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Title: A Study of the Bhâgavata Purâna or Esoteric Hinduism
Author: Sinha, Purnendu Narayana
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber’s Note


inconsistent accents, improper punctuation, etc.  Also the typesetters
were unable to properly accent the book. As an example, the letter â is
represented as Á when capitalized.  The author probably wanted to use a
macron instead of a circumflex or an accent to indicate a long syllable
and was forced to settle for this mixture of circumflexes and accents
instead. This etext will use the circumflex throughout and will attempt
to accent words as consistently as possible.

In the original book some family tree tables were turned sideways. For
reading as an e-book, these trees have been modified to read left to
right rather than top-down. All family trees have been done as ASCII
art.  I have included the original page images containing the family
trees as well.

The family tree tables in the book put female names in italics, but not
consistently.  Where possible I have followed this practice in the ASCII
art version, but in many cases I have omitted the italics because it
would throw off the alignment of the trees in the text version of the
book.  When in doubt consult the page images in the HTML version.



                                A STUDY

                                 OF THE

                            BHÂGAVATA PURÂNA


                           ESOTERIC HINDUISM

                BY PURNENDU NARAYANA SINHA, M. A., B. L.

                                BENARES:

                    PRINTED BY FREEMAN & Co., LTD.,

                   AT THE TARA PRINTING WORKS. 1901.



                                   To

                             *ANNIE BESANT*

                      THE BHÂGAVATA OF BHÂGAVATAS

                 THESE PAGES ARE RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED

                                   BY

                       HER MOST DEVOTED BROTHER.



"Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth: for thy love is better
than wine.

"Because of the savour of thy good ointments thy name is as ointment
poured forth, therefore do the virgins love thee.

"Tell me, O thou whom my soul loveth, where thou feedest, where thou
makest thy flock to rest at noon; for why should I be as one that
turneth aside by the flocks of thy companions?

"If thou know not, O thou fairest among women, go thy way forth by the
footsteps of the flock, and feed thy kids beside the shepherds’ tents."

THE SONG OF SOLOMON.



PREFACE.


The Bhâgavata is the most popular of all Purânas and it is held in the
highest esteem by Vaishnavas in all parts of India. It was the most
authoritative book with such religious teachers as Shri Chaitanya.
Several commentaries have been written on this great work. It is however
strange that there has been so much discussion about the authoritative
character of the work. The readers are all familiar with that discussion
and I need not refer to it further than to say that the discussion does
not in any way affect the intrinsic merit of the book, and the verdict
of the public is so certain in this respect that the book will continue
to be the most popular of all Purânas, despite any thing that may be
said as to its authorship or the period of its appearance.

The Padma Purâna devotes a chapter to the worship of this Purâna and
calls it the most exalted of all the Purânas and the book is actually
worshipped in many Hindu houses. The Purâna is recited all over India by
learned Pandits and Sâdhus and its subject matter is familiar to every
Hindu.

PROFESSOR WILSON SAYS:  —  "Bhâgavata is a work of great celebrity in
India and exercises a more direct and powerful influence upon the
opinions and feelings of the people than perhaps any other of the
Purânas. It is placed fifth in all the lists but the Padma Purâna ranks
it as the eighteenth, as the extracted substance of all the rest.
According to the usual specification it consists of eighteen thousand
slokas, distributed amongst three hundred and thirty-two chapters
divided into twelve Skandhas or books. It is named Bhâgavata from its
being dedicated to the glorification of Bhagavat or Vishnu."

Referring to the Tenth Skandha, Professor Wilson says "The tenth book is
the characteristic part of the Purâna, and the portion upon which its
popularity is founded. It has been translated into, perhaps, all the
languages in India, and is a favourite work with all descriptions of
people."

Much as the book commands the respect of the Hindus, it has brought upon
itself the ridicule and sarcasm of those that attack Hinduism. It is the
Tenth Skandha which has given the greatest handle to all adverse
criticism and it is the one Skandha in the whole book which is so little
understood by foreigners, unacquainted with the genius of the Hindu
religion, particularly with its love aspect which is the peculium of all
real devotees in every great religion. But the modern professors of
great religions, being lost in their material surroundings, have
entirely lost sight of that aspect. The songs of Solomon will stand out
in all ages as an expression of enthusiastic and rapturous love of the
human soul for the Divine Lord, whether the Christians of the modern day
understand them or not. The Divvans and Sufis bore the highest love to
their divine Lover, whether or not the Mohammedans of the present day
follow the outpourings of their heart.

Love in religion is a Science. It is the natural outcome of the human
soul, when it is freed from impurities and cured of distractions.

All religions speak of the purity of the mind, and they speak also of
devotion to God or Íshvara. But no religion other than Hinduism treats
of the gradual development of the mind as a Science, treats of its
purification and then of its natural attraction for Íshvara and the
final assimilation of human life to Isvaric life as the law of the
Universe. And no book in Hinduism deals with the subject so
systematically specially with reference to the history of the Universe,
as the Bhâgavata Purâna does. I have tried to understand the book myself
as an earnest student, with the light afforded by the book itself. I
have been greatly helped in the understanding of of the book by the
commentary of Śridhara Svâmi which is by common consent the most
authoritative of all the commentaries on the Bhâgavata Purâna. Once a
Pandita prided himself before Sri Chaitanya on his having put an
interpretation upon a certain sloka of the Purâna different from that of
Śridhara Svâmi. Now "Svâmi" is the designation of a learned Sanyassi,
such as Śridhara Svâmi was and it also means a husband. Sri Chaitanya
remarked "one that does not follow the Svâmi is unchaste." Such was the
high opinion which the great Teacher held regarding Śridhara’s
commentary.

I have purposely avoided making any reference to the commentaries made
by the followers of Srî Chaitanya as I intend to study them separately
along with the teachings of his school.

The method of treatment followed in this study will speak for itself. I
have separated the text from my own observations except in the
introductory chapter and in the reference to Sukadeva in the chapter on
Virât Purusha, and one can follow the text itself, without accepting any
of my own views. I believe I have faithfully reproduced the text in its
essential features, I have omitted unimportant details, poetical
descriptions, prayers and adorations some of them most beautiful and
sublime  —  and I have also omitted the introduction by Suta and his
concluding words. Suta related the Purâna to Rishi Sounaka and others as
he heard it from Sukadeva.

The proofs have passed through different hands and the transliteration
of Sanskrit words has been differently made. For instance [Sanskrit
Letter] has been rendered as s, ś, _s_ and sh. Though I would prefer
ś, the dash has been generally omitted, for the convenience of the
printer. There have been also several mistakes in names.

My best thanks are due to the several gentlemen, who have gone through
the proofs and specially to my friend Mr. Bertram Keightley M, A., who
has gone through nearly the whole of the manuscripts.



Table of Contents


    PREFACE.
    SKANDHA I.
      THE IDEAL OF BHÂGAVATA PURÂNA: A DISCOURSE BETWEEN VYÂSA AND
      NÂRADA.
      ACCOUNT OF NARADA.
      VIRAT PURUSHA.
    SKANDHA II.
      THE PURUSHA IN ALL HEARTS.
      THE DEATH OF THE YOGI AND AFTER.
      WHAT MEN ARE TO DO AND WHAT THEY ARE NOT TO DO.
      THE BHAGÂVATA PURÂNA AS RELATED BY BRAHMÂ TO NÂRADA.
        I. THE CREATION.
        II. PRESERVATION BY LILÂ AVATÂRAS.
        THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.
        THE BHÂGAVATA PURÂNA AND ITS PARTS.
    SKANDHA III.
      BHÂGAVATA AS RELATED BY MAITREYA TO VIDURA.
        I.--THE CREATION
        THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE
        II. — VASUDEVA AND SANKARSHANA.
        III. — THE CREATION BY BRAHMA.
        THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.
        IV. DIVISIONS OF KÂLA.
        V.-THE CREATION BY BRAHMA (_Continued_) III. 12.
        PRE-MANVANTARIC CREATION.
      THE FIRST OR THE SVAYAMBHUVA MANVANTARA.
        VI. BHÛR AND VARAHA
        THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.
        VII. THE STORY OF HIRANYÂKSHA.
        THOUGHTS ON HIRANYÂKSHA.
        VIII. DEVA AND DEVA-YONI CREATION.
        IX. THE PROGENY OF KARDAMA.
        THOUGHTS ON KARDAMA.
        X. KAPILA’S INSTRUCTION TO HIS MOTHER DEVAHÛTI.
    SKANDHA IV.
      THE GENEALOGY OF MANU AND THE RISHIS.
      GENERAL REMARKS ON THE TABLES.
        TABLE A.
        TABLE B.
        TABLE C.
        TABLE D.
        TABLE E.
        TABLE F.
        TABLE G.
        TABLE H.
        TABLE I.
        TABLE J.
        TABLE K.
        TABLE L.
      THE QUARREL BETWEEN ŚIVA AND DAKSHA.
      THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.
        TABLE M.
        TABLE N.
          I. THE STORY OF DHRUVA.
          THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.
          II. THE STORY OF PRITHU.
          THOUGHT ON THE ABOVE.
          III. THE STORY OF THE PRACHINA BARHIS OR BARHISHAD.
          IV. THE ALLEGORY OF PURANJANA.
          V. THE STORY OF THE PRACHETAS BROTHERS.
          THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.
    SKANDHA V.
      TABLE V. PRIYAVRATA.
      THOUGHTS ON THE LINE OF PRIYA VRATA.
      THE EARTH CHAIN, BHUVANA KOSHA.
      ILAVRITA IS THE CENTRAL VARSHA.
      THE GANGES.
      THE MYSTERIES OF THE VARSHAS.
      THE DVIPAS.
      SVAR AND BHUVAR.
      THE SUN.
      THE PLANETS AND STARS.
      THE PÂTÂLAS
      ANANTA.
      THE NARAKAS.
    SKANDHA VI.
      THE STORY OF AJÂMILA
      THE PROGENY OF DAKSHA.
      THE PROGENY OF DHARMA.
      THE PROGENY OF BHUTA.
      THE PROGENY OF ANGIRASA.
      THE PROGENY OF KRISASVA.
      THE PROGENY OF TARKSHA.
      THE PROGENY OF KASYAPA
      THE STORY OF VIVSVARÛPA.
      THE STORY OF VRITRU.
      THE STORY OF CHITRAKETU.
      THE DAITYAS.
      THE MARUTS.
    SKANDHA VII.
      THE MYSTERIES ABOUT THE SURAS AND THE ASURAS.
      THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.
        I. _Hiranyâksha and Hiranyakasipu._
        II. _Râvana and Kumbhakarna._
      THE STORY OF HIRANYAKASIPU.
      HIRANYAKASIPU AND PRAHLÂDA.
      THE PRAYER OF PRAHLÂDA
      VARNA AND ASHRAMA.
    SKANDHA VIII.
      YAJNA.
      THE SECOND MANVANTARA.
      THE THIRD MANVANTARA.
      THE FOURTH MANVANTARA.
      THE STORY OF THE ELEPHANT KING.
      THE FIFTH MANVANTARA.
      THE SIXTH MANVANTARA.
      THE CHURNING OF THE OCEAN.
      THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.
      THE SEVENTH MANVANTARA.
      THE EIGHTH MANVANTARA.
      THE NINTH MANVANTARA.
      THE TENTH MANVANTARA.
      THE ELEVENTH MANVANTARA.
      THE TWELFTH MANVANTARA.
      THE THIRTEENTH MANVANTARA.
      THE FOURTEENTH MANVANTARA.
      THE ADMINISTRATION OF A MANVANTARA
      THE STORY OF BALI.
      THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.
      THE MATSYA AVATARA.
    SKANDHA IX.
      THE VAIVASVATA MANVANTARA.
        SUDYUMNA.
        IKSHVÂKU BROTHERS.
      THE LUNAR DYNASTY.
      THE LUNAR DYNASTY (Continued).
      THOUGHTS ON THE VAIVASVATA MANVANTARA.
    THE TENTH SKANDHA.
      VRINDÂVANA LILÂ
        THE BIRTH OF SRI KRISHNA.
        COUNSEL WITH THE DAITYAS.
        NANDA AND VASUDEVA.
        PUTANÂ
        THE UPTURNING OF THE CART.
        TRINAVARTA OR THE WHIRLWIND.
        THE NAMES "KRISHNA" AND "RAMA."
        PRANKS OF THE BOY.
        THE TYING.
        THE ARJUNA TREES.
        THE FRUIT SELLER.
        VRINDAVANA.
        VATSA OR THE CALF.
        BAKA OR THE CRANE.
        AGHA OR THE SERPENT.
        BRAHMA AND KRISHNA.
        DHENUKA.
        THE KÂLIYA SERPENT AND THE FIRE.
        PRALAMBA.
        THE FOREST CONFLAGRATION.
        THE RAINY SEASON.
        THE AUTUMN.
        SRI KRISHNA AND THE GOPIS.
        THE STEALING OF CLOTHES.
        KRISHNA AND VEDIC YAJNA (SUMMER AGAIN.)
        INDRA AND THE RAISING OF GO-VARDHANA. THE INSTALLATION.
        KRISHNA AND VARUNA, KRISHNA AND THE GOPAS.
        THE FIVE CHAPTERS ON RÂSA
        THE RÂSA.
        SUDARSANA.
        SANKHA CHÛDA.
        THE SEPARATION SONG OF THE GOPIS.
        ARISHTA.
        NÂRADA AND KANSA.
        KESI.
        VYOMA.
        AKRÛRA.
        MATHURÂ.
        THE WRESTLING.
        THE DEATH OF KANSA.
        THE THREAD CEREMONY AND BRAHMACHARYA.
        UDDHAVA AND VRAJA.
        THOUGHTS ON THE VRINDÂVANA LILÂ.
        THE RÂSA.
      MATHURÂ LILÂ
        THE HUNCH-BACKED GIRL AND THE PÂNDAVAS.
        JARA SANDHA, YAVANA AND DVARAKA.
        MUCHUKUNDA
      DVARAKA LILÂ.
        RUKMINI.
        PRADYUMNA.
        THE JEWEL SYAMANTAKA, JAMBAVATI AND SATYABHAMA.
        SYAMANTAKA, AKRURA, KRITAVARMAN AND SATA DHANU:
        THE OTHER WIVES OF SRI KRISHNA.
        KRISHNA AND RUKMINI.
        THE SONS OF KRISHNA.
        THE DEATH OF RUKMIN.
        BANA.
        NRIGA.
        BALARÂMA AND THE DRAWING OF THE YAMUNÂ.
        POUNDRAKA AND THE KING OF KÂSÎ (BENARES).
        DVI-VID (MONKEY).
        SÂMBA, LAKSHANÂ AND BALARÂMA.
        NARADA AND THE WIVES OF SRI KRISHNA.
        THE RAJA SUYA AND JARASANDHA.
        SISUPÂLA.
        THE SLIGHT OF DURYODHANA.
        SÂLVA.
        DANTA VAKRA AND VIDURATHA.
        BALARÂMA AND THE DEATH OF ROMAHARSHANA.
        SRÎDÂMAN.
        THE MEETING AT KURUKSHETRA.
        VASUDEVA, DEVAKI, AND THEIR DEAD SONS.
        ARJUNA AND SUBHADRÂ
        SRUTADEVA AND BAHULÂSVA.
        THE PRAYER TO BRAHMAN BY THE SRUTIS.
        THE RESTORATION OF BRAHMAN BOYS TO LIFE.
      THE LINE OF KRISHNA.
      THOUGHTS ON THE MATHURÂ LILÂ.
      THOUGHTS ON THE DVÂRAKÂ
      THE WIVES.
    THE ELEVENTH SKANDHA
      THE MUSHALA. XI. I.
      THE BHÂGAVATÂ PATH.
      KRISHNA AND UDDHAVA.
      SELF-INSTRUCTION.
      ÂTMÂ A REFUTATION OF THE SCHOOL OF JAIMINI.
      BONDAGE AND LIBERATION.
      SÂDHU AND BHAKTI.
      WHY GIVE UP ALL KARMA
      THE GUNAS.
      HOW TO WITHDRAW FROM THE OBJECTS OF THE SENSES.
      BHAKTI YOGA.
      MEDITATION.
      THE SIDDHIS
      THE VIBHÛTIS OR POWERS OF THE LORD.
      VARNA AND ASRAMA RULES.
      WHAT ONE IS TO DO FOR MOKSHA.
      THE SADHANAS OR EXPEDIENTS.
      THE THREE PATHS: KARMA, JNÂNA AND BHAKTI.
      GUNA AND DOSHA OR RIGHT AND WRONG
      THE TATVAS.
      PRAKRITI AND PURUSHA.
      RE-INCARNATION.
      FORBEARANCE.
      SANKHYA.
      SATVA RAJAS AND TAMAS.
      COMPANY.
      KRIYA YOGA AND IDOL WORSHIP.
      JNÂNA YOGA.
      BHAKTI YOGA.
      THE END.
    THE TWELFTH SKANDHA.
      PRALAYA.



SKANDHA I.



THE IDEAL OF BHÂGAVATA PURÂNA: A DISCOURSE BETWEEN VYÂSA AND NÂRADA.


"I have duly respected the Vedas, the teachers and the sacrificial fire,
I have put the sense of all the Vedas into the Mahâbhârata and have made
their sacred lore accessible to all classes of men. I have done all
this, nay, much more. Still I think my work is not fully done." So
thought Veda Vyâsa, the adept author of the Kali Yuga, while meditating
on the sacred banks of the Sarasvati, and his heart became heavy with
something, he knew not what. At this time Nârada appeared before him  —
Nârada, who knew all that transpired in the Trilokî and who could enter
into the hearts of all beings. "Thou hast fully known," said Nârada,
"all that is knowable, for thou hast written the excellent Mahâbhârata,
which leaves nothing unsaid. How is it then thou feelest dispirited as
if thy object were not gained?" What could Vyâsa say in reply; he only
inquired from the seer Nârada the cause of his uneasiness.

Nârada entered into a free criticism of the Bhagavat Gitâ, the
philosophical portion of the Mahâbhârata, pointed out its shortcomings
and suggested to Vyâsa what next to do. A few remarks will be necessary
to understand all this.

There are seven planes Bhûr, Bhuvar, Svar, Mahar, Jana, Tapas and Satya.

Bhûr is the terrestrial plane.

Bhuvar is the astral plane.

Svar is the plane of Kâma and desires.

These three planes, collectively known as Trilokî, are the planes of
personality. Kâma is the guiding principle of existence in Trilokî, and
a recurrence of births and re-births its main characteristic. With every
Night of Brahmâ, this triple plane comes to an end, transferring its
energies to the next higher plane, and is re-born with every Day of
Brahmâ. Mahar is intermediate between Trilokî and the three higher Lokas
of Universality.

The Vedic school laid great stress on communion with the Devas of Svar
Loka or Svarga or Indra Loka, and this was pre-eminently known as Vedic
Yajna. The performance of Vedic Yajna led only to a prolonged
gratification of kâma in Svar Loka. But however long the period might
be, it was limited by the magnitude of the force (Apûrva) which buoyed
up the individuality in the Svar Loka. As the Gitâ says, when the merits
are exhausted the observer of Vedic Dharma enters again into the
transitory plane. The course of births and re-births is then set up
anew, with constant transformations and with all the miseries of
existence conditioned by personality.

This was not Mukti or liberation. The followers of the post-vedic or
Upanishad school contended that liberation lay in crossing the triple
plane of individuality to the higher cosmic planes of universality. When
an individual reaches the higher planes, he does not again become
subject to transformations, and to the constant recurrence of births and
re-births. There is one continued life, one continued existence in the
higher planes, till the end of cosmos or the Life of Brahmâ. This life
is not measured by personalities but is the cosmical life, and the
individuality becomes a cosmical entity. Further there is life also
beyond the cosmos, in the highest plane, the abode of the Supreme.

The Gitâ only incidentally describes the highest plane in the following
sloka:

"That is my supreme abode, by reaching which (Jivas) do not recur (to
fresh births). Not the Sun, not the Moon, not even fire illumines that."
— XV. 6.

Krishna also refers to that plane in VIII. 20 and XV. 4. 5.

The Gitâ lays down Nishkâma Karma, or the unselfish performance of the
duties of life (Sva-dharma) as the first step towards reaching the
higher planes. The sense of separateness is killed by Nishkâma Karma.
Then the Gitâ takes the disciple to Upâsanâ or communion with the
Purusha of the highest plane, but scarcely a glimpse is given of that
plane and its surroundings. The Mahâbhârata does not throw any light on
the dwellers of the higher planes, nor does it give any details of those
planes. Without any distinct prospect of trans-Trilokî life, one is
asked to adhere to the duties appertaining to one’s own sphere of life
(Sva-dharma) and to perform those duties unselfishly. However transitory
the things of Trilokî may be, there are attractions enough for the frail
sons of Manu, abounding in passions and desires. What can then bind a
man to the higher planes and the highest Purûsha of those planes or
Bhagavân? It is only a description of the grandeur and the glory of
those planes and of Bhagavân. Such description begets Bhakti or holy
attachment, and it is this Bhakti which sets up a real communion with
Bhagavân. Frail as man is, the mere performance of duties makes him
attached to them, unless he is bound to the higher planes by the tie of
holy attachment. The Gitâ is however silent as to the attractions of the
higher planes and of Bhagavân. This was the defect pointed out by
Nârada.

"O thou great Muni, as thou hast treated of Dharma and of other things,
so thou hast not recited the glory of Vâsudeva".  —  I. 5. 9.

"This universe is also an aspect of Bhagavân, for its creation,
preservation and end proceed from Him. Thou knowest all this thyself.
But thou hast shown to others only a portion of this truth."  —  I. 5.
20.

"Salutations to Thee, Bhagavân, let me meditate on Vâsudeva. Salutations
to Pradyumna, Aniruddha and to Sankarshana. He who, by naming these
_mûrtis_ in the _mûrtiless_, whose only _mûrti_ is mantra, makes
offerings to Yajna Purusha, is the complete seer."  —  I. 5. 37-38. A
mystery lies veiled in this Śloka.

But who is this Nârada? Why should we accept his authority? Nârada was
therefore careful to give his own account, elaborated by the enquiries
of Vyâsa. All students of occultism will do well to read carefully this
account which forms a fitting preliminary to the Bhâgavata.



ACCOUNT OF NARADA.


*SKANDHA I. CHAP. 5 & 6.*

"In the previous Kalpa, in my former birth, I was born of a certain
maid-servant of Vedic Rishis. Certain Yogis had collected at a place to
pass the rainy season and I was engaged as a boy to serve them. Seeing
me void of all fickleness as a boy and self-controlled, the Munis, who
looked on all with equal eyes, were kind to me, especially as I gave up
play, followed them, served them and talked little. With the permission
of the regenerated I at one time partook of the remnants of their meal
and the impurities of my mind were all removed. When thus my mind became
pure, my inclination grew towards their Dharma. By their favor I heard
them sing the beautiful stories of Krishna. Hearing those stories every
day with faith, I gained holy love for Krishna. Through that love my
mind became fixed in Him and I came to perceive my Sthûla and Sûkshma
bodies as only false reflections of the real Self or Brahmâ. The Bhakti
that grew up in me destroyed my Rajas and Tamas. Then when the kind
Rishis were about to leave the place, they imparted to me the most
occult knowledge which had been given to them by Bhagavân himself.
Through that knowledge I have known the Mâyâ of Bhagavân. It is by that
knowledge that one reaches the plane of Bhagavân. As I cultivated this
occult knowledge, Bhagavân appeared Himself and gave me knowledge and
powers direct."

[Śridhara Svâmi, the commentator of Bhâgavata Purâna notes the
following points in the above story (1) Sevâ, _i.e._, service of and
attendance on Mahâtmâs, (2) their kripâ or favor, (3) trust in their
Dharma, (4) hearing the stories of Bhagavân, (5) attachment to Bhagavân,
(6) knowledge of Self by the discrimination of the Sthûla and the
Sûkshma body, (7) firm Bhakti, (8) knowledge of the reality of Bhagavân,
(9) at the last the appearance of omniscience and other powers through
the favor of Bhagavân.]

What followed then, inquired Vyâsa? Nârada continued:

"Sometime after my teachers, the Bhikshus, had gone away, my mother died
of snake-bite. I deemed that an act of God and went towards the North.
After crossing several forests, rivers and mountains, I at last reached
a solitary forest and there sat under a pipal tree. As directed by my
teachers, I meditated on self in self through self. My mind had been
completely conquered by Bhakti. As I was devotedly meditating on the
lotus feet of Bhagavân with tear-drops in my eyes, Hari gradually
appeared in my heart. O Muni, the hairs of my body stood on end through
exuberance of holy love, I was completely lost in joy and knew not
either self or any other. The indescribable Íshvara spoke thus in solemn
words:

"O thou that dost not deserve to see me in this life, I am difficult to
be seen by imperfect Yogis, whose likes and dislikes have not been
completely burnt up. I have shown myself to thee that thy Kâma may all
be centred in me. When I am the object of Kâma, the Sâdhu gives up all
other desires. By prolonged service of Mahâtmâs, thy mind is firmly
fixed in me. Therefore shalt thou give up this faulty body and acquire
my companionship. The mind fixed in me is never destroyed in creation or
in pralaya, nor does the memory fail.’"

"So saying Íshvara disappeared. In time, when I was drawn towards the
pure body with which I was favored by Bhagavân, the body of my five
Bhûtas fell down on the extinction of my Prârabdha Karma. When the Kalpa
came to an end my new body was indrawn by the breath of Brahmâ who was
going to sleep. After one thousand Yuga Cycles, when Brahmâ awoke and
desired to create, I, Marichi, and other Rishis came out. Since then I
have invariably observed Brahmâcharya and through the favor of Vishnu
have been travelling all over Trilokî, both inside and outside, my
passage being wholly unobstructed. The Devas gave me this Vinâ which is
adorned with Svara-Brahmâ. By playing upon this Vinâ I send forth songs
of Hari all round. These songs are the only means of crossing the ocean
of recurring lives."

[This is the mystery of Nârada as related in the Purânas. Nârada is the
repository of occult knowledge from the previous Kalpa. The first and
foremost adept of this Kalpa, his mission is to spread occult knowledge,
by unceasingly playing on the seven musical notes. He is ever watchful
and always bides his time in all cyclic changes. He is the only Rishi of
whom the Vina is a constant accompaniment, as it is of the goddess
Sarasvati. His sphere of action is Trilokî, and the dwellers of Bhûr,
Bhuvar, and Svar alike respect him. He is the universal counsellor, even
of the highest Devas and of the highest Rishis. His constant mission is
the good of the Universe. One thing is said of him, that he sometimes
serves his purpose by setting one against another and amongst the
ignorant his name is a bye-word for quarrel. However that be, the
greatest good of the Universe in this Kalpa has been always done by him.
It is under his inspiration, that Valmiki and Vyâsa wrote their most
occult works, and his benign influence is observed in all universal
changes for good. The Bhâgavata recites his constant endeavours to do
good and we shall consider them in detail hereafter.]



VIRAT PURUSHA.


*SK. I. CH. 18 & SK. II. CH. I.*

Vyâsa drew upon his inspiration and wrote the Bhâgavata. He taught this
Purâna to his son, the wonderful Suka. Suka did not marry, as Rishis in
his time did. He left his home and roamed about the world at large,
stark naked. The separation was painful to Vyâsa and he went out in
search of his son. While he passed near a tank, the Apsarasas, who were
freely indulging in play, hastily drew up their clothes, feeling
ashamed. "Strange!" exclaimed Vyâsa, "I am old and covered. But when my
young son, wholly uncovered, went this way, you remained unmoved." And
the Deva-ladies replied, "Thy son knows not man and woman, but thou
knowest." This exalted Suka was the worthy propounder of the Bhâgavata
Purâna.

Râjâ Parikshit, son of Abhimanyu and grandson of Arjuna, the successor
of Râjâ Yudisthira on the throne of Hastinâpura, forgot himself in a fit
of anger and placed a dead serpent round the neck of a Rishi. For this
he was cursed by the Rishi’s son to meet with untimely death at the end
of a week. The Râjâ became penitent and deemed the curse an act of God.
He prepared himself for death and took up his abode on the sacred banks
of the Ganges in company with all the Rishis. The Râjâ asked what a man
on the point of death should do. The Rishis present could not give any
satisfactory answer. At this time Suka appeared, followed by a host of
boys, who took him to be a mad man. Suka was then only sixteen with long
flowing hairs and well-built body, blooming with nature’s beauty. All
rose up as they saw the very young Rishi, and gave him the first seat.
He related the Bhâgavata Purâna to Parikshit in seven days.

The Râjâ repeated his question to Suka  —  "What is a dying man,
specially one who desires to attain Moksha, to do? What are the duties
of men and what are they not to do?"

Suka replied:  —  "A man on the approach of death is to give up all fear
of death and is to cut off all likes and dislikes by dispassion. He is
to leave his house, bathe in pure water and duly make his âsana in some
solitary place. He is then to meditate on the three lettered Pranava
with mind concentrated by Dhârâna and Dhyâna till he attains _samâdhi_.
If, however, his mind gets distracted by Rajas and Tamas, he is again
and again to practise Dhârâna."

"What Dhârâna is it that speedily brings on concentration and purity of
mind?" was the next question.

Suka replied:  —  "Dhârâna of the Sthûla aspect of Bhagavâna, by a fully
controlled mind." He then went on dilating on the Sthûla or Universe
aspect, called Virât Purusha or Mahâpurusha. The present, the past, the
future is manifest in that aspect. The Virâta Purusha is the soul of an
Egg-like body with a seven-fold cover of earth, water, fire, air, âkasa,
Ahankâra, and Mahat, respectively.

Pâtâla is His feet, Rasâtala His heels, Mahâtala His ankles, Talâtala
His legs, Sutala His knees, Vitala the lower portion of His thighs, and
Atala the upper portion.

Bhûr Loka is His loins, Bhuvar Loka His navel, Svar Loka His breast,
Mahar Loka His throat, Jana Loka His mouth, Tapas Loka His forehead, and
Satya Loka is the head of the thousand-headed Virât Purusha. Indra and
other Usra Devas (the world Usra meaning, literally, a ray of light) are
his hands.

The Dik or space gods are his ears. The twin gods Asvini Kumâra are his
nose.

Agni is His mouth.

The firmament is His eyes and the Sun-god His sight.

Day and night are His eye-lashes.

The graceful movement of His eye-brows is the abode of the Supreme.

Water is His palate, taste His tongue.

The Vedas are known as His Brahmâ-randhra.

Yâma is His tusk.

The objects of affection are His teeth.

His enchanting smile is Mâyâ.

The endless creation is His side-glance.

His lower lip is shame, and the upper greed.

Dharma is His breast. Adharma His back.

Prajâpati is His generative organ.

The Mitrâ-Varuna gods are His sense of taste.

The seas are His belly, the mountains His bony system and the rivers His
veins and arteries.

The trees are the hairs of the Universe-bodied.

The powerful wind-god is His breath.

Time is His movement.

His play is the flow of Gunas.

The clouds are His hairs.

Twilight is His clothing.

Prakriti is His heart.

His manas is the moon, which is the source of all transformations.

Mahat is His Chitta.

Rudra is His Ahankâra.

Horses, mules, camels and elephants are His nails.

All the other animals are His loins.

The birds are His wonderful art.

He is the abode of Manu, Buddhi and Man.

Gandharva, Vidyâdhara, Chârana and Apsaras are His musical notes.

The Asuras are His strength.

The Brâhmana is His mouth, the Kshatriya His hands, the Vaisya His
thighs, and the black Sûdra His feet.

The Devas severally and collectively are His _havis_ or sacrificial
ghee, and yajna is His karma.

This is Virât Purusha. This is how the Universe-aspect of Purusha is
realised in meditation, more as a means of concentration, than as the
end. When the mind is sufficiently fixed by Dhârâna or contemplation of
Virât Purusha, it has next to meditate on the Purusha in the heart.



SKANDHA II.



THE PURUSHA IN ALL HEARTS.


*SKANDHA II., CHAP. 2.*

Some meditate within their own body on the Purusha of the size of
_prâdesa_ (the space of the thumb and forefinger) in the space covered
by the heart, who dwells there. He has four hands containing Sankha
(conch), chakra (a sharp circular missile), Gadâ (club) and Padma
(lotus). His face is smiling, His eyes are as wide as lotus petals, and
His cloth is yellow as the filament of the Kadamba flower. His armlets
glitter with gems and gold. His crown and earrings sparkle with
brilliant stones. Adepts in Yoga place His feet on the pericarp of the
full blown lotus in the heart. With Him is Srî (Lakshmî). The Kaustubha
gem is on His neck. He is adorned with a garland of ever blooming wild
flowers. His hair is curling and deep blue. His very look is full of
kindness to all.

As long as the mind is not fixed by Dhârâna, meditate on this form of
Íshvara, with the help of thy imagination. Concentrate your mind on one
limb after another, beginning with the feet of Vishnu and ending with
His smiling face. Try to grasp every limb in thought and then proceed to
the next-higher. But as long as Bhakti or Devotion is not developed, do
not fail to contemplate also on the Universe aspect of Purusha.



THE DEATH OF THE YOGI AND AFTER.


*SKANDHA II., CHAP. 2.*

When all desires are controlled by meditation, and the Yogi is lost in
the contemplation of Vishnu, he sits in proper posture, pressing his
feet against the anus and perseveringly draws the vital air upwards to
the six centres. He draws the air in the navel centre (Manipur) to the
cardiac plexus, thence to the plexus beneath the throat (Visúddha),
thence gradually by intuition to the root of the palate. (Śridhara Svâmi
calls this last the higher part of Visúddha chakra, and remarks that the
vital air is not displaced from that position. This may be called the
pharyngeal plexus.) Thence he takes the vital air to Ajna chakra, which
is situated between the two eye-brows. Then he controls the seven holes
(the ears, the eyes, the nostrils and the mouth). He then looks steadily
for half a Muhurta, and if he has not a trace of desire left in him
gives up the body and the Indriyas, passes out through the
Brahmâ-randhra and attains the state of Vishnu.

[It will be noticed above that six plexuses are mentioned other than the
Sacral and the prostatic.

In the death of the desireless Yogi, there is no record of thereafter,
for nothing is known beyond our cosmos.]

"But, O king," said Suka, "if the Yogi seeks for the highest cosmic
state or for the roamings of aerial Siddhas over the whole of cosmos, in
full control of the eight Siddhis, he will then take his Manas and
Indriyas with him. It is said that these Masters of Yoga can move both
inside and outside Trilokî, for their Linga Sarira consists of the atoms
of air. The state attained by those that acquire Samâdhi by Upâsana,
Tapas and Yoga cannot be reached by Vedic Karma. In space when the Yogi
moves towards the Brahmâ Loka or Satya Loka, he first goes by means of
his Sushumnâ Nâdi to Vaisvânara or the fire-god for the Sushumnâ by its
light extends beyond the body. His impurities being all washed away, he
goes upwards to the Sisumâra Chakra of Hari (_i.e._, up to the highest
point of Trilokî, as will be explained afterwards). Then crossing that
Chakra of Vishnu, which is the navel of the Universe, he reaches the
Mahar Loka with his pure Linga Sarira. There the dwellers of Svarga
cannot go. Mahar Loka is the abode of Brahmâvids, where Bhrigu and other
adepts who live for a whole Kalpa dwell.

"The Yogi remains in Mahar Loka till the end of the Kalpa, when, seeing
the Trilokî burnt up by fire from the mouth of Ananta or Sankarshana,
the fires reaching even Mahar Loka’s he moves towards the abode of
Paramesthi (Satya Loka or Brahmâ Loka). This highest Loka lasts for two
Parârddhas and is adorned by the chariots of the kings of Siddhas. There
is no sorrow in Brahmâ Loka, no infirmity, no death, no misery, no fear
of any kind. But the Yogi suffers from mental pain caused by sympathy
with those that suffer for their ignorance of the supreme state in the
recurrence of births with their endless miseries.

"There are three courses for those that go to Brahmâ Loka. Some by the
excellence of their merits get responsible cosmical positions at the
next Kalpa. Others remain in the Brahmâ Loka till the end of the cosmos
or Brahmânda. The Upâsakas of Bhagavân however may at their will pierce
through the cosmos or Brahmânda and reach the trans-cosmic plane of
Vishnu. The text goes on to say how this is done. The cosmos consists of
seven Pâtalas and seven Lokas, together forming the fourteen-fold
Bhuvana, which extends over 50 Krores of Yojanas (1 Yojana = 8 miles).
Surrounding this is a covering of the earthy principle, such as was not
used up in the formation of the cosmos, extending over one krore of
yojanas. (According to some this covering extends over 50 krores of
yojanas.) The second cover is of water, extending over ten times as much
space as earth, the third of fire, the fourth of air, the fifth of
âkása, the sixth of Ahankâra, the seventh of Mahat, each covering ten
times as much space as the one preceding. The eighth cover is Prakriti,
which is all pervading. The Linga Sarira of the Yogi in passing through
the earthy cover, becomes earthy, through water becomes watery, and
through fire, fiery. With the fiery body he goes to the air cover and
with the airy cover to the âkása cover. He passes also through the
Tanmâtras and senses them. He passes through Prâna itself and becomes
all action. Having thus crossed the Sthûla and Sûkshma coverings, the
Yogi reaches the sixth covering that of the Transformable or Ahankâra
Tatva, which is the absorber of the Tanmâtras and of the Indriyas.
Thence he goes to Mahat Tatva and thence to Pradhâna, where all the
Gunas find their resting place. Then becoming all Pradhâna himself full
of bliss, he attains with the exhaustion of all _upâdhis_ the
trans-cosmic Atmâ, which is Peace and Bliss.

"These are the two ways to Mukti, the one prompt and the other deferred
as sung in the Vedas."

The following Diagram may be of some help in understanding the above:  —

[Illustration: A diagram of concentric circles with P at the center and
M’ the outermost, with the Key below working inwards.]

KEY TO THE CIRCLE.

M’ = Mahat cover 1,000,000 Krores or 50,000,000 Krores Yojanas.

A" = Ahankâra cover 100,000 or 5,000,000 Krores Yojanas.

A’ = Âkâs cover 10,000 or 500,000 Krores Yojanas.

V = Vayu cover 1000 or 50.000 Krores Yojanas.

T’ = Tejas cover 100 or 5000 Krores Yojanas.

A = Âpas cover 10 or 500 Krores Yojanas.

E = Earth cover 1 or 50 Krores Yojanas.

S’= Satya Loka

T = Tapas Loka

J = Jana Loka

M = Mahar Loka

S = Svar Loka

B’ = Bhuvar Loka

B = Bhûr Loka

P = Seven Pâtâlas

S’ to P = 50 Krores Yojanas.

A’ to E = Includes Tanmatras, Indriyas and Prana.

Prakriti surrounds the whole circle.



WHAT MEN ARE TO DO AND WHAT THEY ARE NOT TO DO.


*SKANDHA II. CHAP. 3.*

This was the second part of Parikshit’s question, and to this general
question, the answer is also general. Those that want divine glory
worship Brahmâ. Those that want their Indriyas to be powerful worship
Indra and so on. But those that are desirous of Moksha must practise
Bhakti Yoga towards the supreme Purusha. Of all Upasakas, this is the
only means of attaining supreme bliss, unswerving Bhakti or devotion to
Bhagavân and the company of Bhâgavatas.



THE BHAGÂVATA PURÂNA AS RELATED BY BRAHMÂ TO NÂRADA.


*SKANDHA II. CHAP. 4-6.*


I. THE CREATION.


Parikshit next asked "How did Bhagavân create this Universe, how does He
preserve it, how will He draw it in? What are the Śaktis by which He
manifests Himself directly and indirectly? What are His actions?"

Suka replied, these were the very questions asked by Nârada of his
father Brahmâ.

Brahmâ replied:  —  "Wishing to become manifold, the Lord of Mâyâ,
influenced Kala, Karma and Svabhâva, by his own Mâyâ". (Kala is the flow
of Time and is, according to the Bhâgavata Purâna, the Śakti of Purusha.
Karma is the _adrishta_ of Jiva or the Jiva record of the previous
Kalpa. Svabhâva is the essence of Prakriti). Under the influence of
Purusha, the first disturbance in the equilibrium of the Gunas follows
from Kala, transformation follows from Svabhâva and the development of
Mahat Tatva follows from Karma. When Rajas and Tamas manifest themselves
in Mahat Tatva, it is transformed into Ahankâra Tatva, with predominant
Tamas. Ahankâra Tatva by transformation becomes threefold.  —  Sâtvika,
Râjasika and Tâmasika, i.e., Jnâna Śakti (potency to produce the Devas),
Kriyâ Śakti (potency to produce the Indriyas), and Dravya Śakti (potency
to produce the Bhûtas), respectively.

Tâmasa Ahankâra was first transformed into Âkása, Âkása into Vayu, Vayu
into Agni, Agni into Âpas, and Âpas into Prithivi, Sâtvika Ahankâra was
transformed into Manas and the ten Vaikârika Devas.

[The Vaikârika Devas are the Adhidevas or the Energy-giving gods of the
ten Indriyas. Sensing is _in_ Man or Adhi-Âtmâ, it is of the object or
Adhi-bhuta and is _caused by_ Vaikarika Deva or Adhi-Deva. Thus the
object seen is Adhi-bhûta, the sight is Adhyâtma and the manifesting
Energy of sight is Adhideva.]

The Vaikârika Devas are  —

Dik for Hearing;

Vayu for Touch;

Sun for Sight;

Varuna for Taste;

Asvini Kumâras for Smell;

Agni for Speech;

Indra for Pani or action of the hand;

Upendra or Vishnu for Pada or action of the foot;

Mitra or Yâma for Payu or excretion;

and Prajâpati for Upastha or generation.

Râjasika Ahankâra was transformed into the ten Indriyas.

The foregoing can be shown in the following table:  —

[Illustration: There is a pendulum-like drawing between the word Purusha
and the phrase starting with Kâla which is the pendulum swinging left
and Karma which is the pendulum swinging right.]

                            PURUSHA.

    Kâla causing
    disturbance
    in the equilibrium of                             Karma
    Gunas.
    Svabhâva.


    Transformation


                 Details of transformation from
                        Mahat downwards.

     Mahat.
       |
    Ahankâra.
       |
       +−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
       |                     |                  |
    Sâtvika or            Râjasika         Tâmasika
    Vaikârika,           = Kriyâ Śakti.   = Dravya Śakti.
    = Jnâna Śakti            |                  |
       |                     |                  |
       |                The 10 Indriyas       Akâsa
       |                                        |
       |                                    Vâyu (air).
       +−−−−−−−−+                               |
       |        |                           Agni (fire).
     Manas  The 10 Vaikârika                    |
           Devas or Adhidevas               Apas (water).
                                                |
                                            Prithivi (earth).

This is the Kârana creation or the creation of the materials of the
Individual creation. They could not, however, unite and proceed further
with the work of creation. The Śakti of Bhagavân then permeated them and
the cosmic Egg or Brahmânda was formed. The Egg remained for a thousand
years unconsciously submerged in the primal waters. Purusha then
influenced Kâla, Karma and Svabhâva to send forth vitality into it. It
is this Purusha that emerged from the Egg with thousands of heads and
thousands of limbs and is known as Virât Purusha. The seven Lokas and
the seven Pâtâlas are parts of His body. This is the first Avatâra, the
Âdi Purusha that creates, preserves and destroys. All the objects of
creation are His Avatâras, or Śaktis or Vibhutis. The Lilâ Avatârs of
Virât Purusha or special Incarnations for the preservation of the
Universe are detailed below.


II. PRESERVATION BY LILÂ AVATÂRAS.


*SKANDHA II. CHAP. 7.*

   1. _Varâha_  —  In order to raise the Earth from the waters, the
      Purusha adopted the body of Varâha or Boar and killed with His
      tusks the first Daitya Hiranyâksha.
   2. _Yajna_  —  was born of Ruchi and Âkuti. The Suyama Devas were
      born of Yajna. He dispelled the fears of Trilokî.
   3. _Kapila_  —  was born of Kardama Prajâpati and his wife Devahûti.
      He taught Brahmâ Vidyâ to his mother.
   4. _Dattâtreya_  —  He preached Yoga to his disciples, who acquired
      powers and became liberated.
   5. _The Kumâras._  —  Sanat Kumâra, Sanaka, Sanandana and Sanâtana.
      They completely promulgated the Âtmâ Vidyâ, which had been lost in
      Pralaya.
   6. _Nara Nârâyana._  —  They were born of Dharma and his wife Murti,
      daughter of Daksha. Their Tapas was so great that the Deva ladies
      could not shake it.
   7. _Dhruva._  —  Though a boy, he could not bear the words of his
      step-mother. He went into the forests and made Tapas. He was
      rewarded with ascent to Dhruva Loka or the region of the polar
      star.
   8. _Prithu._  —  He milked out riches and edibles from the earth.
   9. _Rishabha._  —  Rishabha was the son of Nàbhi by Sudevi or Meru
      Devi. He roamed about as Parama Hansa.
  10. _Hayagrîva._  —  This horse-headed Avatâra appeared in the Vedic
      Yajna and promulgated the Vedas.
  11. _Matsya._  —  Vaivasvata Mann found out this Avatâra at the end of
      a cycle of Yugas. He preserved all beings and the Vedas from the
      waters of the Deluge.
  12. _Kûrma._ — At the great churning of the Ocean, the Tortoise
      Avatâra supported the Mandâra mountain.
  13. _Nrisinha._ — The Man-Lion Avatâra killed Hiranyakâsîpu.
  14. _Hari_ — saved the Elephant King of the famous story of Gajendra
      Moksha.
  15. _Vâmana_ — measured the Trilokî by His two steps.
  16. _Hansa_ — related Bhakti Yoga, Gnana and Bhâgavata Purâna to
      Nârada.
  17. The presiding deity of each Manvantara.
  18. _Dhanvantari_ — promulgated the science of medicine.
  19. _Parasu Râma_ — suppressed the Kshatriyas who became disregardful
      of the Brâhmanas and the Sâstras.
  20. _Râma_ — destroyed Lankâ and killed Râvana.
  21. _Râma_ and _Krishna_. — The tenth Canto of Bhâgavata is entirely
      devoted to their deeds.
  22. _Vyâsa._ — He divided the trunk of the Veda tree into several
      branches.
  23. _Buddha._ — When the Asuras came to know the Vedic mysteries and
      to oppress people, Buddha incarnated Himself in order to confound
      them by preaching a variety of by-religions.
  24. _Kalki_ — will appear before the end of Kali Yuga, to set things
      right.

Besides these Lilâ Avatâras, there are Mâyâ Guna Avatâras and Vibhûtis
or Śaktis.

In _creation_ these are:

Tapas, Brahmâ, the Rishis, and the Nine Prajâpatis.

In _preservation_ they are:

Dharma, Vishnu, Manu, Devas and Kings.

In _Pralaya_ they are:

Adharma, Śiva, Serpents and Asuras.

O Nârada, this is, in brief, the Bhâgavata Purâna. You relate it to
others in a much more expanded form, so that people may have Bhakti or
Divine attachment to Bhagavân.


THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.


The above account of creation relates to Trilokî and to the dwellers of
Trilokî. After creation, some come down from the higher planes and hold
responsible positions as we have already seen. The Vaikârika Devas, who
may be identified with the Vedic Devas, are created or rather manifested
in the Trilokî before the Individual creation. They appertain to what
the Purâna calls Kârana or causal Creation. The Vaikritika Devas and
Deva Yonis, known as Elemental in Theosophical language, are created
according to their Karma in the previous Kalpa and are subject to
gradual evolution during the Kalpa. The Vaikarika Devas, however, remain
as they are during the whole of the Kalpa. Similarly the Devas of the
higher planes, e. g., Kumudas, Ribhus, Pratardanas, Anjanâbhas and
Pratitâbhas of Mahar Loka, Brahma Purohitas, Brahma Kayikas, Brahma Mahâ
Kayikas and Amaras of Jana Loka, Âbhasvaras, Mahâbhasvaras, and Satya
Mahâbhasvaras of Tapas Loka and Achyutas, Súddha Nibâsas, Satyâbhas and
Sanjnâ Sanjnins of Satya Loka these are not affected by creation in
Trilokî. The dwellers of those Lokas other than Devas are also similarly
not affected. The story of creation is a simple one. As the Linga Purâna
says, when Earth is scorched up in the summer season, it becomes fallow
and the roots of vegetation remain underground. They, however, wait for
the rainy season to germinate again and grow in all the varieties of the
previous vegetation. Similarly when the previous creation is burnt up by
the fires of Pralaya, the roots remain imbedded in Prakriti, which
becomes fallow. The fallowness is removed on the approach of the
creative period or Kâla. Kâla, according to Bhâgavata, is a Śakti of
Purush or the Unmanifested Logos. Then transformation follows in
Prakriti according to Svabhâva or the inherent nature of Prakriti and
Karma, or the root-record of the previous Kalpa gives shape to the
transformation.

Śridhara Svâmi quotes a sloka, which says that there are three Purusha
manifestations. The first Purusha is the creator of Mahat and other
elemental principles (Tatvas). The Second Purusha is the dweller of the
Cosmic Egg. The Third Purusha is the pervader of all beings.

Creation is divided into two stages. First the creation of the
principles themselves or Tatvas, which unite to form globes and
individuals. This is called Kârana creation. Secondly the creation of
individuals and of globes. This is called Kârya or resultant creation.
Following the law of periodicity, the First Purusha energises the latent
Karma or Jiva-record of the previous Kalpa, and prepares the ground for
the development of that Karma, by setting Prakriti into active
transformation. This is the First Life Wave which caused the principles
to appear by themselves. The First Purusha permeated these principles as
pure Âtmâ.

But the principles could not unite to make the forms, and to make
individuals and globes. Purusha, as pure Âtmâ could not guide them
further, as the gulf between Purusha and Prakriti was too wide. So
Purusha had to limit Himself further, by uniting with Mûla Prakriti, as
one undivided whole, and so becoming the guiding principle of all
individual workings in our universe, the pervader of all individuals and
globes as Âtma-Buddhi. The Universe as a whole is represented as an Egg,
and the Second Purusha or Virât Purusha is the soul of that Egg.
Individuals and globes appear as germs in that Egg, and are all brought
into manifestation in time by the Third Purusha Brahmâ.

The Second Purusha is called the First Avatâra and the seed and resting
place of all other Avatâras. An Avatâra is a highly evolved Jiva, that
has attained the Logoic state and that _comes down_ from his exalted
position, to serve the universe. Why is the second Purusha called an
Avatâra? The Brihad Âranyaka Upanishad raises the veil a little on this
point.

"This was before Âtmâ, bearing the shape of man (the first born from the
Egg, the embodied soul, the Virât with heads and other members of the
body) Looking round, he beheld nothing, but himself. He said first:
’This am I’. Hence the name of I was produced.

"_And because he, as the first of all of them consumed by fire all the
sins, therefore he is called Purusha. He verily consumes him, who
strives to obtain the state of Prajâpati, prior to him."_ Sankarâchârya
explains the under-lined portion as follows: — "And because he,
"Prajâpati in a former birth, which is the cause, as the first of those
who were desirous to obtain the state of Prajâpati by the exercise of
reflection on works and knowledge, viz, "as the first of all of them,"
of all those desirous of obtaining the state of Prajâpati, consumed by
the perfect exercise of reflection in works and knowledge all the sins
of contact, which are obstacles to the acquirement of the state ’of
Prajâpati’ because such was the case, therefore he is called Purusha,
because, he, _pur_ (first) (did) _ush_ (burn)

Therefore by the words: "He consumes him," it is meant, that the perfect
performer obtains the highest state of Prajâpati, he, who is less
perfect, does not obtain it, and by no means, that the less perfect
performer is actually consumed by the perfect.

Here the word Prajâpati refers to the Second Purusha.

The state of the Second Purusha is the highest achievement of Jiva. It
is the meeting ground of Jiva and the Supreme Purusha. The Second
Purusha may be different for each Kalpa, it may be for each Brahmânda.
He is the Íshvara, the Lord of our Universe. He holds the whole creation
unto His bosom, and is the sustaining force of all. In the three aspects
of Brahmâ, Vishnu and Śiva, he guides the creation, the preservation and
the dissolution of the Universe. Those that could not attain His state,
though they strove for it equally as eminent as the Second Purusha, that
are to become the Second Purusha in perhaps another Kalpa or Brahmânda,
are the Lilâ Avatâras. They remain merged in the Second Purusha or
Íshvara and they manifest themselves in the Universe, only when a
necessity arises for their manifestation. The Bhâgavata contends that of
all Lilâ Avatâras, only Krishna is Purusha Himself the others being only
partial manifestations of Purusha.

"These are the parts and aspects of Purusha. Krishna is Bhagavân
Himself." — I-3-28.

Tamas is dark, opaque and heavy on the physical plane, indolent and
ignorant on the mental plane, non-perceptive on the spiritual plane.

Rajas is translucent, and constantly moving on the physical plane;
distracted constantly, acquiring likes and dislikes, and exercising
intellection on the mental plane; and partially perceptive on the
spiritual plane.

Satva is light and transparent on the physical plane, cheerful and
buoyant on the mental plane, and fully perceptive on the spiritual
plane. True perception and real knowledge follow from Satva. By partial
understanding and semblance of knowledge, the results of Rajas, people
become distracted and led astray.

Tamas keeps down all beings and enchains them to materiality in the
course of evolution, and there is a point in the downfall of beings as
well as of globes, beyond which there is a complete break-down. Satva
counter-acts Tamas and the preservation and improvement of the Universe,
rather of Trilokî, there fore mean the infusion of Satva. Vishnu
represents Satva and so Vishnu is the Preservative aspect of Virâta
Purusha. When Rajas and Tamas predominate in Trilokî, when the lowest
plane Bhûr becomes heavy with Tamas, the Lilâ Avatâras appear and infuse
Satva into the Lokas.

*SKANDHA I., CHAP. 2-34.*

This Preserver of Lokas preserves the Lokas by means of Satva, by
incarnating in Deva, Animal, Human and other kingdoms as Lilâ Avatâras.

The Third Purusha is Brahmâ in Creation, Vishnu in Preservation and Śiva
in dissolution. Vishnu as the Âtmâ in each being manifests Himself in
action consciousness and will. Brahmâ is the propelling power in the
Involution of beings, which gives them their physical body. Vishnu is
the propelling force in the evolution of beings through physiological
action (Prâna), sensation, intellect, and lastly the development of the
spiritual faculties.


THE BHÂGAVATA PURÂNA AND ITS PARTS.


*SKANDHA II., CHAP. 10.*

The next question of Râjâ Parikshit was most comprehensive. It related
to all knowledge of the Universe in all details. In answering the
question, Suka related the whole of the Purâna, from beginning to end.
In doing so, the Muni gave a short introduction as to the history of the
Purâna. When Brahmâ regained his drowsy consciousness at the dawn of the
present Kalpa, he knew not how to bring back the former state of things.
He practised Tapas. Then Bhagavân appeared and related to him the
Bhâgavata Purâna. Brahmâ taught the Purâna to his son Nârada. Nârada
gave it to Vyâsa, and Vyâsa to his son Suka.

The Purâna has ten parts: —

   1. _Sarga_ — the creation of the Bhûtas, Tanmâtras, Indriyas,
      Ahankâra and Mahat, or of the materials that form individuals, and
      the appearance of Virât Purusha.
   2. _Visarga_ — the Individual creation by Brahmâ or the creation of
      the individual life forms.
   3. _Sthâna_ — the preservation of the created beings in their own
      states by Bhagavân.
   4. _Poshana_ — the divine favor to those that properly remain in
      their own states.
   5. _Manvantara_ — the duties of the Rulers of Manvantaras.
   6. _Uti_ — desires that bind one to Trilokî.
   7. _Isânukathâ_ — stories of the Avatâras and of the followers of
      Hari.
   8. _Nirodha_ — the sleep of Hari and of all individual souls a
      Pralaya.
   9. _Mukti_ — the continued perception of the identity of self and of
      Brahmâ.
  10. _Asraya_ — The Final Resort, Para Brahma or Paramâtma from whom
      Creation and Dissolution both proceed.

This brings us to the end of the Second Skandha.



SKANDHA III.



BHÂGAVATA AS RELATED BY MAITREYA TO VIDURA.


The Third and Fourth Branches of the Bhâgavata are related by Maitreya
to Vidura. Maitreya was the disciple of Parâsara, father of Vyâsa.
Parâsara learned the Purâna from Sânkhyâyana, Sânkhyâyana from Sanat
Kumâra and Sanat Kumâra from Atlanta Deva.


I.--THE CREATION


*SKANDHA III., CHAP. 5-6.*

At Pralaya, the Śakti of Bhagavân was asleep. That Śakti is Mâyâ, which
is Sat-asat or Existing-nonexisting Existing eternally as root, and not
so existing as forms. Following the law of Periodicity (Kâla), Purusha
fecundated Mâyâ. Mahat and other principles appeared by transformation.
All these principles were Devas, having in them germs of consciousness,
action and transformation. They could not unite to form the Universe,
being divergent in character. They prayed to Íshvara for power to unite.
Taking Prakriti as a part (Śakti) of Him, Íshvara entered into the 23
Tatvas or root principles. He awakened the Karma that remained latent in
them. By Kriyâ Śakti, He then united then. The 23 Tatvas, acting under
Divine Energy and the impulse of Karma that had remained latent in them,
formed the Virât body, each bearing its own share in the work. The
Purusha within this body — Virât Purusha or Hiranya Purusha — with all
beings and globes included in Him, dwelt for one thousand years in the
waters (like the embryo in the waters of the uterus.) This Embryonic
Purusha divided self by self, onefold by Daiva Śakti, tenfold by Kriyâ
Śakti and threefold by Âtmâ Śakti. The onefold division is in the Heart.
The tenfold division is in the Prânas (Prâna, Apâna, Samâna, Udâna,
Vyâna, Nâga, Kûrma, Krikara, Devadatta and Dhananjaya,) for the Prânas
are not Tatvas or principles, but they form an aspect of Purusha. The
threefold division is Âtmâ in every being which is triune with its three
sides — Adhyâtma, Adhibhûta and Adhidaiva. The Purusha infused His Śakti
into the Virât body, for the development of powers in the Tatvas. The
Adhyâtma mouth appeared with its Adhibhûta speech and Adhidaiva Agni.
Similarly the following appeared: —


    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Adhyâtma.              Adhibhûta.              Adhidaiva.
    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Tongue                 Râsa (taste)            Varuna.
    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Nose                   Gandha(smell)           Asvini Kumâras.
    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Eye                    Rûpa(sight)             Âditya.
    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Skin                   Sparsa (touch)          Vayu.
    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Ear                    Sabda (sound)           Dik.
    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Epidermis              Sting                   Gods of
                                                   vegetation
    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Upastha
    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    (generative organ)     Generation              Prajâpati.
    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Pâyu                   Secretion               Mitra
    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Hand                   Actions of hand         Indra.
    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Pâda (foot)            Movements of foot       Vishnu.
    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Buddhi                 Bodh (deliberation)     Brahmâ.
    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Manas                  Sankalpa and Vikalpa    Moon.
                           (true and false
                           perception)
    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Ahankâra               Aham perception         Rudra.
    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Chitta                 Thought                 Brahmâ
    ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


The Trilokî also appeared, Svar from the head, Bhuvar from the navel and
Bhûr from the feet. With these Lokas appeared the Devas and other
beings, who are the transformations of the Gunas. From the predominance
of Satva, the Devas went to Svar Loka. Men and the lower Kingdoms
entered Bhûr Loka from the predominance of Rajas in them. By the
predominance of Tamas, the different classes of Bhûtas remained in
Bhuvar Loka. The Brâhmana appeared from the mouth, the Kshatriya from
the hands, the Vaisya from the thighs and the Sûdra from the feet.


THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE


We have considered the manifested Logos in the Universe. We shall now
consider His manifestation in Man, the microcosm. The teachings are all
collected from the Upanishads.

(i.) — _The manifestation in the heart._ — A detailed knowledge of this
manifestation is called Dahara Vidyâ in Chandogya. The Upanishads speaks
of Âtmâ in the cavity of the heart.

"Guhahitam Gahvarestham Purânam" is a well-known passage from the
Upanishads. The Purusha in the heart is also called Prâdesâ or the
span-sized Purusha and is the favourite object of meditation in
Paurânika Upâsanâ. The Upanishads call Him thumb-sized and there is an
interesting discussion as to the size in Sâriraka Sutras I-3-24 to 26
and the Bhâshya thereupon.

(ii.) — _The Manifestation in the Prânas._ — The Upanishads say: —

"It is this Prana that is consciousness itself, Bliss, without
infirmities and death."

"They are these five Brahmâ Purushas."

Again —

_"Brahmâ Purusha in the openings of the heart."_ The heart is called the
abode of Brahmâ. There are five openings of this abode of Brahmâ and
there are five gate-keepers. These gate-keepers or _dvâra-pâlas_ are the
five Prânas. They are called Brahmâ Purushas as they pertain to Brahmâ.
As long as the king is in the heart, the doorkeepers remain in the body.
These door-keepers being inevitable accompaniments of Brahmâ in the
heart, are also themselves the outer aspects of Brahmâ.

(iii.) — _The manifestation as Âtmâ which is triune._ What is a man but
a bundle of experiences on the planes of Jâgrat, Svapna and Sushupti.
Each of these experiences has a threefold aspect or in Vedântic
expression is a Triputi. These aspects are:

  1) the object experienced or Adhibhûta,
  2) the experience itself or Adhyâtma,
  3) and the Deva which gives the consciousness of that experience or
     Adhidaiva.

In material expression, the object outside is Adhibhûta. The reception
of its image is Adhyâtma. The light that shews the image to be what it
is, is Adhidaiva. As we have said, each experience is a three-sided
triangle. All the triangles in the Jagrat state, analysed by the
Vedântins into fourteen, are represented by the first letter _a_ in
Pranava. All the triangles or Triputis in the dream state are
represented by the second letter _u_. In Târaka Brahmâ Yoga, _a_ is
merged in contemplation into _u_, and _u_ is merged into _ma_. In _ma_
there is only one triangle, which is the primary triangle to which all
other triangles in _a_ and _u_ may be reduced. The Adhibhûta side of
this triangle is _ânanda_ by the _vritti_ of Avidyâ. The Adhyâtma side
is the _vritti_ of Avidyâ. The Adhidaiva side is Íshvara. Life in
Trilokî is conditioned by this triangle. The object of Târaka Brahmâ
Yoga is to cross the Triptiti, to cross the three letters of Pranava. It
is only in the fourth _pâda_ of Pranava that he finds his resting place,
that pâda being situated beyond the Trilokî.

The three manifestations of the Third Purusha in Jivas or individuals,
may be said to relate to their different stages of evolution. Thus Prâna
manifests itself only in the lower life kingdoms, the minerals and
vegetables. The Prâna or life process is more elaborate in the
vegetables than in the minerals. Purusha then manifests itself in the
senses and emotions in the Animal kingdom and in intellect in the lower
human kingdom the manifestation being three fold.

The last manifestation of Purusha, the one-fold manifestation in the
heart, is in higher man.


II. — VASUDEVA AND SANKARSHANA.


*SKANDHA III., CHAP. 8.*

When this universe remained submerged in the waters of Pralaya, the eyes
of Vâsudeva remained closed in sleep. He opened His eyes, lying down on
the Serpent King Ananta or Sankarshana. He indulged in self and was
without action. Inside His body was Bhuta-Sûkshma or all beings in a
subtle state of latency. Only Kâla-Śakti manifested itself and He dwelt
in those waters in self, as fire remains in wood, with powers
controlled. Having slept for one thousand Yuga cycles in the waters,
with only Kâla-Śakti manifesting His work, He found the lotuses of the
Lokas in His body. He then looked at the Sûkshma, that was within Him.
That Sûkshma became pierced with Kâla — propelled Rajas, and small as it
was, it came out of his navel region. By the action of Kala, which
awakens Karma, it suddenly grew up into a lotus bud. Vishnu entered this
Loka Padma or the Lotus of Lokas. Brahmâ then appeared in that Lotus. He
looked on all sides and became four-faced, but he could not find out the
Lokas. Though he was in the Lotus himself, confused as he was, he knew
not the whole Lotus. Whence am I? Whence is this Lotus? So thought
Brahmâ. And he searched below to feel the lotus-stalk. The search was
vain for one hundred years.

For another hundred years he meditated within self, and lo! there
appeared within his heart one _Purusha_ lying down on the body of Sesha
(the serpent king). (The description of the Purusha is much the same as
we have read of the _Prâdesa Purusha_. So it is not given here.) Brahmâ
prayed to that Purusha and was told to practise Tapas for acquiring the
power of creation.


III. — THE CREATION BY BRAHMA.


*SKANDHA III., CHAP. 10.*

When Bhagavân disappeared, Brahmâ, as directed, practised meditation for
one hundred Deva-years. He found his lotus abode moved by air. With all
the power acquired by _Âtmâ Vidyâ_ and _Tapas_, he drank up all the
waters and the air. He found the _Lokas_ attached to the overspreading
Lotus and he had only to divide them. He entered into the Lotus bud and
divided it into three parts — the _Trilokî_. This is the creation of the
_Trilokî_. The higher Lokas (Mahar, Jana, Tapas and Satya) are the
transformations of _Nishkama Karma_ or unselfish action. So they are not
destroyed in each Kalpa, but they last for two Parardhas.

"What is Kâla", asked Vidura, "that has been described as a _Śakti of
Hari?_"

"_Kâla_ is the disturber of _Gunas_", replied Maitreya, "causing
transformations. In itself it is without any particularity and is
without beginning or end.

"With Kâla as the Nimitta or efficient cause, Bhagavân only manifested
Himself. The Universe has no separate existence from that of Brahmâ. It
is only Kâla that makes the Universe manifest."

The Creation of Brahmâ is ninefold, Prâkrita and Vaikrita,
Prâkrita-Vaikrita being the tenth. The Pralaya is of three kinds:

  1) By Kâla or Nitya. Flow of time is the only cause of this Pralaya.
  2) By Dravya or Naimittika. Dravya is the fire from the mouth of
     Sankarshana, at the end of one Kalpa.
  3) By Guna or Prâkritika, the Gunas devouring their own actions. The
     forms of Pralaya will be considered in the study of the Twelfth
     Branch.

_A. — Prâkrita Creation, *i.e._ the Creation of Principles or Tatvas.*

      I. _Mahat_ — Which is the out-come of the first disturbance of the
         equilibrium of the Gunas.
     II. _Ahankâra_ — Dravya + Jnâna + Kriyâ.
    III. _Tanmâtra_ — Result of Dravya Śakti.
     IV. _Indriyas_ — Result of Jnâna and Kriyâ Śakti.
      V. _Vaikârika_ — Devas and Manas.
     VI. The five-fold Tâmasika creation.

_B. — Vaikrita or Individual Creation._

    VII. _Urdha Srotas_ — or with upward current of the food taken, the
         Sthâvara or Immobile kingdom with six divisions.

  1) _Vânaspati_ — Plants that fructify without flowers.

  2) _Oshadhi_ — Creepers that last till the ripening of fruits.

  3) _Latâ_ — Ascending creepers.

  4) _Tvaksâra_ — Those of which the growth is not in the
            centre, but in the dermal regions, as bamboos.

  5) _Virudh_ — Non-ascending woody creepers.

  6) _Druma_ — Flowering plants.


The consciousness of all the six classes is almost obscured by Tamas.
They are sensitive only to internal touch. They have many peculiarities.

   VIII. _Tiryak-Srotas._ — With slanting food current. The position of
         the animal stomach as regards the animal mouth is such that
         food is not taken in vertically, but either horizontally or
         slantingly. The animal kingdom has 28 divisions. The animals
         are ignorant, with predominating Tamas, with the sense of smell
         largely developed in them so much that they mostly perceive by
         that sense, and with the faculties of the heart entirely
         undeveloped. The 28 classes are:
         1. _Living on the ground._
                   i. — _The cloven-footed._

                      (1) Cow, (2) goat, (3) buffalo (4)
                      krishnasara, the spotted antelope, (5) hog,
                      (6) gavaya, a species of ox, (7) ruru, a kind
                      of deer, (8) sheep, (9) camel.

                  ii. — _The whole hoofed._


                 (10) Ass, (n) horse, (12) mule, (13) goura, a
                 kind of deer, (14) sarabha, a kind of deer,
                 (15) chamari, a kind of deer.

                 iii. — _The five-nailed._

                 (16) Dog, (17) jackal, (18) wolf, (19) tiger,
                 (20) cat, (21) hare, rabbit, (22) porcupine,
                 (23) lion, (24) monkey, (25) elephant, (26)
                 tortoise, (27) alligator.
         2. (28) Aquatic animals and birds.
     IX. _Arvâk-Srotas_ or with downward food current, the Human kingdom
         with predominant Rajas, given to Karma, mistaking misery for
         happiness.


_C. — Prâkrita- Vaikrita._

  X. The Kumâras. The Kumâra creation is partly Prâkrita and partly
     Vaikrita.

Besides these, there is

_D. — Vaikrita Dev Creation._

There are eight divisions of Vaikrita Devas:

  1) Vivudha,
  2) Pitri,
  3) Asura,
  4) Gandharva and Apsarâ,
  5) Siddha, Charana and Vidyâdhara,
  6) Yaksha and Raksha,
  7) Bhuta, Preta and Pisâcha,
  8) Kinnara, Kimpurusha, Asvamukha and others.

The Vaikarika and Vaikrita Devas form one class.


THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.


_Prâkrita_ creation is that which gives rise to and is connected with
all individuals. Excepting the Tâmasic or Avidyâ creation, which we
shall consider later on, the other divisions of this creation were
caused by the first life impulse, given by the First Purusha. The
Tâmasic creation was brought into manifestation by the Third Purusha
Brahmâ.

The division of the life-kingdoms according to the movements of the food
taken is peculiar to the Pauranic system. It will be interesting to know
from the physiological stand-point whether it is necessary for the
development of the brain that the spinal column should be erect, whether
it is necessary for the formation of the spinal column, that the stomach
should retain a certain position, and to know also how far the fixture
of the plants is an impediment to the development of any nervous system
in them.

It is remarkable that the mineral kingdom is not mentioned as a distinct
life-kingdom. The reason appears to be that the creative process is
divided into two periods. In the first period formless Jivas take form
after form, till the lowest material form is reached. This is elemental
creation or the creation of Devas, as described in detail in Ch. XXI.
Sk. IV. The Purâna goes on to say: — "Then Brahmâ created the Manus."
III.-24-49. The Manu creation shews, how mind was gradually developed
through Vegetable, Animal and Human creations, out of the Mineral
Kingdom, represented by the Mountain Chief Himâlaya. The giving up by
Sâti, of the body acquired from Daksha and her rebirth as the daughter
of the Mountain King show how the elemental creation gave way to a fresh
creative process, which took its start from the Mineral Kingdom.

The Kumâras form a peculiar creation. "They are Prakrita in as much as
they partake of the character of Devas and they are Vaikrita, as they
partake of the character of men." _Śridhara._ — The great commentator
also says: — "Sanaka and other Kumâras are not created in every kalpa.
The account of their creation is only given in the first Kalpa, called
Brahmâ. In reality, the Vegetable and other life kingdoms are created in
every Kalpa. Sanaka and others being created in Brahmâ Kalpa only follow
the creations in other Kalpas."

Upon death, men go to Bhuvar Loka, where they become Bhûtas, Pretas and
Pisâchas. Then they go to Svar Loka, where they become Devas, not the
Devas of Deva creations but only temporary Devas. When their merits are
exhausted, they come down upon earth, to begin life as men again. But if
by unselfish Karma and devotion, men pass across the limits of the
triple plane, they go first to Mahar Loka. Here they are called
Prajâpatis. Bhrigu and other Prajâpatis who are the ordinary dwellers of
Mahar Loka, are described in one sloka of Bhâgavata, as bearing the life
period of one Kalpa. (II. 2. 25). In the next sloka it is said that the
Yogins who go to Mahar Loka, remain there till the end of the Kalpa,
when at last they go to Satya Loka.

But in another sloka, the Purâna says: — "When the night of Pralaya
follows, the three Lokas, Bhûr, Bhuvar and Svar, are burnt by the fire
from the mouth of Sankarshana. Troubled by the excessive heat of that
fire, Bhrigu and others proceed from Mahar Loka to Jana Loka."
III-11-30.

This shews that the dwellers of Mahar Loka live for the life time of
Brahmâ or two Parârdhas.

This is also made clear by the following commentary of Śridhara on
III-10-9: —

"Why did Brahmâ make the three Lokas into one division? This Trilokî
consisting of Bhûr, Bhuvar and Svar — is the place that is to be made in
every Kalpa or day of Brahmâ for the enjoyment of Jivas (or
individuals). But Jivas dwell in the higher Lokas as well. Why are not
those Lokas created then in every Kalpa? This is because they are the
transformations of unselfish (Nishkâma) action or Dharma — the Lokas
themselves and the dwellers thereof. The Trilokî and the dwellers
thereof are the transformations of selfish (Kâmya) action. Therefore
they have birth and death in every Kalpa. But Mahar and other Lokas are
begotten by unselfish action heightened by Upâsanâ (or devotion), and
they last for two Parârdhas, which is the life time of Brahmâ. And the
dwellers of those Lokas generally attain mukti (or liberation) after
that period."

The ordinary dwellers of Jana Loka are the Kumâras. When men in course
of evolution reach Jana Loka, they become Kumâras.

We have already seen that the essence of life in the higher Lokas is
unselfishness. It is for this reason that the Gitâ speaks of unselfish
action in the first instance as an essential requisite of spiritual
life. But it is not unselfish action alone which enables us to get rid
of our personal desires and to assimilate ourselves with that one life
which pervades all. Devotional love is another equally essential
requisite.

It is impossible for us to realise the different experiences in the four
higher Lokas.

The famous Brahma Sûkta has the following line: — "The three feet of
Ísvara, bearing eternal happiness in the higher Lokas." The eighteenth
Śloka in Chapter VI. of the Second Skandha is an exposition of this
line. Śridhara has the following commentary on that line:

"Happiness in Trilokî is fleeting and temporary. Though Mahar Loka is on
the path of liberation, the dwellers of that Loka have to leave it at
the end of every Kalpa. The happiness there is therefore not
ever-lasting. In Jana Loka, the happiness is ever-lasting, as long as
the dwellers do not leave the place. But they have to witness the
miseries of the dwellers of Mahar Loka, when they come to Jana Loka, at
the end of the Kalpa. In Tapas, there is absolute want of evil. In
Satya, there is freedom from fear or liberation."

We have left the Devas (not the elementals that pass through the life
kingdoms of this earth) out of consideration. Their evolution is worked
out in all the seven Lokas. Their names and characteristics in each Loka
are given by Vyâsa in his commentaries on Patanjali’s Sutras. Those who
are ordinarily known as Devas are the dwellers of Svar Loka. The Deva
Yonis or lower Devas are dwellers of Bhuvar Loka and Bhûr Loka. Men have
nothing to do with the Devas of the higher Lokas. The Devas of Trilokî
are indifferent, friendly or inimical to men. Left alone, they do not
interfere with men. But when men try to gain superiority over them, by
the acquisition of Brahma Vidyâ, they try to throw obstacles in their
way.

The Brihad Âranyak Upanishad says: — "Even the gods verily are not able
to prevent him from the possession of the state of all." I.-4-10

Again, "As verily many beasts maintain a man, so every man maintains the
gods. It is not pleasant, even if one beast is taken away, how then, if
many? Therefore it is not pleasant to them, that men should know this
_i.e._ the truth of the nature of Brahmâ." Commenting on this,
Śankarâchâryya quotes a Śloka from Anugrta: "The world of the gods is
surrounded by performers of works. But the gods do not wish that mortals
should abide above."

Śankarâchâryya goes on to say: — "Therefore the gods try to exclude,
like cattle from tigers, men from the knowledge of Brahmâ, as it is
their desire, that they should not be elevated above the sphere of their
use. Whom they wish to liberate, to him they impart belief &c., and
unbelief to him whom they wish not to liberate."

Ânanda Giri, the commentator of Śankarâchâryya, quotes the following
Śloka: —

"Devas do not protect men, rod in hand, like cattle-keepers. When they
wish to protect a man, they impart the necessary intelligence to him."

Nothing is said in the Purânas, as to Devas of the higher Lokas.

The Prâkrita Devas are intimately connected with our senses and
intellect. It is through their direct help, that we are able to perceive
and to conceive. Hence they are called Adhi-devas or Vaikâric Devas.
They are not individuals and the remarks made above as to Devas, do not
apply to them.


IV. DIVISIONS OF KÂLA.


*SKANDHA III. CHAP. 11.*

The unit of Kala at the Sûkshma pole is Paramânu, which is the minutest
part of the created thing, not united to form a body. At the Sthula pole
is the whole Sthula creation known in its entirety as Parama Mahân. The
time during which the Sun crosses in his orbit one paramânu is the Kâla
unit paramânu. The time during which he crosses the whole system in his
orbit, _i.e._, crosses all the twelve signs of the Zodiac, is Parama
Mahân or one Samvatsara. The units of time and space are thus the same.

1 Dvyanuka = 2 Paramânus.

1 Trasarenu = 3 Paramânus.

1 Truti = 3 Trasarenus.

1 Vedha = 100 Trutis.

1 Lava = 3 Vedhas.

1 Nimesha or wink = 3 Lavas.

1 Kshana = 3 Nimesha.

1 Kâsthâ = 5 Kshanas.

1 Laghu = 15 Kâsthâs.

1 Nâdikâ = 15 Laghus.

1 Muhurta = 2 Nâdikâs.

1 Yâma or Prahara = 6 or 7 Nâdikâs.

1 Ahorâtra (of the Mortals) = 8 Yâmas.

1 Paksha (Sukla or Krishna) = 15 Ahorâtras.

1 Mâsa (Month) = 1 Sukla + 1 Krishna Paksha.

1 Ritu = 2 Mâsas.

1 Ayana = 6 Mâsas (Uttara or Dakshinâ.)

1 Vatsara = 2 Ayanas.

1 Vatsara = 12 Masas

1 Vatsara = 1 Ahorâtra of Devas.

1 Samvatsara = 1 year of Solar months.

1 Parivatsara = 1 year of Jupiter months.

1 Idâvatsara = 1 year of Savana months.

1 Svanuvatsara = 1 year of Lunar months.

1 Vatsara = 1 year of Stellar months.

One hundred Samvatsaras is the maximum age of men.

Satya, Tretâ, Dvâpara and Kali a cycle of these 4 Yugas and their
Sandhyâs and Sandhyânsas consist of 12 thousand divine years.

The beginning of a Yuga is its Sandhyâ. Tho end of a Yuga is its
Sandhyânsa. Sandhyâ and Sandhyânsa are not included in a Yuga and Yuga
Dharma is not to be performed while they last.

    Sandhyâ of Satya Yuga =               400 Deva years.

       Satya Yuga        =              4,000   "    "

    Sandhyânsa of Satya Yuga              400   "    "

    Sandhyâ of Treta Yuga                 300   "    "

       Treta Yuga                       3,000   "    "

    Sandhyânsa of Treta Yuga              300   "    "

    Sandhyâ of Dvâpara Yuga               200   "    "

       Dvâpara Yuga                     2,000   "    "

    Sandhyânsa of Dvâpara Yuga            200   "    "

    Sandhyâ of Kali Yuga                  100   "    "

    Kali Yuga                           1,000   "    "

    Sandhyânsa of Kali Yuga               100   "    "
                                      −−−−−−−
                                       12,000 Deva years.

Dharma is enjoined for the period between Sandhyâ and Sandhyânsa, which
is called Yuga.

        Dharma has all the 4 pâdas or feet in Satya,
           "    "     only 3 pâdas in Treta,
           "    "     only 2 pâdas in Dvapara,
           "    "     only 1 pâda in Kali.

    1,000 Yuga cycles is one Day of Brahmâ or one Kalpa,
    *i.e.*, 1 Day of Brahmâ = 1,000 x 12,000 Deva years,
                             = 1,20,00,000 Deva years.

An equal period of time is also reckoned as one Night of Brahmâ. 14
Manus reign during the Day of Brahmâ, each Manu reigning for:

      1,000
    −−−−−−−−  = 71 3/4
        14

_i.e._, a little over 71 Yuga Cycles. Converted into Deva years: —

    1 Manvantara = 12,000 x 1,000
                   −−−−−−−−−−−−−−  = 8,57,142 6/7 Deva years.
                           14

    1 Deva year = 360 Lunar years.

                   12,000,000 x 360
    1 Manvantara = −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−  = 3,37,142,657 1/2 Lunar years.
                           14

The Manvantaras have their Manus, successors of Manus, Rishis and Devas.

The Rishis, Indras, and Devas appear together.

In the daily creation of Brahmâ, Animals, Men, Pitris and Devas are born
according to their own Karma.

During the Manvantara, Bhagavân preserves this universe by His own
Satva, directly as Manvantara Avatâras and indirectly as Manus and
others. When Pralaya approaches, Bhagavân withdraws His Śaktis (or
powers). Trilokî is then burnt up by fires from the mouth of
Sankarshana. Bhrigu and other dwellers of Mahar Loka proceed to Jana
Loka. The waters of Pralaya sweep away everything before them. In that
watery expanse, Hari remains seated upon the coils of Ananta, with His
eyes closed.

With every Day and Night, the age of Brahmâ declines. He lives for one
hundred years only. Half of Brahmâ’s age is called Parârddha. The first
Parârddha has expired, the second has commenced with our Kalpa. Every
day of Brahmâ is called one Kalpa.

At the beginning of the first Parârddha was Brahmâ Kalpa, when Brahmâ or
the present Kosmos was born.

At the end of the first Parârddha was Padma Kalpa, when the Loka-Padma
(the lotus of Lokas) appeared at the navel of Hari.

The first Kalpa of the second Parârddha, which is the present Kalpa, is
called Varâha Kalpa. Hari incarnated as Varâha or Boar during this
Kalpa.

The two Parârddhas are but a wink of Bhagavân. Kâla cannot measure him.

    [1 Day of Brahmâ   =             12,000,000   Deva years,
     1 Night of Brahmâ =             12,000,000      Do.
                                   −−−−−−−−−−−−−
                                     24,000,000      Do.

     Multiplying by                         360
                                 −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
     1 year of Brahmâ  =          8,640,000,000   Deva years.
     Multiplying by                         100
                              −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
     Age of Brahmâ     =        864,000,000,000   Deva years.
     Multiplying by                         360
                         −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
                          31,10,40,00,00,00,000   Lunar years.

    1 Kali Yuga, including Twilight (Sandhyâ and Sandhyânsa)
         = 1,200 X 360 = 4,32,000 Lunar years.

    Varâha Kalpa = 50 X 360 + 1 = 180001st Kalpa.

    The present is the seventh Manvantara of that Kalpa.

The present Kali Yuga is the 28th Yuga of that Manvantara and 4,994
years of that Yuga have expired in the present year of Christ 1894.

THEOSOPHICAL CORRESPONDENCES. The words Kalpa and Manvantara are
carelessly used in Theosophical literature. But I shall use those terms,
specially with reference to page 309 of the second volume of the _Secret
Doctrine_ (first edition.)

1 Kalpa = 7 Rounds.

1 Round = 2 Manvantaras.

The Pralaya at the end of seven Rounds therefore means the Pralaya of
Trilokî.

The last Globe Chain of which the Moon formed a living planet belonged
to Pâdma Kalpa. Our Globe D is the 18001st since the birth of the
Kosmos. There will be 17999 more such Globes, one after each Pralaya of
Globe Chains. There will be 18000 more Pralayas of the Globe Chain. Then
there will be a general dissolution or Prâkritika Pralaya, not only of
the Globe Chain, but of the whole Kosmic system.


V.-THE CREATION BY BRAHMA (_Continued_) III. 12.


The first creation of Brahmâ was the five-fold Avidyâ, _viz_: —

  1) Tamas or ignorance of Self (Avidyâ in Patanjali.)
  2) Moha or egoism (Asmitâ.)
  3) Mahâ Moha or desire for enjoyment (Râga).
  4) Tâmisra or mental disturbance on the non-fulfilment of desires
     (Dvesha).
  5) Andha Tâmisra or false perception of death (Abhiniveśa).

Brahmâ was not pleased with this dark creation. He purified his soul by
meditation on Bhagavân and created Sanaka, Sananda, Sanâtana and
Sanatkumara. These Munis had no performances (for their own evolution).
They were Urdha-retas. Brahmâ, addressing them, said — "Sons, go and
multiply yourselves." But they sought Moksha, and heeded him not. Brahmâ
got enraged at the disobedience of his sons, and, though he tried to put
down his anger, it burst forth from between his eye-brows and appeared
as Kumâra Nila-Lohita or Blue-Red. The boy, the first born of Devas,
wept and cried out to Brahmâ — "Give me names and give me abodes." "That
shall be done," replied Brahmâ, "and, as thou wept like a boy, thou
shalt be called Rudra or the Weeper. The heart, the Indriyas, Prâna,
Âkâsa, Vâyu, Agni, Apas, Prithvi, the Sun, the Moon and Tapas are your
abodes. Manyu, Manu, Mahinasa, Mahân, Śiva, Ritadhvaja, Ugra-retas,
Bhava, Kâla, Bâmadeva and Dhrita-vrata these are thy eleven names; Dhi,
Dhriti, Râsaloma, Nijut, Sarpi, Ilâ, Ambikâ, Irâvati, Svadhâ, Dikshâ and
Rudrâni, these are thy wives. Beget sons, as thou art Prajâpati." Thus
ordered, Nila-Lohita begot sons like unto himself in might, form and
habits. The Rudras became numerous, and they spread all round the
Universe ready almost to devour it. Brahmâ became afraid of his
creation, and, addressing himself to Rudra, said — "O Chief of Devas,
desist from such creation. Thy progeny with their fiery eyes are
consuming all and even consuming me. Take to Tapas for the joy of all
beings. By Tapas thou shalt create the Universe as it was of yore. By
Tapas thou shalt gain that Bhagavân who dwells in all hearts." "Amen,"
said Rudra, and he went into the forests to make Tapas.

Brahmâ then begot ten sons: — Marichi, Atri, Angirasa, Pulastya, Pulaha,
Kratu, Bhrigu, Vasishtha, Daksha and Nârada. Nârada came from Brahmâ’s
bosom, Daksha from his thumb, Vasishtha from his Prâna, Bhrigu from his
skin, Kratu from his hands, Pulaha from his navel, Pulastya from his
ears, Angirasa from his mouth, Atri from his eyes and Marichi from his
Manas.

Dharma came from Brahmâ’s right breast, where Nârâyana himself dwells.
Adharma, the parent of Mrityu (or Death) came from his back. Kâma came
from his heart, Anger from his eye-brows, Greed from the lower lip. Vâk
or speech came from his mouth, the Seas from his generative organ and
Death from his anus.

Kardama, the husband of Devahûti, was born of Brahmâ’s Chhâya or shadow.
So there was creation out of the body and the mind of Brahmâ. Brahmâ
took a fancy to his daughter Vâk (or speech). Marichi and his other sons
dissuaded him from the incestuous connection. And the Creator in shame
gave up his body which was taken up by Space and which is known as dewy
darkness. "How shall I bring back all the previous Creation?" So thought
Brahmâ at one time, and the four Vedas appeared from his four mouths.
The Yajnas, the Upavedas, the Philosophies, the four parts of Dharma,
and the duties of Âsramas also appeared.

Brahmâ had another body void of incestuous impulses and he thought of
enlarging the Creation. But he found himself and the Rishis, powerful
though they were, unsuccessful in this respect. He thought there was
some unforeseen impediment, so he divided his body into two. A pair was
formed by that division. The male was Svâyambhuva Manu and the female
was his wife Śatarûpâ. Since then creation multiplied by sexual
intercourse. Svâyambhuva Manu begot five children in Śatarâpâ — two
sons, Priyavrata and Uttânapâda, and three daughters, Âkûti, Devahûti
and Prasûti. He gave Akuti in marriage to Ruchi, Devahûti to Kardama and
Prasûti to Daksha. This changing universe is filled with their progeny.


PRE-MANVANTARIC CREATION.


The descent of Spirit into Matter is indicated by the overshadowing
Tamas creation, The individuals reach the spiritual plane at the time of
Pralaya and lose all sense of I-ness. Their memory becomes perfectly
dead to all previous connections and experiences and even as to self as
a distinct unit. The child starts with a body of his own, and faculties
limited to that body. The Jiva children that came into existence at the
beginning of the Universe had however nothing peculiar to themselves,
and they had even to acquire the sense of I-ness.

First, the Jiva identifies himself with his body and mind, his own
phenomenal basis. For, if he identifies himself with the universal
spirit, there is no action for him, no working out of his own Karma.
Though from the standpoint of the highest wisdom individuality is a
delusion, for the one unchangeable ever-lasting element in Jiva is Âtmâ,
and at the final stage of development man has to separate himself from
his phenomenal basis and to identify himself with Âtmâ, which is the
real self, still the sense of separateness is necessary for the process
of creation and for the gaining of experiences. This sense is
two-fold,--

  1) The non-perception of Âtmâ as Self, called Avidyâ by Patanjali and
     Tamas in the Purânas, and
  2) The perception of the _upâdhi_ as self, called Asmitâ by Patanjali
     and Moha in the Purânas.

Attachment and aversion, likes and dislikes, are equally necessary for
continued individual action. The Jiva eats what he likes and does not
eat what he dislikes. He associates himself with certain objects, ideas
and thoughts and shuns others. His likes and dislikes form the guiding
principle of his actions. These affinities are called Râga and Dvesha by
Patanjali and Mahâ Moha and Tamisra in the Purânas.

The tenacious desire to live in the present body is called Abhinivesha
by Patanjali. This desire becomes an instinct in the Jiva, so necessary
is it for his preservation. The Purânas call it Andha-Tâmisra. Śridhara
explains it as the shock we receive from a separation from all our
present enjoyments. For, according to him, the idea of death is nothing
but a sense of separation from our present enjoyments.

These forms of Avidyâ were called into being that the forms of the
previous Kalpa might be brought into existence, or that the work of
creation might be undertaken. These faculties are the very essence of
life manifestation. But the process has now been reversed. The work of
creation is over. We have acquired the experiences of earth-life, and we
are now destined to take a journey back to our home, the bosom of
Íshvara, from which we all came. We have now to undo our sense of
separateness. The five forms of Avidyâ are therefore called miseries
(klesha) by Patanjali and he lays down rules for getting rid of them.

After invoking Avidyâ, Brahmâ created the Kumâras, who were the most
spiritual of the beings to be created. They were so spiritual, that they
could not take any part in the work of creation. They had to bide their
time, till there was spiritual ascent in the Universe.

The Rudras, called the Blue-Red Kumâras, come next. Though highly
spiritual themselves they did not object to take part in the work of
creation. But as real factors in the work of dissolution, they were
entirely out of place in the work of creation. We owe our idea of
separateness or individuality to the Rudras. In the scale of universal
life the agencies of dissolution carve out individual lives and their
mission ends there.

The ten Rishis form the next Creation. Further descent of life in the
Universe brought forth ten distinct types of Intelligence. We shall
consider these types later on. Then comes the story of Brahmâ’s incest.
Brahmâ could not directly take part in the Creation. His task was simply
to bring back the former state of things through a graduated series of
intermediaries. First appeared those that had to hold cosmic positions
of responsibility, some throughout the Kalpa and others throughout the
Manvantara. With the powers invoked, the temptation to evolve an
independent Creation with the help of Vâch, the potency of Mantras had
to be got over. This done, Brahmâ thought of the Monads of the previous
Kalpa, and the first Manu appeared with his wife Sata-rûpâ or
Hundred-formed. All forms of Creation existed in Idea before further
manifestation, and Sata-rûpâ was the collective aspect of all such
Ideas.



THE FIRST OR THE SVAYAMBHUVA MANVANTARA.


VI. BHÛR AND VARAHA


*SKANDHA III., CHAP. 13.*

Said Manu to Brahmâ — "I shall do thy behests, O Lord. But tell me where
my Prajâ (progeny) and myself are to be located. The Bhûr of the
previous Kalpa where all beings found shelter is lost in the great ocean
of Pralaya. Bestir thyself and raise it up, O Deva."

Brahmâ thought within Himself what was to be done, when lo! out from His
nostril came a Boar, no bigger than a thumb. In a moment the Boar
assumed gigantic proportions and all space resounded with his roar. The
dwellers of the Jana, Tapas and Satya Lokas worshipped Him by chanting
the Mantras of the three Vedas. He roared once more for the good of the
Devas and instantly plunged into the waters. Though an incarnation of
Yajna, He tried to discover the Bhûr by smelling like an ordinary
animal. He dived down as far as Rasâtala and there found the Bhûr Loka.
He then raised it up on His tusks. The Daitya King Hiranyâksha resisted
and in rage the Boar killed him. The Rishis then worshipped Him knowing
His true form to be Yajna.


THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.


[Bhûr is the main system of Trilokî. The Varâha Avatâra restored the
system after the Kalpa Pralaya. Bhûr being the lowest of the Seven Lokas
corresponds to Prithvi Tatva and hence to the sense of smell. The boar
is pre-eminently the animal of smell. The materialisation of the Prithvi
principle for the purpose of globe formation was an effort of the energy
of the Logos and the _smelling_ out of Bhûr by the Varaha is suggestive.
The Globe evolution is preparatory to Monadic evolution. The pent up
Karma of the previous Kalpa develops itself on the Globes. All beings
are mutually interdependent for their evolution. They help one another
in the work of evolution, and one makes sacrifices that the others may
grow. Some have to wait, till others come forward. Then they become
united in the further race for progress. This great cosmic process, this
mutual sacrifice is Yajna itself, which is typified in the Boar
Incarnation. The Vedic Yajna gives prominence to the Communion of men
with Devas, as at the early stages this is an all important fact of
evolution. The Varâha is called the first Yajna Avatâra and all the
parts of His body are named with reference to Vedic Yajna, as He by
raising Bhûr prepared the field for Karma.]


VII. THE STORY OF HIRANYÂKSHA.


*SKANDHA III., CHAP. 14.*

Diti, the daughter of Daksha, approached one evening her husband
Kasyapa, son of Marichi. She was overpowered with the passion of love
and became importunate. Kasyapa asked her to wait. Rudra was presiding
over sunset. His astral attendants, the Bhûtas and Pishachas, were
roaming over the Universe. With His three eyes representing the Sun,
Moon and fire he could see every thing. His hesitation to yield to Diti
was of no avail, and the Muni had to yield. There Diti became ashamed of
her weakness. She was afraid she had offended Rudra and she helplessly
prostrated herself at the feet of Kasyapa praying for his forgiveness.
"Thou hast disobeyed me," said Kasyapa, "and hast shown disrespect to
the companions of Rudra, thy mind is impure and so is the time of
Evening (Sandhyâ). These four evils will cause the birth of two wicked
sons from thee. They will oppress the Trilokî and the Lokapâlas
(Preservers of the three Lokas). When their inequities exceed all
bounds, Vishnu will Himself incarnate to kill them."

For one hundred years Diti conceived her twin sons. Even from within the
womb they shed lustre all round, which even overpowered the Lokapâlas.
The Devas went to Brahmâ to ascertain the cause of this disaster. He
related to them the following story.

"My Mânasa-putras, Sanaka and others were once in Vaikuntha, the abode
of Bhagavân. Impatient to see Bhagavân the Kumâras hurriedly passed
through the six portals (Kaksha). At the seventh portal, they found two
doorkeepers of equal age with clubs in their hands, richly adorned with
golden crowns and other ornaments. They had four hands and looked
beautiful in their blue colour. The Kumâras heeded them not, but opened
the gate with their own hands as they had opened the other gates. The
door keepers stopped them with their clubs. The Kumâras were put out by
this unforeseen obstruction and addressing the doorkeepers gave vent to
their feelings thus: — ’What mean you by making this distinction? In Him
the Lord of Vaikuntha, there is no difference whatsoever. The whole of
this Universe is in Him. Do you dread any danger to Him, as to a common
being, and why will you admit some and not others? But you are His
servants. So we do not intend to be very hard on you. But you must
descend from this elevated plane and take your birth where passion,
anger and greed prevail’."

"The door-keepers became terrified at this curse and fell at the feet of
the Kumâras. All that they prayed for was that while passing through the
lowest births, they might not have Môha, beclouding their recollection
of Bhagavân. Bhagavân knew what had transpired outside. He hastened on
foot with Lakshmî by His side to where the Munis stood. The Kumâras
prostrated themselves before Him Whom they had so long meditated upon in
their hearts. With intent eyes they looked steadily on Him and longed to
see Him again and again. The Kumâras lauded Him with words full of
import. Bhagavân addressing them said: — ’These my door-keepers are by
name Jaya and Vijaya. They have slighted you, and it is right that you
have cursed them. I sanction that curse. For they are my servants, and I
am indirectly responsible for their deeds. I always respect Brâhmanas,
as my glory is derived from them. These door-keepers did not know my
regard for you, and they therefore unintentionally slighted you. But
they shall instantly reap the fruit of their evil deeds and come back to
Me when their punishment is over. Please therefore decide where they are
to go.’ The Kumâras knew not what to say. They thought they had not done
right and they asked to be excused. ’It is all right for Thee to extol
the Brâhmanas in this way, for Thou art the Preserver of Dharma and Thou
teachest others what to do. But if, really, we have done wrong, let us
be punished and let not our curse visit these innocent door-keepers.’
Bhagavân replied: — ’It is I who have uttered the curse through your
mouths. My will shall be done. These door-keepers shall be born as
Asuras, but they shall come back to Me speedily.’ These two
door-keepers, O Devas, have now appeared in Diti’s womb. I have no power
to overcome them. But when the time comes for the prevalence of Satva,
Bhagavân Himself will do what is needed."

The Devas went away and waited for events. The two Daityas Hiranyâksha
and Hiranyakasipu were born of Diti, after a conception of one hundred
years. Hiranyâksha though elder by birth was younger by conception.


THOUGHTS ON HIRANYÂKSHA.


[Diti is literally ’Cutting,’ ’Splitting,’ or ’dividing.’ Jaya and
Vijaya mean victory. Hiranya is gold. Hiranyâksha means gold-eyed.
Hiranyakasipu means gold-bedded. The key to the mystery lies in the fact
that Jaya and Vijaya were the door-keepers of Vishnu and their external
form was that of Vishnu. The Purusha in the Heart is the Counterpart in
microcosm of the Purusha in the Universe. And we have found above that
the five or ten door-keepers or Brahmâ-Purushas in the Heart are the
five or ten Prânas in man. By analogy, therefore, which is a potent
factor in the solution of mysteries, we find that Jaya and Vijaya are
the two-fold manifestations of Prana in Vaikuntha, the in-going and
out-going energies of Purusha. The life principle is an aspect of
Bhagavân and stands at His very gate. It is this outer aspect of Purusha
that is the mainspring of all material activities, of all
life-manifestations and of the material development of the universe. The
duality represents Tâmasic inaction and Râjasic activity. Hiranyâksha
would have no life-manifestation, no appearance of globes, he would
continue a state of things verging on Prâlayic sleep. Hiranyakasipu was
the very ideal of material greatness and material grandeur. Kumbhakarna
slept and Râvana worked. The brothers Jaya and Vijaya passed through the
dividing energy of Diti, to cause the material manifoldness of the
Universe. The Varâha as representing the awakened Jivic Karma fought
with the Asura that opposed the development of that Karma, which could
only fructify on the Bhûr system.]


VIII. DEVA AND DEVA-YONI CREATION.


*SKANDHA III., CHAP. 20.*

Vidura asked Maitreya: How did Marichi and other Rishis and also
Svâyambhuva Manu carry out Brahmâ’s orders to create.

Maitreya continued the story of Creation in reply to Vidura.

We have heard of the primal dark creation of Brahmâ, consisting of
five-fold Avidyâ. Referring to that, Maitreya said, it was a creation of
shadows. Brahmâ was not pleased with this shadowy creation. He gave up
the dark body and it became night, At that time Yakshas and Râkshasas
were born and they took it up. The body was not only dark, but it was
the seat of hunger and thirst. The new-born therefore in their hunger
and thirst ran after Brahmâ to devour Him. Some of them said: "Have no
mercy on Him as father." Others said "Devour him." Brahmâ became afraid
of them and said — "Save me. You are my sons. You should not devour me."
Those that said "Devour" are Yakshas and those that said "Do not save
him" are Râkshasas. Brahmâ then created the Devas, with His radiant
Sâtvika body.

This body when given up became day and the playing Devas took it up.
Brahmâ then created the Asuras out of His thigh. They became extremely
passionate and ran after Brahmâ void of all shame. In great distress
Brahmâ prayed to Vishnu and the Creator was told to give up His body of
passion. The body was given up and it became Sandhyâ, or evening. The
Asuras accepted Sandhyâ as their wife. Evening is the time for lust and
passion. Brahmâ then created the Gandharvas and Apsaras with His body of
beauty, which when given up became Moon-light. With his indolence,
Brahmâ created the Bhûtas and Pisâchas. They were stark naked and had
long loose hair. Brahmâ closed his eyes on seeing them. After a time he
gave up his yawning body and the Bhûtas and Pishâchas took it up. The
body that causes secretion is called "Sleep."

That which causes delusion is "Madness." Indolence, yawning, sleep and
madness all these four were taken up by Bhûtas and Pisâchas for their
body. Brahmâ knew His powers and He created with His invisible body the
Sâdhyas and Pitris. By His power of becoming invisible, He created
Siddhas and Vidhyâdharas and gave them His body with that power. By His
reflected image He created the Kinnaras and Kimpurushas, who took up
that image for their body. At dawn, they sing in pairs the praise of
Brahmâ. Brahmâ did not find any progress in creation with all these
Bhoga (expansive) bodies. He threw away His body and from His hair the
elemental serpents or Nâgas were born. After all, Brahmâ created the
Manûs and Rishis.


IX. THE PROGENY OF KARDAMA.


*SKANDHA III. CHAP. 21-24.*

Kardama Rishi was ordered by Brahmâ to create. This led him to pray to
Vishnu on the sacred banks of the Sarasvati, near Vindu Sarovara. Vishnu
appeared before him with Lakshmî by His side. He revealed to Kardama a
happy future. The Rishi was to marry Manu’s daughter, to have by her
nine daughters and one son, an Incarnation of Vishnu Himself, who was to
promulgate the Tatva Vidyâ. Shortly after, Svâyambhuva Manu came to
Kardama’s hermitage, with his wife Sata-rupâ and offered to the Rishi
his daughter Devahûti in marriage. Kardama accepted her as his wife. He
had by her nine daughters and the Avatâra Kapila. Brahmâ with his sons
the Rishis came to Kardama and congratulated him and his wife Devahûti
upon having Bhagavân Vishnu for their son. He then asked Kardama to give
his daughters in marriage to the Rishis. Kardama followed his father’s
behests and gave his daughters duly in marriage to the Rishis. Kalâ, he
gave to Marichi, Anasuyâ to Atri, Sraddhâ to Angirasa, Havirbhu to
Pulastya, Gati to Pulaha, Kriyâ to Kratu, Khyâti to Bhrigu, Arundhati to
Vasishtha and Sânti to Atharvan. The Rishi then went to the forest for
yoga and left his wife in charge of Kapila.


THOUGHTS ON KARDAMA.


[Devahûti means offering to Devas, which is universal service. She is
the progenitor of those forms of life which have a spiritual influence
over the whole Trailokya.

"Kalâ" is part, a digit of the Moon.

"Anasuyâ" means absence of envy. From the proverbial chastity of Atri’s
wife the word also means the highest type of chastity and wifely
devotion.

"Sraddhâ" means faith.

"Havirbhu" means born of sacrificial oblation.

"Gati" means course, path.

"Kriyâ" means performance (of Yajna) and action.

"Khyâti" means fame, praise and also proper discrimination.

"Arundhati" would perhaps mean one that does not stop or hinder.
Probably the word means a wife who helps her husband in the performance
of duties and does not stop or prevent him.

It is for this reason that the Star Arundhati is pointed out to the
bride at the nuptial ceremony.

"Sânti" is peace, the well known invocation of the Vedas at the end of a
Mantra.

"Kardama" means clay. He was born of Brahmâ’s Chhâyâ or shadow.

Devahûti, being wedded to the materialised shadow of the whole Universe,
gave rise to certain female types which in their turn on being wedded to
the Rishis, the highest Planetary Intelligences, became the progenitors
of all the life forms of the Universe. Kapila was one of the earliest
Rishis. The word — Kapila means tawny or brown coloured.]


X. KAPILA’S INSTRUCTION TO HIS MOTHER DEVAHÛTI.


*SKANDHA III., CHAP. 25-33.*

We now come to an important part of the Bhâgavata Purâna, the teachings
of Kapila to his mother in the Yoga philosophy of the Bhagavat Purâna.
They adapt the Sânkhya and the Yoga systems to Bhakti or devotion. For a
full knowledge of the teachings I refer my readers to the Purâna itself,
I shall only give the salient points and avoid details as much as
possible, without breaking the continuity of the discourses. "Yoga
directed towards Âtmâ brings about Mukti. Chitta attached to the
transformations of Gunas causes Bondage; attached to Purûsha, it causes
Mukti. When the mind is pure and free from distractions, man perceives
Âtmâ in himself, by Wisdom, Dispassion and Devotion. There is no path so
friendly to the Yogins as constant devotion to Bhagavân. Company of
Sâdhus opens wide the door to Mukti. They are Sâdhus who have
forbearance and compassion, who are friendly to all beings, who have no
enemies, who are free from passions, and above all who have firm and
undivided Bhakti in Me. They give up all for My sake and they hear and
speak no words that do not relate to Me. Their company removes the
impurities of worldliness. Men first hear about Me from the Sâdhus. By
faith their heart is drawn towards Me, and they have devotion for Me.
Devotion causes Dispassion and makes easy the path of Yoga. By
indifference to the Guna transformations of Prakriti, by wisdom fostered
by Dispassion, by Yoga and by Bhakti (devotion) offered to Me, the Jiva
attains Me even while in this body."

"When the Indriyas (the senses and the mind), that manifest the objects
of external and internal perception, become trained by the performance
of Vedic Karma, their spontaneous Vritti (or function) in a man of
concentrated mind is in Satva which is the same as Vishnu. This Vritti
which is void of all selfishness is Bhakti in Bhagavân. It is superior
to Mukti. It instantly destroys the Kosha (Astral body) as the digestive
fire consumes food. The devoted have no yearning for that Mukti (Sâyujya
or Nirvâna) which makes the Jiva one with Me. But they prefer ever to
talk with each other about Me, to exert themselves for My sake and ever
to meditate on Me. Mukti comes to them unasked. My Vibhutis, the eight
Siddhis (_anima &c._) and all the glory of the highest Lokas are theirs,
though they want them not. I am their Teacher, their Friend, their
Companion, their all. So even Kâla cannot destroy them."

"Purusha is Âtmâ. He is eternal, void of Gunas, beyond Prakriti, all
pervading, self luminous and all manifestating."

"Prakriti is Pradhâna, one in itself, but is also the source of all
differences (_visesha_), possessed of three Gunas, unmanifested
(_avyakta_) and eternal."

"The twenty four transformations of Prakriti called Prâdhânika or Saguna
Brahma are: —

"5 Mahâ Bhûtas — Earth, Water, Fire, Air and Akâsa.

"5 Tanmâtras — Smell, Taste, Rûpa, Touch and Sound.

"10 Indriyas — Ear, Skin, Eye, Tongue, Nose, Speech, Hand, Foot, Upastha
and Pâyu.

"4 Divisions of Antahkarana — Manas, Buddhi, Chitta and Ahankâra."

"Kâla is the twenty-fifth. But according to some, Kâla is Prabhâva or
Śakti of Purusha. Those who identify themselves with Prakriti are afraid
of Kâla. Kâla as the outer aspect of Purusha disturbs the equilibrium of
Gunas in Prakriti."

"Purusha energised Prakriti and the Gunas led to transformations
following the action of Daiva or Karma, (Jivic record of the previous
Kalpa). Prakriti brought forth the refulgent Mahat Tatva. The seed of
the Universe was in the bosom of Mahat, and it manifested the Universe
and destroyed the darkness of Pralaya by its own light."

"Chitta which is Vâsudeva and Mahat, is Satva, transparent and pure, and
the perception of Bhagavân is achieved by this division of Antahkarana."

"Transparence (fitness for the full reflection of Brahmâ) immutability
and tranquility are the characteristics of Chitta, as of water in its
primal state."

"Mahat Tatva was transformed into Ahankâra Tatva, with its Kriyâ Śakti.
Ahankâra became three-fold — Sâtvika (Manas), Râjasika (Indriyas) and
Tamasika (Bhûtas) _i.e._ Kartri or Cause, Karana or Instrument and
Kâryya or effect."

"Sankarshana is the Purusha of Ahankâra. He is the Thousand-Headed and
Ananta (endless.)"

"Manas is Sankalpa and Vikalpa. It is the generator of Kâma (or desire.)
So Aniruddha, the king of Indriyas, blue as the blue-lotus of autumn,
the Purûsha of Manas, has with patience to be got over by yogins."

"Buddhi is Râjasa transformation of Ahankâra. The perception of objects,
dependence on the Indriyas, doubt, wrong-knowledge, right-knowledge,
memory and sleep these are the functions of Buddhi. (Pradyumna is the
Purûsha of Buddhi.)"

[The terminology here adopted will appear strange to the Vedantin
scholar. The divisions of Antahkarana are here adopted to the sacred
Tetractys or Chatur-vyuha, consisting of Vâsudeva, Sankarshana,
Aniruddha and Pradyumna. In Devotional practice, Antahkarana should be
made the channel for higher communion and its divisions are the
divisions of spiritual perception.

Chitta is the highest aspect of Antahkarana corresponding to Mahat Tatva
in the Universe, with the Purusha always reflected in it. This aspect
corresponds to Vâsudeva, the highest Purusha in the Tetraktys.

Ahankâra is the bare individuality, transformable into peculiarities,
but not so transformed. Sankarshana is the corresponding Purusha.

Manas is Kâma or desire brought on by likes and dislikes. It consists of
the mental tendencies of attachment, repulsion and indifference.
Aniruddha is the corresponding Purusha.

Buddhi is in one word the Chitta of Patanjali, — that which functions
through the physical brain.

Pradyumna is the corresponding Purusha.]

"The Indriyas are also the Rajasika transformations of Ahankâra."

Prana through its Kriyâ Śakti gave rise to the Karma Indriyas. Buddhi
through its Jnâna Śakti gave rise to the Jnâna Indriyas. The Tanmatras
and the Maha Bhûtas then came out in order of transformation. All these
principles could not, however, unite to bring forth the creation.
Purusha then permeated them, and the Cosmic Egg with its covers was
formed. Details are given as to how the Indriyas and Antahkarana with
their Adhyâtma, Adhibhûta and Adhidaiva appearing in the Virâta Purusha,
rose up from sleep as it were only when Chitta finally appeared.

Kapila then dilated on the relations between Purusha and Prakriti, using
the illustration of the sun reflected on water and re-reflected on the
wall. He showed how Mukti could be attained by discrimination of
Prakriti and Purusha — the seer and the seen.

Devahûti asked how Mukti was possible when Prakriti and Purusha were
eternally co-existent, and inter-dependent in manifestation. A man might
for a time realize that the Purusha was free from the fears of
relativity, but his Karma had connected him with the Gunas and the fears
would recur as the ultimate cause could not be removed. Kapila replied,
"By unselfish performance of duties, by purification of mind, by intense
Bhakti in Bhagavân fostered by the recital of His glory, by wisdom based
on the knowledge of the Tatvas, by strong dispassion, by austere yoga,
by intense concentration on Âtmâ, Prakriti becomes daily subdued and it
is finally consumed, even as the wood is consumed by its own fire,
caused by constant friction. Given up as already enjoyed and constantly
found fault with, Prakriti does no harm to the Purusha centred in Self.
Dreams do harm in sleep. But when a man wakes up, they lose all power to
injure, as they are then found to be dreams only."

Kapila then explained the Ashtânga Yoga of Patanjali, as adapted to
Bhakti and gave a graphic description of Vishnu as the object of
meditation.

He then explained Bhakti Yoga. Bhakti Yoga is either Saguna or Nirguna.
As Saguna it is either Satvika, Râjasika or Tamasika.

Nirguna Bhakti Yoga is that in which the mind runs towards Bhagavân,
even as the Ganges runs towards the Sea, with a constant spontaneous
flow. The Devoted spurn Sâlokya, Sârshti, Sâmipya, Sârûpya and Sâyujya
union¹ even when offered to them and they prefer to serve Bhagavân ever
and ever. Compassion and friendliness to all beings are the essential
qualifications of the Devoted. They must be humble, respectful and self
controlled. They must pass their days in hearing and reciting the glory
of Bhagavân.

Kapila then described in vivid terms the life and death of a man of the
world and his passage after death to Yâma Loka. He described the rebirth
and went through every detail of fœtal existence. The fœtus acquires
consciousness in the seventh month and gets a recollection of previous
births. This recollection is lost on being born.

Those who selfishly perform their Dharma and worship Devas and Pitris go
to Sōma Loka, and after partaking of Sōma, they are again re-born. And
even their Lokas are destroyed with the daily Pralaya of Brahmâ.

Those who unselfishly perform their duties and give themselves up
entirely to the Supreme Purusha go through Sûrya (Sun) to the
transcosmic Loka of Parama Purusha. The worshippers of Hiranyagarbha
(Brahmâ) reach Brahmâ Loka or Satya Loka and there wait for two
Parârddhas _i.e._ for the life time of Brahmâ and upon the final
dissolution of the Brahmânda go to the trans-cosmic plane of Parama
Purusha.

Brahmâ, Marichi and other Rishis, the Kumâras and Siddhas do their
assigned work unselfishly, but their Upâsanâ admits of distinction. So
they are absorbed in the Second or the First Manifested Purusha at
Pralaya and become re-born at creation.

Devahûti heard all this from Kapila. Her doubts were all removed and she
found the light within herself. She remained fixed in meditation as long
as her Prârabdha was not exhausted. She then attained Mukti.

Kapila first went towards the North. The sea then gave Him place, where
He still lies in deep Samâdhi, for the peace of Trilokî. (Gangâ Sâgar or
Saugor is said to be the seat of Kapila).

    ¹ These are the five kinds of Mukti. Sâlokya is residence in the
      same Loka with the Supreme Being. Sârshti is equality with the
      Supreme Being in all the divine attributes. Sâmipya is
      assimilation to the deity. Sâynjya is absorption into the Supreme
      Being.



SKANDHA IV.



THE GENEALOGY OF MANU AND THE RISHIS.


*SKANDHA IV. CHAP. 1.*

In every Manvantarâ, there are one Manu, sons of Manu, Devas, Indra or
king of the Devas, seven Rishis and one Avatâra of Vishnu. The Avatâras
of Purusha propel Manu and others to their work. At the end of every
cycle of 4 Yugas, the Rishis by their Tapas find out the lost Srutis and
revive the old Dharma. The Manus propound the Dharma. The sons of Manu
including their descendants and others preserve the Dharma, in their
respective times, to the end of the Manvantara. The Devas help them in
their work. Indra preserves the Trilokî and sends down rains" VIII. —
14.

In the Svâyambhuva Manvantara, Svâyambhuva was Manu, the Tushita Devas
were the Devatâs, Marichi and others were the seven Rishis, Yajna was
both Avatâra and Indra. Priyavrata and Uttânpada were the two sons of
Manu.

A number of genealogical tables are given below:

(N. B. The female names are given in italics)

TABLE A.

    SVÂYAMBHUVA MANU  m.
         SATARÛPA −−−−−+−−−Priyavrata
                       |
                       +−−−Uttânpâda
                       |
                       +−−−Akûti
                       |     m. Ruchi        +−−− KAPILA
                       |                     |
                       +−−−Devahûti          |
                       |     m. Kardama −−−−−+−−− _Kalâ_
                       |                     |     m.  Marichi
                       +−−−Prasûti           |
                             m. Daksha       +−−− _Anasuyâ_
                                             |     m.  Atri
                                             |
                                             +−−− _Sraddhâ_
                                             |     m.  Angirasa
                                             |
                                             +−−− _Havirbhu_
                                             |     m.  Pulastya
                                             |
                                             +−−− _Gati_
                                             |     m.  Pulaha
                                             |
                                             +−−− _Kriyâ_
                                             |     m.  Kratu
                                             |
                                             +−−− _Khyâti_
                                             |     m.  Bhrigu
                                             |
                                             +−−− _Arundhati_
                                             |     m.  Vasistha
                                             |
                                             +−−− _Sauti_
                                                   m.  Atharvan

TABLE B.

    RUCHI  m.
         ÂKÛTI −−− YAJNA  −−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
                    (married his        +−−+−−− Tosha
                    sister) Dakshinâ. −−+  |
                                           |
                                           +−−− Pratosha
                                           |
                                           |
                                           +−−− Santosha
                                           |
                                           |
                                           +−−− Bhadra
                                           |
                                           |
                                           +−−− Sâuti
                                           |
                                           |
                                           +−−− Idâmpati
                                           |
                                           |
                                           +−−− Idhma
                                           |
                                           |
                                           +−−− Kavi
                                           |
                                           |
                                           +−−− Vibhu
                                           |
                                           |
                                           +−−− Svâhra
                                           |
                                           |
                                           +−−− Sudiva
                                           |
                                           |
                                           +−−− Rochana

     N.B. The sons of Yajna are the Sushita Devas of the 1st. Manvantarâ.

TABLE C.

       Marichi
       _m. Kalâ_
         |
         |
    −−+−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−
      |                    |
    Kasyapa             Pûrnimâ
                           |
            +−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−
            |              |            |
         Viraja         Visvaga     _Devakulyâ_
                                  (River Ganges in
                                subsequent incarnation).

TABLE D.

                        Atri
                     _m. Anasuyâa_
                          |
      +−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
      |                |                           |
    Datta          Durvasas                      Sōma
                   (Rudra)                     (Brahmâ)

TABLE E.

                        Angirasa
                         _m. Sraddhâ_
                            |
    −−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−
       |          |       |          |          |        |
    Sinivali     Kuhû    Râkâ     Anumati    Utathya Vrihaspati

TABLE F.

                          Pulastya
                          _m. Havirbhu_
                              |
    −−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
                 |                             |
              Agastya                       Visvaras
      m. (1) Ilavila    m. (2) Kesinî
            |                |
          Kuvera      +−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
                      |             |             |
                   Râvana       Kumbhakarna   Vibhisana

TABLE G.

                          Pulaha
                          _m. Gati_
                             |
      −−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−
           |               |                 |
    Karma Sreshtha      Bariyas          Sahishnu

TABLE H.

              Kratu
             _m. Kriyâ_
                |
    60,000 Balakhilya Rishis

TABLE I.

                           Vasishtha
                       _m. Aruudhati (Urjâ)_
                                |
    −−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−+−−+−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
         |         |        |      |       |          |           |
    Chitraketu, Surochi, Virajâ, Mitra, Ulvana, Vasubhirdyana, Duyuman,

TABLE J.

           Atharvan
           _m. Chitti_
              |
    Dadhîchi ( Asvasiras )

TABLE K.

                            Bhrigu
                            _m. Khyati_
                               |
       +−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+
       |               |                 |           |
     Dhâtâ          Vidhâtâ             Srî        Kavi
     m. Ayati       m. Niyati                        |
       |               |                             |
    Mrikundu       Vedasiras                       Usanas
       |
    Markândeya

TABLE L.

    Daksha
      m. Prasûti  −−−+−−  m.  Dharma
                     |
                     |
                     +−− _Sraddhâ_, −−− Satya
                     |
                     |
                     +−− _Maitrî_,  −−− Prasâda
                     |
                     |
                     +−− _Dayâ_,    −−− Abhaya
                     |
                     |
                     +−− _Santi_,   −−− Sama
                     |
                     |
                     +−− _Tushti_,  −−− Harsha
                     |
                     |
                     +−− _Pushti_,  −−− Garva
                     |
                     |
                     +−− _Kriyâ_,   −−− Yoga
                     |
                     |
                     +−− _Unnati_,  −−− Darpa
                     |
                     |
                     +−− _Buddhi_,  −−− Artha
                     |
                     |
                     +−− _Medhâ_,   −−− Smriti
                     |
                     |
                     +−− _Titkshâ_, −−− Kshema
                     |
                     |
                     +−− _Lajjâ_,   −−− Vinaya
                     |
                     |
                     +−− _Mûrti_
                     |  m.  Dharma   −−+−− Nara
                     |                 |
                     |                 +−− Nârayâna
                     |
                     +−− _Svahâ_
                     |  m.  Agni    −−−+−− Pâvaka−−+
                     |                 |           |
                     |                 +−− Pavamân−+−− 45 Fires
                     |                 |           |   (Agni).
                     |                 +−− Suchi−−−+
                     |
                     |
                     +−− _Svadhâ_,
                     |  m.  Pitris   −−+−− Vayunâ
                     |                 |
                     |                 +−− Dhûrini
                     |
                     +−− _Sâti_
                     |    m.  Śiva
                     |
                     |

TABLE M.

                 Adharma
                 _m. Mithyâ_
                    |
      +−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
      |                            |
    Damba        Married         _Mâyâ_
                    |
      +−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
      |                            |
    Lôbha        Married       _Sathatâ_
                    |
      +−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
      |                            |
    Krôdha       Married        _Hinsâ_
                    |
      +−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
      |                            |
    Kali         Married        _Durukti_
                    |
      +−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
      |                            |
    Mrityu       Married         _Bhiti_
                    |
      +−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
      |                            |
    Niraya                      _Yatanâ_

TABLE N.

                        Uttânapâda
           _m. Suruchi_
               |
             Uttama
        (killed by Yaksha)           _m. Sunîti_
                                         |
               +−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
               |
             Dhruva
             m. Ilâ                m. Bharami
               |                         +−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
        +−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+                |             |
        |               |              Kalpa        Vatsara
     Utkala          (Daughter)                      _m. Suvîthi_
                                                       |
     m. Prabhâ       −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−+−+−−−+−−−−+−−−
        |              |             |         |     |     |    |
        |           Pushparna,   Tigmaketu,  Isha, Ûrja, Vasu, Jaya
        |
     +−−+−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+
     |      |            |
    Prâtar Madhyandina Sâyam m. Doshâ
                              |
                              |
                +−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
                |             |               |
             Pradosha,     Nisitha,        Vyushta
                                            _m. Pushkarinî_
                                              |
                                          Sarvatejas
                                              or
                                           Chakshus
                                            _m. Âkûtî_
                                              |
                                            Manu
                                            _m. Nadvalâ_
                                              |
      +−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−
      |       |       |     |         |          |         |        |      |
    Puru, Kritasna, Rita, Vrata, Agnishtoma, Atirâtra, Pradyumna, Sivi, Ulmûka
                                                                           |
                       +−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+
                       |       |        |       |        |        |
                     Anga,  Sumanas,  Svâti,  Kratu,  Angiras,  Gaya.

Table N.--(_Contd._)

                       _M. Sunîthâ_
                            |
                          Vena
                      (By Churning)
                            |
                          PRITHU
                         _M. Archi_
                            |
       −−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−
          |             |             |          |         |
      Vijitâsva,    Haryaksha,   Dhûmrakesha,   Vrika,   Dravina.
          or
      Antardhâna
    _M. Skihandini_         _M. Nabhasvati_
          |                          |
    −−+−−−+−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−    −−−−−+−−−−−−−−
      |         |        |           |
    Pâvaka,  Pavaman,  Suchi     Habirdhâna
                                 _M. Habirdhâni_
                                         |
          −−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−
              |          |      |        |        |         |
          Barhishad,   Gaya,  Sukla,  Krishna,  Satya,  Jitabrata
             or
        Prâ−china Barhi
       _M. Satadruti_ (Daughter of Ocean God)
              |
       10 Prachetas
      M. The Vegetable daughter of Kaudu and Pramlochâ
              |
       Daksha (of Chakshusha Manvantara)
       _M. Asikni_ (Daughter of Panchajana)
              |
           +−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
           |                      |                |
     10,000 Haryasva,    1,000 Sabalasva,   60 Daughters

                                            10 Married to Dharma
                                             2    "     " Bhuta
                                             2    "     " Angiras
                                             2    "     " Krisasva
                                             4    "     " Tarksha
                                            27    "     " Moon
                                            13    "     " Kasyapa
                                         −−−−−−
                                            60

TABLE O.

    Dharma

    m.
    _1. Bhanu,_ −−−− Devarshava −−−− Indra Sena

    m.
    _2. Lambâ,_  −−−− Vidyota    −−−− The Clouds

    m.
    _3. Kakuâ,_ −−−− Sankata    −−−− Kikata (The Presiding−Gods
                                      of earth cavities.)

    m.
    _4. Yâmi,_  −−−− Svarga     −−−− Nandi

    m.
    _5. Visvâ,_ −−−− The Visvadevas

    m.
    _6. Sâdhya,_ −−− The Sâdhyas −−−− Arthasidhi

    m.
    7. Maruvatî,    −−+−− Marutvat
                      |
                      +−− Jayanta or Upendra

    m.
    _8. Muhûrta,_  −−− The Muhurta−Gods

    m.
    _9. Sankalpâ._  −−− Sankalpa −−−− Kâma

    m.
    10. Vasu      −−−−+−−− Drona,
                      |     m. Anumati   −−−−+−− Harsha
                      |                      |
                      |                      +−− Soka &c.
                      |
                      +−−− Prana,
                      |     m. Urjasvati   −−+−− Saha,
                      |                      |
                      |                      +−− Âyus,
                      |                      |
                      |                      +−− Purojava.
                      |
                      +−−− Dhruva
                      |     m. Dharanî   −−−−− The different
                      |                        Localities (Pura).
                      |
                      +−−− Arka
                      |      _m. Vâsanâ_ −−−−−− Tarsha &c.
                      |
                      +−−− Agni
                      |     m. Dhârâ    −−−−−+−− Skânda −−−− _Visâkhû &c._
                      |                      | (Kartikeya)
                      |                      |
                      |                      +−− Dravinaka & c.
                      |
                      +−−− Dosha
                      |      _m. Sarvarî_ −−−−− Sisumâra
                      |
                      +−−− Vâstu
                      |     m. Ângirasi   −−−− Visvakarmâ −−+−− Châkshush Manu
                      |                                     |
                      |                                     +−− Visvadevas
                      |                                     |
                      |                                     +−− Sâdhyas
                      |
                      +−−− Vibhâvasu
                            m. Ûshâ   −−−−−−−+−− Vyustha,
                                             |
                                             +−− Rochisha,
                                             |
                                             +−− Âtapa −−−−− Panchayâma

TABLE P.

    Bhûta
      m. 11. Svarupâ  −−−−+−− Raivata,
                          |
                          +−− Aja,
                          |
                          +−− Bhava,
                          |
                          +−− Bhîma,
                          |
                          +−− Bâma,
                          |
                          +−− Ugra,
                          |
                          +−− Vrishâkapi,
                          |
                          +−− Ajaikpâda,
                          |
                          +−− Bahurûpa,
                          |
                          +−− Mahânand
                              Millions
                              of such
                              Rudras.

    12. Married another
        wife −−−−−−−−−−−−− Pretas

TABLE Q.

                     Angirasa

    _m. 13 Svadhâ_              _m. 14. Satî_
         |                          |
         |                          |
       Pitris                  Aharvângiras

TABLE R.

                      Krisâsva

    _m. 15. Archi_         _m. 16. Dhishanâ_
         |                       |
         |          +−−−−−−−−−−−++−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+
         |          |           |         |        |
     Dhûmaketu   Vedasiras   Devala    Vayuna    Manu.

TABLE S.

                        Tarksha

    m. 17. Vinatâ     m. 18. Kadru     m. 19. Patangî     m. 20. Yâminî
          |                |                 |                  |
        +−+−−−+            |                 |                  |
        |     |            |                 |                  |
     Garuda Aruna       Serpents       Flying birds      Salabha (Moths
                                                          and locusts)

TABLE T.

                 Chandra (Moon)

          _m._ 21 to 47. Krittikâ &c
    (Stars in the lunar path on the Ecliptic.)

TABLE U.

    Kasyapa

        _m. 48. Timî_ −−−−−−−− Aquatic animals,

        _m. 49. Saramâ_ −−−−−− Quadrupeds,
                            (Tigers &c.)

        _m. 50. Suravi_ −−−−−− Cloven footed
                            animals.

        m. 51. Tâmrâ −−−−+−− Syena (falcon)
                         |
                         +−− Gridhra &c. (vulture)

        _m. 52. Muni_   −−−−−−− Apsarasas

        _m. 53. Krodhivasâ_ −−− Dvandasûka &c. (serpents)

        _m. 54. Ilâ_ −−−−−−−−−− Udvid (Plants)

        _m. 55. Suramâ_ −−−−−−− Râkshasas

        _m. 56. Aristhâ_ −−−−−− Gandharvas

        _m. 57. Kâshthâ_ −−−−−− Animals other than
                             cloven−footed.

        m. 58. Danu−−−−−−+−− Dvimûrdhâ,
                         |
                         +−− Samvara,
                         |
                         +−− Aristhâ,
                         |
                         +−− Hayagrîva,
                         |
                         +−− Bibhâvasu,
                         |
                         +−− Ayomukha,
                         |
                         +−− Sankusiras,
                         |
                         +−− Svarbhânu,   −−−− _Suprabha_
                         |                     _m._ Namuchi
                         |
                         +−− Kapila,
                         |
                         +−− Puloman,
                         |
                         +−− Vrishaparva, −−−− _Sarmisthâ_
                         |                     _m._ Yayâti
                         |
                         +−− Ekachakra,
                         |
                         +−− Anutapana,
                         |
                         +−− Dhûmrakesha,
                         |
                         +−− Virûpâksha,
                         |
                         +−− Biprachitti  −−−−+−− Râhu
                         |    m. Sinhakâ      |
                         |                    +−− 100 Ketus.
                         |
                         +−− Durjaya,

    Kasyapa
     m. Aditi   −−+−− Vivasvat
                  |    m. Sanjnâ   −−−−+−− Srâdhadeva
                  |                    |   Manu
                  |                    |   (The present
                  |                    |   Vaivasvata Manu)
                  |                    |
                  |                    +−− Yâma
                  |                    |
                  |                    +−− Yamunâ
                  |                    |
                  |                    +−− Ashvini kumâras
                  |
                  |    m. Chhâyâ  −−−−−+−− Sanaischara,
                  |                    |
                  |                    +−− Sâvarni,
                  |                    |
                  |                    +−− _Tapati_
                  |                        _m._ Samvarana
                  |
                  +−− Aryaman
                  |     _m. Mâtrikâ_ −−−− Charshanis
                  |
                  +−− Pûshan
                  |
                  +−− Tvastri
                  |     _m. Rachanâ_ −−−− Visvarûpa
                  |
                  +−− Tvastri
                  |    m. Prisni    −−−+−− _Sâvitri,_
                  |                    |
                  |                    +−− _Vyâhriti,_
                  |                    |
                  |                    +−− _Trayî,_
                  |                    |
                  |                    +−− Agnihotra,
                  |                    |
                  |                    +−− Pasuyâga,
                  |                    |
                  |                    +−− Sōmayâga,
                  |                    |
                  |                    +−− Châturmasya,
                  |                    |
                  |                    +−− Panchamahâyajna.
                  |
                  +−− Bhaga
                  |    m. Sidhi   −−−−−+−− Mahiman,
                  |                    |
                  |                    +−− Bibhu,
                  |                    |
                  |                    +−− Prabhu,
                  |                    |
                  |                    +−− Asîs
                  |
                  +−− Dhâtri
                  |     _m. Kuhû_ −−−−−− Sâyam
                  |                     _m. Sinivâti_, −−− Darsa
                  |
                  |     _m. Râka_, −−−−−−− Prâtar
                  |
                  |     _m. Anumatî_  −−− Pûrnamâsa
                  |
                  +−− Vidhâtri
                  |     _m. Kriyâ_, −−−−−− Purishya
                  |                     (Five Fires)
                  |
                  +−− Varuna
                  |    m. Charshanî   −−+−− Bhrigu
                  |                     |
                  |                     +−− Vâlmîla
                  |
                  |    m. Urvasî   −−−−−+−− Agastya
                  |                     |
                  |                     +−− Vasistha
                  |
                  +−− Mitra
                  |    m. Revatî   −−−−−+−− Utsarga
                  |                     |
                  |                     +−− Aristhâ
                  |                     |
                  |                     +−− Pippala
                  |
                  +−− Vishnu
                  |    _m. Kîrti_ −−−−− Vrihat slocac −−− Soubhaga
                  |                                       &c.
                  |
                  +−− Hiranyakasipu
                  |     _m. Kayâdhu_
                  |        |
                  |        +−−+−− Samhrâda,
                  |           |     _m. Mati_ −− Panchajana
                  |           |
                  |           +−− Anuhrâda,
                  |           |     m. Suryâ,−−+−− Vâskala
                  |           |                |
                  |           |                +−− Mahisha
                  |           |
                  |           +−− Hlâda,
                  |           |     m. Dhamanî  +−− Vâtapi
                  |           |                 |
                  |           |                 +−− Ilvala
                  |           |
                  |           +−− Prahlâda
                  |                 _m. Drarbî,_
                  |                     |
                  |                 Virochana
                  |                     |
                  |                   Bali
                  |                   _m. Asanâ_
                  |                     |
                  |                     +−−−−−−−−−−+
                  |                     |          |
                  |                    Vâna     100 Sons
                  |
                  +−− Hiranyâksha
                  |
                  +−− 49 Maruts



GENERAL REMARKS ON THE TABLES.


These Tables must not be mistaken for human genealogies. The reader will
have to carry himself in imagination to a time when there was a vast
sheet of nebulous mass, when the globes and planets had not been formed,
and the phenomena now known as day, night, year, month and season were
still unknown.

The process known as Pralaya had absorbed the life energies of Trilokî,
which remained latent in that intermediate plane between the higher and
the lower Lokas known as Mahar Loka. When the creative process set in,
and the ground was prepared for the manifestation of life, life energies
streamed forth from the Mahar Loka, more as types than as individuals.
These types are called Prajâpatis or the Lords of life kingdoms. They
carry back to Trilokî all the life energies of the previous Kalpa. At
Pralaya, they draw back unto themselves all the life energies of the
dying Trilokî, and take a lasting sleep in the archetypal plane ( Mahar
Loka ) to which they properly belong. The Prajâpatis of the First
Manvantara become the Rishis of other Manvantaras. As the first Lords of
creation bring back the life energies as well as the lost experiences of
the previous Kalpa, so the Rishis bring back the lost knowledge of each
Manvantara. This is fully explained in the fourteenth Chapter of the
Eighth Skandha. The Kumârs are not Prajâpatis, as they come from a plane
higher than Mahar Loka. In the first Manvantara, Marichî, Atrî Angirasa,
Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Bhrigu, Vasistha, Daksha, and Nârada are
mentioned as the chief Prajâpatis. Of these, Nârada is not strictly
speaking a Prajâpati, or Lord of creation, as he took no part in the
work of creation, though he is called so having proceeded from Mahar
Loka. Kardama, Ruchi and Visvakarmâ are some of the other Prajâpatis.

Of the Prajâpatis, seven form distinct types by themselves. They preside
over the seven stars, which form the constellation of Great Bear. They
send forth their energies from the plane of the Seven Sages, and guide
the course of life evolution that takes place in Trilokî. The sages are
relieved every Manvantara by others who take up their place. The seven
sages of our Manvantara, are different from the Prajâpatis of the first
Manvantara. It is by great sacrifices and by great efforts that the
highest Rishis of a Manvantara attain the position of the Seven Sages.
The Sages may become Prajâpatis, and Prajâpatis may become Kumâras. And
men may become sages, if they follow the true path. The grades that
divide men from sages or Rishis proper are many, and human evolution
proceeds on the line of those grades.

Energies of another kind proceeded from Mahar Loka, energies known as
Devas and Asuras. They work out, or rather they are intimately connected
with, the tendency of life-evolution. There is a tendency in the
Spiritual Jiva to acquire experience of the lower planes, through senses
which they develop. The Asuras are connected with this tendency. There
is the opposite tendency in the Jiva to get rid of the material taint
and the material restriction earned in the efforts to acquire manifold
experiences and to gain back the original state of purity after the
acquisition of fresh spiritual treasures though the experiences of
matter. The Devas are connected with this tendency.

These are the forms of life which then come into existence and work out
their evolution in this Trilokî.

Life evolution proceeds on two different lines — that of globes and that
of individuals. They are represented by the two sons of Manu —
Priyavrata and Uttânapâda.

In the line of Priyavrata we find how the globes were formed in the
solar system, through various cosmic fires originating from Visvakarmâ,
how this earth was formed, its continents and countries. The different
divisions of the Bhûr Loka are presided over by different forms of
intelligence, who are the sons of Priyavrata.

In the line of Uttânapâda we find the different life kingdoms passing
through different stages of evolution.

First of all, we find a limit is put to life existence in Trilokî by
Dhruva. Dhruva, son of Uttânapâda, presides over the Polar Star. That
Star forms the farthest limit of Trilokî. Matter is so attenuated there
that it can last for one Kalpa. We are speaking of a period when infant
souls merged out to commence the race of life in the present Kalpa. They
were spiritual and highly spiritual too. But they were carried away by
the general current of creative tendencies. They were to limit
themselves by sheath after sheath, so that they might acquire the
experiences of Svar Loka, of Bhuvar Loka and of Bhûr Loka in succession.
Dhruva, the infant soul, a child only five years old, however, resisted
the common temptation. He would not go down, for he had an important
service to render to the Universe. Who would advise him in this noble
mission but Nârada. Nârada was out of element when the creative process
was in full swing, and it was a necessity of life evolution. But there
were instances of exception, instances of noble souls who would not go
in with the general current, but would like to remain fixed in spiritual
life, and Nârada was always to be found helping them with his advice.

Dhruva remained fixed in his early spirituality. That was a sacrifice,
for he could not enrich himself with further spiritual experiences,
through the senses, of the lower planes of life. But he had to keep up
an abode which was to be resorted to by evolved souls in later days,
souls that in due course would reach that high spiritual plane.

From that Kâlpic plane and the dweller thereof, we come to lower planes
and their dwellers, to the divisions of time that rule the lives of
individuals and of lives adapted to these divisions of time. We come
from the elementals of the Svarga plane, or the Devas, to the elementals
of the Astral or Bhuvar plane, the Pitris, Bhûtas, Pretas and Pisâchas,
till we reach the mineral kingdom, represented by Himalya, the Mountain
king. At this point a turning point was reached in life evolution, and
the goddess of life-evolution became the daughter of the Mountain king.
Of this we shall know more hereafter.

We know of Daksha, first as the son of Brahmâ, the creative Prajâpati
when the life-process rapidly worked itself out in Elemental forms. Then
there was no sexual procreation. Creation meant the materialisation of
the Jiva. Satî, the daughter of Daksha, was the guiding energy of
life-evolution. She became wedded to Śiva, the Lord of Bhûtas, Pretas
and Pisâchas who by the infusion of their Tâmasic energies could bring
down Jivas from their high spiritual plane.

When the process of materialisation was over, when the Jivas or Monads
reached the lowest limits of materiality, the mission of Daksha came to
an end.

Life evolution had now to pass through mineral, vegetable and animal
stages, until at last the human stage was reached.

Satî now appeared as the daughter of the mineral king Himâlaya. She gave
the upward bent to life evolution and by the energy she imparted
minerals were able to shake off the rigidity and stability of gross
matter, to develop the sense of touch and to become vegetable at last.
In like manner vegetable became animal, and animals at last became men.

Śiva, the husband of Bhagavati or Durgâ, as Satî was now called, is the
Purusha of Dissolution. Bhagavati is His Energy, Who guides the Monadic
or Jiva Evolution of the Kalpa. It is the wear and tear, the process of
destruction, that counteracts the cohesive strength of the particles
forming mineral matter, which by its action becomes flexible and so
receptive of outside influences.

Cells by division and death become capable of the life process in
themselves. Vegetables grow by the rejection of cells, which
necessitates a number of physiological processes. Death brings on life,
waste, repair.

If animals exist in one and the same body, progress will be limited,
further evolution will be impossible. It is by death that we evolve.

Bhagavatî works out the evolution of life in different kingdoms till the
stage of humanity is reached.

At this point Aryaman, one of the Âdityas, comes to the help of
humanity. Through his influence the sons of humanity become endowed with
the power of reasoning, — the faculty of discrimination.

The sons of Aryaman are called Charshanis. The word Charshani literally
means a cultivator. Its secondary sense given in the Vedic lexicon is
one endowed with the discriminative faculty. The word Charshani is used
in the Vedas for man. It is the equivalent of Arya or Aryan, the
ploughman. But it is not as ploughmen or cultivators, that the Aryans
had their high place in humanity, but as men endowed with the power of
discrimination. And this we owe to Aryaman. This is why, though an
Âditya, he is called the chief of Pitris by Sri Krishna.

"I am Aryaman of the Pitris." — Bhagavat Gitâ.

We have thus the first stage in life evolution, when the spiritual Jiva
had to descend from the elemental to the mineral form. Next we have the
second stage, when minerals passed through higher forms of life till the
Human Kingdom was reached.

Then we have the third stage, when men became endowed with the power of
discrimination.

In the exercise of the discriminative faculty men were helped by their
elder brothers, the Rishis and Mahâtmâs of every period, and by Avatâras
Who apeared from time to time.

Then the ground was prepared for further evolution. The Sacred
Injunctions or the Vedas were revealed to men to give them a sense of
right and wrong, of duties and prohibitions. The Vedas also held out to
the developed sense of men the charming prospect of life in Svarga Loka
with its lasting and alluring enjoyments. This may be called the stage
of Karma Kânda. In following the stages of human evolution we have come
down to Vaivasvatu Manvantara.

Side by side with the efforts made to raise humanity in the scale of
evolution, sin was accumulating in the great Atlantean continent which
spread over the whole of what we now know as the Bay of Bengal. The
Atlanteans had acquired a mastery over the five forces of nature, which
they used for selfish objects and against the cause and current of
evolution.

Then there was a great revolution in Nature. The great Atlantean
Continent went down with its load of sins. The sons of Sagar, the
Atlantean king, became buried under the great ocean, which overtook the
doomed continent, and to this day the sea is called in India, "Sâgar" or
relating to Sagar.

There was a corresponding upheaval in the Himalayas, and the sacred
river Gangâ streamed forth from their sides, inaugurating the spiritual
regeneration of the Universe. Much of what we now know as India must
have been raised up at the time, and on its sacred soil appeared the
great Avatâra Râma, Who put an end to the disorganising, chaos-loving
sons of Lankâ. The people of Lankâ were called Râkshasas as they were
working towards the destruction of all order, all progress in the
Universe, and rendered everything topsy-turvy in Nature.

Now it was time for Sri Krishna to appear, the greatest of all Avatâras
in our Kalpa, Who gave the last bent to the progress of humanity. He
wedded Himself with all the principles that enter into the constitution
of man, so that man may come up to Him. He taught the basic unity of all
beings, and laid down the path of Service and Devotion. He established
the reign of spiritual life, and ever since His lotus feet sanctified
the soil of India, the Scriptures only re-iterate His teachings, and
they all sing His glory for ever and ever. We shall find in its true
place the Service done by Lord Sri Krishna, and how by His Avatarship
humanity has made one more advance in the scale of human evolution. When
the Lord appeared, Bhagavatî made her appearance too as the daughter of
Nanda. It is with Her energy that Sri Krishna performed the mission of
His Avatarship.

This is a bare outline of what the Tables teach us, We shall consider
them each in its own place. We shall find a detailed account as to how
the Universe is preserved. We shall hear of great Rishis, of many
Avatâras, of the part played by Devas and Asurus. We shall see how the
Monads pass through different stages of evolution, till the idea of
perfect humanity is presented by Lord Krishna.

The Tables sometimes speak of life Kingdoms, sometimes of human races,
sometimes of types and principles, and sometimes of individuals.
Sometimes, the names used convey a good deal of hidden meaning,
sometimes they are used at random.

In the line of Priyavratra, we find how globes are formed, how
continents and countries appear. The solidification of earth is
indicated by the muteness of Bharata. Bhârata Varsa or India is called
the first born of all countries, and other lands are enjoined to follow
and to obey their eldest brother.


TABLE A.


*SKANDHA IV. CHAP. 1.*

The names of the first table have been considered before.


TABLE B.


*SKANDHA IV. CHAP. 1.*

Ruchi and Akuti both mean Wish, Desire. Yajna is sacrifice, Dakshinâ
means ordinarily the present made to a Brâhmana for officiating at a
ceremony. It is also the present made for the performance of a Vedic
sacrifice. No Vedic sacrifice is complete without the present of
Dakshinâ to the officiating priest. Dakshinâ was married to Yajna, for
they are inseparable. Possibly Yajna has reference to the elemental or
Devic character of life forms in the first Manvantara. That also
explains why there was no Indra separate from the Avatâra of the
Manvantara.

The first Manvantara was one of Pravritti or Descent, Spirit could
descend into matters only with the help of Desire. Desire is the father
of Kâma — Kâma is the characteristic of Vedic Yajna. Yajna therefore
guided the First Manvantara. He was the Avatâra of Vishnu as well as the
Indra of the Devas.

The sons of Yajna were the Devas of the First Manvantarâ. The Bhâgavata
calls them Sushita or Bliss gods. The Vishnu Purâna calls them Yâma
Devas. The Manvantara Devas have for their mission the carrying out of
the cyclic work of the Manvantara.


TABLE C.


*SKANDHA IV. CHAP. 1.*

Marichi means literally a ray of light. The word is frequently applied
to the sun’s ray. As the sun’s ray breaks up into the component colours,
so the line of Marichi broke up into the life kingdoms. Kalâ means a
digit of the moon. Kasyapa was the son of Marichi and Kalâ. He married
the 13 daughters of Daksha, in the line Uttânapada. By his wives,
Kasyapa was the father of Suras and Asuras, of elementals, vegetables,
animals and men. He is directly connected with the Monads. Marichi and
Kalâ have a special significance in reference to Jivic evolution. Does
the pair symbolise the sun’s ray reflected on the Moon or the Atmic ray
reflected on Buddhi? Any how Marichi and Kalâ imply the divine ray in
the Jivas or Âtma-Buddhi.

The monads of individuals are limited by the shells or bodies of
Kasyapa’s line. (The word Kasyapa means primarily bed, seat). They come
through Pûrnima, daughter of Marichi. The sons of Pûrnima are Viraja and
Visvaga.

Viraja is free from Rajas. Visvaga means one who goes all over the
Universe. Viraja and Visvaga are Universal aspects of Jivic
Intelligence.

(Viraja is the father of Vairâjas). Devakulyâ is the daughter of
Purnimâ. She flowed from the washings of the feet of Vishnu and became
the divine river Gangâ.


TABLE D.


*SKANDHA IV. CHAP. 1.*

Atri = _a_ (not ) + _tri_ (three). Not three, but three in one. Anasuyâ
= (not)+*asuyâ* (envy, intolerance, jealousy).

Atri made severe Tapas for one hundred years for a son like unto the
Lord of the Universe. The ascetic fire at last broke forth from his head
and instantly Brahmâ, Vishnu and Śiva appeared before him.

"Lords!" said Atri, "I had only one of you in my mind, but you have all
Three come to me!"

The Trinity replied: — "We are three in one. You shall have three sons,
one after each of us."

Anasuyâ begot Sōma or the Moon after Brahmâ, Datta or Dattâtreya after
Vishnu and Durvâsas after Śiva.

[The Moon is thus a sort of Brahmâ or creator to the present Kalpa.]

Atri represents the Creative, the Preservative and the Destructive
Intelligence in the individual, all united to carry out the complex
process of evolution.

The Brihat Aranyaka certainly refers to one of his aspects in the
following passage: —

"Speech is Attri; for by speech food is consumed; for Attri is verily
derived from the root Attih (to eat, consume); he is the consumer of
all." II-2-4.


TABLE E.


"Where was he, who thus established us? He Is within the mouth; hence is
Ayâsya. He is Angirasa, because he is the essence of the members."
Brihat Aranyaka I-3-8.

Commenting on this passage Sankarâcharya says: "Life is also called
Angirasa, the essence of causes and effects. Angirasa is a compound of
Anga and Râsa — Anga meaning members, causes, and effects, and Râsa
essence, substance; the whole meaning therefore is the substance, upon
which causes and effects depend — It is the essence of every thing,
because unless it were present, all would become without effect."

"He who abides in the mouth is Angirasa, for he is the essence (Râsa) of
the members (Anga). Life is the essence of the members. This is also
Brihaspati. Speech is Brihati. Life is the preserver (_pati_) of
Brihati, therefore it is Brihaspati."

B.A. I-3-19 and 20.

Brihaspati or the presiding deity of the planet Jupiter is called
Angirasa _i.e._ the son of Angiras. The wife of Angiras is, according to
the Bhâgavata, Sraddha or Faith, and, according to Vishnu Purina, Smriti
or Memory. The latter is a more suggestive name. Brihaspati or Jupiter
is the essence of all beings and of the Universe and is connected with
the memory of the past.

Angirasa is the Rishi of the 5th Mandala of the Rig Veda. The Mantras of
that Mandala are composed in the Brihati or big Metre. This accounts for
the name Brihaspati (Brihati+pati).

Brihaspati or Jupiter, as the guide of the Devas, has to play a most
important part in bringing about the life evolution of the present Kalpa
according to the records of the past and the essence or Râsa of all
beings. The Âranyaka therefore calls him life itself.

Utathya, another son of Angiras, is _u+tathya_. _U_ is an interjection,
used as an expletive — _Tathya_ means reality, truth — Utathya is said
to be an incarnation of Vishnu. Both the brothers are said to have
distinguished themselves in the Second Manvantarâ. _Sinivâli_ is the day
preceding that of new moon or that day on which the moon rises with a
scarcely visible crescent. Kuhâ is new moon day when the moon is
altogether invisible.

_Râkâ_ is the full moon day.

_Anumati_ is the 15th day of the moon’s age on which she rises one digit
less than full.

The full moon and new moon days have thus a mysterious connection with
the essence of all beings. On those days the herbs have their medicinal
properties in full and even men have mysterious potencies, which have
formed the subject of occult study.


TABLE F.


Pulastya = Pula + Stya.

_Pula_ is large, wide. It also means a thrill of joy or fear.

_Stya_ is he who collects, is connected with, remains in. Agastya = Aga
+ Stya.

_Aga_ is mountain, unable to walk, fixed.

According to a Pauranik legend, the Vindhya mountain began to rise
higher and higher so as to obstruct the path of the sun and moon. The
gods being alarmed sought the aid of Agastya who was the teacher of
Vindhya. The Rishi approached the mountain and asked it to bend down and
give him an easy passage to the south and to retain the same position
till his return. Vindhya obeyed the order of his teacher, but Agastya
never returned from the south and Vindhya never attained the height of
Meru.

According to the Bhâgavata, Agastya is the digestive fire of the
stomach.

Visravas = Vi (signifying intensity) + Sravas (ear).

Kubera is literally deformed. He is the god of riches and Regent of the
North. He is the king of the Yakshas and Kinnaras and a friend of Rudra.
His abode is Kailâsa. He is represented as having three legs, only eight
teeth and a yellow mark in place of one eye.

Râvana, Kumbhakarna and Vibhishana are Râkshasas made famous by the
Râmayana.

Râvana is one who makes a loud noise. The Râkshasas reached the height
of their power in his time. The Yakshas, before his time, had occupied
Lankâ or Atlantis under Kubera, but Râvana propitiated Śiva by his loud
hymns, and acquired easy mastery over his kindred elementals. He ousted
the Yakshas from Lankâ and made it his own capital. Râvana also
controlled the higher Devas of Trilokî.

Kumbha karna = Kumbha (pitcher) + Karna (ear). This pitcher-eared
brother of Râvana is said to have devoured thousands of beings including
sages and heavenly nymphs. He slept for six months at a time. He was
ultimately slain by Râma.

Vibhisana, meaning the Terrible, left his brother Râvana and joined
Râma. After the death of Râvana, Râma installed him on the throne of
Lankâ. He is said to be still living.

The Râkshasas are said to have possessed Kâma Rupa _i.e._ they could
assume any body at will.

In the line of Pulastya we have this strange combination — the digestive
fire of stomach, ears, Yakshas and lastly the Râkshasas who could change
their body at will. Altogether we may say, Pulastya is Intelligence
which governs animal passions and Kâma.


TABLE G.


Pulaha = Pula + ha. _Ha_ is one who gives up.

_Gati_ is motion.

_Karma-Srestha_ is one most skilled in karma or work.

_Varîyas_ is excellent, preferable.

_Sahishnu_ is patient, enduring.

Pulaha seems to be the higher aspect of Kâma — the impulses pure and
simple, apart from their Kâmic generator, or perhaps Pulaha may
represent Prânic activity.


TABLE H.


Kratu is a Vedic sacrifice, intelligence, power, ability. Kriyâ is
action.

Bâlakhilyas — are a class of Rishis 60,000 in number, of the size of the
thumb, and are said to precede the sun’s chariot. The word literally
implies stunted in growth like infants. These Rishis are said to burn
brightly with the spiritual fire of asceticism. The number 60,000 is
significant. It indicates a correspondence.

Perhaps the Rishis represent the sense perceptions which are guided by
the Adhidevas who have their abode in the heart of the sun. The
Balakhilya Rishis are therefore said to accompany the sun’s chariot.
Their connection with Vedic sacrifices is also intelligible, as they are
generally directed to the Adhidevas.


TABLE I.


Vaśisthâ is the Controller. He is the spiritual teacher of the Solar
Race and represents spiritual Intelligence or Higher Manas. He is the
controller of the senses and the lower mind.

Urjâ is Energy. She is also called Arundhati.


TABLE J.


_Atharvan_ — The Veda called by that name.

_Dadhîchi_ — The name of a Rishi who accepted death In order to serve
the Devas. Visvakarmân forged the thunderbolt with his bones and Indra
defeated Vritra, the Asura King, with that weapon.

The line of Atharvan represents self sacrifice for universal good as
well as magic or occult wisdom.


TABLE K.


_Bhrigu_ — is the Dweller of Mahar Loka, or the Archetypal plane. Upon
the Pralaya of Trilokî, the essence of that triple plane and its Karma
become embedded in Mahar Loka. The creative process sets in again in
strict conformity to the Karma of the past. Bhrigu is therefore father
of:

_Dhâtâ_ — or Universal Karma

_Vidhâtâ_ — or Individual Karma, and

_Sri_ or _Lakshmî_ — the wife of Vishnu, the Energy of Preservation.

_Ayati_ — or potency is the wife of Dhâtâ, Mrikandu and Markandeya, are
in this line.

_Niyati_ — or fate, is the wife of Vidhâtâ. Prâna and Vedasiras are in
this line.

_Kavi_ — is another son of Bhrigu and _Usanas_ or _Sukra_ is Kavi’s son.
But according to some authorities Kavi is the same as Usanas. It is a
matter for reflection how Sukra or the presiding Rishi of the planet
Venus is connected with Mahar Loka or the trans-personal plane. Mahar
Loka is the first approach to universality and therefore may correspond
to Higher Manas. However that be, Venus corresponds to the first plane
of universality.

The consideration of Tables C to K has proved to be an interesting one.
But readers are requested to remember that this is a mere study by an
inquiring student and they are left to think for themselves. I might
have dwelt at some length on this portion of the subject, but that would
be going beyond the scope of the present work.

Briefly speaking then,

_Marîchi_ — is Monâdic ray or Âtmâ-Buddhi,

_Atri_ — is the adjustment of the creative, preservative and destructive
tendencies in a Jiva,

_Angiras_ — is the Essence of Creation, the auric repository of the
Jiva,

_Pulastya_ — is Kâmic Intelligence,

_Pulaha_ — is higher Kâmic Intelligence, or it may be Prânic also,

_Kratu_ — is lower Mânasic Intelligence,

_Vasishtha_ — is Higher Mânasic Intelligence.


TABLE L.


_Daksha_ — is the Able.

_Prasûti_ — is the Mother, the Procreative Energy. During the First
Manvantara Daksha had nothing to do with sexual procreation. He was the
father of 16 primal energies. These energies were wedded to Dharma,
Agni, the Pitris and Śiva — 13 to Dharma and one to each of the others.

_Dharma_ — is that which binds the creation. Man and man, man and
animal, animal and animal, all forms of creation are kept together by
Dharma. The binding forces of creation are the wives of Dharma.

_Sraddhâ_ or Faith is the first wife of Dharma. Her son is _Satya_ or
Truth.

_Maitri_ or Friendliness is the second wife. Her son is _Prasâda_ or
complacence.

_Dayâ_ or compassion is the third wife. Her son is _Abhaya_ or Freedom
from fear.

_Sânti_ or Peace is the fourth wife. Her son is _Sama_ or Tranquility.

The fifth wife is _Tushti_ or contentment. Her son is _Harsha_ or joy.

The sixth wife is _Pushti_ or Fullness. Her son is _Garva_ or Pride.

The seventh wife is _Kriyâ_. Her son is _Yoga_.

The eighth wife is _Unnati_ or Advancement. Her son is _Darpa_ or
Vanity.

The ninth wife is _Buddhi_. Her son is _Artha_.

The tenth wife is _Medhâ_ or Intellect. Her son is _Smriti_ or Memory.

The eleventh wife is _Titikshâ_ or Forbearance. Her son is _Kshema_ or
Well-being.

The twelfth wife is _Lajjâ_ or Shame. Her son is _Vinaya_ or Modesty.

The thirteenth and last wife of Dharma is _Mûrti_ or Form. Her sons are
Nara and Nârâyana, _i.e._ Humanity and Divinity. The Human Form
constitute a Duality. It is in this dual form that Sri Krishna
incarnated Himself.

From Dharma we pass to Agni.

[Agni is used in many senses. It means the channel of communication
between different kingdoms in nature, specially between Man and Deva, as
also a vehicle of consciousness, and sometimes consciousness itself. It
also means the Rupa or form-giving principle in the Universe. It is
frequently used in the Purânas in the last sense.]

Agni was wedded to _Svâhâ_, the 14th. daughter of Daksha. His three sons
are _Pâvaka_ or the Purifier, _Pavamân_ or that which is being purified
and _Sâchi_ or Pure. They have 45 sons who with their fathers and
grandfather form the Forty-nine Fires. They are separately mentioned in
the Vedic Sacrifices in honour of Agni.

_Svadhâ_ is the 15th. daughter of Daksha. She was married to the Pitris.
Agnishvatvâ, Barhishad, Sōmapa and Âjyapa are the names of the Pitris.
They are with fire (Sagni) or without fire (Niragini). Svadhâ bore two
daughters to the Pitris, Vayunâ and Dhârini. Both of them were
well-versed in the Supreme wisdom.

[_Vayânâ_ is knowledge, wisdom, faculty of perception. _Dhârini_ means
that which bears, holds, carries, supports. Sometimes the word is used
to mean the earth.

This two-fold classification means that some of the Pitris give the
_body_, which is the receptacle or carrier, with its sub-divisions, and
others give knowledge, wisdom and the faculties of perception].

_Sâti_ is the last daughter of Daksha. She was wedded to Śiva. We shall
specially notice her in the succeeding chapter.



THE QUARREL BETWEEN ŚIVA AND DAKSHA.


*SKANDHA IV., CHAP. 2.*

Of old the Prajâpaties performed a Yajna, and the Devas and Rishis all
graced the occasion with their presence. Prajâpati Daksha entered the
assembly, when all stood up to receive him, except Brahmâ and Śiva.
Daksha saluted his father Brahmâ and with His permission took a seat.
But he was so mortified by the conduct of Śiva that he could not contain
himself, and indignantly broke forth thus: — "O you, Rishis, Devas and
Agni! Witness this disgraceful conduct of Śiva my own son-in-law, rather
my disciple. This senseless being would not do so much as rise up and
receive me. He has no sense of respect and dis-respect, of purity and
impurity. He is mindless of all injunctions and observances. Do you
know, what he does? He roves like a mad man in the crematories, with his
host of Bhûtas, Pretas and Pisâchas, sometimes laughing, sometimes
weeping, his body covered over with the ashes of dead bodies, their
bones serving for his ornaments. His name is Śiva (auspicious). But he
is really A-Śiva (inauspicious). He is fond of intoxication, and his
companions are the impure and senseless Bhûtas. Oh! that I have given my
daughter Sâti in marriage to him. That was simply to obey the orders of
Brahmâ."

Śiva remained unmoved. Daksha went on abusing Him and at last he cursed
Śiva saying "This vilest of Devas shall not participate in the
sacrificial offerings to Indra, Upendra and others." He then left the
place in a rage.

Nandisvara, the chief companion of Śiva, could not bear the gross and
wanton insult done to his master. He retorted in angry tones the unkind
words of Daksha and the approbation of some of the councillors. "Śiva
bears malice to none. It is Daksha who makes differences, where there
are none. Ignorant people follow him and blame Śiva. The Vedas deal with
transitory objects. Worldly attachments receive an impetus from the
Karma Kânda of the Vedas and they beget vices and evil deeds. This
Daksha looks upon the body as the soul. He shall be as fond of women as
a beast and his face shall he that of an Ajâ (goat). Verily he deserves
this, as he looks upon Avidyâ as Tatvavidyâ. He publicly insults Śiva.
The Brâhmanas who follow him shall go through the repeated course of
births and deaths and shall resort to the apparently pleasing Karma
Kânda of the Vedas. These Brâhmanas shall have no scruples to eat
anything and they shall make a profession of their learning, their Tapas
and their austerities (Vrata). They shall consider their riches, their
body and their Indriyas to be all in all. They shall beg about from door
to door."

Bhrigu, the leader of the Brâhmanas, thus returned the curses of Nandi
on the followers of Śiva: — "Those that will follow Śiva, shall be
disregardful of the Sat (real) Śastras and shall be irreligious. With
braids of hair on their head, and ashes and bones round their body, they
shall frequent places where wine is indulged in. The Vedas have at all
times laid down the approved path. The Rishis of old followed their
injunctions and Nârâyana is at their very root. Those that forget all
this shall only attain the Tâmasic Śiva, the Lord of Bhûtas and
Pishachas."

Śiva with his followers then left the place. The Prajâpatis performed
the Yajna for 1,000 years.

Sometime after, Brahmâ made Daksha the head of the Prajâpatis, and his
pride knew no bounds. He commenced a sacrifice called Vrihaspati Yajna
and to it he invited all except Śiva and his own daughter Sâti. Sâti
heard of the grand preparations made by her father and became impatient
to witness the Yajna herself. Śiva at last yielded to her expostulations
much against His own will. She left for Daksha’s house accompanied by
the attendants of Śiva. At last she reached her father’s house and went
to the place of sacrifice. But her father would not receive her. She did
not find any offering to Śiva. She could easily make out that Daksha had
disregarded her husband. No attention was also paid to her. She grew
furious with rage and addressing her father said: — "With Śiva, all are
equal. He has enmity with none. Who else but thee could be envious of
his virtues? Thou hast attributed evil things to Śiva. But do not the
Devas know all that and knowingly worship Him? If the devoted wife
cannot kill her husband’s calumniators, she must leave the place with
ears closed with her hands. But if she is strong enough, she must in the
first place sever the tongue of the calumniator from his body by force
and then put an end to herself. Thou art the calumniator of Śiva. This
my body is from thee, so I shall not keep it any longer. If prohibited
food is taken, the best thing is to throw it out. True, there are the
two Paths of Inclination (Pravritti) and of Renunciation (Nivritti). But
one cannot adopt both the Paths at one and the same time. What action is
there for Śiva? He is Brahmâ Himself. Thou speakest of His ashes and
bones. But hast thou any idea of His Yogic powers, in comparison with
which thy powers as a performer of Vedic sacrifices are nothing? But
there is no use wrangling with thee. I am ashamed of this body which has
connection with thee. The sooner I get rid of it the better."

So saying Sâti gave up her body, and there was great uproar. Her
attendants made ready for an attack, when Bhirgu, who acted as Adhvaryu,
invoked the Ribhus. They appeared and beat the attendants of Śiva, who
ran away on all sides.

Nârada informed Śiva of what had happened. Śiva bit His lips in anger
and tore up a Jatâ (matted hairtuft) from his head. The Jatâ glowed with
electric fire.

He threw it down on the earth and the terrible Virabhadra sprang from
it. His tall body reached the high heavens. He was dark as the clouds.
He had one thousand hands, three eyes burning like the sun, teeth
terrible to look at, and tufts of hair bright as fire. He had a garland
of human skulls round his neck and there were various weapons in his
hands.

"What are thy behests, O Lord?" exclaimed Virabhadra. "Thou art clever
in fight, child, thou hast nothing to fear from the Brâhmanas, for
verily thou art part of myself. Go forth at the head of my army. Put an
end to Daksha and his Yajna." Such was the command of Śiva. Virabhadra
rushed forth with trident in hand, and the attendants of Śiva followed
him with enthusiasm and noise. The priests, the Brâhmanas and their
wives present at Daksha’s sacrifice saw a huge dust storm, as it were,
coming from the north. "Can it be the hurricane?" thought they, "but the
wind is not strong. Can this be the march of robbers? But King
Prâchinabarhi is still alive. In his reign there is no fear from
robbers. No one is driving cattle. What can be the cause of this
approaching volume of dust?" The attendants of Śiva arrived in no time.
Some of them were brown coloured, some yellow. Some had their belly,
some their face, like Makara. They broke the implements of sacrifice and
scattered them around. They pulled down the buildings and put out the
fires. They made all sorts of sacrilege, ran after the Rishis and Devas
and frightened the women. Manimân caught hold of Bhrigu and tied him up.
Virabhadra captured Daksha; Chandesa captured Sûryya and Nandisvara
captured Bhaga. Seeing this, the other Brâhmanas and Devas took to
flight, but they were grievously hurt by the stones cast at them by the
followers of Śiva. Virabhadra began to uproot the beard of Bhrigu, for
while scoffing Śiva he made his beard prominent. Nandishvara pulled out
the two eye-balls of Bhaga, for he had encouraged Daksha by side
glances. Virabhadra did not also spare Pûshan, and pulled out all his
teeth. Pûshan had showed his teeth while smiling in approval of Daksha’s
abuse. But the crowning act of Virabhadra was still to come. He sprang
upon Daksha and made several attempts to cut off his head. But the head
resisted all his strokes. Wonder-struck, he took at last the weapons of
sacrifice and easily severed the head of Daksha even as it were the head
of a beast of sacrifice. Loud were the lamentations at the place of
sacrifice when Virbhadra with his followers left it for Kailâsa.

The Devas after this signal defeat went to Brahmâ. Brahmâ and Vishnu
knew what was to happen at Daksha’s sacrifice, so they had kept
themselves aloof. When the Devas had related their mishap, Brahmâ
explained to them that they had done wrong in not allowing Śiva to
participate in the Yajna offering. There was no help now but to appease
the Astral Lord, Who could destroy the Universe at His will. So saying
Brahmâ himself went with the Devas to Kailâsa the abode of Śiva. He
found there higher beings than men perfected by birth, herbs, Tapas,
Mantra or Yoga and Yakshas, Kinnaras, Gandharvas and Apsarasas. The
river Nandâ (Gangâ) traced its course round Kailâsa. High up on the
mount was the abode called Alakâ and the garden called Saugandhika
(sweet-scented). On two sides of Alaka were the two rivers Nandâ and
Alakanandâ, sanctified by the dust of Vishnu’s feet. Alakâ is the abode
of Kubera, the Yaksha king. The Kinnaras occupied the Saugandhika
garden. Near it was a large fig tree (Vata) 800 miles (100 Yojanas)
high, the branches spreading over 600 miles. Below that tree, the Devas
found Śiva in deep meditation for the good of the Universe. Brahmâ asked
Him to pardon Daksha and his followers who had slighted Him by
withholding Yajna offerings. "Through thy favour let the Yajna be
completed now. Let Daksha get back his life. Let the eyes of Bhagadeva,
the head of Bhrigu, the teeth of Pûshan, be restored. Let the Devas and
the sacrificial Rishis be relieved of all pain in their broken limbs.
Since now, the remnants of Yajna offerings are all Thine. Take Thy
offerings, and let the sacrifice be completed this day."

Śiva replied with a smile thus: — "Daksha is a mere child. I do not even
think of him as an offender. But I have to set right those that are led
astray by Mâyâ. Daksha’s head is burnt up. So let him have the head of a
goat. Bhagadeva shall find his Yajna offerings through the eyes of
Mitra. Pûshan shall have _pishta_ (crushed or ground up things) for his
offerings. In company with other Devas, however, he shall have the use
of the sacrificer’s teeth. Let the broken limbs of the Devas be
rehabilitated. But those that have lost their limbs shall use the arms
of Asvinikumâra and the hands of Pûshan. So let it be with the Rishis
too. Bhrigu shall have the beard of a goat."

The Devas thanked Śiva for His great kindness and invited Him to the
sacrifice. Brahmâ accompanied Śiva. Daksha regained life and looked on
Śiva with reverence. He acquired wisdom and became purified in mind. The
sacrifice was duly performed. Daksha sat in meditation and, lo! Vishnu
appeared on the back of Garuda.

All rose up and saluted Him. Spontaneous prayers broke forth from one
and all. Vishnu participated in the Yajna offerings. Addressing Daksha
He said: — "Only ignorant people see the difference between Me and Śiva.
I, Śiva and Brahmâ are Three in One. For the creation, preservation and
dissolution of the Universe, We assume three different Names. We, as the
triune Âtmâ, pervade all beings. Wise men therefore look upon all others
as their own selves."

Such is the story of Sâti’s death. She took birth again as the daughter
of Himâlaya and became wedded once more — the union with Śiva this time
was permanent.



THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.


Brahmâ, Vishnu and Śiva are the three aspects of the Second Purusha.

Brahmâ brings into manifestation the Prajâpatis, and the Prajâpatis
bring into manifestation the individuals and life forms. The other
Prajâpatis mostly represent the principles that enter into the
constitution of life-forms, while Daksha represents the combination of
principles forming a life unit.

Daksha had sixteen daughters — thirteen he gave in marriage to Dharma,
one to Agni, one to the Pitris and one to Śiva.

Agni or the god of Fire is the Rupa or form-giving Deva. Fire is used in
sacrifice, because it changes the form of things offered and makes them
acceptable to the gods by change of form.

If Agni represents Rûpa Devas or Devas with forms, Dharma might
represent Arûpa Devas or Devas without forms.

The Pitris, of whom four classes are only mentioned (Agnishvâtvas,
Barhishads, Saumyas and Ajyapas), are also divided into two classes, —
one with fire and one without fire.

The attendants of Śiva were dwellers of the astral or Bhuvar plane.

For the sake of convenient reference we shall call the dwellers of
Svarga Loka Devas and the dwellers of Bhuvar Loka, Astrals. The
different classes of Devas and Astrals are described in the 20th.
chapter of the 4th. Skandha. The Devas and Astrals were brought into
manifestation by Daksha, whose position in creation was next to that of
Brahmâ. Therefore all stood up to receive him at the sacrifice except
Brahmâ.

Śiva first appeared as Kumâra Nîla Lohita or Rudra. And all beings
thereafter got the potentiality of dissolution, phenomenal change, death
and decay. But in the first stage of life process, phenomenal change,
decay or dissolution was not in requisition, as Monads went on in their
downward journey, not by dissolution, but by evolution. They remained
what they were, and they acquired in addition a more material form. As
the material form became prominent the Deva form and the astral form
became suppressed.

Consciousness in Deva form manifests itself as mind, in the astral form
as animal desire and sense perception. In the mineral form it can hardly
shew itself.

Śiva works out the decay and dissolution of mineral matter, so that the
astral element may once more assert itself and there may be sense
perception in the mineral metamorphosed into the vegetable. The process
is carried further in the animal kingdom, and the animals get a
constitution in which Kâma or animal desire can manifest itself. The
animals evolve themselves by death. Death frees them from the trammels
of one set of experience, and carries them onwards till the human body
is reached.

The work of dissolution proceeds in various ways. Our sleep is partial
dissolution. It is brought on by the astral attendants of Śiva.

Dissolution is caused by Tamas. Tamas begets inaction, and inaction
causes death and decay. There is no phenomenal change without
dissolution, death or decay.

There are so many material tendencies in us that they require rejection.
Śiva gives us the power of rejection, as Vishnu, the power of
preservation — preservation of all that is good in us. Death makes the
man, where moral teachings fail, The Consort of Śiva is the Energy
through Whom He guides the life process of Monads or Jivas. In the first
stage of life process She is called Sâti or the Lasting. For the body of
the Jiva was lasting during the period of evolution. But Her mission was
to act on the Monad itself, to cause the material tendency in it by
means of Tamas.

In the second stage, She is the Energy of dissolution, death and
phenomenal change. In the third stage, she is over and above that the
Energy of rejection (of all that is evil in us.) She is the kind mother,
who has been nourishing all Jivas in their course of evolution.

When the Mineral form was reached by the primal elemental Jiva, the
creative process had done its work and the process of dissolution was to
assert itself. There was to be a revolution in the life process. Sâti
gave up her own nature and became re-born in another character in the
Mineral Kingdom. The creative process was materially changed. Daksha
lost his original head, and he acquired the head of a goat. The goat
symbolises sexual connection. All this happened during the reign of
Prâchina-Barhis. The Prachetas brothers were his sons. Daksha reappeared
as the son of the Prachetas brothers.

The Âdityas or gods of preservation who formed Daksha were Pûshava and
Bhaga. They were the preserving deities of the first stage of life
process. When the next stage came in, they lost their activity. This
explains the breaking of teeth and the uprooting of eyes of two of the
Âdityas. The subjoined Table of correspondences taken from the 11th.
Chapter of the Twelfth Skandha shews that Pûshana and Bhaga correspond
to the months of Pausha (December) and Mâgha (January) when the rays of
the sun are the least powerful. These Âdityas preserve Jivas in their
downward course. Pûshana was a favorite god of the Aryan shepherd.


────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NO      MONTH        ADITYA       RISHI         YAKSHA        RAKSHAS       NAGA         GANDHARVA       APSARAS
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
  1.    Chaitra      Dhatri       Pulastya      Rathravit     Heti.         Vâsuki.      Tumburu.        Kritusthali.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
  2.    Baisâka      Aryaman      Pulaha        Athaujas.     Praheti.      Kachnira     Nârada          Punjikasthali.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
  3.    Jyaistha     Mitra.       Atri          Rathasvana    Paurusheya    Takshaka     Hâhâ.           Menakâ.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
  4.    Âsârha       Varuna.      Vasistha.     Chitrasvana   Sahajayna     Sukra.       Huhû.           Rambhâ.
                                                                                                         (Sahajanyâ)
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
  5.    Srâvana      Indra.       Angiras.      Sroti.        Varya         Elaptara     Visvâvasu       Pramlocha.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
  6.    Bhadra       Vivasvat     Bhrigu.       Aśârana.      Vyâghra.      Sankhahâla   Ugrasena.       Anumlocha.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
  7.    Mâgha        Pûshan.      Gautama.      Suruchi.      Vâta.         Dhanjaya.    Sushena.        Ghritâchi.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
  8.    Fâlguna      Parjanya     Bharadhvaja   Ritu.         Vorchâ.       Airâvatra    Visva.          Senajit.
                     (Savitri)
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
   9.   Agrahâyana   Ansu.        Kasyapa.      Ritusena.     Vidyatsatru   Mahâsankha   Ritusena.       Urvasi.
                     (Vidhâtri)
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
  10.   Pausha.      Bhaga.       Kratu.        Urna.         Sphûrja.      Karkotaka.   Arishtanemi     Purvachitti
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
  11.   Âsvina       Tvastri.     Jamadagni.    Satajit.      Brahmâpeta.   Kambala.     Dhritarâshtra   Tilottamâ.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
  12.   Kârtika      Vishnu.      Visvâmitra.   Satyajit.     Makhâpeta.    Asvatara.    Sûryyavarchâ.   Rambhâ.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


TABLE M.


There is not much to detain us in this Table. It will be enough if
readers will please note the meanings of the names used.


TABLE N.


We must divide this Table into the following heads: — I. The story of
Dhruva, II. The story of Pirthu, III. The story of Prachina Barhis, IV.
The allegory of Puranjana, and V. The story of the Prachetasas.


I. THE STORY OF DHRUVA.


*SKANDHA IV. CHAP. 8-12.*

Uttânapâda is one of the sons of the First Manu. Uttânapâda means "with
uplifted foot". This perhaps refers to the period when the Jiva, having
still the spiritual element strong in him, was not fixed in the course
of material descent, but had one foot towards Mahar-Loka. Uttânapâda had
two wives Suruchi (with good graces) and Suniti (of good morals). Uttama
or the Highest was the son of Suruchi. Dhruva or the fixed was the son
of Suniti. Once upon a time, Dhruva found Uttama on his father’s lap and
he wished to be there himself. For fear of Suruchi, Uttânapâda did not
dare stretch forth his hands towards Dhruva, while Suruchi herself
taunted the boy for his impudent aspiration. Stung to the quick by the
bitter words of his stepmother Dhruva forthwith left the place and went
straight to his mother and related to her his grievances. Suniti advised
her son who was only five years old to make Tapas. Dhruva did not lose
time but left home to make Tapas as directed by his mother. Nârada met
him on the way. "Thou art a child Dhruva" said the great Rishi. "How is
it possible for thee to find out Him by Tapas, Who is attainable by
intense Yoga concentration and freedom from passion practised for
several births. Desist my boy, for the present. Try, when thou hast
enjoyed all the things of the world and hast grown old". But Dhruva was
fixed in resolve and he importuned Nârada to teach him how to meditate.
Nârada initiated Dhruva into the mysteries of the Mantra "Om Namo
Bhagavate Vâsudevaya", told him how to meditate on Vâsudeva and asked
him to make Tapas at Mathurâ where Bhagavân permanently resides. Dhruva
passed his days in austere asceticism, standing on one foot and living
on air. The prince at last controlled his breath and with deep
concentration saw the Divine Light in the heart. Bhagavân withdrew that
Light from the heart, and on the break of Samâdhi, Dhruva found the same
Divinity outside, standing before him. Words he had none for a time.
Bhagavân addressing him said: — "O Thou Kshatriya boy! I know thy
resolve. Do thou ever prosper. I give thee a place which is ever bright
and where Nirvana is constant. The planets and stars are all attached to
that place. Those that live for a Kalpa will die, but that place shall
never be destroyed. Dharma, Agni, Kasyapa, Indra and the seven Rishis
with all the luminaries of the sky are constantly revolving round the
place. Thou shalt succeed thy father on the throne and reign for 36,000
years. Thy brother Uttama shall disappear in a forest. Thy stepmother
Suruchi shall die in pursuit of her son. The place where thou shalt
finally go is my own abode, higher than that of the Rishis, and there is
no return from it."

Dhruva returned to his parents and was placed by his father on the
throne. He married Bhrami, the daughter of Siśumâra, and had two sons by
her, Kalpa and Vatsara. He had another son Utkala by Ila. Uttama was
killed by a powerful Yaksha while out on a hunt. Dhruva went out to the
north to take revenge on the Yakshas for his brother’s death. He killed
several thousands of innocent Yakshas, Râkshasas and Kinnaras in battle.
Manu took pity on them and asked his grandson to desist from fight.
Dhruva bowed in obedience to Manu and so Kubera the king of Yakshas
became much pleased with him and blest him too. After thirty six
thousand years, Sananda and Nanda, two companions of Vishnu came with a
chariot and took Dhruva to the promised abode.

Utkala was the eldest son of Dhruva and he was entitled to succeed his
father. But he was a sage and had united himself with Brahmâ. He
declined the throne. Bhrami’s son Vatsara became the king. Vatsara
married Subithi and had six sons by her, — Pushpârna, Tigmaketu, Ishâ,
Urja, Vasu and Jaya. Pushpârna had two wives, — Pravha and Doshâ. Prabhâ
had three sons, — Prâtar, Madhyandina and Sayam, Doshâ had three sons, —
Pradosha, Nisitha and Vyushta. Vyushta married Pushkarini. His Son was
Sarvatejas, afterwards called Chakshus. Chakshus had one son, — Nadvala
Manu.


THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.


[The line of Uttânapâda, as I have said above, represents the appearance
of individual life-forms. Limitation had to be put to the life-periods
of individuals. We commence with Dhruva, who presides over the polar
star, and lives for one Kalpa. His sons are Kalpa and Vatsara. "Vatsara"
means year. The sons of Vatsara are the six seasons. "Pushpârna" is the
flower season or spring. "Tigmaketu" means fierce-rayed. The word
denotes summer season. "Isha" means full of sat and is the name of the
month of Asvina. But it means here the rainy season. "Urja" is the name
of the month of Kartika. It is indicative of autumn. "Vasu" meaning
wealth is the season between autumn and winter, when paddy becomes ripe.
"Prabhâ" is light. "Doshâ" is darkness. "Pratar," "Madhyandina" and
Sayam are morning, midday and evening, respectively. "Pradosha" is first
part of the night, "Nisitha" is midnight. "Vyushta" is day break.
"Sarva-tejas" is all-fire. He was subsequently called Chakshus or eye.
The names other than Chakshus indicate different capacities of
individual life, ranging from portions of a day to the whole Kalpa. When
the downward flow of Jivas was the rule, Dhruva had to make great
sacrifice to remain fixed on the spiritual plane. Hence he worshipped
Vishnu, as directed by Nârada. Sarva-tejas or Chakshus perhaps indicates
the appearance of perceptive faculties. The son of Chakshus is glorified
with the title of Manu. This is significant. He is called Nadvala, or
one made of reeds. This marks a new era in the progress of Monads. As
the reed is made up of sheaths over-lapping each other, so the sons of
this Manu were constituted of overlapping principles. Why Nadvala is
called Manu, has to be found out in the circumstances that attended the
progress of the Monads from the mineral to the vegetable stage. The son
of this Manu was Anga or the limbs. And Anga was wedded to the daughter
of the death god. So there was no death up to the Nadvala form of life,
and no limbs. It was something like the appearance of protoplastic
matter, with all its potentialities of evolving life forms. Thus we can
understand the importance of Nadvala as a Manu. Death or decay made the
inorganic to develop organs or anga.]


II. THE STORY OF PRITHU.


*SKANDHA. IV. CHAP. 13-23.*

Nadvala had twelve sons; one of them being Ulmuka (fire-brand, torch).
He had six sons, one of them being Anga or the members of the body. Anga
married Sunitha, the daughter of Death. The iniquitous Vena was the son
of Anga. When he became king, he issued a proclamation prohibiting all
worship and sacrifices. The sages strongly remonstrated with him but
when he turned a deaf ear to their words, they killed him with their
incantations. The kingdom was now without a ruler and there was great
disorder. The Rishis then churned the thigh of the dead body, until a
dwarfish, deep black person came out. The Rishis told him to ’sit down
and wait.’ Hence he was called Nishada. They then churned the two arms,
and a pair arose. "This male is an incarnation of Vishnu," said the
Rishis, "and this female is an incarnation of Lakshmî. They shall marry
each other. He shall be called Prithu and his wife, Archis. Prithu shall
be the King and he shall preserve all beings." Prithu accepted the duty
of preserving the people. He saw there was no vegetation on the earth.
His subjects suffered from hunger. He thought that the earth had eaten
up the seeds and was not bringing forth the plants. In anger Prithu took
up his bow and aimed at the earth. She assumed the form of a cow and
began to run away chased by the King. But she at last yielded and
requested him to spare her life. "Thou art Lord of this Universe,"
exclaimed the earth, "Thou knowest very well that the forms of vegetable
life created by Brahmâ could not be used in Yajna so long. I have
therefore preserved them within myself. If I had not done so, they would
have been destroyed long ago and no Yajna could be performed in future.
True, they are now rotting in me. But think about the best means to
bring them out. Find out a calf, a milk-pot and a milker. I will secrete
all desired objects as my milk. But first of all make my surface flat
and level." Prithu rejoiced at these words. He made Svayambhuva Manu the
calf and milked all vegetables into his own hands. Others followed him.
The Rishis made Vrihaspati their calf and drew out the Vedas into their
Indriyas.

The Devas made Indra their calf and milked out into their golden pot
Amrita and energy of body, of mind and of the Indriyas.

The Daityas and Dânavas made Prahlâda their calf and milked out wine
into their iron pot. The Gandharvas and Apsaras made Visvavasu their
calf and milked out into their lotus vessel, fragrance, beauty and sweet
words.

The Pitris made Aryaman their calf and extracted into their unburnt
earth vessel the Kavya offerings. The Siddhas made Kapila their calf and
milked out the Siddhis (animan &c). (And so other instances are given).
Prithu was so glad that he called earth his daughter and hence she is
called Prithivi or the daughter of Prithu. The King also crushed the
mountains and made the earth’s surface level.

Prithu then commenced a series of Asvamedha Yajnas. During the
performance of the hundredth, Indra twice stole away the sacrificial
horse, but Prithu’s son restored it on both the occasions. The performer
of one hundred Asvamedha sacrifices becomes an Indra. This was the cause
of Indra’s fear. Prithu could not bear the disgraceful conduct of Indra
and he resolved to kill him. The Rishis dissuaded him and even Brahmâ
and Vishnu appeared to soothe the offended King and restore his
friendship with Indra. Vishnu explained to Prithu that he had enough to
do as a king of the earth and as a preserver of the people and that he
should not aspire to become Indra, who had his duties as well.

Sometime after, the Sanat Kumar brothers appeared before the King and
taught him the way to Mukti. He made over the kingdom to his son
Vijitâsva and retired into the forest. At last he gave up the body and
went to Vaikuntha.


THOUGHT ON THE ABOVE.


[We left the Monad in its protoplasmic state. The protoplasmic mass
began to spread out limbs (Anga). But the development of limbs was not
an unmixed blessing, for Anga became wedded to the daughter of Death.

There was no death in the protoplasm. The offspring of the first
connexion with death was Vena.

The root _ven_ means to move. The first moving protoplasmic mass had too
much of unruliness in it, and it was not therefore fitted for _yajna_ or
evolution. It had to be brought under the law and the black element was
churned out. That black element of Tamas had to wait till the time of
the great dissolution. Vishnu had to incarnate at this stage as Prithu
to suffuse the material mass with _satva_ and thereby make it conscious.
The course of evolution received a great impetus. The Monad had passed
through elemental and mineral stages. Organic life had already appeared.
Matter had passed through the grossness and immobility of Tamas and the
irregular, impulsive and purposeless movements of Rajas, till it became
permeated with Satva, when those movements assumed the regularity of
conscious acts. The consciousness of Satva made the future evolution or
_yajna_ teem with big possibilities. Earth could no longer keep back the
seeds of the vegetable creation in her bosom. Her surface became
levelled and she looked green with vegetation. She brought forth all her
latent life-energies and life-evolution commenced in right earnest under
the guidance of the first King energised by Vishnu for the preservation
of the universe. But that King was not to exceed the proper bounds. He
was not to usurp the functions of Indra. The Devas are the executive
officers of the Rishis in the cyclic administration of the universe and
their work is more on cyclic than on individual lines. The kings however
as representing Manu have to deal directly with Monads and Egos and have
to guide them according to the light of the Rishis. Prithu was asked by
Vishnu to keep himself within the bounds of kingly duties.]


III. THE STORY OF THE PRACHINA BARHIS OR BARHISHAD.


*SKANDHA IV. CHAP, 24.*

The eldest son of Prithu was Vijitâsva. He was so called for having
restored the sacrificial horse stolen by Indra. Indra taught him the art
of becoming invisible. Hence he was also called Antardhâna. He had four
brothers — Havyaksha, Dhûmrakesha, Vrika and Dravinas. To them he gave
the east, the south, the west and the north respectively. By his wife
Sikhandini, Vijitâsva had three sons — Pâvaka, Pavamâna, and Suchi.

These fire-gods descended by the curse of Vasishtha but the descent was
only temporary. Antardhâna had by his other wife Nabhâsvati one son,
Havirdhâna. Havirdhâna had six sons — Barhishad, Gaya, Sukla, Krishna,
Satya and Jitavrata. Of these, Barhishad was a great votary of Kriyâ,
(action) and he constantly performed Yajnas. Even while he was
performing one Yajna, the place for another was preparing close by.
Hence he was called Prâchina-Barhis. King Prâchina-Barhis married
Satadruti, the daughter of the Ocean-god. And he had by her ten sons,
all of whom were called Prachetas. The King ordered his sons to enlarge
the creation. They went out to make Tapas for one thousand years. Nârada
came to the King and told him that the way to Mukti was not through
Kriyâ Kânda. By. performing sacrifices he was only acquiring new karma.
The only way to attain liberation was to know oneself. The Rishi
illustrated his teachings by the famous allegory of Puranjana. The King
heard the story and its explanation from Nârada. He did not wait for the
return of his sons. But he called his ministers together and delivered
to them his mandate that his sons were to succeed him on the throne. He
went to the Âśrama of Kapila for Tapas and attained liberation.


IV. THE ALLEGORY OF PURANJANA.


*SKANDHA IV. CHAP. 25-29.*

There was a king called Puranjana. He had a friend, but the king knew
not his name nor his doings. Puranjana went in search of a place to live
in. He went about on all sides, but found no suitable abode. At last
while roaming south of the Himâlayâs, he found one Puri (town) in
Bhârata Varsha (India), The marks were all favourable. There were nine
gateways. In one of the gardens he found a most beautiful young lady.
She had ten attendants. Each of them had hundreds of wives. One
five-headed serpent was the warder of the town and he constantly guarded
his mistress. The lady was on the look out for one to be her lord.
Puranjana broke forth into words of love, and asked who she was. "O thou
greatest of men!" exclaimed the lady, "I know not who I am or who thou
art. Nor do I know who made us both. This only I know, that I now exist.
I do not know even who made this town for me. These are my companions
male and female. This serpent guards the town, even when we are all
asleep. Luckily hast thou come here. I shall try with all my companions
to bring to thee all objects of desire. Be thou the lord of this Puri
for one hundred years. And accept all enjoyments brought by me."
Puranjana entered the Puri and lived in enjoyment there for one hundred
years.

Of the nine gateways, seven were upper and two lower — five on the east
(Purva, which also means front), one on the south (Dakshinâ), one on the
north (Uttara) and two on the west (Paśchima). Two of them Khadyôta and
Âvirmukhî were close to each other and Puranjana used them whenever he
would go out to see Vibhrajita in the company of Dyumat.

Nalinî and Nâlinî were also two passages built together. Puranjana used
them with the help of Avadhûta in order to repair to Saurabha.

The Mukhyâ passage was used for Apana and Bahûdana. Through the southern
passage Pitrihû, Puranjana went with Srutadhara to Dakshinâ Panchâla and
through the northern passage Devahû, to Uttara Panchâla.

Through the western passage called Âsuri, Puranjana went with Durmada to
Grâmaka. The other western passage was called Nir-riti, Through that
passage Puranjana went with Lubdhaka to Vaiś-asa.

There were two blind gates _i.e._ without opening, viz: — Nirvak and
Pesaskrita. Puranjana used them for motion and action. He went inside
the town with Vishûchina. There he experienced Moha (delusion), Prasâda
(contentment) and Harsha (joy), caused by his wife and daughters.

Puranjana became thus attached to Karma. He slavishly followed whatever
the Queen did. If she heard, the King heard. If she smelt, the King
smelt. If she rejoiced, the King rejoiced. If she wept, the King wept.
Puranjana merged his self entirely in that of his wife.

Once upon a time, the King went out hunting into the forest
Panchaprastha, His chariot had five swift going horses, two poles, two
wheels, two axles, three flags, five chains, one bridle, one charioteer,
one seat for the charioteer, two yoke ends, seven fenders, and five
courses. He had a golden armour and an endless supply of arrows.
Brihadbala was the commander of his forces. The King forgot his wife for
the time being in the chase of deer. But he got tired and returned home.
The Queen would not speak to him in feigned anger. The King appeased her
with gentle and flattering words of love.

So passed the days in utter delusion. The King had 1100 sons and 110
daughters. He gave them in marriage to duly qualified persons.
Puranjana’s sons had 100 sons each. The kingdom of Panchâla became
filled with the progeny of Puranjana. The King performed sacrifices for
the welfare of his children and killed animals for the purpose.

Chandavega, a Gandharva king, had a strong force of 360 white
Gandharvas. Each of them had one black wife. By turns these Gandharvas
robbed the town of Puranjana. The serpent-warder could not fight long
against such odds, it lost strength day by day. The King and all the
citizens became extremely anxious.

There was a daughter of Kâla who went about the world for a husband. But
no one received her for a wife. She went to Nârada and on the refusal of
the sage cursed him to become a wanderer for ever. She was referred
however by Nârada to Fear, the King of Yavanas. King Fear would not
accept her for his wife. But he addressed her as his sister and assured
her that she would enjoy all beings on earth, if only she attacked them
unnoticed. His Yavana troops would always accompany her as well as his
brother Prajvâra.

The Yavana troops of King Fear under Prajvâra and the daughter of Kala
attacked the Puri of Puranjana. The old serpent gave way. The Puri was
burnt up by Prajvâra. There was wailing all round. The Serpent left the
Puri. Puranjana was dragged out of it. The sufferings he had caused to
others in sacrifices or otherwise reacted upon him. Long he suffered
forgetting even his old friends. His mind had been tainted by the
constant company of women and he had thought of his wife till the last
moment. So he became a female in the next birth. She was born as the
daughter of the Vidarbha king. Malayadhvaja, King of Pândya, defeated
other princes in the fight for her hand and the princess became his
wife. She bore to the King one black-eyed daughter and seven sons. The
sons became kings of Dravida and each of them had millions of sons,
Agastya married the daughter of the King, and had by her a son called
Dridhachyta. His son was Idhmavâha. King Malayadhvaja divided the
kingdom amongst his sons; and ascended the hills for devotional
meditation. His wife accompanied him. One day the princess found the
body of her husband cold in death. With loud lamentations, she prepared
the funeral pyre, placed the King’s body upon it and put fire thereon.
She then resolved to burn herself on the same pyre.

The former friend now appeared. Addressing the Queen he said: —

"Who art thou? Who is he lying on the funeral pyre that thou mournest
aloud? Dost thou know me, thy friend, thy former companion? Dost thou
remember even so much that thou hadst a friend, whom thou canst not
recognise? Thou didst leave me in search of some earthly abode and
enjoyment. We were two Hansas (swans) on the Mânasa Loka and we lived
together for one thousand years. Desirous of worldly enjoyments thou
didst leave me for the earth and there didst find a town with a woman as
its mistress. The company of that woman spoiled thy vision and effaced
thy memory. Hence thou hast attained this state. Thou art not the
daughter of the Vidarbha King, nor is this King thy husband. Nor wast
thou the husband of Puranjana. By my _mâyâ_ thou misconceivest thyself
as a man or a woman. But in reality both myself and thyself are Hansas.
Wise men find no difference between us. If there is any difference
between a man and his image, that is the difference between me and
thyself."

The other Hansa now regained his lost consciousness and was reawakened
to his former state.

This is the story of Puranjana. Now its explanation by Nârada: —

Puranjana is Purusha — he who illumines the Pura with consciousness.

The unknown friend is Íshvara.

The Pura or Puri or town is the human body.

"The marks were all favourable" — there were no deformities in the body.

"The nine gateways" are the nine openings of the body.

The young lady Puranjani is Buddhi.

She is the mistress of the body.

The ten male attendants are the five _jnanendriyas_ or organs of
perception and the five _karmendriyas_ or organs of action.

The wives of the attendants are the functions of the Indriyas.

The five-headed serpent is Prâna. The five heads are its five
sub-divisions.

"One hundred years" is the full term of man’s life.

"Khadyota," literally glow-worm, is the left eye, for, it has not the
illumining capacity of the right eye.

"Âvirmukhi" or the great illuminator is the right eye.

"Vibhrajita" is Rûpa or object of sight.

"Dyumat" is the perceiving eye.

"Nalini" and "Nâlini" are the left and right nostrils respectively.

"Avadhûta" is Vâyu. In the story, it means the perceiving nose.

"Saurabha" is Gandha or smell.

"Mukhya" is mouth.

"Apana" is speech.

"Bahûdana" is eating.

"Panchâla" is Pancha (five) + ala (capable) that which is capable of
bringing to light such of the five objects of the senses, as cannot be
otherwise cognised; Śastra or spiritual teachings.

The right ear is stronger than the left ear. Therefore it is more
prominent and useful in _hearing_ the Śastras, of which the first to be
heard is Karma Kânda.

A man by the observance of Karma Kânda is called to the Pitris, _i.e._
he reaches, after death, the path called Pitriyâna.

"Pitrihû" is therefore the right ear. "Devahû" is the left ear
corresponding to Devayâna.

"Uttara Panchâla" is Pravritti Śâstra or teachings of worldliness.

"Dakshinâ Panchâl" is Nivritti Śâstra or teachings of renunciation.

"Nirriti" is death. The anus is called death, because ordinarily the
Linga Sarira goes out through that passage after death.

"Lubdhak" is Pâyu.

"Vaisasa" is excrement.

"Nirvâk" is foot.

"Pesaskrita" is hand.

Of the Indriyas, hand and foot are blind, as there are no openings in
them.

"Vishûchina" is mind.

Moha is the result of Tamas, Prasâda of Satva and Harsha of Rajas.

The aforesaid names indicate enjoyment in the Jâgrat or waking state.

The hunting represents enjoyment in the Svapna or dream state.

The "Chariot" is the body in dream consciousness.

The five horses are the five organs of perception.

The two poles are "I-ness" and "Mine-ness."

The two wheels are merit and demerit.

The axle is Pradhâna.

The three flags are the three Gunas.

The five chains are the five Prânas.

The bridle is Manas the seat of desires.

The charioteer is Buddhi.

The yoke-ends are sorrow and delusion.

The seven fenders are the seven Dhâtus or essential ingredients of the
body.

The five courses are the five organs of action.

The gold color of the armour is due to Rajas.

Brihadbala is the even perceiving mind.

The sons are the transformations of perception.

The daughters are the concepts following such transformations.

"Chandavega", the Gandharva king, is the year, every year of human life.

The Gandharvas are days.

Their wives are nights.

The 360 Gandharvas are the 360 days of the year. With their wives or
nights they form the number 720.

The daughter of Kâla is Jarâ or decrepitude.

The Yavanas are diseases or infirmities.

Fear is the King of all diseases and infirmities viz., Death.

Prajvâra is destructive fever.

As long as Purusha does not know his real self, but identifies himself
with the Gunas of Prakriti, he becomes subject to births and deaths. The
only remedy for this malady is pure devotion to Guru and to Bhagavân. By
such devotion, dispassion and wisdom are both acquired.

"Darbha" is Kusa grass, symbolical of Yajna. "Vidarbha" is pure land.
"Malaya" or the Deccan is famous for Vishnu worship.

"Malayadhvaja" is therefore a Vaishnava king.

[It appears that Vaishnavism had its rise and growth in the South of
India before it overspread Northern India. This would be natural
considering the hold of Vedic Brahmânism in Northern India.]

The daughter of Malayadhvaja is Devotion. The seven sons are the seven
divisions of Bhakti, viz. —

  1) _Sravana_ or hearing the glory of Vishnu,
  2) _Kirtana_ or reciting the glory of Vishnu,
  3) _Smarana_ or constant remembrance of Vishnu,
  4) _Pâdasevana_ or shewing respect to Vishnu,
  5) _Archana_ or worship of Vishnu,
  6) _Bandana_ or adoration of Vishnu,
  7) _Dâsya_ or consecration of one self to the service of Vishnu.

The other two divisions, _Saukhya_ or companionship with Vishnu and
_Âtmâ nivedana_ or complete resignation are not mentioned in this
connection as they relate to a highly advanced spiritual state.

These modes of Bhakti worship are prevalent in Dravida.

The millions of sons are sub-divisions of Sravana, &c.

"Agastya" is mind.

"Dridhachyuta" is one confirmed in dispassion.

"Idhmavâha" is one who goes to Guru, fuel in hand, for instructions.

Iśvara, the unknown friend, called Himself and the Purusha two Kansas of
the Mânasa Lake. Hansa is one absolutely pure. Mânasa Lake is the Heart.

"For one thousand years" — Both Jiva and Iśvara remained together as
friends, the same in essence and in form, during the one thousand years
of Mahâ Pralaya, at the end of a Kaipa. During Manvantaric
Manifestation, the Jiva parts from his Friend Iśvara and launches into a
wild course of enjoyments, of joys and sorrows. The touch of that
fascinating lady Buddhi destroys all previous remembrances and the Jiva
plays several characters in the drama of life, in dream and delusion.

Nârada concluded his explanation of the allegory with this eloquent
exhortation: —

"Know thou, O King, the deer, skipping in the flower-garden, in company
with its sweet-heart, deeply attached to the sweets of that garden,
devouring with eager ears the humming music of _bhramaras_, little
caring for the wolves on its way or for the arrows of the huntsman that
pierce its back.

"The flowers are but women who bloom only to droop. The fragrance and
honey, the sweets of the garden, are the enjoyments brought on by the
_karma_ of another birth."

"The music of _bhramaras_ is the pleasing conversation of women and
others. The wolves are the days and nights. The huntsman who stealthily
flings arrows at the deer is Death. The deer is thy own self."

"Consider Well the efforts of the deer. Concentrate _chitta_ into the
heart and all perceptions into _chitta_. Give up the company of woman.
Turn a deaf ear to all idle talks. Be devoted to that one true Friend of
Jivas — Îśvara. Retire, retire from all others."

King Prâchina Barhis wondered why such beautiful teachings were with
held by his teachers. Or forsooth, they knew not themselves. He
requested Nârada however to remove two doubts that were still lurking in
his mind. — Purusha acquires _karma_ in one body, but he reaps the
fruits of that _karma_ in another body. One body is the doer while
another is the enjoyer and sufferer. To one body, the fruits of its own
work are lost. To another body, there is an acquisition of fruits it did
not sow. How can this be? This was the first doubt.

What is done is done. Nothing apparently remains of our _karma_. How can
then the sequences be accounted for? This was the second doubt.

Narada replies: —

Purusha reaps the fruits in that very body without break in which it
acquires _karma_, but that body is the Linga Sarira, inclusive of Manas.
As in dream man works out the impressions of the wakeful state without
changing the body, so he enjoys the fruits of _karma_ created in one
birth in the Karma-made body of another birth.

And the doer of Karma is verily the Manas and not the Sthûla body.
"These are mine," "I am so and so," only such concepts of the mind
produce re-birth, and not anything in the Sthûla body. So the mind sows
and the mind reaps. The body is merely the vehicle of birth producing
thoughts.

This is in answer to the first question. Now to the second.

How do you know there is chitta or mind? All the senses are at one and
the same time in contact with the objects of all the senses. But still
you perceive only one thing at a time. Hence you infer the existence of
the mind. Similarly by marking the tendencies of the mind their
connection with a former birth is inferred. Otherwise why should there
be one mental affection at a time and not another?

Then, in this life you never realise a thing which you never heard or
saw or felt before. How can the mind then reproduce matters you never
experienced before?

The mind by its present characteristics gives an insight into the past
as well as into the future.

It sometimes happens that things are perceived in the mind with strange
combinations in time, space and action, as in dream.

But men are endowed with mind and the mind perceives one after another
the objects of the senses in an enormous variety, and the perceptions
are lost again. So (in the long run) not one experience is altogether
strange.

(For instance, a man sees in dream that he is a king. He must have been
a king in some birth or other. The present combination in the dream is
untrue but not so the kingly experience. The experience is always true
with reference to some time, some space, some action or other).

When the mind is intensely Sâtvic (calm, pure and transparent) and
becomes constantly devoted to Bhagavân, the whole universe is reflected
on it.

In Jiva there is never a break in the egoistic experience as long as the
Linga Sarira continues.

There is only a seeming break in sleep, swoon and-deep distress such as
death and fatal illness, but such break is due to a collapse of the
perceiving senses.

There is similarly a break in the fœtal stage and in extreme childhood.
But such break is due to imperfection of the senses; The moon though not
visible on the new moon night does still exist.

The connection with gross objects does not cease because there is a
temporary absence of such objects. For, are not thoughts about objects
potent in their effects in dream?

The Linga Sarira, consisting in their essence of the five pure elements
(Tanmatra), subject to the three Gunas, extending over the sixteen
transformations (of the Sânkhya category), permeated with consciousness,
is called Jiva.

It is with this Ling Sarira that Purusha enters into a body or comes out
of it, and it is with this Sarira that he experiences joy, sorrow, fear,
misery and happiness.

As the leech has its hold on the first blade of grass till it connects
itself with another, so the Jiva identifies itself with one body till it
enters another.

Manas only acquires _karma_ by its contemplation of the objects of the
senses. The bondage is thus created by Avidyâ.

Therefore do thou meditate on Hari to free thyself from all worldly
attachments and to be fixed in Him for ever.


V. THE STORY OF THE PRACHETAS BROTHERS.


*SKANDHA IV, CHAP. 30-31.*

The Prachetas brothers left home in order to discover by Tapas the best
mode of enlarging the creation. They went west-ward and had not gone far
when Śiva rose from beneath a large lake and addressed them thus: —
"Children, you are sons of Barhishad, I know your good resolve.
Blessings be on you. By the performance of one’s duty in life, one
attains the state of Brahmâ after many births. My abode is still
further, inaccessible even to the virtuous. But the votary of Vishnu
attains His holy state, only when this life is ended. I and the Devas
shall also attain that state after the final break up of our Linga
Sarira. Learn therefore this prayer to Vishnu. (Śiva then recited the
prayer to Vishnu, known as Rudra Gitâ). Concentrate your mind on this
prayer, meditate on it and recite it constantly."

The Prachetas brothers entered the waters of the deep and there prayed
to Vishnu for a thousand years. Vishnu appeared and asked them to chose
a boon and without waiting for a reply addressed them thus: — "You are
dutiful sons and shall ever be known as such. You shall have a son in no
way inferior to Brahmâ. All the three Lokas shall be filled with his
progeny. Indra had sent Pramlochâ to decoy Kandu Rishi in his penances
and the Apsarâ succeeded in winning the heart of the Rishi. She had by
him one daughter whom she brought forth from her pores as she brushed
against the tops of the trees. She left her child there and ascended to
heaven. The moon nourished the child by putting his nectar-bearing
forefinger into her mouth. Have that daughter of the trees for your
wife. You are all alike in your virtues and she is like to you all. So
she shall be the wife of all the brothers."

The brothers then rose up from the waters. They found the earth
overgrown with innumerable plants, so high that they almost reached the
high heavens. The Prachetas brothers were angry to find such growth in
plants and they resolved to destroy them. They emitted fire and air from
their mouths, which caused havoc in the vegetable kingdom. Brahmâ came
and pacified the sons of Barhishad. He advised the surviving plants to
give their adopted daughter Mârisha in marriage to the Prachetas
brothers. The offspring of this marriage was Daksha. He is the same as
Prajâpati Daksha, son of Brahmâ. His degradation was owing to his former
disregard of Śiva. The Châkshusa Manvantara witnessed his work of
creation.

The Prachetas brothers reigned for 1000 Deva years. They were succeeded
by Daksha.


THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.


Consciousness in organic life had appeared with Prithu. The table of
further evolution may be here reproduced for facility of reference.

                         Prithu.
                            |
         −+−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−
          |             |            |         |         |
     Vijitâsva     Haryyaksha   Dhumrâksha   Vrika   Dravinas
    or Antardhâna.       (East)     (South)   (West)   (North)
     m.  Sikhandini    m.  Nabhasvati.
          |                      |
          |                  Havirdhâna
     −−+−−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−    |
       |         |        |      |
    Pâvaka   Pavamâna   Suchi    |
                                 |
         −+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−−−+−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−
          |          |       |         |         |          |
      Barhishad    Gaya    Sukla    Krishna    Satya    Jitavrata
    _alias_ Prâchina Barhis
     m.  Śatadruti.
              |
     10 Prachetases
      m.  Mârishâ
              |
            Daksha.

Vijitâsva could make himself invisible. This may have reference to the
state of the body at that stage of evolution. The fires appeared as it
is they that give forms. The object corresponding to elemental fire is
Rûpa or form. Barhishad, the name of one class of Pitris, was the
progenitor of the form-producing Linga Sarira with all its
potentialities.

We find the senses developed in his sons the Prachetas brothers. "Pra"
Means perfect and "Chetas" is the perceiving mind. But the mind
perceives through the Indriyas, which are ten in number. Therefore they
are ten brothers all alike; but they are wedded to one girl Mârishâ.

There is some occult connection between water and sense perception.
Barhishad was married to the daughter of the Ocean-god. The Prachetas
brothers remained submerged for a thousand years in the waters. The
protozoa and protophytes must of necessity be aquatic, as it were, for
the development in them of sense perceptions.

It is in Touch that the sense perceptions find a common basis. Touch
underlies all other perceptions. It is touch of the object by one sense
or other that gives rise to one perception or the other. "Kandu" is
primarily scratching or itching, secondarily touch. Mârishâ was
nourished by the moon and brought up by the plants.

The period refers to the stage of evolution when the vegetables formed
the predominant creation. It corresponds somewhat to the geological
period of tree-ferns and lycopods in our Manvantara.

The development of sense perceptions is the result of a communion with
Vishnu, under the auspices of Rudra. This means a further infusion of
Satva by Vishnu, which was made possible by the Dissolving influence of
Śiva. And the son of the Prachetas brothers is verily Daksha, the
Prajâpati of procreation, reincarnated under better auspices for the
purpose of extending the creation. So we find the Trinity acting as
three in one in the creative process.

With the appearance of Daksha Jiva evolution comes to an end in the
first Manvantara.

TABLE V.

                          Priyavrata
                               |
    By Bathishmatî             |            By another wife
    −−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−
              |                                     |
     10 sons (Agnidhra, Idhmajihva,               Uttama
     Yajnavâhu, Mahâvira,                         Tâmasa, and
     Hiranyaretas, Ghritapristha,                 Raivata, the
     Savana, Medhâtithi, Vitihotra,               Manus.
     and Kavi ) and one daughter
     *Urjasvatî* married to
     Sukrâcharyya.
                            Âgnidhra
                             m. Purvachitti
                                    |
      −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−\
        |              |                   |               |         |        |
      Nâbhi         Kimpurusha        Harivarsha       Ilâvrita    Ramyak     |
       m. Merudevî   m. Ptatirûpa   m. Ugradanstrî     m. Latâ    m. Ramyâ    |
            |            |                                                    |
            |            |Hiranmaya    Kuru         Bhadrâsva   Ketumat       |
            |            | m. Syâmâ    m. Nâdi      m. Bhadrâ   m. Devavîti   |
            |            \−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−/
            |
     RISHABHA
       m. Jayantî
           |
     −−−+−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−−\
        |              |           |            |          |       |  |
     Bharata       Kusâvartu   Ilâvrita   Brahmavarta   Malaya   Ketu |
     (Ajanâbhavas      |  Bhadrasena, Indrasprik, Vidarbha, Kikata,   |
     called after him  |  Kavi, Havis, Antariksha, Prabuddha,         |
     Bharatavarsha)    |  Pippalayana, Avirhotra, Dravida, Chamasa,   |
      m. Panchajani    |  Karabhojana, and 81 more sons.              |
            |          \−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−/
            |
     −−+−−−−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+
       |           |              |        |            |
     Sumati       Râshtrabhrit  Sudarśana  Abharana  Dhumraketu
       m. Vriddhasenâ
               |
            Devatâjit
              m. Asuri
               |
            Devadyumna
              m. Dhenumati
               |
               |
            Paramesthin
              m. Suvarchalâ
               |
               |
      −−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
        |                 |             |
     Pratihartri     Pratistotri     Udgâtri
       m. Stuti
           |
     +−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−
     |                       |
     Aja                   Bhuman
                         m. Rishikulyâ       m. Devakulâ
                             |                     |
                          Udgitha               Prastâva
                                               m. Virutsâ
                                                   |
                                                 Vibhu
                                                 m. Rati
                                                   |
                                               Prithusena
                                                 m. Âkriti
                                                   |
                                                 Nakta
                                                 m. Riti
                                                   |
                                                 Gaya
                                                m. Gâyanti
                                                   |
     −−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−
          |              |               |
     Chitraratha      Sugati        Abhirodhana
       m. Urvâ
          |
       Samrât
        m. Utkalâ
          |
       Marichi
        m. Vindumatî
          |
       Vindumat
        m. Saraghâ
          |
        Madhu
        m. Sumanas
          |
       Viravrata
        m. Bhojâ
          |
     +−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
     |                               |
     Manthu                      Pramanthu
      m. Satya
          |
      Bhauvava
          |
       Tvastri
        m. Vitochanâ
          |
        Viraja
        m. Vishûchi
          |
          +−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+
          |                    |
       100 sons            1 daughter



SKANDHA V.



TABLE V. PRIYAVRATA.


*SKANDHA V. CHAP. 1.*

Priyavrata was, from the beginning, under the influence of Nârada. So he
declined to take part in the rule of the universe; till at last Brahmâ
persuaded him not to shirk his assigned work. King Priyavrata married
Barhishmati, the daughter of Visvakarmâ. By her he had ten sons Agnidhra
&c., all names of Agni.

Of these ten, Kavi, Mahâvira and Savana were spiritually inclined and
they became Parama Hansas (Parama Hansa is one who gives up the world
entirely and becomes fixed in Brahmâ). Priyavrata had by another wife
three sons: Uttama, Tâmasa and Raivata. They all became Manus.

Priyavrata reigned for 400,000,000 years. The Sun-god Âditya moves round
the Sumeru Mount and sends his rays up to the Loka-loka range,
illumining half the regions while the other half remains dark. King
Priyavrata in the exuberance of spiritual power determined to illuminate
the dark regions and to make it all day and no night. He followed the
Sun-god seven times with a chariot as swift and bright as that of the
Sun-god himself even as though he were a second Âditya. Brahmâ appeared
saying "Desist, O Son, this is not thy assigned duty in the universe."
The ruts caused by the wheel of Priyavtata’s chariot are the seven
oceans, which gave rise to the seven Dvipas — Jambu, Plaksha, Sâlmali,
Kusa Krauncha, Śâka and Pushkara.

Of these Dvipas, each succeeding one is twice as large as the one
preceding it. The seven oceans respectively consist of:

  1) Kshâra (Salt),
  2) Ikshu (Sugarcane juice),
  3) Surâ (wine),
  4) Ghrita (clarified butter),
  5) Kshira (milk),
  6) Dadhi (curd) and
  7) Suddha (pure water).

They are like ditches round the Dvipas and their dimensions are the same
as those of the corresponding Dvipas.

King Priyavrata divided the seven Dvipas among his seven sons thus: —

    To Agnidhra,     he gave Jambu Dvipa.
     " Idhmajihva,    "  "   Plaksha Dvipa.
     " Yajnavâhu,     "  "   Sâlmali Dvipa.
     " Hiranyaretas,  "  "   Kuśa Dvipa.
     " Ghritapristha, "  "   Krauncha Dvipa.
     " Medhâtithî,    "  "   Śâka Dvipa.
     " Vitihotra.     "  "   Pushkar Dvipa.

He gave his daughter Urjasvati in marriage to Śukra. The famous Devayâni
was their daughter.

*SKANDHA V. CHAP. 2.*

King Âgnidhra presided over Jambu Dvipa. He saw the Apsarâ Purva-chitti
and became love-stricken, so much so that he became a _jada_ (Jada is
literally fixed, materialized hence idiotic, mad.)

The King had by her nine sons Nâbhi, Kimpurusha, Harivarsha, Ilâvrita,
Ramyak, Hiranmaya, Kuru, Bhadrâsva and Ketumâla. Each of them presided
over the Varsha of his name. They were respectively wedded to the
following nine daughters of Meru, — Merudevi, Pratirûpâ, Ugradanstri,
Latâ, Ramyâ, Śyâmâ, Nari, Bhadrâ and Devavîti.

*SKANDHA V. CHAP. 4-6.*

Nâbhi had for his son RISHABHA an Incarnation of Vishnu. Rishabha knew
his Varsha to be the field of Karma. He married Jayanti and had by her
one hundred sons. The eldest and most qualified of his sons was Bharata,
Bhâratavarsha is named after him.

The chief amongst the remaining ninety-nine sons were Kusâvarta,
Ilâvarta, Brahmavarta, Malayaketu, Bhadrasena, Indrasprik, Vidarbha and
Kikata. These nine were the immediate successors of Bharata and were
attached to him.

Following them were Kavi, Hari, Antariksha, Prabuddha, Pippalâyana,
Âbirhotra, Dravida, Chamasa and Karabhâjana. They were devoted to
Bhagavân. Their story will be related in the 11th. Branch of this
Purâna.

The younger eighty one sons were devoted to karma and they were great
performers of Yajna.

Rishabha called his sons together and gave them proper advice. He taught
them Âtmâ Vidya and revealed to them his own nature as the all pervading
Purusha, free from Avidyâ.

"This my body is inconceivable. My heart is pure Satva. All impurities
were cast off by me. Therefore good people call me ’Rishabha’ (primarily
a bull, secondarily the best). You are all born of my heart and so you
all are great; follow your brother Bharata willingly. By serving him you
will do your duty by your subjects."

So saying, he made over the reins of government to Bharata and himself
became a Parama Hansa. He took the vow of silence and never spoke again.
He looked blind, dumb and deaf like one obsessed and mad. He went
everywhere in this state, heedless of what others said. People flocked
round him wherever he went. At last he thought the rush of people to be
an impediment to yoga and took the vow of Ajagara life (Ajagara is a
huge python that does not move, but eats whatever comes within reach of
its mouth). He remained fixed at one place.

The yoga powers (Sidhis) sought him but he spurned them all. When he
foresaw the end of his _prarabdha karma_ Rishabha went about at will and
travelled in Kanka, Venkata, Kûtaka and South Karnataka. While in the
forest of Kûtaka he thrust some stones into his mouth. At that time the
wind blew high and the bamboo tops caught fire and the body of the King
was consumed. In Kali Vuga, King Arhat of Kanka, Venkata and Kûtaka will
hear of the deeds of Rishabha and in the name of religion will introduce
all sorts of sacrilegious practices as sanctioned by Rishabha’s example.

*SKANDHA V. CHAP. 7.*

King Bharata married Panchajani, the daughter of Vîsva. He had by her
five sons — Sumati, Râshtrabhrit, Sudarśana, Âbharana and Dhûmraketu.
This Varsha was formerly called Ajanâbha. When Bharata became king, it
was named after him Bhârata Varsha. King Bharata performed the Vedic
Yajnas and made offerings to the Devas. But he knew the Devas as
manifestations only of Vâsudeva. His mind became pure and filled with
Satva. He lost himself in devotion to Vâsudeva. At last he divided his
kingdom amongst his sons and himself went for Tapas to the hermitage of
Pulaha in the _kshetra_ of Hari on the Sacred Gandaki. He meditated in
his heart on the lotus feet of Bhagavân and became suffused with
ecstasy.

Bharata invoked the golden Purusha in the rising sun by a special Rik
(Vedic Mantra) and addressed Him thus, "Let us attain the spiritual rays
of luminous Savitri that are beyond Rajas and that are the generators of
Kârmic effects. By His Manas He created this universe. He preserves the
Jiva again by permeating this universe."

*SKANDHA V. CHAP. 8.*

Once upon a time king Bharata had bathed in the Gandaka and after
performing the daily practices was meditating on Pranava on the
river-side. A deer came to drink water at the time. While the animal was
quenching her thirst a lion roared not far off and she in terror jumped
into the river. As she happened to be big with child, she was delivered
of it at the time. Exhausted, the deer got back to the river side only
to die. The new born fawn was being washed away, having no one to take
care of it. Bharata took pity on the little fawn. He took it up and
brought it to his hermitage. He brought it up as his own child and
became deeply attached to it. He constantly thought of the deer-child,
even so much so that when death approached he could not forget it and
became re-born in another birth as a deer.

But though born as a deer, Bharata did not lose the memory of his former
birth. He reflected that the mind that had been trained and controlled
in the worship of Vâsudeva went astray only for the sake of one
deer-child. He left the Kâlanjara hills where he was born as a deer and
sought for Sâlagram, sacred with the Âsramas of Pulastya and Pulaha. He
waited calmly for the exhaustion of Karma that had given rise to his
deer life. He then gave up his body in the sacred waters of the Gandaka.

*SKANDHA V. CHAP. 9.*

A Brâhmana of the line of Angiras had nine sons by one wife. They were
all well versed in the Vedas, He had one son by another wife and one
daughter. This son was said to be an incarnation of Bharata. He was
afraid of _sanga_ (company), so much so that he would not even speak to
any one for fear of acquiring new Karma. People took him for an idiot.
His father strove hard to teach him the Vedas but did not succeed. His
parents died and his half brothers had charge of him. Their wisdom was
that of the Vedas. They had not learned Âtmâ Vidyâ. So they did not
understand the nature of Bharata and neglected him. They gave him poor
meals for the day’s work in the fields.

At one time a thief wanted to propitiate the goddess Bhadra Kâli by
human sacrifice in order that he might be blessed with a child. The
victim that was procured somehow untied himself and fled. The attendants
searched for him on all sides in vain. They at last fell upon Bharata
who was watching in the fields in a peculiar way. They found him most
suited for sacrifice and tied him up and carried him to the altar of
Kâli. He was duly consecrated and the priest took up a sharp instrument
to cut off his head. Kâli could no longer remain unconcerned. She rushed
forth in rage from out of her image, wrested the knives from the hands
of the thieves and cut off their heads.

Once upon a time Râhugana King of Sindhu and Saubira was travelling in a
palanquin. The chief palanquin bearer on reaching the river Ikshumati
went in search of a bearer and on finding Bharata deemed him to be a
god-send. He found his limbs strong and well-built and thought him
capable of bearing the palanquin. He forced Bharata into the service.
Bharata though quite unfit for this menial work did his utmost. But he
was in the habit of looking forward for the distance of an arrow throw
and then taking steps in advance, so that he might not unwarily kill
some animal under his feet. He could not therefore keep pace with the
other bearers and the palanquin lost its balance. King Rahûgana became
angry and reproached the bearers. They complained against the new
recruit. The king taunted Bharata with these words; "Oh my friend I dare
say you are tired — for have you not carried me long and for a long
distance too — and you appear to be thin indeed and weak. Are you
suffering from decrepitude? Are not these your fellow-mates."

Bharata kept quiet. For these taunting remarks did not touch him. He was
crystallised in wisdom and was no longer troubled with the false
perceptions of "I and mine."

The palanquin again lost its balance. The king lost his temper and broke
forth thus; "What is this? are you alive or dead? Do you thus disregard
my orders and think of living? You must be a madman, like the Death-god
I will punish your madness and bring you to your senses." King Rahûgana
was proud of his learning and his kingship. He was inflated with Rajas
and Tames. He had therefore no hesitation in reproaching that lord of
Yoga, Bharata.

Bharata smiled and thus replied: — "Thy taunts are true, O king! There
is no doubt, I am neither tired nor did I travel long. For thy weight
does not affect me nor have I any distance to travel. Nor could I be
called fat. For the body is fat and not I. It is by falsely attributing
the bodily attributes to self that one is said to have thickness,
leanness, disease, hunger thirst, fear, enmity, desire, sleep,
attachment, anger, egotism, pride and sorrow. But I have no such false
perception.

"Thou sayest I am dead even when alive. But such is the case with all
beings for they are all subject to constant transformations.

"Thou chargest me with disregarding the orders of my Master. But only if
the relationship of Master and servant does really subsist, might there
be command and obedience. But where is that relationship? If thou
sayest, in the ways of the world, thou art my king momentary though
these ways be, please tell me thy behests.

"Thou callest me a mad man and dost want to punish me and bring me to my
senses. But I am not mad, though I may look so, for I am fixed in the
meditation of Brahmâ. But still if thou thinkest me to be a madman it
will be useless to punish or to teach a senseless being."

So saying Bharata continued to carry the king. Rahûgana came down from
the palanquin and fell at Bharata’s feet. He expressed regret for having
slighted such a sage in disguise and prayed for a fuller explanation of
the philosophy involved in his weighty words. This led to an explanation
by Bharata of the Advaita philosophy from the stand point of the
Purânas, a denunciation of Vedic and Tântric rites, and an allegorical
description of the worldly life as trading in the forest (the world
being the forest and the traders being men in search of wealth). The
allegory was explained by Suka to Parikshit. [The enquiring student is
referred to the original for details (V. 11-14.)]

*SKANDHA V. CHAP. 15.*

We must hurriedly refer to the line of Bharata. Sumati was the son of
Bharata. Ill guided men in the Kali Yuga will call him a God. In his
line Pratiha was master of Âtmâ Vidyâ. Coming lower down by far the most
renowned king in the line of Bharata was Gaya Viraja was also well
known. Of the hundred sons of Viraja, the eldest was Śatajit or the
Conqueror of the hundred.



THOUGHTS ON THE LINE OF PRIYA VRATA.


Priya Vrata means literally one of welcome (_Priya_) deeds (_Vrata_).

Priya Vrata, was under the influence of Nârada from the beginning and he
declined to go along the Descending path or Pravritti Mârga. He was
wedded to the daughter of Vishva Karmâ.

Vishva Karmâ is the cosmic manufacturer. The work of this Prajâpati
extends over the whole of Trilokî and he is the architect of all systems
and chains included in the Trilokî — Priya Vrata, as we shall see later
on, represents the earth chain only or the system known as Bhûr.

What we generally call the Solar system is a misnomer. For the sun
stands between Bhûr Loka and Svar Loka and illumines both the Lokas with
its rays. The Solar System is therefore properly speaking the whole of
the Trilokî. In speaking of Priya Vrata, therefore, the Bhâgavata
restricts itself to the regions illumined by the sun as well as by the
moon (V-15-I.)

We shall enter into a detailed description of the whole system in the
next chapter. Let us take here a passing glance of the line of Priya
Vrata.

We take Priya Vrata to be the Earth chain complete in itself or rather
the progenitor of the Earth chain.

Meru or Sumeru is the axis of Bhûr Loka, its highest point being the
highest point of Bhûr Loka.

The sun god revolves round this central axis.

The Earth-god Priyavrata also revolved round Meru _i.e._ the Earth
rotated round its own axis at a very rapid rate for some time during its
infancy.

The rotation of the Earth was followed by the separation of layers. The
part most removed from the centre was first affected.

In this way seven distinct layers were formed. The layer towards the
circumference was the most spiritual. That towards the centre was the
most material.

The reason of this is to be found in the action of the three Gunas and
Tamas.

Satva is: on the material plane, light, transparent, with upward motion.
On the mental plane, buoyant and cheerful, with true perception,
spiritual.

Rajas is: on the material plane, constantly moving, translucent, with
motion on the same plane, without levity or gravity.

On the mental plane, constantly active, partly joyful, partly sorrowful,
with partially true and partially false perception, intellectual.

Tamas is: on the material plane, heavy, opaque, with downward motion.

On the mental plane indolent, melancholy, nonperceptive or dull.

The centripetal force is the action of Tamas and is connected with
materiality. The centrifugal force is the action of Satva and is
connected with spirituality.

Of the seven Dvipas, the central is the Jambudvipa, which is the most
material.

The one farthest from the centre is the Pushkara Dvipa.

The spaces intervening between the layers or Dvipas are the seven
oceans. They partake of the characteristics of the Dvipas, which they
respectively surround. Thus the salt ocean surrounding the Jambu Dvipa
is the most material. The materiality is indicated by the word "salt,"
which implies gross matter.

Priyavrata, it is said, went seven times round Meru, and at the time of
each rotation, one ocean and its corresponding Dvipa were formed.

But when the Dvipas and the oceans were all formed that particular
motion of the whole system was lost.

Since then days and nights are solely caused by the motion of the sun
round Meru along the Manâsottara range.

The seven Dvipas may be the Globes A, B, C, D, E, F, and G of
Theosophical literature.

The rulers of these seven Globes are seven sons of Priyavrata, named
after Agni or Fire.

Agni is here the form-giving Energy of each Globe.

Of the ten sons of Priyavrata, seven only became Rulers of the Globes,
but the other three Kavi, Mahavira and Savana, had nothing to do with
the creative process. They are highly spiritual entities beyond the
plane of the seven Globes.

The daughter of Priyavrata was Urjasvati. The word means full of Energy.
She was wedded to Sukra, the presiding god of the planet Venus.

Her daughter is the renowned Devayâni, who was married to King Yayâti.
She stands for Devayâna, the Radiant Path of the Upanishads, which
transcends the Trilokî.

Of the sons of Priyavrata, we of Jambu Dvipa or Globe D are directly
concerned with Âgnidhra, who presided over its earliest destinies.

The Bhâgavata does not relate the genealogy of the other sons as at
present we have nothing to do with the life-evolution on these globes.

The process of materialisation is indicated by the Jada state of
Âgnidhra on seeing the Apsaras Pûrvachitti.

The sons of Âgnidhra are the nine Varshas or Continents. We shall learn
the details of these Varshas subsequently. Of these Varshas again, we
are directly concerned with Nabhi. The word Nabhi means navel, which is
at the centre of the body. The Nabhi Varsha is the pivot on which the
other Varshas hang. The Nabhi Varsha is what we know as our Earth. The
nine Varshas are also placed layer over layer, as the Dvipas are.

When Nabhi underwent further transformation, Rishabha became his son. In
Rishabha, we come to a turning point. He is said to be an Incarnation of
Vishnu. The word "Rishabha" means bull. But that meaning does not give
us any help in understanding Rishabha and his work.

Priyavrata moved rapidly round Meru, till the globes were formed. This
is in accordance with the Nebulous theory of Laplace. When the globes
were formed, the Earth became denser. As the density increased, the
movement of the Earth became irregular, till at last, the planet became
fixed. This is not the western idea. The Pauranic idea is that the sun
moves round the Earth, and the Earth remains fixed in its position. The
story of Priyavrata’s line is based upon this idea. Another idea of the
ancients was that the planets had speech, till they became solidified.

Rishabha took upon himself the vow of silence. His son Bharata became
speechless as a deer.

It was necessary to put a limit to the materiality of the Earth. The
hard crust that formed the shell of the planet could not be allowed to
affect its heart. The Earth was not to lose all spirituality. Therefore
Vishnu incarnated in Rishabha so that spirituality might be stored in
our planets, for the evolution of those Jivas that dwelt over it. Look
at a Parama Hansa; the ascetic that neither speaks nor moves. Judging
from outside, he is no better than a mute animal, but he is all
spirituality within. Such is the nature of our mother Earth.

The thrusting of stones into the mouth of Rishabha is suggestive.

The sons of Rishabha are the countries of our Earth. Of these Bharata
(India) was the first-born. The spiritual character of this holy land is
shewn by the story of Bharata.

Bharata was obeyed and imitated by nine brothers, of whom Brahma-varta
is well-known as described by Manu. Malaya is Malabar. Vidarbha is Berar
and Kikata is Bihar.

The sons of Rishabha very likely include all the countries of the Earth.

Rishabha called his sons and asked them to follow Bharata. Will other
lands now follow that advice?



THE EARTH CHAIN, BHUVANA KOSHA.


*SKANDHA V. CHAP. 16.*

Said Parikshit: — "Thou hast given the bare outline of these regions of
the universe which are lighted by the sun and where the moon and the
luminous starry host are also seen.

"Thou hast hereby mentioned the seven oceans and the seven Dvipas, but
thou hast not given the details thereof." Suka replied: —

Imagine the Bhu-mandala or the Earth chain to be the pericarp of a
lotus. Imagine there are seven sheaths immersed in it — the seven
Dvipas. The central sheath is Jambu Dvipa. It is Niyut Yojanas in area
(Niyut= 1,000,000 But Śridhara Svâmi here explains Niyuta as meaning one
laksha or 100,000. So according to Śridhara the area of Jambu Dvipa is
800,000 miles). Jambu Dvipa is round like the lotus leaf.

There are nine Varshas in Jambu Dvipa, each nine thousand Yojanas in
area completely divided by eight mountain ranges. (Bhadrasva and
Ketumala form exceptions, for they extend over 34,000 Yojanas. Some take
nine thousand Yojanas to be the expanse between the Nila and Nishadha
ranges. The Vayu Purâna describes the position thus: — Two Varshas are
situated like two bows north and south. Four are placed longways.
Ilâvrita is as it were with four petals. _Śridhara_. This gives 7 x 9000
+ 34000 = 97000).



ILAVRITA IS THE CENTRAL VARSHA.


Sumeru is situated in the navel of this Varsha. This king of mountains
is gold all through. It is a laksha Yojanas high. If the Earth chain be
taken to be a lotus, this Meru is its pericarp. It is 32,000 Yojanas as
the top and 16,000 Yojanas at the foot and 16,000 Yojanas under the
ground.

(By saying 16000 Yojanas at the foot, 84000 Yojanas are left out. Thus
the Vishnu Purâna says — the Meru is 84000 Yojanas over the ground and
16000 under the ground, at the top 32000 and at the foot 16000.
_Śridhara_. 16000 + 84000=100000).

On the north of Ilâvrita are the three mountain ranges Nila, Sveta and
Śringavan in order. They are respectively the boundary ranges of
Râmayak, Hiranmaya and Kuru. They spread east and west up to the salt
ocean. They are two thousand Yojanas wide. In length, each succeeding
one is a little over one tenth part shorter than the preceding one.
(There is no difference in height and in width. _Śridhara_).

So on the south of Ilâvrita are the three ranges Nishadha, Hemakûta and
Himalaya spreading east and west like the preceding ones. They are
10,000 Yojanas in height. They are the boundary ranges respectively of
Harivarsha, Kinpurusha and Bharata. (This — 10,000 Yojanas — is also the
height of Nila, Sveta and Sringavnâ. The width of these ranges again is
that of Nila, and others. By Bhârata we are to understand Nabhi.

On the west of Ilâvrita is the Malyavat range and on the east lies the
Gandha Madana range, These ranges extend north up to the Nila range and
on the south up to the Nishadha range. They are two thousand Yojanas
wide. They are the boundary ranges of Ketumala and Bhadrasva
respectively. (East and west there is the Meru surrounded by Ilâvrita,
then there are the two ranges Malyavat and Gandha Madana, and the two
varshas Bhadrasva and Ketumala and nothing besides).

North and south, there is the Meru then Ilâvrita, 6 mountain ranges and
6 Varshas, 3 on each side and nothing else.

[Where do you then get a _laksha_ of Yojanas? It is said: — Meru has a
diameter of 16,000. Ilâvrita has 18,000. The 6 Varshas have 6 x 9,000 =
54,000. The 6 mountain ranges have together a width of 6 x 2,000 =
12,000. Thus north and south, we have 16,000 + 18,000 + 54,000 + 12,000
= 100,000.

East and west we have 34000 (9000 + 16000 + 9000) across Meru and
Ilâvrita and the two mountain ranges 2 x 2000 = 4000.

The expanse of the two Varshas up to the ocean side is 62000. This gives
us 34000 + 4000 + 62000 = 100,000. Thus there is no conflict.
_Śridhara_.]

[This discussion of Śridhara throws immense light on the text. We find
that the area is measured by the diameter. We find that 16000 is the
diameter of Meru at the foot. We find that Ilâvrita has 9000 from Meru
to Nila and 9000 from Meru to Nishadha. We understand also why Bhadrasva
and Ketumala were said to be exceptions, their expanse being 34,000. A
diagram will now best illustrate what we say.]

[Illustration: A diagram of Jambu-Dvipa.]

[Bhârata as a Varsha must not be mistaken for India. For Bhârata here
stands for Nâbhi or the whole of our known earth.

Bhârata Varsha extends from the base of the Earth opposite the Himalayas
on the side of America to the highest point of the Himalayas.]

Kinpurusha Varsha, so called from its dwellers, extends from the highest
point of the Himalayas as its base to the highest point of Hemakuta.

So with the other Varshas.

It will be seen, that we have no idea of any of the mountains, besides
the Himalayas.

Ilâvrita stands on the same level with Ketumala and Bhadrasva. If these
three be taken as one, we get the number _7_. Five other Dvipas have _7_
Varshas only.]

On the four sides of Meru are the four mountains — Mandâra, Meru
Mandâra, Supârsna and Kumuâ. They are ten thousand Yojanas in height and
expanse.

(There are two mountains east and west, their expanse being north and
south. There are other two north and south, their expanse being east and
west. Otherwise if these mountains were to encircle Meru, Ilâvrita would
not be in existence. _Śridhara_).

On these four mountains respectively are four big trees of Mango,
Jamboland, Kadamba and the sacred Fig. They are the banners as it were
of the Mountains. They are 11000 Yojanas high and they also spread over
this area. Their width is one hundred Yojanas.

There is one lake below each of these trees: milk, sugarcane juice and
pure water respectively. The use of these fluids gives natural Yogic
powers to the Upadevas (lesser devas).

There are also four gardens of the Devas, _viz._ Nandana, Chaitraratha,
Vaibhrâjoka and Sarvato-bhadra.

The Devas, adored by the Upadevas amuse themselves in those gardens.

Big fruits with nectar-like juice fall from the mango tree on Mandâra.

(The Vayu Purâna gives the measure of the fruit. The Rishis who perceive
truths give the measure of the fruits to be 108 cubits with the fist
closed (_aratvi_) and also 61 cubits more. _Śridhara_)

When these fruits drop down, they give out a very sweet, very fragrant,
profuse reddish juice which collects to form the river called Arunodâ,
having water of the color of Aruna or the morning Sun. This river waters
the Eastern part of Ilâvrita. The use of its water gives such a sweet
scent to the body of the female attendants of Durgâ that the wind
carries that scent to ten Yojanas around.

So the Jambu river is formed by the juice of the fruits that drop down
from the Jambolova tree in Meru Mandâra. It waters the southern part of
Ilâvrita.

The land on the banks of these rivers is soaked by their juice and
worked on by air and light and is thus converted into gold called
Jâmbûnada, which gives ornaments to the Devas.

Aruna is the morning Sun, as well as the color of the morning Sun. The
river with Aruna water is also gold producing.

The Kadamba tree on Supârsva has cavities from which flow five streams
of honey, each 5 Vyâmas wide (Vyâma = the space between the tips of the
fingers of either hand when the arms are extended.) These streams water
the western part of Ilâvrita. The fragrant breath of those that use them
spreads over one hundred Yojanas all round.

The fig tree (Vata) called Satavolsa on the summit of Kumuda has
branches which give rise to rivers that bring forth milk, curd, honey,
clarified butter, molasses, edibles, carpets, cloths, ornaments, in fact
all objects of desire. These rivers fall from Kumuda and water the
northern part of Ilâvrita.

Those that use the waters of those rivers are free from all Infirmities,
diseases, secretions, old age and death. They live in absolute bliss all
their lives.

There are twenty more mountains on all sides of Meru, at its foot. They
are Kuranga, Kurara, Kusumbha Naikovka, Trikuta, Sisira, Patanga.
Ruchoka, Nishadha Sitivâsa, Kapila Sankha, Vaidûrya, Jârudhi, Housas,
Rishabha, Nâga, Kâlanjara, Nirada and others.

Two mountains, Jatharu and Devakûta, are situated on the east of Meru.
They are two thousand Yojanas in height and in width. To the north they
spread over 18,000 Yojanas.

So on the west there are the two mountains Pavana and Pâriyâtra.

On the south there are Kailâśa and Karavira, which expand towards the
east. So on the north, there are Trisringa and Makara. (If different
measures are given in Vishnu and other Purânas, they are with reference
to different Kalpas. _Śridhara_).

The sages say that in the central portion of the top of Sumeru is the
abode of Brahmâ, made of gold, 10,000,000 Yojanas in area, and of four
equal sides.

Surrounding the abode of Brahmâ are the eight abodes of the eight
Lokapâlas situated respectively in the directions presided over by these
Lokapâlas. Each of these abodes has the color of its own Lokapâla and
each extends over 2 1/2 thousand yojanas. (The names of these abodes are
given in other Purânas. Thus:

    Manovatî is the abode of Brahmâ.
    Amarâvati    "    "      Indra.
    Tejovati     "    "      Agni.
    Sanyavati    "    "      Yâma.
    Krishnângana "    "      Nairita.
    Sradhavati   "    "      Varuna.
    Gandhavati   "    "      Vayu.
    Mahodayâ     "    "      Kubera.
    Yasovati     "    "      Isa.



THE GANGES.


*SKANDHA V. CHAP. 7.*

The Avatâra Vâmana asked Bali, the Daitya King, for as much space as he
could cover in three steps. The first step covered the earth. Vâmana
then raised his foot over the heavens and the stroke of his left
toe-nail caused a hole in the cosmic egg. Water entered the hole from
outside, water that carried the washings of Vishnu’s feet and that was
consequently capable of purifying all the impurities of the world and
that was in itself very pure, water that was then called Bhagavat pudi.
In a thousand yugas the stream reached the highest point of Svar Loka,
called Vishnupada.

Dhruva carried the stream on his own head with ever increasing devotion.

The seven Rishis (of the Great Bear) carry the sacred water in their
braided tufts of hair, as something better than Mukti, for the stream of
devotion flows from Vishnu direct.

Thence the stream passes through the path of the Devas, studded with
thousands and thousands of starry chariots, till it overflows the lunar
regions and fall down on the abode of Brahmâ in Meru.

There the stream divides itself into four parts called Sitâ, Alakanandâ,
Vankshu and Bhadrâ.

The Sitâ flows from the abode of Brahmâ through the highest mountain
ranges, she comes down to Gandha Mâdana, thence through Bhadrâsva Varsha
she falls into the salt ocean towards the east.

So the Vankshu flows through the Mâlyavat range into Ketumala Varsha and
falls on the west into the Salt ocean.

The Bhadrâ flows north from the Sumeru peak through several mountain
ranges down to Sringavat range and passes through Kuru in to the Salt
ocean.

The Alakanandâ flows south from the abode of Brahmâ through several
mountain ranges to Hema Kuta and thence to Himâlaya till it reaches
Bhârata Varsha (_i.e._ Nâbhi Varsha) and at last flows through it into
the Salt ocean.

There are a thousand other rivers and a thousand other mountains in each
Varsha.

[The real source of the Ganges is not the melting of snow in the
Himâlâyas. That may be the source of the waters that swell the bed of
the Ganges, as we see it. But the Ganges is something more than a volume
of waters. There is a spiritual current underlying its waters. That
current comes from regions higher than the highest peak of the
Himâlâyas. Hence the great sanctity attached to it].



THE MYSTERIES OF THE VARSHAS.


*SKANDHA V. CHAP. 17-19.*

Of the nine Varshas, Bhârata is the field of Karma (I must now once for
all remind my readers that Bhârata when mentioned as a Varsha means
Nâbhi Varsha, the whole of this visible earth from the highest point of
the Himalayas downwards). The other Varshas are places of fruition of
the merits of those that go to Svarga. Hence they are called terrestrial
(Bhouma) Svargas.

(Svarga is of three kinds: —

  a. Divya viz. Svarga proper or Swar Loka.
  b. Bhouma or terrestrial and
  c. Bila or Pâtâlic.

_Śridhara_.)

_Ilâvrita._ — The dwellers of this Varsha live for ten thousand years of
human measure. They are like Devas. They have the vitality of ten
thousand elephants. Their body is strong like the thunderbolt They enjoy
with women all their lives and only one year before death do the women
bear children. They always live as it were in Treta Yuga.

Nârâyana — the Mahâ Purusha pervades all the Varshas for their good, in
different forms of His Chatur Vyûha (Vâsudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna
and Anirudha).

In Ilâvrita, Bhava or Śiva is the only male. Other males do not enter
that Varsha, for they know the curse of Bhâvanî (Durgâ) that whoever
should enter the Varsha was to become a female.

Bhava is adored by millions of women. He meditates on the fourth, the
Tâmasa Mûrti of Mahâpurusha _viz._ Shankarshana. He recites the
following mantra and runs about: —

"Om Namo Bhâgavate Mahâ Purushâya Sarva-guna Sankhâynâya Anantâya
Avyaktâya Namaha."

"Om, Salutations to Bhagavat Mahâ Purusha, salutations to the manifester
of all Gunas, the Endless, the Unmanifested."

Then follows a prayer to Sankarshana for which readers are referred to
the original _Bhadtâsva_.

Bhadrasravas is the lord of Bhadrâsva. He and his followers dwell there,
they meditate on the Hayaśirsha aspect of Vâsudeva, they recite the
following mantra and run about.

"Om Namo Bhâgavate Dharmâya Âtmâ-visodhanâya namah."

"Om salutations to Bhagavat Dharma; salutations to him who purifies the
soul."

Then follows a prayer to Hayagrîva _Harivarsha_.

The renowned saintly Daitya Prahlâda with the dwellers of this Varsha
adore Him and recite the following mantra.

"Om Namo Bhagavate Srî Nara Sinhâya Namastejastejase Âvirâvir bhava
vajranakha vajra-danstra Karmâ-Sayân randhaya randhaya tamo grasa om
Svâhâ Abhayam Abhoyam Âtmani bhûyisthûh om kshroum."

"Om salutations to Bhagavat Srî Hrisinha, Salutations to the fire of all
fires! Manifest Thyself! Manifest thyself O thunder-nailed! O
thunder-toothed! Burn up, burn up all desires! devour Tamas! Om Svâhâ!
Freedom from fear, freedom from fear be in us. Om! Kohrâum!"

_Ketumâla._

Pradyumna or Kâmadeva presides over Ketumâla in order to please Lakshmî
Samvatsara (one year), the daughters of Samvatsara _viz:_ the nights and
Sons of Samvatsara _viz:_ the days. The days and nights are 36,000 in
number _i.e._ as many as are contained in the full term of a man’s life
(one hundred years). These days and nights are the lords of Ketumâla
Lakshmî with whom the dwellers of Ketumâla adore Kâmadeva.

(The mantra and prayer are then given.)

_Ramyaka._

Matsya (The Fish Incarnation) presides over Ramyaka. Manu is the King.

(Mantra and prayer follow)

_Hiranmaya._

Kûrma (the Tortoise Incarnation) presides over Hiranmaya. Aryaman the
chief of the Pitris dwells there with others.

(Mantra and prayer follow)

_Kuru._

Varsha or the Boar Incarnation presides over Kuru. Bhûr with the
dwellers of Kuru adore him.

(Mantra and prayer follow.)

_Kinpurusha._

In Kinpurusha, Hanumân with the dwellers of the Varsha worship the
Adipurusha Râma, brother of Lakshamana and husband of Sitâ.

(Mantra and prayer follow.)

_Bhârat Varsha._

Nara Nârâyana presides over this Varsha. There are various (castes) and
Âsramas in this Varsha. Nârada of great devotion leads the people of
this Varsha. His object in so doing is to teach to Sâvarni, the coming
Manu, the Sânkhya and Yoga (as related in the Bhagavat Gitâ) together
with the full realisation of Bhagavat (as related in the Pancharatras).

[This mission of Nârada is specially noteworthy.]

( Mantra and prayer follow.)

In this Bhârata Varsha there are many mountains and rivers.

Maloya, Mangalaprastha, Mainâka, Trikuta, Rishava, Kutaka, Kōnva,
Sahya, Rishyamûka, Srisaila, Venkata, Mahendra, Vâridhâra, Vindhya,
Śaktimân, Riksha, Pâripâtra, Drōna, Chitrakûta, Gobardhana, Raivatak,
Kakubha, Nila, Gokâmukha, Indrakila, Kâmagiri and hundreds and thousands
of other mountains are situated in this Varsha.

The following are the principal rivers Chandvavâsa, Tâmvaparni,
Avatōda, Kritamâlā, Vaihâyasi, Kâveri, Venûâ, Payasvini, Sarkarâvartâ,
Krishnavenuâ, Bhimrathi, Godâbari, Nirvindhyâ, Payoshni, Tâpi, Revâ,
Surasâ, Narmadâ, Charmanvati, Andha, Sōna, Mahânadi, Vedasmriti,
Rishikúlyâ, Trisâmâ, Kousiki, Mandâkini, Yamunâ, Sarasvati, Drishadvati,
Gomati, Saraju, Aghavati, Shasthavati, Saptavati, Satadru, Sushōma,
Chandrabhâgâ, Maruduridhâ, Vitastâ, Asikini and Visvâ.

Those that acquire birth in this Varsha have recourse to Svarga,
humanity and Naraka respectively, according as their Karma is White
(Sâtvic), Red (Râjasic) or Black (Tâmasic). The People acquire Moksha in
this Varsha in accordance with their Varna (Caste). (This is because
Karma according to caste prevails in this Varsha, not that Moksha is not
otherwise attainable. _Śridhara_).

And what is moksha in this Varsha? It is the Companionship of Mahâtmâs
(Mahâpurushas) brought about by the destruction of the bonds of Avidyâ
caused by various births. And that Moksha is in reality unceasing,
unselfish devotion to the All-pervading, Indestructible, Causeless
Paramâtma Vâsudeva.

Even the Devas say: — "How fortunate are these people of Bhârat Varsha!
For Hari is kind to them, even without many performances and they are so
adapted for communion with Hari by devotion. We have attained Svarga by
the performance of Yajna. But we shall have to be born again after the
end of the Kalpa. What good is in this state, which does not bring us in
direct communion with Vishnu? These people of Bhârat Varsha even with
their short lives acquire the state of Hari. If there be any Karma left
to us after the enjoyment of Svarga may we be born as men that we may
worship Hari."

Some say there are eight upadvipas in Jambu Dvipa, formed by the sons of
Sagara when they dug up this earth in search of the sacrificial horse.
They are Svarna Prastha, Chandra Sukla, Âvartana, Râmanaka,
Manda-harina, Panchajanya, Sinhala and Loukâ.



THE DVIPAS.


*SKANDHA V. CHAP. 20.*

_Plaksha Dvipa_

Jambu Dvipa is surrounded by the salt ocean on all sides. That ocean
extends over Laksha Yojanas. That salt ocean is again surrounded on all
sides by Plaksha Dvipa, which extends over 2 laksha of Yojanas.

There is one golden Plaksha tree in that Dvipa as high as the Jambu tree
in Jambu Dvipa and the Dvipa itself takes its name from that tree. There
Fire is seven tongued,

Idhmajihva son of Priyavrata ruled over this Dvipa. He divided the Dvipa
into seven Varshas and named them after his seven sons each of whom
ruled over the Varsha of his name.

Śiva, Vayasa, Subhadrâ, Sânta, Kshema, Amrita and Abhoya are the
Varshas.

Manikûta, Vajrakûta, Indrasena, Jyotishmat, Subarna, Hiranyasthiva and
Meghmâla are the seven chief mountains.

Arunâ, Nrimâna, Angirasi, Sâvitri, Supravâtâ, Ritambharâ and Satyambharâ
are the seven great rivers.

Hansa, Patanga, Urdhâyana and Satyânga are the corresponding castes.

The dwellers of the Dvipa live for one thousand years. They look like
Devas and procreate after Deva fashion. They worship the Sûrya (Sun-god)
of the Vedas.

(The Mantra is given)

In Plaksha, Sâlmali, Kusa, Krouncha and Śaka, the inmates have their
age, Indriyas, strength, power and Budhi by their very birth and not by
Karma.

The Dvipa is surrounded by the Sugar cane juice ocean which extends over
2 laksha of Yojanas.

_Sâlmali Divpa:_ — Twice as large as Plaksha Dvipa. The ocean of wine
surrounding it is equally large.

_Tree:_ — Sâlmali (Bombax Malabaricum) as high as the Plaksha tree said
to be the seat of Garuda.

_King:_ Yajna-vâha son of Priyavrata.

_Seven Varshas and seven sons of Yajnavaha:_ — Surochana, Soumanasya,
Râmanaka, Devvarha, Pâribhadra, Âpyâyana and Abhijhâta.

_Seven principal mountains:_ — Surasa, Śata Sringa, Vamadeva, Kunda,
Kumuda, Pushpa Varsha and Sahosra.

_Seven great rivers:_ — Anumati, Sinivâti, Sarasvati, Kuhu, Rajani,
Nandâ and Râkâ.

_Divisions of people:_ — Srutidhara, Viryadhara, Vasundhara, and
Ishundhara.

_Presiding deity:_ — The Moon.

_Kusa Dvipa:_ — Twice as large as Sâlmali Dvipa surrounded by an ocean
of clarified butter equally large.

_Tree:_ — Clusters of Kusa grass glowing and glittering.

_King:_ — Hiranyaretas son of Priyavrata.

_Seven Varshas:_ — Vasu, Vasudâna, Dridharuchi, Nâbhigupta, Satyavrata,
Bikranama, and Devanâma.

_Seven mountains:_ — Babhra, Chatur-Sringa, Kapila Chitra Kûta,
Devânika, Urdharomau and Dravina.

_Seven Rivers:_ — Raaskulyâ, Madhukulyâ, Mitravindâ, Srutavindâ, Deva
Garbhâ, Ghutachyntâ, and Mantramâlâ.

_Divisions of People:_ — Kusala, Kōvida, Abhiyukta and Kulaka.

_Presiding Deity:_ — Agni (Fire-god).

_Krouncha Dvipa:_ — Twice as large as Kusa, surrounded by an ocean of
milk equally large. Named after the Krouncha Mountain. The Krouncha
Mountain was attacked by Kârtikeya and injured too. But the Milk Ocean
and the presiding deity Varuna saved it.

_King:_ — Ghritaprestha son of Priyavrata.

_Seven Varshas:_ — Âtmâ, Madhuruha, Meghapristha, Sudhâwan, Bhrâjistha,
Lohitârna, Vânaspati.

_Seven Mountains:_ — Sukla, Vardhamân, Bhajana, Upavarhaha, Nauda,
Nandana and Sarvato-bhadra.

_Seven Rivers:_ — Abhoya, Amritoughâ, Âryukâ, Tirthavati, Rupavati,
Pavitravati and Suklâ.

_Divisions of people:_ — Purasha, Rishabha, Dravina and Devaka.

_Presiding Deity:_ Âpas (Water-God.)

_Sâka Dvipa:_ — 32 laksha Yojanas. Surrounded by an ocean of curds —
equally extensive.

_Tree:_ — Sâka (Teak wood tree) very fragrant.

_King:_ — Medhâtithi, son of Priyavrata.

_Seven Varshas:_ — Purojava, Manojava, Vepamâna, Dhûmrânika,
Chitrarepha, Bahurûpa and Visvâ-dhâra.

_Seven Mountains:_ — Isâna, Uru Sringa, Balabhadra, Sata Kesara,
Sahasra-srotas, Devapâla and Mohânasa.

_Seven Rivers:_ — Anaghâ, Âyurdâ, Ubhayaspriti, Aparâjitâ, Punchapadî,
Sahasra Sruti and Nijadhriti.

_Division of people:_ — Ritavrata, Satyavrata, Dânavrata and Anuvrata.

_Presiding Deity:_ — Vayu (Wind-god).

_Puskkara Dvipa:_ — Twice as large as Saka Dvipa surrounded by an ocean
of pure water — equally extensive: There is a big Pushkara or Lotus
plant with thousands of golden leaves. The Lotus is known as the seat of
Brahmâ.

Standing between two Varshas, eastern and western, is the Mânasattara
Mountain ten thousand Yojanas high. On the four sides of this Mountain
are four abodes of the Lokapâlas = Indra and others.

Over these abodes the Sanvatsava or Uttarâyana Dakshinâyana wheel
(_chakra_) of the Sun’s chariot moves in its course round Meru.

Vitihotra, Son of Priyavrata, is the king of this Varsha.

His two sons Râmanaka and Dhâtaka are the lords of two Varshas named
after them.

The people of those Varshas worship Brahmâ by Yajna performances.

Beyond the Ocean of pure water is the Lokâloka (Loka and Aloka)
Mountain, dividing Loka, the regions lighted by the sun, from Aloka or
the regions not lighted by the sun.

As much land as there is between Mânasottara and Meru, so much golden
land is there on the other side of the pure water ocean. It is like the
surface of the mirror. If any thing is thrown on that land, it is not
regained. It is therefore forsaken by all beings. [The land between
Mânasottara and Meru is one krore and a half _plus_ seven and a half
lakhs. There is as much land on the other side of the Pure Water Ocean.
There are living beings in that land. Beyond that is the golden land.
That land is eight krores and thirty nine laksha yojanas wide. It is
thus that the distance between Meru and Lokâloka comes to be 12 1/2
krores as mentioned below. This is also said in the Śiva Tantra.

Two krores 53 lakshas and 50 thousand this is the measure of the seven
Dvipas with the Oceans. Beyond that is the golden land which is 10
Krores of Yojanas. This is used by the Devas as their play-ground.
Beyond that is Lokâloka. The ten krores include the previously mentioned
land, "Forsaken by all beings" — this is to be understood with the
exception of the Devas, for it is mentioned as the play-ground of the
Devas. _Śridhara._]

In order to understand the commentary of _Śridhara_, let us examine the
figures.

Jambu Dvipa with Ocean on one side of Meru:

    ... ... 150,000 Yojanas

Plaksha Dvipa with Ocean on one side of Meru:

                   ... ... 400,000

    Sâlmali   Do.  ... ... 800,000

    Kusa      Do. .. ... 1,600,000

    Krouncha  Do. .. ... 3,200,000

    Sâka      Do. .. ... 6,400,000

    Pushkar   Do. . ... 12,800,000

Deduct Pure water Ocean as it is not included between Meru and
Mânasottara:

    ... ... 6,400,000

          −−−−−−−−−−−−
           18,950,000

Mânasottara stands half way in Pushkara, as it stands between two
Varshas. Deduct distance between Mânasottara and Pure Water Ocean:

    ... 3,200,000

      −−−−−−−−−−−−
       15,750,000

The distance between Meru and Mânasottara is 1 1/2 Krores and 7 1/2
lakhs.

According to Śridhara, there is this much land on the other side of the
Pure Water Ocean.

Beyond that land is the Golden land which according to _Śridhara_ is:

                                     ... ... 83900000 Yojanas

    Thus we get Dvipas and Oceans        ... 25350000   "

    Land beyond Pure Water Oceans        ... 15750000   "

    The Golden land                  ... ... 83900000   "

                                            −−−−−−−−−−

                                            125000000   "

Thus we get the 12 1/2 krores of Śridhara. Beyond the Golden land is the
Lokâloka Mountain. This will also explain the quotation from Śiva
Tantra. The following Diagram will partially illustrate the points.

    Lokâloka

    * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

    The Golden Land
    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

    Land beyond Pure Water Ocean
    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

    Pure Water Ocean
    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

    P
    u
    s
    h   ( * * Mânasottara
    k
    a
    r
    a

    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

    Milk Ocean
    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

    Sâkâ
    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

    Sour Milk Ocean
    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

    Krouncha
    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

    Clarified Butter Ocean
    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

    Kusa
    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

    Wine Ocean
    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

    Sâlmali
    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

    Sugarcane Juice Ocean
    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

    Plaksha
    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

    Salt Ocean
    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

    * Meru, Jambu
    −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−

The Lokâloka is the boundary of three Lokas, Bhûr, Bhuvar, and Svar.

The rays of the numerous bodies from the Sun up to Dhruva illuminate the
regions on the Triloka side of Lokâloka but they can never reach its
other side. For such is the height and expanse of Lokâloka — (It is even
higher than Dhruva. So it is the boundary of Trilokî. _Śridhara_).

The Bhu-Golaka or the Bhûr system measures 50 Krores. And Lokâloka is
one-fourth of that _i.e._ 12 1/2 Krores (on one side of Meru.
_Śridhara_).

Over this Lokâloka, Brahmâ placed 4 Elephant Kings in four different
directions _viz:_ Rishabha, Pushkarachûra, Vâmana and Aparâjitâ. This is
for the preservation of the Lokas.

Bhagavân Mahâ Purusha (Vishnu) Himself remains there. He infuses various
powers into the Elephant Kings and into the Lokapâlas (preservers of the
Lokas) Indra and others who are but His manifestations. He pervades all.
He manifests His pure Satva. The characteristics of that satva are the
eight Siddhis.

Dharma, Jnâna, Vairâgya, Aisvarya &c., Vishvaksena and His other
Companions are with Him. His own weapons are in his hands. He remains
there for the good of all Lokas.

To the end of the Kalpa, Vishnu remains in this way pervading all for
the preservation of the Universe formed by His own Mâyâ.

The measure of Aloka is also 12 1/2 Krores (on one side of Meru.
_Śridhara_).

Beyond Aloka is Visuddha (very pure region) where only masters of Yoga
can go.

The Sun stands in the centre of the Egg. That is also the middle ground
between Svar and Bhûr. Between the Sun and the Circumference of the Egg
is 25 Krores.

The Sun is called Mârtanda (Mrita and anda) because in Mrita or dead
matter he infused life as Vairâja. He is called Hiranya Garbha (Gold
wombed) because he came out of the Golden Egg.

The sun divided space into Bhûr, Bhuvar and Svar. The Sun divides the
regions of enjoyment and Moksha. He divides the Narakas and Pâtâlas. He
is the Âtmâ of Devas, men, animals, plants and other Jivas. He is the
manifester of sight.



SVAR AND BHUVAR.


*SKANDHA V. CHAP. 21.*

The localisation, measure and other details of Bhûr have been given
above. (By expanse 50 Krores and by height 25 Krores. _Śridhara_).

The measure of Svar is the same as that of Bhûr — Just as one cotyledon
gives the measure of the other cotyledon in a flower.

Bhuvar is the connecting link of Bhûr and Svar.



THE SUN.


*SKANDHA V. CHAP. 21-22.*

The Sun from the Bhuvar Loka sends forth his rays to Trilokî.

(Here follow astronomical details which need not be given.)

When the Sun is between the Autumn and spring Equinoxes it is called
Uttarâyana (or going towards the north.) Then the Sun’s motion is said
to be slow.

When the Sun is between the spring Equinox and Autumn Equinox, it is
Dakshinâyana (Going towards the south.) The Sun’s motion is then said to
be Quick.

When the sun is at the Equinoxes it is Vishuva. The Sun’s motion is then
said to be Even.

When it is Dakshinâyana, the days increase. When it is Uttarâyana the
nights increase.

The sages teach 9 Krores and 51 lakhs of Yojanas as the Circumference of
Manâsottara.

[On both sides of Meru up to Manâsottara is 3 Krores and 15 lakhs. The
Measure of the above circle is obtained from this (diameter).
_Śridhara_.]

[A full diagram of the Bhûr system will now have to be given, to explain
the above figures. For the sake of convenience, the Dvipa and its ocean
are given as one.]

[Illustration: A diagram of the Bhûr system.]

    From Meru to Lokâloka on one side     ... 12 1/2 Krores
                        on both sides     ... 25       "
    Loka loka on both sides               ... 25       "
    Measure of Bhûr system                ... 50       "
    Distance from Meru to Manasottora 15,750,000
    On both sides                 ... 31,500,000

The Manâsottara range is a circle of which the last figure is the
diameter.

The circle is obtained by multiplying the diameter by a little over 3.

The circle is thus given to be — 9 Krores and 51 Lakshas.

The Manâsottara is the path of revolution of the sun round Meru.

On the East side of Meru in the Manâsottara is the seat of Indra named
Devadhânî.

On the South side is the seat of Yâma named Sanyamanî.

On the West is the seat of Varuna named Nimlochani.

On the North is the seat of the Moon named Vibhavarî.

Sunrise, midday, Sunset and night on those seats cause action and
inaction in beings, according to the time with reference to the side of
Meru.

(For those that live to the south of Meru, their east &c. commence from
the abode of Indra, of those that live to the west from the abode of
Yâma, of the northern people, from the abode of Varuna, of the eastern
people from the abode of the Moon. _Śridhara_.)

Those that live on the Meru have the Sun always over their heads.

The Sun’s chariot makes one round along Manâsottara in one year. The
wheel or chakra of the chariot is therefore called Sanvatsara.

The 12 months are the 12 spokes of that wheel. The six seasons form 6
arcs.

The pole of that chariot extends to the top of Meru. The other end of
the pole is on the Manâsottara. (It is either to be thought that the
wheel is placed more than 50,000 Yojanas over the Manâsottara in the
regions of air or the wheel is to be considered as high as that
distance, otherwise the Manâsottara being 10,000 Yojanas high and Meru
being 84 Yojanas high, 16 thousand being under ground, there will be a
difference of planes in the Sun’s revolution. _Śridhara_.)

There is another movement of the Sun round Dhruva. The radius of that
revolution is one fourth the distance between Meru and Manâsottara.
(_i.e._ 1/4 X 15,750,000 = 3,937,500).

The movement round Dhruva is caused by the action of air.

The seat within the chariot is 36 laksha of Yojanas wide. The yoke is
also of the same measure. The seven horses are the seven Vedic metres
(Gâyatri, Ushnik, Anustup, Vrihatî, Pankti, Tristup and Jagati). They
are driven by Aruna.

The thumb sized Bâlikhilya Rishis stand in front of the chariot and
chant hymns in honor of Âditya.



THE PLANETS AND STARS.


*SKANDHA V. CHAP. 22-23.*

The moon is one laksha of Yojanas over the Sun. The growing Moon makes
the day of the Devas and the waning Moon is the life of all Jivas, in
fact he is Jiva.

He is Manomaya, Annamaya and Amritamaya. From him therefore proceed the
life and advancement of Devas, Pitris, Men, Animals and Plants.

Two laksha of Yojanas over the Moon are the 27 Zodiacal constellations
and also the star Abhijit ( a mysterious star between Uttarâshâdhâ and
Sravanâ) attached to the wheel of time.

Two laksha of Yojanas over them is Sukra or Venus. His movements are
like those of the Sun. He is ever favourable to men. His progression is
generally accompanied by showers of rain. He also subdues those planets
that counteract the rains.

Two laksha of Yojanas over Sukra is Budha or Mercury. He is much like
Sukra in his movements and is generally favourable to men. But when he
transgresses the Sun, there is fear of high winds, rainless clouds and
drought.

Two laksha of Yojanas over Budha is Mangala or Mars. He moves round the
Zodiac in three fortnights. He is generally unfavourable to men, causing
miseries, unless he proceeds by retrogression.

Two laksha of Yojanas over Mars is Brihaspati or Jupiter. He moves in
each sign of the Zodiac for one Parivatsara (year of Jupiter), if there
is no retrogression. He is generally unfavorable to the Brâhmanas.

Two laksha of Yojanas over Jupiter is Sanaischara or Saturn. He loiters
in each sign of the Zodiac for thirty months. He completes his round in
thirty Anuvatsaras. He is generally unfavourable to all and causes
unrest.

Eleven laksha of Yojanas over Saturn are the Rishis. Their influence is
for the good of all people. They revolve round the Supreme abode of
Vishnu.

Thirteen laksha of Yojanas beyond the Rishis is Dhruva, which is the
Supreme abode of Vishnu.

All luminous bodies attached to the wheel of time move round Dhruva
being propelled by Vâyu while Dhruva remains fixed.

The planets and stars remain fixed in their relative positions, under
the union of Prakriti and Purusha by the future made for them by their
Karma.

Some however say that the luminous bodies become fixed in their relative
positions by the Yoga support of Vâsudeva, being held together in the
shape of Sisumâra (the Gangetic porpoise). The Sisumâra has its face
downwards and its body is coiled.

Dhruva is at the end of its tail. Prajâpati, Agni, Indra and Dharma are
in the lower part of the tail. Dhâta and Vidhâta are at the root of the
tail. The seven Rishis are in the middle. On the right side are the
fourteen Stars from Abhijit to Punarvasu. On the left side are the 14
stars from Pushyâ to Uttara Sârhâ. So on, all the stars and planets.
(For details refer to the original).

The Sisumâra is the Universal manifestation of Maha Purusha.

[The following Geo-centric diagram is given, as illustrative of the
positions of the planets.]

[Illustration: Positions of the planets.]



THE PÂTÂLAS


*SKANDHA V. CHAP. 24.*

Ten thousand Yojanas below the Sun is Râhu, son of Sinhika. Though an
Asura, by favour of Bhagavân he became a planet and immortal too like
the Devas.

Ten thousand Yojanas below Râhu is the abode of the Siddhas, Châranas
and Vaidyâdharas.

Below that is the abode of the Yakshas, Râkshasas, Pisâchas, Pretas, and
Bhûtas. This abode extends down to the regions of air and clouds.

One hundred Yojanas below that is the Earth. The details of the Earth’s
surface have been given above.

Underneath the Earth are the seven Patâlas: — Atala, Vitala, Sutala,
Talâtala, Mahâtala, Rasâtala and Pâtâla. They are ten thousand Yojanas
apart from each other.

In these nether Svargas, Daityas, Dânavas and Nâgas dwell. Their
enjoyments, power, joys and luxuries are even greater than those of the
Devas of Svarga. Their houses, gardens and playgrounds are very rich.
They are always joyous. They are attached to their wives, sons, friends
and attendants. By the grace of Îsvara, their desires are always
gratified.

Mâyâ, the Dânava Magician, has built wonderful houses, gardens &c. in
these regions with precious stones.

There are no divisions of time, as the Sun’s rays do not enter those
regions and no disturbances from such divisions. All darkness is removed
by the light of the precious stones on the head of the serpent king.

The people of Pâtâla use divine herbs and medicines, and consequently
they have no infirmities, diseases, old age, languor and offensive
secretions.

They have no death except by the Chakra of Bhagavân (_i.e._ final
extinction).

_Atala:_ — Bala, the son of Maya resides in Atala (Maya is a masculine
form of Mâyâ the root Prakriti). He created here 96 forms of Mâyâ. The
Mâyâvins (those who practice Magic) still have recourse to those forms.
When he yawns, three classes of women spring into existence viz:

  1. Svairini (self willed loose women),
  2. Kâmini (passionate women) and
  3. Punschali (unchaste women).

If any one enters Atala these women completely allure him by their
Hâtaka (golden) charm, and when the man is completely overcome by their
allurements, he says "I am Îsvara", "I am Siddha."

[The women are only forms of Mâyâ because Mâyâ is personified as an
alluring woman. A man in Atala is completely under the domination of
Mâyâ and becomes estranged from spirit. So Mâyâ is all in all to him and
he knows no other.]

_Vitala_: — Below Atala is Vitala. There Bhava (Śiva) the king of Gold
reigns in company with his consort Bhavâni, attended by Bhûtas. He
remains there for the benefit of the Prajâpati creation. The fluid of
intercourse with Bhavâni gives rise to a river called Hâtaki (Golden).
Agni kindled by Vâyu drinks up that river and gives out the gold called
Hâtaka which is used in ornaments by the Asuras who dwell there.

(We have known Śiva as the Astral Lord. We find him here engaged in the
work of creation. The text speaks of a mysterious connection between him
and the gold called Hâtaka. The occult varieties of gold such as
Jâmvanada and Hâtaka form a fit subject of study. Hâtaka refers to the
Prajâpati creation. There is duality in Vitala, as distinguished from
the singleness of Mâyâ in Atala).

_Sutala_: — Below Vitala is Sutala. There the renowned Bali son of
Virochana still dwells. Vâmana, the Dwarf Incarnation of Vishnu, took
away the Trilokî from him and replaced him here. His enjoyments even
here are greater than those of Indra. He performs Sva-dharma and
worships Vishnu. His sins are all removed.

(A full account of Bali will be given below.)

_Talâtala_: — Below Sutala is Talâtala. Mâyâ, the Dânava king, rules
there. His "Three Puras" (abodes) were destroyed by Śiva who is hence
called Tripurari. But Śiva favoured him again and placed him in
Talâtala. He is the preceptor of all Mâyâvins. He is preserved by Śiva
and he has no fear from Sudarsana (the chakra weapon of Vishnu, which
symbolises Time.)

(Bali and Mâyâ, Trilokî and Tripura, the seizure of one and the
destruction of the other, the restoration of Bali to Sutala and of Mâyâ
to Talâtala, the favour shown to them in those regions, the
correspondences of Sutala and Talâtala are worth careful consideration.
In the case of one, Vishnu or the Preservative aspect of the Second
Purusha is the actor, and in the other, Śiva, the Destructive aspect.)

_Mahâtala_: — Below Talâtala is Mahâtala. Many headed serpents, the
progeny of Kadru, dwell there. The chief amongst them are Kuhaka,
Takshaka, Kâliya, Sushena, and others. They are always afraid of Garuda,
the Vehicle of Vishnu, and they are therefore seldom seen to indulge in
pleasure-trips outside.

_Rasâtala_: — Below Mahatala is Rasâtala; Daityas, Dânavas and Panis,
named Nivatakavachas, Kâlakeyas and Hiranyapuravâsins dwell there. They
are the enemies of the Devas. They are powerful from their very birth.
They are subdued by the Sudarsana of Vishnu. They are like serpents.
They fear even the threats of Saramâ, the bitch of the gods who is
Indra’s messenger to them. They fear Indra also.

_Pâtala_: — Below Rasâtala is Pâtala. The Nâgas dwell there. Vasûki is
their chief. The other principal Nâgas are — Sankha, Kulika, Mahâ
Sankha, Sveta, Dhananjaya, Asvatara, and Devadatta. Their hood is very
large and they are very furious. Some of them are five headed, some 7
headed, some 10 headed, some a thousand headed. The precious stones on
their hoods dispel all darkness in Pâtala.



ANANTA.


*SKANDHA V. CHAP. 25.*

At the root of Pâtala, thirty thousand Yojanas beyond, is the Tamas
aspect of Bhagavân called Ananta. Those that worship the Chaturvyûha
aspect call him Sankarshana. He has a thousand heads. The earth held up
on one of these heads looks but like a mustard seed. When the time for
dissolution comes, Ananta assumes His Tamas form and becomes Rudra —
other wise called Sankarshana, a host of eleven, with three eyes, three
tufts of hair and with tridents on their heads. At other times, Ananta
withdraws His Tamas and abides for the good of all Lokas. His eyes roll
as it were by intoxication. His garments are blue. He has one ear-ring.
He has a plough on his back.



THE NARAKAS.


*SKANDHA V. CHAP. 26.*

Where are the Narakas, O Rishi, asked Parikshit? Are they particular
localities? Are they outside the Trilokî or inside?

Suka replied: —

They are inside the Trilokî on the south side below the earth, over the
waters, where Agnishvâttâ and other Pitris deeply meditate on the
welfare of their respective descendants.

There, Yâma, the Death-god, metes out just punishment to the dead.

There are twenty-one Narakas: —

   1. Tâmisra
   2. Andha Tâmisara
   3. Rourava
   4. Mahârourava
   5. Kumbhipâka
   6. Kâla Sutra
   7. Asipatravana
   8. Sûkara Mukha
   9. Andha Kûpa
  10. Krimi bhajana
  11. Sandansa
  12. Tapta Surmi
  13. Vajra-Kantaka Sâlmali
  14. Vaitarani
  15. Pûyôda
  16. Prânarodha
  17. Vaisâsana
  18. Lâlâbhaksha
  19. Sârameyâdâna
  20. Avichi and
  21. Ayahpâna.

There are seven other Narakas:

  1. Kshâra Kardama
  2. Rakshogana bhōjana
  3. Sûlaprōta
  4. Danda Sûka
  5. Avata-nirodhana
  6. Paryâ vartana and
  7. Sûchi mukha.

(For details of these Narakas, the reader is referred to the original.
They are more for the exoteric than for the esoteric reader.)

There are hundreds and thousands of such Narakas in the realms of Yâma.
The vicious enter them by turns. The meritorious go to Svarga. But the
Karma of men is not exhausted in Svarga or Naraka. For that which
remains unexhausted, they enter life again by re-birth.

(The mention of Pitris and Yâma connects the Narakas with the astral
plane.)



SKANDHA VI.



THE STORY OF AJÂMILA


*SKANDHA VI. CHAP. 1-3.*

Râjâ Parikshit asked how men could avoid Naraka.

SUKA replied: — It is by Prâyaschitta (expiation) that men can avoid
Naraka. But it is not Vedic Prâyaschitta, not fasting by Chândrâyana and
other Vratas. These Vedic performances cannot root out vicious
tendencies, for the performer is seen again to indulge in vices. They do
not purify the mind. They simply counteract the Kârmic effect of the act
for which Prâyaschitta is performed.  The real Prâyaschitta is devotion
to Vishnu.

Ajâmila was the son of a Brâhmana. He was dutiful, virtuous, modest,
truthful, and regular in the performance of Vedic injunctions. One day
in obedience to his father he went into the forests and there collected
fruits, flowers, sacrificial wood and _Kusa_ — on returning he saw a
Sudra in company with a slave-girl. He tried much to subdue his passions
but did not succeed. He spent the whole of his patrimony to win the love
of that girl. He gave up his own wife and kept company with that slave
girl. He had by her several sons of whom the youngest was Nârâyana.
Ajâmila lost all his good qualities in low company and he forgot his
daily practices. To support the woman and her children, he had recourse
to all sorts of vicious and unlawful acts. Nârâyana was the favorite
among his sons. He caressed him always. At last his end approached. He
thought even then of his youngest son who was playing at a distance.
Three fierce-looking messengers of Yâma appeared, with ropes in hand.
Terrified at the sight Ajâmila cried out "Nârâyana, Nârâyana." Instantly
the Messengers of Vishnu appeared. At the time when the servants of Yâma
were drawing out the Jiva from the heart of Ajâmila, the attendants of
Vishnu stopped them with a strong voice. "But who are you" said they "to
interfere with the just sway of Yâma." The bright attendants of Vishnu
only smiled and asked: "What is Dharma? Does your lord Yâma hold the
sceptre of punishment against all who perform Karma? Is there no
distinction made?"

The astral messengers replied: — "The performance of Vedic Injunctions
is Dharma and their disregard is Adharma. This Ajâmila in his earlier
days duly respected the Vedas. But in company with the slave-girl, he
lost his Brahmânism, disregarded the Vedas and did things which a
Brâhmana should not do. He justly comes for punishment to Yama."

The attendants of Vishnu expressed wonder at these words. "And you are
servants of him, who is called the king of Dharma, and you do not know
that there is something above the Vedas too. This Ajâmila consciously or
unconsciously took the name of Nârâyana and that saved him from your
clutches. It is in the nature of fire to consume fuel and so it is in
the nature of Vishnu’s name to destroy all sins. If one unconsciously
takes some powerful medicine, does it not have effect? It matters not
whether Ajâmila meant his youngest son or not but still he took the name
of Nârâyana. So you must retire."

Wonder-struck the servants of Yâma left their hold over Ajâmila. They
went away and complained to their Master. "There must be one law and one
dispenser of that law. Otherwise some will be punished and others not.
Why should there be this difference? We know Thee to be the sole
dispenser of the Law for the vicious. But just now the attendants of
Vishnu came and wrested from our hands a transgressor against the
Vedas."

"True my sons", replied Yâma, "there is some one above me and it is
Vishnu. His ways are mysterious.

"The whole Universe is in Him. His attendants always save His votaries.
Only twelve of us know his Dharma, which is Bhâgavata and no one else.
These twelve are Brahmâ, Śiva, Sanat Kumâra, Nârada, Kapila, Manu,
Prahlâda, Janaka, Bhishma, Bali, Suka and myself."

Ajâmila heard the conversation between the messengers of Yâma and
Vishnu. He became sorely penitent (the repentance is strongly
described). He overcame his attachments, left the house and went to
Haridvâra. There he meditated on Vishnu with concentrated mind. The
former attendants of Vishnu appeared once more and took him on a chariot
to Vishnu Loka.



THE PROGENY OF DAKSHA.


*SKANDHA VI. CHAP. 4-6.*

[We left the line of Uttânapâda with Daksha, the son of the Prachetas
brothers. We were told of his work of creation in the Châkshasha
Manvantara. But we have to take up the line just now, to introduce the
story of Visva Rûpa.]

Daksha first carried on the work of creation by Mânasic reproduction.
But he found this sort of reproduction was not adequate for the
enlargement of creation. He went to a place near the Vindhyas and prayed
hard to Vishnu. Vishnu became pleased with his prayers and advised him
to marry Asikni, the daughter of Prajâpati Panchajana. "Take her for
your wife and have sexual intercourse with her. By sexual reproduction,
you shall have a large progeny and that form of reproduction shall
prevail among your sons too".

By Asikni, Daksha had at first 10 thousand sons called Haryasva. He
asked them to take up the work of creation. They went westwards to where
the river Sindhu falls into the ocean. They began to make Tapas there
for their progeny. Nârada appeared before them and dissuaded them from
Pravritti Mârga. He gave them instructions for obtaining Moksha and they
followed the path of its attainment.

Daksha heard that his sons were killed by Nârada and he became very
sorry.

He again had one thousand sons names Subalâsva. They also went out to
the very same place and prayed to Vishnu for progeny. Nârada again
dissuaded them and they never returned to their father.

Daksha became restless in sorrow and thus cursed Nârada on meeting him.
"Thou shalt roam all over Trilokî and shalt find no resting place."

Daksha had then 60 daughters. Ten he gave to Dharma, 13 to Kasyapa, 27
to the Moon, two each to Bhûta, Angirasa, and Krisasva and four to
Târksha.



THE PROGENY OF DHARMA.


    (1) _By Bhânu_: — Devar−shabha or the chief Devas.

    (2) _By Lambâ_: — Vidyota (flash of lightning)
                               |
                         The clouds.

    (3) _By Kakud_: — Sankata
                       |
                     Kikata (the elementals presiding over
                     earth−cavities).

    (4) _By Yâmi_: — Svarga.
                      |
                    Nandi.

    (5) _By Visvâ_: — The Visvadevas (Vedic−gods).

    (6) _By Sâdhyâ_: — The Sâdhyas — attainment of desires.

    (7) _By Mavutvatî_: — Marutvat and Jayanta, otherwise called Upendra.

    (8) _By Muhûrta_: — The Muhûrta Devas or Devas presiding over the
    moments.

    (9) _By Sankalpâ_: — Sankalpa (Desire).

    (10) _By Vasu_: The eight Vasus (Vedic−gods), _viz_

                     (_a_) Drona = Abhimatî
                               |
                   −−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−+−−−−−
                     |             |
                Harsha (Joy) Soka (Sorrow) &c.


                     (_b_) Prâna = Urjasvati
                                     |
             −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−+−−−−−+−−−
               |               |           |
             Saha (strength) Âyus (age) Purōjava.


                     (_c_) Dhruva=Dharanî
                                   |
                        Different towns.


                     (_d_) Arka = Vâsâna (tendency)
                                   |
                          −−−+−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−
                             |            |
                         Tarsha (desire) &c.


                         (_e_) Agni (Fire) = Dhâra
                                           |
                  −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
                    |                         |            |
                 Skânda                   Dravinaka       &c.
         (otherwise known as            (Gold, wealth)
         Kartikeya, the son
         of Śiva by Krittika)
                  |
               Visâkha &c.

                       (_f_) Dosha = Sarvarî (night)
                                      |
             Sisumâra (Gangetic porpoise the symbol of Trilokî).


                       (_g_) Vastu (Dwelling place) = Ângirasi
                                      |
                          Visvakarmâ (The cosmic manufacturer)
                                      |
                                 Châkshusha Manu
                                      |
                             −−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−
                               |                |
                         The Visvadevas    The Sadhyas.


                       (_h_) Vibhavasu = Ushâ (Dawn)
                                        |
                    −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
                      |              |                 |
                   Vyushta       Rochisha            Atapa.
                   (Dawn)     (Bright, shining)    (Sun shine)
                                                       |
                                                   Panchayâma

                                          (1 Yâma = 1/3 part of day
                                          = 3 hours. There are
                                          8 yâmas in day and night.
                                          Pancha yâma = 5 yâmas
                                          when men do their work).

[The 8 Vasus are sub-manifestations of Brahmâ or the creative Purusha.
They are energies that help creation in various ways. They find no place
in the Hindu worship now. They are invoked only in marriage ceremonies
when their appropriateness is evident. The Vedic gods can be analysed
thus:--:

                                 Purusha
                                    |
         −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
           |                        |                       |
    Creative or Brahmâ    Preservative or Vishnu   Destructive or Śiva
          8 Vasus.              12 Âdityas.             11 Rudras.

These are 31 gods. Then there are Prajâpati and Indra, making the number
33. The Brihat Âranyaka says that the 33 Krores of Devas are only sub
rays of these primary 33].



THE PROGENY OF BHUTA.


_By Sarûpâ_: — Millions of Rudras and the chief Pretas.



THE PROGENY OF ANGIRASA.


  (1) _By Svadhâ_: — Pitris (comet).
  (2) _By Sâti_: — The Veda known as Atharva-Angirasa.



THE PROGENY OF KRISASVA.


  (1) _By Archis_: — Dhûma ketu (comet).
  (2) _By Dhishanâ_: — Vedasiras, Devala, Vayuna and Manu.



THE PROGENY OF TARKSHA.


(1) _By Vinatâ_: — Garuda (the vehicle of Vishnu) and Aruna (the
charioteer of the Sun.)

  (2) _By Patangi_: — Birds.
  (3) _By Yâminî_. — Moths and locusts.
  (4) _By Kadru_: — the serpents.

_The Moon_: The Moon married the 27 stars. But he is consumptive (_i.e._
he is consumed?). Therefore he has no progeny. (What is meant by the
consumption of a planetary body like the Moon?)



THE PROGENY OF KASYAPA


   (1) _By Timi_: — Aquatic animals.
   (2) _By Saramâ_: — Wild beasts, such as Tigers.
   (3) _By Surabhi_. — Cloven-footed animals.
   (4) _By Tâmrâ_: — The Vultures.
   (5) _By Muni_: — The Apsarasas.
   (6) _By Krōdhavasa_: — Serpents such as Danda Suka and others.
   (7) _By Ilâ_: — Plants.
   (8) _By Suramâ_: — The Râkshasas.
   (9) _By Aristhâ_: — The Gandharvas.
  (10) _By Kâsthâ_: — Beasts other than cloven-hoofed.
  (11) _By Danu_: — 61 Dânavas the chief of them being Dvî Mûrdhâ,
       Sâmbara, Aristhâ, Hayagrîva, Vibhâvasu, Ayōmukha, Sanku Siras,
       Svarbhânu, Kapila, Putōma, Vrisha Pravâ, Eka-Chakra, Anutapana,
       Dhûmra-Kesa, Virupaksha, Vipra-chitti and Durjaya.

Namuchi married Suprabhâ, the daughter of Svar-bhanu.

King Yayâti married Sarmisthâ, the daughter of Vrisha-parvan.

Vaisvanara was another son of Danu. He had four daughters. Upadanavi,
Haya-siras, Pulōma and Kalaka. Pulōma and Kalaka had 60,000 valiant
sons named Poulama and Kalakeya. Arjuna alone killed all of them in
Svarga. Bipra Chitti had by his wife Sinhika 101 sons. The eldest of
them is Râhu. The other hundred are Ketus. They all became planets.

  (12) _By Aditi_: — The 12 Âdityas — Vivasvat, Aryaman, Pûshan,
       Tvastri, Savitri, Bhaga, Dhâtri, Vidhâtri, Varuna, Mitra, Indra,
       and Vishnu. _Vivasvat_ had by his wife Sanjnâ two sons
       Srâddhadeva Manu and Yâma (the death god), and one daughter the
       river Yamunâ. This Sanjnâ became also a mare and produced the
       twin Asvini Kumâras. He had also by Chaya two sons Sanaischara
       (Saturn) and Sâvarni Manu and one daughter Tapatî. Tapatî had for
       her husband Sanvarana. Mâtrikâ is the wife of _Aryaman_. He had
       by her sons called Charshani. (For Charshani _vide Suprâ_.) The
       human race has been moulded after them by Brahmâ. Pûshan is
       childless, and broken toothed. He partakes only of powdered food.
       This has been related in the story of Daksha. Rachanâ is the wife
       of _Tvastri_. She is the daughter of a Daitya. Prajâpati Tvastri
       had by her one son Visvarûpa. Though connected on the mother’s
       side with the Asuras, Visvarûpa was made a Purohita by the Devas,
       when Brihaspati (Jupiter) their former preceptor left them.

*SKANDHA VI. CHAP. 18.*

_Savitri_ had, by his wife Prisni, three daughters, Sâvitri (Gâyatri),
Vyâhriti (Bhûr, Bhuvar, Svar, Mahar &c.) and the Trayi; (Rik, Yajur, and
Sâman). His sons were Agnihotra, Pasu Yâga, Sōma Yâga, Chaturmâsya Yâga
and the 5 Mahâ Yajnas.

_Bhaga_ had, by his wife Siddhi, three sons Mahimart, Vibhu and Prabhu
and one daughter Âsis.

_Dhâtri_ had, by his wife Kuhu, one son Sâyam (evening), by his wife
Sinivaû, Darsa (the new moon day), by his wife Râkâ, Prâtar (morn) and
by his wife Anumati, Pûrnamâsa (full Moonday).

_Vidhâtri_ had, by his wife Kriyâ, five Agnis called Purishya. Charshani
is the wife of _Varuna_. Bhrigu incarnated as his son. It is said that
the great Rishi Vâlmika is also Varuna’s son. Mitra and Varuna once felt
love for Urvasî. Agastya and Vasishtha were then born of that Apsaras.

_Mitra_ had, by Revati, Utsarga, Arishta and Pippala.

_Indra_ had, by Paulomî, Jayanta, Rishabha and Midhusha.

_Vishnu_, as son of Aditi, is known as the Vâmana incarnation. He had by
his wife Kirti one son Brihat Śloka (great fame). His sons were Sambhoga
and others.

  (13) _By Diti_: Hiranyakasipu, Hiranyâksha and the Maruts.



THE STORY OF VIVSVARÛPA.


*SKANDHA VI. CHAP. 7-8.*

Indra surrounded by the Devas, was seated on the throne of _Trilokî_. He
felt the pride of his position. Brihaspati, the preceptor and guide of
all Devas came, but Indra did not rise up to receive him. Thus insulted,
Brihaspati left the place at once and abandoned the Devas. The Asuras
took this opportunity to put down the Devas and carried on a severe
struggle under the lead of Sukra. The Devas were worsted in the fight
and they went to Brahmâ for redress. Brahmâ advised them to accept the
guidance of Visvarûpa, son of Tvastri. They gladly went to Visvarûpa and
he consented to be their preceptor. Visvarûpa initiated Indra into the
mysteries of Nârâyana Kabacha (an invocation to Vishnu which preserves
one against all danger. The invocation must be read in the original, so
no attempt has been made to render it into English). With the help of
that Kabacha, Indra easily conquered the Asuras and firmly established
once more the Kingdom of Trilokî.

Visvarûpa had three mouths. With one he used to drink Sōma, with
another he used to drink wine and with the third he used to take his
food. While performing Yajna, he openly gave oblations to the Devas, but
secretly reserved some for his mother’s relations the Asuras. Indra once
found out this treachery. He became angry and cut off the three heads of
Visvarûpa. The Sōma drinking head became Châtaka (the Swallow, supposed
to live only on rain drops). The liquor imbibing head became Chataka
(the Sparrow). The food eating head became Tittiri (the francoline
partridge). The sin of killing a Brâhmana attached to Indra. He divided
it into equal parts and distributed them between earth, water, trees and
woman. Earth accepted her part on receiving the boon that her cavities
would be filled up by nature. But the sin manifests itself in the barren
lands. The trees took their part in return for the boon that the wounds
on their cuticle should naturally heal up of themselves. But the sin
shows itself in the exudation. Water was persuaded by the boon that it
could mix with any other substance. But the sin shows itself in bubbles
and foam.



THE STORY OF VRITRU.


*SKANDHA VI. CHAP. 9-13.*

Tvastri became enraged at the death of his son. He gave offerings to
Agni for the destruction of Indra. A huge and fearful Asura rose out of
the sacrificial fire. The Devas threw their weapons at him, but he
swallowed them all. Wonderstruck they prayed to Vishnu for help. Vishnu
asked them to go to Dadhîchi and pray for his body and assured them that
the weapon made of his bones by Visvakarmâ would cut off the head of
Vritra. The Devas went to Dadhîchi and got his body. Visvakarmâ made the
thunderbolt instrument (Vajra) out of his bones. Indra went with this
instrument at the head of the Devas to fight with Vritra. _The fight
took place at the commencement of Treta Yuga in the first Yuga cycle of
Vaivasvata Manvantara,_ on the banks of the Narmadâ. After a severe
fight, the chances shewed themselves favourable to the Devas. The Daitya
and Dânava chiefs began to shew their backs to the enemies. "What is
this my companions?" exclaimed Vritra, "Is not death inevitable? And
what death is more enviable than that with honor and glory? There are
two modes of death, rare though they be, that are given the palm in all
religious books — one is by control of the Prânas by means of Yoga and
the other is by facing enemies foremost of all, in the battle field."

But the Asuras heeded him not. The Devas ran after them. "O ye cowards?"
exclaimed Vritra, "What glory do you gain by running after those that
fly away. Come and approach those that are in the field." So saying he
attacked Indra. Indra in anger threw a large club at him. Vritra easily
took it up with his left hand. He struck it with force on the head of
Airâvata, the elephant of Indra. The elephant receded 28 cubits and
vomitted blood, The magnanimous Vritra seeing the distress of the animal
did not strike it again. Indra softly touched the injured animal, trying
to give it relief and he took respite for some time. Vritra remembered
the wicked deeds of Indra and addressed him thus "O thou assassinator of
a Brâhmana! Thou didst kill thy own Guru, my brother Visvarûpa. Thou
didst raise faith and trust in my brother’s mind and still thou didst
kill that innocent, wise Brâhmana, your own Guru, having been initiated
by him in Yajna. Your karma makes you worse than even Râkshasas. It is
meet that I shall kill thee with this Trident and make over thy body as
food for vultures. And if thou, O Indra, cuttest off my head, I shall be
free from the bond of Karma, by offering my body as Bali (sacrificial
food) to the animals. Here I stand before thee. Why dost thou not strike
with the Vajra. Thou hast been favoured by Vishnu and by Dadhîchi.
Victory and all the virtues always follow Vishnu. I will do as advised
by my deity Sankarshana and attain after death the state of Yogins by
sacrificing this body. O Bhagavat, may I ever and ever remain in the
Service of thy votaries. This I deem a thousand times more desirable
than the attainment of the Supreme Abode, or of Siddhis or of Mukti."

Vritra then took the trident in hand and attacked Indra — Indra then had
recourse to Vajra and he easily cut off both the trident and one hand of
Vritra. Vritra took a club in the other hand and struck both Indra and
the elephant. The Vajra slipped out of the hands of Indra and he felt
ashamed to pick it up in the presence of his enemy. "Pick it up, O King
of Devas, and kill your enemy. This is no time for shame or sorrow. It
is not you or I that are the real actors. Bhagavân is guiding us all. He
guides the whole Universe. Look at me. I have been worsted, hand and
weapon gone, still I am trying my best to kill you. This our fight is
but like the game of dice in which the life of one of us is the stake."

Indra could not help wondering at the wisdom and magnanimity of Vritra.
He exclaimed "O king of Dânavas! thou hast got over the Mâyâ of Vishnu.
The Asura nature has altogether- left thee and thou art fixed in
devotion to Vishnu. Verily thou art a Mahatma now."

They again engaged in fight. This time Indra cut off both the club and
the other hand with the help of Vajra — Vritra then opened his mouth and
swallowed Indra. There was loud wailing and lamentation all round. But
Indra broke through the interior of Vritra with the help of Vajra, and
he then forcibly applied the bolt to cut off the head of Vritra. The
bolt though actively employed could only sever the head of the Asura
King in 360 days. The flame of self from Vritra’s body merged in
Shankarshana in the presence of the Devas.

The sin of killing a Brâhmana a second time followed Indra in the form
of a hideous old outcaste woman. He fled away into the Mânasa lake and
entered the filament of a lotus stalk. He remained there concealed for
one thousand years. King Nahusha reigned in Svarga during that time. But
as he became maddened in pride, Sachi the wife of Indra made him a
serpent. The Brâhmanas then called back Indra to Svarga, and he reigned
there again.



THE STORY OF CHITRAKETU.


*SKANDHA VI. CHAP. 14-17.*

Chitraketu, the King of Sûrasena had ten millions of wives, but he had
no son. Rishi Angiras once came to him. The King expressed regret for
his childlessness. Angiras performed a Yajna in honor of Tvastri, and
gave the sacrificial remnants to the eldest wife. "You shall have a son,
O King!" said Angiras. "But he will give you joy and sorrow both." In
time the eldest Queen bore a son. Her co-wives grew jealous and poisoned
the child. Chitraketu was deeply moved, and he wept profusely. At the
time Nârada and Angiras came to him. They taught him the worship of
Shankarshana. Chitraketu became fixed in the meditation of this second
manifestation of Chaturvyuha, and this made him very powerful. He became
the King of the Vidyâdharas.

Once Chitraketu was roaming over the firmament on the chariot given him
by Vishnu, when he saw Śiva surrounded by his attendants openly
embracing His consort Bhâvanî. Chitraketu made some taunting remarks in
the hearing of all. Śiva simply smiled, and so did His attendants. But
Bhâvanî cursed Chitraketu with an Asura birth. Chitaketu accepted the
curse with an unruffled mind, saying it was the way of all beings to
meet with things pleasant and unpleasant in this perishable world, and
he only asked Bhâvanî to pardon him, if he had offended her. "Look how
bold the followers of Vishnu are!" exclaimed Śiva, "They fear no body in
this world. I am also a follower of Vishnu. So I took no offence at the
words of the King Vidyadhara."

Chitraketu became Vritra by this curse, but his magnanimity and devotion
to Vishnu were not lost.



THE DAITYAS.


*SKANDHA VI. CHAP. 18.*

    KASYAPA = Diti.
       |
    −−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
       |                 |                |
    Hiranyakasipu    Hiranyâksha    49 Maruts.
     = Kayâdhu         = Bhânu
       |
    −−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−
       |             |         |             |         |
     Sanhrâda    Anuhrâda    Hrâda       Prahlâda   Sinhikâ
      = Mati      = Suryâ.   = Dhamanti  = Drarvî.  = Viprachit
       |              |           |           |          |
    Panchajana   +−−−−+−−−+     +−+−−−−+      |        Râhu.
                 |        |     |      |      |
            Vâshkala.  Mahisha. Vâtâpi Ilvalâ |
                                              |
                                         Virochana.
                                            Bali
                                          = Asanâ
                                              |
                                       −−+−−−−+−−−−−−+−−
                                         |           |
                                       Bâna       99 sons.



THE MARUTS.


*SKANDHA VI. CHAP. 18-19.*

Diti was very much grieved by the loss of her sons, caused by Indra. She
ardently wished to have a son who could kill Indra. With this object,
she served Kasyapa with all her heart and pleased him much. Kasyapa
offered to give her any boon, and she prayed for an immortal son that
would kill Indra. Sorely perplexed in mind, the Rishi thought within
himself of a device. He said "I grant you the boon, but you shall have
to observe Punsavana Vrata for one full year." This is a Vaisnava Vrata,
the performance of which requires absolute purity of body and mind.
Kasyapa related the details to his wife, (for which refer to the
original). His object was to give an immortal son to Diti and to purify
her mind by this Vrata, so that she might cast, off all enmity against
Indra. He also thought it possible that his wife might not observe the
strict rules for such a long time. Diti however accepted the conditions,
and she bore a son. Indra became very much frightened, and he closely
watched his step mother to discover a breach of the rules. He followed
and served Diti always and tried to please her. One day Diti became very
much tired, and she fell asleep after eating before she could wash her
hands, mouth and feet. Finding this opportunity, Indra, by his Yogic
powers entered the womb and split the child into 7 parts. The Maruts
wept and requested their half-brother not to kill them. Indra consoled
them saying that they need have no fear from him, and he would make them
his companions. He then split each of the seven into as many parts
again. By the favour of Vishnu, the Maruts were not destroyed, but came
out all alive from the womb of Diti. It was a little short of one year
still. Indra made them drinkers of Sōma and his chief companions. Diti
woke up, and she was astonished to find 49 sons by her. "Tell me Indra
if thou knowest" said she, "how is it I have these 49 sons instead of
one. Pray do not conceal any thing." Indra gave the whole story to Diti
and expressed great repentance. He assured Diti that the Maruts would be
his best companions. Diti’s mind had been purified, and she allowed her
sons to become Devas. Thus the Maruts, though born as Daityas, became
immortal Devas. (Marut Vayu air. Vayu corresponds to the sense of touch
and to vital energy).



SKANDHA VII.



THE MYSTERIES ABOUT THE SURAS AND THE ASURAS.


*SKANDHA VII. CHAP. 7-1.*

Râjâ Parikshit said: — "To Bhagavân, all beings are equal, and He is the
dear friend of all. Why did he kill the Daityas for the sake of Indra,
as if He was not above partiality. Supreme Bliss Himself, He had nothing
to gain from the Devas. Being above the control of the Gunas, He had no
fear from the Asuras, and he did not bear any unfriendly feeling for
them. We are in doubt as to the virtues of Nârâyana. Please clear up the
doubt."

Suka replied: — Void of Gunas, without beginning, without manifestation,
beyond Prakriti, Bhagavân pervades and permeates the Gunas of His Mâyâ.
Hence His seeming relations. Satva, Rajas and Tamas are not His Gunas,
but they are the Gunas of Prakriti. These attributes or tendencies of
Prakriti do not all prevail at one and the same period; but they have
got their periods of increase and decrease. (That is, since the
beginning of the universe, the general tendency which guides all beings
is different at different times. Thus at the very outset there was
inertia, Tamas. This inertia was got over by Rajas, which predominated
in the Prajâpatis, and the life-forms appeared on the globes. There was
Tamas again in the mineral kingdom, which had to be conquered by Râjasic
activity. And Rajas was in full swing till humanity reached a certain
stage. Then Satva manifested itself for the evolution of men. The
spiritual regeneration will be brought about by the ever increasing
prevalence of Satva).

When Satva prevails, Bhagavân favours the Devas and Rishis. When Rajas
prevails, He favours the Asuras. When Tamas prevails, He favors the
Yakshas and Râkshasas. He follows in fact the periodic tendency.

It is Kâla (Periodicity) that now brings up Satva. So the Lord seems to
favour the hosts of Devas, in whom Satva prevails. He also seems to put
down the hosts of Asuras, who are opposed to the Devas being full of
Rajas and Tamas.

It is also to favour the Asuras that He kills them. For we have seen
above, how the gate-keepers of Vishnu became Hiranyâksha and
Hiranyakasipu by the curse of the Kumâra brothers. They had to become
Asuras for three successive births. In the second birth, they became
Râvana and Kumbhakarna, when they were killed by Râma. In their last
birth, they became Shishupâla and Danta-vakra, when they were killed by
Sri Krishna. Then they became finally liberated and restored to their
place in Vaikuntha.

(The Spiritual ascent commenced finally on the appearance of Sri
Krishna. It was to prevail for the remaining life period of the
universe. The Asuras had done their work by this time, and therefore
they finally returned to Vaikuntha).



THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.


The Daityas and the Dânavas are both called Asuras. But there is a
radical difference between the two classes.

The Daityas are opposed to the Â-dityas. The root verb _dâ_ means to cut
to pieces, to separate. _Diti_ is that which separates. _Aditi_ is that
which does not separate. Jivâtmâ is the same in all beings. One life
principle animates all the forms of creation. The idea of separateness
did not exist from before. The elementals that began life in this Kalpa
from the spiritual plane, have hardly any idea of separate existence.
The Devas and Pitris are described as classes (_ganas_), and not as
individuals. In the Mineral Kingdom, again, there is no individual
existence. Individuality has to be worked out, and the sons of Diti
bring about this great work in the evolution of life forms.

When we have the sense of separate existence strong in us, we become
capable of further evolution. By our individual experiences, we know
what is right and what is wrong, what is pleasurable and what is
painful. Things that give joy give pain as well. It is the measure of
pleasure or pain that teaches us what to covet and what to shun. Then we
have the fact that by our very existence we have duties to perform. The
teachings of other ages that are revealed to the Rishis and proclaimed
by them, give us a better idea of things, and they tell us more than we
can know of by our own experience. The Asuras lead us on and on, till we
reach the highest point that, with a sense of individuality, we may
attain.

When the individual soul gathers all experience that may be acquired by
the idea of separateness, it traces back its way to that spiritual home
whence it came. In the return journey, it is helped by the Âdityas, who
gradually efface the idea of separateness, by an ever increasing
infusion of Satva: Vishnu himself became Âditya and taught men the unity
of all souls.

The Âdityas who guided the early elementals had to be crushed, so that
separateness might grow. Pushan and Bhaga were therefore overpowered by
the attendants of Śiva at the sacrifice of Daksha.

The Âdityas who guide humanity in their return to spirituality are
themselves high spiritual energies, the highest Devas of our Trilokî.

Our evolution is thus two-fold — individual and non-individual. When we
work as individuals, we are under the influence of Daityas. When we want
to cast off separateness, we are under the influence of the Âdityas.

In both cases, however, it is the bliss element in us that is worked on
by the Daityas and A-dityas. This bliss element is our eternal heritage
from Ishvara, and it is this element that saves us in our contact with
manifold matter. The measure of bliss, (_ananda_), enables us to judge
what matter to accept and what not.

Individuality developed under Hiranyakasipu, and all sorts of blissful
experiences were acquired. The sons of Hiranyakasipu were all called
Bliss (Hrâda), but the perfection of Bliss (Pra-Hrâda) was in Prahlâda,
He found out that the worldly joys were unreal, and that the real joy
could be had only from Him above, who was joy itself.

But Prahlâda did not realise that there was one life underlying all
beings, and that all beings were essentially one and the same. He was
separate in his devotion, though unselfish to the extreme. He knew that
men had separate existences, and while he attained perfection, others
did not. It was therefore his duty to raise others to his level. With
all unselfishness and devotion, Prahlâda was an Asura, because he worked
from the stand point of individual life. The foster-father of Sri
Krishna was Nanda, the word meaning also bliss. But the bliss of Gopas
and Gopis consisted in forgetting self altogether. The bliss that was
then evolved will draw humanity to the highest level of spirituality in
our Kalpa.

The reign of the Daityas may be divided into three periods: —

      I. — The period of Hiranyâksha and Hiranyakasipu.
     II. — The period of Râvana and Kumbhakarna.
    III. — The period of Shishupâla and Dantavakra.


I. _Hiranyâksha and Hiranyakasipu._


Jaya and Vijaya are the outer aspects of Vishnu. Vishnu preserves the
universe, and He preserves all beings. Existence, consciousness and
bliss all proceed from Vishnu, and it is these essential attributes that
bring about the involution and evolution of all beings. In minerals,
there is existence, but it is Tâmasic. Consciousness and bliss are
completely eclipsed by the Tâmasic opacity of gross matter.

In the vegetables, there is existence and something more — the bare
dawning of perceptive consciousness. There is predominating Tamas in the
vegetables also. But Rajas also tries to manifest itself.

In the animals, Rajas asserts itself by increasing activity, and by the
action of the senses. The animals exist, they are conscious and they
have blissful experiences.

In men, Rajas plays the most important part. Through the ever increasing
activities of mind and the development of consciousness, man runs after
all sorts of experience, pleasurable and painful, till at last the idea
of lasting and real bliss settles down in him, and he knows more of
bliss than any other being in the universe. The future evolution of man
lies in the permanence of spiritual bliss, which is purely Sâtvic in its
character.

Vishnu preserves all beings in their Tâmasic, Râjasic and Sâtvic stages.
For preservation means the maintenance as well as the improvement of
beings. Therefore preservation is Sâtvic, and Vishnu is the Preserver.
We live and move onwards in all stages of our being. But in Râjasic and
Tâmasic stages, it is the attendants of Vishnu, the door-keepers, that
preserve us, and the Daityas are the lower manifestations of Jaya and
Vijaya. One is Tâmasic and the other Râjasic.

Hiranyâksha is Tâmasic. He represents the original inertia of matter,
its primary resistance to the onward process of evolution. There was
existence after Pralâyic sleep But it was homogeneous existence, with
little or no phenomenal change. Varâha got over this homogeneal tenacity
by the killing of Hiranyâksha, and he set going the process of planetary
and individual life.

Hiranyakasipu came next. He was the favoured son of Brahmâ. He helped
the evolution of individual life. Minerals became vegetables. Vegetables
became animals, and animals became men. The intellectual power of men
rapidly increased, and there was material and moral progress. The limit
of moral progress was reached by Prahlâda. But the ideal of Prahlâda was
based upon the conception of differences and of individualities. It is
for this reason that Varna and Ashrama Dharma, or the separate duties of
life for separate classes of men, is dealt with in the discourses with
Prahlâda.

But though Prahlâda was a son of Hiranyakasipu, he was an exception to
the general run of material evolution which was fostered by
Hiranyakasipu. Hiranyakasipu hated the development of Sâtvic virtues, he
hated Hari, the embodiment of Satva. Nrisinha killed the great Daitya,
and Satva made its appearance in men.

Hiranya means gold.

Hiranyâksha is gold-eyed.

Hiranyakasipu is gold bedded.


II. _Râvana and Kumbhakarna._


Hiranyakasipu represented the gradual development of material and
intellectual evolution, till the highest point was reached.

Then there was a period of intellectual abuse. The Intellect of man
tried to get a supremacy over the established order of things: Râvana
sought to make Nature subservient to his own purposes. The universe
existed for man, and not man for nature. This was the perverse idea that
guided the people of the Atlantean Continent. The intellectual giants,
maddened by this material grandeur, did not look for any world beyond
the one they lived in. They cared not for Svarga, nor for the sacrifices
that led to Svarga. The flow of evolution, the breath of Íshvara seemed
to stand still for a time as it were. The human will tried to override
the divine will. There was chaos and disorder, which tended to cause
dissolution in the universe. Hence Râvana was a Râkshasa. The Tâmasic
Kumbhakarna with his six-monthly sleep was the back ground of Râvana.

The spiritual forces that were called forth to put an end to this state
of things were equal to the occasion. The great Atlantean Continent was
washed away by the sea. The sacred Gangâ came rushing forward from the
heights of the Himalayas, and eventually Râma appeared to give a
finishing stroke to the evolutionary work of the time.

Vishvâmitra and others had paved the way for the great work undertaken
by Râma. They propounded the Karma Kânda of the Vedas.

Men who knew nothing but the joys and sorrows of this short span of
earthly life, and whose ideas and aspirations were all confined to that
life, made a great advance when they were taught of an existence after
death. When they further knew that life in Svarga was infinitely happier
and far more lasting than what they called life on this earth, they made
the beginning of a really spiritual life. The Vedic Devas are permanent
dwellers in Svarga, and the Vedic Sacrifices establish communion with
them by means of Apurva, a spiritual force generated by the performance
of sacrifices, and life in Svarga becomes prolonged for a very very long
period. People took time to understand this truth, but in time they
accepted the performance of Vedic Sacrifices as the only religion for
man.

There was however a re-action. The intellectual giants, called
Râkshasas, looked down upon Vedic Sacrifices, and they did not care for
any life after death. They were the worst enemies of the Vedic Rishis.

Vishvâmitra took the help of Râma in protecting the Rishis in the
peaceful performance of Yajnas.

But people had grown old in their ideas about Vedic sacrifices. The
first seceders were some Kshatriyas. They did not understand why Vedic
Sacrifices should be the monopoly of Brâhmanas, and they aspired to the
position acquired by them. The foremost of these Kshatriyas were the
Haihayas and Tâlajanghas. But they were defeated by Parashurama, who
re-established the supremacy of the Brâhmanas.

But a silent revolution was going on, in which the Kshatriyas and
Brâhmanas equally took part. King Janaka and Rishi Yajnavalkya gave the
finishing stroke to the Upanishad movement, and side by side with Karma
Kânda grew up the Jnâna Kânda of the Vedas. Râma brought the two
divisions of the Vedas into closer union, as he was himself the resting
place of both. And as Vishnu himself, He became the object of Upâsanâ.
The three Paths appeared, that of Karma, Bhakti and Jnâna. Vedic
Sacrifices held their own, and a school grew up which accepted these as
the highest Karma which man could perform. Another school, following the
very old teachings of Kapila, dissected the transformable parts in man
and discriminated the same from the non-transformable. A sister school
followed up the teaching with practices in conformity to these, and
taught how to concentrate the mind on the discriminated Atmâ. Another
school confined itself to the properties of matter and mind, soul and
oversoul, and remained wonder-struck at the superior properties that
divided Jiva from Íshvara. Schools of independent thought grew up. Each
school had its followers. There were differences and dissensions. There
was disunion, self-sufficiency, pride, envy, jealousy and other evil
traits of human character that thinks too much of itself. Every one
followed his own faith and hated the follower of other faiths. This was
the cycle of Shishupâla and Dantavakta.

Jarâsandha performed Vedic sacrifices, and he put in chains the
Vaishnava kings. There were those who believed in the existence of two
primary causes, (_Dvivid_). Men, like the king of Kashi, prided
themselves on mock wisdom. Religious faiths existed in all possible
shades, and their difference was accentuated by dogmatism and mutual
jealousy. "The Vedas are different, the Smritis are different. He is not
a Muni, who has not some distinctive opinion of his own." This well
known verse related strictly to the period of which we are now speaking.
Shishupâla had respect for the Munis. He was essentially a man of the
period.

Sri Krishna taught harmony. He gave the essence of all religions, the
eternal truths that formed the ground work of all faiths. He proclaimed
in the clearest language possible the One underlying the Many, the
eternal Brahmân as forming the essence of Jiva and Ishvara. He
particularly emphasised the relations of man, Íshvara and the universe,
and the duties that followed from these relations. Religion became a
science, the law universal, and all teachings found there respective
places in the universal religion which He proclaimed. The Rishis bowed
down their heads before Him. The Upanishads were never explained so
lucidly before. The key-note of all truths and all religions was
unravelled beyond all doubt. Such knowledge could proceed only from
Ishvara Himself. The Rishis recognised Sri Krishna as the Lord. But
Shishupâla was slow to believe in this novel revolution. He did not
understand why the Rishis gave the first place to Sri Krishna at the
Rajasûya sacrifice performed by Râjâ Yudhisthira. The difference formed
a religion with Shishupâla. But the age of differences was doomed. The
age of unity, of harmony, of spiritual glory was now to reign in the
Universe. Hundreds and hundreds of years have passed away, but the
scriptures one and all proclaim the glory of the Lord Sri Krishna. What
He has done for our universe, we shall see later on.

Danta-vakra was the Tâmasic counterpart of Shishupâla.

The Asuras advanced as the Kâlpic age advanced. There was no end of
advancement from the standpoint of self. There is no big jump from
individual self to universal self. Though the essential idea of
spirituality is unity and the essential idea of materiality is
diversity, the one idea develops into the other idea, by an ever
widening view of things. Our duties enlarge. Our relations increase. The
range of life widens, till it includes the life in Svarga. Vedic Yajna
is then performed, though from a pure motive of self-advancement. The
advanced self comes very near to the universal self. The performance of
Vedic sacrifices is Asuric in so far as it is selfish, but it minimises
the self of earthly existence, and gives a transitory character to our
worldly joys and sufferings, and it gives the idea of an enlarged self,
of widened existence and of higher duties. The Karma Kânda of the Vedas
therefore opens the door widely to real spiritual life.

This explains why Vishvarupa, an Asura, guided the Devas for some time.
The three heads of Vishvarupa represent the three Vedas. The swallow
head is the Rik, the sparrow head is the Sâman, and the Tittiri head is
proverbially the Yajur. This refers to the prevalence of Karma Kânda.
But when better times came, Indra killed Vishva-rûpa. The place of
Vishva-rûpa was however speedily taken, up by Vritra. And Indra had
recourse to Atharva, the fourth Veda and to Dadhîchi, a votary
(represented as the son) of Atharva Veda, the very ideal of
self-sacrifice.

And who is this Vritra? The Vedas say: — _"Sa imân lokân Avrinot etat
Vritrasya Vritratvam."_

He spread over (_vri_) all these Lokas, this is the Vritraship of
Vritra.

The Bhâgavata says: — "These Lokas are spread over by him in the form of
Tvashtri’s Tapas. Hence he is called Vritra." VI. — 9-xviii.

The invocation of Tvashtri is thus described in the Bhâgavata: — "Rise
up, O Indra — Shatru, never give up enmity." VI — 9-xii.

The word _shatru_ means enemy. Tvastri meant to say "he who is to become
the enemy of Indra." But by proper grammatical construction, the
expression means, he of whom Indra is to become the enemy. The
invocation was therefore defective and it produced a contrary result.
Pânini points this out as an apt illustration of what bad grammar leads
to.

The Vedas thus speak of the invocation: — "As he said-_Svâha_! O
Indra-Shatru! rise up — so Indra became the enemy of Vritra."
Notwithstanding his wisdom, Chitra-ketu was anxious to have a son. He
wept bitterly, when the son was lost. He was a votary of Sankarshana,
who presides over Ahankâra or Egoism. So by devotion he became the king
of the Vidyâdharas. This selfish devotion, the worship of Gods for the
gratification of selfish aspiration, which is so universal, is Vritra.

Vritra was killed by a weapon made of the bones of Dadhîchi the Rishi of
self-sacrifice. We want to kill thee for thy bones, for they will be of
service to the universe, so said the Devas. And Dadhîchi felt the height
of pleasure in giving himself completely up, that the universe might
prosper.

We are told that the fight with Vritra took place in the Vaivasvata
Manvantara. The readers will easily understand why this is so.

The fight between the Devas and the Asuras is only a counterpart of
struggles on our earth between the forces of materiality and
spirituality. With the appearance of Lord Krishna, the ascendancy of the
Asuras is virtually over, and however self-seeking we may be by our
nature, we bow down before the ideal of unselfishness, of One Life
pervading all beings, so prominently held before us by that greatest of
all Avatâras, and the circle of those that follow this ideal is daily
increasing.

But why is Atharva Veda spoken of as the Veda of unselfishness? The
popular idea about that Veda is quite the contrary.

People resort to it for Tântric malpractices. The Vajra or thunderbolt
is an electric current, which in the hands of Indra has the power of
spiritualisation. The Asuras dread the subtle forces of nature which
reach them even in the regions of Pâtâla. Who knows what purpose the
electric discharges serve in the economy of nature? Who knows of the
subtler currents of spiritual forces that silently bring about the
grandest revolutions in nature? Atharva Veda inculcates an intimate
acquaintance with the subtle forces of nature. It opens the door alike
to White as well as Black Magic. But at the present day, the Black Magic
only survives, making the Atharva a name of opprobrium and reproach.

Marut is Vâyu. The Maruts are forms of Pranic energy. They are 49 in
number, corresponding to the 49 forms of Agni. These 49 forms include
all sorts of Pranic energy in the spiritual, intellectual and material
planes. As the whole process of evolution is dependent on life
activities, and as life itself is essentially divine, the Maruts are the
companions of Indra. As by life, we understand individual life as
imprisoned in Jivic centres, the Maruts are by birth Daityas.

We have lingered so long over the Daityas. The Dânavas are also called
Asuras, but they are essentially different from the Daityas. Every
individual has got two aspects — Prâkritic and Purushic. The Purusha
aspect in him is limited by the individual Prakriti. The individual
limitation appertains to the Daityas. The Prâkritic element in man is
Dânavic. The chief Dânava, Mâyâ, is an aspect of Mâyâ. Mâyâ is a great
magician, as the essence of Prakriti is illusion. Duryodhana and his
brothers could not discriminate between the illusory aspect of the
assembly-ground prepared by Mâyâ. To the Pândavas, the followers of Sri
Krishna, there was no illusion. The Dânavas lead men away from
spirituality, so much so that they may be estranged completely from
their spiritual nature. These dark forces in nature have no redeeming
feature in them. Fortunately for the history of the universe, we do not
hear much of them.



THE STORY OF HIRANYAKASIPU.


*SKANDHA VII. CHAP. 2-4.*

Upon the death of Hiranyâksha, Hiranyakasipu collected his companions
and told them that Vishnu was no longer keeping that neutrality and
impartiality which he had observed of yore. On the contrary, he had
taken the side of the Devas, under the pretence of Upâsanâ.

He then consoled his nephew and his brother’s wife by words of wisdom
explaining to them the transitory character of the world and the
permanence of Âtmâ. He also told them several stories to illustrate the
point.

Hiranyakasipu vowed enmity to Vishnu. He prayed hard for immortality and
supremacy over the Trilokî. Brahmâ became pleased with his asceticism
and enquired what boon he wanted. Said Hiranyakasipu: — "Let me have no
death from any one created by Thee. Let not those that are not created
by Thee kill me inside or outside, by day or by night, with any weapon,
either on the earth or in the air. Let no man or animal, with or without
life (asu) Deva, Daitya or serpent kill me. As thou art without a rival
in battle, the one glorious lord of all beings and all Lokapâlas, so let
me be too. Let me possess all the Siddhis, (Anima &c.)" Brahmâ said,
Amen.

Hiranyakasipu then ruled the Universe. He took the place of Indra. All
the Devas worshipped him.

Brâhmanas and other Grihasthâs performed Yajna in his honor and gave
offerings to him. The earth yielded plenty even without much effort.
There was prosperity all around. The Shastras were however not duly
respected. (All this is a description of the material period, the reign
of Materiality). A long, long time passed on in this way. At last the
Lokapâlas could bear it no longer. They prayed to Vishnu for relief. The
Devas heard a voice from heaven "Wait ye all. The time has not yet come
for the fall of Hiranyakasipu. He shall be the enemy of his own son. I
kill him then." —  Assured by these words, the Devas went to their own
place.



HIRANYAKASIPU AND PRAHLÂDA.


*SKANDHA VII. CHAP. 4-9.*

Hiranyakasipu had 4 sons. Of these Prahlâda was great in his virtues. He
was respectful, well-behaved, truthful, self-controlled, friendly to all
beings, and great in his devotion. Even in his infancy, he gave up play
and constantly meditated on Vâsudeva. The things of the world had no
relish for him. In the exuberance of devotional feelings, he sometimes
laughed, sometimes wept, sometimes sang and sometimes danced. At times
when the feelings were profound, he remained quiet with hair standing on
end while tears flowed down his cheeks.

Shanda and Amarka, sons of Shukra, had charge of the education of
Prahlâda. He heard and learned whatever they had to say, but he inwardly
did not like the teachings about mine and thine and about the transitory
things of the world.

Once Hiranyakasipu placed Prahlâda on his lap and asked him — "What do
you consider to be righteous (_Sâdhu_)?"

Prahlâda replied: — "Human souls enshrined in bodies are always
distracted on account of false perceptions. O great Asura, I therefore
consider it righteous to leave the house, which like a dark well causes
the downfall of Âtmâ, in order to go to the forest and take the shelter
of Vishnu."

Hiranyakasipu smiled and said: — "It is thus that boys are spoiled by
others. Take him back to the house of his teachers and let them see that
Vaishnavas in disguise may not confound his Buddhi."

The teachers brought him to their house and asked him in gentle and
sweet words: — "Child, do not conceal any thing from us. We are your
teachers. Tell us whether this perversity is spontaneous in you or
whether it is acquired from others." Said Prahlâda: — "I and others,
this is mere false perception caused by the Mâyâ of Bhagavân. So
salutations to Him. When Bhagavân becomes kind, it is then only that the
difference-making perception of men disappears. As the iron moves of
itself in the presence of a magnet, so the distraction in my Budhi, if
you like to call it so, rises of itself in the presence of Vishnu."

"Get the cane," said one of the teachers, "This wicked boy will put us
all to shame. He is a disgrace to his family. It is but meet to punish
him. The Daityas are sandal trees and this boy is a thorn plant amongst
them. Vishnu is the one for the extirpation of the sandal forest, and
this boy is his handle."

They threatened Prahlâda in various ways and taught him Dharma, Artha
and Kâma, and the different devices to subdue one’s enemies. At last
they thought Prahlâda had been well trained. So they took him to the
king.

The king embraced the child and said "Prahlâda, my boy, you have been so
long with your teachers. Tell me what you have learned, as the best of
all."

Prahlâda replied: — "Hearing of Vishnu, recital of His glory, constant
remembrance of Him, attendance on Hari, His worship, adoration, service,
and friendship, and offering oneself entirely to Him this is ninefold
Bhakti. This Bhakti is to be offered to Vishnu and acted upon. This I
deem to be the best teaching."

Hiranyakasipu reproved the teachers in anger. They told him, it was
neither from themselves nor from any one else that Prahlâda had these
teachings, but that they were spontaneous with him. The Asura king then
addressing his son said: — "If you have not learned these things from
your teachings, whence could you have such a vicious inclination."

Prahlâda replied: — "Inclination for Vishnu does not come to the
Grihasthâ either from himself or from any other. One blind man cannot
lead another. It is the company of Mahâtmâs alone that can give such an
inclination."

Hiranyakasipu could bear it no longer. He threw down the child from his
embrace, and asked the Asuras to kill him at once or expel him. They
cried out "kill him, kill him," and struck the five year old child with
their spears. But Prahlâda was deeply concentrated in Bhagavân, so he
felt not the spears at all. This put Hiranyakasipu in fear, and he
devised means to kill the boy.

He tried big elephants, venomous serpents, Tântric practices, throwing
down the child from the hills, enclosing him in cavities, poisoning,
starvation, cold, air, fire, water, but failed to kill his innocent son.
He then thought his end was near at hand and became melancholy. Shanda
and Amarka told him not to entertain fears, but to wait till Shukra
came. The king asked them to take charge of the boy once more. They
again commenced to teach him their sciences. One day the teachers left
the house on business. The boys were all engaged in play, and they
invited Prahlâda into their midst. Prahlâda took the opportunity to
instruct the boys. He explained to them in eloquent terms the
transitoriness of all joys and sorrows and the vanity of all worldly
attachments. He taught them the imperishable character of Âtmâ, and
dilated on its relation to the body and the universe. He then preached
in glowing words friendliness to all beings and devotion to Bhagavân. He
then told the boys that he had learned these things himself from Nârada.

The boys expressed wonder, for they knew Prahlâda to have been always
under the tuition of Shanda and Amarka.

Prahlâda informed them that when Hiranyakasipu had gone to the Mandâra
mountain for prayer, the Devas attacked his kingdom, and Indra carried
away his wife. Prahlâda was then in her womb. Nârada kept
Hiranyakasipu’s wife in his own Ashrama till he had taught to her, more
for the child in the womb than for the mother, the whole of Âtmâ Vidya.

Prahlâda again continued the discourse and impressed on his companions
in the most eloquent words, full of wisdom, the utility and nature of
devotion. (The original discourse will repay perusal).

The teachers returned and found the contagion of Vaishnavism had also
spread amongst other boys. They instantly reported the matter to
Hiranyakasipu. The king became all wrath and angry. He sent for
Prahlâda. Prahlâda approached him with all respect and humility. The
king thundered forth thus: — "What makes thee so often disobey me, thou
vile enemy of thy own race? Dost thou not know that I will instantly put
thee to death? All Trilokî dreads me and trembles when I am enraged. But
thou dost break my words without the least fear in thy mind."

"Father," said Prahlâda, "Bhagavân is my only strength. He is not only
my strength, but also yours and that of the whole world. Look upon all
as your own self, father."

"Unfortunate that thou art", said Hiranyakasipu, "Tell me, who else is
there besides myself whom thou callest Bhagavân or Íshvara. Where is
he?" Said Prahlâda, "He is everywhere."

"Why not then in this pillar?"

"Yes, I see him there."

"Well, let me sever your head from your body and see how your Hari can
preserve you."

So saying, Hiranyakasipu took sword in hand and violently struck the
pillar with his fist. A great noise was heard at the time, and the
fearful Nrisinha came out of the pillar, half man, half lion.
Hiranyakasipu with wonder saw He was neither man nor animal. Nrisinha
placed the Asura king on his thighs and tore him with His nails to
death. (For a description of Nrisinha and of the fight refer to the
original).

The Devas all collected and prayed to Him one after the other. But
Nrisinha was still in a rage and they dared not approach Him. Brahmâ at
last sent Prahlâda to pacify Him.

Prahlâda approached Him slowly and prostrated himself at His feet;
Nrisinha became full of tenderness and placed his hand on the head of
Prahlâda. That divine touch removed all evil from Prahlâda and illumined
his mind with Brahmâ Vidya. He then broke forth into a prayer, (perhaps
the most sublime in the Bhâgavata Purâna).



THE PRAYER OF PRAHLÂDA


*SKANDHA VII. CHAP. 9.*

"Brahmâ and other Devas, Rishis and wise men, full of Satva, have failed
to adore Thee in suitable words. How can this Asura boy please Thee, O
Hari: But I think, it is not wealth, good birth, beauty, asceticism,
learning, power, intellect, or even Yoga that is so much suited for the
worship of Parama Purusha as Bhakti. It is by Bhakti that the elephant
king pleased Bhagavân. _Even a Chandâla, (an outcaste) is much superior
to a Brâhmana, who has all the 12 virtues, but has no devotion to
Vishuu._ For the Chandâla who offers his Manas, his words, his Karma,
his wealth and even his Prâna to Vishnu, purifies not only himself, but
his whole line, while, the proud Brâhmana does not even purify himself."
(Without devotion, the virtues only serve to increase pride. They do not
purify the mind. _Śridhara_.)

(The Almighty Vishnu does not want any offering from the ignorant for
himself. He is possessed of all things. But the man who gives offerings
to Him can alone keep them to himself, for verily the paintings on the
real face are to be seen in the image. The self in man is only a
reflection of Âtmâ or Manas. Therefore if a man does any thing that
affects his Manas only, it does not concern his real self. If an
offering is made to Íshvara, that reaches his real self).

"Therefore though of low birth, I have no hesitation in reciting thy
glory as much as I can, for such a recital is sure to purify a man.

"Withdraw, O Lord! this terrible form, and be cooled. Look! the world
trembles at Thee.

"I am not afraid, however, even of this form, as I am afraid of the
wheel of births. Give shelter at thy feet, that I may gain Moksha.

"I have been scorched by the fire of misery in all births. The only
remedy is devotion to Thy service. For Thy servant by Thy favor gets the
company of Mahâtmâs. By their company, he gets rid of all worldly
attachments and sings the glory of Bhagavân. Then the miseries of life
cannot overpower him.

"The parents are not the protectors of the child; medicine is not the
remedy for the diseased; the boat is not a shelter for the drowning; for
they cannot save from a recurrence of evils. And even the little that
others do is promoted by the Prompter of all.

"When Purusha wishes, Mâyâ disturbed by Kâla creates the Sûkshma
Sharira, headed by Manas. That Manas is drawn into a world of recurring
births, characterised by the transformations of Mâyâ": (5 Jnanendriyas,
5 Karmendriyas, 5 Bhûtas and Manas). "I am being squeezed in this wheel,
like the sugar-cane in the mill.

"Draw me unto Thee, O Lord! or I am lost in the whirl."

(Some platitudes and a short account of the part taken by Vishnu in the
creation follow).

"Thou dost incarnate as man, animal, Rishi and Deva in order to guard
all beings, to destroy the enemies of the world and preserve Dharma,
according to the requirements of every Yuga. But in Kali Yuga, Thou
concealest Thyself. Hence (from manifestating only in three Yugas), Thou
art called Triyuga.

"Lord of Vaikuntha, this mind does not take pleasure in discourses about
Thee, as it is vitiated, prone towards the outside, unmanageable,
passionate and affected by the three promptings — joy, sorrow and fear.
How can I with such a mind think of Thee?

"I am drawn on all sides by the Indriyas, and I am as miserable as a man
with many wives.

"I am not the only sufferer. Look! all men remain fallen by their own
karma in the Vaitarani (River at the gate of Yâma) of recurring births.
They are afraid of births and deaths and of danger from each other. They
are mutually both friends and enemies. Take pity on these bewildered
creatures, O Thou that art on the other side of the river, and preserve
them this very day by taking them across the Vaitarani (_i.e._ the
relativity’s of Trilokî existence).

"O guide of the Universe! what is thy difficulty in saving all men? For
Thou art the cause of the creation, preservation and destruction of the
Universe. Thou hast much kindness for the ignorant. Thou art the friend
of the afflicted. What then by saving us only who serve thy favorite men
the Mahâtmâs (for, those who serve the Mahâtmâs are already saved).

"O Thou Supreme, I am not the least anxious for myself about the
Vaitarani (Trilokî existence), however difficult to cross it may be, for
my mind is plunged in the nectar ocean of singing thy glory. But I mourn
for the ignorant, those that care only for the gratification of the
senses and for the means of such gratification while they remain
estranged from Thee.

"Generally, O Deva! the Munis are desirous of their own Moksha, they
hold their tongue, and roam in solitude without caring for the good of
others. But I do not like to be liberated alone, leaving behind me the
afflicted round me; I find no other shelter for these misguided people,
besides Thee.

"They are not happy, O Lord, in the enjoyment of the objects of the
senses. For like itching, it is not a pleasure by itself but seems to be
so, as long as Thou art not known.

"It is said that holding the tongue (_mouna_) vowed observance (Vrata),
sacred knowledge (Sruta), austerity (Tapas), reading (Adhyayana), the
observance of rules pertaining to one’s caste (Sva Dharma), exposition
of Shastras (Vyâkhyâ), living in solitude (Rahas), recital of Mantra
(Japa), and Samâdhi also lead to Moksha. But generally it is seen that
these are only means of livelihood for those that have no control over
their senses. And for proud people they are sometimes the means of
livelihood and sometimes not. But pride in itself is not a good thing.

"Thou art not separate from the Universe. Both cause and effect are thy
forms. It is not by avoiding the ways of Universe but by seeing Thee
everywhere by means of Bhakti, that the right course is followed. It is
by striking one stone against another that fire comes out, and not
otherwise."

[Let the words of the Asura boy resound from one end of India to the
other. Let the sublime words of compassion and universal love be written
in characters of gold, and let them be engraven in the hearts of all
Indians]. Prahlâda was made the king of the Asuras.



VARNA AND ASHRAMA.


*SKANDHA VII, CHAP. 11 TO 15.*

Nârada related the story of Prahlâda to King Yudhisthira at the Rajasûya
sacrifice. That story revealed the highest devotion that was possible
for a Jiva to attain with the idea of separate existence. But separation
also gives rise to the idea of difference. And as differences become
established in society, duties and relations become manifold.
Yudhisthira therefore appropriately asked Nârada about the Varnâsrama
duties.

The general rules to be observed by all castes are first given, ethical,
spiritual and devotional. The specific duties and indications of each
caste are then given, much the same as given in Manu Sanhitâ, as also
the duties of women. The following significant passage occurs at the
end: —

"The indications of each caste are given above (e.g. restraint of the
senses, contentment, &c., for Brâhmanas; courage, strength, &c., for
Kshatriyas; reverence, energy, &c., for Vaishyas; and humanity, service
&c., for Shudras). If however the indications of one caste are found in
a man belonging to another caste, he is to be specified by the caste of
his indications and not the caste of his birth." VII — 35.

The commentary of Śridhara is explicit on this passage. This shews the
liberality of the Bhâgavata Purâna. According to this Purâna, the
divisions of caste at the present day, (for one must not forget that the
Vaishnava movement belongs comparatively to a later period), are not to
be determined by birth, but they are indicated by the virtues of each
particular individual.

The duties of each Âsrama are next enumerated in detail. The enumeration
follows the Smritis, with a word for Bhakti Yoga where necessary. Some
very useful hints are given for a Grihasthâ, for which please refer to
the original.

The paths called Pitriyâna and Devayâna are next described. Hints on
Yoga and the recital of Pranava are also given.



SKANDHA VIII.



YAJNA.


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAP. 1.*

An account has been given above of the progeny of Devahûti and Prasuti.
Yajna is the son of Akuti. In the First Manvantara, when Asuras and
Râkshasas were going to devour Manu, Yajna killed the former, with the
help of his sons, the Yâma Devas. He ruled over Svarga as the Indra of
that Manvantara.

[This brings us to the end of the 1st Manvantara. The narration at
several places took us to later Manvantaras, and the account of the
Asuras especially took us to Vaivasvata Manvantara. The account of the
first Manvantara is illustrative of the succeeding Manvantaras. Details
have therefore been given at times which might not properly pertain to
the 1st Manvantara, but which fit in with other Manvantaras at those
stages of the narration. Necessarily the account of the succeeding
Manvantaras is very meagre.]

*END OF THE FIRST MANVANTARA.*



THE SECOND MANVANTARA.


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAP. 1.*

Svârōchisha is the 2nd Manu. (Svârōchisha = Self refulgent). He is the
son of Agni; Dyumat, Sushena, Rochishmat and others are the sons of this
Manu. (Dyumat and Rochishmat also mean bright, refulgent). Rochana was
the Indra (Rochana = bright illuminating). Tushita and others were the
Devas. Urjastambha and others were the seven Rishis well versed in
Brahmâ Vidyâ.

There was one Rishi named Veda Siras. His wife was Tushitâ. He had by
her _Vibhu_, the Avatâra of this Manvantara. Vibhu took the vow of
Brahmâcharya and never married. 80,000 Rishis learned his Vrata.

(The Second Manvantarâ is in Theosophical language the second ascending
half of the 1st round. The spiritual character of this Manvantara is
manifest from the use of words meaning "bright," "refulgent." The
Avatâra is Vibhu or All-pervading. The vow of Vibhu also denotes
spirituality. Agni also, the father of the Manu, is almost a name for
spirituality).



THE THIRD MANVANTARA.


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAP. 1.*

The third Manu is Uttama, son of Priya Vrata. Pavana, Srinjaya,
Yajnahotra and others were his sons. The sons of Vasistha, Pramada and
others, were the seven Rishis.

Satya, Veda Sruta, and Bhadra were the Devas. Satyajit was Indra.

Dharma had by Sunritâ one son named Satya-Sena. He was the Avatâra of
this Manvantara. He was born with others called Satya-Vrata. He killed
wicked Yakshas and Râkshasas given to falsehood, and Bhûtas who injured
others.

[The characteristic mark of this Manvantara which is the first half of
the second Round is Truth. Satya or Truth enters into the names of one
class of Devas, of the Indra and of the Avatâra. The name of the
Avatâra’s mother was also truth. The Yakshas and Râkshasas were given to
falsehood].



THE FOURTH MANVANTARA.


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAP. 1-4.*

The fourth Mann was Tâmasa, brother of Uttama. He had ten sons, Prithu,
Khyâti, Nara, Ketu and others.

Satyaka, Hari and Vira were the Devas. Triśikha was Indra.

Jyōtirdhâman and others were the seven Rishis. The Vedas had been lost
in time. The sons of Vidhriti, called Vaidhritis, however preserved them
by their own energy. They are also the Devas of this manvantara.

The Avatâra Hari incarnated as the son of Harimedhas by Harini. He saved
the Elephant king from the crocodile.



THE STORY OF THE ELEPHANT KING.


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAP. 2-4.*

An elephant king resided on the summits of Trikûta. He roamed about with
his female herd, intoxicated with the juice that exuded from his
temples. Finding a lake, he plunged himself into its waters and quenched
his thirst. He then took water in his trunk and passed it on to the
young herd and the females. A powerful crocodile attacked him in rage.
They fought for one thousand years, each trying to draw the other unto
him. The elephants on the bank raised a piteous cry, but they could not
be of any use to their companion. The Elephant King got tired at last,
but the crocodile being in his own element did not feel any fatigue. The
elephant devoutly and ardently prayed to the supreme Purusha. In
response to that prayer, Hari appeared with the Devas, seated on the
back of Garuda. He drew out the crocodile, cut off its head with the
chakra and thus saved the Elephant King.

The Elephant was a Gandharva, named Hûhû. He was playing with his wives
in a tank. Rishi Devala went there to bathe. The Gandharva drew the
Rishi himself by his feet. The Rishi cursed him to become a crocodile.
The elephant was king Indradyumna of Pandya. He was under a vow of
silence while engaged in meditation. Rishi Agastya came with his
disciples, but the king could not receive him with any word of welcome.
"O thou of untrained intellect like an elephant, be an elephant
thyself." Such was the curse of the Rishi to him.

[The Elephant represents the characteristic Jiva of this Manvantara. The
elephant becomes excited and mad when the juice exudes from his temples.
In the story, madness represents the prevalence of Kâma. The elephant
was passionately attached to his wives. The Jiva had given himself too
much to Kâma, and he was carried away helplessly by the demon, he knew
not where. His better sense could not prevail without some extraordinary
help and that help was given by Hari, an incarnation of Vishnu. Possibly
the story represents the development of animal instincts].



THE FIFTH MANVANTARA.


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAP. 5.*

Raivata was the fifth Manu. He was the brother of Tâmasa. His sons were
Arjuna, Bali, Vindhya and others. Vibhu was Indra. Bhûttaraya and others
were the Devas.

The seven Rishis were Hiranya-romay, Vedasiras, Urddhabâhu and others.

The presiding deity of Vaikuntha incarnated in partial manifestation as
the son of Subhra and Vikuntha. He was the Avatâra of this Manvantarâ.
[This is the first half of the Third Round. The incarnation of the Lord
of Vaikuntha may have some significance, but what is not clear from the
text.]



THE SIXTH MANVANTARA.


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAPTER 5.*

The Sixth Manu was Châkshusha, son of Chakshus. Pûru, Pûrusha, Sudyumna
and others were his sons. Mantra Druma was Indra. Apya and others were
the Devas; Haryasma, Dviraka and others were the Rishis.

The Avatâra was Ajita, son of Vairaja by Deva-Sambhûti. He assumed the
form of Kûrma or the Tortoise, and helped in the churning of the Milk
Ocean.



THE CHURNING OF THE OCEAN.


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAP. 5-12.*

In the fight with the Asuras, the Devas lost their lives. They fell down
and did not rise up again. By the curse of Durvâsas, Indra and the three
Lokas became shorn of Srî or Lakshmî (wife of Vishnu in Vaikuntha:
Preservative energy). Consequently there were no performances such as
Yajna. (Durvasas once saw Indra on the elephant Airavata. He gave him
the garland of his own neck. Indra proud of his own Srî or wealth,
placed the garland on the head of the elephant. The elephant threw it
down and tore it to pieces with his feet. Durvâsas got angry and cursed
Indra that he and his Trilokî were to lose Srî). Indra did not know what
to do and the Devas all went over to the seat of Brahmâ on the top of
Meru. Brahmâ, saw the Lokapâlas lifeless and lustreless, as it were, the
Lokas beset with evils and the Asuras full of life and energy. He
meditated on Parama Purasha with concentrated mind and then addressed
the Devas thus.

"Purusha has resort to Rajas, Satva and Tamas respectively for Creation,
Preservation and Dissolution. This is just the time for Preservation.
For the good of all beings, He shall now be possessed of Satva. So let
us take the shelter of the guide of the universe. He shall now befriend
the Devas and do what is best for us."

The Devas with Brahmâ then went to Ajita. Brahmâ prayed to Him as the
Preservative aspect of Virât Purusha. Vishnu appeared before the Devas
and addressed them thus: —

"The Asuras favored by Sukra are now victorious. Make peace with them so
long as you are not strong yourselves. Lose no time in churning the Milk
Ocean for Amrita in concert with the Asuras. By drinking Amrita even
dead persons become immortal. Throw all creepers and herbs into that
ocean. Make Mandâra mountain the churning rod and make Vasûki the rope.
Then with my help, churn the ocean with all diligence. The Asuras shall
have all the trouble to themselves, while you shall reap the fruits. If
the Asuras ask for any concession, you had better approve of that. Do
not be afraid of any poison that may arise. Have neither greed nor anger
nor desire in respect of the things that will arise."

So saying Vishnu disappeared. The Devas went to the Asura King Bali and
Indra explained to him what Vishnu had said about the churning. The
Asuras approved of the plan and made friends with the Devas. They then
went together and uprooted the golden mountain Mandâra and carried it
towards the ocean. After going a long way, they felt fatigued and
dropped the mountain. Several Devas and Asuras were crushed by its fall.
Vishnu appeared on Garuda and revived them all. He then easily placed
the mountain on the back of Garuda and went towards the ocean, followed
by the Devas and Asuras.

The Serpent King Vasûki was assured of a share in Amrita and he
consented to become the rope. The Mountain was then surrounded by
Vasûki. Vishnu followed by the Devas held the mouth of the serpent. But
the Asuras said: — "We have learned the Vedas, we know the Sâstras, it
is improper for us to hold the tail of a serpent. We will not do that.
It is inauspicious." Vishnu smiled. He and the Devas gave up the mouth
end and held the tail.

The churning then commenced. The Mountain was however heavy and it sank
down to the bottom of the ocean. The Devas and Asuras became mournful.
Vishnu then assumed the form of a Tortoise, went into the water and
raised the Mountain. He then remained like a Dvipa one lakhsa Yojanas in
expanse with the mountain on his back. He infused his influence all
round. Energised by Him, the Devas and Asuras vigorously carried on the
churning. At last fire and smoke came out from the thousand mouths of
Vasûki. This overpowered the Asuras and the Devas — but the Devas were
refreshed by clouds, rains, and winds sent by Vishnu.

After a good deal of churning, poison came out first. It spread out on
all sides and the Prajâpatis and their progeny in terror took the
shelter of Śiva. Śiva felt compassion for them and with the approval of
Durgâ, he drank up the whole of the poison. It made his throat blue.

The Churning recommenced. Out came Surabhi (the fabulous cow of plenty).
The Vedic Rishis took that Cow for the necessaries of Yajna. Then came
the horse Uchchaih-Sravas. Bali desired to have it. But Indra as
directed by Vishnu made no desire. Then came the elephant Airavata, then
the 8 space elephants and their 8 female partners.

Next arose Kaustubha, the celebrated lotus-colored gem. Vishnu wished to
have it as an ornament for His breast. Next came Pârijâta, then the
Apsaras.

Illumining all sides with her lustre arose Lakshmî. All paid homage to
her. She looked on all sides, but found none, whom she could accept. If
there was an ascetic he could not control his anger. If there was a
Jnâni (sophist) he could not get over attachments. There might be a
Mahâtmâ, but he had not conquered his passion of love. How could he be
called Îsvara, who depended on others, (and no one but Îsvara could
claim Lakshmî). If there was Dharma any where, there was not
friendliness for all beings. If there was sacrifice, it was not for
liberation. There was power but it could not resist the flow of time. If
there was one void of likes and dislikes, he did not take a companion.
If there was any one long lived, he had neither good nature (_Sila_) nor
auspiciousness (_Mangala._) If one had good nature and auspiciousness,
he was not long lived. If one had all the Virtues he was out of his
element with her. If he was all that she wanted he did not want her.

Considering everything, Lakshmî at last accepted Vishnu for her husband.
He placed her on His breast. She favored the Devas, so they became
possessed of all the virtues. She showed indifference to the Asuras, so
they lost their might, energy and modesty and became greedy.

Then arose a lotus eyed girl called Vâruni (Spirituous liquor.) The
Asuras accepted her.

Then arose Dhanvantari, part of a part of Vishnu, with a pot of Amrita
in hand. Seeing the pot of Amrita, the greedy Asuras took that by force.
They quarrelled with each other, some saying "First myself," "First
myself," others saying "Not you" "Not you," whilst the weaker amongst
them finding that they were going to be deprived, cried out in jealousy
"The Devas are also entitled to an equal share. They have also toiled
with us."

At this time Vishnu became a most beautiful young woman. She filled the
hearts of the Asura Chiefs with passion. They asked the tempting girl to
settle their differences and to make a proper distribution of Amrita
amongst them. "But how can you trust a woman," said the girl. But the
Asuras had fallen in love with her, so they made over the Amrita pot to
her without further thought. She consented to distribute Amrita on the
condition that the Asuras should put up with whatever she did, right or
wrong. The Asuras consented. She then made the Devas and Asuras sit in
two separate rows. She distributed the whole of the Amrita amongst the
Devas. Only one Asura, named Râhu, sat with the Devas. The Sun and the
Moon pointed him out to the girl Vishnu. Vishnu then and there severed
the head from the body of the Asura, but as the head had touched Amrita,
it became immortal. Brahmâ made it a planet. Râhu still pursues the Sun
and Moon at eclipses out of enmity.

When the Amrita was wholly spent, Vishnu assumed His own form and in the
presence of all left the place on the back of Garuda.

The Asuras found they had been deceived and they became very angry. They
could not bear the success of their enemies but they instantly engaged
in fight with them. The fight was personal between the chiefs of both
sides. (It is interesting to note the antagonistic names, as they give
the correspondences between the Deva and Asura chiefs.) Indra fought
with Bali, Kârtikeya with Târaka, Varuna with Heti, Mitra with Praheti,
Yâma with Kalanâbha, Visvakarmâ with Mâyâ, Tvastri with Sâmbara, Savitri
with Virochana, Aparajita with Namuchi. The Asvini Kumâras with
Vrishaparvan, Sûrya (Sun) with the hundred sons of Bali, Vâna and
others, Chandra (Moon) with Râhu, Vâyu with Puloman, Bhadra Kali with
Sumbha and Nishumbha, Vrishâkapi with Jambha, Vibhavasu with Mahisha,
the sons of Brahmâ with Ilvala and Vatapi, Brihaspati with Sukra, Sani
with Naraka, the Maruts with the Nivâtakavachas, the Vasus with the
Kaleyas, the Visvadevas with the Poulamas and the Rudras with the
Krōdhavaśas. (Those who want to make a deep study will do well to note
these correspondences as they will serve to explain points which I have
not touched upon as beyond the scope of the present work).

The Asuras used all the weapons of tempting Mâyâ and conquered the
Devas, Vishnu then came to their rescue and they became victorious (The
details of the fight might be interesting from an occult point of view,
for which the reader must refer to the original.)

Śiva heard that Vishnu had assumed an enchanting female form. To satisfy
his curiosity he went to Him with Bhâvanî. Vishnu assumed that form
again to satisfy Śiva. The Astral Lord became passionate and ran after
that female form and embraced her. The female Vishnu got out of the
embrace and re-assumed His own form. Śiva was then restored to himself.



THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.


We have already seen that the ascent of spirit commenced in the
Vaivasvata Manvantara. If the fourteenth Manvantara or the second half
of the Seventh Round he left out of consideration, as the Manvantara of
Dissolution or Pralaya, the middle of the remaining 13 Manvantaras will
be in the Vaivasvata Manvantara. But the ascent could not commence
without preparation. That preparation was made in the Châkshusha
Manvantara or during the latter half of the Third Round.

Srî or Lakshmî is the Sâtvic energy of preservation. This energy was so
much overpowered by Materiality, that she was not to be found in
Trilokî. The spiritual forces, the Devas, lost life and energy. The
Asuras were at the height of their power. But as the ascending arc was
near at hand, the Devas were promised Amrita _i.e._ immortality for the
remaining part of the Kalpa. But that Amrita was to be obtained, the arc
of spiritual evolution was to be raised by the churning of the ocean of
Milk.

The ocean of Milk does not appertain to Jambu Dwipa, but it is the ocean
of Saka Dwipa. The seven oceans are transformations of Prakriti,
differing in the admixture of Satva, Rajas and Tamas and determining the
character of the globe they surround. Vishnu, as the Third Purusha, is
the divine source of evolution in every Jiva. The seat of that Vishnu is
the ocean of Milk, the ocean where Satva prevails.

It is Vishnu who from His seat in the Ocean of Milk sends down Prânic
Energy and the mineral becomes a vegetable. He sends down the power of
perception and then the power of conception and the vegetable becomes an
animal and at last a man. Throughout this course of evolution, there is
a development of the self element in us. There is no idea of self in the
mineral or in the vegetable. It faintly asserts itself or rather makes
an effort to assert itself in the animal kingdom. The early history of
humanity is the development of the selfish element in him. The Jiva has
two sides in himself and non-self. The self side is caused by limitation
due to his own senses They put him in contact with the outside world,
and make him a centre of sense perceptions. He becomes lost entirely in
the sense products, which form a world by themselves. The non-self side
of a Jiva, is his spiritual nature. He begins with this spiritual
nature. But the development of selfishness eclipses this nature, the
true, the real nature of Jiva, and he identifies himself entirely with
the acquired and false nature.

Then comes a crisis in the evolution of Jivas. Were men to be lost for
ever to their spiritual, their real nature? Were they to be tempted away
by the senses, which had done their work of training, past all chance of
return?

Vishnu, the God of human evolution, willed otherwise. He caused a
re-adjustment of the Daivic and Âsuric forces, and the Devas by His help
got the better of the Asuras. This is the churning of the Ocean of Milk.
It averted a crisis and is therefore a great event in the history of the
Universe.

The Asura element could not be altogether wiped away. For the Deva or
spiritual nature evolves out of Asura or selfish and material nature.
Unselfishness grows out of selfishness, spirituality rises out of
materiality.

In the act of churning, the Devas could not do without the Asuras.
Churning itself, implies the action and reaction of two contending
forces. "Make peace with them, as long as you are not strong
yourselves." The compromise of the Devas with the Asuras is the
development of spiritual faculties out of the personal element in man.
It is the grafting of higher Manas on lower Manas. The element of mind
is in the Asuras as well as in the Devas. But the Asuric or lower mind
thinks of self as separate from other selves. The Daivic or higher mind
breaks through the trammels of personality and finds oneness all round.

To use a better expression, we shall say higher self and lower self,
rather than self and non-self.

Jivas are carried on in their course of life evolution by the force of
past tendencies, and nature unaided produces the personal man. But when
the past tendencies are exhausted, there is nothing to keep on the Jivas
in their course of evolution.

Kûrma comes to the help of humanity at this stage. He gives a new power
to men, the power of discrimination. With this power men become free
agents, and they become responsible for their actions. They then
generate new Karma for themselves, which takes them through infinite
births and becomes a most potent factor in their future evolution.

The three Purushas have three Oceans as their correspondences. The first
ocean (Kârana) gives the materials of the Jiva body. The Second ocean
(Garbhoda), gives the germs of all Jivas. The third (Kshira) is the
ocean of Jiva evolution. This ocean is churned for the spiritual
evolution of Jivas, and it yields all that is necessary for that
evolution. Vishnu himself appears as Kûrma and becomes the sustaining
force of that evolution.

It is a Kâlpic revolution. Vasûki sustains the earth and its inhabitants
for one Kâlpic period. The thousand hoods represent the thousand Maha
yugas of every Kalpa. The Asuras held the mouth end of the serpent king
and the Devas held the tail end. And the Devas acted wisely. For as the
Kalpa waned, they got the supremacy.

The tortoise thrusts out its limbs and draws them in. Man is drawn
outside by his senses during material descent and he is drawn in by his
spiritual ascent. It is by the power of discrimination when fully
developed that a man returns to his higher nature.

Srî or Lakshmî is the divine energy of Vishnu. She is the Energy of
preservation, of evolution and progress She works out all that is good,
all that is beautiful, and all that is powerful in this Universe. The
possibilities of purely material development or of Nature’s own
evolution, are limited, and they are worked out in time. Then there is a
void. There was this void in our universe and Trilokî become deprived of
Sri. This was the curse of Durvasas, an Avatâra of Śiva.

The Churning took place as a remedy for this evil. Fresh forces had to
be brought into requisition, fresh elements that could secure the
spiritual evolution of the universe. Lakshmî herself reappeared in a
most enchanting form, as the energy of a new evolution, the very best
that man was capable of. The necessaries of this evolution also appeared
and became powers in the hands of those that had to take part in the
spiritual evolution of the universe.

All evolution is preceded by dissolution. Unless we give up the evil
element in us, we can not acquire the good. The evil has to be destroyed
and the Lord of destruction, in his infinite compassion, accepted this
poison for himself, to do away with the evils of the Universe.

The Poison only opens the door for Amrita, the spiritual nectar. The
famous Purusha Sukta says: — "He placed Amrita or eternal bliss in the
higher three Lokas." The Bhâgavata renders this famous saying into the
eighteenth sloka of the 6th. chapter of the Second Skandha. Commenting
on this sloka, Śridhara says, bliss in our Trilokî is only transitory
and the dwellers of Mahar Loka have also to leave their abode for the
higher Jana Loka, when they are oppressed by the fire of Kâlpic
dissolution. Amrita was secured to the higher Lokas, as there is no
selfishness in them. (III. 10-9.) Could the Asuras, the gods of
selfishness, aspire to have life immortal and unlimited bliss. Vishnu
decided otherwise.

The way was thus prepared for the Vaivasvata Manvantara, when men
learned to discern between right and wrong.



THE SEVENTH MANVANTARA.


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAP. 13.*

Srâddha Deva son of Vivasvat or Sûrya is the seventh Manu. He is
reigning at present. Ikshvâku, Nabhaga, Dhrishta, Saryâti, Narishyanta,
Nâbhâga, Dishta, Tarusha, Prishadhra, and Vasumat are his ten sons.

The Âdityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, the Visvadevas, the Maruts, the
Asvini-kumaras and the Ribhus are the Devas. Purandara is their Indra.
Kâsyapa, Atri, Vasistha, Visvâmitra, Goutama, Jamadagni and Bharadvâja
are the seven Rishis.

The Avatâra of this Manvantara is Vâmana, the youngest son of Aditi by
Kâsyapa.

(The Purâna will revert to this Manvantara after giving a general
account of the succeeding Manvantaras).



THE EIGHTH MANVANTARA.


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAP. 13.*

Sâvarni is the son of Vivasvat by his wife Châyâ. He shall be the eighth
Manu — Nirmoka, Virajaska (without Rajas) and others shall be his sons.
Sutapas, Viraja (without Rajas) and Amrita Prabha shall be the Devas.
Bali, son of Virochana, shall be the Indra.

Gâlava, Diptimân, Parasurâma, Asvatthâma, Kripa, Rishya Sringa and Vyâsa
shall be the seven Rishis.

Sârvabhouma, son of Devaguhya by Sarasvati, shall be the Avatâra. He
shall wrest the kingdom of Svarga Loka from Purandara and make it over
to Bali.

(The eighth Manvantara is the Second half of the Fourth Round and should
be the spiritual half according to Theosophical ideas. But we find the
Asura King Bali, who was removed from the kingdom of Trilokî in the
Vaivasvat Manvantara, restored to the kingdom of Svarga).

Amongst the Rishis we find Parasurâma who fought with Râma and
Asvatthâma and Kripa who ranged themselves against the Pândava brothers
in the battle of Kurukshetra.

All this shews that spirituality was developed out of materiality. The
sons of Manu are Nirmoka and Virajaska. _Moka_ is the cast off skin of
an animal and may well represent the sthûla body. Nirmoka is one without
Moka.

Virajaska is without Rajas. So the course of evolution shews a tendency
in the first place to cast off the sthûla body and to overcome the
Rajas.



THE NINTH MANVANTARA.


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAP. 13.*

The ninth Manu is Daksha Sâvarni. He is the son of Varuna Bhûtaketu,
Diptaketu and others shall be his sons. Pâra, Marichi garbha and others
shall be the Devas and Adbhûta their Indra. Dyu timat and others shall
be the Rishis.

Rishabha, son of Âyushmat by Ambudhârâ, shall be the Avatâra.



THE TENTH MANVANTARA.


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAP. 13.*

Brahmâ Sâvarni is the tenth Manu. He is the son of Upaśloka. Bhûrishena
and others shall be his sons. Havishmat, Sukrita, Satya, Jaya, Mûrti and
others shall be the Rishis; Suvâsana, Aviruddha and others shall be the
Devas and Sambhu their Indra.

Vishvaksena, son of Visvasrij by Visûchi, shall be the Avatâra.



THE ELEVENTH MANVANTARA.


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAP. 13*

Dharma Sâvarni is the eleventh Manu. Satya-Dharma and others shall be
his ten sons. Vihangama, Kâlagama, Nirvâna-ruchi and others shall be the
Devas, Vaidhrita their king, and Aruna and others the Rishis.
Dharma-Setu, son of Âryaka by Vaidhritâ shall be the Avatâra.



THE TWELFTH MANVANTARA.


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAP. 13.*

Rudra-Sâvarni is the twelfth Manu. Devavat, Upadeva, Devasrestha and
others shall be his sons (men shall be evolved into Devas In this
Manvantara). Harita and others shall be the Devas, Ritadhâman their
Indra. Tapomûrti, Tapasvin, Agnidhraka and others the Rishis; Svadhâman,
son of Satya-sahas by Sûnritâ, shall be the Avatâra.



THE THIRTEENTH MANVANTARA.


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAP. 13.*

Deva Sâvarni is the thirteenth Manu. Chitra Sena, Vichitra and others
shall he his sons, Sukarma and Sutrâma the Devas, Divaspati their Indra
and Nirmoka, Tatvadarsa, and others the Rishis.

Yogesvara, son of Devahotra by Vrihati, shall be the Avatâra.



THE FOURTEENTH MANVANTARA.


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAP. 13.*

Indra Sâvarni is the fourteenth Manu. Uru, Gambhira, Vradhna and others
shall be his sons.

Pavitra and Châkshusha the Devas, Suchi their Indra, Agni, Vâhu, Suchi,
Suddha Mâgadha and others the Rishis.

Brihat-bhânu, son of Satrâyana by Vitânâ, shall be the Avatâra (_i.e._
the great sun shall absorb everything.)



THE ADMINISTRATION OF A MANVANTARA


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAP. 14.*

Said Râjâ Parikshit: — Tell me, O Rishi, what are the respective duties
of Manu and others in the Manvantaras.

Suka replied: — The _Avatâra_ of each Manvantara guides the Manu, the
sons of Manu, the Rishis, the Indra and the Devas of that Manvantara.
(Each Manvantara has its own place in the history of the Kalpa, and the
general evolution has to be worked out in the way best adapted to that
Manvantara. The administration of each Manvantara is in the hands of a
separate set of kings and ministers. Vishnu incarnates in each
Manvantara, as the king of all who serve as administrative officers of
that Manvantara and he is as such called the special Avatâra for that
Manvantara. The divine kings, the Rishis, the Devas, all work under His
direction. He gives the law that is to be administered. He shews the
path, which evolution is to take in any particular Manvantara.)

Yajna and others are Avatâras of Purusha. Guided by them, Manu and
others lead the course of the universe.

_Rishis_: — At the end of every four Yugas, the Srutis become devoured
by time. (The human races have a life period timed to the four Yugas.
They have their infancy, as it were, in Satya Yuga, and they have to be
guided by wise sayings, which form the Srutis of those races. The Srutis
become better understood with the growth of racial intelligence and
other texts take the place of old ones. When the races do not require
the help of the earlier texts, those texts become lost in time. When the
races begin another life cycle, they require again the help of
teachings, which become revealed to the Rishis. The Rishis then give
those teachings to the races.) The Rishis find out the Srutis, by means
of Tapas. The eternal Dharma proceeds from the Srutis. (People know
their duties from the scriptures.)

_Manus_. — The Manus then take up the Dharma, and each in his own time
devotedly promulgates it on the earth.

_Manu’s sons_. — The sons of Manu preserve the Dharma, generation after
generation, till the end of the Manvantara.

_Devas and Indra_. — Indra, with the Devas that participate in
sacrificial offerings, protects the three Lokas and gives rains.

(Besides this general administration, there are other ways also of
managing the affairs of the universe and these are mentioned
incidentally in the following slokas. _Śridhara_.)

Hari appears as the Siddhas (Sanaka and others) and expounds divine
wisdom (Jnâna) in every Yuga. He appears as Rishis (Yâjnavalkya and
others) and expounds Karma. As Lords of Yoga (Dattâtreya and others), He
expounds Yoga.



THE STORY OF BALI.


*SKANDHA VIII. CHAPS. 15-23.*

Bali, son of Virochana and grandson of Prahlâda, was once defeated by
Indra. His Guru, Sukra, advised him to perform the Visvajit sacrifice.
When _ghee_ was offered at the sacrifice, one chariot, some green
coloured horses, one lion-marked flag, one golden bow, two quivers with
an inexhaustible store of arrows, and one divine _kavacha_ (protective
charm) arose from the fire. Bali gladly accepted these things. Prahlâda
also gave him a fresh garland and Sukra gave him a conch.

Equipped with these things Bali attacked Svarga. Brihaspati told Indra
the time was inauspicious and the Devas could not succeed without the
help of Vishnu. He advised them to give in and to remain concealed
somewhere, till the time came for their ascendancy. The Devas followed
the advice of Brihaspati and Bali became the king of Trilokî.

Sukra advised Bali to perform one hundred Asvamedha sacrifices.

Aditi became disconsolate at the down-fall of her sons. She asked her
husband Kasyapa what to do for her sons. The Prajâpati advised her to
observe Payōravata in honor of Vishnu (for details, see the original).
She observed the Vrata for 12 days when Vishnu appeared before her and
assured her He would incarnate as her son.

Vâmana was born of Aditi at midday, on the 12th day of the moon, during
the white quarter in the month of Bhâdra, while the moon was in the
first part of Sravanâ, in the Abhijit.

(Vâmana = Dwarf). Vâmana heard that Bali was performing Asvamedha on the
banks of the Narmadâ. He went there and Bali received him duly and
enquired what he wanted, expressing his willingness to gratify him
fully. Vâmana asked for only three paces of ground. Bali laughed at this
modest prayer and asked him to take more land. But Vâmana excused
himself, saying a Brâhmana should be content with small things only.
Bali laughed again and at once said "Then accept." He then took the
water pot to make the formal gift. Sukra perceived the object of Vishnu.
He tried to dissuade Bali from carrying out his promise. "This is not a
dwarf Brâhmana but Vishnu Himself. By one pace he will cover the whole
of Bhûr Loka and Bhuvar Loka. By the second pace, He will cover Svar
Loka and what then will become of the third pace? You will have to go to
Naraka for not being able to fulfil your promise. And where shall you
yourself remain after giving over all you have? Therefore desist from
what you are doing. No doubt truth is preferable. But the Vedas also
allow untruth in extreme cases."

Bali replied: — "The grandson of Prahlâda shall never speak an untruth.
I will give to this Brâhmana boy what I have promised, even if he be
Vishnu and my enemy too."

Sukra said in anger — "You disregard the words of your Guru. So you
shall forthwith lose everything."

Bali remained unmoved. He worshipped the Brâhmana boy and read out the
formal Mantra of giving over three paces of land. Vindhyâvali, the
virtuous consort of Bali, at this time placed a golden pitcher filled
with water before her husband. He washed the feet of Vâmana with that
water, and sprinkled it over his head. Then Vâmana wonderfully grew in
size. The whole Universe became visible in him. He seized the whole of
Bhûr Loka with one pace the whole of Bhuvar Loka with his body, and the
directions in space with his hands, so that even the whole of Svar Loka
became insufficient for the second pace. But nothing remained for the
third pace. For the second pace of Vâmana passed through Mahar Loka,
Jana Loka, Tapas Loka and reached even Satya Loka.

The Asuras exclaimed: — "By what an unjust device has our king been
deprived of all! It is no sin to fight with this disgrace of a Brâhmana,
this deceitful Vishnu." So they engaged in fight with the followers of
Vishnu, but were defeated by them.

Bali told his followers there was no use fighting, for Kala was against
them. The same Bhagavân who had favored them was now in opposition.

Garuda, knowing the intention of Vishnu, tied Bali with the noose of
Varuna.

Vâmana then addressing Bali said: — "Where is your promised ground for
my third pace? You have told a lie. You do not carry out your promise to
a Brâhmana. For this you will have to go to Naraka."

Bali said: — "Do not think I told an untruth or that I mean to deceive
thee. Here is my head for the third pace. I am not so much afraid of the
Naraka thou art speaking of, nor of this noose, nor of any troubles I
may undergo, nor of any punishment thou mayest inflict on me as I am
afraid of doing anything for which good people will blame me. I deem
this punishment an act of favor a favor shewn perhaps out of
consideration for my grand-father Prahlâda. For this kingdom only
maddened me with power and made me forget my end. And what shall I do
with this body too? True thou art my enemy, but this loss of kingdom has
brought me nearer to thee."

Prahlâda appeared at this time. He bowed down to Vâmana and said: — "It
is thou that didst give the kingdom of Trilokî to Bali and it is thou
that hast taken it away and really thou hast shewn him a favor by doing
so. For power maddens a man and blinds him as to his real self."

Vindhyâvali said: — "O Lord, Thou art the Creator, the Preserver, and
the Destroyer of Trilokî. Who else could own it besides Thyself? It was
the height of presumption to pretend to give the Trilokî to you." Brahmâ
said: — "O Deva of Devas, all-pervading Lord, thou hast taken away
everything from this Bali. He has also given himself up entirely to
Thee, without being moved in the least. He does not now deserve to
remain tied up."

Bhagavân said: — "O Brahmâ, I take away all his riches from him whom I
favor. For one proud of riches disregards both myself and others. When
after many births the Jiva happens to become a man, and when in that
birth he is found not to entertain any pride of birth, karma, age,
beauty, wisdom, power, wealth and other things, you should know that to
be my favor. One constantly devoted to me is not led away by anything
apt to beget pride.

"This king of Dânavas and Daityas has now conquered Mâyâ. So he is not
beside himself even in grief. His wealth gone, his position lost,
himself overpowered and chained by enemies, forsaken by friends, reviled
and cursed by his own preceptor, and what not, this Bali did not give up
Truth.

"I will give him a place, difficult for others to attain. He shall be
the Indra of Sâvarni Manvantara. Till then let him reside in Sutala. By
my wish, the dwellers of Sutala shall have no mental or bodily pain, no
fatigue, no sleepiness, no defeat and no misfortune. Bless thee, O
Maharaj, go to Sutala with thy clan. Sutala is even wished for by those
that dwell in Svarga. Even the Lokapâlas shall not be able to overpower
thee. What of others? If any Daitya does not follow thee, I will kill
him by my Chakra. By all means I will preserve thee and thy followers.
There you shall always find me at your door. Thy Asura nature shall be
there entirely destroyed under my influence."

Prahlâda was also ordered by Bhagavân to accompany Bali to Sutala. So
they all went to Sutala.



THOUGHTS ON THE ABOVE.


We now find Bali shorn of all materialism and restored to spiritual
purity. We can well understand the removal of Bali from the kingdom of
Trilokî, for the cyclic movement was tending that way since the last
Manvantara, and the Devas were to have supremacy over Trilokî. We have
to study the future of Bali, as holding further light for us.

We must repeat here the distinction made between the two classes of
Asuras: Daityas and Dânavas. The Daityas trace their origin to the
gate-keepers of Vishnu. They had inherent Satva in them, which was
eclipsed in their downfall. Therefore, though they acted as
materialistic forces following the cyclic tendency, they were themselves
not incapable of spiritual development Thus we find words of wisdom and
spirituality in Vritra, in Hiranyakasipu, unselfish devotion in
Prahlâda, and complete resignation in Bali. Hiranyâksha and
Hiranyakasipu went back to their old place in Vaikuntha. Vritra became
united with Sankarshana. Prahlâda is immortal in his unselfish mission,
and we have just heard the future of Bali. The Maruts become Devas after
their very birth.

Therefore there is no extinction for the Asuras, except for those that
do not follow Bali and do not place themselves under the influence of
Vishnu. The cyclic weapon or Chakra is ever ready to destroy those that
hopelessly go against the law.

Now a word about Sutala. The arrangement of Pâtâlas as given in the text
is the reverse of what they should be in point of spirituality, for
Atala is the most and Pâtâla the least removed from spirituality.

The influence of Vishnu does not extend beyond Sutala, and nothing can
save those that transgress the limits of this nether plane. For in
Vitala the destructive Purusha reigns and a passage to that plane is
only a door to utter extinction. And in Atala there is not a trace of
spirituality, the work of destruction is already done, and mother Nature
dissolves the material elements for some better use in future.

The special provision for Sutala is therefore a cyclic necessity. For
Jivas have to be preserved from an undesirable end. Therefore Bali was
given a post, the proud privilege of seeing that Jivas do not undergo
utter extinction. Sutala was also fortified with an accession of
spirituality.

The example of self-abnegation, the ideal of self-sacrifice, Bali is to
become the king of Devas in the succeeding Manvantara.



THE MATSYA AVATARA.


*SKANDHA. VIII. CHAP. 24.*

Towards the end of the previous Kalpa, Brahmâ was falling asleep and the
Vedas fell from his mouth. The Asura Hayagrîva took them up. Seeing this
Vishnu became a small fish. King Satyavrata was making Tarpana (_i.e._
offering libations of water), when the fish found its way into his
hands. He threw it into the river. The fish implored the King to
preserve him. So he took it home and placed it in a small waterpot. The
fish increased in size so much that all tanks and rivers were tried, but
they could not contain it. At last the king took the fish to the sea,
but it implored him not to throw it away into the sea. The king then
said: — "This fish must be the Deity Himself, otherwise how could it
grow so large?" The fish then addressed the king thus: "On the seventh
day from this, the Trilokî shall be plunged into the Pralaya waters.
Then a big Ark shall come to thee. Take all plants, all seeds, all
animals, and the seven Rishis with you and get into that ark. When the
wind shakes that ark, tie it with a serpent to myself. I will remain
with that ark in the Pralaya Ocean till the awakening of Brahmâ. I will
manifest supreme wisdom in thee."

So saying the fish disappeared and on the seventh day the Pralaya waters
deluged the Trilokî. Satya Vrata did as he was told. He got the highest
wisdom from the Fish Incarnation.

That Satya Vrata is Srâddhadeva, our present Manu.



SKANDHA IX.



THE VAIVASVATA MANVANTARA.


SUDYUMNA.


*SKANDHA IX. CHAP. 1.*

Srâddhadeva Manu had no child for some time. Vasistha performed a
sacrifice in honor of Mitra-varuna that he might obtain progeny.
Sraddha, wife of the Manu, went to the chief priest and asked for a
daughter. So Manu had a daughter named Ilâ. He took Vasistha to task for
having had a daughter. Vasistha thought the priest had done something
wrong. He prayed to Bhagavân for the change of Ilâ’s sex. So Ilâ became
a male named Sudyumna and in company with others went on horse back to
the chase. He entered a forest called Sukumâra, below the Meru, which is
the play ground of Śiva and his consort. He and his companions were all
transformed into females, for such is the mandate of Śiva for those that
enter the forest. In this changed condition, Sudyumna with his female
companions went to Budha. Budha took a fancy for Sudyumna and had by her
one son Purûravas.

Vasistha took pity on Sudyumna again and prayed to Śiva to change his
sex. By the favor of Śiva, Sudyumna became a male for one month and a
female for another month. He had three sons. Utkala, Gaya and Vimala.


IKSHVÂKU BROTHERS.


*SKANDHA IX. CHAP. 2.*

Manu prayed to Vishnu for one hundred years for other sons. He got ten
sons like unto himself. Ikshvâku was the eldest:

                                    Manu
                                      |
      −−+−−−−−−+−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−\\
        |      |     |        |       |        |         |            |
    Ikshvâku Nriga Saryati Dishita Dhrishta Karusha Narishyanta       |
                                                                      |
                                                  −−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−/
                                                    |         |
                                               Prishadhra Nabhaga Kavi

(8). PRISHADHRA.

While residing in the house of his Guru, Prishadhra was placed in charge
of cattle. It was raining one night, when a tiger entered the fold. The
cattle strayed about in fear and bellowed aloud. Prishadhra ran after
the tiger. The night was dark. He missed his aim and cut off the head of
the cow, which the tiger had seized. He found out the mistake in the
morning and informed his Guru about it. The Guru said: — "You shall
become a Sudra, as the fruit of your Karma." Prishadhra accepted the
curse. He became an ascetic, and roamed about the earth as the friend of
all beings. Eventually He ended his life in fire.

(10). KAVI.

Kavi attained wisdom in his youth. He did not marry.

(6). KARUSHA.

The sons of Karûsha were the Kârûshas, a race of pious Kshatriyas, who
guarded the north.

(5). DHRISHTA.

Dhârshtas were the sons of Dhrishta. Though born as Kshatriyas, they
became Brâhmanas on this earth.

    (2). NRIGA.
           |
        Sumati
           |
       Bhûtajyoti
           |
         Vasu
           |
        Pratika
           |
        Oghavat
           |
       −−+−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−
         |                   |
      Oghavat             Oghavati
                          m.  Sudarsana


      (7) Narishyanta,        (4) Dishta
              |                      |
          Chitra Sena          Nabâga (became a Vaisya
              |                   by his karma)
            Riksha                   |
              |                   Bhaladana
           Midhvat                   |
              |                   Vatsapriti
            Purna                    |
              |                   Prânsu
          Indra Sena                 |
              |                   Pramati
          Vitihotra                  |
              |                   Khanitra
         Satya−Sravas                |
              |                   Châkshusha
          Uru−Sravas                 |
              |                   Vivinsati
          Devadatta                  |
              |                   Rambha
          Agnivesya                  |
                                  Khaninetra (very pious)
      (Incarnation of Agni           |
      also known as Kanina        Karandhama
      and Jatu−Karna)                |
              |                   Avikshit
       Agni veshyâyana               |
         Brâhmanas.               Marutta.

Sâmbarta, Son of Angiras, officiated at the Yajna performed by Marutta.
The Devas took direct part in the Yajna.

           Marutta
              |
            Dama
              |
         Râjavardhana
              |
          Sudhriti
              |
            Nara
              |
           Kevala
              |
         Dhundhumat
              |
           Vegavat
              |
            Budha
              |
         Trinabindu

      m. Apsaras Alamvushâ
              |
      −−+−−−−−+−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−
        |        |           |        |
     Visâla Sûnyabandhu Dhûmraketu Ilavilâ

    (founded the                     _m_. Rishi Visravas
     town named                               |
     Vaiśâli)                            Kubera−−the
        |                                 King of the
    Hema Chandra                           Yakshas.
        |
    Dhûmrâksha.
        |
     Sanyama
        |
     −−++−−−−−−+−−−
       |       |
     Devaja Krisâsva
               |
           Sōmadatta
               |
            Sumati
               |
          Janamejaya.

(3). SARYÂTI.

SKANDHA IX. CHAP. 3.

Saryâti was well versed in the Vedas. He had one daughter, Sukanyâ. He
went with her one day to the Âsrama of Chyavana Rishi. Sukanyâ found
there two streaks of light as from glow-worms, issuing from within a
mound of earth, thrown up by white ants. She pricked those portions with
a thorn and blood oozed out. The party of Saryâti found that their usual
secretions were stopped. The king thought some one had offended
Chyavana. The girl then told her story. The king found the Rishi
underneath the mound of earth and asked his pardon. The Rishi wanted the
hand of the girl in marriage and Saryâti consented. So Sukanyâ became
the wife of Chyavana.

One day the Asvini Kumâras came to Chyavana. The Rishi asked them to
give him youth and beauty and promised in return to give them offerings
of Sōma, though they had no part in Sōma Yâgas, The Asvini Kumâras
took the Rishi inside a tank and all the three came out young and
beautiful and looking all alike. Sukanyâ could not recognise her husband
and she prayed to the Asvini Kumâras to remove her confusion. They were
pleased with her chastity and pointed out her husband.

One day king Saryâti came and found his daughter sitting with a young
man. He reproved Sukanyâ for her supposed unchastity. The girl then
related the story of her husband’s attaining youth and the king became
very much pleased.

Chyavana made offerings of Sōma to the Asvini Kumâras. This offended
Indra. He held up the Vajra to kill Chyavana, but the son of Bhrigu
paralysed the hands of Indra. From that time the Devas consented to give
a share in Sōma to the Asvini Kumâras.

                           SARYÂTI.
                              |
      −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−
        |            |            |                 |
     Sukanyâ    Uttânavarhi    Ânarta            Dhûri Sena
    m. Chyavana                   |
                               Revata
                            (He built a town called Kuśasthali
                            in the midst of the sea and from that
                            town ruled Anarta and other lands.)
                                  |
         −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−
           |                                          |
       Kakudmin                                 99 other Sons.
           |
        Revati

Kakudmin took his daughter Revati with him and went to Brahmâ loka to
enquire of Brahmâ, who should be her husband. The Gandharvas were
singing at the time and Kakudmin had to wait for a moment. He then
saluted Brahmâ and made the enquiry. Brahmâ laughed and said: — "O king,
the men of your choice are dead and gone. I do not hear even of their
sons and grandsons. Twenty seven yuga cycles have now passed away.
Therefore go back to thy place and give thy daughter to Baladeva, who
has now incarnated as an Ansa (part) of Vishnu for the good of
Bhûr-loka." And so the king did. (The Present is the 28th. Yuga cycle.
Baladeva is the brother of Sri Krishna.)

   (9) NABHAGA.

SKANDHA IX. CHAPS. 4-6.

Nabhaga remained long with his Guru. So his brothers thought he had
become a Brahma-chârin. They reserved no share for him at partition.
Nabhaga at last returned to his house and asked for his share in the
patrimony. The brothers pointed out their father Manu as his share.
Nabhaga asked his father — "How is it my brothers have reserved thee for
my share?" Manu replied: — "Child, do not believe them. The clan of
Angiras are performing Yajna. They get confounded on every sixth day.
This is the sixth day. Give them two Vaisvadeva Sûktas. When they go to
Svarga after completion of their Yajna they will leave all their
sacrificial wealth to you." Nabhaga did as he was told. The Angirasas
left all the property remaining on the sacrificial ground to Nabhaga. As
he was going to take those things, a dark Purusha appeared from the
north and said. "These are mine."

"But the Rishis have given them to me" said Nabhaga.

"Go to your father then and ask for the solution" said the dark Purusha.

"Yes, the remnants of a Sacrifice belong to Rudra" said Manu.

Nabhaga returned and said "Yes these remnants of sacrifice all belong to
thee. So my father told me."

"I am pleased with thee and thy father. Both of you have spoken the
truth" said Rudra, "I give thee supreme wisdom. I also give thee these
remnants. Take them now."

     NABHAGA
        |
     NÂBHÂGA.
        |
    AMBARISHA

King Ambarisha had discrimination and dispassion. His devotion was
great. His mind was fixed on the lotus feet of Vishnu, his words were
all about the glory of Vaikuntha, his hands were engaged in cleansing
the temples of Vishnu, his ears only heard about the glory and the works
of Vishnu, his eyes intently looked on the symbols of Vishnu wherever
found. His body felt pleasure in the touch of Vaishnavas, his nose smelt
the sweet fragrance of Tulasi proceeding from the feet of Vishnu, his
tongue tasted only food offered to Vishnu, his feet traversed the places
sacred to Vishnu and his head was devoted to the salutation of Vishnu.
If he enjoyed things of this world, it was for service to Vishnu and not
for the sake of enjoyment. If he had attachment, it was only for those
that were devoted to Vishnu. The fruits of his action he offered to Him.
By devotion and by the unselfish performance of duties pertaining to his
sphere of life (Svadharma), he pleased Bhagavân and by degrees he gave
up all desires. Vishnu was so much pleased with the King, that he gave
him His own Chakra for protection.

Ambarisha with his wife once undertook to perform Dvâdasi Vrata for one
year. (Dvâdasi is the twelfth day of the Moon. The Vrata consists in
fasting on the eleventh day of the Moon and in breaking the fast on the
12th day). On one occasion he fasted for 3 consecutive days. He bathed
himself in the Yamunâ and worshipped Vishnu at Mathurâ. He gave plenty
of riches and cattle to the Brâhmanas. He then fed the Brâhmanas and
asked their permission to eat himself. At the time Durvâsas appeared as
his guest. The king received him duly and requested him to take his
meals. The Rishi consented and went to bathe himself in the river and
perform his daily rites. The king waited long for him but he did not
return. There was only half a muhurta now remaining of Dvâdasi. If the
king did not eat any thing, his Vrata would not be observed. If he ate,
he would shew disregard to a Brâhmana. At this juncture, the king
decided to serve both ends by taking a little water, for the Brâhmanas
call that both eating and non-eating. Durvâsas came back. By spiritual
vision, he knew what had happened and became highly enraged. He tore up
a hair tuft and charged it to kill Ambarisha. The king remained unmoved.
The chakra of Vishnu consumed the destructive force sent by Durvâsas and
went even to destroy him. The Rishi ran in every direction. The Chakra
followed him wherever he went. He went to Brahmâ and prayed to be saved.
"It is not in my power to save thee" said Brahmâ. "Thou hast offended a
votary of Vishnu." He went to Śiva. "Child" said Śiva "this weapon of
Vishnu is too much for me even. Go thou to Vishnu." Durvâsas went to
Vishnu and prayed to be pardoned and saved. Said Vishnu: "O Brâhmana, I
am dependent on my Bhaktas. I am not free. My heart is in the possession
of my Bhaktas. I am dear to them. Without these my Bhaktas I do not even
want myself, nor my absolute powers, for I am their sole and supreme
resort. They forsake their wives, homes, children and wealth for my
sake. How can I forsake them. Their heart is chained to me. They look on
all with equal eyes. By devotion they win me even as chaste wives win
their husbands. My service is all in all to them. They do not even
desire the four Muktis, Sâlokya and others, though these come within
their easy reach. What perishable objects can they have desire for? The
Sâdhus are my heart. I am the heart of the Sâdhus. They do not know any
one besides me nor do I know any one besides them. O Brâhmana, hear what
is thy only remedy. Without delay go to him who has caused this fear in
thee. When force is used against Sâdhus, it reacts on him who uses the
force. True asceticism and wisdom are both for the salvation of the
Brâhmanas. But in one untrained, they produce the contrary effect.
Therefore go thou to the son of Nâbhâga. Beg his pardon and thou shalt
be saved." Durvâsas went back to Ambarisha and touched the feet of the
king. Ambarisha became non-plussed at this act of a Brâhmana and knowing
the object of the Rishi, he prayed to the Chakra to desist from its
course and to save the Brâhmana. The Chakra had just commenced its work
of destruction, but it withdrew its energies upon the prayer of
Ambarisha. Durvâsas was extremely thankful and he thus praised the king.
"I see this day the greatness of Vaishnavas, O king. Thou didst pray for
my welfare, though I had offended thee. There is nothing strange for
those that have conquered Vishnu Himself. Thou hast been very kind to
me. Thou hast favored me much. Thou didst not even think of my offence,
but thou hast saved my life." The king had waited for Durvâsas all this
time. He now fell at the feet of the Rishi and requested him to take his
meals. The Rishi gladly did so, and also made the king take his food.

Durvâsas then went to Brahmâ Loka. He did not return for one year and
the King lived upon water only all this time, being so anxious to see
the Rishi back. Such is the holy story of Ambarisha.

                            Ambarisha
                                |
       −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
         |                   |                   |
       Virûpa             Ketumat              Sambhu
         |
    Prishadasva
         |
     Rathitara

Rathitara had no children. At his request Rishi Angiras produced certain
sons by his wife. They were known both as Rathitaras and Ângirasas.

[Durvâsas had cursed Indra, and Indra lost all power. But after the
great churning, times were changed. The divine law favoured the Devas
and the worshippers of Vishnu. Those who assumed a power, independently
of Vishnu, were sure to find disappointment, however eminent their
position might be.]

      (I) IKSHVÂKU.

SKANDHA IX. CHAPS. 6-13.

Ikshvâku was born out of the nostrils of Manu when sneezing. He had one
hundred sons. Vikukshi, Nimi, and Dandaka were the eldest born. Twenty
five of them ruled on the east of Âryâvarta, twenty five on the west and
twenty five in the middle. The others ruled else where. For the
performance of Ashtakâ Srâddha, Ikshvâku once ordered Vikukshi to get
some good flesh. Vikukshi had a bagful of good game. But he was hungry
and ate one rabbit out of his store.

Vasishtha found fault with this and Ikshvâku had to reject the whole of
the game. The King became angry at this and he expelled his son from the
kingdom. When Ikshvâku died, Vikukshi returned. He succeeded his father
as king and was known as Saśâda or Rabbiteater. Puranjaya was the son of
Saśâda. He was also called Indravâha and Kakutstha. The Devas had a
fight with the Asuras and Indra asked for the help of Puranjaya.
Puranjaya wanted Indra to be his carrier, and the King of the Devas
became a bull. Puranjaya ascended the bull on its hump. He is therefore
called Indravaha or Indra-vehicled and Kakutstha or the mounter on the
hump. He defeated the Asuras.

                                 Ikshvâku
                                     |
        −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−
          |                    |                             |
       Vikukshi              Nimi                       98 other sons
       (Saśâda)
          |
      Puranjaya
     (Indra vâhu
     Kakutstha)
          |
        Anenâ
          |
       Prithu
          |
     Visvagandhi
          |
       Chandra
          |
      Yuvanaśva
          |
      Srâvasta
    (He built the town Srâvasti)
          |
      Brihadasva
          |
     Kuvalayasva
     (Dhundhumâra.)

With his 21 thousand sons, Kuvalayâsva killed an Asura called Dhundhu,
for the good of Rishi Utanka. But the Asura killed all his sons, except
three, with fire from his mouth. Those three were Dridhâsva, Kapilâsva
and Bhadrâsva.

                    Kuvalayâsva or Dhundhumâra.
                             |
     −−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−
        |                      |                       |
    Dridhâsva.             Kapilâsva.              Bhadrâsva.
        |
     Haryasva
        |
     Nikumbha
        |
    Bahulâsva
        |
    Krisâsva
        |
     Senajit
        |
    Yuvanâsva.

Yuvanâsva had no son. So the Rishis performed a sacrifice directed to
Indra. One night Yuvanâsva became very thirsty and entered the Yajna
house. He found all the Rishis sleeping at the time. He thought it
improper to rouse the Rishis and drank whatever water he found near at
hand. By chance that happened to be the consecrated water with the power
of producing a son. When the Rishis rose up they did not find the water.
On enquiry, when they knew what had happened, every one wondered what
the outcome would be. In time the king brought forth a son from his
right side. The little thing cried out for milk. Indra said "Do not
weep, child, you shall _drink wine_ (’_Mân Dhâtâ_’)" So saying he
offered the child his fore finger. From this, the child was called
Mândhâtâ. Yuvanâsva, by the blessing of the Rishis, did not meet with
death at delivery. Mândhâtâ was a very powerful king. The thieves
dreaded him much. He performed many sacrifices and made many gifts. He
married Indumatî, daughter of Sasabindu. He had three sons Purukutsa,
Ambarisha, and the Yōgin Muchukunda. He had also fifty daughters.

Rishi Soubhari made Tapas in the waters of the Yamunâ. One day he saw
the pairing of a couple of fish and became excited. He requested king
Mândhâtâ to give him one daughter in marriage. The king said: "By
Svayamvara, you may get my daughter" (_i.e._ the girl must choose her
own husband from amongst a number of men offering themselves as
husbands.) The Rishi thought because he was old and decrepit therefore
the king wanted to put him off. So Soubhari by yogic powers became young
and beautiful. All the fifty daughters then accepted him for their
husband. The Rishi prepared for himself all the enjoyments of life and
passed his days in company with his 50 wives. He then became disgusted
with this sensual life and afterwards attained Moksha with his wives.

Yuvanâsva adopted his grand son Ambarisha. Ambarisha had one son
Youvanâsva. His son was Hârita. These three, Ambarisha, Youvanâsva and
Hârita were the founders of the chief clans of the Mândhâtâ Dynasty.

The elemental serpents gave their sister Narmodâ in marriage to
Purukutsa. Purukutsa accompanied Narmodâ to Rasâtala at the request of
Vasûki. There he killed such Gandharvas as deserved to be killed. Those
who remember this story have no fear from serpents. Such was the
blessing of the elemental serpents.

                               Yuvanâsva
                                   |
                               Mândhâtâ
                                   |
       −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−
         |                      |                          |
      Purukuta             Ambarisha                   Muchukunda
    m. Narmodâ         (adopted by Yuvanâsva)           (Yōgin)
         |                      |
     Trasadasya             Youvanâsva
         |                      |
      Anaranya                Hârita
         |
      Horyasva
         |
      Praruna
         |
     Tribandhana
         |
    Satyavrata or Tri Sanku

Tri Sanku became a Chandâla by the curse of his father. Rishi Visvâmitra
lifted him up to Svarga in his own mortal body. Tri Sanku is still
visible in the heavens. The devas turned him with his head downwards and
attempted to throw him down. Visvâmitra by his power has retained him
there.

[Tri Sanku is a constellation in the southern hemisphere.]:

      Tri Sanku
          |
    Haris Chandra

Haris Chandra had at first no issue. He prayed to Varuna for a son,
promising to offer him as a sacrifice to the Water-god. The king had a
son named Rohita (Red). Varuna asked for his victim. Ten days passed
away. "Without teething the child will not be pure." There was teething.
"When these milk teeth fall away, then will be the time." The milk teeth
fell off. "Let other teeth grow." Other teeth did grow. "But he is a
Kshatriya boy. He can be pure only when he is fit to put his armour on."

The king put off Varuna from time to time in this way, out of affection
for his son. Rohita came to know of his father’s promise. To save
himself, he took a bow and went to the forest. There he learned that his
father had an attack of dropsy, the disease caused by Varuna. So he
prepared himself to go back, but Indra prevented him by persuasive
words. He was put back from year to year by Indra, till his 6th. year.
He then made his way to the king. He purchased from Ajîgarta his second
son Sûnahśepha. He saluted his father and offered the child. King Haris
Chandra appeased Varuna by human sacrifice and got rid of his dropsy. In
that sacrifice, Visvâmitra was the Hōtâ, Jamadagni was the Adhvaryu,
Vasistha Brahmâ and Ayâsya was the Udgâta. Indra being pleased gave a
golden chariot to the king. Visvâmitra taught Âtmâ Vidya to Haris
Chandra and he attained liberation.

[The story of Haris Chandra in this Purâna follows the vedic version.
The gist of the story is that in the course of further evolution the
Devas were to be propitiated by human sacrifice. But this sacrifice did
not mean killing. It was the complete offering of oneself up to the
service of the gods. The mission of the human victim is to constantly
work for the good of the Universe and to extinguish his own personality.
Sûnahśepha was not killed in the sacrifice. He was offered up to the
service of the gods. After the sacrifice, he was called Devarâta _i.e._
one offered to the Devas. Visvâmitra adopted Devarâta as his own son and
he asked his hundred sons to accept him as their eldest brother. He
disowned those sons that did not obey him (Bhâgavata IX-16). Therefore
Visvâmitra took the principal part in this sacrifice and not Vasistha,
though he was the family preceptor.]

    Haris Chandra
         |
      Rohita
         |
      Harita
         |
      Champa (founder of Champâ)
         |
      Sudeva
         |
      Vijaya
         |
      Bharuka
         |
       Vrika
         |
       Bâhuka

His enemies dispossesed Bahuka of his kingdom. He went to the forest
accompanied by his wives. When he died, the eldest queen prepared
herself for death also. Rishi Aurva knew her to be big with child, and
dissuaded her from accompanying her husband on to the funeral pyre. The
co-wives of the queen, out of jealousy, gave her poison. The child was
born with this poison, therefore he was called Sagara (Sa = with, gara =
poison.) Sagara became a great king. The Seas were dug by his sons. He
was prevented by Rishi Aurva from taking the lives of the Tâlajanghas,
Yavanas, Sakas, Haihayas, and Barbars. But he made them change their
outward look. He performed an Asvamedha sacrifice as advised by Aurva
and Indra stole the sacrificial horse.

Sagara had two wives Sumati and Kesini. The 60 thousand sons of Sumati
searched for the horse on all sides. They dug the earth’s surface and
made the Seas. They found the horse near Kapila. They took him to be the
stealer of the horse and abused him. For this they were all burnt up.

Kesini had one son Asamanjas by Sagara. Anśumat was son of Asamanjas. He
was attached to his grandfather Sagara. Asamanjas was a Yogin in his
former birth. He therefore wanted to avoid company by means of provoking
acts. He threw down some children into the Saraju. His father Sagara was
thus compelled to forsake him. By Yogic powers, be brought back the
children thrown into the Saraju, and left his father for ever.

Anśumat was also sent by Sagara to search for the horse. He found the
horse and a heap of ashes near Kapila. He saluted Kapila and glorified
him. The Avatâra was pleased. He permitted Anśumat to take away the
horse. He also informed him that his burnt-up Pitris could only he saved
by the water of the Gangâ.

Sagara completed the sacrifice with the horse. He made over the kingdom
to Anśumat and attained Mukti.

Anśumat made Tapas for the downward flow of Gangâ but without success.
He was followed by his son Dilipa. He also did not succeed. Bhagiratha
was the son of Dilipa. He prayed hard and Gangâ appeared in person
before him. "Child, I am pleased with thee. What boon do you ask for"?
Bhagiratha told her what he prayed for. "But who shall arrest my course,
when I fall down. If not arrested I will pierce the earth and reach
Rasâtala. Again if I pass over earth, men will wash away their sins in
my waters. Where shall I wash away those sins, O King? Therefore do thou
ponder well what to do." Said Bhagiratha: — "The touch of Sâdhus shall
take away thy sins. For Vishnu, the destroyer of sins, remains in them.
Thy downward course shall be arrested by Rudra." Śiva was pleased by the
prayer of Bhagiratha, and he consented to hold Gangâ.

Gangâ came rushing down and she was taken by Bhagiratha to where the
ashes of his Pitris lay. The very touch of her waters purified the sons
of Sagara and they went to Svarga.

               Bâhuka
                 |
               Sagara
    m. Sumati    |              m. Kesini
    −−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
      |                              |
    60 thousand                  Asamanjas
       sons                          |
                                 Anśumat
                                     |
                                  Dilîpa
                                     |
                                 Bhâgiratha
                                     |
                                   Sruta
                                     |
                                   Nâbha
                                     |
                                 Sindhu Dvîpa
                                     |
                                  Ayutâyu
                                     |
                                  Rituparna (friend
                                     of Nala)
                                     |
                                  Sarvakâma
                                     |
                                   Sudâsa
                                     |
                                Soudâsa or Mitrasaha
                                 or Kalmâshapada
                                 _m_. Madayanti.

Once there lived two Râkshasas. Soudâsa killed one and did not kill the
other. The surviving Râkshasa, bent on taking revenge, entered the
service of Soudâsa as a cook. When the king entertained Vasistha, he
gave him human flesh to eat. The Rishi became angry and caused Soudâsa
to become a Râkshasa. When he learned however it was the doing of a
Râkshasa, he reduced the king’s Râkshasa life to 12 years. The king also
held out water for the execration of Vasistha. His queen prevented him.
So he threw the water at his own feet. His feet became black with sin.
While living as a Râkshasa, the king saw a Brâhmana and his wife in
their privacy, and he attacked the Brâhmana. The wife reminded the king
of his former birth and requested him not to deprive her of her husband
at the time of enjoyment. The king heeded not her words but devoured the
Brâhmana. The Brâhmana woman cursed Soudâsa so that he should meet with
death whenever he had female connection. On the expiry of 12 years,
Soudâsa reverted to his former birth, but for fear of the curse he had
no connection with women. Vasistha at the request of Soudâsa produced a
son by his wife, Madayanti. The conception lingered for 7 years.
Vasistha struck the womb with a stone (Aśman) and the son was hence
called Aśmaka. The son of Aśmaka was Bâlika. He was the surviving
kshatriya, after the extirpation of that caste by Parasurâma. Hence he
was called Mûlaka also (the root of a race).

     Soudâsa
        |
     Aśmaka
        |
    Bâlika or Mûlaka
        |
    Daśaratha
        |
    Aidavidi
        |
    Visvasaha
        |
    Khatvânga

Khatvânga was a very powerful king. He killed Daityas as a friend of the
Devas. The Devas offered him a boon. The king wanted to know how much
longer he was to live. Learning it was a Muhurta only, he returned
forthwith to his place and concentrated his mind on Bhagavân. He
attained Mukti.

     Khatvânga
         |
    Dirgha−bâhu
         |
       Raghu
         |
        Aja
         |
     Daśaratha
         |
     −−+−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
       |        |           |            |
     RÂMA   Lakshmana    Bharata     Satrughna

(The story of Râma as told in the Râmâyana is widely and universally
known. It is therefore unnecessary to repeat that story from the
Bhâgavata Purâna.)

      Daśaratha
          |
    −−+−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−
      |                 |             |              |
    RÂMA            Lakshmana      Bharata       Satrughna
      |                 |             |              |
      +−−−−−+    −−+−−−−+−−−−−+−−   −−+−−−−−−−+−−  −−+−−−−−−−−+−−
      |     |      |          |       |       |      |        |
    Kusa  Lava  Angada  Chitraketu Taksha Pushkala Subâhu Srutasena.


     Pushpa                  Kusa
       |                       |
     Dhruva Sandhi           Atithi
       |                       |
     Sudarsana               Nishada
       |                       |
     Agni varna               Nabha
       |                       |
     Sighra                  Pundarika
       |                       |
     Maru                   Kshema Dhanvan
                               |
                            Devânika
                               |
                             Aniha
                               |
                             Pâriyâtra
                               |
                            Balasthala
                               |
                            Vajra nâbha (incarnation
                                 of Sûrya).
                               |
                            Sagana
                               |
                            Vidhriti
                               |
                             Hiranya nâbha (disciple
                               of Jaimini and
                               Yogachârya
                               Teacher of Rishi
                               Yâjnavalka in
                               Yoga)

_Manu has matured in Yoga. He now resides at Kalapa._ _Towards the end
of Kaliyuga he shall restore the Solar dynasty._

         Maru              Vatsa−Vriddha          Sutapas
           |                     |                   |
       Prasusruta           Prativyōma            Amitrajit
           |                     |                   |
        Sandhi                 Bhânu              Bridharaj
           |                     |                   |
       Amarshana              Divâka               Barhi
           |                     |                   |
       Mahasvat              Sahadeva             Kritanjaya
           |                     |                   |
      Visvabâhu             Brihadasva            Rananjaya
           |                     |                   |
      Prasenajit             Bhânumat              Sanjaya
           |                     |                   |
       Takshaka              Pratikaśva            Śakya
           |                     |                   |
      Brihadbala, killed     Supratika            Suddhōda
      at the battle of           |                   |
      Kurukshetra by         Marudeva              Langala
      Abhimanyu                  |                   |
                             Sunakshatra          Prasenajit
    (Time of Parikshit)          |                   |
           |                  Pushkara            Kshudraka
      Brihat−rana                |                   |
           |                 Antariksha            Sumitra
     Vatsa−vriddha               |
                              Sutapas

Sumitra shall be the last of the Ikshvâku dynasty in this Kali Yuga.

Nimi was the second son of Ikshvâku. He asked Vasistha to officiate at
his Yajna. But the Rishi had been pre-engaged with Indra. So he asked
the king to wait till he came back. Considering the uncertainty, Nimi
did not wait for his family Purohita. But engaged another priest.
Vasistha on returning became offended and cursed Nimi with the loss of
his body. Nimi gave the same curse to Vasistha. So both gave up their
bodies. Vasistha was reborn shortly after as the son of Mitravaruna by
Urvasi. The Rishis picked up the body of Nimi and placed it with the
scented things of Yajna. On the completion of the Yajna, the Rishis
prayed to the Devas for the vivification of the body. But Nimi said from
within the scented things that he did not want to be encumbered with the
body any more. The Devas said: "Then remain in the eyes of all beings as
winking." So Nimi remains in the twinkling of eyes.

The Rishis churned the body of Nimi and a son was born. He was called
Janaka. As he was born, when his father was bodiless (_videha_) he was
also called _Vaideha_. The churning also gave him the name of Mithila
(Manth = to churn). He built the town Milhilâ. (Mithilâ is the modern
Tirhut).

         NIMI                Marti
          |                    |
        Janaka              Pratipa
          |                    |
       Udâvasu             Kritaratha
          |                    |
     Nandivardhana         Devamirha
          |                    |
       Suketu               Visruta
          |                    |
      Devarâta             Mahadhriti
          |                    |
     Brihadratha            Kritirâta
          |                    |
      Mahâvirya             Mahârôman (large−haired)
          |                    |
      Sudhriti             Svarnaroman (gold−haired)
          |                    |
    Dhrishtaketu           Hrasvaroman (short−haired)
          |                    |
     Haryasva               Sira−Dhvaja
          |
        Maru

While ploughing the ground for sacrifice, Sira-Dhvaja got Sita at the
end of the plough. Therefore Sira (plough) being his Dhvaja (flag,
proclaimer of fame), he was called Sira Dhvaja.

(This Sira-Dhvaja is the renowned Janaka of Râmayana.):

      Sira−Dhvaja
         |
      Kusa−Dhvaja
         |
     Dharma−Dhvaja
         |
     −−+−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−
       |                 |
    Krita−Dhvaja      Mita−Dhvaja
       |                 |
    Kesi−Dhvaja       Khandikya

Kesi Dhvaja was versed in Âtmâ-vidya, Khandikya was versed in Vedic
Karma, Kesi Dhvaja overpowered Khandikya and he fled away.

      Kesi−Dhvaja                   Upa−guru
         |                              |
      Bhanumat                     Upa−gupta (incarnation of Agni)
         |                              |
      Sata−dyumna                   Vasvananta
         |                              |
       Suchi                         Yuyudha
         |                              |
      Sanadvaja                     Subhashana
         |                              |
      Urja−ketu                       Sruta
         |                              |
      Purujit                         Jaya
         |                              |
     Arishta nemi                    Vijaya
         |                              |
      Srutayu                         Rita
         |                              |
     Suparsva                         Sunaka
         |                              |
    Chitraratha                     Vitahavya
         |                              |
     Kshemadhî                       Dhriti
         |                              |
     Samaratha                      Bahulasva
         |                              |
    Satyaratha                        Kriti
         |
      Upa−guru

These kings of Mithila were well versed in Âtmâ-vidya.



THE LUNAR DYNASTY.


*SKANDHA IX. CHAP. 14.*

Sōma (the Moon) was born out of the eyes of Atri. He carried off Târa,
the wife of Brihaspati (Jupiter). Brihaspati asked for his wife several
times, but Sōma would not give her up. Sukra (Venus) was not on good
terms with Brihaspati. So he took the side of Sōma, with his disciples,
the Asuras. Śiva with his Bhûtas took the side of Brihaspati. Indra with
the Devas also sided with their preceptor. The two parties engaged in
fight. After some days of fight, Angiras informed Brahmâ about every
thing that transpired. Brahmâ reproached Sōma. So he returned Târa to
Brihaspati. Brihaspati found that Târa had conceived. "Immediately throw
out the seed of another man in my field," cried he. Târa feeling bashful
brought forth at the time a lustrous son, Both Brihaspati and Sōma
desired to have the son, each saying "It is mine not yours." When they
quarrelled with each other, the Devas and Rishis asked Târa who was the
father of the child. The child reproved his mother for the delay in
answering. Brahmâ took Târa aside and learned from her that Sōma was
the father of the son, Sōma then took the child. Brahmâ seeing the deep
wisdom of the child named him Budha (Mercury).

Budha had by Ilâ one son Pururavas. Nârada related his beauty and his
virtues to the Devas in Svarga. Urvasi heard all that and took a fancy
for the king. By the curse of Mitra Varuna, she had then a human form.
Both the king and the Apsaras became attached to each other and they
lived as husband and wife. But Urvasi laid down two conditions of her
company with the king — (1) that the king was to preserve two rams,
which the Apsaras had brought with her and (2) that the king was never
to expose himself before her except in privacy. Indra sent the
Gandharvas in search of Urvasi. They found her out and took away her two
rams. She had a maternal affection for these animals and she cried out
in despair. The king hurriedly took his arms and ran after the
Gandharvas. They left the rams and fled away. The king brought them
back. But in the hurry, he had forgot to cover himself and Urvasi left
him. The king became disconsolate, and roamed about in search of her.
After some days he found her on the banks of the Sarasvati with her 5
companions. He entreated her to come back. She promised to give her
company to the king one night every year and informed him of her
delicate state of health.

Urvasi came after a year, with one son. She advised the king to entreat
the Gandharvas for her hands. The king did so and the Gandharvas became
pleased with him. They gave him one Agnisthâli (pot of fire). The king
took the Agnisthâli to be Urvasi and roamed with it in the forest. (The
Gandharvas gave him the fire for the performance of sacrifice necessary
for the attainment of Urvasi). The king found out his mistake at last.
He then placed the fire in the forest, went home and meditated every
night on Urvasi. On the approach of Tretâ, he was inspired with the
three Vedas (Karma-Kânda). He then went to the place of fire and found
there one Asvatha tree (the sacred fig) grown from inside a Śami tree
(Śami is the name of a tree said to contain fire). He decided that the
fire must be within the Asvatha tree. He took two pieces of wood
(technically called Arani) from that tree and produced fire by their
friction. He deemed one piece to be Urvasi and another piece to be
himself and the space between the two pieces to be his son. By friction,
the fire called Jatavedas came out. (_Vedas_ is wealth, enjoyments in
general. _Jâta_ is grown. Jata-vedas is that fire from which enjoyments
proceed that which gratifies all sense-desires. It is the chief fire of
the Karma-kânda of the Vedas). By the invocation of the three vedas,
that fire became three fold. (Âhavaniya, Gârhapatya, and Dakshinâ are
the three fires perpetually kept in the household. _Âhavaniya_ is the
eastern fire which represents the relations of the house holder with the
Devas. _Gârhapatya_ is the sacred fire which the householder receives
from his father and transmits to his descendants and from which fires
for sacrificial purposes are lighted. It represents household and family
duties. _Dakhina_ is the southern fire. It represents all classes of
duty to the Pitris). The king imagined this threefold fire to be his son
(The son by his offerings sends his father’s soul to Svarga. The
sacrificial fire also sends the performer to Svarga). With that fire, he
performed Yajna desiring to reach the Loka (plane) of Urvasi. Prior to
this in Satya Yuga, Pranava was the only Veda, Nârâyana was the only
Deva, there was only one fire and only one caste. The three Vedas came
only from Pururavas, at the beginning of Treta Yuga. The king attained
Gandharva Loka by means of the fire. (In Satya Yuga, Satva generally
prevailed in men. Therefore they were all fixed in meditation. But in
Treta Yuga, Rajas prevailed and by the division of the Vedas, Karma
Mârga made its appearance. _Śridhara_.)

[The true history of the origin of the three Vedas is thus given in
veiled words. They originated in the strong desire of men in Treta Yuga
for the possession of heavenly things. This gives us about two millions
of years at the present day. The origin of the Vedas must not be
confounded however with their existence in the present form. For that we
must refer to the sacrifice of Haris Chandra, the adoption of Sunah
sepha by Visvâmitra and the division amongst the Madhu Chandas
brothers.]

                          Purûravas
                          _m_. Urvasi
                              |
    −−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−
      |           |           |          |         |          |
     Âyus     Srutâyus     Satyâyus     Raya     Vijaya     Jaya
                  |           |          |         |          |
               Vasumat    Srutanjaya    Eka      Bhima      Amita
                                                   |
                                                Kânchana
                                                   |
                                                Hotraka


                            Hotraka
                              |
                            Jahnu (He swallowed up the
                              |    Gangâ in her downward
                              |    course and let her out
                              |    though his thighs).
                              |
                            Puru
                              |
                            Balâka
                              |
                            Ajaka
                              |
                            Kusa
                              |
            −−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−+−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
              |           |        |           |
           Kusâmbu     Tanaya     Vasu     Kusanâbha
              |
            Gadhi
              |
          Satyavati

Rishi Richika asked for the hand of Satyavati. Gadhi did not consider
him to be a fit husband for his daughter. He therefore wanted to put him
off and said: — "Give a dower of one thousand horses, with the lustre of
moon all over their body and with one of their ears dark-coloured
(Śyama). For we are sons of Kusika."

The Rishi went to Varuna and got the horses. He gave them to the king
and married Satyavati.

Satyavati and her mother both asked Richika to prepare _Charu_ for the
birth of a son to each. (_Charu_ is an oblation of rice, barley, and
pulse, boiled together. It is offered to Devas and Pitris). Richika
prepared two charus and consecrated one with Brâhmana Mantra and the
other with Kshatriya Mantra. The Rishi then went to bathe himself. In
the meantime, the mother thought, the daughter’s Charu must be superior
to hers. So she procured that from her daughter and the daughter partook
of her mother’s Charu. When the Rishi returned and learned what had
taken place, he said to his wife: — "What an improper thing you have
done by this exchange of Charus! You shall have a fierce and terrible
son, while your brother shall be the greatest in divine wisdom."

Satyavati prayed to her husband, saying "Let it not be so." The Rishi
then said, "Then your grandson shall be all that."

Jamadagni was born of Satyavati. She became the river Kausiki.

Jamadagni married Renukâ the daughter of Renu.

Jamadagni had several sons, Vasumat and others. The youngest was Râma
(Parsurama). He is said to be an Incarnation of Vishnu. He destroyed the
Haihaya Kshatriyas. He cleared the earth of Kshatriyas twenty one times.

Kârtaviryarjuna was the chief of the Haihaya clan. He got yogic powers
from Datta-Atreya and also one thousand heads. He was very powerful. He
was hospitably received one day by Jamadagni, with the objects yielded
by his Kâma-Dhenu (a cow that yields all objects of desire). The king
longed to have the cow and forcibly carried her away. Parasurâma killed
the king in battle and carried back the cow. The sons of the king out of
revenge killed Rishi Jamadagni while Parasurâma and his brothers were
out. Incensed by this conduct of the Haihayas, Parasurâma killed all the
Kshatriyas on account of their iniquities.

Jamadagni on his death became the Seventh Rishi in the constellation of
the Seven Rishis.

Parasurâma will become one of the Seven Rishis in the next Manvantara.
He bides his time, with axe in hand, on the Mahendra mountain.

Gadhi had his son Visvâmitra. Though a Kshatriya, he became a Brâhmana
by his Tapas. He had one hundred sons. The mid son was Madhuchhandas.
But they were all called Madhuchhandas. Visvâmitra adopted as his son
Sunahsepha, son of Ajigarta of the clan of Bhrigu after he had been
offered up to the Devas and the Rishi asked his sons to accept him as
their eldest brother. Śunahśepha had been purchased as the victim of
Haris Chandra’s sacrifice. He prayed to the Devas and to Prajâpati and
got liberation. In the clan of Gadhi, he was known as Devarâta. In the
clan of Bhrigu, he was called Sunahsepha. The elder sons of Visvâmitra
did not accept him. So the Rishi cursed them to become Mlechhas.
Madhuchhandas with the youngest 50 did as asked by the Rishi.

The other sons of Visvâmitra were Ashtaka, Harita, Jaya, Kratumat and
others.

                            GÂDHI
                              |
      −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
        |                                  |
    Satyavati                          Visvâmitra
    m. Richika                             |
        |                   −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−
     Jamadagni                (adopted)        |           |
        |                     Devarâta      100 sons     Ashtakja
    Parasurâma                              including    & others
                                          Madhuchhandas



THE LUNAR DYNASTY (Continued).


*SKANDHA IX. CHAP. 17.*

Âyus was the eldest son of Pururavas. His line is now given.

                                 Pururavas
                                     |
                                   Âyus
                                     |
          −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−
            |             |              |      |        |
         Nahusha    Kshatra−Vriddha    Raji   Rabha    Anena
                          |              |      |        |
                       Suhotra       500 Sons Râbhas   Śuddha
                          |                     |        |
                          |                  Gambhira   Śuchi
        −−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−+−−−−+−−              |        |
          |         |          |              Akriya  Chitraka
        Kâsya     Kusa     Gritsamada           |        |
          |         |          |           Brahmâvit Santarajas
        Kaśi      Prati      Sunaka
          |         |          |
       Rashtra   Sanjaya     Sounaka
          |         |
      Dirghatamas  Jaya
          |         |
     Dhanvantari Harnabala
    (promulgator      |
     of Âyur Veda   Sahadeva
     and a sub        |
     Incarnation     Hina
     of Vishnu.)      |
          |       Jaya Sena
       Ketumat        |
          |        Saukriti
      Bhimaratha      |
          |         Jaya.
       Divōdasa
          |
       Dyumat (also called Pratardana
       Satrujit and Ritadhvaja)
          |
      Dharmaketu
          |
       −+−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
        |                      |
      Alarka                 others
     (reigned for 66000 years)
               |
             Santati
               |
            Sunitha
               |
            Niketana
               |
           Dharmaketu
               |
           Satyaketu
               |
          Dhrishtaketu
               |
            Sukumara
               |
           Vitihotra
               |
             Bharga
               |
          Bhargabhumi

Raji defeated the Asuras and made over Svarga to Indra. Indra placed
Raji in charge of Svarga. Raji died and his sons did not return the
kingdom of Svarga to Indra. Brihaspati made invocation against them and
they were all easily killed.

SKANDHA IX. CHAPS. 18-19.

                             Purûravas
                                 |
                               Âyus
                                 |
     −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−
       |              |              |        |         |
    Nahusha     Kshatra−vridha     Raji     Rabha     Anênâ
       |
     −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−−
       |              |              |        |         |       |
     Yati           Yayâti        Saryâti   Âyati    Viyati   Kriti

Śarmistha was the daughter of the Dânava king Vrishaparvan. Devayâni was
the daughter of Sukra, the preceptor of the Dânavas. They quarrelled
whilst playing with each other and Śarmistha threw Devayâni into a well.
King Yayâti happened to pass by the way and he rescued her. She became
attached to the king and married him. Sukra became displeased with the
Dânavas for the ill treatment of his daughter by Śarmistha. And to
please the preceptor and his daughter, Vrishaparvan had to make over his
daughter and her companions to Devayâni as her constant attendants. So
they accompanied Devayâni to the place of Yayâti. Sukra warned Yayâti
however not to have any intercourse with Śarmistha. But the king did not
heed the warning. He had two sons Yadu and Turvasu by Devayâni and three
sons, Druhya, Anu and Puru by Śarmistha. Devayâni complained to Sukra
and by the curse of the Rishi the king was attacked with the infirmities
of old age. The Rishi was subsequently pleased to say that the king
might exchange his infirmities with another. Yayâti called his sons one
by one and they all declined to comply with his request except the
youngest son Puru. So he exchanged his infirmities with Puru and lived
as a young man. At last he found that no amount of gratification of the
senses produced satiety and being disgusted with the pleasures of life,
made over to Puru his youth and took upon himself his own infirmities.
He made over the south east to Druhya, the east to Yadu, the west to
Turvasu and the north to Anu. He then made Puru his successor and went
into the forest.

SKANDHA IX. CHAP. 20.

                                YAYATI
                                  |
    −−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−+−−−−−−−+−−
      |         |          |         |       |
    Yadu     Turvasu     Druhya     Anu    Puru
                                             |
                                         Janamejaya
                                             |
                                         Prachinvat
                                             |
                                          Pravira
                                             |
                                          Manasyu
                                             |
                                         Chârupada
                                             |
                                           Sudyu
                                             |
                                         Bahugava
                                             |
                                          Sanyâti
                                             |
                                         Ahanyâti
                                             |
                                         Raudrâsva
                                   by Apsaras Ghritachi
                                             |
          −−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−
            |         |           |            |         |       |
         Riteyu   Kaksheya   Sthandileyua   Kriteyu   Jaleyu     |
            |                                                    |
        Rantinâbha    −−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−++
            |           |         |          |           |        |
            |        Sateyu   Dharmeyu   Sannatyeyu   Vrateyu   Vaneyu
            |
         −−++−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−
           |                  |                    |
        Sumati             Dhruva             Apratiratha
           |                                       |
         Rebhi                                   Kanva
           |                                       |
    Dushmanta (the famous                      Medhâtithi
    lover of Sakuntalâ daughter                    |
    of Visvâmitra by Menakâ,               Pras Kanna and other
    hero of Kali Dasa's drama.)                 Brâhmanas
           |
        Bharata
    (Sub−Incarnation of Vishnu)

Bharata had three wives, all of Vidarbha. One of them bore a son to the
king, but he pronounced the child to be unlike himself. The wives of the
king killed their children for fear of their being called illegitimate.
Bharata gave Yajna offerings to the Maruts and to Sōma (Moon) that he
might be blessed with a Son. The Maruts gave him Bharadvâja as his son.
Brihaspati (Jupiter) produced Bharadvâja on Mamatâ (Egoism), the wife of
his brother Utathya. The parents deserted the child and he was brought
up by the Maruts. Bharadvâja being adopted by Bharata was called
Vitatha.

                           BHARADVÂJA OR VITATHA
                                    |
                                  MANYU
                                    |
           −−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
              |                 |              |            |           |
       Brihat−Kshatra         Jaya         Mahâvirya      Nara        Garga
              |                                |            |           |
        Hastin                             Durita−Kshaya  Sankriti    Sani
        (founded Hastinâpur,                   |            |           |
            modern Delhi)                      |       −−+−−+−−−−+−−    |
              |                                |         |       |      |
        −−+−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−       |       Guru  Rantideva  |
          |              |           |         |                        |
      Ajamirha       Dvimirha    Purumirha     |                      Gârgya
    (See next page)      |                     |                      (became
                         |    −−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−++−−−−−−−−−−+−−−        Brâhmana)
                         |       |            |           |
                         |  Trayyâprni      Kavi     Pushkarâruni
                         |  (Brâhmana)      (Br)         (Br)
                         |
                     Yavinara
                         |
                     Kritimat
                         |
                     Satyadhriti
                         |
                     Dridhanemi
                         |
                     Supârsva
                         |
                      Sumati
                         |
                      Sannatimat
                         |
                      Kriti (arranged
                       Prâchasâma in to 6
                       Sanhitâs)
                         |
                       Niha
                         |
                       Ugrâyudha
                         |
                      Kshemya
                         |
                      Suvira
                         |
                      Ripunjaya
                         |
                      Bahuratha

Rantideva gave to others whatever he had and had nothing left for
himself.  He and his dependents remained without food for forty-eight
days.  On the morning of the 49th. day he got some _ghee_, milk,
prepared barley, and water.  While he was going to partake of that with
the others, a Brâhmana became his guest.  He duly respected his guest
and gladly gave him a share of the meals.  When the Brâhmana went away,
he divided the remnant amongst his dependents and himself, and while he
was going to eat, one Sûdra became his guest.  He gave him a share out
of his own.  When the Sûdra went away, another man came with a number of
dogs and Rantideva duly respected him and gave him what he could.  Only
some water now remained, sufficient for the drink of one man only.  He
was going to drink that water, when a man of the Pukvasa caste (a
degraded mixed caste) came and pitifully asked for some water.  "I do
not ask for the eight Siddhis," exclaimed Rantideva "I do not ask for
Nirvâna.  I only want that I may pervade all beings and suffer for them
all their miseries, that they may be sorrowless.  By parting with this
water to save the life of this distressed man, my hunger, thirst,
langour, giddiness, and distress are all gone."  Kind hearted Rantideva
gave even the water to the thirsty Pukvasa.  Even Brahmâ and others
could not distract him from his devotion to Vishnu.  His followers all
became Yōgins devoted to Vishnu.

(Is there some connection between Rantideva and Jesus Christ?)

                            Ajamirha
                               |
         −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
           |            |                |           |
     The Brahmans   Brihadishu          Nila      Riksha (1)
     Priyamedha         |                |
        & c.        Brihaddbanu         Sânti
                    (Large Jaws)         |
                        |               Susanti
                    Brihatkâya           |
                    Large sized)        Puruja
                        |                |
                    Jayadratha          Arka
                        |                |
                    Vishada             Bharmyâsva
                        |               (His sons were
                    Syenajit            known as
                        |               Panchâla) −−−−−+−− Mudgala
        −−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−+−−−−−−−−−+                    |  (originator of the
          |           |           |                    |  Maudgalya clan)
      Ruchirâsya Dhridhahanu Kâsya Vatsa               |
          |                                            +−− Yavinara
        Pâra                                           |
          |                                            +−− Brihadvisva
     −−+−−+−−−−−−−−+−−                                 |
       |           |                                   +−− Kampilla
    Prithusena    Nîpa                                 |
                   |                                   +−− Sanjava
              −−+−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−
                |             |
            100 sons    Bhahmadatta
                           (Yogin)
                              |
                        Vishvaksen
                        (author of Yoga
                            Sâstra)
                              |
                           Udaksena
                              |
                           Bhaliâta


                           Mudgala (continued from above)
                              |
                −−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−
                  |                    |
              Divodasa              Ahalya
                  |                 m. Gotama
              Mitrayu                  |
                  |                 Sotananda
              Chyavana                 |
                  |                 Satyadhriti (versed in
               Sudasa                Dhanur Veda)
                  |                    |
              Sahadeva              Saradvat (saw Urvasî and
                  |                 his seed fell on a cluster
              Somaka                of Sara grass from which were
                  |                 born the pair).
        −−+−−−−−−−++−−−−−−−−−−+−−               |
          |        |          |           −−+−−−+−−−−−−−+−−
        Jantu   93 sons    Prishata         |           |
                              |           Kripa       Kripî
                           Drupada                    m. Drona
                              |
                           Draupadî
                              |
                         −−+−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
                           |              |
                      Dhrishtadyumna    others
                           |
                       Dhrishtaketu



                               (1) RIKSHA
                                   |
                               Samvarana
                        _m_. Tapati daughter of the Sun
                                   |
                                 Kuru
                                   |
        −−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−+−−−−−−+−−
          |           |         |         |
       Parikshi    Sudhana    Jahnu    Nishadha
                      |         |
                   Suhotra   Suratha
                      |         |
                  Chyavana   Viduratha
                      |         |
                    Kriti   Sarvabhouma
                      |         |
           Uparichara Vasu  Jaya Sena
                      |         |
                      |     Râdhikâ
                      |         |
                      |      Ayutayu
                      |
           Uparichara Vasu   Ayutayu
                    |           |
                    |       Akrodhana
                    |           |
                    |       Devâtithi
                    |           |
                    |        Riksha
                    |           |
                    |        Dilipa
                    |           |
                    |        Pratipa −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−\
                    |                                          |
                    |                                          |
        −−+−−−−−−−−−++−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−−   |
          |          |        |       |          |       |     |
     Brihadratha  Kusâmba  Matsya  Pratyagra  Chedipa  Others  |
          |                                                    |
      −−+−+−−−−−−−−−+−−                                        |
        |           |                                          |
     Kusagra      Jarâ Sandha                                  |
        |         (was born in two parts.  He was              |
     Rishabha     therefore thrown away out side.              |
        |         Jarâ a Râkshasha woman, united               |
     Satyahita    the two parts and made the child             |
        |         alive.  Hence he was called                  |
     Pushpavat    Jarâsandha).                                 |
        |                                                      |
      Jahu                        −−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−/
        |                           |          |           |
     Sahadeva                    Devâpi     Sântanu     Vâhika
        |               (gave up the world                 |
      Sōmâpi            and went to forest)            Somadatta
        |                                                  |
     Sruta Sravas             −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−+−−
                                |            |                 |
                              Bhûri      Bhûrisravas         Sala

Santana had in his former life the power by pass of his hands to make an
old man young. He was therefore called Sântanu in this life. When he
became king, there was drought for 12 years. The Brâhmanas ascribed this
to Sântanu’s overlooking the claims of his eldest brother Devâpi.
Sântanu went to his brother. But in the meantime his minister had sent
certain Brâhmanas to Devâpi and they dissuaded him from Vedic Dharma. He
thus became unfit to be a king and the Devas then rained. _But Devâpi is
waiting at Kalâpa for his future mission. The lunar dynasty will come to
an end in the present Kaliyuga and Devâpi will be the progenitor of the
lunar Dynasty in the next Satyayuga._

                              Sântanu
    By Gangâ                     |            By Satyavati
     −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
       |                     |                          |
    Bhishma             Chitrangada               Vichitra Virya
                       (killed by a               _m_. Ambâ and
                       Gandharva)                     Ambâlikâ
                                                      daughters of
                                                      Kâsirâja

Satyavati was the daughter of Uparichara Vasu by Matsyagandhâ. Before
her marriage with Sântanu, Rishi Parâśara had by her one son Krishna
Dvaipâyana, the renowned Vyâsa, father of Suka, the propounder of the
Bhâgavata Purâna.

As Vichitra Virya had no son, Satyavati asked Vyâsa to produce sons on
his wives. They were Dhritarâshra, Pându, and Vidura.

                                 Dhritarâshra
                                 _m_. Gandhari
                                       |
         −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−+−−
           |                |               |
       Duryodhana       99 Others        Duhsalâ


                              Pându
       _m_. Kunti                                 _m_. Madri
            |                                            |
      −−+−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−               −−−−−+−−−−−−
        |             |           |                      |
    (By Dharma)  (By Indra)   (By Vayu)         (By Asvini Kumars)
    Yudhisthira  Arjuna       Bhima                   |      |
                                                   Nakula Sahadeva

YUDISTHIRA HAD:

    (1) By Draupadî — Prativindhya
    (2) By Pauravi — Devaka

BHIMA HAD:

    (1) By Draupadî — Srutasena
    (2) By Hidimbâ — Ghatot Kacha
    (3) By Kâli — Sarvagata

ARJUNA HAD

    (1) By Draupadî — Srutakirti
    (2) By Ulûpi — Iravat
    (3) By the princess
        of Manipur — Vabhruvâhana
    (4) By Subhadrâ — Abhimanyu
                     _m_. Uttarâ
                            |
                        Parikshit

NAKULA HAD:

    (1) By Draupadî — Satânika
    (2) By Karenumatî — Naramitra

SAHADEVA HAD:

    (1) By Draupadî — Sruta Karman
    (2) By Vijayâ — Suhotra


    Arjuna            Vrishtimat          Durdamana
       |                  |                   |
    Abhimanyu           Susena             Mahinara
       |                  |                   |
    Parikshit          Mahipati            Dandapâni
       |                  |                   |
    Janmaejaya         Sunitha              Nimî
       |                  |                   |
    Satânika           Nri Chakshus        Kshemaka
       |                  |
    Sahasrânika        Sukhinala
       |                  |
    Asvamedhaja        Pariplava
       |                  |
    Asima Krishna       Sunaya
       |                  |
     Nemi Chakra       Medhâvin
     (Hastinâpura         |
     shall be washed   Nripanjaya
     away and he          |
     shall reside at    Durva
     Kousâmbi)            |
        |               Timi
       Upta               |
        |              Brihadratha
     Chitraratha          |
        |               Sudâsa
     Suchiratha           |
        |               Satânika
     Vrishtimat           |
        |              Durdamana

_Kshemaka shall be the last of this approved line in the Kali Yuga._

Now as to the Magadha kings.

    Jarâ Sandha           Sama
         |                  |
     Sahadeva          Dridhasena
         |                  |
      Mârjâri            Sumati
         |                  |
      Srutasravas        Subala
         |                  |
      Yutâyu             Sunitha
         |                  |
     Naramitra           Satyajit
         |                  |
     Sunakshatra         Visvajit
         |                  |
      Brihat Sena        Ripunjaya
         |
      Karmajit
         |
      Satanjaya
         |
       Vipra
         |
       Suchi
         |
      Kshema
         |
      Suvrata
         |
      Dharma Sutra
         |
       Sama

This line shall be extinguished one thousand years after the death of
Parikshit. (The future tense is used in the text with reference to the
time of Parikshit.)

*SKANDHA IX. CHAPS. 23.*

                              YAYATI
                                |
       −−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−++−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−
         |         |           |        |         |
       Yadu     Turvasu     Druhya     Anu      Puru
                                        |
                              −−+−−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−
                                |              |          |
                             Sabhânara     Chakshus    Parekshu
                                |
                             Kâlanara
                                |
                            Janamejaya
                                |
                             Mahâ Sâla
                                |
                             Mahâmanas
                                |
               −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
                 |                           |
              Usinara                    Titiksha
                 |                           |
    −−+−−−−−−+−−−+−−+−−−−−−+−−          Rushadratha
      |      |      |      |                 |
    Sivi   Vara   Krimi  Daksha            Homa
      |                                      |
    −−+−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−    Sutapas
         |          |       |      |         |
     Vrishârbha  Subiua   Madra  Kekaya    Bali

Dirghatamas Rishi produced on Bali’s wife Six sons — Anga, Banga,
Kalinga, Sambhu, Pundra and Odhra. These six sons founded kingdoms in
their own names in the East.

(Anga is the country about Bhâgalpur. Banga is modern Bengal. Kalinga is
the country between Jagannatha and the Krishna. Odhra is part of modern
Orissa.)

                                    BALI
                                      |
       −−+−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−++−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−
         |       |         |         |         |         |
       Anga    Banga    Kalinga    Sambhu    Pundra    Odhra
         |
     Khalapâna
         |
     Diviratha
         |
    Dharmaratha
         |
    Chitraratha.

Chitratha was also called Rōmapâda. He had no son. Dasaratha (father of
Râma) was his friend. He gave his daughter Sântâ to Rōmapâda. Sântâ was
married to Rishi Rishya Sringa. That Rishi made a Yajna for Rōmapâda
and he had a Son Chaturanga born to him.

                  Chitraratha or Rōmapâda
                            |
                        Chaturanga
                            |
                       Prithulâksha
                            |
                        Brihadratha
                            |
      −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
        |                   |                 |
    Brihadratha        Brihatkarman      Brihatbhanu
        |
    Brihanmanas
        |
    Jayadratha
        |
      Vijaya
        |
      Dhriti
        |
    Dhritavrata
        |
     Satkarman
        |
    Adhiratha

(He adopted Karna of the Mahâbhârata as his son, when he had been left
by Kunti.)

                               ADHIRATHA
                                   |
                                 Karna
                                   |
                              Vrisha Sena


                                 YAYÂTI
                                   |
                                 Druhyu
                                   |
                                 Babhru
                                   |
                                 Setu
                                   |
                                Arabdha
                                   |
                                Gândhâra
                                   |
                                Dharma
                                   |
                                Dhrita
                                   |
                                Durmada
                                   |
                               Prachetas
                                   |
        One hundred sons inhabiting the north as a Mlechcha race.



                                YAYÂTI
                                   |
                                Turvasu
                                   |
                                 Bahni
                                   |
                                 Bharga
                                   |
                                Bhânumat
                                   |
                                Tribhânu
                                   |
                               Karandhama
                                   |
                                Marutta (adopted Dushmanta of the
                                   line of Puru as his son, but
                                   Dushmanta reverted to his own
                                   line.)



                                  YAYÂTI
                                     |
                                   Yadu
                                     |
          −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−
            |            |           |         |
       Sahasrajit,    Kroshta,     Nala,     Ripu,
            |
         Satajit
            |
        −−+−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−
          |            |          |
       Mahahaya    Renuhaya    Haihaya
                                  |
                               Dharma
                                  |
                                Netra
                                  |
                                Kunti
                                  |
                               Sohanji
                                  |
                              Mahishmat
                                  |
                              Bhadra sen
                                  |
                         −−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−−
                           |              |
                        Durmada        Dhanaka
                                          |
            −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
              |             |             |              |
          Kritavirya     Kritâgni     Kritavarman    Kritaujas
              |
           Arjuna
          (Learned Yoga from Dattâtreya. Had one
          thousand sons of whom only 5 survived.)
                    |
           −−+−−−−−−+−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−
             |            |             |          |         |
        Jayadhvaja     Sûrasena     Vrishabha    Madhu    Urjita
             |                                     |
        Tâlajangha                         −−+−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−
             |                               |              |
        Vitihotra and 99 other sons       Vrishni      99 other sons
        called Tâla Janghas. They
        were killed by Sagara.



                                    YADU
                                      |
                                   Kroshtu
                                      |
                                 Vrijinavat
                                      |
                                   Svâhita


                             Svâhita (Continued)
                                      |
                                   Visadgu
                                      |
                                 Chitraratha
                                      |
                                  Sasavindu. (Had ten thousand wives
              and one laksha sons by each wife. Of these sons, six
              were famous: Prithu Sravas, Prithu Kirti, Punyayasas etc.)



                                  SASAVINDU
                                      |
                −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
                  |                                     |
             Prithu−Sravas                            Others
                  |
               Dharma
                  |
               Usanas
                  |
              Ruchaka
                  |
       −−+−−−−−−−−+−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
         |          |          |           |            |
      Purujit     Rukma     Rukmesha     Prithu     Jyâmagha
                                                    _m_. Saivyâ

                                             (The king carried away
                                             from Indra's place one girl
                                             Bhojya whom he married
                                             to his future son Vidarbha)
                                                         |
                                                      Vidarbha
                                                         |
              −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−
                |                 |             |
               Kusa             Krathu      Romapâda
                                  |             |
                                Kunti        Babhru
                                  |             |
                               Vrishni        Kriti
                                  |             |
                               Nirvriti       Usika
                                  |             |
                               Dasârha    −−+−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−
                                  |         |            |        |
                                Vyoma     Chedi      Damagosha  Others
                                  |
                               Jimûta
                                  |
                              Bhimaratha
                                  |
                              Navaratha



                            Navaratha (Continued)
                                    |
                                Dasaratha
                                    |
                                 Sakuni
                                    |
                                Karambhi
                                    |
                                Devarâta
                                    |
                               Devakshatra
                                    |
                                  Madhu
                                    |
                                 Kuruvasa
                                    |
                                   Anu
                                    |
                                Puruhotra
                                    |
                                  Âyus
                                    |
                                 Satvata
                                    |
       −−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−
         |        |      |       |         |          |         |
      Bhajamat  Bhaji  Divya  Vrishni  Devavridha  Andhaka  Mohabhoja
         |                         |       |        (a)         |
       −−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−−−−\   |    Babhra             The Bhojas
         |        |       |     |  |
      Nimlochi Kinkana Dhrishti |  |
      −−+−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−/   |
        |       |         |        |
    Satajit Sahasrajit Ayutâjit    |
                                   |
                       −−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
                         |                     |
                      Sumitra               Yudhâjit
                                               |
                                      −−+−−−−−−+−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−
                                        |          |          |
                                     Nighna      Sini      Anamitra
                                        |                     |
                                  −−+−−−+−−−+−−               |
                                    |       |                 |
                               Satrajita Prasena              |
                                                              |
                                                              |
                                       /−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−/
                                       |
                              −−+−−−−−−+−−−+−−
                                |          |
                               Sini     Vrishni
                                |          |
                             Satyaka       |
                                |        −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
                            Yuyudhâna      |            |
                                |       Svaphalka  Chitraratha
                              Jaya         |            |
                                |          |    −−+−−−−−+−+−−
                              Kuni         |      |       |
                                |          |   Prithu Viduratha
                            Yugandhara     |            (_c_)
                                           |
                               −−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−
                                 |         |          |
                               Akrûra   12 others   Suchara
                                                      |
                                                   −−++−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
                                                     |            |
                                                  Devavat      Upadeva



                                     (_a_) ANDHAKA
                                             |
         −−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−+−−
           |           |          |            |
         Kukura     Bhajamat    Suchi    Kambalavarhis
           |
         Bahni
           |
        Viloman
           |
      Kapota−roman
           |
     Anu (Tumvaru was
      his friend)
           |
        Andhaka
           |
       Dundubhi
           |
       Avidyota
           |
      Punarvasu
           |
      −−+−−+−−−−+−−
        |       |
      Ahuka   Ahukî
        |
      −−+−−−−−−+−−
        |      |
     Devaka Ugrasena (_b_)
        |
      −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
        |
     (1) Devavat. (2) Upadeva. (3) Sudeva. (4) Devavardhana.
     (5) _Dhritadevâ_. (6) _Sântideva_. (7) _Upadevâ_. (8) _Srideva_.
     (9) _Devarakshitâ_. (10) _Sahadevâ_. (11) _Devakî_.
                (Vâsudeva married all the Sisters)



                                 UGRA−SENA.
                                    |
      −−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−++−−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−
        |        |         |         |       |      |          |
      Kansa   Sunama   Nyagrodha   Kanka   Sanku   Suhu   Râshtrapala

                           −−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−
                             |         |                  |
                          Dhrishti Tushtimat   5 Sisters married to the
                                               brothers of Vâsudeva.



                                (c) VIDURATHA
                                     |
                                    Sûra
                                     |
                                  Bhojamat



                            Bhojamat (Continued)
                                     |
                                   Sini
                                     |
                                   Bhoja
                                     |
                                  Hridika
                                     |
                     −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−++−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
                       |              |                 |
                   Devamirha      Satadhanu        Kritavarman
                       |
                     Sura
                   _m_. Mârishâ
                       |
       −−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−\
         |           |           |          |        |          |      |
      Vâsudeva   Devabhâga   Devasravas   Anaka   Srinjaya   Syâmaka   |
                                                                       |
                 −−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−/
                   |         |         |         |           |
                 Kanka    Samika    Vatsaka    Vrika    5 daughters

                 The five sisters of Vâsudeva were:−−

                 (1) _Prithâ_, married to Pându

                 (2) _Srutadeva_, married to Vriddha Sarman
                          Dantavâkra

                 (3) _Sruta Kîrti_, married to Dhrishtaketu
                         |
                   −−+−−−+−−−−−−−+−−
                     |           |
                 Santardan     4 sons

                 (4) _Sruta Sravas_, married to Damaghosha of Chedi
                         |
                      Sisupâla

                 (5) _Râjâdhidevi_, married to Jayasena
                         |
                      −−++−−−−−−−−−−+−−
                        |           |
                      Vinda      Anuvinda

                 The five sisters of Kansa were married to the 5
                 brothers of Vâsudeva. They were:−−

                 (1) _Kansâ_, married to Devabhâga.
                                  |
                        −−+−−−−−−−+−−−−−+−−
                          |             |
                     Chittaketu    Brihadbala.

                 (2) _Kansavatî_, married to Deva Sravas.
                          |
                      −−+−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
                        |             |
                     Suvîra        Ishumat



                 (3) _Kankâ_, married to Kanka.
                        |
                  −−+−−−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
                    |          |           |
                  Vaka     Satyajit     Purujit.

                 (4) _Râshtrapâlî_, married to Srinjaya.
                        |
                   −−+−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
                     |           |           |
                  Vrisha    Durmarshana    Others.

                 (5) _Sûrabhûmi_, married to Syâmaka.
                          |
                   −−+−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−
                     |              |
                  Harikesa     Hiranyâksha.

         As to the other brothers of Vâsudeva, Vatsaka had by
         Apsaras−−Misrakesi, Vrika and other sons.



                                  VATSAKA
                               _m_. MISRAKESI
                                    |
         −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
           |                                             |
         Vrika                                         Others
         _m_. Durvakshi
           |
         −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
           |               |                    |
         Taksha       Pushkarasâla           Others.


                                   Samika
                                 _m_. Sudâmâni
                                      |
          −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
            |                  |                  |
         Sumitra          Arjunapala           Others.


                                   Anaka
                                 _m_. Karnika
                                      |
           −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−
             |                                   |
         Ritadhâman                             Jaya


       Vâsudeva had several wives. Their names and the names of
       their sons are given below:


                                1. _Rohini_
                                       |
        −−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−−−−+−−+−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−
          |        |      |       |       |       |       |      |
       BALADEVA  Gadâ  Sârana  Durmada  Vipula  Dhruva  Krita  Others


                                2. _Pauravî_
                                       |
        −−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−+−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−
          |          |          |        |      |         |
       Subhadrâ  Bhadrabahu  Durmada  Bhadra  Bhûta   7 Others.


                                3. _Madirâ_
                                       |
       −−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−+−−−−−−−+−−
         |         |           |         |       |
       Nanda    Upananda    Kritaka    Sura    Others.


                                4. _Bhadrâ_
                                       |
                                     Kesin.


                                5. _Rochanâ_
                                       |
            −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−+−−
              |               |                 |
            Hasta         Hemângada          Others



                                6. _Ilâ_.
                                     |
             −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
               |                                 |
            Uruvalka                          Others.


                                7. _Dhritadevâ_
                                       |
                                   Vipristhâ.


                                8. _Sântidevâ_
                                       |
             −−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−
               |           |                  |
            Prasama    Prathita             Others.


                                9. _Upadevâ_
                                       |
             −−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−
               |           |                  |
            Râjanya    Kalpa−Varha          Others.


                               10. _Srîdevâ_
                                       |
            −−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−+−−−−−−+−−
              |         |          |          |
            Vasu      Hansa     Suvansa     Others.


                               11. _Devarakshitâ_
                                       |
            −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−
              |                               |
            Gada                            Others.


                               12. _Shahadevâ_
                                       |
             −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−+−−
               |             |                |
            Pravara      Srutimukhya        Others.


                               13. _Devaki_
                                       |
        −−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−+−+−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−\
          |         |          |         |         |          |     |
      Kirtimat   Sushena   Bhadrasena   Riju   Sanmardana   Bhadra  |
                                                                    |
                    −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−/
                      |                |             |
                 Sankarshana        KRISHNA       Subhadrâ.

With the birth of Sri Krishna, we come to the end of the Ninth Skandha
of the Bhâgavata Purâna. But for the completion of the racial account,
we give here only the 1st. Chapter of the 12th. Skandha.

*SKANDHA XII. CHAP. 1.*

We have seen Ripunjaya to be the last of the Magadha kings. He will be
also called Puranjaya (The future tense, it must be remembered, is used
solely with reference to the time of Parikshit). His minister Sunaka
shall kill him and place his own son Pradyōta on the throne.

      Pradyōta
          |
       Palaka
          |
       Visâkha
          |
       Râjaka
          |
    Nandivardhana

These 5 kings of the line of Pradyōta shall reign for 138 years.

    Nandi Vardhana             Ajata−Śatru (Contd).
           |                           |
       Sisunaga                    Darbhaka
           |                           |
      Kâkavarna                     Aj−aya
           |                           |
     Kshemadharma               Nandi Vardhana
           |                           |
      Kshetrajna                   Mahanandi
           |                           |
       Vidhisara                   Saisunaga
           |
     Ajâta−Śatru

These ten shall reign for 360 years--Mahanandi shall have a son, Nanda,
by a Sûdra woman. He shall be the next king. One Brâhmana Chânakya shall
kill Nanda and his eight sons and shall place Chandra Gupta on the
throne.

     Chandra Gupta
          |
      Vârisâra
          |
    Asokavardhana
          |
       Suyasas
          |
      Dasaratha
          |
       Sangata
          |
      Sâlisuka
          |
     Soma−Śarman
          |
     Śatadhanvan
          |
     Brihadratha

These ten kings called Mauryas shall reign for 137 years. Pushpamitra,
Commander of Brihadratha’s forces, shall kill his master and be king
himself. He shall be the founder of the Śunga dynasty.

                         PUSHPAMITRA
                              |
                          Agnimitra
                              |
                          Sujyestha
                              |
      −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
        |                     |                 |
    Vasumitra              Bhadraka          Pulinda
                                                |
                                            Utghosha
                                                |
                                           Vajramitra
                                                |
                                            Bhâgavata
                                                |
                                            Devabhûti

These (10) ten kings of the Sunga dynasty shall reign for 112 years.
Vâsudeva, the minister of Devabhuti, shall kill his master and become
himself the king.

    VASUDEVA
       |
    Bhûmitra
       |
    Nârâyana
       |
    Susarman

These four kings shall be called Kânvas. They shall reign for 345 years.
Susarman shall be killed by his servant Balin, a Sûdra of the Andhra
clan, who shall himself usurp the throne. Balin shall be succeeded by
his brother.

    −−+−−−−−−−−−−−−+−−
      |            |
    Balin       Krishna          Anishta Karman      Gomati
                   |                   |                |
             Srisântakarna          Haleya           Purîmat
                   |                   |                |
              Pournamâsa            Talaka          Medasiras
                   |                   |                |
               Lambodara          Purishabhîru     Sivaskânda
                   |                   |                |
               Chivilaka           Sunandana        Yajnasri
                   |                   |                |
               Meghasvâti           Chakōra          Vijaya
                   |                   |                |
                Atamana              8 Bahus       Chandravijna
                   |         ending in Sivasvâti        |
             Anishta Karman                         Salomadhi

These thirty kings of the Andhra dynasty shall rule the earth for 456
years. Seven Âbhiras, kings of Avabhriti, ten Gardabhins (men of
Gardabha) and sixteen Kankas shall then be the rulers. They shall be
followed by 8 Yavanas, 14 Turushkas and ten Surundas. These 65 kings
shall reign for one thousand and ninety nine years. Eleven Moulas shall
then be the kings for 300 years.

Bhuta-Nanda, Bangiri, Sisunandi and Yaso-Nandi shall then become kings.
Their sons, all known as Bâhlikas, shall succeed them. Then Pushpamitra
shall be the king, then his son Durmitra. Seven Andhras, seven Kosalas,
Vidurapatis and Nishadhas shall then become kings, at one and the same
time, over the lands of these names. They shall be the descendants of
the Bâhlikas.

Visvasphûrji, otherwise called Puranjaya, shall be the king of the
Magadhas. He shall make havoc of the caste system. His chief town shall
be Padmavati (Modern Patna) but his kingdom shall extend from Hardwar to
Pryag.

Then there shall be Sûdra and Mlechcha kings.



THOUGHTS ON THE VAIVASVATA MANVANTARA.


The study of the Vaivasvata Manvantara can be pursued, as to minor
details, from more than one stand-point. But I am at present concerned
with only the broad outlines of its esoteric aspect.

We are to understand, in the first place, that there are certain types
of human races in this as in other Manvantaras. Each of these types has
a history of its own. Each has its stages of growth, rise and decline,
and some have their periods of revival in this Manvantara as well. Each
racial type has to be studied separately.

The connection of the races with the Sun and the Moon requires a little
consideration.

Those who are acquainted with Hindu astrology know that the life time of
a man is divided into certain divisions, each division being under the
influence of one planet. Each planetary period again has its
sub-divisions, in each of which there is a secondary run of the planets.

According to the Bengal School, the main planetary run takes 108 years
for its completion, and according to another school, it takes 120 years.

The following is the order of planetary succession according to the
second school, which prevails all over India, except in Bengal: —

Sun 6 years, Moon 10, Mars 7, Râhu 18, Brihaspati 16, Saturn 19, Mercury
17, Ketu 7 and Venus 20. Thus if a man lives for 120 years, all the
planets will in turn have influenced his life in the above order,
commencing from the planet of his birth. Again there will be
corresponding sub-runs of all the planets during each planetary run. The
races are also governed by such planetary influences.

The Solar Dynasty means that the particular type of humanity so denoted
was born under the influence of the solar planet. When all the planets
have in turn exercised their influence over this Dynasty, it disappears
for a time and is re-born under the influence of the Sun.

Similarly there will be a revival of the Lunar dynasty — that which
commenced under the influence of the Moon.

The law of planetary influence over the human races is not as clearly
known as that over individual men. Otherwise the future history of each
race would not be the sealed book to us which it is.

The humanity of the present Manvantara was first born under the
influence of the Solar Planet. Our Moon is the son of the Sun-God.

The races that first appeared were called Solar races.

Other races appeared under the influence of the Moon. In these races we
find first the influence of Brihaspati or Jupiter, through his wife
Târa, then of Budha or Mercury, and lastly of Sukra or Venus, through
his daughter Devayâni.

This planetary succession may be only a Sub-run of the planets. We read,
in the account of the previous Manvantaras, of the appearance of Sukra
as the guide of the Daityas, and of Brihaspati as the guide of the
Devas. We have also read of the appearance of Râhu in the sixth
Manvantara. This shews that the main planetary round has to be found in
the Kalpa itself.

Our knowledge on the whole subject is however so poor that it is unsafe
to make any distinct suggestion.

Now we shall take the Solar Races, or the sons of Vaivasvat Manu, in
order of their treatment in the text. _Prishadhta_ and _Kavi_ were the
first spiritual races. They did not marry _i.e._ there was no sexual
reproduction among them.

Next in order was the _Kârusha_ race inhabiting the north.

The _Dhârshtas_ were also a spiritual race (Brâhmanas).

The descent towards Materiality commenced with Nriga. He is said to have
been transformed into a lizard. His grandson was _Bhûtajyotî_, Bhûtas
being different forms of matter. _Vasu_ is a God of Material wealth.
_Pratîka_ means the reverse or opposite (_i.e._ the reverse of spirit.)
_Ogha_ means a current. The current of materialism set in with the line
of Nriga.

The next line, that of Narishyanta, shews further materiality. Midhvat
is that which wets (the root _mih_ means to pass water). _Viti_ is
production, enjoyments. Vitihotra is the name of a sacrificial fire.
_Agnivesya_ is an incarnation of Agni or the Fire-God, but he is
nick-named Kânina or son of an unmarried woman and also _Jâtukarna_ (the
name of a Vedic Rishi). There seems to have been sexual procreation in
this line. The incarnation of Agni further indicates that the present
human form was complete, for Agni is the form-giving energy in Nature.

In the next line of _Dishta_ we have _Vatsapriti_ or affection for
children, _Pransu_ or tall, _Pramati_ or full-grown intellect,
_Khanitra_ or digger, _Châkshusha_ or the eyed, and _Khaninetra_ or the
hollow-eyed. This line represents the race of the earliest diggers, very
tall, with the hollow eye predominant in them as a characteristic
feature; this race was very powerful and capable of direct communion
with the Devas, and the gods acted as waiters in the Yajna of Marutta.

The line of Saryâti refers to Ânarta and a town named Kusasthalî, built
in the midst of the Sea. Evidently the continent on which the race
flourished is now under water. Ânarta is supposed to be Sourâshtra
(modern Surat.) But the site of Kusasthalî cannot be ascertained. There
were remnants of this race till the time of Krishna, for Balarâm married
Revati, the daughter of Kakudmin (hump-backed). The line of Nabhaga is a
short one and it merged itself into that of Angiras who was the father
of Brihaspati or Jupiter. Ambarisha is the prominent figure of this
period.

Then we come to the line of _Ikshvâku_. This is the best known line of
the Solar races. It flourished during the last Tretayuga. _Ikshvâku_ is
called the eldest son of Manu. Perhaps this has reference to the
appearance of the Race in the previous Manvantaras.

The eldest son of Ikshvâku is Vikukshi (_Kukshi_ is womb.) He is also
called Sasada or the Rabbit-eater. The Moon is called Rabbit-marked.

_Puranjaya_ is the son of Vikukshi. He is called Indra-Vâha or
Indra-Vehicled. Several of the kings of this dynasty befriended the
Devas of Svar Loka.

Further down we find King _Purukutsa_ forming an alliance with the
elemental serpents, and holding communion with the dwellers of Rasâtala.
The river Narvadâ is mentioned in connection with Rasâtala.

_Mândhâtâ_ is a traditional name that has been preserved upto this time
in common parlance in the saying "As old as king Mândhâtâ." The line of
Mândhâtâ was divided into three different branches. _Muchukunda_
represented a branch of Yogins. The long, unbroken sleep of Muchukunda
is traditional and he is credited also with Yogic powers. Another branch
that of Ambarisha, Youvanâsva and Hârita represented a spiritual
sub-race. But we have to follow the history of the Atlanteans through
Purukutsa. The connection with Rasâtala, or the plane of Material
ascendancy, affected the destiny of this line. In Trisanku, the
aspiration ran very high. He became a Deva, but had his head turned
downwards, _i.e._ turned towards materiality. With the powers of a Deva,
but with the aspirations of an Asura, the ground was prepared for the
downfall of this line. For a time, however, the Race flourished in all
its materiality. The alliance between Devas and men became cemented by
the performance of Vedic sacrifices. This was the first spiritual
advance of the human race, through the temptations of Svarga life.

The time of Haris Chandra is the Vedic era, when the earliest Riks of
what we know as Rigveda were composed. Visvâmitra and his disciples were
the Vedic Rishis of this age. The Vedas tried to curb the riotous course
of materiality by prescribing a number of restrictions on the enjoyment
of material desires. Elaborate rules were laid down as to how the
desires might be best gratified for a prolonged period in Svargaloka, by
the performance of sacrifices or Yajna. The whole of the life of the
regenerate classes was regulated by rigid laws and a glowing picture was
given of life in Svarga after death. The sacred injunctions were not,
however, potent enough to check the Kâmic tendencies of the race and the
cyclic law which now required the spiritual evolution of humanity was
continually disregarded by the race. This was poison (_gara_) to the
system of humanity and king Sagar imbibed this poison. Hence he was
called the Poisoned. He had two wives. The sons of one wife were 60
thousand in number. They offended Kapila, an Incarnation of Vishnu, and
thus were all consumed. They reached the limit of material degradation,
where final extinction awaited the race. The number 60,000 is
suggestive.

The extinction of Sagara’s sons was attended with great changes on the
earth’s surface. It is said they dug the earth and made the seas in
their search for the sacrificial horse. Hence the sea is called Sâgara.
This may refer to the sinking down of Atlantis when a large portion of
that great continent became a sea-bed. There was a corresponding
upheaval of land and the Himalayan chain reared up its head, as we can
easily infer from the first appearance of the Ganges. The first flow of
Gangâ indicated a many sided revolution in the appearance of the earth’s
surface. A new continent was formed to which India was attached as the
prominent link. Spiritual sub-races grew up on the banks of the sacred
river who more than atoned for the sins of their fathers. The
fore-runner of the race of spirituality was Asamanjas (rising above the
ordinary run). He was a Yogin not led away by the material tendencies of
the age. His son was Ansumat (having the ray or light in him). Ansumat
pacified Kapila.

Gangâ is said to be a spiritual stream flowing from the feet of Vishnu.
With the advent of this stream, the spiritual rebirth of humanity
commenced in right earnest, for the remaining period of the Kalpa.
Already the path had been paved by the Karmakânda of the Vedas, which
put restrictions on the wanton and reckless performance of Karma or
action. The pure magnetism of the holy river helped on the process of
regeneration. But this was not in itself sufficient to cope with the
forces of materiality. Accordingly we see _Kalmasha_ or sin appearing in
the line of Bhagiratha. King Kalmashapâda became a Râkshasa. A Râkshasa
is an elemental of destruction. When mind becomes too much identified
with the gross body and its desires, its connection with the Higher Self
is liable to be cut off by the action of the Râkshasas. These forces of
Tamas act in different ways to serve different purposes in the economy
of the Universe. When the material downfall of man reaches its furthest
limit in the Kalpa, the Râkshasas become Tâmasic forces in man and he is
unconscious of his higher nature. That sleep in time becomes a permanent
sleep, and the lower man becomes dead to his real Self. This is the real
death of man, when the ray sent forth by Íshvara comes back to Him,
without any spiritual harvest, and what constituted the personality of
man dissolves into the Material Universe.

The time had come when a fresh departure was necessary in the methods
pursued by the Lilâ Avatâras for the spiritual regeneration of the
Universe. They had now to appear amongst men, as ordinary beings, to
give direct teachings to their votaries, to infuse as much Satva as
possible into humanity and to retard by all means the further extinction
of the human race.

For a time the Râkshasas reigned supreme, but not over the new
continent, permeated as it was by the sacred waters of the Ganges. Their
stronghold was Lankâ, the remnant of the Atlantean continent. Following
the descent of Gangâ therefore, Vishnu incarnated himself as Râma, one
of the greatest of his manifestations. The Râkshasas of Lankâ were
killed. Vibhishana only survived, but he was allied to Râma and so
became immortal in spirituality. The Râkshasa survives in us but its
energy of dissolution does not militate against the evolution of man. It
was Râma who first gave the idea of Íshvara to the degraded human races
of the present Manvantara. They knew, for the first time, that there was
one greater than all the Devas — the Gods of the Vedas — and that there
were planes higher than even Svarga. The path of devotion was
proclaimed. And it became possible for men to cross the limits of death
and of Trilokî by this quality. The downfall was stopped no doubt; but
the ascent was only permanently secured by Lord Sri Krishna as we shall
see later on.

After Râma, there is little of interest in the line of Ikshvâku. The
decline commenced and the line became extinct with Sumitra, but it is
said one king Maru of this line became an adept in Yoga and retired to
Kalapa, where he bides his time to revive the solar dynasty towards the
end of the Kaliyuga. We may take him to be the originator of another
race which will be the re-incarnation of the Ikshvâku race.

We have considered the line of Ikshvâku’s descendants through Purukutsa.
There is another line of his descendants through Nimisha. Then we come
to the Lunar Dynasty.

The Lunar races first appeared while the descendants of Ikshvâku were
still flourishing, though on the eve of their decline. They had immense
possibilities of spiritual evolution, and the great Aryan race seems to
be connected with them. The appearance of these races is almost
simultaneous with the first flow of the Ganges. For we find Jahnu, who
swallowed up the Ganges in her first terrestrial course, is only sixth
in the line of descent from Pururavas.

The Lunar dynasty originated in the union of Târâ, the female principle
of Brihaspati (Jupiter), and the Moon. The issue was Budha (Mercury),
the direct progenitor of the Lunar dynasty.

The son of Budha was Pururavas. He married Urvasi, the renowned Deva
nymph.

Pururavas had six sons. But we are concerned with only two of them, Âyus
and Vijaya.

Vijaya gave the Adept line of the race and Âyus, the ordinary humanity.

In the line of Vijaya, we find Jahnu, purified by the assimilation of
Gangâ, Visvâmitra, pre-eminently the Rishi of the Rig Veda and one of
the seven sages who watch over the destiny of the present Manvantara,
Jamadagni, another of the seven sages of our Manvantara and Parasurâma
one of the coming sages of the next Manvantara. We have already
mentioned the part taken by Visvâmitra and his sons in the composition
of the Vedic Mantras.

Coming to the line of Âyus, we recognise the forefathers of the Aryan
races.

In the short-lived branch through Kshatra-vriddha, we find the Vedic
Rishi Gritsamada, his son Sûnaka, the renowned Sounaka, Dirghatamas and
Dhanvantari, the promulgator of Âyur-veda.

But the longest history of the Race is through the descendants of
Yayâti.

King Yayâti married Devayâni, the daughter of Sukra, the presiding Rishi
of the planet Venus, and had by her two sons, Yadu and Turvasu. Sukra is
the son of Bhrigu, the Rishi of Mahar Loka. Devayâna, is the path
leading beyond Trilokî, after death.

But the King had also connection with a Dânava girl, who brought forth
three sons, Druhyu, Anu and Puru. For his Dânava connection, King Yayâti
had in youth to undergo the infirmities of age. This evil was
transmitted to Puru, the youngest son of the Dânava girl.

The line of Puru was short-lived. But it is this line that gave some of
the renowned Vedic Rishis, viz. Apratiratha, Kanva, Medhâtithi and
Praskanva. Dushmanta, the hero of Kalidasa’s renowned drama also came of
this line. Vishnu incarnated in part as Bharata, son of Dushmanta.

Then there was a revolution. Bharata found that his sons were not like
unto himself. So the direct line of Puru came to an end. What followed
is a little mysterious. Bharata adopted Bharadvâja as his son.
Bharadvâja was begotten by Brihaspati (Jupiter) on the wife of his
brother Utathya named Mamatâ (Egoism).

Bharadvâja is one of the seven presiding Rishis of the present
Manvantara. His name is connected with several Mantras of the Rig Veda.

The great actors in the Kurukshetra battle were the descendants of
Bharadvâja. We find much diversity of spiritual characteristics among
them. The material and spiritual forces were gathered together, in all
possible grades from the Pândavas downward to the sons of Dhrita-râshtra
and their allies. The poetical genius of the author of the Mahâbhârata
has called forth characters in the Drama of the Kurukshetra battle, that
stand out in all the details of real life and find a permanent place in
the genealogy of the Lunar dynasty. The study of the racial account of
the line of Bharadvâja becomes therefore extremely difficult.

The Lunar dynasty will be revived by Devâpi, a descendant of Bharadvâja,
who is biding his time at Kalâpa.

The early inhabitants of Bengal, Behar and Urishyâ were the sons of Anu,
the second son of Sarmisthâ. The famous Kâma, one of the heroes of
Kurukshetra, also belonged to this line.

The eldest son of Sarmisthâ by Yayâti was Druhyu. Prachetas of this line
had one hundred sons, who inhabited the north as Mlechha races.

But the greatest interest attaches to the line of Yadu, the eldest son
of Yayâti by Devayâni. The early descendants of this line were the
Haihayas, killed by Parasurâma, and the Tâlajanghas, killed by Sagar —
both of the Solar Dynasty. The Mahâbhârata has given an importance to
the overthrow of these early Yadu classes as a victory of the Brâhmanas
over the Kshatriyas. Next to the Brâhmanas in intelligence were the
Kshatriyas. They eagerly accepted the teachings of Râma, who incarnated
as one of them. They knew Ísvara as higher than the Devas and the
Brâhmanas. They thought they could profitably employ their time in
seeking after the knowledge of Brahmân. This necessarily offended the
orthodox Brâhmanas, who performed the Vedic sacrifices and had no higher
ambition than to resort to Devaloka. The Kshatriyas thus represented a
religious evolution, of which the Upanishads were an outcome. In time,
some Brâhmanas even became disciples of Kshatriyas. Both Râma and
Krishna incarnated themselves as Kshatriyas. We are to understand that
by Kshatriyas, during this period of Puranic history, is meant seceders
from Vedic Karma Kânda more or less.

The early seceders, the Haihayas and Tâlajanghas were put down by the
Brâhmana Parasurâma and by the Kshatriya King Sagar, who espoused the
cause of Vedic Karma Kânda and of the Brâhmanas, represented by Rishi
Aurva of this time.

Parasurâma did not like any meddling with Vedic Karma Kânda by persons
not perfected in wisdom. Even Râma had to respect the Vedic Rishis and
had to protect them in the performance of Vedic sacrifices from the
attacks of Asuras and Râkshasas. When Lord Krishna appeared on the
scene, the Asuras still survived; the Vedic Rishis denied offerings to
Him, Vedic Karma had a strong supporter in Jarâsandha, there was
hypocrisy in the name of religion, and there were pretensions in various
forms. On the other hand great improvements had been made in the proper
understanding of the realities of life and of the laws of nature.
Intellect overflowed in many channels of thought, and the religious
nature of man found vent in all directions from atheism to religious
devotion.

Leaving this general resumè, we may now enter upon a closer study of
the history of religious movements in our present Manvantara, so that we
may understand the great work done by Lord Sri Krishna. The races live
as individuals live. However developed an individual may be, when he is
re-born after death, he first becomes a child as any other child. There
is much of spiritual life in the child, and sometimes pictures of
heavenly life are presented to his spiritual vision, which are denied to
to the grown-up man. The child begins his life when he is grown up, and
then his individual characteristics soon manifest themselves. We do not
read much of the man in the child. Hence the history of the early
spiritual races, who were infants in the racial life, does not teach us
anything. We find some of them had communion with the Devas of Svarga
Loka, but that is more on account of their infant spirituality than any
thing else.

When the races developed in time, they became most intellectual as well
as most material at the same time. Manvantara after Manvantara was taken
up in developing the physiological (Pranic) activities, the sense
(Indriya) activities, and then the lower mental activities of the Jivas.
The personal man was fully developed in the sixth Manvantara and the
great churning only opened the door for another line of development. The
possibility of spiritual activity was secured to men by Kûrma.

When the races of the Sixth Manvantara therefore became reborn in the
Seventh Manvantara, they were the most intellectual of all races, but
they had also the power given to them of developing spiritual faculties.
They could not however shake off the Asuric element all at once. They
were extremely fond of material joys, and they devised all means, which
human intellect could contrive, of gratifying material desires. That was
right which gave material gratification; that was wrong which militated
against material enjoyment.

Bhuvar Loka is the plane of animal desires. The human beasts go after
death to Bhuvar Loka. They do not possess anything which could take them
to Svarga Loka.

The Svarga Loka is for those who develop in themselves the faculty of
discriminating between right and wrong, and who do or attempt to do what
is right. Far more it is for those who love others and who do good to
them. For service and love pertain to planes higher even than Svarga.
But in the higher planes, service is unselfish and love is divine. The
lower forms of service and love pertain to the plane of Svarga. In
Svarga there is selfishness, but it is mixed with spirituality. It is
only the good, the virtuous, the devoted that go to the plane of the
Devas and there gratify their higher desires to their heart’s content.
There are divine music, divine beauty, divine objects of gratification
in Svarga Loka — allurements enough for a man of desire. And if his
merits be great, he enjoys the things of Svarga Loka for an enormously
long period.

But a man by bare intellectuality can not cross the threshold of Svarga.
The Devas reject the intruder. However much Trisanku might aspire to
have the enjoyments of Svarga, and however great his intellect might be,
he was not allowed to enter the coveted plane, without the passport of
spirituality. Humanity had still to learn the proper means of securing
life in Svarga.

Poor and chance spiritual acquisitions give only a passing life in
Svarga and that not of a superior character. So all the knowledge as to
attaining Svarga life had to be revealed in time.

The Rishis made great efforts to improve humanity by securing for them a
prolonged existence in Svarga, most of all Rishi Visvâmitra, one of the
seven sages of our Manvantara. Visvâmitra failed in his attempt to send
Trisanku to Svarga. He then tried with his son Haris Chandra. It is said
he advised the Râjâ to make a human sacrifice to Varuna. But we find the
victim Sunah-sepha living after the sacrifice, under the name of
Deva-rata, or one given up to the gods, and some of the Riks even were
revealed to him. Haris Chandra succeeded in entering Svarga. That was a
great victory for Rishi Visvâmitra. The Vedas were revealed to the
Rishis and sacrifices came to be known.

Nârada also helped the cause in another away. He related the beauty and
the virtues of king Purûravas to the Devas in Svarga. Urvasi, the famous
Deva nymph, hearing all that, became enamoured of the king. She had
then, by the curse of some god, a human form. So she could keep company
with the King. The king was enchanted by her beauty. When she left, he
followed her advice and pleased the Gandharvas. The Gandharvas gave him
the fire, with which the king could perform sacrifice. The fire became
threefold. With one he could perform his duties to the Devas and go to
Svarga Loka. With another, he could perform his duties to the Pitris.
With the third fire, he could perform the duties of a house-holder. Thus
sacrifices meant duties. And it is by the performance of duties that men
can perform Vedic sacrifices and go to Svarga Loka.

The Vedas laid down injunctions and prohibitions. They regulated the
actions of men, propelled by Kâma or desire. Men must eat meat. The
Vedas said this meat was prohibited, but that could be used. Men mixed
with women. The Vedas laid down restrictions. Even they regulated the
relations between man and wife. Then the Vedas laid down the duties
which men owed to all classes of beings. In order to induce men to
accept the Vedic injunctions, the Vedas held out Svarga as the reward of
Vedic Karma. They even favoured the belief, that there was to be
immortal life in Svarga gained by the performance of Vedic Karma.
Detailed rules as to the performance of Vedic sacrifices were given. So
long as men did not aspire to become Indra, or the ruler of Svarga, the
Devas were pleased with the sacrifices; they helped the performer as
much as they could, giving them all objects of desire, and they welcomed
them to Svarga, when they passed to that plane after death. The Devas
were as friendly to the performer of Vedic Karma as they were unfriendly
to the immature Trisanku.

The Vedic Karma Kânda became thus fully revealed. The revelation was
made in the last Treta-yuga of the present Manvantara. "At the beginning
of the Treta Yuga, the three Vedas were revealed through Pururavas." IX.
14-49. "The path of Karma was promulgated in Treta Yuga, by the division
of the Vedas." _Śridhara_.

The great churning was justified. The Devas asserted themselves for the
good of humanity. The Rishis got the revelation and helped men to place
themselves in active relationship with the Devas. Men learned to
regulate themselves and to give up the wantonness of material life. And
they had a strong inducement to do so in the prospect of eternal life in
Svarga. The great actor in this Vedic movement was Rishi Visvâmitra,
(Hallowed be his name!) Others followed him in quick succession, and
there was a brilliant combination of Vedic Rishis who propounded the
whole of the Karma Kânda of the Vedas, as it was revealed to them by the
force of Kâlpic necessity.

At all times there have been two parties, one following the current of
evolution, and another going against it. At all times there have been
cavillers and sceptics.

The Haihayas and Tâlajanghas were confirmed materialists and great
sinners. They ridiculed the Brâhmanas, who performed Vedic Karma, and
often set themselves in opposition to them. They were very troublesome
to the Brâhmanas. King Sagar wanted to extinguish the race, but he was
prevented from doing so. Possibly Atlantis was the country inhabited by
these races and Nature helped the cause of evolution by dragging down
the continent itself under water. The sacred Gangâ also flowed at this
time, spreading purity over all lands lying on her banks.

The Haihayas however still flourished; and they had a great leader in
Kârta-Viryârjuna. Then came one of the great Avatâras, Parasurâma. He
extirpated the Haihaya Kshatriyas, and went on killing the Kshatriyas
till Râma appeared, and it was then that he thought his mission was
over.

If there were some Kshatriyas who disregarded the Vedas, there were
others who found transitoriness, even in Svarga Loka, and honestly
thought that the complete wisdom was not to be found in the Karma Kânda.
They were for further revelations At first, the Brâhmanas did not look
with favour upon these Kshatriyas. But when it was found that the
Kshatriyas got real light, they were soon joined by the Brâhmanas. The
foremost of these Kshatriyas was Janaka, and the foremost of the
Brâhmanas was Yâjnavalkya. The further revelations were called the
Upanishads.

King Janaka found Sitâ, the consort of Râma, at the end of his plough.
Yâjnavalkya defeated all the Brâhmanas of his time in discussions held
at the court of king Janaka.

When Râma incarnated, there existed the people of Lankâ, a remnant of
the Atlantean continent, who had inherited a mighty material
civilisation, but who were called Râkshasas, on account of their gross
iniquities. They reached the last point of material downfall, and lost
all spirituality. They were called Râkshasas as final extinction was
their lot, and as the force of dissolution was strong in them.

Then there were the regenerate classes, who performed Vedic sacrifices.
There were a few again, who accepted the Upanishads as a teaching, but
they could not boldly declare themselves against the performance of
sacrifices.

Râma finally did away with the Râkshasas. The bard who sang his glory,
the great Vâlmiki, thus began his lay: — "O Killer of birds, thou shalt
not live for ever, as of the pair of storks thou hast killed the male,
so passionately attached to his consort." Verily the Purusha in us, the
ray of the supreme Purusha, becomes passionately attached to the element
of Prakriti in us, so that we may acquire spiritual experiences through
the body. And it is a cruel act to separate our Prâkritic
individualities completely from him by turning ourselves persistently
away from the Purusha. But when Râma became an Avatâra, the fate of the
separator was sealed.

When the Râkshasas were killed, the Rishis were left free to perform the
Vedic sacrifices.

Râma did something more. He married the daughter of Janaka, and by this
act openly espoused the cause of the Upanishads.

Lastly Râma offered Himself as an object of worship. This was the
beginning of Vishnu worship, which makes no distinction between classes
and castes. Râma openly made friendship with Guhaka, belonging to the
lowest class, whom it was an abomination to touch, for Guhaka was
devotedly attached to Him, as an Incarnation of Vishnu.

The world admired Râma. No man could reach such eminence. He must be
something more than a man. In time men accepted him as an Avatâra. At
any rate, he was an example to others in every respect. The ethical
standard he laid down in his own life was unimpeachable. The world had
never seen such sacrifices in the performance of the duties of life. A
model king, a model son, a model husband, a model brother, a model
warrior, a model friend, the model of models, Râma left an indelible
mark as a religious and moral teacher, on the age in which he lived, and
on all succeeding ages.

The example was not lost on the world. The many-sided picture, that Râma
presented, produced a spirit of enquiry, which has never been rivalled
in this Kalpa. Men thought on different lines. They studied the
Upanishads, which had been favoured by Râma. They could not forget also
that Râma taught salvation for the performers of Vedic sacrifices. Then
there was the teaching of his own life. The light was manifold.
Independent schools of thought grew up, notably the six schools of
philosophy. Each school tried to find its authority in the Upanishads
and the divine scriptures supplied texts enough for all the schools.
Every school found a part of the truth but not the whole truth. Yet each
school regarded its own part as the whole. So they quarrelled. The
Mimânsâkas said that the performance of Vedic sacrifices was all in all.
It had the sanction of time-honored texts and of the most ancient
Rishis. And Jaimini supplied the reasoning by which the practice could
be supported. The Sânkhyas said that the chief duty of a man was to
discriminate between the transformable and the non-transformable element
in him, and when that was done, nothing more was needed. The followers
of Patanjali said that mere discrimination was not sufficient, but a
continued practice was required. The Vaiseshikas studied the attributes
and properties of all objects and sought by differentiation to know the
truths. There were others who worshipped the Bhûtas, Pretas and
Pisachas, so that they might easily acquire powers. Others worshipped
the dwellers of Svarga Loka. Some worshipped Íshvara. But mostly the
worship of Śiva was prevalent. Gifts and charities also were not
unknown, in fact they were very extensive in some instances. But
generally the object of all religious observances was self-seeking more
or less.

Amidst this diversity of religious ideas and religious observances,
seemingly so contradictory, Sri Krishna, the greatest of all Avatâras,
appeared and He brought the message of peace and reconciliation. He laid
great stress on the fact that the performance of Vedic sacrifices could
lead us only to Svarga Loka, but when our merits were exhausted, we were
bound to be born again on Bhûr Loka, our Earth. While on Earth, we form
fresh Karma, which gives rise to other births. The performance of Vedic
Karma does not therefore free us from the bondage of births, for, as the
Lord said, there is object-seeking in these performances. Object-seeking
for one’s own self does not find a place in the higher Lokas. Its
highest limit is Svarga Loka. So long as man remains self-seeking, he
can not transcend the limits of Trilokî. In the higher Lokas, there is
no recurrence of births and re-births. Once you are translated to Mahar
Loka, you live for the whole of the remaining period of the Kalpa,
passing through a gradual evolution to the higher Lokas. And if you form
a devotional tie with the Lord of many Brahmândas, the First Purusha,
even the Kâlpic period does not restrict your existence. Liberation is a
relative term. It may be from the bondage of births and re-births in
Trilokî. It may be liberation from the bondage of Bvahmandas or solar
systems. Those who worship only material objects remain chained to this
earth. Those who worship the dwellers of Bhuvar Loka (Bhûtas, Pretas,
Pisachas and Pitris) or cultivate aspiration for them become allied to
them and they pass only to Bhuvar Loka after death. Those who worship
the Devas and cultivate this aspiration go to Svarga Loka after death.
Those who worship Hiranya-garbha go up to Satya or Brahmâ Loka. Those
who worship the Lord of all Brahmândas pass beyond even the Brahmânda.

The first thing that a man should do is to transcend the limits of
Trilokî. This he cannot do as long as he is self-seeking. He should
therefore perform his actions _unselfishly_. And the Lord said as
follows: —

1. There is the perishable and the imperishable element in us. Karma or
actions appertain to the perishable element. The perishable element
constantly changes, so it cannot be our real self or Âtmâ. From the
stand-point of our real self, we can dissociate ourselves from our
actions, which relate to our transitory nature. Here the system of
Sânkhya came into requisition.

2. But by this discrimination, we can not forcibly stop the performance
of actions. For the actions are propelled by (_a_) active tendencies
which form an inseparable part of our present nature, and (_b_) by the
necessity of our very existence. So by stopping actions, we force the
tendencies to mental channels, and cause more mischief by producing
mental germs for the future. And we cannot stop all actions, as some are
necessary for our bare existence.

3. Therefore we are to perform actions, and we can perform them
unselfishly, if they are done from a pure sense of duty. We are to take
duty as a law of our very existence. _Yajna_ is only another name for
this law. The Lord of beings, having created all beings with the Yajna,
said of yore, — "You shall prosper by the performance of this Yajna and
this Yajna shall be the producer of all desired objects for you." Yajna
consists of mutual sacrifices, as all beings are dependent on one
another. "Think of the Devas by means of Yajna, and the Devas shall
think of you." All our actions may be classed under duties — duties
which we owe to the Devas, the Pitris, the sages, the animals and to
other men. If we perform our Karma for the sake of Yajna only, we
perform it unselfishly.

4. As discrimination is useful in realising the real self, so restraint
is necessary to put down the acquired self. The tendencies of the
acquired self, if left to themselves, prompt men to ever recurring
actions, which again produce their own effects, some of which develop
into fresh tendencies or strengthen the pre-existing tendencies. So
restraint is to be constantly practised. The object of restraint is to
free the mind from thoughts of the object world and to fix it on the
real self, Âtmâ. Here the system of Patanjali comes into requisition.
But the system is to be accepted with this reservation that Yoga does
not necessarily mean renunciation of Karma. It includes the unselfish
performance of Karma and, for the average humanity, renunciation of
Karma is harmful as an expedient of Yoga. Though there may be some who
do not require Karma for themselves, yet they should not renounce it, if
they want to set an example to others and not to confound their
intellect.

5. But the Pûrva Mimânsâkas say: Vedic Karma is all in all, and the
authority of the Vedas is supreme. Here Sri Krishna had to assert
Himself as an Avatâra, and He asked people to accept His own authority.
He said there was self-seeking in Vedic Karma, and one could not
therefore avoid the recurrence of births by the performance of Vedic
Karma. So Sri Krishna said to Uddhava: — "If the Vedas say that men
attain Svarga by the performance of Vedic Karma, it is simply by way of
inducement, and not as pointing out the supreme end. The father says;
’Boy, eat this bitter medicine and I will give thee this cake in my
hand.’ The boy takes the medicine for the sweet thing. But that really
leads to his recovery from the disease. So the Vedas mean final
liberation as the end. But to enforce restraint, they hold out the
prospect of Svarga, which is most agreeable to men." (Elaboration of XI.
21. 23.)

Many were unwilling to accept the authority of Sri Krishna, and the
chief amongst them was Sisupâla.

This was the teaching of Karma Yoga by Sri Krishna. But the unselfish
performance of Karma is not all. It is only a negative virtue. It
purifies the mind and frees it from the taint of selfishness. The mind
then becomes prepared for the higher planes and becomes fit for the
direct influence of Íshvara.

So Sri Krishna gave to His disciples the true conception of Ísvara. He
told them Ísvara was One, the source of all existence, all knowledge and
all bliss. He told them how one Ísvara pervaded the whole universe and
became thus manifested through the Universe. He also pervaded all
beings, and became manifested through these beings. The Universe and the
Jiva were His Prakritis or bodies as it were. The Universe body was
eight-fold in its character, beginning with that most susceptible to His
influence and ending with the division most obtuse to that influence.
This eight-fold Prakriti also entered into the constitution of Jiva. But
there was something more in Jiva, — the consciousness, the knower. This
element was Ísvara Himself, as limited by Jiva Prakriti, or Jiva body.
The whole universe being the body of Ísvara, His knowledge and powers
were unrestricted, whereas the body of the Jiva, being limited and
restricted, his powers and knowledge were also restricted.

This highest conception of Ísvara is not adapted for all. So Sri Krishna
gave the conception of Ísvara, as manifested by His powers, and as
manifested in Time and Space, and lastly as He is manifested in the
human body with four hands and the Crown, symbolising His lordship over
the whole Universe.

But this conception of Ísvara is not enough. As man owes a duty to all
beings, the performance of which is Karma, so he owes a duty to Ísvara,
and that duty is Upâsanâ. All beings make sacrifices for one another,
and so they owe duty to one another. But Ísvara makes the greatest
sacrifice for all beings and He holds all beings close to His bosom in
each Kalpa, that they may work out their evolution under the most
favorable circumstances. He waits for those that give up everything for
His sake, and give themselves entirely up to Him, so that He may bear
their Karma upon Himself and hasten their evolution to such an extent,
that they may approach His own state. As Ísvara gives Himself to the
service of the Universe, so do His Bhaktas too. Men owe the highest duty
to Ísvara, and this they discharge by means of Upâsanâ. Upâsanâ is the
law of being for all Jivas, when they reach the state of manhood.
Surrender is the essence of Upâsanâ, and this Sri Krishna taught to
Arjuna.

_When a man by performing his duties to other beings and to Ísvara
becomes purified and single minded, he is entitled to receive the final
teaching, and not before._ And Sri Krishna gave that teaching at the
very last to Arjuna. He said that Jiva and Íshvara were one in essence.
It is the difference in Prakriti that makes all the difference between
Jiva and Íshvara. When all the bonds of Prakriti are broken through,
only Brahmân remains, the one reality, underlying both Íshvara and Jiva.
When we become fixed, in this wisdom all is Brahmân, and final
liberation is attained. This is the real teaching of the Upanishads, as
embodied in Uttara Mimânsâ. In this connection, Sri Krishna pointed out
the fallacy of the Vaiseshika system in attempting to know the
Attributeless, through the attributes.

The highest wisdom of the Kalpa was revealed and the world resounds with
all glory to Sri Krishna. The Rishis and Mahâtmâs took up His work. All
the religious movements and religious writings that have followed only
reproduce His teachings.

There was something however wanting in these teachings as given in the
Mahâbhârata — the relation of Sri Krishna to His own Bhaktas. What He
did for the Universe and how He did it are fully related in the great
Epic. But what He did for those that had already given themselves up
entirely to Him, who did not require the teaching of Karma, Upâsanâ and
Jnâna, who were His own people, who knew no other Dharma than Himself,
who had followed Him through ages, and who simply took births as He
appeared on this earth, what Sri Krishna did for these Bhaktas, what His
relations were with them, are not described in the Mahâbhârata at all.
The lordly side is given but not the sweet side. The picture of the Lord
edifies and overawes, that of the Lover enchants and enthrals. The
Bhâgavata sings what the Mahâbhârata left unsung. That is the peculiar
significance of the Tenth Skandha which follows, the Skandha that
maddens the hearts of all real devotees.



THE TENTH SKANDHA.



VRINDÂVANA LILÂ


THE BIRTH OF SRI KRISHNA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 1-3.*

_Said Suka_: — The goddess Earth, being oppressed by the heavy load of
tens of thousands of Daitya hosts, who were born as arrogant kings,
sought the shelter of Brahmâ. She took the form of a cow, and with tears
running down her cheeks, piteously related her grievances to the Lord of
Creation. Brahmâ took Śiva and the Devas with him, and went over to the
Ocean of milk (Kshîra Samudra), the abode of Vishnu. There he adored the
Lord of Preservation and heard the Divine voice, which he thus explained
to the Devas: —

"Even before this, the Lord knew about the grievances of the goddess of
Earth. Go, take your births, as parts of yourselves, in the clan of the
Yadus. The Lord of Lords, by governing His Kâla Śakti, shall appear on
the Earth and relieve her pressure. The Supreme Purusha Himself shall be
born in the family of Vâsudeva. Let the Deva girls take their births for
His gratification. The thousand-mouthed, self-illumining Ananta, who is
only a part of Vâsudeva, shall be the elder-born, that he may do what
pleases Hari. Bhagavati, the Mâyâ of Vishnu, who keeps the whole world
under delusion, shall also incarnate in part, as desired by the Lord,
for doing His work."

Saying all this to the Devas, and giving words of consolation to the
goddess of Earth, Brahmâ went back to his own abode.

Śura Sena, the chief of the Yadus, ruled over the town of Mathurâ. Hence
it became the chief seat of the Yadu kings. It is a sacred town, the
constant seat of Hari.

Once upon a time, at Mathurâ. Vâsudeva drove in his chariot with his
newly married wife Devaki. The marriage presents were innumerable.
Kansa, the son of Ugrasena, held the reins of the horses himself, so
eager was he to please his sister Devaki.

On the way, an incorporeal voice, addressing Kansa, said: —

"O ignorant one! the eighth child of her whom thou art now driving shall
be thy slayer."

The cruel Kansa instantly took sword in hand and caught Devaki by her
hair.

Vâsudeva pacified him with these words: —

"Thy virtues are well known. Why shouldst thou kill a female, thine own
sister, at marriage. Death is certain, this day or a hundred years
hence. Man takes body after body under the action of Karma, as he takes
step after step in walking, or even as the leech takes blade after blade
of grass in moving.

"As in dream there is a reflex perception of what is seen and heard in
waking, and as in that perception the man forgets his former self and
becomes a reflex of that self, so a man gives up his former body and
becomes forgetful of it.

"To whatever body the mind is drawn by fruit — bearing Karma, the Jiva
assumes that body as its own.

"The wind shakes the water and the Son or moon, reflected on its bosom,
appears as if shaken. So by ascription, the Purusha has the attributes
of the body. He who does evil to another has to fear evil from others.

"This girl, thy younger sister, is motionless with fear. Thou art not
entitled to kill her."

But persuasion was of no avail, as Kansa was under the influence of the
Daityas.

Vâsudeva then thought how he could ward off the present danger, leaving
the future to take care of itself.

Addressing Kansa he said: —

"But, O King, thon hast no fear from her: Surely I would make over to
thee her sons, from whom thou hast fear." Kansa desisted from his cruel
act and Vâsudeva went home with his bride, pleased for the time being.

In time Devaki brought forth eight sons and one daughter.

The truthful Vâsudeva presented his first son Kirtimat to Kansa. The
king admired the firmness of his brother-in-law and smilingly said: —
"Take back this child. I have no fear from him. From your eighth born my
death is ordained." "So let it be" exclaimed Vâsudeva, and he took back
his son. But he had very little faith in the words of Kansa.

Kansa learned from Nârada that Nanda, Vâsudeva and others of their dan,
their wives and even the clansmen of Kansa, his friends and relatives,
were partial incarnations of the Devas. He further learned from the
Rishi that preparations were being made for the lolling of the Daityas,
whose power menaced the Earth.

When the Rishi left Kansa, he took all the members of the Yadu clan for
Devas and every child of Devaki for Vishnu that was to kill him. He now
confined Vâsudeva and Devaki in his own house and put them in fetters.
He put to death every son that was born to them.

He knew himself to be Kâlanemi who had been, in another birth, killed by
Vishnu. He fell out with the Yadus, deposed his own father Ugra Sena and
became himself the King.

With the alliance of the Mâgadhas (people of Magadha or ancient Bihar)
and with the help of Pralamba, Baka, Chânûra, Trinâvarta, Agha,
Mushtika, Arishta, Dvivid, Pûtanâ, Kesi, Dhenuka, Vâna, Bhouma and other
Asuras, Kansa tormented the Yadus. They fled away to the kingdoms of
Kuru, Pânchâla, Kekaya, Sâlva, Vidarbha, Nishadha, Videha, and Kausala.
Some only remained behind and they followed the behests of Kansa.

Six sons of Devaki were killed, one by one, by Kansa.

The seventh, the abode of Vishnu, whom they call Ananta, appeared in the
womb of Devaki, causing both joy and grief to his parents.

Vishnu, the Âtmâ of all beings, knew the sufferings of His own
followers, the Yadus, at the hands of Kansa. He summoned Yoga Mâyâ and
commanded her as follows. "Go forth, blessed Devi! to Vraja, which is
adorned by Gopas and Gos (_Go_ is ordinarily a cow. _Gopa_, go and pa is
a preserver of cow, a cowherd. Vraja or Go-kula was the chief town of
Nan da, the king of the Gopas). Rohini, wife of Vâsudeva, dwells in
Gokula the kingdom of Nanda. Other wives of Vâsudeva lie hidden at other
places, for fear of Kansa. The child in the womb of Devaki is my Sesha
named abode. Draw it out and place it in the womb of Rohini. I shall
myself become the son of Devaki as a part of myself. Thou shalt be born
of Yasodâ, the wife of Nanda. Men shall worship thee as the giver of all
desires and boons, with incense, presents and sacrifices. They shall
give thee names and make places for thee on the Earth. Durgâ,
Bhadrakali, Vijayâ, Vaishnavi, Kamadâ, Chandikâ, Krishnâ, Madhavi,
Kanyakâ, Mâyâ, Nârâyani, Ísâni, Sâradâ and Ambikâ — these shall be thy
names. For thy _drawing out (Sankarshana)_ the child shall be called
Sankarshana, He shall be called Râma, from his attractiveness (_ramana_)
and Bala from his uncommon strength (_bala_)."

"So let it be, Om!" said Bhagavati, and she carried out the behests of
the Lord. By inducing the sleep of Yoga, she removed the child from the
womb of Devaki to that of Rohini. People thought Devaki had miscarried.

Then Bhagavân, the Âtmâ of the Universe, the dispeller of all the fears
of his votaries, entered the Manas of Vâsudeva in part. Devaki bore in
her Manas this part of Achyuta, even as the East bears the moon. Her
lustre being confined to the prison-room could not please others, even
like fire confined as heat or like Sarasvati confined in the cheat who
keeps his wisdom to himself. Kansa saw an unusual glow round his sister
such as he had never witnessed before. He exclaimed "Surely Hari is born
in this womb, He who is to take away my life. What shall I do this day?
He comes on a mission and His energy will be all directed towards that
end. Am I then to kill my sister? But the killing of a pregnant female,
my own sister, will ruin my fame, my wealth and my life. By the
performance of such a heinous act, one becomes dead even when alive. Men
curse him for his evil deeds and after death he enters the regions of
absolute darkness."

Kansa by his own persuasion restrained himself from doing any violent
act and he waited with feelings of bitterness for the time when Hari was
to be born. But whether sitting or lying down, eating or walking, he
thought of Vishnu and saw Him everywhere in the Universe.

Brahmâ, Śiva, the Rishis, the Devas adored Vishnu in the womb of Devaki.
"True in thy will, attainable by Truth, the one Truth before, after and
in creation, the root of the Universe, and underlying the Universe as
its only Reality, Thou from whom all true sayings and true perceptions
do proceed, Truth Thyself, we take Thy shelter."

"The primal Jiva tree stands on the field of Prakriti. Joy and sorrow
are its fruits. The three gunas (Satva, Rajas and Tamas) are its three
roots. Dharma (the means of attaining objects), Artha (the objects),
Kâma (desires) and Moksha (freedom from desires), these are its fourfold
juice, the five senses are its sources of perception, the six sheaths
form its chief feature, the seven constituents of the physical body
(_dhâtus_) form its skin, the five Bhûtas, Manas, Buddhi and Ahankâra
are its eight branches, the nine openings are its holes, the ten Prânas,
or physiological functions, are its leaves and Jivâtma and Paramâtmâ are
the two birds sitting on this tree. Thou art the one root of this tree,
it ends in Thee and it is preserved by Thee. Those that are deluded by
Thy Mâyâ see manifold forms in place of Thy real self, but not so the
wise. Thou art consciousness itself. For the good of the world, Thou
dost assume Satva-made forms, which bring joy to all good people and woe
to the evil-minded."

"O Lotus-eyed, thou art the abode of Satva. Thy votaries, by
concentrating their minds on Thee and by resorting to Thy feet which
serve as boats to them, make an easy ford of this Ocean of recurring
births (_Sansâra_)."

"O Self manifest, the Ocean of recurring births, which is formidable and
unfordable to others, gives way before Thy votaries, even at the mere
touch of the boat of Thy feet. So while they cross themselves, even
without the boat, they leave that boat for others, for they have
boundless compassion for other beings." (_i.e._ Thy votaries lay down
the path of Bhakti. _Śridhara_.)

"There are others (followers of the Path of wisdom) who consider
themselves liberated (_Mukta_). But their intellect is impure as they
have no Bhakti in Thee. By ascetic efforts they rise to (near about) the
Supreme abode, but (being overpowered by obstacles) they fall down, by
their disregard of Thy feet."

"But Thy votaries, O Madhava, never slip away from Thy path for they are
bound by their attachment to Thee and Thou dost preserve them. So
fearlessly they tread over the heads of Vinâyaka hosts. (The Vinâyaka
are elementals who are supposed to cause obstacles to all good works)."

"Thy body is pure Satva, for the preservation of the Universe. That body
becomes the means of attaining the fruits of (devotional?) karma. It is
by reason of that body that men are able to worship Thee by means of
Veda, Kriyâ Yoga, Tapas and Samâdhi." (There could be no worship, if no
body had been assumed. Hence there could be no _attainment of the fruits
of Karma, Srîdhara_. This is not intelligible, if ordinary Karma is
meant.)

"If this Satva body of Thine had not existed, direct perception would
not be possible. For through Thy manifestations in (the world of) the
Gunas, thoughts can (at last) reach Thee. The Gunas only relate to Thee
and are themselves manifested by Thee." (By devotion to the pure Satva
body, the mind partakes of its character _i.e._ becomes purely Sâtvic.
Then by the favor of Vishnu, there is direct perception, _i.e._ the form
is not the object of direct perception but the means of direct
perception. But these forms only serve the purpose of devotion. The
Purusha can not be known by these forms. Hence the following Śloka,
_Srîdhara_).

"Thy Name (nâma) and Thy Form (rûpa) are not however to be known by Thy
attributes, births and deeds. For Thou art their Seer and Thy Path is
beyond the reach of Manas and speech. Still in the act of devotion, Thy
votaries realise Thee. By hearing, uttering, causing others to remember
and by meditating on Thy blessed names and forms in devotional
practices, one becomes fixed in mind on Thy Lotus Feet and does not then
stand the chance of another birth."

"By Thy birth, the pressure on the Earth is removed. The marks of Thy
feet already adorn her. Heaven and Earth look favored by Thee."

"What else can be the cause of Thy birth but a mere fancy on Thy part,
for even the birth, life and death of Jivâtmas are but seeming things
caused by Thy Avidyâ."

"The Fish, the Horse, the Tortoise, the Man Lion, the Boar, the Swan, in
these and in Kings, Brâhmanas and wise men, Thou hast incarnated. As
thou dost preserve us and preserve this Trilokî, so dost Thou take away
the load from off the Earth. Our salutations to Thee."

"And mother Devaki, the Great Purusha Himself is in Thy womb in part,
for our good. Fear not then from Kansa, whose death is near at hand. Thy
Son shall be the Saviour of the Yadus."

Having thus adored the Lord, the Devas left the place.

In time, when all nature looked still and there was joy in heaven and
earth, Sri Krishna was born under the influence of the Rohini
constellation. It was all dark at dead of night. He had four hands
bearing Sankha, Chakra, Gadâ, and Padma. The mark of Srivatsa the
Kaustubha gem, the yellow cloth, the crown on the head glittering with
stones, the brilliant ear-rings all marked Him out as the Purusha, and
Vâsudeva and Devaki adored Him as such. Devaki asked him to withdraw his
lordly form with four hands.

Said Bhagavân, addressing Devaki.

"In the Svayambhuva Manvantara, thou wert called Prisni, and this
Vâsudeva, Prajâpati Sutapas. Commanded by Brahmâ to beget progeny, thou
didst make austere Tapas and prayed for a son even like unto my own
self. So I was born of thee as Prisni-Garbha. This was my first
Incarnation. When you two were Aditi and Kasyapa, I was born of you as
Upendra, otherwised called Vâmana (the Dwarf). This was my second
Incarnation. In this my third Incarnation, I am again born unto you.
This form is shown to thee to remind thee of those previous births. Thou
shalt attain my supreme state by meditating on me both as a son and as
Brahmâ."

Then He assumed the form of an ordinary child.

Directed by Him, Vâsudeva took Him to Vraja, the Kingdom of Nanda. The
fetters loosened. The gate opened wide. The gate keepers fell into deep
sleep. Though there was a heavy downpour of rain, the serpent Sesha gave
shelter under his thousand hoods. The river Yamunâ, deep in flood,
fretting and foaming under the storm, made way for Vâsudeva. The Gopas
were all fast asleep in Vraja. Vâsudeva placed his own son by the side
of Yasodâ and took her new born daughter away and placed her near
Devaki. He then put on his fetters and remained confined as before.
Yasodâ knew that she had a child, but the labour pains and sleep made
her quite forget the sex of the child.


COUNSEL WITH THE DAITYAS.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 4.*

The gates closed again, the gate-keepers woke up and, on hearing a
child’s voice, they forthwith informed their King. Kansa had been
anxiously waiting for the birth of this child. So he lost no time in
getting up and appearing before Devaki. He snatched away the child from
her. Devaki remonstrated with her brother praying for the life of her
daughter. Kansa heeded not her words. He raised the child aloft and cast
it down to strike it against a stone. The child slipped away from his
hands, and rose high up. This younger born of Vishnu appeared with eight
hands, bearing eight weapons, — Dhanus (bow) Sûla (spear) Isha (arrow),
Charma (hide protector), Asi (sword), Sankha (conch), Chakra (Disc), and
Gadâ (club). She had divine garlands and garments and was adorned with
ornaments. Siddhas, Châranas, Gandharvas, Apsarasas, Kinnaras and Nâgas
worshiped her with profuse offerings.

"Fool that thou art" she thundered forth, "What if I am killed. He who
shall make an end of thee, thy former enemy, is born somewhere else. Do
not kill other children in vain."

The Goddess Mâyâ then became known by different names in different parts
of the earth.

Kansa was wonder-struck. He removed the fetters of Vâsudeva and Devaki
and begged their pardon, saying, "Like a Râkshasa, I have killed your
sons. I do not know what fate awaits me after death. Not only men tell
lies, but the Devas too."

Kansa then called the Daityas together. These sworn enemies of the Devas
heard their master and then broke forth thus: —

"If it be so, O King of Bhoja, we will kill all children, whether ten
days old or not, whether found in towns, villages, or pasture grounds.
What can the Devas do, cowards in battle? They are always afraid of the
sound of thy bow. Dost thou not remember how, pierced by thy arrows,
they fled for their lives. The Devas are only bold when they are safe,
and they indulge in tall talk outside the battle ground. Vishnu seeks
solitude. Śiva dwells in forests. Indra has but little might. Brahmâ is
an ascetic. But still the Devas are enemies. They are not to be
slighted. Therefore engage us, your followers, in digging out the very
root of the Devas, for like disease and sensuality when neglected at
first, they become difficult of suppression. Vishnu is the root of the
Devas, and he represents the eternal religion (Sanatana Dharma _i.e._
Dharma that follows the eternal course of time, or is based on the
eternal truths of nature, hence eternal religion, a term applied to
Hinduism proper). And the roots of Dharma are the Vedas, the Cows, the
Brâhmanas, Tapas and Yajna. Therefore by all means, O King, we shall
kill the Deva-knowing, Yajna-performing and ascetic Brâhmanas and cows
that supply the sacrificial ghee. Brâhmanas, Cows, Vedas, asceticism,
truth, restraint of the senses, restraint of the mind, faith, kindness,
forbearance and sacrifices these are the parts of Vishnu’s body.
Therefore the best way to kill him is to kill these. Vishnu, who
pervades all hearts, is the guide of all Devas, the enemy of Asuras. He
is the root of all Devas, including Śiva and Brahmâ."

Kansa approved of this counsel. He directed the Kâmarupa bearing (_i.e._
bearing forms at will) Asuras to oppress all good people and they
readily took to their work.


NANDA AND VASUDEVA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 5.*

Nanda performed the birth ceremony of his son with great pomp. His gifts
knew no bounds. Vishnu was worshipped and there was plenty in Vraja. The
time came for payment of the year’s dues to Kansa. So Nanda left Gokula
( _i.e._ Vraja ) in charge of the Gopas and himself went with the dues
to Mathurâ. Vâsudeva learned of Nanda’s arrival and went to meet him.
Nanda stood up to receive him and embraced him heartily. Said Vâsudeva:
—

"Brother, you grew old and gave up all hopes of having a child. Luckily
a son is now born unto you. It is indeed a new birth to you, that you
are blessed with the sight of a lovely son. Friends cannot live
pleasantly together as their manifold Karma, like a strong wind, forces
them asunder. Is it all right with the big forest, with the pasture
lands where you now dwell with friends? Is it all right with my son
(Balarâma) who lives at your place with her mother, and who looks upon
you as his parent?"

Nanda replied: —

"Alas! your sons by Devaki were all killed by Kansa; even the daughter
that was born last has ascended to the heavens. Surely man is governed
by the unseen. Those that know are not deluded." Said Vâsudeva: —

"You have paid your yearly dues and have also met me. Now do not remain
here any longer. For evils befall Gokula."

Nanda left Mathurâ for Gokula.


PUTANÂ


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 6.*

With evil forebodings, Nanda made his way to Vraja, for he thought
Vâsudeva would not tell a lie. And he was right. By Kansa’s orders, the
fierce Putanâ went about killing children in towns, villages and pasture
lands, for verily she was a killer of children. That wanderer of the
skies entered Gokula at will, assuming the form of a woman most
beautiful to look at. So no one stopped her passage. She moved freely
here and there and at last entered the house of Nanda. She looked like a
kind mother and Yasodâ and Rohini were so much struck by her fine
exterior that they did not stop her access to Krishna. Putanâ placed the
child on her lap and gave him milk from her breast full of deadly
poison. The divine child knew who Putanâ was and what she was about. He
held fast her breast with both hands and in anger drank in the very life
juice of the Asura woman. She screamed forth "Let go", "Let go", "No
more". Her eyes expanded. She cast up and down her hands and feet again
and again in profuse perspiration. Her groans made heaven and earth
tremble and space itself resounded on all sides. At last she fell dead
like a great mountain, crushing down trees within an ambit of twelve
miles. Fearlessly the boy played on her body.

The Gopa ladies hurried to the place with Rohini and Yasodâ. They bathed
the boy in cows’ urine and dust from cow’s feet. They pronounced the
twelve names of Vishnu (Kesava and others) over twelve parts of his
body. Then after touching water, they duly uttered the root mantras over
their own body and that of the child. Lastly they invoked Vishnu by
different names to protect the child from danger of all sorts. (The
protective mantra uttered by the mother with passes of the hand over
different parts of the body was supposed to shield the child from
danger. Latterly the custom has been to get the mantra written, with due
ceremonies, by a qualified Brahmân, on the sacred bark (Bhûrja) and then
to tie it round the hand.)

Yasodâ then placed the child on her lap and gave him milk.

By this time Nanda had returned to Vrindabana. He saw the huge body of
the Asura woman and realised the force of Vâsudeva’s warning.

The people of Vraja cut the body into parts and burnt them with fuel.
The smoke was sweet-scented, as the touch of Krishna’s body purifies
even the enemy.


THE UPTURNING OF THE CART.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 7.*

The ceremony observable on the child being able to stand on his legs and
the birth-day ceremony were observed together and there was a great
feast at the house of Nanda. Yasodâ placed the child near a cart,
containing brass vessels with articles of food, and became busily
engaged in receiving her guests. The child wept but she did not hear. He
then raised his feet aloft, weeping for his mother’s milk, and struck
the cart with his feet. The cart was upset, the brass vessels broken and
the wheel and axle upturned. The Gopa ladies could not account for this
wonderful phenomenon. The boys, who sat near the child, told all that
they saw, but people could not easily believe what they said.


TRINAVARTA OR THE WHIRLWIND.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 7.*

The child was once on the lap of Yasodâ when he suddenly became so heavy
that Yasodâ had to throw him on the ground. The Asura Trinâvarta or
Whirlwind made an attack on the child and a violent dust storm overtook
Gokula. The Asura had scarcely raised Krishna to a certain height, when
his weight almost crushed him to death. Krishna did not let go his hold
and the Asura breathed his last and fell dead. Yasodâ kissed her son
again and again, but when he opened His mouth, the mother saw the whole
Universe within it.


THE NAMES "KRISHNA" AND "RAMA."


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 8.*

Garga, the family priest of the Yadus, came to Vraja at the request of
Vâsudeva. Nanda duly received him and said: — "You are versed in the
Vedas and you are the author of an astrological treatise. Please perform
the Naming ceremony of the two boys." Garga replied: "I am known as the
priest of the Yadus and, if I officiate at the ceremony, Kansa might
suspect your son to be the eighth son of Devaki." Nanda promised strict
privacy, and the Rishi performed the ceremony. Addressing Nanda, he then
said: —

"This son of Rohini shall be called Râma or the charming one, as he
shall charm his friends by his virtues. He shall be called Bala, from
possessing excessive strength. From his bringing together the Yadus, he
shall be called Sankarshana.

"This other boy, taking body, yuga after yuga, had three colors, White
(_Sukla_), Red (_Rakta_) and Yellow, (_Pîta_). Now he has got the black
color (_Krishna_). In the past, he was born as the son of Vâsudeva. So
those that know call him Srimat Vâsudeva. He has many names and many
forms, according to his deeds and attributes. Neither I nor other people
know them all. He shall give you the greatest blessings and protect you
against all dangers. In days of yore, good people conquered the
ill-doers by his help. Those that are attached to him are not conquered
by enemies, even as followers of Vishnu are not conquered by the Asuras.
Therefore this son of Nanda is equal to Nârâyana by his virtues, powers
and fame."


PRANKS OF THE BOY.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 8.*

With growing childhood, Krishna became very naughty. Once the Gopa women
made the following complaints. Krishna would untie their calves before
the milking time. He would steal their milk and curds and divide the
remnants, after eating, among the monkeys. If they did not eat, he would
break the pot. If he did not get the things he wanted, he would curse
the inmates and other boys. If the pots were out of reach, he would
raise himself on seats or husking stools and bear those hanging pots
away to get at their contents. He would illumine the dark room by the
glitter of his own body and that of his jewels, to serve his purpose. He
would talk insolently, and spoil the ground. The Gopa women exclaimed: —
"But now how innocent he looks before you." Krishna betrayed fear in his
eyes. Yasodâ would not beat him. So she only smiled.

One day Râma and other boys complained to Yasodâ that Krishna had eaten
earth. The mother remonstrated. "They have lied" exclaimed Krishna "Or
if they have spoken the truth, then examine my mouth." "Open it," said
Yasodâ. But what did she find within that mouth? The Seven Dvipas, the
planets, the stars, the three Gunas and all their transformations, even
Vrindâvana and herself. "Is this dream or delusion or is this all the
power of my own son? If Thou art then the Unknowable, my salutations to
Thee. I take the shelter of Him, by whose Mâyâ I seem to be Yasodâ, this
Nanda my husband, this boy my son, the Gos (cows) Gopas and Gopis to be
mine." She had the true knowledge, but it was soon eclipsed by the Mâyâ
of Vishnu and Yasodâ again knew Krishna to be her own son.

Râjâ Parikshit asked: —

"What did Nanda do that Krishna would be his foster son? And what did
Yasodâ do, that Krishna should suck her breast? Even his own parents did
not witness the deeds of the child of which poets have sung so much."

Suka replied: —

"Drōna, the chief of the Vasus, with his wife Dhârâ shewed great
obedience to Brahmâ. ’When born on Earth may we have the highest
devotion for Him.’" Such was their prayer to Brahmâ and it was granted.
Drōna was born as Nanda and Dhârâ as Yasodâ.


THE TYING.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 9.*

One day Yasodâ was churning curdled milk and singing the deeds of her
son. Krishna came up and, desirous of sucking milk, held the churning
rod. Yasodâ placed him on her lap and gave him milk to suck. But the
milk that was boiling on the oven overflowed the pot and she hurriedly
left her son. In anger Krishna bit his lips, broke the milk pot with a
stone, took the fresh butter to a retired corner and there partook of
it. Yasodâ came back after a while and found the pot broken. Her son had
left the place and she could easily see that it was all his doing. She
found Krishna seated on the husk stand, freely dividing the contents of
the hanging pots among the monkeys, and she quietly approached him with
a stick. Krishna hurriedly got down and ran away as if in fear. Yasodâ
ran after him and caught him at last. Finding him fear-stricken, she
threw down the stick and tried to fasten him to the husking stand. The
rope fell short by the breadth of two fingers (say two inches). She
added another rope. The gap remained the same. She added rope after
rope, as many as she had of her own and of her neighbours, but could not
bridge over the distance. She stood baffled at last, amazed and ashamed.
Finding that his mother was perspiring in the effort and that her hair
had become dishevelled, Krishna allowed himself to be fastened to the
stand.


THE ARJUNA TREES.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 10.*

The Yaksha King Kuvera had two sons — Nalakûvara and Manigriva. They
became maddened with power and intoxicated with drink. Nârada passed by
them while they were playing with Gandharva girls stark naked in a river
bath and they heeded him not. Nârada thought how best he could reclaim
them. "Poverty is the only remedy for those that lose their heads in
wealth. These sons of the Lōkapâla Kuvera are deep in ignorance,
insolence and intoxication. Let them become trees. But they shall not
lose memory by my favor. After one hundred Deva years, the touch of Sri
Krishna shall save them." These sons of Kuvera in consequence became a
pair of Arjuna trees in Vrindâvana.

While Krishna was fastened to the husking stand, the pair of Arjuna
trees drew his attention. He was bent on making good the words of
Nârada. So he approached the trees, drawing the husking stand behind him
by force and, placing himself between them, uprooted the trees. They
fell down with a crash and lo! two fiery spirits came out, illumining
space by the splendour of their bodies. They prayed to Krishna and then
rose upwards.

The Gopa women had been engaged all this time in their household duties
and the crash attracted the attention of all the Gopas and Gopis. The
boys told what they had seen. But some were loath to believe that all
this could be done by the boy Krishna.


THE FRUIT SELLER.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 11.*

One day Krishna heard a woman crying out "Come ye buy fruits." He took
some paddy and hastened to her side. The woman filled both his hands
with fruits and lo! her basket became full of gems and precious stones.


VRINDAVANA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 11.*

Seeing that calamities befell Brihat Vâna (Vraja or Gokul) so often, the
elders put their heads together to devise the best course to adopt. Upa
Nanda, one of the oldest and wisest of them, said: —

"We that wish well for Gokula must hence get away. Evils befall that
bode no good for the children. This boy was with difficulty saved from
that child-killing Râkshasa woman. It is only by the favor of Vishnu
that the cart did not fall on him. When he was taken high up by the
whirlwind Asura, and when he fell down on the rock, it was the Deva
Kings that saved him. If this boy and others did not perish when they
were between the two trees, it was because Vishnu preserved them. Ere
this Vraja is visited by fresh calamity, let us go elsewhere with the
boys and all attendants.

"There is a forest called Vrindâvana with fresh verdure for cattle,
where Gopas, Gopis and Gos will all enjoy themselves. The hills, grass
and creepers are all holy there. This very day let us go to that place.
Make ready the carriages. Let the cows precede us, if it pleases you
all."

With one heart, the Gopas exclaimed: — "Well said! Well said!" They
prepared their carriages and placed on them the aged, the young, the
females and all household articles. They drove the cows in advance. They
blew their horns and beat their drums. Accompanied by the priests, the
Gopas went on their way. The Gopa girls, seated on chariots sang the
deeds of Krishna and Yasodâ, and Rohinl attentively listened to them.

At last they entered Vrindâvana, which gives pleasure at all times, with
the carriages; they made a semi-circular abode for the cattle.

Râma and Krishna saw Vrindâvana, the hill Govardhana and the banks of
the Yamunâ and then became very much pleased. In time they became
keepers of calves (Vatsa). They tended the calves in the company of Gopa
boys on pasture lands near at hand. They played with other boys as
ordinary children.


VATSA OR THE CALF.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 11.*

One day Râma, Krishna and other boys were looking after their calves
when an Asura, with the intention of killing them, assumed the form of a
calf (Vatsa) and got mixed among the herd. Krishna pointed this out to
Balarâma and silently moved behind the Asura. He held it aloft by the
hind feet and tail and gave it such a whirl that its life became
extinct. The boys, cried out "Well done! Well done!" and the Devas
rained flowers on Krishna.


BAKA OR THE CRANE.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 11.*

One day the Gopa boys went over to a tank to quench their thirst. They
saw a huge monster in the form of a Baka (crane). It rushed forth and
swallowed Krishna. Krishna caused a burning in its throat and the Asura
threw him out. It made a second attack and Krishna held the two beaks
and parted them asunder as if they were blades of grass, And the Asura
died.


AGHA OR THE SERPENT.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 12.*

One day Krishna was playing with the boys in the forest. Agha, the
youngest born of Putanâ and Baka, the Asura whom even the Devas,
rendered immortal by _Amrita_, dreaded, burning with a spirit of revenge
at the death of his brother and sister, thought of killing Krishna and
all his attendants. He stretched himself forth as a huge serpent,
spreading over one yojana, the extremities of his open mouth touching
the clouds and the earth. The Gopa boys took the Asura to be the goddess
of Vrindâvana. "Or if it really be a serpent opening its mouth to kill
us, it will instantly be killed like the Asura Vaka." So with their eyes
fixed on Krishna they clapped their hands and with a smile entered the
mouth of the serpent, even before Krishna had time to warn them. The
Asura still waited with its mouth open for Krishna. Krishna thought how
he could kill the serpent and at the same time save his companions.

On reflection, he himself entered the mouth of the serpent and stretched
himself and his comrades. The Asura lost breath and breathed his last. A
shining spirit emerged from the Asura body and entered the body of
Krishna. Krishna gave fresh life to his comrades by his Amrita bearing
looks.

Krishna killed Agha in his fifth year, but the Gopa boys who witnessed
the act said, when Krishna entered his sixth year, that the act was done
that very day.

"How could that be?" enquired Parikshit.

Suka explained this with reference to the following story.


BRAHMA AND KRISHNA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 13-14.*

When the Asura Agha was killed, Krishna went with his companions to the
river bank and said: —

"We are hungry, the hour is late. Let us have our meals here. Let the
calves drink water and graze on near lands." The Gopa boys spread out
their stores and improvised plates for eating. While they were engaged
in eating, the calves strayed away. The boys became anxious and were
about to get up, when Krishna stopped them, saying he would find the
calves. He left his companions and went on the search. Brahmâ, who had
been witnessing from the high heavens all the deeds of Krishna, even the
killing of Agha, with wonder, wanted to have still one more
manifestation of his divine powers. Finding opportunity, he removed the
calves as well as the Gopa boys to some secure place and disappeared.
Krishna could not find the calves and on returning he could not find his
companions. He then knew it was all the act of Brahmâ. To please Brahmâ,
as well as to please the mothers of the Gopa boys, He Himself became so
many calves and so many Gopa boys of their very size and form to the
minutest detail. The mothers thought they had got their boys and they
became even more attached to them. The cows thought they had got their
calves and their fondness knew no bounds.

Krishna went on playing his manifold parts for one year. Five or six
days remaining till the completion of the year, Balarâma saw one day
that the cows were grazing on the summits of Govardhana, while the
calves were grazing at some distance near Vraja. The cows impelled by a
fit of attachment breathlessly ran towards the calves even those that
had quite lately brought forth younger calves and caressed them
profusely. The elder Gopas who were in charge could not restrain them
with all their efforts. They felt shame and vexation. But when they
themselves approached the calves and their own sons, their anger melted
away in deep affection.

Balarâma thought for a moment. "Never was such love witnessed by me
before — this attachment for calves that had been weaned long ago. The
people of Vraja have even increasing affection for their own sons even
as they had of yore for Krishna. These calves no longer appear to be the
incarnations of Rishis, their keepers the Gopa boys do not appear any
longer to be the incarnations of the Devas. They look all like thee O
Krishna! Wherein lies the mystery?" Krishna explained to Râma what had
happened. Brahmâ appeared after a Truti (fraction of a moment) of his
own measure. He saw the boys, he saw the calves. He could not make any
distinction between those he placed under his own Mâyâ and those brought
into existence by the Mâyâ of Krishna. The foggy darkness is overpowered
by the darkness of the night. The light of the glowworm vanishes before
the light of the day. To delude Krishna, Brahmâ became deluded himself.
In another moment Brahmâ saw the calves and the boys each and all
bearing four hands, the divine weapons and all the divine powers. They
shone in resplendent glory. Brahmâ became overpowered, stupefied.
Recovering himself, he found once more Sri Krishna alone, searching for
the calves and boys in Vrindâvana. He fell at the feet of Krishna, again
and again, his four heads with their crowns rolling on the ground and
with tears in his eyes, he glorified Krishna.

(The glorification is a long one. Only one sloka is given here.)

"It is only he who lives on, anxiously looking out for Thy favor,
bearing through the workings of his own Karma as a matter of course and
making obeisance to Thee in heart, words and body, that can get the
heritage of Mukti (As one must be living, so that a particular heritage
may vest in him, so the Bhakta must keep up his individuality to get the
heritage of Mukti)."

Parikshit asked. "How could the people of Vraja have greater love for
Krishna than for their own sons?"

Suka replied: —

"Self, O King, is the most beloved of all things not so beloved are
one’s sons or wealth. Therefore, O king, people love themselves better
than they do their sons, their riches or their homes. Those that deem
their body to be their own Âtmâ or self, love that body more than
anything else.

"But the body only becomes dear as it pertains to self. It can not be as
dear as self. For when the body wears away, the desire to live on is
still strong.

"Therefore Âtmâ or self is most dear to all beings and the whole of this
Universe is for that self.

"But know thou this Krishna to be the Self of all selves, the Âtmâ of
all Âtmâs. For the good of the Universe, he also looks by Mâyâ as one
possessed of a body. Those that know Krishna know that all movable and
immovable beings are but His forms and that nothing else exists.

"Of all things, the ultimate reality is ’Existence’. Krishna is the
reality of Existence itself. So there is nothing besides Krishna."

Here ends the Kumâra Lilâ of Krishna. The Pouganda Lilâ is now to
commence. (Kumâra is a boy below five, Pouganda is boyhood from the 5th
to the 16th year).

*END OF KUMARA LILÂ*


DHENUKA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 15.*

On attaining the Pouganda age, Râma and Krishna were placed in charge of
cows. Vrindâvana looked gay and Krishna amused himself with his
companions in the forests. One day Sridâman, Subala, Stoka and other
companions spoke to Râma and Krishna "Not far off is a forest of palm
trees (Tâla). Tâla fruits fall in abundance there, but one Asura
Dhenuka, with many of his kin obstruct all access to them. The Asura has
the form of an Ass. We smell the fragrance of the fruits even from here.
They are very tempting indeed." Râma boldly entered that forest and gave
a shake to the Tâla trees, and Tâlas fell in abundance. Roused by the
noise, the Ass rushed forth and kicked Râma with its hind feet. The
Asura brayed and made a second rush, when Râma held it by the hind feet
and whirling it round in the skies threw It dead on the trees. The kith
and kin of the Asura then came rushing forth, but they were one and all
killed by Râma and Krishna. When they returned to Vrindâvana the Gopis
who had been feeling the separation went out to receive them and, being
pleased to see them, cast bashful glances at them.


THE KÂLIYA SERPENT AND THE FIRE.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 16-17.*

The Nâgas or serpents made offerings to Garuda on appointed days.
Kâliya, proud of his own valour, did not make any offering himself and
snatched away the offerings made by others. Garuda attacked him and,
being overpowered in the fight, Kâliya sought shelter in a deep pool of
water in the Yamunâ.

Of yore, Garuda had caught a fish in that pool of water and was about to
eat it, when Rishi Soubhari asked him not to eat, but Garuda heeded not
his words. The wailings of the fish moved the tender heart of the Rishi
and for their future good he cursed Garuda with death, if he entered the
pool any more.

Kâliya knew about this and he therefore sought protection in that pool
of water with his family. The water became deadly poison and even the
adjoining air breathed poisonous death.

One day Krishna went with all his companions, other than Râma, to the
Yamunâ side. The Gopa boys and the cows being very thirsty drank the
water of that pool and met with instant death. Krishna cast his amrita
pouring looks at them and they got up, being restored to life. They
looked at each other, very much surprised.

To purge the river, Krishna got upon a Kadamba tree and jumped into the
pool of water. Kâliya fiercely attacked him and stung him to the quick.
The serpent then twined round Krishna. The cows wept, the Gopa boys
became senseless. There were evil portents in Vrindâvana. Nanda and
other Gopas came out in search of Krishna. They saw him in the grasp of
the powerful serpent and made loud wailings. A moment after, seeing how
they all grieved for him, Krishna eluded the grasp of the serpent and
moved dancing round him. The serpent, somewhat fatigued, also kept
moving with its overspread hoods, fixing its looks on Krishna. Krishna
then got upon the hoods one thousand in number, one hundred being the
chief, and danced on them putting down the hood that tried to raise
itself. It was a lovely sight and the Devas sang in joy and rained
flowers. The serpent king was overpowered. He vomited blood. His body
was broken. In his heart of hearts, he sought the protection of
Nârâyana. The serpent girls also glorified Krishna and prayed for their
husband’s life.

Krishna said: — "Go hence O serpent, dwell in the sea. Men and cows
shall use the water of the river. You left Râmanaka Dvipa for fear of
Garuda. But now as your heads bear the marks of my feet, Garuda shall
not touch you." Kâliya left the Yamunâ with his wives and the water of
that river has been pure ever since.

The people of Vrindâvana embraced Krishna and shed tears of joy. They
were all so much put out that they stopped that night on the river bank.
At midnight, a fire broke out from a castor plantation and it surrounded
the people on all sides. The Gopas and Gopis cried out: "O Krishna, O
Râma, we are yours. Krishna! Save us from this fire. We are not afraid
of our lives, but it will pain us to part from Thy feet."

Krishna ate up the whole fire.


PRALAMBA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 18.*

It was summer. But Vrindâvana was cool with its shade, its water-spouts
and its river.

Râma and Krishna were tending the cattle with their companions. An Asura
named Pralamba disguised himself as a Gopa boy and mixed with the other
boys. The All-knowing Krishna found him but he feigned friendship, with
the object of killing the Asura. Krishna proposed two parties for play.
The defeated party had to carry the members of the victorious party on
their backs. Krishna became the leader of one party and Râma that of the
other. The party of Krishna were routed near the Bhândiraka forest.
Krishna carried Srîdâmana on his back, Bhadrasena carried Vrishabha and
Pralamba carried Balarâma. Pralamba ran with Balarâma beyond the mark.
Balarâma suspected something evil. Then composing himself, he hit a blow
on the head of the Asura and Pralamba lay down dead.


THE FOREST CONFLAGRATION.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 19.*

The cattle strayed away from the Bhândarika forest, when suddenly there
was a fire. They ran bellowing into a forest of rushes. The Gopa boys
went in search of them and found them from a distance. Krishna called
them out and they responded to the call. At the time a general
conflagration in the forest overtook the cows and the Gopa boys and they
helplessly turned to Krishna. Krishna asked the boys to close their
eyes. They did so, but when they looked again they found themselves once
more in the Bhândarika forest. Seeing this Yoga power in Sri Krishna,
they knew him to be a God. The older Gopas and Gopis, hearing all the
wonderful deeds of Râma and Krishna, knew them to be Devas.


THE RAINY SEASON.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 20.*

The _rainy season_ followed summer. There was joy and plenty. (For a
graphic and highly poetical description of the rainy season please refer
to the original. The details of the description are somewhat important
from the esoteric standpoint and the Season itself is suggestive as to a
new era in spiritual development.)


THE AUTUMN.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 20.*

The AUTUMN came and it was all _calm, clear_ and _transparent_.

The clouds disappeared. The water became pure. The wind became gentle.
With the advent of lotus-bearing Autumn, the waters regained their
tranquillity, even as distracted Yogins the calm of their minds by fresh
resort to Yoga. The Autumn removed the clouds from the skies,
promiscuous living from the animals, mud from the soil and dirt from the
water — even as Bhakti in Krishna does away with the impurities
attaching to the four Âsramas. The clouds gave up rainy moisture and
looked beautifully white, even like Munis who give up all desires. The
hills sometimes gave pure water from their sides and sometimes not, as
wise men pour forth the nectar of their wisdom sometimes and not often.
The animals that frequent shallow water did not know that the water was
subsiding, as deluded men living in family circles do not realise the
daily expiry of their lives. And they suffered like sensuous men from
the rays of the Autumn sun. Day by day the soil gave up its muddiness as
the wise give up their Mine-ness and the creepers got over their
immaturity as the wise get over their I-ness. The Sea became calm as a
Muni no longer distracted by Vedic performances. The farmers stored up
waters in the paddy fields by making strong embankments, even as Yogins
store up Prana by withdrawing it from the Indriyas. The moon gave relief
from the inflictions of sun-burning, even as wisdom relieves the misery
caused by connection with the body, and as the sight of Sri Krishna
removes all the sorrows of the Gopis. The clear skies gave a brilliant
view of the stars, as the mind purified by Satva makes manifest the
conclusions of the Mimânsa Darsanas. The full moon shone above with all
the stars as Sri Krishna shone on earth with the circle of Yadus.


SRI KRISHNA AND THE GOPIS.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 21.*

Krishna roamed in the fresh forest with the cattle and his companions.
He played upon the flute and the Gopis forgot themselves in hearing his
music. They saw before their mind’s eye the dancing Krishna filling the
holes of the flute with nectar flowing from his lips, the peacock
feather on his head, Karnikâra flower on his ears, his cloth yellow like
gold and the Vaijayanti garland round his neck.

Some exclaimed: — "What better could the eyes feed upon than the lovely
faces of Râma and Krishna, with the flutes touching their lips and their
smiling glances."

Some said: — "How beautiful they look with garlands of mango twigs,
peacock feather and blue lotus. In the assembly of Gopas, they look like
heroes on the theatrical stage."

Others said: — "What did that bamboo piece of a flute do that it should
drink so hard the nectar flowing from Krishna’s lips, the special
possession of the Gopis, that nothing should remain but the taste
thereof. The water that nourished it is thrilling with joy and the plant
of which it is a shoot is shedding joysome tears."

Some said: — "Look, O companions! how lovely does Vrindâvana look from
the touch of Sri Krishna’s lotus feet! Look there, the peacock madly
dances to the tune of the flute and other animals stand dumb on the
summit of the hills and witness the scene. There is no spot on the earth
like Vrindâvana."

Others said: — "How blessed are these female deer that In the company of
their husbands hear the music of the flute and make an offering of their
loving looks!"

Other Gopis said: — "So tempting is this form of Krishna and so alluring
is the music of his flute that even Deva girls become lost to
themselves. Look, how the cows drink that music with ears erect. And
even the calves stand with their mothers’ milk in their mouths, eagerly
listening to that sound. Those birds are no worse than Rishis, for they
sit high on trees whence they can have a full view of Krishna and with
eyes closed they silently hear the sweet music of the flute. Even the
rivers shew the love transformation of their hearts by their whirls and
they stop their course to embrace the feet of Krishna with their raised
billows serving as hands and offering lotus flowers at those feet. The
clouds give shadow and they shed dewy flowers on Krishna. Most fortunate
is Govardhana, for Krishna drives cattle on its sides and it makes its
offerings of edibles and drink."

The Gopis became full of Krishna (Tanmaya).


THE STEALING OF CLOTHES.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 22.*

In the first month of the DEWY SEASON (Agrahâyana), the girls of
Vrindâvana worshipped Kâtyâyani (a name of the Goddess Durga, wife of
Śiva). The observances lasted for a month. The girls prayed to Kâtyâyani
that they might get Krishna for their husband. They bathed early in the
morning every day in the river Yamunâ. One day they left their clothes
on the bank and went down into the river to bathe. Krishna took away
their clothes. He asked the girls to come up and take them. They did so
and the clothes were returned. Krishna then addressing the Gopis said:

"O virtuous girls, I know your resolve. It is to worship me. I also
approve of it and you must succeed. The desires of those that are
absorbed in me do not bear Kârmic fruits. For fried or burnt paddy does
not germinate. Go back to Vraja. Your object in worshipping Kâtyâyani is
gained. These nights (_i.e._ on nights to come. _Sridhâra_) you shall
enjoy with me."


KRISHNA AND VEDIC YAJNA (SUMMER AGAIN.)


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 23.*

Krishna went over to a distant forest driving cattle with his
companions. The summer sun was fierce and the trees gave shade. "Look, O
companions" said Krishna, "how noble minded these trees are. They live
for others. Themselves they suffer from the winds, the rains, from the
sun and frost but they protect us from these. They do not send away one
disappointed. They offer their leaves, their flowers, their fruits,
their shade, their roots, their bark, their fragrance, their juice,
their ashes, their fuel, their buds, and what not. Of all living beings,
such only justify their birth as do good to others by their lives, their
wealth, their wisdom and their words." (This is introductory as an
attack upon the selfish performances of Vedic Brâhmanas. _Sridhâra_.)

The boys became hungry and they complained to Râma and Krishna.

Krishna said: — "The Brâhmanas are performing Ângirasa Yajna. Take our
names and ask them for food."

The boys did as they were told but the Brâhmanas heeded them not. Narrow
were their desires which did not extend beyond Svarga. But for these,
they went through elaborate Karma. Ignorant as they were, they thought
themselves to be wise. Yajna was all in all to them but they disregarded
the Lord of Yajnas, the direct manifestation of Parama Purusha. They
looked upon Krishna as an ordinary man and as Brâhmanas they deemed
themselves to be superior to Him. They said neither yea nor nay. So the
boys returned unsuccessful to Krishna and Râma. Krishna smiled and asked
them to go to the wives of the Brâhmanas. This they did. The Brâhmana
women had heard of Krishna and they were eager to see him.
Notwithstanding the protests of their husbands, brothers, sons and
friends, they hastened to Krishna with dishes full of eatables of all
sorts. The ears had heard and the eyes now saw. And it did not take the
Brâhmana women long to embrace Krishna and forget their grievances.

Knowing that the women had given up all desires for the sake of seeing
Âtmâ, Krishna said smilingly: — "Welcome O you noble-minded ones, take
your seats. What can we do for you? It is meet that you have come to see
us. I am Âtmâ and therefore the most beloved. Those that care for their
Âtmâ or self bear unconditional and unremitting Bhakti towards me. The
Prânas, Buddhi, Manas, the relatives, the body, wife, children and
riches all become dear for the sake of self or Âtmâ. What can be
therefore dearer, than Âtmâ? Now that you have seen me, go back to your
husbands. They have to perform the sacrifices with your help."

The Brâhmana women replied: — "Lord, thou dost not deserve to speak so
cruelly to us. Make good thy words (’My Bhakta does not meet with
destruction’ or ’He does not again return’ _Śridhâra_.) We have taken
the shelter of thy feet, throwing over-board all friends, that we may
bear on our heads the Tulasi thrown from Thy feet. Our husbands,
parents, sons, brothers, and friends will not take us back. Who else
can? Grant us, O conqueror of all enemies, that we may have no other
resort but Thee. ( We may not have such resorts as Svarga &c. for which
our husbands are striving. We want to serve Thee. _Śridhara_)."

Sri Krishna replied: — "Your husbands will not bear any grudge against
you. By my command all people, even the Devas (in whose honor the
sacrifices are made) shall approve of your conduct. Direct contact is
not necessary for love. Think of me with all your heart and you shall
speedily obtain me."

The Brâhmana women returned to their husbands and they were received
well. The Brâhmanas repented. But for fear of Kansa, they could not go
to Vrindâvana. They worshipped Krishna at home.


INDRA AND THE RAISING OF GO-VARDHANA. THE INSTALLATION.


(THE RAINY SEASON AGAIN.)

*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 24-27.*

There were great preparations for Yajna in honor of Indra. "What is this
all about, father?" asked Krishna of Nanda. "What is the outcome of this
sacrifice? In whose honor is it to be performed and how?"

Nanda replied — "Child, Indra is the Cloud-God. He will give us rains.
The rains give life to all beings. Therefore people worship Indra by
these sacrificial offerings. The enjoyment of that only which remains
after sacrifice conduces to Dharma, Artha and Kâma."

Krishna replied: — "The birth and death of men are shaped by their own
Karma. Happiness, misery, fear, well-being, these are all the effects of
Karma. If there be any god who dispenses the fruits of Karma, he must
also follow that Karma and not act independently of it. When people are
governed by their own Karma, where does Indra come in? He can not undo
what follows from Svabhâva (Svabhâva is Kârmic tendency). Karma is the
Lord and Karma is to be worshipped. It is Rajas that works the clouds.
What can Indra do? We do not live in towns or villages but we live in
the forest. Therefore let us make Yajna offerings to our cows, our
Brâhmanas and our hills. The preparations that you have already made
will serve the purpose." Nanda and other Gopas approved of what Krishna
said. They made offerings to the cows, the Brâhmanas and the Hill. They
went round the Hill to shew respect. Krishna said "I am the Hill" and
assumed some form which created faith in the Gopas. He then partook
himself of the offerings to the Hill.

Indra became highly incensed. He sent forth his clouds and winds and
there were rains and thunder-storms and hail-stones at Vrindâvana.

Krishna carelessly lifted up the Govardhana hill with one hand and the
people of Vrindâvana with their cows took shelter in the cave.

For seven days it rained incessantly and for seven days Krishna held the
hill aloft without moving an inch.

Baffled and surprised, Indra withdrew his clouds and winds. The people
of Vrindâvana went to their own places and Krishna replaced the hill.

The Gopas struck with wonder approached Nanda. They related all the
previous deeds of Krishna and then referring to the last incident said:
— "Look here this boy only _seven years_ old and there the holding aloft
of this big hill. We wonder whether your son may not be the Âtmâ of all
beings." Nanda related to them what he had heard from Garga and they all
ceased to wonder. Indra and Surabhi came down from the heavens. Indra
fell at the feet of Krishna and glorified Him.

Krishna said to him: — "To favour you, Indra, I caused a break in your
Yajna, that, maddened as you were by your position and powers, you might
not forget me. It is only when one is blinded by powers, that one does
not see me sceptre in hand. I take away the powers of him whom I want to
favor. Therefore go now, Indra. You are to keep to your own station and
do your duties as enjoined by me void of all pride." Surabhi, the divine
mother of cows, thanked Krishna for the services done to her children.

She said: — "O Krishna, O thou great Yogin whose form is this Universe
and who art the root of this Universe, we have found our Lord in Thee.
Thou art our Supreme Deva O Lord of the Universe, thou shalt be our
Indra, for the good of cows, Brâhmanas and Devas, and of all that are
good. By the command of Brahmâ, we shall install thee as our Indra."

So saying, Surabhi poured her milk over Krishna’s head and Indra and
other Devas, by the command of the Deva mothers, bathed Him with the
waters of the Âkâsa Gangâ. They all called him "GOVINDA." (He who
attains (_Vinda_) as Indra the _Cows_ or _Svarga_ (Go) Śridhara.) The
Rishis, Gandharvas, Vidyâdharas, Siddhas and Châranas all joined the
Inauguration ceremony. The Deva girls danced and sang. The three Lokas
became full of joy. The cows wet the earth with their milk. The rivers
bore streams of milk and other drinks. The trees poured honey. The
cereals bore grains without culture. The hills brought forth their
precious stones. Even the wild animals became mild.


KRISHNA AND VARUNA, KRISHNA AND THE GOPAS.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 28.*

After observing the fast of the 11th Day of the Moon, Nanda went to
bathe in the river Yamunâ, on the twelfth day of the Moon. It was still
dark. So the Asuras had possession of the hour. An Asura servant of
Varuna carried Nanda to his master. The Gopas called out to Râma and
Krishna. Krishna entered the water and went to Varuna. The Lokapala
worshipped him and gave back Nanda, excusing himself for the ignorance
of his servant. Nanda on returning apprised the Gopas of what he had
seen. Could Krishna be any other than Íshvara? The Gopas wished ardently
that He might take them over to His supreme abode. The all-knowing
Krishna knew this. He took the Gopas to that portion of the Yamunâ
called Bramha Hrada. Plunged in the waters, they saw Vaikuntha, the
supreme abode of Krishna, far away from the limits of Prakriti.


THE FIVE CHAPTERS ON RÂSA


(AUTUMN AGAIN.)

*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 29-33.*

Suka said: —

"Seeing those autumnal nights, gay with Mallika flowers, Bhagavân wished
to enjoy Himself by resort to Yogamâyâ."

(It looks odd that there should be a show of conquering the God of love
by enjoyment of others’ wives. But it is really not so. For you have "By
resort to Yoga Mâyâ." "Enjoyed though self enjoyer," "The subduer of the
God of Love Himself," "With enjoyment all self contained," and such like
passages, which show absolute self dependence. Therefore this show of
Râsa play is only meant to recite the conquest of Kâma Deva. This is the
real truth. Moreover through this love topic, the five chapters on Râsa
are calculated to bring about a complete disinclination to worldly
matters. _Śridhara_).

("Those nights" _Go back to Vraja. These nights you shall enjoy with me_
— the nights promised by these words. _Śridhara_.’)

At that time the moon had appeared on the horizon. As the lover reunited
after long separation besmears the face of his beloved with orange
coloured saffron, so he besmeared the face of the east with the most
delightful orange rays which brushed away the sorrows of men
(_charshani_). Krishna looked at the Moon, the lover of the Kumud
flower, with unbroken disc, glowing like the face of Lakshmî, orange red
like fresh saffron, and he looked at the forest illumined with the
tender rays of the Moon and he indulged in song so sweet that it
ravished the hearts of good-looking women.

Listening to that passion-exciting song, the women of Vraja, with minds
absorbed in Krishna rushed forth to where their lover was without taking
notice of each other, their ear-rings moving violently about.

Some left their houses while milking the cow. Some did not wait to see
the boiling of the milk. Some did not take down boiled wheat from the
oven. Some had been giving food to others, some had been giving milk to
their own children. Some had been serving their husbands and some had
been taking their own food. But they all left their work half finished.
They gave up their household duties and, with clothes and ornaments all
in disorder, they hurriedly went to Krishna, (Hearing the voice
indicative of Sri Krishna, the Gopis became strongly inclined to Him,
and they showed by their acts that then and there they had complete
disinclination for works that had the three Vargas, Dharma, Artha and
Kâma for their object. They left their half finished work and went over
to Krishna straight. _Śridhara_.)

Their husbands could not keep them back nor their fathers, brothers and
friends. Their hearts had been completely charmed by Govinda. They did
not turn back. (Obstacles cannot overcome those whose hearts are
attracted by Krishna. _Śridhara_.)

Some Gopis that had been inside their houses could not make their way
out. Their thoughts had been already devoted to Krishna, and now with
closed eyes, they held Him fast in their minds.

With sins all removed by the acute pain of unbearable separation from
the dearest one, the Kârmic effects of good works taken away by the
absolute pleasure caused by the embraces of Krishna in meditation, with
their bonds completely severed at that very moment, those Gopis gave up
their bodies composed of the Gunas, even though they united with Krishna
as their paramour. (How could they give up their bodies composed of
Gunas while they did not know Krishna as Parama Âtmâ, but knew him only
as their paramour, a relation caused by the Gunas? "Even though they
&c." A thing is not dependent for its properties upon what another
thinks of it. Drink nectar without knowing it is so. The effects are
there. There is another difficulty. The Gopis had their Prârabdha Karma,
or Karma that brought about the present birth and its surroundings, and
Prârabdha is exhausted only after being worked out. So with the bonds of
Prârabdha, how could they give up their body? "With their bonds
completely severed at that very time." But Prârabdha cannot be exhausted
without suffering and enjoyment. Where were the suffering and enjoyment
in this case? "With sins all removed &c." The greatest suffering caused
by separation removed all demerits and the greatest enjoyment caused by
the embraces of Krishna removed the bonds of merits. Therefore when
Parama Âtmâ was attained by intense meditation, the suffering and
enjoyment of the time completely eradicated Karma and the Gopis gave up
their bodies composed of the Gunas. _Śridhara_.)

Asked Râjâ Parikshit: —

"O Muni, they knew Krishna as only one enjoyable and not as Brahmâ. The
Gunas were mixed up in their understanding of Krishna. How could there
then be a cessation of the flow of the Gunas?"

(Husbands, sons and others, even they themselves were Brahmâ in essence.
But a devotion to them could not cause Moksha as they were not known as
Brahmâ. How could union with Krishna cause Moksha, when he was not known
as Brahmâ? Therefore this doubt. _Śridhara_.)

Suka replied: —

"O King, I have said before how Sisupâla attained Siddhi even by bearing
enmity to Hrishikesha (controller of the senses, Krishna.) What of those
to whom Krishna is dear? (The purport is that Brahmâ-hood is eclipsed in
the Jiva. But Krishna is controller of the senses. Brahmâ-hood is
manifest in him. He does not require to be known. _Śridhara_). Bhagavân
manifests himself for the Moksha of men though in reality, He is without
end, without measure, void of all Gunas and their controller." (Krishna
being a manifestation of Bhagavân, there is no comparison between Him
and other embodied men. _Śridhara_.)

"Bear any feeling _constantly_ towards Hari, whether it be a feeling of
love, anger, fear, affection, kinship or devotion and you become full of
Him. Do not wonder at this. For Krishna is the Lord of all Lords of
Yoga. All (even the lowest life forms) attain Mukti from him. When the
women of Vraja drew near, Krishna addressed them thus: —

"’Welcome, ye great ones! What good can I do for you? Is it all safe in
Vraja? Tell me the object of your coming here. The night is fearful and
dangerous animals are treading round. Go back to Vraja. This is not a
place for women. You have got your mothers, fathers, sons, brothers, and
husbands. They are seeking you. Do not cause pain to your friends. What
more, you have now seen this forest adorned with flowers and illumined
by the tender rays of the full moon, where the trees and their tender
branches, gently moved by the breeze from the Yamunâ, stand in all their
beauty. Now go back, O virtuous girls, speedily to your homes and look
after your husbands. The calves and your children are weeping. Go and
let them have their drink. Or if you have come here, forced by your love
for me, it is only meet and proper, for all people have their love for
me. Devotion to husband is the one great religion for women. They are to
seek the well being of their friends and to bring up their children. The
husband may be wicked, old, diseased or poor. But those who wish for
higher Lokas should not give up their husbands. The connection with one
not the husband is disreputable and unbecoming. You may bear love to me
in other ways than by such a near approach. Therefore go back to your
houses.’"

"The Gopis were struck dumb for a time. They became overcome with
sorrow. They had given up every thing for the sake of Krishna and they
could ill bear to hear these unkind words. At last they broke forth: —
’O Lord, it is not for Thee to utter these unkind words. We have given
up all objects and sought Thy feet. O Thou difficult to be reached, do
not forsake us but please think of us, even as the First Purusha thinks
of those that seek Moksha. Thou speakest, O love, of our duties to
husbands, sons, and friends as if thou wert a religious teacher, but
thou art thyself the goal of those religious injunctions. So let them
rest in thee. Thou art the greatest friend of all beings, for thou art
verily their own self. What do they care for husbands or sons, sources
of misery as they are, who are attached to thee, the constant source of
happiness?

"’Therefore do thou show favor to us and permit us to serve Thee.’ Moved
by their piteous appeal, Krishna gave his company to the Gopis. Proud of
that company, the Gopis deemed themselves superior to all other women on
the earth. To put down this loss of mental balance, caused by good
fortune and this pride, Krishna suddenly disappeared from amongst them.
The Gopis became disconsolate. Their hearts had been too much taken up
by the gestures and movements of Krishna. So they imitated his deeds and
even called themselves Krishna. They all sang loudly together and madly
searched for Krishna from forest to forest. They asked the trees if they
had seen their lover. They enquired of the creepers, the earth and the
deer. Fatigued at last, they again took to reproducing the deeds of
Krishna. Some played the part of Pûtanâ or some other Asura, some played
the part of Krishna in connection with some of his manifold deeds. They
again made enquiries from the plants. They then found out the footsteps
of Krishna marked by the divine symbols (flag, the lotus, the
thunder-bolt and the goad). Tracing those steps a little further, they
found they were mixed up with the footprints of a girl. The Gopis
exclaimed: —

"’Surely this girl had made _Ârâdhanâ_ (devout prayer for the Lord).
Govinda left us that he might take her to a secret retreat. Sacred are
the dust particles of Govinda’s feet; even Brahmâ, Śiva and Lakshmî hold
them on their head for the extinction of sins. Look here we no longer
see the foot marks of that girl. It seems Krishna carried her here on
his back and his footprints are therefore deeply marked. Here He placed
her down to pluck flowers and touched the earth with his toes only, for
the steps are not fully marked. Surely he placed the girl on his lap
here and adorned her hair with flowers.’ And what of that girl? She
deemed herself very fortunate that Krishna should shew particular
attention to her. With this sense of superiority she spoke to Krishna.
’I can not walk. Take me to where I like on thy back.’ Krishna said,
’Get up on my back.’ But when she would do so, Krishna had already
disappeared. The girl was loudly lamenting, when the other Gopis joined
her. They heard her story and became very much surprised. (It is
necessary to draw the special attention of the readers to the girl, who
had made Ârâdhanâ of Hari. She is the Râdhikâ of Nârada Pancharâtra and
of later day Vaishnavism. Râdhikâ means literally one who makes Râdhanâ
or Ârâdhanâ. But I shall not touch upon her in a study of the Bhâgavata
Purâna. The study of this Purâna is incomplete without a study of
Chaitanya’s teachings. And if I succeed in taking up those teachings, I
shall consider the lofty ideal of Râdhikâ).

"The Gopis all returned to the forest and searched for Krishna as long
as there was moonlight. They gave up their search when it was dark. With
thoughts all directed to Krishna, with conversations all about Him, with
gestures and movements all after Him, with songs all about His deeds,
the Gopis, all full of Krishna, they did not think of their homes. They
went to the banks of the Yamunâ, and all sang in a chorus about Krishna,
ardently praying for his return. (I shall not touch with my profane hand
the songs of the Gopis. They are far too sacred for any rendering into
English and they baffle any attempt to do so. Sweet as nectar, the
melody of those songs is inseparable from their very essence, and he
would be murdering Bhâgavata who would attempt to translate those songs.
For the continuity of our study it is only necessary to translate the
fourth sloka.)

"’Thou art not surely the son of Yasodâ. Thou art the inmost seer of all
things. Implored by Brahmâ thou hast appeared, O friend, in the line of
the Sâtvats, for the protection of the Universe.’ While the Gopis were
thus bewailing in melodious tunes, Krishna appeared with a smiling face.
They formed a circle round Him and were so pleased to see Him that they
reached the very limit of their joy. The Gopis spread out their outer
garments as a seat for Sri Krishna, on the river bank. When Krishna sat
down, they addressed him thus: —

"’Some seek those only that seek them; some do the contrary, (_i.e._
seek those even who do not seek them), others seek neither those that
seek them nor those that do not seek them. Please tell us, what is all
this.’

"Said Śri Krishna: — ’Those that seek each other are guided in their
efforts by selfishness. There is neither friendship nor virtue in that
mutuality. It is all for a selfish end. (Even the beasts seek mutual
good. _Śridhara_. And do not the Utilitarians and the evolutionists do
so)? Those that seek the unseeking are either kind-hearted men or they
are guided by affection like the parents. It is pure virtue in the
former case and friendship in the latter.

"’Those that do not seek the people that seek them and far less those
that do not seek them fall under one of the following four classes: —

"’(1) Those that seek pleasure in self (and not in the outside world),
(2) those that are satiated, (3) the ungrateful and (4) the treacherous.
But I do not belong to any of these classes, I do not seek those that
seek me in order to make them seek me continually and constantly. For
when a poor man gains wealth and then loses it, he becomes so full of
that loss that no other thought can enter his mind (_i.e._ to help the
continuity and constancy of the devotional feeling, I do not show open
favor to a devotee. This is an act of supreme kindness and friendship).
You have given up for my sake all worldly concerns, the Vedas and even
your own relations. I seek you from behind, being out of sight.
Therefore you ought rightly to be angry with me. Even with the life of a
God, I cannot make any return for your devotion to me, for you have
burst asunder the ever fresh chains of home life, in order to seek me.
So let your own goodness be the only recompense for your devotion.’"


THE RÂSA.


Govinda commenced Râsa with his devoted band. (Râsa is a kind of dance
in which many dancing girls take part.) The Gopis formed a circle, and
Krishna, the Lord of Yoga, was between every two of them and he pressed
them all unto his shoulders, and each of them thought that Krishna was
near to her. (How could one Krishna stand between every two of them and
how could each Gopi think that he was near to her only, when he was near
to them all? Therefore "the Lord of Yoga" _i.e._ of unimaginable powers.
_Śridhara_.) The sky became filled with hundreds of chariots of Devas
and Deva girls, eager to witness the scene. Drums beat and flowers
rained. The Gandharva kings with their wives sang the pure glory of
Krishna. Loud was the clash of the Gopis’ ornaments. They danced and
sang in great excitement. The moon lingered on with amazed look and the
night became prolonged. So the dance continued till at last the Gopis
became fatigued. Krishna wiped off their sweat and went with them to
bathe in the Yamunâ. After the bath they most reluctantly took leave of
Krishna.

In these enjoyments Krishna was self-contained.

Asked Râjâ Parikshit: —

"The Incarnation of Íśvara is for the spread of Dharma and the putting
down of Adharma. What is this enjoyment of others’ wives, contrary to
all injunctions and hateful in itself, by one who is at once the
originator and preserver of all Dharma?"

Suka said: — Even the great are seen to violate what we call Dharma and
the gods become over bold. But this does not bespeak any evil of them,
as they have got superior force, even as fire eats everything but is
ever pure. But he who is not capable (_i.e._ who is a slave to his body
and its attributes) is not to perform such acts even in mind. If he does
such acts through ignorance, he is sure to be ruined. It is only Śiva
that could drink the poison that appeared from the ocean of milk. The
words of the Lords (Ísvara) are true. Their deeds are only sometimes
true, (_i.e._ their exceptional life, which is governed by extraordinary
consideration and unusual conditions, is not meant always as an example
for ordinary beings. But what they say is always for the good of the
universe and is to be followed as a teaching. What is given as their
life is also sometimes allegorical and has to be understood in another
sense). The wise man therefore follows such of their deeds as are
consistent with the other words of the great ones. They have nothing to
gain or lose by good or bad deeds. For they have no Egoism in them. What
is good and what is bad to him who is the Lord of all beings? By
devotion to His feet and by power of Yoga, even Munis are freed from the
bonds of good and evil. The Lord did only assume a body at will. Whence
could there be any bondage in His case? (And was there really an
enjoyment of others’ wives? No for He dwells in all beings, even the
Gopis and their husbands. He is the manifestor of all the senses. The
assumption of the body is only a playful fancy. It is for the good of
all beings that He became a man. His indulgences are such as are likely
to make one devoted to Him, when heard of. Even the minds of those that
are very much turned away from Íśvara are attracted towards Ísvara, by
means of Sringâra Râsa or love topics. Hence the love matter of Sri
Krishna. This is the purport. _Śridhara_) The people of Vraja, deluded
by the Mâyâ of Krishna, thought that their wives were by their side.
They bore no ill-feeling towards Krishna. (It follows that those who
perform such acts without such powers are sinners. _Śridhara_.)

When it was Brahmâ Muhurta, (the part of the night immediately preceding
the dawn), the Gopis, with the permission of Śri Krishna, reluctantly
left Him and went home.

He who hears or recites this play of Vishnu with the women of Vraja
acquires supreme devotion to Bhagavat and shakes off in no time that
disease of the heart called Kâma or passion for women.


SUDARSANA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 34.*

(The Râsa is a teaching about conquering Kâma by treating of indulgence
in Kâma itself. Similarly this chapter treats of the conquest of
Vidyadhara. _Śridhara_.)

On the occasion of a sacred festival the Gopas went to the banks of the
Sarasvati. (Students will mark the significance of the Sarasvati, which
corresponds to Sushumnâ in the human system at this stage of spiritual
development). They adored Pasupati (Śiva) and Ambikâ (Durgâ). They
passed the night on the river bank. A huge serpent swallowed Nanda. The
Gopas burnt the animal but it would not let go its hold; Krishna then
touched it with his feet and out came a Vidyadhara from the serpent
body. This Vidyadhara, by name Sudarsana, had been cursed by Rishi
Angiras for having slighted him and became a serpent.


SANKHA CHÛDA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 34.*

One day Râma and Krishna came to the forest to have company with the
Gopis. It was the first part of the night. They played upon the flute
and the Gopis listened to the music with rapt attention. At this time
Sankha Chûda, the well-known attendant of Kuvera, drove the Gopis away
northward. The girls wept and called out to Krishna and Râma for help.
They ran after the Yaksha who in terror left the Gopis and fled away.
Râma remained in charge of the Gopa girls. Krishna overtook Sankha Chûda
and severed his head with its jewel and presented the crest jewel to
Balarâma.


THE SEPARATION SONG OF THE GOPIS.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 35.*

At night the Gopis enjoyed the company of Krishna. But the day was their
time of separation and, when Krishna went to the forest, they passed the
time any how in singing about him. For the separation song, please refer
to the original.


ARISHTA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 36.*

Arishta, an Asura in the form of a bull, attacked the quarters of the
cows. The cows fled away and the Gopas cried out "Krishna, O Krishna
save us," Krishna killed the Asura.


NÂRADA AND KANSA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 36.*

Nârada told Kansa: — "The female child was the daughter of Yasodâ;
Krishna and Râma are sons of Devaki. Vâsudeva kept them with his friend
Nanda out of fear. Those two brothers have killed your spies." In rage
the king of Bhoja took his sword to kill Vâsudeva. Nârada prevented him.
But the King put Yasudeva and his wife in iron fetters. He then ordered
Kesi to kill Râma and Krishna. He called his ministers together in
council. Addressing Chânur and Mushtika he said: — "Râma and Krishna are
to kill us. So Nârada told me." Those two Asuras came ready for Vraja.
But Kansa said: "No, you need not go. I shall send for the two brothers
and kill them in a wrestling match. So prepare the playground. Place the
elephant Kubalayâpida at the entrance and let him kill my enemies. On
the fourteenth day of the Moon, let us commence Dhanus Yajna, and let
animals be killed in honor of Śiva."

Kansa then sent for Akrûra, one of the chiefs of the Yadu clan.
"Akrûra," said he, "Thou art my friend and do the work of a friend.
Please go to Vraja. Take this chariot and bring the two sons of
Vâsudeva. Tell them, they are to see the Dhanus Yajna and have a sight
of the town. Let Nanda and other Gopas come with presents. The elephant
shall kill the two boys. Or if perchance they escape, the wrestlers
shall do away with them. I will then make easy work of Vâsudeva, my old
father Ugrasena, his brother Devaka, the Vrishnis, the Bhojas and the
Dasârhas. Then, O friend, the earth will be left without a thorn.
Jarâsandha is my guide. Dvivid is my friend. Samvara, Naraka, and Vâna
have made alliance with me. With the help of these, I shall kill all
kings that are on the side of the Devas. Know this to be my plan."
Akrûra said: — "The design is all right. But it may or may not succeed.
Even lofty desires are frustrated by unforeseen obstacles. Still man
entertains them, to meet with either joy or sorrow. But I will do thy
behests."

The council broke up.


KESI.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 37.*

In the meantime, Kesi, under the orders of Kansa, entered Vraja, in the
form of a fiery steed, Krishna held him aloft by the feet and threw him
away. The Asura regained consciousness and again ran after Krishna. He
thrust his hand inside the mouth of the Asura and killed him at once.
The Devas rained flowers over him and prayed. Rishi Nârada also appeared
and adored him, making reference to his future deeds.


VYOMA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 37.*

The Gopas were grazing cattle on the flat summit of a hill. Some played
the part of thieves, some, that of cattle keepers and some the part of
sheep. The Asura Vyoma, (the word meaning Âkâsa), son of Mâyâ, assumed
the form of a Gopa, and playing the part of a thief carried away many
Gopas, who became sheep and he confined them in a hill cave closed by
stones. In the playground only four or five Gopas remained. Krishna
found out the mischief, attacked the Asura and killed him.


AKRÛRA.


Akrûra was mightily pleased that he would see the lotus feet of Râma and
Krishna. His devotion to Krishna knew no bounds and he knew full well
that, whatever his mission might be, the Lord would find out his inward
devotion. At sunset he reached Gokula and, on seeing Râma and Krishna,
fell down at their feet. They duly honored him. Nanda also shewed every
respect to Akrûra. At night Akrûra made a clean breast of everything to
Râma and Krishna, telling how Kansa oppressed the Yadus, how Nârada
informed him of their presence in Vraja and who they were, how he
planned their death, and the mission on which he sent him. Râma and
Krishna only laughed. The next morning they informed Nanda about the
command of the king. Nanda asked the Gopas to prepare themselves with
presents.

And the Gopa girls? Who could measure the depth of their sorrow? Their
plaintive strains were most heart-rending. They wept They followed the
chariot carrying Râma and Krishna. Krishna to console them sent word
that he would come back. At last the chariot became invisible and the
Gopis went back to their homes.

On reaching the banks of the Yamunâ the brothers took their bath in the
river and refreshed themselves with its water. They took their seat
again in the chariot. Akrûra asked their permission and went to bathe.
He plunged himself in the waters and duly performed the ablution
ceremonies. He made a _japa_ (repeated recital) of Veda Mantras. But lo!
he found before him Râma and Krishna. They were in the chariot. How
could they appear then? He rose and saw the boys were really seated in
the chariot. He plunged himself once more and saw in the waters the
serpent king Ananta, with a thousand heads and a thousand crowns,
dressed in blue clothes, white in body, adored by Siddhas, Châranas,
Gandhavas, and Asuras. Embraced by him was the dark Purusha, dressed in
yellow clothes, with four hands, adored by the Rishis.

Akrûra made salutations and adored the Purusha with folded hands.

Krishna then withdrew his form, as a play is withdrawn from the stage.
Akrûra got up and took his seat in the chariot.

Krishna said: — "Akrûra, you look as if you have seen something
unusual." Akrûra replied: — "What is there in the universe that is not
in thee. When I have seen thee, I have seen everything." They drove on
again and at last reached Mathurâ.


MATHURÂ.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 41-42.*

Akrûra asked Krishna and all the Gopas to come to his house. But Krishna
would first kill Kansa before doing him this favor. So Akrûra
sorrowfully left him and informed Kansa about the performance of his
mission.

Krishna with Balarâma and the Gopas went out to see the town. The house
tops became crowded with females who wanted to have a look at Krishna,
whose fame had already preceded him. A washerman passed that way.
Krishna begged him to give him some choice clothes. But he was the
washerman of Kansa and he arrogantly refused to give any of the King’s
clothes. Krishna in anger cut off his head. The attendants left the
clothes and fled away. Râma and Krishna took as many as they liked and
gave the rest to the Gopas.

A weaver came forward of his own accord and gladly dressed the brothers
with choice clothes. Krishna rewarded him with great powers and provided
for him Sârupya (a kind of Mukti) after death.

Then the brothers went to the house of a garland-maker named Sudâmâ.
Sudâmâ fell down at their feet and adorned them and the Gopas with the
best garlands. The garland-maker prayed for constant devotion, for
friendship with the devotees and for love of all beings. Krishna gave
him these boons as well as many other blessings.

A young girl went that way with fragrant paste in her hand. Though young
and beautiful, she was hunch-backed.

Krishna said smilingly: — "Fine girl that thou art, tell me truly what
this scented thing is for. Anoint us with this, and good shall be your
lot." The girl said: — "My name is Trivakrâ (with three bends). I am a
servant of Kansa. He likes my paste very much. Who but you can deserve
to have it?" The girl then anointed the brothers, with zeal and love.
Krishna pressed her feet with the tips of his own feet and held up her
chin with two fingers and with a little effort made her erect. The hunch
on her back was gone and she became a beauty. She invited Krishna to her
own house. Krishna knew her object and said "Let me first do my work and
then I shall visit your house." He then passed through the traders’
quarters. They made various presents. Krishna then enquired where the
Yajna Dhanus (the bow to be used in the performance of the Yajna) was.
Though warned by the citizens, he entered the place and easily broke the
bow asunder. There was great noise. The warders ran to kill him. He
killed the guardsmen with the two parts of the bow.

It was then sun-set. The boys returned with the Gopas to their quarters.

Kansa heard of the valour of the boys and passed the night in evil
dreams. When the day broke, he made preparations for the wrestling
match.


THE WRESTLING.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 43-44.*

Kansa took his seat on a raised platform with his ministers. There was
beating of drums. The athletes appeared on the scene, headed by Chânur,
Mushtika, Kûta, Sala and Tosala. Nanda and other Gopas made their
presents and were shown over to another platform.

Hearing the noise, Râma and Krishna also came to see the match. At the
entrance they were obstructed by the elephant Kubalayâpida. Krishna
asked the driver to remove the elephant, but he only set it upon him.
There was a fight and Krishna at last succeeded in felling the elephant
to the ground. He then plucked out its teeth and with their help, he
killed both the animal and its driver. Blood-stained, the two brothers
entered the wrestling ground with the ivory teeth in their hands. All
were struck by their appearance. The account of the elephant’s death
struck terror into Kansa’s heart. He began to tremble. The people of
Mathurâ were attracted by the divine form of the brothers and they began
to talk about their deeds. Chânûra addressing the brothers said: — "You
are known as good wrestlers. The King has therefore invited you to this
match. Come and do the pleasure of the King, for the King is the
embodiment of all Devas."

Krishna said: — "We dwell in the forest. But still we are subjects of
the King of Bhoja. That we are ordered to please the King is a great
favor to us. But we are boys. We shall play with those of equal might.
There will then be a fair match and there will be no injustice attaching
to those present here."

Chânûra replied: —

"You are neither a boy nor a youth below fifteen, Krishna. Nor is
Balarâma so. You killed that elephant with the might of a thousand
elephants as it were in sport. It is meet therefore you shall fight with
the powerful. There is no injustice in this. You measure your strength
with me and let Balarâma do so with Mushtika."

So it was. The fight was a drawn one. At last the brothers killed their
rivals. Kûta then confronted Balarâma, who killed him with his fist.
Sola and Tosala also fell dead before Krishna. The other wrestlers fled
for their lives. Râma and Krishna then called their Gopa companions and
began to dance together on the wrestling ground. "Well done," "Well
done," cried all, except Kansa.


THE DEATH OF KANSA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 44.*

Kansa stopped the music. He exclaimed. "Let these two unruly sons of
Vâsudeva be driven out from the town. Take away the wealth of the Gopas.
Confine this wicked Nanda. Kill that vile Vâsudeva. My father Ugrasena
is partial to my enemies. Kill him with all his attendants." While Kansa
was thus bragging Krishna got angry and with one jump, he got upon the
platform. Kansa stood up with his sword and shield. Krishna held him by
his hair and threw him down from the platform. He then jumped over Kansa
and his life departed. He then dragged the dead body of Kansa in the
presence of all. Kansa through fear and anxiety had always thought of
Krishna and now being killed by his hands, he attained the Rûpa of
Krishna. The eight brothers of Kansa attacked Krishna but they were put
to death by Balarâma. There was great rejoicing amongst the Devas.

The wives of Kansa loudly lamented the death of their husband. Bhagavân
consoled them. He then liberated his father and mother and touched their
feet. He then took leave of Nanda and the Gopas, promising a speedy
return to them.


THE THREAD CEREMONY AND BRAHMACHARYA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 45.*

Krishna placed Ugrasena on the throne. The Yadus, Vrishnis, Andhakas,
Madhus, Dasarhas and Kukkuras, who had left Mathurâ for fear of Kansa,
now returned to that town. Vâsudeva called the Purohita (family priest)
Garga and performed the Upanayana ceremony (investiture of the sacred
thread) of his sons. They then became twice-born. (Dvija-Brâhmanas,
Kshatriyas and Vaisyas are the twice-born classes. Krishna was a
Kshatriya by birth). After Upanayana, one has to practise Brahmâcharya
_i.e._ he has to reside at the house of his Guru, learn the Vedas from
him and practise asceticism at the same time. According to practice,
Râma and Krishna went to reside at the house of Rishi Sandipani of
Avanti of the line of Kasyapa. The brothers learned the Vedas, the
Vedangas and all the branches of learning in sixty four days. Then they
requested their Guru to name his Dakshinâ. (When a disciple leaves his
Guru after the completion of study, he has to give some Dakshinâ or
present according to his power to the Guru). Sandipani in consultation
with his wife asked for the restoration to life of his son, who had been
drowned in the sea at Prabhâsa Kshetra. "All right," said the brothers.
They took their chariot and went to the sea-side. The sea brought
presents. But Krishna asked for the restoration of his Guru’s son. The
sea replied: — "I did not carry him off, but one Asura named Panchajana,
who lives in my waters in the form of a conch." Krishna entered the
waters and killed Panchajana. But he did not find the boy within the
Asura’s body. Me took the conch and came back. He then went with
Balarâma to the seat of Yâma called Sanyamani and blew the conch. Yâma
adored the brothers and wanted to know their behests.

Bhagavân said: — "My Guru’s son has certainly been brought here by his
own Karma. But hear my command and bring him to me." "So be it" said
Yâma, and brought back the Guru’s son. The brothers took him to their
father and said: "What more do you ask, O Guru?"

The Guru said: — "I have nothing more to ask. Now you may go home."


UDDHAVA AND VRAJA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 46.*

Uddhava was the chief counsellor of the Vrishnis, the dear friend of
Krishna and the direct disciple of Brihaspati. He was second to none in
wisdom. His dress and decorations were those of Krishna.

Krishna called his friend aside and said: —

"Go, Uddhava, to Vraja. Bear my love to Nanda and Yasodâ, Give my
message to the Gopis, which will be a relief to them in their distress.
Their desires are all centred in me. I am their life. They have given up
all worldly connections for my sake. I am their dearest and nearest
friend. I protect those that give up worldly duties for my sake. So
painful is my separation to the Gopis that they are beside themselves.
Any how they live and that with difficulty, only because I sent word of
my speedy return."

Gladly Uddhava accepted the mission. He went to Vraja and stayed there
for a few months, consoling the Gopas and Gopis.

To Nanda and Yasodâ he said: —

"Râma and Krishna are the efficient and the material cause of the
Universe — Purusha and Pradhana. They pervade all beings and guide the
workings of individual natures. Krishna would fulfil the promise he made
to you on the wrestling ground and come back to Vraja ere long. Do not
grieve O great ones. You shall see Krishna by your side: He is within
the heart of all beings, as fire is inside all fuel, To him nothing is
agreeable or disagreeable, nothing high or low. He has no father, no
wife, no sons, no one near or distant, no body, no birth, no Karma. For
the protection of Sâdhus he manifests himself in different births at his
own pleasure. Though void of all Gunas, he seeks them at pleasure for
the purpose of creation. As a stationary body appears to be moving, so
Âtmâ appears to be working, though Chitta is the worker. Krishna is not
your son only. But he is of all the sons, the self, father, mother and
Ísvara. Nothing exists in reality but Krishna."

Excited were the effusions of the Gopis, on seeing Uddhava. (They may be
interesting to the general reader but to the student the message
delivered by Uddhava is the only necessary portion at this stage of the
story. The reader is therefore referred to other translations for those
highly poetical effusions.)

Uddhava informed the Gopis that he was the secret messenger of Krishna.
He then delivered the following message from Bhagavân: — "You have no
separation from me, for I am all-pervading. As the five elements earth,
water, air, fire and ether enter into the composition of all beings, so
I underlie Manas, Prana, the Bhûtas and the Indriyas, as also the Gunas
themselves. I create, preserve and destroy self in self by self. By my
Mâyâ, I become the Bhûtas, the Indriyas and the Gunas. But Âtmâ is pure,
it is all consciousness (Jnâna), separate, unconnected with the Gunas.
It is only by the mental states of wakefulness, dream and dreamless
sleep that egoistic perceptions are caused in Âtmâ. (The objects of
perception in one state appear to be unreal in another state.) The
objects of dream perception appear to be unreal to the awakened man. The
mind (being the common factor in all the three states) perceives these
(unreal) objects of the senses and it underlies the senses themselves.
Sleeplessly therefore control the mind. This is the final reach of the
Vedas, of Yoga, and of Sânkhya, of relinquishment, of Tapas, of the
control of senses, and of Truth itself. This is the ocean into which all
rivers fall.

"That I, though pleasing to your eyes, remain away from you is because I
want you constantly to meditate on me, for such meditation will attract
your mind more towards me. The mind of women does not dwell so much upon
the lover, near at hand, dearest though he be, as it dwells upon a
distant lover, being full of him.

"By devoting your whole mind to me, free from all other thoughts, and by
constantly meditating on me you shall forthwith attain me. Even those
girls that remained at Vraja and could not join the Râsa attained me by
meditating on My powers." The words of Uddhava only reminded the Gopis
of the doings of Krishna. They loudly took his name. They were full of
Krishna and would not forget him. But they knew from His message that He
was Âtmâ and their pain of separation was gone.

Uddhava remained for several days at Vraja, reminding all of Sri
Krishna. When he left Vraja he wished that he could be one of the
creepers or herbs in Vrindâvana, that had been rendered sacred by the
dust of the Gopis’ feet. (With that wish let us take leave of the
Vrindâvana Lilâ of Bhagavân Sri Krishna.)


THOUGHTS ON THE VRINDÂVANA LILÂ.


Before making any remarks of my own, it will be necessary to draw upon
the Upanishads.

Gopâla Tâpani is one of the chief Upanishads dealing with Krishna. The
work is divided into two parts. The first part gives one yantra for the
Upâsanâ of Krishna. The second part gives a narration. The women of
Vraja asked Krishna to name some Brâhmana to whom they could make
offerings of food. Krishna named Durvasas. "But how can we approach him
without crossing the Yamunâ?" asked the Gopis.

"Take my name, that of Krishna, a Brahmâcharin, and the Yamunâ shall
give you way" So it was. The Gopis crossed the Yamunâ and went to the
Âsrama of Durvasas, the incarnation of Rudra. They offered the sweet
things to the Rishi and when he partook of these, he permitted the Gopis
to retire. "But how can we cross the Yamunâ?"

The Rishi replied: — "Remember me, the eater of Durvâ (a kind of grass)
and the river shall give way."

"Krishna a Brahmâcharin! And thou an eater of Durvâ only? How can that
be?" asked the chief Gopi and she asked a number of other questions.

(According to the common exoteric notion Sri Krishna is the lord of many
women and Durvasas is a voracious Rishi. This is the cause of the
wonder.)

Durvasas first explained that Krishna was the all-pervading Purusha,
underlying all. Then further on, there are seven _Sâkâmya_ Puris or
places, on the top of Meru, as well as seven _nishkâmya_ Puris.

(The commentator Visvesvara explains "Sâkâmya," as regions where desires
fructify. As on the Meru there are seven such Puris, so there are seven
Nishkâmya or Moksha-producing Puri’s). On the earth, these, are seven
Sâkâmya Puris (Ayodhyâ, Mathurâ and others.) Of these Gopâla Puri
(Mathurâ) is the direct abode of Brahmâ.

As the lotus floats on the lake, Mathurâ rears itself up on the earth,
protected by Chakra, the disc of Vishnu. Hence it is called Gopâla Puri.
This Puri is surrounded by twelve forests: —

Brihat Vana (from Brihat or great, large).

Madhu Vana (From Madhu, a daitya).

Tâla Vana (Tâla or palm tree).

Bahula Vana (From Bahula, a kind of tree).

Kumud Vana (From Kumud, flower).

Khadira Vana (From Khadira or the catechu plant).

Bhadra Vana (From Bhadra, a kind of tree).

Bhândira Vana (From Bhândira, the name of a religious fig tree).

Srî Vana (From Srî or Lakshmî).

Loha-vana (from Loha, the name of an Asura.)

And Vrindâvana (from Vrinda or Tulasi plant.)

These twelve forests are presided over by the 12 Âdityas, 11 Rudras,
eight Vasus, seven Rishis, Brahmâ, Nârada, the five Vinâyakas (Moda,
Pramoda, Âmoda, Sumukha and Durmukha), Viresvara, Rudresvara,
Visvesvara, Gopalesvara, Bhadresvara, and 24 other Śiva Lingas.

There are two chief forests, Krishnavana and Bhadra vana. The 12 forests
are included in these. They are all sacred, some of them most sacred.

There are four forms of Vishnu (Mûrtis) in these forests, Râma
(Sankarshana), Pradyumna, Aniruddha and Krishna (Vâsudeva).

There are twelve other Mûrtis in Mathurâ:

_Roudrî_ adored by the Rudras.

_Brâhmi_, by Brahmâ.

_Devî_, by the sons of Brahmâ.

_Mânavî_, by the Maruts.

_Vighna nâsinî_, by the Yinayakas.

_Kâmyâ_, by the Vasus.

_Ârshî_, by the Rishis.

_Gândharvi_, by the Gandharvas.

_Gō_, by the Apsarasas.

_Antardhânasthâ_ remains hidden.

_Svapadangatâ_ is at the supreme abode of Vishnu.

_Bhûmisithâ_ remains on the earth (Bhûmi).

Those who worship _Bhûmisthâ_ know no death, they become liberated.

Gopa is Jiva (Ego).

Gopâla = Gopa (Jiva) + âla (acceptor).

Gopâla is he who accepts the Jivas as his own.

He who realises "I am Gopâla" attains Moksha. Gopâla always remains at
Mathurâ. Mathurâ is the place for devotion.

The Lotus of the heart is Mathurâ with its eight petals. The two feet of
Nârâyana are there marked with the divine Symbols (flag, umbrella &c.).
The object of meditation there is either Krishna, with Srivatsa, with
Kaustubha, with four hands, bearing Sankha, Chakra, Padma, and Gadâ,
with arms adorned by Keyûra, with the neck adorned by a garland, with a
crown on the head and with Makara-shaped Kundalas on the ears; or it is
Krishna with, two hands, bearing a flute and horn.

Mathurâ is from _Math_, to put down, because materiality is put down
there by divine wisdom. The eight Dikpâlas (Indra, Agni, Vayu, Varuna
and others) preside over the eight petals of the Lotus in the heart.

The "flags" have the glow of the Sun and the Moon.

The umbrella is Brahmâ Loka.

The two feet are "above" and "below."

Kaustubha is that light which overpowers all other lights _viz._, Surya,
Agni, Vak and Chandra.

The "four hands" are Satva, Rajas, Tamas and Ahankâra.

"Sankha," consisting of the five Bhûtas, is held by the hand
representing Rajas.

"Chakra," consisting of Manas, is held by the hand representing Satva.

"Padma" is the universe, the primal Mâyâ. It is held by the hand,
representing Tamas.

"Gadâ" is primal Vidya or wisdom. It is held by the hand, representing
Ahankâra.

"Garland" round the neck consists of the Mânasa Putras of Brahmâ. The
crown is Sat, absolute existence. The different life forms and the
underlying Jiva are the two "Kundalas" on the ear.

Then we come to MANTRA BHAGAVATA or Bhâgavata written in Vedic Mantras,
a stiff work not quite intelligible without the excellent gloss of
Nilkantha (published at the Venkatesvara Press, Bombay). This work is
said to have been found out by Nilkantha. It is divided into four parts
— Gokula Kânda, Vrindâvana Kânda, Akrûra Kânda and Mathurâ Kânda. The
chief events of Krishna’s divine life (Lilâ) are narrated in this book,
but in the order of narration., it follows Hari Vansa more than the
Bhâgavata Purâna. I refer only to those portions of the book, which to
me appear important.

We take the following from the Gokula Kânda. The Gopas are
re-incarnations of Devas. They are the messengers of Krishna. They are
fond of _Gavya_ or the products of Cows. The relation between Krishna
and the Gopas is that between an object and its image. Krishna drove the
cattle of Nanda, just as he drove the horses of Arjuna, the object of
doing so being in both the cases the destruction of all the enemies
(III). In commenting on the 5th Śloka, Nilkantha calls Krishna the white
ray of the Sun, which becomes the blue ray, which is in reality the ray
of Sat, Chit and Ananda. He refers in this connection to the word Bharga
(ray) in the Gayatri. Krishna is the heart of the Sun.

The sixth sloka explains this: —

"It is Krishna who causes bliss. The Sun God (Savitri), being guided by
Krishna, goes his way on the golden chariot (VI)."

In the 11th sloka, Krishna is called the Black ray.

Mother Aditi (Earth) asked her son Indra for relief (VII). At the
request of Indra, Vishnu entered the womb of Devaki. He first ensouled
seven Ardha-Garbhas. (_Ardha_ is half and _Garbha_ is a foetal child.
The six sons of Kala-nemi — the name of a demon, literally, the rim of
the wheel of time, known as Shat Garbhas, pleased Brahmâ by worship and
became immortal. They were the grandsons of Hiranyakasipu. He cursed
them saying: —

"I am your own grandfather. But you disregard me for the sake of the
Divine Grandfather Brahmâ. Hence you shall be killed by the hands of
your own father." They remained in their Linga Sarira in Pâtâla.

They incarnated as the first six sons of Vâsudeva and were killed by
Kansa, the incarnation of Kala-nemi. This is related in Harivansa.
Therefore they are called Ardha Garbhas. The seventh Balarâma is also
called Ardha-Garbha, as he was drawn away from Devakl to Rohini.
_Nilkantha_) IX.

The Black ray (Sat, Chit and Ananda) incarnated in Devakt’s womb.

Krishna is Antaryâmin or inside all beings.

Balarâma is Sutrâtmâ, the Ego. XIX.

The Cart Asura (_Sakata_) is a messenger of the death God from the
South, XX.

_Pûtanâ_ is a weapon of death in the form of a bird. XXI.

_Trinâvarta_ is the disease, known as consumption.

The Gopas asked Krishna for the milk-products. As devas, they had never
known such offerings in Yajnas. They informed Krishna, where the milk
made things were to be found. (XXIII and XXIV.) For the gratification of
the universe, the longings of Krishna are great and for this reason he
did not spare any fresh butter of the Gopis. The Gopis learned from this
that for the bare up-keep of their lives, they were to attend to their
household duties (XXVI). (If the boys are to steal away all the butter,
life itself will be extinguished. People should have enough left for
their household requirement. If I taste only a little of the butter, all
the three Lokas will be gratified, and the Gopis will acquire the merit
thereof. Considering all this, Bhagavân tasted butter by stealth
_Nilkantka_. This means, in so many words, that Krishna accepted the
fruits of all the actions of the Gopis except such as sufficed to
preserve their lives). The Gopis complained to Yasodâ of the stealing
acts of Krishna. XXVII.

_Vrindâvana Kânda_.

The dwellers of Gokula migrated with Krishna to Vrinddvana, for fear of
Vrikas or wolves. (Kâma and other passions are the wolves, _Nitkantha_),
I.

In treating of Pralamba Asura, mention is made of the nonperception of
"I am Brahmâ," VII.

Pralamba is said to be an aspect of the primal Daitya Madhu, IX.

There is some philosophical discussion about the concealment of calves
by Brahmâ, (X to XIV.)

The first six sons of Devaki are the Six Indriyas (including Manas) and
the seventh is the Jivâtma, the conscious Ego. XXXV.

In commenting upon this sloka, Nilkantha says, "Devaki and other names
are merely allegorical, bearing an esoteric meaning. The narration is
not the real point." He further supports his position while commenting
on sloka XL, of Vrindâvana Kânda. He makes quotations from the Skanda
Purâna, which speak of the twofold meanings of the narration texts, one
Âdhyâtmika and another Âdhi bhautika, the former being difficult to
follow. Following up these quotations, Nilkantha says; "Those that are
not prepared for the Âdhyâtmika hindering of all modifications of the
mind, must seek the Âdhibhautika Lilâ of Bhagavân. And if they
concentrate their minds on the _holy deeds of Bhagavân_, they acquire
the result of Samâdhi."

Krishna is Paramâtmâ. The intercourse of the Gopis was not therefore
adulterous. (XXXVII and XXXVIII.)

_Akrûra Kânda_.

In this Kânda, Akrûra comes to Vraja and takes Râma and Krishna to
Mathurâ.

_Mathura Kânda_.

This part treats of the killing of Kansa by Krishna.

Krishna is described as the knower of the hidden names of the cows. (It
is to be understood that the cows have hidden names, _Nilkantha_.)

We now come to KRISHNA UPANISHAD, one of the Atharvana Upanishads.

The Gopas are Devas.

"Nanda" is Supreme bliss.

"Yasodâ" is Mukti.

Mâyâ is three-fold Sâtvika, Râjasika and Tâmasika.

Satvika Mâyâ is in Rudra, Râjasika in Brahmâ and Tâmasika in the
Daityas.

Devaki (_Deva+ki_ or chanted by the Devas) is Brahmâ Vidya.

"Vâsudeva" is Nigama.

The "Gopis" and the cows are Riks. (Vedic Mantras)

Brahmâ is the stick of Krishna.

Rudra is His flute.

Indra is the horn,

"Gokula Vâna" is Vaikuntha.

The trees are the Rishis of Vaikuntha.

The Daityas (Trinâvarta and others) are greed, anger and other passions.
Krishna, in the form of Gopa, is Hari. Râma is the Sesha serpent.

The eight principal wives and the sixteen thousand and one hundred minor
wives of Krishna are the Riks and Upanishads.

"Chânûra" is Dvesha (Dislike).

"Mushtika" is Matsara (Egoism, Envy).

"Kubalaya pîda" is Darpa (pride).

"Vaka" is Garva (Arrogance).

"Rohini" is Dayâ (Tenderness).

"Satya bhama" is Ahinsâ, (Non-Injury).

"Agha" is some fatal disease, such as consumption &c.

"Kansa" is Kali(?) (The commentator Nârâyana says that by Kali we are
here to understand Kalaha or quarrel, for Kansa is the incarnation of
Kâlanemi and Duryodhana is the incarnation of Kali.).

"Sudâman" is Sama (restraint of the mind).

"Akrûra" is Satya (Truth).

"Uddhava" is Dama (restraint of the senses).

"Sankha" is Vishnu himself in the form of Lakshmî.

The Milk products of the Gopis correspond to the ocean of milk in the
universe.

Kasyapa is the Ulûkhala (wooden mortar used in cleansing rice), to which
Krishna was tied by Yasodâ.

The rope that was used in the tying of Sri Krishna is Aditi. Chakra is
Veda.

The garland Vaijayanti is Dharma.

The umbrella is Âkasa.

Gadâ is the Goddess Kalika.

The bow of horn (Sârnga) is the Mâyâ of Vishnu.

The Arrow is Kâla, the destroyer of all lives.

The Lotus is the seed of the universe. Garuda is the religious fig tree
named Bhândira.

The following is taken from GOPI CHANDANA UPANISHAD.

"What is Gopi?

"She who preserves.

"Preserves from what?

"Preserves people from Naraka, from death and from fear."

HARIVANSA says: —

"Kansa is Kâlanemi,

"Kesin is Haya Grîva,

"Arishta is son of Bali, the Elephant is Rishta, son of Diti, Chânûra
and Mushtika are the Asuras, Varaha and Kisora."

PADMA PURANA throws the greatest light on the Vrindâvana Lilâ of Sri
Krishna. The chapters refer to the Pâtâla Khanda of that Purâna.

Ch. 38. Of innumerable Brahmândas (solar systems), there is one supreme
seat, that of Vishnu. Of this seat, Goloka is the highest aspect, and
Vaikuntha, Śiva Loka and others are the lower aspects. Goloka is
represented on the earth by Gokula, and Vaikuntha by Dvârakâ. Vrindâvana
is within the jurisdiction of Mathurâ. Mathurâ has the form of the
thousand-petalled lotus, situated in the head.

Of the forests in Gokula, the twelve chief ones are: — Bhadra, Sri,
Loha, Bhândira, Mahâvana, Tâla, Khadir, Bakula, Kumud, Kâmya, Madhu and
Vrindâvan. There are several sub-forests too, which witnessed some scene
or other of Krishna Lilâ.

Gokula is the thousand-petalled lotus and its disc is the seat of
Govinda.

The petals are the seats of different performances of Sri Krishna and
are different occult centres.

The southern petal contains a most occult seat, attainable with
difficulty by the greatest of Yogins. The south-eastern petal contains
two secret recesses. The eastern petal has the most purifying
properties. The north-east petal is the seat of fruition. The Gopis
attained Krishna on this petal, by worshipping Kâtyâyani. Their clothes
were also stolen on this petal.

The northern petal is the seat of the twelve Âdityas. It is as good as
the disc itself.

The north-west petal is the seat of Kâliya. On the western petal, favor
was shewn to the wives of the Vedic Rishis. Here the Asura Agha was
killed. Here is also the Lake called Brahmâ. On the south-western petal,
the Asuras Vyoma and Sankha-chûda were killed.

These eight petals are situated in Vrindâvana. Outside Vrindâvana, there
are sixteen petals. The first petal is the seat of Govardhana. Here
Krishna was installed as Govinda. The first petal contains Madhuvana,
the second Khadira, the fourth Kadamba, the fifth Nandisvara (residence
of Nanda), the sixth Nanda, the seventh Bakula, the eighth Tâla (where
the Asura Dhenuka was killed), the ninth Kumuda, the tenth Kâmya (where
Brahmâ knew Krishna as Vishnu), the eleventh many forests, the twelfth
Bhândîra, the thirteenth Bhadra, the fourteenth Sri, the fifteenth Loha,
and the sixteenth Mahâvana. The deeds of Sri Krishna up to the age of
five were all performed at Mahâvana.

Vrindâvana is the seed cavity of the thousand-petalled lotus. By all
means place Vrindâvana in the heart cavity. Krishna is always a Kisora
(between ten and fifteen) at Vrindâvana, (_i.e._ Vrindâvana proper, the
particular forest of that name).

At the centre of Vrindâvana is the eight-cornered Yoga seat of Sri
Krishna. Over that seat is a throne of jewels. The eight petalled lotus
lies there. The disc of that lotus is the supreme abode of Govinda. He
is the Lord of Vrindâvana. Brahmâ, Vishnu and Śiva are all His parts.
His primal Prakriti is Râdhikâ.

*CHAPTER 39.*

Govinda with Râdhâ is seated on the golden throne. Outside the throne,
on the seat of Yoga, remain the chief favorites of Krishna, who are
parts of Râdhikâ.

Lalita stands on the west, Syâmalâ on the north-west, Srimatî on the
north, Haripriyâ on the north-east, Visâkha on the east, Saivyâ on the
south-east, Padmâ on the south, and Bhadrâ on the south-west.

Then there is another group of eight, Chandrâvali, Chitrarekhâ, Chandrâ,
Madana Sundari, Sri, Madhumati, Chandra-rekhâ, and Haripriyâ.

Of this latter group, Chandrâvali holds almost equal position with
Râdhikâ.

These are the sixteen principal Prakritis. Then there are thousands of
Gopis all devoted to Krishna.

On the right side of Sri Krishna are thousands of Sruti girls, who chant
His divine mysteries. On the left side are the most beautiful-looking
Deva girls, who turn towards Sri Krishna with the greatest eagerness.

Outside this inner temple are the Gopa boys, who look like Krishna.
Sridâman is on the west, Sudâman on the north, Vasudâman on the east,
and Kinkini on the south.

Outwards still more, inside a golden temple, seated upon a golden seat,
adorned with ornaments of gold, there are thousands of Gopa boys, headed
by Stoka Krishna, Ansu Bhadra and others, all devoutly singing the glory
of Sri Krishna.

The whole of this is surrounded by a shining gold wall.

On the west of that wall, within a temple, situated under a Parijâta
tree, is Vâsudeva, with his eight wives, Rukmini, Satyabhama, Jâmbavati,
Nâgnajiti, Sulakshanâ, Mitravindâ, Anuvindâ and Sunandâ.

On the north, under a Harichandana tree, is Sankarshana with Revati. On
the south, under a Santâna tree, is Pradyumna with Rati. On the east,
under a Kalpataru, is Aniruddha.

Surrounding all this is a white stone wall, with four gates. White
Vishnu preserves the western gate, Red Vishnu preserves the northern
gate, yellow Vishnu preserves the eastern gate, Black Vishnu preserves
the southern.

CHAP. 41. Rishi Ugra-tapas meditated on Sri Krishna for one hundred
Kalpas. At the end of that period he became a Gopi, named Sunandâ.

Rishi Satya-tapas meditated on Krishna for ten Kalpas, and he then
became a Gopi named Bhadrâ.

Rishi Hari-dhamâ became a Gopi, named Raktavenî, at the end of three
Kalpas.

Rishi Jâvâli became Chitra-gandhâ after ten Kalpas.

Suchi-sravas and Suvarna became the daughters of the Gopa Suvira, at the
end of one Kalpa.

Jatila, Janghapûta, Ghritâsin, and Karbu became Gopis after three
Kalpas.

Suka, son of Dirgha-tapas, Vyâsa of the previous Kalpa, became daughter
of Upananda.

One son of Svetaketu became the daughter of Bâlâvani.

Chitra-dhvaja, son of Râjârshi Chandraprabha, became Chitrakalâ,
daughter of Gopa Viragupta, at the end of one Kalpa.

Rishi Punya-sravas practised meditation for thirty thousand Kalpas and
he was born as the daughter of Nanda’s brother, by name Labangâ.

These are some of the favorite Gopis of Krishna.

CHAP. 42. The form of Sri Krishna, as seen at Vrindâvana, is constant.
Mathurâ, Vrindâvana, Yamunâ, the Gopa girls, the Gopa boys, Sri Krishna
as an Avatâra — are all constant.

The Gopis are the Srutis (forms invoked by Vedic Mantras), Deva girls
and devoted Rishis, desirous of liberation.

The Gopa boys are Munis, full of the bliss of Vaikuntha.

The Kadamba tree is Kalpa Vriksha, (a divine tree that gives all that is
desired).

The Siddhas, Sadhyas and Gandharvas are the Kokilas (cuckoos) of
Vrindâvana.

Govardhana is the eternal servant of Hari.

CHAP. 43. Arjuna wanted to know the mysteries of Vrindâvana and of the
Gopis.

Krishna said they were unknown to Brahmâ even. He then advised Arjuna to
worship the goddess Tripura-sundari, as through her favor only he could
know all he asked about. The goddess asked Arjuna to bathe in a tank
called Kulakunda. She then gave directions which were duly performed by
Arjuna. The goddess then took Arjuna to the real, constant Vrindâvana,
which is placed over Goloka. With the divine vision, given by the
goddess, Arjuna saw the mysteries of Vrindâvana, and became full of
devotional love. He then asked the goddess what to do next. She then
asked him to bathe in another tank, and, when Arjuna did so, he became a
female. A divine voice said, "Go back to the former tank. Touch its
water and you will attain your object. There you will find your
companions."

The Gopis gathered round Arjuna out of curiosity. One of them Priyamuda
asked: — "Who art thou? How hast thou come here?" Arjuna related his
story.

To satisfy the curiosity of Arjuna, Priyamuda said: — "We are all the
dear companions of Krishna. Here are the girls of Vraja. Those are
Srutis and these are Munis. We are Gopa girls. Some appeared here from
the body of Krishna. They are constant, keeping constant company with
Krishna and moving all over the universe. Of them, this is Purna-rasâ,
this is Râsa Manthara (and so on). Then of the Srutis, this is Udgita,
this is Sugita (and so on). Then of the Munis, this is Ugra-tapas, this
is Priyavrata, this is Suvrata (and so on). Amongst us, the girls of
Gopas, this is Chandravali, this is Chandrika, this is Chandra-rekha
(and so on). You will have all these for your companions. Come bathe on
the east side of the tank. I shall give thee the Mantra of Râdhikâ".
Arjuna worshipped Râdhikâ with that Mantra and she appeared before him.
She then gave him the Mantra of Krishna. With that Mantra, Arjuna
succeeded in getting the favor of Krishna. He called Arjuna, in his
female form, and gave him the privilege of his company. Arjuna was then
made to bathe on the west side of the tank and he then regained his
former form.

THE BRAHMA VAIVARTA PURANA follows the ideal of Padma Purâna. This ideal
was further worked out and further revelations were made by Chaitanya,
who is believed to be an Avatâra of Krishna Himself. A full discussion
of these revelations will be made when we come to study the teachings of
Chaitanya. No reference is therefore made in this book to the works
which appeared and some of which preceded, but were connected with, the
great movement of Chaitanya.

Such is the study of the Vrindâvana Lilâ as authoritatively given in
standard religious books. It gives us a clue to the mysteries, which
should be worked out by each esoteric student for himself.

The mysteries are partly allegorical and partly historical. We shall
first take the allegorical representation of the Lilâ, which has
reference to the spiritual development of every individual Bhakta and is
therefore of the most abiding interest to all Bhaktas.

The Puri of Mathurâ is in every man, the kingdom of his own mind, where
the personal self is to be _put down_. Mathurâ is from _math_, to put
down. Lavana (Salt), the demon of materialism (for salt is an emblem of
materialism; cf. the salt ocean) had hold of this Puri during the time
of Râma, and Satrughna killed the demon.

But materialism regained its lost ground and the forces of descent
gathered strong round Kansa. Kansa was Kâla-nemi, or the mark left by
the wheel of time. Each one of us has inherited through countless ages a
strong element of materiality, which tries to reign over each one of us.
This is the Kansa in each of us. There was also king Kansa of the period
when Krishna appeared. He was brought down from his high platform and
killed by Krishna, and the spiritual evolution of humanity became
assured.

There are eight Prâkritic principles in man, corresponding to eight
senses. Earth or smell, water or taste, fire or form, air or touch, and
akasa or sound, these enable Jivas to acquire experiences from the
outside. Ahankâra, or the sense of egoism, enables man to assimilate
those experiences to his personal self, and to make a small world of his
own self.

Then there is Mahat and the universal sense corresponding to it. This
sense takes man out of the limits of personality; it raises him to the
level of spiritual life. It develops unselfishness and universal life.

Last of all is the eighth principle, Mula Prakritî. It gives the sense
of perceiving Âtmâ.

Krishna helps the evolution of the Jivas, by developing the outer senses
first and then the inner senses.

When the first six senses are developed, the evolution of personality is
complete. The powers that develop the senses do not come any more into
requisition. Those powers were the first six brothers of Krishna, who
lay slumbering in the ocean, and who were _ardhagarbha_, as Harivansa
says. Their action was confined to the material stage of evolution and
hence they are said to have descended from Hiranyakasipu. Kansa had no
difficulty in slaying these half-dead powers.

The sixth brother was Balarâma. He was robed in blue, a highly spiritual
color, the color of Mahat. He roused the spiritual sense of man. Jivas
had wandered away from their spiritual home, where they were all united,
and each had made a separate entity for himself. Balarâma tried to draw
them together once more on the plane of Mahat. Hence he was called
Sankarshana, and his instrument was called the plough. He was the first
born, as men cannot come face to face with Íshvara, so long as they are
not raised beyond the limits of personality. Jivas streamed forth from
the plane of Mahat, presided over by Atlanta or Sankarshana, and they
are drawn back to that plane so that they may set out on a higher
spiritual journey.

Then came Sri Krishna and Yogamâyâ, both together. Sri Krishna was the
highest of the high, beyond the Mâyâ that enshrouded the Brahmânda. How
could he come in contact with the Jivas of Brahmânda? The only plane of
Prakriti with which He could come in direct contact was the plane of
Mula Prakriti. But this plane was not developed in humanity as yet.
Therefore He asked Yoga Mâyâ, the energy of Jivic evolution, who carries
Jiva from the lowest to the highest point, to serve as a medium between
Him and the Jivas. Sri Krishna performed His mission with the help of
Yoga Mâyâ. The Gopis met Sri Krishna because they worshipped Yoga Mâyâ
(Kâtyâyani). Sri Krishna had personal contact with the Gopis at Râsa,
because He invoked Yoga Mâyâ at the time and got her help. Yoga Mâyâ is
the highest sense of which Jiva is capable, and, when Durga appeared in
her third incarnation as Yoga Mâyâ, she was not to undergo further
incarnation in this Kalpa. To the developing sense of Yoga Mâyâ, Śiva
gave truth after truth, till the highest truths were revealed to her,
which form the Agamas and Nigamas. The revelations to the developing
sense of humanity are the Tantras.

Sri Krishna was born that men might come up to His ideal. He is the
first Purusha. The limitations or Mâyâ of the solar system do not touch
Him. He is the Lord of many solar systems. Even the materials that form
the solar systems have their manifestation from him. Nothing that we
know of, nothing that we are composed of, nothing that shapes our
experiences, that causes our likes and dislikes, limits Krishna. Even
Brahmâ, Vishnu and Śiva, the triune aspect of the second Purusha, are
limited by the universe they lord over. Śiva is also called an aspect of
the first Purusha in Saiva Purânas.

Sri Krishna is Nirguna, for the Gunas we know of do not touch Him. He is
the Absolute, for the relativities we know of, or which we may even
think of, have no place in Him. The other Avatâras are said to be
manifestations of the second Purusha. But Krishna is Bhagavân Himself,
_i.e._, the first Purusha (I-3-28).

There are three aspects of the Absolute, the non-transformable, which
uphold creation. It is through these aspects that all beings come into
existence, prosper and dissolve. It is through them that they are
brought nearer and nearer in every Kalpa to Íshvara. In the perfected
being, the aspects of sat (existence), chit (consciousness) and ânanda
(bliss) are not restricted by the conditions of the universe in which
those aspects are developed. When beings are perfected in this way, they
reach the plane of Krishna, which is beyond the seven-fold plane of the
Cosmic Egg. The Gopis are such perfected beings.

It will be out of place to enter here into a detailed study of these
aspects. But it will be necessary to make a brief reference to them in
order to understand the aspect of Bliss, as a factor in spiritual
Evolution.

It is the _existence_ aspect of the underlying ray of the Absolute
Brahmân, in every individual, that gives a continuity to individual
existence, through thousands of births and experiences, and makes
individual evolution a possibility.

The _consciousness_ aspect of the ray unfolds the blunt inanimate sense
into the most highly developed mind. It gives the wisdom side of man’s
evolution, which leads to the path of Jnâna.

Then there is the _Bliss_ aspect of the ray, which directly leads to the
union of the human soul with the Over-soul, of Jiva with Íshvara, and it
leads to the path of Bhakti. It is the sensation of pleasure that makes
the lowest organic form, the primordial cell, break through the inertia
of Tamas. The cell moves about, either for cell union or for the
assimilation of food, because these give rise to some sensation, call it
pleasurable, if you like. It is not so easy to form an idea of the
sensation of pleasure in the vegetable kingdom, but the excitement
caused by the union of the sperm cell with the germ cell cannot but
strike any one with the existence of some such feeling, though in a most
rudimentary state.

Animals feel pleasure in the company of their female partners. They also
love their offspring. This gives rise to family connections, to the
formation of society and of social virtues. With the evolution of body
and mind, pleasures become many-sided, and the acquirement of pleasure
becomes in itself the principal factor in the development of man. Man
seeks his pleasure outside himself, and he does so either for himself or
for others. A point is reached when self is lost sight of and self
sacrifice for the good of others becomes a duty of pleasure. Self is
estranged from the narrow groove of personality. It tries to identify
itself with all beings. There is philanthropy, there is universal
kindness. Still the differences cause unrest and disquiet. Self finds no
rest, till it seeks its reality, till it makes a homeward journey, for
even its own personality and the outside world lose all charm for it.
Self finds bliss in self void of personality. This is spiritual bliss
attained by those that are Antarmukh (facing inwards) and not by those
that are Bahir Mukh (facing outwards). Self when seeking self becomes
united to the universal self as its eternal friend and its real aspect.
The universal self in Vrindâvana is Sri Krishna. And the bliss of the
Gopis is self-attainment, attachment to self or Âtmâ and not to non-self
or worldly connections.

It is to those and those only that eagerly desire to make this inward
journey that the Vrindâvana Lilâ is addressed.

Nanda is bliss, he is spiritual Bliss the Bliss of an Antar Mukha. It is
spiritual bliss that attracts spirit unto itself. It is the field for
spiritual growth, the nursery ground of enthusiastic devotion and, what
is more, of devotional love. The ideal spiritual bliss is that of
Râdhikâ and of her fellow Gopis. It is the Bliss aspect of Ísvara that
in the Jiva causes mutual attractions and makes devotion a law, a
necessity. Reflected in the Universe at large, it is the one bond that
holds together all beings, and becomes a force of attraction on all
planes. Man is guided by bliss in his relations to the Universe. He is
guided by bliss in his relation to himself.

Nanda is located in the brain, in the thousand-petalled Lotus. The
spiritual seat in the head is Gokul, the first abode of Nanda.

Krishna appears in Gokul. The devotee sets out on his devotional
journey.

The first impediment of a devotee is Mala or impurity. In spite of
himself, he cannot get the better of his passions, his personal desires.
They have such a strong and apparent charm, there is such an hereditary
and accumulated attraction toward them, that they easily overcome the
devotional life in its infancy. The fascinating Pûtanâ overtook all by
her charms and she found an easy access to Krishna himself. She made an
attempt to nurse Krishna with poisoned milk. She was killed and Mala was
removed (X. 6.)

The next impediment is Vikshepa or distraction. The mind, with its load
of outside experiences always responding to the outside world, is so
much distracted, thinking now of this and now of that, that it has to be
set right before further development is possible. The cart has to be
upturned, with its load of food-articles, the cart of mind with its load
of experiences. That is, the man has to become Antarmukha (X. 7.) When
this is done, the Asura of distraction, Trinâvarta or whirlwind, is
easily killed (X. 7.). The Gopis were now void of impurities and void of
distraction; yet more they were being attracted to Krishna. Krishna
favored them by stealing the fruits of their karma or action and
accepting them for himself. Sri Krishna said to Arjuna, "You have a
right to the Karma only and not to the fruits thereof." The senses of
the Gopis used to roam about in the performance of daily duties, and
they brought back perceptions and conceptions for the day which were
worked out by the Gopis as duty required. The perceptions and
conceptions are the milk-products and milk. They were churned into the
karma of the Gopis. The senses are the cows; the outside objects of
perception, their grass. The Brahmâ Vaivarta Purâna says: — "_Ghrita_ is
obtained from milk, _Yajna_ is performed with _Ghrita_, and all
happiness arises out of the performance of Yajna." _Prakriti Khanda_.
The preparation of milk products is the karma or sacrifice of the Gopis.
(X. 8.).

The husk-stand is the discriminating faculty, that which separates the
husk from the grains. When Krishna becomes fastened to the
discriminating faculty (not that any one can fasten him with any effort
of his own), when right and wrong are centered in him, self becomes
abnegated and offered up entirely to Krishna, Egoism and ignorance, the
pair of Arjuna trees disappear, though deeply rooted in man (X. 10).
When fruits are offered to Krishna, there is a rich return (X. 11.).

We have reached here a point in spiritual progress. Personality has been
completely given up. Brain intellect is no longer congenial to spiritual
progress. The head retards the spiritual man and does not carry him
forward.

The elders of Gokula sat in council and they decided to leave Gokula for
Vrindâvana.

Vrindâvana is the Heart. The eight-petalled lotus in the heart is the
permanent abode of Sri Krishna. The twelve forests are twelve centres 4
x 3, the primary number being 4, the number of the sacred Tetraktys.
Within the heart, the only Purusha is Sri Krishna. AH others have to
make themselves passive to Him. The Gopis, the ideal devotees of the
Purusha in the heart, left the world outside, their husbands and homes,
and placed themselves entirely at the service of the Divine Lord. Let us
approach the sublime truths of the Vrindâvana Upâsanâ with the utmost
solemnity possible. Those who cannot bring themselves to an exalted
appreciation of the Vrindâvana Lilâ had better not read the Bhâgavata at
all.

The Gopas and Gopis went to Vrindâvana. Râma and Krishna headed the Gopa
boys and looked after the calves.

What are the cows and calves? Who are the Gopas, the Gopa boys and the
Gopis?

Once more let us understand the triad — Adhyâtma, Adhibhûta and
Adhidaiva. Take sight.

The sense of sight comes in contact with the outside world and carries
the perception of sight to the possessor of the eye, under the guidance
of a conscious energy. The senses and the mind are Cows or Adhyatma. The
outside world is grass or Adhibhûta. The possessor of the senses and the
mind is the Gopi, the Ego or Jiva. In Vrindâvana, the Gopis are the
highest Jivas or Rishis, as explained in the Upanishads. The conscious
energy is the Gopa or Adhideva.

The Adhidevas are the Vedic Devas, as we have already seen.

The Gopas are reincarnations of the Devas, as explained in the
Upanishads.

Ordinarily the Gopas lead the cows or the Adhi-Davas lead the senses,
but in Vrindâvana the Devas surrender themselves entirely to Krishna.

The calves or the Vatsas are the modifications of the senses and the
mind — the Vrittis.

In Vrindâvana, Râma and Krishna first tended the calves. The Gopa boys
were the attendants of Râma and Krishna, the pârishads or companions who
reached very near the state of divinity, the work-mates of Bhagavân in
the preservation of the universe.

The Lord tended the Vrittis of the mind. Therefore they could not go
astray.

Now let us follow up the working of the divine in the heart of the
individual and the killing of all obstacles.

_Vatsa, Baka, Agha and Brahmâ_. — The Vatsa Asura is a Vritti of the
mind. If a non-spiritual Vritti becomes unconsciously mixed up with the
spiritual Vrittis of the mind, it has instantly to be killed.

Baka or the crane, stands for religious hypocrisy. Spiritual life
rejects all hypocrisy, all traces of untruth, in any form.

When these two Asuras are destroyed, a third Asura appears on the scene,
the terrible Agha. Agha is sin, an evil deed. The sins of a man, his
past evil deeds, stand up for a while and swallow up all that is divine
in him. Even Gods can not overcome Agha. Those who know the struggles of
a devotee know very well how hard it is when all that is evil in man the
accumulated tendencies of innumerable births, rise up in rebellion as it
were at a certain stage of his progress. Who else but Sri Krishna can
save a devotee at such a crisis. The flesh itself has to be destroyed
and the whole nature changed. The devotee undergoes a second birth as it
were. His Vrittis are not the Vrittis of yore; even the energies that
guide these vrittis undergo change.

Every Brâhmana knows the Mantra that is recited for the suppression of
Agha (Agha-marshana). It goes back to the pre-manifesting period, when
days and nights did not exist.

The serpent Agha swallowed up Krishna and his companions.

Krishna came out victorious and he revivified his companions.

The Vrittis underwent change by this process and also those that guided
them. It was another creation altogether. The forms and varieties of
Brahmâ’s creation had no meaning now in them.

What if the Vrittis were now removed from the Gopis or the Gopa boys
kept out in a body? They all lost their distinctive features; their
differences were gone. All was become divine — the Vrittis and the Gopa
boys.

So when Brahmâ concealed the calves and the Gopa boys, he only thought
of his own creation. The Vrittis and the Gopa boys came out in divinity
which was now their only reality. They were all parts of Sri Krishna
himself. They were manifestly sparks or rays of Âtmâ itself. The senses
and the mind were now irresistibly drawn towards their calves. The Gopas
were more than ever attached to their boys. Balarâma noticed this and
spoke to Krishna. The query of Râjâ Parikshit and the reply of Suka
explain the whole position. This brings us to the end of the KUMARA LILÂ
of Sri Krishna which prepares the way for the union of the human soul
with the over-soul, of Jiva Âtmâ with Parama Âtmâ. We come next to the
POUGANDA LILÂ when Krishna guided the mind itself and all were attached
to Him.

_Krishna, the tender of the cows._

Râma and Krishna were now in charge of the cows themselves, the senses
and the mind.

_The Kâliya serpent._

Yâma is the Death-god. The river Yamunâ is his sister. _Kâliya_ is from
kala or time. Kâliya with its one hundred hoods is the lifetime of one
birth, represented by one hundred years. The serpent could not be killed
but only sent away from Vrindâvana. The devotees got over the periodic
death-transformation.

_The conflagtation and Pralamba._

As the followers of Krishna were saved from death on the one hand, so
they were saved from conflagration (annihilation of form) and loss of
the Ego (Balarâma) on the other hand.

In the kingdom of Divine Bliss, everything now was divine. The purified
mind did not go astray. It remained entirely attached to Sri Krishna.
Personality was now thoroughly conquered. The Jiva had acquired matter
congenial to the plane of the first Purusha, and he no longer ran the
risk of death or annihilation. The Gopis completed their homeward
journey and they knew nothing except their Lord Krishna. They gave up
all for the sake of the Lord. The Lord was all in all to them. They were
bound to Him by the most sacred ties of devotional love. We shall now
see how they became united to the Divine Lord.

_The Gopis and the stealing of their clothes._

The rains followed the summer and there was a flow of spirituality all
around. The autumn followed and it was calm, clear and transparent.

When the water is pure, transparent and calm and the sun is over it can
anything prevent the reflection of the sun’s image on its bosom? The
Gopis drew unto themselves the image of Sri Krishna. There was no
muddiness in them as in ordinary mortals; they had not the calls of
other desires.

It is not till the ear ceases to hear the outside world, that it is open
to the music in the heart, the flute of Sri Krishna.

The Rupa of Krishna becomes manifest when all worldly Rupas lose their
charm.

The Gopis even smelt the divine fragrance of Sri Krishna; they felt his
divine touch and they tasted the honey of Sri Krishna’s lips.

The charms of the world all dead and gone, there remains only one
attraction, that of Sri Krishna, the only Purusha in Vrindâvana.

The Gopis now had a right to approach Sri Krishna as their lover. They
became full of Him (_tanmaya_), and they worshipped Kâtyâyani (Yoga
Mâyâ) to gain their object. (X. 21.)

It was then that Sri Krishna stripped them of their clothes (X. 22.) No
false shame, no false considerations should now deter the Gopis. They
should lay themselves bare before Sri Krishna. No hiding, no half
speaking. "Virtuous girls, I know your resolve. It is to worship me. I
also approve of it and so it must succeed." This was the long and short
of the whole affair. The Gopis saw they were found out. So it was to be
a matter of open love now.

We shall pass over a few digressions before we come back to the Gopis
and the consummation of their love (Râsa Lilâ).

_Vedic Brahmâns and their wives._

Those that were under the influence of Vedic Yajnas could not easily
accept the self-sacrificing path of compassion.

The students of Bhagavat Gitâ know very well that Sri Krishna raised his
voice against Vedic karma and preached the performance of unselfish
karma in its stead. The Vedic Brâhmanas did not follow Him for a time.
But the tide overtook their unselfish wives who were attached to the
path of unselfishness and compassion blended as it was with the path of
devotion to the Lord Sri Krishna. The wives brought their husbands round
and the cause triumphed in all India.

_The raising of Govardhana._

The raising of Govardhana is only a sequel to the suppression of Vedic
Yajnas. Why are the gods, headed by Indra, worshipped? Because the
Indriyas are their channels of communion with men and they can influence
men through those channels. They are therefore called Adhi-Devas. They
are also the hands of providence and through them we get all the things
of the earth. But can they give us anything that is not allotted to us
by our own karma? If a prolonged and unhindered connection with the
manasic world or a prolonged Svarga experience is brought about by the
performance of Vedic Yajnas it is on account of the superior force
exerted over the Devas, acquired by such performances, and is therefore
due to karma. The Devas cannot override karma.

But still men have to depend upon the gods in their everyday lives. They
are the hands of the karmic dispenser. True they deal out things
according to the karma of men. But they give to men the desired objects
of life and in return they expect yajna-offerings to them. This is the
old law of the existence of beings. The universe itself is the outcome
of sacrifice and inter-dependence, the law of giving and taking.

If men broke that law, what wonder that the gods should resent it! But
there was a higher law, governing men and Devas alike, the law of direct
communion with the lord of all, the supreme karmic dispenser, the
Adhi-yajna of Bhagavat Gitâ. If men placed themselves and their karma
entirely at the service of the Lord, where was room left for the Devas?
Against such men the gods themselves lost all power.

The Hill Govardhana is the accumulated karma of the Gopis, which gives
the pasture ground for their cows. Krishna bears the burden of His
Bhaktas’ karma, and He lifted up the karmic hill of his devoted band
with very little effort of his own. And when Sri Krishna bears the karma
of His Bhaktas, the Devas are powerless against them. It is karma that
nourishes the senses and hence the hill is called Govardhana (nourisher
of the cows).

_The Installation._

When the gods were displaced from their position of leadership, whom
were the cows, the senses, to follow? Surabhi, the heavenly mother of
the cows, said: — "Now that thou hast taken the place of Indra, we shall
call thee our Indra, or GOVINDA." Śridhara says, _go_ means a cow, as
well as Svarga. Govinda is one who acquires supremacy over the cows or
over Svarga. So the word means Indra as well. But the peculiar
significance of the word Govinda has been elaborated in the Brahmâ
Sanhita and other works.

The plane of the first Purusha, which is the common plane of innumerable
solar systems, with their sevenfold planes, has two broad aspects
Vaikuntha and Goloka. Vaikuntha has reference to the solar systems as a
whole. The energies that guide the Brahmândas proceed from the plane of
Vaikuntha. Both Śiva and Vishnu are aspects of the first Purusha, but
not Brahmâ. Śiva Loka or Kailâsa is therefore included in Vaikuntha. The
plane of Brahmâ is Satya Loka or Brahmâ Loka, the highest plane of the
Brahmânda. The worshippers of Brahmâ or Hiranya-garbha reach the plane
of Brahmâ Loka. There they remain till the Brahmânda becomes dissolved
at the end of the life period of Brahmân.

Vaikuntha is the plane of Vishnu as the first Purusha. He has four
aspects on that plane — Vâsudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha.
His female aspect is Lakshmî. The worshippers of Vishnu, Preserver of
the Universe, reach this plane.

Goloka is a higher aspect of the plane of the first Purusha. There
Krishna is not the Lord of the Universe. He is the Lord of only His
followers — those that give up everything for His sake. The highest
spiritual life is on this plane. In Vaikuntha there is the majesty of
power. In Goloka there is the sweetness of love. Love is a surrender
which we all owe to Krishna, who makes the greatest sacrifices for us.
Íshvara gives us existence, consciousness and bliss, so that we may
develop new centres that approach the state of Íshvara, and when we do
that we have no right to keep them to ourselves, but should give them
back to Him from whom we owe them. Nothing can please the Lord so much
as when we pay this willing homage to Him. He has full control over the
senses and experiences of the Gopas and Gopis that dwell in Goloka. He
can turn them to any use He likes. They are His own property, and the
dwellers of Goloka form His own household. He is one with them as they
are with Him. The highest spiritual life is in Goloka. Every kalpa adds
to the number of the devoted band.

Vaikuntha is represented in the Dvârakâ Lilâ. The acts of Sri Krishna
that constitute the Vrindâvana Lilâ are constant (nitya).

They are reproduced in all Kalpas and on all the Dvipas or globes for
the benefit of all Bhaktas. When there is the full manifestation of
Krishna in any Kalpa, the Gopas and Gopis also appear with Him. But His
relations with them are meant to serve as a guide only for the initiated
Bhaktas, and not for the world at large. Sri Krishna as an Avatâra is
different from Sri Krishna as the beloved and the lover. As an Avatâra,
He forces allegiance, and expects it as of right. As a lover, He seeks
His Bhaktas as they seek Him.

The Lord of Goloka is Govinda. When Sri Krishna was installed as
Govinda, he had a right to the company of the Gopis, and not before. The
Gopis became the property of Govinda, as soon as Krishna asserted
himself as such. The Installation precedes the Râsa Lilâ. The
significance of this Installation will never be lost sight of by those
who want to make a critical study of the Râsa Lilâ, or to apply the
ordinary canons of morality to this most sacred, most sublime, and most
soul-enchanting act of Sri Krishna the RÂSA LILÂ.


THE RÂSA.


Who can presume to explain Râsa! What mortal mind can approach, even in
conception, the divinity, the sublimity of the five chapters on Râsa!
The Gopis were on the field of action. They had their husbands, their
parents, their sons; they had their worldly duties to perform, some of
them arduous enough to require constant attention. When the time came,
however, for union with the Purusha of the Heart, when the signal music
was heard, every Gopi threw aside all Karma, all actions, all
attachments, all bonds and offered herself up completely to the Lord.
Where is the glory of those that give up the world, that give up all
duties in life, of those that force themselves out of all actions that
they may be devoted to the Lord within and the Lord without? And when
the Gopis approached the Lord, there was no trace of human passion in
them, no love of human flesh, no idea of material gratification. They
placed themselves entirely at the service of the Lord.

But there were those that had the yearning to do so, to free themselves
from all material obstacles in their way, to offer their individuality
to the Lord, but the Prârabdha Karma was too much for them. Their past
Karma had woven a net round them which they could not break through. It
was the yearning which the Lord looked to and not the overcoming of
obstacles in the way. And though they died with that yearning only, the
death completed what they yearned for, for then the Union was complete.

The Vrindâvana Lilâ is Nitya or constant. The Râsa Lilâ is for all time,
for all Bhaktas.

The night is the time for rest but it is the rest of bodily actions.
For, towards the close of night, spiritual activity sets in. Men get
spiritual teachings and spiritual advancement without knowing it. But it
is only a few, who have a conscious union with the Lord who manifests
Himself in the heart of man.

Purusha is one. Jiva Prakritis or Para Prakritis are many. To Purusha
Jiva must be always negative, however positive it may be towards the
forms of Apara Prakriti. Purusha is always Male. And to Him, Jiva
Prakriti is always a female. As the Vaishnavas say, there is only one
male in all Vrindâvana and that male is the Lord Sri Krishna. In
devotional practice, one should consider himself a female, the male
being the Lord of the universe, as reflected in the heart of every man.

The Gopis heard the music and went to Sri Krishna.

If you are of the world, go back to the world. But no, the Gopis were
not of the world. They had every right to the union. And Sri Krishna
could not deny them His companionship. Nay, it was a great thing to the
Lord Himself that Jivas should return to Him with all their spiritual
experiences that the Universe might be served and protected. The
concession was natural, the joy was mutual. But in the midst of the
union itself, there is a danger, a most subtle danger, that of Egoism,
"I am in union with the Lord." The first and the last weakness of
humanity, this I-ness is a drawback even in the highest spiritual life
of man. The Gopis thought of _themselves_ and there was an instant break
in the union. The Lord disappeared. The Lord incarnated for the good of
the Universe and not of individuals, and if individuals were dear to Him
it was for the sake of the Universe. He was no special property of the
Gopis; What did the Gopis do? They imitated his actions on the Earth.
They followed His footsteps wherever found. They approached the Lord as
much as they could in idea.

At last they broke out, "Thou art surely not the son of a Gopi. Thou art
the inmost seer of all beings. Implored by Brahmâ thou hast appeared, O
friend in the line of the Sâtvatas, for the protection of the Universe."

The Gopis now realised that the Lord they wanted to be united to was the
Lord of the Universe. His mission was the protection of the universe.
Could they share with Him? It was then and then only that they could
expect a continuity of the union. It was not for themselves only that
they had any further right. Hut the Gopis now cared not for themselves.
They cared for their Lord, whom they now knew and realised to be the
Lord of the Universe.

And lo! the Lord appeared again. This time there was union but not
individual union. Hand in hand, the Gopis formed a circle with their
Lord, not the individual Lord, but the universal Lord making Himself
many. Every Gopi held the hands of the Lord and all the Gopis
collectively formed one circle, and the circle went on dancing and
dancing. The Devas looked with wonder and envied the lot of the Gopis.
Let that wonder grow amongst us. Let us catch a glimpse of that divine
dance, that Râsa Lilâ, that men may become gods on the Earth.

_Sudarsana, Sankha Chuda, Arishta, Kesi and Vyoma._

The Vidyâdharas and Yakshas were controlled and other obstacles
overcome. Even the barrier of Akâsa, which forms the final limit of
actions and wisdom in the universe, was pushed through. Work was now
over at Vrindâvana. The Bhaktas were now fitted to pass across the
limits of Brahmânda to Goloka.

_Akrûra._ With the advent of Akrûra, we move backwards from the heart to
the head, from the world of Bhaktas to the world at large. When Kansa
presided over Mathurâ, men were guided by Self in their thoughts and
actions. Jarâsandha, who represented the Brahmânism of self-seeking
Yajnas, was the friend of Kansa.

Akrûra was the messenger selected by Kansa to fetch Râma and Krishna
from Vrindâvana. _Krûra_ is cruel. Akrûra is one who is not cruel. It
was not cruelty on the part of Akrûra to take Râma and Krishna to
Mathurâ. He was no doubt seemingly cruel to the Gopis. But he was kind
to the generality of mankind, who did not live in Vrindâvana.

The Gopis, followers of the path of Devotion, could not bear the sight
of him and they called him a mock Rishi. But he was really a Bhakta
himself, though he adhered to Vedic Karma. He performed the Vedic
Sandhyâ and recited Vedic Mantras; he was rewarded with the vision of
Râma and Krishna in meditation.

This votary of Karma Kânda was a fitting messenger from Kansa. He united
in himself the spirituality of Karma Kânda and the unselfishness of the
path of Devotion.

From Vrindâvana to Mathurâ we proceed from the inner man to the outer
man, from the everlasting companions of Sri Krishna to His surroundings
as an Avatâra.

In the Vrindâvana Lilâ, we find Krishna in his relations to the holy
beings and to the Devas who incarnated with Him for the good of the
universe. Whenever a great Avatâra appears on the Earth, his companions
also appear with him. His relations to his own companions serve as a
living example to others. They afford a lesson to all Bhaktas for all
time. This part of the Lilâ is based upon undying, eternal truths, upon
the permanent relations between Jiva and Íshvara. The heart of man is
the seat of this Lilâ, which can be reproduced at all times, in the
heart of every real Bhakta. The Gopis are the same now as they were when
Krishna sanctified the Earth. They are the preservers of the universe,
according to Gopi Chandana Upanishad. And their ranks may be increased
by devoted Bhaktas who give up all for the sake of the universe and its
Lord.

There is one point more in the relations of the Gopas and Gopis to
Krishna. Love was the one bond which united them all to Him. They sought
him in their inmost heart, they talked to him, they knew him as one of
themselves. He was a son to them, a companion, a lover. Whatever pleased
the Lord pleased them. Whatever was His work was their work too. They
abnegated themselves. They merged themselves entirely in Krishna. There
was no question of duty; no rules, no injunctions. The Vedas did not
exist for the dwellers in Vrindâvana. The Smritis were not written for
them. They did not tread the path of karma. Love-bound, they gave
themselves entirely up to Krishna and they did not stop to ask the
reason why, they did not stop to cast a glance at the world they left.

But the union was hardly complete; the Gopis had scarcely embraced their
friend, their lover, than he disappeared into the regions of the
Universe. The message came that He was to be sought in the Universe.

The Lord of the Universe was not the lover of the Gopis. He could not be
the direct object of their love. But, when the Gopis knew that their own
Krishna was the Lord of the Universe, they failed not to bear the same
love to Him. But the majesty of the Universe was ill-adapted to the
sweetness of their domestic love. They were out of harmony with the
lordliness of their Lord at Dvârakâ. So when the Lord finally received
them at Kurukshetra, the Gopis said that, home-bred as they were, they
could not forget the lotus feet of Krishna in their heart. They were
re-united to Krishna, as the all-pervading Purusha, the preserver of the
Universe. The veil may be lifted a little further. We have already seen
that life in the higher Lokas is purely unselfish, for, as the Bhâgavata
says, the higher Lokas are transformations of Nishkâma Karma. We are to
abnegate ourselves before we can go to Mahar Loka. This abnegation can
be accomplished by merging ourselves in some one who stands across the
Trilokî. Love alone breaks the barrier between man and man. If we can
get an object of unselfish love, to whom we can give everything that we
have, we may easily learn the lesson of self-surrender. By the bond of
love, souls group together in Mahar Loka and they learn the first
lessons of universal life. What better object of love can one have than
one of the Avatâras himself? What union will be more glorious, more
lasting, more spiritual? And Sri Krishna offered himself for such love
to those that are devoted to him. And the most fortunate amongst
humanity are those that complete the love-union with Sri Krishna. They
form an inseparable group with Him, and the plane of their union is
Goloka. The Vaishnavas place that Loka higher than Vaikuntha Itself. It
is the plane proper of Sri Krishna, where he is always at home with his
Bhaktas. There may be many centres round which souls might gather in the
higher Lokas, many types of universal life, but there is none so high,
so noble, so glorious, as the centre afforded by Lord Krishna. When
Krishna incarnates, He cannot do so singly. The Gopis appear with Him.
The Chaitanya Charitâmrita, which embodies the teachings of Chaitanya,
says that the Lilâ of Krishna is reproduced throughout the fourteen
Manvantaras over all parts of the Brahmânda, just as days and nights are
produced over all parts of the earth. The Lilâ is constantly performed
in Goloka, and it is reproduced over parts of Brahmânda, according to
the will of Krishna. Vrindâvana is only a reflection of Goloka.

When we go to Mathurâ, we find the Asura attendants of Kansa
representing all the predominating vices of the time. Pride, arrogance,
envy and malice, worldliness and anger, all that keep up the materiality
in man were to be found among the best of his followers and advisers.

They were all subdued and Kansa himself brought down from his high
platform.

When Krishna went to Mathurâ and Dvârakâ, we find him as an Avatâra,
inaugurating a new era in the spiritual history of the Universe. We find
him there in all His majesty, glory and divine lordship. Those who
follow him there follow the path of Divine Lordship. Those who follow
Him at Vrindâvana follow the path of Divine Love and sweetness.

*END OF VRINDAVANA LILÂ,*



MATHURÂ LILÂ


THE HUNCH-BACKED GIRL AND THE PÂNDAVAS.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 48-49.*

To keep his word, Sri Krishna went with Uddhava to the house of the
hunch-backed girl. He gratified her desire and gave her what she wanted.

Sri Krishna then went with Râma and Uddhava to the house of Akrûra.
Akrûra rose up to receive them. He adored Krishna saying: — "Thou hast
come down for the good of the Universe. Whenever the olden path of the
Vedas is crossed by the evil paths of unbelievers, Thou dost manifest
Thyself, as now, by the attribute of Satva."

Sri Krishna said: —

"Good people like yourselves are to be always adored by men and the
Devas. For while Devas are self-seeking, Sâdhus are not so. The places
of sanctity on the earth and idols and stones, that symbolise divinity,
have the power to purify the mind after long service, while the very
sight of Sâdhus is purifying. Go thou to Hastinâpura and make enquiries
about the Pândavas. They are still young and they have lost their
father. We hear they are living with Dhritarâshra. But the blind king is
too much in the hands of his evil sons and he may not be impartial to
his nephews. So enquire whether his treatment of them is good or bad.
When I know that, I shall do what is best for my friends."

Akrûra went to Hastinâpura and learned from Vidura and Kunti the cruel
treatment of the Pândavas by Dhritarâshra and his sons. Dhritarâshra
confessed that he could not hold the balance evenly between his sons and
nephews, as his attachment for his sons was too great.

Akrûra returned to Mathurâ and informed Râma and Krishna of all that he
had heard.


JARA SANDHA, YAVANA AND DVARAKA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 50.*

Kansa had two wives, Asti and Prâpti. They were the daughters of
Jarâsandha, king of Magadha (modern Bihar). The latter king learned from
his daughters the fate of Kansa and became highly enraged. He collected
an army of thirteen Akshauhinis, (one Akshauhini consisting of 21,870
chariots, as many elephants, 65,610 horses, and 109,350 foot), and he
besieged Mathurâ on all sides.

Krishna thought for a moment how he could best serve the object of his
Avatarship. He found in the army before him a collection of the forces
that oppressed the Earth. He thought of killing the army and of saving
Jarâsandha, who might be instrumental in raising such large armies over
and over again. "For it is to remove the weight now oppressing the Earth
that I have incarnated. I have to protect the good people and kill those
that are not so." Two chariots came from the Heavens fully equipped.
Râma and Krishna drove out on those chariots. They killed the whole army
in no time. Râma fell upon Jarâsandha and well-nigh killed him when
Krishna caused him to be set free. Jarâsandha, in his disgrace, thought
of practising asceticism but he was kept off by other kings who consoled
him with words of worldly wisdom.

The king of Magadha was however not to be easily put down. Seventeen
times he led his army to an attack on Mathurâ, and each time he lost his
entire army at the hands of Krishna and his followers. Before the fight
commenced for the eighteenth time, Kala Yavana appeared on the field of
battle with three crores of Mlechha troops. Krishna held counsel with
Râma as to the course to be adopted. The brothers might engage with Kala
Yavana in fight, but Jarâsandha would make havoc in the meantime amongst
their clansmen at Mathurâ. So Krishna planned the erection of a fort,
within the seas, where he might harbour his clansmen in safety. So the
fort was built extending over twelve Yajanas. It was laid out with a
town of exquisite skill and workmanship. High buildings with golden
towers, extensive roads, large gardens enhanced the beauty of the town.
The Devas offered their best things and the Lokapâlas surrendered their
rulership to Sri Krishna. By Yogic powers Krishna removed his kinsmen to
this town. He then left the town in charge of Balarâm and himself went
out to fight with Yavana. (Yavana, is one altogether outside the pale of
Hinduism, a Mlechha.)

Kala Yavana recognized Krishna and pursued him. Krishna drew him inside
a mountain cave. There Kala Yavana found a man lying asleep. He thought
Krishna was pretending sleep. So he gave the man a kick. That man had
been sleeping for a long time but he gradually opened his eyes and in
anger looked at Yavana who became consumed by the fire proceeding from
that look.


MUCHUKUNDA


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 51.*

Râjâ Parikshit asked — "Who was the man and why was he sleeping in the
cave?"

Suka replied: —

"He was a descendant of the line of Ikshvâku, son of the great King
Mândhâtâ, by name Muchukunda. He had helped the Devas in their fight
with the Asuras. When the fight was over, the Devas showed him the cave
and asked him to rest there. The Devas blessed him with a long sleep."

When Yavana was killed, Krishna appeared before Muchukunda.

"Who mayest thou be with such overpowering glory?" the latter asked.

Krishna replied: —

"My births and deeds are infinite. Even I cannot count them. At the
request of Brahmâ, I am at present born in the line of Yadu as the son
of Vâsudeva, for the protection of religion and for the rooting out of
the Asuras. I have killed Kansa who is no other than Kalanemi. I have
killed Pralamba and others. This Yavana was also killed by me, by means
of the fire from your eyes. I have now come here to favor thee, for I am
bound by affection to my votaries. Ask what boon thou likest. Thou shalt
have all thou desirest."

Muchu Kunda remembered the foresaying of Garga that there was to be a
Divine Incarnation in the 28th Kali Yuga and he therefore knew Krishna
to be the divine Lord. He asked for no boon but devotion to Krishna.

"Truly" said Krishna, "thy mind is pure and noble for it is not tempted
by boons. Those that are wholly devoted to me do not yield to desires.
Those that are not devoted may control their mind by Prânâyama and other
practices but, as their desires are not overcome, they are found to go
astray. Roam about the Earth, with mind fixed in me. Thy devotion shall
never fail. Wash away the impurities of the present life with devoted
concentration of the mind. In the next birth thou shalt be born as a
Brâhmana and become the greatest friend of all beings, and thou shalt
then fully attain me."

Muchu Kunda came out of the mountain cave. He found that the animals and
trees were all short-sized and hence inferred it was Kali Yuga. He made
his way to the north and engaged himself in devotional practices in the
Badari Asram of Nara and Nârâyana.

(What has been the next birth of Muchu Kunda? How has he befriended the
universe! Or is he still to come?)

Krishna came back to Mathurâ. He killed the Mlechha troops. His men and
cattle were carrying the booty to Dvârakâ. When on the way, Râma and
Krishna were attacked by Jara Sandha with a large army. The brothers
feigned a flight. Jara Sandha chased them with his army. They climbed up
a mountain. Jara Sandha made a search, but could not find them. He then
set fire to the mountain sides. The brothers jumped down eleven Yojanas
and made their way to Dvârakâ.



DVARAKA LILÂ.


RUKMINI.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 52-54.*

We have been already told of Balarâma’s marriage with Revati.

Sri Krishna married Rukmini in the Râkshasa form. (The seizure of a
maiden by force from her house, while she weeps and calls for
assistance, after her kinsmen and friends have been slain in the battle
or wounded and their houses broken open, is the marriage styled
Râkshasa).

King Bhishmaka of Vidarbha had five sons, Rukmin, Rukmaratha,
Rukma-vahu, Rukma-kesa, and Rukma-malin. He had also one daughter
Rukmini. (_Rukma_ means bright, radiant, also gold).

Krishna and Rukmini had heard of each other and they made a vow of
marriage. Rukmin however betrothed his sister to Sisupâla, son of the
king of Chedi. Rukmini secretly sent a Brâhmana messenger to Krishna and
gave him a letter. The Brâhmana was received well by Krishna. He read
out the following letter of Rukmini.

"O Achyuta, thou most lovely of all, my mind has forced through all
false shame and has become attached to thee, for I have heard of thy
excellences, which reach the ear only to remove all sufferings and I
have heard of thy beauty, which gives all that is desired to the seer
thereof.

"O Mukunda, O Nrisinha, where is the girl, however wellborn, modest and
great she may be, that will not choose thee as her husband, unequalled
as thou art in birth, grace, beauty, wisdom and riches, and the most
pleasing to all mankind.

"Therefore thou art chosen by me as my husband. I offer myself up to
thee. Come thou here and make me thy wife. Thou dost deserve to have me
soon. Let not Sisupâla touch me, like a jackal touching the share of a
lion.

"If I have done virtuous acts, if I have rightly served the great Lord
Śiva, then come, O brother of Râma, and hold my hand and let not others
do so. The day after to-morrow is fixed for my marriage. Come thou
unnoticed. Defeat Sisupâla and others and carry me away by force in the
Râkshasa form of marriage.

"I shall tell you how it will not be necessary to kill my friends within
the house. The day before the marriage there will be a large gathering
outside the town to worship the goddess Durga, and I as bride shall be
present there."

The message was thus delivered. Sri Krishna vowed to marry Rukmini by
force. He ordered Daruka (His charioteer) to bring the chariot. Then he
took the Brâhmana with him and reached Kundina, the town of Bhishmaka,
in one day.

Kundina was gay with preparations for the marriage. Dama Ghosa, the
father of Sisupâla, also made grand preparations. He came with a large
retinue to Kundina. Bhishmaka went out to receive him, and led him to
his quarters. Sâlva, Jarâsandha, Dantavakra, Viduratha, Paundraka, and
many other kings, friendly to Dama Ghosha joined him with large armies.
They anticipated a fight with Krishna and Râma and they came well
prepared for the occasion. Râma heard that Krishna went all alone and he
heard of the preparations made by his enemies. So he lost no time in
gathering a large army and marching for Kundina.

Bhishmaka heard of the approach of Krishna and Râma. He gladly received
them and gave them quarters. Rukmini, guarded by the army, went to the
temple of Durga with her companions. She worshipped the Goddess and
prayed for Krishna as her husband. She then left the temple and was
about to get into the chariot when Sri Krishna carried her off by force
in his own chariot.

Jara Sandha and other kings were defeated by the Yadu chiefs and they
took to flight They consoled Sisupâla and then each went to his own
place.

Rukmin vowed that he would not return to Kundina till he had killed
Krishna and rescued his sister. He attacked Krishna but was defeated by
him. Krishna was about to kill him when Rukmini interceded on his
behalf. Krishna then partially shaved his head and chin and left him.
Being thus disgraced, Rukmin made a town called Bhojukata and lived
there.

Krishna brought Rukmini to Dvârakâ and married her in due form.


PRADYUMNA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 55.*

The god Kâma is an aspect of Vâsudeva. He had been burnt before by the
fire of Rudra’s anger. To get back his body, he was born as the son of
Krishna by Rukmini and became known as Pradyumna. He was not unlike his
father in any respect The Asura Samvara, who was Kâma (or passions)
incarnate, (Kâma rûpin), knew the child to be his enemy and stole him
away and threw him into the sea. A big fish swallowed him up. That fish
with others was caught in a large net by the fishermen. They presented
the fish to Samvara. The servant cut open the fish and the child came
out. They made him over to Mayavati. She was frightened but Naroda told
her all about the child. This Mayavati, named Rati, had been the wife of
Kâma. She had been waiting for the reappearance of her husband in a
body. She was employed by Samvara as a cook. Knowing the child to be
Kâma Deva, she nursed him and became attached to him. In time, Kâmadeva
grew tip and Mâyâvati approached him with expressions of love. "What is
this mother?" asked Kâmadeva, "Why this change in your feelings towards
me!"

"Thou art Kâmadeva, O Lord, son of Krishna. Thou hadst been stolen away
by Samvara. I am thy wife Rati. The Asura had thrown thee into the sea,
when a fish devoured thee. I have got thee back from the stomach of that
fish. Samvara is an adept in many forms of Mâyâ. Kill him by means of
Delusion and other powers of Mâyâ known to thee."

Rati gave to Pradyumna the Vidya known as Mahamaya, the destroyer of all
other Mâyâs.

Pradyumna fought with Samvara and killed him with the help of Mahamaya.
Rati then carried her husband to Dvârakâ. There the women mistook him
for Krishna and bashfully moved aside. Even Rukmini could only half
decide that he was her son. Krishna appeared with Vâsudeva, Devaki and
Râma. Nârada related the story of Pradyumna’s adventures. There was
great joy at Dvârakâ and people welcomed Pradyumna and his wife.
Pradyumna was an image of Krishna. What wonder if even his mother became
attached to him!


THE JEWEL SYAMANTAKA, JAMBAVATI AND SATYABHAMA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 56.*

King Satrajit was a votary of the Sun-God. He got a present from his
deity of the Syamantaka jewel. He came to Dvârakâ with the jewel on his
neck. He shone with such a lustre that people took him for the sun. The
jewel used to bring forth 16,000 palas of gold every day. Sri Krishna
asked the jewel for the king of the Yadus, but Satrajit would not part
with it. One day his brother Prasenajit rode on a hunting excursion into
the forests, with the jewel on his neck. A lion killed him and his horse
and carried away the jewel. The Bear-chief, Jâmbavat, killed the lion
and took away the jewel into his cave and made it the plaything of his
son. When Prasena did not return, Satrajit thought that he had been
killed by Krishna. People also suspected him. To get rid of this unjust
reproach, Sri Krishna went on a search himself with his men. He traced
out the remains of Prasena, the horse and the lion. He then entered the
cave of the Bear-chief, leaving his men outside. The infant son of
Jâmbavat was playing with the jewel. Krishna appeared before the boy.
The nurse screamed aloud. Jâmbavat rushed out in anger and attacked
Krishna. The fight went on for twenty eight days and at last Jâmbavat
was overpowered. He then knew Sri Krishna as Vishnu, the primal Purusha
and prayed to Him. Sri Krishna said the object of his entering the cave
was to recover the jewel, as he wanted to remove the suspicion that he
himself had taken it. Jâmbavat gladly offered his daughter Jâmbavati
with the jewel to Sri Krishna. He then returned to Dvârakâ with his
bride and the jewel. He called an assembly and, in the presence of all,
made over the jewel to Satrajit. He also told him how he got it back.
Satrajit felt deeply mortified. He came back to his kingdom and thought
how he could best appease Sri Krishna whom he had offended by groundless
suspicion. At last he offered his daughter Satyabhama to Krishna and
also the jewel. Krishna said: — "We do not want the jewel, O King. Thou
art the votary of the Sun-God. Let it remain with thee. We shall partake
of its blessings."


SYAMANTAKA, AKRURA, KRITAVARMAN AND SATA DHANU:


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 57.*

Hearing that the Pândavas had been killed in the Lac-house, Râma and
Krishna went to Hastinâpura to offer their condolences. Taking advantage
of their absence, Akrûra and Kritavarman said to Satadhanu, — "Satrajit
promised the Syamantaka jewel also when he made over his daughter to Sri
Krishna. Why shall not the jewel be taken from him? Why shall he not
share the fate of his brother?" The wicked Satadhanu under this evil
inspiration killed Satrajit while he was asleep and carried away the
jewel. Satyabhama went to Hastinâpura and informed Krishna of the
killing of her father. The brothers came back to Dvârakâ. Krishna made
preparations for killing Satadhanu and for recovering the jewel from
him. Satadhanu sought the help of Kritavarman. But he knew too well the
might of Sri Krishna and he declined to give any help. Satadhanu then
turned to Akrûra. Akrûra knew Krishna as Âtmân and he would not do
anything. Satadhanu however left the jewel with Akrûra and fled away on
horse-back. Râma and Krishna followed him to Mithila. He left the horse
and ran away on foot. Sri Krishna overtook him soon and cut off his head
with the Chakra.

He then searched for the jewel, but could not find it. Turning to his
brother, he said, "For nothing have I killed Satadhanu. The jewel is not
with him." Râma replied — "Satadhanu must have left the jewel with some
one. Try to find him out. Go back to Dvârakâ. I shall in the meantime
pass some time with my friend, the king of Mithila." Râma remained at
Mithila for a few years. Duryodhana also came there. He learned the art
of fighting with the mall from Râma.

Sri Krishna went back to Dvârakâ and told Satyabhama how he had killed
Satadhanu but could not find the jewel. Kritavarman and Akrûra heard all
that took place and they fled for their lives from Dvârakâ. In the
absence of Akrûra the people of Dvârakâ suffered from bodily and mental
pain as well as disturbances from the Devas and the elements. Those who
forgot the glory of Sri Krishna attributed all this to the absence of
Akrûra. But it was not possible that such things should happen where Sri
Krishna resided (without His wish.)

"Once upon a time there were no rains at Kâsî (Benares). The king of
Kâsî offered his daughter Gandivi to Svafalka and it rained at Kâsî.
Akrûra is the son of that Svafalka. He has got the powers of his father.
It rains wherever Akrûra lives and the land becomes free from epidemics
and calamities."

The old people talked thus. Sri Krishna knew it was not so. He sent for
Akrûra, shewed him every respect, and smilingly addressed him thus: — "O
lord of giving (_Danapati_), Satadhanu must have left the Syamantaka
jewel with thee. I knew this from before. Satrajit left no son. His
daughter’s son is therefore his true heir. But it is not so easy to keep
the jewel. Thou dost keep the observances well. So let it be with thee.
But in the matter of this jewel, even my brother does not believe me.
Therefore shew it once and give peace to your friends." Akrûra made over
the jewel to Sri Krishna. He shewed it to his clansmen, in order to
remove the stain of suspicion against him. He then returned it to
Akrûra.


THE OTHER WIVES OF SRI KRISHNA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 58-59.*

Sri Krishna went to see the Pandava brothers at Hastinâpura. They gave
him a most devoted reception. One day Krishna and Arjuna went on a
hunting excursion to the side of the Yamunâ.

They saw there a most beautiful girl. Arjuna asked who she was. The girl
replied: — "I am daughter of the Sun-god. Desiring Vishnu to be my
husband, I have performed great Tapas. I shall have no other husband.
Let that friend of the friendless be pleased with me. My name is
KALINDI. I am to reside in the waters of the Yamunâ in the abode built
by my father till I see Achyuta." Krishna placed the girl on his chariot
and took her to Yudisthira.

It was at this time that Krishna got a town built by Visvakarmân at the
request of Arjuna and the Khândava forest was burnt by the Fire-god.

The rains over, Krishna went to Dvârakâ and there duly married Kalindi.

Vinda and Anuvinda, two princes of Avanti, were followers of Duryodhana.
Their sister MITRA VINDA wanted to marry Krishna but they dissuaded her.
So Krishna carried away the girl by force and married her. She was the
daughter of his father’s sister Rajadhi-devi.

In Ko-sala, there was a virtuous prince named Nagnajit. He had a
daughter named SATYA, also called NAGNAJITI after her father. No one
could marry her who had not overcome seven fierce bulls. Krishna went to
Kosala with a large retinue and he was received well by the prince. The
girl prayed to the Fire-god to have Krishna as her bridegroom. Krishna
overcame the bulls and married the girl.

Krishna then married BHADRA of Kekaya, the daughter of her aunt
(father’s sister) Sruta-kirtî. He also carried away by force LAKSHANA,
the daughter of the king of Madra.

Naraka, son of the Earth, deprived Aditi, mother of Indra, of her
ear-rings, Varuna of his umbrella and Indra of his seat at Mani Parvat
(Mountain of jewels). Indra complained to Krishna. He went with his wife
Satyabhâma to Prâkjyotisha, the town of Naraka. That town was well
fortified and it was protected by the Daitya Mura and his meshes.
Krishna forced his passage through all obstacles and had a fight with
Mura whom he slew with his Chakra. The seven sons of Mura, — Tâmra,
Antariksha, Sravana, Vibhâvasu, Vatu, Nabhasvat and Varuna, — under the
lead of one Pithha also attacked Krishna, but they were all killed.
Naraka then himself fought with Krishna and was killed by him. The
Goddess Earth then approached Krishna and, after adoring him, said: —
"This Bhagadatta, son of Naraka, takes Thy shelter. Please pass Thy hand
round his head."

Krishna gave assurances of safety and he then entered the house of
Naraka. Naraka had carried away 16 THOUSAND GIRLS by force. Krishna sent
away these girls and much treasure to Dvârakâ. He then went with
Satyabhâma to the place of Indra and there restored the ear-rings to
Aditi. At the request of his wife, Krishna uprooted the Pârijâta tree
and placed it on the back of Garuda. The Devas resisted, but Krishna
defeated them all. The Pârijâta tree was planted in the quarters of
Satyabhâma and it spread its fragrance all round. Krishna married the 16
thousand girls at one and the same moment by assuming as many forms.


KRISHNA AND RUKMINI.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 60.*

Krishna and Rukmini were once sitting together, when, turning to his
wife with a smile, Krishna spoke the following words:

"Princess, thou wert coveted by great and powerful kings. Thy brother
and thy own father offered thee to Sisupâla and others. How is it then
thou didst accept me who am not thy equal? See how we have taken shelter
in the sea being afraid of the kings. Having powerful enemies, we can
hardly be said to occupy our kingly seats. O thou with beautiful
eyebrows, woe to those women who follow such men as have unknown and
uncommon ways of their own. Poor as we are, wealthy people hardly seek
us. It is meet that they should marry or make friendship with each
other, who are equals in wealth, birth, power and beauty. It is through
ignorance and shortsightedness that thou hast married one who is void of
all Gunas (good qualities) and who is praised only by Bhikshus
(beggars). Therefore do thou seek some Kshatriya king who will be a
match for thee. Sisupâla, Sâlva, Jarâsandha, Danta Vakra and other kings
and even thy own brother Rukmin, blindfolded by pride, shewed hostility
to me. For the repression of their pride, I the punisher of evil men
brought thee here. But we are indifferent to the body and the house,
void of all desires, fixed in self, all full, the light within, without
actions."

(Without anticipating our general study of the Dvârakâ Lilâ, it is
sufficient to mention here that Rukmini is the spiritual energy of Mula
Prakriti, or rather the light of Purusha, as reflected on Prakriti. The
gist of what Krishna says is that there is an essential difference
between Prakriti and Purusha. Purusha is void of Gunas, while the Gunas
form the essence of Prakriti. Coming from Prakriti, Rukmini must follow
the Prâkritic elements. And if Krishna wrested her away from the hands
of the material energies of Prakriti and even from her own Prâkritic
basis (her brothers and father), it was because the material energies
had asserted themselves too much. This was done in the Seventh
Manvantara, when the spiritual ascent was a Kâlpic necessity. Was
Rukmini to remain wedded to Krishna for the remaining period of the
Kalpa, or was she to go back to her brothers and their friends?).

Rukmini replied: —

"O Lotus eyed! even so it is as thou sayest. I am quite unlike thee, the
Great Bhagavat. Lord of even Brahmâ, Vishnu and Śiva, Thou art plunged
in Thy own greatness. What am I to Thee, the Gunas forming my essence?
It is only ignorant people who worship me. (For fear of kings, thou hast
taken refuge in the sea.) But the kings are the Gunas, (Sound, Touch,
Form, Taste, and Smell which compose the object world.) For fear of
them, as it were, thou hast taken refuge in the inner ocean of the
heart, and there thou dost manifest Thyself, as pure Chaitanya. The
object-seeking Indriyas are no doubt thy constant enemies. But when thou
speakest of giving up kingly seats, why even thy votaries give them up,
as darkness itself. The ways of even Munis who worship Thy Lotus feet
are unknown; what of thine own? When their ways are uncommon, what of
thine? Thou art poor indeed, for there is nothing besides thee, (and so
nothing can form Thy wealth.) But thou dost receive the offerings of
others and they seek thee. It is not through ignorance, but knowing that
thou art the Âtmâ of the Universe, that I have sought Thee. The flow of
Time that arises from Thy eyebrow swallows up the desires of even Brahmâ
and others. I did not even seek them for Thy sake. What speakest thou of
others? As the lion carries away his share by force from other animals,
so thou didst carry me away from amongst the kings. How can I believe
that thou didst take shelter in the Sea from fear of such kings? Anga,
Prithu, Bharata, Yayâti, Gaya and other jewels of kings gave up their
kingdoms and sought thee in the forests. Did woe befall them that thou
talkest of woe to me? The Gunas have their resting place in thee. Thou
art the home of Lakshmî. Moksha is at Thy feet. What foolish woman shall
follow others, neglecting Thee? I have accepted thee, the Lord and soul
of the Universe, the giver of all blessings here and hereafter. Let thy
Moksha-giving feet be my shelter. Let those women have the kings for
their husbands, those asses, bullocks, dogs, cats, and servants who have
not heard of Thee.

"(What is man without Âtmâ?) Those that have not smelt the honey of Thy
Lotus feet seek the dead body, though it seems to be alive, consisting
of flesh, blood, bone, worms, excrement, phlegm, bile and gas, covered
over with skin, hair and nails." (Mula Prakriti in the Universe, or
Budhi in man, is wedded to Âtmâ, represented by Sri Krishna. The kings
represent here the followers of material elements in the Universe or in
man.)


THE SONS OF KRISHNA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 61.*

The wives of Krishna had each ten sons.

_The Sons of Rukmini were._ — Pradyumna, Charudeshna, Sudeshna,
Chârudeha, Suchâru, Châru Gupta, Bhadra Châru, Châru-Chandra, Vichâru
and Châru.

_The ten sons of Satyabhâma were._ — Bhânu, Subhânu, Svarbhânu,
Prabhânu, Bhânumat, Chandra-bhânu, Vrihat-bhânu, Ati-bhânu, Sribhânu and
Prati-bhânu.

_Jâmbavati had ten sons._ — Sâmva, Sumitra, Purujit, Satajit,
Sahasrajit, Vijaya, Chitraketu, Vasumat, Dravida, and Kratu.

_Nâgnajiti had ten sons._ — Vira, Chandra, Asva-sen, Chitragu, Vegavat,
Vrisha, Âma, Sanku, Vasu and Kunti.

_Kalindî had ten sons._ — Sruta, Kavi, Vrisha, Vira, Suvâhu, Bhadra,
Sânti, Darsa, Pûrna Mâsa and Somaka.

_Mâdrî had ten sons._ — Praghosha, Gâtravat, Sinha, Bala, Prabala,
Urdhaga, Mahâsakti, Saha, Ojas and Aparâjita.

_Mitravindâ had ten Sons._ — Vrika, Harsha, Anila, Gridhra, Vardhana,
Annâda, Mahânsa, Pâvana, Vahni and Kshudhi.

_Bhadra had ten Sons._ — Sangrâmajit, Brihat Sena, Sûra, Praharana,
Arijit, Jaya, Subhadrâ, Râma, Âyu and Satya.

Rohini (illustrative of the 16 thousand wives) had Tâmra-taptâ and other
sons.

Pradyumna had, by Rukmavati, daughter of Rukmin, one son Aniruddha.

There were millions and millions in the line of Krishna. Though Rukmin
vowed enmity to Krishna, he gave his daughter to Krishna’s son, out of
regard for his own sister Rukmini.

Balavat son of Kritavarman married Chârumati, daughter of Rukmini.

Rukmin also gave his grand-daughter Rochanâ in marriage to Aniruddha.


THE DEATH OF RUKMIN.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 61.*

Râma, Krishna, Pradyumna, Rukmini and others went to Bhoja Kata, the
seat of Rukmin, on the occasion of Aniruddha’s marriage. When the
marriage was over, the assembled kings advised Rukmin to challenge Râma
to a game of dice. At first, the wager was laid by Râma at one hundred,
one thousand and ten thousand gold coins respectively. Rukmin won all
the games. The king of Kalinga derided Râma by shewing his teeth. Râma
did not like this.

Rukmin then laid the wager at one lakh of gold coins. Balarâma won the
game. But Rukmin falsely declared that he had won it.

Râma then laid the wager at ten krores. Râma won the game this time
also. But Rukmin falsely said: — "I have got it let the bystanders
decide this." At this time, a voice from the heavens said that Balarâma
had got the victory by fair means and Rukmin was telling a lie, But
Rukmin under evil advice did not mind this. He and the kings derided
Balarâma. "Keeper of cows, what know you of games? They are the province
of kings." Balarâma could bear it no longer. He took his club and killed
Rukmin. He then broke the teeth of the king of Kalinga. The other kings
fled in fear.


BANA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 62-63.*

Bâna, the eldest son of Bali, had one thousand hands. He was a votary of
Śiva. Śiva asked him to name a boon and he prayed to Śiva to be the
keeper of his place. Once he told Śiva that there was too much
fighting-inclination in his hands, but he found no match for him except
Śiva himself. Even the elephants of space ran away in fear. Śiva said
angrily: — "Fool that thou art, thou shalt fight with one equal to
myself. Thy eminence shall then be lowered." The Asura chief gladly
waited for the day.

Bâna had a daughter named Usha. She met Aniruddha in a dream. On getting
up, she exclaimed, "Friend where art thou?" Her attendant Chitra-lekhâ,
daughter of the minister, named Kumbhanda, enquired whom she was looking
for. Usha described the figure she had seen in her dream. Chitra-lekhâ
pointed out to her Devas, Gandhavas, and men, one after another. At
last, when she pointed to the figure of Aniruddha, the princess
indicated him as her lover. Chitra-lekhâ by her Yogic powers went to
Dvârakâ and carried away Aniruddha, while he was asleep. The prince and
the princess passed their days together in the privacy of Usha’s
apartment. The men of the guard found some significant change in Usha.
They informed the King. Bâna came in unexpectedly and he found his
daughter playing with a young man. The armed attendants of Bâna attacked
Aniruddha but he killed many of them with his club and they ran away.
Bâna then tied the prince with serpents’ twinings.

Nârada gave the news to Krishna. Râma and Krishna, with their followers
and a large army, attacked Sonita-pura, the seat of Bâna. Śiva engaged
in fight with Krishna, Kartikeya with Pradyumna, Bâna with Satyaki,
Kumbhanda and Kûpakarna with Balarâma and Bâna’s son with Sâmba. Krishna
worsted Śiva and Pradyumna worsted Kartikeya. Bâna then attacked
Krishna. After some fighting the king fled away. The Fever with three
heads and three feet, known as Śiva’s Fever, joined the battle. To meet
him, Krishna created the Fever known as Vishnu’s Fever. The two fevers
fought with each other. Worsted in the fight, the Fever of Śiva sought
the protection of Krishna. He got assurances that he need have no fear
from Vishnu’s Fever.

Bâna returned to the charge. Krishna began to cut off his hands with the
Chakra. Śiva appeared at the time and asked Krishna to forgive Bâna as
he had forgiven his father Bali. Krishna replied: — "O Lord, I cannot
kill this son of Bali. I promised Prahlâda that I would not kill any of
his line. His many hands caused grief to Earth and I have lopped them
off. Now four hands shall only remain. With these hands, Bâna shall be
thy constant companion, without fear of death or infirmity." Bâna bowed
down his head. He made over his daughter and Aniruddha to Krishna.


NRIGA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP, 64.*

The sons of Krishna went out to play in the forest. They saw a huge
lizard in a certain well. They tried all means, but could not raise it
up. They then informed Krishna. He raised it, without effort, with his
left hand. The lizard assumed the form of a Deva. On inquiry from
Krishna, he thus related his own story. "I am king Nriga of the line of
Ikshvâku. My charities knew no bounds and they have become proverbial.
One cow belonging to a Brâhmana got mixed with my herd and, without
knowing that, I gave her to another Brâhmana. While he was taking away
the cow, the owner found her out. The two Brâhmanas quarrelled and they
came to me. They said: — ’You are a giver as well as taker.’ I became
surprised and, when the facts were known, I offered one lakh of cows for
the return of the mistaken cow. One of them however said, ’I am not
going to take a gift from the king.’ The other said: — ’I do not wish
for other cows even if they be ten lakhs.’ They both went away. At this
time the messengers of Yâma came and carried me away. Yâma said: — ’I
see no end of your merits and the places acquired by them. Do you prefer
to suffer for your demerit first or to enjoy those heavenly things?’ I
took the first choice and down I fell as a lizard into this well. Look
how I have suffered for taking a Brâhmana’s property." The king then
thanked Krishna for his favor and ascended to the heavens. Krishna gave
a discourse to those around him as to how iniquitous it was to take a
Brâhmana’s property, consciously or unconsciously.


BALARÂMA AND THE DRAWING OF THE YAMUNÂ.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 65.*

Balarâma went to Vrindâvana to see his old friends. The Gopas and Gopis
gave him a warm reception and they complained of the hard-heartedness of
Krishna. Balarâma remained there for the two months, Chaitra and
Vaisakha. The Gopa girls used to join him at night. One day he went in
their company to the side of the Yamunâ. Fermented juice (Vâruni) fell
from the trees, as directed by Varuna. Balarâma drank the juice with the
Gopa girls and became intoxicated. He called the Yamunâ to his side for
a pleasure bath, but she did not came. Balarâma thought he was drunk and
therefore the river goddess did not heed his words. He drew her by the
ploughshare and said in anger: — "Wicked thou, I called thee. But thou
didst not hear. I shall tear thee asunder with this plough." Terrified,
the river goddess adored Balarâma and sought his pardon. Balarâma
forgave her. He then had a pleasure bath with the girls. Lakshmî made
presents to him of blue clothes, rich ornaments and an auspicious
garland.


POUNDRAKA AND THE KING OF KÂSÎ (BENARES).


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 66.*

Poundraka, king of Karusha, thought, "I am Vâsudeva." With this
conviction, he sent a messenger to Krishna, calling him a pretender. He
was staying with his friend, the king of Kâsî. Krishna attacked Kâsî,
and both the princes came out with a large army. Krishna found Poundraka
had the conch, the disc, the club, the bow made of horn and the
Srivatsa, all his own symbols. He was adorned with the Kaustubha and a
garland of wild flowers. He had yellow clothes and rich crest jewels. He
had Makara-shaped ear-rings. He was seated on a false Garuda. Seeing
Poundraka represent him in this way, as it were on the stage, Krishna
began to laugh. He killed both the princes in the fight. Poundraka had
constantly meditated on Hari and he assumed his form and became all Hari
himself.

Sudakshina, son of the Kâsî prince, vowed vengeance and worshipped Śiva.
Śiva, being pleased with his worship, asked him to name a boon. He asked
how he could kill the slayer of his father. Śiva told him to invoke
Dakshinâ Agni, with a Mantra of black magic (_Abhichâra_). Sudakshina
did so with the aid of Brâhmanas. The fire went towards Dvârakâ to
consume Krishna. Krishna sent his Sudarsana disc which overpowered the
fire. The fire fell back on Kâsî and consumed Sudakshina and the
Brâhmanas. Sudarsana still followed the fire. The divine weapon burnt
the whole of Kâsî and went back to Krishna.


DVI-VID (MONKEY).


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 67.*

The Monkey-general Dvi-vid was a minister of Sugriva and brother of
Mainda. He was a friend of Naraka, son of Earth. To take revenge for his
friend’s death, he began to do all sorts of mischief, especially in the
regions of Dvârakâ.

Balarâma was in the midst of some girls on the Raivataka hill. The
monkey made all sorts of gestures to annoy and insult the girls and he
provoked Balarâma again and again who then killed Dvi-vid, to the great
joy of all.


SÂMBA, LAKSHANÂ AND BALARÂMA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 68.*

Lakshanâ, daughter of Duryodhana, was to select her own husband, and
there was an assembly of princes. Sâmba, son of Jâmbavati, carried away
the girl by force. The Kauravas could not brook this insult. Bhishma,
Kâma, Salya, Bhûri, Yajna Ketu and Duryodhana united to defeat Sâmba and
they brought him back as a prisoner. Nârada gave the information to the
Vrishnis and their chief Ugrasena gave them permission to fight with the
Kauravas. Balarama did not like that the Kurus and Yadus should fight
with one another. So he went himself to Hastinâpura. He remained outside
the town and sent Uddhava to learn the views of Dhrita-Râshtra. The
Kurus came in a body to receive Balarâma. When the formalities were
over, Balarâma composedly asked the Kurus, in the name of king Ugrasena,
to restore Sâmba. The Kurus proudly replied: "We have given the kingdom
to the Vrishnis and Yadus. A wonder indeed, they want to become our
equals and to dictate to us! Surely the lamb cannot take away the lion’s
game."

Balarâma thought how foolish the Kurus had become. They did not know the
powers of Ugrasena and of Krishna. In anger he exclaimed, "I will make
the earth to be stripped of all Kauravas" He took his plough and gave a
pull to Hastinâpura. The town became topsy-turvy. The Kurus came and
adored him. They brought back Sâmba and Lakshanâ. Duryodhana made large
presents and Balarâma became appeased. He went back with Sâmba and his
bride to Hastinâpura and related what had happened to the Yadus.


NARADA AND THE WIVES OF SRI KRISHNA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 69.*

"What a wonder that Sri Krishna married 16 thousand girls, all at one
and the same time, with but one body!" So thought Nârada and he came to
see things with his own eyes at Dvârakâ. He entered one of the rooms and
found Krishna seated with one of the girls. Krishna washed the feet of
Nârada and sprinkled the water over his body.

The Rishi entered another room. Krishna was playing at dice with one of
his wives and with Uddhava. He entered another room and found Krishna
was taking care of his children.

So he entered room after room. Krishna was either bathing or making
preparations for the sacrifice, or feeding Brâhmanas, or making recitals
of Gâyatrî, or riding, or driving, or taking counsel of ministers, or
making gifts, or hearing recitals of sacred books. He was in one place
following Dharma, in one Artha and in another Kâma.

Nârada smiled and said: — "O Lord of Yoga, I know the Yogic Mâyâ, by
service at Thy feet, as it is manifest in me, though hard of perception
by those that are themselves under the influence of Mâyâ. Now permit me
to roam about the Lokas, filled with Thy glory, singing Thy deeds, which
purify all the worlds."

Sri Krishna said: —

"O Brâhmana, I am the teacher, the maker and the recogniser of Dharma.
It is to teach people that I have resorted to all this. O Son, do not be
deluded."


THE RAJA SUYA AND JARASANDHA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 70-73.*

Krishna was holding council in the Assembly Room called Sudharmâ. A
Brâhmana came as a messenger from the Rajas who had been imprisoned by
Jarâsandha and confined in a hill fort. The Rajas sought their delivery
from Krishna, who had defeated Jarâsandha seven times and had been
defeated by him only once.

Nârada appeared at the time. Krishna enquired from him about the
Pândavas. The Rishi said: —

"Râjâ Yudhisthira intends to perform the great Yajna Râjâ Sûya in Thy
honor. Please give thy consent". Krishna turned towards Uddhava and
asked for advice.

Uddhava gauged the feelings of Nârada, of Krishna and the assembly and
said: —

"It is meet thou shouldst help thy cousin in the performance of Râjâ
Sûya Yajna and also that thou shouldst protect the Rajas that seek
relief from thee. Kings all round will have to be conquered at the Râjâ
Sûya sacrifice. The defeat of Jarâsandha will follow as a matter of
course. Thus shall we see the fulfilment of our great desire and the
liberation of the Rajas shall redound to Thy glory. Both ends will be
served in this way. But Jarâsandha is very powerful. He should not be
fought with while at the head of his large army. Bhima is equal to him
in strength. Let him fight singly with Jarâsandha. That king does not
refuse any prayer of Brâhmanas. Let Bhima ask for single combat in the
disguise of a Brâhmana. Surely that son of Pându will kill him in thy
presence."

Krishna gave kind assurances to the messenger of the captive kings and
left for Hastinâpura.

The Pândavas vied with one another in shewing respectful love to Krishna
and Arjuna delivered up the Khândava forest to Agni and liberated Mâyâ.
In return for this kindness, Mâyâ made the magical assembly ground for
the Yajna.

All the kings were brought under submission by Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula,
Sahadeva and the allied kings, except Jarâsandha.

Bhima, Arjuna and Krishna went to the seat of Jarâsandha in the disguise
of Brâhmanas.

They begged hospitality from the king. King Jarâsandha concluded from
their voice, their shape and from the arrow marks on their hands that
they were Kshatriyas. He also thought they were his acquaintances.
"These are Kshatriyas, though they wear the marks of brahmanas. I will
give them what they ask even though it be my own self, so difficult to
part with. Is not the pure glory of Bali spread in all directions,
though he was deprived of his lordly powers by Vishnu in the disguise of
a Brâhmana? Vishnu wanted to restore the lordship of the Trilokî to
India. Bali knew the Brâhmana in disguise to be Vishnu. He still made
over the Trilokî to him, even against the protests of his Guru Sukra.
This body of a Kshatriya, frail as it is, what purpose will it serve if
wide fame is not acquired by means of it for the sake of a Brâhmana?"
Turning to Krishna, Arjuna and Bhima, Jarâsandha said: — "O Brâhmanas,
ask what you wish for. Even if it be my own head, I shall give it to
you."

Krishna replied: "Give us a single combat, if you please, O King. We are
Kshatriyas and have come for fight. We desire nothing else. This is
Bhima. This is his brother Arjuna. Know me to be their cousin Krishna,
thy enemy." The king of Magadha broke out in loud laughter. In anger he
then exclaimed: — "O fools, I will give you a fight then. But thou art a
coward. Thou didst run away from Mathurâ and didst take shelter in the
sea. This Arjuna is not my equal in age. He is not very strong. He is
unlike me in his body. So he cannot be my rival. This Bhima is my match
in strength." So saying he gave one club to Bhima and took one himself.
The two heroes fought outside the town. The fight was a drawn one.
Krishna knew about the birth, death and life of Jarâsandha. He thought
in his mind about the joining together by the Râkshasa woman Jara. (The
legend is that Jarâsandha was born, divided in two halves, which were
put together by the Râkshasa woman Jara.) Krishna took a branch in his
hand and tore it asunder. Bhima took the hint. He put his foot on one of
the legs of Jarâsandha and took the other in his hand and tore asunder
the body in two equal parts.

Krishna placed Sahadeva, the son of Jarâsandha, on the throne of
Magadha, He then liberated the kings who had been imprisoned by
Jarâsandha. They were twenty thousand and eight hundred in number. They
saw Krishna with four hands and with all the divine attributes. Their
eyes, tongues and noses all fed upon him, as it were, and their hands
were stretched forth to receive him. They all fell at the feet of
Krishna and began to adore him.

"We do not blame the king of Magadha. O Lord, it is by Thy favor, that
kings are deprived of their thrones. Humbled, we remember Thy feet. We
do not long for any kingdom in this life, nor do we care for the fruits
of good works after death. Tell us that which will keep the recollection
of Thy feet ever fresh in this life."

Sri Krishna replied: —

"From this day forward let your devotion towards me, the Lord of all, be
made firm and fixed. Your resolve is commendable. It is true as you say
that riches and power turn the heads of princes. Look at Haihaya,
Nahusha Vena, Râvana, Naraka and others. Though kings of Devas, Daityas
and men, they came down from their lofty position through pride. Knowing
as you do that the body and all other things that have a beginning have
also an end, you should worship me, perform sacrifices and duly protect
your subjects. Indifferent to good and bad things alike, fix your minds
completely on me and you shall attain me in the end."

Krishna made arrangements for their comfort. At his bidding, Sahadeva
supplied them with kingly dresses and valuable ornaments and gave them
princely treatment. Krishna sent them to their respective kingdoms.
Krishna, Bhima and Arjuna then returned to Hastinâpura.


SISUPÂLA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 74.*

Yudhisthira commenced the performance of the Yajna. He asked permission
of Krishna to make a respectful call on the priests that were to
officiate at the ceremonies. Vyâsa, Bharadvâja, Sumanta, Gotama, Asita,
Vasishtha, Chyavana, Kanva, Maitreya and other Rishis, Drona, Bhishma,
Kripa and others, Dhritarâshra with his sons, Vidura, Brâhmanas, Vaisyas
and Sudras: all the kings and their subjects came to witness the Yajna.
The Brâhmanas prepared the sacrificial ground with golden ploughs. They
then initiated king Yudhisthira according to the Vedic rites. The Ritvik
Brâhmanas duly assisted at the performance of the Rajasûya. On the day
of extracting Sōma Juice, the king duly worshipped the priests and
their assistants. Then the time came for worshipping those that were
present at the assembly. Now who was to be worshipped first? There were
many head-men present and the members consulted with one another as to
who deserved to get the first offering but they could not come to a
decision. Sahadeva then addressed the meeting thus: —

"Sri Krishna, the Lord of the Sâtvats, deserves the first place. All the
Devas, Time, Space, wealth and all else are but himself. He is the soul
of the Universe. He is the essence of all sacrifices, the sacrificial
fire, the sacrificial offerings and Mantras, Sânkhya and Yoga; all
relate to him. He is the one without a second. Alone, He creates,
preserves and destroys. By His favor men make various performances and
from Him they attain the fruits of those performances. Give the first
welcome-offering of respect to that Great Krishna. All beings and even
Self shall be honored by this. Krishna is the soul of all beings. All
differences vanish before him."

All good people approved of the proposal of Sahadeva.

Râjâ Yudhisthira washed the feet of Krishna and sprinkled the water over
his own head and that of his relatives. He then made valuable offerings
to him. All people saluted Krishna, saying "Namas" (salutation) and
"Jaya" (Victory), and flowers rained over his head.

Sisupâla could not bear all this. He stood up in the midst of the
assembly and thus gave vent to his feelings.

"True is the saying that time is hard to overcome. Or how could even old
men be led away by the words of a boy? You leaders of the assembly know
best what are the relative merits of all. Do not endorse the words of a
boy that Krishna deserves to get the first welcome-offering of respect
Here are great Rishis, fixed on Brahmâ, great in asceticism, wisdom and
religious practices, adored even by the Lokapâlas, their impurities all
completely removed by divine perception. Overstepping them all, how
could this cowherd (_Gopâla_) boy, the disgrace (_pansana_) of his
family (_Kûla_), deserve to be worshipped, as if the crow (_Kâka_)
deserves to get the sacrificial oblation (_purodâsa_)? (Śridhara
explains this Śloka and the following ones as a veiled adoration of Sri
Krishna. _Gopâla_ is the protector of Vedas, of the Earth and of others.
The word _go_ means the Vedas and the Earth, besides "cow." _Kula
pânsana_ = Kulapa+ansana. _Kulapas_ are sinners. He who destroys
(_Ansa_) them is _Kula pânsana_. _Kâka_ may be read as compounded with
another word in the Śloka, in the form of _akâka_. _Kâka_ is ka + aka.
_Ka_ is happiness, _aka_ is misery. He who has neither happiness nor
misery is _akâka_ _i.e._, one who has got all his desires. One who has
got all his desires does not only deserve to get the _purodâsa_ offering
of the Devas but all other offerings. I do not think it necessary to
reproduce the double interpretation by Śridhara of the other Ślokas,
which is continued in the same strain.) He has gone away from his Varna,
Âsrama and Kula. He is outside all injunctions and duties. He follows
his own will. He is void of attributes (_Gunas_). How can he deserve to
be worshipped? King Yayâti cursed his line and it is not honored by good
people. His clansmen are addicted to unnecessary drinking. How can he
deserve to be worshipped? They left the the lands where the Rishis
dwell, and made their fort on the Sea; moreover they oppress their
subjects like robbers."

Sisupâla went on in this way and Krishna did not say a word. The lion
heeds not the jackal’s cry. The members of the Assembly closed their
ears and went away, cursing Sisupâla in anger. They could not hear the
calumny of Bhagavat. For he who hears the calumny of Bhagavat and of
those that are devoted to him and does not leave the place goes
downwards, deprived of all merits. The sons of Pându and their allies of
Matsya, Kaikaya and Srinjaya, took up arms to kill Sisupâla. Sisupâla
also took his shield and sword and reproved the kings on the side of
Krishna. Krishna then rose up and asked his followers to desist. He cut
off the head of Sisupâla with the Chakra. A flame like a glowing meteor
rose from the body of Sisupâla and entered Sri Krishna. For three
births, Sisupâla had constantly followed Vishnu in enmity. By this
constant though hostile meditation, he attained the state of that he
meditated upon. (The readers are reminded here of the story of Jaya and
Vijaya, the gatekeepers of Vishnu in Vaikuntha).

The Rajasûya sacrifice came to a close. Râjâ Yudhisthira performed the
bathing ceremony, enjoined at the close of a sacrifice (_avabhritha_).


THE SLIGHT OF DURYODHANA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 75.*

The fame of Yudhisthira went abroad. All sang the glory of the Rajasûya
sacrifice. Duryodhana became filled with jealousy. One day king
Yudhisthira was seated on a golden throne in the assembly hall, prepared
by Mâyâ, with Krishna and others around him. The proud Duryodhana,
surrounded by his brothers, entered the place with crown on his head and
sword in his hand, showering abuse on the gate-keepers and others. He
took land to be water and drew up his clothes. He also took water to be
land and wet himself. The Mâyâ (Magic), displayed by Mâyâ, in the
preparation of the assembly ground, caused this delusion. Bhima laughed,
and the females and other kings laughed too, though forbidden by
Yudhisthira. Krishna however approved their laughter.

Overpowered with shame, with his head cast down, Duryodhana silently
left the place and went to Hastinâpura.

Krishna kept quiet. He wished to relieve the Earth of the weight of the
Daityas who were oppressing her. It was only His will that Duryodhana
should thus be deluded (and the disastrous results would follow).


SÂLVA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 76-77.*

When Krishna carried away Rukmini, he defeated the kings in battle and,
amongst others, he defeated Sâlva, king of Soubha, the friend of
Sisupâla. Sâlva vowed at the time to kill all Yâdavas. He ate only a
handful of dust and worshipped Śiva. After a year Śiva became pleased
with his worship and asked the king to name a boon. He prayed for an
invulnerable chariot that would carry terror to the Yâdavas. At the
bidding of Śiva, Mâyâ prepared an iron chariot, called Soubha, which
could move at will to any place. Mounted on this chariot, Sâlva attacked
Dvârakâ, with his large army. He threw weapons, stones, trees and
serpents from above and demolished walls and gardens. The people of
Dvârakâ became very much oppressed. Pradyumna and other Yâdavas engaged
in fight with Sâlva and his army. Sâlva’s chariot was sometimes visible
and sometimes not. It now rose high and now came low. With difficulty,
Pradyumna killed Dyumat, the general of Sâlva. But still the fight went
on for seven days and seven nights. Krishna had been at Hastinâpura. He
felt misgivings and hurried to Dvârakâ with Râma. The fight was then
going on. Krishna placed Râma in charge of the town and himself went to
fight with Sâlva. Sâlva tauntingly addressed Krishna who gave the king a
heavy blow with his club. Sâlva disappeared. Instantly a man came and
informed Krishna that he was a messenger from Devaki. Sâlva had carried
away his father Vâsudeva.

Krishna asked: — "How could Sâlva conquer Râma so as to carry away my
father?" But he had scarcely finished when Sâlva appeared with somebody
like Vâsudeva, saying "O fool, here is your father. I will kill him in
your presence. Save him, if you can." He then cut off the head of
Vâsudeva, and entered the chariot. Krishna found this was all the Mâyâ
of Sâlva and in reality his father was neither carried off nor killed.
He broke the chariot Soubha with his club. Sâlva left the chariot and
stood upon earth, club in hand. Krishna cut off his hands and then cut
off his head with the Chakra.


DANTA VAKRA AND VIDURATHA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 78.*

Danta-Vakra was the friend of Sisupâla, Sâlva and Paundraka. He came to
attack Sri Krishna with club in hand and, seeing him, exclaimed: "It is
good fortune, that I see you. You are our cousin. But still you have
killed our friends and you now want to kill me. I will therefore kill
you with this club." (Śridhara gives a second meaning to this Śloka. At
the end of his third birth Danta Vakra was to regain his place in
Vaikuntha. Sisupâla and Danta Vakra, as explained before, were Jaya and
Vijaya, gate-keepers of Vaikuntha. By the curse of the Kumâras, they
incarnated as Asuras. The third and last cycle of material ascendancy
was to be ended. Jaya and Vijaya were not to incarnate any more.
Therefore Danta-Vakra exclaimed that it was his good fortune to meet
Krishna and so on). Krishna struck him with his club and killed him. A
flame arose from the body of Danta-Vakra, as from that of Sisupâla, and
it entered Sri Krishna.

Vidûratha, the brother of Danta-Vakra was afflicted with grief at the
death of his brother. He now attacked Krishna. Krishna cut off his head
with the Chakra.


BALARÂMA AND THE DEATH OF ROMAHARSHANA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 78-79.*

Balarâma heard that the Kurus and Pândavas were making preparations for
a mutual fight. He belonged to neither side. So he went out on pretext
of a pilgrimage. He went to Prabhâsa and performed the ablution
ceremonies. He went to several other places and at last reached the
Naimisha forest. The Rishis all rose up to receive him. Romaharshana,
the disciple of Vyâsa, did not leave his seat. He belonged to the Sûta
community, — a mixed class, born of Kshatriya father and Brâhmana
mother, — but he took his seat higher than that of the Brâhmanas.
Balarâma thought that the Sûta had learned the Itihasas, Purânas and all
Dharma Sâstras from Vyâsa but he had not learned humility and
self-control and that he had become proud of his wisdom. Balarâma cut
off his head with the tip of a Kusa grass. The Rishis broke forth into
loud cries of lamentation. Addressing Balarâma, they said: "O lord! thou
hast done a wrong. We gave him this seat of a Brâhmana. We gave him age
and freedom from fatigue, till the Yajna was completed. Not knowing
this, thou hast killed one who was, while on his seat, a Brâhmana. Thou
art not regulated by the Vedas. But of thy own accord, do thou perform
some Prâyaschitta, and thereby shew an example to other people."
Balarâma enquired what he was to do. The Rishi asked him to do that by
which their words as well as the act of Balarâma both might prove true.
Balarâma said: "One’s son is one’s own self. So say the Vedas. Therefore
the son of Romaharshana, Ugrasravas, shall be your reciter of Purânas.
He shall have long life and freedom from fatigue. What am I to do, O
Rishis, by which I may atone for my deed?"

The Rishis asked Balarâma to kill Valvala, son of the Dânava Ilvala, who
used to pollute the sacrificial ground on certain days of the moon. They
also asked Râma to travel all over Bhârata Varsha for twelve months, and
take his bath at the sacred places.

Râma killed Valvala and went out on pilgrimage. On his return to
Prabhâsa he heard about the death of the Kshatriya kings in the war
between the Kurus and the Pândavas. He went to Kurukshetra. Bhima and
Duryodhana were then fighting with each other with their clubs. Balarâma
tried to bring about peace. But they did not heed his words. He then
returned to Dvârakâ.

Balarâma once more went to Naimisha and he was adored by the Rishis.


SRÎDÂMAN.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 80-81.*

Krishna had a Brâhmana fellow-student, by name Srîdâman. He was
well-read in the Vedas, self controlled and contented. He had a wife. He
lived on whatever was freely given to him by others. His wife was
ill-clad and ill-fed, like himself. One day she approached her husband
and said: —

"Husband, your friend is the Lord of Lakshmî (the goddess of wealth)
herself. Go to him and he will give you wealth. He gives even his own
self to those that meditate on his lotus feet. What can not that Lord of
the Universe give to those that worship him with some desire?" Being
repeatedly pressed by his wife, he at last resolved to go to Krishna,
thinking that the sight of his friend would be his greatest gain. He
asked his wife for some offering for his friend, She begged four
handfuls of flattened rice (_Chipîtaka_) from the Brâhmanas and tied
that up in one corner of her husband’s rag. The Brâhmana went to
Dvârakâ, thinking all the way how he could meet Krishna. He passed
through certain apartments and went into one of the rooms. Krishna was
seated with one of his wives. He saw the Brâhmana from a distance and
rose up to receive him. He came down and embraced his former companion
with both his hands. Krishna gave him a respectful welcome and a seat by
his own side. He then talked with him about the old reminiscences of
student life, how they passed their days at the residence of Sandipani,
how faithfully they carried out the behests of the Guru and his wife,
how necessary it was to respect the Guru and such other topics. He then
smilingly looked at the Brâhmana and said: —

"What have you brought for me from your house? Even the smallest thing
brought by my Bhaktas becomes great by their love, while the largest
offerings of those that are not devoted to me cannot please me." The
Brâhmana, though asked, was ashamed to offer the flattened rice to the
Lord of Lakshmî and he cast down his head. The all-seeing Sri Krishna
knew the object of the Brâhmana’s coming. He found that the Brâhmana had
not at first worshipped him with the object of attaining wealth. It was
only to please his devoted wife that he now had that desire. The Lord
therefore thought he would give him such wealth as was difficult to
acquire. He then snatched away the flattened rice from the rags of the
Brâhmana saying, "What is this! O friend you have brought this highly
gratifying offering for me. These rice grains please me, the Universal
Âtmâ." So saying he partook of one handful. When he was going to take
the second handful, Lakshmî held his hand, saying, "O Lord of the
Universe, this much will quite suffice to give all such wealth as can be
needed for this world as well as for the next, such that it will even
please thee to see that thy votary has got so much wealth."

The Brâhmana passed the night with Krishna. The next morning, he went
home. Krishna went a certain distance with him to see him off. Krishna
did not give him wealth nor did he ask for any. He thought within
himself "What am I, a poor Brâhmana and a sinner and this Krishna, whose
breast is the abode of Lakshmî, gave me a reception as if I were a god.
The worship of His feet is the root of all Siddhis, all enjoyments, of
Svarga and even of Mukti. Kind as he is, he did not give me any the
least wealth, lest a poor man should forget Him by the pride of wealth."

When he reached home, he found palatial buildings, gardens and lots of
well-dressed male and female attendants. They received him with valuable
presents. His wife also came out to receive him, with a number of female
attendants. The Brâhmana was surprised. He saw this was all the outcome
of his visiting Sri Krishna. He controlled himself while enjoying this
immense wealth and, meditating on Sri Krishna, he at last attained His
supreme abode.


THE MEETING AT KURUKSHETRA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 82-84*

There was a total eclipse of the sun. Krishna and all the Yâdavas went
to Kurukshetra to bathe on the occasion. Nanda, the Gopas and Gopis, all
came there. Kunti and her sons, Bhishma, Drona and all the kings also
went. They all went together. (The Bhâgavata Purâna carefully avoids the
battle at Kurukshetra. It barely mentions the duel between Bhima and
Duryodhana. According to the Mahâbhârata, Bhishma, Drona and all the
brothers of Duryodhana had been killed before the fight took place
between Bhima and Duryodhana. But we find here that they were all
present at the Kurukshetra meeting. A slight explanation will be
necessary to put the readers on the right line of thought. The ideal of
the Mahâbhârata was Tatva-masi, the unity of Jiva and Íshvara. Krishna
and Arjuna looked alike. They were close companions. This Advaita view
struck at the root of Upâsanâ excepting as a means to an end; it put
into the shade altogether the Path of compassion, the Path of service of
which Nârada is the guide for this Kalpa. So we find even Bhishma being
killed. Bhishma died at Uttarayana and necessarily passed through the
Devayâna Mârga, as an Upâsaka. Whatever might be the goal of Upâsanâ,
the Bhâgavata Purâna treats of Upâsanâ as an end and not as a means. The
Bhâgavatas, the Sâtvatas, the Vaishnavas do not ask for Nirvana Mukti
they ask for devotion to the Lord of the Universe. They work in the
Universe as servants of the Lord, taking the whole Universe to be their
own selves. The Kurukshetra battle is therefore out of place in the
Bhâgavata Purâna. This explains the great meeting at Kurukshetra instead
of the Great Annihilation.)

Kunti complained to Vâsudeva that he did not make any enquiries about
her and her sons, in her many afflictions. Vâsudeva said, for fear of
Kansa the Yâdavas had scattered themselves, and they could not make
enquiries about one another. The Kurus, Pândavas and the kings were all
glad to see Krishna and his wives. Râma and Krishna duly honoured them
all and made valuable presents. They all admired the good fortune of the
Yâdavas, in having Krishna always in their midst.

Nanda and Yasodâ were duly respected by Vâsudeva and his wives.

Krishna met the Gopis in privacy. He embraced them all, and, after
enquiry about their safety, said smilingly: — "Do you remember us, O
friends? For the good of those whom we call our own, we have been long
in putting down the adverse party. Or do you think little of us, feeling
that we have been ungrateful to you? Know for certain, it is the Lord
who unites and separates all beings. As the wind unites masses of
clouds, grass, cotton and dust particles, and again disunites them, so
the creator does with all beings. Devotion to me serves to make beings
immortal. How glad I am that you have this love to me, for by that love
you gain me back. I am the beginning and end of all beings, I am both
inside and outside. As the material objects resolve themselves into the
primal elements, (Akâsa, air, fire, water and earth), so (the material
parts in) all beings resolve themselves into the primal elements. Âtmâ
pervades all beings as the conscious Perceiver (Âtmâ). Know both (the
Perceiver and the Perceived) to be reflected in me, the Supreme and the
Immutable."

The Gopis were taught this Adhyâtma teaching by Sri Krishna. Bearing
this teaching constantly in mind, they cast off the Jiva sheath (Jiva
Kosa) and they attained Krishna. And they said: — "O Krishna let thy
lotus feet be ever present in our minds, home-seeking though we may have
been. The lords of Yoga by their profound wisdom meditate on thy feet in
their hearts. It is by thy feet that those that have fallen into the
well of Sansara are raised."

(Here we take a final leave of the Gopis. They had known Krishna as the
Purusha of the Heart. They now knew him as the all-pervading Purusha.
They were drawn back into the bosom of that Purusha, their Linga
(Sûkshma) Sarira destroyed. They now entered the divine state, but even
there they did not forget the lotus feet of Krishna. They became centres
of devotional love in the bosom of the Universal Lord.)

Yudisthira and other friends of Krishna addressed him as all-incarnating
Purusha. The wives of Krishna related to Draupadi how they came to be
married to him. The Rishis addressed Sri Krishna as Íshvara. They then
took leave of him. Vâsudeva however detained them, saying they should
instruct him as to how he could exhaust his Karma. Nârada said it was no
wonder that he should ask this question of them and not of Krishna. For
proximity is the cause of disregard.

The Rishis, addressing Vâsudeva, said: —

"Karma is exhausted by Karma. Worship Vishnu by Yajna. He is the lord of
all Yajnas. Wise men do not wish for riches by the performance of Yajna,
nor do they wish for men or enjoyments. They give up all desires and
then go to the forest for Tapas. The twice-born are indebted to the
Devas, Rishis and Pitris, by their birth. You have paid up your debts to
the Rishis and to the Pitris. Now pay up your debts to the Devas, by the
performance of Yajna and then give up your home." Vâsudeva then
performed Yajna, and the Rishis officiated. The Yajna over, the Rishis
went away. Dhritarâshra, Vidura, the Pândavas, Bhishma, Drona, Kunti,
Nârada, Vyâsa, his friends and relatives, parted with a heavy heart.
Nârada and his followers were detained for three months by the Yâdavas,
such was their love for them. They then received many presents and left
for Mathurâ. Seeing the approach of the rainy season, the Yâdavas also
went back to Dvârakâ.


VASUDEVA, DEVAKI, AND THEIR DEAD SONS.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 85.*

Vâsudeva now believed his sons to be lords of the Universe. He once
asked them whether they had not incarnated for relieving the pressure on
the Earth. Krishna replied: — "I, yourselves, this Râma, the people of
Dvârakâ, nay the whole universe are to be known as Brahmâ. Âtmâ, though
one and self-manifest, becomes manifold, according to the nature of the
beings in which its manifestation takes place. Compare the variety in
the manifestation of the Bhûtas in the Bhoutic objects."

Hearing these words of wisdom, Vâsudeva learned to see unity in
diversity.

Devaki had heard of the powers of Râma and Krishna in bringing back to
life the deceased son of their Guru. She asked them to shew her the sons
that had been killed by Kansa.

Râma and Krishna entered by Yogic power the regions of Sutala. Bali
shewed them every respect and worshipped them.

Krishna said: "In the Svayambhava Manvantara, Marîchi had six sons by
Urna. These sons of the Rishi laughed at Brahmâ, because he grew
passionate towards his daughter. For this they became Asuras and sons of
Hiranyakasipu. Yoga Mâyâ carried them to the womb of Devaki and they
became her sons. They were killed by Kansa. Devaki takes them to be her
own sons and laments over their death. They are now with you; I shall
take them over to my mother to remove her grief. They shall then go to
Devaloka, free from the effects of their curse. Smara, Udgitha,
Parishvanga, Patanga, Kshudra-bhuka and Ghrini — these shall by my favor
again attain a good state." (Smara is called Kirtimat.)

Krishna took the boys to Devaki and she embraced them all. They were
then taken to Devaloka.


ARJUNA AND SUBHADRÂ


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 86.*

Râjâ Parikshit enquired how Arjuna had married his grandmother Subhadrâ,
the sister of Râma and Krishna.

Suka replied: —

"Arjuna heard that Râma was going to give Subhadrâ (the cousin of
Arjuna) in marriage to Duryodhana. He disguised himself as a Sanyâsîn
and went to Dvârakâ. The people of Dvârakâ and even Râma could not
recognise him. Arjuna lived there for a year and received due
hospitality. Once Arjuna was invited by Balarâma and he was taking his
food when Subhadrâ passed by him. They looked at each other and felt
mutual love. One day, Subhadrâ, with the permission of her parents and
of Sri Krishna, came out on a chariot to worship an idol outside the
fort and a strong guard accompanied her. Arjuna availed himself of this
opportunity and carried away the girl by force. Balarâma became greatly
enraged. But Sri Krishna and other friends appeased him."


SRUTADEVA AND BAHULÂSVA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 86.*

Srutadeva, a Brâhmana of Mithila, was much devoted to Sri Krishna. The
prince of Mithila, Bahulâsva, was also a favorite of Sri Krishna. To
favor them, Sri Krishna went with Nârada and other Rishis to Mithila.
Srutadeva and Bahulâsva each asked him to go to his own house. Krishna
to please them both went to the houses of both at the same time, being
unnoticed by each in respect of his going to the other’s house. Both
Bahulâsva and Srutadeva received Sri Krishna and the Rishis with due
respect. Sri Krishna taught Srutadeva to respect the Brâhmana Rishis as
much as he respected him. After giving proper instructions to the prince
and the Brâhmana for sometime, Sri Krishna returned to Dvârakâ.


THE PRAYER TO BRAHMAN BY THE SRUTIS.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 87.*

Râjâ Parikshit asked: —

"O Great Sage, Brahmân is undefinable, void of Gunas, beyond both causes
and effects. How can the Srutis, which have the Gunas for their Vritti
(_i.e._ which treat of Devas and sacrifices which are full of
attributes), directly cognise Brahmân?"

Suka replied: —

"The Lord created Buddhi, Indriya, Manas and Prana in Jivas that they
might obtain their objects (Mâtrâ), their birth-producing Karma (Bhava),
their transmigration to different Lokas (Âtmâ), and also their Mukti
(Akalpana)." (These four words respectively mean Artha, Dharma, Kâma and
Moksha. The Srutis treat of Bhagavat, of Sat-Chit-Ananda the
all-knowing, the all-powerful, the lord of all, the guide of all, the
all-object of Upâsanâ, the Dispenser of all fruits of Karma, the Resort
of all that is good, as one with attributes. The Srutis begin with
attributes, but at last drop these attributes saying "Not this", "Not
this" and end in Brahmân. The sayings about Upasan and Karma treat of
things with attributes, as a means to attain wisdom and thereby
indirectly lead to Brahmân. This is the purport. _Śridhara_.)

"The Upanishad speaks of Brahmân. She was accepted as such by even those
that were older than those whom we call old. He who accepts her with
faith attains well-being." (The Bhâgavata tries to refute the idea that
the Vedas treat of the Devas only and not of Ísvara and Brahmâ).

"I shall relate to thee here a conversation between Nârada and Nârâyana.

"Once upon a time Nârada went to see the great Rishi Nârâyana. For the
well-being of Bhâratavarsha, for the good of all men, he remains in his
Âsrama, fixed in Tapas, since the beginning of this Kalpa. The Rishis of
Kalâpa sat round him. Nârada saluted him and asked this very question.

"Nârâyana said: —

"In Jana Loka, the Manas, born Rishis of that place performed Brahmâ
Yajna (Yajna, in which ’What is Brahmân’ is ascertained, some one
becoming the speaker and others forming the audience). You had gone to
Sveta Dvipa at the time. This very question was raised in the assembly.
Sanandan became the speaker. He said: —

"The Supreme drank up his own creation and lay asleep with His Śaktis.
At the end of Pralaya, the Srutis (which were the first breath of the
Supreme. _Śridhara_) roused Him up by words denotive of Him.

"The Srutis said: —

"Glory be to Thee! Destroy the Avidyâ of all moveable and immoveable
beings. She has got attributes for the sake of deluding others. All Thy
powers are completely confined in Thee. Thou art the Manifester of all
Śaktis in Jivas. Thou art (sometimes — _Śridhara_) with Mâyâ and (always
— _Śridhara_) by Thyself. (But wherever thou art) the Vedas follow Thee.
(The Vedas treat both of Saguna and Nirguna Brahmân).

"All that are perceived, (Indra and other gods), know Thee to be the
Big, and themselves to be only parts. For their rise and setting are
from Thee. (Then is the Big transformable? Hence the next words.
_Śridhara_). But thou art untransformed. Even as the (transformed) earth
pots have their rise and setting in the (untransformed) mother earth.
Therefore the Rishis — (the Mantras or their perceivers. _Śridhara_.
Every Vedic Mantra has its Rishi, who first perceived that Mantra) — set
their minds, their words and actions in Thee (or had their purport and
meaning in Thee. _Śridhara_). For wherever people may roam, their
footsteps always touch the earth.

"O Thou Lord of the Three Gunas, the wise plunged into the nectar ocean
formed of words about Thee, — an Ocean which removes the impurities of
all people — and they got rid of all miseries. What of those then who,
by the perception of Self in them, free themselves from the attributes
of mind (likes or dislikes) and of time (the transformations of age) and
worship Thy real self which gives rise to perpetual happiness?

"Those that are animated by life breathe truly if they follow Thee,
otherwise their breath is the breath of bellows. Inspired by Thee,
Mahat, Ahankâra and others lay their eggs (create collective and
individual bodies). Thou dost permeate the five sheaths (Annamaya and
others) in man and become those sheaths, as it were, by this permeation.
But thou art the last in the sheaths, as taught in the Upanishads.

"Thou art beyond the gross and subtle sheaths, the Indestructible and
Real.

"Among the Rishis, the Śârkarakshas (or those that have an imperfect
vision) meditate on Brahmâ in the navel. The Ârunis, however, meditate
on Brahmâ in the cavity of the Heart, which is the seat of the nerves.
Ananta, from the Heart, the Sushumnâ (the nerve which causes Thy
perception) leads to Thy supreme place in the Head. He who once attains
that place does not fall into the mouth of Death again. (The Upanishads
speak of one hundred and one nerves of the heart. Of these, one goes to
the head).

"Thou hast Thyself created various life kingdoms and various forms.
Though Thou pervadest them all from of old, having brought them all
about, yet Thy special manifestation in them is relatively greater or
smaller, according to the nature of the things created by Thee even as
fire, though one and the same, burns differently according to the
character of the fuel. Those that are of pure intellect follow the one
Real amidst the many unreal forms. The (perceiving) Purusha in all
beings is said to be Thy part only. Knowing this to be the truth about
Jivas, wise men worship Thy feet.

"Brahmâ and other Jivas did not know Thy end. Even Thou dost not know
Thy own end. For Thou art endless. Drawn by the wheel of time, the
Brahmândas, with their Avaranas, (outer circles) roll on together in Thy
middle, even as if they were dust particles in the air. The Srutis
fructify in Thee (have Thee, for their end and goal.) (Though they
cannot directly speak of Thee) their words are directed towards Thee, by
discarding every thing else." (Though the Vedas treat of Indra and other
Devas, they ultimately lead to Brahmâ, by saying "Brahmâ is not this,
not this," in the Upanishads.)


THE RESTORATION OF BRAHMAN BOYS TO LIFE.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 89.*

At Dvârakâ a Brahmân lost his son at birth. He took the dead child to
the palace and placed it at the gate, blaming the king for his
misfortune. For the sins of kings visit themselves upon their subjects.
In this way nine sons died one after another and the Brahmân did the
same with all of them and, when the ninth son died, Arjuna was sitting
with Krishna and he heard the reproaches of the Brâhmana. Arjuna
promised the Brâhmana that he would protect his son this time, or would
otherwise enter the fire for breach of his promise. The son was born
again. And Arjuna was there with his famous bow. But lo! the child wept
and it rose up high and disappeared, The Brâhmana taunted Arjuna for
making promises he had not the power to keep. Stung by these words, the
Pândava went to Yâma Loka. He went to Indra Loka. He went to the regions
of Agni, Nirriti, Chandra, Vâyu and Varuna. He went to Rasâtala. He went
to Svarga. But the Brâhmana boy was no where to be found. He then made
preparations for entering the fire. Sri Krishna made him desist. He
said: — "I shall show you the Brâhmana’s sons. Do not disregard
yourself. Those that blame us now shall sing our glory hereafter."

Krishna and Arjuna went towards the west. They crossed the seven oceans
and the seven Dvipas. They crossed the Loka-aloka and entered the
regions of chaotic darkness. The horses could not proceed further. So by
Krishna’s order the glowing Chakra, Sudarshana, pierced through the
darkness and the horses followed the track. Infinite, endless, divine
light then spread out. Arjuna re-opened his eyes. They then entered the
regions of primal water. They found one house glittering with gems and
stones. The thousand-headed Ananta was sitting in that house. Seated
upon Ananta was the Supreme Purusha, the Lord of the Lords. Krishna and
Arjuna saluted Him. The Purusha then smiled and said: — "I brought the
Brâhmana boys that I might see you both. For the protection of Dharma on
the Earth, you have incarnated as my parts (Kalâ.) Kill the Asuras that
oppress the Earth and come back soon to me. Filled are your own desires,
O you Rishis, Nara and Nârâyana. But for the preservation of the
Universe, do that which others may follow."

Krishna and Arjuna said "Om". They brought back the Brâhmana boys and
restored them to their father.



THE LINE OF KRISHNA.


*SKANDHA X. CHAP. 90.*

Vajra was the son of Aniruddha.

Prati-bâhu was the son of Vajra.

Su-bâhu was the son of Prati-bâhu.

Upasena was the son of Su-bâhu.

Bhadra-sena was the son of Upasena.

*END OF THE TENTH BRANCH.*



THOUGHTS ON THE MATHURÂ LILÂ.


Kansa was killed and all good men that had fled from Mathurâ returned to
it. Krishna fast developed Himself as Íshvara. He restored his Guru’s
son to life.

Uddhava, the embodiment of Bhakti Yoga mixed with wisdom, was the
messenger of Krishna to the Gopis. It was through him that Sri Krishna
sent words of wisdom, which He himself could not have spoken to them at
Vrindâvana. For the Gopis would have spurned such words from Him, so
great was their personal love for Him. Krishna now placed another ideal
before them for meditation. They were now to seek Him, not as the lovely
Krishna, playing upon the flute, but as the all-pervading Âtmâ to be
known by discriminating wisdom. He asked the Gopis to meditate on this
ideal, and He now returned to them as the all-pervading immutable
principle in the Universe.

In the stories of Jarâsandha, Yavana and Muchukunda we find the
historical Krishna.

Jarâsandha was an incongruous combination of materiality and
spirituality, (the two parts which Jiva put together). He was the
performer of Vedic Yajnas, the supporter of Brâhmanas, the
representative of the old state of things. Naturally therefore he was
the most powerful king of his time and the most powerful enemy of
Krishna. Vaishnavism had to fight hard with orthodox Brahmânism.
Vaishnava kings were put to death in large numbers. Krishna could not
kill him on account of his connection with Brâhmanas and with Vedic
Yajnas. He even feigned a retreat and fled away to Dvârakâ. Dvârakâ was
a spiritual centre on earth, created by Krishna, for the performance of
His mission as Avatâra. The town was washed away as soon as Krishna
disappeared.

It will be interesting to know the future mission of Muchukunda. But the
Bhâgavata is silent about it.



THOUGHTS ON THE DVÂRAKÂ


At Dvârakâ, we find Sri Krishna as the Lord of the Universe, a Kâlpic
Avatâra, and as such something more than the historical Krishna.

_Sri Krishna as an Avatâra._

It is time that we should know something definitely of Sri Krishna as an
Avatâra.

To restore the Brâhmana boys, Sri Krishna went with Arjuna to the abode
of Purusha. Purusha smiled and said: — "I brought the Brâhmana boys,
that I might see you both. For the protection of Dharma on the Earth,
you have incarnated as my parts (Kalâ). Kill the Asuras that oppress the
Earth and come back soon to Me. Sâtiated are your own desires, O you
Rishis, Nara and Nârâyana, but for the preservation of the universe do
that which others may follow."

The Purusha is the Virât Purusha of our universe, the Second Purusha or
the Second Logos.

When the first Purusha woke up, the process of transformation went on
and the material creation was completed. The materials could not however
unite to form individual bodies. Purusha infused the material creation
and became known as the Second Purusha or Virât Purusha, As regards this
Virât Purusha, the Bhâgavata Purâna says as follows: —

"He is the resting place and eternal seed of all Avatâras. Brahmâ is His
part, Marichi and other Rishis are parts of His part. Devas, animals and
men are brought into manifestation by parts of His part." Bhâgavata I.
3-5.

"He is the primal, unborn Purusha, who in every Kalpa creates, preserves
and destroys self (objective) as self (nominative), in self (locative),
by self (instrumental)." II. 6 XXXVII.

"He is the primal Purusha Avatâra of the Supreme." II. 6 XL.

He is also called the Thousand-Limbed and the Egg-born. II. 5, XXXV.,
III. 6, VI.

This Virât Purusha upholds the manifested universe. All materials are in
Him and all individuals take their rise from Him and end in Him. He is
the one ocean of endless bubbles which have their beginning and end in
Him. The Avatâras also all rest on the bosom of Virât Purusha.

We have looked at Virât Purusha from the standpoint of the First
Purusha. Now let us proceed upwards from below.

The Brihat Aranayaka Upanishad thus speaks of Virât Purusha, at the
beginning of the Fourth Brâhmana of the first chapter: —

"This was before soul, bearing the shape of a man. Looking round he
beheld nothing but himself. He said first: — ’This am I.’ Hence the name
of I was produced. And, because he as the first of all of them consumed
by fire all the sins, therefore he is called Purusha. He verily consumes
him who, before this, strives to obtain the state of Prajâpati, he,
namely who, thus knows."

The following is the commentary of Sankarâchârya.

"This was before the soul." The soul is here defined as Prajâpati, the
first born from the Egg, the embodied soul, as resulting from his
knowledge and works in accordance with the Vedas. He was what? "This,"
produced by the division of the body, "was the soul" not separated from
the body of Prajâpati, "before" the production of other bodies. He was
"also bearing the shape of man", which means that he was endowed with
head, hands and other members, he was the Viraj, the first born.
"Looking round reflecting who am I, and of what nature, he beheld
nothing but himself", the fulness of life, the organism of causes and
effects. He beheld only himself as the Universal soul. Then, endowed
with the recollection of his Vedic knowledge in a former birth, "he said
first: This am I" _viz_., Prajâpati, the universal soul. "Hence,"
because from the recollection of his knowledge in a former world he
called himself I, therefore his name was I "And because he" — Prajâpati
in a former birth, which is the cause, as the first of those who were
desirous of obtaining the state of Prajâpati by the exercise of
reflection on works and knowledge _viz_. "as the first of all of them,"
of all that were desirous of obtaining the state of Prajâpati, consumed
by the perfect exercise of reflection on works and knowledge of all the
sins of contact which are obstacles to the acquirement of the state of
Prajâpati, — because such was the case, therefore he is called Purusha,
because he is _Purvam Aushad_, (first burnt). As that Prajâpati, by
consuming all opposite sins, became this Purusha Prajâpati, so also any
other consumes, reduces all to ashes by the fire of the practice of
reflection on knowledge and works, or only by the force of his
knowledge, and He verily "consumes" Whom? "Him who before this sage
strives to obtain the state of Prajâpati." The sage is pointed out as he
who thus knows, who according to his power manifests his reflection on
knowledge. "But is it not useless for any one to strive for the state of
Prajâpati, if he is consumed by one who thus knows? There is no fault in
this; for consuming means here only that the highest state, that of
Prajâpati, is not obtained, because the eminence of reflection on
knowledge is wanting. Therefore by the words, "He consumes him" is
meant, that the perfect performer obtains the highest state of
Prajâpati; he who is less perfect does not obtain it, and by no means
that the less perfect performer is actually consumed by the perfect;
thus it is said in common life, that a warrior who first rushes into
battle, consumes his combatants, which means that he exceeds them in
prowess.

In order to understand this better, let us consider the scheme of human
evolution.

Âtmâ is the same in all beings and, when free from the limitations of
individual life, it becomes all pervading.

Sympathy and compassion open the door to the liberation of Âtmâ.

The Upadhi, or vehicle of Âtmâ, or the body of its manifestation,
becomes less and less gross, as Âtmâ proceeds in its course of
liberation, the body becomes better able to do good to all mankind and
it does not act as a barrier to communion with the real self.

The most highly evolved beings become universal and not individual, and
they live normally on the spiritual plane.

They at last reach the state of divinity. Then they may become Avatâras.
When these Avatâras have to work on the physical and intellectual
planes, they assume a body and become born, like ordinary beings. They
have then to _come down_ from their normal state, but their vision and
power remain undestroyed. When their mission is over, they reach again
their normal state. The Avatâras have not to work out their own Karma.
They are liberated Âtmâs, staying back for the liberation of other
individuals in the universe. Karma-less themselves, they bear the Karma
of the universe upon their shoulders. The thin veil that separates their
state from the state of the absolute Brahmâ is Mâyâ, which is the
highest manifestation of Prakriti which enables them to assume cosmic
responsibility out of their unbounded compassion for all beings.

The Avatâras may cast off their veil at will, but as long as they choose
to keep that veil, the whole universe is at their command and they guide
the whole course of universal evolution.

Now of all Avatâras one takes upon himself to hold all individuals in
His bosom, to sustain them all and to make Him the field of their
Involution and Evolution, in the Kalpa.

He is called Virât Purusha. He is practically the Íshvara of our
universe.

The body of this Purusha, called the First Avatâra, the Second or Virât
Purusha, and the Egg-born, is formed by the Tatvas, numbered twenty-four
in the Sânkhya philosophy. These Tatvas collect together to form an Egg
and the Second Purusha breaks forth from that Egg and becomes the
Thousand-headed Purusha of the Upanishads. For the sake of meditation,
He is imagined to be seated on the Serpent Ananta. The lotus stalk grew
out of his navel.

The Tatvas themselves are brought into manifestation by the awaking of
the First Purusha.

The Second Purusha enters into all beings as their Âtmâ, becoming
three-fold in his aspect _viz_. Adhi-Âtmâ, Adhi-bhuta and Adhi-deva.
Then He is called the Third Purusha. Says the Sâtvata Tantra, as quoted
by Śridhara: —

"There are three forms of Vishnu known as Purusha — the first is the
creator of Mahat, the Second is the permeator of the cosmic Egg, and the
third is the permeator of all beings." Virât Purusha is the seat af all
Avatâras. Therefore all Avatâras are called parts of the Virât Purusha.

Speaking of other Lilâ Avatâras, Bhâgavata calls them parts and aspects
of the Second Purusha; "but Krishna is Bhagavat Himself."

Bhagavat is here the First Purusha. I. 3 XXVIII.

In the Tenth Skandha, Râjâ Parikshit says: "Tell us the mighty deeds of
Vishnu, incarnated as a _part_ in the line of Yadu." X. 1 II. Later on
again: —

"The supreme Purusha, Bhagavat Himself, shall be born in the house of
Vâsudeva." X. 1 XXIII.

The Devas said, addressing Devaki: — "Rejoice mother, the Supreme
Purusha, Bhagavat Himself, is in thy womb _by His part_" X. 2 XII.

The Purusha, seated on Ananta, addressed Arjuna and Krishna as Nara and
Nârâyana.

The Mahâbhârata also calls them Incarnations of Nara and Nârâyana. These
Rishis are invoked all throughout the Mahâbhârata. They were the sons of
Dharma by Mûrti, daughter of Daksha.

Nara and Nârâyana are looked upon as two in one and they were adored by
the Devas, as manifestations of Purusha Himself. (IV. 1 XLVI).

They went after their birth to Gandha Madana. (IV. 1 XLVIII.) It is
these Rishis, parts of Bhagavat Hari, who have now appeared for the
removal of her load from the Goddess Earth, as Krishnas, in the lines of
Yadu and Kuru. (IV. 1 XLIX.)

Krishna in the line of Kuru is Arjuna.

In explaining this Śloka, Śridhara quotes the following from a Vaishnava
Tantra: —

"In Arjuna, there is only the Âvesa (suffusing) of Nara. Krishna is
Nârâyana Himself."

Sri Krishna said to Arjuna: — "I have passed through many births as well
as thou. I know them all. Not so thou."

This shows that Arjuna was not Nara himself, the supplement of Nârâyana,
for in that case he would have remembered his previous births. But, as
the Tantra says, "Arjuna was possessed by the Nara aspect of the dual
Rishi."

Sri Krishna said to Devaki: —

"At my first birth, in the Svâyam-bhuva Manvantara, thou wert born as
Prisni and this Vâsudeva was named Prajâpati Sutapas I was born as your
son, Prisni-garbha. I was also born of you, when you were Aditi and
Vâsudeva was Kasyapa, as Upendra, also called the Vâmana or Dwarf
Avatâra. At this third birth, I am your son again, with the same body."
X. 3 XXXII. to XLIII.

These are the three Incarnations of Nara Nârâyana, mentioned in the
Bhâgavata. They are certainly not the many births to which Sri Krishna
alludes in the Gitâ. Those many births took place in previous Kalpas of
which we know nothing. In this Kalpa, however, he appeared at the
turning points in the Evolution of our universe. He appeared in the
First Manvantara, the Manvantara of manifestation, as Prisni-garbha. We
do not know the good done by Him in His first birth.

As Vâmana, however, he restored the Trilokî to the Devas and asserted
the supremacy of the spiritual forces.

The Earth was again overpowered by the Asuras. The Kalpa was about to be
half over. The last struggle was to be made. Satva had to be infused
into all beings, even into the materials composing them. Every thing in
the universe was to be wedded to the Lord of Preservation. An upward
trend was to be given to the whole course of evolution. Materialism
could not be stamped out all at once. But henceforth there was to be a
steady fall of Materiality and rise of Spirituality, subject to such
variations as minor Cycles might cause.

Sri Krishna is therefore the greatest Avatâra of our Kalpa. "For the
good of those that seek Âtmâ, Nara Nârâyana shall perform Tapas in
Bharata Varsha, unknown to others, till the end of the Kalpa." V. 19-9

Sri Krishna as Bhagavat is greater than the Second Purusha.

To the devotees, he is greater than the Purusha manifestation.

He now appeared as the preserver of the Universe, the embodiment of
Satva, the force of ascent. And the Tatvas had to be wedded to him, so
that they might acquire the energy of higher evolution in them.

Unless there was change in the innate downward tendency of the Tatvas,
the spiritual ascent of the universe was not possible.

The Lord brought about this change by permeating the whole universe with
His Satva body, or becoming something like the spiritual soul in every
being. Therefore Lord Krishna is in the hearts of all beings and can be
perceived by all in meditation. He is everywhere, in every atom. Whether
Sri Krishna is Bhagavat Himself or some manifestation of Bhagavat makes
no difference whatever. By His works, He is Bhagavat. His worshippers
are bound for the abode of Bhagavat. They have not to wait in Brahmâ or
Satya Loka, till the end of Brahmâ’s life. Those who worship. Hiranya
garbha or Brahmâ cannot pass beyond the limits of Brahmâ Loka.

In answer to Râjâ Parikshit, Suka Deva delineated the Paths to be
followed after death.

I. The Prompt Path of Liberation (Sadyo Mukti). Those who meditate on
the abstract Absolute, called Brahmâ, attain prompt liberation. The
All-pervading principle is abstracted from the phenomenal universe,
there is no thought of man, no thought of fellow beings, no thought of
the universe, there is the pure abstraction by the process of "Not
this." "Not this" liberates one from all phenomenal connections. This is
Sadyo Mukti. (II. 2 XV. to XXI.)

II. The Deferred Path of Liberation (Krama Mukti), when one wishes to go
to Brahmâ Loka or to the abode of the Siddhas. Where the eight siddhis
are acquired, he retains the Manas and the Indriyas and goes all over
the universe of Seven Lokas. II. 2 XXII.

With their Linga Sarira, these Lords of Yoga go inside and outside
Trilokî. II. 2 XXIII.

On their way to Brahmâ Loka, they are carried by Sushumna first to Agni
Loka. Then they go to the farthest limit of Trilokî, the Sisumara
Chakra, extending over to Dhruva or the Polar star. II. 2 XXIV.

When at the end of a Kalpa, the Trilokî becomes consumed by fire from
the mouth of Sankarshana, they go to Brahmâ Loka, which lasts for two
Parârddhas, and which is adorned by the chariots of great Siddhas. II. 2
XXVI.

There is no sorrow, no infirmity no death, no pain, no anxiety in Brahmâ
Loka. But those who go there are, out of their compassion, afflicted by
the endless miseries of those that do not know the path. II. 2 XXVII.

Then they pass through the seven Avaranas or covers of the Universe and,
having the Vehicle of Mula Prakriti only, become full of Bliss and, when
that Upadhi is destroyed, they obtain absolute bliss and do not return
again. This is the attainment of the state. II. 2. XXVIII to XXXI.

Those who go to Brahmâ Loka pass through three different paths.

  1. Those, who come with great merits acquired in life, get posts of
     duty according to their merits in the next Kalpa (_i.e._ they
     become Prajâpatis, Lokapâlas. Indras and so on.)
  2. Those who go to Brahmâ Loka merely by force of their Upâsanâ of
     Hiranya-Garbha become liberated, when Brahmâ becomes liberated at
     the end of his life (’extending over two Parârddhas.)
  3. Those that worship Bhagavat pierce the Brahmânda at will, and rise
     to the abode of Vishnu. The Ślokas XXVIII to XXXI refer to the
     piercing of Brahmânda by the Bhâgavatas. _Śridhara_.

The worshippers of Sri Krishna attain the last state. The deferred path
of Liberation is the path of all Bhaktas. It is the path of compassion,
of service. The Bhaktas spurn all sorts of Mukti, even if they be
offered to them. They become servants of the Lord in the preservation of
the Universe.

In the Dvârakâ Lilâ, we shall find Sri Krishna, as the greatest Avatâra
of the Kalpa, carrying out His work of Preservation.

The Purâna does not speak of the Nara aspect of Sri Krishna as
manifested in Arjuna. That is the subject matter of the Mahâbhârata. The
study of the one is complementary to the study of the other, as the
study of the Bhagavat is complementary to the study of the Gitâ. In one,
we see the Evolution of Man, in the other we see the work of Bhagavat.
We see in both together the whole of our Lord Sri Krishna.



THE WIVES.


As Lord of the Universe, Sri Krishna became wedded to the eightfold
energies of Prakriti, His eight principal wives, so that he might
influence, through them, individuals formed by these divisions of
Prakritis. These energies are: —

  1. _Rukmini_ or Mula Prakritî, Buddhi.
  2. _Jâmba-vati_ or Mahat, Universal mind.
  3. _Satya-bhâmâ_ or Ahankâra.
  4. _Kâlindi_ or Akâsa-Tanmâttra, sound, Akâsa.
  5. _Mitra Vinda_ or Vâyu-Tanmatra, Touch, Air.
  6. _Satya_ or _Nagnajiti_, Agni-Tanmatra, Form, Fire.
  7. _Bhadrâ_, Ap-Tanmâtra, Taste, Water.
  8. _Lakshanâ_, Kshiti-Tanmâtra, smell, Earth.

The Energies of Prakriti have a double tendency, one of lower
transformation, of materialisation, of descent and another of higher
transformation, of spiritualisation, of ascent. Sri Krishna, by His
Avatârship, attracted to Himself the higher tendency of all the energies
of Prakriti. This is how he was wedded to all the aspects of Prakriti.

Rukmini is the spiritual energy of Mula Prakriti. Read the talk between
Krishna and Rukmini (X. 80).

The legend of the Syamantaka jewel is a mysterious one. It was the gift
of the Sun-God. It used to produce gold every day.

The Hiranya-Garbha Purusha of Vedic Upâsanâ has its seat inside the
Sun-God. "The Purusha inside Âditya." This Purusha is the Adhi-daiva of
Bhagavat Gitâ, as explained by Sankarâchârya. All the Devas proceed from
_Him_. He is the one Deva, also called Prâna. (Vide Yajnavalkya’s answer
to Sakala Brihat Aranyaka Upanishad III. 9.) Hiranya is gold.
Hiranya-garbha is that which has gold in its womb. The Syamantaka jewel
gave protection against diseases, accidents, and other dangers. These
are all the results of Hiranya-garbha Upâsanâ. Syamantaka represents
Hiranyagarbha Upâsanâ.

Sri Krishna wanted that this Upâsanâ should be replaced by the Upâsanâ
of Íshvara.

The jewel was lost. It was carried away by some religious movement,
represented as a lion.

Jâmba-vat snatched it from the Lion. Jâmbavat, the bear king, was one of
the chief allies of Sugriva. He was the oldest in years and the wisest
in counsel.

"When Vâmana stepped over the three Lokas, I made a respectful circuit
round Him." Râmayana Kishkindha Kânda. Chap. 64-15.

"When Vâmana became an Avatâra I moved round the earth twenty one times.
I threw plants into the Sea which yielded Amrita by churning. Now I am
old." Râmayana Kishkindha Kânda Chap. 65-32.

While Râma was about to ascend to heaven he addressed the old Jâmbavat,
as a son of Brahmâ, and asked him to stay behind till the approach of
Kali — Uttarâ Kânda. Chap. 121-34.

Jâmbavat represents a very old religious movement, which was out of date
even in Râma’s time.

Hiranyagarbha Upâsanâ became old and a thing of the past. But however
hoary it might be with years, it was holy with the traditions of the
Vedas and though Krishna had no direct hand in its disappearance, people
thought the disappearance was the outcome of His Avatarship. To save His
reputation, Krishna restored the jewel from Jâmbavat, but it could not
long remain in the hands of Satrajit. Vedic Upâsanâ did survive. But it
survived only in Vedic Sandhyâ and Gâyatri, which were represented by
Akrûra.

Krishna was wedded to Jâmbavatî, the spiritual energy of Mahat.

Satya-bhâmâ is the spiritual energy of Ahankâra. She holds the Vinâ,
with the seven notes of differentiation. The Vedas proceed from these
notes and also all departments of knowledge, Satyabhâmâ is the goddess
of learning.

There is not much to say about the five other principal wives.

The last of these wives, Lakshanâ, represents the spiritual energy of
earth. Coming down to earth, we proceed to Naraka, son of Earth. The
word Naraka literally means Hell, hence gross materiality. We have found
that the Purâna writers place Naraka below the Pâtâlas. Sixteen thousand
girls representing all earthly and material energies had been snatched
away by Naraka. They all became wedded to Sri Krishna.

_Vâsudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna, Aniruddha._

The following correspondences were given by Kapila to his mother
Devahûti. (III. 26 ).


    ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    _Upâsya_        _Adhibhûta_      _Adhyatma_       _Adhideva_
    ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Vâsudeva        Mahat            Chitta           Kshetrajna
    ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Sankarsana      Ahankâra         Ahankâra         Rudra
    ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Aniruddha       Manas            Manas            The Moon god
    ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
    Pradyumna       Buddhi           Buddhi           Brahmâ
    ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


_Chitta_ is transparent, without transformation, and calm, even as the
first state of water. III. 26. XXI.

"Transparent" — capable of of receiving the image Bhagavat.

"Without transformation" — without indolence and distraction. _Śridhara_

Chitta is the abode of Bhagavat, _i.e._ Bhagavat is perceived by Chitta.
III. 26. XX.

Differences cause many-sidedness and distraction.

Ahankâra Tatva brings differences into manifestation.

Beyond the plane of Ahankâra Tatva, is the plane of Mahat.

Mahat literally means big, great, universal.

It is the plane of universal manifestation.

The mind is universal on this plane. As soon as the One Purusha wished
to be many, Prakriti gave rise to the Mahat transformation and Mahat
took up the wish to be many. It was one, but it had the potency of
becoming many. The whole universe that was to manifest itself was
mirrored in Mahat, and was the subject matter of one thought, the
thought of one who had the universe for his body. During the period of
creation, Mahat soon transformed itself into Ahankâra, the Tatva of
differences. Ahankâra gave rise to different bodies, different minds and
different faculties; individuals appeared and they started on separate
lines of manifestation and of evolution.

On their homeward journey, individuals again reach the plane of Mahat,
when they rise above all differences, lose all sense of personality and
carry their experiences to the plane of the Universe. Their thoughts
then become thoughts of the Universe, guided by one feeling, that of
compassion for those that remain behind. There is no thought of self, no
distraction, no impurity, it is all calm and tranquil; such a mind is
called _Chitta_ by Kapila. This Chitta is the abode of peace, the abode
of Bhagavat.

Bhagavat, when reflected on Chitta, is VASUDEVA. He is the Purusha
seated on Ananta.

SANKARSANA is Bhagavat as reflected on Ahankâra. He is called Ananta or
endless, as there is no end of individuals. He is Bhagavat as manifested
in every individual and may be called, in one sense, the Purusha of
Individual souls. Balarâma is said to be an incarnation of Sankarshana.
As individuals proceed in their course of life journeys, they become
crystallised into separate entities, with a strong sense of personality.
The inner self, the real self, runs the risk of becoming swallowed up by
the outer self, the Upadhi of individuality. The point is reached, when
individuals are to be drawn back to their homes, their real selves.
Therefore Balarâma used the plough to draw in others. This is a process
of destruction. The material nature is gradually destroyed in us.
Therefore Balarâma is also called an incarnation of Rudra or Śiva
according to Vaishnava texts. He is Rudra Himself. The fire from the
mouth of Sankarshana burns the Trilokî at Pralaya. Sankarshana literally
means "he who draws in completely." The process of Pralaya has already
set in. The whole process of spiritual ascent is a process of material
Pralaya. According to some therefore, Vishnu and Śiva united to form
Harihara, at the time of the Great Churning, when this process first set
in. When individuals throw off their material garb, or when, by Pralayic
force, their material cover is forcibly removed, they become fit to be
gathered together and to become merged at Pralaya in the One.

PRADYUMNA is the wish of Bhagavat, as imprinted on the course of
universal evolution. He is the wish of God. When the one wished to be
many, He represented that wish and gave the entire turn to the course of
evolution, that it might adopt itself to that wish. Individuals
multiplied. Desires became many and all actions became Sakama. Pradyumna
was then called Kâmadeva, the God of Love, or desire.

When the course of descent was arrested, Kâmadeva was destroyed by fire
from the forehead of Śiva. He appeared again, but this time he appeared
as the son of Krishna. The wish of his father now was to be one again,
for He had already become many, as many as the Karma of the previous
Kalpa would allow. And Pradyumna had to impress this wish upon
individuals generally, so that the ascent of matter to spirit might be
universal.

According to Kapila, Pradyumna is reflected on Buddhi. Buddhi is defined
by him as that faculty by which objects are perceived. Doubt, false
understanding, true understanding, memory and sleep, these are the
indications of that faculty. (III. 26. XXVIII, XXIX).

ANIRUDDHA is the son of Pradyumna. According to Kapila, he is reflected
on Manas, the faculty of Sankalpa and Vikalpa. Sankalpa in Sânkhya
terminology is the first or general idea of a thing.

Vikalpa is the idea of the peculiarity of a thing. Thus when I cast a
passing glance at a man, I know nothing of him except that he is a man.
But when I look at him carefully, I know his peculiarities and can
differentiate him from others.

The first idea is the idea of a thing in its primity or dawn.

The second idea is the idea of its peculiarities. It is the second idea
which gives rise to likes and dislikes.

In the course of ascent, we must carry general ideas. We must rise from
particulars to generals. The mind will thus be freed from the burden of
personal and material thoughts.

Aniruddha became wedded to Usha or Dawn. He is Bhagavat as perceived by
Manas.

*END OF THE TENTH SKANDHA.*



THE ELEVENTH SKANDHA



THE MUSHALA. XI. I.


Sri Krishna, with the help of Râma, the Yâdavas and the Pândavas, killed
the Daityas, born as Kings. He made the Pândavas his instruments in the
great war. When the Kings on both sides and their armies were killed,
Sri Krishna thought within himself: — "The pressure is not yet all
removed from the earth. For these powerful Yâdavas, backed by me, have
become mad with power. I shall bring on disunion among them, which will
be the cause of their death. Then I can have rest and may go to my own
abode."

Visvâ-mitra, Asita, Kanva, Durvâsas, Bhrigu, Angiras, Kasyapa, Vâmadeva,
Atri, Vasistha, Nârada and other Rishis went to a sacred place called
Pindaraka near Dvârâka. The Yadava boys were playing among themselves.
They dressed Sâmba, son of Jâmbavati, as a girl and took him to the
Rishis, saying she was pregnant and inquiring whether she would have a
son or a daughter. The Rishis could not bear this impertinence and they
said: — "O you fools, she will bring forth a _Mushala_ (a pestle) that
will be the ruin of your line." The boys were terrified. Sâmba did
produce an iron pestle. They took the pestle and went home. The boys
related the story to all the Yâdavas. Âhuka, the chief of the clan,
ordered the pestle to be ground down to powder and the powder to be
thrown into the Sea. This was done, but a portion remained. That portion
was also thrown into the Sea. A fish swallowed the iron piece. The fish
was caught by a fisherman. He made two spears of the iron found in the
fish. The powdered iron grains were carried by the waves to the coast
and there they grew into reeds.



THE BHÂGAVATÂ PATH.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 2-5.*

Vâsudeva asked Nârada about the Path of Bhagavat which leads to Moksha.
Nârada said: —

Of the sons of Rishabha, nine became well-versed in Âtmâ Vidya. They
were Kavi, Hari, Antariksha, Prabuddha, Pippalayana Avirhotra, Drumila,
Chamasa, and Kara-bhâjana.

The Rishis of Bharata Varsha were performing Yajna at the place of Nimi
and these nine Rishis went there.

      I. Nimi asked the Rishis about the _path of Bhagavat_.

Kavi said: —

The path of Bhagavat consists of such expedients as the Lord mentioned
Himself (for those that are not wise) for the speedy acquisition of self
knowledge. In following this Path, man is not overcome by obstacles (as
in the path of Yoga). He may run along this path even with closed eyes
without fear of losing his steps (with closed eyes _i.e._ even without
knowing where he goes and what he does).

(What is the path then?)

Whatever a man does, whether it be the body or speech or mind or the
senses or intellect or the sense of I-ness that acts, let him offer that
all up to the Supreme Nârâyana.

He who is removed from Ísvara, (first) forgets (Ísvara), (_Asmriti_),
then there is wrong perception such as "I am the body" (_Viparyaya_).
This is caused by the Mâyâ of Bhagavat. Fear arises from devotion to the
Second. Therefore wise men worship the Lord only, with unfailing Bhakti,
knowing his Guru to be one with Ísvara and Âtmâ.

(The Bhâgavata School classifies Jivas under two heads — Antar Mukha and
Bahir Mukha. Antar Mukha is literally one with his face turned inwards
_i.e._, one who withdraws himself from the outside world and looks to
self within, which is only an aspect of Íshvara.

Bahir Mukha Jiva is one with his face turned outwards _i.e._ one who
withdraws himself from the self-within and therefore from Íshvara. He
first loses sight of Íshvara, forgets that he (the Jiva) is an aspect of
Íshvara and that he is not the same as the body. He then considers the
body as one with himself and concerns himself only with its relations to
the outside world. This is called forgetting and wrong perception. "Fear
arises from devotion to the Second." The Second is that which is not
self. In meditation, the Guru stands between Ísvara and self, and is
Ísvara for all practical purposes to the devotee).

The Dvaita (Mayic manifestation), though not existing, appears to exist,
through the mind of man, like dreams and desires. Therefore wise men
should control the mind, which gives rise to desires and doubts about
actions. Then there shall be no fear.

The existence of the outside world and of the body is like the existence
of dreams and desires. The dream exists for the time being and then
disappears altogether, The dream has its existence because the mind
brings it into existence. It is a creation of the mind, not permanently
attached to the Jiva. So desires are also creations of the mind, not
permanently attached to the Jiva, But they have got a temporary
existence. That existence, however, is an existence in the mind of the
man entertaining the dreams and desires and not outside the mind.
Therefore the existence is not a real one.

So the body of the Jiva and its surroundings are temporarily attached to
the Jiva. As the dream vanishes in the wakeful state, so the body and
its surroundings disappear with the transformation called Death. Body
after body, surroundings after surroundings, are dreams, as it were, in
the mind that bears all through the bubbles arising in the ocean of
Jivic existence.

The realisation of this temporary connection of the body and its
surroundings is a training for the Antarmukha Jiva, for it enables him
to turn towards Íshvara and the permanent aspect of Jiva.

The non-existence of Dvaita has always to be understood with reference
to Jiva or Íshvara, and not _independently_, for the flow of Prakriti is
eternal. The disregard of this primary idea has given rise to many
misconceptions. (Then as to Antarmukha practices.) Hear about the
Incarnations of Vishnu and His blessed deeds, hear about his names full
of import as to those deeds and Incarnations, hear and sing the songs
about Him, without any sense of uneasiness as to what others will say.
Then roam over the earth free from all worldly attachments.

By such practices, and by the recital of His dear names, love for
Bhagavat grows up. The heart then melts away. The devotee laughs loudly,
he weeps, he cries aloud, he sings and he dances like a mad man. He
loses all control over himself.

He salutes Akâsa, Vayu, Agni, Water, Earth, the planets, the trees, the
Seas and all beings as forming the body of his Hari. For he knows
nothing else.

He, who worships Bhagavat in this way, has Devotion (Bhakti), perception
of Íshvara (Anubhava) and dispassion (Virakti) — all three growing at
one and the same time, as, by eating, one gets pleasure, nutrition and
satisfaction of hunger all at one and the same time.

The Bhâgavata then attains supreme peace.

     II. Nimi then asked: "What are the _Characteristics of a Bhâgavata_
         and what are the _Signs by which a Bhâgavata is known?_"

Hari replied: —

"He who sees in all beings the existence of Bhagavat as in his own self,
and sees all beings in the Bhagavat within himself is the highest
Bhâgavata.

"He who bears love towards Ísvara friendship towards his dependents,
kindness toward the ignorant, and indifference towards his enemies
belongs to the next class of Bhâgavatas.

"He who worships an image as Hari with faith, but has no regard for
Bhaktas and for other beings is only a beginner as a Bhakta.

"The highest Bhâgavata perceives the objects with his senses, but does
not feel either aversion or pleasure. He looks upon the universe as the
Mâyâ of Vishnu.

"By constant meditation on Hari, he is not affected by the changes of
life. Desires have no place in his mind, so devoted is he to Vâsudeva.

_He_ is the favourite of Hari, who does not take pride in his birth,
Karma, caste or Âsrama.

"The highest Bhâgavata does not know "Mine" and "Thine," either in
wealth or in body. He looks upon all beings with equal eyes, His mind is
always at peace.

"Even for the sake of all the three Lokas, the Vaishnava will not for a
moment forget the lotus feet of Bhagavat.

"And more, he is the greatest of all Bhâgavatas, to whose heart Hari is
bound down by the tie of Love."

    III. Nimi asked: — "What is then this Mâyâ of the Supreme Lord?"

Antariksha replied: —

"Mâyâ of Bhagavat is that which causes the creation, preservation and
dissolution of this universe."

     IV. Nimi asked: — "How can one whose mind is not controlled and who
         is of dull understanding easily cross over this Mâyâ?

Prabuddha replied: —

"Have recourse to a Guru, who knows the Truth and is fixed in the
supreme. Learn the duties of Bhâgavatas from him. Practise
non-attachment, keep company with Sâdhus. Be kind to your inferiors,
friendly to your equals and respectful to your superiors. Keep your body
and mind pure. Regulate your life by fixed rules. Have forgiveness. Do
not talk idly. Read the sacred books. Be upright. Be temperate. Be
harmless to all beings. Bear good and evil, pleasure and pain with
equanimity. Find out Âtmâ and Íshvara everywhere. Free yourself from all
connections. Do not bind yourself down to your house. Have that which is
easily got for your clothing. Be content with anything and everything.
Have faith in the Bhâgavata Sâstra, but do not blame any other Sastra.
Control your mind, speech and actions. Speak the truth. Control your
inner and outer senses. Hear, recite and meditate on the deeds and
Avatâras of Hari. Let all your exertions be for Him. Offer up all, even
your wife, children and your own life, to Him. In the company of
Bhâgavatas, interchange devotion and love, remind each other and speak
to each other of the glory of Bhagavat, till your hair stands on end,
and you will sometimes dance and sometimes sing, maddened by your
devotional thoughts about Achyuta.

"These are the duties of a Bhâgavata and by practising these, he may
easily cross over Mâyâ."

  V. Nimi asked: — "How can one be fixed in devotion to Nârâyana?"

Pippalâyana replied: —

"When through the desire of attaining the feet of Vishnu, one has strong
devotion, the impurities of one’s mind are destroyed. When the mind is
purified, it becomes fixed in Âtmâ."

     VI. Nimi asked: — "Tell me about Karma Yoga, by the performance of
         which Karma is speedily destroyed."

Âvirhotra replied: —

"Vedic Karma does not directly lead to Moksha. Offer up your Vedic Karma
to Íshvara, and perform it, without any worldly attachment, however.

"He who wants speedily to cut asunder the tie of Ahankâra shall worship
Vishnu in the way prescribed in the Tantras or Âgama. (Vedic Karma at
first consisted of Vedic Yajna. The Gitâ gave a death blow to the
performance of Vedic Yajnas. _Nishkâma_ Karma took the place of _Kâmya_
Karma, The Vedic Karma however survived in the Sandhyâ Mantras, which
conform themselves to the Path of Upâsanâ.

"The Vedic Sandhyâ is however meant only for Brâhmanas.

"The Tântric Sandhyâ is an imitation of the Vedic Sandhyâ, adapted to
all classes of men, and it supplements the Vedic Sandhyâ by laying down
a method of worshipping the Lord in the heart and of worshipping His
image. Mantras are also prescribed. Devotion is the chief element in
Tântric Upâsanâ and this Upâsanâ is enjoined for all Bhâgavatas or
Vaishnavas. There are Śiva Tantras, Śakti Tantras, Ganapati Tantras,
Sûrya Tantras as well as Vaishnava Tantras. There are black rites
prescribed in some of the Śakti Tantras and the Tantras have therefore
got a bad name with many. But the Tantras as a whole form the only
science of practical occultism in Sanskrit, and the Vaishnava Upâsanâ is
strictly a Tântric Upâsanâ."

(I do not enter here into the details of that Upâsanâ, though some
details are given in the text.)

    VII. Nimi said: — "Tell me about the _Avatâras_ and Their deeds O
         Rishis." Drumila gave a short account of the Avatâras,
         commencing from the First Purusha. As this is nearly a
         repetition of what has been said before, no attempt is made to
         reproduce it.
   VIII. Nimi asked what is the _destiny of those that do not worship
         Bhagavat, those that have no control over their mind and their
         senses_.

Chamasa replied: — "They enter the regions of darkness (Tamas)."

     IX. Nimi asked:

"What is the Color of the manifestation of Bhagavat at each period, how
does he manifest Himself, by what name is He known and in what way is He
worshipped?"

Karabhâjana replied: —

"In Satya Yuga, Bhagavat becomes white, with four hands, with tufts of
braided hair, with bark round His waist. He bears a black deer-skin, the
sacred thread and beads, and has Danda (the rod of an ascetic) and
Kâmandalu (the water-pot of an ascetic) in his hands. (_i.e._ He looks
like a Brahmâcharin).

"Men are then peaceful and friendly towards one another. There are no
differences amongst them. They worship the Lord by means of Tapas, by
control of the senses and of the mind.

"Bhagavat is then known by the following names: — Hansa, Suparna,
Vaikuntha, Dharma, Yogesvara, Amala, Ísvara, Purusha, Avyakta, and
Paramâtmân.

"In Tretâ, Bhagavat becomes Red. He has four hands and golden hair. His
form is that of Yajna. Men are pious at the time. They worship Bhagavat
by Vedic Yajna.

"Bhagavat is known by the following names: —

"Vishnu, Yajna, Prism-garbha, Sarvadeva, Uru-krama, Vrishâ Kapi, Jayanta
and Urugâya.

"In Dvâpara, Bhagavat is _Syama_. (The word Syâma ordinarily means
dark-blue. But Śridhara explains the word here as the color of an Atasi
flower, which is generally yellow. This is because the Bhagavat speaks
before of white, red, yellow and black as the colors of Yuga Avatâras.)
His cloth is yellow.

"Men worship Him both by Vedic and Tântric methods.

"Vâsudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, Nârâyana, Visvesvara and
Visva are his names.

"In Kali, worship is made according to the Tantras, which are various.

"Bhagavat is black (Krishna). Men worship Him, His Symbols and
attendants mostly by loud recitals of names and prayers (Sankirtana).
Wise men praise Kali because worship is so easily made by mere
Sankirtana. Even men in Satya Yuga wish to be born in Kali Yuga."

Nimi respected the nine Rishis and they disappeared in the presence of
all men.

Vâsudeva and Devaki heard this story from Nârada. They realised Krishna
as Ísvara and they acquired wisdom.



KRISHNA AND UDDHAVA.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 6.*

Brahmâ and other Devas went to Dvârakâ. Addressing Krishna; Brahmâ said:
— "All that we prayed for has been done. One hundred and twenty-five
years have passed away since thou didst appear in the line of Yadus.
That line is also well nigh extinguished. Now go back to thy own abode,
if it pleases thee."

Sri Krishna replied: — "The extinction of the Yâdavas has been set on
foot by the curse of the Rishis. I shall remain on Earth, till it is
completely brought about." There were unusual phenomena at Dvârakâ. The
elders came to Krishna. He proposed a pilgrimage to Prabhâsa. So the
Yâdavas made preparations for going to Prabhâsa. Uddhava saw the evil
portents and he heard what Sri Krishna said. "I see, O Lord," said he to
Sri Krishna, "thou shalt leave this earth, as soon as the Yadus are
destroyed. I can not miss thy feet even for half a moment. So take me to
thy own abode."

Sri Krishna replied: — "It is true as you say. My mission is fulfilled.
The Devas ask me to go back. The Yâdavas shall be killed by mutual
quarrel. On the seventh day from this, the sea shall swallow up this
seat of Dvârakâ. As soon as I leave this earth, Kali shall overtake it
and men shall grow unrighteous. It will not then be meet for you to
remain here. Give up all and free yourself from all attachments and roam
about over this earth, with your mind fixed on me, looking on all beings
with equal eyes. Whatever is perceived by the senses and the mind, know
all that to be of the mind, and so Mâyic and transitory. "This is this"
and "this is that" this conception of difference is only a delusion of
him whose mind is distracted (_i.e._ not united to Me). It is this
delusion which causes experiences of right and wrong. It is for those
that have got notions of right and wrong that (the Vedas speak)
differently of the performance of prescribed work (Karma), the
non-performance of prescribed work (Akarma), and the performance of
prohibited work (Vikarma). (This has reference to Varna and Âsrama
duties. As long as a man identifies himself with some Varna or Âsrama he
looks upon others also as belonging to some Varna or Âsrama. He
therefore makes a distinction between men and men. The Varnâsrama duties
are prescribed by the Vedas for a man, so long as he entertains ideas of
difference. When he looks equally upon a Brâhmana and a Chandâla, when
he finds his Lord every where and finds all beings in the Lord within
himself, he becomes a man of the Universe, a Bhâgavata. For him the
Vedas do not make any rule. He is above all rules and restrictions. But
the Varnâsrama duties are to be respected, so long as one makes any
difference between man and man.) Control thy senses and control thy
mind. See the wide-spread Universe in thyself and see thyself in Me, the
Lord. Learn and digest all that is given in the scriptures. Contented
with self perception, the very self of all other beings, you shall have
no danger from others. You will do no wrong but not because it is
prohibited by the Scriptures, and you will do what is prescribed but not
because it is so prescribed (_i.e._ the sense of right and wrong will be
natural in you, independently of Sastric teachings.) You will exceed the
limits of both right and wrong and do things just like a child. The
friend of all beings, calm and quiet at heart, fixed in wisdom and
direct knowledge, you will see the Universe full of Me and you will not
be drawn back to births."

Uddhava said: —

"Lord of Yoga, what thou sayest for my final bliss is a complete
renunciation of all worldly attachments. It seems to me however that the
giving up of desires is not possible for those that have their mind
filled with the object world, unless they are completely devoted to
Thee.

"I have not yet got over the sense of ’I’ and ’Mine.’ Tell me how I can
easily follow out Thy teachings."

Sri Krishna replied: —

"Generally those men that are skilful in discrimination rescue self from
worldly desires by means of self, (_i.e._ they may do so, even without
the help of a Guru, by means of self discrimination.) Self is the
instructor of self, specially in man (Purusha.)" (Even in animals,
preserving instincts proceed from self. So self is the instructor.
_Śridhara_) "For it is self that finds out final bliss by direct
perception and by inference. Wise men, well versed in Sânkhya and Yoga,
look upon Me as Purusha pervading all beings, and possessing all powers.
(This is according to Śridhara, the direct perception by which final
bliss is attained. The word Purusha here has something like the sense of
a Monad in Theosophical literature. The passage quoted by Śridhara from
the Upanishads to illustrate the idea of Purusha also shews this.) There
are many habitations created for life manifestation, some, with one,
two, three or four feet, some with many feet and some with no foot. Of
these, however, that of man (Pourushi) is dear to me. For in this form
of Man those that are fixed in meditation truly find me out, the Lord,
though beyond all objects of perception, by the indications of perceived
attributes as well as by inferences from the same." (_Indications_.
Buddhi, Manas and others, the perceived attributes, are in their nature
manifestless. The manifestation is not possible except through one that
is self manifest. Therefore Buddhi and others point to Him.

_Inferences_. Whenever there is an instrument, there is some one to use
it. Buddhi and others are instruments. There is therefore one who guides
these. _Śridhara_.) In this matter of self instruction, hear the story
of an Ava-dhuta (an ascetic who renounces all worldly attachments and
connections.)



SELF-INSTRUCTION.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 7-9.*

Yadu asked an Ava-dhûta how he could get that clear spiritual vision, by
which he was able to give up all attachments, and roam like a child in
perfect bliss.

The Ava-dhûta replied: —

I have many Gurus, O king — Earth, Air, Âkâsa, Water, Fire, the Moon,
the Sun, the pigeon, the huge serpents, the ocean, the insect, the bee,
the elephant, the collector of honey, the deer, the fish, Pingalâ, the
osprey, the child, the maid, the maker of arrows, the serpent, the
spider and the wasp. These are my twenty four Gurus.

Though oppressed by the elements, the Earth does not deviate from her
path, as she knows that they are only guided by the divine law. This
forbearance I have learned from the Earth. I have learned from the
mountain (which is a part of the Earth) that all our desires should be
for the good of others and that our very existence is for others and not
for self. I have learned entire subordination to other’s interests from
the trees (also part of the Earth).

I have learned from the vital air, that one should be content only with
such things as keep up the life and should not care about the objects of
the senses. (The sage should keep up his life so that his mind be not
put out of order and his mental acquisitions lost; but at the same time
he should not be attached to the objects of the senses, so that his
speech and mind be not disturbed.)

Though placed in the midst of the objects with different attributes, the
Yogi should not be attached to them. This I have learned from the
outside air. The soul enters the body and the bodily attributes seem its
own, but it is not so. The air is charged with smell, but the smell is
no attribute of air.

Âtmâ is all pervading and it is not affected by the body and bodily
attributes. This I have learned from Akâsa which, though all pervading,
seems to be conditioned by clouds and other objects.

Transparency, agreeability and sweetness, I have learned from water. The
sage purifies others like water.

Powerful in knowledge and glowing with asceticism, the sage receiving
all things does not take their impurities even as fire.

Fire eats the sacrificial ghee when offered to it and consumes the sins
of the offerer. The sage eats the food offered to him by others but he
burns up their past and future impurities.

Fire is one though it enters fuels of various sorts.

One Âtmâ pervades all beings, however different they may appear by the
action of Avidyâ.

Birth, death, and other affections are states of the body, not of Âtmâ.
The moon looks full, diminished and gone, though it is the same in all
these states.

The sun draws water by its rays and gives it all away in time. The sage
takes in order to give, and not in order to add to his own possessions.

The sun reflected on different surfaces appears to the ignorant as many
and various. The Âtmâ in different bodies, even appears as such.

Too much attachment is bad. This I have learned from a pair of pigeons.
They lived in a forest. One day they left their young ones in the nest
and went about in search of food for them. When they returned they found
the young ones netted by a hunter. The mother had too much affection for
the young ones. She fell into the net of her own accord. The father also
followed suit and the hunter was pleased to have them all without any
exertion of his own.

The huge Ajagara serpent remains where he is and is content with
whatever food comes to him.

The sage is calm and deep, not to be fathomed or measured. He is
limitless (as the unconditioned self is manifested in him). He is not to
be disturbed even like the tranquil ocean. The ocean may receive volumes
of water from the rivers at times or may receive no water at other
times. But it remains the same, even as the sage at all times.

He who is tempted by woman is destroyed like an insect falling into
fire.

The bee takes a little from every flower. The Sanyâsî should take only a
little from each Grihasthâ, so that the Grihasthâ may not suffer.

The bee extracts honey from all flowers big or small. The Sage should
extract wisdom from all Sâstras big or small. Do not store anything for
the evening or for the morrow. Have only so much for your _bhikshâ_
(alms given to a Sanyâsî) as may suffice for one meal. The bee is killed
for his storing.

The Bhikshu shall not touch a woman though made of wood, even with his
feet. The elephant is shewn a female and is drawn into a trap. The woman
is the death of the sage. He should never approach her. The elephant
seeking a female is killed by stronger elephants.

The miser neither gives nor enjoys his riches. What ever he collects
with difficulty is carried away by some one else. The collector of honey
carries away the honey collected by others. He does not make it by his
own effort. The Sanyâsî without any effort of his own gets food from the
Grihasthâs, as it is their duty to feed him.

Do not hear vulgar songs. The deer is attracted by songs and is
entrapped.

The love of taste is to be conquered above all, for it is most difficult
to conquer. When the sense of taste is controlled, all other senses are
controlled. The fish is killed when tempted by the bait.

Pinglâ, a courtesan of Videha waited the whole day for some lover who
might come and make presents to her, with breathless expectation. The
night approached and she grew restless She then thought within herself:
— "For what a trifle, am I so uneasy. Why not seek Íshvara, the eternal
giver of all pleasures and all desires." She gave up all hopes and
expectations that troubled her ere long and became happy. She had good
sleep in the night. It is hope that gives us trouble. Without hope we
are happy.

When the bird kurara (osprey) gets some flesh to eat, the stronger birds
kill him. He is happy when he renounces the flesh. Renunciation of dear
objects is good for the sage.

The child has no sense of honor or dis-honor. It has not the thoughts of
a man of the world. It is self content and it plays with self. I roam
about like the child. The child is however ignorant, but the sage
crosses the limits of the Gunas.

Some people came to select a bride. The maid was alone in the house. She
received the men who came. She went to a solilary place to beat off the
impurities of the rice for their meal. She had shell-made bracelets on
her wrists. These made a great noise. She felt disgust and broke the
bracelets one by one, till only one remained on each hand. When there
are two or more at one place, they cause a jarring sound, and they
quarrel. I have therefore earned solitariness from the maid.

I have learned concentration of mind from the maker of arrows.

The serpent has no home. It roams in solitude. So do I.

Nârâyana draws in the whole creation at the end of the Kalpa and becomes
one, the resort of all.

By Kâla Śakti, the thread, Mahat, first comes out and the universe is
again brought into manifestation. The spider brings the thread out of
himself, spreads out the web and devours it himself.

(There is a kind of wasp, which catches a particular insect and carries
it into a hole. It is supposed that the insect assumes the form of the
wasp through fear.) When either through affection, hatred, or fear, a
man throws his whole heart upon some object and the mind holds it fast,
he attains the form of that object. I have learned this from the wasp.

Thus I have learned from my Gurus, My own body is also my Guru. I have
learned from it dispassion and discrimination. The body is born only to
die. Constant misery is its lot. I know the truths, by a discriminative
study of the body. Still I regard it as not mine and so I feel no
attachment for it (The body belongs to the dogs and jackals who devour
it after death. _Śridhara_.)

What does not a man do for the enjoyment of the body — but it comes to
an end after all, having created the germs of another body.

The possessor of the body is now drawn away by this sense, now by that
sense, now by this action now by that action. The senses suck his very
life blood, even as the many wives of one husband.

The Lord created vegetable and animal bodies. But he was not satisfied
with them. For the human body only has the power to perceive Brahmân.

Therefore after many births, when the human body is once attained, one
should strive promptly for his supreme bliss.

Yadu heard these words of wisdom, and he gave up all attachments.



ÂTMÂ A REFUTATION OF THE SCHOOL OF JAIMINI.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 10.*

Sri Krishna continued: —

(Self-study is the first stage. It leads to the power of discrimination.
Without self study no progress is possible. Therefore Sri Krishna speaks
of it as an essential condition. He then goes on to the next stage of
preparation.)

"Subject to what I have said as to one’s own duties (in Pancha Râtra and
other Vaishnava works; _Sridhara_) and knowing me to be the final
resort, you should dispassionately follow the Varna-Âsrama and family
duties. (But how is dispassion possible?) With the mind purified by the
performance of duties, reflect on this that worldly men take up things,
thinking them to be real but the end shews that they are not so.

"Objects of desire are unreal, as their perception as separate entities
is caused by the senses and they are altogether sense-made. Even they
are as unreal as dreams and fancy, both caused by the mind."

(Actions are fourfold, (1) those that have the fulfilment of selfish
desires for their object or Kâmya Karma, (2) those that are prohibited
by the Scriptures or Nishiddha Karma, (3) those that are required to be
daily performed or Nityâ Karma, (4) those that are required to be
performed on certain occasions or Naimittika.

The first two are Pravritta or selfish Karma. The last two are Nivritta
or unselfish Karma. The Smritis say that those who want Moksha or
liberation must not perform Pravritta Karma. But they should perform
Nitya and Naimittika Karma, as their non-performance might give rise to
obstacles.) Perform Nivritta Karma and being devoted to Me, give up all
Pravritta Karma. But when you fully enter the path of wisdom, then you
need not care much even for Nivritta Karma. Constantly practise Yâma.
Being fixed on Me, you may sometimes practise Niyama (Yâma and Niyama
are detailed in the 19th chapter.)

"Devotedly follow one Guru, who knows Me and is full of Me, being calm
and quiet at heart.

"Be humble and unenvious, active, free from the sense of "Mineness",
strong in friendship (towards the Guru. _Śridhara_) not over-zealous,
eager to know the truths and free from malice. Do not indulge in idle
talk. Be indifferent to wife, son, house, land, relations, riches and
all other things, for Âtmâ is the same every where and its working is
the same in all bodies.

"This Âtmâ is neither the gross body nor the subtle body. It is the self
illumined seer. Fire that illuminates and burns is separate from the
fuel that is illuminated and burnt.

"The fuel has beginning and end. It is big and small. It is of various
kinds. The fire that pervades it is limited by the nature of the fuel.
So Âtmâ which is separate from the body bears the attributes of the
body.

"The birth and re-birth of the Jiva have their origin in the gross and
the subtle body, which are the outcome of the Gunas, subordinated by
Ísvara. The knowledge of Âtmâ (as separate from the body) cuts off the
course of rebirths.

"Therefore by seeking after knowledge fully realise that Âtmâ in self is
separate and is beyond the body. Then by degrees do away with a sense of
reality in respect of the gross and the subtle body.

"The preceptor is the lower piece of wood used for kindling the sacred
fire. The pupil is the upper piece of wood. The teachings form the
middle portion of the wood where the stroke is made. Vidyâ is the
pleasing fire that comes out. (The pupil by constant questioning should
extract the fire of wisdom from the Guru _i.e._ one should learn Âtmâ
Vidyâ from his Guru.)

"The pure wisdom that is thus acquired from the Guru shakes off the Mâyâ
that is begotten of the Gunas. It burns up the Gunas themselves, which
constitute this universe of re-incarnation and then it ceases of itself.
The fire consumes the fuel first and then it is extinguished of itself.

"Or if you think that the doers of actions, their pleasures and pains,
the enjoyers and sufferers (Jivâtmas or Egos) are many and that the
place and time of enjoyment and suffering, and the scriptures relating
thereto and to the enjoyer or sufferer are all alike not constant."

(We have found in the former slokas that Âtmâ is one and constant. It is
self manifest and it is conciousness itself. When we speak of Âtmâ as
the Doer, the Enjoyer and so on these attributes really relate to the
body which forms the phenomenal basis of Âtmâ. Every thing else besides
Âtmâ is transitory and formed of Mâyâ. It has been therefore said that
one should free himself from all attachments and should attain
liberation by the knowledge of Âtmâ. This is the conclusion arrived at
by a reconciliation of all the Srutis. But there is another school, that
of Jaimini, which arrives at a different conclusion. To remove all
doubts whatsoever, the author refers to it for the sake of refutation.
The followers of Jaimini deem Jivâtmas — the doers and enjoyers in all
beings to be essentially separate and many. According to them, Âtmâ is
known by the feeling of "I-ness." Now this feeling is different in
different bodies. "I am the doer" "I am the enjoyer" every one feels
this separately for himself. There is no one Parmâtmâ, which is the
essence of all these Jivâtmas and which is above all transformations.
Therefore freedom from attachments or dispassion is not possible. You
may think, that the enjoyments are transitory, and so also that the time
and place of enjoyment, the scriptures that enjoin them, and the
_enjoying_ Âtmâ itself are not constant. Hence you may justify
dispassion. But all this is not a fact. This is the argument of the
followers of Jaimini. _Śridhara_.)

"And if you consider that all substances are constant by the eternal
flow of their existence and that consciousness grows and is separate
according to the difference in every particular form." (According to the
followers of Jaimini there is no break in the objects of enjoyment nor
are they formed of Mâyâ. All substances perpetually exist by the
constancy of their flow. They say that there was no time, when the
Universe was not what it is. Therefore there is no maker of the
Universe, no Íshvara. And the Universe is not a delusion — Mâyâ. It is
what it appears to be. There is no one and constant consciousness of
which the essence is Âtmâ. "This pot" "this cloth" — Our consciousness
grows by the process of perceiving these differences. Therefore
consciousness is not constant and it has separate forms. The hidden
purport is this. Âtmâ is not absolute consciousness itself, but it is
transformed into consciousness. But you can not say, because it is
subject to transformation, therefore it is transient. For it has been
said authoritatively that its transformation into consciousness does not
interfere with its eternity. Therefore for the purpose of liberation
(Mukti), Âtmâ can not transform itself without the help of the senses
&c. And if Âtmâ attains liberation, in the state of jada (or
unconsciousness) nothing is gained. Therefore the best path to follow is
that of Pravritti or Inclination and not that of Nivritti or
Disinclination. _Śridhara_. The above commentaries of Śridhara form one
of the best expositions of the philosophy of Jaimini. Only the last
passage requires a little elucidation. Âtmâ in itself is not
consciousness. Its transformation into consciousness is its highest
evolution or Mukti. Now this transformation is caused by the perception
of objects, it is made complete by the perception of all objects and it
is made constant by a constant desire for all objects. This object, or
that object may vanish, this man or that woman may die, this flower or
that flower may perish, but there is no time when the objects as a class
do not exist, when there is no enjoyer, no object to be enjoyed. So
there is a constancy in the desires. Therefore one must form
attachments, have desires, that Âtmâ be made fully conscious. But if
Âtmâ be left to itself, it will remain Jada or unconscious. There is
nothing to be gained by this. Therefore one should persistently follow
the path of desires as laid down in the Karma Kânda of the Vedas,
analysed by Jaimini in his Pûrva Mimânsâ. One should not give up Vedic
Karma and selfish desires as he is taught to do in the Jnâna Kânda of
the Vedas, the Upanishads, as analysed by Vyâsa in his Uttara Mimânsâ,
and as expounded by Sri Krishna in the Bhagavat Gitâ. It must be
remembered that this philosophy of Karma, so effectually refuted by Sri
Krishna, was suited to the materialistic cycle of evolution, when Rajas
had to be sought rather than put down. The minerals and vegetables were
unconscious. The animals shewed a slight development in consciousness.
But the full development was in Man. And this was due to the pursuit of
the Path of Inclination or Pravritti Mârga up to a late period in the
past history of the Universe. Notwithstanding the attacks of Sri
Krishna, the school of Jaimini had its followers till the time of Srî
Sankarâchârya, when Mandana Misra the most learned Pandit of the time,
was its chief exponent. After his memorable defeat by Srî Sankarâchârya
the Mimânsâkas fell into disrepute and Vedic Karma became a thing of the
past.)

"Granting all that, O dear Uddhava, all Âtmâs have constantly their
births and other states, by connection with the body and by reason of
the divisions of time." (_i.e._ though you may say that Âtmâ itself is
transformed, still you can not deny that the transformations take place
by its connection with the body and that they are brought about by
time.)

"It follows then that the doer of actions, the enjoyer of joys and the
sufferer of sorrows is dependent on other things." (For Âtmâ is
dependent upon the body and upon time for its highest transformation.
Śridhara says if Âtmâ is the doer and enjoyer, why should it do wrong
acts and suffer sorrows if it were independent. Therefore Âtmâ must be
dependent according to the Mimânsâkas). Now who in seeking his greatest
good would worship one that is dependent on others?

"(Do not say that those who know Vedic karma thoroughly are always happy
and only those that do not know that are unhappy. For it is found that —
_Śridhara_) even wise men sometimes have no happiness and the ignorant
have no misery. Therefore it is mere vanity (to speak about Karma). Even
if (the followers of the path of Pravritti) know how to gain happiness
and destroy misery, they certainly do not know the means by which they
can get over death. And when death is near at hand, what objects of
desire can give joy? What can please the victim that is carried to the
place of sacrifice? (This is so far as this life is concerned. Then as
to life after death). What you hear about Svarga life, even that is as
bad as the life we lead on this earth. For in Svarga, there is jealousy,
there is fault finding, there are inequalities and consequent
uneasiness, and there is a finality in the enjoyments and the desires
are full of obstacles, even as agriculture is and so after all even
Svarga is of no good. When the Vedic Karma is properly performed without
any obstacle whatsoever, hear how the performer of Karma loses the place
acquired by his Karma. He makes offerings to Indra and other Devas by
the performance of Yajna and he goes after death to Svarga. There he
enjoys heavenly objects like the Devas, objects acquired by his own
Karma. He moves in white chariots the acquisitions of his own merits,
among Deva girls and is adored; by the Gandharvas. The chariot moves at
his will. It is adorned by small bells. He whiles away his time with the
Deva girls in the gardens of Svarga and he does not know his own fall.
But he remains in Svarga only so long as his merit is not exhausted. And
when the merit is run out, down falls the man by the force of time, even
against his will. (The above is the course after death of those who
perform Kâmya Karma, according to Vedic rules. This is one way of
following Pravritti Mârga. There is another way — the following up of
one’s own inclinations, in disregard of the Vedic rules. The next Śloka
refers to the performers of prohibited Karma). And if again a man
indulges in the prohibited acts, through evil company, if his senses are
not controlled, and if in consequence, he is passionate indiscriminate,
greedy, excessively fond of women, and unkind to other beings, if the
man kills animals wantonly and worships Pretas and Bhûtas, he goes,
driven by the law, to the Narakas and finds there intense Tamas.

"Therefore karma (selfish actions) ends in unhappiness. By performing
karma with the body, men seek the body again. What happiness is there in
the possession of this transitory body? The Lokas and Lokapâlas have to
fear me, they who live for one full day of Brahmâ. Even Brahmâ who lives
for 2 Parardhas has fear of me."

(Therefore Pravritti Mârga leads to evil. It should be shunned and
Nivritti Mârga should be adopted. This is the purport. _Śridhara_).

(Now Sri Krishna goes on to refute the first two assumptions (1) that
Âtmâ is the doer and (2) that Âtmâ is the enjoyer). The Gunas create
actions and the Gunas lead the Gunas. (The Gunas are Satva, Rajas and
Tamas. These primal attributes of Prakriti give rise to all her
manifestations. The Indriyas, the senses, and the mind are Sâtvic and
Râjasic transformations of the Ahankâra manifestation of Prakriti. So
they are the Gunas first referred to. The senses and the mind create
actions. Our actions are all prompted by them and not by Âtmâ. So Âtmâ
is not the doer. It may be said however that the senses and the mind are
guided by Âtmâ. But it is not so. The primal attributes (Gunas) lead the
senses and the mind (Gunas). If Satva prevails in a man his actions are
Sâtvic and so on. It is the nature of the Prâkritic transformations of a
man that determines his actions. This is only an elaboration of
Śridhara’s notes.)

The Jiva enjoys the fruits of Karma, being connected with the Gunas (The
enjoyment by Jiva is also due to its phenomenal basis. "Connected with
the Gunas" _i.e._ connected with the senses and other Prâkritic
elements. Jivâtma dwells in the body. When the house falls down, he
occupies another house. When the houses are merely halting stations in
his long journey, he does not care much for the house itself, he does
not identify himself with the house. So when Jivâtma becomes indifferent
to the body, it is not affected by the changes of the body. When a house
burns, the dweller in the house feels pain. When the house is
comfortable, the dweller in the house feels pleasure. His connection
with the house is however temporary.)

As long as there is difference in the Gunas (i. e, Guna transformations,
Ahankâra &c.), so long there is plurality in Âtmâ. As long as there is
plurality so long is it dependent on others. (The difference in Jivâtmas
or individuals, is not due to any difference in Âtmâ, but to differences
in the Guna transformations which give rise to the body. Dependence is
also an accompaniment of those transformations),

So long as Jiva is dependent on others it has fear from Íshvara. Those
that worship the Guna transformations are given up to sorrow and they
become deluded.



BONDAGE AND LIBERATION.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 11.*

Uddhava asked: —

"Âtmâ dwells in the transformations of the Gunas forming the body. Why
should it not be bound down by the Gunas. Or if Âtmâ is free (like
Akâsa) why should it be at all in bondage? What are the indications of
Âtmâ in bondage and of liberated Âtmâ? Is Âtmâ ever in bondage? (for
connection with the Gunas is eternal. _Śridhara_) or ever in liberation
(for if liberation is a state to be acquired, Âtmâ can not be permanent.
_Śridhara_)"

Sri Krishna replied: —

"Bondage and liberation are terms applied to Me not with reference to my
real self, but with reference to My Gunas (the Guna limitations, Satva,
Rajas and Tamas that are subordinate to me. _Śridhara_). The Gunas have
their origin in Mâyâ. Therefore I have neither liberation nor bondage.

"Sorrow and delusion, joy and grief, even the attainment of body — these
are all due to Mâyâ. The dream is only an illusory form of the mind,
even so the course of births is not real. Vidya and Avidyâ both proceed
from My Mâyâ, O Uddhava. I am one and the Jiva is only my part (as the
ray is of the sun). The bondage of Jiva is caused by Avidyâ and its
liberation by Vidya. This is eternally so. Now I shall tell you the
different indications of the imprisoned and the liberated Jiva. (The
difference is twofold: that between Jiva and Ísvara and that amongst the
Jivas themselves. The author first speaks of the former. _Śridhara._)
Jiva and Ísvara though of different attributes dwell in the same body.
They are two birds like each other (for both are manifestations of
conciousness), companions that have made a nest for themselves (the
heart), in the tree of body, of their own free will.

"Of these one (the Jiva) eats the fruits of the tree. The other (Ísvara)
though not a partaker of the fruits is the mightier of the two. For He
who does not partake of the fruits is the knower of self as of others.
But the partaker of fruits is not so. He (Jiva) who is joined with
Avidyâ is always imprisoned. He (Íshvara) who is joined with Vidya is
always liberated. (Mâyâ of Íshvara or Vidya does not throw a veil round
and does not delude). The "conscious" are two in every individual. The
consciousness of Ísvara is universal. Jivâtma however takes upon himself
the limitations of individuality and becomes the conscious centre in
every man. "I perceive" "I conceive" "I do," that "I" is Âtmâ limited by
the sense of individuality. The perception and conceptions are of
Jivâtma and he is the partaker of the fruits. This "Jiva" element in an
individual is in bondage. But the Ísvara element in him is always
liberated. And Jiva becomes liberated, when the individual limitation is
withdrawn).

"(Now the difference amongst Jivas liberated and imprisoned).

"The liberated (Jiva) though dwelling in the body does not dwell in it
as it were, even like one aroused from dream. (The awakened man
remembers his dream body, but realises it as unreal, So the liberated
Jiva looks upon his body as unreal or a temporary halting station, not a
part of his own self). The ignorant identifies himself with the body,
like the man in dream.

"The senses perceive the objects of the senses. The Gunas perceive the
Gunas. The wise (Jiva) does not identify self with these. He is
therefore not distracted.

"The ignorant, however, while dwelling in this body brought about by
prior Karma, in which the senses act, thinks that he is the doer and
becomes thus bound down.

"The wise one sees with disgust that the actions of others bind him.
Sleeping, sitting, walking or bathing, seeing, touching, smelling,
eating or hearing, the wise (Jiva) does not bind himself like the
ignorant, for in those acts, he realises that the Gunas (senses)
perceive (and not his self). He dwells in the body, but is not attached
to it, like the Akâsa, the sun and the air. (Space is in all things, but
the things form no part of space. The sun becomes reflected in water,
but is not attached to water. The air moves about all around, but does
not become attached to any thing). By the force of dispassion, the
vision becomes clear. All doubts are removed. And the wise (Jiva) rises
as it were from sleep, and withdraws himself from the diversities (of
body and other material objects).

"The Jiva whose Prânas, Indriyas, Manas and Buddhi function without the
promptings of self-centred desires is freed from the attributes of the
body though dwelling in the body.

"Whether injured by others or adored the liberated Jiva is not affected
in the least. He neither praises nor blames others for their good or bad
deeds or words. He knows no merits nor demerits. He looks on all with an
equal eye. He does not do anything, he does not say anything, he does
not think on any thing, good or bad. He is self-entranced and moves like
a sense-less being (Jada).

"If a man well-versed in the Vedas is not fixed in the Supreme, his
labour becomes fruitless like that of a man who keeps a breeding cow
that bears no calf. A cow that does not give milk, an unchaste wife, a
body that is under the control of others, an undutiful son, wealth that
is not given to the deserving and words that do not relate to me: he
only keeps these whose lot is misery.

"With discrimination such as this do away with the notion of diversity
in self. Then fix your purified mind in Me, who am all pervading, and
desist from everything else.

"If you can not fix your mind in Me, then offer up all your actions
unconditionally to Me. Hear with faith the words that relate to Me. Sing
of Me, meditate on my deeds and Incarnations. Imitate these. Whatever
you do, do that for Me. Then will be gained, O Uddhava, fixed devotion
to Me. That devotion (Bhakti) is to be acquired in the company of
Sâdhus."



SÂDHU AND BHAKTI.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 11-12.*

Uddhava asked: —

"Who according to Thee is a Sâdhu? What sort of Bhakti (devotion) may be
offered to Thee?"

Sri Krishna replied: —

"Compassionate, harmless, forgiving, firm in truth, faultless,
impartial, doing good to all, undisturbed by desires, self restrained,
mild, pure, not asking for anything, indifferent, temperate in eating
with controlled mind, steady in the performance of duties, seeking
refuge in me, given to meditation, careful, profound, patient, having
control over the six-fold waves (hunger, thirst, sorrow and delusion,
infirmity and death), not seeking respect from others, but respecting
others, able, friendly, tender-hearted, wise, such is a Sâdhu. He who
knowing my injunctions and prohibitions in the performance of one’s own
Dharma or duties of life, even gives them all up for my sake is the best
of all Sâdhus. Those who seek me and nothing else, whether they know or
not what I am, are the best of My Bhaktas.

"To see, touch and worship My symbols and my votaries, to serve and
adore them, the humble recital of My glory and of My deeds, Faith in
hearing words about Me, constant meditation on Me, the offering up of
all gains to Me, even the offering up of self in a spirit of service,
the observance of the sacred days, rejoicings in the houses set apart
for Me (all good Hindus have a house or room set apart for divine
worship), initiation according to the Vedic and the Tântric System (one
who is initiated is to recite the Mantras a certain number of times,
every morning and evening and he can not take his meals without doing so
in the morning) to observe fasts, enthusiasm in founding My image for
worship, and in founding gardens, buildings and towns (in connection
with My worship) humility and silence about one’s own good deeds, —
these are the indications of Bhakti.

"Sun, Fire, the Brâhmana, the Cow, the Vaishnava, Akâsa, Air, Water,
Earth, Âtmâ, and all beings — these are the eleven places of my worship.

"I am to be worshipped in the Sun, by Vedic Mantras, in the fire by
sacrificial Ghee, in the Brâhmana by hospitality, in the cows by the
offer of grass, in the Vaishnava by friendly treatment, in the Akâsa of
the heart cavity by meditation, in the air by the contemplation of
Prana, in the water by offerings of libation and so forth, in the Earth
by secret Mantras, in Âtmâ by experiencing (Bhōga) and in all beings by
equality.

"In all these places of worship I am to be meditated on as with four
hands, bearing conch, disc, club and lotus.

"He who worships Me as above and serves the Sâdhus acquires Devotion.
Except by devotion that is acquired in the company of Sâdhus, there is
hardly any other way of liberation. I am not so easily attainable by
Yoga, Sânkhya, Dharma, the reading of Scriptures, Tapas, gifts,
charitable acts, fasts, Yajnas, the Vedas, resort to pilgrimage, Niyamas
or Yâmas as by the company of Sâdhus. Even those that are the lowest by
birth, those that have Rajas and Tamas predominant in them, the Daityas,
Asuras, and Râkshasas attain me easily by the company of Sâdhus. The
Gopis in Vraja, the wives of the Vedic Brâhmanas did not read the Vedas,
they did not observe fasts, they did not perform Tapas, but they
attained Me, through the company of Sâdhus. Therefore O Uddhava care not
for Srutis or Smritis, for biddings and for forbiddings. Have recourse
to Me, the Âtmâ of all beings, with all devotion, and thou shall have no
fear from any quarter."

(The following stages are to be marked: —

  1. Study of Nature and self instruction.
  2. Self discrimination, resuting in the separation of the conscious
     Âtmâ and the unconscious Non-Âtmâ.
  3. The understanding of what is bondage and liberation, and the
     relation between Jiva Âtmâ and Parama Âtmâ (Íshvara.)
  4. The liberating process during which the rules are to be observed,
     sacrifices to be made, the duties of life to be performed and
     active good done to all beings. During this process, the whole
     nature of the man becomes one of universal compassion and
     friendliness. Differences vanish. Good and bad become all alike.

The Jiva rests in his own Âtmâ, which is the Âtmâ of all beings, and
then all is calm and quiet.

  5. The company of Sâdhus.
  6. Devotion acquired in that company.
  7. When Devotion (Bhakti) becomes a part of one’s nature then the
     giving up of all rules, all karma, whether pertaining to the Srutis
     or the Smritis.)



WHY GIVE UP ALL KARMA


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 12.*

This Jiva-Íshvara becomes manifest in the cavities (nerve-plexuses). He
enters the cavity (called Âdhâra or prostatic plexus) with the Prana
(energy) of sound (called Para). He passed through subtle mind-made
forms (Pasyanti and Madhyamâ) in the plexuses called Manipura or Solar
and Visuddhi or laryngeal and at last comes out as) very gross (Sound
forms, called Vaikhari, consisting of) Mâtrâ (Measures, such as long,
short &c), Svara (accents known as Udâtta or high, Anudâtta or low and
Svarita or mixed; and Varna the (letters of the alphabet, _ka, kha_ &c.)

(The ruling idea is that the teachings of the Vedas and the Smritis are
conveyed in articulate expressions and are adapted to planes
corresponding to articulation. But articulation is the last and grossest
expression of Divine Sound energy. In man the highest manifestation of
sound energy, the primal voice, the divine voice, the first Logos, is
Para. It is the Light which manifests the whole Universe. In that
highest plane of manifestation there is no difference between Light and
Sound. The seat of this Light is Mûla-Âdhâra Chakra.

Coming down the line of material manifestation, this Divine Light, this
Parâ Voice, become Pasyanti in the plane of causes, of germ thoughts, of
root ideas, the Karana plane. The germs are transmitted in Man from
birth to birth and in the Universe from kalpa to kalpa. They are the
_causes_ of the subsequent manifestations, whether individual or
universal. The Parâ voice passing through the causal plane, becomes the
root-ideas or germ thoughts.

In the next plane, the Sûkshma plane, the voice becomes the thoughts
themselves or Madhyamâ.

The last expression of the Voice is the articulate expression, Vaikhari.

The Srutis and Smritis as written or spoken belong to the plane of
lowest manifestation. They are governed by the root-ideas and ideas of
the present universe, the root-ideas and ideas of the Rishis through
whom they are manifested.

When you seek the _unmanifested_ light of the Logos, the Divine Voice,
or only the first manifestation of that Voice, what care you about the
lower manifestations, the Srutis or Smritis, what care you about karma
that pertains to the lower planes?)

In Akâsa, fire is only unmanifested heat (Ushman). It is manifested
further down in the fuel. By friction in the fuel, it becomes a spark.
Kindled by _Ghee_, it becomes a flame. Such is my manifestation also in
this articulate Voice.

So also the senses of action (Karmendriyas) and of perception
(Gnanendriyas), the faculties of Desire, Discrimination, and Egoistic
perception, the thread-giving Pradhâna, the transformations of Satva,
Rajas and Tamas are all my manifestations. (_i.e._ I am manifested
through all of them).

Primally, this Jiva Íshvara is unmanifested and one. But being the
resort of the three Gunas, being the generator (Yoni) of the lotus (of
the Universe), He becomes in time of divided energy, and appears as
many, even like seeds that have found the soil.

This Universe exists in Me, even as a piece of cloth exists in threads.

The essence of this eternal tree of the Universe is Inclination. It
begets flowers (Karma) and fruits (the fruits of Karma). Two are its
seeds (Merit and de merit). Hundreds are its roots (the desires). Three
are its stems (the Three Gunas). Five are its trunks (the five Bhûtas,
Akâsa &c). The branches produce 5 sorts of juice (Sound, Touch, Sight,
Taste and Smell); the Ten senses and the mind are the branches of the
tree. Two birds (Jivâtma and Paramâtmâ) make their nest on it. Wind,
bile and phlegm are its dermal layers. Joy and sorrow are the two fruits
of this tree. It extends up to the solar regions (for beyond the Solar
system, the Trilokî, there are no rebirths.) The country loving Gridhras
(in the first sense, vultures and in the second sense, home loving men
of desires) partake of one fruit (sorrow). And the forest frequenting
Hansas (in one sense swans and in the other sense discriminating men who
give up desires) partake of the other fruit (joy).

He who, through the favor of his Guru knows the One as becoming Many
through Mâyâ, knows the Truth.

Thus with the axe of wisdom, sharpened by whole-minded devotion acquired
by the worship of the Guru, do thou calmly and steadily cut asunder the
sheaths of Jiva and on attaining Paramâtmâ, do thou let go of the
instrument itself.



THE GUNAS.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 13.*

Satva, Rajas and Tamas — they are the Gunas of Buddhi (Prakriti), not of
Âtmâ — control Rajas and Tamas by means of Satva and control Satva by
Satva itself. When Satva grows in Man, he acquires Dharma, which is
Devotion to Me. By worshipping Sâtvic objects Satva increases and Dharma
is the outcome. That Dharma kills Rajas and Tamas and it increases
Satva. When Rajas and Tamas are killed, Adharma which is an outcome of
Rajas and Tamas is also killed. The scriptures, water, men, land, time,
karma, regeneration, meditation, mantra and purification these ten are
accessaries to the Gunas. Of these what the Sages praise are Sâtvic,
what they blame are Tâmasic, what they neither praise nor blame are
Râjasic. Have resort to only those of them that are Sâtvic, for then
Satva will increase. Dharma follows that increase and wisdom follows
Dharma. But wisdom has its field only so long as memory lasts and the
(Gunas) are not exhausted. Fire that is produced by the friction of
bamboo pieces, burns up the forest and is then extinguished of itself
even so the body caused by disturbance of the Gunas is extinguished of
itself, (at that final stage).

(Of the scriptures, there are some that speak of inclination, others
that speak of disinclination. The latter only are to be followed. Water
which has a purifying effect, as that of a sacred place is to be used,
not pointed water and wine. Bad men are to be shunned and good men are
to be mixed with. Quiet solitary places are to be sought, not highways
and gambling places. The time before sun rise is preferable for
meditation not night fall or night. Nitya Karma is to be performed, not
Kâmya Karma. Initiation causes a second birth. Vaishnava or Saiva
initiation is Sâtvic and not Sakta initiation. Meditation upon Vishnu is
Sâtvic and not the meditation upon women or upon those that are hostile
to Vishnu. The Pranava Mantra is Sâtvic and not the lower Kâmya Mantras.
The cleansing must be purification of self, not the mere cleansing of
Deva houses. _Śridhara_. By these Sâtvic pursuits, Satva Guna prevails
in man. When Satva prevails the whole nature becomes Sâtvic. The
tendencies are all such as to lead to calmness, which is the essence of
Satva. This is Dharma Adharma is the opposite of this. It is identified
with such a nature as leads to distractions. Dharma is followed by
wisdom. For when the mind is calm and tranquil, truths are reflected on
it in their entirety and they are fully perceived. That wisdom lasts as
long as memory lasts _i.e._ as long as Dvaita perception exists. But
when the Gunas themselves die out, wisdom vanishes of itself, for when
there is direct perception of Brahmâ as self, the knower, the known and
knowledge become one and the same.)



HOW TO WITHDRAW FROM THE OBJECTS OF THE SENSES.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 13.*

Uddhava asked: —

"Generally people know that the objects of the senses lead them to
misery. How is it, O Krishna, they still follow them, like dogs, donkeys
and goats?"

Sri Krishna replied: —

"When in the heart of the undiscriminating man, the false perception of
’I’ arises (with regard to body &c.), the terrible Rajas takes
possession of the Manas, which by its origin is Sâtvic. Doubts and
desires arise in the mind. The mind then dwells upon attributes (oh! how
beautiful, what a nice thing!) and acquires a strong liking for it.
Guided by the passions, with the senses uncontrolled, deluded by the
strong current of Rajas, the helpless man knowingly does things that
bear evil fruits. The mind of the wise man is also distracted by Rajas
and Tamas. But he sleeplessly controls his mind and he finds fault (with
his own actions). He is not attached to them. Gradually and steadfastly
offer up your mind to Me, being wide awake, at all times, controlling
your breath and regulating your seat and you will then be able to
control your mind.

"This is the Yoga, as taught by My disciples Sanaka and others."

Uddhava asked: —

"When and in what form did you teach Sanaka and others?"

Sri Krishna replied: —

"Sanaka and other Manas-born sons of Brahmâ asked their father as
follows: — The mind enters the Gunas (objects _i.e._ the mind naturally
becomes attached to objects) and the Gunas (_i.e._ the objects when
experienced) enter the mind (as desires). How can those that want to
cross over (the objects) and to become liberated cause a separation
between the two?

"Brahmâ could not gauge the question in his own mind. So he meditated on
me. I appeared before him as a Hansa. (The Swan can discriminate between
milk and water. So the bird symbolises a discriminating sage.) The
Brâhmanas and Brahmâ asked: ’Who art thou?’ I said as follows: —

"O Brâhmanas does your question relate to Âtmâ — If so, Âtmâ is not
many. So the question does not arise. And who will reply to whom?

"If your question relates to the body, then also the elements composing
the body being the same in all beings, and Atmâ being the same in all,
your question is meaningless.

"Whatever is perceived by the senses and the mind, I am that — There is
nothing besides Me. Rightly know this to be so.

"True the mind enters the Gunas and the Gunas enter the mind. The Gunas
and mind thus mutually blended are but the body of the Jiva, its reality
being My own self. (If mind wedded to objects, be the essence of Jiva,
then their separation is not possible. But the essence of Jiva is
Brahmâ. Mind is only attributed to Jiva. And Jiva’s connection with the
objects is through the properties of the mind. Therefore Jiva by
realising that it is Brahmâ will find out that the objects have no
existence as far as its own self is concerned. Therefore by devotion to
Bhagavat, Jiva completely rests in its own self. _Śridhara_. This is not
a separation of Manas and objects, but the withdrawal of self from
both.)

"By constant pursuit of the Gunas, the mind enters the Gunas. The Gunas
also (being turned into desires) take a firm hold of the mind. Knowing
Me to be thy own self give up both (the objects and the mind wedded to
them.)

"Wakefulness (Jâgrat), Dream (Svapna) and Dreamless sleep (Sushupti) are
states of mind, caused by the Gunas, Jiva is beyond all these states.
For it is the witness of all these states. The bondage caused by mind
imparts the actions of the Gunas to Âtmâ. Therefore being fixed in Me,
the Fourth (_i.e._ beyond the three states of consciousness), get over
the bondage of mind. That will be the (mutual) giving up of the mind and
the Gunas. This bondage of Âtmâ is caused by Ahankâra (the sense of
’I-ness’) Know this to be the cause of all evils. Knowing this, be fixed
in the Fourth, and give up all thoughts of _Sansâra_ (_i.e._ of mind and
of the connections caused by mind.)

"So long as the idea of manifoldness is not destroyed by reasoning, man
dreams in ignorance even in the wakeful state, just as in dream, the
ignorant man thinks he is wakeful.

"All things, other than Âtmâ are unreal. The differences made amongst
them (such as, this is Brâhmana, this is Sudra, this is Grihasthâ, this
is Sanyâsîn), the different destinations (Svarga and other Kârmic
fruits) and even Karma (action) itself are unreal, so far as Âtmâ is
concerned.

"He who throughout the constantly following stages of life (childhood,
youth, age etc.) perceives the objects in the wakeful state, with the
help of all the senses, he who perceives the likes of those objects in
dream in the heart, and he who brings those perceptions to an end in
dreamless sleep are all one and the same. For the same memory runs
through all these states. The Lord of the senses is one and the same.
(The outward senses perceive the wakeful state. Mind, perceives the
dream. Buddhi perceives dreamless sleep. Âtmâ, is the Lord of all these
senses).

"Ponder well over this that the three states of mind are caused in Me by
the Gunas, through My Mâyâ. Knowing this definitely, cut asunder the
source of all doubts (Ahankâra) by the sword of wisdom sharpened by
reasoning, the teachings of Sâdhus, and the Srutis. And worship Me, that
dwell in the heart.

"Look upon this Universe as a delusion, a play of the mind. Now seen,
now destroyed. So rapid is the succession, that it is like a whirling
fire brand that looks circular (on account of the rapid motion, though
it is not circular). One consciousness appears as many. The phenomenal
existence (_Vikalpa_) caused by the threefold Guna transformations is
but Mâyâ, a dream.

"Turn away your sight from this object world. Give up all desires. Be
calm and find bliss in the perception of self. At times you will have
experience of the objects in your daily life (for getting the
necessaries of life). But what you have once thrown aside as unreal
shall not be able to cause delusion in you. Till the fall of your body,
the objects will haunt you like things of the past, stored as it were in
memory alone. This frail body, through which he has known his real self,
may rise or sit, may move away from its place or come back, just as
chance will have it, but the Siddha sees it not, even as an inebriate
person does not see the cloth he puts on.

"The body waits with the Prânas and Indriyas till the _Commenced_ Karma
exhausts itself. But being fixed in Samâdhi, the knower of the truth
does not care for the body and the object world, which are all visionary
to him.

"I said all this to the Brâhmanas and came back to my own abode."



BHAKTI YOGA.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 14.*

"O Krishna, thou speakest of Bhakti Yoga. Others speak of other
expedients. Are they all same or is any one of them superior to others?"

Sri-Krishna replied: —

"The tendencies of men are different, according to the differences in
their nature. So different paths have been spoken of. But the regions
(or fruits) acquired by the votaries of the other paths, and as created
by their actions have a beginning and an end, a miserable future and an
end in Tamas. The pleasures there are small and they are not unmixed
with sorrow. Where is that bliss to be found in objects that is to be
found in Me.

"Fixed in Me, and finding bliss in Me, all is blissful to My votaries.
They do not wish for universal supremacy, they do not ask for supremacy
over Svarga, Bhûr or Pâtâla, they do not long for Siddhis, they do not
even ask for Mukti. Surrendering Self to Me they wish for nothing else
but Myself. Brahmâ, Śiva, Sankarshana, Lakshmî and My own form are not
so dear to Me, O Uddhava, as thou art to Me. I always seek my Bhaktas.
It is they only that know what bliss they enjoy, Bhakti consumes all
impurities, even as fire consumes the fuel. Yoga, Sânkhya, Dharma, study
of the scriptures, asceticism, or relinquishment nothing wins me so much
as powerful Bhakti does. I am attained only by faithful Devotion. Bhakti
purifies the Bhaktas, even though they be Chandâlas by birth.

"Dharma, though combined with truth and compassion, wisdom though wedded
to asceticism, do not completely purify self, if devotion to Me is
wanting. How can mind be purified without Bhakti. For by Bhakti the
hairs stand on end, the heart melts away and tears of bliss run down the
cheek. Words become choked with devotional feelings. The Bhakta weeps,
and smiles, and sings and dances forgetting himself. Such a Bhakta (not
only purifies self, but) he purifies the whole world.

"Gold loses its impurities under fire and regains its own form. Âtmâ
(Jiva Âtmâ) shakes off its impurities under Bhakti Yoga and regains its
own form. As Âtmâ becomes more and more purified, by hearing and
meditating on the sacred sayings about Me, it sees more and more of
subtle objects, as the eye touched with collyrium does.

"Think of objects and your mind will be attached to objects. Think of Me
and your mind will be attached to Me. Therefore fix your mind on Me,
giving up all other thoughts.

"Shun from a distance the company of women and of those that keep the
company of women. Be self controlled. Go to a solitary place, free from
dangers and then sleeplessly meditate on Me.

"There is not so much misery, so much bondage from other quarters as
from the company of women and of those that associate with them."



MEDITATION.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 14.*

Uddhava asked: —

"O Lotus-eyed! how to meditate on Thee! Tell me what is the nature of
that meditation and what it is?"

Sri Krishna replied: —

"Be seated on an Asana (Seat), that is neither high nor low (say, a
blanket), with your body erect and in an easy posture. Place your hands
on the lap. Fix your gaze on the tip of the nose (in order to fix the
mind). Purify the tracks of Prâna by Puraka, Kumbhaka and Rechaka, and
then again in the reverse way (_i.e._ first breathe in by the left
nostril with the right nostril closed by the tip of the thumb, then
close the left nostril by the tips of the ring finger and the little
finger and retain the breath in both the nostrils. Then remove the tip
of the thumb, and breathe out through the right nostril. Reverse the
process by breathing in through the right nostril then retaining the
breath in both the nostrils and then letting out the breath through the
left nostril). Practise this Prânâyama gradually with your senses
controlled.

"’Aum’ with the sound of a bell, extends all over, from Mûlâdhâra
upwards. Raise the ’Aum’ in the heart, by means of Prâna (twelve fingers
upwards) as if it were the thread of a lotus-stalk. There let Bindu (the
fifteenth vowel sound) be added to it. Thus practise Prânâyama
accompanied by the Pranava reciting the latter ten times. Continue the
practice, three times a day and within a month you shall be able to
control the vital air. The lotus of the heart, has its stalk upwards and
the flower downwards, facing below (and it is also closed, like the
inflorescence with bracts of the banana. _Śridhara_). Meditate on it
however as facing upwards and full-blown, with eight petals and with the
pericarp. On the pericarp, think of the Sun, the Moon, and Fire one
after another. Meditate on My form (as given in the text) within the
Fire. First Meditate on all the limbs. Then let the mind withdraw the
senses from their objects. Then draw the concentrated mind completely
towards Me, by means of Buddhi. Then give up all other limbs and
concentrate your mind on one thing only My smiling face. Do not meditate
on anything else. Then with draw the concentrated mind from that and fix
it on Akâsa. Give up that also and being fixed in Me, (as Brahmâ) think
of nothing at all. You shall see Me in Âtmâ, as identical with all
Âtmâs, even as light is identical with another light. The delusions
about object, knowledge and action shall then completely disappear."



THE SIDDHIS


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 15.*

When the senses and the breath are controlled and the mind is fixed on
Me, Siddhis or powers overtake the Yogi. There are eighteen Siddhis and
eighteen Dhârânas. Of these, eight belong to me (eight of them are
normally the powers of Íshvara and they exist in a some what lesser
degree in those that approach the state of Íshvara. _Śridhara_. The
remaining ten cause the appearance of Guna _i.e._ they cause an
excellence of Satva. _Śridhara_.)

  1. _Animâ_, the power of becoming as small as an atom.
  2. _Mahimâ_, the power of increasing size.

3. _Laghimâ_, the power of becoming light. These three Siddhis relate to
the body.

4. _Prâpti_, to be in the relation of presiding Devas to the
corresponding senses of all beings.

5. _Prâkâmya_, power of enjoying and perceiving all objects seen or
unseen.

6. _Îsitâ_, control over the energies of Mâyâ in Ísvara, over the lower
energies in other beings.

  7. _Vasitâ_, Non-attachment to objects.
  8. _Kâmâvasâyitâ_, the power of attaining all desires.

These are My eight Siddhis and they normally exist in Me.

   1. The cessation of hunger and thirst.
   2. The hearing from a distance.
   3. Seeing from a distance.
   4. Motion of the body with the velocity of the mind.
   5. Assumption of any form at will.
   6. The entering into another’s body.
   7. Death at one’s own will.
   8. Play with Deva girls.
   9. The attainment of desired for objects.
  10. Irresistible command.

These are the ten Siddhis that relate to the Gunas. There are also five
smaller Siddhis.

  1. Knowledge of the present, past and future.
  2. Control over the Pairs, such as heat and cold &c.
  3. Knowledge of other’s minds.
  4. Suspending the actions of fire, sun, water, poison &c.
  5. Invincibility.

These are only illustrative of the Siddhis.

Now about Dhârâna or the modes of concentration of the mind.

Those that fix their mind on Me as pervading the Tanmatras acquire the
power of becoming an atom.

Those that concentrate their mind on Me as pervading Mahat Tatva acquire
_Mahima_.

    The object of Dhârâna              ... ... The power acquired

    The Lord pervading the atoms           ... Laghima.

        Do.      Do.  Sâtvic Ahankâra      ... Prâpti.

        Do.      Do.  Sûtra or Mahat       ... Prakamya.

    Vishnu the Lord of the three Gunas     ... Îsita.

    Nârâyana, the Fourth, Bhagavat         ... Vasita.

    Nirguna Brahmâ (Brahmâ without
       attribute)                  ... ... ... Kâmavasayita.

    Lord of Sveta Dvipa (White Island)     ... Cessation of hunger
                                               and thirst.

    Akâsa                          ... ... ... Distant hearing.

    Sun                            ... ... ... Distant vision.

              &c.     &c.    &c.



THE VIBHÛTIS OR POWERS OF THE LORD.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 16.*

The Sixteenth Chapter deals with the Vibhûtis of the Lord, much in the
same way as the tenth chapter of the Bhagavad Gitâ.



VARNA AND ASRAMA RULES.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 17-18.*

The seventeenth and eighteenth chapters deal with Varna and Âsrama
rules.



WHAT ONE IS TO DO FOR MOKSHA.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 19.*

Jnâna (knowledge), Vairâgya (dispassion), Vijnâna (direct knowledge),
Sraddhâ (faith) Bhakti (Devotion), these are the requisites of Moksha.
The nine (Prakriti, Purusha, Mahat. Ahankâra and the five Tanmatras),
the eleven (five Jnânendriyas, five Karmendriyas and Manas), the five
Bhûtas, the three (Gunas), that knowledge by which one knows that these
constitute all beings and that the One underlies all these is _Jnâna_.

(The first training of the mind is to break up the objects into their
component elements. Thus we can mentally resolve any object into its
chemical elements and this Universe into a mass of homogeneous nebula.
The process is to be carried further, till we get the Tatvas or the
ultimate principles of the Sânkhya philosophy. Then the next step is to
realise the one Purusha as underlying all the Prâkritic principles.)

Vijnâna is the direct knowledge of the One by itself and not as
pervading all Prâkritic forms. (Jnâna is indirect knowledge and Vijnâna
is direct knowledge of Brahmâ).

All the existing things being formed of the three Gunas have their
growth, existence and end. What follows the transformation from one form
into another, at all the three stages of beginning, middle and end, and
what remains behind after the destruction of all forms — that is the
existing (Sat).

The Vedas, direct perception, the sayings of great men and logical
inference are the four Pramanas or evidences. The world of
transformations does not stand the test of any of them (_i.e._ there is
only one real existence, the existence of the transformable and
transformed world being only relative and unreal. This is the conclusion
arrived at from all sources. Therefore the wise man becomes
dispassionate to all things.

Transformation is the end of all actions. Therefore the wise man sees
all the regions that may be attained by actions from that of Brahmâ
downwards, as miserable and transitory even like the worlds that are
seen. This is Vairagya or Dispassion.

I have told you already of Bhakti yoga. Hear again what I say. _Sraddhâ_
or faith in the nectar like sayings about Me, constant recitals about
myself, steadiness in worshipping Me, the chanting of devotional hymns,
the hearty performance of divine service, adoration by means of the
body, worship of my votaries, the realisation of my existence in all
beings, the directing of the daily actions and of the daily talks
towards Me, the offering up of the mind to Me, the giving up of all
desires, of all objects, of all enjoyments and of all joys for my Sake,
the performance of Vedic karma all for Me — by all these, Bhakti grows
up towards Me.



THE SADHANAS OR EXPEDIENTS.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 19.*

Yâma consists of —

   1. _Ahinsâ_ — the non-infliction of pain.
   2. _Satya_ — the practice of truth.
   3. _Asteya_ — Not even the mental stealing of other’s properties.
   4. _Asanga_ — Non-attachment.
   5. _Hri_ — Modesty.
   6. _Asanchaya_ — Want of storing for the future.
   7. _Astikya_ — faith in religion.
   8. _Brahmacharya_ — Abstinence.
   9. _Mauna_ — Silence.
  10. _Sthairya_ — Steadiness.
  11. _Kshamâ_ — forgiveness.
  12. _Abhaya_ — fearlessness.

_Niyama_ Consists of

   1. _Saucha_ — bodily purity.
   2. _Do_. — Mental purity.
   3. _Japa_ — Mental repetition of Mantras or Names of deities.
   4. _Tapas_ — Asceticism.
   5. _Homa_ — Sacrificial offering.
   6. _Sraddhâ_ — faith.
   7. _Atithya_ — hospitality.
   8. _Archanâ_ — daily worship.
   9. _Tîrthâtana_ — Wandering on pilgrimage.
  10. _Pararthehâ_ — desire for the Supreme object.
  11. _Tushti_ — Contentment.
  12. _Achârya Sevana_ — Service of the spiritual teacher.

Yâma and Niyama are practised by men, either for furtherance in life or
for Moksha.

_Sama_ — is fixing the mind on Me (and not mental quietness only).

_Titikshâ_ — is forbearance.

_Dhriti_ — is the restraint of the senses of taste and generation.

The best _Dâna_ (gift) is not to oppress any creature.

_Tapas_ — is really the giving up of desires.

_Saurya_ — or power is the control of one’s own nature.

_Satya_ or Truth is the practice of equality.

_Rita_ — is truth speaking that does not cause pain.

_Saucha_ — is only non-attachment to karma, but _Tyâga_ is its complete
renunciation.

The wealth to be coveted for is _Dharma_. I Myself am _Yajna_, Spiritual
teaching is the _Sacrificial gift_, _Prânâyama_ is the greatest
strength.

_Bhaga_ is my Lordly state.

The best attainment is devotion to Me.

_Vidyâ_ is the removal of the idea of separateness from self.

_Hrî_ is the abhorrence of all unrighteous acts (and not merely
modesty.)

_Srî_ is (not merely riches but) virtues. Happiness is that which seeks
neither happiness nor misery.

Misery is nothing but longings for enjoyment.

The Sage is he who knows about liberation from bondage.

He is ignorant who knows the body to be self.

The Path is that which leads to Me.

The evil path is that which distracts the mind.

The increase of Satva is Svarga (and not merely Indra Loka.)

The increase of Tamas is Naraka.

Guru is the friend and I am that Guru.

This human body is the house.

He is rich who is virtuous.

He is poor who is not contented.

He who has not conquered the senses is the helpless man.

The Lord is he who is not attached to the objects.

He is a slave who is attached to them.



THE THREE PATHS: KARMA, JNÂNA AND BHAKTI.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 20.*

Uddhava said: —

"Karma is to be performed and Karma is not to be performed — both are
Thy injunctions in the Vedas. The Vedas speak of merits and demerits in
connection with Karma. They speak of Varna and Âsrama, of differences in
time, space, age and objects, of Svarga and Naraka.

"The sense of right and wrong is not innate but it is acquired from the
scriptures, and the same scriptures undermine all ideas of difference.
All this is confounding to me."

Shri Krishna replied: —

"I have spoken of three paths leading to the attainment of Moksha by men
— Jnâna, Karma and Bhakti Yogas. There is no other means what so ever of
attaining Moksha. Jnâna Yoga is for those that are disgusted with the
performance of Karma and so give it up.

"Karma Yoga is for those that are not disgusted with the performance of
Karma but are attached to it.

"He who perchance becomes fond of what is said or spoken of Me, but has
no aversion for Karma nor has any undue attachment to it is fit for
Bhakti Yoga.

"Perform Karma so long as you do not feel disgust for it or as long as
you are not drawn by love for me. True to your duties, perform Yajnas
but without any selfish desires. Do not perform prohibited Karma. Then
you shall cross the limits of both Svarga and Naraka.

"By the performance of one’s own duties, the purified man may acquire
pure wisdom (Jnâna) and Bhakti.

"The dwellers of Svarga wish for the human body and so the dwellers of
Naraka. For that body is a means to the attainment of of Jnâna and
Bhakti both, not so the Svarga body or Naraka body.

"The far-sighted man does not wish for Svarga or Naraka. He does not
even wish for human existence. For connection with the body causes
selfish distractions.

"The sage knows the body as leading to desired for ends. But he realises
at the same time its transitory character. He therefore loses no time in
striving for Moksha before the approach of death. Even so the bird loses
all attachment for its nest and flies away free and happy before the man
who strikes at the tree succeeds in felling it.

"The human body which is the primal source of all attainments is a well
built boat, so hard to secure and so cheap when once attained. The Guru
is at the helm of this boat, and I am the favorable wind that drives it.
The man that does not cross the ocean of births with such a boat is a
killer of self.

"_Jnâna_: — When a man feels disgust for karma and becomes dispassionate
and when his senses are controlled, he should practise concentration of
mind.

"When in the act of concentration, the mind suddenly goes astray and
becomes unsettled, you should bring it back under the control of self,
with unremitting efforts, after allowing it to go in its wandering
course a little.

"Never neglect however to check the course of the mind with your Prânas
and senses all controlled. With the help of Sâtvic Buddhi bring the mind
under the control of self.

"This control of the mind is the highest yoga. The horseman slackens the
reins at first but never lets go the reins. Reflect on the creative
manifestation of all objects and then the contrary process of their
dissolution, according to the Sânkhya method. Do this till the mind
attains calm.

"By cultivating a sense of disgust, by the growth of dispassion, by
constant pondering over the teachings of the Guru, the mind gives up its
delusion.

"By practising Yâma and other ways of Yoga, by discrimination of self
and by worshipping Me, the mind is able to think of the Supreme.

"If by loss of mental balance, the Yogi does some improper act he should
burn up the impurity by Yoga alone, but not by any other means (not by
expiatory rites. _Śridhara_)

"Adherence to the particular path of one’s own following is the right
thing. People have been taught to distinguish between right and wrong,
not because the acts are not all impure by their very nature but because
the distinction is necessary to regulate the acts themselves with a view
to cause a final abandonment of all attachments to them". (It may be
said that according to the scriptures, Nitya Karma (acts ordained to be
daily performed) and Naimittika Karma (acts ordained to be occasionally
performed) purify the mind. Hence they are _right_ (_guna_). The killing
of animals and such other acts make the mind impure. Hence they are
_wrong_ (_dosha_). Expiatory acts (Prâyaschitta) are required to be
performed in order to remove the consequences of wrong acts. Therefore
Prâyaschitta is a right thing (_guna_). How can impurities be destroyed
by means of Yoga then and not by means of Prâyaschitta: therefore it is
said that what is called Guna (right) and Dosha (wrong) by injunctions
and prohibitions, is only a regulation of acts. The purport is this. The
impurities of a man are not the outcome of his own inclinations. Man is
impure through his natural tendencies. It is not possible for him all on
a sudden to have disinclination for all actions. Therefore "Do this,"
"Do not do this," these injunctions and prohibitions only put a
restriction upon the inclinations of a man and by this means, they lead
to disinclination. The Yogis have no inclinations. The rules of
Prâyaschitta are therefore not meant for them. _Śridhara_.)

Bhakti: — "He who has reverential faith in all that is said about Me,
and who feels disgust for all actions, who knows that desires are
identical with misery, but is yet in-capable of renouncing them, such a
man should worship Me, with sincere devotion and firm faith. Though
gratifying his desires, he should not have any attachment for them,
knowing that they lead to misery in the end. Those that constantly
worship Me according to Bhakti yoga as already expounded by Me, have all
the desires of their heart destroyed as I myself dwell in their heart.
The bondage is broken asunder, doubts all cease to exist, the
accumulated actions fade away, when I, the Âtmâ of all, am seen. My
Bhakta speedily attains every thing that is attained by other means,
Svarga, Moksha or even My own abode, if he has any desire for any of
these. But My Bhaktas who are solely devoted to Me do not desire any
thing even if it be offered by Me, not even final liberation. They are
beyond the limits of Guna and Dosha."



GUNA AND DOSHA OR RIGHT AND WRONG


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 21.*

Those who do not follow the Paths of Bhakti, Jnâna and Karma, but who
only seek paltry desires become subject to rebirths [For those that are
matured in Jnâna and Bhakti, there is neither Guna (right) nor Dosha
(wrong). For those that practise Disinclination, the performance of
Nitya and Naimittika Karma is Guna, for it leads to the purification of
the mind. The non-performance of such Karma and the performance of
prohibited Karma are Dosha, for they give rise to impurities of the
mind. Prâyaschitta counteracts such Dosha, and therefore it is Guna. For
those pure men that are fixed in the Path of Jnâna, the practice of
Jnâna is Guna; Bhakti is Guna to them that are fixed in the path of
Bhakti. What is opposed to Jnâna and Bhakti is Dosha to the followers of
those two Paths. All this has been said before. Now Guna and Dosha are
detailed for those that do not follow the Paths, but seek their selfish
ends. _Śridhara_]. Devotion to the path of one’s following is Guna. The
reverse is Dōsha. This is the proper definition of Guna and Dosha (Guna
and Dosha are relative terms. They do not appertain to the thing itself.
_Śridhara_).

Purity (Sûddhi) or Impurity (Asûddhi), Right (Guna) or Wrong (Dōsha),
Auspicious (Sûbha) or Inauspicious (Asûbha) are terms applied to the
same objects, in relation to religion (Dharma), Society (Vyavahara) and
living (Yâtrâ), respectively.

I have explained Âchâra (rules of life) for those that want to be guided
by Dharma (Sanctional religion). (Shri Krishna refers here to the works
of Manu and other Smriti writers).

The body of all beings is composed of the five elements (earth, water
&c). They are all ensouled by Âtmâ. Though men are all equal, the Vedas
give different names and forms to their bodies (saying this is Brâhmana,
this is Sudra, this is Grihasthâ, this is Sanyâsî) with a view to do
good to them. (The object is to put a limit to the natural inclinations
and thereby to secure Dharma, Artha, Kâma and Moksha. _Śridhara_).
Similarly classification is made of time, space and other things, solely
with the object of regulating actions (Karma.) Thus those lands are
impure where the black deer do not roam (Details are not given for which
read the original).

"Those that perform Yajna attain Svarga." Sayings like these do not
speak of final bliss. They are only tempting words really meant for the
attainment of Moksha, just like words said to a child to induce him to
take medicine (The father says; "Eat this Nimba — a bitter drug. I shall
give you this sweet meat." The child takes the medicine. But the sweet
meat is not what he really gets, for his real gain is recovery from
disease).

From their very birth, mortals are attached to some objects of desire,
to their lives and powers and to their own people. But these are only
sources of misery in the future. Why should the Vedas then teach
attachment to such things? Some wrong-minded people say so without
knowing the purport of the Vedas. They are deluded by the performance of
fire sacrifices, and they resort to Pitri Yâna (_i.e._ they are drawn to
rebirths on the Earth after temporary enjoyment of Svarga). They do not
know their own abode, which am I as seated in their heart, from whom the
universe proceeds. Not knowing the real meaning of the Vedas, they
worship Indra and other Devas and perform Yajnas at which animals are
sacrificed. Parâ, Pasyanti and Madhyamâ remain deep and unfathomable
like the ocean and only Vaikhari becomes manifest in the Vedas
originating in Pranava and appearing through the letters of the alphabet
and the Metres. Even that Vaikhari is not properly understood by men.
(The Vedas form the sound manifestation of Íshvara. That sound has four
divisions. _Parâ_, which finds manifestation only in Prâna, _Pasyanti_,
which finds manifestation in the mind, _Madhyamâ_ which finds
manifestation in the Indriyas, and Vaikhari which finds manifestation in
articulate expression. Those who have mental vision can only find out
the first three. But the Vedas as expressed in language are also
difficult to understand.) Further details are given, which are not
reproduced.



THE TATVAS.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 22.*

Uddhava asked: — "How many Tatvas (elemental principles) are there? The
Rishis give the number differently."

Sri Krishna replied: —

"The discussion about the number is useless. The principles are
interpenetrating. Their order and their number are therefore differently
understood."

Uddhava asked: —

"Prakriti and Purusha though different by themselves are interdependent.
They are never seen separately. Âtmâ is seen in Prakriti (body) and
Prakriti is seen in Âtmâ (Where is then the difference between body and
Âtmâ?)

"This is my doubt."

Sri Krishna replied: —

"Prakriti and Purusha are essentially different."



PRAKRITI AND PURUSHA.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 22.*

(1). _Prakriti_ is subject to manifestation.

(2). It is subject to transformation.

(3). It consists of the transformations of the Gunas.

(4). It is various, — broadly speaking threefold, Adhyâtma, Adhi-bhûta
and Adhi-daiva.

(5). It is not self manifest.

Âtmâ is one, immutable and self manifest.

Ahankâra is at the root of all doubt and delusion. They last as long as
the mind is turned away from me.



RE-INCARNATION.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 22.*

Uddhava asked: —

"Those that are turned away from Thee take on and give up bodies. Tell
me something about rebirth."

Sri Krishna replied: —

"The mind of men imprinted with karma moves with the five senses from
body to body. Âtmâ (under the denomination of ’I’) accompanies the mind.

"The mind (after death) thinks of such seen and unseen objects as the
karma of men places before it. It awakes (unto those objects, it thinks
of) and fades away (in respect of previous objects). The memory
(connecting the present with the past) dies away in consequence.

"When one loses all thoughts of one’s body on account of close
application to another object (body), through some cause or other, that
utter forgetfulness is his death." (By karma, man gets after his
so-called death either a deva body, or a body of inflictions. In the
former case, it is through pleasure and desire and in the latter case,
through fear and sorrow, that the Jiva utterly forgets his former body.
That is the death of the Jiva who used to identify himself with the
former body and not the destruction of Jiva as of the body. _Śridhara_.

The Deva-body is the phenomenal basis of the Jiva in Svarga Loka. The
body of inflications is the astral or Kâmic body, in Bhûta, Preta and
Pisâcha Loka, where the Jiva undergoes inflictions. The Jiva identifies
itself with these new bodies or new states in such a way as to forget
completely its former physical body. The connection with the former body
is thus completely cut off in the mind. This is the death of the Jiva in
relation to its previous body.)

"The birth of a Jiva is the acceptance of a body as one’s own self. It
is even like dream or fancy. In dream or fancy, a man does not know his
present self as the former self. The mind by its application to a new
body causes a birth into that body, and the ideas of good, bad and
indifferent crop up in self.

"Though a father may have neither friend nor enemy, he is affected by
the connections formed by his vicious son, even so it is with Âtmâ.
Growth and decay are happening every moment in the body. But they are
hardly perceptible owing to the extreme subtlely of time.

"The burning lamp, the flowing current, the ripening fruit, pass through
stages, as all beings also pass through the stages of childhood, youth
and age. We say it is the same fire, it is the same water (though the
particles of fire and water are continually changing.) So we say, it is
the same man. The understanding and the words of ignorant men are all
confounding (for they speak and think assuming that the same body
continues). But even the ignorant man does not acquire birth or death,
by Karma engendered by self, for the self is immortal and the notion of
birth and death is itself a delusion with reference to self. Fire, as an
element lasts through out the Kalpa. But it seems to come into existence
or to become extinguished. Fecundation, foetal state, birth, childhood,
grown up childhod, youth, ripeness, age and death are the nine states of
the body. These states of the body which is other than self are only
fancies of the mind (so far as self is concerned). Some accept them as
their own, by contact with Gunas and some reject them to some extent (by
discriminating knowledge). From the death of the body inherited from the
father and the birth of another child body, one can infer the birth and
death of his body only, he the knower not being affected by either birth
or death. The seer of the growth and decay of the tree is different from
the tree itself, so the seer of the different states of the body is
different from the body itself. One is bound down to the wheel of
rebirths, by want of discrimination. One becomes Deva or Rishi by the
action of Satva, Asura or man by the action of Rajas and Bhûta or animal
by the action of Tamas. As a man seeing the performance of singers and
dancers involuntarily imitates them (in the mind) even so Âtmâ follows
the actions of Buddhi. The tree seems to move when the water is moving.
The earth seems to roll when the eyes are rolling. Births and rebirths
are as unreal to Âtmâ as are dreams but they have an existence even as
objects in dream have an existence so long as the mind thinks of those
objects.

"Whatever others may say or do unto you, do not care the least about
that, but with single minded devotion restore self by self."

Uddhava said: —

"Human nature is human nature, O Lord. Hew can one bear all that is said
or done by the impious?"



FORBEARANCE.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP, 23.*

Sri Krishna said: —

"In days of yore, there was a wealthy Brâhmana in the Malava regions. He
earned money by the evil ways of the world, but did not spend any thing
on charity. In time the wealth was all gone. He repented and felt
disgust for wealth. He renounced the world and became a wandering
Bhikshu. He went to villages for alms. People called him all sorts of
names — thief, hypocrite and so on. Some pelted him, others abused him,
others put him to chains and confined him.

"He bore all this with perfect calm. This is how he used to reason
within himself: —

"These men, the Devas, self, the planets, Karma and Kâla (periodicity)
none of them is the cause of my happiness or misery. Mind is the one
cause, which causes the wheel of births to move. They make friends and
enemies, who do not conquer the mind. The connection with the body is
only an act of the mind. Deluded men however think, this is my body and
they go astray.

"One man can not be the cause of grief and joy to another. Âtmâ in all
men is not the doer. All acts proceed from the gross and the subtle
body. If the tooth bites the tongue, who should you be angry at?

"If the Devas (the Adhidevas) be the cause of sorrow, it is not their
Âtmâ that is so but their bodily transformations. And the Devas (who
guide the senses) are the same in all beings. If one limb causes pain to
another limb, who should be the object of anger?

"If self is the cause of joy and sorrow, then you have not to look to
the outside world. But every thing else besides Âtmâ is only a seeming
existence. Therefore there is no real existence of any cause of joy or
grief and there is no joy or grief.

"If the planets by their position at birth bring about joys and sorrows,
then no body is to blame for that. And the planetary Purusha is separate
from the bodies of the planets. There is none to be angry at. Karma can
not be the cause of Joy and sorrow. Karma has its sphere in which there
is both a conscious and an unconscious element. The unconscious element
undergoes transformation and the conscious element in search for the
desired object leads to action. But the body is absolutely unconscious.
And Purusha (or Self) in man is absolutely conscious. There is no root
of Karma either in body or in Purusha.

"_Kâla_ is part of Âtmâ, for Kâla is an aspect of Íshvara. Fire does not
destroy its spark, snow does not destroy its flakes.

"One who is awakened to his real self has fear from no one else. Purusha
has no connection with the pairs of opposites." (Cold and heat,
happiness and misery &c.)



SANKHYA.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 24.*

"There is only one perception and one undivided object of perception,
when there are no Yugas (i.e. in Pralaya), in Satya Yuga, as well as for
men skilful in discrimination, that object of perception is Brahmân, the
absolute Truth, beyond the reach of worlds and of mind. I became two
fold, by means of Mâyâ. Of the two one is Prakriti consisting of causes
and effects. And the other is Purusha.

"Following the Kârmic record of Jivas, I disturbed Prakriti, and Satva,
Rajas and Tamas became manifest. The Gunas gave rise to Sutra or Thread
(which represents Kriyâ Śakti). Mahat (Jnâna Śakti) is not separate from
Sutra (Sutra and Mahat form one Tatva. It is two-fold, on account of its
double aspect of Jnâna and Kriyâ or knowledge and action).

"Ahankâra is the transformation of Mahat. It is three-fold, Sâtvic or
Vaikâric, Râjasic or Taijasa and Tâmasic.

"The Adhi-daivas and Manas came from Sâtvic Ahankâra, and the 5
Tanmâtras from Tâmasic Ahankâra.. The five Mahâ bhutas came from the
five Tanmâtras.

"Prompted by Me, all these principles united together to form the Egg
which was My own abode. I incarnated in that Egg which was immersed in
the (Pralayic) water (as Sri Nârâyana or Virât Purusha).

"Out of my navel grew the Lotus called the Universe. Brahmâ was
manifested in that Lotus.

"He brought into manifestation the Lokas (Bhûr, Bhuvar &c.,) and the
Lokapâlas.

"Svar was the abode of the Devas, Bhuvar of the Bhûtas, Bhûr of men, the
higher Lokas of the Siddhas and the Lower Lokas of the Asuras and Nâgas.

"All actions (Karma) bear fruits in the Trilokî. Mahar, Jana and Tapas
are attained by Yoga, Tapas and Renunciation. My abode (Vaikuntha, which
is beyond the Seven Lokas) is attained by Bhakti Yoga.

"All beings in this Universe wedded to karma are made by Me, who as Kâla
am the Dispenser of all karma, to merge out of or to dive down in the
flow of Gunas (_i.e._ they are made to go up to the higher Lokas or to
come down to the lower Lokas).

"All things big or small, thick or thin are pervaded by Prakriti and
Purusha.

"That which is at the beginning and at the end of a thing is also at the
middle, as in the case of ornaments and earth-pots, the intervening
transformations having a separate existence only for the sake of
conventional use (thus the ornaments of gold are called by different
names only for temporary uses. But they are gold when the forms are made
and destroyed. The forms are all transitory and the ornaments are
essentially gold).

"That is only Real which gives rise to the original transformation,
which is at the beginning and at the end. Prakriti the material cause,
Purusha — that pervades Prakriti and Kâla or periodicity which causes
disturbance in the Gunas — these are three in one and I am that
three-fold Brahmâ. The creative process flows on in order of succession
without a break. The multifarious creation unfolds itself to serve the
purposes of the jivas and it lasts so long as the period of Preservation
continues and so long as Íshvara looks at it.

"The order is reversed in Pralaya, and transformations are merged in the
principles from which they proceeded. The body merges in to the food
grains. The food grains merge in to the roots of plants. The roots merge
into the earth, The earth merges into smell, smell into water, water
into Taste, Taste into fire, fire into Form, Form in to Air, Air into
Touch, touch into Akâsa and Akâsa into sound.

"The Indriyas merge into the Adhi-daivas. The Adhi-daivas merge into the
Manas. Manas merges into Ahankâra.

"Ahankâra merges into Mahat (_i.e._ gives up the unconscious portion and
becomes Jiva Śakti and Kriyâ Śakti itself. _Śridhara_.)

"Mahat merges into the Gunas.

"The Gunas merge into unmanifested Prakriti. Prakriti merges into Kâla.
Kâla merges into Jiva. Jiva merges into Âtmâ. Âtmâ rests in self.

"When these processes are meditated on, there is no delusion."



SATVA RAJAS AND TAMAS.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 25.*

"_Sama_ or Control of the mind, _Dama_ or Control of the Senses,
forbearance, discrimination, tapas, truthfulness, compassion, memory,
renunciation, contentment, faith, shame and charitableness are the
attributes proper of _Satva_. Selfish desire, Selfish exertion, pride,
discontent, variety, selfish-invocation of the Devas, idea of
separateness, material enjoyment, love of excitement, love of fame,
derision, power and violence, are the attributes proper of _Rajas_.

"Anger, greed, untruthfulness, cruelty, begging, parading of religion,
languor, quarrel, repentance, delusion, grief, dejection, sleep,
helplessness, fear and indolence are the attributes proper of _Tamas_.

"The sense of I-ness and My-ness is produced by the mixture of the three
Gunas (I have Sama, selfish desire and anger. My Sama, selfish desire
and anger. Thus _I_ and _My_ are common to all the three Gunas.
_Śridhara_) All our dealings having the elements of Manas (Sâtvic), the
Tanmâtras (Tâmasic), the Indriyas and the Prânas (Râjasic) in them,
proceed from a mixture of the three Gunas. Devotion to Dharma (Sâtvic),
Kâma (Râjasic) and Artha (Tâmasic), that bears the fruits of faith
(Sâtvic), attachment (Râjasic) and wealth (Tâmasic) is also based on a
mixture of the Gunas.

"The performance of religion for the gratification of desires (Kâmya
Dharma which is Râjasic), the performance of the duties of married life
(Grihasta Dharma which is Tâmasic) and the performance of the daily and
occasional duties assigned to one’s position in life (Svadharma which is
Sâtvic) are based on a union of the three Gunas. Man is Sâtvic, when he
has got the Sâtvic attributes. He is Râjasic when he has got the Râjasic
attributes. He is Tâmasic when he has got the Tâmasic attributes.

"When a man or woman worships Me with unselfish devotion and by the
performance of duties, he or she is Sâtvic.

"The person who worships Me, for the attainment of desires is Râjasic.

"The person who worships Me with a view to do injury to others is
Tâmasic.

"Satva, Rajas and Tamas are attributes that grow in the minds of jivas,
they are not My attributes.

"When Satva prevails over the other two Gunas, man acquires
religiousness, wisdom, and other attributes, as also happiness. When
Rajas prevails, it causes distraction, attachment and a sense of
separateness. Man acquires karma, fame and wealth. But he becomes
miserable.

"When Tamas prevails, delusion, inaction and ignorance follow.

"When the Mind attains calm, the senses become abstemious, the body free
from fear and the mind free from attachments, Satva grows up and makes
it easy to perceive Me.

"When the mind becomes distracted by actions, and desires multiply, when
the senses of action become disordered and the mind always wanders away,
Rajas has its hold over man.

"When the mind can not grasp, when it languishes, when even desires do
not crop up, and there is indolence, melancholy and ignorance, they all
proceed from Tamas.

"With Satva, the Deva element prevails, with Rajas, the Asura element
prevails and with Tamas, the Râkshas element prevails.

"The waking is from Satva, dream from Rajas and deep sleep from Tamas.

"By Satva, people go higher and higher up, by Rajas they move about in
the middle, and by Tamas they move lower down.

"Satva takes one to Svarga Loka, Rajas to human Loka and Tamas to
Naraka. Those who are void of Gunas attain Me.

"Action that is offered up to Me or that is unselfish is Sâtvic. Selfish
action is Rajasa. Heartless action is Tamasa.

"Sâtvic wisdom is that which relates to Âtmâ, as separate from the body.

"Râjasic is half perceived wisdom. Tâmasic is wisdom relating to the
material universe.

"Wisdom centred in Me is Nirguna or without Gunas.

"Sâtvics like to reside in the forest. Râjasics in human habitations and
Tâmasics in gambling houses. Houses where I am worshipped are beyond all
the Gunas.  Births are caused by Guna and Karma. Those who conquer these
become devoted to Me and attain my state."



COMPANY.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 26.*

"King Pururavas was forsaken by Urvasi. He then thought within himself
what the body of a woman was composed of, where its beauty lay, and the
origin and the end of that body. ’Therefore’ said he ’wise men should
not associate with women or those that are addicted to women. By contact
of the senses with their objects, mind gets disturbed, not otherwise.
What you have not seen or heard of before can not disturb your mind. Let
not the senses indulge in objects and mind will attain calm.’ Keep
company with Sâdhus.

"Give up bad company. Acquire from the Sâdhus devotion to Me and you
shall ultimately attain Moksha."



KRIYA YOGA AND IDOL WORSHIP.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 27.*

(The details will not be interesting to the general reader).



JNÂNA YOGA.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 28.*

"Do not either praise or blame other men and their actions. Look upon
all as one, pervaded by the same Prakriti and the same Purusha. By
criticising others, the mind is directed to a false channel and it
deviates from the right path. What is good or what is bad of Dvaita? By
direct perception, reasoning, self intuition, and scriptural teachings,
know every thing in this manifested Universe to have a beginning and an
end and to be thus unreal. Therefore free yourself from all attachments.
(The ways of acquiring discriminative knowledge are then given in
eloquent terms for which read the original).

"Clearing up all doubts by discrimination, the sage should be fixed in
the bliss of self, having abstained from every thing else.

"The body of gross matter is not Âtmâ. The Indriyas, their guiding
Devas, Manas, Buddhi, Chitta and Ahankâra are not Âtmâ. The Bhûtas, the
Tanmatras and Prakriti are not Âtmâ. These do not affect the seer.
Whether the clouds gather or disperse, what is that to the Sun.

"Akâsa is not affected by the attributes of air, fire, water and earth
nor by the changes of seasons.

"The immutable is not affected by the impurities of Satva, Rajas and
Tamas, however often they may cause the birth and rebirth of the Ahan
principle.

"But still (the unliberated sage) should avoid contact with the Gunas.
He should by firm devotion to Me, cast off all attachments and all
passions. When the disease is not properly treated, it gives trouble
again and again. So when attachments are not completely removed and
Karma is not counteracted they trouble the imperfect Yogi.

"The yogis that deviate from the path on account of obstacles that are
spread out for them by the Devas through men (For the Sruti says: — "The
Devas do not like that men should know all this." _Śridhara_) are
re-united to the path of Yoga in a better birth through the practices of
their former birth.

"The immature Yogi may be overpowered by diseases and other grievances
of the body. He should overcome some of them by Yoga concentration (by
concentration on the Moon, the Sun and others he should overcome heat
cold &c., _Śridhara_), others by prescribed postures accompanied by
retention of breath (diseases caused by gaseous derangement are to be
overcome by postures, accompanied by retention of breath), and some
others by Tapas, Mantra and medicine. He should overcome some evils by
meditating on Me, by taking My name, and by making rehearsals about Me.
He should overcome other evils by following the lords of Yoga.

"Some practise these to keep themselves young and free from diseases,
solely with the object of attaining some Siddhis. This is not approved
of by good people. The effort is fruitless. The body has an end. True in
following the path of Yoga, the body sometimes becomes free from
diseases and infirmities. But the Yogi should put no faith on these
Siddhis.

"When the Yogi gives up all desires, becomes fixed in self-bliss, and
makes Me his all in all, he is not overcome by obstacles."



BHAKTI YOGA.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 29.*

Uddhava said: —

"This path of Yoga seems to Me to be difficult of pursuit. Tell me O
Achyuta, some means by which man may attain perfection without such
exertion. Generally those that try to concentrate their mind become
tired at last, being unsuccessful in their attempts. The discriminating
sage has recourse to Thy lotus-feet, the fountain of all bliss. Tell me
the path that leads to Thee."

Shri Krishna replied: —

"Do all actions for Me and bear me in mind as much as you can. Offer up
the mind and all thoughts to Me. Be attached to the duties of
Bhâgavatas. Live in sacred lands, where my Bhaktas dwell. Follow what
they do — see Me in all beings as well as in self, pure as Akâsa. With
the eye of pure wisdom, look upon all beings as my existence and respect
them as such. Brâhmana or Chandâla, stealer or giver, big as the sun or
small as his ray, tender hearted or cruel, the sage must look upon all
alike. Then he shall have neither rivalry, nor jealousy nor reproach for
others. His egoism shall also be gone. Mind not the ridicule of friends,
mind not the bodily differences that may cause a feeling of shame, but
salute even horses, Chandâlas, cows and asses. As long as you do not
learn to see Me in all beings, do not give up this practice in speech,
body and mind. There is not the least chance of failure in the Bhâgavata
Path. Even what is otherwise fruitless becomes a Dharma, when it is
unselfishly offered up to Me. There is no higher wisdom, no higher
cleverness than this that the Real is attained by the Unreal, the
Immortal is attained by what is mortal. This is the essence of Brahmâ
Vidyâ.

"Now that you have learned all this give it unto those that are
deserving.

"Go Uddhava now to Badari Âsrama and follow what I have said."



THE END.


*SKANDHA XI. CHAP. 30.*

Uddhava went to Badari. Sri Krishna advised the Yadus to leave Dvârakâ.
"Let the females, children, and the aged go to Sankha-Uddhara and let us
go to Prabhâsa." The Yadu chiefs went to Prabhâsa. They drank the wine
called Maireya and got intoxicated. They quarreled and fought with one
another. They snatched the fatal reeds and killed one another. Râma went
to the Sea-side and by practicing Samâdhi, left this world. All was now
over. Sri Krishna sat under an Asvatha tree (religious fig). A huntsman
named Jara took Him for a deer and pierced him with a spear, formed of
the fatal pestle.

The huntsman then saw Krishna bearing four hands and became terrified.
"Fear not" said Sri Krishna "you shall go to heaven." The chariot came
down from the heaven and took up the huntsman.

Daruka, the charioteer of Sri Krishna traced Him to the spot.

Sri Krishna asked him to inform all friends at Dvârakâ of the death of
the Yadu chiefs, the disappearance of Râma and of His own state. "Do not
remain any more at Dvârakâ, for the Sea shall swallow it up. Let our
parents and all others go to Indraprastha under the protection of
Arjuna."

Daruka saluted Krishna and went away.

The Garuda marked chariot of Sri Krishna came from high above. Brahmâ
and all other Devas gathered to witness the scene.

The Lord disappeared from the earth and truth, Dharma, forbearance,
glory and Lakshmî all followed Him.

There was great rejoicing in the heavens. The Devas sang and flowers
rained.

Daruka gave the information to Vâsudeva and Ugrasena. All came to see
the place of the occurrence. Vâsudeva died of grief. Some of the ladies
followed their husbands to death. Those that remained were escorted by
Arjuna to Indraprastha. He installed Vajra as the successor of the Yadu
chiefs. The Pândavas made Parikshit their successor and left
Indraprastha for the Final Journey.

*END OF THE ELEVENTH SKANDHA.*



THE TWELFTH SKANDHA.


*SKANDHA XII. CHAP. 2.*

When the present Kali Yuga will be about to end, Bhagavân will incarnate
as KALKI. He will take birth at Sambhal as the son of Vishnu-Yasas.

On His advent, Satya Yuga will make its appearance. The Sun, the Moon
and the Jupiter will then enter together the constellation of Pushyâ.
(Jupiter enters the constellation of Pushyâ in Cancer every twelve
years, and there may be a conjunction of that planet with the Sun and
the Moon on new Moon nights, but the text here means the _entering
together_ of the three. _Śridhara_.)

One thousand one hundred and fifteen years will expire from the birth of
Râjâ Parikshit to the beginning of King Nanda’s reign. (But in the
detailed account given in the Bhâgavata Purâna, the period comes up to
1448 years, as shewn by Śridhara.)

Of the Seven Rishis (forming the constellation of the Great Bear), the
two that are first seen to rise above the horizon have through their
middle point a correspondence with some constellation (in the Zodiac).
The Rishis remain united to that constellation for one hundred mortal
years.

At present (_i.e._ when Sukadeva was reciting Bhâgavata to Râjâ
Parikshit), the Rishis are united to Maghâ.

The form of the Great Bear or the constellation of the Seven Rishis is
given below.

    6       5                  X
    X       X                  1
    X       X        X         X
    7       4        3         2

Śridhara gives the following names:

No. 1 is Marichi.

No. 2 is Vasishtha with Arundhâti.

No. 3 is Angiras.

No. 4 is Atri.

No. 5 is Pulastya.

No. 6 is Pulaha.

No. 7 is Kratu.

"Such being the configuration of the Rishis, the two that are first seen
to rise above the horizon are Pulaha and Kratu. The longitudinal line
passing through the middle point of the line joining them crosses some
one of the 27 constellations, Asvini, Bharani and others. The Rishis
have their position in that constellation for one hundred years."
_Śridhara_.

So soon as the Krishna named divine body of Vishnu ascended the heavens,
Kali entered this Loka. As long as the Lord of Lakshmî touched this
Earth with His lotus feet, Kali could not overtake the planet. ( While
Sri Krishna was still on this Earth, Kali appeared in its Sandhyâ or
Dawn. When Sri Krishna disappeared, the Sandhyâ period was over, and the
period proper of Kali set in. _Śridhara_).

The Yuga shall become darker and darker, as the Seven Rishis will pass
on from Maghâ to Pûrva-Âshâdhâ, _i.e._, till the period of king Nanda.
(The darkness will go on increasing till the reign of king Pradyotana.
It will still go on increasing very much till the reign of king Nanda.
_Śridhara_.

This gives us a cycle of 1,000 years. The line of the Ecliptic is
divided into 27 constellations, which form the 12 signs of the Zodiac.
Each sign of the Zodiac contains 9 parts of these constellations, if
each constellation be divided into four parts.

Thus Aries contains Asvini, Bharani and 1/4 Krittika;

Taurus contains 3/4 Krittika, Rohini and 1/2 Mrigasiras;

Gemini contains 1/2 Mrigasiras, Ârdrâ and 3/4 Punarvasu;

Cancer contains 1/4 Punarvasu, Pushyâ and Ashlesha;

Leo contains Magha, Pûrva Falguni and 1/4 Uttar Falguni;

Virgo contains 3/4 Uttara Falguni, Hastâ, and 1/2 Chitra;

Libra contains Chitra, Svâti and 3/4 Visâkhâ;

Scorpio contains 1/4 Visâkhâ, Anurâdhâ and Jyeshthâ;

Sagittarius contains Mûla, Pûrva Âshâdha and 1/4 Uttara Âshâdhâ;

Capricornus contains 3/4 Uttara Âshâdhâ, Sravanâ, and 1/2 Dhanishtha;

Aquarius contains 1/2 Dhanishthâ, Sata-bhishâ, and 3/4 Pûrva Bhâdrapada;

Pisces contains 1/4 Pûrva Bhâdrapada, Uttara Bhâdrapada and Revati.

Abhijit is included in Uttarâshâdhâ and Sravana. From Maghâ to Pûrva
Âshâdhâ there are eleven constellations. This gives a cycle of 1,000
years.

The reference to king Nanda’s reign leaves no doubt as to the cycle
being one of 1,000 years, for the period is given in this very chapter
as 1,115 years.

The lines of Kshatriya kings have been given in the Purâma, The lines of
Brâhmanas, Vaisyas and Sudras are to be similarly known.

Devâpi, brother of Santanu and Maru of the line of Ikshvâku are now
waiting at Kalapa. They will appear towards the end of Kali Yuga and
will again teach Varna and Âsrama Dharma. (They will start again the
lines of divine kings which came to an end in the Kali Yuga.
_Śridhara_.)



PRALAYA.


*SKANDHA XII. CHAP. 4.*

Four thousand Yugas form one day of Brahmâ. This is also the period of
one Kalpa, during which fourteen Manus appear. The night of Brahmâ
follows for an equally long period. The three worlds — Bhûr, Bhuvar and
Svar then come to an end. This is called _Naimittika_ Pralaya. Drawing
the universe within self, Nârâyana sleeps at the time over Ananta and
Brahmâ sleeps too. (_Nimitta_ is cause. Naimittika is proceeding frome
some cause. This Pralaya procedes from the sleep of Brahmâ as a
_cause_).

When two Parârddhas of years expire, the seven subdivisions of Prakriti
(Mahat, Ahankâra, and the five Tanmatras) become subject to dissolution.
(The life period of Brahmâ is two Parârddhas). This is called
_Prâkritika_ Pralaya. When this dissolving factor comes in, the whole
combination known as the Cosmic Egg breaks up. (As the subdivisions of
Prakriti as well as the Cosmic Egg which is formed by their combination
become all dissolved, this Pralaya is called Prâkritika Pralaya). With
the advent of this Pralaya, there will be no rains for one hundred
years. Food will disappear. People will devour one another. The Sun will
draw in moisture from the seas, from the body, and from the earth, but
will not give it back. The fire called Samvartaka, arising from the
mouth of Shankarshana, will consume the Pâtâlas. Winds will blow for one
hundred years, followed by rain for another hundred years. The universe
will be covered by one sheet of water. Water will draw in earth, fire
will draw in water, and so on till Pradhâna in due time will devour all
the Gunas. Pradhâna is not measured by time, and it does not undergo
transformation. Beginningless, endless, unmanifested, eternal, the cause
of all causes, without diminution, it is beyond the reach of Gunas, the
rootless root, that passes comprehension, like the void.

Jnâna is the ultimate resort of Buddhi (the perceiver or knower), the
Indriyas or senses (perception, knowledge or the instruments of
perception and knowledge) and the objects (things perceived and known).
It is Jnâna alone that appears in this threefold form. That which is
subject to perception, which in its nature is not separate from its
cause, and which has both beginning and end is no real substance. The
lamp, the eye and the object seen are not different from light itself.
So Buddhi, the senses and the objects are not separate from the one
Truth (Brahmân, for they all proceed from Brahmân), but Brahmân is quite
separate from all others. Wakefulness, dream and dreamless sleep are all
states of Buddhi. They are all transitory, O king. The diversity appears
in Pratyagâtma (the separate self). The clouds appear and disappear in
space, even as the universes appear and disappear in Brahmân. Of all
forms, the common element is the only reality. But the forms seem to
have an existence of their own independently of the primal element. The
threads that form the cloth look separate from the cloth itself. All
that appears as cause and effect is unreal, for there is
interdependence, and there is both beginning and end.

The transformations can not exist without the light of Âtmâ. If they are
self-manifest however, they are not in any way different from Âtmâ
itself.

Do not think Âtmâ is many, (as there is Âtmâ in every being). It is
ignorance to think so. The space confined in a pot and the limitless
space are one and the same, even so the sun and its image in water, the
air inside and outside.

Men call gold by different names, according to the different ornaments
it forms. So the language of the Vedas and the language of ordinary men
give different names to Bhagavân.

The cloud that is generated by the sun, that appears by the light of the
sun, that is in fact rays of the sun so transformed stands between the
eye and the sun. Even so Ahankâra, proceeding from Brahmân, manifested
by Brahmân, even a part of Brahmân, eclipses the perception of Brahmân
by Jiva.

When the cloud disappears, the eye perceives the sun. When Ahankâra, the
_upâdhi_ of Âtmâ, disappears by discrimination, then the Jiva perceives
"I am Brahmân."

When by discrimination, such as this, the tie of unreal Ahankâra is cut
as under, and the unfailing perception of Âtmâ becomes fixed, it is
called _Âtyantika_ Pralaya.

(Âtyantika is from Atyanta = ati+anta, the very last. After this
Pralaya, which is individual and not general, one does not return to
life in the universe. It is the final liberation of a man from the
limitations of life in Brahmânda).

Every day all beings, from Brahmâ downwards, undergo according to some
seers of subtleties states of beginning and end.

These beginnings and ends are caused by the changes in states of all
beings subject to transformation, changes that follow the flow of time.
(One does not grow adult or old in one day. The change must be going on
constantly. The fruit does not ripen in one day. But the process of
ripening day by day is not perceptible. Water flows in a continued
stream but the water particles constantly change at a given space. So
the lamp burns and the flame looks one and the same though the particles
that ignite do constantly change. Even so our body is not the same from
day to day. There is a change going on every moment of our life.
Particles of the body are rejected every day and they are replaced by
new particles. There is the beginning with our new particles, and an end
or Pralaya with the old particles.) This is called NITYA Pralaya. (Nitya
means constant).

Pralaya is thus fourfold — Nitya, Naimittika, Prakritika and Atyantika.

Such are the stories of Bhagavat as related in the Bhâgavata Purâna.

Rishi Nârâyana first related the Purâna to Nârada, Nârada related it to
Vyâsa and Vyâsa to Suka. Suta heard the Purâna from Sukadeva, when he
related it to Râjâ Parikshit, and he expounded it to the assembly of
Rishis at Naimisha, headed by Sounaka.

Prakriti changes its forms and states. The body disintegrates into
particles, particles into molecules, and molecules into atoms. Solid
becomes liquid, liquid becomes gaseous and gaseous becomes
ultra-gaseous. Life manifests itself through the endless varieties of
Prakriti and becomes manifold in its manifestations. The hard mineral
matter does not admit the mineral life to be expressed in any other way
than by a fixed form. The more plastic vegetable matter shews vegetable
life in all the activities of life and growth. Subtler matter appears in
the animals and makes the sensing of the object world possible. Even
sublter matter becomes the basis of brain activities. The Prâkritic
basis of the mind is two-fold in its character Ahankâra and Mahat. When
the mind is capable of thinking only from the standpoint of one life and
one birth only, it is limited by Ahankâra matter. When that limit is
overcome, mind is on the plane of Mahat. Individuality is not lost, but
the individual has consciousness of all births, _i.e._ consciousness on
the plane of the universe. Such consciousness does not normally exist in
Trilokî. When a man becomes normally conscious on the plane of Mahat, he
is carried to Mahar Loka and becomes a Rishi. Bhrigu is such a Rishi.
The acquirement of such consciousness is the object of life evolution in
our solar system. When the solar system is destroyed, it is the Manasic
consciousness that alone survives. The three Lokas — Bhûr, Bhuvar and
Svar are destroyed, The Prâkritic forms and states of these three Lokas
become destroyed and the different states of consciousness corresponding
to those forms and states finally disappear. The harvest of Manasic
evolution, which is the only harvest reaped by means of one solar system
is stored in Mahar Loka. But when the three lower Lokas are destroyed,
the flames of dissolution reach even Mahar Loka and all the gains of a
Kalpa’s evolution are transferred to the higher plane of Jana Loka. This
is therefore the highest plane of our consciousness. The highest evolved
beings of the previous solar system could not after Pralaya go beyond
Jana Loka, and their consciousness was the consciousness of Jana Loka.
When our earth was formed and when they came down in time for further
evolution, they brought down their highest consciousness with them as a
possibility, for it was obscured in their entrance to Trilokî. As the
soul gathers spiritual strength in Svarga Loka after death, so the
disembodied soul after Prayala gathers spiritual strength in Jana Loka
or the Loka of Kumâras. "When the three Lokas are consumed by fire from
the mouth of Sankarshana, afflicted by the heat, Bhrigu and others go to
Jana Loka" III-II-XXX. The Lord of Yoga goes by means of Sushumna
through the radiant path in his subtle body and at last reaches Mahar
Loka, where Bhrigu and other Rishis who live for one Kalpa remain. "Then
seeing the Trilokî consumed by fire from the mouth of Ananta he goes
towards that supreme abode, which is adorned by the chariots of great
Siddhas, and which lasts for the whole life period of Brahmâ."
(II-2-XXVI).

Those who did not reach the Manasic state, in the last Kalpa were no
acquisitions to the higher planes of Brahmânda, which stand over the
three mortal planes, where all experience is to be gathered. Those who
developed the Manasic state were gathered to the third of the higher
planes, Jana Loka, because further development was possible, nay it was
a necessity, in the Trilokî that was to come. But there were others, who
did not quite reach the Manasic state, but they were still on the way to
acquire such state, and in fact they acquired the human form. They were
also preserved to carry out a certain purpose in the life evolution of
the coming Kalpa which will be shortly mentioned. How they were
preserved, the Purânas do not speak of. They became the Pitris of the
present Kalpa. The Pitris reached different states of development and
were therefore classed under seven heads. Some of them had developed the
fire in them and some were without the fire. "Agnishvatta, Barhishad,
Sōmapa, and Ajyapa are Pitris with fire; the others are without fire.
They were all wedded to Svadha, the daughter of Daksha." IV-1-III.

The mention of the word "fire" requires a little explanation. The
Upanishads say that the three mortal Lokas of form Bhûr, Bhuvar and Svar
are the transformations of "Tejobanna" _i.e._ of fire, water and earth.
The other two elements do not enter into the constitution of forms. The
element earth predominates on the plane of Bhûr or the material plane.
Water is supreme on Bhuvar or the Astral plane. Our Kamic tendencies
proceed from the presence of water in us. Fire is the element of Svarga
or the Mental plane. Fire devas are therefore the highest devas of
Trilokî. The forty-nine forms of fire are therefore so many forms of
consciousness. Some of the Pitris developed fire in them, _i.e._ they
developed the principle of mind in them, in however rudimental a form it
might be.

Devas and Rishis were also preserved. Jana Loka is the Loka of Kumâras.
We shall therefore call the souls preserved in Jana Loka as Kumâras, or
Kumaric souls.

Commenting on the fourth sloka, twelfth chapter, Third Skandha, Śridhara
says: — "Sanaka and others are not created in every Kalpa. The mention
of their creation has reference to the Brahmâ Kalpa, _i.e._ the first
Kalpa. In fact the objects of Mukhya creation and others are brought
into existence in every Kalpa. Sanaka and others are only created in the
Brahmâ Kalpa and they follow the other Kalpas." The Mukhya creation has
reference to chapter 10, Skandha III. It is the same as Urdha Srotas (p.
25). Śridhara means to say that plants, animals and men are only created
in every Kalpa.

The Kumaric souls of the last Kalpa that went to Jana Loka have to play
the most prominent part in the present Kalpa and they are the heroes of
our solar system. Their stay at Jana Loka was only a fitting preparation
for the most responsible work of the present Kalpa. The Íshvara of our
system, addressing Puranjana, said: — "Wishing to have an abode, drawn
to earthly enjoyments, thou didst leave me. But, o great one, both I and
thou were swans (Hansa) and friends in the Manas Lake. We dwelt there
without any abode, for one thousand years." IV. 28 LIV. "One thousand
years" is indicative of Pralaya, which lasts for one thousand yuga
cycles. In Pralaya, the kumaric soul had no body _i.e._ no abode. The
body separates Jiva from Íshvara. Without the impediment, the obstacle
of the body, without any obscuring agency, the Jiva meets Íshvara face
to face in Jana Loka, and being both essentially alike become friends.
Nârada says, esoterically the Mânasa Laka is the heart and Hansa means
the pure. But in Pralaya, the heart of the Jiva is in Jana Loka, which
is the Mânasa or mental Lake. This friendly union of Jiva and Íshvara
gives all the promise of the future for the Jiva.

What is not preserved in Naimittika Pralaya, the forms of the past
kalpa, are all borne in the mind of Brahmâ as images. It is the mind of
Brahmâ that reproduces the forms of the previous creation. The image of
all that was remains in the mind of Brahmâ. Creation in Brahmâ Kalpa is
not the same as creation in the succeeding Kalpas. In Brahmâ Kalpa, all
the seven Lokas, and the dwellers of all the planes are created. In the
succeeding Kalpas, the three Lokas and their dwellers only are created.

The Naimittika Pralaya comes on, as Brahmâ sleeps.

This Pralaya corresponds to our physical death. When we die, the body is
destroyed. Just as when the universe bodied Brahmâ goes to sleep, His
Trilokî body is destroyed. Men go after death first to Bhuvar Loka, and
then to Svarga Loka. At Pralaya, the Mânasika Jivas first go to Mahar
Loka and then to Jana Loka.

The Naimittika Pralaya affords the greatest relief to Jivas. It makes up
for all the ups and downs of manifested life, for all miseries, all
sorrows, all sufferings and all disappointments. Íshvara can do more for
Jivas in Pralaya, than in manifestation. He gives company to those, who
by their advancement reach Jana Loka, There is the Íshvara of our system
or Brahmânda and there is the Íshvara of many systems.

The Íshvara of many systems, "Bhagavân Himself" is the First Purusha. He
is the manifestor of the Tatvas, the first Principles, the Karan or
causal creation, which enter into the constitution of all the solar
systems or Brahmândas. When He wishes to become many, to appear through
many manifestations, to bring up all unto Himself and His own state,
through œons and œons of cosmic manifestation, though it might be, the
Tatvas start forth into activity and form an ocean by themselves. Many
solar systems are evolved out of this Karan Samudra or the ocean of the
causes and each system gets its Íshvara, the Second Purusha. That Second
Purusha becomes three fold — Brahmâ, Vishnu and Śiva, for the Creation,
Preservation and Dissolution of His own Universe. He is Virât Purusha or
the universe bodied, Nârâyana seated on the waters of Karana Samudra,
and Sahasra Sirsha Purusha or the thousand headed Purusha of the
Upanishads. "All this, the past, present and future is this Purusha. The
universe is pervaded by Him As Prana (_i.e._ the sun, for Prana is the
solar deity according to the Sruti. _Śridhara_) by illumining his own
circle illumines the outside as well, so Purusha by illumining his Virât
body illumines the inside and outside of this Brahmânda as well. I
(Brahmâ) create by His direction, Śiva destroys, under His control, as
Vishnu, He preserves this universe He is the primal Avatâra." II. 6.

"First of all, Bhagavân took form as Purusha for the creation of the
Lokas form made by Mahat and others, having 16 parts. (_Mahat and
others_ — Mahat, Ahankâra, and the Tanmatras. 16 parts the eleven
Indriyas and the 5 elements. Though this is not the form of Bhagavân
meaning the First Purusha still for the Upâsanâ in Virât form of the
Virât Purusha who indwells all Jivas, this is given. _Śridhara_). (In
the Padma Kalpa), Brahmâ, the Lord of Prajâpatis, appeared in the lotus
that rose out of the navel of (this Purusha), who while lying down on
the ocean, spread the sleep of Samâdhi all round. The Lokas are but
parts of His body. His form is pure and intensified Satva. The Yogins
perceive Him by their vision of wisdom, as one looking wonderful with a
thousand feet, thighs, hands and mouths, with a thousand heads, ears,
eyes and noses, glittering with a thousand crowns, and ornaments. This
(Virât Purusha) is the immutable seed and final resort of the many
Avatâras. Brahmâ is His part. Marichi and other Prajâpatis are parts of
Brahmâ. So through parts of His part, Devas, animals and men are
created. (He does not appear and disappear like other Avatâras. He is
the end not only of the Avatâras, but of all beings. _Śridhara_.)" I-3.

Brahmâ appeared in the lotus, it is said, in the last Kalpa, which from
this event is named Pâdma Kalpa. How Brahmâ appeared out of Nârâyana in
the previous Kalpas is not given. That he appeared in our Kalpa in the
same way as in the last Kalpa is evident, as no difference is noted.
Brahmâ took up the creation, which was two-fold — direct or Mânasa and
indirect or through Prajâpatis and Manu. The creation or bringing into
manifestation of those that had been preserved at Pralaya is direct or
Mânasa. The mind born sons of Brahmâ took up positions in the universe
of duty and responsibility and in this Kalpa they have not to look to
themselves, but to others. Their own evolution is not a matter of their
concern. The innumerable Monads were created through Manu and the real
history of the Kalpa is the history of their evolution.

First there was the process of involution. There was no form and forms
had to be first brought forth. Limitation after limitation had to the
imposed, to chain life in forms. For when set forms were arrived at with
set organs, Jivas could be trusted with independent action.

No energy is spent in vain in the economy of the universe. Each monadic
flow as it appeared in the universe could he carried on to a certain
stage, by one common guiding influence. This requires a little
explanation.

Each particle of each Tatva is alive. The Tatvic life is the life of the
first Purusha. But the particles combine, and the power of combination
proceeds from the life of the second Purusha, the Íshvara of our system.
Every combination however large has the life of Íshvara in it and it is
that life which keeps up the combination. Each combination for the time
being has its ruler, who is the viceroy of Íshvara, and who is called
the Monad of that combination. Monad is Jivâtma or Jiva Âtmâ or Âtmâ as
limited by every Jiva.

The combination transforms, but the Monad remains constant. The
vegetable becomes animal, and the animal becomes man, but one Monad runs
through all these transformations.

By rulership over higher and higher combinations the Monad or Jivâtma,
ultimately approaches the state of Íshvara Himself and that is the goal
of evolution in this universe.

Whenever a combination is formed, there is one life governing that
combination — the life of the ruler of that combination. Ail other lives
have to surrender themselves completely and entirely to that one life.
This is the law and we have to bow down our heads to the inevitable.
There is life in every cell that composes the human body. But the cell
lives are all subordinated to the life of the man, the Jivâtma ruling
the combination that forms the man. So long as the cell is attached to
the human combination, it has no independence whatsoever. And this is to
the immense benefit of the cells themselves. They receive the impress of
souls much more evolved than their own and are able to evolve themselves
at a much more rapid rate, than if they had been left to themselves.
This is the law of giving and taking, the law of sacrifice, the Yajna
which is the essence of creation. And even as men approach the state of
Íshvara, they have to surrender themselves completely to Him and to
merge themselves in His existence.

The Jivic or Monadic flow first appears on the plane of Svarga, it comes
down to Bhûvar and then to Bhûr, to appear finally in the mineral
Kingdom of our Earth. This process of coming down does not require
separate guidance for separate combinations. The downward flow is
homogeneous. It is carried on under the guidance of the Prajâpatis. It
is all involution during this process taking in grosser and grosser
matter and not rejecting anything. Rudra had no work to do during the
earliest stages of monadic life. The mineral Kingdom appeared and the
Himalayan chain reared up its head. The legend says the sons of Himalaya
had wings on and they could move about but the Devas cut down their
wings and they became fixed. No doubt the mineral Kingdom hardened and
became immobile in time. The immobility of the mineral Kingdom, the
final reach of matter in its downward course was the turning point in
the life history of Jivas. Their foetal stage was over and they were now
born into the Kalpa, as it were.

There was need for separation now, for the rejection of particles and
the drawing in of new ones, and Durga appeared as the daughter of
Himalaya.

She became wedded to Śiva once more and since then there was change
continually going on in all forms of life, that evolved out of the
mineral Kingdom. There was continual adjustment of external and internal
conditions, called life. The vegetable appeared, the animal appeared and
the man appeared. The life process means continual transformation. Forms
changed and dissolved. Change is continually going on all round and is
called Nitya Pralaya.

During the transformation that goes on, combinations are guided by
rulers, who are the Pitris. They lead the combinations on till the human
form is reached. When the human form is reached each combination is a
man. The highest of the Pitris can give only germinal Manas. When the
Pitris give to the combination, all that they could give, their work is
over, for this Kalpa.

Then come the Kumaric souls, the Puranjanas from the Mânasa Laka (P.
89). They find the abode ready made and leaving their friend and
companion they enter their chosen abodes. There are nine gate ways in
that abode, and every enjoyment reaches Puranjana through those gate
ways. He becomes mad in the pursuit of enjoyments. He forgets himself.
He forgets his friend the eternal companion of Jiva. He identifies
himself with the abode. He thinks that he is inseparable from that
abode. So he goes on and on hopelessly in his course of riotous joy and
the Friend whom he forgets gives him rebuff for every joy that he meets.
The rebuffs at last make him a little attentive. The friend then speaks
through the Vedas, the Smritis through sages and at last He comes down
Himself as an Avatâra.

The Eternal Friend first allows Puranjana to run on in the midst of
enjoyments, just as he likes. If he goes beyond the limits of temperance
and moderation he gets some unpleasant experience. If he does something
wrong, he feels the painful consequence. The sting of pain makes
Puranjana ponder over what he does. He registers the pleasurable and
painful experiences and reasons about the causes and effects. He tries
to know what is right and what is wrong.

With the power of discrimination in its infancy, with the "enjoyment"
nature or the self-seeking Asuric element too strong in him, Puranjana,
the Kumaric soul, is helpless. He is drifted away, though sometimes much
against his will.

The Friend comes to the rescue. The Devas and Asuras combine and with
their joint efforts, the ocean of Milk is churned, and the Goddess of
Evolution, the Energy of Vishnu, makes Her divine appearance in our
universe. The Devas become more than a match for the Asuras. The
Vaivasvata Manvantara steps in, the Manvantara teeming with the fate of
man and of the universe. Íshvara, the eternal friend of Puranjana, is
most busy in the Vaivasvata Manvantara. Every effort is made to raise
humanity to a higher level and to open out all the possibilities of man.

First, the enjoyments of Svarga are held out before the rising vision of
men as an allurement. Man admires those enjoyments and makes every
effort to attain them. The Vedic sacrifice is revealed to Pururavas, who
becomes mad after Urvasi, the nymph of Svarga. Later on, the heavenly
cow, Surabhi, attracts Visvâmitra. And he becomes the chief actor in the
promulgation of Vedic sacrifice. In the firmness of resolve, in the bold
and determined pursuit of objects, and in the intolerance of
inferiority, Visvâmitra stands prominently out as an example to
humanity, for all ages to come and it is meet and proper that in the
next Manvantara, he will act as one of the seven sages guiding the
affairs of the universe.

The Karma Kânda of the Vedas is a monument of Visvamitara’s gigantic
efforts for the good of humanity. Íshvara made revelations. He prompted
the sages.

If the Karma Kânda holds out the allurements of Svarga life, it lays
down rules and restrictions at the same time, that regulate life and
beget temperance and moderation. Meritorious acts are enjoined and acts
that retard evolution are prohibited. Men do what is good and avoid what
is evil, that they may attain heavenly things. They do what is right and
shun what is wrong, not because that is the Law, the divine will, but
because it gives them some reward. All the same, the mind is trained,
the man curbed and regulated. The bitter pill is taken and if the child
thinks that it is for the sweetmeat he is only mistaken. When the child
grows he knows, that he takes the bitter pill as it is the law of nature
that he should do so. Do what is right, because that is the law. Shun
what is wrong, because it is against the law. We are all carried forward
by the law, and we must willingly give ourselves up to that law. When we
do that, we partake ourselves of divine life. The ground had to be
prepared for further teachings.

Events in Svarga foreshadow and forestall events that are to transpire
on the earth. The Devas and Asuras by their mutual fight in Svarga bring
about a state of things which casts its shadow on the earth below.

Two great events happened in Svarga the killing of Vritra, and the
deposition of Bali.

Vritra, though an Asura was a votary of Sankarshana, the Shankara aspect
of Vishnu. Vritra was great in all respects and his wisdom extracted the
admiration of Indra. But he represented the idea of personal self in
Jiva, which is so strong-rooted, and which is the hardest thing to over
come. Vritra was killed by a weapon, which is no other than the most
willing and ready sacrifice of personal self by Dadhîchi.

Bali, the Asura king, ungrudgingly gave all that he had to Vâmana. The
Asura had become so great both in intellect and in spirituality, that
there was no question of killing him or of his being overpowered by the
Devas. The Asuras and Devas both combined to make Svarga, the
store-house of spiritual life. The Asuras by their willing surrender
permitted the Devas to have entire hold of Svarga. By this sacrifice,
they established their indisputable right to Svarga, in the broad
dispensation of providence and in the succeeding Manvantara, Bali is to
become the Indra of the Devas.

Vâmana was the same as Lord Sri Krishna on our earth. If diplomacy had
succeeded so easily below as above, if the Asura chiefs on earth had
behaved as splendidly as Bali in Svarga, the horrors and heartrending
scenes of Kurukshetra could have been avoided. The same result was
however brought about in Svarga as it was subsequently brought about on
the Earth. The actor was the same, the diplomacy was the same, only the
result of diplomacy was different on the different planes. The
deposition of Bali was bloodless while the deposition of Duryodhana was
a bloody one.

Coming down to Earth let us see how events in Svarga were followed up on
the terrestrial plane.

Two great human Avatâras came, one the ideal and the other the apostle
of unselfishness. But we must take a running survey of the Avatâras as a
whole.

Vishnu appeared on Earth Himself, through His direct manifestations
called Avatâras. Ten of them have been specially picked out as Great
Avatâras, though no specification has been made in the Bhâgavata Purâna.

There were three great Asuric movements in this Kalpa, caused by the
three successive incarnations of Jaya and Vijaya. And these gave our
four great Avatâras.

Hiranyâksha was killed by Varaha, Hiranyakasipu was killed by Nrisinha.
Râvana and Kumbhakarna were killed by Râma. Sisupâla and Dantavakra were
killed by Sri Krishna. Kûrma was a great Avatâra as He prepared the way
for the spiritual regeneration of the universe, by the Churning of the
ocean of Milk.

Vâmana was a great Avatâra as He reclaimed the Trilokî from the Asuras.

Parasurâma and Buddha did work, which revolutionised the whole humanity.

Kalki will give the final blow to the Asuric element in us.

Matsya is important with reference to our own Manvantara. Every
Manvantara is followed by a deluge, which destroys the existing
continents and swallows up all living beings. When the last Manvantara
was over, our Manu saved the germs of creation with the help of Matsya.
Opinion is divided as to whether there is Pralaya after every
Manvantara. The Bhâgavata Purâna says when there was deluge (sanplava)
following the Chakshusha Manvantara, Vishnu assumed the form of Matsya.
Commenting on this, Śridhara says there is no Pralaya at the end of a
Manvantara. There may not be such a Pralaya at the end of a Manvantara
as happens at the end of a Kalpa. But other Purânas speak of some sort
of Pralaya on the expiry of every Manvantara. Sûrya Siddhanta, the
renowned work on Astronomy, also says: — "There is a period called
Sandhi (the meet between two Manvantaras) measured by the period of one
Satya Yuga, followed by another Manvantara. There is deluge by water
then."

The Avatâras of Vishnu infuse more and more of Satva into men, that they
may become Satvika. Increasing Satva put down Rajas and Tamas in man and
makes him divine.

But of all these Avatâras two stand out most prominently one the ideal
and the other the apostle of unselfishness. The brightest luminary of
the solar line held out in His life, an example of unselfishness, of
purity of character and of scrupulous regard to duty, an example that is
the admiration of all people in all ages, as perfect as the limits of
humanity will allow and as elevated as the loftiest ideal of human
character may be, unsurpassed in its pathetic grandeur, unrivalled in
the straight forward pursuit of duty along a most thorny and uneven
path. The divine founder of Dvârakâ of the Lunar line asserted Himself
as the supreme Íshvara, He took up the reins of Trilokî in His own
hands, the Devas installed Him as the king of Svarga or Govinda, and men
on earth had now to look up to Him only and not to the Devas for their
guidance. For men had now to pass the limits of Trilokî, and the friend
of Puranjana came down Himself to hold out the torch of divine light.
Sri Krishna laid down the triple path of Karma, Bhakti and Jnâna, and
shewed the relative importance of each. His teachings are perfect,
thorough and exhaustive. Ever since His manifestation, those teachings
have been re-iterated in a thousand forms, they have been adapted to
different powers of understanding and all the modern scriptures of
Hinduism have grown up, round the central point of those teachings. Men
had no longer to complain of teachings. They had to follow those
teachings now and to live up to them. They had to begin with
unselfishness, and end with liberation. New vistas opened out before the
growing spiritual vision of men, vistas of new worlds, new planes, of
masters of Yoga and wisdom, forming every link between man and Íshvara.
Possibilities became realities. Liberation was no longer a word of the
lips.

Now liberation is a relative term. First there may be liberation from
the bonds of Trilokî only. Or it may be from the limitations of Janaloka
which was the highest possibility with which the Jiva started. Or it may
be liberation from the bonds of the Brahmânda itself. The last
liberation is again two fold in its character. There may be liberation
from all concrete things and all ideas, including the idea of Íshvara
Himself or the liberation may lead to the great Íshvara from whom many
solar systems proceed. Mukti is not only liberation from bondage. It is
also something more. It is an acquisition, Starting from the plane of
Jana Loka, the Kumaric soul acquires higher and higher possibilities. He
may transcend Jana Loka. He may transcend even the Satya Loka. But
passage across Satya Loka is not easy in this Kalpa. Mukti in its
fullest and highest sense means freedom from all limitations caused by
Prakriti, caused by Time and Space and identification with Brahmân, who
is absolute bliss, absolute consciousness and absolute existence beyond
the limits of Time and Space. This is called Atyantika Pralaya or
absolute dissolution. But this Mukti lean never be obtained till all the
duties of a man are performed. These duties are nothing else but
sacrifices or Yajna. Man must perform each one of his duties he must
perform all that he owes to himself, to all other beings, and last of
all the highest duty he owes to the Íshvara of the Universe the Lord of
Sacrifice, Yajnesvara Himself, "Adhiyajna am I, here in the body, best
of living beings."

The Bhâgavatas do not care to go beyond the Yajna Purusha, They do not
care to leave the life of sacrifice, as long as their Íshvara stands out
as the embodiment of all sacrifice.

"Salutation to Thee, Bhagavân, let me meditate on Vâsudeva. Salutations
to Pradyumna, Aniruddha and to Sankarshana. He who, by knowing these
_mûrtis_ in the _mûrtiless_, whose only _mûtrti_ is mantra makes
offerings to Yajna Purusha, is the complete seer." I. 5. 37 "When the
Indriyas," said Kapila, "that manifest the objects of external and
internal perception, become trained by the performance of Vedic Karma,
their spontaneous Vritti (or function) in a man of concentrated mind is
in Satva which is the same as Vishnu. This Vritti which is void of all
selfishness is Bhakti in Bhagavâna. It is superior to Mukti. It
instantly destroys the Kosha, as the digestive fire consumes food. The
devoted have no yearning for that Mukti which makes the Jiva one with
Me. But they prefer ever to talk with each other about Me, to exert
themselves for My sake and ever to meditate on me. Mukti comes to them
unasked. My Vibhutis, the eight Siddhis, and all the glory of the
highest Lokas are theirs though they want them not. I am their Teacher,
their Friend, their companion, their all. So even Kala can not destroy
them."

Again, "The devoted spurn Salokya, Sarshti, Samipya, Sarupya and
Sayujya, even when offered to them and they prefer to serve Bhagavân
ever and ever. Compassion and friendliness to all beings are the
essential qualifications of the devoted. They must be humble respectful
and self controlled. They must pass their days in hearing and reciting
the glory of Bhagavân." Kapila makes the following classification as to
the final destiny of men (p. 46):

1. Those who selfishly perform their Dharma and worship Devas and Pitris
go to Sōma Loka, and after partaking of Sōma, they are again re-born.
Their Lokas are destroyed with the daily Pralaya of Brahmâ.

2. The worshippers of Hiranya-garbha (Brahmâ) reach Brahmâ Loka or Satya
Loka and there wait for two Parârddhas _i.e._ for the life time of
Brahmâ and upon the final dissolution of the Brahmânda, they enter with
Hiranya-garbha, the Eternal Supreme Purusha, who is supreme Bliss and
their sense of individuality becomes then lost.

3. "Brahmâ with Marichi and other Rishis, with Kumâras and other lords
of Yoga, and with Siddhas who are leaders of Yoga, do by their unselfish
action, and at the same time the retention of their individuality, and
their vision of separateness reach Saguna Brahmâ or the Second Purusha,
who is the Íshvara of our system. And when Kala, as an aspect of
Íshvara, causes a disturbance in the Gunas on the approach of the
creative period they are born again just as they had been before. (They
are born because of their individuality and their vision of
separateness. They are born in the same state on account of their
non-attachment and their unselfishness. _Śridhara_). As long as the
Trilokî lasts, they enjoy all the divine things of Satya Loka, according
to their Karma. (And when the Trilokî is destroyed, they attain the
Saguna Purusha, who is First Avatâra. _Śridhara_). When the Gunas are
disturbed again they come back (i.e. they revert to their former posts
respectively. _Śridhara_)" III 32 xii-xv.

4. Those who unselfishly perform their duties and give themselves up
entirely to the Supreme Purusha void of all attachment and all egoism,
calm, tranquil and pure in the mind go through the gateway of the Sun to
the all pervading Purusha, the Lord of all, the material and efficient
cause of all this.

Commenting on II 2 xxviii, Śridhara says: — "There are three courses for
those that go to Brahmâ Loka. Those who go by the excellence of their
merits, become holders of responsible positions in the next Kalpa,
according to their respective merits. Those who go there by worshipping
Hiranya-garbha and others, become liberated along with Brahmâ. Those who
are worshippers of Bhagavân, pierce the Brahmânda at will and reach the
State of Vishnu."

The classification is the same as made by Kapila.

Hiranya-garbha Upâsanâ, which was prevalent at one time is now out of
use. It was the worship of the Life aspect of Íshvara, as manifested in
the Solar system. There is a higher duty, the highest duty of a Jiva
manifested in this universe, to realise that this universe itself is a
part of a big universe, and there is Íshvara of that big universe
Bhagavân Himself and to surrender one self completely up to Him in pure
love and devotion. He will not then be of this universe, but he will be
of many universes, he will transcend the limits of all the seven planes
of our system at will. What his work then will be, it is for Bhagavân to
say not for him. The work of Bhagavân is his work, the life of Bhagavân
is his life. He becomes a Bhâgavata. The Gopis are ideal Bhâgavatas and
the Vrindâvana Lilâ is the consummation on this earth of the relation of
a Bhâgavata with Bhagavân. This to all Bhaktas is the highest form of
Mukti.

To the Bhakta, there is no Mukti, without the universe and the lord of
universe.

Forget the universe, forget every thing, only meditate on the eternal
unchanging element in you, be fixed in that and that only and you attain
Atyantika Pralaya.

*PEACE BE TO ALL.*



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