims at nationalizing German poetry and freeing it from
  all extraneous influence. He ridicules the ambition of German writers
  to be classic, as Lessing had ridiculed their eagerness to be French.
  He looked at poetry as a kind of "proteus among the people, which
  changes its form according to language, manners, habits, according to
  temperament and climate, nay, even according to the accent of
  different nations." This fact of the idiosyncrasy of national poetry
  he illustrated with great fulness and richness in the case of Homer,
  the nature of whose works he was one of the first to elucidate, the
  Hebrew poets, and the poetry of the north as typified in "Ossian."
  This same idea of necessary relation to national character and
  circumstance is also applied to dramatic poetry, and more especially
  to Shakespeare. Lessing had done much to make Shakespeare known to
  Germany, but he had regarded him in contrast to the French dramatists
  with whom he also contrasted the Greek dramatic poets, and accordingly
  did not bring out his essentially modern and Teutonic character.
  Herder does this, and in doing so shows a far deeper understanding of
  Shakespeare's genius than his predecessor had shown.

  2. The views on art contained in Herder's _Kritische Wälder_ (1769),
  _Plastik_ (1778), &c., are chiefly valuable as a correction of the
  excesses into which reverence for Greek art had betrayed Winckelmann
  and Lessing, by help of his fundamental idea of national idiosyncrasy.
  He argues against the setting up of classic art as an unchanging type,
  valid for all peoples and all times. He was one of the first to bring
  to light the characteristic excellences of Gothic art. Beyond this, he
  eloquently pleaded the cause of painting as a distinct art, which
  Lessing in his desire to mark off the formative arts from poetry and
  music had confounded with sculpture. He regarded this as the art of
  the eye, while sculpture was rather the art of the organ of touch.
  Painting being less real than sculpture, because lacking the third
  dimension of space, and a kind of dream, admitted of much greater
  freedom of treatment than this last. Herder had a genuine appreciation
  for early German painters, and helped to awaken the modern interest in
  Albrecht Dürer.

  3. By his work on language _Über den Ursprung der Sprache_ (1772),
  Herder may be said to have laid the first rude foundations of the
  science of comparative philology and that deeper science of the
  ultimate nature and origin of language. It was specially directed
  against the supposition of a divine communication of language to man.
  Its main argument is that speech is a necessary outcome of that
  special arrangement of mental forces which distinguishes man, and more
  particularly from his habits of reflection. "If," Herder says, "it is
  incomprehensible to others how a human mind could invent language, it
  is as incomprehensible to me how a human mind could be what it is
  without discovering language for itself." The writer does not make
  that use of the fact of man's superior organic endowments which one
  might expect from his general conception of the relation of the
  physical and the mental in human development.

  4. Herder's services in laying the foundations of a comparative
  science of religion and mythology are even of greater value than his
  somewhat crude philological speculations. In opposition to the general
  spirit of the 18th century he saw, by means of his historic sense, the
  naturalness of religion, its relation to man's wants and impulses.
  Thus with respect to early religious beliefs he rejected Hume's notion
  that religion sprang out of the fears of primitive men, in favour of
  the theory that it represents the first attempts of our species to
  explain phenomena. He thus intimately associated religion with
  mythology and primitive poetry. As to later forms of religion, he
  appears to have held that they owe their vitality to their embodiment
  of the deep-seated moral feelings of our common humanity. His high
  appreciation of Christianity, which contrasts with the contemptuous
  estimate of the contemporary rationalists, rested on a firm belief in
  its essential humanity, to which fact, and not to conscious deception,
  he attributes its success. His exposition of this religion in his
  sermons and writings was simply an unfolding of its moral side. In his
  later life, as we shall presently see, he found his way to a
  speculative basis for his religious beliefs.

  5. Herder's masterpiece, the _Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte_,
  has the ambitious aim of explaining the whole of human development in
  close connexion with the nature of man's physical environment. Man is
  viewed as a part of nature, and all his widely differing forms of
  development as strictly natural processes. It thus stands in sharp
  contrast to the anthropology of Kant, which opposes human development
  conceived as the gradual manifestation of a growing faculty of
  rational free will to the operations of physical nature. Herder
  defines human history as "a pure natural history of human powers,
  actions and propensities, modified by time and place." The _Ideen_
  shows us that Herder is an evolutionist after the manner of Leibnitz,
  and not after that of more modern evolutionists. The lower forms of
  life prefigure man in unequal degrees of imperfection; they exist for
  his sake, but they are not regarded as representing necessary
  antecedent conditions of human existence. The genetic method is
  applied to varieties of man, not to man as a whole. It is worth
  noting, however, that Herder in his provokingly tentative way of
  thinking comes now and again very near ideas made familiar to us by
  Spencer and Darwin. Thus in a passage in book xv. chap, ii., which
  unmistakably foreshadows Darwin's idea of a struggle for existence, we
  read: "Among millions of creatures whatever could preserve itself
  abides, and still after the lapse of thousands of years remains in the
  great harmonious order. Wild animals and tame, carnivorous and
  graminivorous, insects, birds, fishes and man are adapted to each
  other." With this may be compared a passage in the _Ursprung der
  Sprache_, where there is a curious adumbration of Spencer's idea that
  intelligence, as distinguished from instinct, arises from a growing
  complexity of action, or, to use Herder's words, from the substitution
  of a more for a less contracted sphere. Herder is more successful in
  tracing the early developments of particular peoples than in
  constructing a scientific theory of evolution. Here he may be said to
  have laid the foundations of the science of primitive culture as a
  whole. His account of the first dawnings of culture, and of the ruder
  Oriental civilizations, is marked by genuine insight. On the other
  hand the development of classic culture is traced with a less skilful
  hand. Altogether this work is rich in suggestion to the philosophic
  historian and the anthropologist, though marked by much vagueness of
  conception and hastiness of generalization.

  6. Of Herder's properly metaphysical speculations little needs to be
  said. He was too much under the sway of feeling and concrete
  imagination to be capable of great things in abstract thought. It is
  generally admitted that he had no accurate knowledge either of
  Spinoza, whose monism he advocated, or of Kant, whose critical
  philosophy he so fiercely attacked. Herder's Spinozism, which is set
  forth in his little work, _Vom Erkennen und Empfinden der menschlichen
  Seele_ (1778), is much less logically conceived than Lessing's. It is
  the religious aspect of it which attracts him, the presentation in God
  of an object which at once satisfies the feelings and the intellect.
  With respect to his attacks on the critical philosophy in the
  _Metakritik_ (1799), it is easy to understand how his concrete mind,
  ever alive to the unity of things, instinctively rebelled against that
  analytic separation of the mental processes which Kant attempted.
  However crude and hasty this critical investigation, it helped to
  direct philosophic reflection to the unity of mind, and so to develop
  the post-Kantian line of speculation. Herder was much attracted by
  Schelling's early writings, but appears to have disliked Hegelianism
  because of the atheism it seemed to him to involve. In the _Kalligone_
  (1800), work directed against Kant's _Kritik der Urteilskraft_, Herder
  argues for the close connexion of the beautiful and the good. To his
  mind the content of art, which he conceived as human feeling and human
  life in its completeness, was much more valuable than the form, and so
  he was naturally led to emphasize the moral element in art. Thus his
  theoretic opposition to the Kantian aesthetics is but the reflection
  of his practical opposition to the form-idolatry of the Weimar poets.
       (J. S.)

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--An edition of Herder's _Sämtliche Werke_ in 45 vols.
  was published after his death by his widow (1805-1820); a second in 60
  vols. followed in 1827-1830; a third in 40 vols. in 1852-1854. There
  is also an edition by H. Düntzer (24 vols., 1869-1879). But these have
  all been superseded by the monumental critical edition by B. Suphan
  (32 vols., 1877 _sqq._). Of the many "selected works," mention may be
  made of those by B. Suphan (4 vols., 1884-1887); by H. Lambel, H.
  Meyer and E. Kühnemann in Kürschner's _Deutsche Nationalliteratur_ (10
  vols., 1885-1894). For Herder's correspondence, see _Aus Herders
  Nachlass_ (3 vols., 1856-1857), _Herders Reise nach Italien_ (1859),
  _Von und an Herder: Ungedruckte Briefe_ (3 vols., 1861-1862)--all
  three works edited by H. Düntzer and F. G. von Herder. Herder's
  _Briefwechsel mit Nicolai_ and his _Briefe an Hamann_ have been edited
  by O. Hoffmann (1887 and 1889). For biography and criticism, see
  _Erinnerungen aus dem Leben Herders_, by his wife, edited by J. G.
  Müller (2 vols., 1820); _J. G. von Herders Lebensbild_ (with his
  correspondence), by his son, E. G. von Herder (6 vols., 1846); C.
  Joret, _Herder et la renaissance littéraire en Allemagne au XVIII^e
  siècle_ (1875); F. von Bärenbach, _Herder als Vorgänger Darwins_
  (1877); R. Haym, _Herder nach seinem Leben und seinen Werken_ (2
  vols., 1880-1885); H. Nevinson, _A Sketch of Herder and his Times_
  (1884); M. Kronenberg, _Herders Philosophie nach ihrem
  Entwicklungsgang_ (1889); E. Kühnemann, _Herders Leben_ (1895); R.
  Bürkner, _Herder, sein Leben und Wirken_ (1904).



HEREDIA, JOSÉ MARIA DE (1842-1905), French poet, the modern master of
the French sonnet, was born at Fortuna Cafeyere, near Santiago de Cuba,
on the 22nd of November 1842, being in blood part Spanish Creole and
part French. At the age of eight he came from the West Indies to France,
returning thence to Havana at seventeen, and finally making France his
home not long afterwards. He received his classical education with the
priests of Saint Vincent at Senlis, and after a visit to Havana he
studied at the École des Chartes at Paris. In the later 'sixties, with
François Coppée, Sully-Prudhomme, Paul Verlaine and others less
distinguished, he made one of the band of poets who gathered round
Leconte de Lisle, and received the name of Parnassiens. To this new
school, form--the technical side of their art--was of supreme
importance, and, in reaction against the influence of Musset, they
rigorously repressed in their work the expression of personal feeling
and emotion. "True poetry," said M. de Heredia in his discourse on
entering the Academy--"true poetry dwells in nature and in humanity,
which are eternal, and not in the heart of the creature of a day,
however great." M. de Heredia's place in the movement was soon assured.
He wrote very little, and published even less, but his sonnets
circulated in MS., and gave him a reputation before they appeared in
1893, together with a few longer poems, as a volume, under the title of
_Les Trophées_. He was elected to the Academy on the 22nd of February
1894, in the place of Louis de Mazade-Percin the publicist. Few purely
literary men can have entered the Academy with credentials so small in
quantity. A small volume of verse--a translation, with introduction, of
Diaz del Castillo's _History of the Conquest of New Spain_
(1878-1881)--a translation of the life of the nun Alferez (1894), de
Quincey's "Spanish Military Nun"--and one or two short pieces of
occasional verse, and an introduction or so--this is but small literary
baggage, to use the French expression. But the sonnets are of their kind
among the most superb in modern literature. "A _Légende des siècles_ in
sonnets" M. François Coppée called them. Each presents a picture,
striking, brilliant, drawn with unfaltering hand--the picture of some
characteristic scene in man's long history. The verse is flawless,
polished like a gem; and its sound has distinction and fine harmony. If
one may suggest a fault, it is that each picture is sometimes too much
of a picture only, and that the poetical line, like that of M. de
Heredia's master, Leconte de Lisle himself, is occasionally overcrowded.
M. de Heredia was none the less one of the most skilful craftsmen who
ever practised the art of verse. In 1901 he became librarian of the
Bibliothèque de l'Arsénal at Paris. He died at the Château de Bourdonné
(Seine-et-Oise) on the 3rd of October 1905, having completed his
critical edition of André Chénier's works.



HEREDIA Y CAMPUZANO, JOSÉ MARIA (1803-1839), Cuban poet, was born at
Santiago de Cuba on the 31st of December 1803, studied at the university
of Havana, and was called to the bar in 1823. In the autumn of 1823 he
was arrested on a charge of conspiracy against the Spanish government,
and was sentenced to banishment for life. He took refuge in the United
States, published a volume of verses at New York in 1825, and then went
to Mexico, where, becoming naturalized, he obtained a post as
magistrate. In 1832 a collection of his poems was issued at Toluca, and
in 1836 he obtained permission to visit Cuba for two months.
Disappointed in his political ambitions, and broken in health, Heredia
returned to Mexico in January 1837, and died at Toluca on the 21st of
May 1839. Many of his earlier pieces are merely clever translations from
French, English and Italian; but his originality is placed beyond doubt
by such poems as the _Himno del desterrado_, the epistle to Emilia,
_Desengaños_, and the celebrated ode to Niagara. Bello may be thought to
excel Heredia in execution, and a few lines of Olmedo's _Canto á Junín_
vibrate with a virile passion to which the Cuban poet rarely attained;
but the sincerity of his patriotism and the sublimity of his imagination
have secured for Heredia a real supremacy among Spanish-American poets.

  The best edition of his works is that published at Paris in 1893 with
  a preface by Elias Zerolo.



HEREDITAMENT (from Lat. _hereditare_, to inherit, _heres_, heir), in
law, every kind of property that can be _inherited_. Hereditaments are
divided into corporeal and incorporeal; corporeal hereditaments are
"such as affect the senses, and may be seen and handled by the body;
incorporeal are not the subject of sensation, can neither be seen nor
handled, are creatures of the mind, and exist only in contemplation"
(Blackstone, _Commentaries_). An example of a corporeal hereditament is
land held in freehold, of incorporeal hereditaments, tithes, advowsons,
pensions, annuities, rents, franchises, &c. It is still used in the
phrase "lands, tenements and hereditaments" to describe property in
land, as distinguished from goods and chattels or movable property.



HEREDITY, in biological science, the name given to the generalization,
drawn from the observed facts, that animals and plants closely resemble
their progenitors. (That the resemblance is not complete involves in the
first place the subject of variation (see VARIATION AND SELECTION); but
it must be clearly stated that there is no adequate ground for the
current loose statements as to the existence of opposing "laws" or
"forces" of heredity and variation.) In the simplest cases there seems
to be no separate problem of heredity. When a creeping plant propagates
itself by runners, when a _Nais_ or _Myrianida_ breaks up into a series
of similar segments, each of which becomes a worm like the parent, we
have to do with the general fact that growing organisms tend to display
a symmetrical repetition of equivalent parts, and that reproduction by
fission is simply a special case of metamerism. When we try to answer
the question why the segments of an organism resemble one another,
whether they remain in association to form a segmented animal, or break
into different animals, we come to the conclusion, which at least is on
the way to an answer, that it is because they are formed from pieces of
the same protoplasm, growing under similar conditions. It is apparently
a fundamental property of protoplasm to be able to multiply by division
into parts, the properties of which are similar to each other and to
those of the parent.

This leads us directly to the cases of reproduction where there is an
obvious problem of heredity. In the majority of cases among animals and
plants the new organisms arise from portions of living matter, separated
from the parents, but different from the parents in size and structure.
These germs of the new organisms may be spores, reproductive cells,
fused reproductive cells or multicellular masses (see REPRODUCTION). For
the present purpose it is enough to state that they consist of portions
of the parental protoplasm. These pass through an embryological history,
in which by growth, multiplication and specialization they form
structures closely resembling the parents. Now, if it could be shown
that these reproductive masses arose directly from the reproductive
masses which formed the parent body, the problems of heredity would be
extremely simplified. If the first division of a reproductive cell set
apart one mass to lie dormant for a time and ultimately to form the
reproductive cells of the new generation, while the other mass, exactly
of the same kind, developed directly into the new organism, then
heredity would simply be a delayed case of what is called organic
symmetry, the tendency of similar living material to develop in similar
ways under the stimulus of similar external conditions. The cases in
which this happens are very rare. In the Diptera the first division of
the egg-cell separates the nuclear material of the subsequent
reproductive cells from the material that is elaborated into the new
organism to contain these cells. In the _Daphnidae_ and in _Sagitta_ a
similar separation occurs at slightly later stages; in vertebrates it
occurs much later; while in some hydroids the germ-cells do not arise in
the individual which is developed from the egg-cell at all, but in a
much later generation, which is produced from the first by budding.
However, it is not necessary to dismiss the fertile idea of what Moritz
Nussbaum and August Weismann, who drew attention to it, called
"continuity of the germ-plasm." Weismann has shown that an actual series
of organic forms might be drawn up in which the formation of germ-cells
begins at stages successively more remote from the first division of the
egg-cell. He has also shown evidence, singularly complete in the case of
the hydroids, for the existence of an actual migration of the place of
formation of the germ-cells, the migration reaching farther and farther
from the egg-cell. He has elaborated the conception of the germ-track, a
chain of cell generations in the development of any creature along which
the reproductive material saved over from the development of one
generation for the germ-cells of the next generation is handed on in a
latent condition to its ultimate position. And thus he supposes a real
continuity of the germ-plasm, extending from generation to generation in
spite of the apparent discontinuity in the observed cases. The
conception certainly ranks among the most luminous and most fertile
contributions of the 19th century to biological thought, and it is
necessary to examine at greater length the superstructure which Weismann
has raised upon it.

_Weismann's Theory of the Germ-plasm._--A living being takes its
individual origin only where there is separated from the stock of the
parent a little piece of the peculiar reproductive plasm, the so-called
germ-plasm. In sexless reproduction one parent is enough; in sexual
reproduction equivalent masses of germ-plasm from each parent combine to
form the new individual. The germ-plasm resides in the nucleus of cells,
and Weismann identifies it with the nuclear material named chromatin.
Like ordinary protoplasm, of which the bulk of cell bodies is composed,
germ-plasm is a living material, capable of growing in bulk without
alteration of structure when it is supplied with appropriate food. But
it is a living material much more complex than protoplasm. In the first
place, the mass of germ-plasm which is the starting-point of a new
individual consists of several, sometimes of many, pieces named
"idants," which are either the chromosomes into a definite number of
which the nuclear material of a dividing cell breaks up, or possibly
smaller units named chromomeres. These idants are a collection of "ids,"
which Weismann tentatively identifies with the microsomata contained in
the chromosomes, which are visible after treatment with certain
reagents. Each id contains all the possibilities--generic, specific,
individual--of a new organism, or rather the directing substance which
in appropriate surroundings of food, &c., forms a new organism. Each id
is a veritable microcosm, possessed of an historic architecture that has
been elaborated slowly through the multitudinous series of generations
that stretch backwards in time from every living individual. This
microcosm, again, consists of a number of minor vital units called
"determinants," which cohere according to the architecture of the whole
id. The determinants are hypothetical units corresponding to the number
of parts of the organism independently variable. Lastly, each
determinant consists of a number of small hypothetical units, the
"biophores." These are adaptations of a conception of H. de Vries, and
are supposed to become active by leaving the nucleus of the cell in
which they lie, passing out into the general protoplasm of the cell and
ruling its activities. Each new individual begins life as a nucleated
cell, the nucleus of which contains germ-plasm of this complex structure
derived from the parent. The reproductive cell gives rise to the new
individual by continued absorption of food, by growth, cell-divisions
and cell-specializations. The theory supposes that the first divisions
of the nucleus are "doubling," or homogeneous divisions. The germ-plasm
has grown in bulk without altering its character in any respect, and,
when it divides, each resulting mass is precisely alike. From these
first divisions a chain of similar doubling divisions stretches along
the "germ-tracks," so marshalling unaltered germ-plasm to the generative
organs of the new individual, to be ready to form the germ-cells of the
next generation. In this mode the continuity of the germ-plasm from
individual to individual is maintained. This also is the immortality of
the germ-cells, or rather of the germ-plasm, the part of the theory
which has laid so large a hold on the popular imagination, although it
is really no more than a reassertion in new terms of biogenesis. With
this also is connected the celebrated denial of the inheritance of
acquired characters. It seemed a clear inference that, if the hereditary
mass for the daughters were separated off from the hereditary mass that
was to form the mother, at the very first, before the body of the mother
was formed, the daughters were in all essentials the sisters of their
mother, and could take from her nothing of any characters that might be
impressed on her body in subsequent development. In the later
elaboration of his theory Weismann has admitted the possibility of some
direct modification of the germ-plasm within the body of the individual
acting as its host.

The mass of germ-plasm which is not retained in unaltered form to
provide for the generative cells is supposed to be employed for the
elaboration of the individual body. It grows, dividing and multiplying,
and forms the nuclear matter of the tissues of the individual, but the
theory supposes this process to occur in a peculiar fashion. The nuclear
divisions are what Weismann calls "differentiating" or heterogeneous
divisions. In them the microcosms of the germ-plasm are not doubled, but
slowly disintegrated in accordance with the historical architecture of
the plasm, each division differentiating among the determinants and
marshalling one set into one portion, another into another portion.
There are differences in the observed facts of nuclear division which
tend to support the theoretical possibility of two sorts of division,
but as yet these have not been correlated definitely with the divisions
along the germ-tracks and the ordinary divisions of embryological
organogeny. The theoretical conception is, that when the whole body is
formed, the cells contain only their own kind of determinants, and it
would follow from this that the cells of the tissues cannot give rise to
structures containing germ-plasm less disintegrated than their own
nuclear material, and least of all to reproductive cells which must
contain the undisintegrated microcosms of the germ-plasm. Cases of
bud-formation and of reconstructions of lost parts (see REGENERATION OF
LOST PARTS) are regarded as special adaptations made possible by the
provision of latent groups of accessory determinants, to become active
only on emergency.

It is to be noticed that Weismann's conception of the processes of
ontogeny is strictly evolutionary, and in so far is a reversion to the
general opinion of biologists of the 17th and 18th centuries. These
supposed that the germ-cell contained an image-in-little of the adult,
and that the process of development was a mere unfolding or evolution of
this, under the influence of favouring and nutrient forces. Hartsoeker,
indeed, went so far as to figure the human spermatozoon with a mannikin
seated within the "head," and similar extremes of imagination were
indulged in by other writers for the spermatozoon or ovum, according to
the view they took of the relative importance of these two bodies. C. F.
Wolff, in his _Theoria generationis_ (1759), was the first distinguished
anatomist to make assault on these evolutionary views, but his direct
observations on the process of development were not sufficient in bulk
nor in clarity of interpretation to convince his contemporaries.
Naturally the improved methods and vastly greater knowledge of modern
days have made evolution in the old sense an impossible conception; we
know that the egg is morphologically unlike the adult, that various
external conditions are necessary for its subsequent progress through a
slow series of stages, each of which is unlike the adult, but gradually
approaching it until the final condition is reached. None the less,
Weismann's theory supposes that the important determining factor in
these gradual changes lies in the historical architecture of the
germ-plasm, and from the theoretical point of view his theory remains
strictly an unfolding, a becoming manifest of hidden complexity.

_Hertwig's View._--The chief modern holder of the rival view, and the
writer who has put together in most cogent form the objections to
Weismann's theory, is Oscar Hertwig. He points out that there is no
direct evidence for the existence of differentiating as opposed to
doubling divisions of the nuclear matter, and, moreover, he thinks that
there is very generally diffused evidence as to the universality of
doubling division. In the first place, there is the fundamental fact
that single-celled organisms exhibit only doubling division, as by that
the persistence of species which actually occurs alone is possible. In
the case of higher plants, the widespread occurrence of tissues with
power of reproduction, the occurrence of budding in almost any part of
the body in lower animals and in plants, and the widespread powers of
regeneration of lost parts, are easily intelligible if every cell like
the egg-cell has been formed by doubling division, and so contains the
germinal material for every part of the organism, and thus, on the call
of special conditions, can become a germ-cell again. He lays special
stress on those experiments in which the process of development has been
interfered with in various ways at various stages, as showing that the
cells which arise from the division of the egg-cell were not predestined
unalterably for a particular rôle, according to a predetermined plan. He
dismisses Weismann's suggestion of the presence of accessory
determinants which remain latent unless they happen to be required, as
being too complicated a supposition to be supported without exact
evidence, a view in which he has received strong support from those who
have worked most at the experimental side of the question. From
consideration of a large number of physiological facts, such as the
results of grafting, transplantations of tissues and transfusions of
blood, he concludes that the cells of an organism possess, in addition
to their patent microscopical characters, latent characters peculiar to
the species, and pointing towards a fundamental identity of the germinal
substance in every cell.

_The Nuclear Matter._--Apart from these two characteristic protagonists
of extreme and opposing views, the general consensus of biological
opinion does not take us very far beyond the plainest facts of
observation. The resemblances of heredity are due to the fact that the
new organism takes its origin from a definite piece of the substance of
its parent or parents. This piece always contains protoplasm, and as the
protoplasm of every animal and plant appears to have its own specific
reactions, we cannot exclude this factor; indeed many, following the
views of M. Verworn, and seeing in the specific metabolisms of
protoplasm a large part of the meaning of life, attach an increasing
importance to the protoplasm in the hereditary mass. Next, it always
contains nuclear matter, and, in view of the extreme specialization of
the nuclear changes in the process of maturation and fertilization of
the generative cells, there is more than sufficient reason for believing
that the nuclear substance, if not actually the specific germ-plasm, is
of vast importance in heredity. The theory of its absolute dominance
depends on a number of experiments, the interpretation of which is
doubtful. Moritz Nussbaum showed that in Infusoria non-nucleated
fragments of a cell always died, while nucleated fragments were able to
complete themselves; but it may be said with almost equal confidence
that nuclei separated from protoplasm also invariably die--at least, all
attempts to preserve them have failed. Hertwig and others, in their
brilliant work on the nature of fertilization, showed that the process
always involved the entrance into the female cell of the nucleus of the
male cell, but we now know that part of the protoplasm of the
spermatozoon also enters. T. Boveri made experiments on the
cross-fertilization of non-nucleated fragments of the eggs of
_Sphaerechinus granularis_ with spermatozoa of _Echinus
microtuberculatus_, and obtained dwarf larvae with only the paternal
characters; but the nature of his experiments was not such as absolutely
to exclude doubt. Finally, in addition to the nucleus and the
protoplasm, another organism of the cell, the centrosome, is part of the
hereditary mass. In sum, while most of the evidence points to a
preponderating importance of the nuclear matter, it cannot be said to be
an established proposition that the nuclear matter is the germ-plasm.
Nor are we yet definitely in a position to say that the germinal mass
(nuclear matter, protoplasm, &c., of the reproductive cells) differs
essentially from the general substance of the organism--whether, in
fact, there is continuity of _germ-plasm_ as opposed to continuity of
living material from individual to individual. The origin of sexual
cells from only definite places, in the vast majority of cases, and such
phenomena as the phylo-genetic migration of their place of origin among
the Hydro-medusae, tell strongly in favour of Weismann's conception.
Early experiments on dividing eggs, in which, by separation or
transposition, cells were made to give rise to tissues and parts of the
organism which in the natural order they would not have produced, tell
strongly against any profound separation between germ-plasm and
body-plasm. It is also to be noticed that the failure of germ-cells to
arise except in specific places may be only part of the specialized
ordering of the whole body, and does not necessarily involve the
interpretation that reproductive material is absolutely different in
kind.

_Amphimixis._--Hitherto we have considered the material bearer of
heredity apart from the question of sexual union, and we find that the
new organism takes origin from a portion of living matter, forming a
material which may be called germ-plasm, in which resides the capacity
to correspond to the same kind of surrounding forces as stimulated the
parent germ-plasm by growth of the same fashion. In many cases (e.g.
asexual spores) the piece of germ-plasm comes from one parent, and from
an organ or tissue not associated with sexual reproduction; in other
cases (parthenogenetic eggs) it comes from the ovary of a female, and
may have the apparent characters of a sexual egg, except that it
develops without fertilization; here also are to be included the cases
where normal female ova have been induced to develop, not by the
entrance of a spermatozoon, but by artificial chemical stimulation. In
such cases the problem of heredity does not differ fundamentally from
the symmetrical repetition of parts. In most of the higher plants and
animals, however, sexual reproduction is the normal process, and from
our present point of view the essential feature of this is that the
germ-plasm which starts the new individual (the fertilized egg) is
derived from the male (the spermatozoon) and from the female parent (the
ovum). Although it cannot yet be set down sharply as a general
proposition, there is considerable evidence to show that in the
preparation of the ovum and spermatozoon for fertilization the nuclear
matter of each is reduced by half (reducing division of the
chromosomes), and that fertilization means the restoration of the normal
bulk in the fertilized cell by equal contributions from male and female.
So far as the known facts of this process of union of germ-plasms go,
they take us no farther than to establish such a relation between the
offspring and two parents as exists between the offspring and one parent
in the other cases. Amphimixis has a vast importance in the theory of
evolution (Weismann, for instance, regards it as the chief factor in the
production of variations); for its relation to heredity we are as yet
dependent on empirical observations.

_Heredity and Development._--The actual process by which the germinal
mass slowly assumes the characters of the adult--that is, becomes like
the parent--depends on the interaction of two sets of factors: the
properties of the germinal material itself, and the influences of
substances and conditions external to the germinal material. Naturally,
as K. W. von Nägeli and Hertwig in particular have pointed out, there is
no perpetual sharp contrast between the two sets of factors, for, as
growth proceeds, the external is constantly becoming the internal; the
results of influences, which were in one stage part of the environment,
are in the next and subsequent stages part of the embryo. The
differences between the exponents of evolution and epigenesis offer
practical problems to be decided by experiment. Every phenomenon in
development that is proved the direct result of epigenetic factors can
be discounted from the complexity of the germinal mass. If, for
instance, as H. Driesch and Hertwig have argued, much of the
differentiation of cells and tissues is a function of locality and is
due to the action of different external forces on similar material, then
just so much burden is removed from what evolutionists have to explain.
That much remains cannot be doubted. Two eggs similar in appearance
develop side by side in the same sea-water, one becoming a mollusc, the
other an _Amphioxus_. Hertwig would say that the slight differences in
the original eggs would determine slight differences in metabolism and
so forth, with the result that the segmentation of the two is slightly
different; in the next stage the differences in metabolisms and other
relations will be increased, and so on indefinitely. But in such cases
_c'est le premier pas qui coûte_, and the absolute cost in theoretical
complexity of the germinal material can be estimated only after a
prolonged course of experimental work in a field which is as yet hardly
touched.

_Empirical Study of Heredity._--The fundamental basis of heredity is the
separation of a mass from the parent (germ-plasm) which under certain
conditions grows into an individual resembling the parent. The goal of
the study of heredity will be reached only when all the phenomena can be
referred to the nature of the germ-plasm and of its relations to the
conditions under which it grows, but we have seen how far our knowledge
is from any attempt at such references. In the meantime, the empirical
facts, the actual relations of the characters in the offspring to the
characters of the parents and ancestors, are being collected and
grouped. In this inquiry it at once becomes obvious that every character
found in a parent may or may not be present in the offspring. When any
character occurs in both, it is generally spoken of as transmissible and
of having been transmitted. In this broad sense there is no character
that is not transmissible. In all kinds of reproduction, the characters
of the class, family, genus, species, variety or race, and of the actual
individual, are transmissible, the certainty with which any character
appears being almost in direct proportion to its rank in the descending
scale from order to individual. The transmitted characters are
anatomical, down to the most minute detail; physiological, including
such phenomena as diatheses, timbre of voice and even compound
phenomena, such as _gaucherie_ and peculiarity of handwriting;
psychological; pathological; teratological, such as syndactylism and all
kinds of individual variations. Either sex may transmit characters which
in themselves are necessarily latent, as, for instance, a bull may
transmit a good milking strain. In forms of asexual reproduction, such
as division, budding, propagation by slips and so forth, every character
of the parent may appear in the descendant, and apparently even in the
descendants produced from that descendant by the ordinary sexual
processes. In reproduction by spore formation, in parthenogenesis and in
ordinary sexual modes, where there is an embryological history between
the separated mass and the new adult, it is necessary to attempt a
difficult discrimination between acquired and innate characters.

_Acquired Characters._--Every character is the result of two sets of
factors, those resident in the germinal material and those imposed from
without. Our knowledge has taken us far beyond any such idea as the
formation of a germinal material by the collection of particles from the
adult organs and tissues (gemmules of C. Darwin). The inheritance of any
character means the transmission in the germinal material of matter
which, brought under the necessary external conditions, develops into
the character of the parent. There is necessarily an acquired or
epigenetic side to every character; but there is nothing in our
knowledge of the actual processes to make necessary or even probable the
supposition that the result of that factor in one generation appears in
the germ-plasm of the subsequent generations, in those cases where an
embryological development separates parent and offspring. The
development of any normal, so-called "innate," character, such as, say,
the assumption of the normal human shape and relations of the frontal
bone, requires the co-operation of many factors external to the
developing embryo, and the absence of abnormal distorting factors. When
we say that such an innate character is transmitted, we mean only that
the germ-plasm has such a constitution that, in the presence of the
epigenetic factors and the absence of abnormal epigenetic factors, the
bone will appear in due course and in due form. If an abnormal
epigenetic factor be applied during development, whether to the embryo
_in utero_, to the developing child, or in after life, abnormality of
some kind will appear in the bone, and such an abnormality is a good
type of what is spoken of as an "acquired" character. Naturally such a
character varies with the external stimulus and the nature of the
material to which the stimulus is applied, and probability and
observation lead us to suppose that as the germ-plasm of the offspring
is similar to that of the parent, being a mass separated from the
parent, abnormal epigenetic influences would produce results on the
offspring similar to those which they produced on the parent. Scrutiny
of very many cases of the supposed inheritance of acquired characters
shows that they may be explained in this fashion--that is to say, that
they do not necessarily involve any feature different in kind from what
we understand to occur in normal development. The effects of increased
use or of disuse on organs or tissues, the reactions of living tissues
to various external influences, to bacteria, to bacterial or other
toxins, or to different conditions of respiration, nutrition and so
forth, we know empirically to be different in the case of different
individuals, and we may expect that when the living matter of a parent
responds in a certain way to a certain external stimulus, the living
matter of the descendant will respond to similar circumstances in a
similar fashion. The operation of similar influences on similar material
accounts for a large proportion of the facts. In the important case of
the transmission of disease from parent to offspring it is plain that
three sets of normal factors may operate, and other cases of
transmission must be subjected to similar scrutiny: (1) a child may
inherit the anatomical and physiological constitution of either parent,
and with that a special liability of failure to resist the attacks of a
widespread disease; (2) the actual bacteria may be contained in the ovum
or possibly in the spermatozoon; (3) the toxins of the disease may have
affected the ovum, or the spermatozoon, or through the placenta the
growing embryo. Obviously in the first two cases the offspring cannot be
said in any strict sense to have inherited the disease; in the last
case, the theoretical nomenclature is more doubtful, but it is at least
plain that no inexplicable factor is involved.

It is to be noticed, however, that "Lamarckians" and "Neo-Lamarckians"
in their advocacy of an inheritance of "acquired characters" make a
theoretical assumption of a different kind, which applies equally to
"acquired" and to "innate" characters. They suppose that the result of
the epigenetic factors is reflected on the germ-plasm in such a mode
that in development the products would display the same or a similar
character without the co-operation of the epigenetic factors on the new
individual, or would display the result in an accentuated form if with
the renewed co-operation of the external factors. Such an assumption
presents its greatest theoretical difficulty if, with Weismann, we
suppose the germ-plasm to be different in kind from the general
soma-plasm, and its least theoretical difficulty if, with Hertwig, we
suppose the essential matter of the reproductive cells to be similar in
kind to the essential substance of the general body cells. But, apart
from the differences between such theories, it supposes, in all cases
where an embryological development lies between parent and descendant,
the existence of a factor towards which our present knowledge of the
actual processes gives us no assistance. The separated hereditary mass
does not contain the organs of the adult; the Lamarckian factor would
involve the translation of the characters of the adult back into the
characters of the germ-cell in such a fashion that when the germ-cell
developed these characters would be re-translated again into those which
originally had been produced by co-operation between germ-plasm
characters and epigenetic factors. In the present state of our knowledge
the theoretical difficulty is not fatal to the Lamarckian supposition;
it does no more than demand a much more careful scrutiny of the supposed
cases. Such a scrutiny has been going on since Weismann first raised the
difficulty, and the present result is that no known case has appeared
which cannot be explained without the Lamarckian factor, and the vast
majority of cases have been resolved without any difficulty into the
ordinary events of which we have full experience. Taking the empirical
data in detail, it would appear first that the effects of single
mutilations are not inherited. The effects of long-continued mutilations
are not inherited, but Darwin cites as a possible case the Mahommedans
of Celebes, in whom the prepuce is very small. C. E. Brown-Séquard
thought that he had shown in the case of guinea-pigs the inheritance of
the results of nervous lesions, but analyses of his results leave the
question extremely doubtful. The inheritance of the effects of use and
disuse is not proved. The inheritance of the effects of changed
conditions of life is quite uncertain. Nägeli grew Alpine plants at
Munich, but found that the change was produced at once and was not
increased in a period of thirteen years. Alphonse de Candolle starved
plants, with the result of producing better blooms, and found that
seedlings from these were also above the average in luxuriance of
blossom, but in these experiments the effects of selection during the
starvation, and of direct effect on the nutrition of the seeds, were not
eliminated. Such results are typical of the vast number of experiments
and observations recorded. The empirical issue is doubtful, with a
considerable balance against the supposed inheritance of acquired
characters.

_Empirical Study of Effects of Amphimixis._--Inheritance is
theoretically possible from each parent and from the ancestry of each.
In considering the total effect it is becoming customary to distinguish
between "blended" inheritance, where the offspring appears in respect of
any character to be intermediate between the conditions in the parents;
"prepotent" inheritance, where one parent is supposed to be more
effective than the other in stamping the offspring (thus, for instance,
Negroes, Jews and Chinese are stated to be prepotent in crosses);
"exclusive" inheritance, where the character of the offspring is
definitely that of one of the parents. Such a classification depends on
the interpretation of the word character, and rests on no certain
grounds. An apparently blended character or a prepotent character may on
analysis turn out to be due to the inheritance of a certain proportion
of minuter characters derived exclusively from either parent. H. de
Vries and later on a number of other biologists have advanced the
knowledge of heredity in crosses by carrying out further the
experimental and theoretical work of Gregor Mendel (see MENDELISM and
HYBRIDISM), and results of great practical importance to breeders have
already been obtained. These experiments and results, however, appear to
relate exclusively to sexual reproduction and almost entirely to the
crossing of artificial varieties of animals and plants. So far as they
go, they point strongly to the occurrence of alternate inheritance
instead of blended inheritance in the case of artificial varieties. On
the other hand, in the case of natural varieties it appears that blended
inheritance predominates. The difficulty of the interpretation of the
word "character" still remains and the Mendelian interpretation cannot
be dismissed with regard to the behaviour of any "character" in
inheritance until it is certain that it is a unit and not a composite.
There is another fundamental difficulty in making empirical comparisons
between the characters of parents and offspring. At first sight it seems
as if this mode of work were sufficiently direct and simple, and
involved no more than a mere collection of sufficient data. The cranial
index, or the height of a human being and of so many of his ancestors
being given, it would seem easy to draw an inference as to whether or no
in these cases brachycephaly or stature were inherited. But our modern
conceptions of the individual and the race make it plain that the
problems are not so simple. With regard to any character, the race type
is not a particular measurement, but a curve of variations derived from
statistics, and any individual with regard to the particular character
may be referable to any point of the curve. A tall race like the modern
Scots may contain individuals of any height within the human limits; a
dolichocephalic race like the modern Spaniards may contain extremely
round-headed individuals. What is meant by saying that one race is tall
or the other dolichocephalic, is merely that if a sufficiently large
number be chosen at random, the average height of the one race will be
great, the cranial index of the other low. It follows that the study of
variation must be associated with, or rather must precede, the empirical
study of heredity, and we are beginning to know enough now to be certain
that in both cases the results to be obtained are practically useless
for the individual case, and of value only when large masses of
statistics are collected. No doubt, when general conclusions have been
established, they must be acted on for individual cases, but the results
can be predicted not for the individual case, but only for the average
of a mass of individual cases. It is impossible within the limits of
this article to discuss the mathematical conceptions involved in the
formation and applications of the method, but it is necessary to insist
on the fact that these form an indispensable part of any valuable study
of empirical data. One interesting conclusion, which may be called the
"ancestral law" of heredity, with regard to any character, such as
height, which appears to be a blend of the male and female characters,
whether or no the apparent blend is really due to an exclusive
inheritance of separate components, may be given from the work of F.
Galton and K. Pearson. Each parent, on the average, contributes ¼ or
(0.5)², each grandparent 1/16 or (0.5)^4, and each ancestor of n^th
place (0.5)^(2n). But this, like all other deductions, is applicable
only to the mass of cases and not to any individual case.

_Regression._--An important result of quantitative work brings into
prominence the steady tendency to maintain the type which appears to be
one of the most important results of amphimixis. In the tenth generation
a man has 1024 tenth grandparents, and is thus the product of an
enormous population, the mean of which can hardly differ from that of
the general population. Hence this heavy weight of mediocrity produces
regression or progression to type. Thus in the case of height, a large
number of cases being examined, it was found that fathers of a stature
of 72 in. had sons with a mean stature of 70.8 in., a regression towards
the normal stature of the race. Fathers with a stature of 66 in. had
sons with a mean of 68.3 in., a progression towards the normal. It
follows from this that where there is much in-and-in breeding the weight
of mediocrity will be less, and the peculiarities of the breed will be
accentuated.

_Atavism._--Under this name a large number of ordinary cases of
variation are included. A tall man with very short parents would
probably be set down as a case of atavism if the existence of a very
tall ancestor were known. He would, however, simply be a case of normal
variation, the probability of which may be calculated from a table of
stature variations in his race. Less marked cases set down to atavism
may be instances merely of normal regression. Many cases of more
abnormal structure, which are really due to abnormal embryonic or
post-embryonic development, are set down to atavism, as, for instance,
the cervical fistulae, which have been regarded as atavistic
persistences of the gill clefts. It is also used to imply the reversion
that takes place when domestic varieties are set free and when species
or varieties are crossed (see HYBRIDISM). Atavism is, in fact, a
misleading name covering a number of very different phenomena.

_Telegony_ is the name given to the supposed fact that offspring of a
mother to one sire may inherit characters from a sire with which the
mother had previously bred. Although breeders of stock have a strong
belief in the existence of this, there are no certain facts to support
it, the supposed cases being more readily explained as individual
variations of the kind generally referred to as "atavism." None the
less, two theoretical explanations have been suggested: (1) that
spermatozoa, or portions of spermatozoa, from the first sire may
occasionally survive within the mother for an abnormally long period;
(2) that the body, or the reproductive cells of the mother, may be
influenced by the growth of the embryo within her, so that she acquires
something of the character of the sire. The first supposition has no
direct evidence to support it, and is made highly improbable from the
fact that a second impregnation is always necessary. Against the second
supposition Pearson brings the cogent empirical evidence that the
younger children of the same sire show no increased tendency to resemble
him. (See TELEGONY.)

  AUTHORITIES.--The following books contain a fair proportion of the new
  and old knowledge on this subject:--W. Bateson, _Materials for the
  Study of Variation_ (1894); Y. Delage, _La Structure du protoplasma et
  les théories sur l'hérédité_ (a very full discussion and list of
  literature); G. H. T. Eimer, _Organic Evolution_, Eng. trans. by
  Cunningham (1890); J. C. Ewart, _The Penycuik Experiments_ (1899); F.
  Galton, _Natural Inheritance_ (1887); O. Hertwig, _Evolution or
  Epigenesis?_ Eng. trans. by P. C. Mitchell (1896); K. Pearson, _The
  Grammar of Science_ (1900); Verworn, _General Physiology_, Eng. trans.
  (1899); A. Weismann, _The Germ Plasm_, Eng. trans. by Parker (1893).
  Lists of separate papers are given in the annual volumes of the
  _Zoological Record_ under heading "General Subject."     (P. C. M.)



HEREFORD, a city and municipal and parliamentary borough, and the county
town of Herefordshire, England, on the river Wye, 144 m. W.N.W. of
London, on the Worcester-Cardiff line of the Great Western railway and
on the west-and-north joint line of that company and the North-Western.
It is connected with Ross and Gloucester by a branch of the Great
Western, and is the terminus of a line from the west worked by the
Midland and Neath & Brecon companies. Pop. (1901) 21,382. It is mainly
on the left bank of the river, which here traverses a broad valley, well
wooded and pleasant. The cathedral of St Ethelbert exemplifies all
styles from Norman to Perpendicular. The see was detached from Lichfield
in 676, Putta being its first bishop; and the modern diocese covers most
of Herefordshire, a considerable part of Shropshire, and small portions
of Worcestershire, Staffordshire and Monmouthshire; extending also a
short distance across the Welsh border. The removal of murdered
Aethelbert's body from Marden to Hereford led to the foundation of a
superior church, reconstructed by Bishop Athelstane, and burnt by the
Welsh in 1055. Begun again in 1079 by Bishop Robert Losinga, it was
carried on by Bishop Reynelm and completed in 1148 by Bishop R. de
Betun. In 1786 the great western tower fell and carried with it the west
front and the first bay of the nave, when the church suffered much from
unhappy restoration by James Wyatt, but his errors were partly corrected
by the further work of Lewis Cottingham and Sir Gilbert Scott in 1841
and 1863 respectively, while the present west front is a reconstruction
completed in 1905. The total length of the cathedral outside is 342 ft.,
inside 327 ft. 5 in., the nave being 158 ft. 6 in., the choir from
screen to reredos 75 ft. 6 in. and the lady chapel 93 ft. 5 in. Without,
the principal features are the central tower, of Decorated work with
ball-flower ornament, formerly surmounted by a timber spire; and the
north porch, rich Perpendicular with parvise. The lady chapel has a bold
east end with five narrow lancet windows. The bishop's cloisters, of
which only two walks remain, are Perpendicular of curious design, with
heavy tracery in the bays. A picturesque tower at the south-east corner,
in the same style, is called the "Lady Arbour," but the origin of the
name is unknown. Of the former fine decagonal Decorated chapter-house,
only the doorway and slight traces remain. Within, the nave has Norman
arcades, showing the wealth of ornament common to the work of this
period in the church. Wyatt shortened it by one bay, and the clerestory
is his work. There is a fine late Norman font, springing from a base
with the rare design of four lions at the corners. The south transept is
also Norman, but largely altered by the introduction of Perpendicular
work. The north transept was wholly rebuilt in 1287 to contain the
shrine of St Thomas de Cantilupe, bishop of Hereford, of which there
remains the magnificent marble pedestal surmounted by an ornate arcade.
The fine lantern, with its many shafts and vaulting, was thrown open to
the floor of the bell-chamber by Cottingham. The choir screen is a
florid design by Sir Gilbert Scott, in light wrought iron, with a wealth
of ornament in copper, brass, mosaic and polished stones. The dark choir
is Norman in the arcades and the stage above, with Early English
clerestory and vaulting. At the east end is a fine Norman arch, blocked
until 1841 by a Grecian screen erected in 1717. The choir stalls are
largely Decorated. The organ contains original work by the famous
builder Renatus Harris, and was the gift of Charles II. to the
cathedral. The small north-east and south-east transepts are Decorated
but retain traces of the Norman apsidal terminations eastward. The
eastern lady chapel, dated about 1220, shows elaborate Early English
work. On the south side opens the little Perpendicular chantry of Bishop
Audley (1492-1502). In the north choir aisle is the beautiful
fan-vaulted chantry of Bishop Stanbury (1470). The crypt is remarkable
as being, like the lady chapel, Early English, and is thus the only
cathedral crypt in England of a later date than the 11th century. The
ancient monastic library remains in the archive room, with its heavy oak
cupboards. Deeds, documents and several rare manuscripts and relics are
preserved, and several of the precious books are still secured by
chains. But the most celebrated relic is in the south choir aisle. This
is the Map of the World, dating from about 1314, the work of a
Lincolnshire monk, Richard of Haldingham. It represents the world as
surrounded by ocean, and embodies many ideas taken from Herodotus, Pliny
and other writers, being filled with grotesque figures of men, beasts,
birds and fishes, together with representations of famous cities and
scenes of scriptural classical story, such as the Labyrinth of Crete,
the Egyptian pyramids, Mount Sinai and the journeyings of the
Israelites. The map is surmounted by representations of Paradise and the
Day of Judgment.

From the south-east transept of the cathedral a cloister leads to the
quadrangular college of the Vicars-Choral, a beautiful Perpendicular
building. On this side of the cathedral, too, the bishop's palace,
originally a Norman hall, overlooks the Wye, and near it lies the castle
green, the site of the historic castle, which is utterly effaced. There
is here a column (1809) commemorating the victories of Nelson. The
church of All Saints is Early English and Decorated, and has a lofty
spire. Both this and St Peter's (originally Norman) have good carved
stalls, but the fabric of both churches is greatly restored. One only of
the six gates and a few fragments of the old walls are still to be seen,
but there are ruins of the Black Friars' Monastery in Widemarsh, and a
mile out of Hereford on the Brecon Road, the White Cross, erected in
1347 by Bishop Louis Charlton, and restored by Archdeacon Lord Saye and
Sele, commemorates the departure of the Black Plague. Of domestic
buildings the "Old House" is a good example of the picturesque
half-timbered style, dating from 1621, and the Coningsby Hospital
(almshouses) date from 1614. The inmates wear a remarkable uniform of
red, designed by the founder, Sir T. Coningsby. St Ethelbert's hospital
is an Early English foundation. Old-established schools are the
Cathedral school (1384) and the Blue Coat school (1710); there is also
the County College (1880). The public buildings are the shire hall in St
Peter's Street, in the Grecian Doric style, with a statue in front of it
of Sir George Cornewall Lewis, who represented the county in parliament
from 1847 to 1852, the town hall (1904), the corn-exchange (1858), the
free library and museum in Broad Street; the guildhall and mansion
house. A musical festival of the choirs of Hereford, Gloucester and
Worcester cathedrals is held annually in rotation at these cities.

The government is in the hands of a municipal council consisting of a
mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 5031 acres.

Hereford (_Herefortuna_), founded after the crossing of the Severn by
the West Saxons early in the 7th century, had a strategic importance due
to its proximity to the Welsh March. The foundation of the castle is
ascribed to Earl Harold, afterwards Harold II. The castle was
successfully besieged by Stephen, and was the prison of Prince Edward
during the Barons' Wars. The pacification of Wales deprived Hereford of
military significance until it became a Royalist stronghold during the
Civil Wars. It surrendered easily to Waller in 1643; but was reoccupied
by the king's troops and received Rupert on his march to Wales after
Naseby. It was besieged by the Scots during August 1645 and relieved by
the king. It fell to the Parliamentarians in this year. In 1086 the town
included fees of the bishop, the dean and chapter, and the Knights
Hospitallers, but was otherwise royal demesne. Richard I. in 1189 sold
their town to the citizens at a fee farm rent, which grant was confirmed
by John, Henry III., Edward II., Edward III., Richard II., Henry IV. and
Edward IV. Incorporation was granted to the mayor, aldermen and citizens
in 1597, and confirmed in 1620 and 1697-1698. Hereford returned two
members to parliament from 1295 until 1885, when the Redistribution Act
deprived it of one representative. In 1116-1117 a fair beginning on St
Ethelberta's day was conferred on the bishop, the antecedent of the
modern fair in the beginning of May. A fair beginning on St Denis' day,
granted to the citizens in 1226-1227, is represented by that held in
October. The fair of Easter Wednesday was granted in 1682. In 1792 the
existing fairs of Candlemas week and the beginning of July were held.
Market days were, under Henry VIII. and in 1792, Wednesday, Friday and
Saturday; the Friday market was discontinued before 1835. Hereford was
the site of a provincial mint in 1086 and later. A grant of an exclusive
merchant gild, in 1215-1216, was several times confirmed. The trade in
wool was important in 1202, and eventually responsible for gilds of
tailors, drapers, mercers, dyers, fullers, cloth workers, weavers and
haberdashers; it brought into the market Welsh friezes and white cloth;
but declined in the 16th century, although it existed in 1835. The
leather trade was considerable in the 13th century. In 1835 the glove
trade had declined. The city anciently had an extensive trade in bread
with Wales. It was the birthplace of David Garrick, the actor, in 1716,
and probably of Nell Gwyn, mistress of Charles II., to whose memory a
tablet was erected in 1883, marking the supposed site of her house.

  See R. Johnson, _Ancient Customs of Hereford_ (London, 1882); J.
  Duncumbe, _History of Hereford_ (Hereford, 1882); _Journal_ of Brit.
  Arch. Assoc. xxvi.



HEREFORDSHIRE, an inland county of England on the south Welsh border,
bounded N. by Shropshire, E. by Worcestershire, S. by Monmouthshire and
Gloucestershire, and W. by Radnorshire and Brecknockshire. The area is
839.6 sq. m. The county is almost wholly drained by the Wye and its
tributaries, but on the north and east includes a small portion of the
Severn basin. The Wye enters Herefordshire from Wales at Hay, and with a
sinuous and very beautiful course crosses the south-western part of the
county, leaving it close above the town of Monmouth. Of its tributaries,
the Lugg enters in the north-west near Presteign, and has a course
generally easterly to Leominster, where it turns south, receives the
Arrow from the west, and joins the Wye 6 m. below Hereford, the Frome
flowing in from the east immediately above the junction. The Monnow
rising in the mountains of Brecknockshire forms the boundary between
Herefordshire and Monmouthshire over one-half of its course (about 20
m.), but it joins the main river at Monmouth. Its principal tributary in
Herefordshire is the Dore, which traverses the picturesque Golden
Valley. The Wye is celebrated for its salmon fishing, which is carefully
preserved, while the Lugg, Arrow and Frome abound in trout and grayling,
as does the Teme. This last is a tributary of the Severn, and only two
short reaches lie within this county in the north, while it also forms
parts of the northern and eastern boundary. The Leddon, also flowing to
the Severn, rises in the east of the county and leaves it in the
south-east, passing the town of Ledbury. High ground, of an elevation
from 500 to 800 ft., separates the various valleys, while on the eastern
boundary rise the Malvern Hills, reaching 1194 ft. in the Herefordshire
Beacon, and 1395 ft. in the Worcestershire Beacon, and on the boundary
with Brecknockshire the Black Mountains exceed 2000 ft. The scenery of
the Wye, with its wooded and often precipitous banks, is famous, the
most noteworthy point in this county being about Symond's Yat, on the
Gloucestershire border below Ross.

  _Geology._--The Archean or Pre-Cambrian rocks, the most ancient in the
  county, emerge from beneath the newer deposits in three small isolated
  areas. On the western border, Stanner Rock, a picturesque craggy hill
  near Kington, consists of igneous materials (granitoid rock, felstone,
  dolerite and gabbro), apparently of intrusive origin and possibly of
  Uriconian age. In Brampton Bryan Park, a few miles to the north-east,
  some ancient conglomerates emerge and may be of Longmyndian age. On
  the east of the county the Herefordshire Beacon in the Malvern chain
  consists of gneisses and schists and Uriconian volcanic rocks; these
  have been thrust over various members of the Cambrian and Silurian
  systems, and owing to their hard and durable nature they form the
  highest ground in the county. The Cambrian rocks (Tremadoc Beds) come
  next in order of age and consist of quartzites, sandstones and shales,
  well exposed at the southern end of the Malvern chain and also at
  Pedwardine near Brampton Bryan. The Silurian rocks are well developed
  in the north-west part of the county, between Presteign and Ludlow;
  also along the western flanks of the Malvern Hills and in the eroded
  dome of Woolhope. Smaller patches come to light at Westhide east of
  Hereford and at May Hill near Newent. They consist of highly
  fossiliferous sandstones, mudstones, shales and limestones, known as
  the Llandovery, Wenlock and Ludlow Series; the Woolhope, Wenlock and
  Aymestry Limestones are famed for their rich fossil contents. The
  remainder and by far the greater part of the county is occupied by the
  Old Red Sandstone, through which the rocks above described project in
  detached areas. The Old Red Sandstone consists of a great thickness of
  red sandstones and marls, with impersistent bands of impure
  concretionary limestone known as cornstones, which by their superior
  hardness give rise to scarps and rounded ridges; they have yielded
  remains of fishes and crustaceans. Some of the upper beds are
  conglomeratic. On its south-eastern margin the county just reaches the
  Carboniferous Limestone cliffs of the Wye Valley near Ross. Glacial
  deposits, chiefly sand and gravel, are found in the lower ground along
  the river-courses, while caves in the Carboniferous Limestone have
  yielded remains of the hyena, cave-lion, rhinoceros, mammoth and
  reindeer.

_Agriculture and Industries._--The soil is generally marl and clay, but
in various parts contains calcareous earth in mixed proportions.
Westward the soil is tenacious and retentive of water; on the east it is
a stiff and often reddish clay. In the south is found a light sandy
loam. More than four-fifths of the total area of the county is under
cultivation and about two-thirds of this is in permanent pasture. Ash
and oak coppices and larch plantations clothe its hillsides and crests.
The rich red soil of the Old Red Sandstone formation is famous for its
pear and apple orchards, the county, notwithstanding its much smaller
area, ranking in this respect next to Devonshire. The apple crop,
generally large, is enormous one year out of four. Twenty hogsheads of
cider have been made from an acre of orchard, twelve being the ordinary
yield. Cider is the staple beverage of the county, and the trade in
cider and perry is large. Hops are another staple of the county, the
vines of which are planted in rows on ploughed land. As early as
Camden's day a Herefordshire adage coupled Weobley ale with Leominster
bread, indicating the county's capacity to produce fine wheat and
barley, as well as hops.

Herefordshire is also famous as a breeding county for its cattle of
bright red hue, with mottled or white faces and sleek silky coats. The
Herefords are stalwart and healthy, and, though not good milkers, put on
more meat and fat at an early age, in proportion to food consumed, than
almost any other variety. They produce the finest beef, and are more
cheaply fed than Devons or Durhams, with which they are advantageously
crossed. As a dairy county Herefordshire does not rank high. Its small,
white-faced, hornless, symmetrical breed of sheep known as "the
Ryelands," from the district near Ross, where it was bred in most
perfection, made the county long famous both for the flavour of its meat
and the merino-like texture of its wool. Fuller says of this that it was
best known as "Lempster ore," and the finest in all England. In its
original form the breed is extinct, crossing with the Leicester having
improved size and stamina at the cost of the fleece, and the chief
breeds of sheep on Herefordshire farms at present are Shropshire Downs,
Cotswolds and Radnors, with their crosses. Agricultural horses of good
quality are bred in the north, and saddle and coach horses may be met
with at the fairs. Breeders' names from the county are famous at the
national cattle shows, and the number, size and quality of the stock are
seen in their supply of the metropolitan and other markets. Prize
Herefords are constantly exported to the colonies.

Manufacturing enterprise is small. There are some iron foundries and
factories for agricultural implements, and some paper is made. There are
considerable limestone quarries, as near Ledbury.

_Communications._--Hereford is an important railway centre. The
Worcester and Cardiff line of the Great Western railway, entering on the
east, runs to Hereford by Ledbury and then southward. The joint line of
the Great Western and North-Western companies runs north from Hereford
by Leominster, proceeding to Shrewsbury and Crewe. At Leominster a Great
Western branch crosses, connecting Worcester, Bromyard and New Radnor.
From Hereford a Great Western branch follows the Wye south to Ross, and
thence to the Forest of Dean and to Gloucester; a branch connects
Ledbury with Gloucester, and the Golden Valley is traversed by a branch
from Pontrilas on the Worcester-Cardiff line. From Hereford the Midland
and Neath and Brecon line follows the Wye valley westward. None of the
rivers is commercially navigable and the canals are out of use.

_Population and Administration._--The area of the ancient county is
537,363 acres, with a population in 1891 of 115,949 and in 1901 of
114,380. The area of the administrative county is 538,921 acres. The
county contains 12 hundreds. It is divided into two parliamentary
divisions, Leominster (N.) and Ross (S.), and it also includes the
parliamentary borough of Hereford, each returning one member. There are
two municipal boroughs--Hereford (pop. 21,382) and Leominster (5826).
The other urban districts are Bromyard (1663), Kington (1944), Ledbury
(3259) and Ross (3303). The county is in the Oxford circuit, and assizes
are held at Hereford. It has one court of quarter sessions and is
divided into 11 petty sessional divisions. The boroughs of Hereford and
Leominster have separate commissions of the peace, and the borough of
Hereford has in addition a separate court of quarter sessions. There are
260 civil parishes. The ancient county, which is almost entirely in the
diocese of Hereford, with small parts in those of Gloucester, Worcester
and Llandaff, contains 222 ecclesiastical parishes or districts, wholly
or in part.

_History._--At some time in the 7th century the West Saxons pushed their
way across the Severn and established themselves in the territory
between Wales and Mercia, with which kingdom they soon became
incorporated. The district which is now Herefordshire was occupied by a
tribe the Hecanas, who congregated chiefly in the fertile area about
Hereford and in the mining districts round Ross. In the 8th century Offa
extended the Mercian frontier to the Wye, securing it by the earthwork
known as Offa's dike, portions of which are visible at Knighton and
Moorhampton in this county. In 915 the Danes made their way up the
Severn to the district of Archenfield, where they took prisoner
Cyfeiliawg bishop of Llandaff, and in 921 they besieged Wigmore, which
had been rebuilt in that year by Edward. From the time of its first
settlement the district was the scene of constant border warfare with
the Welsh, and Harold, whose earldom included this county, ordered that
any Welshman caught trespassing over the border should lose his right
hand. In the period preceding the Conquest much disturbance was caused
by the outrages of the Norman colony planted in this county by Edward
the Confessor. Richard's castle in the north of the county was the first
Norman fortress erected on English soil, and Wigmore, Ewyas Harold,
Clifford, Weobley, Hereford, Donnington and Caldecot were all the sites
of Norman strongholds. The conqueror entrusted the subjugation of
Herefordshire to William FitzOsbern, but Edric the Wild in conjunction
with the Welsh prolonged resistance against him for two years.

In the wars of Stephen's reign Hereford and Weobley castles were held
against the king, but were captured in 1138. Edward, afterwards Edward
I., was imprisoned in Hereford Castle, and made his famous escape thence
in 1265. In 1326 the parliament assembled at Hereford which deposed
Edward II. In the 14th and 15th centuries the forest of Deerfold gave
refuge to some of the most noted followers of Wycliffe. During the Wars
of the Roses the influence of the Mortimers led the county to support
the Yorkist cause, and Edward, afterwards Edward IV., raised 23,000 men
in this neighbourhood. The battle of Mortimer's Cross was fought in 1461
near Wigmore. Before the outbreak of the civil war of the 17th century,
complaints of illegal taxation were rife in Herefordshire, but a strong
anti-puritan feeling induced the county to favour the royalist cause.
Hereford, Goodrich and Ledbury all endured sieges.

The earldom of Hereford was granted by William I. to William FitzOsbern,
about 1067, but on the outlawry of his son Roger in 1074 the title
lapsed until conferred on Henry de Bohun about 1199. It remained in the
possession of the Bohuns until the death of Humphrey de Bohun in 1373;
in 1397 Henry, earl of Derby, afterwards King Henry IV., who had married
Mary Bohun, was created duke of Hereford. Edward VI. created Walter
Devereux, a descendant of the Bohun family, Viscount Hereford, in 1550,
and his grandson, the famous earl of Essex, was born in this county.
Since this date the viscounty has been held by the Devereux family, and
the holder ranks as the premier viscount of England. The families of
Clifford, Giffard and Mortimer figured prominently in the warfare on the
Welsh border, and the Talbots, Lacys, Crofts and Scudamores also had
important seats in the county, Sir James Scudamore of Holme Lacy being
the original of the Sir Scudamore of Spenser's _Faery Queen_. Sir John
Oldcastle, the leader of the Lollards, was sheriff of Herefordshire in
1406.

Herefordshire probably originated as a shire in the time of Æthelstan,
and is mentioned in the Saxon Chronicle in 1051. In the Domesday Survey
parts of Monmouthshire and Radnorshire are assessed under Herefordshire,
and the western and southern borders remained debatable ground until
with the incorporation of the Welsh marches in 1535 considerable
territory was restored to Herefordshire and formed into the hundreds of
Wigmore, Ewyas Lacy and Huntingdon, while Ewyas Harold was united to
Webtree. At the time of the Domesday Survey the divisions of the county
were very unsettled. As many as nineteen hundreds are mentioned, but
these were of varying extent, some containing only one manor, some from
twenty to thirty. Of the twelve modern hundreds, only Greytree, Radlow,
Stretford, Wolphy and Wormelow retain Domesday names. Herefordshire has
been included in the diocese of Hereford since its foundation in 676. In
1291 it comprised the deaneries of Hereford, Weston, Leominster,
Weobley, Frome, Archenfield and Ross in the archdeaconry of Hereford,
and the deaneries of Burford, Stottesdon, Ludlow, Pontesbury, Clun and
Wenlock, in the archdeaconry of Shropshire. In 1877 the name of the
archdeaconry of Shropshire was changed to Ludlow, and in 1899 the
deaneries of Abbey Dore, Bromyard, Kingsland, Kington and Ledbury were
created in the archdeaconry of Hereford.

Herefordshire was governed by a sheriff as early as the reign of Edward
the Confessor, the shire-court meeting at Hereford where later the
assizes and quarter sessions were also held. In 1606 an act was passed
declaring Hereford free from the jurisdiction of the council of Wales,
but the county was not finally relieved from the interference of the
Lords Marchers until the reign of William and Mary.

Herefordshire has always been esteemed an exceptionally rich
agricultural area, the manufactures being unimportant, with the sole
exception of the woollen and the cloth trade which flourished soon after
the Conquest. Iron was worked in Wormelow hundred in Roman times, and
the Domesday Survey mentions iron workers in Marcle. At the time of
Henry VIII. the towns had become much impoverished, and Elizabeth in
order to encourage local industries, insisted on her subjects wearing
English-made caps from the factory of Hereford. Hops were grown in the
county soon after their introduction into England in 1524. In 1580 and
again in 1637 the county was severely visited by the plague, but in the
17th century it had a flourishing timber trade and was noted for its
orchards and cider.

Herefordshire was first represented in parliament in 1295, when it
returned two members, the boroughs of Ledbury, Hereford, Leominster and
Weobley being also represented. Hereford was again represented in 1299,
and Bromyard and Ross in 1304, but the boroughs made very irregular
returns, and from 1306 until Weobley regained representation in 1627,
only Hereford and Leominster were represented. Under the act of 1832 the
county returned three members and Weobley was disfranchised. The act of
1868 deprived Leominster of one member, and under the act of 1885
Leominster was disfranchised, and Hereford lost one member.

_Antiquities._--There are remains of several of the strongholds which
Herefordshire possessed as a march county, some of which were maintained
and enlarged, after the settlement of the border, to serve in later
wars. To the south of Ross are those of Wilton and Goodrich, commanding
the Wye on the right bank, the latter a ruin of peculiar magnificence,
and both gaining picturesqueness from their beautiful situations. Of the
several castles in the valleys of the boundary-river Monnow and its
tributaries, those in this county include Pembridge, Kilpeck and
Longtown; of which the last shows extensive remains of the strong keep
and thick walls. In the north the finest example is Wigmore, consisting
of a keep on an artificial mound within outer walls, the seat of the
powerful family of Mortimer.

Beside the cathedral of Hereford, and the fine churches of Ledbury,
Leominster and Ross, described under separate headings, the county
contains some churches of almost unique interest. In that of Kilpeck
remarkable and unusual Norman work is seen. It consists of the three
divisions of nave, choir and chancel, divided by ornate arches, the
chancel ending in an apse, with a beautiful and elaborate west end and
south doorway. The columns of the choir arch are composed of figures. A
similar plan is seen in Peterchurch in the Golden Valley, and in Moccas
church, on the Wye above Hereford. Among the large number of churches
exhibiting Norman details that at Bromyard is noteworthy. At Abbey Dore,
the Cistercian abbey church, still in use, is a large and beautiful
specimen of Early English work, and there are slight remains of the
monastic buildings. At Madley, south of the Wye 5 m. W. of Hereford, is
a fine Decorated church (with earlier portions), with the rare feature
of a Decorated apsidal chancel over an octagonal crypt. Of the churches
in mixed styles those in the larger towns are the most noteworthy,
together with that of Weobley.

The half-timbered style of domestic architecture, common in the west and
midlands of England in the 16th and 17th centuries, beautifies many of
the towns and villages. Among country houses, that of Treago, 9 m. W. of
Ross, is a remarkable example of a fortified mansion of the 13th
century, in a condition little altered. Rudhall and Sufton Court,
between Ross and Hereford, are good specimens of 15th-century work, and
portions of Hampton Court, 8 m. N. of Hereford, are of the same period,
built by Sir Rowland Lenthall, a favourite of Henry IV. Holme Lacy, 5 m.
S.E. of Hereford, is a fine mansion of the latter part of the 17th
century, with picturesque Dutch gardens, and much wood-carving by
Grinling Gibbons within. This was formerly the seat of the Scudamores,
from whom it was inherited by the Stanhopes, earls of Chesterfield, the
9th earl of Chesterfield taking the name of Scudamore-Stanhope. His son,
the 10th earl, has recently (1909) sold Holme Lacy to Sir Robert
Lucas-Tooth, Bart. Downton Castle possesses historical interest in
having been designed in 1774, in a strange mixture of Gothic and Greek
styles, by Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824), a famous scholar,
numismatist and member of parliament for Leominster and Ludlow; while
Eaton Hall, now a farm, was the seat of the family of the famous
geographer Richard Hakluyt.

  See _Victoria County History, Herefordshire_; J. Duncomb, _Collections
  towards the History and Antiquities of the County of Hereford_
  (Hereford, 1804-1812); John Allen, _Bibliotheca Herefordiensis_
  (Hereford, 1821); John Webb, _Memorials of the Civil War between
  Charles I. and the Parliament of England as it affected Herefordshire
  and the adjacent Counties_ (London, 1879); R. Cooke, _Visitation of
  Herefordshire, 1569_ (Exeter, 1886); F. T. Havergal, _Herefordshire
  Words and Phrases_ (Walsall, 1887); J. Hutchinson, _Herefordshire
  Biographies_ (Hereford, 1890).



HERERO, or OVAHERERO ("merry people"), a Bantu people of German
South-West Africa, living in the region known as Damaraland or
Hereroland. They call themselves Ovaherero and their language
Otshi-herero. Sometimes they are described as Cattle Damara or "Damara
of the Plains" in distinction from the Hill Damara who are of mixed
blood and Hottentots in language. The Herero, whose main occupation is
that of cattle-rearing, are a warlike race, possessed of considerable
military skill, as was shown in their campaigns of 1904-5 against the
Germans. (See further GERMAN SOUTH-WEST AFRICA.)



HERESY, the English equivalent of the Greek word [Greek: hairesis] which
is used in the Septuagint for "free choice," in later classical
literature for a philosophical school or sect as "chosen" by those who
belong to it, in Philo for religion, in Josephus for a religious party
(the Sadducees, the Pharisees and the Essenes).


  New Testament.

It is in this last sense that the term is used in the New Testament,
usually with an implicit censure of the factious spirit to which such
divisions are due. The term is applied to the Sadducees (Acts v. 17) and
Pharisees (Acts xv. 5, xxvi. 5). From the standpoint of opponents,
Christianity is itself so described (Acts xxiv. 14, xxviii. 22). In the
Pauline Epistles it is used with severe condemnation of the divisions
within the Christian Church itself. Heresies with "enmities, strife,
jealousies, wraths, factions, divisions, envyings" are reckoned among
"the works of the flesh" (Gal. v. 20). Such divisions, proofs of a
carnal mind, are censured in the church of Corinth (1 Cor. iii. 3, 4);
and the church of Rome is warned against those who cause them (Rom. xvi.
17). The term "schism," afterwards distinguished from "heresy," is also
used of these divisions (1 Cor. i. 10). The estrangements of the rich
and the poor in the church at Corinth, leading to a lack of Christian
fellowship even at the Lord's Supper, is described as "heresy" (1 Cor.
xi. 19). Breaches of the law of love, not errors about the truth of the
Gospel, are referred to in these passages. But the first step towards
the ecclesiastical use of the term is found already in 2 Peter ii. 1,
"Among you also there shall be false teachers who shall privily bring in
destructive heresies (R.V. margin "sects of perdition"), denying even
the Master that bought them, bringing upon themselves swift
destruction." The meaning here suggested is "falsely chosen or erroneous
tenets. Already the emphasis is moving from persons and their temper to
mental products--from the sphere of sympathetic love to that of
objective truth" (Bartlet, art. "Heresy," Hastings's _Bible
Dictionary_). As the parallel passage in Jude, verse 4, shows, however,
that these errors had immoral consequences, the moral reference is not
absent even from this passage. The first employment of the term outside
the New Testament is also its first use for theological error. Ignatius
applies it to Docetism (_Ad Trall._ 6). As doctrine came to be made more
important, heresy was restricted to any departure from the recognized
creed. Even Constantine the Great describes the Christian Church as "the
Catholic heresy," "the most sacred heresy" (Eusebius, _Ecclesiastical
History_, x. c. 5, the letter to Chrestus, bishop of Syracuse); but this
use was very soon abandoned, and the Catholic Church distinguished
itself from the dissenting minorities, which it condemned as "heresies."
The use of the term heresy in the New Testament cannot be regarded as
defining the attitude of the Christian Church, even in the Apostolic
age, towards errors in belief. The Apostolic writings show a vehement
antagonism towards all teaching opposed to the Gospel. Paul declares
_anathema_ the Judaizer, who required the circumcision of the Gentiles
(Gal. i. 8), and even calls them the "dogs of the concision" and "evil
workers" (Phil. iii. 2). The elders of Ephesus are warned against the
false teachers who would appear in the church after the apostle's death
as "grievous wolves not sparing the flock" (Acts xx. 29); and the
speculations of the Gnostics are denounced as "seducing spirits and
doctrines of devils" (1 Tim. iv. 1), as "profane babblings and
oppositions of the knowledge which is falsely so called" (vi. 20).
John's warnings are as earnest and severe. Those who deny the fact of
the Incarnation are described as "antichrist," and as "deceivers" (1
John iv. 3; 2 John 7). The references to heretics in 2 Peter and Jude
have already been dealt with. This antagonism is explicable by the
character of the heresies that threatened the Christian Church in the
Apostolic age. Each of these heresies involved such a blending of the
Gospel with either Jewish or pagan elements, as would not only pollute
its purity, but destroy its power. In each of these the Gospel was in
danger of being made of none effect by the environment, which it must
resist in order that it might transform (see Burton's Bampton Lectures
on _The Heresies of the Apostolic Age_).


  Gnosticism.

These Gnostic heresies, which threatened to paganize the Christian
Church, were condemned in no measured terms by the fathers. These false
teachers are denounced as "servants of Satan, beasts in human shape,
dealers in deadly poison, robbers and pirates." Polycarp, Ignatius,
Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Hippolytus, Tertullian and even Clement of
Alexandria and Origen are as severe in condemnation as the later fathers
(cf. Matt. xiii. 35-43; Tertullian, _Praescr._ 31). While the necessity
of the heresies is admitted in accordance with 1 Cor. xi. 19, yet woe is
pronounced on those who have introduced them, according to Matt. xviii.
7. (This application of these passages, however, is of altogether
doubtful validity.) "It was necessary," says Tertullian (ibid. 30),
"that the Lord should be betrayed; but woe to the traitor." The very
worst motives, "pride, disappointed ambition, sensual lust, and
avarice," are recklessly imputed to the heretics; and no possibility of
morally innocent doubt, difficulty or difference in thought is admitted.
Origen and Augustine do, however, recognize that even false teachers may
have good motives. While we must admit that there was a very serious
peril to the thought and life of the Christian Church in the teaching
thus denounced, yet we must not forget that for the most part these
teachers are known to us only in the _ex parte_ representation that
their opponents have given of them; and we must not assume that even
their doctrines, still less their characters, were so bad as they are
described.

The attitude of the church in the post-Nicene period differs from that
in the ante-Nicene in two important respects. (1) As has already been
indicated, the earlier heresies threatened to introduce Jewish or pagan
elements into the faith of the church, and it was necessary that they
should be vigorously resisted if the church was to retain its
distinctive character. Many of the later heresies were differences in
the interpretation of Christian truth, which did not in the same way
threaten the very life of the church. No vital interest of Christian
faith justified the extravagant denunciations in which theological
partisanship so recklessly and ruthlessly indulged. (2) In the
ante-Nicene period only ecclesiastical penalties, such as reproof,
deposition or excommunication, could be imposed. In the post-Nicene the
union of church and state transformed theological error into legal
offence (see below).


  Christian definition.

We must now consider the definition of heresy which was gradually
reached in the Christian Church. It is "a religious error held in wilful
and persistent opposition to the truth after it has been defined and
declared by the church in an authoritative manner," or "pertinax
defensio dogmatis ecclesiae universalis judicio condemnati" (Schaff's
_Ante-Nicene_ Christianity, ii. 512-516). (i.) It "denotes an opinion
antagonistic to a fundamental article of the Christian faith," due to
the introduction of "foreign elements" and resulting in a perversion of
Christianity, and an amalgamation with it of ideas discordant with its
nature (Fisher's _History of Christian Doctrine_, p. 9). It has been
generally assumed that the ecclesiastical authority was always competent
to determine what are the fundamental articles of the Christian faith,
and to detect any departures from them; but it is necessary to admit the
possibility that the error was in the church, and the truth was with the
heresy. (ii.) There cannot be any heresy where there is no orthodoxy,
and, therefore, in the definition it is assumed that the church has
declared what is the truth or the error in any matter. Accordingly
"heresy is to be distinguished from defective stages of Christian
knowledge. For example, the Jewish believers, including the Apostles
themselves, at the outset required the Gentile believers to be
circumcised. They were not on this account chargeable with heresy.
Additional light must first come in, and be rejected, before that
earlier opinion could be thus stigmatized. Moreover, heresies are not to
be confounded with tentative and faulty hypotheses broached in a period
prior to the scrutiny of a topic of Christian doctrine, and before that
scrutiny has led the general mind to an assured conclusion. Such
hypotheses--for example, the idea that in the person of Christ the Logos
is substituted for a rational human spirit--are to be met with in
certain early fathers" (ibid. p. 10). Origen indulged in many
speculations which were afterwards condemned, but, as these matters were
still open questions in his day, he was not reckoned a heretic. (iii.)
In accordance with the New Testament use of the term heresy, it is
assumed that moral defect accompanies the intellectual error, that the
false view is held pertinaciously, in spite of warning, remonstrance and
rebuke; aggressively to win over others, and so factiously, to cause
division in the church, a breach in its unity.


  Schism.

A distinction is made between "heresy" and "schism" (from Gr. [Greek:
schizein], rend asunder, divide). "The fathers commonly use 'heresy' of
false teaching in opposition to Catholic doctrine, and 'schism' of a
breach of discipline, in opposition to Catholic government" (Schaff).
But as the claims of the church to be the guardian through its
episcopate of the apostolic tradition, of the Christian faith itself,
were magnified, and unity in practice as well as in doctrine came to be
regarded as essential, this distinction became a theoretical rather than
a practical one. While severely condemning, both Irenaeus and Tertullian
distinguished schismatics from heretics. "Though we are by no means
entitled to say that they acknowledged orthodox schismatics they did not
yet venture to reckon them simply as heretics. If it was desired to get
rid of these, an effort was made to impute to them some deviation from
the rule of faith; and under this pretext the church freed herself from
the Montanists and the Monarchians. Cyprian was the first to proclaim
the identity of heretics and schismatics by making a man's Christianity
depend on his belonging to the great episcopal church confederation. But
in both East and West, this theory of his became established only by
very imperceptible degrees, and indeed, strictly speaking, the process
was never completed. The distinction between heretics and schismatics
was preserved because it prevented a public denial of the old
principles, because it was advisable on political grounds to treat
certain schismatic communities with indulgence, and because it was
always possible in case of need to prove heresy against the
schismatics." (Harnack's _History of Dogma_, ii. 92-93).


  Heretical baptism.

There was considerable controversy in the early church as to the
validity of heretical baptism. As even "the Christian virtues of the
heretics were described as hypocrisy and love of ostentation," so no
value whatever was attached by the orthodox party to the sacraments
performed by heretics. Tertullian declares that the church can have no
communion with the heretics, for there is nothing common; as they have
not the same God, and the same Christ, so they have not the same baptism
(_De bapt._ 15). Cyprian agreed with him. The validity of heretical
baptism was denied by the church of Asia Minor as well as of Africa; but
the practice of the Roman Church was to admit without second baptism
heretics who had been baptized with the name of Christ, or of the Holy
Trinity. Stephen of Rome attempted to force the Roman practice on the
whole church in 253. The controversy his intolerance provoked was closed
by Augustine's controversial treatise _De Baptismo_, in which the
validity of baptism administered by heretics is based on the objectivity
of the sacrament. Whenever the name of the three-one God is used, the
sacrament is declared valid by whomsoever it may be performed. This was
a triumph of sacramentarianism, not of charity.


  Types of heresy.

Three types of heresy have appeared in the history of the Christian
Church.[1] The earliest may be called the _syncretic_; it is the fusion
of Jewish or pagan with Christian elements. _Ebionitism_ asserted "the
continual obligation to observe the whole of the Mosaic law," and
"outran the Old Testament monotheism by a barren monarchianism that
denied the divinity of Christ" (Kurtz, _Church History_, i. 120).
"_Gnosticism_ was the result of the attempt to blend with Christianity
the religious notions of pagan mythology, mysterology, theosophy and
philosophy" (p. 98). The Judaizing and the paganizing tendency were
combined in _Gnostic Ebionitism_ which was prepared for in _Jewish
Essenism_. In the later heresy of _Manichaeism_ there were affinities to
Gnosticism, but it was a mixture of many elements, Babylonian-Chaldaic
theosophy, Persian dualism and even Buddhist ethics (p. 126).

The next type of heresy may be called _evolutionary_ or _formatory_.
When the Christian faith is being formulated, undue emphasis may be put
on one aspect, and thus so partial a statement of truth may result in
error. Thus when in the ante-Nicene age the doctrine of the Trinity was
under discussion, dynamic _Monarchianism_ "regarded Christ as a mere
man, who, like the prophets, though in a much higher measure, had been
endued with divine wisdom and power"; modal _Monarchianism_ saw in the
Logos dwelling in Christ "only a mode of the activity of the Father";
_Patripassianism_ identified the Logos with the Father; and
_Sabellianism_ regarded Father, Son and Spirit as "the _rôles_ which the
God who manifests Himself in the world assumes in succession" (Kurtz,
_Church History_, i. 175-181). When Arius asserted the subordination of
the Son to the Father, and denied the eternal generation, Athanasius and
his party asserted the _Homoousia_, the cosubstantiality of the Father
and the Son. This assertion of the divinity of Christ triumphed, but
other problems at once emerged. How was the relation of the humanity to
the divinity in Christ to be conceived? Apollinaris denied the
completeness of the human nature, and substituted the divine Logos for
the reasonable soul of man. Nestorius held the two natures so far apart
as to appear to sacrifice the unity of the person of Christ. Eutyches on
the contrary "taught not only that after His incarnation Christ had only
one nature, but also that the body of Christ as the body of God is not
of like substance with our own" (Kurtz, _Church History_, i, 330-334).
The Church in the Creed of Chalcedon in A.D. 451 affirmed "that Christ
is true God and true man, according to His Godhead begotten from
eternity and like the Father in everything, only without sin; and that
after His incarnation the unity of the person consists in two natures
which are conjoined without confusion, and without change, but also
without rending and without separation." The problem was not solved, but
the inadequate solutions were excluded, and the data to be considered in
any adequate solution were affirmed. After this decision the
controversies about the Person of Christ degenerated into mere
hair-splitting; and the interference of the imperial authority from time
to time in the dispute was not conducive to the settlement of the
questions in the interests of truth alone. This problem interested the
East for the most part; in the West there was waged a theological
warfare around the nature of man and the work of Christ. To Augustine's
doctrine of man's total depravity, his incapacity for any good, and the
absolute sovereignty of the divine grace in salvation according to the
divine election, Pelagius opposed the view that "God's grace is destined
for all men, but man must make himself worthy of it by honest striving
after virtue" (Kurtz, _Church History_, i. 348). While Pelagius was
condemned, it was only a modified Augustinianism which became the
doctrine of the church. It is not necessary in illustration of the
second type of heresy--that which arises when the contents of the
Christian faith are being defined--to refer to the doctrinal
controversies of the middle ages. It may be added that after the
Reformation Arianism was revived in Socinianism, and Pelagianism in
Arminianism; but the conception of heresy in Protestantism demands
subsequent notice.

The third type of heresy is the _revolutionary_ or _reformatory_. This
is not directed against doctrine as such, but against the church, its
theory and its practice. Such movements of antagonism to the errors or
abuses of ecclesiastical authority may be so permeated by defective
conceptions and injurious influences as by their own character to
deserve condemnation. But on the other hand the church in maintaining
its place and power may condemn as heretical genuine efforts at reform
by a return, though partial, to the standard set by the Holy Scriptures
or the Apostolic Church. On the one hand there were during the middle
ages sects, like the Catharists and Albigenses, whose "opposition as a
rule developed itself from dualistic or pantheistic premises (surviving
effects of old Gnostic or Manichaean views)" and who "stood outside of
ordinary Christendom, and while no doubt affecting many individual
members within it, had no influence on church doctrine." On the other
hand there were movements, such as the Waldensian, the Wycliffite and
Hussite, which are often described as "reformations anticipating the
Reformation" which "set out from the Augustinian conception of the
Church, but took exception to the development of the conception," and
were pronounced by the medieval church as heretical for (1) "contesting
the hierarchical gradation of the priestly order; or (2) giving to the
religious idea of the Church implied in the thought of predestination a
place superior to the conception of the empirical Church; or (3)
applying to the priests, and thereby to the authorities of the Church,
the test of the law of God, before admitting their right to exercise, as
holding the keys, the power of binding and loosing" (Harnack's _History
of Dogma_, vi. 136-137). The Reformation itself was from the standpoint
of the Roman Catholic Church heresy and schism.


  Modern use of the term.

"In the present divided state of Christendom," says Schaff (_Ante-Nicene
Christianity_, ii. 513-514), "there are different kinds of orthodoxy and
heresy. Orthodoxy is conformity to the recognized creed or standard of
public doctrine; heresy is a wilful departure from it. The Greek Church
rejects as heretical, because contrary to the teaching of the first
seven ecumenical councils, the Roman dogmas of the papacy, of the double
procession of the Holy Ghost, the immaculate conception of the Virgin
Mary, and the infallibility of the Pope. The Roman Church anathematized,
in the council of Trent, all the distinctive doctrines of the Protestant
Reformation. Among Protestant churches again there are minor doctrinal
differences, which are held with various degrees of exclusiveness or
liberality according to the degree of departure from the Roman Catholic
Church. Luther, for instance, would not tolerate Zwingli's view on the
Lord's Supper, while Zwingli was willing to fraternize with him
notwithstanding this difference." At the colloquy of Marburg "Zwingli
offered his hand to Luther with the entreaty that they be at least
Christian brethren, but Luther refused it and declared that the Swiss
were of another spirit. He expressed surprise that a man of such views
as Zwingli should wish brotherly relations with the Wittenberg
reformers" (Walker, _The Reformation_, p. 174). A difference of opinion
on the question of the presence of Christ in the elements at the Lord's
Supper was thus allowed to divide and to weaken the forces of the
Reformation. On the problem of divine election Lutheranism and Calvinism
remained divided. The Formula of Concord (1577), which gave to the whole
Lutheran Church of Germany a common doctrinal system, declined to accept
the Calvinistic position that man's condemnation as well as his
salvation is an object of divine predestination. Within Calvinism itself
Pelagianism was revived in Arminianism, which denied the
irresistibility, and affirmed the universality of grace. This heresy was
condemned by the synod of Dort (1619). The standpoint of the Reformed
churches was the substitution of the authority of the Scriptures for the
authority of the church. Whatever was conceived as contrary to the
teaching of the Bible was regarded as heresy. The position is well
expressed in the _Scotch Confession_ (1559). "Protesting, that if any
man will note in this our Confession any article or sentence repugning
to God's Holy Word, that it would please him, of his gentleness, and for
Christian charity's sake, to admonish us of the same in writ, and we of
our honour and fidelity do promise unto him satisfaction from the mouth
of God; that is, from His Holy Scripture, or else reformation of that
which he shall prove to be amiss. In God we take to record in our
consciences that from our hearts we abhor all sects of heresy, and all
teachers of erroneous doctrines; and that with all humility we embrace
purity of Christ's evangel, which is the only food of our souls"
(Preface).

Although subsequently to the Reformation period the Protestant churches
for the most part relapsed into the dogmatism of the Roman Catholic
Church, and were ever ready with censure for every departure from
orthodoxy--yet to-day a spirit of diffidence in regard to one's own
beliefs, and of tolerance towards the beliefs of others, is abroad. The
enlargement of the horizon of knowledge by the advance of science, the
recognition of the only relative validity of human opinions and beliefs
as determined by and adapted to each stage of human development, which
is due to the growing historical sense, the alteration of view regarding
the nature of inspiration, and the purpose of the Holy Scriptures, the
revolt against all ecclesiastical authority, and the acceptance of
reason and conscience as alone authoritative, the growth of the spirit
of Christian charity, the clamorous demand of the social problem for
immediate attention, all combine in making the Christian churches less
anxious about the danger, and less zealous in the discovery and
condemnation of heresy.


  Persecution of heretics.

Having traced the history of opinion in the Christian churches on the
subject of heresy, we must now return to resume a subject already
mentioned, the persecution of heretics. According to the Canon Law,
which "was the ecclesiastical law of medieval Europe, and is still the
law of the Roman Catholic Church," heresy was defined as "error which is
voluntarily held in contradiction to a doctrine which has been clearly
stated in the creed, and has become part of the defined faith of the
church," and which is "persisted in by a member of the church." It was
regarded not only as an error, but also as a crime to be detected and
punished. As it belongs, however, to a man's thoughts and not his deeds,
it often can be proved only from suspicions. The canonists define the
degrees of suspicion as "light" calling for vigilance, "vehement"
demanding denunciation, and "violent" requiring punishment. The grounds
of suspicion have been formulated "Pope Innocent III. declared that to
lead a solitary life, to refuse to accommodate oneself to the prevailing
manners of society and to frequent unauthorized religious meetings were
abundant grounds of suspicion; while later canonists were accustomed to
give lists of deeds which made the doers suspect: a priest who did not
celebrate mass, a layman who was seen in clerical robes, those who
favoured heretics, received them as guests, gave them safe conduct,
tolerated them, trusted them, defended them, fought under them or read
their books were all to be suspect" (T. M. Lindsay in article "Heresy,"
_Ency. Brit._ 9th edition). That the dangers of heresy might be avoided,
laymen were forbidden to argue about matters of faith by Pope Alexander
IV., an oath "to abjure every heresy and to maintain in its completeness
the Catholic faith" was required by the council of Toledo (1129), the
reading of the Scriptures in the vulgar tongue was not allowed to the
laity by Pope Pius IV. The reading of books was restricted and certain
books were prohibited. Regarding heresy as a crime, the church was not
content with inflicting its spiritual penalties, such as excommunication
and such civil disabilities as its own organization allowed it to impose
(e.g. the heretics were forbidden to give evidence in ecclesiastical
courts, fathers were forbidden to allow a son or a daughter to marry a
heretic, and to hold social intercourse with a heretic was an offence).
It regarded itself as justified in invoking the power of the state to
suppress heresy by civil pains and penalties, including even torture and
death.

The story of the persecution of heretics by the state must be briefly
sketched.

As long as the Christian Church was itself persecuted by the pagan
empire, it advocated freedom of conscience, and insisted that religion
could be promoted only by instruction and persuasion (Justin Martyr,
Tertullian, Lactantius); but almost immediately after Christianity was
adopted as the religion of the Roman empire the persecution of men for
religious opinions began. While Constantine at the beginning of his
reign (313) declared complete religious liberty, and kept on the whole
to this declaration, yet he confined his favours to the orthodox
hierarchical church, and even by an edict of the year 326 formally
asserted the exclusion from these of heretics and schismatics. Arianism,
when favoured by the reigning emperor, showed itself even more
intolerant than Catholic Orthodoxy. Theodosius the Great, in 380, soon
after his baptism, issued, with his co-emperors, the following edict:
"We, the three emperors, will that all our subjects steadfastly adhere
to the religion which was taught by St Peter to the Romans, which has
been faithfully preserved by tradition, and which is now professed by
the pontiff Damasus of Rome, and Peter, bishop of Alexandria, a man of
apostolic holiness. According to the institution of the Apostles, and
the doctrine of the Gospel, let us believe in the one Godhead of the
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, of equal majesty in the Holy
Trinity. We order that the adherents of this faith be called _Catholic
Christians_; we brand all the senseless followers of the other religions
with the infamous name of _heretics_, and forbid their conventicles
assuming the name of churches. Besides the condemnation of divine
justice, they must expect the heavy penalties which our authority,
guided by heavenly wisdom, shall think proper to inflict" (Schaff's
_Nicene and Post-Nicene Christianity_, i. 142). The fifteen penal laws
which this emperor issued in as many years deprived them of all right to
the exercise of their religion, "excluded them from all civil offices,
and threatened them with fines, confiscation, banishment and even in
some cases with death." In 385 Maximus, his rival and colleague, caused
seven heretics to be put to death at Treves (Trier). Many bishops
approved the act, but Ambrose of Milan and Martin of Tours condemned it.
While Chrysostom disapproved of the execution of heretics, he approved
"the prohibition of their assemblies and the confiscation of their
churches." Jerome by an appeal to Deut. xiii. 6-10 appears to defend
even the execution of heretics. Augustine found a justification for
these penal measures in the "compel them to come in" of Luke xiv. 23,
although his personal leanings were towards clemency. Only the
persecuted themselves insisted on toleration as a Christian duty. In the
middle ages the church showed no hesitation about persecuting unto death
all who dared to contradict her doctrine, or challenge her practice, or
question her authority. The instruction and persuasion which St Bernard
favoured found little imitation. Even the Dominicans, who began as a
preaching order to convert heretics, soon became persecutors. In the
Albigensian Crusade (A.D. 1209-1229) thousands were slaughtered. As the
bishops were not zealous enough in enforcing penal laws against
heretics, the Tribunal of the Inquisition was founded in 1232 by Gregory
IX., and was entrusted to the Dominicans who "as _Domini canes_
subjected to the most cruel tortures all on whom the suspicion of heresy
fell, and all the resolute were handed over to the civil authorities,
who readily undertook their execution" (Kurtz, _Church History_, ii.
137-138).

At the Reformation Luther laid down the principle that the civil
government is concerned with the province of the external and temporal
life, and has nothing to do with faith and conscience. "How could the
emperor gain the right," he asks, "to rule my faith?" With that only the
Word of God is concerned. "Heresy is a spiritual thing," he says, "which
one cannot hew with any iron, burn with any fire, drown with any water.
The Word of God alone is there to do it." Nevertheless Luther assigned
to the state, which he assumes to be Christian, the function of
maintaining the Gospel and the Word of God in public life. He was not
quite consistent in carrying out his principle (see Luthard's
_Geschichte der christlichen Ethik_, ii. 33). In the Religious Peace of
Augsburg the principle "cujus regio ejus religio" was accepted; by it a
ruler's choice between Catholicism and Lutheranism bound his subjects,
but any subject unwilling to accept the decision might emigrate without
hindrance.

In Geneva under Calvin, while the _Consistoire_, or ecclesiastical
court, could inflict only spiritual penalties, yet the medieval idea of
the duty of the state to co-operate with the church to maintain the
religious purity of the community in matters of belief as well as of
conduct so far survived that the civil authority was sure to punish
those whom the ecclesiastical had censured. Calvin consented to the
death of Servetus, whose views on the Trinity he regarded as most
dangerous heresy, and whose denial of the full authority of the
Scriptures he dreaded as overthrowing the foundations of all religious
authority. Protestantism generally, it is to be observed, quite approved
the execution of the heretic. The Synod of Dort (1619) not only
condemned Arminianism, but its defenders were expelled from the
Netherlands; only in 1625 did they venture to return, and not till 1630
were they allowed to erect schools and churches. In modern Protestantism
there is a growing disinclination to deal even with errors of belief by
ecclesiastical censure; the appeal to the civil authority to inflict any
penalty is abandoned. During the course of the 19th century in Scottish
Presbyterianism the affirmation of Christ's atoning death for _all_ men,
the denial of eternal punishment, the modification of the doctrine of
the inspiration of the Scriptures by acceptance of the results of the
Higher Criticism, were all censured as perilous errors.

The subject cannot be left without a brief reference to the persecution
of witches. To the beginning of the 13th century the popular
superstitions regarding sorcery, witchcraft and compacts with the devil
were condemned by the ecclesiastical authorities as heathenish, sinful
and heretical. But after the establishment of the Inquisition "heresy
and sorcery were regarded as correlates, like two agencies resting on
and serviceable to the demoniacal powers, and were therefore treated in
the same way as offences to be punished with torture and the stake"
(Kurtz, _Church History_, ii. 195). While the Franciscans rejected the
belief in witchcraft, the Dominicans were most zealous in persecuting
witches. In the 15th century this delusion, fostered by the
ecclesiastical authorities, took possession of the mind of the people,
and thousands, mostly old women, but also a number of girls, were
tortured and burned as witches. Protestantism took over the superstition
from Catholicism. It was defended by James I. of England. As late as the
18th century death was inflicted in Germany and Switzerland on men,
women and even children accused of this crime. This superstition
dominated Scotland. Not till 1736 were the statutes against witchcraft
repealed; an act which the Associate Presbytery at Edinburgh in 1743
declared to be "contrary to the express law of God, for which a holy God
may be provoked in a way of righteous judgment."


  Non-Christian religions.

The recognition and condemnation of errors in religious belief is by no
means confined to the Christian Church. Only a few instances of heresy
in other religions can be given. In regard to the fetishism of the Gold
Coast of Africa, Jevons (_Introduction to the History of Religion_, pp.
165-166) maintains that "public opinion does not approve of the worship
by an individual of a _suhman_, or private tutelary deity, and that his
dealings with it are regarded in the nature of 'black art' as it is not
a god of the community." In China there is a "classical or canonical,
primitive and therefore alone orthodox (_tsching_) and true religion,"
Confucianism and Taoism, while the "heterodox (_sic_)," Buddhism
especially, is "partly tolerated, but generally forbidden, and even
cruelly persecuted" (Chantepie de la Saussaye, _Religionsgeschichte_, i.
57). In Islam "according to an unconfirmed tradition Mahomet is said to
have foretold that his community would split into seventy-three sects
(see MAHOMMEDAN RELIGION, § _Sects_), of which only one would escape the
flames of hell." The first split was due to uncertainty regarding the
principle which should rule the succession to the Caliphate. The Arabic
and orthodox party (i.e. the Sunnites, who held by the Koran and
tradition) maintained that this should be determined by the choice of
the community. The Persian and heterodox party (the Shiites) insisted on
heredity. But this political difference was connected with theological
differences. The sect of the Mu'tazilites which affirmed that the Koran
had been created, and denied predestination, began to be persecuted by
the government in the 9th century, and discussion of religious questions
was forbidden (see CALIPHATE, sections B and C). The mystical tendency
in Islam, Sufism, is also regarded as heretical (see Kuenen's Hibbert
Lecture, pp. 45-50). Buddhism is a wide departure in doctrine and
practice from Brahmanism, and hence after a swift unfolding and quick
spread it was driven out of India and had to find a home in other lands.
Essenism from the standpoint of Judaism was heterodox in two respects,
the abandonment of animal sacrifices and the adoration of the sun.

Although in Greece there was generally wide tolerance, yet in 399 B.C.
Socrates "was indicted as an irreligious man, a corrupter of youth, and
an innovator in worship."

  Besides the works quoted above, see Gottfried Arnold's _Unparteiische
  Kirchen- und Ketzer-Historie_ (1699-1700; ed. Schaffhausen, 1740). A
  very good list of writers on heresy, ancient and medieval, is given in
  Burton's _Bampton Lectures on Heresies of the Apostolic Age_ (1829).
  The various Trinitarian and Christological heresies may be studied in
  Dorner's _History of the Doctrine of the Person of Christ_ (1845-1856;
  Eng. trans., 1861-1862); the Gnostic and Manichaean heresies in the
  works of Mansel, Matter and Beausobre; the medieval heresies in Hahn's
  _Geschichte der Ketzer im Mittelalter_ (1846-1850), and Preger's
  _Geschichte der deutschen Mystik_ (1875); Quietism in Heppe's
  _Geschichte der quietistischen Mystik_ (1875); the Pietist sects in
  Palmer's _Gemeinschaften und Secten Württembergs_ (1875); the
  Reformation and 17th-century heresies and sects in the _Anabaptisticum
  et enthusiasticum Pantheon und geistliches Rüst-Haus_ (1702). Böhmer's
  _Jus ecclesiasticum Protestantium_ (1714-1723), and van Espen's _Jus
  ecclesiasticum_ (1702) detail at great length the relations of heresy
  to canon and civil law. On the question of the baptism of heretics see
  Smith and Cheetham's _Dict. of Eccl. Antiquities_, "Baptism, Iteration
  of"; and on that of the readmission of heretics into the church,
  compare Martene, _De ritibus_, and Morinus, _De poenitentia_.
       (A. E. G.*)

  _Heresy according to the Law of England._--The highest point reached
  by the ecclesiastical power in England was in the Act _De Haeretico
  comburendo_ (2 Henry IV. c. 15). Some have supposed that a writ of
  that name is as old as the common law, but its execution might be
  arrested by a pardon from the crown. The Act of Henry IV. enabled the
  diocesan alone, without the co-operation of a synod, to pronounce
  sentence of heresy, and required the sheriff to execute it by burning
  the offender, without waiting for the consent of the crown.[2] A large
  number of penal statutes were enacted in the following reigns, and the
  statute 1 Eliz. c. 1 is regarded by lawyers as limiting for the first
  time the description of heresy to tenets declared heretical either by
  the canonical Scripture or by the first four general councils, or such
  as should thereafter be so declared by parliament with the assent of
  Convocation. The writ was abolished by 29 Car. II. c. 9, which
  reserved to the ecclesiastical courts their jurisdiction over heresy
  and similar offences, and their power of awarding punishments not
  extending to death. Heresy became henceforward a purely ecclesiastical
  offence, although disabling laws of various kinds continued to be
  enforced against Jews, Catholics and other dissenters. The temporal
  courts have no knowledge of any offence known as heresy, although
  incidentally (e.g. in questions of copyright) they have refused
  protection to persons promulgating irreligious or blasphemous
  opinions. As an ecclesiastical offence it would at this moment be
  almost impossible to say what opinion, in the case of a layman at
  least, would be deemed heretical. Apparently, if a proper case could
  be made out, an ecclesiastical court might still sentence a layman to
  excommunication for heresy, but by no other means could his opinions
  be brought under censure. The last case on the subject (Jenkins _v._
  Cook, _L.R._ 1 P.D. 80) leaves the matter in the same uncertainty. In
  that case a clergyman refused the communion to a parishioner who
  denied the personality of the devil. The judicial committee held that
  the rights of the parishioners are expressly defined in the statute of
  I Edw. VI. c. i, and, without admitting that the canons of the church,
  which are not binding on the laity, could specify a lawful cause for
  rejection, held that no lawful cause within the meaning of either the
  canons or the rubric had been shown. It was maintained at the bar that
  the denial of the most fundamental doctrines of Christianity would not
  be a lawful cause for such rejection, but the judgment only queries
  whether a denial of the personality of the devil or eternal punishment
  is consistent with membership of the church. The right of every layman
  to the offices of the church is established by statute without
  reference to opinions, and it is not possible to say what opinions, if
  any, would operate to disqualify him.

  The case of clergymen is entirely different. The statute 13 Eliz. c.
  12, § 2, enacts that "if any person ecclesiastical, or which shall
  have an ecclesiastical living, shall advisedly maintain or affirm any
  doctrine directly contrary or repugnant to any of the said articles,
  and by conventicle before the bishop of the diocese, or the ordinary,
  or before the queen's highness's commissioners in matters
  ecclesiastical, shall persist therein or not revoke his error, or
  after such revocation eftsoons affirm such untrue doctrine," he shall
  be deprived of his ecclesiastical promotions. The act it will be
  observed applies only to clergymen, and the punishment is strictly
  limited to deprivation of benefice. The judicial committee of the
  privy council, as the last court of appeal, has on several occasions
  pronounced judgments by which the scope of the act has been confined
  to its narrowest legal effect. The court will construe the Articles of
  Religion and formularies according to the _legal rules for the
  interpretation of statutes and written instruments_. No rule of
  doctrine is to be ascribed to the church which is not distinctly and
  expressly stated or plainly involved in the _written law of the
  Church_, and where there is no rule, a clergyman may express his
  opinion without fear of penal consequences. In the _Essays and
  Reviews_ cases (Williams _v._ the Bishop of Salisbury, and Wilson _v._
  Fendall, 2 _Moo._ P.C.C., N.S. 375) it was held to be not penal for a
  clergyman to speak of merit by transfer as a "fiction," or to express
  a hope of the ultimate pardon of the wicked, or to affirm that any
  part of the Old or New Testament, however unconnected with religious
  faith or moral duty, was not written under the inspiration of the Holy
  Spirit. In the case of Noble _v._ Voysey (_L.R._ 3 P.C. 357) in 1871
  the committee held that it was not bound to affix a meaning to
  articles of really dubious import, as it would have been in cases
  affecting property. At the same time any manifest contradiction of the
  Articles, or any obvious evasion of them, would subject the offender
  to the penalties of deprivation. In some of the cases the question has
  been raised how far the doctrine of the church could be ascertained by
  reference to the opinions generally expressed by divines belonging to
  its communion. Such opinions, it would seem, might be taken into
  account as showing the extent of liberty which had been in practice,
  claimed and exercised on the interpretation of the articles, but would
  certainly not be allowed to increase their stringency. It is not the
  business of the court to pronounce upon the absolute truth or
  falsehood of any given opinion, but simply to say whether it is
  formally consistent with the legal doctrines of the Church of England.
  Whether Convocation has any jurisdiction in cases of heresy is a
  question which has occasioned some difference of opinion among
  lawyers. Hale, as quoted by Phillimore (_Ecc. Law_), says that before
  the time of Richard II., that is, before any acts of Parliament were
  made about heretics, it is without question that in a convocation of
  the clergy or provincial synod "they might and frequently did here in
  England proceed to the sentencing of heretics." But later writers,
  while adhering to the statement that Convocation might declare
  opinions to be heretical, doubted whether it could proceed to punish
  the offender, even when he was a clerk in orders. Phillimore states
  that there is no longer any doubt, even apart from the effect of the
  Church Discipline Act 1840, that Convocation has no power to condemn
  clergymen for heresy. The supposed right of Convocation to stamp
  heretical opinions with its disapproval was exercised on a somewhat
  memorable occasion. In 1864 the Convocation of the province of
  Canterbury, having taken the opinion of two of the most eminent
  lawyers of the day (Sir Hugh Cairns and Sir John Rolt), passed
  judgment upon the volume entitled _Essays and Reviews_. The judgment
  purported to "synodically condemn the said volume as containing
  teaching contrary to the doctrine received by the United Church of
  England and Ireland, in common with the whole Catholic Church of
  Christ." These proceedings were challenged in the House of Lords by
  Lord Houghton, and the lord chancellor (Westbury), speaking on behalf
  of the government, stated that if there was any "synodical judgment"
  it would be a violation of the law, subjecting those concerned in it
  to the penalties of a _praemunire_, but that the sentence in question,
  was "simply nothing, literally no sentence at all." It is thus at
  least doubtful whether Convocation has a right even to express an
  opinion unless specially authorized to do so by the crown, and it is
  certain that it cannot do anything more. Heresy or no heresy, in the
  last resort, like all other ecclesiastical questions, is decided by
  the judicial committee of the council.

  The English lawyers, following the Roman law, distinguish between
  heresy and apostasy. The latter offence is dealt with by an act which
  still stands on the statute book, although it has long been virtually
  obsolete--the 9 & 10 Will. III. c. 35. If any person _who has been
  educated in or has professed the Christian religion_ shall, by
  writing, printing, teaching, or advised speaking, assert or maintain
  that there are more Gods than one, or shall deny any of the persons of
  the Holy Trinity to be God, or shall deny the Christian religion to be
  true or the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be of
  divine authority, he shall for the first offence be declared incapable
  of holding any ecclesiastical, civil, or military office or
  employment, and for the second incapable of bringing any action, or of
  being guardian, executor, legatee, or grantee, and shall suffer three
  years' imprisonment without bail. Unitarians were saved from these
  atrocious penalties by a later act (53 Geo. III. c. 160), which
  permits Christians to deny any of the persons in the Trinity without
  penal consequences.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] For fuller details see separate articles.

  [2] Stephen's _Commentaries_, bk. iv. ch. 7.



HEREWARD, usually but erroneously styled "the Wake" (an addition of
later days), an Englishman famous for his resistance to William the
Conqueror. It is now established that he was a tenant of Peterborough
Abbey, from which he held lands at Witham-on-the-Hill and Barholme with
Stow in the south-western corner of Lincolnshire, and of Crowland Abbey
at Rippingale in the neighbouring fenland. His first authentic act is
the storm and sacking of Peterborough in 1070, in company with outlaws
and Danish invaders. The next year he took part in the desperate stand
against the Conqueror's rule made in the isle of Ely, and, on its
capture by the Normans, escaped with his followers through the fens.
That his exploits made an exceptional impression on the popular mind is
certain from the mass of legendary history that clustered round his
name; he became, says Mr Davis, "in popular eyes the champion of the
English national cause." The Hereward legend has been fully dealt with
by him and by Professor Freeman, who observed that "with no name has
fiction been more busy."

  See E. A. Freeman, _History of the Norman Conquest_, vol. iv.; J. H.
  Round, _Feudal England_; H. W. C. Davis, _England under the Normans
  and Angevins_.     (J. H. R.)



HERFORD, a town in the Prussian province of Westphalia, situated at the
confluence of the Werre and Aa, on the Minden & Cologne railway, 9 m.
N.E. of Bielefeld, and at the junction of the railway to Detmold and
Altenbeken. Pop. (1885) 15,902; (1905) 24,821. It possesses six
Evangelical churches, notably the Münsterkirche, a Romanesque building
with a Gothic apse of the 15th century; the Marienkirche, in the Gothic
style; and the Johanniskirche, with a steeple 280 ft. high. The other
principal buildings are the Roman Catholic church, the synagogue, the
gymnasium founded in 1540, the agricultural school and the theatre.
There is a statue of Frederick William of Brandenburg. The industries
include cotton and flax-spinning, and the manufacture of linen cloth,
carpets, furniture, machinery, sugar, tobacco and leather.

Herford owes its origin to a Benedictine nunnery which is said to have
been founded in 832, and was confirmed by the emperor Louis the Pious in
839. From the emperor Frederick I. the abbess obtained princely rank and
a seat in the imperial diet. Among the abbesses was the celebrated
Elizabeth (1618-1680), eldest daughter of the elector palatine Frederick
V., who was a philosophical princess, and a pupil of Descartes. Under
her rule the sect of the Labadists settled for some time in Herford. The
foundation was secularized in 1803. Herford was a member of the
Hanseatic League, and its suzerainty passed in 1547 from the abbesses to
the dukes of Juliers. In 1631 it became a free imperial town, but in
1647 it was subjugated by the elector of Brandenburg. It came into the
possession of Westphalia in 1807, and in 1813 into that of Prussia.

  See L. Hölscher, _Reformationsgeschichte der Stadt Herford_
  (Gütersloh, 1888).



HERGENRÖTHER, JOSEPH VON (1824-1890), German theologian, was born at
Würzburg in Bavaria on the 15th of September 1824. He studied at
Würzburg and at Rome. After spending a year as parish priest at
Zellingen, near his native city, he went, in 1850, at his bishop's
command, to the university of Munich, where he took his degree of doctor
of theology the same year, becoming in 1851 _Privatdozent_, and in 1855
professor of ecclesiastical law and history. At Munich he gained the
reputation of being one of the most learned theologians on the
Ultramontane side of the Infallibility question, which had begun to be
discussed; and in 1868 he was sent to Rome to arrange the proceedings of
the Vatican Council. He was a stanch supporter of the infallibility
dogma; and in 1870 he wrote _Anti-Janus_, an answer to _The Pope and the
Council_, by "Janus" (Döllinger and J. Friedrich), which made a great
sensation at the time. In 1877 he was made prelate of the papal
household; he became cardinal deacon in 1879, and was afterwards made
curator of the Vatican archives. He died in Rome on the 3rd of October
1890.

  Hergenröther's first published work was a dissertation on the doctrine
  of the Trinity according to Gregory Nazianzen (Regensburg, 1850), and
  from this time onward his literary activity was immense. After several
  articles and brochures on Hippolytus and the question of the
  authorship of the _Philosophumena_, he turned to the study of Photius,
  patriarch of Constantinople, and the history of the Greek schism. For
  twelve years he was engaged upon this work, the result being his
  monumental _Photius, Patriarch von Constantinopel. Sein Leben, seine
  Schriften und das griechische Schisma_ (3 vols., Regensburg,
  1867-1869); an additional volume (1869) gave, under the title
  _Monumenta Graeca ad Photium ... pertinentia_, a collection of the
  unpublished documents on which the work was largely based. Of
  Hergenröther's other works, the most important are his history of the
  Papal States since the Revolution (_Der Kirchenstaat seit der
  französischen Revolution_, Freiburg i. B., 1860; Fr. trans., Leipzig,
  1860), his great work on the relations of church and state
  (_Katholische Kirche und christlicher Staat in ihrer geschichtlichen
  Entwickelung und in Beziehung auf Fragen der Gegenwart_, 2 parts,
  Freiburg i. B., 1872; 2nd ed. expanded, 1876; Eng. trans., London,
  1876, Baltimore, 1889), and his universal church history (_Handbuch
  der allgemeinen Kirchengeschichte_, 3 vols., Freiburg i. B.,
  1876-1880; 2nd ed., 1879, &c.; 3rd ed., 1884-1886; 4th ed., by Peter
  Kirsch, 1902, &c.; French trans., Paris, 1880, &c.). He also found
  time for a while to edit the new edition of Wetzer and Welte's
  _Kirchenlexikon_ (1877), to superintend the publication of part of the
  _Regesta_ of Pope Leo X. (Freiburg i. B., 1884-1885), and to add two
  volumes to Hefele's _Conciliengeschichte_ (ib., 1887 and 1890).



HERINGSDORF, a seaside resort of Germany, in the Prussian province of
Pomerania, on the north coast of the island of Usedom, 5 m. by rail N.W.
of Swinemünde. It is surrounded by beech woods, and is perhaps the most
popular seaside resort on the German shore of the Baltic, being
frequented by some 12,000 visitors annually.



HERIOT, GEORGE (1563-1623), the founder of Heriot's Hospital, Edinburgh,
was descended from an old Haddington family; his father, a goldsmith in
Edinburgh, represented the city in the Scottish parliament. George was
born in 1563, and after receiving a good education was apprenticed to
his father's trade. In 1586 he married the daughter of a deceased
Edinburgh merchant, and with the assistance of her patrimony set up in
business on his own account. At first he occupied a small "buith" at the
north-east corner of St Giles's church, and afterwards a more
pretentious shop at the west end of the building. To the business of a
goldsmith he joined that of a money-lender, and in 1597 he had acquired
such a reputation that he was appointed goldsmith to Queen Anne, consort
of James VI. In 1601 he became jeweller to the king, and followed him to
London, occupying a shop opposite the Exchange. Heriot was largely
indebted for his fortune to the extravagance of the queen, and the
imitation of this extravagance by the nobility. Latterly he had such an
extensive business as a jeweller that on one occasion a government
proclamation was issued calling upon all the magistrates of the kingdom
to aid him in securing the workmen he required. He died in London on the
10th of February 1623. In 1608, having some time previously lost his
first wife, he married Alison Primrose, daughter of James Primrose,
grandfather of the first earl of Rosebery, but she died in 1612; by
neither marriage had he any issue. The surplus of his estate, after
deducting legacies to his nearest relations and some of his more
intimate friends, was bequeathed to found a hospital for the education
of freemen's sons of the town of Edinburgh; and its value afterwards
increased so greatly as to supply funds for the erection of several
Heriot foundation schools in different parts of the city.

  Heriot takes a leading part in Scott's novel, _The Fortunes of Nigel_
  (see also the Introduction). A _History of Heriot's Hospital, with a
  Memoir of the Founder_, by William Steven, D.D., appeared in 1827; 2nd
  ed. 1859.



HERIOT, by derivation the arms and equipment (_geatwa_) of a soldier or
army (_here_); the O. Eng. word is thus here-geatwa. The lord of a fee
provided his tenant with arms and a horse, either as a gift or loan,
which he was to use in the military service paid by him. On the death of
the tenant the lord claimed the return of the equipment. When by the
10th century land was being given instead of arms, the heriot was still
paid, but more in the nature of a "relief" (q.v.). There seems to have
been some connexion between the payment of the heriot and the power of
making a will (F. W. Maitland, _Domesday Book and Beyond_, p. 298). By
the 13th century the payment was made either in money or in kind by the
handing over of the best beast or of the best other chattel of the
tenant (see Pollock and Maitland, _History of English Law_, i. 270 sq.).
For the manorial law relating to heriots, see COPYHOLD.



HERISAU, the largest town in the entire Swiss canton of Appenzell, built
on the Glatt torrent, and by light railway 7 m. south-west of St Gall or
13½ m. north of Appenzell. In 1900 it had 13,497 inhabitants, mainly
Protestant and German-speaking. The lower portion of the massive tower
of the parish church (Protestant) dates from the 11th century or even
earlier. It is a prosperous little industrial town in the Ausser Rhoden
half of the canton, especially busied with the manufacture of embroidery
by machinery, and of muslins. Near it is the goats' whey cure
establishment of Heinrichsbad, and the two castles of Rosenberg and
Rosenburg, ruined in 1403 when the land rose against its lord, the abbot
of St Gall. About 5 m. to the south-east is Hundwil, a village of 1523
inhabitants, where the _Landsgemeinde_ of Ausser Rhoden meets In the odd
years (in other years at Trogen) on the last Sunday in April.



HERITABLE JURISDICTIONS, in the law of Scotland, grants of jurisdiction
made to a man and his heirs. They were a usual accompaniment to feudal
tenures, and the power which they conferred on great families, being
recognized as a source of danger to the state, led to frequent attempts
being made by statute to restrict them, both before and after the Union.
They were all abolished in 1746.



HERKIMER, a village and the county-seat of Herkimer county, New York,
U.S.A., in the township of the same name, on the Mohawk river, about 15
m. S.E. of Utica. Pop. (1900) 5555 (724 being foreign-born); (1905,
state census) 6596; (1910) 7520. It is served by the New York Central &
Hudson River railway, a branch of which (the Mohawk & Malone railway)
extends through the Adirondacks to Malone, N.Y.; by inter-urban electric
railway to Little Falls, Syracuse, Richfield Springs, Cooperstown and
Oneonta, and by the Erie canal. The village has a public library, and is
the seat of the Folts Mission Institute (opened 1893), a training school
for young women, controlled by the Women's Foreign Missionary Society of
the Methodist Episcopal Church. Herkimer is situated in a rich dairying
region, and has various manufactures. The municipality owns and operates
its water-supply system and electric-lighting plant. Herkimer, named in
honour of General Nicholas Herkimer (c. 1728-1777), who was mortally
wounded in the Battle of Oriskany, and in whose memory there is a
monument (unveiled on the 6th of August 1907) in the village, was
settled about 1725 by Palatine Germans, who bought from the Mohawk
Indians a large tract of land including the present site of the village
and established thereon several settlements which became known
collectively as the "German Flats." In 1756 a stone house, built in 1740
by General Herkimer's father, John Jost Herkimer (d. 1775)--apparently
one of the original group of settlers--a stone church, and other
buildings, standing within what is now Herkimer village, were enclosed
in a stockade and ditch fortifications by Sir William Johnson, and this
post, at first known as Fort Kouari (the Indian name), was subsequently
called Fort Herkimer. Another fort (Ft. Dayton) was built within the
limits of the present village in 1776 by Colonel Elias Dayton
(1737-1807), who later became a brigadier-general (1783) and served in
the Confederation Congress in 1787-1788. During the French and Indian
War the settlement was attacked (12th November 1757) and practically
destroyed, many of the settlers being killed or taken prisoners; and it
was again attacked on the 30th of April 1758. In the War of Independence
General Herkimer assembled here the force which on the 6th of August
1777 was ambushed near Oriskany on its march from Ft. Dayton to the
relief of Ft. Schuyler (see ORISKANY); and the settlement was attacked
by Indians and "Tories" in September 1778 and in June 1782. The township
of Herkimer was organized in 1788, and in 1807 the village was
incorporated.

  See Nathaniel I. Benton, _History of Herkimer County_ (Albany, 1856);
  and Phoebe S. Cowen, _The Herkimers and Schuylers_, (1903).



HERKOMER, SIR HUBERT VON (1849-   ), British painter, was born at Waal,
in Bavaria, and eight years later was brought to England by his father,
a wood-carver of great ability. He lived for some time at Southampton
and in the school of art there began his art training; but in 1866 he
entered upon a more serious course of study at the South Kensington
Schools, and in 1869 exhibited for the first time at the Royal Academy.
By his picture, "The Last Muster," at the Academy in 1875, he definitely
established his position as an artist of high distinction. He was
elected an associate of the Academy in 1879, and academician in 1890; an
associate of the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours in 1893, and
a full member in 1894; and in 1885 he was appointed Slade professor at
Oxford. He exhibited a very large number of memorable portraits, figure
subjects and landscapes, in oil and water colour; he achieved marked
success as a worker in enamel, as an etcher, mezzotint engraver and
illustrative draughtsman; and he exercised wide influence upon art
education by means of the Herkomer School (Incorporated), at Bushey,
which he founded in 1883 and directed gratuitously until 1904, when he
retired. It was then voluntarily wound up, and is now conducted
privately. Two of his pictures, "Found" (1885) and "The Chapel of the
Charterhouse" (1889), are in the National Gallery of British Art. In the
year 1907 he received the honorary degree of D.C.L. at Oxford, and a
knighthood was conferred upon him by the king in addition to the
commandership of the Royal Victorian Order with which he was already
decorated.

  See _Hubert von Herkomer, R.A., a Study and a Biography_, by A. L.
  Baldry (London, 1901); _Professor Hubert Herkomer, Royal Academician,
  His Life and Work_, by W. L. Courtney (London, 1892).



HERLEN (or HERLIN), FRITZ, of Nördlingen, German artist of the early
Swabian school, in the 15th century. The date and place of his birth are
unknown, but his name is on the roll of the tax-gatherers of Ulm in
1449; and in 1467 he was made citizen and town painter at Nördlingen,
"because of his acquaintance with Flemish methods of painting." One of
the first of his acknowledged productions is a shrine on one of the
altars of the church of Rothenburg on the Tauber, the wings of which
were finished in 1466, with seven scenes from the lives of Christ and
the Virgin Mary. In the town-hall of Rothenburg is a Madonna and St
Catherine of 1467; and in the choir of Nördlingen cathedral a triptych
of 1488, representing the "Nativity" and "Christ amidst the Doctors," at
the side of a votive Madonna attended by St Joseph and St Margaret as
patrons of a family. In each of these works the painter's name certifies
the picture, and the manner is truly that of an artist "acquainted with
Flemish methods." We are not told under whom Herlen laboured in the
Netherlands, but he probably took the same course as Schongauer and Hans
Holbein the elder, who studied in the school of van der Weyden. His
altarpiece at Rothenburg contains groups and figures, as well as forms
of action and drapery, which seem copied from those of van der Weyden's
or Memlinc's disciples, and the votive Madonna of 1488, whilst
characterized by similar features, only displays such further changes as
may be accounted for by the master's constant later contact with
contemporaries in Swabia. Herlen had none of the genius of Schongauer.
He failed to acquire the delicacy even of the second-rate men who handed
down to Matsys the traditions of the 15th century; but his example was
certainly favourable to the development of art in Swabia. By general
consent critics have assigned to him a large altar-piece, with scenes
from the gospels and figures of St Florian and St Floriana, and a
Crucifixion, the principal figure of which is carved in high relief on
the surface of a large panel in the church of Dinkelsbühl. A
Crucifixion, with eight scenes from the New Testament, is shown as his
in the cathedral, a "Christ in Judgment, with Mary and John," and the
"Resurrection of Souls" in the town-hall of Nördlingen. A small
Epiphany, once in the convent of the Minorites of Ulm, is in the
Holzschuher collection at Augsburg, a Madonna and Circumcision in the
National Museum at Munich. Herlen's epitaph, preserved by Rathgeber,
states that he died on the 12th of October 1491, and was buried at
Nördlingen.



HERMAE, in Greek antiquities, quadrangular pillars, broader above than
at the base, surmounted by a head or bust, so called either because the
head of Hermes was most common or from their etymological connexion with
the Greek word [Greek: hermata] (blocks of stone), which originally had
no reference to Hermes at all. In the oldest times Hermes, like other
divinities, was worshipped in the form of a heap of stones or of an
amorphous block of wood or stone, which afterwards took the shape of a
phallus, the symbol of productivity. The next step was the addition of a
head to this phallic column which became quadrangular (the number 4 was
sacred to Hermes, who was born on the fourth day of the month), with the
significant indication of sex still prominent. In this shape the number
of herms rapidly increased, especially those of Hermes, for which the
distinctive name of Hermhermae has been suggested. In Athens they were
found at the corners of streets; before the gates and in the courtyards
of houses, where they were worshipped by women as having the power to
make them prolific; before the temples; in the gymnasia and palaestrae.
On each side of the road leading from the Stoa Poikile to the Stoa
Basileios, rows of Hermae were set up in such numbers by the piety of
private individuals or public corporations, that the Stoa Basileios was
called the Stoa of the Hermae. The function of Hermes as protector of
the roads, of merchants and of commerce, explains the number of Hermae
that served the purpose of signposts on the roads outside the city. It
is stated in the pseudo-Platonic _Hipparchus_ that the son of
Peisistratus had set up marble pillars at suitable places on the roads
leading from the different country districts to Athens, having the
places connected with the roads inscribed on the one side in a hexameter
verse, and on the other a pentameter containing a short proverb or moral
precept for the edification of travellers. Sometimes they bore
inscriptions celebrating the valour of those who had fought for their
country. Just as it was customary for the passer-by to show respect to
the rudest form of the god (the heap of stones) by contributing a stone
to the heap or anointing it with oil, in like manner small offerings,
generally of dried figs, were deposited near the Hermae, to appease the
hunger of the necessitous wayfarer. Garlands of flowers were also
suspended on the two arm-like tenons projecting from either side of the
column at the top (for the oracle at Pharae see HERMES). These pillars
were also used to mark the frontier boundaries or the limits of
different estates. The great respect attaching to them is shown by the
excitement caused in Athens by the "Mutilation of the Hermae" just
before the departure of the Sicilian expedition (May 415 B.C.). They
formed the object of a special industry, the makers of them being called
Hermoglyphi. The surmounting heads were not, however, confined to those
of Hermes; those of other gods and heroes, and even of distinguished
mortals, were of frequent occurrence. In this case a compound was
formed: Hermathena (a herm of Athena), Hermares, Hermaphroditus,
Hermanubis, Hermalcibiades, and so on. In the case of these compounds it
is disputed whether they indicated a herm with the head of Athena, or
with a Janus-like head of both Hermes and Athena, or a figure compounded
of both deities. The Romans not only borrowed the Hermes pillars for
their deities which at an early period they assimilated to those of the
Greeks (as Heracles--Hercules) but also for the indigenous gods who
preserved their individuality. Thus herms of Jupiter Terminalis (the
hermae being identified with the Roman termini) and of Silvanus occur.
Under the empire, the function of the hermae was rather architectural
than religious. They were used to keep up the draperies in the interior
of a house, and in the Circus Maximus they were used to support the
barriers.

  See the article with bibliography by Pierre Paris in Daremberg and
  Saglio's _Dictionnaire des antiquités_; for the mutilation of the
  Hermae, Thucydides vi. 27; Andocides, _De mysteriis_; Grote, _Hist. of
  Greece_, ch. 58; H. Weil, _Études sur l'antiquité grecque_ (1900);
  Burolt, _Griech. Gesch._ (ed. 1904), III. ii. p. 1287.



HERMAGORAS, of Temnos, Greek rhetorician of the Rhodian school and
teacher of oratory in Rome, flourished during the first half of the 1st
century B.C. He obtained a great reputation among a certain section and
founded a special school, the members of which called themselves
Hermagorei. His chief opponent was Posidonius of Rhodes, who is said to
have contended with him in argument in the presence of Pompey (Plutarch,
_Pompey_, 42). Hermagoras devoted himself particularly to the branch of
rhetoric known as [Greek: oikonomia] (_inventio_), and is said to have
invented the doctrine of the four [Greek: staseis] (_status_) and to
have arranged the parts of an oration differently from his predecessors.
Cicero held an unfavourable opinion of his methods, which were approved
by Quintilian, although he considers that Hermagoras neglected the
practical side of rhetoric for the theoretical. According to Suidas and
Strabo, he was the author of [Greek: technai rhêtorikai] (rhetorical
manuals) and of other works, which should perhaps be attributed to his
younger namesake, surnamed Carion, the pupil of Theodorus of Gadara.

  See Strabo xiii. p. 621; Cicero, _De inventione_, i. 6. 8, _Brutus_,
  76, 263. 78, 271; Quintilian, _Instit._ iii. 1. 16, 3. 9, 11. 22; C.
  W. Piderit, _De Hermagora rhetore_ (1839); G. Thiele, _Hermagoras Ein
  Beitrag zur Geschichte der Rhetorik_ (1893).



HERMANDAD (from _hermano_, Lat. _germanus_, a brother), a Castilian word
meaning, strictly speaking, a brotherhood. In the Romance language
spoken on the east coast of Spain in Catalonia it is written _germandat_
or _germania_. In the form _germania_ it has acquired the significance
of "thieves' Latin" or "thieves' cant," and is applied to any jargon
supposed to be understood only by the Initiated. But the typical
"germania" is a mixture of slang and of the gipsy language. The
hermandades have played a conspicuous part in the history of Spain. The
first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred in the
12th century when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to
police the pilgrim road to Santiago in Galicia, and protect the pilgrims
against robber knights. Throughout the middle ages such alliances were
frequently formed by combinations of towns to protect the roads
connecting them, and were occasionally extended to political purposes.
They acted to some extent like the Fehmic courts of Germany. The
Catholic sovereigns, Ferdinand and Isabella, adapted an existing
hermandad to the purpose of a general police acting under officials
appointed by themselves, and endowed with large powers of summary
jurisdiction even in capital cases. The hermandad became, in fact, a
constabulary, which, however, fell gradually into neglect. In Catalonia
and Valencia the "germanias" were combinations of the peasantry to
resist the exactions of the feudal lords.



HERMAN DE VALENCIENNES, 12th-century French poet, was born at
Valenciennes, of good parentage. His father and mother, Robert and
Hérembourg, belonged to Hainault, and gave him for god-parents Count
Baldwin and Countess Yoland--doubtless Baldwin IV. of Hainault and his
mother Yoland. Herman was a priest and the author of a verse _Histoire
de la Bible_, which includes a separate poem on the Assumption of the
Virgin. The work is generally known as _Le Roman de sapience_, the name
arising from a copyist's error in the first line of the poem:

  "Comens de sapiense, ce est la cremors de Deu"

the first word being miswritten in one MS. _Romens_, and In another
_Romanz_. His work has, indeed, the form of an ordinary romance, and
cannot be regarded as a translation. He selects such stories from the
Bible as suit his purpose, and adds freely from legendary sources,
displaying considerable art in the selection and use of his materials.
This scriptural poem, very popular in its day, mentions Henry II. of
England as already dead, and must therefore be assigned to a date
posterior to 1189.

  See _Notices et extraits des manuscrits_ (Paris, vol. 34), and Jean
  Bonnard, _Les Traductions de la Bible en vers français au moyen âge_
  (1884).



HERMANN I. (d. 1217), landgrave of Thuringia and count palatine of
Saxony, was the second son of Louis II. the Hard, landgrave of
Thuringia, and Judith of Hohenstaufen, sister of the emperor Frederick
I. Little is known of his early years, but in 1180 he joined a coalition
against Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, and with his brother, the
landgrave Louis III., suffered a short imprisonment after his defeat at
Weissensee by Henry. About this time he received from his brother Louis
the Saxon palatinate, over which he strengthened his authority by
marrying Sophia, sister of Adalbert, count of Sommerschenburg, a former
count palatine. In 1190 Louis died and Hermann by his energetic measures
frustrated the attempt of the emperor Henry VI. to seize Thuringia as a
vacant fief of the Empire, and established himself as landgrave. Having
joined a league against the emperor he was accused, probably wrongly, of
an attempt to murder him. Henry was not only successful in detaching
Hermann from the hostile combination, but gained his support for the
scheme to unite Sicily with the Empire. In 1197 Hermann went on crusade.
When Henry VI. died in 1198 Hermann's support was purchased by the late
emperor's brother Philip, duke of Swabia, but as soon as Philip's cause
appeared to be weakening he transferred his allegiance to Otto of
Brunswick, afterwards the emperor Otto IV. Philip accordingly invaded
Thuringia in 1204 and compelled Hermann to come to terms by which he
surrendered the lands he had obtained in 1198. After the death of Philip
and the recognition of Otto he was among the princes who invited
Frederick of Hohenstaufen, afterwards the emperor Frederick II., to come
to Germany and assume the crown. In consequence of this step the Saxons
attacked Thuringia, but the landgrave was saved by Frederick's arrival
in Germany in 1212. After the death of his first wife in 1195 Hermann
married Sophia, daughter of Otto I., duke of Bavaria. By her he had four
sons, two of whom, Louis and Henry Raspe, succeeded their father in turn
as landgrave. Hermann died at Gotha on the 25th of April 1217, and was
buried at Reinhardsbrunn. He was fond of the society of men of letters,
and Walther von der Vogelweide and other Minnesingers were welcomed to
his castle of the Wartburg. In this connexion he figures in Wagner's
_Tannhäuser_.

  See E. Winkelmann, _Philipp von Schwaben und Otto IV. von
  Braunschweig_ (Leipzig, 1873-1878); T. Knochenhauer, _Geschichte
  Thüringens_ (Gotha, 1871); and F. Wachter, _Thüringische und
  obersächsische Geschichte_ (Leipzig, 1826).



HERMANN OF REICHENAU (HERIMANNUS AUGIENSIS), commonly distinguished as
Hermannus Contractus, i.e. the Lame (1013-1054), German scholar and
chronicler, was the son of Count Wolferad of Alshausen in Swabia.
Hermann, who became a monk of the famous abbey of Reichenau, is at once
one of the most attractive and one of the most pathetic figures of
medieval monasticism. Crippled and distorted by gout from his childhood,
he was deprived of the use of his legs; but, in spite of this, he became
one of the most learned men of his time, and exercised a great personal
and intellectual influence on the numerous band of scholars he gathered
round him. He died on the 24th of September 1054, at the family castle
of Alshausen near Biberach. Besides the ordinary studies of the monastic
scholar, he devoted himself to mathematics, astronomy and music, and
constructed watches and instruments of various kinds.

  His chief work is a _Chronicon ad annum_ 1054, which furnishes
  important and original material for the history of the emperor Henry
  III. The first edition, from a MS. no longer extant, was printed by J.
  Sichard at Basel in 1529, and reissued by Heinrich Peter in 1549;
  another edition appeared at St Blaise in 1790 under the supervision of
  Ussermann; and a third, as a result of the collation of numerous MSS.,
  forms part of vol. v. of Pertz's _Monumenta Germaniae historica_. A
  German translation of the last is contributed by K.