Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Zoological Illustrations, Volume II - or Original Figures and Descriptions of New, Rare, or - Interesting Animals
Author: Swainson, William
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Zoological Illustrations, Volume II - or Original Figures and Descriptions of New, Rare, or - Interesting Animals" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Transcriber's note: The listed Addenda & Corrigenda have been applied.

       *       *       *       *       *


Zoological Illustrations,

OR

ORIGINAL FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS

OF

NEW, RARE, OR INTERESTING

ANIMALS,

SELECTED CHIEFLY FROM THE CLASSES OF

Ornithology, Entomology, and Conchology,

AND ARRANGED ON THE PRINCIPLES OF

CUVIER AND OTHER MODERN ZOOLOGISTS.

       *       *       *       *       *

BY

WILLIAM SWAINSON, F.R.S., F.L.S.,

MEMBER OF THE WERNERIAN SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH, ETC.

       *       *       *       *       *

VOL. II.

       *       *       *       *       *

London:

PRINTED BY JAMES MOYES, GREVILLE STREET;

FOR BALDWIN, CRADOCK, AND JOY, PATERNOSTER-ROW;
AND W. WOOD, STRAND.

       *       *       *       *       *

1821-2.

       *       *       *       *       *


TO

SIR JAMES EDWARD SMITH, M. D.

FOUNDER AND PRESIDENT OF

THE LINNÆAN SOCIETY OF LONDON,

FELLOW OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY, AND MEMBER OF THE
PRINCIPAL SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES BOTH IN
EUROPE AND AMERICA,

THE FIRST AND SECOND VOLUMES

OF

Zoological Illustrations

ARE DEDICATED,

AS A SMALL, BUT SINCERE TRIBUTE TO THE EMINENT TALENTS OF

THE PHILOSOPHER,

AND THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF

THE MAN.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 67

[Illustration]

HALCYON cinnamominus,

_Cinnamon Crabeater._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 26.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _H. cæruleo viridis; pileo, collo, plumisque totis subtùs pallidè
    cinnamominis; auribus viridibus; nuchâ torque nigro gracili ornatâ._

    Blue-green; upper part of the head, neck, and all beneath, pale
    cinnamon colour; ears green; round the nape a slender black collar.

       *       *       *       *       *

As far as I can ascertain, this beautifully coloured bird is quite new, and
hitherto undescribed. It is in the possession of Mr. Leadbeater, of Brewer
Street, by whom it was received from New Zealand; and who gave me the
opportunity of now publishing the accompanying figure and description.

The two extreme points of difference in the Linnæan kingfishers, are seen
in the _Alcedo Ispida_, and _A. gigantea_; the last of which has been made
into the genus _Dacelo_. It will, nevertheless, be found, that from among
the birds left in the old genus, there are a great number, (of which,
indeed, this bird is a striking example,) which are much nearer allied to
_Dacelo_ than to _Alcedo_, where they now stand. It will appear, therefore,
more natural to consider _Halcyon_ and _Dacelo_ as one genus--which may be
called by either name, but which must be distinguished by the characters
herein given to _Halcyon_, inasmuch as the generic definition of _Dacelo_
(founded on one bird) will be found too restricted to comprehend all.

Total length ten inches; bill two and a half from the gape, and one and a
half from the nostrils; the tip of the upper mandible with a slight
inclination downwards, and with an appearance of a notch; the whole head,
neck, and under plumage, of a delicate fawn colour; under wing covers the
same; the remaining upper plumage, with the wings and tail, changeable blue
green; ears sea green and dusky, united to a narrow black nuchal collar;
wings four inches long, and the tail, which is even, three and a quarter;
the hind head is slightly crested, and the feet pale brown.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 68

[Illustration]

POGONIAS rubrifrons,

_Red-fronted Toothbill._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum mediocre, crassum, validum, basi latiore quam altiore,
    vibrissis longis incumbentibus tectâ, lateribus ultra basin compressis,
    culmine arcuato, subcarinato; mandibulæ superioris margine dentibus 1
    vel 2 armato, mandibulæ inferioris marginem obtegente. Nares
    approximantes, parvæ, rotundæ, per rostri basin perforatæ. Pedes
    scansorii, digitis posticis versatilibus._

Typus Genericus _Bucco Dubius_ Lath.

    Bill moderate, thick, strong, the base broader than high, with long
    incumbent bristles, the sides beyond compressed, the top arched, and
    slightly carinated; upper mandible with one or two strong teeth on each
    side, the margin folding over that of the lower mandible; nostrils
    approximating, small, round, perforated through the base of the bill.
    Feet scansorial. Hind toe versatile.

Generic Type _Doubtful Barbut_ Lath.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. niger; sincipite juguloque rubris; alis et caudâ fuscis; tegminum
    margine externo albo, remigum fulvo._

    Glossy black; forepart of the head and throat red; wings and tail
    brown; external margin of the covers white, and of the quills yellow.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Linnæan Barbuts, comprehended by Latham under one genus, contain three
distinct groups of birds; which, from their peculiar characters, no less
than their geographic position, have now received generic distinctions. The
first of these (which are still retained under the old genus,) are natives
of Asia; the next in affinity were first characterized by Illiger under the
name of _Pogonias_, and are distributed on the African continent; while the
prototype genus in America is _Tamatia_ (Cuvier), in which continent not
any of the two preceding have been found: thus each quarter of the globe
lying within the tropics have their corresponding groups of a family,
possessing a general, but at the same time an individuality of character.

I am obliged to Mr. Leadbeater for the opportunity of figuring this new and
rare species, which he believes to have come from Sierra Leone. Its total
length was six inches; the under-covers of the wings white; the tail two
inches long, the feathers broad and even.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 69

[Illustration]

THECLA Galathea,

_Red-bordered Hair-streak._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Antennæ clavo elongato, compresso, obtuso terminatæ. Palpi exserti,
    recti, approximantes, squamis obtecti, imberbes, articulo ultimo nudo,
    gracili, acuto. Oculi semicirculares. Alæ anticæ trigonæ; posticæ
    dentatæ, caudatæ, lobo ad angulum analem obtuso, concavo, quem sedentes
    vibrant, instructæ. Thorax validus. Abdomen gracile._

Typus Genericus _Papilio Betulæ, &c._ Lin.

    Antennæ ending in a lengthened, compressed, and obtuse club. Palpi
    exserted, approximating, covered with scales, but without hairs, the
    last joint naked, slender, acute. Eyes semi-circular. Anterior wings
    trigonal, the hinder dentated, generally tailed, with an obtuse concave
    lobe at their anal angle, which is generally in motion when the insect
    is at rest. Thorax strong; body slender.

Generic Type _Papilio Betulæ, &c._ Lin.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _T. alis fuscis, colore violaceo nitidis, posticis caudatis, margine
    rubro, subtus maculo nigro lunulâque rubrâ ornatis; lobo anali suprà
    ærato, subtus nigro._

    Wings brown, glossed with violet; posterior tailed, with a red margin,
    beneath with a black spot and red lunule, anal lobe above bronzed,
    beneath black.

       *       *       *       *       *

The beautiful little Butterflies included by Fabricius in this genus, are
scattered over all parts of the world, but are most numerous within the
tropics, and particularly in South America, for in Brazil alone I collected
near 120 species. They are an obvious and very natural family, though the
species are as yet but little understood, and not one half of them
described. I have observed a singular peculiarity in a great many of these
insects, which is, that when they are at rest in the sun, the lower wings
are constantly in a quick vibrating motion up and down, as if the insect
was rubbing them together, more particularly where the two lobes (or obtuse
tails) of the under wings meet, though what purpose this is intended to
accomplish remains unknown.

The upper surface of the wings in the greatest number of the _Hair streaks_
(as they are aptly called by English collectors) are of various shades of
vivid blue, so that the species can only be ascertained from the under
markings, which are usually very striking and delicate: they are all of a
small size.

This is an African species, and both sexes are in the cabinet of my friend
Mr. Haworth.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 70

[Illustration]

CONUS terebra,

_Screw Cone._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 65.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. cylindraceo-elongatus, albidus, striis transversis elevatis,
    fasciisque binis flavescentibus, spirâ crassâ obtusâ._ Lam.

    Cylindric elongated; whitish, with two yellowish bands, and transverse
    elevated striæ; spire thick, obtuse.

    Conus Terebellum. _Gmelin_, p. 3390. 44. (omitting the varieties).
    _Martini_ 2. _tab._ 52. _fig._ 577. _Seba_, 42. _fig._ 13. (uncoated).
    _Ency. Meth._ 339. _fig._ 1.

    Conus Terebra. _Lamarck._ _Annal. du Mus._ vol. xv. p. 427. _no._ 144.
    _Var._ A, without bands.

    _Ency. Methodique_, 339. _fig._ 2.

       *       *       *       *       *

Though this is not an uncommon Shell, it is rarely seen so large as that
now represented from the cabinet of Mrs. Bolton of Storrs. Of this
extensive genus Lamarck has written a valuable account in the Annals of the
French Museum, where he has rightly pointed out the mistake of Gmelin in
placing as varieties of this species, one or two other very distinct
shells: the colour of the bands is not always certain, for I have seen
specimens in which they were of a dark brown; but the very thick spire, and
slender form of the body whirl, with the distant, regular, and greatly
elevated striæ, render it a species not easily mistaken, though in general
form it comes very near to _C. nussatella_, and two or three others; the
spiral volutions are deeply concave, and the tip and base tinged with
violet.

It is a native of the Indian seas.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 71

[Illustration]

STROMBUS mutabilis,

_Little pink-mouthed Strombus._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 10.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _S. anfractu basali nodoso; spirâ brevi tantum non lævi; lineâ sulcatâ
    suturæ parallelâ; labio exteriore supra gibbo, margine recto, interiore
    crasso, cum exteriore striato; aperturâ pallidè rubicundâ, basi
    truncatâ._

    Basal whirl nodulous; spire short, nearly smooth, with a sulcated line
    parallel with the suture; outer lip above gibbous, the margin straight;
    inner lip thick, both striated; aperture flesh colour; base truncated.

    _Seba_, _tab._ 61. _fig._ 26 & 27, 32 & 33, 54. _tab._ 62. _fig._ 42 &
    43? _Martini_ 3. _tab._ 77, 799. _fig._ 78, 807. _Knorr._ 2, 14. _fig._
    3. _Rump._ 37. W.

       *       *       *       *       *

The specific distinction given by Linnæus to _Strombus urceus_ is so loose,
that his followers have referred all the small species of this genus to the
numerous varieties he has quoted, though few will doubt that many permanent
species have been thus overlooked; among these the one now characterized is
an example, the most striking distinctions of which are in the spire being
never plaited, and always much shorter than the mouth, which latter is
either nearly white, or of a flesh colour; in its external colouring no two
specimens will be found alike. It is not an uncommon shell from the East
Indies, and seldom grows larger than the figure.

       *       *       *       *       *

STROMBUS dilatatus,

_Winged Strombus--middle figures._

       *       *       *       *       *

_S. testâ transversè striatâ; spirâ mediocri, plicis numerosis gracilibus;
labio exteriore dilatato, rotundato, crassissimo, reflexo; interiore suprà
crassescente, medio lævi; aperturâ striatâ._

Shell transversely striated; spire moderate, with slender numerous plaits;
outer lip dilated, rounded, very thick, and reflected; inner lip thickened
above, smooth in the middle; aperture striated.

       *       *       *       *       *

An undescribed species, and of the greatest rarity, for I have never seen
any other specimen, than one in my own cabinet, although perfect in form,
it is obviously faded in colour; yet it is too remarkable to be mistaken
for any other of this interesting family, which requires so much
illustration.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 72

[Illustration]

POGONIAS hirsutus,

_Hairy-breasted Toothbill._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 68.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. supra fuscus, maculis sulphureis, subtus sulphureus maculis nigris
    interstinctus, capite juguloque nigris; pectoris plumis elongatis,
    pilis setaceis terminatis._

    Above brown, spotted with sulphur; beneath sulphureous, with black
    spots; head and chin black; feathers of the breast lengthened, and
    ending in long setaceous hairs.

       *       *       *       *       *

I have before observed, that this genus of birds was first characterized
under the name of _Pogonias_, by Illiger, in 1811; some years after (1815),
M. Vieillot changed the name to _Pogonia_, without taking any notice of
Illiger's denomination, and Dr. Leach has followed Vieillot without
probably being aware of the plagiarism; Vieillot's name must, however, be
expunged, as Mr. Brown has some time back affixed the name of _Pogonia_ to
a remarkable genus of plants.

Total length about seven inches; bill blueish black, one inch two lines
long, and large in proportion; the tooth in the middle very prominent;
behind the eye is a short white stripe, and another much longer begins from
the under mandible, and goes half way down the neck; the chin and part of
the throat, together with the head and neck above, deep black, which
changes to a dark brown on the back, wings, covers, and tail; a small round
sulphur spot is on the tip of each feather of the hind head, back, and
lesser wing covers; the quills pale brown, margined with sulphur; the under
plumage is greenish sulphur, closely spotted with blackish; the most
extraordinary peculiarity of this bird consists in the feathers of the
breast, which are more rigid than the others, pointed, and the shaft of the
lower ones ending in fine incurved setaceous hairs, many of which are near
an inch long. The probable use this particular formation is intended for,
it is impossible to conjecture.

Mr. B. Leadbeater, to whom I am often obliged for the inspection of rare
subjects, received this from Africa, and it is the only individual of the
species I ever heard of.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 73

[Illustration]

PSITTACUS pulchellus,

_Turcosine Parrakeet._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 1.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. macrourus, suprà viridis, subtùs fulvus; sincipite, genis,
    tegminibusque cyaneis, remigibus cæruleis; rectricibus lateralibus
    fulvis._

    Long-tailed Parrakeet, green above; yellow beneath; forepart of the
    head, cheeks, and wing covers light blue; quills deep blue; lateral
    tail feathers yellow.

    _Shaw, Naturalist's Misc._ 3. _pl._ 96. _Latham, Suppl._ 2. _p._ 88.
    _no._ 14.

    _La Perruche Edwards, Le Vaillant_, _pl._ 68. (female). _Gen. Zool._ 8,
    470.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is impossible to represent this superbly coloured little creature in its
full beauty, though the figure will not be found very defective. The only
representation of the male is in the Naturalist's Miscellany, where it
cannot be recognized, and Le Vaillant's is of the female, which differs
considerably from the other sex. It is a rare species, and peculiar to New
Holland.

Length nine inches, with the tail, which is near four inches and a half;
the upper part of the plumage olive green, not so bright as is usual in
this tribe; the front of the head is a most brilliant turcosine blue, which
spreads on the cheeks, nearly to the ears, and then mixes with the green;
the shoulders and lesser wing covers of the same colour, graduating to a
deep mazarine blue on the greater covers, spurious wings, and quill
feathers, which latter are all deep black beneath, as well as on their
interior shafts; at the base of the shoulders is a large irregular patch of
dull red, partially hid by the scapulars; the under plumage is yellow,
tinged with olive on the throat and breast, and verging towards orange on
the belly; tail feathers narrow and pointed, mostly green, with the inner
shafts blueish, and margined with black; the three outer on each side
nearly yellow, the next tipt only with that colour; under the wings
brilliant blue, the greater covers and quills deep black; bill very small;
upper mandible without a notch, and blackish; lower very convex, and, with
the legs, flesh colour.

The female figured by Le Vaillant is much less brilliant in all its
colours, and without the red mark on the shoulders.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 74

[Illustration]

ACHATINA fasciata,

_Chesnut-banded Achatina._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 30.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. testâ albâ fasciis latis lineisque castaneis ornatâ; spirâ
    elongatâ, crassescente; labio interiore semi-circulari, intus depresso;
    columellâ truncatâ, emarginatâ._

    Shell white, with broad chesnut bands and lines; spire elongated,
    thickened; inner lip semi-circular, depressed within; columella
    truncated, emarginate.

    Bulla fasciata. _Gmelin_ 3430, 25. _Martini_ 9. _tab._ 117, 1004 to 6.

    _Lister_ 12, 7. _Seba_, _tab._ 39. _fig._ 62 to 74. _Gualtieri_, _tab._
    6. _fig._ C.

       *       *       *       *       *

Having figured two or three species allied to this shell, it appears
advisable to subjoin a more particular notice of it, and to point out those
characters by which it may be detected through its numerous variations:
this has been endeavoured in the specific character now formed, and appears
to rest principally on the inner lip, which is always semicircular, down
which, if closely examined inside, there is a depression as if it had been
pared down with a knife; the base of the pillar also is so strongly
truncated as to appear notched, and the broadest part of the mouth is
always in the middle; these characters have been very ill attended to in
all the figures above quoted, of which Seba gives no less than eleven,
which vary only in the disposition and number of their bands.

Gualtieri's figure at _tab._ 6. _fig._ D, is an admirable representation of
_A. pallida_, which, not having his work before me at the time, I could not
quote; the other at C is a very good one of the present shell. The upper
drawing is from one in my own cabinet; the lower is in the possession of
Mr. C. Dubois, who is continually adding to his fine and valuable
collection.

It is almost unnecessary to contradict the opinion of some writers who have
fancied this a _fresh-water_ shell. It is not uncommon, but seldom seen in
perfection.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 75

[Illustration]

NATICA spadicea,

_Banded Natica._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa subglobosa seu ovalis, umbilicata. Spira depressa, brevissima.
    Columella umbilici medio terminans. Apertura semiorbicularis, operculo
    corneo vel testaceo clausa. Animal marinum, pede maximo; oculis ad
    basin duorum tentaculorum simplicium positis._

Typus Genericus _Nerita Glaucina_ Pennant.

    Shell nearly globose, or oval, umbilicated. Spire depressed, very
    small. Columella terminating in the middle of the umbilicus. Aperture
    semi-circular, operculum either horny or testaceous. Animal marine,
    with a large foot; the eyes placed at the base of two simple tentacula.

Generic Type _Nerita Glaucina_ Pennant, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _N. testâ sub-globosâ, fuscâ, albo fulvoque fasciatâ, juxta suturam
    striatâ; labio exteriore suprà leviter emarginato; umbilico magno,
    aperto; columellâ obsoletè terminante._

    Shell sub-globose, striated near the suture, brown, banded with white
    and fulvous; outer lip above slightly emarginate; umbilicus large,
    open; pillar termination nearly obsolete.

    _Martini_ 5. _pl._ 187. _fig._ 1872 _&_ 3. _fig._ 1874 & 5? _pl._ 188.
    _fig._ 1896, 8 _&_ 9.

    _Seba_, _pl._ 38. _fig._ 66. _pl._ 41. _fig._ 14, 15.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Shells of this genus are composed of such of the Linnæan _Nerits_ as
are umbilicated, from which latter they essentially differ, both in the
organization of the animal and the construction of the shell, which is
either closed by a shelly or horny operculum.

The species are numerous, and are found both in temperate and tropical
seas; two or three inhabit our own coasts, but by far the greater number
are found in the Asiatic Ocean. They are subject to variation in their
colour; and this, joined with a general resemblance in form, has rendered
the discrimination of the species very difficult. I have, however,
remarked, that the various modifications of the umbilicus, and the
termination of the pillar (which is indicated in many species by an
elevated ridge or rib within the umbilicus) is a certain and constant
indication, presenting the same peculiarity through all the individuals of
a species, even in the young state. This termination of the pillar has been
mistaken for the inner lip, which, on the contrary, is always above the
umbilicus, which, if closed, is not closed by the lip, but by the thickened
termination of the pillar or columella.

The two most striking varieties are here figured of this species, which is
sufficiently described in the specific character. I believe it is found
both in the Mediterranean and Red Seas.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 76

[Illustration]

MEROPS Savignii,

_Black-capped Bee-eater._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 8.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. viridis, subtus albescens, uropygio caudâque cæruleis; vertice,
    strigâ oculari, fasciâque latâ collari nigris; mento, superciliisque
    albis; rectricibus mediis elongatis._

    Green; beneath whitish; rump and tail blue; crown of the head, eye
    stripe, and broad band across the neck, black; chin and eye-brows
    white; two middle tail feathers lengthened.

       *       *       *       *       *

This Bird was pointed out to me by Professor Temminck as described by Le
Vaillant in his work on this family, under the name here given; on this
authority, therefore, I have been obliged to rest, for I have in vain
turned over the catalogues of all the public libraries in the metropolis,
in the hope of seeing the work, and ascertaining the fact. The book is
modern, and, though expensive, one of standard excellence; but a princely
fortune is necessary to purchase such a library as a student should have
access to.

Total length eight inches and a half; size rather less than the common
bee-eater; the crown in young birds is greenish, in some a dull brown, and
in others deep black, margined in the front and sides of the head with a
line of white; the ears black, uniting to a broad band across the neck of
the same colour, which is margined on the lower part with beautiful sea
blue; the nape of the neck, inner covers, and quill feathers, greenish fawn
colour; the lesser quills tipt with black; the rump, tail, and outside of
the quills next the body changeable greenish blue; the back and upper
covers green beneath; the chin is white; the body tinged with greenish, and
the under tail covers with blue: the tail three inches long, and in such
specimens as have the two middle feathers lengthened, three and a half;
bill and feet black.

Inhabits Sierra Leone, and other parts of Africa.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 77

[Illustration]

BOTIS,

_Gauze-wing._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Antennæ setaceæ. Alæ trigonæ, insecto sedente, cum corpore triangulum
    subhorizontale efficientes, superiores margine externo recto. Palpi
    quatuor exserti. Lingua conspicua._ Latreille, _Gen. Ins._ 4. p. 229.

Typus Genericus _Ph. Urticata_ Lin. &c.

    Antennæ setaceous. Wings trigonal, forming a nearly horizontal angle
    with the body when the insect is at rest. The outer margin of the
    anterior wings straight. Palpi four, exserted. Tongue conspicuous.

Generic Type _Ph. Urticata_ Lin. &c.

    Botys. _Latreille._

       *       *       *       *       *

BOTIS marginata,

_Pink-margined Gauze-wing._

       *       *       *       *       *

    _B. alis hyalinis, stramineis, apicibus margineque flexuoso
    rubro-purpureis._

    Wings hyaline; pale fulvous; the margins and tips with a waved reddish
    purple border.

    P. Marginata. _Cramer_, _pl._ 400. I.--P. Simiata. _Fab. Ent. Sys._ 3.
    208.

       *       *       *       *       *

There appears no end to the immense number of species referrible to this
genus, which will perhaps be found the most extensive tropical group of all
the Linnæan _Phalænidæ._ Of these, near eighty species I found in Brazil;
Dr. Horsfield has brought a great many from Java; near fifty are found in
North America, and I have little doubt that the whole number existing in
the cabinets which I have inspected may amount to about three hundred and
fifty. The thorough investigation of these is a work of no ordinary labour;
and, until this is done, it appears most advisable to let the generic
distinction remain, as given by Latreille, though there can be no doubt
that among them distinct groups will be detected.

Cramer's figure will not indicate even the genus, and Fabricius describes
the body as white; the tip ferruginous; in this it is yellow, tipped with
red.

Mr. Haworth obliged me with this insect, which Fabricius notes as African.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOTIS bicolor,

_Black and White Gauze-wing._

       *       *       *       *       *

    _B. alis anticis fuscis, punctis duabus angulatis transversis albis;
    posticis ad basin albis._

    Anterior wings, brown, with two transverse angulated white spots;
    posterior white at the base.

       *       *       *       *       *

From the same collection as the preceding; the margin of the thorax and
body are white. I apprehend it is an American species, which is distinct
from any figured by Cramer, the principal author on the Exotic Lepidoptera.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 78

[Illustration]

PICUS affinis,

_Golden-naped Woodpecker._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 14.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. supra aureo-fuscus, subtus pallidus, fasciis nigris transversis
    ornatus; capite (in maribus) rubro; nuchâ colloque supra aureis;
    tectricibus secundis fulvo maculatis; caudâ nigrâ, fasciis fulvis
    ornatâ._

    Above, orange brown; beneath, pale, with transverse black stripes; head
    (in the male) red; nape and neck, above, golden yellow; lesser wing
    covers with yellowish spots; tail black, with yellowish bands.

       *       *       *       *       *

Ornithologists have either entirely overlooked this bird, or have slightly
noticed it as a variety of _Picus icterocephalus_, the golden-headed
Woodpecker, from which it is nevertheless quite distinct.

Total length near seven inches; bill blackish horn colour, and one inch
long from the gape; the feathers on the upper part of the head are short
and pointed; the tips bright red; the base black; on the hind head they are
longer, and change to a bright golden yellow, which spreads round the nape;
the ear feathers and front of the head are greyish brown, striped down the
middle with whitish, and in some there is an appearance of a whitish line
over the eye, joining the nape. The upper parts of the body and wings are
of a rich golden brown, with indistinct brighter spots; the lesser wing
covers have a whitish spot at the top of each, forming two bands; quills on
the inner shaft black, with white spots. Under plumage grey, tinged on the
breast with rufous, and banded with brownish black; tail short, black, with
interrupted transverse bands of obscure olive.

The female has the head blackish, the feathers tipt with dull white; the
ears darker; the plumage above more olive, the spots brighter, and the
bands on the body grey, paler, and more indistinct than in the male. The
feet in both sexes are greenish, and the wings three inches and a half
long.

It inhabits Brasil, but is not common; I found it both in the Province of
Bahia, and that of Rio de Janeiro.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 79

[Illustration]

NATICA mustelina,

_Belted Natica_--_upper figures_.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 75.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _N. testâ subglobosâ, mustelinâ concolore, obsoletè rugatâ, fasciâ
    levatâ basin cingente; spirâ depressâ, apice acuto; umbilico magno,
    aperto; columellæ basi gracili, levatâ._

    Shell sub-globose, uniform, fulvous-brown, obsoletely wrinkled, base
    with an elevated belt; spire depressed, the tip acute; umbilicus large,
    open; pillar termination slender, elevated, and central.

       *       *       *       *       *

The elevated belt at the base affords an excellent distinction to this
species. The specimen in my cabinet is the only one I have seen. Locality
unknown.

       *       *       *       *       *

NATICA sordida,

_Brown Natica--middle figures._

       *       *       *       *       *

    _N. testâ subglobosâ, fused, spirâ prominente; aperturâ intus
    fusco-purpureâ; umbilico parvo, labio interiore paululùm tecto;
    columellâ obsoletè terminante._

    Shell sub-globose, brown; spire prominent; aperture within purplish
    brown; umbilicus small, partially covered by the inner lip; pillar
    termination obsolete.

       *       *       *       *       *

This Shell is both undescribed and apparently unfigured; the spire is more
elevated than usual; the umbilicus small; and the termination of the pillar
not seen: it is not uncommon, and is often much larger than here
represented, but I am unacquainted with its locality. The little decision
in the figures given by authors of these shells, renders it hazardous to
quote them with certainty.

       *       *       *       *       *

NATICA melastoma,

_Black-mouthed Natica--lower figures._

       *       *       *       *       *

    _N. testâ depressâ, fuscâ; spirâ complanatâ minimâ; ore intus
    atro-purpureo; umbilico magno, clauso labio interiore rufo._

    Shell depressed, brown; spire flattened, very small; mouth within
    purplish black; umbilicus large, closed up by the inner lip, which is
    rufous.

       *       *       *       *       *

In colour this bears a close resemblance to the last, but the shell is
flattened beneath, and the spire very short and depressed; the umbilicus
large, but, in general, quite closed up by the thickness of the pillar,
united to the inner lip. In some specimens a narrow crescent-shaped groove
is left on the outside margin. Its habitat is unknown.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 80

[Illustration]

HALIOTIS Californiensis,

_Small-holed Californian Ear-shell._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa univalvis, depressissima, lata, auriformis. Discus admodum
    perforatus. Spira minuta, depressa. Apertura testam magnitudine penè
    æquans, intus margaritifera._

Typus Genericus _H. Tuberculata_ Linn. &c.

    Shell univalve, greatly depressed, broad, ear-shaped, the disk with
    many perforations. Spire minute, depressed. Aperture nearly as large as
    the shell; inside pearly.

Generic Type _H. Tuberculata_ Linn. &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _H. Testâ ovali, lævi, obscurè thalassinâ; labio exteriore supra
    immarginato, interiore lato, complanato, foraminibus numerosis,
    minutis, orbicularibus, lævibus._

    Shell ovate, smooth, obscure sea green; outer lip above immarginate;
    inner lip broad, flat; perforations numerous, very small, orbicular and
    smooth.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Ear-shells are strangely characterized by their peculiarity of form,
perforated holes, and rich pearly interior. They are found in both
temperate and tropical seas; but the definitions hitherto given by
conchologists are so imperfect, that they have left our knowledge of these
shells nearly the same now, as in the time of Linnæus. Seventeen species
only are enumerated in Mr. Dillwyn's work; although thirty-four have fallen
within my own observation the last few months.

The difference between this and the common black Californian Ear, consists
in its being a much deeper and smoother shell, always narrowest at the
base, the outer lip not having (as in that) a prominent curve or gibbosity
where it joins the spire; but principally in the perforations, which in
this are always half as large, and doubly numerous; it is also generally a
much smaller, and less common species: the spire is always deeply tinged
with pink. The genus _Padollus_, of Montford, resting entirely in the
unevenness of the outer lip, without any knowledge of the animal, appears
to me an unnecessary distinction, for such is the character of all young
shells, and also of mature ones, whose outer surface is rugged or uneven.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 81

[Illustration]

SPHINX Ello.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Antennæ prismaticæ, in utroque sexu ad medium leviter crassescentes,
    externè breviter piloso baciliatæ, mucrone arcuato, producto, sensim
    terminantes. Palpi breves, obtusi. Lingua elongata, convoluta,
    distincta, et in pupâ aliquando porrecta. Alæ sub-integræ. Abdomen
    elongatum, conicum, ano acuto, imberbi._

Typus Genericus _Sphinx Convolvuli_ Linn.

    Antennæ three sided, in both sexes slightly thickened in the middle,
    externally ciliated with double tufts of short hairs, and ending in a
    gradually lengthened arcuated hook. Palpi short, obtuse. Tongue long,
    convolute, distinct, sometimes porrected in the pupa state. Wings
    nearly entire. Abdomen lengthened, conic; the tip pointed, and not
    bearded.

Generic Type _Sphinx Convolvuli_ Linn.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _S. alis subdentatis, cinereis (in maribus lineis fuscis variatis);
    posticis rufis, margine nigro; abdomine pallido, cingulis atris
    circumdato._

    Wings slightly dentated, cinereous (in the male variegated with brown
    lines); posterior rufous, with a black margin; abdomen pale, with black
    belts.

    _Gmelin_ 5. 2375. 13. _Fab. Ent. Sys._ 3. 362. _no._ 21. S. Ello.
    _Drury_, vol. i. p. 59. _pl._ 27. _fig._ 3. (_male._) _Cramer_, _pl._
    301. D.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is in all things better to understand few subjects well than many
imperfectly; knowledge may be extensive, but it cannot be sound, if it is
at the same time imperfect; and, applying this observation to the present
article, it becomes as desirable, where necessary, to illustrate an insect
known to Linnæus, as to regard only the accession of new species.

The two insects figured were received from Jamaica by my friend Dr. Leach,
and there can be no doubt they are the sexes of one species. The upper is a
male, and agrees with Drury's figure and description; the lower insect is a
female, of which no representation has been published: as for Cramer's
figure, if intended for the former, it is really so bad that it can hardly
be quoted as an authority, and it appears to have misled Fabricius, in
thinking that the female insect had a brown stripe on the anterior wings,
whereas that character is more applicable to the male.

The insects I propose retaining under this genus are such as have the body
lengthened, pointed, and not bearded at the tip; the antennæ but slightly
thickened in the middle, and the terminating hook gradual, arched, and not
very acute: these comprehend the first section of Latreille's genus,
_Sphinx_, and are by him again divided into two groups, the one having the
wings entire, the other angulated.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 82

[Illustration]

TROCHILUS niger,

_Black Humming Bird._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum elongatum, rectum vel arcuatum, flexile, gracillimum, ad basin
    depressum, mandibulâ superiore inferiorem amplectente et tantùm non
    obtegente. Lingua jaculatoria, bifida, tubulata. Nares basales,
    membranâ tectæ, aperturâ in longum fissâ. Pedes sedentes, minimi. Alæ
    longissimæ, subarcuatæ, remigibus prioribus longissimis, cæteris
    gradatim brevioribus._

Typus Genericus _T. Moschitus_ Linn.

    Bill long, straight or curved, flexible, very slender, the base
    depressed, the upper mandible folding over, and almost covering the
    lower. Tongue long, extensible, bifid, and tubular. Nostrils basal,
    covered by a membrane, and opening by a long slit. Feet sitting, very
    small. Wings very long, curved, the outer quill longest, the rest
    gradually becoming shorter.

Generic Type _Ruby-crested Humming Bird_ Lath.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _T. niger; auribus aliquando rufis; tectricibus, caudâ uropygioque
    colore subviridi nitidis; rectricium lateralium nivearum apicibus
    colore chalybeio tinctis._

    Black; the ears sometimes rufous; wing covers tail and rump glossed
    with green; lateral tail feathers snowy, tipt with steel blue.

       *       *       *       *       *

Like the resplendent jewels of the earth, the Humming Birds are the living
gems of the air. United to the most delicate form, these fairies of
creation have the dazzling effulgence of every tint that sparkles from the
ruby, the topaz, the sapphire, and the emerald, lavished on their plumage;
they seem created but for our admiration, to sport in the ardent beams of a
tropical sun, and to feast on the nectar of the sweetest blossoms; and,
like sparks of many coloured fire, they shoot from flower to flower,
exulting in their little life of brightness and pleasure.

To return, however, to that now before us, it should be observed, that it
is the only species whose plumage does not in any way accord with that of
the rest of its brethren. No author appears to have described it, although
I met with it very frequently in Brazil: a specimen in the British Museum
has the ears reddish brown, but this seldom occurs. The figure is of the
size of life. All the species are natives of tropical America.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 83

[Illustration]

TROCHILUS falcatus,

_Sickle-winged Humming Bird._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 82.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _T. viridis, gulâ pectoreque nitidè cæruleis; corpore anoque
    cæruleo-viridibus; rectricibus paribus, rufo-cinnamominis; remigibus
    exterioribus falcatis, scapis dilatato compressis._

    Green; throat and breast shining blue; body and vent blue green; tail
    even, rufous cinnamon; exterior quills falcated, the shafts dilated and
    compressed.

       *       *       *       *       *

Nothing can exceed the dazzling brilliancy of colours united in this little
creature. It is, however, more remarkable from the extraordinary
construction of its wings, the outer quills of which are greatly curved,
and the shafts dilated to a most disproportionate size; a similar structure
occurs also in the Broad-shafted H. B. of Dr. Shaw, (_T. latipennis_.) That
it is intended to fulfil some important office in their economy, will admit
of no doubt, for in wisdom are all things made; conjecture must, however,
in numberless instances, supply our want of real knowledge; and it may not
be improbable that such additional strength in the wings has been given
them as a defence against the small birds of prey, (_Lanii._ Lin.) which
abound in tropical countries.

The figure is the size of life; bill curved from the base, with a black
stripe between that and the eye; plumage above deep shining green, most
brilliant on the sides of the neck; ear feathers blue green; chin and
throat of a most brilliant deep violet blue, changing in some lights to
purple, becoming greenish on the breast, and blended with the green of the
neck; all these feathers are disposed like scales; vent golden green, with
two tufts of downy white feathers round the thighs. Tail even, the feathers
broad and truncately rounded, of a rufous cinnamon colour, tipt with a
purple black bar; the middle feathers darkest, and glossed with green.

Of this rare and unrecorded species, a fine example existed in Mr.
Bullock's Museum, which was purchased to enrich that of Paris: another,
more imperfect, was sent Mr. Falkner from the Spanish Main. The male of _T.
latipennis_ is undescribed, Dr. Shaw having only seen the female; both
sexes, however, are in my possession. The plant introduced in the plate
(_Clitoria Plumieri_) is a native of Brazil.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 84

[Illustration]

ACHATINA emarginata,

_Notched Achatina._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 30.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. (div. 2.) testâ productâ, sub-flavâ, fasciis viridibus flavisque
    ornatâ; aperturâ ovato-rotundatâ, albâ; labio exteriore medio inciso;
    basi emarginatâ._

    Ach. (div. 2.) Shell elongated, cream colour, with green and yellow
    bands; aperture ovately rounded, white; outer lip notched in the
    middle; base emarginate.

       *       *       *       *       *

A new and very delicate species, which may have been overlooked as a
variety of _A. virginea_, from which it differs in the comparative length
of the basal whorl, which in that is remarkably short, in being a much more
elongated shell, in the mouth being oval, but above all, in having a
conspicuous notch in the middle of the outer lip, where the green band
commences; the aperture (excepting the inner lip) is pure white. It is in
Mr. Dubois' possession, and its country unknown.

       *       *       *       *       *

ACHATINA vittata,

_Ribbon Achatina--middle figures._

       *       *       *       *       *

    _A. (div. 2.) testâ ovato-oblongâ, crassâ, albente, vittis nigris
    fuscisque angustis ornatâ; apertura ovatâ, sub-contractâ; columellâ
    tantùm non rectâ; basi subtruncatâ._

    A. (div. 2.) Shell ovate-elongated, thickened, fulvous white, with
    narrow black and brown bands; aperture oval, slightly contracted;
    pillar nearly straight; base sub-truncated.

    _Gualtieri_, _tab._ 6. _fig._ A.

       *       *       *       *       *

Although unnamed, this shell is obviously the same as that figured by
Gualtieri, who also describes it very tolerably. This figure, however, is
quoted by Gmelin and others for _A. virginea_; from which shell it is quite
distinct: it is a thickly formed shell, the base slightly truncated, and
the aperture very narrow, and reddish brown; the outer lip within is
thickened. From the same collection as the last.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 85

[Illustration]

IANTHINA fragilis,

_Common Oceanic Snail_--_upper and lower figures_.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa subglobosa, tenuis, fragilis. Spira depressa. Labium exterius
    medio emarginatum. Columella ultra aperturæ basin producta. Animal
    marinum, vesiculâ solidâ pede suppositâ instructum._--Cuvier.

    Shell subglobose, thin, brittle. Spire depressed. Outer lip notched in
    the middle. Base of the pillar projecting beyond the aperture. Animal
    marine, with a solid vesicle, placed under the foot.--_Cuvier._

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _I. testâ pallidâ, anfractu basali angulato; basi complanatâ, striatâ,
    violaceâ; aperturâ latiore quam longiore; labio exteriore profundè
    emarginato._

    Shell pale; body whirl angulated; the base flattened, striated and deep
    violet; aperture broader than long; outer lip deeply emarginate.

    Helix Ianthina. _Gm._ 3645. _Lister._ 572. _fig._ 23. 24. _Turton._ C.
    D. _p._ 58. _Gualt._ _tab._ 64. 0. _Mart._ v. _t._ 166. _fig._ 1577.-8?

    Ianthina fragilis. _Bruguiere. Ency. Meth._ _pl._ 456. _fig._ 1. _a.
    b._

       *       *       *       *       *

The singular shells of this genus float on the surface of the ocean, where
they principally live. Gmelin remarks that the animal emits a phosphoric
light; and Captain Cook observed that it is oviparous, and discharged, on
being touched, a liquor of the most beautiful purple. Dr. Turton and Mr.
Dillwyn have recorded several British localities for this shell; and the
former notes having seen it alive, but without giving any original account
of the animal. The extreme brittleness of the shell is such, that, although
common, it is very rarely seen so perfect as here represented, from shells
in my own cabinet. All the figures I have seen are very defective.

       *       *       *       *       *

IANTHINA globosa.

_Globular Oceanic Snail--middle figures._

    _I. testâ ventricosâ, basi productâ; aperturâ longiore quam latiore;
    labio exteriore leviter emarginato._

    Shell ventricose, the base lengthened; aperture longer than broad;
    outer lip slightly emarginate.

       *       *       *       *       *

The notch, which in _I. fragilis_ extends the whole length of the lip, in
this, is very slight, and nearly central. Mr. Dubois has enabled me to
figure it from specimens in the greatest perfection; it is much less common
than the last.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 86

[Illustration]

CONUS Princeps,

_Prince Cone._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 65.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. conicus, coronatus, roseus; lineis fusco-purpureis longitudinalibus
    subramosis; spirâ convexâ._--Lamarck.

    Coronated Cone, rosy, with brownish purple longitudinal lines, which
    are sometimes branched; spire convex.--_Lamarck._

    Conus Princeps. _Gmelin._ 3378. (omitting var. [beta] and [gamma].)
    _Turton._ 4. 313. (omitting var. 2. and 3.)

    Conus regius. _Martini_, vol. x. _pl._ 138. _fig._ 1276. _Brug._ _no._
    12. _Ency. Meth._ _pl._ 318. _fig._ 3. _Lamarck, Ann. du Mus._ p. 31.
    _no._ 10.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Cones are remarkable both for their beauty and the very high value
attached to many of the varieties. They are likewise a very numerous
family, and, with three or four exceptions, are all inhabitants of tropical
latitudes, particularly the Indian Ocean. Bruguière and Lamarck have each
written very able descriptions of the species, of which the latter
enumerates 179 recent, and 9 found only in a fossil state.

This is a shell of great rarity and beauty. Dead and injured specimens are
often seen, in which the deep reddish brown colour is bleached to a pale
rose, and the base worn round. Of the live shell I have never seen more
than two or three; and the finest of these is here figured from Mr. Dubois'
cabinet: it is a native of the Asiatic Ocean.

I see no reason why the original name of Linnæus for this shell should have
been changed, although, under it, he has evidently included other species
quite distinct; (his var. [beta] being _C. ebræus_): indeed, it too often
happens, that in making those alterations absolutely necessary in the
present state of the science, the spirit of innovation oversteps the
justice due to those, whose labours first laid the foundation of our own
knowledge.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 87

[Illustration]

SPHINX Labruscæ,

_Wild Vine Hawk-moth._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 81.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _S. alis integris; anticis virescentibus, fasciâ triangulari centrali
    maculoque fusco ornatis; posticis medio cæruleo-nigris, margine fulvo;
    abdominis lateribus punctis quinque niveis._

    S. Wings entire; anterior greenish, with a central triangular band and
    black spot; posterior bluish black in the middle, the margin fulvous;
    sides of the body with five snowy spots.

    S. Labruscæ. _Gmelin_, p. 2380. 14. _Fab. Ent. Sys._ 3. p. 377.
    _Cramer_, _pl._ 184. _a._

       *       *       *       *       *

Linnæus has well observed, that the great distinctions of his three genera
of Lepidoptera, were, that Butterflies are seen on the wing only during the
day; Hawk-moths, or Sphinxes, at the rising and setting of the sun; and
Moths during the night. The insects of Europe, indeed, offer but few
exceptions to these characters; but the habits of certain exotic tribes, in
each of these families, partake both of one and the other in a remarkable
manner. Thus, among the butterflies, there is a genus in South America
(hitherto unnoticed), which fly only during the dusk of evening: a number
of the Linnæan Hawk-moths prefer the meridian heat of the sun; and there
are not wanting several moths which are only seen during the same period of
the day.

The insect, however, before us, is of that tribe to which the remark of
Linnæus is strictly applicable; and, although included in the _Systema
Naturæ_, has remained without any correct representation, for it would be
difficult to delineate a worse figure of it than that given by Cramer.
Besides the row of five snowy white spots on each side of the body, there
are four pair of others, more dusky, down the middle, and five small black
dots near the outer margin of the fore wings; the colour of all beneath is
a buff yellow, with two faint dusky oblique bars, and the middle of the
fore wings sea green.

I have received this species from Jamaica; in its larva state it appears to
feed on the wild vine.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 88

[Illustration]

MITRA caffra,

_Brown white-banded Mitre._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 23.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. (div. 1.) fusiformis, rufo-fuscata, albo fasciata, lævis, spirâ
    plicato-striatâ, basi rugosâ, columellâ quadriplicatâ._--Lamarck.

    Shell fusiform, reddish brown, with whitish bands; smooth; spire
    plaited and striated; base rugose; pillar 4 plaited.

    Voluta caffra. _Gmelin._ 3451. _Martini_ 4. _tab._ 148. _f._ 1370.?
    _Dill._ _p._ 545.

    Mitra caffra. _Lamarck. Ann. du Mus._ vol. vii. p. 208. _no._ 30.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is not improbable that _Mitra bifasciata_, (_Zool. Ill._ _pl._ 35.) may
eventually be considered only a variety of the shell here figured, which
accords much closer with the characters given of the Linnæan _M. caffra_,
than any other; the two shells, however, at the first glance, have a widely
different appearance; yet not more so, than the smooth and plaited
varieties of _Strombus vittatus Lin._ I have therefore retained the
character given by Lamarck, as the best method to be followed in doubtful
cases. In this shell, the plaits commence halfway round the body whirl;
they are obtuse, crowded, and not angulated near the suture; the striæ
between are fine and decidedly marked; the base half of the shell strongly
grooved; the suture rather compressed; the channel short and not recurved,
and the aperture striated.

       *       *       *       *       *

MITRA crassa

_Thick Mitre--upper and lower figures._

       *       *       *       *       *

    _M. (div. 3.) testâ lævi, mediâ crassâ, fuscâ, fasciâ angustâ sub-albâ
    ornatâ; spirâ striatâ, striis intus punctatis; labio exteriore dentato;
    columellâ 5 plicatâ._

    Shell smooth, thick in the middle, brown, with a narrow whitish band;
    spire striated, the striæ with internal punctures: outer lip crenated;
    pillar 5 plaited.

A species evidently unknown to Lamarck; the upper margin of each whorl is
thick and projecting; the striæ on the body whorl are nearly obsolete, but
on the spire become deep, remote, and having internally minute hollow dots;
the inner margin of the exterior lip is strongly crenated, the aperture
smooth, and the pillar with five strong teeth. I believe it was brought
from the South Seas.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 89

[Illustration]

PSITTACUS murinus,

_Grey-breasted Parakeet._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 1.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. viridis, genis, auribus, gulâque cinereis; vertice, remigibus
    rectriciumque marginibus sub-cæruleis._

    Green; sides of the head, ears, and throat, grey; crown, quills, and
    end of the tail, bluish.

    P. murinus. _Gmelin._ 1. 327. _no._ 80. _Lath. Ind. Orn._ 1. p. 101.

    Grey-breasted Parrakeet. _Lath. Syn._ vol. 1. 247. _Gen. Zool._ vol.
    viii. p. 456.

       *       *       *       *       *

Those of our readers who visited Leamington during the last season, may
have observed this noisy little creature uttering its discordant cries at
the door of a small house near the pump-room. I borrowed it for a day from
the good woman to whom it belonged, and thus made the drawing and
description with the bird before me.

Dr. Latham observes on this species, that excepting where the grey colour
pervades, "the rest of the body is olive green, excepting the quills, which
are deep green;"--this may be the female. He adds a quotation from
Pernetty, who describes a bird from Monte Video, something near this; but
which, from having a very long tail, a flesh-coloured bill, &c. may
probably be distinct.

The live bird could not be conveniently measured, but it is rather larger
than the red-shouldered Parrakeet, (figured at pl. 62.) The skin round the
eye white, and the irides hazel; the whole upper part of the plumage is a
beautiful grass green, changing according to the light into different
shades; the top of the head, the quill feathers, and end of the tail,
greenish blue, in some lights appearing quite blue; the sides of the head,
ears, and throat, as far as the breast, bluish grey; all the remaining
under plumage yellowish green, with a shade of orange in the middle of the
body and vent; bill and legs dark grey; this latter colour is so unusual in
this tribe, that I at first thought it indicated an imperfect plumage, but
I have now seen it at two different seasons of the year without any
variation whatever. It is probably a South American species.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 90

[Illustration]

PTEROGLOSSUS inscriptus,

_Lettered Aracari._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 44.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. fusco-viridis, capite gulâque nigris (feminæ castaneis;) uropygio
    rubro; abdomine flavo; rostri fulvi culmine, basi et apice nigris;
    marginibus dentatis, lineis nigris inscriptis._

    Obscure green; head and throat black, (in the female chesnut;) rump
    crimson; body yellow; bill fulvous, the top, base, and tip, black; the
    margins dentated, and marked with black lines resembling characters.

       *       *       *       *       *

I was put in possession of this rare and unknown bird, by the dispersion of
the most magnificent assemblage of natural productions that ever marked the
zeal of an individual, or ornamented the capital of this kingdom. Mr.
Bullock's Museum is now scattered; yet the objects it comprised were deemed
worthy of enriching the public repositories of every nation in Europe; who
sent their learned men to purchase with avidity, and share in the spoils of
a Museum, the dispersion of which will be long regretted by the learned,
the inquiring, and "the many."

Total length, twelve inches and a half; bill, from the angle of the mouth
to the tip, two inches three tenths long, and eight tenths across the base;
the colour (which appears little changed from that in the live state) is
deep straw, or buff yellow; the top of the upper mandible and tips of both
are black; parallel with the marginal base of the upper, is a black line,
which is very broad on that of the lower; the edges of both are serrated,
and marked by short black lines, somewhat resembling oriental characters;
at the base of the bill there is an elevated rim of deeper yellow; the
ears, chin, and throat are deep chesnut, margined in front with a narrow
line of black, (which parts in the male are entirely black;) the crown of
the head and neck above also black, changing to a dark bluish green on the
wings, back, and tail; the rump crimson, and the greater quills blackish;
from the breast to the vent straw-coloured yellow, with a greenish cast;
the thighs and flanks olive; tail wedged, near five inches long; the orbits
appear to have been black, and the feet green.

Mr. Bullock informed me he had the two sexes of this bird sent him from the
interior of Guyana.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 91

[Illustration]

LICINIA Amphione.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 15.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _L. alis integris, suprà nigris; anticarum basi maculo aurantiaco,
    triradiato, medio fasciâ flavâ, apice maculo flavo ornatis; posticis
    strigâ aurantiacâ, margine ferrugineo; antennarum clavis albis_.

    Wings entire, above black; anterior with a three rayed orange spot at
    the base, and a central bend and terminal spot of yellow; posterior
    with an orange stripe and brownish margin; club of the antennæ white.

    Papilio Amphione. _Cramer_, _pl._ 232. _f._ EF.

    Pieris Amphione. _Godart in Ency. Meth._ vol. 9. p. 165. (Female.)

       *       *       *       *       *

This is the only species among those I have united under the genus
_Licinia_, which has any shade of red mixed in the colouring, all the
others being variegated only with white, yellow, and black. It is a native
of Brazil, and according to Godart of Guyana and the Antilles: though not
common, it is sometimes frequent in local situations, preferring the
borders of deep forests, and flying very slowly. I had the means of fully
ascertaining the two sexes, of which the two upper figures are of the male,
and the lower one the female. There can be no doubt the latter is the
_Pieris Amphione_, so admirably described by M. Godart, who, however, makes
no mention of the black marginal spots on the under side of the posterior
wings, represented in Cramer's figure, which may therefore be a variety.
More difficulty, however, exists in ascertaining if the male is distinct
from _P. Laia_, of Godart: the figures of Cramer, in general, are so
inaccurate, as always to excite a doubt in cases of nice discrimination;
Godart's description, nevertheless, perfectly agrees with Cramer's figure:
if it was, therefore, drawn up from the insect itself, there can be little
doubt that _Laia_ is distinct from _Amphione_; if, on the other hand, M.
Godart made his description only from Cramer's figure, the question remains
in its original uncertainty.

The club of the antennæ is white, tipt with pale brown. The under side of
the female very closely resembles the upper, excepting that the black
stripe on the lower wings is broken; and there are irregular blotches of
white at the tips of both wings, but no marginal spots, as represented by
Cramer.

It will be found that _Licinia_ is the connecting genus between those of
_Danais_ and _Pieris_, of Latreille, and that the transition between the
last of these and _Colias_ is strongly marked by that of Terias, (_Zool.
Ill. pl._ 22).

What with the inaccuracy of figures, and the almost universal neglect with
which the most eminent entomologists have passed over this beautiful order,
the natural arrangement and affinities of the _Lepidoptera_ still remain in
the greatest obscurity; and it is recommended to those who may object to
the additional generic distinctions I have made, to examine, in the first
instance, the relative validity they bear in essential character to the
innumerable genera that are continually created in the _Coleoptera_,
_Hymenoptera_, and _Diptera_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 92

[Illustration]

PAPILIO,

_Butterfly_

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Antennæ graciles, clavis elongatis, obtusis, sub-arcuatis, rarò
    compressis. Palpi brevissimi, reflexi, remoti, linguæ basin vix
    obtegentes, articulo ultimo obtuso, minimo. Pedes antici longi,
    articulo secundo infrà gibbo._

SECTIONES.

I. Græci.

    _Pectore maculis sanguineis carente._

        _a._ Ecaudati, _alis inferioribus elongatis, basi angustâ_.

        _b._ Percaudati, _alis fasciis fulvis vel viridibus ornatis,
        inferioribus caudis, elongatis, angustis, instructis_.

        _c._ Caudati, _alis inferioribus caudis obtusis, patulis,
        instructis_.

            * _Alis fulvo fasciatis._

            ** _Alis nigricantibus._

        d. Dentati, _alis inferioribus dentatis_.

        _e._ Orbiculares, _alis inferioribus brevibus, orbicularibus_.

II. Trojani.

    _Pectore maculis sanguineis insigni._

        _a._ Ecaudati, _alis inferioribus elongatis, basi latâ_.

        _b._ Caudati, _alis inferioribus caudis obtusis, patulis,
        instructis_.

        _c._ Dentati, _alis inferioribus dentatis_.

        d. Orbiculares, _alis inferioribus brevibus, orbicularibus_.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    Antennæ slender, the club elongated, obtuse, slightly arched, and
    rarely compressed. Feelers very short, reflected, remote, hardly
    covering the base of the tongue, the last joint obtuse and minute;
    anterior feet long, with a gibbous appendage on the under part of the
    second joint.

SECTIONS.

I. _Greeks._

    Breast without sanguineous spots.

        _a._ Tailless; lower wings elongated, and narrow at the base.

            _P. Sarpedon. Nereus_ C. _Macleayanus_ G.

        _b._ Long tailed; wings generally banded with yellow or green.

            _P. Codrus. Sinon. Antheus. Podalirius. Machaon, &c._

        _c._ Tailed; lower wings with obtuse patulous tails.

            * Wings varied with yellow bands.

            _P. Torquatus. Thoas._ C. _Ilioneus_ (Donovan) _&c._

            ** Wings generally dark, without bands.

            _P. Troilus. Paris. Severus. Pammon, &c._

        d. Dentated; lower wings dentated, without tails.

            _P. Ægeus et Erechtheus._ Don. _Amphitryon. Drusius. Demolius_
            C.

        _e._ Orbicular; lower wings short, orbicular.

            _P. dissimilis. Similis_ C. _Assimilis_ (Drury). _Polydamas?_
            Lin.

II. _Trojans._

    Breast with sanguineous spots.

        _a._ Tailless; lower wings elongated and broad at the base.

            _P. Memnon. Polymnestor. Agenor. Hector._ C.

        _b._ Tailed; lower wings with obtuse patulous tails.

            _P. Polydorus. Romulus. Coon, &c._

        _c._ Dentated; lower wings dentated.

            _P. Evander._ (Godart.) _Amosus?_ C.

        d. Orbicular; lower wings short, orbicular.

            _P. Priamus. Panthous. Amphrisius, Harmonia et Cressida_
            (Donovan.)

       *       *       *       *       *

From the earliest ages, the Butterfly appears to have attracted the
admiration of mankind; and we find it celebrated by their poets as
figurative of gaiety and pleasure, and by their sages as an emblem of the
human soul. It has been interwoven in one of their most beautiful
allegories, and has been consecrated in our own days by several poets,
though by none with such exquisite taste and moral feeling, as by the
venerable Historian of the Medici.

So few of those insects, generally called Butterflies, were known to
Linnæus, that he included them all in one genus, dividing them, for the
most part, into natural groups. Fabricius continued this arrangement, with
little variation, and has left us the description of near 1,150 species!
Yet before his death, this laborious naturalist saw the absolute necessity
of dividing this immense genus into many others, and left among his MSS. a
sketch of his proposed arrangement, published afterwards by Illiger, and
partially adopted (we venture to think also very imperfectly) by M.
Latreille.

The insects which are therefore now left under the old genus _Papilio_, are
principally found out of Europe, and are remarkable for their richness of
colouring and immense size. M. M. Latreille and Godart have described, with
great precision, 146 species: it is, however, to be regretted, that they
have adopted no sections or divisions to assist the student in his search
after any particular species, among this extensive number. The great
disadvantage of this is very obvious, and it has induced me to attempt
something like a natural distribution of those insects, which, with every
care to avoid an unnatural separation of kindred groups, I am fully aware,
in some cases, is very artificial, and it is only offered until a greater
knowledge of the larvæ, &c. will enable us to fix on more substantial
characters than those I have adopted. This, however, will be a work of
time; and until then, I think some guide to the ready knowledge of the
species, however objectionable, is better than none.

Much might be said on the affinities which connect this with several other
genera. Among the most striking is that existing between them and the
_Noctuæ_ (_N. Patroclus_ Fab.) by means of _Pap. Leilus_ Lin. which thus
stands between the night and the day-flying Lepidoptera. Many of the
insects placed in our division of _Græci caudati_, are allied to _Danaus_
Lat. by the larva of both having retractile hornshaped processes, and the
two genera seem still further connected by _Papilio similis_ and
_dissimilis_ in one group, and by _P. Priamus_ in the other; while the
clear winged species from New Holland seem to indicate an affinity with the
_Heliconiæ_.

The laborious and important investigations of M. Savigny into the structure
of the mouth of these insects are too well known, to require a more
particular notice in this slight sketch of the subject.

       *       *       *       *       *

PAPILIO Polymetus.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. (Trojani orbiculares) alis atris; superis fasciâ breviori (foeminæ
    albâ) anticè albâ, posticè cyaneâ, inferis dentatis, maculâ coccineâ
    quadripartitâ._

    Papilio (T. orb.) wings black, superior, with a short white band, which
    is blue at the base (in the female entirely white); inferior dentated,
    with a four cleft crimson spot.

    Papilio Polymetus. _Godart in Ency. Meth._ vol. ix. p. 35. _no._ 28.

       *       *       *       *       *

First described by M. Godart; unless, indeed, it may hereafter prove a
variety of _P. Lycander_ (Cramer, Pl. 29. C. D.) which approaches as near
to the male, as _P. Hippason_ does to the female. The first sex is here
represented at the upper and under figures; the middle is of the female,
which M. Godart has not described. It is a native of Brazil; I found it at
Bahia only in certain woods, and subsequently met with a variety in the
province of Rio Janeiro, differing only in being much larger.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 93

[Illustration]

PAPILIO Pandrosus.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. (G. Caud.) alis atris, fasciâ communi posticarumque lunulis
    marginalibus flavis; his caudatis, punctorum rubrorum striga
    intermediâ._ G.

    _Pap. (G. Caud.)_ wings black; with the common band and marginal
    lunules on the lower wings, yellow; lower wings with obtuse tails, and
    a row of red dots between the nerves.--_Godart._

    Pap. Pandrosus. _Godart. En. Meth._ _vol._ ix. _p._ 62. _No._ 101.

       *       *       *       *       *

M. Godart has anticipated me in the first publication of this, and a great
many other newly discovered Brazilian insects; it has, however, not been
figured; and I take this opportunity of expressing my doubts, whether this
and the next are not sexes of the same species, rather than two,
permanently distinct. I have not, at this particular time, the means of
referring either to my notes or my collections, by which the recollection I
have on the subject might be in some way confirmed; and, until this is
done, it is much better retaining the two insects as distinct species: the
figures of both will show their very close resemblance, in every thing but
the bands on the upper surface of the wings. I found them common in the
province of Rio de Janeiro.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 94

[Illustration]

PAPILIO Torquatus.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. (G. Caud.) alis atris; anticis fasciis duabus, posticis disco
    lunulisque marginalibus, flavis: his caudatis, punctorum rubrorum
    strigâ intermediâ._--Godart.

    _P. (G. Caud.)_ Wings black; two bands on the anterior wings, and
    marginal lunules on the posterior, yellow; lower wings with obtuse
    tails, and a row of red dots between the nerves.

    P. Torquatus. _Cramer_, _pl._ 177. _fig. a. b._ _Godart. En. Meth._ v.
    9. _p._ 62.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is singular that Fabricius appears to have overlooked this species,
sufficiently well figured by Cramer to point out its leading characters,
though very inferior to the beauty of the insect. M. Godart has, however,
recorded it in his account of this superb genus in the _Encyclopédie
Méthodique_; and the minute and clear descriptions which this able
entomologist has given throughout that work, merit the highest eulogium.
Our own figures will, however, render a detailed description in this place
unnecessary.

M. Godart says, this insect is found both in Guiana and Brazil. In the
latter country, I met with it only in the province of Rio de Janeiro, where
it is common.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 95

[Illustration]

CINNYRIS chalybeia,

_Lesser collared Creeper._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum elongatum, gracillimum, arcuatum, apice acutissimo,
    integerrimo, ad basin depressum, lateribus compressis, marginibus
    inflexis, subtilissimè dentatis; mandibulâ inferiore convexâ. Lingua
    jaculatoria, tubularis, furcata? Nares basales, breves, nudæ, ovatæ,
    membranâ fissâ, juxta rostri marginem et basin aperiente, tectæ.
    Remigum penna prima brevissima, secunda pennis 4 proximis paribus
    brevior._

    Ob.--_Maris cauda pennis elongatis 2 ornata, hypochondriorumque pennæ
    longiores._

Typ. Gen. _Upupa Promerops_ Lin.--_Certhia famosa_ Lin.

    Bill lengthened, very slender, arched, the base depressed, the sides
    compressed, the tip very sharp and entire, the margins bent inwards and
    minutely dentated; under mandible beneath convex. Tongue retractile,
    tubular, forked? Nostrils basal, short, and broad, covered by a naked
    oval membrane which opens by a slit near the margin of the bill. First
    quill feather very short; the second shorter than the four next, which
    are of equal length.

    _Ob._--Male generally with long feathers in the tail, and the side
    feathers under the wings rather lengthened.

Generic Types. _Cape Promerops, and Shining Creeper._ Lath.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. aureo-viridis, alis caudâque fuscis; fasciis pectoralibus 2
    connexis, anticâ chalybeiâ, posticâ angustâ, rubrâ; caudæ tegminibus
    superioribus chalybeis._

    Golden green, with brown wings and tail, and narrow pectoral band,
    bordered above by another of steel blue; upper tail covers blue.

    Certhia chalybeia. _Lin. Gmelin._ 475. _Ind. Orn._ 1. 284. _Brisson._ 3
    _tab._ 32. _f._ 1.?

    Le Soui-manga à collier. _Vieill. Grimp._ _p._ 40. _pl._ 13. 14.

    Collared Creeper. _Latham_, _Syn._ 2. 709. _Gent. Zool._ 8. 196.

       *       *       *       *       *

This splendid family may be considered as the Humming-birds of the old
world, inhabiting (I think exclusively) the tropical regions of Africa and
Asia. To the personal observations of M. Vaillant we owe the first, and
indeed the only detailed account, of their real economy, and which this
enterprising ornithologist remarked during his travels in Africa, and
published in his work on the birds of that continent; a work which will be
valued and consulted when most of the systems framed by closet naturalists
will be forgotten.

M. Vaillant records a singular fact respecting these birds: which is, that
the males only assume their rich and vivid colours during the season of
courtship; at other times they are scarcely to be known from the females,
whose plumage in general is very plain. Another bird, very nearly
resembling this, has been figured by M. Vaillant under the name of _Le
Sucrier à Plastron rouge_ (Ois. d'Af. pl. 300.); his reasons, however, for
separating them, are, I think, sufficient, at least until more forcible
ones are adduced than mere conjecture. Our figure is the size of life; on
each side the breast is a tuft of yellow feathers; the back, neck, and head
shining golden green, changing in various lights. The female is said to be
the _Certhia Capensis_ of Lin., which is greyish brown above, and paler
beneath.

The different generic names which have been given to these birds by modern
systematic writers, require some elucidation. They were originally placed
by Linnæus among the _Certhiæ_; out of this genus Illiger formed another by
the name of _Nectarinia_, in which he included not only these birds, but
many others allied to them. From this genus of Illiger's, Cuvier separated
a part under the generic appellation of _Cinnyris_, a genus which comprised
those species of Illiger's _Nectarinia_ only which are found in the
parallels of latitude of the old world. So far these changes can be
understood; but Professor Temminck, without noticing this previous
arrangement, places the birds belonging to Cuvier's genus _Cinnyris_, under
his own modification of Illiger's _Nectarinia_, while to the _Nectariniæ_,
as characterized by Cuvier, he gives the generic name of _Coereba_. This
last change has introduced great confusion; for the student must bear in
mind, that Cuvier's genus _Nectarinia_ corresponds to Temminck's _Coereba_;
that _Cinnyris_ of Cuvier is _Nectarinia_ of Temminck; and finally, that
all these are included under Illiger's original genus _Nectarinia_! M.
Vieillot has still further added to this unfortunate multiplicity of names,
by giving that of _Mellisuga_ to Cuvier's _Cinnyris_. This may truly be
termed a war of words. In the meantime, as Cuvier was the first who, by
giving the name of _Cinnyris_, designated the _Sucriers_ of Vaillant, and
those _only_, his definition and generic name to these birds should
unquestionably supersede all others.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 96

[Illustration]

ANODON rugosus,

_Wrinkled Horse Mussel._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa transversa, plerumque tenuis. Cardo linearis, edentulus. Lamina
    cardinalis glabra, aliquando levata, anticè sinu sub ligamento
    desinens. Impressiones musculares 3. Ligamentum externum. Animal
    fluviatile._

Typus Genericus _Mytilus Anatinus_ Lin.

    Shell transverse, generally thin. Hinge consisting of a simple marginal
    lamina without teeth, smooth or slightly raised, terminating at the
    anterior end in a curve or sinus below the ligament. Muscular
    impressions three. Ligament external. Animal fluviatile.

Generic Type _Duck Mussel_ Pennant.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. testâ ovato-oblongâ, crassâ, convexâ, anticè obliquè rotundatâ;
    intus fulvâ, margine rufo; margine cardinali leviter curvato, infra
    umbones crasso._

    Shell ovate-oblong, thick, convex, anterior obliquely rounded; hinge
    margin slightly curved and thickened beneath the umbones; inside
    fulvous, with a reddish margin.

       *       *       *       *       *

The shells now arranged under the kindred genera of _Unio_ and _Anodon_ are
exclusively fluviatile, or inhabitants of fresh water, and are dispersed
both in the old and the new world. In the Linnæan system, the first, being
furnished with teeth, are placed among the _Myæ_; and the latter, from
having none, are arranged with the _Mytili_. Two common shells, in our own
rivers and ponds (_Mya pictorum_, and _Mytilus anatinus Lin._), will
readily present to the student the characters by which they are severally
distinguished. The shells of the present genus bear such a general
resemblance to each other, and are so simple in their construction, that a
corresponding minuteness of discrimination is requisite to characterize the
species; I have, therefore, selected for this purpose the modification of
the upper margin to which the ligament is attached, and which in other
shells forms the bases of the teeth. This I have termed the hinge margin.
The form of the notch or sinus which terminates this part will also be
found of much importance in discriminating the species; for no shells vary
more in their form, thickness, or convexity than these do, according to
their locality, age, or other circumstances.

Shell transverse, oval; rather thick and ventricose; both extremities
obtuse; the anterior side (from the umbones to the exterior margin)
obliquely rounded; umbones prominent; hinge margin rather thick, slightly
curved, and swelled immediately under the umbones; sinus short, abrupt,
curved; epidermis coarse, black, and much wrinkled; inside stained with
yellow, and having a narrow reddish rim or margin.

For this species, now, I believe, first made known, I am indebted to G. C.
Bainbridge, Esq. of Liverpool, who received several specimens from the
United States. It appears to have been unknown to Mr. Say, who has
published an account of the land and river shells of North America.

The student might be led to suppose, that the two genera of _Unio_ and
_Anodon_ are strongly characterized; for the first includes many of the
most ponderous bivalves yet discovered, and the second some remarkably thin
and brittle. Among the _Uniones_ are shells furnished with hinges of the
greatest force, while most of the _Anodons_ are perfectly destitute of any;
nevertheless, the gradations by which these characters approach each other
are very remarkable, and some shells which partake of both have been
arranged in separate genera. Of these, the best defined are _Hyria_ Lam.
and _Dipsas_ of Leach; the one allied nearest to _Unio_, but having the
cardinal teeth assuming the appearance of lateral or lamellar teeth; the
other more resembling the Anodons, but furnished with a strongly defined
and elevated lamellar tooth, extending the whole length of the hinge.
Between these two genera should be placed another of Lamarck's, called by
him _Iridinia_, which has likewise only a simple lamellar plate, but broken
into a great number of crenated teeth. The observing Mr. Say has likewise
proposed another under the name of _Alasmodonta_, which, however, I shall
take another opportunity of noticing.

I have ventured to exchange the ungrammatical name of _Anodonta_, given by
Bruguiere to this genus, for _Anodon_, at the suggestion of the learned Dr.
Goodall, Provost of Eton College.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 97

[Illustration]

MARGINELLA,

_Date Shell._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa ovata. Spira brevissima aut nulla. Labium exterius crassissimum,
    margine interiore crenato. Columella plicata. Basis subintegra. Animal
    capitatum, capitis fronte profundè emarginato; oculis ad tentaculorum 2
    subulatorum basin externam adsitis; tubâ jugulari simplici; pede magno,
    foliaceo, ponè attenuato; penulâ dilatatâ, testæ latera obtegente._

Typ. Gen. _Volutæ perspicula, glabella, prunum, &c._ Lin.

    Shell oval. Spire very short or concealed. Exterior lip very thick,
    with the internal margin crenated. Pillar plaited. Base nearly entire.
    Animal capitate; head notched in front, with lengthened, pointed
    tentacula, at the external base of which are the eyes; neck with a
    simple tube; foot large, foliaceous, pointed behind; mantle dilated,
    and folded over the sides of the shell.

Generic Types _Vol. perspicula, glabella, prunum, &c._ Lin.

       *       *       *       *       *

Lamarck first separated the shells comprised in this genus from the Volutes
of Linnæus; their principal distinction rests in the formation of the outer
lip, which has a very thick margin, more or less toothed on the inner rim;
the base likewise is nearly entire, and the inner lip quite wanting.

By these peculiarities, the _Date Shells_ are easily known from the
_Volutes_ on the one hand, and the _Cowries_ on the other; and the
invaluable researches of M. Adanson, who has described and figured the
animals of each of these genera, has established this distinction on the
most solid principles; it will, however, be interesting to trace, by the
shells only, how beautifully this arrangement is developed.

The _Marginellæ_ may be divided into two sections; the first bearing in
form and habit a strong resemblance to the _Cyprææ_, and the second
gradually losing these indications, and acquiring those of the spiral
_Volutæ_. Among the first are several species, which, like the Cowries,
appear destitute of any spire (as in _M. cingulata_); this part, however,
begins to show itself in other successive species very progressively, until
it becomes elevated and defined in _M. glabella_. This shell may be
considered the passage to the second division, in which the species lose
the simple oval form of the first, and acquire a contracted base and
pointed spire, perfectly resembling _Voluta undulata Lam._ and its allies.
The extreme developement of these characters is shown in _M. faba_.

This genus must, then, be considered as connecting those of _Cypræa_ and
_Voluta_ (Lam.); excepting one, the whole of the species are very small;
and as the three here selected to illustrate these remarks are frequently
seen, and have been often described under other names, little more is
necessary than to detail their specific characters.

       *       *       *       *       *

MARGINELLA cingulata,

_Banded Date Shell--upper figures._

    _M. testâ ovatâ, albidâ, lineis aurantiacis fasciatâ; spirâ obsoletâ,
    umbilicatâ; columellâ 6 plicatâ._

    Shell oval, whitish, banded with orange lines; spire obsolete,
    umbilicated; pillar 6 plaited.

    Voluta cingulata. _Dill._ 525. 56. _Lister._ 803. _f._ 9. _Martini_, 2.
    _t._ 42. _f._ 419 _and_ 20. _Gualt._ _t._ 25. _c._? 28. _b._ _Adanson_,
    _t._ 4. _f._ 4.

       *       *       *       *       *

I am happy to record Mr. Dillwyn as the first systematic writer who
separated this from _Mar. persicula_, which has reddish spots, and is quite
a distinct species. The present is a pretty, though common shell, and
observed by Adanson in great plenty on the African coast.

       *       *       *       *       *

MARGINELLA prunum,

_Grey Date Shell--middle figures._

    _M. testâ ovatâ, griseâ, immaculatâ; spirâ parvâ, conicâ; aperturâ
    fuscâ; columellâ 4 plicatâ._

    Shell oval, grey, immaculate; spire small, conic; aperture brown;
    pillar 4 plaited.

    Voluta plumbea. _Sol. MSS. L'Egouen. Adanson_, _tab._ 4. _f._ 3.

    V. prunum. _Gm._ _p._ 3446. 33. _Martini_, 2. _t._ 42. _f._ 422 _and_
    3. _En. Meth._ 376. 8. _Lister_, 817. 28. (young.) _Dill._ 530. 69.

       *       *       *       *       *

The plaits are very strong, and, together with the outer lip, white;
equally common, and from the same country, as the last.

       *       *       *       *       *

MARGINELLA faba,

_Fly-spot Date Shell--lower figures._

    _M. testâ ovatâ, plicatâ, fulvâ, punctis fuscis ornatâ; spirâ conicâ;
    basi emarginatâ; columellâ 4 plicata._

    Shell oval, plaited, fulvous, with brown dots; spire conic; base
    notched; pillar 4 plaited.

    V. faba. _Gm._ 3445. _Lister_, 812. 22. _Martini_, 2. _t._ 42. _f._
    431? 432, _and_ 3. _En. Meth._ 377. 1. _Gualt._ 28. _Q. Dill._ 528. 63.

       *       *       *       *       *

The whorls of this pretty shell are plaited into little nodules; it is
usually very small. The supposed variety figured by Martini, and mentioned
by Mr. Dillwyn, I am inclined to believe, may be a distinct species.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 98

[Illustration]

PALUDINA,

_River Snail._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa ovata, spiralis, tenuis, umbilicata. Apertura semi-orbicularis,
    ad labii anterioris apicem subangulata. Operculum corneum._

    _Animal fluviatile, branchiatum, viviparum, rostro brevissimo; oculis
    ad basin externam tentaculorum acutorum 2 appositis; pedis margine
    antico duplici; lateribus anticè alis parvis instructis; alâ dexterâ
    involutâ in canalem per quem aqua in tracheam introducitur._

Typus Genericus _Helix vivipara_, Lin.

    Shell ovate, spiral, thin, umbilicated. Aperture nearly orbicular,
    slightly angulated at the top of the inner lip. Operculum horny.

    Animal fluviatile, branchiated, viviparous; rostrum very short; eyes
    placed at the external base of two pointed tentacula; anterior border
    of the foot double; on each side the fore part of the body a small
    wing; that on the right side is folded into a channel, by which the
    water is introduced into the respiratory canal.

Generic Type _Viviparous Snail_ Pennant.

       *       *       *       *       *

The common Shell above quoted, inhabiting many of our rivers, will serve as
an excellent example of this genus, which is not numerous, and confined to
fresh waters; the animals, inhabiting the European species, appear to have
been thoroughly investigated by the continental naturalists; and from their
account of its singular construction, the above description has been
framed. Science should make no distinction of persons or countries; but it
is rather mortifying to observe, that these important discoveries in the
organization of animals, are pursued with zeal and ability by foreign
naturalists, while most of our own content themselves with expatiating on
its impossibility, and even go so far as to hint its uselessness, because
we can never become acquainted with the animals of _all_ the species of
shells in our cabinets: so far this latter part of the argument is most
true; but, to ascertain, for instance, the animal of the Cowry, it is
surely not requisite we should see those of _all_ the species (near 80 in
number), before we venture to describe it? any more than it is necessary
completely to dissect _every_ species of Locust before we pronounce it to
be one. Science would, indeed, receive incalculable and lasting benefit, if
those of our conchologists who reside near the coast would pay greater
attention to the inhabiting animals, and less to the shells, of their
neighbourhood; for the first would supply that information they acknowledge
is so desirable, and the latter would prevent our indigenous Catalogue from
being crowded with many dubious, and even foreign shells.

English conchologists appear not to be aware of the vast number of
testaceous animals which are now known. Among those truly eminent men who
have prosecuted this study, M. Adanson stands foremost, in having minutely
described all those he found on the African coast; in the magnificent work
of Poli nearly all the Mediterranean bivalves are exquisitely figured; and
those of the land and fresh water will receive complete illustration from
M. Ferrusac. Cuvier, Lamarck, Say, and even our own countrymen, Dr. Leach
and Montague, have all contributed, more or less, to form a mass of
information which it is full time should be employed as the basis of
natural classification.

       *       *       *       *       *

PALUDINA elongata,

_Long-spired River Snail--upper and lower figures._

       *       *       *       *       *

    _P. testâ olivaceo-fuscâ, fasciis castaneis ornatâ; spirâ productâ,
    attenuatâ, aperturâ multo longiore; apice acuto._

    Shell olive brown, with chesnut bands; spire lengthened, attenuated,
    much longer than the aperture; tip acute.

       *       *       *       *       *

Inhabits the rivers of India. It is rather thicker than most of the others,
and the umbilicus nearly obsolete.

       *       *       *       *       *

PALUDINA unicolor,

_Olive River Snail--side figures._

       *       *       *       *       *

    _P. testâ subventricosâ, totâ olivaceâ; apice acuto; spiræ et aperturæ
    longitudine æquali; umbilico clauso._

    Shell subventricose; uniform olive; apex of the spire acute; aperture
    and spire of equal length; umbilicus closed.

       *       *       *       *       *

Distinguished from the _Helix vivipara_ of authors, by having a less
convex, and more pointed spire, hardly any umbilicus, and no bands.
Inhabits China.

       *       *       *       *       *

PALUDINA carinata,

_Carinated River Snail--middle figures._

       *       *       *       *       *

    _P. testâ parvâ, olivaceâ; spirâ aperturâ longiore, apice obtuso, rufo;
    anfractu basali medio leviter carinato; umbilico obsoleto._

    Shell small, olive; spire longer than the aperture; the tip obtuse,
    rufous; basal whorl slightly carinated in the middle; umbilicus
    obsolete.

       *       *       *       *       *

A distinct species, which is never found larger than the figure. I once saw
near 100, which had been picked up on the banks of the Ganges; the spire is
rather lengthened, always obtuse, and the umbilicus even less than the
last.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 99

[Illustration]

TAMATIA macrorhynchos.

_Greater pied Puff-bird._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    Tamatia. _Cuvier._--Capito. _Viell. Tem._

    _Rostrum validum, compressum, sub-rectum; mandibulâ superiore ad apicem
    obtusè aduncâ, emarginatâ, superioris margine inferioris marginem
    obtegente. Nares basales sulcatæ, aperturâ terminali, rotundâ parvâ,
    plumis rigidis incumbentibus tectâ. Frons, rictus, et mentum vibrissis
    rigidis, elongatis, armati. Pedes scansorii, versatiles; digiti
    exterioris elongati articulo primo cum digito exteriore connexo.
    Rectrices 12, lineares, subrotundatæ._

Typus Genericus _Bucco tamatia_ Linn. Lath.

    Bill strong, compressed, nearly straight; the tip of the upper mandible
    curved, notched, and obtuse; the margin folding on that of the lower
    mandible. Nostrils basal, sulcated; the aperture terminal, round,
    small, hid by bristly incumbent feathers. Chin, front, and gape, with
    strong lengthened bristles. Feet scansorial, versatile; the outer toe
    long, and connected by the first joints to the inner toe. Tail feathers
    12, linear and slightly rounded.

Generic Type _Spotted-bellied Barbut_ Latham.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _T. niger; fronte, gulâ, jugulo, caudæque apice albis; abdomine albo
    vel fulvo; fasciâ pectorali nigrâ._

    Black; front, throat, forepart of the neck, and tips of the tail
    feathers, white; body white or fulvous; pectoral bar black.

    Bucco macrorhynchos. _Gmelin_ 406. _In. Orn._ 1. 203. _Gen. Zool._ vol.
    ix. p. 33.

    Greater pied Barbut. _Lath. Syn._ 2. p. 498.

       *       *       *       *       *

There is something very grotesque in the appearance of all the Puff birds;
and their habits, in a state of nature, are no less singular. They frequent
open cultivated spots near habitations, always perching on the withered
branches of a low tree; where they will sit nearly motionless for hours,
unless, indeed, they descry some luckless insect passing near them, at
which they immediately dart, returning again to the identical twig they had
just left, and which they will sometimes frequent for months. At such times
the disproportionate size of the head is rendered more conspicuous by the
bird raising its feathers so as to appear not unlike a puff ball; hence the
general name they have received from the English residents in Brazil; of
which vast country all the species, I believe, are natives. When
frightened, their form is suddenly changed by the feathers lying quite
flat; they are very confiding, and will often take their station within a
few yards of the window; the two sexes are generally near each other, and
often on the same tree.

Total length rather more than eight inches; bill, one inch and three
quarters from the gape, and half an inch less from the nostrils; it is very
strong, thick, black, and slightly compressed; the tip of the upper bifid;
the bristles at its base covering the nostrils are long and incurved, and
those situated at the base, under the eye, very stiff; the upper part of
the head black, the feathers much lengthened; the sides, front, ears, and
forepart of the throat white, uniting at the back of the head into a narrow
collar. The whole of the remaining plumage above is black, glossed with
greenish; across the breast a black bar, which separates the white of the
throat from the buff colour which tinges the abdomen and vent; the flanks
are marked with dusky transverse stripes; the tail is slightly rounded and
three inches and a half long, some of the feathers with a very fine line of
white at their tips; all the quill feathers have the base half of their
inner shafts white, as well as the greater covers inside, the lesser being
black; legs and claws blackish.

I am disposed to consider this bird only as a variety of the _Greater pied
Barbut_ of Dr. Latham, differing in having the plumage on the under part of
the body pale ferruginous, or buff colour, instead of white, as in the
specimens he described from Cayenne; mine are from Southern Brazil, where
the species is not uncommon.

This genus includes the American species of the Linnæan Barbuts; the birds
connecting this group with the cuckows are arranged by Vieillot in a
separate genus, named by him _Monassa_; which I think should be retained,
as it is of much importance to designate strongly connecting links between
families apparently very opposite.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 100

[Illustration]

XENOPS genibarbis,

_Whiskered Xenops._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    Xenops. (_Hoffmansegg. in Illiger. Prod._ p. 213).

    _Rostrum mediocre, rectum, acutum, valdè compressum, inversè
    cultratum_, i. e. _culmine recto, gonyde recurvâ ascendente. Nares
    basales, laterales, ovatæ, parvæ, patulæ. Lingua--? Pedes mediocres,
    congrui. Digiti antici basi coadnati, laterales subæquales. Hallux
    digitum medium æquans._ Illiger.

    Bill moderate, straight, acute, much compressed, and inversely curved;
    the top of the upper mandible being straight, and the edge of the lower
    ascending or recurved. Nostrils basal, lateral, oval, small, and
    covered by a naked membrane. Tongue--? Feet moderate, claws united at
    their base, the lateral ones nearly equal; the hind claw as long as the
    leg and the middle toe.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _X. suprà fusco-rufa, infrà griseo-fusca; mento, superciliis maculisque
    jugularibus et pectoralibus albentibus; maculo infra aures niveo;
    remigum secundorum nigricantium basi fulvâ, apicibus marginibusque
    rufis._

    Above reddish-brown, beneath grey-brown; chin, eyebrows, and spots on
    the throat and breast, whitish; beneath the ears a snowy spot;
    lesser-quills blackish, the base fulvous, the tips and margins rufous.

    Xenops genibarbis _Illiger Prod._ p. 218. (1811.)

    Neops ruficaudus _Vieillot. Orn. Elem._ p. 68. (1816.)

       *       *       *       *       *

A very extraordinary and not inelegant little creature, having a bill
totally different from any other bird. Its general habit evinces a close
connexion with the _Sittæ_, particularly those of New Holland; some of
which have their bills (which are slender) slightly inclining upwards, thus
forming a connexion between _Xenops_ and the straight billed _Sittæ_ of the
old world.

The figure is of the male, and its natural size; the head dark brown with
pale spots; the back of a reddish tinge, and the rump and tail rufous; tail
much rounded, and of twelve feathers; the three outer and the two pair in
the middle entirely rufous, the other pair having the inner shafts black;
the greater quills black; the last having an internal bar of pale fulvous.
Beneath the eye a spot of white downy feathers, with a dusky border above
and below; there is a little difference between this and Illiger's bird,
but it may be only sexual.

Inhabits Brazil, but is rare.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 101

[Illustration]

PAPILIO Evander.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 92.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _Pap. (Tro. dent.) Alis dentatis, nigris; posticis suprà maculis
    quinque violaceo-chermesinis; anticis subtùs fasciâ albidâ, transversâ,
    mediâ._ Godart.

    Pap. (Tro. dent.) Wings dentated, black; posterior above with a
    five-cleft, violet-crimson spot; anterior beneath with a transverse,
    central, whitish band.

    P. Evander. _Godart, En. Meth._ _vol._ ix. _p._ 32. _no._ 18.

       *       *       *       *       *

Both sexes of this newly described insect are here, for the first time,
figured; that above is of the male, and beneath is represented the under
side of the female. The crimson spots (which finely relieve the brownish
velvet-like black on the upper surface of the wings) are, in some lights,
most beautifully glossed with changeable violet, and appear either darker
or paler according to the position in which the insect is viewed.

Southern Brazil is, undoubtedly, more rich in this splendid family than the
northern provinces of that vast country. I never saw this species except in
Rio Janeiro, where it is common: nor do I know of any other, belonging to
the division of _Trojani_, which have the lower wings sharply dentated, and
with an appearance of obsolete _acute_ tails; a character more developed in
the female of this species than in the male.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 102

[Illustration]

PAPILIO Nox.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 92.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. (Troj. orb.) Alis immaculatis fuscis, inferis orbiculatis,
    ecaudatis; fronte, strigâ laterali subthoracicâ anoque rubris._

    P. (Troj. orb.) Wings immaculate, brown; lower orbicular, not tailed;
    front, lateral stripe on the thorax beneath, and tip of the body red.

       *       *       *       *       *

The colours of this insect are unusually sombre, and present a striking
contrast to the gaudy tints by which the majority of these gay creatures
are ornamented; it is so far remarkable, but it is more interesting to the
entomologist, as being an unpublished addition to this genus. It was
discovered in Java by Dr. Horsfield; and the drawing was made from an
unique specimen which I observed while engaged in a long and laborious
arrangement of the Linnæan _Papilionidæ_, (as they now appear at the India
House,) collected by that zealous naturalist for the India Company.

Between the nerves of the anterior wings (which are remarkably large) are
parallel central stripes, of a darker brown; a character common to many
Indian species, but not found, I believe, in any of those from the New
World.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 103

[Illustration]

AMPULLARIA fasciata,

_Banded Apple Snail._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa globosa, umbilicata. Spira depressa vel brevissima. Apertura
    integra, magna, ovata. Operculum testaceum vel corneum. Animal
    fluviatile._

    Shell globose, umbilicated. Spire depressed or very short. Aperture
    entire, large, oval. Operculum shelly or horny. Animal
    fluviatile.--Generic Type _Helix ampullacea_ Lin.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. testâ ovato-globosâ, olivaceâ, fasciis obscuro-purpureis angustis
    ornatâ; spirâ brevi, levatâ, apice acuto; labii margine tenui; umbilico
    mediocri._

    Shell ovate-globose, olive, with narrow bands of obscure purple; spire
    short, elevated, the tip acute; margin of the lip thin; umbilicus
    moderate.

    Am. fasciata. _En. Meth._ _pl._ 457. _f._ 3. _f._ 4. (_reversed and
    young_).

    Helix ampullacea. _Linn. Lister_, 130. _f._ 30. _Seba_, _t._ 38. _f._ 1
    _to_ 6, 58, 59. _Chemnitz_, 9. _t._ 128. _f._ 1135. _Gualt._ _t._ 1. R.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the selection of generic characters, sufficiently important to separate
Ampullaria from Paludina, great difficulty at present exists; as the
fundamental principle on which they should be founded (the formation of the
animal) is entirely wanting. It is only known that these shells, like the
Paludinæ, are furnished with an operculum. The absence or presence of this
organ has been found of the first generic importance; though the substance
of which it is composed, as well as the form it assumes, can be considered
only as indicating specific distinctions. This is proved from the fact,
that among the Naticæ some have horny, and some shelly, opercula: in
Phasianella, this part is, in some species, almost flat, in others
remarkably convex; in _Turbo, Lam._ its form is even more variable, and in
the present genus a similar uncertainty exists. One species alone has been
positively described as having this part shelly, while in two others the
operculum is as certainly known to be horny; to these last may be added a
third, found by myself in the lakes of Pernambuco in Brazil, but to which I
have not immediate access. The shells here figured were, however, received
from the same place by Mrs. Mawe, and, I think, are of the identical
species. The spire is sometimes worn, and the whole shell very thin.

Several fossil shells of this genus are mentioned as existing in the
extinct volcanoes of Ronca, in bituminous marl near Pont St. Esprit, &c. as
quoted (on the authority of the illustrious Cuvier) by Mr. Bowdich.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 104

[Illustration]

NATICA punctata,

_Spotted Natica._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 75.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _N. testâ ovato-globosâ, crassâ, albâ, strigis undatis punctisque
    castaneis ornatâ; umbilico magno, aperto, simplici; columellæ basi
    obsoletâ._

    Shell ovate-globose, thick, white with waved stripes and minute chesnut
    dots; umbilicus large, open, simple; base of the pillar obsolete.

    Nerita punctata. _Martini_ 11. _pl._ 197. _f._ 1903 _and_ 4. _Seba_,
    _pl._ 38. _f._ 33? _Gualt._ _pl._ 67. _f._ _M. and T._ (_good._)

    Gochet. _Adanson Sen._ _pl._ 13. _f._ 4.

       *       *       *       *       *

The undulated brown lines in this shell, are sometimes broken into three
irregular bands of either lines or spots, between which are numerous minute
dots; in other varieties these dots are only round the suture, and in some
totally wanting. Its most constant character rests on the umbilicus, which
is rather large, very deep, and without any appearance of the base of the
pillar. The mouth is also more contracted than usual. It is said by Adanson
to be common on the coast of Senegal; and this observing naturalist adds,
that the operculum is testaceous, of a pure white, and marked with numerous
concentric grooves at the upper angle.

       *       *       *       *       *

NATICA effusa.

       *       *       *       *       *

    _N. testâ depressâ, albâ, maculis castaneis ornatâ; spirâ brevissimâ;
    columellæ basi crassâ, planâ, ad labium interius sinu annexâ._

    Shell depressed, white, with chesnut spots; spire very small; umbilicus
    large, open, spreading; base of the pillar thick, flat, and united to
    the inner lip by a sinus.

       *       *       *       *       *

In form, and sometimes in colour, this shell bears a close resemblance to
the oval variety of N. mamilla (_Nerita mamilla Lin._); but, the umbilicus,
instead of being entirely closed up, is remarkably open, very deep, and the
pillar forming an elevated ridge within; colour in the shells of this genus
is a very secondary, and, in many cases, a most fallacious guide for the
discrimination of the species; for this is sometimes pure white, and I have
specimens of _N. mamilla_ entirely orange. This is a rare shell, probably
from India.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 105

[Illustration]

TROCHILUS recurvirostris,

_Recurved-bill Humming Bird._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 82.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _T. aureo-viridis, jugulo smaragdino; pectore medio corporeque nigris;
    rectricibus lateralibus subtùs topazinis; rostro recurvo._

    Golden green; throat shining emerald green; middle of the breast and
    body black; lateral tail feathers beneath topazine; bill recurved.

       *       *       *       *       *

The extraordinary formation in the bill of this beautiful little creature,
is without parallel in any land bird yet discovered, and presents in
miniature a striking resemblance to that of the Avoset. It is almost
impossible to conjecture rightly the use of this singular formation; but it
appears to me not very improbable, that the principal sustenance of the
bird may be drawn from the pendent _Bignoniæ_, and other similar plants, so
common in South America, whose corollæ are long, and generally bent in
their tube; the nectar, being at the bottom, could not be reached either by
a straight or incurved bill, though very easily by one corresponding to the
shape of the flower.

The figure is the size of life. Bill black, depressed along the whole
length, but more especially at the tip, which is rounded, thin, obtuse, and
recurved in both mandibles; the under of which, towards the middle, has a
convex swelling, which gives the recurvature a stronger appearance. All the
upper plumage and body beneath golden-green; the throat, to the breast,
shining with scale-like feathers of a vivid emerald-green. From the breast
to the vent is a stripe of black down the middle; thighs white; tail even,
the two middle feathers dull greenish-blue, the rest above obscure
coppery-brown, but beneath of a rich shining topaz colour.

I believe this bird is _unique_; I purchased it at Mr. Bullock's sale, and
that gentleman received it from Peru. It presents so much of the genuine
habit of the _Trochili_, that I have retained it under that genus; for,
though the bill is differently formed, that exception does not point out
any important difference from the general economy of those birds.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 106

[Illustration]

CURSORIUS Temminckii,

_Black-bellied Courier._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum mediocre, ad apicem compressum, mandibulis arcuatis, basi
    depressâ, apice acuto, integro. Nares basales, ovatæ, aperturâ
    elongatâ, laterali. Pedes longi, digitis tribus anticis omninò divisis,
    interioribus brevissimis, ungue medio pectinato. Remigum penna prima
    longissima._--Typus Genericus _Cursorius Europæus_, Lath.

    Bill as long as the head; both mandibles arched, and towards the end
    compressed; base depressed, the tip acute and entire; nostrils basal,
    oval, the aperture oblong and lateral; legs long, with three toes in
    front entirely separated, the inner toes very short, the middle with
    the claw serrated; wings with the first quill longest.--Generic Type
    _Cream-coloured Plover_ Latham.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. colore columbino; vertice pectoreque ferrugineis; torquibus
    nuchalibus 2; torque inferiore, remigibus, abdomineque medio nigris;
    torque superiore abdominisque lateribus albis._

    Cream-coloured brown; top of the head and breast ferruginous; nuchal
    collar double; the lower, with the quills and middle of the body,
    black; the upper, and the sides of the body, white.

       *       *       *       *       *

Dr. Latham first instituted this genus, of which two species were then
known; M. Le Vaillant discovered another in Africa; and I am happy in now
adding a fourth from the same country, in the possession of Mr. Leadbeater.
No ornithologist has paid greater attention both to the natural affinities,
and to the illustration of the genera allied with these birds, than
Professor Temminck; and I therefore feel pleasure in naming this bird in
honour of that excellent ornithologist, from whom whenever I have differed,
it has been from the sole wish of eliciting truth. Total length from the
bill to the tail eight inches; bill one inch from the gape, and half from
the end of the nostrils; the colours of the bird are best seen in the
figure; the middle of the body, and the quill feathers, deep black; legs
three inches from the naked thigh to the tip of the middle toe, the claw of
which is serrated internally; tail round; the middle feathers not spotted;
the two next with a black dot near the tip, which, in the next pair, is
further broken into two white dots; the outer pair white. These birds
inhabit the arid tracts of Africa, at a distance from the sea, and run
amazingly swift. One species has occasionally visited England.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 107

[Illustration]

TROCHILUS ensipennis,

_Blue Sickle-winged Humming Bird._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 82.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _T. (div. curvirostræ) aureo-viridis, mento juguloque
    cæruleo-violaceis; rectricibus paribus; alis falcatis, remigum primorum
    scapis dilatato-compressis._

    Curved-bill Humming Bird, golden green; chin and fore part of the
    throat violet-blue; tail even; wings falcated, greater quills with the
    shafts dilated and compressed.

       *       *       *       *       *

I have already offered some observations on the remarkable construction in
the wings of _T. falcatus_, figured at pl. 83; and the bird now before us
is another unrecorded species, possessing exactly the same formation. I was
at first inclined to believe this bird was the male of the _T. latipennis_,
(or _l'Oiseau Mouche à larges tuyaux_ of Buffon), from the under plumage in
that species being uniform grey, a common indication of the female Humming
Birds; but a further comparison of the two has proved this supposition to
be erroneous. They differ, not only in colour, but in their bills; in that
of _T. latipennis_, the curvature is so slight, that it may be almost
called straight; whereas in this, the curve is very apparent. I have little
doubt future observations will show, that these singular quill-feathers,
now known to exist in three species of this family, are peculiar only to
the male birds.

This extremely rare bird is in my own collection, and is not improbably
_unique_; the figure is strictly of the natural size; the plumage, above
and below, is a uniform deep green, with a metallic reflection; half way
down, the throat is dark violet blue; tail even, and very broad, the middle
feathers obscure green, the next pair raven or bluish-black, and the others
white, with a black base.

The progress which has been made towards ascertaining the geographic
distribution of animals, leaves no doubt that this bird is an inhabitant of
either the Continent or Islands of South America; but of what particular
country is unknown.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 108

[Illustration]

RAMPHASTOS Dicolorus,

_Yellow-billed Toucan._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 45.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _R. niger, gulâ aureâ; fasciâ pectorali latâ tegminibusque rubris;
    rostro viridi-flavo, basi fasciâ nigrâ transversâ ornatâ; mandibulæ
    superioris margine laterali rubro; culmine plano._

    Black; throat golden-yellow; broad pectoral band and tail-covers red;
    bill greenish-yellow, the base with a transverse black band, and the
    lateral margins of the upper mandible red; the top flat.

    R. dicolorus. _Gm._ _p._ 356. _Lath. Ind. Orn._ _p._ 135. 2. _Turton._
    _vol._ i. 211.

    Yellow throated Toucan. _Lath. Syn._ 1. 325. _Turton._ 1. 211.
    _Brisson. Orn._ 4. _p._ 411. _pl._ 31. _f._ 1. _Buffon Pl. Enl._ 269.

    Le petit Toucan à ventre rouge. _Vaill. H. N. des Toucans_, _pl._ 8.
    (_optimè_).

       *       *       *       *       *

This is the smallest species of the genuine Toucans yet known, inhabiting,
though sparingly, the northern and southern extremities of tropical
America. It is a species which seems to have been well understood by
Linnæus and the older ornithologists, though none of them have described
the form or peculiarities of the bill; it is probably owing to this
omission, that Dr. Shaw has created an imaginary species in _General
Zoology_, under the name of _R. pectoralis_; compounded of the descriptions
he gathered of this bird, and the Linnæan _R. tucanus_. Dr. Latham's
description is also inaccurate; nor is it improved in the new edition of
his Synopsis, probably from not having himself seen the bird. Of the
figures, there is a masterly delineation by Barraband, in Le Vaillant's
work, but those of Buffon and Brisson are not to be trusted.

Total length about sixteen inches: bill three and a half; it is shorter and
much thicker along the back, than that of any other species; this part also
is broad, and quite flat; the serratures of the margin small, and the upper
mandible only edged with a line of red; the sides are compressed, and the
colours greenish-yellow; the orbits chesnut-red, and the feet (as in all
the Toucans when fresh) delicate fine blue.

Dr. Langsdorff favoured me with a specimen of this rare bird, shot by
himself in Southern Brazil; the sexes have been dissected by that able
naturalist, but to which the one here figured belongs, I am unacquainted.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 109

[Illustration]

PAPILIO Harrisianus.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 92.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. (Troj. caud.) Alis atris, subtùs maculis basalibus coccineis
    notatis, anticis suprà maculo coccineo basali fasciâque albâ, posticis
    obtusè caudatis fasciâ marginali maculis coccineis sex insigni,
    fasciâque mediâ albâ ornatis._

    Pap. (Troj. caud.) Wings black; anterior above with a red basal spot
    and white band; posterior obtusely tailed, with a marginal band of six
    crimson spots, and central white spot.

       *       *       *       *       *

I can find neither figure nor description of this very rare Papilio. It
does not accord with any contained in MM. Latreille's and Godart's recent
monograph of the genus. It was purchased at the sale of the late Mr.
Francillon's cabinet, by N. A. Vigors, Esq., whose valuable collections in
every branch of Zoology are always open to the scientific inquirer. It is
nearly allied to Pap. _Tros_, _Agavus_, _Ascarius_, and _Lysithoüs_
(Godart), particularly to the latter; yet it is obviously distinct from
either. These affinities lead me to think that it is a South American
insect. The figures will render any addition to the specific character
unnecessary.

I have named this insect to commemorate a most assiduous and observing
entomologist of the last age, Moses Harris, whose memory will be long
cherished by our Aurelians, and to whom the scientific are indebted for the
very accurate and excellent figures contained both in his own works, and in
those of Drury; indeed, he appears the only English artist who has
faithfully represented the short and nearly concealed _palpi_ peculiar to
this genus. The son of this excellent artist[1], still follows the
profession of his father, and, inheriting his abilities, deserves every
encouragement that the small circle of English entomologists, as well as
others, can give him.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 110

[Illustration]

CONUS cinctus,

_Purple tipped Admiral Cone._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 65.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. testâ suprà carinatâ, fulvâ, fasciis duobus albidis ornatâ; spiræ
    brevis, maculatæ, basi depressâ, anfractibus concavis sulcis duobus
    insculptis, suturâ alveatâ; basi granosâ, purpureâ._

    Shell above carinated, fulvous, with two whitish bands; spire short,
    spotted, the base depressed; the whorls concave with two depressed
    lines; suture channelled; base granulated, purple.

       *       *       *       *       *

This is a very beautiful, and, at the same time, very rare shell; it
formerly belonged to Mrs. Angus, at whose sale it passed into the cabinet
of Mr. Dubois. Its general appearance resembles very much that of _C.
Maldivus Lam._ known to our collectors by the name of the Spanish Admiral:
the spire will, however, at once distinguish it; each volution is strongly
concave in the middle, in which part are two or three delicate indented
lines, very near each other, and following the volutions; the suture also
is sufficiently open to be termed channelled; the spire is quite flattened
at the base, (forming a sharp ridge round the top of the body whorl), and
only prominent near the tip. In the Spanish Admiral Cone, the spire is
quite smooth, the whorls being flat, and in all the specimens I have seen,
(and they are many), the suture is quite closed up, though Lamarck
(probably mistaking the present shell) says, "spirâ canaliculatâ;" the
base, moreover, is narrowed, smooth, and black; not gibbous, granulated,
(or striated,) and purple, as in this shell.

A variety in my own cabinet presents some differences; the base is but
slightly granulated, and the tip not purple; these are, however,
subordinate characters, and constitute it only a variety.

I shall take an early opportunity of pointing out the differences between
_C. generalis_ and _Maldivus_, two shells even more likely to be mistaken
for each other than those above-mentioned.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 111

[Illustration]

CYPRÆA tessellata,

_Mosaic Cowry._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    "_Testa lævigata, ovata, convexa, marginibus involutis, apertura
    longitudinalis, angustata, utrinque dentata, ad extremitates effusa.
    Spira minima, obtecta._"--LAM. Ann. du Mus. vol. 16. p. 443.

    _Animal marinum (Pectinibranchi). Penula dilatata, testam omnino
    obtegens. Tentacula depressa, subulata. Oculi juxta tentaculorum basin
    externam adsiti._--ADANSON, H. N. du Senegal.

    Shell smooth, oval, convex, the margins turned inward; aperture
    longitudinal, narrow, toothed on both sides, the extremities effuse.
    Spire minute, concealed.--_Lamarck._

    Animal marine; mantle dilated and folding over the whole shell.
    Tentacula depressed, subulate, at the external base of which are the
    eyes.--_Adanson._

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. testâ obtusâ, gibbâ, aurantiacâ, ad latera tesseris albis fuscisque
    alternis tessellata._

    Shell obtuse, gibbous, orange, the sides with alternate tessellated
    spots of white and brown.

       *       *       *       *       *

Amidst all the changes in systematic arrangement which Conchology has, of
late years, undergone, the _Cyprææ_ remain untouched; indeed, they present
such a uniformity of character, that the most superficial observer cannot
mistake them. A few species of Ovula, however, bear a strong resemblance to
the genus, but may be known from not having teeth on each side the mouth.
The Cowries are without exception the most beautiful of all shells, whether
the richness and harmony of their colours, or the exquisite polish of their
exterior, is considered; but (like many other things of more consequence)
their beauty is depreciated by their frequency. The indefatigable Lamarck
has described sixty-six species, only one of which inhabits the European
seas. Adanson has furnished a minute account of the structure of the
animal, and Bruguiere has given long and interesting details of its
economy.

Mrs. Mawe is in possession of this very beautiful little shell; a string of
them were presented her as coming from New Zealand: that which formed the
centre was the only perfect specimen, and from that the figures were taken.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 112

[Illustration]

CONUS carinatus,

_Carinated Cone._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 65.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. testâ sub-cylindraceâ, carinatâ, fulvâ; spiræ depressæ, concavæ,
    maculatæ, apice acuto, anfractibus valdè concavis, striis numerosis
    subgranosis insculptis; basi obtusâ, striatâ, cingulo gibbo
    circumdatâ_.

    Shell nearly cylindrical, carinated, fulvous; spire depressed, concave,
    spotted, tip acute, the whorls very concave, with numerous
    subgranulated striæ; base obtuse, striated, with a gibbous belt.

       *       *       *       *       *

Another rare and remarkable shell of this numerous genus, from the same
collection as the Cone last described. I believe it to be hitherto
unfigured, and unknown to any writer; for I cannot reconcile it with any of
Lamarck's descriptions of species not yet represented.

I know of no other specimen than the very fine one in Mr. Dubois' cabinet.
The shell is heavy; the body whorl contracted at the upper part, where the
margin is sharply carinated; the spire much depressed and concave; each
volution is also concave, and has from three to four fine grooves, which
occupy its full extent, and which appear minutely granulated; but this is
only caused by the longitudinal lines of growth: the tip of the spire
acute; the base is wider in circumference than usual, with a gibbous belt
marked by elevated striæ, in other respects the shell is smooth; the base
of the aperture is effuse, the bands on the body whorl pale and not well
defined, and the spire slightly spotted. It is doubtless an inhabitant of
the Asiatic ocean.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 113

[Illustration]

MITRA pertusa. var.

_Cardinal Mitre_--_large spotted variety_.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 23.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. sect. 3. Testâ ovato-acutâ, albâ; striis transversis puncticulatis
    ornatâ, anfractu basali crasso, tesseris parvis plurimis spadiceis
    vittato, tesserisque majoribus bifasciato; labio exteriore
    denticulato._

    M. Shell ovate-acute, white, with transverse punctured striæ; the basal
    whorl thick, with numerous bands consisting of small, and two of large
    tessellated spots; outer lip toothed.

       *       *       *       *       *

Much uncertainty exists respecting the shell which Linnæus intended for his
_Voluta pertusa_, owing to the inaccuracy of the synonyms, which refer to
species widely different from each other; the majority of authors have,
however, considered it to be the shell figured by Born and Martini, under
that name, and recently by myself in _Exotic Conchology_. As a species, it
is principally distinguished by the rows of irregular brown spots which are
always disposed in transverse bands, running into larger blotches adjoining
the suture, and near the base of the body whorl, which is thick and obtuse;
the lesser spots are mostly tessellated or quadrangular, but in size they
vary considerably in different individuals, and even in the same shell;
this has induced Lamarck to separate them into two species, but which, for
reasons to be hereafter given, appears to me unnecessary.

The variety here figured is very rare, nor have I seen more than two
examples; it differs only from the usual varieties in having the spots
remarkably large. In a future plate this species will be further
illustrated, and the correct synonyms of all the varieties then given.
Inhabits various parts of the Asiatic ocean.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 114

[Illustration]

CONUS pulchellus,

_Orange Admiral Cone._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 65.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. testâ aurantiacâ, fasciis albis interruptis ornatâ; spiræ
    subdepressæ, anfractibus suturam juxta simpliciter sulcatis; suturâ
    alveatâ; basi granosâ, purpureâ._

    Shell orange, with two interrupted white bands; spire slightly
    depressed, the volutions with a single groove near the margin; suture
    channelled; base granulated and purple.

       *       *       *       *       *

I cannot find this very beautiful shell enumerated among the new and
unfigured species known to Lamarck; and the representations given by the
oldest conchologists of this intricate family, are too inaccurate to be
cited without much risk.

In form it approaches nearest to _Conus vitulinus_ of Bruguiere, having the
spire not quite depressed, each volution being slightly raised above the
last, gradually to the apex; the upper margin of the body whorl is convex:
each volution of the spire has a broad and deep groove nearest the upper
edge, which thus becomes elevated, while the convexity of the lower part of
the whorl forms a channel round the suture, which separates it from the
next; this formation of the spire is very remarkable, and unlike what I
have seen in any other Cone. Another distinguishing character is, that the
whole shell is crossed by very faint, broad, and almost imperceptible
punctured lines, very near each other; in some parts discernible with the
naked eye, in others almost obliterated by the longitudinal lines of
growth: the granulations towards the base are very sharp and nearly white,
and the base itself crossed with rough, thick-set, elevated striæ. No doubt
the colour of this species will be found to vary, when more specimens are
discovered. The only one I have ever seen, came with some other very rare
shells from Amboyna, and is in my own collection.

If the descriptions of _C. canaliculatus_ (Malacanus Brug.) be correct,
(for it is a shell I have not seen), it must be quite distinct.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 115

[Illustration]

PLATYRHYNCHUS cancromus. fem.

_Short-tailed Flatbill._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Platyrhinchos_, Temminck. _Sw. Zool. Ill._ (div. I.) Vol. i. pl. 13.

    _Rostrum tenue, breve, valdè depressum, frontis latitudinem superans,
    mandibulæ superioris abruptè aduncæ, et ad apicem emarginatæ,
    marginibus dilatatis, et inferioris margines superplicantibus. Nares
    medii, basi membranâ pennis minutis instructâ obtectâ, aperturâ parvâ,
    rotundâ, terminali, tantùm non nudâ. Rictus ampli, ad mandibulæ
    superioris basin vibrissis rigidis armati. Pedes sedentes, graciles,
    digitis lateralibus imparibus, digito exteriore ad medii digiti
    articulum primum annexo, halluce valido._

    Bill thin, short, very much depressed, broader than the front of the
    head; the upper mandible abruptly hooked and notched at the tip; the
    margins dilated, and folding over those of the under mandible; nostrils
    central, the base covered with a membrane having minute feathers, the
    aperture small, round, terminal, and nearly naked; mouth large, armed
    above with stiff bristles; feet sitting, slender; lateral toes unequal,
    exterior united to the middle as far as the first joint; hinder claw
    strongest.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. (fem.) suprà olivaceo-fuscus, infrâ pallidè fulvus; jugulo albo;
    genis pennisque spuriis nigris; strigâ ante et pone oculum, maculoque
    auriculari albentibus._

    (Female) above olive-brown; beneath pale fulvous; throat white; ears
    and spurious quills black; stripe before and behind the eye, and spot
    on the ears whitish.

    Platyrhinchos cancromus. (male?) _Temminck_ and _Laugier_. _Pl. Col._
    _Pl._ 12. _f._ 2.

       *       *       *       *       *

The remarkable breadth of the bill, and the extreme shortness of the tail,
in this bird, render it a very singular little creature. Though a native of
Brazil, I never met with it during my travels in that country; and the only
specimen I have yet seen belongs to Mr. Leadbeater. The figure of _P.
cancromus_ of Professor Temminck, differing only from this bird in having a
yellow crest, leads me to believe they are sexes of the same species; this
being the female bird. The tail in the male appears to be somewhat longer,
but this may be an error of delineation, and the description has not yet
been published.

The figure is of the natural size, and below is an outline of the bill and
nostrils; these latter are depressed, and the base covered with thickset
feathers; the aperture is naked, round, and piercing the membrane in a
lateral direction, midway between the ridge and margin of the bill, and at
the end of the nasal membrane. The plumage above fulvous brown: darker, and
tinged with reddish on the margin of the quills and tips of the wing
covers: spurious quills and stripe beneath the eyes black: the upper part
of the ears are also black, the lower half whitish yellow; chin and throat
whitish; breast and body beneath pale fulvous brown; tail remarkably short,
and not projecting beyond the wings; upper mandible black, lower white.

Since the publication of the remarks on this genus at Plate 14, a further
consideration of the subject induces me to adopt the opinion of Professor
Temminck, in placing the _Todus Platyrhynchos_, Gm., and its allies, under
a distinct genus; or, in other words, of detaching from this group the
second division annexed to my former definition of this genus. Still,
however, the close affinities I have there pointed out, render the generic
situation of several of these birds very doubtful; because the transition
from one to the other is so gradual that even the most accurate set of
generic characters, founded on the bill, will not clearly define the limits
between the genera _Platyrhynchus_ and _Muscipeta_. Their anatomy might do
so, but on this subject we are quite ignorant.

I can gather nothing from the characters which Dr. Horsfield has given in
the Linnæan Transactions of his new genus _Eurylaimos_; which does not
perfectly agree with those of _Platyrhynchus_. It appears to have precisely
the same formation of bill, nostrils, legs, &c. as _P. cancromus_, but in a
higher state of development; thus strengthening the opinion I have above
expressed.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 116

[Illustration]

MUSCIPETA barbata,

_Whiskered Flycatcher._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum latum, valdè depressum, lateribus aliquando dilatatis, culmine
    prominente, mandibulæ superioris apice adunco, plerumque emarginato,
    marginibus mandibulæ planæ inferioris margines superplicantibus. Nares
    basales, membranâ obtectæ, aperturâ terminali, ovatâ, vibrissis longis
    armatâ._

    _Ob. Pedes mediocres vel breves, digito exteriore ad medii articulum
    secundum annexo, interiore et medio ad basin modò annexis._

    Bill broad, much depressed, the sides sometimes dilated, ridge
    prominent; tip of the upper mandible hooked, and mostly notched, the
    margins folding over those of the under mandible, which is flat;
    nostrils at the base of the bill covered by a membrane; the aperture
    terminal, oval, and defended by long stiff bristles.

    Ob. Feet moderate or short; the external toe united to the middle as
    far as the second joint, the inner and middle toes united only at their
    base.

    Generic Types (_Tem._) Todus plumbeus, Muscicapa borbonica,
    Flabellifera, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. Supra olivacea, subtus fulva, aureâ cristâ (maribus) insignis;
    jugulo albido; uropygio pallidè flavo; caudâ nigrâ._

    Above olivaceous, beneath fulvous, (male,) with a golden yellow crest;
    throat whitish; rump pale yellow; tail black.

    Muscicapa barbata. _Gmelin._ i. 933. _Lath. In. Orn._ 2, _p._ 488. _n._
    86. _mas._

    Whiskered Flycatcher (male). _Lath. Syn._ 364.

       *       *       *       *       *

I once shot a pair of these little birds in the forest of Pitanga, about
twenty leagues west of Bahia: this is the only instance which I know of
their having been found in Brazil. The same bird appears, however, more
frequent in Cayenne, according to the older ornithologists. But whether the
bird described by them as the female be really such, admits of great doubt,
because Dr. Latham (probably on the authority of Buffon) describes it as
having a smaller bill, and a few short hairs, instead of long bristles, at
the base; the crown with a spot of yellow, a longer tail, &c. None of these
are, in general, sexual distinctions, and, moreover, are at complete
variance with the female here figured. The sexes I ascertained by
dissection. It follows, therefore, that either the bird found in Cayenne is
a distinct species, or that the bird described as its female is not such in
reality. This latter supposition I apprehend is nearest the truth.

The figures are of the natural size, the upper representing the female, and
the lower the male bird: the head of the former is entirely destitute of
the crest which distinguishes the latter; in every other respect the
resemblance is uniform. This crest, when not erected, is concealed, being
nearly covered by the olive feathers around it. When erected, however, it
discloses a stripe down the middle of the head of deep straw-coloured
feathers, some of which are tipped with olive. The upper mandible of the
bill is triangular, and much hooked, notched, and depressed; the colour is
black, the perforations of the nostrils are rather large, and would be
naked, were they not partially covered by numerous stiff bristles, which
spring from the base of the bill and angle of the mouth; between the eye
and bill a pale stripe. The plumage above is dull olive green, with a broad
band of very pale yellow across the rump. Wings and their covers brown;
tail and upper covers blackish; beneath, the plumage is yellowish, the chin
almost white, and the breast and vent tinged with ferruginous; the two
first quill feathers are progressively shorter than the third and fourth,
which are equal, and longer than the others. Legs and claws short, slender,
and pale.

This bird would obviously belong to the second division which I had
proposed in my former remarks on _Platyrhynchus_, and it is in every
respect allied to _P. Ceylonensis_, _Pl._ 13. My reasons for disturbing
this previous arrangement have been already given; and, until a complete
investigation is made of the immense genus of Flycatchers, I concur with M.
Temminck in the distribution which he has proposed; viz. the arrangement of
the European species under the old genus of _Muscicapa_, and of the exotic
under that of _Muscipeta_; the characters of which, however, are very
imperfect: they are, indeed, at variance with this bird, which has the
outer and middle toe connected only to the _first_ joint, and the inner toe
cleft to the base.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 117

[Illustration]

NECTARINIA cyanocephala,

_Blue-headed Nectarinia._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    Nectarinia. _Illiger._ _Cuvier._ Cæreba _Brisson_. _Temminck._ Certhia.
    Motacilla _Linn._

    _Rostrum longius, gracile, acutum, sub-arcuatum, basi crassâ, latâ,
    trigonâ, lateribus compressis, mandibulâ superiore apicem juxta leviter
    emarginatâ. Nares basales, ovatæ, breves, membranâ nudâ, in medio ovatè
    fissâ tectæ. Lingua longa, bifida, apice fibroso, haud extensibilis.
    Remigum pennæ primæ tres vix pares. Cauda mediocris, emarginata,
    rectricibus 12, sub-paribus._

    Bill slender, acute, slightly curved, of variable length, base thick,
    broad, trigonal, the sides compressed; upper mandible near the tip
    slightly notched; nostrils basal, oval, short, covered by a naked
    membrane, in the middle of which is an oval aperture; tongue long,
    bifid, not extensible, the tip fibrous; the three first quills of
    nearly equal length, and longer than the rest; tail moderate,
    emarginate, of 12 nearly equal feathers.

    Generic Types, Div. 1. _Certhia cyanea, cayana._ Div. 2. _Certhia
    spiza, &c._ Linn.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _N. (mas.) cyanea; jugulo, dorso, caudâ alisque nigris, remigibus
    margine cyaneo ornatis. (Fem.) Viridis; capite, genis scapulisque
    cærulescentibus; jugulo cano._

    (Male.) Changeable blue; throat, back, tail, and wings black; the
    quills edged with blue. Female green; head, cheeks, and scapulars
    bluish; throat grey.

_Male._

    Motacilla cayana. _Linn. Gmelin_, 1. 990.

    Sylvia cayana. _Lath. In. Orn._ 2. 545. _Gen. Zool._ 10. 655.

    Pepit bleu de Cayenne? _Brisson, Ois._ _vol._ 3. _pl._ 28. 1.

    Cayenne Warbler. _Lath. Syn._ 4. 502. _Gen. Zool._ 10. 655.

    Sylvia Cayenensis cærulea. _Brisson, Orn._ 1. _p._ 455.

_Female._

    Motacilla cyanocephala. _Gmelin_, 1. 990.

    Sylvia cyanocephala. _Lath. In. Orn._ 2. 546. _Gen. Zool._ 10. 684.

    Sylvia viridis. _Brisson, Orn._ 1. _p._ 455.

    Le Pepit verd. _Brisson, Ois._ 3. _pl._ 28. _f._ 4.

    Blue-headed Warbler. _Lath. Syn._ 4. _p._ 503.

    Blue-headed Creeper? _Lath. Syn._ 2. _p._ 727.

       *       *       *       *       *

Few birds require more illustration than this very beautiful though common
species; described by most ornithological writers, but hitherto so little
understood, that the two sexes stand as distinct species in a family of
birds to which they have, in reality, no natural affinity. According to the
Linnæan system it should have been rather placed with the Creepers than the
Warblers; an error which has been continued by every subsequent writer,
even by Professor Temminck, whose skilful and accurate perception of
natural affinities is, in general, so remarkably correct.

That these two birds, however dissimilar in colour, are the sexes only of
one species, repeated dissections in their native country have put beyond
all doubt; and that it is a genuine _Nectarinia_ (or _Cæreba_ of Temminck)
will appear from submitting it to a rigorous comparison with the characters
the Professor himself has laid down for that genus.

Its habits are no less perfectly the same as the rest of the _Nectariniæ_;
it is one of the commonest birds of Brazil, and appears spread over the
whole extent of that country. It frequents the same trees as the
Humming-birds, hopping from flower to flower, and extracting the nectar
from each; but this is not done on the wing, because its formation is
obviously different from the Humming-birds, which, on the contrary, poise
themselves in the air during feeding. The shortness of the bill has
evidently given rise to this bird being placed with the Warblers; but this
organ is not shorter in proportion than it is in _Nectarinia spiza_,
(_Certhia spiza_ of Latham).

I am unacquainted with the other varieties of this species mentioned by
authors. Of the bird here described, I have never seen any variety, either
in Brazil or in our museums. The young males, as usual before moulting,
have the colours of the female; one of them, in an intermediate state, is
in my possession. As both the figures are of the size of life, and
accurately coloured, a fuller description is unnecessary. The rich sky-blue
of the male, in some lights, becomes greenish, and in others dark blue. The
bill, like that of all the genuine _Nectariniæ_, is slightly notched a
little way from the tip, and the base is much broader than high.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 118

[Illustration]

CONUS Generalis,

_Flambeau Cone._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 65.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. testâ gracili, fuscâ, fasciis albidis strigis undatis
    longitudinalibus interruptis ornatâ; spiræ productæ apice acuto,
    anfractibus concavis, lævibus; basi nigrâ._

    Shell slender, brown, with white bands, interrupted by longitudinal
    stripes; spire produced, the tip acute, whorls concave, smooth; base
    black.

    Conus Generalis. _Gmelin_, _p._ 33. 75. _var. a._ _Dillwyn_, 359. _var.
    a._ _Martini_, _vol._ 2. _p._ 58. _f._ 645, 646. (_dark variety_) _f._
    648 _to_ 652. (_pale varieties_). _Gualt._ 20 _f._ G.

    Conus Generalis. _Brug._ _p._ 642. _Lam. Ann._ _vol._ 15. _p._ 363.

       *       *       *       *       *

It becomes necessary to figure this elegant, but not uncommon Cone, in
order to show the young conchologist the little importance that should be
attached to _colour_ in the discrimination of species: the figures will
likewise point out more fully the distinctions between the present shell,
_C. maldivus_, and _C. cinctus_; three species, whose close affinity
require illustration.

These relative distinctions may be comprised in a few words; they rest
principally on the spire, which in _C. generalis_ has the upper half much
lengthened, slender, and acuminated: in _C. maldivus_ the spire is thick
and much shorter: the whorls in both these species are quite plain, and
nearly flat: the spire of _C. cinctus_ resembles the last in form, but is
deeply concave and striated. These characters are, I think, very
satisfactory as specific distinctions.

On the other hand, some attention to these shells lately, has convinced me
that many of the species formed both by Bruguiere and Lamarck should be
more correctly considered as varieties; inasmuch as their specific
distinctions rest, for the most part, on _colour_ alone: this appears,
indeed, to be the leading character selected by these eminent
conchologists, and to which, therefore, they have attached the greatest
importance. From this opinion, however, I completely dissent; on the
principle, that no character which is variable can, with any consistency,
be made use of to express permanent distinctions, when not supported by
peculiarity of formation or sculpture. The great art in framing the
description of a species consists in singling out those characters alone
which are most permanent, and exist in every variety of that species; for,
when once a character is found to be variable, it no longer becomes a
distinction by which a species can be recognised. I consider, therefore,
formation and sculpture as the only certain characters of species, and that
variation of colour should alone distinguish varieties.

It is therefore not surprising that the specific characters given by MM.
Bruguiere and Lamarck, and resting principally on the colours of these
shells, are frequently obscure, and always long; two inevitable evils
attending every attempt to describe minutely the colour, form, and
disposition of the markings of shells. In justice, however, to these great
naturalists, it should be observed, that in this attempt they have done
that best which no writer has ever done well.

The spire of _C. generalis_ is generally spotted, and the white band on the
margin of the body whorl, more or less crossed by broad waved stripes of a
dark brown. It is an inhabitant of many parts of the Indian Ocean.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 119

[Illustration]

AMPULLARIA globosa,

_Round Apple Snail._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 103.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. testâ globosâ, lævissimâ, olivaceâ; spirâ depressâ; aperturæ
    margine crasso, fulvo, sulcato; umbilico parvo, contracto, juxta basin
    posito; operculo testaceo._

    Shell globose, very smooth, olive; spire depressed; margin of the
    aperture thick, fulvous, grooved; umbilicus small, contracted, placed
    near the base; operculum shelly.

    Helix Ampullacea. _var._ _Gmelin_, _p._ 3626. _no._ 43. _Chemnitz_, 9
    _tab._ 128. _fig._ 1133. 1134. _p._ 105.

       *       *       *       *       *

This is the most common of the two shells of this genus, which have their
mouths closed by a shelly operculum. It is well described by Chemnitz, and
his figures are very tolerable; yet, like all the authors of that period,
he considered it as a variety of _Helix ampullacea_. From all these
supposed varieties it is, nevertheless, quite distinct; the spire is more
depressed than that of any other species, and the umbilicus is placed near
the bottom of the inner lip: the whole shell is very smooth, and, although
generally of a uniform yellowish olive colour, is sometimes marked by
narrow bands of purple brown. The margin of the outer lip is slightly
reflected, and the colour, beneath the epidermis, almost white. It is a
native of the rivers of India.

From the remarks on this genus, made at Plate 103, the fact of their
opercula being either shelly or horny, is sufficiently established. These
formations, however, there is every reason to suppose, may generally be
detected by the following indications. In such species as have a shelly
operculum, the margin of the aperture is thickened all round, and has a
parallel internal groove for its reception: the probable use of this groove
I have detailed elsewhere. On the other hand, in those species which are
known to have horny opercula, this margin and groove do not exist; and that
part of the shell which is between the top of the aperture and the
umbilicus, is thin and unprotected. This latter formation is by far the
most frequent, and leads to the conclusion that the majority of these
shells have their opercula horny.

On the distinctions between this genus and _Planorbis_, little need be
said. The principal difference consists in the latter having no operculum;
but another, and a very remarkable one, (which seems to have escaped all
writers,) is, that the shells of the latter genus are destitute of any
columella. The _Planorbis cornu-arietis_ of Lamarck, has been removed by
Mr. G. Sowerby to this genus. This shell, it is true, appears to be
intermediate between one and the other; but the only affinity which it
bears to _Ampullaria_, is in the oval form of the aperture; while it is
allied to _Planorbis_ by its discoid form, want of the columella, and being
universally described as without an operculum: the preponderance of
evidence is clearly in favour of the situation originally assigned to it by
Lamarck.

The characters, therefore, given to the genus _Ampullaria_ by Mr. G.
Sowerby, will be found incorrect. There was no necessity for explaining,
much less for altering, (in this instance,) the masterly definitions of
Cuvier and Lamarck. With regard to the second species given by Mr. Sowerby
to illustrate this genus, he is no less in error; for the real _A. rugosa_,
of all authors, is a strikingly distinct shell from that which he has
figured under this name. This will be sufficiently obvious by referring to
the figures either of Lister, Chemnitz, or Lamarck.

Having offered these remarks on a subject to which I have paid some
attention, I wish to refrain from pointedly noticing other errors and
misconceptions into which Mr. G. Sowerby has fallen; rather wishing that
greater experience, and more matured judgment, may lead him to do this
himself, prior to the publication of the system of Conchology which he has
announced.

       *       *       *       *       *


GENERAL ALPHABETIC INDEX

OF

LATIN AND ENGLISH NAMES

TO

VOLUME II.



                                           Pl.
  Achatina emarginata                      84
    fasciata                               74
    vittata                                84
    _Chesnut-banded_                       74
    _notched_                              84
    _Ribbon_                               ib.

  Ampullaria, Gen. Char.                  103
    fasciata                               ib.
    globosa                               119

  Anodon, Gen. Char.                       96
    rugosus                                ib.

  _Apple-snail, banded_                   112
    _globular_                            119

  _Aracari, lettered_                      90

  _Bee-eater, black-capped_                76

  Botis, Gen. Char.                        77
    bicolor                                ib.
    marginata                              77

  Cinnyris, Gen. Char.                     95
    chalybeia                              95

  Conus carinatus                         112
    cinctus                               110
    generalis                             118
    Princeps                               86
    pulchellus                            114
    terebra                                70

  _Cone, carinated_                       112
    _Flambeaux_                           118
    _Orange Admiral_                      114
    _Prince_                               86
    _Screw_                                70

  _Cowry, Mosaic_                         111

  _Courier, black-bellied_                106

  _Crab-eater, Cinnamon_                   67

  _Creeper, lesser-collared_               95

  Cursorius, Gen. Char.                   106
    Temminckii                             ib.

  Cypræa, Gen. Char.                      111
    tessellata                             ib.

  _Date-shell, banded_                     97
    _grey_                                 ib.
    _Fly-spot_                             ib.

  _Ear-shell, small-holed Cal._            80

  _Flatbill, short-tailed_                115

  _Flycatcher, bearded_                    ib.

  _Hairstreak, red-bordered_               69

  Halcyon, cinnamominus                    67

  Haliotis, Gen. Char.                     80
    Californiensis                         ib.

  _Hawk-moth, wild vine_                   87
    _Ello_                                 81

  _Humming-bird, white-tailed_             82
    _sickle-winged_                        83
    _blue sickle-winged_                  107
    _recurved bill_                       105

  _Horsemussel, wrinkled_                  96

  Ianthina, Gen. Char.                     85
    fragilis                               ib.
    globosa                                ib.

  Licinia Amphione                         91

  Marginella, Gen. Char.                   97
    cingulata                              ib.
    faba                                   ib.
    prunum                                 97

  Merops Savignii                          76

  Mitra caffra                             88
    crassa                                 ib.
    pertusa, _var._                       113

  _Mitre Brown, wh. banded_                88
    _Cardinal, var._                      113
    _thick_                                88

  Muscipeta, Gen. Char.                   116
    barbata                                ib.

  Natica, Gen. Char.                       75
    effusa                                104
    melastoma                              79
    mustelina                              ib.
    punctata                              104
    spadicea                               75
    sordida                                79
    _banded_                               75
    _belted_                               79
    _brown_                                ib.
    _black-mouthed_                        ib.
    _spotted_                             104
    _open_                                 ib.

  Nectarinia, Gen. Char.                  117
    cyanocephala                           ib.
    _blue-headed_                          ib.

  _Oceanic snail, common_                  85
    _globular_                             ib.

  Papilio, Gen. Char.                      92
    Evander                               101
    Harrisianus                           109
    Nox                                   102
    Torquatus                              94
    Polymetus                              92
    Pandrosus                              93

  _Parrakeet, grey-breasted_               89
    _turcosine_                            73

  Paludina, Gen. Char.                     98
    elongata                               ib.
    unicolor                               ib.
    carinata                               ib.

  Picus affinis                            78

  Platyrhynchus, Gen. Char.               115
    cancromus                              ib.

  Pogonias, Gen. Char.                     68
    hirsutus                               72
    rubrifrons                             68

  Psittacus murinus                        89
    pulchellus                             73

  Pteroglossus inscriptus                  90

  Puff bird, greater pied                  99

  _River-snail, long-spired_               98
    _olive_                                ib.
    _carinated_                            ib.

  Ramphastos dicolorus                    108

  Sphinx, Gen. Char.                       87
    Ello                                   81
    Labruscæ                               87

  Strombus dilatatus                       71
    mutabilis                              ib.
    _little pink-mouthed_                  ib.
    _winged_                               ib.

  Tamatia, Gen. Char.                      99
    macrorhynchos                          ib.

  Thecla, Gen. Char.                       69
    Galathea                               ib.

  _Toucan, yellow billed_                 108

  _Tooth-bill, red-fronted_                68
    _hairy-breasted_                       72

  Trochilus, Gen. Char.                    82
    niger                                  ib.
    falcatus                               83
    recurvirostris                        105
    ensipennis                            107

  Xenops, Gen. Char.                      100
    genibarbis                             ib.
    _whiskered_                            ib.

       *       *       *       *       *


SYSTEMATIC INDEX.

       *       *       *       *       *

VERTEBROSA.

PART II.

       *       *       *       *       *

_ORNITHOLOGY._

                               Pl.

  HALCYON cinnamominus         67

  POGONIAS rubrifrons          68
    hirsutus                   72

  PICUS affinis                78

  PSITTACUS pulchellus         73
    murinus                    89

  MEROPS Savignii              76

  TROCHILUS niger              82
    falcatus                   83
    recurvirostris            105
    ensipennis                107

  PTEROGLOSSUS inscriptus      90

  RAMPHASTOS dicolorus        108

  CINNYRIS chalybeia           95

  TAMATIA macrorhynchos        99

  XENOPS genibarbis           100

  CURSORIUS Temminckii        106

  PLATYRHYNCHUS cancromus     115

  MUSCIPETA barbata           116

  NECTARINIA cyanocephala     117

       *       *       *       *       *


SYSTEMATIC INDEX.

       *       *       *       *       *

ENTOMOLOGY.

PART II.

       *       *       *       *       *

                               Pl.

  THECLA Galathea              69

  LICINIA Amphione             91

  PAPILIO Polymetus            92
    Pandrosus                  93
    Torquatus                  94
    Evander                   101
    Nox                       102
    Harrisianus               109

          ------

  SPHINX Ello                  81
    Labruscæ                   87

          ------

  BOTIS marginata              77
    bicolor                    77

       *       *       *       *       *


SYSTEMATIC INDEX.

       *       *       *       *       *

CONCHOLOGY.

PART II.

       *       *       *       *       *

                               Pl.

  STROMBUS mutabilis           71
    dilatatus                  71

  ACHATINA fasciata            74
    emarginata                 84
    vittata                    84

  IANTHINA fragilis            85
    globosa                    85

  MITRA caffra                 88
    crassa                     88
    pertusa                   113

  MARGINELLA cingulata         97
    prunum                     97
    faba                       97

  PALUDINA elongata            98
    unicolor                   98
    carinata                   98

  NATICA spadicea              75
    mustelina                  79
    sordida                    79
    melastoma                  79
    punctata                  104
    effusa                    104

  CYPRÆA tessellata           111

  CONUS terebra                70
    princeps                   86
    cinctus                   110
    carinatus                 112
    pulchellus                114
    generalis                 118

  ANODON rugosus               96

       *       *       *       *       *


ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.

  Pl. 67. line 5, for "_plumesque_" read "_plumisque_."
             16, for "_gigantia_" read "_gigantea_."

  --  69. -- 11, for "excerted" read "exserted."

  --  70. --  2, for "_Cane_" read "_Cone_."
              5, for "_fasciique_" read "_fasciisque_."
             24, for "renders" read "render."

  --  71. --  7, for "_apertura_" read "_aperturâ_."
             16, for "_urseus_" read "_urceus_."
                 11 from the bottom, for "_gracibus_" read "_gracilibus_."

  --  91. -- 16, for "and Godart mentions" read "and according to Godart."

  --  92. -- 13, for "_caudi_," read "_caudis_."
                 8 from the bottom, for "_c._ DENTATIS" read
                   "_c._ DENTATI."

  --  92.        third page, line 3, for "Medicii" read "Medici."
             10, for "_Danais_" read "_Danaus_."
                 fourth page, line 10, _dele_ "not."

  --  95. -- 12  from the bottom, after "_angustâ_" add a comma.
                 second page, line 14 from the bottom, for "_Nectarinia_"
                   read "_Nectariniæ_."

  -- 115.        second page, line 10 from the bottom, after "between the"
                   add "genera."
                 line 5 from the bottom, for "_Eurylaimos_" read
                   "_Eurylaimus_."

  -- 117. --  6, for "lata" read "latâ."

    In the Systematic Index to Vol. I. Conchology, Part I., for
    "_Acephalis_" read "_Acephali_;" and at the head of the list of errors,
    for "Corregenda" read "Corrigenda."

       *       *       *       *       *


NOTES

[1] Mr. Moses Harris, artist, 28, Mansion-House Street, Kensington.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Zoological Illustrations, Volume II - or Original Figures and Descriptions of New, Rare, or - Interesting Animals" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home