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Title: Zoological Illustrations, Volume I - or Original Figures and Descriptions of New, Rare, or - Interesting Animals
Author: Swainson, William
Language: English
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       *       *       *       *       *


Zoological Illustrations,

OR

ORIGINAL FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS

OF

NEW, RARE, OR INTERESTING

ANIMALS,

SELECTED CHIEFLY FROM THE CLASSES OF

Ornithology, Entomology, and Conchology,

AND ARRANGED ON THE PRINCIPLES OF

CUVIER AND OTHER MODERN ZOOLOGISTS.

       *       *       *       *       *

BY

WILLIAM SWAINSON, F.R.S., F.L.S.,

MEMBER OF THE WERNERIAN SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH, ETC.

       *       *       *       *       *

VOL. I.

       *       *       *       *       *

London:

PRINTED BY R. AND A. TAYLOR, SHOE-LANE:

FOR BALDWIN, CRADOCK, AND JOY, PATERNOSTER-ROW;
AND W. WOOD, STRAND.

       *       *       *       *       *

1820-1.

       *       *       *       *       *


PREFACE.

       *       *       *       *       *

The termination of the first volume of the Zoological Illustrations is
accomplished, and its contents will not only enable our readers to discern
the nature of the work, but likewise to form a judgement, on that degree of
improvement which we have introduced since its first publication, and they
may safely rely on the continuation being in no respect inferior.

In commencing a work of this nature, we have had two principal objects in
view: the diffusion of original observations, which, while they might
further the ends of science, would also be interesting to the general
reader; and that of discouraging the publication of distorted figures
copied from old authors, by accustoming the public eye to original designs
and correct representations of natural objects. How far we may have
succeeded in this latter object, remains to be judged by others; we are
however satisfied with having made the attempt, and we hope that abler
pencils than our own, may engage in the prosecution of this most desirable
object; for it is only by the publication of original matter, that a check
can be given to the increasing number of compilations and multiplied copies
of "ill-shaped" figures, by which error is perpetuated, and science
retarded.

The only original work that has appeared in this country similar to our
own, is the Zoological Miscellany by Dr. Leach, which, as it was
discontinued after the third volume, it may be presumed was unsuccessful:
although little can be said of many of the figures in the early volumes,
those in the latter are much to be praised, and the whole are original; the
descriptions also abound with details highly interesting to the scientific
world, for which indeed the learned author principally intended it;
nevertheless it is a question, whether science in the end would not have
been equally, and perhaps more advanced, had this work been more adapted to
general readers. Instruction in these days of refinement must be made easy,
palatable, and enticing; the eye must be pleased, while the understanding
is improved, and Wisdom in her simple dignified garb will often be deserted
for Ignorance, decked out in the glittering trappings of Folly.

The _Naturalist's Miscellany_ conducted by Dr. Shaw, in its miscellaneous
nature also resembled the present work, and reached to the extent of
twenty-four volumes. What an invaluable fund of information these might
have contained had their contents been original! Unfortunately, however,
the exceptions are so few, that the whole may be termed a loose
compilation, the descriptions being mostly given in as few words as
possible, and the figures not only copied from wretched representations
found in old authors, but often coloured from their descriptions only! It
is indeed lamentable that the Author, whose talents and abilities were
unquestionable, should have exerted them so little, and thus have descended
to the rank of a voluminous compiler, for little better can be said of the
General Zoology, begun and continued under his name: little original matter
can there be found, excepting in the latter volumes, yet even in these no
notice whatever is taken of the immense number of new species discovered in
Africa by Le Vaillant, and long ago published in the _Oiseaux d'Afrique_:
the engravings also are in like manner copied from old prints, enlarged or
diminished as occasion offers, without even a regard to the selection of
the best. It may be as well to observe in this place, that a great number
of generic distinctions have been made in the two last volumes; which, as
they have not been followed by any of the great and acknowledged Zoologists
on the Continent, and appear to us in many instances trivial and
unnecessary, will not be adopted in this work.

It will be unnecessary to point out with regard to the scientific
arrangement, that we have avowedly adopted the principles of the modern
classification; which the strict followers of Linnæus (in this country
alone) have so long, but so ineffectually opposed. The first has been
designated as the natural, and the other the artificial system; and,
without entering into a critical disquisition on these definitions, it will
be sufficient to observe, that by the Artificial System we bend nature to
conform to certain arbitrary principles, which we lay down and to which we
insist all her productions known and unknown will conform; while in the
Natural method, we endeavour by tracing her modifications, to adapt our
system to that which appears to regulate her operations. In the one we give
laws, in the other receive them; by the first we are taught to believe that
the highest attainment of the science, is that of ascertaining the name of
an object in our Museum, or of giving a new one; we record it in our
favourite system as a grammarian enters a new word in his dictionary, and
there the matter terminates. Where the artificial system ends, the natural
begins; for we then proceed to the investigation of affinities founded on
anatomical construction, economy, and geographic distribution; our
attention ceases to be confined to individuals, and extends to large
groups; general facts enable us to draw general conclusions, till the mind
begins faintly to discern a vast and mighty plan, by which the zones of the
earth are peopled by their own respective races of animate beings; blending
their confines unto each other with divine harmony, beauty, and usefulness.

That these inquiries and results have had a most wonderful effect on the
natural sciences of late years, is abundantly evident. Geology, a subject
hardly thought of in this country a few years ago, is now found to be a
science of the first importance; with this, however, Conchology is so
intimately connected, that without a certain knowledge of it, the geologist
is frequently unable to prosecute inquiries of the most interesting nature;
and there is little doubt but that Botany has been raised to the rank it
now so justly holds, solely because its natural system has been more
generally studied and advocated in this country, than that of any other
branch of Natural History. In this science at least, we possess a
superiority which our continental neighbours cannot dispute; and the name
of Brown will be enrolled in the brightest page of our philosophic
inquirers.

That the prejudiced adherence to the strict Linnæan system, has been the
primary cause why Zoology has been more neglected with us than on the
Continent, will admit of little doubt; for by shutting the door to all
further improvement, it has impressed the generality of our countrymen with
an idea, that the highest object of the Naturalist was to label the
contents of a museum, and to arrange stuffed animals, like quaint patterns
of old china, in glass cases: to thinking minds no less than to the vulgar,
this idea has produced a feeling of contempt and ridicule, and very few of
those qualified by nature for accurate investigation and philosophic
reasoning, have been induced to make the science a study; and thus from
such an unfortunate prejudice, to use the words of a powerful writer of the
present day, "some future historian of the progress of human knowledge,
will have to state that England, till within the few last years, stood
still at the bottom of the steps where Linnæus had left her; while her
neighbours were advancing rapidly towards the entrance of the temple[1]."

Finally--Linnæus to a comprehensive genius united indefatigable industry;
yet he could not see and study those innumerable productions that have been
discovered since his death: in proportion as our knowledge of objects
increases, so must our systems change, until the natural one is fully
developed; and the question simply comes to this, Whether the Linnæan
method should be upheld as a solitary exception to the mutability of human
wisdom.

The sun of truth must however finally prevail, and there is every reason to
think it has already broke, and will gradually disperse these mists of
prejudice. It is however much to be regretted, that our public institutions
are wholly inadequate to facilitate not only the advancement of students,
but the researches of those who are already engaged in prosecuting their
inquiries: in Scotland alone are founded any Professorships of Natural
History, and the establishment of our National Museum (in this branch only)
is confessedly difficult: materials for study are more necessary in this
science than any other; yet the public Institutions and libraries of the
metropolis, "rich and rare" in every other department of knowledge, in most
instances are deficient in this of the most elementary books; setting aside
those of illustration, which, from being unavoidably expensive and within
the reach of few purchasers, are more particularly adapted for such general
repositories of learning. The protracted ill-health of its noble possessor,
was the cause no doubt of the Banksian magnificent library being left
deficient in several of the latest continental works; and that of the
British Museum I have reason to think is still more defective. To the
honour however of the keepers of the Bodleian and Radcliffe Libraries, it
should be mentioned, that no pains or expense have been spared to render
them as perfect in this branch as possible; and we have been told that the
latter particularly is the most magnificent in the kingdom.

We shall now as briefly as possible advert to the contents of this volume.

In the Ornithological department the systems of Cuvier and Temminck have
mostly superseded all others: as a whole, we give a decided preference to
the latter, as being more natural, though it may be doubted if the generic
distinctions are not too few, while those of Cuvier are too many: both
however can be considered only as sketches, subject to improvement--as
natural affinities are more studied.

Regarding that part of our work which relates to Entomology, we have given
a decided preference to the Lepidoptera, for the simple reason that this
order has received less attention from all writers, concerning their real
characters and affinities, than any other; indeed they have been most
unaccountably neglected even by Latreille, the great founder of the modern
school: we have therefore thought it necessary to propose in this
department many new genera, and only have to regret that their definitions
could not be made more perfect without the destruction of the specimens,
frequently not our own, and which therefore was unattainable: a more
extended knowledge of the natural affinities existing in this tribe, will
alone confirm or annul the propriety of these distinctions.

In _Conchology_ many of the genera long established on the Continent, but
new to our own collectors, have been characterized and illustrated, as well
as specific distinctions defined between shells hitherto considered as
varieties; and here it must be observed that so much latitude has been
given to the meaning of the term _variety_, that in its general acceptation
its definition becomes impossible: our own idea of its true meaning is, a
shell possessing one or more characters which are changeable and uncertain,
and which consequently will not serve as indications by which it may
infallibly be distinguished from all others; _variety_ depends on local
circumstances, and affects the size, colour, and greater or less
development of the same modification of structure; a _species_ is
permanent, its structure always the same though more or less developed,
producing and perpetuating its kind, and depending on formation,
discernible in youth, and matured in age: we cannot therefore comprehend
the contradictory term of _permanent varieties_ in a state of nature
(though such occur in domesticated animals), which some authors have used,
and which has led to, in many instances, the most erroneous conclusions.

It is lamentable to see the opposition which is still made by our own
writers against all the modern improvements; yet although Linnæan
Introductions to Conchology are constantly issuing from the press, the
desire of being acquainted with a more natural and intelligible
classification has already appeared; and as we are frequently questioned on
the subject, we cannot in this place do better than refer the young student
to the valuable article on Conchology contained in the late supplement to
the _Encyclopedia Britannica_, the perusal of which will convey more solid
information, and less perplexity, than all the Introductions our
booksellers can boast of.

With respect to the quotations or synonyms, it should be observed that we
have in most instances limited them only to original works, all doubtful
ones have been rejected, and such only given as have been actually
consulted; indeed to this latter cause must be attributed the occasional
omission of some, existing in books we had not the immediate power of
consulting; our own library is not small; but the difficulty and expense of
procuring all the new continental publications, and the impossibility of
meeting with them at our public libraries[2], may have sometimes led us
into error, and unintentionally to have passed over the discoveries of
others.

With the few additions contained in the Appendix we shall now conclude;
trusting that in the remarks drawn from us by the present state of the
science in this country, our zeal for truth will not give us an appearance
of want of candour or of vanity. The truth of our remarks on the labours of
others, every one at all acquainted with the subject can inquire into, and
either acknowledge or disprove: we neither deprecate nor despise criticism:
an author who presumes to instruct others, should have his pretensions
publicly canvassed, his merits admitted, or his deficiency exposed; no one
is more sensible than we are that our own pretensions chiefly consist in
having set an example for others more able to follow: and if we have in any
way advocated the cause of truth and science, our object will be attained,
and we shall then gladly retire in the shade.

  LONDON,
  Sept. 15, 1821.

       *       *       *       *       *


LIST OF BOOKS REFERRED TO.

    _Bruguire, Encycl. Meth._ Histoire Naturelle des Vers, par M. Bruguire,
    1 vol. 4to. and 4 vols. of Plates, forming part 10, 19, 21, 23, of the
    "Encyclopedie Méthodique." Paris, 1789-1792.

    _Bloch._ Histoire Naturelle des Poissons, en 6 parties, 8vo. Berlin,
    1796.

    _Cramer._ Papillons Exotiques, 4 vols. 4to. Amsterdam, 1779-1782.

    _Cuvier._ Le Règne Animal, 4 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1817.

    _Chemnitz, Martini._ Neus Systematisches Conchylein Cabinet, 11 vols.
    Nurnburg, 1781-1795.

    _Dill._ A Descriptive Catalogue of Recent Shells. By F. W. Dillwyn, 2
    vols. 8vo. London, 1817.

    _Edwards._ A Natural History of uncommon Birds, &c.; and Gleanings of
    Natural History. By G. Edwards, 7 vols. 4to. 1763, &c.

    _Fab. Ent. Syst._ Entomologia Systematica, emendata et aucta. J. C.
    Fabricius, 4 vols. 4to. Hafnia, 1792-1794.

    _Gen. Zool._ General Zoology, commenced by Dr. Shaw, and continued by
    Mr. Stevens, 11 vols. 8vo. to 1819.

    _Gmelin Linn. Syst. Nat._ C. Linné Systema Naturæ. Cura J. F. Gmelin.
    Lipsiæ, 1788-1793.

    _Godart in Encycl. Method._ Encyclopedie Méthodique, t. 9. p. 1. 1819.

    _Gualtieri._ Index Testarum Conchyliorum quæ adservantur in Musæo N.
    Gualtieri. Florentiæ, 1742.

    _Illiger._ Prod. Systematis Mammalium et Avium, 8vo. Berolini, 1811.

    _Knorr._ Les Delices des Yeux et de l'Esprit, 6 P., 4to. Nuremb. 1760,
    &c.

    _Klein Hist. Pisc._ Historiæ Nat. Piscium promovendæ Missus, 6, 4to.
    Dantzic, 1740-49.

    _Linn. Syst. Nat._ See Gmelin.

    _Linn. Trans._ Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 13 vols.
    4to. 1791-1821.

    _Lister._ M. Lister Historia Conchyliorum, folio. Oxonii, 1770.

    _Lamarck Syst._ Hist. Nat. des Animaux sans Vertèbres. Par le Chevalier
    de Lamarck, 6 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1815-1819.

    ---- _Anal. Mus._ Annales du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris, 4to.
    1802-1821.

    _Lath. Synop. Suppl._ A General Synopsis of Birds. By Dr. J. Latham, 3
    vols, and 2 Supplements, 4to. London, 1782, &c.

    ---- _Index Ornith._ Index Ornithologicus, 2 vols. 4to. London, 1790.

    _Martyn Univ. Conch._ The Universal Conchologist. By T. Martyn, 4 vols.
    4to. London, 1784, &c.

    _Martini._ See Chemnitz.

    _Pennant._ British Zoology. By T. Pennant, 4 vols. 8vo. London, 1812.

    _Risso Icth._ Ichtyologie de Nice, 1 vol. 8vo. Paris, 1810.

    _Rumph._ Thesâurium Imaginum Piscium, &c., folio. Hagæ, 1739.

    _Seba._ Albertus Seba Rerum Naturalium Thesauri, 4 vols. folio.
    Amsterdam, 1734-1765.

    _Say._ Description of the Land and Fresh-water Shells of the United
    States. By Thomas Say. Philadelphia, 1819.

    _Shaw in Gen. Zool._ See General Zoology.

    _Temminck Pig. et Gall._ Histoire Naturelle Générale des Pigeons et des
    Gallinaces. Par C. J. Temminck, 2 vols. 8vo. Amst. 1813.

    ---- _Manuel._ Manuel d'Ornithologie, 2d edit., 2 vols. 8vo. 1820.

    _Le Vaill._ Hist. Nat. des Toucans et des Barbus, folio. Paris, 1806.

    ---- Hist. Nat. des Perroquets, 2 vols. folio. Paris, 1801.

    _White's Voyage._ Journal of a Voyage to N. S. Wales, 4to. Lond. 1790.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 1

[Illustration]

PSITTACUS Cayennensis.

_Cayenne gold-winged Parakeet._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum breve, crassum, validissimum, ad basin cute tectum; mandibulâ
    superiore aduncâ; inferiore sub-recurvatâ, breviore. Nares rotundæ,
    nudæ, fermè verticales. Pedes scansorii._

    Bill short, thick, very strong, covered at the base by a cere; upper
    mandible sharply hooked; under mandible obtuse, curving upwards, and
    much shorter. Nostrils round, naked, nearly vertical. Feet scansorial.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. viridis, alis spuriis aurantiis, remigibus exterioribus basi
    cæruleis, caudâ brevi cuneatâ._

    Green Parakeet, with the spurious wings golden-orange: outer quills
    blue at their base. Tail short, wedged.

    Le Perruche à tache souci. _Le Vaill. pl._ 58, 59. _p._ 169.

       *       *       *       *       *

We only thoroughly identified this beautiful little bird, by an inspection
of the costly work of Le Vaillant on this family, in the Banksian Library:
for the description of the orange-winged Parakeet of Dr. Latham is not
applicable; and Dr. Shaw has persisted in the old error of considering this
species a variety of the Toui Parakeet, although the question had been put
at rest by the original description and sound reasons of Le Vaillant. There
is a wide difference between naturalists who compile, and form their
theories from books, and those who study nature, and think for themselves;
and nothing will result from the first but mischief to the science, and
perplexity to the student.

Our figure is from a specimen brought from Demerara by C. Edmonston, Esq.;
another is in the possession of A. MacLeay, Esq. Though rare in our
cabinets, M. Le Vaillant says it is common in Cayenne. He has given a
beautiful figure of the female, which is entirely green.

Total length six inches. Plumage above entirely green, beneath paler and
inclining to yellow; just under the lower mandible is a small
snuff-coloured spot, and a very narrow line of the same in front just above
the nostrils; the quills dark-green, the greater ones on their outside base
are blue, with which the head is also tinged. The spurious wings are
entirely of a rich and clear orange. Inner wing-covers green. Quills inside
greenish-blue, except on each side the shafts, where there is a line of
black. Tail short, cuneated, hardly projecting an inch beyond the wings,
both above and below green: the interior margin dirty-yellow, the feathers
pointed. Bill and legs flesh-colour.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 2

[Illustration]

SITTA frontalis.

_Blue Nuthatch._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum rectissimum, acutum, compressum; utroque mandibulo ad apicem
    æque inclinato; apice integro cuneo compresso simili. Nares basales,
    ovales, apertæ, plumis setaceis incumbentibus extrinsecus tectæ. Pedes
    tribus digitis anticis; uno postico; digitus interior minimus; exterior
    ad basin medio connexus; hallux productus validus. Ungues
    compressissimi; antici subæquales; posticus maximus. Cauda brevis,
    rectricibus duodecim subæqualibus._

Typus Genericus _S. Europæa_.

    Bill very straight, sharp-pointed, compressed; both mandibles equally
    inclining to the tip, which is entire, and resembles a compressed
    wedge. Nostrils basal, oval, open, covered externally with incumbent
    setaceous feathers. Feet with three toes forward and one backward;
    inner toe very small; outer toe connected to the middle at its base;
    hind toe lengthened, strong. Claws much compressed; anterior nearly
    equal, posterior largest. Tail short, of twelve nearly equal feathers.

Generic Type _Sitta Europæa_.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _S. supra cærulea; supercilio, fronte, et remigibus lateralibus in
    medio nigris; subtus cinereo-fusca, auribus lilacinis, mento albo._

    Nuthatch, above blue: line above the eye, front, and middle of the
    lateral tail-feathers black; beneath cinereous brown, ears lilac, chin
    white.

    ...

       *       *       *       *       *

The present species is one of the many interesting birds collected in Java
by my friend Dr. Horsfield: it was not, however, until I had described and
engraved another specimen, sent to Sir J. Banks from Ceylon, that I
discovered the species had already been included in the Doctor's account of
the birds of Java, presented to the Linnæan Society, where he has described
it under the name of _Orthorynchus frontalis_.

The specific name of its first describer is of course retained: with
respect, however, to its generic situation, I must be allowed to dissent
from considering it as a distinct genus, merely from the prolongation of
the hinder toe being somewhat more developed than in _Sitta Europæa_ and
_Carolinensis_, both which birds are now before me, and which in themselves
differ in the relative proportion of this part: thus in _S. Carolinensis_
the hind toe and claw is two-tenths of an inch shorter than the leg; in _S.
Europæa_ it is one-tenth shorter; and in the present species it just
exceeds that of the leg: in every other respect not the slightest
difference I apprehend will be observed ....

Total length five inches. Size of the European Nuthatch. Bill, from the
angle of the mouth to the tip, eight lines; front of the head velvet-black,
continued in a stripe of the same colour over the eye, and terminating
above the ear feathers: the upper plumage is of a rich blue, more brilliant
on the head, and paler on the front, and external margins of the quills.
Spurious wings and lesser quills black margined with blue. Inner
wing-covers deep black; the under plumage is a light-brown, changing to
lilac on the ears and sides of the neck, and tinged with cinereous on the
flanks and vent: the chin is white; tail even, the two middle feathers
blue, the rest more or less black, having the external margins and tips
blue. The outer quill of the wings is short, the second and third longest
and equal, the fourth rather less; the hind toe with the claw, measures one
inch in a straight line.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 3

[Illustration]

MITRA zonata.

_Zoned Mitre._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa inæqualiter fusiformis, spirâ productâ attenuatâ, labio
    exteriore intus edentulo. Columella plicata._

    Shell unequally fusiform. Spire lengthened, attenuated. Outer lip
    simple, not toothed within. Columella plaited.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. epidermide luteâ, fulvo-marmoratâ, anfractibus infernè basi nigris,
    columellâ quinque-plicatâ. Linn. Trans. xii. p. 338._

    Mitre, with the epidermis marbled with brownish-yellow; volutions at
    their base black; columella five-plaited.

    Mitra zonata. _Marryat in Linn. Trans. vol._ xii. _pl._ 10. _fig._ 1.
    2.

       *       *       *       *       *

This unique and beautiful Mitre has been already described by Captain
Marryat in the Linnæan Transactions: the figures, however, are uncoloured,
and give a very indifferent idea of the graceful symmetry of its form. My
friend Dr. Leach, with his usual liberality, permitted me to draw the
accompanying figure of it at the British Museum, where it is now deposited.

It appears to have been taken near Nice in the Mediterranean, adhering to a
sounding-line, in very deep water; a very singular locality, since nearly
all the Mitres have generally been supposed to inhabit the tropical seas,
or at least far from the coasts of Europe. It should, however, be remarked,
that _Cypræa lurida_, an Asiatic shell, I have found on the shores of
Greece: and C. Ulysses, in his travels in the kingdom of Naples, enumerates
several shells as inhabiting the warm shores of the Tarentine Bay, which
are generally known only as natives of the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. These
facts, with many others, prove the physical distribution of _Molluscæ_ to
be less decidedly marked than almost any other class of animals.

This genus is included with that of _Voluta_ by Linnæus and our own
writers, although long ago justly separated by the continental zoologists.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 4

[Illustration]

BULIMUS melastomus.

_Blackmouthed Bulimus._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa ovalis, vel oblongo-ovalis. Spira elevata. Os integrum,
    sub-ovale. Columella lævis, simplex. Labium externum crassum, reflexum.
    Internum ultra medium cavo-inflexum. Operculum nullum._

    Shell oval or oblong-oval. Spire elevated. Mouth entire, sub-oval.
    Column smooth, simple. Exterior lip thick, reflected. Interior lip
    beyond the middle inflected, and hollowed beneath. Operculum none.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _B. testâ oblongo-ovatâ, albâ, cinereo marmoratâ, spiræ anfractibus
    longitudinaliter plicatis, labio exteriore complanato; aperturâ nigrâ._

    Shell oblong-ovate, white, marbled with cinereous. Spiral whorls
    longitudinally plaited. Outer lip flattened; aperture black.

       *       *       *       *       *

The genus _Bulimus_ was long ago formed by Scopoli out of the heterogeneous
mixture of shells thrown together in the Linnæan genus _Helix_[3], &c.: it
comprehends some of the larger and most beautiful of the exotic land
shells, among which the present species will stand conspicuous both in
beauty of colouring and excessive rarity. While travelling among the
forests of Brazil, in the province of Bahia, I found the shell here figured
one morning on the leaves of a _Solanum_. I not only searched myself, but
promised as a reward to any of my Indians who would bring me another, a
two-bladed Birmingham knife!--the greatest temptation they could have!--but
in vain; for I never saw another before or since.

There are many peculiar characters presented in this species independent of
its colour: the spiral whorls are strongly plaited longitudinally about
half their length, and marked very slightly (but sufficiently distinct)
with several oblique indented striæ; the principal whorl has a row of
indented and unequal sulcations near the suture, and a slight appearance of
elevation along the white transverse band; the outer lip is thick, broad,
and flattened beneath; but the margin is reflected back, and forms a
prominent rim on the upper surface. The shell, when viewed closely, appears
rough with minute scale-like elevations, very much resembling shagreen.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 5

[Illustration]

COLIAS Statira.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Palpi breves, curvati, compressi ad linguam, squamis dense tecti.
    Articulis tribus; primo longissimo, ad basin curvato, ultrà erecto;
    secundo erecto, brevi; tertio minimo, proclivi; apice nudo, obtuso.
    Antennæ breves, cylindraceæ, ad apicem nudum et abruptè truncatum
    sensim incrassatæ. Alæ anteriores trigonæ. Abdomen maris, ultimo
    articulo acuto, et subtùs tenui unco incurvato; valvis magnis,
    attenuatis, aduncis._

Typus Genericus _Colias Ebule._

    Palpi short, curved, compressed on the tongue, thickly covered with
    scales. Articulations three; the first very long, curved at the base,
    erect beyond; the second erect, short; the third minute, inclining
    forward; the tip naked, obtuse. Antennæ short, cylindric, gradually
    thickening to their tip, which is naked and abruptly truncate. Anterior
    wings trigonal. Abdomen of the male with the last joint pointed, and a
    slender incurved hook beneath; the valves large, attenuated and hooked.

Generic Type _Colias Ebule_.

       *       *       *       *       *

    SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. alis dilutè flavis, vel fulvis; anticis suprà, puncto medio
    margineque extimo, nigris; subtùs ferrugineis; posticis subtùs,
    singulis duobus niveis punctis inæqualibus; palpis productis._

    Wings diluted yellow or fulvous; anterior with a black border and
    central dot, which beneath is ferrugineous; posterior beneath, each
    with two unequal snowy spots; palpi lengthened.--_Female._

    Papilio Statira. _Cramer, pl._ cxx. _fig._ C. D.

       *       *       *       *       *

The present insect is selected to illustrate a very elegant family of
Butterflies, whose predominant tints are composed of orange, yellow, and
white, variously blended and disposed in a greater or less degree
throughout all the species. The generic characters above given will
distinguish them as peculiar to the tropics, and principally those of South
America; one or two species only being found in Africa, and five or six
inhabiting India.

I have no doubt this is the _Pap. Statira_ of Cramer; it is found only in
Brazil, and has been erroneously considered by Godart and Latreille as a
variety of _C. Jugurthina_, an Indian insect, and which in fact is not in
itself a species, being no other than the female of _C. Alcmeone_, as an
attentive examination of a vast number of both, collected in Java by Dr.
Horsfield, enabled me to ascertain.

The extraordinary prolongation of the last joint of the palpi, and the
white borderless spots beneath, which are never silvered, will distinguish
this species through all the variations; in the ground colour of its wings,
which in no two specimens are exactly alike, and one before me is nearly
white; the lesser snowy dot is sometimes very obscure, and often wanting;
but the prolongation of the palpi is even expressed in Cramer's figure
above quoted.

I have examined about a dozen specimens, mostly captured by myself, and all
have been females; and I strongly suspect future and more decided
observations will prove _C. Evadne_ to be the other sex: it has the palpi
lengthened, though in a less degree; and the articulations of the antennæ
in both insects will be found somewhat thickened at their termination when
viewed under a magnifier, a peculiarity I have seen in no other species;
and although I have examined near thirty specimens of _C. Evadne_, they
have invariably proved to be males.

The palpi in this insect will be found at variance with the generic
character now given; a striking proof that in a natural system no single
part can be taken as an unerring criterion for generic distinction, without
making it eventually an artificial one. The _Colias Drya_ of Fabricius has
the same formation of palpi, but is a totally different insect.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 6

[Illustration]

COLIAS Leachiana.

_Leachian Colias._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 5.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. alis subrotundatis, integris, virescenti-albidis, anticis supra
    fulvis, margine punctoque medio nigris, singulis subtus maculâ centrali
    ferrugineâ._ Encycl. Method.

    (Male) wings slightly rounded, entire, greenish white; anterior pair
    above orange, at their tips, margin, and central dot black: each pair
    beneath with a central ferrugineous spot. Female ----?

    C. Leachiana. _Godart in Encycl. Method._ vol. ix. p. 91.

       *       *       *       *       *

In size this insect is the largest of the genus yet discovered; it was
first noticed by Godart, who has given it the name of my learned and valued
friend, Dr. W. E. Leach, of the British Museum, whose talents are too well
known to need any eulogium in this place.

It appears to inhabit both the northern and southern extremities of Brazil;
for I have seen it in a box sent from Parà, and my specimens were captured
in Minas Geraes by my friend Dr. Langsdorff. It is, however, a rare
species; for I have only seen seven or eight specimens, and they were all
males: the female, when found, will probably differ as remarkably as in
most of this genus.

The opaque spot on the inferior wings above is very large; but the tuft of
hair corresponding beneath the superior wings, is entirely wanting. It
should be likewise observed, that although this insect in every outward
respect resembles a genuine _Colias_ (the type of which may be _C. Ebule_),
it differs very materially in the terminal appendages of the abdomen; the
last joint being the shortest, and scarcely pointed; and the hook, instead
of being concealed beneath this segment, is exserted beyond it, and met by
two others, one at the base of each lateral valve: these valves are also
much shorter, ovate, and not attenuated, although ending in an incurved
hook. In the present ignorance in which a true knowledge of the Lepidoptera
is involved, it is impossible to say how far these dissimilarities may
point out natural groups; it is therefore of the highest importance to the
science such facts should be noticed.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 7

[Illustration]

CARDUELIS cucullata.

_Hooded Seed-eater._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum breve, validum, conicum, rectissimum; mandibulis subæqualibus;
    apice immarginato, recto, acuto; mandibulâ superiore culmine convexâ;
    inferiore basi marginis angulatâ, utrinque subtusque convexâ._

Typus Genericus _Fringilla Canaria_. Lath., &c.

    Bill short, stout, very conic, without any curvature above; both
    mandibles nearly equal, the tip entire, straight and sharp; upper
    mandible convex above: lower one at the base of the margin with an
    obtuse angle, the sides and under part convex.

Generic Type _Fringilla Canaria_. Latham, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. aurantia: capite, gutture, fasciâ trans tectrices, remigibus
    caudâque nigris; remigibus primoribus basi obliquè aurantio fasciatis._

    Orange: head, front of the neck, bar across the wing-covers, quills and
    tail black; greater quills at their base obliquely barred with orange.

       *       *       *       *       *

A richly coloured little bird, much smaller than our Goldfinch, and
approaching very near to the _Bouvreuil de Bourbon_ of Buffon, from which,
however, I think it quite distinct. The only one I have yet seen is in the
possession of E. Falkner, Esq. of Fairfield near Liverpool, who received it
with a few other rare birds from the Spanish Main.

Total length four inches. Bill blackish and very sharp. The whole head and
forepart of the neck is black. The plumage of the body is a fine
reddish-orange, duller on the back and brightest beneath: wing-covers the
same; the greater ones at their base black, which forms a bar: the quills
are also black, the greater ones having at their base an oblique bar of
orange, and some of the lesser ones slightly margined externally with
white. Tail divaricated and black; some of the lateral feathers faintly
margined with orange. Spurious wings black. Legs and claws brown.

The _Bouvreuil de Bourbon_, and the _B. du Cap de Bonne Esperance_ of
Buffon (_Pl. Enl. pl._ 204. _fig._ 1, 2.) appear to have been described as
the different sexes of one bird (the Orange Grossbeak of Latham) on mere
conjecture. I think them quite distinct, inhabiting different countries,
and having all the appearance (in the figures) of being two male birds; for
the females in this family seldom possess the rich colours of the male; and
the figure of the last of these birds, has not the slightest habit of a
female.

The present genus was formed by Cuvier, (though but very slightly defined,)
and includes the common Goldfinch and Canary-bird.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 8

[Illustration]

MEROPS urica.

_Javanese Bee-eater._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum productum, læve, subcurvatum, compressum; apice acuto, basi
    trigono; culmine carinato. Pedes brevissimi, gressorii. Alæ attenuatæ._

Typus Genericus _M. apiaster_. Linn., &c.

    Bill lengthened, smooth, slightly curved, terminating in a sharp point;
    the base triangular, the sides much compressed, the back carinated.
    Feet very short, gressorial. Wings pointed.

Generic Type _Merops apiaster_. Linn., &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. viridis, infra pallidior; capite, collo suprà rufo; mento, jugulo,
    sulphureis; lineâ temporali et torque colli nigris; tegminibus
    uropygioque cæruleis; caudâ subfurcatâ._

    Green, beneath paler. Head and neck above rufous; chin and throat
    sulphur; line under the eyes, and collar round the neck, black.
    Tail-covers and rump pale blue. Tail slightly forked.

    Merops urica. _Horsfield in Linn. Trans._

       *       *       *       *       *

The true Bee-eaters are confined to the old world, principally inhabiting
Africa and Asia; one species only, the European Bee-eater, being known with
any degree of certainty to be found in Europe; and this is occasionally
seen in England. They are all gregarious, feeding on the wing, and in
general migratory.

Most unwillingly I have again in this instance anticipated my friend Dr.
Horsfield in describing this bird, which he found in Java, and which I
engraved after one sent from Ceylon, without knowing it had also fallen
under his observation.

The figure is less than the natural size, which is nearly that of our
European species. Bill an inch and a half long from the gape, and black.
Nostrils small, basal, round, not sulcated, partially defended by incumbent
hairs; at the angle of the mouth is a row of short, stiff bristles; a black
line commences from the nostrils, passes under the eye, and terminates with
the ears. The upper part of the head, neck, and between the wings, rufous.
The rump and upper tail-covers pale blue: the chin and throat sulphur
tinged with rufous, where an irregular and narrow collar of black crosses
the neck. The remaining under parts yellowish-green. Wings and quills
fulvous green, the latter tipt with black, and all the inner shafts more or
less rufous: the second quill longest, and the lesser quills and
tail-feathers notched at their tips. Tail green, slightly forked; the tips
and under side dusky-black, and three inches and a half long. Wings, when
closed, four inches one line in length. Vent blueish-white.

The females in this genus may generally be distinguished by the two middle
tail-feathers being but slightly or not at all elongated.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 9

[Illustration]

HELIX auriculata.

_Eared Helix._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa orbicularis vel globosa. Spira depressa vel paululum elevata.
    Apertura integra. Labium exterius marginatum. Operculum nullum._

    Shell orbicular or globose. Spire depressed, or but slightly elevated.
    Aperture entire. Outer lip margined. Operculum, none.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _H. testâ depressissimâ, ferrugineo-marmoratâ et bifasciatâ, umbilico
    magno, profundo, aperturâ auriformi; labio exteriore incrassato,
    margine interiore dente obsoleto._

    Shell much depressed, marbled and doubly-banded with ferrugineous.
    Umbilicus large, deep. Aperture ear-shaped. Outer lip thickened,
    reflected, with a gibbous obsolete tooth within.

       *       *       *       *       *

A shell no less remarkable for its form than its extreme rarity. The mouth
bears a most striking resemblance to the human ear; and the only specimen
known in this country is the one here figured, from the cabinet of Ch.
Dubois, Esq., who obligingly favoured me with it for examination; neither
does the exquisite work on the Land Shells, by M. de Ferrusac, now
publishing at Paris, contain this species among the numerous matchless
figures already given of this family.

In the present uncertainty respecting the natural groups of the genus
_Helix_, as left by Lamarck, I have preferred for the present following the
example of Cuvier and de Ferrusac, in placing it with that family, in
preference to adopting the ill-defined and palpably artificial distribution
of them by D. de Montfort, or of forming a new genus for its reception.

The variegations in its colouring are better seen in the figures than
described. The whole shell is slightly marked with obsolete longitudinal
striæ; the umbilicus is very deep, and the tooth does not extend externally
beyond the margin of the lip.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 10

[Illustration]

STROMBUS.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa ventricosa; basis canali brevi, truncato vel emarginato; labium
    exterius simpliciter alatum, ala ad basin inferne emarginata; suprà
    dilatata._

    _Animal marinum, carnivorum, trachelipodum; corpore spirali; pede
    compresso ad cervicis basin inferiorem._ Leach in Zool. Misc. vol. i.
    p. 51.

Typus Genericus _S. pugilis._ Linn.

    Shell ventricose; base with a short canal, which is either emarginate
    or truncate; external lip dilated into a simple wing, notched at the
    base, and prominent above.

    Animal marine, carnivorous; body spiral, with a compressed foot at the
    inferior base of the neck.

Generic Type _S. pugilis._ Linn.

       *       *       *       *       *

STROMBUS minimus.

_Little Strombus--central figures._

    _S. testâ nodosè plicatâ; spirâ subtilissimè striatâ; labio interiore
    reflecto, incrassato, suprà obtusè-acuminato; exteriore intrà lævi,
    suprà altè-lobato, anfractui secundo spirali adjuncto._

    Shell with nodulous plaits; the spire finely striated; inner lip
    thickened and reflected, and obtusely pointed above. Outer lip smooth
    within, deeply lobed above, attached to the second spiral volution.

    _Lister_ 859. 15. _Chemnitz. tab._ 156. _fig._ 1491, 1492. _Rumph.
    tab._ 36, P. _Gualtieri, tab._ 32, G.

    Strombus marginatus. _Dillwyn's Cat._ p. 665. no. 18.

       *       *       *       *       *

A pretty and diminutive species, scarcely ever more than one inch three
lines long. The spire long in proportion, and occupying half an inch: when
in perfection the colour is a deep chesnut, minutely broken into finely
serrated darker lines, with one, two, or three interrupted bands of white
on the body whorl, the spire, and margin of the outer lip paler; there are
two or three nodules above; and the spiral volutions have the carinated row
of tubercles usual in the _Strombi_, and are besides finely striated
transversely. The base of the shell is more deeply and distinctly striated;
both the lips are much thickened, tumid, white, and highly polished;
terminating above in obtuse points on the second spiral whorl, leaving a
narrow ascending channel between; the inside of the aperture is a fine
yellow.

Inhabits the Indian seas, but is not common.

By some unaccountable oversight, Mr. Dillwyn has very well described this
shell, but under the name and supposition of its being the _S. marginatus_
of Linnæus; though a few pages after he brings all the true synonyms
referring to his shell, under a description purporting to be that of _S.
minimus_, but which in reality is more applicable to our next species. Why
this writer should doubt the correctness of Gmelin, Chemnitz, &c.
respecting the true _S. marginatus_ of Linnæus, does not appear,
particularly as he has substituted for it a well known species. I have
little doubt myself they all mean one and the same shell, which is nothing
more than a scarce variety of _S. accinctus_, now before me, with which
Linnæus's original description pretty well agrees.

       *       *       *       *       *

STROMBUS variabilis.

_Variable Strombus--upper figure._

    _S. testâ nodosè plicatâ, spirâ striis nullis; labio interiore
    simplice, exteriore reflecto, intrà lævi, suprà leviter lobato._

    Shell with nodulous plaits, the spire not striated. Inner lip simple.
    Outer lip reflected, smooth within, and slightly lobed above.

       *       *       *       *       *

Shell two inches and a quarter long, the spire occupying little more than
half an inch. The ground colour generally is white with numerous undulated
short lines of a darker colour, sometimes crossed by four or five obsolete
whitish bands: it approaches very near _S. minimus_, but is easily
distinguished by being in general much larger, by having the inner lip not
at all thickened above, the outer lip very slightly lobed, and only
advancing on the first volution of the spire: it varies, however, amazingly
in colour. There is a small variety, having a brown spot beneath, from
India; and others (labelled from the So. Seas) in the Banksian collection,
also small, are purplish-brown, with three or four well-defined bands of
white: the aperture is always pure white.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 11

[Illustration]

DRUSILLA Horsfieldii.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Antennæ mediocres, clavâ productâ, gracili, cylindraceâ. Palpi breves,
    compressissimi, obtusi, remoti, linguam non attingentes; lateribus
    utrisque hirsutissimis, articulos obtegentibus. Abdomen (in maribus)
    7-articulatum: 1mo longissimo, ultimo simplici, truncato, suprà
    integro, subtus unco incurvato, valvis nullis. Alæ anticæ (in maribus)
    basi posticâ dilatatæ, fasciculum in alas posticas obtegentes._

    (OBS. _Alæ integerrimæ, subdiaphanæ, posticæ magnæ, orbiculares. Pedes
    antici spurii; antennarum articuli basales ad apicem incrassati._)

Typus Genericus _Papilio Jairus_. Fabr.

    Antennæ moderate, the club lengthened, slender, cylindric. Palpi short,
    much compressed, obtuse, remote, not touching the tongue, covered
    equally on both sides with thickset hairs concealing the joints.
    Abdomen (in the male) 7-jointed, the first very long, the last simple,
    truncate, and entire above, without valves, and with an incurved hook
    beneath. Anterior wings (in the male) dilated at the posterior base,
    concealing a tuft of hair on the inferior wings.

Generic Type _Papilio Jairus_. Fabr.

    (OBS. Wings very entire, sub-diaphanous. Hinder wings large, orbicular.
    Fore-legs spurious. Basal articulations of the antennæ thickened at the
    end.)

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _D. alis anticis angustatis, fuscis, concoloribus; margine posteriore
    et exteriore æqualibus: posticis albidis; margine exteriore fusco,
    suprà uni-ocellato, subtus bi-ocellato._

    Wings, anterior, narrowed, the posterior and exterior margins equal,
    uniform brown; posterior cream-coloured, with a brown margin, one
    ocellate spot above, and two beneath.

       *       *       *       *       *

This new and elegant insect was discovered by my worthy friend Dr.
Horsfield (after whom I have named it) in the interior of Java: it forms a
part of the extensive collections made there by this zealous naturalist for
the East India Company, and which will make a most important addition to
our present confined knowledge of the productions of that interesting
island: indeed these collections exceed in extent, preservation, and value,
any which have been brought to this country.

The general resemblance of this species with _Papilio Jairus_ of Fabricius
is so great, that it might pass on a cursory view as a mere variety, did
not the form of the anterior wings at once point out the difference. In the
present insect the posterior and exterior margins are of equal length,
giving a narrow appearance to the wings, much resembling some of the true
_Papilionidæ_; but in _P. Jairus_, these wings are much broader, more
obtuse, and the length of the posterior margin much greater; other minor
differences exist in the colouring and markings. My valued friend A. H.
Haworth, Esq., F.L.S., &c. possesses a fine pair of the true _P. Jairus_ in
his rich and extensive collection; and the liberality with which it is
constantly and freely opened to me, deserves my warmest thanks.

From these two species I have formed the present genus, the characters of
which will distinguish it from that of _Hætera_ (Fabr.), a scanty genus
confined to South America; and this seems to occupy its place in India:
both will come in the natural family of _Hipparchidæ_. Only one specimen (a
male) exists in Dr. Horsfield's collections; I could not therefore dissect
the mouth, &c. On the inner borders of the inferior wings is a lengthened
tuft of fine hairs: the _anus_ beneath has on each side an obtuse
lengthened process, partially attached, and which appears to supply the
place of the lateral valves. It is represented on a sprig of

GÆRTNERA _racemosa_,

which, although differing slightly from the figure of Dr. Roxburgh's
Coromandel Plants, p. 19. t. 18, Dr. Horsfield considers as the same plant.
The Javanese name is _Kakas_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 12

[Illustration]

GOBIUS Suerii.

_Suerian Goby._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Caput parvum. Oculi approximati. Pinnæ dorsales duæ, radiis
    flexilibus: ventrales conjunctæ, infundibuliformes. Branchiarum
    apertura contracta, membranâ 4-radiatâ._

Typus Genericus _Gobius niger_. Pennant.

    Head small. Eyes approximating. Dorsal fins two, the rays flexible.
    Ventral fins united into the form of a funnel. Gill aperture
    contracted, the membrane four-rayed.

Generic Type _Gobius niger_. Pennant.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _G. olivaceus, caudâ atro-purpureâ. Capite, operculis, pinnâ dorsali et
    caudali longitudinaliter flavo-lineatis._

    Olivaceous Goby. Tail obscure purple. Head, gills, dorsal and caudal
    fins with yellow longitudinal lines.

    Gobius Suerii. _Risso Icth. p._ 387. _pl._ 11. _fig._ 43.

       *       *       *       *       *

This beautiful little fish never exceeds the size here represented. It is
not uncommon on the coast of Sicily in the spring months: it has likewise
been discovered on the shores of Nice by Risso, who is its first describer:
his figure, however, is so remarkably bad, that it would be impossible to
recognise it but for his description: in fact, the fish is so delicate,
that unless the fins are very carefully expanded in water their form and
colouring will never be seen correctly. It has been named after M. C. A. Le
Sueur (who accompanied Peron in the French circumnavigation), an able
zoologist and most inimitable draftsman and engraver.

General colour pale olivaceous yellow, with a few obscure large spots along
the body somewhat brighter. The head has four yellow oblique bands, between
which, and behind the eye, is a bright blue spot. Ventral fins blackish.
The first dorsal fin is trigonal, and has the third ray lengthened and
longest; the three last rays tipt with deep-black; the second fin is
lengthened, broadest at the end, the membrane greyish-white with narrow
longitudinal lines of yellow. Caudal fin lanceolate, pointed,
blackish-purple, margined and marked with yellow lines parallel with the
borders. Pectoral fin ovately rounded, with faint yellow transverse bands.
Anal fin resembling the second dorsal, greyish, with the margin
dull-purple. Scales large, very deciduous; lateral line invisible; lower
jaw longest; teeth minute. Body and fins semi-transparent. The first dorsal
fin has seven rays; the second fifteen; anal fifteen; pectoral twelve;
caudal seventeen; ventral fourteen.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 13

[Illustration]

PLATYRHYNCHUS Ceylonensis.

_Ceylonese Flat-bill._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum breve, rectum, depressissimum, fermè trigonum; mandibulâ
    superiore ad apicem abruptè aduncâ, emarginatâ; inferiore rectâ,
    breviore; marginibus superioris inferiorem superplicantibus. Os et
    Nares longis rigidis vibrissis obtectæ. Nares, mediæ inter apicem et
    hiatum rostri. Cauda plerumque æqualis, rectricibus duodecim. Pedes et
    Tarsi breves, graciles._

    Typi Generici. Div. I. _Todus Platyrhynchos._ Gm. Div. II. _Muscicapa
    barbata._ Lath.

    Bill short, straight, thin, very depressed, and nearly triangular; the
    upper mandible abruptly hooked at the tip, and notched; the margins
    folding over those of the under mandible, which is straight and
    shorter. Mouth and nostrils defended by long stiff bristles. Nostrils
    medial between the tip and gape of the bill. Tail mostly even, of
    twelve feathers. Legs and toes short, slender.

    Generic Types. Div. I. _Todus Platyrhynchos._ Gm. Div. II. _Muscicapa
    barbata._ Lath.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

_P. olivaceus, subtùs flavus; capite mentoque cinereis._

Olivaceous Flat-bill, beneath yellow. Head and chin cinereous.

       *       *       *       *       *

The sober tints of this little bird accord more with those of Europe than
of India, of which country however it is a native, having been sent from
Ceylon to the British Museum: it is the only one I have yet seen, and
appears hitherto undescribed.

The stiff bristles at the corner of the mouth are nearly the length of the
bill, which is quite flattened: the tail is even, and the whole bird in
every respect but colour closely resembles the bearded Flycatcher (_Musc.
barbata_ Lath.).

Cuvier and other modern zoologists have done much in distributing the
Linnæan _Muscicapæ_ into their natural families; but as we are acquainted
with a great number from descriptions only, the arrangement is by no means
perfect.

The generic characters now given of the genus _Platyrhynchos_ (very
slightly noticed by Vieillot) will be found perfectly applicable to the
separate divisions here formed; the first comprising the _Todus
Platyrhynchos_ of Gmelin, and a few others having the bill larger and more
dilated than the second division, which includes the present species,
together with _M. barbata_, _cærulea_, _cuneata_, and no doubt many others.
The construction of the bill in all these birds will be found precisely the
same, though more or less developed in each division, and even in the
species; it thus becomes impossible to draw the line of demarcation without
refining too much on generic distinctions. Their bills, although so broad,
are by no means stout; thus enabling them to prey with greater readiness on
the _Lepidoptera_ and other large winged insects with soft bodies; while
the long stiff bristles at the base of the bill seem intended to confine
the resistance their prey would otherwise make by their wings. The
illustrious Cuvier has well observed, that the true Flycatchers have the
bill longer, narrowed, less compressed, and the tip but slightly bent.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 14

[Illustration]

PICUS rubiginosus.

_Brown Woodpecker._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum polyedrum, rectum, in apicem compressum, cuneatum, attenuatum.
    Nares basales, ovales, patulæ, plumis angustis recumbentibus tectæ.
    Lingua longissima, jaculatoria, apice sagittato. Cauda rectricibus
    validis, rigidis, acuminatis,_ 10, _intermediis duabus longioribus.
    Pedes scansorii._

Typus Genericus _Picus viridis_.

    Bill many-sided, straight, the tip resembling a compressed pointed
    wedge. Nostrils basal, oval, open, covered externally with narrow
    recumbent feathers. Tongue very long, retractile, the tip barbed.
    Tail-feathers ten, strong, rigid, acuminated; the two middle ones
    longest. Feet climbing.

Generic Type _Picus viridis_.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. suprà rubiginosus: vertice nigrescente; occipite rubro, subtùs
    fulvo, fusco-fasciato._

    Above tawny rufous. Crown blackish; hind head crimson, beneath fulvous,
    with brown transverse bands.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Woodpeckers form a most natural family of birds, and are dispersed in
every part of the known world, excepting the Polar regions. Eight species
inhabit Europe, five of which are found in our own country. The largest
however of these, the Great Black Woodpecker, is very rare; and even the
others are less frequently seen than formerly, from the gradual diminution
of our few remaining forests.

The present appears an undescribed species, and was sent from the Spanish
Main to E. Falkner, Esq. of Fairfield. I have since seen the male, which,
like many others of this genus, is distinguished by a patch of red below
the eye.

Total length, eight inches and a half; bill one inch long, blackish; front
and crown cinereous black; the hind head and nape crimson; a dusky whitish
line (beginning at the nostrils) includes the eye and ear-feathers; below
this on each side blackish, with longitudinal whitish dots, which in the
male is mixed near the bill with crimson; chin blackish, speckled with
white. The general plumage above is uniform tawny rufous brown, becoming
more olive on the rump. Under parts olivaceous yellow, crossed with
numerous close bands of blackish brown. Quills with the inner web black,
the margin pale yellow; shafts and outer web tawny; tail the same, the
shafts and outer half black, excepting the last pair, which have yellowish
shafts and dusky tips. Wings inside, pale orange. Legs and claws dusky
green.

Two or three other individuals have since fallen under my observation: the
male I saw at Mr. Leadbeater's, Animal Preserver, in Brewer-street, of
whose liberality and integrity in every way, I can bear the most
unqualified and cheerful testimony.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 15

[Illustration]

LICINIA Melite.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Antennæ graciles; clavâ elongatâ, fusiformi, compressâ. Palpi
    brevissimi, vix ultra caput producti, ad linguam compressi, squamis
    linearibus tecti, margine ciliati, articulo ultimo sub-nudo, secundo
    subæquali. Abdomen elongatum, gracile, in maribus 6-articulatum,
    articulo ultimo integro; valvis plerumque elongatis, attenuatis, apice
    acutis. Alæ anticæ (in maribus) angustæ, obtusè-attenuatæ, (in
    foeminis) latiores, obliquè rotundatæ. Alæ posticæ (in maribus)
    dilatatæ, longitudine anticis penè æquales; margine antico opaco, in
    foeminis breviores, suborbiculares._

Typus Genericus _L. Melite_. Nobis.

    Antennæ slender, the club elongated, fusiform, and compressed. Palpi
    very short, hardly projecting beyond the head, compressed on the
    tongue, covered with scales and margined externally with long hairs,
    the last joint nearly naked and almost as long as the second joint.
    Body elongated, slender, in the male with 6 joints, the last entire.
    Valves generally elongated, attenuated, their tips acutely pointed.
    Anterior wings (in the male) narrow, obtusely attenuated; in the female
    broader, and obliquely rounded. Posterior (in the male) dilated, nearly
    as long as the anterior wings, the fore margin opaque; in the female
    shorter, and nearly orbicular.

Generic Type _L. Melite_.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _L. (Mas.) alis flavis; anteriore suprà nigrâ, fasciâ obliquâ flavâ, et
    lineâ, basali transversâ, margine posteriore flavo. (Foem.) Alis suprà
    albis; anteriore apice stigmateque marginali obliquo nigris; posteriore
    suprà nigro marginatâ, subtùs (in utroque sexu) flavescente, lineis
    duabus transversis fuscis._

    Male. Wings yellow, anterior above black, with an oblique yellow band
    and transverse basal line; posterior margin yellow. Fem. Wings above
    white; anterior, with the tips and marginal oblique stigma black.
    Posterior, above margined with black; beneath (in both sexes) yellow,
    with two transverse brown lines.

    Papilio Melite. _Fab. Ent. Syst._ 160, 494. _Cramer, tab._ 153. C. D.

       *       *       *       *       *

The remarkable size of the under wings in the male insects of this genus
will distinguish them even to a casual observer as forming a natural group.
They are all natives of South America, where I discovered nine species. The
females differ most strikingly, and have hitherto been mistaken by authors
not only for distinct species, but as belonging to different genera.

Their natural situation will be among the _Pieridæ_, with whose general
habit they accord.

The female of this species resembles _Pap. Licinia_ of Cramer, except in
having a short black stigma in the middle of the anterior border of the
fore wings, pointing obliquely to the exterior margin. Cramer's insect,
however, is the female of another undescribed species in my cabinet.

The under side of the posterior wings in both sexes is the same.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 16

[Illustration]

ISMENE Oedipodea.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Antennæ cylindraceæ, juxta medium crassissimæ, versus apicem subulatæ,
    articulis numerosis brevissimis pene detectis. Palpi crassi squamosi,
    fronte obtusâ, lateribus compressis, marginibus exterioribus ciliatis,
    articulo ultimo nudo, producto, subhorizontali, lineari, compresso.
    Oculi (in maribus) magni. Corpus (in maribus) 7-articulatum, articulo
    ultimo suprà appendice transverso truncato subemarginato terminante,
    subtùs duobus uncis recurvis obtusis, fasciculo tectis; articulo 1mo et
    ultimo brevissimis: (in foeminis) articulo ultimo producto,
    subacuminato._

    Antennæ cylindrical, thickest near the middle, the terminal half
    subulate; articulations numerous, very short, hardly perceptible. Palpi
    thick, scaly; frontal side obtuse; lateral sides compressed; the
    margins externally fringed with hair; the last joint naked, lengthened,
    nearly horizontal, linear, compressed. Eyes (in the male) very large.
    Body (in the male) of seven joints, the last with a transverse,
    slightly emarginate, truncate appendage above; and two obtuse recurved
    hooks below, concealed by a tuft of hair; the first and last segment
    shortest. Body in the female with the last joint lengthened and
    pointed.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _I. alis suprà fuscis, basi nitidè-cæruleâ, posticis aurantio
    marginatis, subtùs rufo-fusco nebulosis, basi puncto nigro: anticis (in
    maribus) basi aurantiis, maculâ nigrâ tomentosâ._

    Wings above fuscous, shining blue at their base; posterior margined
    with orange; beneath clouded with rufous and brown, and a black dot at
    the base of the posterior wings. Anterior wings (in the male) orange at
    the base, and a large velvet-like spot of black.

       *       *       *       *       *

The resplendent and changeable azure blue which ornaments the body and part
of the wings in this very singular insect, can be but ill expressed in the
figure. It is one of the many new and interesting subjects in entomology
discovered in Java by Dr. Horsfield; and by his kindness and liberality I
am enabled to add the figures of the caterpillar and chrysalis, which were
copied out of a fine series of drawings made in Java under his own eye:
they do not appear to differ in their formation from others of this family,
although the perfect insect possesses such striking and peculiar generic
characters; one of the many facts which prove the impossibility of making
the _Larvæ_ a primary consideration in forming the genera of Lepidoptera.

This is a rare insect, I have therefore been obliged to leave the generic
character imperfect, as the dissection of the mouth, &c. would destroy the
specimen. The posterior margin in the wings of the male is sinuated; in the
female it is nearly straight; the underside of the wings in both sexes is
the same; the anterior pair reddish-brown, paler in the middle; the tip and
posterior margin whitish: inferior wings reddish-orange towards the inner
margin, with an obsolete central curved band of the same, and a black dot
at the base of the inferior wings. The head, palpi, and thorax are margined
with orange, less conspicuous in the female.

Our knowledge of the genus _Hesperia_ of Latreille (under which the present
insect would come) is little more than what was known of _Scarabæus_ twenty
years ago; nor has Fabricius even noticed one half of the species figured
by Cramer. The larva feeds on

GÆRTNERA _Javensis_

    _Foliis ovatis, obtusè-acuminatis, caule volubili ramosissimo, ramulis
    diffusis, deflexis,_

a new species, discovered in Java by Dr. Horsfield, who has distinguished
it by the above specific character. He informs me the natives give it the
name of _Kakas-rambat_, which last word signifies twining or trailing. In
the inflorescence and fruit it differs not from _G. racemosa_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 17

[Illustration]

BULIMUS zonatus.

_Zoned Bulimus._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 4.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _B. testâ lævi conicâ; spiræ anfractibus quinque; ultimo aliquantulum
    distorto; albis duabus fasciis ferrugineis inæqualibus; anfractu basali
    rufo duabus albis fasciis; aperturâ albâ._

    Shell smooth, conic, of five volutions, the last somewhat distorted;
    white, with two unequal ferrugineous bands; body whirl rufous, with two
    white bands. Aperture white.

       *       *       *       *       *

A small though very elegant shell, seldom seen in Collections; nor do I
find such a description of it as will identify the species. One figured by
Martini, at _tab._ 134, _fig._ 1215, comes near it, but differs
sufficiently for a specific distinction.

Its precise locality is unknown: a fine specimen exists in my father's
collection, who thinks it came from the East Indies; and this is the only
one I have yet seen.

The aperture is more round than ovate, and is less than one half the total
length of the shell; the outer lip much reflected, and the transverse bands
on the spiral whirls nearly obsolete.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 18

[Illustration]

MITRA contracta.

_Contracted Mitre_--upper figure.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--_Pl._ 23.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. (Div. 3.) testâ sublævi; margine superiore anfractuum prominente,
    anfractu basali in medio contracto_

    Shell nearly smooth; upper margin of the volutions prominent; basal
    whorl contracted in the middle.

       *       *       *       *       *

An undescribed species, for the loan of which I am indebted to Mr. G.
Humphrey, of Leicester-street, whose knowledge as a collector, and
integrity as a dealer, have gained him respect and confidence through a
long life: and it is no less singular than true, that many genera of modern
authors, now universally adopted, were formed by him near twenty-five years
ago (under different names) in the _Museum Calonianum_, printed in 1797.

Shell one inch and a half long, and smooth; the base and spire with faint
remote grooves; the spiral whorls are scarcely convex, and their upper
margins prominent. Outer lip thick, effuse, slightly reflected below, and
contracted above. Pillar five-plaited; colour yellowish white, with two or
three waved longitudinal bands of orange, and a few others broad and remote
on the spire. A finer specimen I have since seen with Mr. Humphrey's was
one inch three quarters long, the ground-colour pure white, the aperture
orange, and the bands rich orange-chesnut.

       *       *       *       *       *

MITRA australis.

_New Holland Mitre._

       *       *       *       *       *

    _M. (Div. 2) testâ lævissimâ; spirâ elongatâ; anfractibus basi
    castaneo-fuscis; fasciâ albâ in basali anfractu, centrali. Columellâ
    4-plicatâ._

    Shell very smooth. Spire elongated, chesnut-brown; base of the spiral
    volutions with a whitish band, which is central on the basal whorl.
    Pillar four-plaited.

       *       *       *       *       *

Dead shells of this new Mitre were received from Van Dieman's Land by Mr.
Humphrey: it is perfectly destitute of striæ, excepting a few faint ones at
the base: the mouth, which is smooth inside, appeared in the few specimens
he had, to be unformed; it is, however, sufficiently distinct from any
other.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 19

[Illustration]

TINAMUS Tataupa, _var._

_Tataupa Tinamou._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum mediocre, depressum, latius quam altum, apice rotundato
    obtuso; culmine lato, excelso. Nares laterales, mediæ, ovatæ, patulæ,
    apertæ. Pedes tetradactyli, fissi; halluce brevissimo, insistente.
    Cauda nulla, aut brevissima, plumis uropygii obtecta. Alæ breves._
    Temminck, vol. iii. p. 747.

Typus Genericus _T. rufescens_. Latham.

    Bill moderate, depressed, broader than high, tip obtuse, back broad.
    Nostrils lateral, medial, ovate, expanded and open. Feet four-toed,
    cleft; hind toe very short. Tail none or very short, concealed by the
    rump-feathers. Wings short.

Generic Type _T. rufescens_. Latham.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _T. corpore suprà fusco-rufo, immaculato; capite et collo fusco-nigro;
    mento albo; gulâ, collo, pectoreque cinereis; corpore infrà albescente;
    uropygio lateribusque posticis rufis aut nigris, pennis
    albo-marginatis._

    Tinamou with the body above dusky-rufous, immaculate. Head and neck
    dusky-black; chin white; throat, neck and breast, cinereous; body
    beneath whitish; vent and flanks rufous or black, the feathers margined
    with white.

    Tinamus Tataupa. _Temminck Pig. et Gall._ iii. _p._ 590 _et_ 752. _Gen.
    Zool. vol._ xi. _part_ 2. _p._ 416.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Tinamous are entirely confined to the new world, where they seem to
hold the same scale in creation which the Partridges do in the old
continent. Our knowledge of these singular birds has been much increased by
the writings of Professor Temminck, who has described twelve species. The
present bird is nearly the smallest of its family: I found it only once in
the interior of Bahia in Brazil, where it must be very rare, or frequent to
particular districts only. Though differing in some respects from the
description of Temminck, I am inclined to consider it merely as a variety.

Total length (excepting the legs) eight inches and a quarter. The bill is
one inch one line long from the gape, and, with the irides, is red. The
head and neck above blackish cinereous; the crown much darker and tinged
with brown, the rest of the upper plumage uniform reddish-brown; the edges
of the wing-covers tinged with pale cinereous; the spurious wings and
quills greyish-brown; the chin is white, changing on the throat, neck,
breast and their sides to a pale lead-colour, which, on the body, again
becomes white; the feathers on the flanks are blackish or rufous,
beautifully margined all round by white, with another internal mark of the
same kind; those on the vent are similarly marked, but on a pale rufous
ground; the thighs are rufous-white; the under tail-covers rufous, marked
by narrow undulated concentric lines of black, the ends whitish. The length
of the legs (from the knee to the base of the middle toe) one inch two
lines, and from that to the tip of the claw one inch. Legs blueish-purple.
Hind toe very short, and elevated above the ground.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 20

[Illustration]

PICUS Braziliensis.

_Brazilian Woodpecker._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 14.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. olivaceus, subtùs fulvus, nigrescente-fasciatus; capite
    subcristato, suprà rubro, utrinque lineis olivaceis, fulvis, et
    rubris._

    Olive Woodpecker: beneath fulvous, with transverse blackish bands. Head
    sub-crested, above red, the sides with olive, yellow, and red streaks.

    P. Braziliensis, Swains. in Wern. Trans. 3. p. 291.

       *       *       *       *       *

A new species of this already extensive family, inhabiting the interior of
Brazil in the province of Bahia, where I met with it but once. It was, I
believe, first described in a paper I sent to the Wernerian Society some
time ago: the figure is less than the natural size.

Total length nine inches. Bill not quite an inch, and blackish. Irides
yellow. Head slightly crested; the whole upper part crimson. Orbits and
cheeks olive-brown; beneath this a narrow line of tawny-yellow begins at
the nostrils and passes down the sides of the neck; next this is a similar
stripe crimson on the jaws and olive beyond, leaving the chin and throat in
front yellowish; the plumage above is tawny-olive. Quills black, within
edged with rufous: all the under parts tawny-yellow, transversely banded
with blackish lines; inner wing-covers yellowish. Tail three inches and a
half long, the feathers black, unspotted, and tinged at their base with
olive. Feet and claws lead-colour. The neck is very slender. The only one I
have yet seen was a male.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 21

[Illustration]

PROCNIAS hirundacea.

_Swallow Fruit-eater._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum breve, trigonum, basi latissimum, dilatatum, versus apicem
    contractum: mandibulis emarginatis; marginibus intraflexis; mandibulâ
    superiore, tomiis curvatis, carinatis; inferiore rectâ, breviore. Nares
    latæ, basales, subnudæ; aperturis orbiculatis, approximantibus, apicem
    quam malam magis appropinquantibus. Lingua brevissima, angusta. Rictus
    amplissimi infra oculos aperientes. Pedes insidentes. Alæ mediocres._

Typus Genericus _Ampelis carunculata_. Latham.

    Bill short, triangular, base very broad, dilated, towards the end
    contracted; both mandibles notched, the margins bent inward; upper
    mandible slightly curved and carinated above; lower mandible straight
    and shortest. Nostrils broad, basal, nearly naked, the aperture much
    nearer the tip than the gape of the bill. Tongue very short, narrow.
    Mouth very large, opening beneath the eye. Feet formed for perching.
    Wings moderate.

Generic Type _Carunculated Chatterer_. Latham.

    OBS. MM. Temminck and Lagier had just before us, and without our
    knowledge, published this bird under the name of Procnias Ventralis,
    (Pl. 5.) by which name in right of priority it should stand in the
    system.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. (in maribus) cærulea; fronte, jugulo, temporibusque nigris; corpore
    subtùs in medio albo, lateribus striis transversis nigrescentibus._

    _(Foem.) viridis; mento temporibusque griseis; corpore infrà
    flavescente, striis obscurè-viridibus transversis._

    (Male) blue; front, throat, and temples black; middle of the body
    beneath white, the sides with blackish transverse striæ.

    (Female) green; chin and temples grey; body beneath yellowish,
    transversely striated with dusky-green.

       *       *       *       *       *

The birds of this genus are remarkable for the enormous width of their
mouths, which in some species exceeds that of the Swallow family, thus
enabling them with ease to swallow the large berries of the _Melastomæ_ and
other tropical shrubs, on which they alone subsist; not on insects, as
Cuvier asserts. Although in the construction of their bills they perfectly
resemble the Swallows, their wings are not formed for long or rapid flight;
and their feet are much stronger, and calculated for searching among
branches for their food, in which situations I have frequently seen them.
The term "_pedes ambulatorii_," or walking-feet, is applied too generally,
and should be confined to the gallinaceous and Pigeon tribes.

This genus was formed by Count Hoffmansegg, and the present is the smallest
species known: our figure is of the male bird. Total length about five
inches and a half. The bill from the angle to the tip measures seven lines;
but from the nostrils only three lines and a half. The middle of the body,
vent, and under tail-covers in the male are pure white; in the female
yellowish, with a line of olive-green down the middle of each shaft; the
quills, wing-covers, and tail-feathers are black, margined in the male with
blue, and in the female with green: the tail is slightly forked. The
nostrils round and bare; the base of the bill has a few weak setaceous
hairs. The legs resemble the true Chatterers, having the outer toe rather
longer than the inner, and attached to the base of the middle.

This is a scarce bird, apparently not hitherto described; I met with it
only three times in Bahia; but it appears more frequent in the southern
provinces of Brazil, specimens having been sent me from Minas Geralis and
Rio de Janeiro.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 22

[Illustration]

TERIAS Elvina.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Antennæ breves, clavâ subtruncatâ, compressâ. Palpi brevissimi
    curvati, vix ultra caput producti, ad linguam compressi, densis squamis
    imbricatis in totum tecti apice nudo. Abdomen elongatum, gracile, in
    maribus 6-articulatum, articulo ultimo duobus uncis incurvatis
    approximantibus; valvis latis, incrassatis, truncatis, aduncis. Alæ
    utroque sexu similes; latæ, obtusæ, rotundatæ, integerrimæ._

Typus Genericus _Papilio Hecabe_. Linnæus.

    Antennæ short, the club somewhat truncate and compressed. Palpi very
    short, curved, hardly projecting beyond the head, closely compressed on
    the tongue, entirely covered with close imbricate scales, the tip
    naked. Body elongated, slender, in the male six-jointed, the last with
    two approximating incurved hooks; valves broad, thickened, truncate,
    and hooked. Wings in both sexes alike, broad, obtuse, rounded, very
    entire.

Generic Type _Papilio Hecabe_. Linnæus.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _T. alis subdiaphanis, sulphureis, subtùs immaculatis. Anticis suprà
    apice nigris, posticis (in maribus) margine antico basi gibbosis. Foem.
    ----?_

    Wings sub-diaphanous, pale sulphur; beneath immaculate. Anterior, above
    with a black marginal tip; posterior (in the male) with the fore-margin
    gibbous at the base. Female ----?

    Pieris Elvina. _Godart in Encycl. Method, p._ 158. _no._ 67.

       *       *       *       *       *

This is one of the smallest of Butterflies, and from the extreme delicacy
of its form seems to sanction with truth the poetic idea of living "but for
a day." It is found in Brazil, inhabiting only the deepest forests, as if
fearful its little life would be endangered by the scorching rays of a
tropical sun: in these sombre shades it is seen to fly slowly and feebly
near those spots where a ray of the sun has partially entered the thick
canopy of foliage above, which is frequently fifty or sixty feet from the
ground.

The genus I have now placed it in belongs to the _Coliadæ_, and appears to
connect that family with the _Pieridæ_: their distinctions are obviously
marked and very constant in all the species I have yet seen, and which are
tropical: of these, seven I discovered in Brazil; three or four more are
natives of the southern extremity of North America; and Dr. Horsfield has
four or five from Java. I know of none from Africa. Their size in general
is very small.

I think this species is the _Pieris Elvina_ of Godart; although the insect
he mentions as the female is in reality that of his _Pieris Neda_. The true
female I have never seen; I suspect it will want the gibbous curve on the
hinder wings of the male, which sex is, indeed, not common, and is
generally much smaller, and sometimes half the size only, of the figure.

_Papilio Nicippe_ of Cramer (tab. 210. fig. C. D.) strictly belongs to this
genus, though placed in that of _Colias_ by Godart, as well as his _Pieris
Agave_, _Hecabe_, and doubtless many others not now before me.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 23

[Illustration]

MITRA vittata.

_Ribbon Mitre._

       *       *       *       *       *

CHARACTER GENERICUS.

    _Testa inæqualiter fusiformis, spirâ productâ attenuatâ; labio
    exteriore intùs edentato. Columella plicata_.

DIVISIONES.

      I. _Apertura angusta, linearis, suprà angulata, infrà subcontracta._

            _Mitræ vulpecula, plicata, &c._

        OBS. _Testa plerumque longitudinaliter plicata, æqualiter
        fusiformis, labio exteriore lævi leviter undulato, interiore ad
        apicem intrà crassato; gulâ striatâ._

     II. _Apertura suprà acuminata, infrà angusta, extrinsecus curvata._

            _Voluta mitra-abbatis._ Chemnitz, &c.

        OBS. _Testa plerumque spirâ elongatâ, aperturâ ad basin angustatâ,
        siphone superiore parvo aut nullo._

    III. _Apertura suprà acuminata, extrinsecus recta, infrà rotundata,
    dilatata, vel effusa._

            _Mitræ papalis, episcopalis, &c._

        OBS. _Testâ plerumque lævi ad basin obtusâ, truncatâ, labio
        exteriore margine crenato, gulâ lævi._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    Shell unequally fusiform; spire lengthened, attenuated; outer lip
    simple not toothed within. Columella plaited.

DIVISIONS.

      I. Aperture narrow, linear, above angulated, below a little
    contracted.

            _Mitræ vulpecula, plicata, &c._

        OBS. Shell generally longitudinally plaited, equally fusiform;
        outer lip smooth, slightly waved; top of the inner lip much
        thickened within; throat striated.

     II. Aperture above pointed, below narrowed, externally curved.

            _Voluta mitra-abbatis._ Chemnitz, &c.

        OBS. Shell generally with an elongated spire, the aperture below
        narrowed; upper syphon or channel small or wanting.

    III. Aperture above pointed, externally straight, below rounded,
    widened or effuse.

            _Mitræ papalis, episcopalis, &c._

        OBS. Shell generally smooth, the base thick and truncated; margin
        of the outer lip crenated; throat smooth. The smaller shells of
        this division connect the genera _Mitra_ and _Colombella_
        (Lamarck).

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. testâ angustâ, basi cancellatâ; spirâ plicis carinatis;
    interstitiis sulcis transversis confertis; columellâ 4-plicatâ; gulâ 4
    aut 5 striis remotis._

    Shell narrow, base cancellated. Spire with carinated plaits, the
    interstices with slender, crowded, transverse grooves. Pillar of four
    plaits; throat with four to five remote striæ.

       *       *       *       *       *

This superb shell is figured from a matchless specimen brought home by that
illustrious and lamented patron of science, the late Sir J. Banks, from the
Pacific Ocean: it is now, together with his entire collection of shells and
insects, in the Museum of the Linnæan Society.

It is of great rarity, and the present specimen far exceeds in size any I
have yet seen. A very perfect one exists in my father's collection which
measures only two inches one line long: it differs slightly in wanting the
lower white band and its inferior border: there is also an additional small
plait between the second and third, a variation not uncommon in the Linnæan
Volutes, and which lessens the importance of this character as a specific
distinction.

It is unfigured, and I believe undescribed, unless perhaps in Solander's
MSS. In its small state it may have been overlooked as one of the numerous
varieties of _M. vulpecula_; but the sharp angulated plaitings, the
cancellated base, and the numerous faintly-grooved lines on the spire, as
well as the more slender and lengthened form, will at once distinguish it:
its colours also are very striking and dissimilar.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 24

[Illustration]

CONOELIX.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa coniformis; spira brevissima; labium exterius simplex; columella
    plicata; apertura linearis, angusta, spirâ longior._

Typus Genericus _Conoelix lineatus_. Nobis.

    Shell coniform. Spire very short. Outer lip simple. Columella or pillar
    plaited. Aperture linear, narrow, longer than the spire.

Generic Type _Conoelix lineatus_.

       *       *       *       *       *

CONOELIX marmoratus.

_Marbled Conoelix--upper figures._

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. testâ striis transversis, remotis, capillaribus; spirâ subproductâ,
    acuminatâ; anfractibus in medio lineâ sulcatâ; labio exteriore
    crenato._

    Shell with remote capillary transverse striæ. Spire slightly produced,
    acuminated; the whorls with a central indented line. Outer lip
    crenated.

       *       *       *       *       *

The rare little shells composing the group I have now formed into the genus
_Conoelix_, seem to have escaped the observation of modern systematic
writers. They form a beautifully defined link connecting the Cones with the
Volutes, strictly so termed, and their generic characters seem to be very
constant and clear. The present species varies more or less in the
regularity of its tessellated markings. The inside of the mouth is brown,
and the pillar has five plaits. Several specimens are in the Banksian
Cabinet, from the Pelew Islands. The figures are enlarged to one half more
than the natural size.

       *       *       *       *       *

CONOELIX lineatus.

_Lineated Conoelix--middle figures._

    _C. testâ lævi, albescente, lineis transversis, fulvis, capillaribus;
    spirâ depressâ, apice prominulo; columellâ 6-plicatâ._

    Shell smooth, whitish, with transverse capillary fulvous lines. Spire
    depressed, the apex prominent. Pillar six-plaited.

Figured of the natural size. The volutions of the spire are somewhat
convex; the coloured lines are not indented. Inhabits the South Seas?

       *       *       *       *       *

CONOELIX punctatus.

_Punctured Conoelix--lower figures._

    _C. testâ fulvo-albescente, striis transversis capillaribus, intrà
    minutè punctatis; spirâ brevi; columellâ 5-plicatâ._

    Shell cream-colour, with capillary transverse striæ, which are minutely
    punctured. Spire short. Pillar five-plaited.

       *       *       *       *       *

Inhabits Otaheite: from the Banksian Collection. The figures are on the
same scale as _C. marmoratus_.

These are the only three species which I have myself seen. Another is
figured in _Chemnitz_ x. _tab._.150. _fig._ 1415 and 6. Mr. Humfreys
informs me he has seen at different times five or six others, all of a
small size.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 25

[Illustration]

PROCNIAS melanocephalus.

_Black-headed Berry-eater._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 21.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. oliva-viridis, subtus flavescens, striis fuscis transversis, capite
    omnino nigro._

    Olive-green, beneath yellowish, with dusky transverse striæ. Head
    entirely black.

       *       *       *       *       *

Another new and very rare bird of this singular genus, inhabiting, like all
the other species, the tropical regions of America. I met with it in Brazil
but twice in the forests of Pitanga, not far distant from Bahia; and my
hunters were at a loss for its name, never having seen it before: the eyes
in the fresh bird are of a beautiful crimson.

Its total length is nine inches and a quarter; the bill is nine lines from
the gape to the tip, and four from the base of the nostrils, at which part
the bill is not so proportionably broad as in the Swallow Berryeater (pl.
21.): the colour blueish-black, paler at the base: the whole head, sides,
chin, and part of the throat are black, the feathers of the crown a little
lengthened and pointed, giving a slight appearance of a crest: the wings
and tail are dusky-black on the inner shafts and green on the outer; the
whole of the upper plumage olive-green, and of the under pale
greenish-yellow crossed with short dusky transverse lines from the breast
downwards; under wing and tail-covers the same. Tail four inches from the
base, slightly divaricated, and of twelve feathers. Wings four inches and a
half, the first quill very short, the third, fourth and fifth of equal
length. Legs black.

This was a male bird: the female I have not seen.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 26

[Illustration]

ALCEDO azurea.

_Azure Kingsfisher._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum longissimum, rectum, attenuatum, altius quam latius, in totum
    compressum, mandibulis carinatis; marginibus lateralibus leviter
    inflexis. Nares basales, membrana tectæ, apertura nuda, lineari,
    obliqua; cauda plerumque brevissima. Pedes gressorii, digito antico
    interiore minimo aut nullo._

Typus Genericus _Alcedo ispida_. Linn.

    Bill very long, straight and attenuated, higher than broad, compressed
    the whole length, both mandibles carinated, the margins slightly bent
    inwards. Nostrils basal, covered by a membrane; the aperture linear,
    oblique, and naked. Tail mostly very short. Feet gressorial, inner
    fore-toe small or wanting.

Generic Type _Common Kingsfisher_. Lath. Bewick, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. Corpore suprà, capitis lateribus colloque nitido cyaneis; subtus
    rufis; mento gulaque albescentibus, alis nigricantibus; digito antico
    interiore nullo._

    Body above, sides of the head and neck shining mazarine blue; beneath
    rufous; chin and throat whitish; wings blackish; inner fore-toe
    wanting.

      Alcedo azurea. Azure Kingsfisher. _Lath. Synop. Suppl._ ii. _p._ 372.
                     _Lewin's Birds of New Holland_, _fasc._ i. _pl._ 1.

    Alcedo Tribrachys. Tridigitated Kingsfisher. _Shaw in Gen. Zool._ viii.
    1. 105.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Kingsfishers have such a general similarity of form, that the most
casual observer is able to distinguish them: a very long straight bill,
short wings, and (in general) a shorter tail with very small legs, are the
prominent distinctions of such as are usually seen; and the richness of
plumage that generally pervades them cannot be better exemplified than in
our own beautiful species, the common Kingsfisher, not unfrequent in many
parts of England.

These birds, hitherto placed in systems under one genus, nevertheless
contain two distinct groups differing materially in the construction of
that primary organ of supporting life, the bill; and in their physical
distribution, or the countries they respectively inhabit, two most
important considerations in the natural arrangement of animals under the
present elevated views of the philosophic zoologist, with whom the study of
Nature consists no longer in the study of words, the retention of names, or
even the accurate description of species.

These considerations have induced me to form these birds into two genera,
the definitions of which are now given: those retained under the old genus
of _Alcedo_ appear to be scattered (though sparingly) in every part of the
old and the new world. Their bills seem formed for swallowing their food
more in an entire state, similar to the Herons. In each of these genera one
species exists with only three toes, a remarkable circumstance, which in an
artificial system would endanger their being united in a separate genus;
but which, from the remarkable smallness of the inner toe in all the other
species, cannot I apprehend point out any peculiarity either in their habit
or economy: and this opinion I find is likewise entertained by Professor
Temminck.

Total length seven inches and a quarter. Bill from the gape two inches one
line, the upper mandible rather longest, and both with a slight appearance
of a notch; the colour black. All the upper plumage, as well as the sides
of the head, ears, and stripe beyond, fine ultramarine blue, more vivid on
the rump and tail-covers, and duller on the tail, wing-covers, and lesser
quill-margins; front blackish; from the nostrils to the eye a whitish line,
and from the ears on each side the neck a whitish stripe, which almost
forms a collar round the nape. Quill-feathers sooty black. All the under
parts orange ferrugineous; throat and belly nearly white. Tail very short,
nearly hid by the upper covers. Feet red, claws black. The inner fore-toe
wanting, but a slight rudiment of it exists in my specimen.

Since writing the above, I find this bird is figured and described in a
beautiful work commenced by Lewin on the birds of New Holland, which Mr.
Brown, the learned possessor of the Banksian library, pointed out to me. I
believe but a few copies are known. Lewin observes, "it inhabits heads of
rivers, visiting dead trees, from the branches of which it darts on its
prey in the water beneath, and is sometimes completely immersed by the
velocity of its descent."

Dr. Latham has very well described it, but quite overlooked the
construction of the feet.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 27

[Illustration]

HALCYON collaris.

_Collared Crabeater._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum longissimum, rectum, validum, ad basin latius quam altius,
    lateribus tetragonis; mandibula superiore rectissima, ad basin
    rotundata; inferiore carinata, recurvata, margine superioris inferiorem
    obtegente. Nares basales, membrana tectæ, apertura nuda, lineari
    obliqua. Cauda plerumque mediocris. Pedes gressorii, digito antico
    interiore minimo aut nullo._

Typus Genericus _Alcedo Senegalensis_. Linn.

    Bill very long, straight, thick, the base broader than high; the sides
    tetragonal; upper mandible very straight, the base rounded; under
    mandible beneath carinated and recurved, the margins covered by those
    of the upper. Nostrils basal, covered by a membrane, the aperture
    naked, linear and oblique. Tail mostly moderate. Feet gressorial:
    interior fore-toe small or wanting.

Generic Type _Crabeating Kingsfisher_. Latham.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _H. viridi-cærulea; corpore subtus, lunulaque cerviculi albis._

    Greenish-blue. Body beneath and nuchal collar white.

    Alcedo collaris. _Latham Index Ornith._ i. 250.

    Sacred Kingsfisher, _Var._ D. _Latham Syn._ ii. _p._ 623.

    Collared Kingsfisher. _Gen. Zool._ viii. i. _p._ 80.

       *       *       *       *       *

Referring to the observations we have already made on Kingsfishers
generally, it will be only necessary to observe, that the species now
formed into the genus _Halcyon_ appear entirely excluded from the American
continent: their bills are much stronger, thicker, and more rounded than
the genuine Kingsfishers, and the under mandible beneath invariably
carinated and curving upwards. One of them (the _Alcedo Senegalensis_ of
Latham) is known to feed on crabs, the breaking and disjointing of which
this structure seems admirably calculated to accomplish; and although some
authors mention insects also as their food, I apprehend it is only in the
absence of other larger prey more suited to the construction of their
bills.

Total length eight inches and a half. Bill two inches three lines from the
gape, and one inch three quarters from the nostrils; upper mandible and
margin and lip of the lower, black, the rest yellowish-white. The general
plumage above is pale and changeable greenish-blue, the green predominating
on the scapulars, head and tail; the upper part of the neck is crossed by a
white collar, separated from the green of the head by a narrow margin of
black, which passes on the ear-feathers round the nape; a narrow whitish
line runs from the nostrils to the eyebrows, and another very short one is
beneath the eye; the whole of the under plumage white. Quills black edged
with blue, the second, third and fourth equal and longest. Wings four
inches and a quarter. Tail even, near three inches long, above blue-green,
beneath black. Feet dusky; middle and outer claws much longer than the leg.

Inhabits Java and other parts of India, and is I believe unfigured. The
line at the bottom of the plate is on the scale of an inch.

Since writing the above, Temminck's new edition of the _Manuel
d'Ornithologie_ has just reached me, in which I perceive he has continued
the birds of this genus under that of _Alcedo_, observing that their
plumage is always shining, and that he can find no characters for their
geographic distribution: yet, notwithstanding the opinion of this eminent
ornithologist, a close attention will I believe prove, first, that no
species of Linnæan _Alcedo_ bearing the characters of _Halcyon_ have yet
been discovered as natives of America; and secondly, that species of
genuine _Alcedo_ will be found with plumage quite devoid of any bright or
shining colours. One or two exist in my own cabinet, but to which I cannot
now refer.

The situation of _Halcyon_ will be between _Alcedo_ and _Dacelo_; from the
last of which it is distinguished by its perfectly straight, acute, and
entire upper mandible, which, on the contrary, in _Dacelo_ is notched, the
tip bent and obtuse.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 28

[Illustration]

HESPERIA Haworthiana.

_Haworth's Hesperia._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Antennæ mediocres vel elongatæ, rectæ, graciles; clava subterminali,
    brevi, crassata, cylindracea; unco abrupto, brevi, acuminato. Palpi in
    fronte compressi, incurvati, lateribus convexis vel angulatis, articulo
    ultimo erecto, verticali. Alæ (sedentes) erectæ._

DIVISIONES.

      I. _Palpi lati, in fronte compressissimi. Antennæ breves, clava
    crassissima._

     II. _Palpi pene quadrati, crassissimi. Antennæ elongatæ._

    III. _Palpi articulo ultimo longiore, gracile. Antennæ mediocres._

Typus Genericus _Hesperia Comma_ Auctorum.

    Antennæ moderate or elongated, straight, slender, the club nearly
    terminal, short, thick, cylindric, ending in an abrupt, short and
    pointed hook. Palpi compressed, incurved in front of the head, the
    sides convex or angular; the last joint erect, pointing vertically.
    Wings when at rest erect.

DIVISIONS.

      I. Palpi broad, very compressed in front. Antennæ short, the club
    very thick.

     II. Palpi nearly square, very thick. Antennæ elongated.

    III. Palpi with the last joint lengthened, slender. Antennæ moderate.

Generic Type _Hesperia Comma_ of Authors.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _Hesp. (Div. 2.) alis suprà nigrescente-fuscis, basi nitido-cæruleis,
    anticis fascia mediali hyalina, posticis subtus fuscis, lineis duabus
    longitudinalibus viridi-flavis; pedibus fusco-aurantiis._

    Hesperia (Div. 2.). Wings above blackish-brown, the base shining blue;
    anterior with a medial hyaline band; posterior beneath brown, with two
    longitudinal yellow-green lines. Legs brownish-orange.

       *       *       *       *       *

The celebrated Latreille, the father of modern Entomology, has well
observed, that the immense number of insects crowded together in the genus
_Hesperia_ contain many natural genera, but which the paucity of species
generally found in cabinets prevents us from discriminating. Having for a
long time paid attention to this family, and possessing near 300 species in
my own cabinet, I have had the opportunity of attempting their elucidation;
and the above generic character is applied to those insects only which I
propose considering genuine species of the genus _Hesperia_, and which will
comprise near 170 species.

I have named this new, undescribed and very rare insect, in honour of my
esteemed friend A. H. Haworth, Esq. F.L.S., &c., well known by the benefits
his writings have conferred on the sister sciences of entomology and
botany. The only two insects I ever saw of this species I captured in the
southern part of Brazil.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 29

[Illustration]

MITRA cancellata.

_Basket Mitre_--upper figure.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 23.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. (Div. 2.) testa fusiformi, cancellata; striis longitudinalibus
    incrassatis, spira aperturaque æqualibus; columella 5-plicata; spira
    sublævi._

    Shell fusiform, cancellated, the longitudinal striæ thickened; spire
    and aperture of equal length; pillar five-plaited; spire nearly smooth.

       *       *       *       *       *

Another undescribed species of this elegant family, and of great rarity, in
the private collection of Mr. G. Humfreys. The whole of the body whorl and
commencement of the spire is cancellated. The longitudinal striæ are
crowded, thickened, and slightly elevated, giving a crenated appearance to
the suture: the transverse striæ slender, and filling up the interstices.
The spire is nearly smooth and a little bent: the ground colour very light
orange, with three darker interrupted bands on the body: whorl separated by
two slender lines of the same colour; the spiral whorls have only two bands
and a line between; the upper margins slightly compressed on the suture;
the outer lip within smooth.

       *       *       *       *       *

MITRA rigida.

_Ribbed Mitre__--middle figures._

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. testa costis longitudinalibus, elevatis, linearibus, integris,
    interstitiis lævibus ad basin granulatis; spira producta; columella
    4-plicata; apertura brevi._

    Shell with elevated, longitudinal, obtuse, entire ribs, the interstices
    smooth, the base granulated; spire lengthened; pillar four-plaited;
    aperture short.

       *       *       *       *       *

Equally rare, and from the same collection as the preceding. In habit it
approaches nearest to _M. exasperata_ of Chemnitz, but has not the ribs
angulated or their interstices striated, and is much more narrowed at the
base than in that shell, which I have seen: the outer lip is also smooth;
the inside strongly striated. This shell was formerly in the collection of
Mr. Keate, the elegant author of the "Sketches from Nature."

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 30

[Illustration]

ACHATINA marginata.

_Marginated Achatina._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa ovata, vel oblongo-ovata, spira elevata, apertura subovale.
    Columella lævis, simplex, ad apicem truncata; labium externum tenue,
    internum inflexum integrum; umbilicus nullus._

Typus Genericus _Bulla Achatina_. Linn.

    Shell ovate, or oblong-ovate; spire elevated; mouth nearly oval.
    Columella smooth, simple, truncated. Outer lip thin; inner lip entirely
    inflexed. Umbilicus none.

Generic Type _Bulla Achatina_. Linn.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. testa ovato-oblonga, strigis inæqualibus ferrugineis; spira ad
    apicem obtusa, 5-voluta; sutura depressa linea sulcata marginali._

    Shell ovate-oblong, with irregular ferrugineous stripes; spire obtuse
    at the top, of five volutions; the suture depressed, with a marginal
    indented line.

    _Lister_ 579. _fig._ 34. _Gualt. pl._ 45. B. _Knorr_, _vol._ iv. _tab._
    24. 1. (badly coloured.)

       *       *       *       *       *

The largest shells hitherto discovered as inhabiting the dry land belong to
this genus, instituted by the celebrated Lamarck, but still divided by the
strict followers of Linnæus between the _Bullæ_ and _Helices_, with a
singular infelicity of even artificial arrangement. The simple characters
peculiar in a greater or less degree to all, will readily distinguish them;
and I apprehend most of the species of the first division (which includes
the present) will be found to inhabit only the African continent, while
_Bulla virginea_ and the smaller shells placed in the second division are
found principally in the new world; where also two or three gigantic
species of _Bulimus_ occupy the place of the larger African _Achatinæ_.

Of these, the shell now figured is one of the rarest, and has hitherto been
overlooked as a variety of the Linnæan _Bulla Achatina_; the colour of both
is subject to much variation; but this will be found at best a most
indecisive and vague character for specific distinction when unaccompanied
by others more important and connected with the formation of shells. I have
therefore not hesitated in making this a distinct species, from having had
the means of examining at different times near twenty specimens, all of
which presented the following characters. Spire of five whorls, the last or
terminal one very small and flattened; the apex obtuse; the suture
depressed, as if flattened on the shell, and margined by one or sometimes
two indented lines, parallel, and at the top of each whorl. In the colour
of its mouth it varies in sometimes having a tinge of rose-colour at the
base and top of the spire, but the mouth is more generally white. The body
whorl is more or less ventricose; the outer lip is a little reflected, and
the whole shell, when full grown, much thicker and heavier than any of the
other species. The epidermis is yellowish-brown, beneath which the shell is
nearly white, beautifully marked with broad remote stripes of chesnut, with
others more slender (and sometimes broken into spots) between. I have
another specimen which agrees tolerably with Lister's figure in being more
than usually ventricose, and which I think is accidental. The only constant
variety appears to be that figured by Knorr, ii. tab. 3. fig. 1. having the
spire entirely rose-colour.

The marginal line and the correct number of whorls in the spire are well
expressed in the figures of Lister, Gualtieri and Knorr. The first of these
figures is accidentally more ventricose; the second, like all the other
figures of Gualtieri, is defective at the apex; and Knorr's I suspect has
been outrageously coloured from the real pink-mouthed _Achatina_.

It inhabits the coast of Guinea; and I am informed the animal is eaten by
the natives.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 31

[Illustration]

PHIBALURA cristata.

_Crested Shortbill._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    (_Phibalura_ Vieillot.)

    _Rostrum brevissimum, trigonum, latius quam altum; mandibula superiore
    culmine subcurvata carinata; inferiore recta; utrisque marginatis.
    Nares basales, simplices, subrotundæ, plumulis densis incumbentibus in
    totum obtectæ. Rictus ampli, infra oculos aperientes. Alæ attenuatæ,
    remigibus spuriis nullis. Cauda elongata, furcata, rectricibus
    duodecim. Pedes insidentes, digitis anticis æqualiter fissis, ad basin
    subconnexis._

    Bill very short, triangular, broader than high; upper mandible above
    slightly curved and carinated; lower mandible straight, both notched.
    Nostrils simple, basal, roundish, entirely concealed by thick-set
    incumbent feathers. Mouth large, opening beneath the eye. Wings
    pointed; spurious quills none. Tail elongated, forked, of twelve
    feathers. Feet formed for sitting; the fore-toes equally cleft and
    slightly connected at their base.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. corpore supra nigro flavo variegato; subtus albo, fasciis nigris
    transversis; mento flavo, capitis crista rufa nigro variegatâ, alis
    caudaque elongata furcata chalybeis, immaculatis._

    Above black varied with yellow; beneath white, with transverse black
    bands; chin yellow. Head crested, the feathers rufous, varied with
    black. Wings, and elongated forked tail raven-black, immaculate.

       *       *       *       *       *

For this beautiful and extraordinary bird I am indebted to Miss E. Yeates,
of the Dingle near Liverpool, who received it from South America. Its
general habit clearly points it out as belonging to the _Baccavoræ_ or
Berryeaters, apparently connecting the genera _Procnias_ and _Pipra_, where
Temminck with much judgement has also placed it, in the new edition of his
_Manuel d'Ornithologie_ just received, and before reading which I had
considered the genus as unpublished.

The total length is nine inches, of which the tail occupies four and a
half. The bill is whitish, and is remarkably short, measuring only three
lines from the nostrils to the tip, but three quarters of an inch from the
angle of the mouth, which opens just under the eye: the plumage is
singularly variegated: the crown of the head is furnished with a crest,
which, when not elevated, is scarcely seen, and appears a deep glossy black
mixed with grey and rufous; but when erected it is very conspicuous, and
all the feathers are bright rufous tipt more or less with black; the upper
sides of the head grey, the lower part and ears deep-black; the neck above
is greyish-white, with blackish transverse lines: the back, scapulars, rump
and tail-covers are varied transversely with olive, shining black, and
bright yellow, each feather being olive at the base, black in the middle,
and yellow at the tip. Beneath the feathers of the chin and part of the
throat are somewhat lengthened, semi-setaceous, and of a bright yellow; the
neck and breast are white, with two transverse lines of deep black on each
feather; these lines diminish, and are broken into spots on the body, and
nearly disappear on the vent: the edges of the breast-feathers are tipt
with yellow, which colour increases downwards on the vent and tail-covers,
which latter are entirely yellow. The wings are four inches long, uniform
deep black with a blue gloss, much pointed, and calculated for rapid
flight. Tail the same colour, the exterior basal margins olive: all the
feathers are narrow, pointed, and gradually lengthening, the middle pair
being two inches three quarters longer than the outer pair, which exceed
those next them by an inch. The feet are very pale yellow, and
three-quarters of an inch from the knee to the claws, the three foremost of
which are equally connected together (though slightly) nearly as far as the
first joint; the outer and inner toes equal, and rather shorter than the
hind-toe: claws slender and much compressed.

Whether this species is the same as the one mentioned by Temminck as
existing in the French Museum under the name of _P. flavirostris_, it is
quite impossible to say, as the description of that bird has never been
published. This leads me to notice a custom several naturalists of the
present day have lately adopted, of publishing names, and names only, of
new or undescribed animals, which they then wish to be considered as
permanently fixed, and as having thus secured to themselves all the merit
of first describing. Now this at best is but a surreptitious path to fame,
and in many instances bears the appearance of originating in a petty
vanity, quite beneath the dignity of true science: it is easily fixing a
name to an object which we have not before seen, or suspect may be new,
without the trouble of investigating authors and comparing synonyms: the
name may remain, but if it should afterwards be discovered as hasty and
erroneous, its author is in no way amenable to the opinions and criticisms
of others, for they cannot discover such mistakes when no clue is given
them beyond a name, which may frequently be applicable to half a dozen
species. If, on the other hand, the object is really new, the scientific
world is still in the dark, for without a description the name conveys
nothing. Besides this, it has a tendency to deprive those writers of their
well-earned merit, who undergo the laborious but necessary investigation of
books, the examining and comparing of specimens, and the construction of
sound characters previous to their publishing a new addition to the great
volume of Nature. Against this _scientific monopoly_ a stand should be
made, and all names either of families, genera, or species should be
totally rejected, unless their meaning is clearly defined. Let those who
run the race, receive the wreath; and not let it be snatched from the
winning-post by another, who jumps from behind and claims it as his own.

On a careful examination of my specimen, I find the nostrils are not
covered by a membrane, as observed by Temminck, but are open, obliquely and
ovately round, and a narrow rim round the margin. That excellent
ornithologist likewise remarks that the first and second quill-feathers are
the longest; but my bird (which, however, is in full plumage) has the first
and third of equal length and shorter than the second, which is longest.
These nice distinctions lead me to suppose the species from which his
generic character was taken, is distinct from this.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 32

[Illustration]

PSARIS Cuvierii.

_Cuvier's Psaris._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum validum, crassum, conicum, basi rotundatum, versus apicem
    leviter compressum, culmine convexo non carinato; mandibulis
    emarginatis, superiore apice adunco. Nares basales, simplices, rotundæ,
    juxta marginem sitæ, basi paucis plumulis setaceis incumbentibus. Pedes
    simplices, tribus digitis anticis æqualiter fissis. Remiges spuriæ
    nullæ. Cauda brevis: rectricibus duodecim æqualibus._

Typus Genericus _Lanius cayanus_. Linn., Lath., &c.

    Bill strong, thick, conic, the base rounded, towards the top slightly
    compressed, the top convex, not carinated; both mandibles notched, the
    tip of the upper hooked. Nostrils basal, simple, round, situated near
    the margin, the base with a few short incumbent setaceous feathers.
    Feet simple, the three fore-toes equally cleft. Spurious quills none.
    Tail short, of twelve equal feathers.

Generic Type _Lanius cayanus_. Linn., Lath., &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. olivaceus, subtus albidus; capite suprà nigro; occipite temporibus
    et colli lateribus cinereis; pectore lateribus tegminibusque infernis
    flavis._

    Olive, beneath whitish; crown black; nape, sides of the head and neck
    pale cinereous; breast, sides, and under wing-covers yellow.

       *       *       *       *       *

The genus _Psaris_ was first instituted with great propriety by Cuvier; and
before the discovery of the species now made known, was supposed to consist
of only one, the Cayenne Shrike of Latham, which with the present bird
(named in honour of the first zoologist of the age) is found in Brazil. The
figure is nearly of the natural size.

Total length five inches and a half. Bill blueish, three quarters of an
inch from the angle of the mouth, and four-tenths from the nostrils, which
are ovately round, rather large, and simple, being entirely devoid of an
external membrane, but the base is partially covered with small thick-set,
short, setaceous feathers; between the eye and base of the bill are a few
weak and short hairs; the upper part of the head, as far as the nape, is
capped by deep-black, having a blueish gloss: between the nostrils and the
eye, as well as on the chin and throat, the colour is white, which changes
to a pale cinereous grey on the sides of the head and round the neck; the
ears at their base and margin of the eye tinged with yellow; the rest of
the upper plumage yellowish-olive. The under plumage on the lower part of
the neck and breast, the sides, and the inner wing-covers are clear yellow,
and from that to the vent white. Wings two inches long, the quills brown,
margined externally with olive and internally with yellow; the first and
second quill progressively shorter than the third and fourth, which are of
equal length. Tail short, slightly divaricated; olive, with whitish
marginal tips. Legs blueish-black; the three fore-toes are equally cleft,
but a membrane will be found connecting them equally at the base nearly as
far as the first joint.

Temminck must be mistaken in giving as a generic character to this genus,
that the external toe is connected to the middle one as far as the first
joint, and the inner toe cleft to the base; at least such is not the case
either in my specimens of this bird or in those of the Cayenne Shrike: and
they have been carefully relaxed in warm water, the best method of
ascertaining such peculiarities.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 33

[Illustration]

TAMYRIS Zeleucus.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Antennæ arcuatæ, clava terminali, crassata, lineari, obtusa, in
    foeminis graciliore attenuata. Palpi in fronte convexe-compressi, supra
    linguam obvenientes, articulo ultimo minutissimo, crassato obtuso,
    approximate, proclivi. Alæ breves, sedentes horizontaliter divaricatæ._

    Antennæ arcuated; the club terminal, thick, linear, obtuse; more
    slender and attenuated in the female. Palpi compressed convexly on the
    front of the head, meeting above the tongue; the last joint very
    minute, thick, obtuse, approximating and bent forward. Wings short,
    when at rest horizontally divaricated.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, ETC.

    _T. Alis chalybeis concoloribus, margine albo; capite apiceque corporis
    sanguineis._

    Wings uniform blueish-black, with a slender white margin. Head and top
    of the body bright red.

    Hesp. Zeleucus. _Fab. Ent. Syst._ 3. _pt._ 1. _p._ 346. _no._ 317.

    OBS. _Donovan's Indian Insects_, where that author has figured it by
    mistake as a native of India.

       *       *       *       *       *

This insect is the most common (although hitherto unfigured) of a striking
natural group belonging to the _Hesperidæ_; it has therefore been selected
as the best example for the genus I have now formed them into. I have not
seen more than twelve or fourteen species, and these were all from
different parts of South America, to which I have no doubt the genus is
exclusively confined. The club of their antennæ is very thick, obtuse, and
without any terminal hook. The bright red at the end of the abdomen
(improperly called by Fabricius the tail) is most conspicuous in the
female, which is also larger and having the wings more obtuse, of which the
upper and under surfaces are both alike.

The insects of this family fly with amazing rapidity (as is shown by the
thickness of their thorax, and the sharpness in the make of their wings),
generally frequenting openings of thick woods and alighting on leaves where
the sun strikes: I seldom saw them on flowers. Their wings when at rest are
half expanded in a horizontal direction. Their metamorphosis is unknown.

This individual species is scarce in the northern parts of Brazil, but
common in the southern provinces.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 34

[Illustration]

COLIAS Godartiana.

_Godart's Colias._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 5.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. (Foem.) alis flavescente-fulvis, anticis supra margine punctoque
    rotundato medio nigris, subtus argenteo rufo 3-fisso, posticis subtus
    puncto gemino argenteo margine nigro, uno quadrato; palpis productis._

    (Female) Wings fulvous-yellow; anterior above with the outer margin and
    round central spot black, which beneath is silvery rufous and
    three-cleft; posterior beneath each with two silvery spots margined
    with black, one of which is quadrangular. Palpi lengthened.

       *       *       *       *       *

An inspection of a vast number of insects of this genus, with the
possession of nearly all the species noticed by authors, convinces me that
the insect now figured is perfectly distinct from any other. It is in the
cabinet of Mr. Haworth, who obligingly lent it me for comparison and
description, and is the only individual I have hitherto met with. The
prolongation of the palpi, which is even more obvious than in _C. Statira_,
is alone a specific distinction; and the form of the spots both on the
upper and under side differs very much in character from that insect, with
which it has the most affinity. It may be the _Papilio Drya_ of Fabr.
(omitting his references); but his description, whether intended for this
insect or any other, is so vague that I can see no advantage in retaining
it. Of the two bright silver spots beneath, one is oval, the other larger
and quadrangular.

I have named it in honour of M. Godart, the intelligent coadjutor of M.
Latreille in the entomological part of the _Encyclopédie Méthodique_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 35

[Illustration]

MITRA bifasciata.

_Double-banded Mitre._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 23.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. (Div. 1.) testâ lævi, castaneo-fusca concolore, anfractu basali
    fasciis duabus angustis flavescentibus, spirâ unifasciatâ aperturâ
    lævi._

    Shell smooth, uniform chesnut-brown, with two narrow yellowish bands on
    the basal whorl, and one on the spire; aperture smooth.

      Voluta caffra. _Martini_ iv. _tab._ 148. _fig._ 1369.
                     _Knorr._ _vol._ v. _tab._ 19. _fig._ 4, 5.
                     Seba Pl. 49. fig. 21, 22, 41.

       *       *       *       *       *

This most elegant shell has been figured from one of the specimens that
belonged to the late Mr. Jennings, who was well known to spare neither
expense nor assiduity in procuring the most select and matchless specimens
of every species; so much so, indeed, that such as are known to have been
in his possession generally bear a higher price. One of these is now in my
father's cabinet, the other in that of Mrs. Bolton, of Storr's-hall,
Windermere. I have seen both, and they appear equally fine.

I cannot help considering this as a distinct species from _Mitra caffra_
(_Voluta caffra_ Linn.), with which it has hitherto been placed only as a
variety: it is much larger, the volutions more convex, but compressed on
the suture, and the whole shell (except near the point) perfectly smooth:
the beak or channel likewise, which in _M. caffra_ is short and nearly
straight, is in this lengthened and recurved. The mouth is very narrow
(occasioned by the outer lip being thick and slightly inflexed) and smooth
within, the terminal volutions slightly plaited, and the base of the shell
grooved.

The figures of Knorr and Martini are very bad, and give no correct idea of
the shell, except its colour.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 36

[Illustration]

ACHATINA perversa.

_Reverse Achatina._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 30.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. (Div. 2.) testâ aperturâ perversâ: spirâ productâ, 7-volutâ, apice
    truncato; albida strigis nebulosis cinereis; linea transversa in basali
    anfractu; columella margineque labii exterioris castaneis, apertura
    intus alba._

    Aperture reversed: spire lengthened, of seven volutions, the apex
    truncated, whiteish with clouded cinereous stripes; central band on the
    basal volution, pillar, and margin of the outer lip chesnut; mouth
    within white.

       *       *       *       *       *

Reverse shells, or such whose mouth when viewed in front is on the left
side, are generally held in much estimation by collectors. This deviation
from the usual form of shells is sometimes accidental, as in our common
garden Snail and several others; while in some species it appears a
constant, and therefore a specific distinction. Such I apprehend is the
case with the shell now figured, a rare and very elegant species,
apparently not noticed by any writer; two or three existing in the British
Museum and one in my father's cabinet are all the specimens I have hitherto
seen. The latter (here figured) came from Bahia in South America. The whole
shell is very finely marked with longitudinal striæ, and the colouring
better seen than described: the buff tinge at the base is occasioned by the
remaining epidermis.

This shell belongs to the second division of the genus _Achatina_ as
mentioned at Plate 30, having the aperture much shorter than the spire and
the base nearly entire. _Bulla virginea_ of Linn. seems to connect the two
divisions, having the lengthened spire of one and the truncated base of the
other.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 37

[Illustration]

PROCNIAS cucullata.

_Hooded Berry-eater._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 21.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. corpore, collo, pectore nigro cucullata; tergo fusco, alis caudaque
    nigris; tegminum apice, pectoris lateribus, et corpore subtus flavis;
    capite subcristato._

    Head, neck and fore-part of the breast hooded with black; back brown,
    wings and tail black; tip of the wing-covers, sides of the breast and
    body beneath yellow; head subcrested.

       *       *       *       *       *

I am indebted for this new bird to Miss E. Yeates, who received it with a
few others from some part of Brazil: it seems to connect the genera of
_Ampelis_ and _Procnias_, having the bill much less dilated at the base
than any of the latter; it however has a close similitude to _Procnias
melanocephalus_ (Pl. 25.), which seems further removed from the true
Chatterers.

Total length eight inches and three quarters. Bill in extreme length near
an inch; the colour dark cinereous; the base furnished with bristles
something resembling the Chatterers: the opening of the nostrils large,
round, terminal, and nearly naked; the feathers on the crown lengthened;
the whole head, neck, and fore-part of the breast black, bordered above by
a narrow collar of yellow; back and scapulars brown, rump olive; sides of
the breast, inner covers, and under parts uniform yellow; wing-covers black
margined with olive, those on the shoulders tipt with brown, the rest with
yellow; quills and tail black margined with olive. Wings four inches and
three-quarters long, the first quill very short, the third longer than the
second. Tail four inches long.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 38

[Illustration]

PICUS bicolor.

_Black and White Woodpecker._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 14.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. albus, collo supra, tergo, alis, lineaque temporali nigris,
    rectricibus nigris, basi maculisque marginis interioris albis._

    White: neck above, back, wings, and line from the ears to the nape,
    black; tail-feathers black, with their base and spots on the inner
    margin white.

       *       *       *       *       *

The simplicity of colouring in the plumage of this bird will easily
distinguish it from among the numerous and intricate species already known
of this family. It is one of the new birds the recent investigations of
Brazilian zoology have added to our museums. The individual here figured
was sent me from the district of Minas Geraies.

Total length eleven inches and a half. Bill from the upper base to the tip
one inch one line, and from the gape one inch four-tenths; the colour
blueish-black; the upper mandible above sharply carinated and slightly
curved; orbits (in the dead bird) yellowish-white; the whole of the head
and nape, sides of the neck, rump and tail-covers, and all the under
plumage pure white, with a tinge of yellow down the middle of the belly: a
narrow black line commences at the ears, and is carried down on each side,
joining the black of the upper neck; the wings and remaining upper plumage
are of a uniform dark sooty black; the tips of the quills much paler and
brownish. Wings six inches and a half long; the inside covers black. Tail
four inches, and black banded with white at the extreme base; the two outer
feathers on each side with alternate black and white bands on the inner web
their whole length; feet and claws dirty-greenish: this was a female.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 39

[Illustration]

HESPERIA Itea.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 28.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _Hesp. (Div. 2.) alis supra nigrescente-fuscis, subtus pallidioribus
    basi fulvis, anticis macula flava tri-fissa, posticis subtus margine
    exteriore et linea longitudinali fulvis, femoribus rufis._

    H. (Div. 2.) Wings above blackish-brown, beneath paler, base fulvous.
    Anterior with a three-cleft yellow spot. Posterior beneath with a
    fulvous outer margin and longitudinal line. Thighs rufous.

       *       *       *       *       *

The descriptions left by Fabricius of this as well as many other extensive
families of _Lepidoptera_, are in general so vague and short, that unless a
figure is quoted to elucidate them, it becomes totally impossible to
ascertain the precise species intended. Such is the case with the present
insect, which will not agree with any described by Fabricius, or figured by
Cramer.

During my travels in Brazil I never met with this species, but am indebted
to my liberal friend Dr. Langdorff, Russian Consul-general at Rio de
Janeiro, for the specimens I possess, as well as a number of other rare and
fine insects of this family, which were then not in my own collection.

On each side of the palpi adjoining the eye are two yellowish round dots,
and another behind: the posterior wings above have a narrow whitish margin,
the colour beneath much paler; but the nerves on this, as well as at the
tips of the anterior wings, are blackish-brown; the legs at the base and
the tarsi are black.

This is a male insect; the other sex I have not seen.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 40

[Illustration]

HESPERIA Cynisca.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 28.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _Hesp. (Div. 2.) alis nigrescente-fuscis, subtus obscurioribus; anticis
    supra fasciâ flavâ trifissâ (in feminis albâ); posticis subtus
    immaculatis, castaneo-fuscis, margine exteriore flavo._

    Hesp. (Div. 2.) Wings blackish-brown; anterior above with a three-cleft
    yellow band, which in the female is white; posterior beneath
    immaculate, chesnut-brown, margined externally with yellow.

       *       *       *       *       *

The different sexes of this insect will appear so strikingly dissimilar to
those who are familiarised only with the nice distinctions that separate
the species of European _Lepidoptera_, that this affinity by such may be
doubted; nevertheless, observations in their native country, and the close
examination of several specimens, will we are persuaded confirm the fact.

The male insect is distinguished (like all the _Hesperidæ_) by having the
eyes considerably larger, and the anterior wings more narrowed than in the
other sex: in this species the bands on their wings assume the form of
three yellowish spots, adjoining which, on the inner side, is a
semi-lunular villous mark, an almost constant indication (where it exists)
of this sex. The straw-coloured border beneath the posterior wings is
narrower and darker than in the female; but in both it forms a slender
marginal fringe on the upper surface. Legs deep rufous; antennæ black; the
club beneath and lunule round the eye straw-coloured.

Inhabits South Brazil, but is not common.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 41

[Illustration]

ACHATINA pallida,

_Pale Achatina._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 21.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A._ (div. 2.) _testâ cinereo-albâ, fasciis duabus angustis fuscis,
    spirâ elongatâ rectâ, anfractibus 7 sub-ventricosis, labio interiore
    roseo, columellâ basi rectâ, integrâ, aperturâ ovato-oblongâ_.

    A. Shell cinereous-white, with two narrow brown bands, spire elongated,
    straight; volutions seven, slightly ventricose, inner lip rosy, base of
    the columella straight, entire, aperture ovate-oblong.

    OBS. another specimen of A. pallida quite agreeing with this, is in Mr.
    Dubois' cabinet.

       *       *       *       *       *

The species of this and one or two other genera of land-shells are subject
to such variability in their colouring, that it becomes extremely difficult
to ascertain which are species and which varieties. The shell now figured
might, on a cursory glance, very well pass for one of the Protean varieties
of the Linnæan _Bulla fasciata_; but a comparison with that shell will at
once point out the strong specific difference that exists between them in
the formation of the mouth. In this, the lower half of the inner lip, or
more properly the pillar, is nearly straight; the base entire, or without
any notch or truncated appearance: whereas in the true _A. fasciata_, the
inner lip at the base is very much curved inward, and notched before it
joins the outer lip. The mouth is also short and broad: whereas in this it
is much more oblong, and the base round. Other more obvious characters
exist in the form of the whorls, spire, and more particularly in the
colour, of these two shells; but these are in comparison of minor
importance.

I regret having but one example of this shell, as it prevents me from
tracing how far the characters here detailed hold good in other specimens.
They are such, however, as, I think, fully to justify the propriety of
considering it a species.

Its locality is unknown.

I have little doubt more than one species exist among the supposed
varieties of the true _Bulla fasciata_ of Linn., which I take to be the
shell figured by Lister.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 42

[Illustration]

OLIVA Braziliana,

_Brazilian Olive_

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa cylindrica, polita; spira conica, acuminata, brevissima; labium
    exterius simplex, interius incrassatum, tumidum; columella plicis
    numerosis gracilibus; apertura basi truncata, emarginata._

Typus Genericus _Voluta Porphyrea_ Lin.

    Shell cylindrical, polished, spire conic acuminated, very short; outer
    lip simple, inner lip thickened, tumid, columella with numerous slender
    plaits, aperture at the base truncatedly emarginate.

Generic Type _Voluta Porphyrea_ Lin.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _O. testâ coniformi, latâ; aperturâ effusâ, labio interiore tumidâ
    callositate super spiram extendente._

    Shell coniform, broad; aperture effuse, tumid callosity on the inner
    lip large, and spreading over the spire.

    Oliva Braziliensis. _Martini p._ 130, _tab._ 147 _&_ 8, 1367 _&_ 8.

    Oliva Braziliana. _Lamarck._

    Voluta pinguis. _Dill._ 516. 36.

       *       *       *       *       *

No family of shells possess characters more strikingly obvious to common
observers than the Olives; and yet, although in our English terminology no
one would ever think of calling them _Volutes_, we still shrink from giving
them that distinguishing appellation in Latin which we every day use and
acknowledge in our own language. The strict followers of Linnæus, by thus
rejecting generic distinctions, which at once convey a definite idea of
form and structure, contribute to render systematic arrangement less
expressive of ideas than the common nomenclature of our sale catalogues: a
striking proof of the pertinacity with which we cherish those particular
doctrines we first imbibed, although an unbiassed reasoning and an
attentive observance of nature would convince us of their fallacy.

The great Linnæus, at the time he formed that system which laid the
foundation of systematic nomenclature, had not the materials for gathering
and combining those natural genera which the immense discoveries made since
his death have given us a knowledge of. He accordingly arranged those few
shells known to him, in large, and for the most part natural, groups. That
of _Voluta_ I consider as one of these last (excepting the first division);
but the great accession of species now known, and which is still
increasing, has long ago induced the principal Continental writers to
divide this very extensive family into the following genera: _Marginella_
(Date shells), _Oliva_ (Olives), _Mitra_ (Mitres), _Turbinellus_ (Turnip
shells), _Voluta_ (Volutes), ...; all possessing not only clear but natural
characters; inasmuch as, by such an arrangement, those interesting links
and ramifications that connect this family with the _Bullæ_, _Cones_,
_Cowries_, _Murices_, and other genera, can be traced; and which perhaps
affords the most fascinating and intellectual source of contemplation and
study the science can bestow.

The peculiarity of this species will distinguish it among this numerous and
intricate family. The basal suture is deeply channeled; those on the spire
covered by the polished callosity which spreads from the inner lip.

Mr. Dillwyn has adopted the unpublished name of Solander, although the
shell had long ago been described and named by Martini and Lamarck. I
consider this as contrary to that principle of nomenclature which awards a
preference to priority of publication; and I have therefore restored the
name of those authors who have this undoubted claim. Mr. Dillwyn's
description is very clear and good.

I cannot learn from what particular part of Brazil this species has been
received.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 43

[Illustration]

MELLIPHAGA auricomis,

_Yellow-tufted Honeysucker._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    (_Melliphaga_, Lewin.)

    _Rostrum mediocre, capite plerumque longius, gracile, curvatum,
    acuminatum, attenuatum, ad basin altius quam latius, lateribus
    compressis; culmine carinato. Mandibula superior ad apicem emarginata;
    inferior lateribus compressis. Nares concavæ ad medium rostri porrectæ,
    membranâ tectæ, inter rictum et apicem longo fissu aperientes. Lingua
    longa, extensibilis, fibris cartilaginosis terminata. Pedes simplices,
    digito exteriore connexo, halluce pervalido._

    Obs. _Cauda rectricibus_ 12, _remigibus_ 1 _et_ 2 _spuriis; rostri
    margine aliquando subtilissime dentato._

Typus Genericus _Certhia Novæ Hollandiæ_ Lath.

    Bill moderate, generally somewhat longer than the head, slender,
    curved, pointed and acuminated, the base higher than broad, the sides
    compressed, the top carinated; upper mandible notched at the tip, the
    under mandible laterally compressed. Nostrils concave, near half the
    length of the bill, covered by a membrane, opening by a long slit
    midway between the gape and tip. Tongue long, extensible, terminated by
    cartilaginous fibres. Feet simple; outer fore-toe connected; hind-toe
    very strong.

    Obs. Tail-feathers twelve, first and second quills spurious; margin of
    the bill sometimes minutely toothed.

Generic Type _New Holland Creeper_ Lath., &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. olivaceo fusca; vertice corporeque subtus flavescentibus;
    temporibus auribusque nigris; gulâ et pennis elongatis pone aures
    flavis._

    Olive-brown: crown of the head and body beneath yellowish; temples and
    ear-feathers black; throat and lengthened feathers behind the ears
    yellow.

    Muscicapa auricomis. M. olivacea, vertice corpore subtus maculaque
    aurium flavis, per oculos striga alba. _Lath. Ind. Orn. vol._ 2.
    _Suppl._ xlix. 1. _Gen. Zool._ 10. 2. _p._ 354.

    Yellow-tufted Flycatcher. _Lath. Suppl._ 2. 215. _no._ 4. _Gen. Zool._
    10. 2. 354.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Yellow-tufted Honeysucker, although described by Latham, has hitherto
remained unfigured; and I therefore select it as an excellent example of a
tribe of birds which I think are peculiar to Australasia, and which seem to
hold the same situation among the birds of that vast country as the
Humming-birds occupy in South America, and the Sun-birds (_Cinnyris_,
Cuvier) in Africa and India; all of which more or less derive their
sustenance from the nectar of flowers, and which they extract on the wing
by means of their long tubular tongues.

It is singular, that while our first ornithological writers were
distributing the numerous species of these birds in their systems, under
such of the Linnæan genera as they thought most adapted for their
reception, a naturalist of a remote colony should be the first who, by
creating a new genus, brought them all into their proper situation in
systematic arrangement; one of the many proofs that Nature, and Nature
only, is to be studied; and that no system, however ingenious or however
applauded, can be considered as infallible.

By an error (no doubt of the press) in the specific character of this bird
in Latham's Index, the eye stripe is called _white_, though in the
description it is termed black. Mr. Stephens has copied this error into
"General Zoology;" and his description of this bird, as well as numberless
others, seems merely an abridgement or alteration of Latham's; a practice
highly detrimental to science; for, when an original description cannot be
obtained, it is much better, and safer, to copy without disguise that of
another.

How far all the birds included by Temminck in this genus really belong to
it, admits of very great doubt; I have therefore constructed the generic
character from those birds of New Holland only which Lewin, who founded the
genus, must have had before him.

Total length seven inches and a half; bill seven-tenths, the frontal
feathers advancing half its length to the nostrils; those of the ears are
lengthened, but the yellow tuft behind them is much more so; the feathers
of the chin are small, thick-set, and ending in fine setaceous hairs curved
outwards; the breast and body pale brownish-yellow. Quills and tail
dark-brown, margined with deep-yellowish; the two lateral tail-feathers
tipt with dirty white; plumage above olive-brown; front and crown of the
head dark brownish-yellow; bill black; legs brownish, inner-toe very deeply
cleft. Tail, from the rump, three inches and a half long, and slightly
rounded.

Latham, who first described this bird, says, "it makes its nest on the
extreme pendent branches of low trees or shrubs, and by this means escapes
the plunder of smaller quadrupeds." It appears not uncommon in New South
Wales.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 44

[Illustration]

PTEROGLOSUS sulcatus,

_Grooved-bill Aracari._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum capite longius, crassum, inane, cultratum, basali margine
    incrassatum, maxillæ angulo frontali obtuso; tomia serrata: nares
    superæ in maxillæ basi: lingua angusta, pennacea. Cauda elongata,
    cuneata. Pedes scansorii._ Illiger. Prod. p. 202.

Typus Genericus _Ramph. Aracari_ Linn.

    Bill longer than the head, thick, light, curved, thickened at the basal
    margin, the frontal angle obtuse, the margins serrated. Nostrils nearly
    vertical, situated on the base of the bill. Tongue long, slender,
    feathered. Tail elongated, cuneated. Feet scansorial.

Generic Type _Aracari Toucan_ Lath.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. viridis, subtus pallidior; jugulo albescente, circa oculos
    cæruleus; rostrum duobus sulcis longitudinalibus incisum._

    Green Aracari, beneath paler; throat whitish, round the orbits blue;
    bill with two lateral longitudinal grooves.

    P. sulcatus. _Swainson, in Journal of Royal Institution, vol._ 9. _p._
    267.

       *       *       *       *       *

All those species of the Linnæan Toucans having a long wedge-shaped tail,
and the nostrils passing through the upper part of the bill, are
comprehended by Illiger and other continental writers under this genus.
They have been called by the French Aracari; which name I have retained as
an English generic distinction. They inhabit the same country and
situations as the real Toucans, which are distinguished by having a short,
broad, and even tail, and the nostrils placed behind the bill.

A fine example of this very rare bird I first met with in the small
collection sent to my excellent friend, E. Falkener, Esq. from the Spanish
Main. I have since noticed another which was in Mr. Bullock's museum, and
is now in the possession of Lord Stanley: these are the only two specimens
known.

This bird was first described by me in the Journal of the Royal Institution
near a year ago. When Professor Temminck was in England, I showed him the
manuscript description and drawing which I had then made: he assured me he
had never seen the bird before, otherwise than in Bullock's museum. A short
time after, my account of it was published. I observe, however, that in the
new edition of his Manuel he gives this name to a new bird of his own: no
description however follows, and it is therefore impossible to say if the
Professor intends it for this identical species.

We must postpone any further observations on this family, and conclude by
giving the original description above alluded to.

Total length twelve inches, of which the bill in extreme length measures
three. It is much curved, and more attenuated than any of the Aracaris,
being thickest at the base; from which it narrows to a sharp point at the
tip. The upper part is convex, and somewhat thickened; the sides are
compressed, and the upper mandible has two broad slightly indented grooves
on each side: the base has a few transverse wrinkles, and the serratures
deep and unequal. The lower mandible half the depth of the upper, the sides
concave, and the teeth less. The colour (in the dried bird) black; the base
of the lower and the upper half of the superior mandible rufous, the base
with a whitish marginal line. The nostrils are more lateral than usual,
being placed in a line with the eye; the orbits naked and reddish brown,
the feathers encircling which (particularly beneath the eye) are vivid
cerulean blue. The whole upper plumage is parrot green, paler beneath, with
a gloss of golden yellow on the cheeks and sides: throat dusky white. Wings
short, five inches long, and rounded; inner shafts of the quills black,
margined with whiteish. Tail cuneated, green, four inches and a half long,
the four middle feathers equal. Legs dusky black.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 45

[Illustration]

RAMPHASTOS carinatus,

_Sharp-billed Toucan._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum capite longius, maximum, crassum, inane, cultratum, basali
    margine incrassatum; maxillæ angulo frontali subtruncato transverso:
    Nares verticales, pone maxillæ basin sitæ; tomia serrata; lingua
    angusta, pennacea; cauda brevis, æqualis; pedes scansorii._ Illiger.
    Prod, p. 212.

Typus Genericus _R. erythrorynchus_ Lath.

    Bill very large, longer than the head, thick, light, curved, and
    thickened at the basal margin; the frontal angle transversely
    sub-truncated, margins serrated. Nostrils vertical, behind the base of
    the bill. Tongue slender, long, and feathered. Tail short, even. Feet
    scansorial.

Generic Type _Red-billed Toucan_ Lath.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _R. niger; gulâ flavâ; fasciâ pectorale tegminibusque inferioribus
    rubris; rostro viridi, apice rubro; mandibulâ superiore culmine
    carinato flavo, lateribus maculâ aurantiâ; inferiore cæruleo
    variegata._

    Black; throat yellow; pectoral bar and under tail covers red; bill
    green, tip red; upper mandible carinated and yellow above, the sides
    with an orange spot; lower mandible varied with blue.

    Yellow-breasted Toucan. _Edwards, pl._ 329.

    Ramphastos Tucanus. Yellow-breasted Toucan. _Gen. Zool._ 8, 362,
    (_excluding the Synonyms._)

       *       *       *       *       *

No tribe of Birds appear so void of that symmetry of form that in general
pervades the feathered creation, as the Toucans and Aracaris in the new,
and the Hornbills in the old continent. A question naturally arises, why
the bills of these birds should be so monstrously out of proportion, and
what possible use they can be applied to. The elucidation of these
questions is highly interesting, and calls for the most accurate
observations to be made in their native regions. It will be sufficient for
the present, however, to point out, with regard to the Linnæan Toucans,
that the accurate observations and anatomical knowledge of my valued friend
Dr. Traill, F.R.S.E., of Liverpool, have clearly proved that an immense
number of nerves and fibres fill the cavity of these bills, all connected
with the organs of smelling, which are in the highest state of development.
A short notice on this subject will be found in the Linnæan Transactions;
but as my learned friend is pursuing his inquiries further on the subject,
I shall for the present confine my remarks to the individual here
illustrated, observing that no birds are so little understood, even in
regard to the species, as these.

The indefatigable Edwards appears the first who noticed this bird. His
description, though in the quaint style of the day, is clear and
comprehensive; and his figure strengthens it, both being made from the
living bird. Yet Dr. Latham has quite overlooked it as a variety of another
species; and Dr. Shaw, although he copies Edwards's account, gives
references which belong to other birds. It is not in the costly work of Le
Vaillant, and indeed seems (from its excessive rarity) to have escaped the
notice of all modern ornithologists. The perfect bill of the bird is,
however, in my possession, minutely agreeing with Edwards's account; and
also an original sketch in oil of another individual, by an unknown artist,
with a note stating it was done from the life at Exeter 'Change. All these
testimonies put the existence of the bird beyond any doubt.

Having seen only the bill, which is well described by Edwards, I shall
close this article with such part of his description as appears necessary.

"The bill is very large, compressed sideways, having _a sharp ridge along
the upper part_; the upper mandible is green, with a long triangular spot
of yellow colour on each side, and the ridge on the upper part yellow; the
lower mandible is blue, with a shade of green in the middle, the point is
red, it hath about five faint dusky bars, which cross the joinings of the
two mandibles. The iris of the eye is a fair green colour; round the eye is
a broad space of naked skin of a violet colour: the throat and breast are
of a bright yellow, below which is a bar of scarlet feathers; the covert
feathers of the tail are white above, beneath of a bright red; the legs and
feet are all of a blue or violet colour." Edwards says it was brought from
Jamaica, but doubts its being rather a native of the continent: he says
they are very rarely brought home alive.

The bill is full six inches long, and the whole figure on the same scale,
both in this and in Edwards.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 46

[Illustration]

BULIMUS citrinus,

_Citron Bulimus._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 4.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _B. testâ obovatâ; spirâ conicâ, in medio sub-crassatâ, aperturâ
    longiore: spirâ anfractibus 6 in suturam depressis; labio exteriore
    basi subcontracto; umbilico subclauso._

    Shell obovate; spire conic, slightly thickened in the middle, longer
    than the aperture, and of six volutions depressed on the suture;
    outer-lip slightly contracted at the base; umbilicus nearly closed.

    Bulimus citrinus, _var._ B. _Bruguiere Encycl. Meth._ 314. _no._ 27.

    _Martini_ 9. _tab._ 110. _fig._ 930.

       *       *       *       *       *

This variable species is perhaps the most beautiful and delicate in its
colouring of all the terrestrial snails; yet, although figured by several
of the older writers, so little justice has been done it, that we make no
apology for introducing it into the present work, both on this account, and
for the purpose of giving such a discriminative specific character as may
lead to the inquiry, how far all the numerous varieties mentioned by
authors really belong to this species or not. As far as my own observation
goes, I have found that the thickened spire, the depression of the whorls
on the suture, and the narrowness or contraction of the mouth at the base,
afford the only constant characters; for, in regard to colour and the
situation of the mouth, both appear subject to great variation, the latter
being as often reversed as regular. Martini's is the only figure that can
be safely quoted for this variety.

I am indebted to Mrs. Bolton, of Storr's-hall, Windermere, for the loan of
this and several other rare shells: it formerly belonged to Mr. Jennings,
and appears an old shell, being heavy in proportion, the umbilicus thickly
closed up, and the outer-lip very thick. Another I have seen at Mrs.
Mawe's, and one is in the British Museum: but the finest specimen in colour
and preservation is in the possession of my friend W. J. Broderip, Esq., of
Lincoln's-Inn: from this it seems the spiral whorls are finely and
delicately marked by transverse elevated striæ, while those on the basal
volution are striated transversely, though in a less regular manner.

Bruguiere mentions that this species is generally found in the South
American islands, Cayenne, and Guiana.

Mr. Dillwyn has given the new name of _aurea_ to this shell, in addition to
the five others under which different authors have described it. Such
changing of names and multiplication of synonyms, without strong reasons,
are very objectionable. I have retained that of _Bruguiere_, as being the
only author who has placed it in its proper genus.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 47

[Illustration]

BULIMUS citrinus (_var_. perversu).

_Reverse, banded Citron Bulimus._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 4.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 46.

    SYNONYMS.

    _Martini, vol._ 9. _tab._ 934 & 5. _Knorr_, 4. _tab._ 28. _fig._ 4, 5.
    (bad.)

    Bulimus citrinus, _var._ B. _Bruguiere_, 314. 27.

       *       *       *       *       *

A fine pair of this beautiful and rare variety is in the collection of Mr.
C. Dubois, to whom I am indebted on this and many other occasions, for the
facilities he has afforded me in prosecuting the present work: one of these
is now figured; it differs in no respect from that in the last plate,
except in being reversed and having the umbilicus not so completely closed;
a character which, perhaps, exists only in very old shells. The other
specimen is also reversed and banded, though in a different manner.

       *       *       *       *       *

BULIMUS aureus.

_Golden Bulimus.--upper and lower figures._

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _B. testâ obovatâ, spirâ conicâ, anfractibus 5 convexis, suturâ
    simplici, umbilico aperto._

    Shell obovate; spire conic, of five convex volutions; suture simple;
    umbilicus open.

    _Lister_ 34. 33. _Martini_ 9. _tab._ 110. 928. 929?

    OBS. BULIMUS _aureus_, in Mr. Spurrett's valuable cabinet is another
    specimen of this shell minutely agreeing with that here described.

       *       *       *       *       *

Having seen but a single specimen of this shell, I have placed it as a
distinct species, not without some doubts, and principally for the purpose
of calling the attention of conchologists to a more rigid examination of
the specific distinctions of this family (unconnected with colour) than has
heretofore been done. The regular convexity of the whorls, not in any
degree compressed at the suture, the want of that thickened appearance on
the spire, and of the contraction at the base of the mouth (all which
characters I have found in the varieties of _B. citrinus_ to be constant),
afford a specific distinction which future observations must confirm or
annul. Bruguiere notices a variety of _B. citrinus_ which is entirely
yellow, a most beautiful specimen of which is in the British Museum, and
which possesses (as well as the excellent figure of Gualtieri) all the
specific characters I have given to _B. citrinus_, but not of the present
shell. Lister's figure, on the contrary, is rude, though very
characteristic of this; and Martini's representation, here cited, also
appears the same.

Mr. Dubois, in whose collection this specimen exists, is unacquainted with
its locality.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 48

[Illustration]

MITRA casta,

_Chesnut-banded Mitre._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 23.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _Mitra (Div. 3.) testâ albâ, lævi, olivæformi, spirâ aperturâ breviore,
    anfractibus supra tenuiter reticulatis, basi epidermide castaneam
    fasciam formante, in anfractu basali centralem et latam._

    Shell white, smooth, olive-formed, spire shorter than the aperture, the
    volutions finely reticulated above, the lower half with the epidermis
    forming a chesnut band which is central and broad on the basal whorl.

    Voluta casta. _Chemnitz_ 10, _p._ 138, _vig._ 20 C D.--_figura mala_.

    _Martyn Univ. Conch._ i. _tab._ 20.

    _Dillwyn Catalogue_, _vol._ i. _p._ 554, _no._ 127.

       *       *       *       *       *

All the writers I have been able to consult, uniformly describe this
species as having a coloured band on the white ground of the shell. In the
Banksian cabinet are two fine specimens, and which have enabled me to
ascertain that this brown band is nothing more than an epidermis, or
external coating, with which the shell is only partially covered--a
circumstance of very rare occurrence; and which, being removed, proves the
real colour of the shell to be of a uniform polished white. This, together
with its excessive rarity, and the opportunity of giving original figures,
has induced me to include it in this work, although it exists both in those
of Martini and Martyn above quoted. I have neither seen nor heard of
specimens being in any other collection, besides the two above noticed; and
which no doubt were collected by their late lamented possessor on some of
the South Sea islands. A striking affinity exists between this and _M.
zonata_ figured at the third plate of this work.

       *       *       *       *       *

MITRA olivæformis.

_Olive-shaped Mitre._

    _M. testâ olivæformi, glabrâ, nitidâ, spirâ brevissimâ,
    longitudinaliter rugatâ, striâ centrali transversâ; columella
    4-plicata._

    M. Shell olive-shaped, smooth, polished, spire very short,
    longitudinally wrinkled, with a central transverse stria, pillar
    four-plaited.

       *       *       *       *       *

I introduce the description of this diminutive and undescribed shell from
its affinity with the last, and as forming a most interesting transition
from the Mitres to the Olives: agreeing with the former in the structure of
the pillar and the sculptured spire, and with the latter in its general
form and _prima facie_ appearance. Its perfect resemblance, in fact, to a
small olive, may have occasioned its being hitherto overlooked. The spire
is slightly wrinkled and striated; the teeth on the pillar very near each
other, slender, and four in number. The colour pale yellowish; the mouth
darker, and the tip and base purple. The whole shell is scarcely half an
inch long.

It was received from the South Seas.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 49

[Illustration]

OXYRHYNCUS cristatus.

_Crested Sharpbill._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Oxyruncus_ Temminck.

    _Rostrum breve, rectissimum, basi trigonâ, ultra basin attenuatum,
    apice acutissimum; mandibulâ superiore suprà rotundatâ, utrisque
    integris. Nares basales, nudæ, membranâ partim tectæ, aperturâ lineari
    ad marginem rostri approximante. Pedes breves, validi, digito medio
    longiores; digitis anterioribus tribus, exteriore connexo, interiore
    fisso; halluce valido._

    Bill short, very straight, base trigonal, beyond attenuated to a very
    fine point; upper mandible above rounded, both entire. Nostrils basal,
    naked, partially covered by a membrane; aperture linear, near the
    margin of the bill. Feet short, strong, a little longer than the middle
    toe; anterior toes three, the outer connected, the inner cleft; hind
    toe strong.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _O. suprà olivaceo-viridis, subtùs flavescente-albus, maculis
    nigrescentibus; capite cristâ coccineâ incumbente; capitis lateribus
    lineis transversis flavescente-albis._

    Above olive-green, beneath yellowish-white, with blackish spots. Head
    with an incumbent crimson crest; sides of the head and neck with
    transverse yellowish-white lines.

       *       *       *       *       *

An elegant and (to the ornithologist) a highly interesting bird, considered
with much judgement by Professor Temminck as a new genus, having the
perfect bill and habit of the Wryneck, but totally unlike that bird in the
position of its toes, which in this are not placed in pairs. The Professor
has slightly described it, in the new edition of his _Manuel_, without a
_specific_, but under the _generic_ name of _Oxyruncus_, the spelling of
which must be presumed as an error of the press: no mention, however, is
made of the beautiful crimson colour which adorns the crest.

Total length near seven inches. Bill eight-tenths in length from the gape;
general colour of the bird olive-green, becoming nearly white on the under
part, and on the transverse stripes on each side the neck, front and
temples, where there are also obscure bands of black; crown with a
concealed crest, which is vivid crimson at the base and blackish at the
tips; inner margin of the covers, quills and tail blackish; inner covers
yellowish; chin, neck and breast banded with blackish lines, which are
broken into spots and stripes beyond.

Inhabits Brazil, but is very rare.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 50

[Illustration]

ALCEDO Asiatica.

_Asiatic Kingsfisher._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 26.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. capite nigro, fasciis transversis cyaneis, posticè cristato;
    auribus cyaneis; mento, gulâ, strigâque laterali colli albescentibus;
    dorso nitidè cæruleo; corpore subtùs rufo._

    Head black, transversely banded with mazarine blue, the hinder part
    crested; ears blueish; chin, throat, and lateral stripe on each side
    the neck whitish; back shining light-blue; body beneath rufous.

    OBS. This bird Dr. Horsfield tells me is his _Alcedo meninting_
    described in the Linn. Transactions.

       *       *       *       *       *

The general resemblance between this and the European Kingsfisher may have
been the cause why it has remained hitherto unnoticed by ornithologists. It
bears, however, on closer inspection, a strong and peculiar distinction in
the crest at the back of the head, in being much smaller in size, and
especially as inhabiting the hottest parts of India; while our own braves
the cold of a Siberian winter.

Total length six inches, of which the bill from the angle of the mouth to
the tip occupies one inch and three-quarters, and is black, with the under
mandible paler; the ears and the upper part of the head and neck are
blueish-black, transversely banded with somewhat crescent-shaped narrow
bands of a rich deep blue, which are broken into spots on the crest and
ears: from the base of the under mandible is a black stripe richly glossed
with blue, and carried down on each side the neck, between which and the
upper part is a whitish stripe beginning just behind the ears (this in the
European species is rufous). The wing-covers, scapulars and lesser quills
are blackish glossed with blue, the two former having a bright spot at the
end of each feather; superior and greater quills entirely blackish; down
the middle of the back, rump, and tail-covers, light and vivid blue, with a
slight tinge of greenish; chin and throat cream-colour; line between the
nostrils and eyes, margin of the shoulders, under wing-covers, and all the
lower parts of the body, rufous; tail deep and obscure blue; legs red.

My specimen came from some part of India; I have met with others from the
same place; and Dr. Horsfield has likewise observed it in Java.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 51

[Illustration]

COLIAS Pyrene.

_White African Colias._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 5.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. alis albis; anticis suprà punctulo nigro subcentrali oblongo ad
    apicem approximante; posticis margine integerrimis; singulis subtùs
    puncto ocellari lineisque fulvis undulatis: sexibus similibus._

    Wings white; anterior with a small, nearly central, oblong, black dot
    nearest the tip; margin of the posterior wings very entire, beneath all
    with a brown ocellate spot and undulated fulvous lines: both sexes
    alike.

       *       *       *       *       *

Under the head of _Colias Pyranthe_, M. Godart has united the three insects
described by Fabricius, as, _Pap. Pyranthe_, _Nepthe_ and _Gnomia_, all
bearing in their leading colours a very near resemblance to each other. Yet
as this consideration alone appears to have decided this ingenious author
in uniting them, without apparently noticing the nicer but more important
characters of form, proportion, and real sexual distinction, as well as
geography, I cannot but consider the question still remains doubtful; and
although I am not at present prepared to offer an opinion as to the actual
affinity between these three insects, I have little or no doubt that the
one now figured is a really distinct species from either of the above,
which all inhabit various parts of India. This, on the contrary, is from
the interior of the Cape of Good Hope, from whence it was brought by Mr.
Burchall, among whose insects I have seen about twenty unvarying specimens,
but they were all males. I discovered however three or four of both sexes,
varying in size, in Mr. Haworth's cabinet, and the perfect similarity in
colour of the female with the other sex is very striking: it wants of
course the little tuft of hair and opaque spot within the borders of the
wings, so generally found in the male _Coliadæ_.

The distinctions of _Colias Pyrene_ as a species rest on the areola of the
anterior wings being considerably larger in proportion than in the others
allied to it, thus making the black dot (which is always placed at the
outer extremity of the areola) much nearer the tip than the base: these
wings are also more sharply trigonal (in the male), and have only the
slightest appearance of a black margin; the hinder wings are also perfectly
entire, and not obtusely undulated as in those insects, and the sexes not
differing in colour. Like most of the insects of this genus, the ocellate
spots beneath vary considerably; sometimes they are silvery, at other times
not; the anal valves in the male are short and obtuse, and the wings in the
female not so sharply pointed.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 52

[Illustration]

COLIAS argante.

_Orange Colias._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 5.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. (Mas.) alis aurantiis, suprà immaculatis, posticis subtùs atomis
    ferrugineis, plerumque puncto gemino argenteo._

    _C. (Foem.) alis aurantio-flavis, anticis suprà, apice punctoque medio
    atris; posticis subtùs, puncto gemino argenteo atomisque ferrugineis._

    C. (Male.) Wings bright-orange, above immaculate; posterior beneath
    with minute ferruginous dots, and generally two silvery spots.

    C. (Female.) Wings golden-yellow; anterior above with a central spot
    and black marginal tip; posterior beneath covered with ferruginous dots
    and two silvery spots.

  (_Male._) Papilio Hersilia.  Cramer, _pl._ 173. C. D.
            ----    argante.   _Fab. Ent. Syst._ iii. _pt._ 1. _p._ 189.
            Colias  argante.   _Godart in Encycl. Method._ 9. 92. _no._ 11.

  (_Female._) Papilio Cipris.  _Cramer_, _pl._ 99. E. F.
              Colias Cnidia.   _Godart_, 93. _no._ 14.

       *       *       *       *       *

No two insects can present a more striking dissimilarity than the sexes of
this species; and it was only after a considerable degree of attention to
the subject, in their native climate, that we were at last thoroughly
convinced that _Colias argante_ and _C. Cnidia_ were, without the least
remaining doubt, the male and the female of one species. I have had the
same opinion communicated to me by my friend Dr. Langsdorff, whose long
residence and observations in Brazil render his opinion of no small
authority.

As both insects are well known, and their distinctions given in the
specific character, it will be only necessary to observe, that the under
surfaces of the wings in both sexes vary much both in the density of the
minute dots, and short undulated stripes that spread over their surface;
and that the silvery spots in some males are strongly marked, and in others
quite obsolete: there is, in very fine individuals of this sex, a faint
bloom of pink spread on the orange of the upper surface, which heightens
the vivid yet chaste beauty of the insect. The females are not so common. I
met with them both in northern and southern Brazil, and have seen them in
collections from Parà directly under the equinoctial line.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 53

[Illustration]

STROMBUS cylindricus.

_False Scarlet-mouthed Strombus_--_Upper and under figures_.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 10.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _S. testâ coniformi, spirâ brevissimâ ad basin depressâ, anfractibus
    convexis inæqualibus, labio exteriore suprà lobato, intùs striato;
    interiore sub-obsoleto, albo._

    Shell coniform; spire short, depressed at the base, the whorls convex
    and unequal; outer lip lobed above, and internally striated; inner lip
    nearly obsolete, white.

    _Lister_ 850. 5. (bad.). _Gualt._ 31. 1. _Knorr_, vi. _tab._ 15. 3.

    Strombus luhuanus _Linn._ _Martini_, x. _tab._ 157. 1499. 1500.

    Young. Lip above entire, inside smooth, whorls tuberculated. _Lister_,
    849. 4. a? _Knorr_, vi. _tab._ 17. 2.

       *       *       *       *       *

We introduce this common shell for the purpose of pointing out those
characters which induce us to consider it more as a distinct species than
as a variety of _S. Luhuanus_ of authors; and this consists not so much in
the colour of the inner lip, as in the almost total absence of that
important part, which this shell invariably exhibits through all its
growths: it is therefore, I think, contradictory to the meaning of the word
to term that variable which is found to be constant, particularly where the
point of distinction rests on a marked difference of _formation_ no less
than of colour, though both shells are common to the Oriental seas. Minor
differences exist, in the mouth of this always being pink, the inner lip
white, and the outer lip but slightly lobed (or cut out) above: in _S.
Luhuanus_ the mouth is deep scarlet, inner lip black and highly polished,
and the outer lip deeply notched above; the two former characters, indeed,
begin to show themselves at a very early growth of the shell.

       *       *       *       *       *

STROMBUS Persicus.

_Persian Strombus__--middle figures._

    _S. testâ sub-coniformi, brevi; spirâ conicâ, æquali; labio exteriore
    prominente, suprà sinuato, intùs glabro; interiore polito, albo._

    Shell somewhat coniform, short; spire conic, equal. Outer lip
    prominent, sinuated above, smooth within; inner lip polished, white.

       *       *       *       *       *

Allied, but sufficiently distinct from the last; the mouth is always smooth
and white. It is a local species: a few received from the Persian Gulf are
all I have yet seen, some were young, but no other variation was
observable.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 54

[Illustration]

MITRA lyræformis.

_Harp Mitre._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 23.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. testâ costis regularibus, carinatis, approximatibus: columellâ
    striatâ, juxta basin triplicatâ: spirâ subattenuatâ; apice
    subpapillosâ._

    Shell with regular, carinated, approximating, longitudinal ribs. Pillar
    striated, three-plaited near the base. Spire somewhat attenuated. Apex
    slightly papillary.

       *       *       *       *       *

This beautiful and highly interesting shell has been generally considered
_unique_ among the collections in this country. It was originally in the
possession of the late Mr. Jennings, and, I am informed by Captain Laskey,
was on first being received, in a much finer state. Mr. Jennings had it
cleaned, and in so doing many of the delicate transverse striæ were
partially obliterated, and the sharp ridges on the longitudinal ribs worn
down, as indeed was apparent from a drawing Captain L. had made of the
shell previous to this unmerciful cleaning. It however still remains a very
fine shell, and is now in the cabinet of Mrs. Bolton, of Storr's-hall, to
whom I am obliged for the opportunity of now publishing it.

The figure and specific character will sufficiently point out its
distinctions. The body-whorl is smooth, but strongly granulated at the
base; the spire delicately striated between the ribs; the two last whorls
before the apex are close, thick, and somewhat papillary; the apex itself
small and sharp. The upper part of the inner lip has some faint obsolete
teeth, but the base has three very strong ones.

It connects in the most beautiful manner the two genera of _Mitra_ and
_Voluta_. Its country is unknown.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 55

[Illustration]

SOLEN ambiguus.

_Ambiguous Solen._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa bivalvis, æquivalvis, transversissimè elongata, utroque latere
    hians. Dentes cardinales parvi, fragiles, numero variabiles, rarò
    divaricati. Ligamentum externum; animal ad extremitatem anteriorem pede
    subcylindraceo; ad posteriorem siphone brevi duos alteros conjunctos
    continente._ Lamarck.

Typus Genericus _Solen Vagina_ Pennant.

    Shell bivalve, equivalve, very transversely elongated, open at both
    ends. Cardinal teeth small, fragile, variable in number, and rarely
    divaricated. Ligament external. Animal with a sub-cylindrical foot at
    the anterior end, and at the other a short tube containing two others
    united together. _Lamarck._

Generic Type _Solen Vagina_ Pennant.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _S. testâ lineari, crassâ, rectâ, pallidâ, obscurè radiatâ; cardinibus
    unidentatis, margine anteriore sub-approximantibus._

    Shell linear, strong, straight, pale, obscurely radiated. Cardinal
    teeth one in each valve, placed near the anterior extremity.

    Solen ambiguus. _Lam. Syst. vol._ iii. _p._ 452. _no._ 7.

       *       *       *       *       *

Under the genus _Solen_ (vulgarly called Razors or Pods) are comprehended a
variety of shells having the common character of both extremities open or
gaping when the valves are together, yet differing materially in their
form, teeth, and general appearance: some are long, slender and straight;
others more or less curved; a few short and oval, or with one end only
lengthened. Modern writers have, however, retained nearly all these in the
genus as left by Linnæus; and this method for the present is more desirable
than that of creating a multiplicity of genera. Dr. Turton, in his very
useful Conchological Dictionary, enumerates thirteen species as found on
the British coast, including the _Solen Novacula_ of Montagu, which the
Doctor suspects is not truly a species. The original specimens which
Montagu described I have carefully inspected at the British Museum, and
have no doubt in my own mind they are in reality no other than _S. Siliqua_
with one of the cardinal teeth broken off; a circumstance which, from their
fragility, frequently happens, even in opening the recent shell.

_Solen ambiguus_ was first described by Lamarck, who says it is from North
America. Two or three specimens are in my possession; but it is a rare
species, much thicker, and with larger teeth than any other; the epidermis
is pale-brown, and in some parts obliquely lineated.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 56

[Illustration]

RAMPHASTOS vitellinus.

_Sulphur-and-white-breasted Toucan._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 45.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _R. niger, gulâ flavo-aurantiâ; lateribus auribusque albis; fasciâ
    pectorali tegminibusque rubris; rostro nigro fasciâ basali cæruleâ,
    culmine subcurvato convexo, lateribus incrassatis._

    Black; throat yellowish-orange; the sides and ears white; pectoral bar
    and tail-covers red; bill black, with a blue basal belt, the top convex
    and but slightly curved, the sides thickened.

    R. vitellinus. _Illiger_ ----

    Le Pignancoin. _Vaill. pl._ 7.

    _Var._? Le Grand Toucan à ventre rouge. _Vaill. pl._ 6.

       *       *       *       *       *

The descriptions of Dr. Latham, and the compilations of Dr. Shaw on the
various species of Toucans, are so confused, and their synonyms so
inaccurate, that it is quite impossible to quote them in reference to this
bird; but which I am informed has already been distinguished by the
celebrated Illiger as a distinct species, under the name here adopted.

Independent of colour, this differs from _R. Tucanus_ in having the bill
less curved, the top convex and obscure pink, not flat and blue. The belt
at the base is always vivid blue (grey in the dead bird), not, as in _R.
Tucanus_, of a rich yellow. This I have never met with in Brazil; the other
is common from lat. 8 to 23° S. A drawing from the live bird by the late
Sydenham Edwards (obligingly lent me by Lord Stanley) confirms others I
have seen as to the colour of the bill, orbits, &c. It varies, however, in
that of the throat, breadth of the red band, and in the tail-covers. A
specimen I possess being somewhat larger, the breast is nearly white, and
the upper tail-covers sulphur. In young birds the white on the sides is
tinged with grey. I am inclined to consider the _Grand Toucan à ventre
rouge_ of Vaillant as a mere variety, having the red pectoral bar very
broad.

In general size it is rather larger than the Brazilian Toucan. Our figure
is on the exact scale of four-tenths to an inch. Its precise locality I am
unacquainted with. We hope to enlarge more on this interesting genus in
another publication.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 57

[Illustration]

UNIO nasutus.

_Rostrated River-Mussel._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa transversa, æquivalvis, non affixa; natibus decorticatis,
    suberosis; impressio muscularis postica composita. Dens cardinalis
    unicus, brevis, irregularis, simplex aut bipartitus, substriatus;
    dentes laterales duo, elongati, compressi, infra pubem producti._

Typus Genericus _Mya Pictorum_. Linn.

    Shell transverse, equivalve, not affixed, the tops decorticated.
    Posterior muscular depressions double. Cardinal tooth one, short,
    irregular, simple or double, striated; lateral teeth two, elongated,
    compressed, and prolonged beneath the corslet.

Generic Type _Mya Pictorum_. Linn.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _U. (Div. 2.) testâ transversim elongatâ, margine dorsi rectâ, anticè
    angulatâ obliquè attenuatâ, extremitate subtruncatâ._

    Unio (Div. 2.). Shell transversely elongated: dorsal margin straight;
    anterior side angulated, obliquely attenuated, the extremity slightly
    truncated.

    _Lister, tab._ 151. _fig._ 6.

    Unio nasutus. _Say in Encycl. Am. Conch. pl._ iv. _fig._ 1.

       *       *       *       *       *

This is one of the most natural genera in the modern systems of conchology,
as it includes all fresh-water bivalves having two rough cardinal teeth in
one valve and one in the other. The colours of all are more or less
dark-brown, sometimes radiated with green; but the specific characters rest
on the contour of the shell and the proportion of the teeth.

There can be no doubt this shell is the _Unio nasutus_ of Say, who refers
to the figure of Lister. The _Unio nasuta_ however of Lamarck I apprehend
will be found different, as he seems to think; his shell also is purple
inside with short thick teeth; indeed so much uncertainty hangs on the
shells of this genus, that the species can only be fixed by ample
descriptions and very correct figures. The figure is from a shell in the
Linnæan Society's cabinet. Mr. Say says it is common in the Delaware River,
North America.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 58

[Illustration]

ACHATINA crenata.

_Green hair-streaked Achatina._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 30.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. (Div. 2.) testâ albâ, fasciis viridibus capillaribus; spirâ
    elongatâ, subattenuatâ, anfractibus 6 convexis, labio exteriore
    crenato; basi subtruncatâ._

    Shell white, with capillary green bands; spire elongated,
    sub-attenuated, of six convex volutions; outer lip crenated; base
    slightly truncate.

       *       *       *       *       *

A few specimens of this most delicate and beautiful shell were found by my
brother, Mr. J. T. Swainson, jun. in the island of Cuba; nor am I aware of
its having by any other means reached our cabinets, excepting a distinct
variety which occurred in Mrs. Angus's, and is now (together with a young
one of the same) in Mr. Dubois's collection. This has, in addition to the
green bands on the spire, a row of bead-like cinereous spots at the base of
the first and second spiral whorl; and others of a longitudinal square form
on those whorls nearest the tip, which, with the inner lip, is slightly
tinged with pink. The form of the shell also is shorter; but the general
contour, and particularly the crenated mouth, common to both, clearly
proves it can be considered only as a distinct variety. The specimen we
have figured agrees with all those sent at the same time, in having not the
slightest appearance of spots, though in a perfect state of preservation.
The little notches on the margin of the lip are always placed at the
commencement of each of the green lines; the base of the column is
straight, and slightly truncated before it joins the outer lip.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 59

[Illustration]

PSITTACUS Barrabandii.

_Red-collared Parakeet._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 1.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. viridis, sincipite gulâque flavis; torque coccineo circa medium
    cervicem extendente; rostro rubro; alis spuriis cærulescentibus._

    Green, fore-part of the head and throat yellow; round the middle of the
    neck in front an orange-red collar; bill red; spurious wings blueish.

       *       *       *       *       *

The vast and little known region of New Holland has afforded us some of the
most beautiful birds of this superb family, and among which the species
now, as we believe, for the first time published, will stand conspicuous.
It is from a fine skin in the possession of Mr. Leadbeater, and is named in
honour of the late M. Barraband, the first ornithological painter that
France or any other country has produced.

The tail is very long, measuring eight inches three quarters; the total
length of the bird being near fifteen inches. The green which predominates
over the plumage is bright and changeable, having a blueish tinge on the
hind head, which is much darker and stronger on the outer margins of the
quills and middle of the tail-feathers: the back and scapulars are tinged
with an olive-brown; the spurious quills and their protecting covers are
greenish-blue, appearing in some lights entirely of the latter colour; the
inner margin of the quills and tail, as well as their entire under surface,
deep brownish-black; but the tips of the tail-feathers beneath are much
paler; the two middle feathers five inches longer than the outermost, and
extending near two inches beyond any of the others; their extremities
instead of being pointed are rather widened and rounded. Bill red; ears and
space between the eye and bill green; fore-part of the head, chin, and half
the neck, a clear orange-yellow, which is terminated by a narrow collar of
a beautiful orange-red; the remaining under plumage pale-green; inner
wing-covers darker. Legs black. The fourth, fifth and sixth quills notched
at their tips.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 60

[Illustration]

THYREUS Abbottii.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    (_Familia Sphingidis_ Latreille.)

    _Antennæ lineares, in medio incrassatæ, in maribus extrinsecus ciliatæ,
    (sub-barbatæ) in foeminis simplices, filiformes, mucrone obtuso arcuato
    sensim terminantes. Palpi breves, obtusi, in utroque sexu similes. Alæ
    opacæ, angulatæ. Abdomen crassum, barbatum._

    Antennæ linear, thickened in the middle, externally ciliated in the
    male, simple and filiform in the female, gradually ending in an
    arcuated, obtuse hook. Palpi short, obtuse, alike in both sexes. Wings
    opaque, angulated. Abdomen thick, bearded.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _T. alis angulatis, anticis testaceis, fusco umbratis et obliquè
    lineatis; posticis flavis, margine lato nigro._

    T. Wings angulated; anterior testaceous, with lineated brown shades and
    oblique lines; posterior yellow, with a broad black border.

       *       *       *       *       *

A lovely insect, which is unfigured, and, as far as we can ascertain,
undescribed by any author. It appertains to the Linnæan genus _Sphinx_,
which can be viewed (from the immense diversity and great number of the
species) only as a family containing many and striking natural genera: in
modern arrangement it is most nearly allied to the _Sesiæ_ of Fabricius,
from which, as it strikingly differs in the formation of the palpi and
antennæ, I have separated it.

I have named this insect to commemorate the exertions of Mr. Abbott, well
known as having furnished the materials for that beautiful work the
Lepidopterous Insects of Georgia, edited by Sir James Edward Smith. And
from the unpublished drawings of this zealous collector, the larva and pupa
have been figured. Mr. Abbott writes that it is a rare species in Georgia,
and feeds on the grape. The female differs not in colour from the male,
which is here represented.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 61

[Illustration]

TAMYRIS Nurscia.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 33.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _T. alis nigris, anticis suprà fasciâ centrali rufescente, infrà
    punctis duobus ad basim albidis; posticis infrà cæsiis, cinereis, basi
    nigris lineâ obsoletâ albidâ; margine nigro._

    Wings black; anterior above with a central reddish band, and two white
    basal dots beneath; posterior beneath grey and cinereous; base black
    with an obsolete white line; margin black.

       *       *       *       *       *

The marginal fringe of the lower wings in this species has a few white dots
between the nerves, and the upper surface is sprinkled or powdered in the
middle with blueish-green atoms; on the under surface of the anterior wings
the lower part of the band is orange, the upper bright rufous; and within
the black margin of the posterior wings is a large blueish spot, and two or
three whitish dots on the sides of the thorax. It seems nearest allied to
_Hesp. Celsus_ of Fabricius, which is only slightly described from Mr.
Jones's unpublished drawings.

       *       *       *       *       *

TAMYRIS Laonome._--lower figure._

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _T. alis utrinque similibus, concoloribus fuscis, margine communi
    aurantiacis; capite anoque rubris._

    Wings in both sexes alike, uniform brown, with a common margin of
    orange; head and tail red.

       *       *       *       *       *

The under surface of this insect (a female) perfectly resembles the upper:
it will approach near to _Hesp. Amiatus_ of Fabricius, which no doubt
belongs to this genus.

For both these interesting insects, not to be found in Fabricius, I am
indebted to the liberality of my friend Professor Klug, Director of the
Royal Museum at Berlin: no note accompanied them, I therefore conclude they
are undescribed, and probably inhabiting South America.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 62

[Illustration]

PSITTACUS discolor.

_Red-shouldered Parakeet._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 1.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. viridis; fronte, mento, tegminibus inferioribus, maculâ cervicali,
    lateribus et scapularibus coccineis; humeris puniceis; vertice,
    tegminibus exterioribus remigibusque violaceis; rectricibus fulvo
    marginatis._

    P. Green; front, chin, under wing-covers, and spots in the neck, flanks
    and scapulars crimson; shoulders dark-red; crown, external wing-covers,
    and lateral tail-feathers violet-blue; quills blueish-black margined
    with yellow.

    P. discolor. Red-shouldered Parakeet. _White's Voyage, pl. at p._ 263.

    La Perruche Banks. _Le Vaill, pl._ 50.

       *       *       *       *       *

This is another of the splendid little Parakeets inhabiting the forests of
New Holland; and vivid as the colouring may appear in our figure, it sinks
into dullness when compared with the bird itself. Dr. Shaw was the first
who described it in White's Voyage to New South Wales, where it is badly
represented. It has been since figured by Le Vaillant, probably from a
female or imperfect specimen, as the tail is represented by far too short,
and the colours not quite agreeing with that in my collection.

Total length eleven inches. The upper plumage bright green, tinged with
blue on the sides of the neck, lighter and yellowish beneath; the crown of
the head sapphire or violet-blue, with a crimson belt in front, and a large
patch of the same round the chin; paler spots of this colour are also in
front of the neck, breast, flanks, and under tail-covers; the under
wing-covers are deep crimson, as well as the inner shafts of some of the
lesser covers outside; the shoulders dark blood-colour; the outer
wing-covers deep-blue on the margin of the wings, gradually changing to a
vivid blue, which blends with the green. Quills black glossed with violet,
margined externally and internally with yellow. Tail near five inches long,
the middle feathers dark rufous tipped with blueish; the rest more or less
rufous at the base, and shining blue beyond. Bill and legs pale.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 63

[Illustration]

AMMODYTES.

_Sand-Lance._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Corpus gracile, teretiusculum, polyedrum, elongatum, squamis vix
    conspicuis. Labium superius duplicatum; mandibula inferior angusta,
    acuminata. Membrana branchiostega septem-radiata. Pinna dorsalis
    corpore penè æqualis, radiis simplicibus flexilibus._

Typus Genericus _Ammodytes Tobianus_. Linn.

    Body slender, roundish, many-sided, with minute scales. Upper lip
    doubled; lower jaw narrow pointed. Gill membrane seven-rayed. Dorsal
    fin nearly as long as the body, with simple flexible rays.

Generic Type _Sand-Lance_. Pennant.

    OBS. The _Ammodytes cicerelus_ of my friend Professor Rafinesque must
    be different from _A. siculus_

       *       *       *       *       *

AMMODYTES Siculus.

_Sicilian Sand-Lance._

    _A. pinnâ dorsali sinuatâ, in medio angustatâ, pone anum altiore._

    Dorsal fin sinuated, narrowed in the middle and broadest behind.

       *       *       *       *       *

Of this genus, hitherto considered as possessing only a unique example, we
were fortunate in discovering while in Sicily the new species now figured,
and which early in the year visit the coasts near Palermo and Messina in
prodigious quantities. There is no striking difference between this and _A.
Tobianus_, excepting the extraordinary shape of the dorsal fin, which is
invariably undulated and narrowed in the middle. It never grows to a size
exceeding the figure, and is usually much less; while the British species
is often found double the length. Like that, also, _A. Siculus_ has the
lateral line running close to the dorsal fin; for the fine line in the
middle of the side, as Lacepede has well observed, is that only which
connects the muscles. That author likewise mentions, that the jaws in _A.
Tobianus_ have minute teeth, but these I could never discover. The rays of
the fins are, pect. 16; dorsal 56; anal 30.

       *       *       *       *       *

AMMODYTES Tobianus.

_Common Sand-Lance__--upper figure._

       *       *       *       *       *

    _A. pinnâ dorsali lineari, æquali._

    Dorsal fin linear, equal.

    _Linn. Syst. Nat. vol._ i. _p._ 1145. _Pennant_ iv. _pl._ 28. _Bloch,
    pl._ 73. 2.

    _Lacepede_, ii. 275. _Klein Hist. Pisc. fasc._ iv. _tab._ 12. _f._ 10.

       *       *       *       *       *

This, though a very common fish, has been figured by all authors as if the
rays were spined and naked at their extremity; they are, on the contrary,
soft and connected.

It abounds at certain times on many parts of our coasts. The number of rays
stand thus: Pectoral 12; dorsal 51; anal 27.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 64

[Illustration]

MACROGLOSSUM assimile.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Antennæ subfusiformes, sursum versus sensim crassescentes, apice unco
    brevissimo gracili incurvato abruptè terminato, in maribus sub-barbatæ,
    in foeminis simplices et graciliores. Palpi porrecti, crassi, articulo
    ultimo acuto. Alæ opacæ, integræ. Abdomen crassum, barbatum._

Typus Genericus _Sphinx stellatarum_. Linn.

    Antennæ subfusiform, gradually thickest towards the end, the tip
    abruptly terminating in a very short slender incurved hook; ciliated in
    the male, simple and more slender in the female. Palpi porrected,
    thick, the last joint pointed. Wings opaque, entire. Abdomen thick,
    bearded.

Generic Type _Sphinx stellatarum_. Linn.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. alis suprà fuscis; anticis fasciis duabus obsoletis, puncto
    nigrante terminali, posticis in medio, tribus maculisque lateralibus
    abdominis aurantiacis._

    Wings brown; anterior with two darker obscure bands, and a terminal
    blackish dot; middle of the posterior wings, and three lateral spots on
    the body, orange.

       *       *       *       *       *

This genus was instituted by Scopoli many years ago, and differs
principally from _Sesia_ by having opaque wings, and from _Thyreus_ by the
very great difference in the construction of their antennæ. Many exotic
species are known, but only one is found in Europe (_Sphinx stellatarum_ of
Linn.), which likewise inhabits our own country, and to which this our
insect is very nearly allied.

Though by no means uncommon in collections, I cannot find this species
either figured or described, nor indeed am acquainted with its locality.
The under figure is of the male; the upper of the female; which differs
only in the wings being rather broader, and in having one segment in the
body less than in the other sex.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 65

[Illustration]

CONUS Augur.

_Girdled Cone._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa univalvis, turbinata, s. inversè conica, convoluta; apertura
    longitudinalis, angustata, edentata; basi effusa; spira brevissima._

Typus Genericus _Conus marmoratus_, &c. Linn.

    Shell univalve, turbinated, inversely conic, convolute; aperture
    longitudinal, narrow, not toothed; base effuse; spire very short.

Generic Type _Conus marmoratus_, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. testâ glabrâ, fulvo-albidâ, fasciis latis nigro-castaneis,
    lineisque transversis punctatis; spirâ obtusâ, convexâ, striatâ,
    depressâ._

    Shell smooth, fulvous-white, with broad dark chesnut bands and
    transverse lines of dots; spire obtuse, convex, striated, depressed.

    C. augur. _Lamarck Annal. Mus._ xv. 277. _Encycl. Méth._ 333. 6.

    Conus magus. _Gmelin_ 3392. 57. _Martini_ ii. 58. 641.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Girdled Cone is conspicuous among the beautiful shells of this
extensive family, by the broad and rich chesnut bands, which are either two
or three in number, and more or less broken into spots; in high-coloured
shells the minute lines of dots between them are also of the same colour.
It is not a common species, and inhabits the Asiatic ocean.

This is the _Conus Magus_ of Gmelin and Martini, and of our sale
catalogues: this error has originated from Gmelin having described two
distinct shells, _C. Augur_ and _C. Magus_, under the latter name.

I have not referred to Lister's figure 755. 7, being doubtful of its
affinity; and those of Martini and Bruguieres are very bad.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 66

[Illustration]

MITRA lugubris.

_White-banded Mitre._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 23.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. testâ inversè pyriformi, fuscâ; sulcis transversis intus punctatis;
    anfractibus supernè obsoletè plicatis, fasciâque albâ ornatis; labio
    exteriore tenui, margine crenatâ; columellâ 4-plicatâ; basi albâ,
    truncatâ._

    Shell inversely pear-shaped, brown, with transverse sulcated grooves,
    punctured within; volutions above obsoletely plaited and banded with
    white; outer-lip thin, margin crenated; pillar four-plaited; base
    white, truncated.

       *       *       *       *       *

We have had much difficulty in the investigation of this species: for its
characters cannot be reconciled with any of those contained in Lamarck's
Monograph of the genus in the _Annales du Museum_. With regard to the
unnamed figures in the old authors, it bears the closest resemblance to
that of _Gualtieri_, tab. 32. G, which Lamarck quotes for his _M. crocata_;
but then his description is not at all applicable to our shell; and Mr.
Dillwyn's synonyms of the Linnean _V. nodulosa_ (where he has also included
_M. crocata_), we are satisfied comprises two or even three distinct
shells.

This was named by Dr. Solander from the specimen in Mr. G. Humphrys's
collection here figured: it is exceedingly rare, and its locality unknown.
In form it resembles a _Buccinum_; the transverse grooves are broad,
strongly defined, and have large and deep excavated dots within them; the
upper part of each whorl has an appearance of irregular plaits, which makes
the suture uneven, and takes off something from the smoothness of the lower
part of the whorls, but the shell is in no way granulated.

       *       *       *       *       *

MITRA ferruginea.

_Thick-lipped Mitre._

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. testâ nubilâ, maculisque ferrugineis interstinctâ; costis
    transversis, elevatis; labio exteriore crasso, obtusè crenato;
    columellâ 4-plicatâ._

    Shell clouded and spotted with ferrugineous, with transverse elevated
    ribs; outer lip thick, obtusely crenated; pillar four-plaited.

    M. ferruginea. _Lam. Ann. du Mus. vol._ 17. _p._ 200.

    _Young._ Vol. vitulina. _Dill._ 553.--_Martini_ 4. 149. 1380 & 1.

    _Variety_ more elongated. Vol. abbatis. _Dill._ 557. _Chemnitz_ 11.
    _t._ 177. 1709 & 10.

       *       *       *       *       *

This (a common shell) can be no other than the _M. ferruginea_ of Lamarck,
though neither that author nor any other has noticed its primary
distinguishing character, that of the uncommon thickness of the outer lip
at the margin, which is also divided into convex obtuse crenations; in
young shells this is not apparent; such is Martini's figure. Mr. Dillwyn
has changed Lamarck's name to _Vitulina_ for this, and given the name of
_Abbatis_ to the variety more lengthened, figured by Chemnitz; but which,
from specimens now before us, we consider with Lamarck only as a variety,
possessing all the essential characters here given to both.

       *       *       *       *       *


GENERAL INDEX

TO

VOL. I.

IN THE ORDER OF PUBLICATION.



                             Pl. ||                                Pl.
  Psittacus Cayennensis       1  || Parakeet, Cayenne gold-winged   1
                                 ||
  Sitta frontalis             2  || Blue Nuthatch                   2
                                 ||
  Mitra zonata                3  || Zoned Mitre                     3
                                 ||
  Bulimus melastomus          4  || Black-mouthed Bulimus           4
                                 ||
  Colias Statira              5  || Colias Statira                  5
        Leachiana             6  || Leach's Colias                  6
                                 ||
  Carduelis cucullata         7  || Hooded Seed-eater               7
                                 ||
  Merops urica                8  || Javanese Bee-eater              8
                                 ||
  Helix auriculata            9  || Eared Helix                     9
                                 ||
  Strombus minimus           10  || Little Strombus                10
       variabilis            ib. || Variable do.                   ib.
                                 ||
  Drusilla Horsfieldii       11  || Drusilla Horsfieldii           11
                                 ||
  Gobius Suerii              12  || Suerian Goby                   12
                                 ||
  Platyrhynchus Ceylonensis  13  || Ceylonese Flatbill             13
                                 ||
  Picus rubiginosus          14  || Brown Woodpecker               14
                                 ||
  Licinia Melite             15  || Licinia Melite                 15
                                 ||
  Ismene Oedipodea           16  || Ismene Oedipodea               16
                                 ||
  Bulimus zonatus            17  || Zoned Bulimus                  17
                                 ||
  Mitra contracta            18  || Contracted Mitre               18
       australis             ib. || Southern do.                   ib.
                                 ||
  Tinamus Tataupa            19  || Tataupa Tinamau                19
                                 ||
  Picus Braziliensis         20  || Brazilian Woodpecker           20
                                 ||
  Procnias hirundacea        21  || Swallow Berry-eater            21
                                 ||
  Terias Elvina              22  || Terias Elvina                  22
                                 ||
  Mitra vittata              23  || Ribbon Mitre                   23
                                 ||
  Conoelix marmoratus        24  || Marbled Conoelix               24
       lineatus              ib. || Lineated do.                   ib.
       punctatus             ib. || Punctured do.                  ib.
                                 ||
  Procnias Melanocephalus    25  || Black-headed Berry-eater       25
                                 ||
  Alcedo azurea              26  || Azure Kingsfisher              26
                                 ||
  Halcyon collaris           27  || Collared Crab-eater            27
                                 ||
  Hesperia Haworthiana       28  || Haworth's Hesperia             28
                                 ||
  Mitra cancellata           29  || Contracted Mitre               29
       rigida                ib. || Ribbed do.                     ib.
                                 ||
  Achatina marginata         30  || Marginated Achatina            30
                                 ||
  Phibalura cristata         31  || Crested Shortbill              31
                                 ||
  Psaris Cuvierii            32  || Cuvier's Psaris                32
                                 ||
  Tamyris Zeleucus           33  || Tamyris Zeleucus               33
                                 ||
  Colias Godartiana          34  || Godart's Colias                34
                                 ||
  Mitra bifasciata           35  || Double-banded Mitre            35
                                 ||
  Achatina perversa          36  || Reverse Achatina               36
                                 ||
  Procnias cucullata         37  || Hooded Berry-eater             37
                                 ||
  Picus bicolor              38  || Black-and-white Woodpecker     38
                                 ||
  Hesperia Itea              39  || Hesperia Itea                  39
       Cynisca               40  ||      Cynisca                   40
                                 ||
  Achatina pallida           41  || Pale Achatina                  41
                                 ||
  Oliva Braziliana           42  || Brazilian Olive                42
                                 ||
  Melliphaga auricomis       43  || Yellow-tufted Honeysucker      43
                                 ||
  Pteroglossus sulcatus      44  || Groove-billed Aracari          44
                                 ||
  Ramphastos carinatus       45  || Carinated Toucan               45
                                 ||
  Bulimus citrinus           46  || Citron Bulimus                 46
       citrinus, _var._      47  || Reverse-banded do.             47
       aureus                ib. || Golden do.                     ib.
                                 ||
  Mitra casta                48  || Chesnut-banded Mitre           48
                                 ||
  Oxyrhynchus cristatus      49  || Crested Shortbill              49
                                 ||
  Alcedo Asiatica            50  || Asiatic Kingsfisher            50
                                 ||
  Colias Pyrene              51  || White African Colias           51
        Argante              52  || Orange Colias                  52
                                 ||
  Strombus cylindricus       53  || False scarlet Strombus         53
       Persicus              ib. || Persian do.                    ib.
                                 ||
  Mitra lyræformis           54  || Harp Mitre                     54
                                 ||
  Solen ambiguus             55  || Ambiguous Solen                55
                                 ||
  Ramphastos vitellinus      56  || Sulphur-and-white Toucan       56
                                 ||
  Unio nasutus               57  || Rostrated River Mussel         57
                                 ||
  Achatina crenata           58  || Green hair-streaked Achatina   58
                                 ||
  Psittacus Barrabandii      59  || Red-collared Parakeet          59
                                 ||
  Thyreus Abbottii           60  || Thyreus Abbottii               60
                                 ||
  Tamyris Nurscia            61  || Tamyris Nurscia                61
       Laonome               ib. ||      Laonome                   61
                                 ||
  Psittacus discolor         62  || Red-shouldered Parakeet        62
                                 ||
  Ammodytes Tobianus         63  || Common Sandlance               63
       Siculus               ib. || Sicilian Sandlance             ib.
                                 ||
  Macroglossum assimile      64  || Macroglossum assimile          64
                                 ||
  Conus Augur                65  || Girdled Cone                   65
                                 ||
  Mitra lugubris             66  || White-banded Mitre             66
       ferruginea            ib. || Thick-lipped Mitre             ib.

       *       *       *       *       *


GENERAL ALPHABETIC INDEX

OF

LATIN AND ENGLISH NAMES

TO

VOLUME I.



                                           Pl.
  Achatina, Gen. Char.                     30
    crenata                                58
    marginata                              30
    pallida                                41
    perversa                               36
    _green hair-streaked_                  58
    _marginated_                           30
    _pale_                                 41
    _reverse_                              36

  Alcedo, Gen. Char.                       26
    Asiatica                               50
    azurea                                 26

  Ammodytes, Gen. Char.                    63
    Tobianus                               ib.
    Siculus                                ib.

  _Aracari, Grooved-bill_                  44

  _Bee-eater, Javanese_                     8

  _Berry-eater, black-headed_              25
    _hooded_                               37
    _Swallow_                              21

  Bulimus, Gen. Char.                       4
    aureus                                 47
    citrinus                               46
    citrinus, _var._                       47
    melastomus                              4
    zonatus                                17
    _black-mouthed_                         4
    _Citron_                               46
    _reverse-banded do._                   47
    _golden_                               ib.
    _zoned_                                17

  Carduelis, Gen. Char.                     7
    cucullata                               7

  Colias, Gen. Char.                        5
    Argante                                52
    Godartiana                             34
    Leachiana                               6
    Pyrene                                 51
    Statira                                 5
    _Godart's_                             34
    _Leach's_                               6
    _orange_                               52
    _white African_                        51

  _Cone, girdled_                          65

  Conus, Gen. Char.                        ib.
    Augur                                  ib.

  Conoelix, Gen. Char.                     24
    lineatus                               ib.
    marmoratus                             ib.
    punctatus                              ib.
    _lineated_                             ib.
    _marbled_                              ib.
    _punctured_                            ib.

  _Crab-eater, collared_                   27

  Drusilla, Gen. Char.                     11
    Horsfieldii                            ib.

  _Flatbill, Ceylonese_                    13

  Gobius, Gen. Char.                       12
    Suerii                                 ib.

  _Goby, Suerian_                          ib.

  Halcyon, Gen. Char.                      27
    collaris                               ib.

  Helix, Gen. Char.                         9
    auriculata                             ib.
    _eared_                                ib.

  Hesperia, Gen. Char.                     28
    Cynisca                                40
    Haworthiana                            28
    Itea                                   39
    _Haworth's_                            28

  _Honeysucker, yellow-tufted_             43

  Ismene Oedipodea                         16

  _Kingsfisher, Asiatic_                   50
    _azure_                                26

  Licinia, Gen. Char.                      15
    melite                                 ib.

  Macroglossum, Gen. Char.                 64
    assimile                               ib.

  Melliphaga, Gen. Char.                   43
    auricomis                              ib.

  Merops, Gen. Char.                        8
    urica                                  ib.

  Mitra, Gen. Char.                     3, 23
    australis                              18
    bifasciata                             35
    cancellata                             29
    casta                                  48
    contracta                              18
    ferruginea                             66
    lugubris                               ib.
    lyræformis                             54
    olivæformis                            48
    rigida                                 29
    vittata                                23
    zonata                                  3
  _Mitre, contracted_                      18
    _cancellated_                          29
    _chesnut-banded_                       48
    _double do._                           35
    _Harp_                                 54
    _olive-shaped_                         48
    _ribbed_                               29
    _ribbon_                               23
    _southern_                             18
    _thick-lipped_                         66
    _white-banded_                         ib.
    _zoned_                                 3

  _Mussel, rostrated, River_               57

  _Nuthatch, blue_                          2

  Oliva, Gen. Char.                        42
    Braziliana                             ib.

  _Olive, Brazilian_                       ib.

  Oxyrhynchus, Gen. Char.                  49
    cristatus                              ib.

  _Parakeet, Cayenne gold winged_           1
    _red-shouldered_                       62
    _red-collared_                         59

  Phibalura, Gen. Char.                    31
    cristata                               ib.

  Picus, Gen. Char.                        14
    Braziliensis                           20
    bicolor                                38
    rubiginosus                            14

  Platyrhynchus, Gen. Char.                13
    Ceylonensis                            ib.

  Procnias, Gen. Char.                     21
    cucullata                              37
    hirundacea                             21
    Melanocephalus                         25

  Psaris, Gen. Char.                       32
    Cuvierii                               ib.
    _Cuvier's_                             ib.

  Psittacus, Gen. Char.                     1
    Cayennensis                            ib.
    Barrabandii                            59
    discolor                               62

  Pteroglossus, Gen. Char.                 44
    sulcatus                               ib.

  Ramphastos, Gen. Char.                   45
    carinatus                              ib.
    vitellinus                             56

  Sand-lance, common                       63
    Sicilian                               ib.

  _Seed-eater, hooded_                      7

  _Sharp-bill, crested_                    49

  _Short-bill, crested_                    31

  Sitta, Gen. Char.                         2
    frontalis                              ib.

  Solen, Gen. Char.                        55
    ambiguus                               ib.
    _ambiguous_                            ib.

  Strombus, Gen. Char.                     10
    cylindricus                            53
    minimus                                10
    Persicus                               53
    variabilis                             10
    _little_                               10
    _false scarlet_                        53
    _Persian_                              ib.
    _variable_                             10

  Tamyris, Gen. Char.                      33
    Laonome                                61
    Nurscia                                61
    Zeleucus                               33

  Terias, Gen. Char.                       22
    Elvina                                 ib.

  Thyreus, Gen. Char.                      60
    Abbottii                               ib.

  Tinamus, Gen. Char.                      19
    Tataupa                                ib.

  _Tinamou Tataupa_                        ib.

  _Toucan, carinated_                      45
    _sulphur-and-white_                    56

  Unio, Gen. Char.                         57
    nasutus                                ib.

  _Woodpecker, brown_                      14
    _black-and-white_                      38
    _Brazilian_                            20

       *       *       *       *       *


SYSTEMATIC INDEX.

       *       *       *       *       *

VERTEBROSA.

PART I.

       *       *       *       *       *

_ORNITHOLOGY._

                               Pl.

  PSARIS Cuvierii              32

  PROCNIAS hirundacea          21
    melanocephalus             25
    cucullata                  37

  PHIBALURA cristata           31

  PLATYRHYNCHUS Ceylonensis    13

  CARDUELIS cucullata           7

  PTEROGLOSSUS sulcatus        44

  RAMPHASTOS carinatus         45
    vitellinus                 56

  PSITTACUS Cayennensis         1
    Barrabandii                59
    discolor                   62

  SITTA frontalis               2

  PICUS rubiginosus            14
    Braziliensis               20
    bicolor                    38

  OXYRHYNCUS cristatus         49

  MELIPHAGA auricomis          43

  MEROPS urica                  8

  ALCEDO azurea                26
    Asiatica                   50

  HALCYON collaris             27

  TINAMUS Tataupa              19

_ICHTHYOLOGY._

  GOBIUS Suerii                12

  AMMODYTES Tobianus           63
    Siculus                    ib.

       *       *       *       *       *


SYSTEMATIC INDEX.

       *       *       *       *       *

ENTOMOLOGY.

PART I.

       *       *       *       *       *

_DIURNES._

                               Pl.
  COLIAS Statira                5
    Leachiana                   6
    Godartiana                 34
    Pyrene                     51
    Argante                    52

  LICINIA Melite               15

  TERIAS Elvina                22

  DRUSILLA Horsfieldii         11

  HESPERIA Haworthiana         28
    Itea                       39
    cynisca                    40

  TAMYRIS Zeleucus             33
    Nurscia                    61
    Laonome                    ib.

  ISMENE Oedipodia             16

_CREPUSCULARES._

  THYREUS Abbottii             60

  MACROGLOSSUM assimile        64

       *       *       *       *       *


SYSTEMATIC INDEX.

       *       *       *       *       *

CONCHOLOGY.

PART I.

       *       *       *       *       *

_GASTEROPODES_ (Univalves).

                               Pl.
  HELIX auriculata              9

  BULIMUS melastomus            4
    zonatus                    17
    citrinus                   46
    do. _var._                 47
    aureus                     ib.

  ACHATINA marginata           30
    perversa                   36
    pallida                    41
    crenata                    58

  OLIVA Braziliana             42

  CONUS Augur                  65

  CONOELIX marmoratus          24
    lineatus                   ib.
    punctatus                  ib.

  MITRA zonata                  3
    contracta                  18
    Australis                  ib.
    vittata                    23
    cancellata                 29
    rigida                     ib.
    bifasciata                 35
    casta                      48
    olivæformis                ib.
    lyræformis                 54
    lugubris                   66
    ferruginea                 ib.

  STROMBUS minimus             10
    variabilis                 ib.
    cylindricus                53
    Persicus                   ib.

_ACÉPHALES_ (Bivalves).

  UNIO nasutus                 57

  SOLEN ambiguus               55

       *       *       *       *       *


ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.

  Pl. 2. line 6, _for_ Setaceisi numbentibus _read_ setaceis incumbentibus.
             4, between _postico_ and _interior_ insert _digitus_.
                _for_ minor _read_ minimus.
             6, _for_ "postico maximo" _read_ "posticus maximus."
            17, _for_ aures lilacinæ _read_ auribus lilacinis.
                erase Orthorynchus frontalis, Horsfield in Linn. Trans.
                second side line 10, cancel.

  --  5.  -- 4, _for_ nudam et truncatam _read_ nudum et truncatum.

  --  7.  -- 6, _for_ utrinsecus _read_ utrinque.
              6 from the bottom, _for_ dulleron _read_ duller on.
              3 from the bottom, _for_ oi _read_ on.
            14, _between_ tectrices _and_ remigibus _insert_ a comma.

  --  8.  -- 6, _for_ Horsfeild _read_ Horsfield, and wherever this occurs.

  -- 11.  -- 5, _for_ articulis _read_ articulos.
                second side, 10 lines from the bottom, _for_ Hipparchiæ
                   _read_ Hipparchidæ.

  -- 13. -- 16, _for_ claws _read_ toes.

  -- 17.  -- 6, _for_ basilari _read_ basali.

  -- 20.        Add to the synonyms. _P. Braziliensis, Swains. in Wern.
                  Trans._ 3. _p._ 291.

  -- 21.         OBS. MM. Temminck and Lagier had just before us, and
                   without our knowledge, published this bird under the
                   name of Procnias Ventralis, (Pl. 5.) by which name in
                   right of priority it should stand in the system.

  -- 25.         _for_ Fruit-eater _read_ Berry-eater.

  -- 27.   -- 6, _for_ inferiorum _read_ inferiorem.

  -- 31.  -- 18, _for_ variegato _read_ variegatâ.
                 _after_ furcata _dele_ the comma.
             19, _after_ chalybeis _insert_ a comma.

  -- 32.   -- 6, _for_ adunca _read_ adunco.

  -- 33.   -- 1, Add to the synonyms _Hesp. Zeleucus_. OBS. _Donovan's
                   Indian Insects_, where that author has figured it by
                   mistake as a native of India.

  -- 35.         Add to the synonyms, Seba Pl. 49. fig. 21, 22, 41.

  -- 36.         for ACHATINIA read ACHATINA.
          -- 6 and 7, _for_ columella margine _read_ columella margineque.

  -- 41.         OBS. another specimen of A. pallida quite agreeing with
                   this, is in Mr. Dubois' cabinet.

  -- 42.   -- 6, _for_ base _read_ basi.
                 next page, line 12, _dele_ "and Cimbium (Melons)".

  -- 45.   -- 4, _after_ maxillæ _insert_ angulo.

  -- 46.         in the Latin specific character _for_ "basi rotundato"
                   _read_ "basi subcontracto," and in the English _for_
                   "rounded" _read_ "slightly contracted at the base."

  -- 46.   -- 3, on the back page _for_ Broederip _read_ Broderip.

  -- 47.         OBS. BULIMUS _aureus_, in Mr. Spurrett's valuable cabinet
                   is another specimen of this shell minutely agreeing with
                   that here described.

  -- 49.   -- 6, _for_ supr arotundatâ _read_ supra rotundatâ.

  -- 50.         OBS. This bird Dr. Horsfield tells me is his _Alcedo
                   meninting_ described in the Linn. Transactions.

  -- 53.         2d line from the bottom, _for_ where _read_ were.

  -- 63.         OBS. The _Ammodytes cicerelus_ of my friend Professor
                   Rafinesque must be different from _A. siculus_, as he
                   makes no mention in his figure or description of the
                   peculiarity of the dorsal fin.

  -- 64.         _for_ M. assimilis _read_ M. assimile.

       *       *       *       *       *


NOTES

[1] _Horæ Entomologicæ_, by W. S. MacLeay, Esq. M.A. of Trinity College,
Cambridge. London, 1819. A work which for acuteness of reasoning and
profound research, has never been equalled either in this, or perhaps in
any other country.

[2] It is truly grievous in those which are privileged to possess
themselves of the works of their countrymen, however expensive, at free
cost, and thus to inflict a ruinous fine on authors. Thus--National
Institutions, founded for the encouragement of learning, are made to
oppress and impoverish its followers.

[3] Were it necessary at this time of day to point out the unnatural
separation of shells intimately connected with each other, which the
Linnæan arrangement presents, it would be sufficient to observe, that the
genus _Bulimus_ is formed of shells scattered in the old genera of _Turbo_,
_Helix_, and _Bulla_: thus we see in Mr. Dillwyn's Catalogue, the large
pink-mouthed African land-snail put in the same genus with our English
_Bulla lignaria_, and _aperta_; the one inhabiting the depths of forests,
and the others the depths of ocean!





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