Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Zoological Illustrations, Volume III - or Original Figures and Descriptions of New, Rare, or - Interesting Animals
Author: Swainson, William
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Zoological Illustrations, Volume III - or Original Figures and Descriptions of New, Rare, or - Interesting Animals" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Transcriber's note: The listed Addenda & Corrigenda have been applied, and
the captions to the last plate corrected from "CYPROEA" to CYPRÆA.

       *       *       *       *       *


Zoological Illustrations,

OR

ORIGINAL FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS

OF

NEW, RARE, OR INTERESTING

ANIMALS,

SELECTED CHIEFLY FROM THE CLASSES OF

Ornithology, Entomology, and Conchology,

AND ARRANGED ON THE PRINCIPLES OF

CUVIER AND OTHER MODERN ZOOLOGISTS.

       *       *       *       *       *

BY

WILLIAM SWAINSON, F.R.S., F.L.S.,

MEMBER OF THE WERNERIAN SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH, ETC.

       *       *       *       *       *

VOL. III.

       *       *       *       *       *

London:

PRINTED BY JAMES MOYES, GREVILLE STREET;

FOR BALDWIN, CRADOCK, AND JOY, PATERNOSTER-ROW;
AND W. WOOD, STRAND.

       *       *       *       *       *

1822-3.

       *       *       *       *       *


PREFACE.

       *       *       *       *       *

In concluding the last volume of these Illustrations, I may be allowed to
express the satisfaction I feel, at the favourable manner in which the work
has been received, both in this country and on the continent.

Several objections have been urged, even by sensible writers, against
miscellaneous works on Zoology. First, that they range over the whole
animal kingdom, without completing the history of any one tribe. Secondly,
that their authors, while professing to illustrate only what is new or
little known, intrude a large proportion of subjects to be found in all the
common natural histories. And thirdly, that this rapid mode of publishing
new discoveries, is an infringement on the right, and is detrimental to the
labours, of those naturalists who direct their attention to one particular
branch. These objections, however, are not unanswerable; for, in the first
place, these miscellanies should more properly be considered as graphic
illustrations, or collections of figures, wherein the efforts of the
artist, aided by scientific knowledge, are called forth, to complete, by
his pencil, the more minute and detailed descriptions which should proceed
from the pen of the monographer. The most perfect works in the science are
undoubtedly those which unite the labours of both; but, in proportion as
this perfection is attained, the general utility of such works is
diminished. They become so enormously expensive, that they are only to be
seen in universities and princely libraries; for the most part inaccessible
to the naturalist, and nearly unknown to the public at large. The works of
Le Vaillant, Desmarest, Vieillot, Ferussac, and several others, published
in France and Germany, are of this description; and while in one sense they
have considerably benefitted the science, they have in another proved very
detrimental to its general diffusion. No sensible naturalist will risk his
fame, by giving his observations to the world, without knowing what has
been done by those who have preceded him;--until, in fact, he has proper
materials to work upon. He knows that these sumptuous authors should be
consulted; he has not the means of so doing; and he relinquishes his
purpose in despair. Such has been the result in two or three instances
which I could mention: and the power of materially extending the bounds of
science is thus confined to those favoured few, who are so fortunate as to
possess, or to have the power of consulting, those splendid publications.

The second objection is well grounded; but in whatever degree it may apply
elsewhere, I trust the following pages will evince my anxiety to render the
work replete with subjects hitherto unknown or unrecorded; and my own
collections, in most cases, have given me ample means for examining and
comparing both the genera and species of nearly all the subjects I have
attempted to illustrate.

In several instances my opinions will be found to differ from those of many
celebrated naturalists of the day; but I have endeavoured to put the reader
in possession of the reasons which have led to the conclusions I have
adopted. This is but justice towards those who have preceded me, and to the
great body of naturalists, by whom such questions will ultimately be
decided. The age is past wherein the _ipse dixit_ of a great name was
enough to check all inquiries after truth. Assertions must now be proved
before they are admitted: and those writers who lay before the public
tribunal of science their facts, their arguments, and their deductions, can
alone hope to have their opinions generally adopted.

The third and last objection is as new as it is singular; and has been
urged against Miscellanies in general by an anonymous French writer.[1]
However an author may feel annoyance or disappointment, that another should
be the first to publish discoveries, which _he_ fancies belong exclusively
to himself, he surely has no title to complain. The field of Nature is open
to the inquiries of all. In her domain there are not yet established any
_scientific preserves_.[2] If occupation or indolence does not permit _one_
labourer to make known his discoveries, is _another_ (who perhaps
unconsciously has been working on the same ground) to hide the knowledge
_he_ has gained? This is surely a principle at once illiberal and unjust.
At this time, there is not perhaps a single department of Zoology which is
not employing the attention of more than one writer. It is to the honour,
and to the lasting benefit of science, that it should be so: and although a
great part of the new objects collected during my travels in Europe and
Brazil have recently been made public by MM. Temminck and Godart, I feel
rejoiced that this has been done by such distinguished men.

I have been induced to enter (perhaps too fully) into a general defence of
Zoological miscellanies, from the opinion I entertain of their great
utility. First, in diffusing a general knowledge, and exciting a taste for
such pursuits among the great mass of readers; and secondly, as being a
prompt and interesting channel of communicating new discoveries to the
scientific world. Their periodical appearances and comparative cheapness
renders them of easy access to the student; and, if well conducted, they
unite all that is essential from the pen and the pencil.

Several foreign journals have noticed the appearance of these
Illustrations, and generally in such terms as to stamp a value on their
contents. One of these, however,[3] contains several misrepresentations,
which have doubtless escaped the notice of the editor; and which,
therefore, it may be as well to explain in this place. The writer in this
journal, while noticing my Illustrations, seems to have mixed up with it
criticisms intended for another periodical miscellany,[4] to which this
has, perhaps, given birth, and which professes to be on a similar plan. He
states that these Illustrations are to be completed in sixty numbers,
making five volumes. No such declaration, to my knowledge, has ever been
made, although such is the averred plan of the Naturalist's Repository. The
reviewer goes on to state: "Il suit pour l'Entomologie et la Conchologie la
classification surannée de Linnæus." This is not a very respectful mode of
speaking of the labours of the greatest naturalist whom his age produced;
but the proposition is a total mistake; the charge is refuted by almost
every page of my work; and, what is rather extraordinary, by the very
quotations of the reviewer. In reply to the regret expressed, "que l'auteur
n'indique pas toujours les ouvrages les plus récens," I should have been
thankful had he subjoined what works these were; as I do not find, in the
monthly lists of the _Bulletin_, any one which I have not consulted or
referred to, if connected with the objects here described.[5] M. de
Ferussac's work has been regularly cited, but his _Prodromus_ I have never
been able to procure, either in England or Paris.

And here I cannot refrain from adverting to the great number of Zoological
publications which have appeared in this country during the last three
years; a number far exceeding in proportion that of any period in the
annals of the science. Dr. Horsfield has commenced a beautiful work on the
Animals of Java; and Mr. Sowerby is prosecuting his Genera of Shells with
much zeal, and with increased ability. Both these appear periodically. They
are conducted on the modern principles of science, and do credit to their
authors. The Naturalist's Repository, before alluded to, likewise appears
monthly, but is carried on according to the Linnæan system, pure and
unadulterated. All these, however, unite in showing how rapidly the taste
for such works has increased. Added to these, a new quarterly Journal,
exclusively devoted to Zoology, has been announced, and, if conducted on
liberal principles, its utility will be very great.

But nothing, perhaps, has more fully evinced the state of public feeling on
this point among men of enlightened minds, than the discussions which have
arisen on the present state of the British Museum. It is a subject on which
I might be tempted to say much, did I not feel, that among those who do not
know me, I might be suspected of interested or unworthy motives. But from
the retirement of a country life, I may now be allowed perhaps to say a few
words. It is indeed most true, that, in the Zoological department, this
institution is a full century behind the rest of Europe; I might almost
add, of America. But the fault is deep-rooted; and does not spring from the
person (whoever he may be) to whom this overwhelming charge is given. It is
ridiculous to suppose that the exertions of any one person (however great
his talents, his zeal, and his assiduity,) are sufficient to discharge the
duties of so complicated an office. Such a supposition implies the
expectation of a moral impossibility; and so long as such a Herculean task
is allotted him, so long will the Museum continue, with little alteration,
in its present state. Where we have _one_ Zoologist, the museums of Paris,
Berlin, and Vienna have many; each is charged with the care of one
particular branch; and, by their united efforts, the whole is displayed to
the examination of the scientific, and to the view of the public. Each
professor has thus leisure to prosecute the most important objects of his
duty; _i. e._ to examine, compare, and describe, to detect analogies, to
investigate affinities, and to give to the world the fruits of his studies.
To France more particularly this honour is due. And what has been the
result? Why, that Paris has become the Zoological university of Europe; and
that the principles which have emanated from it, are now considered the
only true ones by which Nature is to be studied.

It is not my object to attach reproach to any body of men collectively, or
to any one individually; but truth is not to be concealed. Every writer who
has the advancement of his favourite study at heart, is bound (however
feebly) to advocate its cause. The truth of the preceding remarks cannot be
questioned; and it remains with those in power, to consider well, whether
such a state of things is consistent with the honour and reputation of the
country; with the justice due to those great men who founded the
institution; and to the expectations of the public, by whom it is
supported.

  Warwick, October, 1823.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 120

[Illustration]

AMPULLARIA corrugata,

_Wrinkled Apple Snail._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 103.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. testâ globosâ, corrugatâ, olivaceâ; spiræ prominentis, acutæ,
    anfractibus ventricosis; aperturæ margine crasso, fulvo, sulcato;
    umbilico parvo, juxta labii interioris mediam posito; operculo
    testaceo._

    Shell globose, wrinkled, olive; spire prominent, acute, the whorls
    ventricose; margin of the aperture thick, fulvous, grooved; umbilicus
    small, linear, near the middle of the inner lip; operculum shelly.

    Helix Ampullacea. _Linn. Gmelin_, _p._ 3626.

    Ampullaria rugosa. _Sowerby, Genera of Shells_, _fas._ 4. _fig._ 1. 2.

       *       *       *       *       *

The annexed figures of this hitherto undefined species will clearly show
its distinction from _Amp. globosa_, (pl. 119); and the specific characters
now framed for these two shells, will, I think, sufficiently distinguish
them from each other.

In comparison with _A. globosa_, this (even in the young state) is a
wrinkled, not a smooth shell, having the umbilicus placed near the middle,
not towards the base, of the inner lip: the spiral whorls are elevated and
ventricose, not depressed, and slightly convex; and the basal volution,
instead of being very wide on the upper part, (near the suture,) is widest
only in the middle. In young shells, the wrinkles and the marginated
aperture are less defined. When divested of its epidermis, the colour is
blueish white, with a few narrow bands of obscure purple. A specimen in my
own collection has the epidermis so thin, that the colours beneath it are
very conspicuous. The mouth inside is dark chesnut, with blackish bands;
the margin being pale yellow and slightly reflected. The umbilicus, both in
this and in _A. globosa_, is small and contracted, while in the real _A.
rugosa Lam._ (_Helix urceus Lin._) it is very large, round, and deep. This
latter shell, also, differs from both of the former, by having a thin, and
not a margined aperture.

Mr. Sowerby appears the only writer who has figured this shell, which he
has mistaken for the _A. rugosa_ of Lamarck. I am informed by Mr. Humphreys
it is a native of India.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 121

[Illustration]

CINNYRIS Javanica,

_Javanese Creeper._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 95.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. supra nitidè purpureo-ærata, subtus olivaceo-crocea; scapulis,
    uropygio, strigâque laterali a rostro ad pectus descendente nitidè
    violaceis; jugulo castaneo; caudâ nigra._

    Above glossy metallic purple; beneath olive yellow; scapulars, rump,
    and lateral stripe from the bill to the breast, shining violet; throat
    chesnut; tail black.

    Nectarinia Javanica. _Horsfield in Linn. Tran._ _vol._ 13. i. _p._ 167.

       *       *       *       *       *

Under the full conviction that nature has defined, in the most complete
manner, the geographic limits of the various tribes of birds subsisting on
vegetable juices, I am particularly anxious to rectify any mistakes that
may shake this hypothesis, in which I find myself supported, in the fullest
manner, by the opinion of Professor Temminck, in the last edition of his
_Manuel_.

Dr. Horsfield, in his account of the birds of Java, describes two species
under the names of _Nectarinia Javanica_ and _Pectoralis_. It happens,
however, that specimens of both these birds are in my own cabinet, and have
enabled me to ascertain that they are both decided species of _Cinnyris_,
perfectly agreeing with the characters laid down by Cuvier, Temminck, and
myself, for this group. It is difficult to say how this oversight has
occurred, because Dr. H., just before, introduces the genus _Cinnyris_, and
describes under it two new species. In short, no doubt remains in my own
mind, that _Cinnyris_ is a genus as strictly confined to the tropical
latitudes of the _old_, as _Nectarinia_ is to the _new_ world.

The figure is the size of life; the outline of the bill will illustrate the
generic characters, of which one of the most important is the nostrils.
Nothing can exceed the richness and variety of tints with which this
splendid little creature is ornamented; particularly on the head, which is
glossed alternately with lilac, sea-green, and violet, and appears as if
covered with some metallic substance; the blue on the wings, back, and
edges of the tail is very deep, shining, and glossed with purple; all the
wing-feathers are edged with olive, and some of the lesser quills with
chesnut.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 122

[Illustration]

ACHATINA virginea, _var._

_Common Striped Achatina,_ _var. 2 and 3_.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 30.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. testâ elongatâ, fasciis numerosis nigris, viridibus et flavis
    ornatâ; anfractûs basalis latitudine altitudinem superante; aperturâ
    rotundatâ; labio exteriore integro; basi profundè emarginatâ._

        _Var._ 2. _testâ fasciis fuscis ornatâ; labio interiore albo._

        _Var._ 3. _testâ fasciis rufis ornatâ; labio interiore roseo._

    Shell elongated, with crowded bands of black, green, and yellow; basal
    volution broader than high; aperture rounded; outer lip entire; base
    deeply notched.

    Bulla virginea. _Gm._ 3429. _Chemnitz_, 9. _t._ 117. _f._ 1000, 1.
    _Dill._ 491.

    Bulimus virgineus. _Brug._ _p._ 363.--_Lister_, 15. 10. _Seba_, _t._
    40. _f._ 38. _Ferrusac_, _pl._ 120. _f._ 3, 4, 5.

        Var. 2. Shell banded with brown; inner lip white. _Ferrusac_, _t._
        120. _f._ 2.

        Var. 3. Shell banded with rufous; inner lip rosy. _Chemnitz_, 10.
        173. _f._ 1682, 1683, (_reversed_.)

       *       *       *       *       *

The shell generally known as the _Ach. virginea_ (_Bulla virginea Lin._) is
so common, that few collectors do not possess it. The varieties, however,
of this species are rare, and differ so remarkably in their colouring, as
to require illustration. Several kindred species of this family I have
already described; and on the same principle of establishing specific
distinctions from formation instead of colour, I shall now endeavour to
point out those characters which are common, more or less, to all the
varieties of this species, and which distinguish it from its allies. _A.
virginea_ may be known by the comparative shortness of the basal whorl,
which in general is broader than high; the margin of the outer lip is
entire, and sloping in an oblique direction; the aperture is wide, and
nearly round; the lower part of the columella takes a concave direction,
and between its base and that of the outer lip is a very deep notch. The
basal whorl is so broad that the shell, if placed on a table with its mouth
downwards, will remain erect.

Both these and the two next varieties are in Mr. Dubois' cabinet. Their
locality is unknown; but my young friend, Mr. Frederick Parkes, has
recently sent me shells of the common variety, found by himself near
Kingston, Jamaica.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 123

[Illustration]

ACHATINA virginea, _var._ 3 _and_ 4.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 30.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 122.

    _A. virginea, var._ 3. _testâ ampliore, albescente, fasciis rufis
    nigrisque ornatâ; aperturâ purpureâ; labio interiore albo._

        _Var._ 4. _testâ ampliore, albâ, fasciis 3 angustis, fuscis ornatâ;
        aperturâ labioque interiore albis; anfractu basali medio
        subcarinato._

    A. virginea, var. 3. Shell larger, whitish, with rufous and black
    bands, aperture purple; inner lip white. _Middle figures._

        Var. 4. Shell larger, white, with three narrow brown bands;
        aperture and inner lip white; basal whorl in the middle slightly
        carinated. _Upper and lower figures._

       *       *       *       *       *

The two varieties of _A. virginea_ on this plate, are still more removed
from the type of the species than those last figured; they are both much
larger in size, and var. 4 presents a slight difference of formation, in
having the basal volution somewhat carinated round the middle; but as in
every other essential character it agrees with the rest, I have refrained
from separating it as a distinct species.

The four varieties I have now illustrated of _Ach. virginea_, tend to
establish, in a very complete manner, the correctness of the principles on
which I have framed the specific characters of this genus; here are four
shells, with a total difference in the colouring of each, yet all agreeing
in the same formation. It should be observed likewise, that _A. pallida_,
figured at pl. 41 of this work, and _A. virginea_, var. 4, are nearly the
same in colour, while in formation they are completely at variance. I do
not think it has been hitherto remarked, that the elegant green lines which
ornament the common variety, are only _external_; they resemble, in this
respect, the epidermis of other shells, for they may be taken off by a
knife without any injury to the enamel. M. Ferrusac has figured several
other varieties in his beautiful work on Land Shells.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 124

[Illustration]

LICINIA Crisia.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 15.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. mas. Alis anticis falcato-acuminatis, fuscis, fasciâ mediâ
    margineque postico flavo; posticis infra flavescentibus colore griseo
    variis, basi maculis 4 fulvis._

    _Fem. Alis infra albentibus colore griseo variis; anticis integris,
    supra fuscis, fasciâ mediâ margineque postico albentibus; posticarum
    basi maculis 4 fulvis._

    _Male._ Anterior wings angulated, brown, with a central band and hind
    margin yellow; posterior beneath yellowish marbled with grey, base with
    4 fulvous spots.

    _Female._ Anterior wings entire, above brown, with a central band and
    hind margin whitish; all the wings beneath whitish marbled with grey;
    base of the posterior with 4 fulvous spots.

    Pieris Crisia. _Godart. En. Méth._ _p._ 197. _Male._ _Drury_, _v._ 3.
    _pl._ 37. _f._ 1. 2?

       *       *       *       *       *

The extraordinary difference existing between the sexes of exotic
Lepidoptera, and particularly among the Butterflies, (_Papilionidæ_ Lin.)
is a subject which hitherto has received but little attention; nor am I
aware of any entomological writer who has described those characters which
absolutely distinguish the sexes: characters which, I am persuaded, will
hereafter be found of the first importance in a natural arrangement of
these insects. But in the prosecution of this desirable object, the
naturalist, as far as regards foreign Lepidoptera, will have to encounter
serious obstacles; many individuals must be examined of each species, and
some of these dissected. It falls to the lot of few to pursue their
inquiries in the native regions of these insects. Collections in this
country are very few, and some of these are not always open to the
scientific labourer; neither can specimens be sacrificed for dissection,
where there are not more than two or three individuals of a species.

This is in general a very rare insect; observed for the first time by Dr.
Langsdorff and myself early in June (the tropical autumn), in a wood
adjoining the Organ Mountains at Rio de Janeiro. From its local abundance,
we were able to ascertain the sexes. The two upper figures are of the
female, and the lower of the male insect.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 125

[Illustration]

PAPILIO Nerius.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 92.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. (Gr. Ecaud.) Alis nigris, fasciâ communi maculisque viridibus;
    posticis dentatis breviter caudatis; his subtùs fasciâ subargenteâ,
    marginali, nervis divisâ._ Godart.

    P. (Gr. Ecaud.) Wings black, with spots and a common band of green;
    posterior wings dentated, obsoletely tailed, beneath with a silvery
    marginal band, divided by the nerves.

    P. Nireus. _Fab. Sys. Ent._ 3. _p._ 36. _Godart Ency. Méth._ 9. 1. _p._
    48. _Drury_ 2. _pl._ 4. _fig._ 1. 2. _Cramer_, _p._ 187. A. B. (_mas._)
    _pl._ 378. F. G. (_fem._)

       *       *       *       *       *

I have figured this insect, principally because it will fully illustrate
the first section (_a._) in the arrangement of this beautiful family
proposed at plate 92. The two divisions there adopted, after the manner of
Linnæus, (_Græci_ et _Trojani_) I am fully aware, are purely artificial;
but the facility this distribution will give to the student, in searching
after a particular species, is so obvious, that it need hardly be pointed
out.

I have only had the opportunity of examining the individual from which the
figure was taken. It is a male, having the anal valves rather lengthened
and obtuse, with a small hook between them, which projects from the last
segment of the abdomen. This circumstance proves the error of Cramer, in
having mistaken the sexes of this species, both of which he seems to have
figured. That which I apprehend is the female (Cramer, pl. 378, fig. F. G.)
I have not myself seen. The blue-green on the upper surface of the wings is
very resplendent and changeable, and the palpi and thorax beneath are
covered with numerous whitish spots.

On the under side of the inferior wings, near their base, is a paler band,
rayed with the nerves, and in some lights shining with a pale silvery
reflection.

Mr. Smeathman sent this species from Sierra Leone, in Africa, to Mr. Drury.
The locality, therefore, of India, given by Linnæus and Fabricius, must be
incorrect.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 126

[Illustration]

CONUS vitulinus, _var._

_Orange Fox Cone_,_Brown-tipp'd variety._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 65.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. testâ fulvâ seu fuscâ, fasciis 2 interruptis ornatâ; spiræ brevis,
    levatæ, conicæ, maculatæ anfractibus concavis, subgranosè striatis;
    basi granosâ, albâ._

        _Var. testâ flavescente, fasciis obscuris, subalbidis ornatâ; basi
        rufâ. (Fig. nos.)_

    Shell fulvous or brown, with 2 interrupted white bands; spire short,
    elevated, conic, spotted, volutions concave with subgranulated striæ;
    base granulated, white.

    Conus vitulinus. _Brug._ _p._ 648. _Lamarck. Ann._ 15. _p._ 265.
    _Knorr._ _vol._ 5. _tab._ 1. _fig._ 4 (_optimè_). _Dillwyn_ 377.

    _Lam. Syst._ 7. _p._ 467. 55.

        Var. Shell yellowish, with obscure whitish bands; the base rufous.

       *       *       *       *       *

I received this very uncommon shell from the Island of Amboyna; and
although in size and colour it is widely different from the usual
appearance of _C. vitulinus_, I have no hesitation in considering it as a
remarkable variety only of that species.

_C. vitulinus_ in general is a small shell. The best representation of it I
have seen is given by Knorr; an author not in general very accurate in his
figures. It varies considerably in colour, and approaches very near to _C.
vulpinus Lam._ from which it principally differs in having an elevated,
though short, spire, instead of one nearly flat: the base is granulated,
and generally white; _C. vulpinus_ also has the body whorl carinated and
thickest round the upper margin, whereas, in _Vitulinus_, it is gently
swelled in the middle.

M. Lamarck is, I think, mistaken in the synonyms of this shell, which is
represented in the _Ency. Méth._ plate 326, fig. 2 and 4.. The shell at
fig. 8. appears to me as the granulated variety of _C. vulpinus_.

Inhabits the Asiatic Ocean.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 127

[Illustration]

CONUS Maldivus,

_Spanish Admiral Cone._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 65.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. testâ lævi, posticè gracili ferrugineâ, maculis albis subtrigonis,
    cingulisque numerosis fuscis, albo punctatis, ornatâ; basi nigrâ; spiræ
    brevis apice acuto, anfractibus lævibus, planis._

    Shell smooth, posterior end slender, ferruginous, with angular white
    spots, and white bands dotted with brown; base black; spire short, tip
    acute, the whorls smooth and flat.

    C. Maldivus. _Brug._ (1789.) _p._ 644. _Lam. Ann._ _v._ 15. _p._ 264.

    C. Jaspideus. _Humphreys in Mus. Cal._ (1797) _p._ 12. _No._ 185.

    Conus Generalis. _Var._ B. _Dillwyn._ 539. 11.

    _Lam. Syst._ 7. _p._ 465. 50.

        Var. 1. Band in the middle narrow; _upper figure_. _Ency. Méth._
        pl. 325. fig. 6.

        Var. 2. Band broader; _lower figure_.

        Var. 3. Band very broad, with dotted transverse lines; _middle
        figure_.

    _Seba._ _pl._ 54. _fig._ 11. 12. _Ency. Méth._ _pl._ 325. _fig._ 5. 7.

       *       *       *       *       *

The general similarity existing between the Spanish Admiral, and two other
cones, figured in this work, I have before alluded to; it has been placed
by the Linnæan writers as a variety of _C. Generalis_, from which, however,
it invariably differs, in being a much thicker shell, with a shorter spire,
and the whorls without any concavity. The colour of the two species varies
considerably in different individuals, but _C. Maldivus_ is always
destitute of the dark brown longitudinal stripes at the top of the body
whorl, peculiar to _C. Generalis_; the white bands are either broken into
somewhat triangular spots, or are banded with minute dots; these triangular
white spots are sometimes scattered in other parts of the shell, and the
white band in the middle varies much in breadth; of all the varieties I
have yet seen, the middle figure is that which makes the nearest approach
to _C. Generalis_.

The very applicable name given to this shell by Mr. Humphreys, in the
_Museum Calonnianum_, I should have adopted, had not Bruguiere previously
affixed to it that of _Maldivus_, as being a native of the Maldivian
Islands.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 128

[Illustration]

CONUS Maldivus, _var._

_Spanish Admiral Cone_,_Chesnut variety._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 65.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 127.

    Conus Maldivus. Var. B. _testâ castaneâ, fasciâ albescente mediâ
    angustâ ornatâ; anfractûs basalis basi et margine albis._

    _Var. B._ Chesnut, with a narrow whitish band in the middle; base and
    margin of the body whorl white.

       *       *       *       *       *

As a further illustration of the last plate, I have been induced to figure
this very rare variety, from a specimen I met with at Mrs. Mawe's. In the
disposition of its markings, it approaches near to the shell represented in
the _Ency. Méth._ _plate_ 325, _f._ 6, but the white band in the middle is
narrower, and quite destitute of the circular dotted lines there expressed.

No shells require a greater accuracy of delineation than the Cones,
particularly in expressing the peculiarity in the form and sculpture of
their spires. I am well persuaded that a great number of the mistakes
committed by authors have originated in the wretched figures contained in
Favanne's work, and in the early volumes of Martini. Those of Favanne are
generally so loose and inaccurate, (although remarkably well engraved,)
that I do not wish, by quoting, to make them any authority; and most of the
Cones figured by Martini are equally bad.

Bruguiere and Lamarck have both given the character of _spirâ canaliculatâ_
to this species, which is altogether a mistake. The spiral whorls are all
_but_ perfectly flat, and the suture is quite closed up, although sometimes
uneven; originating, as in many other shells, either from the inequalities
of growth, or from an accidental sea-break, which the animal may have
repaired.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 129

[Illustration]

MELLIPHAGA torquata,

_White-collared Honeysucker._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 43.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. olivaceo-fulvâ, infra albâ; capite auribusque nigris; torque
    nuchali lunato, albo; superciliorum cute rubrâ._

    Fulvous olive, beneath white; head and ears black; nape with a white
    crescent, skin of the eyebrows red.

    Black-crowned Honeysucker. _Lewin's Birds of N. Holland_, _pl._ 24.

       *       *       *       *       *

An elegant, though not a richly coloured bird; remarkable for the bright
red of the skin above the eyes, and the milk-white collar at the back of
the head. It is from New Holland, and, like others of its tribe, derives
its nourishment chiefly from the nectar of flowers; as more particularly
mentioned in my first observations on this genus at pl. 43.

The figure is of the natural size: excepting the crown and sides of the
head (which are deep black), the whole upper plumage is olive yellow: the
shoulders, quills, and tail brown; the two latter margined with olive, but
the exterior quills with white: the throat, breast, and collar round the
nape pure white; skin of the eyebrows red.

The Lunated Creeper of Dr. Shaw (_Le Fuscalben of Vieillot, Certh._ _pl._
61. _p._ 122.) is, I apprehend, a distinct species. It is described as
being _cinnamon brown_ above, with a bright red spot of _feathers behind_
the eye. In the temperate climate of New Holland, that variation from the
usual colouring of particular species, so frequent in tropical birds, is
seldom met with; neither can these two birds be sexes of one species,
because Lewin, who wrote on the spot, particularly remarks that the female
of this is like the male; he further adds, it is found near Paramatta, and
the Hawkesbury river, in thick bushy woods.

Lewin's figure is so excellent, that I should not again have represented
this bird, had not the plate been prepared previous to the publication of
his work. The outline figure of the bill will show more clearly the
uncommon length of the nostrils, a character which is peculiar to this
genus.

Pl. 130

[Illustration]

Pl. 131

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _T. viridi-aureus, subtus canus; remigum primorum (in maribus) scapis
    dilatato-incurvatis; rectricium pennis 4 mediis viridibus apice nigro,
    lateralibus albis basi nigrâ; rostro vix recto._

    Golden green, beneath grey; greater quills (in the male) with the
    shafts dilated and incurved. Four middle tail-feathers green tipped
    with black, lateral feathers white with a black base; bill nearly
    straight.

    T. latipennis. _Lath. In. Orn._ 1. _p._ 310. _Gen. Zool._ 8. 1. 318.

    T. campylopterus. _Gm. Sys. Nat._ 499. _n._ 65.

    L'O. mouche à larges tuyaux. _Vieillot Ois. D'or._ _p._ 21. _p._ 59.

    Broad-shafted H. Bird. _Lath. Syn._ _v._ 2. _p._ 765. _Gen. Zool._ 8.
    318.

       *       *       *       *       *

The opinion I expressed on the unusual formation of the wings in two
species of Humming-birds, figured at pl. 83 and 107, appears to receive the
fullest confirmation from the birds here represented. One of these (pl.
131) is clearly the _T. latipennis_, or Broad-shafted Humming-bird of
authors; while the other presents not the slightest difference except in
the shafts of the quills, which, instead of being thickened and dilated,
are of the ordinary size.

Not having myself dissected these birds, I cannot decidedly say they are
male and female; but I think no reasonable doubt can remain that such is
the fact, and that these singular quill-feathers are characteristic only of
the male sex.

Both the birds are represented the size of life, and may be included in one
description: the upper plumage obscure blueish green, glossed with a
coppery or golden tinge and shaded with brown, the plumage beneath entirely
grey; ears and sides of the neck the same, the latter with some spots of
greenish. Tail large, even, and broad; the two middle feathers green, tipt
(in the male) with blackish; the next pair black, with the base green, and
the extreme points whitish; the remainder black, with their ends more or
less white. Wings violet brown, the shafts of the three outer quills, in
the male, dilated and compressed, but simple in the female. Said to inhabit
Cayenne. Although the bill of this species is all but straight, it belongs
naturally to the curved-bill division.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 132

[Illustration]

MACROGLOSSUM annulosum,

_Upper figure_

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 64.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. alis nigris, anticis fasciis 2 hyalinè maculatis ornatis; abdominis
    nigri, segmento tertio niveo._

    Wings black, anterior with two bands of hyaline spots; abdomen black,
    the third segment snowy.

       *       *       *       *       *

An elegant insect; so closely allied to _Sphinx Tantalus, Lin._ (_Drury_,
_v._ 1. _pl._ 26. _f._ 5.) as to excite a doubt if it should be considered
as a separate species. Drury's figure and description, however, of that
insect, induce me to think they are most probably distinct. _S. Tantalus_
is without the two bands of hyaline spots, and is much smaller in size.

In this insect are three small, white, snowy dots, on the sides of the
lower segments of the abdomen, and the same beneath: the anal segment is
grey; with the margin, and spot in the middle, black. Inhabits Brazil, but
is a rare insect.

       *       *       *       *       *

MACROGLOSSUM fasciatum,

_Lower figure._

       *       *       *       *       *

    _M. alis nigricantibus, anticis fusco variis, posticis strigâ
    aurantiacâ centrali ornatis; thorace griseâ; corporis lateribus,
    maculis aurantiacis, nigris et pallidè fulvis insignibus; antennis
    gracilibus; unco producto._

    Wings blackish, anterior variegated with brown, posterior with a
    central orange stripe; thorax grey, sides of the body with orange,
    black, and pale yellow spots; antennæ slender, hook lengthened.

    Sphinx ceculus. _Cramer_, _pl._ 146. _f._ G.

       *       *       *       *       *

This is another Brazilian species, much more frequent than the last. In
Cramer, at pl. 146, g. is figured an insect under the name of _Ceculus_,
which no author appears to have quoted; but which (miserably inaccurate as
it is), I have no doubt the artist intended as a representation of this
insect; particularly as Cramer's description, though short, is very
applicable. The colours beneath are uniform dark brown; the thorax, legs,
and base of the wings, whitish; near the exterior margin of the superior
wings is a small white dot, and two others on each side of the middle
segments of the body.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 133

[Illustration]

THECLA Macaria,

_Chesnut-spotted Hair-Streak._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 69.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _T. alis supra fuscis; anticis ad basin cæruleis, infra ferrugineis,
    punctis 2 mediis nigris ornatis; posticis infra castaneis, anticè
    pallidioribus, maculo nigro ad basin ornatis._

    Wings above brown; anterior blue at the base, beneath ferruginous, with
    two central black spots; posterior beneath chesnut, paler on the fore
    part, with a black spot near the base.

       *       *       *       *       *

I have selected this insect as one of the rarest among a vast number of
species of this elegant tribe, collected during my travels in Brazil. Two
specimens of the male, and one of the female insect, were captured in the
woods near Pernambuco, in lat. 8° 12' S.

The male insects, in the majority of the _Hair-Streaks_, have either a
velvet or eye-like spot in the middle of the anterior wings, adjoining
their outer margin; these spots are without lustre, and frequently appear
as if caused by being rubbed: the colours, likewise, on the upper surface
of the wings in the males, generally differ from those of the females.

Wings brown; anterior, with the half next the base blue; central spot
blackish, enclosing an obscure eye-like spot margined with grey, the pupil
black with a white dot. Posterior wings two-tailed; exterior tail very
short, interior lengthened; anal angle two-lobed, margin whitish. Anterior
wings beneath, pale chesnut brown, tips chesnut; in the middle are two
black dots, one of which is small; above these are three others, which form
a short transverse line united to the margin. Posterior wings beneath, dark
chesnut; with two central blackish dots in the middle; below are two
undulated brown lines, parallel to the posterior margin; the anterior
margin pale, with a large black dot near the base; anal angle, clouded with
grey and tipt with a black spot: another spot is also at the base of the
exterior tail. In the female, all the wings above are brown, with a pale
blue base; but the under surface, except in being paler, resembles that of
the male.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 134

[Illustration]

STROMBUS exustus,

_Burnt, or Purple-mouthed Strombus_--(_Upper figure_.)

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 10.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _S. testâ nodosâ; labio interiore albo, lævi; labii exterioris inflexi,
    supra sinuati, intus purpureo-atri, striati; lobo basali edentulo._

    Shell nodulous; inner lip smooth, whitish; outer lip inflected, above
    sinuated, within striated, blackish purple; basal lobe not toothed.

    _Young._ S. papilio. _Chem._ x. _t._ 158. _f._ 1510, 11. _Dillw._ 661.
    120. 11.

    _Adult._ Strombus exustus. _Humphreys in Mus. Cal._ _p._ 38. _n._ 714.

    S. lentiginosus. _Martini_, iii. _t._ 80. _f._ 825, 826. _Gmelin._
    3510. (_var._ [beta].) _Dillwyn._ 660.

    _Seba_, _t._ 52. _f._ 17. 18. _Knorr._ 3. _t._ 26. _f._ 2. 3?

       *       *       *       *       *

Specimens now before me prove that the _S. papilio_ of Chemnitz is a young
shell of _S. exustus_, a species named by Mr. Humphreys in the Calonne
Catalogue, and described in his own manuscripts. In a young state, the
aperture is smooth and nearly white, but when full grown, the outer lip is
strongly striated, and the aperture reddish purple, dark red, or reddish
chesnut: the outer lip is but slightly sinuated above, and the basal lobe
never toothed, as in the next species. Inhabits the island of Haynam, in
the East Indies, and is very rare.

Described by Lamarck (_Syst._ 7. _p._ 211) under the name of _S. Papilio_.
The first of these names, however, has the right of priority. (See _Mus.
Cal._ 1797.) The figures of Martini, tom. 3. tab. 8. f. 825, 826, clearly
represent this species; although Lamarck has quoted them for _S.
lentiginosus_.

       *       *       *       *       *

STROMBUS lentiginosus,

_Tuberculated Strombus_

       *       *       *       *       *

    _S. testâ nodosâ; labii exterioris supra rotundati ad spiram annexi,
    profundè bilobati, margine crasso inflexo, sub-nodoso; lobo basali
    dentato; aperturâ lævi._

    Shell nodulous, outer lip above rounded, attached to the spire, deeply
    bilobated, margin thick, inflexed, slightly nodulous; basal lobe
    toothed; aperture smooth.

    _Young._ _Seba_, _t._ 62. _f._ 37. 40. _optimè_. _Martini_, 3. _t._ 89.
    _f._ 871. _t._ 91. _f._ 891. 892? _Lister_, 893. 12?

    _Adult._ S. lentiginosus. _Gmelin_, 3510. _Dillwyn._ 660. _Martini_, 3.
    _t._ 81. _f._ 827, 828.

    _Seba_, 62. _f._ 11. 30. (_optimè_.) _Lister_, 861. 18. _Gualt._ 32.
    _f._ A.

    _Lam. Syst._ 7. _p._ 203. _Knorr_, 3. _tab._ 13, _f._ 2. Lamarck has
    omitted to quote any of the figures representing the young shells of
    this and the following species.

       *       *       *       *       *

This common shell requires little description, and is only introduced to
contrast more fully the difference between these two species: the upper
part of the lip has two deep notches, which form three prominent lobes; the
basal lobe is toothed, similar to the _Pteroceræ_: the aperture (in those
shells from the East Indies) is light pink inside. A large and fine variety
comes from the Mauritia islands, having the mouth within pale golden
yellow.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 135

[Illustration]

STROMBUS tricornis,

_Horned Strombus._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 10.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _S. testâ ponderosâ, nodis longitudinaliter compressis armatâ; labio
    exteriore inflexo, margine crasso, suprà attenuato et ultra spiram
    producto; canali truncato._

    Shell ponderous, with longitudinally compressed nodules; outer lip
    inflexed, the margin thick, above attenuated and produced beyond the
    spire; channel truncated.

    _In young stages of growth._

    _Seba_, _pl._ 62. _f._ 36, 10. _Martini_ 3. _tab._ 91. _f._ 890. _tab._
    85. _f._ 847.

    _Lam. Syst._ 7. _p._ 201.

        Var. A. Shell whitish, outer lip much produced. _Upper figure._
        _Martini_, _vol._ 3. _tab._ 84. _f._ 844, 845. _Sw. Ex. Conch._
        _part_ 4.

        Var. B. Shell varied with chesnut, outer lip shorter. _Lower
        figure._ _Ency. Méth._ _t._ 408. _f._ 1. _t._ 409. _f._ 2.
        _Martini_, 3. _tab._ 84. _f._ 843. _Lister_, 871. _f._ 25. 873.
        _f._ 29.

       *       *       *       *       *

Martini was the first conchological writer who separated this species from
the _Strombus Gallus_ of Linnæus; under which name are included three
shells, so remarkably different from each other, that they hardly possess a
single character in common.

The original name of Linnæus I have retained to that species figured by
_Seba_, _tab._ 62. _fig._ 1 and 2, and by myself in _Exotic Conchology_,
_Part_ 4.

_Strombus tricornis_, although figured, has never yet, I believe, been
defined.

Two varieties of this shell are met with; one having the attenuated process
of the lip much produced, the margins folded inward, and the tip somewhat
spatulate, or spoon-shaped: the colour of this variety is generally white,
slightly varigated with brown stripes or irregular spots. A very fine
specimen of this variety, having these characters remarkably developed, is
in my own cabinet, and is figured in _Exotic Conchology_, part 4. The
second variety has the process of the lip shorter, and the margins not
folded; the colour usually brownish, richly clouded and variegated with
chesnut; the aperture within is tinged with pale red or rosy; but that of
the other variety is pure white. I believe this species inhabits the coasts
of America; it is a heavy shell, and sometimes measures seven inches in
extreme length.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 136

[Illustration]

AMPULLARIA crassa,

__Thick Apple Snail_,__Upper and lower figures_.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 103.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. testâ globosâ, lævi, (sub epidermide) albâ, fasciis fuscis ornatâ;
    spiræ levatæ apice obtuso; aperturæ margine albo, crasso; umbilico
    caret._

    Shell globose, smooth, beneath the epidermis white with brown bands;
    spire elevated, tip obtuse; margin of the aperture thick, white;
    umbilicus none.

    _Martini_ 9. _t._ 128. _f._ 1135.

       *       *       *       *       *

A distinct species, well characterised by the absence of the umbilicus, the
situation of which is indicated only by a slight depression: the margin of
the aperture all round is thickened, and white; but, from no groove being
discernible, I suspect the operculum may be horny. The only specimen I
have, is divested of the epidermis; it is obviously an old shell; and
appears to agree with the figure of Martini, also taken from an uncoated
specimen.

       *       *       *       *       *

AMPULLARIA oblonga,

_Oblong Apple Snail_

       *       *       *       *       *

    _A. testâ oblonga, lævi, tenui, fuscâ; spirâ levatâ, crassâ, obtusâ;
    aperturæ elongatæ basi contractâ; umbilico vix obsoleto._

    Shell oblong, smooth, thin, brown; spire elevated, thick, obtuse;
    aperture lengthened, base contracted; umbilicus nearly obsolete.

       *       *       *       *       *

A rare, and undescribed shell, presenting a singular deviation from the
general globose form of the _Ampullariæ_. The inner lip is wanting on the
upper part of the aperture, and on the lower is thin, white, and reflected
over the umbilicus, which is nearly obsolete.

Both these shells were in the late Mrs. Bligh's collection, without any
_habitat_ being affixed to them.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 137

[Illustration]

PAPILIO Polybius.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 92.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. alis nigris; anticis maculo albo centrali; posticis
    dentato-caudatis maculo rubro centrali nervis diviso; abdomine strigâ
    laterali; thorace punctis flavis subtùs, ornatis._

    P. (_Tr. caud._) wings black; anterior with a central spot of white;
    posterior dentated and tailed, with a central red spot, divided by the
    nerves; stripe on each side the abdomen and spots on the thorax
    beneath, yellow.

       *       *       *       *       *

An insect neither described nor figured by any author. To my liberal
friend, Dr. Langsdorff, I am indebted for the two specimens in my own
cabinet, collected by himself in the interior of Minas Geraes, or the
Diamond district of Brazil. I am not aware of the insect having been found
in any other part of that vast country.

An unusual character is presented in this species, alone sufficient to
distinguish it from any other contained in the division to which it
belongs. This consists in the thorax beneath being spotted with yellow, and
the body, on each side of the under surface, having a narrow yellow stripe;
the basal margin of the inferior wings is also yellow. Strictly speaking,
these yellow spots would remove it from the section _Trojani_, but it would
then be improperly separated from _P. Lysithoüs_, _Agavus_, and others to
which it is, in every respect, closely allied.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 138

[Illustration]

MALURUS garrulus,

_Noisy Soft-tail Warbler._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum validius, breve, totum valdè compressum, altius quam latius,
    culmine prominente plumas frontales dividente et ad apicem aliquandò
    emarginatum, vix incurvo. Nares basales membranâ tectæ, aperturâ
    laterali. Alæ brevissimæ, rotundatæ, remigum 3 primorum longitudine
    proximorum 4 longitudinem superante. Cauda plerumque longa, cuneata,
    radiis mollibus, decompositis. Pedes validi, digito exteriore ad digiti
    medii basin annexo. Hallux validus._

    _Ob. Rostri basi vibrissis setaceis sparsis instructâ._ Tem.

    Bill rather strong, short, much compressed its whole length, higher
    than broad, the ridge prominent, dividing the frontal feathers, and
    bent at the tip, which is sometimes notched. Nostrils basal, covered by
    a membrane, the aperture lateral. Wings very short, rounded, the three
    first quills shorter than the four next. Tail generally long, cuneated,
    the radii soft and decomposed. Legs strong; the outer toe connected to
    the base of the middle toe. Hind claw strong.

    Ob. Base of the bill with setaceous hairs. _Temminck._

    Generic Types--Turdus brachypterus. _Lath._ Le Flûteur. _Vail. Ois.
    d'Af._ 3. _pl._ 112. _f._ 2. Le Capolier. _Do._ _pl._ 129. _pl._ 130.
    _f._ 1.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. fuscus, infrà albescentibus; plumis frontalibus rigidis,
    acuminatis, rufis; strigis ante et pone oculos albescentibus; caudâ
    mediocri, rotundatâ._

    M. brown, beneath whitish, feathers on the front of the head rigid,
    pointed, and rufous; lines before and behind the eye whitish: tail
    moderate, rounded.

       *       *       *       *       *

The colours of this bird are altogether plain; but it is remarkable for its
very singular nest, which is so large, as to form a feature in the woodland
scenery of Bahia, the only part of Brazil where I observed it: the nest is
built in low trees, formed externally of dried sticks, without any
neatness, and is usually three or four feet long, resembling at a distance
a thick twist of bean stalks thrown in the branches by accident: sometimes
two of these nests appear as if joined together, and there is an opening on
the side, besides one at the top. The sexes are generally seen near the
nest, uttering a shrill, incessant, monotonous chirp, particularly in the
morning and evening. I never could bring myself to tear one of their nests
to pieces, merely to see its construction.

All the birds of this genus are stated by Professor Temminck to be natives
either of the old world, or of the southern hemisphere; but the
observations I have made, lead me to think otherwise. Two of the generic
types M. Temminck has given, are the same as those I have selected; these
birds are now before me; the other (_Le Capolier_,) is so like the species
here figured, that (judging from Le Vaillant's plate) they might easily
pass for the same bird. Two other species, with characters perfectly
resembling _M. garrulus_, are likewise found in Brazil.

From a consideration, therefore, of the affinities and habits of these
birds, I conceive they may constitute a very natural genus, closely allied
to _Sylvia_, having very compressed bills, short wings, russet coloured
plumage, with soft and generally long tails, and building rather large and
cylindrical nests. On the other hand, if the whole of the birds mentioned
by P. Temminck are retained in the genus, I apprehend it will become
entirely artificial; inasmuch as it will include not only the birds above
mentioned, but the _Motacilla superba_, and a large non-descript bird from
New Holland, the size of a thrush, which in habit, though not in
characters, resembles a shrike.

M. Vieillot first proposed this genus, but his definition is so short and
obscure, that little can be gained from it.

The slight sketch in the distance, introduced in the plate, will give some
idea of the singular nest of this bird.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 139

[Illustration]

SYLVIA plumbea,

_Grey-backed Warbler._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostri recti, tenuis, basi altiore quam latiore, mandibulâ superiori
    aliquando emarginatâ, inferiori rectâ. Nares basales, laterales,
    membranâ partim tectæ. Crura longiora digito medio, qui digito
    exteriori ad basin annectitur. Ungue posteriore mediocri, digito
    posteriore breviore et arcuato. Remigum pinnâ primâ brevissimâ
    aliquando caret. Tectrices remigibus multo breviores._ Temm.

    Bill straight, slender, base higher than broad; superior mandible
    sometimes notched, the inferior straight. Nostrils basal, lateral,
    partly covered by a membrane. Legs longer than the middle toe, which is
    united to the exterior toe at the base; hinder claw moderate, shorter
    than the toe, and curved. Wings; the first quill very short, or
    wanting, greater covers much shorter than the quills. _Temminck._

    Generic Types--_Turdus arundinaceus._ Lath. _Sylvia locustella._
    _Luscinia._ _Trochilus._ _Regulus._ (Temminck.)

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _S. cæruleo-grisea, infra aurea; dorso olivaceo; tectricium apicibus
    albis._

    Blue grey, beneath golden yellow; back olive; wing-covers tipt with
    white.

       *       *       *       *       *

There is an elegance of shape, and a harmony of colouring, in the Warblers,
that render these delicate little birds very interesting. The species are
exceedingly numerous, and are spread over most parts of the world; several
abound in our own woods and hedges, and the "sacred bird" of our childhood,
the Robin Redbreast, is among the number. That now before us is a native of
Brazil, from whence it was received by Mr. Leadbeater; I never met with it
myself. The first quill feather is hardly shorter than the three next,
which are all of equal length; the tail-feathers are even, and rather
pointed; their colour black, margined with grey; the two outer with a white
spot on the inner web; the under wing and tail-covers white.

I have made no material alteration in Prof. Temminck's definition of this
overgrown genus, being convinced it might lead to confusion, while the
generality of the birds composing it remain so little known.

This bird greatly resembles the female of _S. pusilla_ of Wilson
(yellow-backed Warbler, Latham), yet differs in having the belly golden
yellow instead of white: I was told, moreover, that this was a male bird:
the one inhabits North, and the other South America. Latham's description
of his yellow-backed Warbler, I should think, is not quite accurate; as he
only alludes to one white bar on the wing covers, whereas both Wilson and
Vieillot say there are two.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 140

[Illustration]

TROGLODYTES rectirostris,

_Straight-billed Wren._

       *       *       *       *       *

Troglodytes. _Ray._ _Cuvier._ _Vieillot._ Sylvia. _Latham._ _Temminck._

GENERIC CHARACTER.

       *       *       *       *       *

    _Rostrum curvatum, rarò rectum, lateribus compressis; apice vix
    emarginato. Nares basales. Alæ brevissimæ, rotundatæ, remigum majorum 3
    exteriorum longitudine quartæ longitudinem superante, cæteris paribus
    et vix remigibus minoribus longioribus. Rectrices breves, fasciculatæ,
    erectæ. Hallux digito medio brevior. Plumæ fuscæ._

    Bill curved; rarely straight, the sides compressed, the tip slightly
    notched. Nostrils basal. Wings remarkably short, rounded, the three
    exterior greater quills shorter than the fourth; the remainder of equal
    length, and hardly longer than the lesser quills. Tail-feathers weak,
    short, fasciculated, and generally carried erect. Hind toe shorter than
    the middle toe. Plumage brown.

    Generic Types _Motacillæ troglodytes et furva._ Gm. _Certhiæ
    familiaris, palustris, et Caroliniana._ Wilson, _Am. Orn._

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _T. fuscus, jugulo pectoreque pallidioribus; mento nigricante; corpore
    medio niveo; rectricibus angustis, nigris; mandibulæ superiore apice
    adunco._

    Brown; throat and breast paler; chin blackish, middle of the body
    snowy, feathers of the tail black and narrow; tip of the upper mandible
    hooked.

       *       *       *       *       *

This singular little bird agrees more in its general character with
_Troglodytes_, than with any other established genus; yet with this its
similitude is but slight. Anxious, nevertheless, to avoid what might
hereafter prove an unnecessary innovation, I have placed it with the Wrens,
under the distinguishing name of _rectirostris_; although I am more
inclined to think it constitutes a distinct genus.

_Troglodytis_, originally instituted as a genus by our illustrious
countryman Ray, has been adopted both by M.M. Cuvier and Vieillot.
Professor Temminck, on the contrary, has included it with _Sylvia_; an
immense genus, already burthened with more species than are rightly
understood, or that really belong to it.

Figure the natural size. Bill straight, triangular at the base, the sides
compressed, tip of the upper mandible bent down and notched; nostrils
large, lengthened, covered by a membrane, which (except at the base,) is
naked; the aperture terminal, near the edge of the bill, narrow, and
oblong: the feathers on the rump and flanks remarkably long; the three fore
toes slender, and all connected at their base as far as the first joint:
tail even, and longer than the generality of Wrens, the feathers very
narrow, weak, and deep black. Plumage above light or reddish brown; sides
of the head, neck, breast, and body, the same, but tinged with fulvous; the
chin and upper part of the throat blackish, but the margin of the feathers
partly white: lower part of the throat and breast dusky: middle of the body
pure white; under wing covers, inside margin of the quills, and edge of the
shoulders, white.

Mr. Leadbeater favoured me with this bird, which he received from Brazil.

The comparative length of the bill in this genus, (leaving the present bird
out of consideration,) offers no generic distinction, because it varies
greatly in different species. Some of those found in Brazil have the bill
nearly double the length of the common European Wren.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 141

[Illustration]

PSITTACUS chryseürus,

_Golden-tailed Parrot._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 1.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. nitidè viridis; fronte genisque fulvo colore tinctis; rectricium
    brevium, parium, pennis mediis viridibus, cæteris aureis, omnium
    apicibus nigris._

    Shining green; front and sides of the head tinged with fulvous; tail
    short, even, tipt with black, the two middle feathers green, the rest
    golden.

       *       *       *       *       *

I was fortunate in procuring both sexes of this very rare bird in the
vicinity of Pernambuco, being the only individuals I ever met with in
Brazil: they appeared as if tired from a long flight, which led me to
suppose they had migrated from the interior towards the coast. I do not
find the species noticed by any writer, nor have I seen it in any
collection.

The total length is six inches and a half; the plumage generally of a rich
emerald green, rather obscure on the top and sides of the head, but very
bright on the back and rump, where it is tinged with blue; the feathers
round the base of the bill, front, and sides of the head, are tinged with
buff colour; the scapulary feathers (protecting the base of the wings and
lesser quills) are chocolate brown, the quills themselves black, margined
externally with green and internally with olive. The most beautiful part of
the bird is the tail, which is short and even, each feather having the tips
margined by a narrow line of black, the middle pair being green, and all
the rest of a rich golden yellow colour; the under plumage and wing covers
are nearly of as deep a green as the wings, but on the flanks there is a
tinge of olive.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 142

[Illustration]

NECTARINIA flaveola, _var._

_Yellow-bellied Nectarinia._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 117.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _N. nigricans, infrà flava; mento, superciliis rectriciumque trium
    exteriarum apicibus, albis; fasciâ uropygiali olivaceâ._

    Blackish brown; beneath yellow; chin, eyebrows, and tips of the three
    outer tail-feathers white; band on the rump olive.

    Certhia flaveola. _Gmelin_, 479. _Lath. Ind. Orn._ _v._ 1. _p._ 297.
    _Gen. Zool._ _v._ 8. _p._ 248. _Turton_, _p._ 297.

    Certhia, _No._ 33. _Brisson. Orn._ _v._ 6. _App._ _p._ 117. _Syn._ 2.
    _p._ 19.

    Black and yellow Creeper. _Edwards_, _pl._ 122. _pl._ 362. _Lath. Syn._
    _v._ 2. _p._ 737. _Gen. Zool._ _v._ 8. _p._ 248. _Turton._ _p._ 297.

    Le Guit-Guit Sucrier. _Vieill. Ois. Dor. Certh._ _pl._ 51. _p._ 102.

       *       *       *       *       *

This pretty little bird, under different varieties of plumage, appears to
be scattered over the greatest part of tropical America, and is one of the
most common of its tribe. The best, and indeed the only detailed account of
its economy, is given by M. Vieillot; who remarks, that its nest is
suspended on the tops of those tall climbing plants, which, in those
countries, form a matting over the most lofty trees: the entrance to the
nest is at the bottom; the interior is divided into two compartments, in
one of which only the young are contained. It feeds both on small insects,
and the nectar of flowers. All the above synonyms refer to the different
varieties authors have enumerated of this species. Most of these have a
white spot at the base of the exterior quills; others vary in having the
throat entirely black; and some again have a yellow rump; but none of these
agree with the variety here figured, which I believe came from Trinidad.
Probably a more perfect knowledge of these supposed varieties will show
they contain two or three distinct species.

Notwithstanding the shortness of the bill, this is a decided _Nectarinia_,
according to a natural, but not an artificial arrangement. It forms, in
some degree, a passage from the shining coloured _Nectariniæ_ of America,
to the short-billed _Melliphagæ_ of the southern hemisphere. On a future
occasion I shall offer more detailed observations on the genus _Dicæum_ of
Cuvier.

The figure is the size of life; and, with the specific character, renders a
further description unnecessary.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 143

[Illustration]

AMPULLARIA sordida,

_Brown Apple Snail_ _f. 1. 2._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 103.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. testâ globosâ, ferrugineâ, lineis transversis subcarinatis
    instructâ aperturæ margine tenui; umbilico magno; operculo corneo?_

    Shell globose, ferruginous, with obsolete transverse subcarinated
    lines; margin of the aperture thin; umbilicus large; operculum horny?

       *       *       *       *       *

The only species of _Ampullaria_ with which this may be confounded is _A.
fasciata_, p. 103, in comparison with which it is a more globose shell, the
aperture narrower, and the spire more obtuse; the umbilicus is larger,
round, and not contracted; the suture is not sunk, the shell is not banded
with coloured lines, nor is the surface smooth; on the contrary, it is
marked with transverse, obscurely carinated lines; while the shell is
uniform brown, the aperture within is white, margined with brown.

       *       *       *       *       *

AMPULLARIA puncticulata

_Oval, punctured Apple Snail_

    _A. testâ ovatâ, subtilissimè punctatâ; spirâ obtusâ; labii exterioris
    margine, interiorisque basi rufis, incrassatis; operculo corneo?_

    Shell oval, minutely punctured, spire obtuse; margin of the exterior
    lip within, and base of the inner lip thick and rufous; operculum
    horny?

       *       *       *       *       *

This and _A. oblonga_ are the only species I am yet acquainted with, whose
form is not globose. It never grows to a size much larger than the figure;
the whole shell is marked by fine longitudinal striæ, and transverse lines
of minute dots, discernible only by the aid of a common magnifier; the
aperture within is brownish flesh-colour; the margin is strong and reddish,
and, within that of the outer lip, is a thickened rim; which, should the
operculum be testaceous, may supply the place of the groove for its
reception observable in _A. globosa_ and _corrugata_. The localities of
both these species are unknown to me.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 144

[Illustration]

EBURNA Valentiana,

_Arabian Eburna._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa turrita, lævis, nitida, umbilicata, basi truncatâ, emarginatâ.
    Aperturæ angulus superior internè canaliculatus. Animal marinum._

    Shell turrited, smooth, polished, umbilicated, base truncated,
    emarginate. Upper angle of the aperture with an internal channel.
    Animal marine.

Generic Type _Buccinum Spiratum_ Lin.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _E. testâ ventricosâ, maculatâ; aperturæ longitudine spiræ longitudinem
    superante; spirâ anfractibus 5 convexis, suturis alveatis; basi balteo
    concavo cinctâ._

    Shell ventricose, spotted; spire shorter than the aperture, of five
    convex volutions; suture channelled; base with a concave belt.

    Eburna Valentiana. _Sw. Appendix to Bligh Cat._ _p._ 6. _lot_ 904.

       *       *       *       *       *

Few species are known of _Eburnæ_, and these are neither well defined, nor
correctly figured.

The species selected by most authors as the type of this genus is _Buccinum
glabratum_ of Linnæus, a shell which, as it unites the characters of
_Eburna_ and _Ancilia_, should not have been chosen for this purpose. Types
of genera are alone intended to represent the usual appearance of those
characters on which the genus has been founded; they should therefore be
selected from such species only, as represent these characters in their
perfect development.

_E. Valentiana_ was first characterized by myself, in the Appendix to the
Bligh Collection. It was brought from the Red Sea by Lord Valentia, in
honour of whom it is named. The very short spire and concave belt at the
base, easily distinguish this shell from _E. spirata_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 145

[Illustration]

EBURNA tessellata,

_Tessellated Eburna._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 144.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _E. testâ maculis fuscis seu purpureis tessellatis fasciatâ; suturâ vix
    canaliculatâ; anfractuum marginibus convexis._

    Shell with bands of tessellated brown or purple spots; suture slightly
    channelled; margin of the volutions convex.

    Buccinum Spiratum. _var. Linn._ _Gmelin_, 3487. _Dill._ 620. _Brug._
    _p._ 262. 26. _Turton_, 4. _p._ 400. _var._ 2.

    Lister, 981. 41. (_bad._) _Seba_, _t._ 73. _f._ 25. 26. _Martini_, 4.
    _pl._ 122. 1120. 1121.

    _E. Arcolata_, _Lam. Syst._ 7. _p._ 282. 4.

       *       *       *       *       *

A shell hitherto placed as a variety of _E. spirata_, (_Buccinum spiratum_,
Lin.) but from which I am disposed to consider it as specifically distinct.
The channel or sulcation round the suture of each whorl is very slight, and
the adjoining margin obtuse and convex; whereas in _E. spirata_ the channel
is broad and deep, having the margin sharply carinated: so far the
essential characters of the two shells are at variance; but their
difference in colour is so obvious that no one can mistake them.

The form of the umbilicus in this species appears to be constant: it is
wide, deep, placed near to the upper angle of the aperture, and margined
externally by a convex belt. With the exception of Seba's figures, (which,
through the carelessness of the engraver, are reversed,) not a tolerable
representation of this shell can be found; for those given by the authors
above named, are almost too inaccurate for citation. It inhabits the Indian
Ocean.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 146

[Illustration]

EBURNA Pacifica,

_South Sea Eburna._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 144.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _E. testâ ventricosâ, maculis fulvis fasciisque albis ornatâ; spiræ
    angustæ, acutæ, suturis integris._

    Shell ventricose, with fulvous spots and white bands; spire slender,
    acute; suture entire.

    Eburna Pacifica. _Swainson, Appendix to Bligh Cat._ _p._ 6. _lot_ 904.

    Eburna lutosa? _Ency. Méth._ _pl._ 401. _f._ 4.

    _E. lutosa?_ _Lam. Syst._ 7. 282. 5.

       *       *       *       *       *

A delicate and rather uncommon shell: first defined in the Appendix I
subjoined to the Catalogue of the Bligh collection, dispersed by auction
last spring. Mrs. Mawe informs me she has received this, along with other
shells, from the Pacific Ocean.

A species at once distinguished by the entire suture and narrow-pointed
spire; the inner lip is very thick, with a longitudinal sulcation near the
umbilicus.

Whether this is the shell represented in the _Ency. Méth._ at _pl._ 401,
_f._ 4, admits of doubt: a short description would have explained the
characters, but not one word is said about it. I have already adverted to
this novel mode of creating species at pl. 31. If authors will not be at
the trouble of defining new species, they have no right to expect their
names should be adopted by subsequent and more laborious writers, to whom
they leave the more scientific task, of defining characters and collating
synonyms.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 147

[Illustration]

MUSCIPETA carinata,

_Keel-billed Flycatcher._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 116.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. plumbea, infrà ferruginea; fronte juguloque nigris; temporibus
    albentibus; rostri culmine carinato._

    Plumbeous; body beneath ferruginous; front and throat black; sides of
    the head whitish; top of the bill carinated.

       *       *       *       *       *

Mr. Brookes, the celebrated anatomist, first drew my attention to this
singular bird; the peculiarity of the bill suggested to us the idea of
creating a genus for its reception; but a closer comparison of its other
characters with several of the exotic _Muscipetæ_ induces me, at least for
the present, to associate it with those birds. The Flycatchers, as they now
stand in the works of Latham, Shaw, and other Linnæan writers,
undistinguished even by sections or subdivisions, present a mass of
confusion, which renders the search after an individual, in this immense
genus, almost hopeless.

Total length, six inches and a half; front, throat, and margin of the
shoulders, deep black; the whole upper plumage is of a delicate lead
colour, which is paler on the breast, and nearly white on the sides of the
head and neck; body and inner wing covers rufous; the first quill is half
the length of the second, which is rather shorter than the three next; feet
slender, weak, and short; the outer toe united, the inner cleft. The bill
at the base is triangular, but not elevated; the sides compressed; the
culmin, or top, is sharp, elevated, and curved; the tip of both mandibles
notched: nostrils simple, small, round, without a membrane, and partly hid
by the thick-set frontal feathers, and lengthened setaceous bristles round
the bill. These parts are delineated on the plate of their natural size;
and must form the basis of any future generic alteration in the arrangement
of this bird. The figure was from a specimen belonging to Mr. Brookes;
since which, I have received two others from New Holland.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 148

[Illustration]

EMBERIZA cristata,

_Crested Bunting._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum breve, conicum, compressum, basi aliquatenus hians, mandibulâ
    superiore inflexâ, inferiore superiorem magnitudine superantem. Nares
    basales, rotundi, basi plumulis obtectâ. Pedes sedentes, digitis tribus
    anticis basi divisis, halluce plerumque brevi, curvo, aliquando recto._

    Ob. _Remigum pennâ primâ brevi, secundâ tertiâque longissimis._

    Bill short, strong, conic, compressed; the base slightly gaping; upper
    mandible inflexed; under mandible largest. Nostrils basal, round,
    covered at the base by small feathers. Feet sitting, the three anterior
    toes divided at the base; the hind claw in general short and curved, in
    some species straight.

    _Ob._ The first quill of the wings shorter than the second and third,
    which are the longest.

    Generic Types (Temminck) i. _Emb. citrinella. miliaria_ Lin. ii. _Em.
    nivalis. Fring. Lapponica._

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _E. olivacea, infrà flavescens; capite cristato; jugulo nigro; strigâ
    oculari, scapulis rectricibusque lateralibus flavis._

    Olive, beneath yellowish, head crested; throat black; eye stripe,
    shoulders, and lateral tail feathers, yellow.

       *       *       *       *       *

The elegant crest of narrow-pointed feathers on the head of this new bird,
at once distinguishes it from all others of the same family. Mr. Brookes
favoured me with the individual here described; it was purchased alive at
one of the Brazilian ports; but I strongly suspect it had been first
brought from Africa, by some one of the slave ships. The figure is of the
natural size; down the shaft of each feather on the back is a black line;
the tail is rather long, and even; the two middle feathers black; the rest
pure yellow, with black shafts, and brown exterior terminal margins; the
upper mandible of the bill is sinuated; the base not gaping, but with a few
incumbent bristles.

I have taken the authority of Professor Temminck for the accuracy of the
generic types of this genus under its present modification.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 149

[Illustration]

CASTNIA Fabricii,

_Red underwing Day-moth._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Antennæ clavatæ, clavo elongato, cylindraceo, fusiformi, ad apicem
    unco brevi, acuto armato. Palpi breves, graciles, haud prominentes,
    articulo ultimo nudo, obliquè verticales. Vertex ocellatus? ocello
    oculum juxta utrumque posito._

    Obs. _Caput parvum; alarum basis squamis conspicuis, elongatis
    imbricata._

    Antennæ clubbed; club elongated, rounded, fusiform, ending in a short
    acute hook. Palpi short, slender, not projecting beyond the front, the
    last joint naked, obliquely vertical. Crown with a small ocellus?
    adjoining each eye.

    _Ob._ Head small: base of the wings covered with conspicuous,
    lengthened, imbricate scales.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. alis anticis, suprà ferrugineis; posticis rufis, fasciis 3 undatis,
    nigris, masculis ovatis interstinctis, ornatis._

    Anterior wings above ferruginous; posterior rufous, with three waved
    bands of black, between which are imperfect oval spots.

       *       *       *       *       *

The insects of this genus form one of the most singular groups among the
Lepidoptera; they are few in number, and confined to the tropical regions
of America; flying only during the meridian heat, and then with incredible
rapidity: they frequent the narrow inlets of thick forests, occasionally
resting, far above the ground, on the trunks of trees. The species here
figured is very rare, and came from the Diamond district of Brazil: it is
named after the illustrious entomologist who first founded the genus. The
bases of the wings beneath are furnished, in the male, with a spiral socket
and horny spring, similar to those of the Phalænidæ.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 150

[Illustration]

SPHINX fasciata.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 81.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _S. alis anticis subdentatis, suprà fuscis, margine postico strigâ
    pallidâ ornato; posticis fulvis, margine nigro; abdomine annuloso,
    annulis nigris, interruptis, interstitiis albis._

    Anterior wings subdentated, above brown, posterior margin with a pale
    stripe; posterior wings fulvous, margin black; body with black
    interrupted rings, the interstices white.

       *       *       *       *       *

This approaches so near to the Sphinx Alope of Drury, that it is not
without hesitation I have ventured to separate them; it will, however, be
seen, that neither in his figure or description is any notice taken of the
pale testaceous band on the superior wings; the body likewise is described
as "encircled with rings of brown and _dark ash_ colour;" in this, the
rings are black, on nearly a white ground: the under sides of the superior
wings, in Drury's insect, "are spotted along their external edges with long
yellowish spots;" in this, they are uniform pale brown. These differences
(greatly strengthened by his figure) induce me to consider them as
distinct; particularly as both insects appear to have come from Jamaica:
the upper side of the antennæ are white, the lower brown. Cramer's figure
of S. Alope affords little or no clue to illustrate the question.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPHINX Leachii.

       *       *       *       *       *

    _S. alis anticis subdentatis, griseo-fuscis, maculis mediis 3 nigris;
    posticis fulvis, margine nigro; abdomine griseo, annulis nigris,
    interruptis._

    Anterior wings subdentated, greyish brown, with three medial black
    spots; posterior fulvous, margin black; abdomen grey, with interrupted
    black rings.

       *       *       *       *       *

I cannot reconcile this with any one species described by Fabricius; at the
anal angle of the lower wings, is a pale greyish spot, with two short
blackish lines: I have named it in honour of that laborious and eminent
zoologist, Dr. Leach; who presented me with the specimen here figured.

The upper figure is of _Sphinx Leachii_, and the under of _S. fasciata_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 151

[Illustration]

ALCEDO semitorquata,

_Half-collared Kingsfisher._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 26.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. cæruleo-viridis, infrà ochracea; capite cyaneo, lineis nigris
    transversis ornato; dorso nitidè cæruleo; pectore torque cæruleo-viridi
    interrupto insigni._

    Bluish green, beneath buff colour; head blue, with transverse black
    lines; back shining light blue; breast with an interrupted blue-green
    collar.

       *       *       *       *       *

In a small collection of birds, procured on the borders of the Great Fish
River of the Cape, I met with this new and elegant Kingsfisher. I was
fortunate in detecting in the same parcel several other unknown and
interesting birds; which I hope to record and illustrate in this work,
particularly as they have since been sent to a foreign museum. This species
considerably exceeds the size of the Asiatic Kingsfisher, being nearly
eight inches and a half long: the bill is black, two inches from the gape,
and one and three quarters from the base of the nostrils: head blue, the
crown crossed by dusky black lines; hind head somewhat crested, the sides
deep and rich mazarine blue; ears and sides of the neck greenish blue, the
latter having a stripe of white; the blue on the sides of the neck advances
on the breast in the shape of a half-formed collar: wings and scapula
covers bluish green, with lighter spots on the tip of each of the wing
covers; down the back is a stripe of vivid light blue, similar to the
common Kingsfisher: tail dark-blue, edged with greenish, the base black.
The plumage beneath, from the chin to the end of the throat, white;
changing on the breast to pale fawn colour, which deepens to ferruginous on
the body, under tail covers, and thighs: legs red: between the bill and eye
a dusky white line.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 152

[Illustration]

ACHATINA melastoma,

_Black-mouthed Achatina._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 30.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. testâ strigis longitudinalibus, nebulosis, purpureis ornatâ; spirâ
    elongatâ; labio exteriore castaneo-nigro; columellâ crassâ, gibbâ; basi
    integrâ._

    Shell with clouded purple longitudinal stripes; spire lengthened; inner
    lip chesnut-black; columella thickened, gibbous; base entire.

    _Helix regina._ _Ferussac Moll._ _liv._ 19. _pl._ 119.

        _Var._ (reversed.) _A. perversa._ _Zool. Illust._ _vol._ 1. _pl._
        30.

       *       *       *       *       *

I have not the least doubt that this shell is specifically the same with
that figured at Plate 30 of this work: it has only recently come under my
inspection, and I therefore hasten to give a further illustration of this
beautiful species, and to substitute a new specific character, which will
be applicable to both varieties.

Although much more ventricose than the reverse variety, this has the same
unusual formation of that part of the columella seen at the base of the
mouth, where it is very thick, and appears as if swelled: the epidermis, in
this specimen, obscures the white ground colour of the shell. I have seen
also another variety, even more slender than that at Plate 30, and with the
aperture not reversed. These new facts point out the necessity of the
specific name of _perversa_ being changed to one more applicable.

The figure is from a specimen lent to me by Mr. Dubois, and is probably
from Brazil.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 153

[Illustration]

STROMBUS lobatus,

_Lobed, or Brindled Strombus._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 10.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _S. testâ nodulosâ; spirâ brevi, inermi; labio exteriore suprâ repando,
    bilobo, margine crasso, reflexo; aperturâ lævi, rubescente; canale
    brevi._

    Shell nodulous; spire short, unarmed; outer lip above spreading,
    two-lobed, margin thick, reflected; aperture smooth, reddish; channel
    short.

    _Seba_, _tab._ 62. _f._ 4. 5. (_optimè_) 9. 12. 14. 15. 27. _tab._ 63.
    _f._ 6. _Mart._ 3. _tab._ 83. _f._ 836, 837. _Gualt._ _tab._ 32. _f._
    F. _Knorr_ 3. _tab._ 11. _f._ 1-6. _tab._ 29. _f._ 8.

    Strombus Gallus, ([beta]) _Gmelin_, 3511. 11. S. Raninus, _Gmelin_,
    3511. 10.

    _S. bituberculatus_, _Lam. Syst._ 7. _p._ 202. 6

       *       *       *       *       *

It will appear extraordinary, that this very common shell should have been
unknown to Linnæus; and still more, that no other systematic writer should
have noticed it, excepting Gmelin, by whom it is placed as a variety of _S.
gallus_, although his _S. raninus_ is obviously made from a bad figure in
Knorr of this same shell. On referring to Mr. Dillwyn's account of _S.
gallus_, I find all the references of Gmelin to this shell expunged; and a
note at the head of the genus states, that _S. raninus_ is undeserving of
notice; thus every trace of the shell, in this work, is altogether lost.

The two lobes at the top of the outer lip form a strong and peculiar
distinction of this species: the colour of the mouth is variable; though
usually tinged with pink, it is often reddish, or red blended with yellow,
and sometimes nearly white; within the upper part of the aperture, round
the inner lip, are one or two strong plaits, with sulcated grooves on each
side; and near the lobe at the base of the outer lip, the aperture has a
few obsolete striæ: the nodules on the body whorl are triangular, and the
two nearest the lip are, in general, very large: the channel (or base) is
short, and turned up in an oblique direction.

Found, in great abundance, in various parts of the West India seas.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 154

[Illustration]

PSITTACUS Malaccensis,

_Blue-rumped Parrot._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 1.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. viridis; vertice uropygioque nitidè cæruleis; tectricibus
    interioribus, corporisque lateribus coccineis; caudâ flavescente;
    rostro magno, dentato._

    Green; crown and rump sapphire blue; inner wing covers and sides of the
    body crimson; tail yellowish; bill large, toothed.

    P. Malaccensis. _General Zoology_, _vol._ 8. 2. _p._ 554.

    Blue-rumped Parrakeet. _Lath. Syn. Sup._ 1. _p._ 66.

       *       *       *       *       *

I think this may be the bird described (according to Latham) by Sonnerat,
under the name of _Petite perruche de Malacca_, and from which both Latham
and Shaw have framed their account of the Blue-rumped Parrot. On comparing
their descriptions with the following, some differences and omissions will
be found, but not sufficient, I think, to justify the idea of this being a
distinct species: I have, as yet, seen only one specimen (and that not
perfect) of this rare and little known bird.

Total length six inches; bill unusually large and strong, being three
quarters of an inch (in a straight line) long, and nearly the same in
height at the base; upper mandible with a sharp tooth in the middle, and
reddish orange; under mandible violet grey; front and crown of the head
violet blue, changing to blackish green on the back, and greyish green on
the sides of the head, neck, and breast; body and vent green; rump and
upper tail covers vivid azure blue; spurious wings greenish blue; wing
covers dark but bright green, margined more or less with yellowish; quills
blue green, their inner webs black; under wing covers and sides of the body
crimson; tail short, even, the two middle feathers above green, the rest
yellow with green edges and black shafts; beneath, these feathers are all
yellow, the shafts white; the wings, for the size of the bird, are very
long, measuring four inches and a half.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 155

[Illustration]

PSITTACUS viridissimus,

_Green Parrot._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 1.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. pallidè viridis; pennis infrà nitidè thalassinis; tegminum,
    remigum, scapulariumque marginibus flavescentibus; lineâ ante-oculari
    flavâ; rectricium basi rubrâ._

    Pale green, quills beneath changeable sea-green; wing covers, quills
    and scapulars margined with yellowish; before the eye a yellow line;
    base of the tail feathers red.

       *       *       *       *       *

The uniform green which pervades the plumage of this Parrot, induces me to
think it may, possibly, be the female of some other species; a few pale red
feathers, close to the axilla, and the faint red on the tail feathers,
appear to strengthen this supposition. Among those species which are
recorded, this approaches nearest to Latham's Green Parrakeet; but the
figure this writer quotes, (_Pl. Enl._ 837.) is at variance both with his
description, and with the bird now before us; it may, therefore, be
considered as undescribed.

Total length nine inches; bill pale; upper mandible three-quarters of an
inch long, the margin undulated. The whole plumage is of a beautiful and
delicate green, darkest above; with a tinge of blue on the crown, spurious
wings, and greater quills; the orbits are naked, between which and the eye
is a blackish line, bordered above by another of pure yellow; all the wing
covers and quills are margined with yellowish. The colour of the inferior
side of the quills is a pale but beautiful blue green, reflecting brighter
tints of the same colour, when held in certain lights; the under side of
the tail has likewise these reflections, but above is yellowish, with a
dusky red spot at the base of each lateral feather: under the wings there
are three or four dull red feathers; feet pale.

This bird is in my own collection, and is the only one I have as yet seen;
neither am I acquainted with its native country.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 156

[Illustration]

FRINGILLA oryzivora,

_Paddy bird, Rice bird, or Java Sparrow._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum breve, validum, crassum, rectum, conicum; mandibulæ;
    superioris gibbæ apice vix inflexo, integro; culminis convexi basi
    angulatâ. Nares basales, rotundæ, pone culminis basin positæ, plumulis
    vix obtectæ. Pedes sedentes. Alæ breves._

    Bill short, strong, thick, straight, conic; upper mandible swelled, the
    tip slightly inflexed, entire; culmine convex, the base angulated.
    Nostrils basal, round, placed behind the base of the culmine, and
    partially covered by the frontal feathers. Feet sitting. Wings short.

    Generic Types. _Loxiæ Javensis, Braziliana. Emberiza principalis,
    cicris. Tanagria cærulea, &c._ (Temminck.)

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _F. cana; capite caudâque nigris; rostro rubro; crisso roseo-albente;
    auribus (in maribus) niveis._

    Lead-coloured; head and tail black; bill red; belly obscure rosy; ears
    (in the male) snowy.

    Loxia oryzivora. _Gm._ I. 302. _Lath. Ind. Orn._ 1. 380. _Gen. Zool._
    9. 2. 316. _Brisson_, 1. 374. 7.

    Java Grosbeak. _Lath. Syn._ 3. 129. _Supp._ 151. _Gen. Zool._ 9. 316.
    _pl._ 51.

       *       *       *       *       *

This elegant bird has been so distorted, in the representations given of it
by the older ornithologists, that little apology is thought necessary for
introducing more accurate figures of both sexes in this publication. It is
said to inhabit the Cape and various parts of India, causing much damage to
the rice plantations, and is frequently brought to this country alive. The
figure is of the size of life, the bill bright red, but whitish towards the
tip; it is very strong, thickened round the basal margins, and forms a
sharp angle between the frontal feathers: the nostrils are small, round,
and placed _behind_ the thick margin of the bill, and not on its outer
surface. Legs flesh-coloured; the orbits are said to be red in the live
bird.

I have followed the example of Illiger and Temminck in uniting the greatest
part of the Linnæan Loxiæ and Fringillæ under the latter genus, retaining
only the Cross-bills under the former.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 157

[Illustration]

AMPULLARIA effusa,

_Ribbon Apple Snail._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 103.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. testâ globosâ, lævi, fasciis purpureo-fuscis cinctâ; spirâ
    depressâ, apice prominente; aperturâ angustâ; umbilico magno, profundo;
    columellâ obsoletâ._

    Shell globose, smooth, with purple brown bands; spire depressed, the
    tip prominent; aperture narrow; umbilicus large, deep; pillar obsolete.

    Helix glauca. _Linn. Dillw._ 918. Helix ampullucea, (_var._ [gamma])
    _Gmelin_, 3626. Bulimus effusus. _Brug._ _p._ 296. _No._ 1.

    _Lister_, 129. 29. _Seba_, _tab._ 38. _f._ 39. _tab._ 40. _f._ 3. 4. 5.
    (_optimè_.) _Martini_, 9. _tab._ 129. _f._ 1144-5. _Knorr_, 4. _tab._
    5. _f._ 3.

    _Lam. Syst._ 6. 2. _p._ 178. 5.

       *       *       *       *       *

I concur with Mr. Dillwyn in believing that this shell is the _Helix
glauca_ of Linnæus; but, as it is now removed to another genus, I think no
real advantage would result from continuing its original specific name;
particularly as the identity may be questioned by others, without a chance
of the question ever being settled: the adoption of the specific names
given to species slightly or incorrectly described by the older
naturalists, inevitably tends to increase the original obscurity, in all
cases where the point cannot be cleared up. _A. effusa_ may be
distinguished from all others by the columella being nearly obsolete; this
part existing only in the two terminal whorls of the spire. This species
therefore forms a transition to the _Planorbes_: there is a variety, with
narrower stripes, double the size of that here figured.

       *       *       *       *       *

AMPULLARIA luteostoma,

_Yellow-mouthed Apple Snail._

       *       *       *       *       *

    _A. testâ globosâ, striatâ, olivaceâ, lineis remotis fuscis fasciatâ;
    spirâ levatâ, apice acuto; aperturâ effusâ intus marginatâ; umbilico
    magno._

    Shell globose, striated, olive, with remote transverse brown lines,
    spire elevated, the tip acute; aperture wide, within margined;
    umbilicus large.

       *       *       *       *       *

The umbilicus of this shell is not so deep as the last, but is larger than
in any other known species; the columella is likewise perfect, and the
aperture is wider and more oblique than in _A. effusa_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 158

[Illustration]

PINNA bullata, (_var._)

_Rufous Pinna._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa longitudinalis, cuneiformis, æquivalvis, apice hians, basi
    acutâ; natibus rectis. Cardo lateralis, edentulus. Ligamentum
    marginale, lineare, prælongum subinternum._--Lamarck, _Sys._ vol. vi.
    p. i. p. 129.

    Shell longitudinal, wedge-shaped, equivalve, the valves gaping; the
    umbones straight, pointed. Hinge lateral, without teeth. Ligament
    marginal, linear, very long, subinternal.

    Generic Types. _Pinnæ rudis._ _Pectinata._ _Muricata._ Linn. Pennant,
    &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. testâ tenui, pellucidâ, rufâ, æquilaterâ, striis remotis, sulcatis,
    transversim squamiferis, subspinosis; marginibus lateralibus rectis;
    margine inferiore obliquè truncato._

    Shell thin, pellucid, rufous, equilateral, with remote sulcated striæ,
    crossed by transverse scales and obtuse spines; lateral margins
    straight; inferior margin obliquely truncate.

    P. bullata. _Gmelin_, _p._ 3367. _Gualt._ _tab._ 79. _f._ c.
    _Chemnitz._ 8. _tab._ 87. _f._ 769. _Knorr_, 2. 23. _f._ 1.

    P. marginata. _Lam. Sys._ 6. _p._ 132. 7.

       *       *       *       *       *

I have little doubt that this shell is a smooth variety of the _Pinna
bullata_ of Gmelin, and the _P. marginata_ of Lamarck; both these authors
refer to the same figure in Gualtieri, but both also have overlooked that
of Chemnitz, above quoted, as well as Knorr's, which latter, although it
represents the shell nearly smooth (similar to that here figured), I
apprehend is only a variety. No doubt therefore having existed as to
Gmelin's _bullata_, M. Lamarck had no plea for altering its specific name
to _marginata_. I have consequently recorded it under Gmelin's name.

The Pinnæ are rather numerous, although many of the species remain in
obscurity; they attach themselves to rocks, deep in the sea, by a silky
_byssus_. It has been commonly stated, that gloves and stockings are
fabricated in the Mediterranean from this byssus, as articles of commerce;
such, however, is not now the case; though articles, so fabricated, are
sometimes shown in Naples and Sicily as subjects of curiosity.

Pinna bullata is, I believe, found in the West Indies. The vaulted spires
on this and other species, easily fall off; and become, therefore, a very
uncertain specific character.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 159

[Illustration]

SATYRUS argenteus.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Antennæ mediocres, clavo elongato, gracili. Palpi porrecti, compressi,
    vix recurvi, remoti, pilis ciliatis, longis, hirsutissimi; articulo
    ultimo elongato, nudo, gracili, acuto. Alæ posticæ orbiculares,
    integræ, rarò dentatæ._

    Antennæ moderate, the club lengthened and slender. Palpi porrected,
    compressed, slightly recurved, remote, with long ciliated hairs; the
    last joints long, naked, slender, acute. Posterior wings orbicular,
    entire, rarely dentated.

    Generic Types. _Pap. Hyperanthus_, _Galathea_, _Semele_, _&c._ Lin.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _S. alis fuscis; posticarum disco suprà flavescente, maculis 2 fuscis
    fucato, infrà albente, margine postico fulvo, maculis 2 atris guttisque
    7-8 argenteis ornato._

    Wings brown; posterior above with a yellowish disk and two brown spots,
    beneath whitish, the hind margin fulvous, with two black spots and 7-8
    silver dots.

       *       *       *       *       *

Without being ornamented by rich or vivid colouring, this is, nevertheless,
one of the most chastely beautiful little butterflies found in Brazil. I
met with it very plentifully in a small wood not far distant from Cashoera,
on the western extremity of St. Salvador's bay: to this particular spot it
seemed confined, for I never saw a single specimen in any other part of
Brazil.

No colouring can imitate the richness of the silvery spots on the under
wings, which appear embossed, or as if solid drops of silver had fallen on
the insect when it first emerged into life. The two sexes are perfectly
similar.

The insects of this genus are usually brown, with dark or paler shadings,
and eye-like spots on their upper or under wings. They principally inhabit
the woods of tropical regions, and the hedge sides and lanes of European
countries; this circumstance probably induced Latreille to change their
name from _Hipparchia_ (Fabricius) to _Satyrus_; which, although an
innovation on the rules of nomenclature, may in this instance be allowed.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 160

[Illustration]

ANODON purpurascens,

_Purple Anodon, or Horse Mussel._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 96.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. testâ transversim oblongâ, crassâ, depressâ, intus purpurascente,
    laminâ cardinali crassâ, truncatâ, dente lamellari in utrâque valvâ
    supposito; umbonibus retusis._

    Shell transversely oblong, thick, depressed, within purple; hinge plate
    thick, truncate, with an obsolete lamellar tooth in each valve; umbones
    retuse.

       *       *       *       *       *

This is an entirely new and very rare shell, remarkable for its shape and
internal colour; it is also highly interesting, as exhibiting the generic
characters of _Anodon_, blended (in some degree) with those of _Unio_:
according to the principles of Lamarck, it might therefore be made into a
genus; but I feel convinced too much importance has already been attached
by that naturalist and his followers to the hinge of bivalve shells; and
that the nomenclature of the science is burthened with genera, trivial in
themselves, bewildering to the scientific, and unintelligible to the
student.

From having paid some attention to the Fluviatile Bivalves, and possessing
a most extensive collection of specimens, I am clearly of opinion that no
permanent characters will be found sufficient to retain either the genera
_Dipsas_ (Leach), _Hyria_ (Lamarck), or _Alasmodonta_ of Say, much less
that of _Damaris_ (Leach), and another, whose name I forget, made by Dr.
Turton from the same shell as Leach's _Damaris_, viz. Mya Margaritifera of
Linnæus. In fact, the line of demarcation between Unio and Anodon appears
to rest on the first possessing cardinal teeth, and the latter having none.

I have several valves (in different stages of growth), and one perfect
specimen of this shell; they were sent to me from the back settlements of
North America.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 161

[Illustration]

VOLUTA punctata,

_Red-dotted Volute._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa ovata. Spira aperturâ brevior, apice papillari. Basis truncata,
    emarginata. Columella plicata, plicis inferioribus majoribus._

    Shell ovate. Spire shorter than the aperture, the tip papillary. Base
    truncated, emarginate. Pillar plaited, the inferior plaits generally
    largest.

    Generic Types. _Volutæ Olla_, _Imperialis_, _Pacifica_, _&c._

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _V. testâ ovatâ, subfusiformi, tuberculatâ, pallidè rubellâ fasciis 2
    maculatis, rubris, punctis minutis interstinctis; columellâ 4 plicatâ._

    Shell ovate, subfusiform, tuberculated, flesh-coloured, with two bands
    of red spots interspersed with minute dots; pillar 4 plaited.

       *       *       *       *       *

In "Exotic Conchology," I have commenced, and intend to complete, a copious
illustration of this noble family of shells; which (if the simile be
admissible) may be termed the nobles of testaceous animals, with as much
truth as Linnæus has called Palms the princes of the vegetable world. The
Volutes, indeed, are imposing shells; both from their size, rarity, and
their rich (but not gaudy) colouring; and it is not improbable that the
value of a choice collection of the principal species, would be equal to
their own weight in solid gold.

The species now under consideration is only known from an injured specimen
in Mr. Dubois' cabinet; although much rubbed on one side, it presents on
the other a true pattern of its original markings; the margin of the outer
lip, and the tip of the spire, are both injured; yet, notwithstanding these
defects, there are abundant characters remaining to evince its total
dissimilarity from any other recorded species.

I have preferred subjoining only the essential generic characters of this
genus, as most intelligible to students; particularly as its natural
characters are fully detailed in the first part of "Exotic Conchology."

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 162

[Illustration]

ACHATINA fasciata, (_var._)

_Banded Achatina,_ (_3 varieties_.)

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 30.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 74.

    (Young.) _Aperturâ basi integrâ._ Base of the aperture entire.

    Ach. pallida. _Zool. Ill._ _vol._ 1. _pl._ 41.

       *       *       *       *       *

Since the first illustration of this elegant species appeared, at plate 74
of this work, I have had the means of ascertaining a very extraordinary
circumstance which takes place in the progressive growth of the young shell
to the adult state; and that is the change effected in the form and
termination of the pillar or columella. In the noble collection of shells
formed by the late Earl of Tankerville, there is a numerous series of this
species; from these I have ascertained, that in the young shells the base
of the columella unites with the termination of the outer lip, making the
aperture entire, similar to the lengthened Helices; but, as the shell
advances in growth, the base of the columella becomes thick, detached, as
it were, from the marginal rim, so as to produce an intervening notch, and
thus gives the old and the young shell not only an appearance of being
distinct species, but of belonging to separate genera. From these facts, I
have drawn the conclusion, that _Achatina pallida_ (pl. 41), is but the
young shell (having the margin of the aperture as yet entire) of _Achatina
fasciata_; and the three additional varieties now figured, will, I hope,
prove an interesting addition to the history of this species.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 163

[Illustration]

HEMIPODIUS nivosus,

_White-spotted Turnix._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum mediocre, gracile, rectum, valdè compressum culmine levato, ad
    apicem sub-incurvo. Nares laterales, lineares, sulcatæ, membranâ
    convexâ corneâ vix tectæ, aperturâ fissâ, elongatâ. Pedes longi,
    digitis tribus anticis divisis. Halluce caret. Cauda brevissima
    tectricibus obtecta. Alæ mediocres._

    Bill moderate, slender, straight, much compressed, culmen elevated,
    towards the tip slightly incurved. Nostrils lateral, linear, sulcated,
    partially covered by a convex horny membrane, the aperture narrow and
    elongated; legs long, with three toes before, divided at their base.
    Hind toe none. Tail very short, concealed by the covers. Wings
    moderate.

    Generic Type. _Perdix nigricollis._ Lath.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _H. supra ferrugineo varius; mento albescente; jugulo pectoreque
    pallidè ferrugineis, maculis albis, nitidis, ornatis; corpore albo;
    uropygio caudæque tectricibus superioribus rufis, immaculatis._

    Above varied with ferruginous; chin whitish; throat and breast pale
    ferruginous, with white shining spots; body white; rump and upper
    tail-covers rufous, unspotted.

    H. nivosus. _Swainson, in Tilloch's Phil. Magazine_, _vol._ 60. _p._
    353.

       *       *       *       *       *

I have represented this delicate little bird of its natural size; which is
so small, as scarcely to equal that of a Lark. The Turnix inhabits the
sandy deserts of Africa and India, and seems to form a race of pigmy
Bustards, all the species yet discovered (fourteen in number) being very
diminutive. Little is known of their habits in a state of nature, further
than that they migrate, and fly with great rapidity. The specific character
will distinguish _H. nivosus_ as a species; and I have already given a more
detailed description of it in the Journal above quoted. Mr. Leadbeater
received it from Senegal.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 164

[Illustration]

SYLVIA annulosa,

_White-eyed Warbler._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 139.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _S. olivaceo-viridis, infrà albescens; jugulo flavescente; palpebris
    plumis niveis insignibus._

    Olive-green, beneath whitish; throat yellowish; eyes encircled by a
    ring of snowy feathers.

    Sylvia Madagascariensis. _Lath. Ind. Orn._ 2. 533. _Gm._ 1. 981.

    White-eyed Warbler. _Lath. Gen. Syn._ 4. 475. _Gen. Zool._ 10. 2. 720.

    Ficedula Madagascariensis minor. _Briss. Ois._ 4. _p._ 498. _t._ 28.
    _f._ 2. (_male_.) _Briss. Orn._ 1. 446.

    _Le Figuier Tcheric_, _Le Vaill. Ois. d'Af._ 3. _pl._ 132.

       *       *       *       *       *

A delicate ring of snow-white feathers encircles the eyes of this pretty
bird. It is far from being peculiar to Madagascar (as Dr. Latham's name of
_Madagascariensis_ would seem to imply), but is spread over a wide extent
of the eastern hemisphere; being found both in the Isle of France, the Cape
of Good Hope, and Madras. The name, therefore, is peculiarly inapplicable;
but this is not all: for we find that the same author, a few pages after,
has given this identical name to another very different bird; the same
error is transferred into Shaw's Zoology.

Figure, the size of life: colour above, olive green; ears and sides of the
head the same: chin, throat, and under tail covers yellow; breast
cinereous, changing to dusky brown on the flanks; the middle of the body
whitish; between the eye and bill a velvet-black line, which forms a
partial margin to the snowy feathers of the eyelids; wings and tail dusky
black, margined with olive.

Very indifferent figures of both sexes will be found in Vaillant's African
birds; from his description it seems to be a gregarious species. I regret
not being able, at this moment, to refer to the work.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 165

[Illustration]

SYLVIA annulosa, (_var._ [beta].)

_White-eyed Warbler._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 139.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _S. suprà cinerea, infrà albescens, capite, alis uropygioque
    olivaceo-flavis; jugulo flavescente; palpebris plumis niveis
    insignibus._

    Above cinereous, beneath whitish; head, wings, and rump, olive yellow;
    throat yellowish; eyes encircled by a ring of snowy feathers.

       *       *       *       *       *

On first receiving this bird from New Holland, I was inclined to think it a
distinct species from the African White-eyed Warbler; but further
consideration has led me to adopt a different opinion: it is true that I am
unacquainted with any one land bird which is common to both countries, and
much weight should be attached to the geographic distribution both of
families and species. These two birds, however, differ in their colour, and
somewhat in their size. On the other hand, the White-eyed Warbler, as
before observed, is found both in Africa and India; and is, therefore,
probably migratory. Nature, moreover, is not bound by laws to which there
are no exceptions; and the leading points of resemblance between these
birds are very strong. On the whole, therefore, I am inclined to consider
them as varieties of one species, forming a solitary exception to the
general dissimilarity between the birds of Africa and those of New Holland.

Size of the Wood Wren: the head and ears are olive yellow, changing to
brighter yellow on the chin, and part of the throat; the neck and back
cinereous, graduating to yellowish olive on the rump and upper tail covers;
wings the same, the inside of the quills blackish; sides of the throat
cinereous; body and under tail covers whitish; the sides tinged with
ferruginous; the stripe between the bill and eye is more brown than black;
and the white feathers round the eye, not so conspicuous as in the African
variety.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 166

[Illustration]

BULIMUS citrinus, (_var._)

_Citron Bulimus,_ (_3 varieties_.)

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 4.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 46.

VARIETIES.

    A. Yellow, with black lines. _Zool. Ill._ _pl._ 46.

    B. Yellow, with black lines and chesnut stripes. _Zool. Ill._ _p._ 47.

    C. Yellow, variegated with green; inner lip obsolete. _Fig._ 1. _B.
    virescens._ _Sw. Bligh Cat._ _p._ 13.

    D. Green, striped with yellow; inner lip white. _Fig._ 2. 3.

    E. Orange, with flame-coloured waved stripes. _Fig._ 4.

    F. Pale yellow, with brown waved stripes.

    _Lam. Syst._ 6. 2. _p._ 178. 5.

       *       *       *       *       *

The beautiful shells here selected as a further illustration of the Citron
Bulimus not only show the great variability of the species, but clearly
prove that _B. virescens_ is, as I suspected, only a variety of _B.
citrinus_. In the shell at fig. 1. the upper part of the inner lip (like
that described in the Bligh Appendix), is entirely wanting; although it
bears, in every other respect, the appearance of a full-grown shell; the
umbilicus likewise is open; but in the shell at fig. 2. and 3. the inner
lip is quite perfect, and consequently folds over the umbilicus; thus the
connexion between the green and yellow varieties is completely established.

I have subjoined a slight arrangement of the principal varieties; and have
only further to observe, that the specific character I first proposed,
appears to me the only one by which this species may be truly
distinguished.

Since the description of _B. aureus_ at pl. 47 was written, I have seen
several other specimens; all of which tend to confirm my belief that it is
distinct from _B. citrinus_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 167

[Illustration]

ANODON crassus,

_Thick Anodon, or Horse Mussel._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 96.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. testâ ovatâ, latâ, crassa; margine cardinali subarcuato,
    extremitate utrâque angulatâ alatâ; umbonibus prominentibus, apicibus
    retusis._

    Shell oval, broad, thick; hinge margin subarcuated, the extremities
    winged and angulated; umbones prominent, the tips retuse.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is only recently that travellers have directed their attention to the
less attractive shells of distant regions; and our cabinets now begin to be
enriched by the numerous land and fresh-water species of those countries.
Among these new acquisitions, the fresh-water bivalves appear the most
extraordinary in their formation, and the most numerous in species. Of the
Anodons, it may be doubted whether the great Linnæus was acquainted with
more than three or four species; Lamarck enumerates fifteen, but a much
greater number have passed under my own examination.

The species now illustrated is very peculiar; it is a strong, thick shell;
in form resembling _Hyria corrugata_, Lamarck; having both extremities
winged and compressed; the umbonial slope[6] elevated, and somewhat
angulated; the umbones thick and prominent, but obtuse, or nearly truncate,
at their apex; the outside of the shell of a dark grass-green colour, and
nearly smooth, excepting at the posterior side, which is marked by sulcated
striæ following the lines of growth; the inside is opaque and whitish, with
rich iridescent margins: the muscular impressions deep, and the hinge
margin quite smooth.

I know of no other specimen than one in Mr. Dubois' collection, and am
altogether unacquainted with its locality; although its _habit_ leads me to
think it is from South America.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 168

[Illustration]

RAMPHASTOS ambiguus,

_Doubtful Toucan._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 45.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _R. niger; jugulo flavo; mandibulæ superioris parte superiore flavâ,
    transversè maculatâ, strigâ viridi obliquè divisâ; mandibulâ inferiore
    nigrâ._

    Black; throat yellow, upper mandible black, the upper half yellow, with
    an oblique green stripe and transverse spots; the under mandible black.

       *       *       *       *       *

The obscurity with which modern ornithologists have described these
remarkable birds, would have induced me, long ago, to have attempted a more
perfect account of all the species in this work; but as this might have
been considered, by some, an infringement on the miscellaneous plan on
which it was commenced, I feel obliged to confine myself only to their
occasional illustration.

The species now selected is one I have never seen; but I have no doubt of
its existence, and little of the accuracy of its delineation. I before
alluded to several drawings of Toucans which had come to my hands, executed
by an unknown artist: among them is a figure of that now published; with a
note subjoined, stating it was drawn "from the bird just dead." The other
drawings of the same artist represent several of the common species, and
their accuracy is presumptive evidence that this also is represented
correctly. The singular colouring of the bill at once separates it from all
known species; and for its further history, we must trust to the exertions
of those travellers, visiting South America, who may feel an interest in
illustrating these singular birds.

I more than once heard, when in Brazil, of a _Blue Toucan_; but it was said
to be very rare, and I never was fortunate enough to meet with one.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 169

[Illustration]

PTEROGLOSSUS viridis,

_Green Aracari,_ (_male_.)

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 44.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _P. nigro virescens; capite juguloque nigris, foeminæ castaneis;
    corpore flavo; rostro serrato, tomiis albis, mandibulâ superiore
    aurantiacâ, lineâ longitudinali, laterali, mediâ, nigrâ, mandibulâ
    inferiore cæruleâ._

    Blackish green; head and neck black (in the female chesnut), body
    yellow; bill toothed, the margins white, upper mandible orange, with a
    black longitudinal line; lower mandible blue.

    Ramphastos viridis. _Linn. Gmelin_, 1. _p._ 353. _Lath. Ind. Orn._ 1.
    138. _Gen. Zool._ 8. 2. _p._ 370.

    Green Toucan. _Lath. Syn._ 1. 331.

    Tucana Cayanensis viridis. _Briss. Ois._ 4. 423. _pl._ 33. _f._ 1. _Id.
    Orn._ 2. 162. _Pl. Enl._ 727. _mas._ 728. _foem._

       *       *       *       *       *

This is a common bird, known to the older ornithologists; but here
introduced, for the purpose of representing the vivid colours which
ornament the bill of the live bird: the figures likewise above referred to
are so very loosely drawn, that a more correct representation of the
species appeared desirable. A remarkable character pervades all the
Aracaris, (with the exception of _P. sulcatus_, pl. 44,) the head and
throat being black in the male, and chesnut or grey in the female birds;
the bills also of the latter are always the smallest; that of the Green
Aracari is larger, thicker, and more curved than in any other species; the
serratures strong and unequal; the top, and upper half of the superior
mandible, pure yellow; the lower half orange; these colours being divided
by a slender isolated black line; the under mandible blue, with the base
rosy; its general plumage bears a resemblance to several other species. Dr.
Latham says the orbits are yellow; this, however, is a mistake, for both
the orbits and irides are grass-green; this writer likewise refers to
Edwards, pl. 329, for this bird; which plate, in fact, represents a Toucan,
and is that bird which I have described and figured under the name of _R.
carinatus_, pl. 45.

I believe this species is confined to the northern parts of South America.
Mr. Charles Edmonston brought home fine specimens from Demerara; they were
preserved with so much skill, that the colours of the bill almost retained
their primitive brightness; Le Vaillant, I believe, has figured this bird;
but I have not, at this time, access to his valuable book.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 170

[Illustration]

MALURUS Africanus,

_African Soft-tail._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 170.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. suprà rufescens, strigis nigris varius; genis mentoque albentibus,
    strigâ nigrâ intermediâ; rectricibus attenuatis, nigris, rufo
    marginatis._

    Above rufous brown with black stripes; sides of the head and chin
    whitish, divided by a black stripe; tail feathers attenuated, black,
    the margins rufous.

    Motacilla Africana. _Gmelin_, 1. _p._ 958.

    Sylvia Africana. _Lath. Ind. Orn._ 2. _p._ 518. _Gen. Zool._ 10. 2.
    _p._ 615.

    African Warbler. _Lath. Syn._ 4. _p._ 436.

    Curruca nævia. _C. B. Spei. Brisson. Ois._ 3. _p._ 390. _tab._ 22. _f._
    2. _Orn._ 1. _p._ 419.

    Le Fluteur. _Vaill. Ois. d'Afrique._

    _Le Vaill. Ois. d'Af._ 3. _pl._ 112. _f._ 2.

       *       *       *       *       *

The characters of _Malurus_, together with a few observations on the birds
composing it, I have already given at plate 170 of this work. Yet as the
species are scattered in several distinct genera of the Linnæan school, I
have here represented that which may be termed the type of the genus, as
instituted by Professor Temminck, and as modified by myself. On comparing
the characters of _Timalia_ (a new genus of Dr. Horsfield's) with those of
_Malurus_, they will be found to designate one and the same group of birds.
Indeed, the minute and interesting details, which Dr. Horsfield has given,
put the question almost beyond doubt, and lead me to conclude, that the
Doctor was not aware, at the time, that his genus was already recorded.

This bird is not uncommon at the Cape of Good Hope. The notes of the male
(according to M. Le Vaillant) are soft and agreeable, much resembling those
of a flute; the shortness of the wings renders its flight very low. The
figure is of the natural size; and the bird has been so well described by
Brisson and Latham, that it is needless to repeat what they have said; the
figures both of Le Vaillant and Brisson are by no means accurate. The tail
feathers are delicate and transparent; and those of the whole body very
soft, with detached webs or _radii_, similar to Dr. Horsfield's _Timalia
pileata_, and _gularis_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 171

[Illustration]

UNIO fragilis.

_Fragile River Mussel._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 58.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _U. testâ transversim ovatâ, tenui, intùs purpurascente; dentibus
    cardinalibus tuberculatis, sub-obsoletis._

    Shell transversely oval, thin, within purple; cardinal teeth
    tuberculated, nearly obsolete.

       *       *       *       *       *

Most fresh water bivalves are remarkably destitute of that variety of
colouring, which diversifies the exterior of marine shells, and renders
their distinction comparatively easy. A uniform olive green, or brown tint,
pervades all the fluviatile genera; their specific distinctions rest on
characters which frequently require long and perplexing descriptions, but
which can be explained by the artist with ease and precision. It follows,
therefore, that accurate figures of these shells are more particularly
wanted; for, although Lamarck has described so many, the short descriptions
which he has given, and the want of figures to elucidate them, render it
impossible to determine accurately one half of the species which he has
enumerated.

_Unio fragilis_ is principally distinguished by the cardinal teeth: those
in the right valves are 2; short, obtuse, and nearly obsolete, more
resembling tubercles, than the crenated or striated teeth of this genus.
The left valve has one tooth rather sharper. In young shells the ligamental
margin is nearly straight, and its extremity somewhat angulated; but old
shells lose these appearances, and become perfectly oval. In both stages of
growth the shell is very thin, convex, and the inside (near the umbones)
purple. The slight development of the cardinal teeth brings this shell
nearer to the genus _Anodon_, than any other _Unio_ which I have seen.

It inhabits the rivers of North America, and was sent to me by Professor
Rafinesque.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 172

[Illustration]

AMPULLARIA reflexa,

_Purple Apple Snail._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 103.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. testâ ovato-globosâ, lævi; spirâ ventricosâ, obtusâ, sub epidermide
    purpureâ; aperturâ nigro-purpurascente; labio exteriore tenui, margine
    reflexo._

    Shell ovate-globose, smooth; spire ventricose, obtuse; beneath the
    epidermis, purple; aperture blackish purple; outer lip thin, the margin
    reflected.

    _Knorr_, _vol._ 5. _pl._ 5. _f._ 2. (uncoated.)

    Ampullaria reflexa. _Swainson, in Tilloch's Ph. Mag._ _vol._ 61. _p._
    377.

       *       *       *       *       *

The only record that I can find (in the works of the old writers) for this
Ampullaria, is the figure by Knorr above quoted; it is obviously drawn from
an uncoated specimen, although I have seen instances, where the blackish
purple on the spire was so intense, as to obscure the thin epidermis which
covered it. The peculiar character of the species, and in which it differs
from all others, is in the outer margin of the lip; which is thin, rather
spread out, and slightly reflected; the form of the shell resembles _A.
fasciata_, but the spire, instead of being pointed, is obtuse; the
umbilicus, likewise, is smaller and more concealed. From the absence of a
groove round the aperture, I conclude the operculum is horny.

The size varies; perfect shells are in my possession much smaller than the
figure, and I have seen others much larger, and with the aperture more
chesnut than purple.

I am not acquainted with its locality.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 173

[Illustration]

GALLINULA ruficollis, _var._

_Black-bellied Gallinule_ _var._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Gallinula._ Briss. Cuv. Tem. Lath. _Fulica_, _Rallus_. Linn. _Crex._
    Illiger.

    _Rostrum capite brevius, valdè compressum, conicum, rectum, apice
    compresso, mandibulâ inferiore angulatâ. Nares sulcatæ, membranâ
    obtectæ; aperturâ magnâ, oblongâ, perviâ, vix mediâ. Pedes elongati,
    grallarii, genibus nudis, digitis gracilibus tribus, halluce mediocri._

    Bill shorter than the head, much compressed, conic, straight, the tips
    compressed, inferior mandible angulated. Nostrils sulcated, covered by
    a membrane; aperture large, oblong, pervious, nearly medial. Feet long,
    wading, knees naked, fore toes three, long, slender, hind toe (or
    thumb) short.

    Generic type. _Rallus porzana._ Linn.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    Gall. ruficollis var. A? _Olivaceo-fusca; cervice cinereâ; pectore,
    abdomine, alisque rufis; crisso, uropygio, caudâque nigris; tectricibus
    interioribus rufis, nigro-fasciatis; pedibus rubris._

    Olive brown; neck cinereous; breast, body, and wings rufous; belly,
    rump, and tail black; interior wing covers rufous, banded with black;
    legs red.

    Fulica ruficollis. _Gmelin_, 1. _p._ 700. _Turton_, 1. _p._ 423.

    Gallinula ruficollis. _Lath. Ind. Orn._ 2. 767.

    Black-bellied Gallinule. _Lath. Syn._ 1. _p._ 253.

       *       *       *       *       *

This is one of the largest water hens found in Brazil, where it is very
rare. I am indebted to Dr. Langsdorff for the only specimen which I brought
from that country. It differs considerably from the Black-bellied Gallinule
of Latham, yet, perhaps, not sufficiently to record it as a distinct
species.

Total length fifteen inches and a half; bill one and a half; the base (in
the dead bird) orange, the other half green; frontlet none; the crown and
nape are grey brown, the sides cinereous, and the throat whitish; the neck
both above and beneath for about two thirds its length is lead-coloured; it
then changes to rufous, which spreads over the breast, body, wing covers,
and greater quills; the lower part of the neck above, with the back,
scapulars, and lesser quills, brownish olive; the belly, thighs, tail, and
rump black; the inner wing covers are remotely barred with black; legs (in
the live bird) red.

Latham describes the Black-bellied G. as seventeen inches long; the bill
two inches; the quills greenish brown, with rufous margins; the fore part
of the neck and breast bright rufous; and the flanks with black bands.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 174

[Illustration]

TANAGRA canicapilla,

_Grey-crowned Tanager._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum breve, validum, conicum, basi trigonâ, lateribus compressis,
    culmine levato, mandibulâ superiore ad apicem deflexâ et emarginatâ,
    inferioris brevioris rectæ basi crassâ, ambarum marginibus inflexis.
    Nares parvæ, basi plumosâ, aperturâ rotundatâ, nudâ. Alæ mediocres._

    Bill short, strong, conic, base trigonal, sides compressed, culmin
    elevated, upper mandible towards the tip deflexed and notched, under
    mandible shorter and straight, the base thick, the margins of both
    inflexed. Nostrils small, the base feathered, the aperture round,
    naked. Wings moderate.

    Generic Types. _Tanagra Jacapa, tricolor._ _Motacilla velia._ Lin.
    _Pipra musica._ Lin.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _T. olivaceo-viridis, infrà flava; vertice cinereo, strigâ oculari
    auribusque nigris; rostro gracili._

    Olive green, beneath yellow; crown cinereous, eye stripe and ears
    black; bill slender.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Tanagers are a numerous, and, in general, a beautiful tribe, including
some of the most richly coloured birds of America; to which continent
modern ornithologists consider they are exclusively confined.

M. Temminck proposes to unite with the Tanagers, several birds scattered in
the Linnæan Genera of _Lanius_, _Loxia_, _Fringilla_, _Pipra_, and
_Motacilla_. This view of the subject, it may not be superfluous to add, is
in perfect unison with my own. In fact, I had meditated a similar
arrangement; but the appearance of M. Temminck's work rendered the
publication of my own remarks no longer necessary. The bird here figured
belongs to that division which forms a transition to the _Sylviæ_, from
which they are readily distinguished by the thickened base of the under
mandible. It is not uncommon in the West Indies; but I cannot find it
described either among the Tanagers, Finches, or Warblers of the Linnæan
school: in this, however, I may possibly be mistaken. It is represented the
size of life, and is sufficiently distinguished by its specific character.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 175

[Illustration]

AMPULLARIA leucostoma,

_White-mouthed Apple Snail._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 98.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A testâ ovatâ, rugosâ, epidermide olivaceo-fuscâ; labio exteriore
    tenui; aperturâ albâ; umbilico vix clauso._

    Shell oval, wrinkled; epidermis olive-brown; outer lip thin; aperture
    white; umbilicus nearly closed.

       *       *       *       *       *

In prosecuting my illustrations of this genus, I have carefully examined
all the specimens in the cabinets of my friends, and have added many to my
own. These materials have thrown some additional light on those species
which I have already described, and have enabled me to detect several
others altogether new. Among the latter is the shell here figured, and
which is so rare, that I know but one example of it in this country. Its
form is more oval than that of _A. rugosa_, from which it is likewise
distinguished by a very small umbilicus, nearly concealed by the inner lip;
the wrinkles are numerous and unequal, the spire pointed, and the aperture
milk-white.

Since my remarks on the _Planorbis cornu-arietis_ of Lamarck were
published, it has been discovered that the shell is furnished with an
operculum: one of these is in the possession of Mr. Sowerby: thus what was
a matter of doubt becomes a fact, and affords the only substantial argument
for terming it an _Ampullaria_. On the other hand, its affinities to
_Planorbis_ (marked by its discoid, depressed form, and the total absence
of the pillar,) remain in no degree impaired. The weight of argument on
both sides _now_ appears to be so equal, that it is a matter of no moment
whether this shell be placed in the system at the end of the _Ampullariæ_,
or at the commencement of the _Planorbes_. To the generality of
conchologists, the latter collocation would appear the most simple; but, on
the whole, I incline more to the propriety of considering it the terminal
species of the _Ampullariæ_, or that which marks their transition (as I
before observed) to the _Planorbes_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 176

[Illustration]

ANODON elongatus,

_Lengthened Anodon._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 96.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _A. testâ transversim oblongâ, crassâ, anticè compressâ, extremitate
    utrâque rotundatâ; umbonibus valdè prominentibus, crassis; laminâ
    cardinali convexâ._

    Shell transversely oblong, thick, anteriorly compressed, both
    extremities rounded; umbones very prominent, thick; hinge-plate convex.

       *       *       *       *       *

This extremely rare shell bears not the least resemblance to any which
Lamarck has described, or with which I am acquainted. It was formerly in
the late Mr. Forster's collection, and is now in the possession of Mrs.
Mawe. Its form is like that of _Unio ovatus_ (_Mya ovata_ of Montague), but
it is a much thicker and stronger shell; the posterior end is greatly
compressed, but round; the umbones convex, remarkably thick, and deeply
eroded; the inside pearly and iridescent, with a strong flesh-coloured
tinge; the ligamental or hinge-plate is perfectly smooth, and rather
convex; the muscular impressions are deep.

One valve of the specimen above alluded to (the only one I have seen), is
uncoated, and beautifully iridescent. Its country is unknown--but I think
it may prove a native of the South American rivers.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 177

[Illustration]

TURBINELLUS spirillus,

_Carinated Turnip Shell._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Testa pyriformis vel fusiformis, sub-ponderosa. Apex papillosus.
    Columella plicata. Labium interius margine dilatatum. Canalis
    elongatus, rectus._

    Shell pear-shaped or fusiform, heavy. Apex papillary. Pillar plaited.
    Interior lip with the margin dilated. Canal lengthened, straight.

    Generic Type. _Voluta Pyrum._ Lin.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _T. pyriformi; spirâ depressâ, apice prominente; anfractu basali
    carinato; labio interiore dilatato, albo; columellæ basi plicatâ._

    Shell pear-shaped; spire depressed, apex prominent; basal whorl
    carinated, interior lip dilated, white; base of the pillar one-plaited.

    Murex spirillus. _Gmelin_, 3544. _Dillwyn_, 721.

    _Martini_, 3. _tab._ 115. _f._ 1069. _Knorr_, 6. _tab._ 24. _f._ 3.

    _Pyrula Spirillus._ _Lam. Syst._ 7. _p._ 142.

       *       *       *       *       *

In assigning a situation, under the modern system, to the _Murex spirillus_
of Linnæus, no genus appears to me more adapted for its reception than that
of _Turbinellus_. These shells were formerly blended with the Linnæan
Volutes, but are now detached from them as a distinct genus. The most
striking peculiarity consists in the prolongation of the base into a long
and straight canal; they possess, in common with the Volutes, a papillary
spire, and, in general, their surface is smooth. There are, however, other
shells classed by the French conchologists with this genus, from their
having a plaited columella; in these, the apex of the spire is acute, the
base truncated, and the outside rough with nodules or obtuse spines;
characters so greatly at variance, and so very distinct from those first
mentioned, that it becomes questionable whether these latter shells should
not rather be classed as a distinct group: in fact, they are much more
nearly allied to _Mitra_ and _Cancellaria_, which have acute spires,
sculptured volutions, and truncate bases, than to the smooth _Turbinelli_,
which differ so strikingly in all these particulars.

This shell is common to many parts of the Indian Ocean; and, like most of
the smooth _Turbinelli_, has the inner lip dilated.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 178

[Illustration]

BUCEROS coronatus,

_Coronated Hornbill._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.

    _Rostrum elongatum, crassum, inane, deflexum, marginibus obtusè
    crenatis, epithemate inani, formâ vario, in mandibulam superiorem
    imposito. Nares basales, ovatæ_, (_lingua brevis, angusta, acuta_.
    Illiger.) _Pedes gressorii._

    Bill elongated, thick, hollow, deflexed, the margins obtusely crenated,
    with excrescences of various forms placed on the upper mandible.
    Nostrils basal, oval. Tongue short, narrow, pointed. Feet gressorial.

    Generic Types. _B. Rhinoceros_, _bicornis_. Linn.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _B. niger, abdomine, striâ utrinque occipitali, apiceque rectricium
    albis; rostro subcristato, (carinato,) rubro._ Shaw.

    Black Hornbill, with the abdomen, stripe on each side of the nape, and
    tip of the tail white. Bill slightly crested, (carinated,) and red.

    Le Calao Couronné mâle. _Le Vaill. Ois. d'Af._ _vol._ v. _p._ 117.
    _pl._ 234.

    Buceros coronatus, Coronated Hornbill. _Shaw in Gen. Zool._ 8. _p._ 35.

       *       *       *       *       *

The bills of these birds present a more uncouth appearance than even those
of the Toucans; many species having knobs or excrescences which seem to
grow out of the bill itself, and give a strange appearance to the bird. The
whole tribe are natives only of the tropical parts of Africa and Asia;
feeding on animal substances, either living or dead.

Le Vaillant discovered this bird in Caffraria; congregating in flocks of
near 500, along with crows and vultures, over the remains of slaughtered
elephants. It frequents forests, perching on high, and generally withered
trees; it likewise destroys insects.

The specimen now before me is about the size of a magpie; the white collar
only surrounds the back of the head, and is not well defined; the carinated
process on the bill ends _abruptly_, and not _gradually_, as seen in Le
Vaillant's figure; the margins are obtusely crenated, the tail even, and
the two middle feathers entirely black.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 179

[Illustration]

MUSCIPETA labrosa,

_Red-lipped Flycatcher._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 116.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _M. nitidè nigra; rictu labroso, rubro; cruribus infra genua plumatis._

    Glossy black; gape margined by a red skin; legs feathered beyond the
    knees.

       *       *       *       *       *

This bird, though unattractive in its colours, is nevertheless very
remarkable. It may be almost said to have _lips_; for round the gape, at
each angle of the mouth, is a narrow loose skin; perfectly naked, and
rather projecting. This singularity is increased by its colour in the live
bird; which, by a note attached to the specimen, is stated to be of a
beautiful red. It seems a species hitherto unknown, and was found near the
Great Fish River of Southern Africa.

The figure is rather less than the natural size; the whole plumage deep
black; glossed with bluish green in every part but the quill and tail
feathers; the quills inside are grey, margined with olive; the first of
these is very short, the second and third shorter than the fourth, and the
two next are nearly of equal length. The tail has ten feathers, and is
even, except the two outer pair, which are progressively shorter. The bill
rather thick and strong, the culmine not very apparent, the upper mandible
strongly notched, the under but slightly; the nostrils are hid by thickset
incumbent feathers, mixed with hairs; these cover the aperture, which is
rather large, round, and encircled by a narrow membrane. The legs are very
short, the three fore-toes united as far as the first joint, the hind-toe
short; the claws of all are small, and the sole of the foot perfectly flat,
like the Bee-eaters. I have been minute in noting these characters,
because, although the bird will stand at present in the great family of the
Flycatchers, there is no doubt they will hereafter be divided into distinct
groups.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 180

[Illustration]

TURDUS vociferans,

_Calling Thrush._

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _T. cinereus, infrà ferrugineus; temporibus auribusque nigris; caudæ
    rotundatæ pennis mediis nigris, lateribus ferrugineis._

    Cinereous, beneath ferruginous; ears and sides of the head black; tail
    rounded, middle feathers black, lateral feathers ferruginous.

    Le Réclammeur. _Le Vaill. Ois. d'Af._ _tom._ 3. _p._ 33, _pl._ 104.

       *       *       *       *       *

I can find no account of this bird in any writer besides Le Vaillant, who
discovered it during his travels in Southern Africa. He says the note of
the male bird is loud and melodious, and is heard in the morning and
evening from the highest branches of lofty trees; the sexes being usually
seen together. Le Vaillant relates an amusing anecdote, which well
illustrates the peculiar note of the male:--One of his Dutch Hottentots, by
name Piet, having shot a female, its mate continued to fly around him,
uttering its cry, which so much resembled the Dutch words of _Piet myn
vrow_, (or, '_Peter_--my wife,') that the poor lad (perfectly astonished)
took to his heels, and vowed never more to handle a gun.

Length seven inches and a half; the upper plumage is dark cinereous: on
each side the head is a stripe of black, which encircles the eye, and forms
a patch on the ears: the whole of the under plumage is clear ferruginous
yellow or bright buff colour; the rump and lateral tail feathers the same,
the middle pair being entirely black; the next pair has likewise a narrow
margin of the same colour: quills and wing-covers dusky brown, with pale
cinereous margins. Tail rounded: legs pale: irides hazel: bill rather small
and black, compressed the whole length, and having weak bristles at its
base.

This bird obviously belongs to the Thrushes; but as I have not yet defined
the extent of the genus to my own satisfaction, I refrain at present from
proposing its characters.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 181

[Illustration]

VOLUTA Pusio,

_Dwarf Volute._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 161.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _V. testâ ovato-obtusâ, flavescente, fasciis pallidis, maculis fulvis
    interstinctis cinctâ; anfractu basali obtusè nodoso; spirâ brevissimâ,
    acutâ; columellâ incrassatâ, multiplicatâ._

    Shell ovate-obtuse, yellowish, with pale bands and fulvous spots; body
    whorl crowned by compressed obtuse nodules; spire very short, acute;
    pillar thickened with many plaits.

    Voluta Pusio. _Swainson, in Tilloch's Ph. Journal_, _vol._ 61. _p._
    378.

       *       *       *       *       *

Lamarck's recent account of this genus, in the last volume of his
_Animaux_, contains but two species in addition to those long ago described
by him in the _Annales du Mus._; thus omitting many of those new Volutes
which of late years have been discovered. On the other hand, this
naturalist has created five species from the varieties of _V. musica_ Lin.
resting their characters on colour, bands, and the number of the lesser or
spurious plaits on the pillar. It requires no argument to prove that these
principles of distinction are the most uncertain he could have chosen;
scarcely two specimens of _V. musica_ being found alike. These supposed
species must, therefore, again merge into one.

The shell before us has more important characters; the body whorl is quite
smooth, but crowned by compressed truncated nodules; the spire remarkably
short, and the tip acute; in other respects it approaches to _V. virescens_
Sol. (_Polyzonalis_ Lam.) and to _V. fulva_ Lam. I have neither of these
shells at present before me; but if Lamarck's description of them, and the
figures which he has cited, be correct, I have no doubt they are but one
species; _V. polyzonalis_ being the _smooth_, and _V. fulva_ being the
_nodulous_ variety of Solander's _V. virescens_. In fact, Lamarck says both
shells are transversely striated.

_V. pusio_ is a shell of the greatest rarity, and is described from a
specimen in the collection of my friend Mr. Broderip. Its form is perfect,
but its colours are somewhat faded.

       *       *       *       *       *


Pl. 182

[Illustration]

CYPRÆA spadicea,

_Chesnut Cowry._

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Pl. 111.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

    _C. testâ ovatâ, oblongâ, immaculatâ; dorso rufo; ventre albo;
    lateribus lividis._

    Shell ovate-oblong, unspotted; the back reddish chesnut; belly white;
    sides livid.

    C. spadicea. _Swainson, in Tilloch's Ph. Mag._ _vol._ 61. _p._ 376.

       *       *       *       *       *

In shape and general aspect this shell somewhat resembles _C. onyx_; but
its colours are so peculiar, that it cannot be mistaken for that or any
other known species: the under side (or belly) is convex and pure white;
the sulcations between the teeth of the aperture wide, short, and but
faintly marked; the sides livid, tinged with flesh colour. Three specimens
have fallen under my observation; one of which, being young, showed the
internal colour of the back to be dull purple; they were all received by
Mrs. Mawe from the South Seas.

       *       *       *       *       *

CYPRÆA sanguinolenta

(_Middle figures._)

       *       *       *       *       *

    _C. testâ ovato-oblongâ, dorso punctis fuscis, nebulosis, obsito;
    lateribus incarnato-violaceis, lividè guttatis; ventre depresso._

    Shell ovate-oblong, the back clouded, and dotted with brown; sides
    flesh-coloured violet, with dark livid spots; belly depressed.

    _C. testâ ovato-oblongâ, cinereo-cærulescente, fulvo vel fusco
    fasciatâ, lateribus incarnato-violaceis, sanguineo-punctatis._ _Lam.
    Syst._ 7. _p._ 396.

    C. sanguinolenta. _Gmelin_, 3406. _Turton_, 4. _p._ 335. _Dill._ 445.
    _Martini_, 1. _t._ 26. _f._ 265, 266. _Ency. Meth._ _pl._ 356. _f._ 12.

    C. purpurascens. _Sw. in Tilloch's Ph. Mag._ 61. _p._ 376.

       *       *       *       *       *

Gmelin and Lamarck have both described the lateral spots on this shell as
blood-red. Their descriptions in other respects are loose, and the figures
by Martini so bad, that it is with some doubt I have here placed my
_purpurascens_ as a variety of Gmelin's _sanguinolenta_. The back of the
shell is minutely freckled with brown; the under part (or belly) is
flattened; the spots on the sides dark livid purple, and the base of the
aperture effuse. It is, I believe, a native of Southern Africa.

       *       *       *       *       *


GENERAL INDEX

OF

LATIN AND ENGLISH NAMES

TO

VOL. III.

IN THE ORDER OF PUBLICATION.



                               Pl.                                   Pl.
  Ampullaria corrugata         120 || Wrinkled Apple-snail           120
                                   ||
  Cinnyris Javanica            121 || Javanese Creeper               121
                                   ||
  Achatina virginea, _var._ 1  122 || Common striped Achatina        122
      and 2                        ||
    ditto, _var._ 3 and 4      123 ||   ditto                        123
                                   ||
  Licinia Crisia               124 || Licinia Crisia                 124
                                   ||
  Papilio Nerius               125 || Papilio Nerius                 125
                                   ||
  Conus vitulinus, _var._      126 || Orange fox Cone                126
    maldivus                   127 ||   Spanish-Admiral Cone         127
    ditto chesnut, _var._      128 ||   ditto chesnut, _var._        128
                                   ||
  Melliphaga torquata          129 || White-collared Honeysucker     129
                                   ||
  Trochilus latipennis, male   130 || Grey sickle-winged H. Bird     130
    ditto, female              131 ||   ditto, female                131
                                   ||
  Macroglossum annulosum       132 || Macroglossum annulosum         132
    fasciatum                  ib. ||   fasciatum                    ib.
                                   ||
  Thecla Macaria               133 || Chesnut-spotted Hair-streak    133
                                   ||
  Strombus exustus             134 || Burnt-mouthed Strombus         134
    lentiginosus               ib. || Tuberculated Strombus          ib.
    tricornis                  135 || Horned Strombus                135
                                   ||
  Ampullaria crassa            136 || Thick Apple-snail              136
    oblonga                    ib. || Oblong ditto                   ib.
                                   ||
  Papilio Polybius             137 || Papilio Polybius               137
                                   ||
  Malurus garrulus             138 || Noisy Soft-tail Warbler        138
                                   ||
  Sylvia plumbea               139 || Grey-backed Warbler            139
                                   ||
  Troglodytes rectirostris     140 || Straight-billed Wren           140
                                   ||
  Psittacus chryseürus         141 || Golden-tailed Parrot           141
                                   ||
  Nectarinia flaveola          142 || Yellow-bellied Nectarinia      142
                                   ||
  Ampullaria sordida           143 || Brown Apple-snail              143
    puncticulata               ib. || Oval, punctured ditto          ib.
                                   ||
  Eburna Valentiana            144 || Arabian Eburna                 144
    tessellata                 145 || Tessellated ditto              145
    Pacifica                   146 || South Sea ditto                146
                                   ||
  Muscipeta carinata           147 || Keel-billed Flycatcher         147
                                   ||
  Emberiza cristata            148 || Crested Bunting                148
                                   ||
  Castnia Fabricii             149 || Red underwing Day-moth         149
                                   ||
  Sphinx fasciata              150 || Sphinx fasciata                150
    Leachii                    ib. ||   Leachii                      ib.
                                   ||
  Alcedo semitorquata          151 || Half-collared Kingsfisher      151
                                   ||
  Achatina melastoma           152 || Black-mouthed Achatina         152
                                   ||
  Strombus lobatus             153 || Lobed or brindled Strombus     153
                                   ||
  Psittacus Malaccensis        154 || Blue-rumped Parrot             154
                                   ||
  Psittacus viridissimus       155 || Green Parrot                   155
                                   ||
  Fringilla oryzivora          156 || Paddy-bird, or Java Sparrow    156
                                   ||
  Ampullaria effusa            157 || Ribbon Apple-snail             157
    luteostoma                 ib. || Yellow-mouthed ditto           ib.
                                   ||
  Pinna bullata                158 || Rufous Pinna                   158
                                   ||
  Satyrus argenteus            159 || Satyrus argenteus              159
                                   ||
  Anodon purpurascens          160 || Purple Anodon                  160
                                   ||
  Voluta punctata              161 || Red-dotted Volute              161
                                   ||
  Achatina fasciata, _var._    162 || Banded Achatina, 3 _var._      162
                                   ||
  Hemipodius nivosus           163 || White-spotted Turnix           163
                                   ||
  Sylvia annulosa              164 || White-eyed Warbler             164
    ditto, _var._ [beta]       165 || Ditto, New Holland variety     165
                                   ||
  Bulimus citrinus             166 || Citron Bulimus, 3 _var._       166
                                   ||
  Anodon crassus               167 || Thick Anodon                   167
                                   ||
  Ramphastos ambiguus          168 || Doubtful Toucan                168
                                   ||
  Pteroglossus viridis         169 || Green Aracari (male)           169
                                   ||
  Malurus Africanus            170 || African Soft-tail              170
                                   ||
  Unio fragilis                171 || Fragile River-mussel           171
                                   ||
  Ampullaria reflexa           172 || Purple Apple-snail             172
                                   ||
  Gallinula ruficollis, _var._ 173 || Black-bellied Gallinule        173
                                   ||
  Tanagra canicapilla          174 || Grey-crowned Tanager           174
                                   ||
  Ampullaria leucostoma        175 || White-mouthed Apple-snail      175
                                   ||
  Anodon elongatus             176 || Lengthened Anodon              176
                                   ||
  Turbinellus spirillus        177 || Carinated Turnip-shell         177
                                   ||
  Buceros coronatus            178 || Coronated Hornbill             178
                                   ||
  Muscipeta labrosa            179 || Red-lipped Flycatcher          179
                                   ||
  Turdus vociferans            180 || Calling Thrush                 180
                                   ||
  Voluta pusio                 181 || Dwarf Volute                   181
                                   ||
  Cypræa spadicea              182 || Cypræa spadicea                182
    sanguinolenta              ib. ||   sanguinolenta                ib.

       *       *       *       *       *


GENERAL ALPHABETIC INDEX

OF

LATIN AND ENGLISH NAMES

TO

VOLUME III.



                                           Pl.
  Achatina fasciata, _var._,               162
    melostoma,                             152
    virginea, _var._,                      122
    ditto, ditto,                          123
    _banded_,                              162
    _black-mouthed_,                       152
    _common, striped_,                     122
    _ditto_, _var._,                       123

  Alcedo semitorquata,                     151

  Ampullaria corrugata,                    120
    crassa,                                136
    effusa,                                157
    leucostoma,                            175
    leuteostoma,                           157
    oblonga,                               136
    puncticulata,                          143
    reflexa,                               172
    sordida,                               143

  Anodon crassus,                          167
    elongatus,                             176
    purpurascens,                          160
    _lengthened_,                          176
    _thick_,                               167
    _purple_,                              160

  _Apple-snail, brown_,                    143
    _oblong_,                              136
    _oval, punctured_,                     143
    _purple_,                              172
    _ribbon_,                              157
    _thick_,                               136
    _white-mouthed_,                       175
    _wrinkled_,                            120
    _yellow-mouthed_,                      175

  _Aracari, green_,                        169

  Bulimus citrinus, _var._,                166
    _citron_, green variety,               ib.

  Buceros, Gen. Char.,                     178
    coronatus,                             ib.

  _Bunting, crested_,                      148

  Castnia, Gen. Char.,                     149
    Fabricii,                              ib.

  Cinnyris Javanica,                       121

  Conus maldivus,                          127
    ditto, _var._,                         128
    vitulinus, _var._,                     126

  _Cone, Spanish-Admiral_,                 127
    _ditto_, _chesnut variety_,            128
    _orange, fox_,                         126

  _Creeper, Javanese_,                     121

  Cypræa spadicea,                         182
    sanguinolenta,                         ib.

  _Day-moth, red underwing_,               149

  Eburna, Gen. Char.,                      144
    Pacifica,                              146
    tessellata,                            145
    Valentiana,                            144
    _Arabian_,                             ib.
    _South Sea_,                           146
    _tesselated_,                          145

  Emberiza, Gen. Char.,                    148
    cristata,                              ib.

  _Flycatcher, keel-billed_,               147
    _red-lipped_,                          179

  Fringilla, Gen. Char.,                   156
    oryzivora,                             ib.

  Gallinula, Gen. Char.,                   173
    ruficollis, _var._,                    ib.

  _Gallinule, black-bellied_, _var._,      ib.

  _Hair-streak, chesnut-spotted_,          133

  Hemipodius, Gen. Char.,                  163
    nivosus,                               ib.

  _Honey-sucker, while-collared_,          129

  _Humming-bird, Grey sickle-wing_,        130
    _ditto_, _female_,                     131

  _Java Sparrow, or Paddy-bird_,           156

  _Kingsfisher, half-collared_,            151

  Licinia Crisia,                          124

  Macroglossum annulosum,                  132
    fasciatum,                             ib.

  Malurus, Gen. Char.,                     138
    Africanus,                             170
    garrulus,                              138

  Melliphaga torquata,                     129

  Muscipeta carinata,                      147
    labrosa,                               179

  Nectarina flaveola,                      142
    _yellow-bellied_,                      ib.

  _Paddy-bird, or Java Sparrow_,           156

  Papilio Nerius,                          125
    Polybius,                              137

  _Parrot, golden-tailed_,                 141
    _blue-rumped_,                         154
    _green_,                               155

  Pinna, Gen. Char.,                       158
    bullata,                               ib.

  _Pinna, rufous_,                         ib.

  Psittacus chryseürus,                    141
    Malaccensis,                           154
    viridissimus,                          155

  Pteroglossus viridis,                    169

  Ramphastos ambiguus,                     168

  _River-mussel, fragile_,                 171

  Satyrus, Gen. Char.,                     159
    argenteus,                             ib.

  Strombus exustus,                        134
    lentiginosus,                          ib.
    lobatus,                               153
    tricornis,                             135
    _burnt-mouthed_,                       134
    _tuberculated_,                        ib.

  _Strombus, horned_,                      135
    _lobed, or brindled_,                  153

  Sphinx fasciata,                         150
    Leachii,                               ib.

  Sylvia, Gen. Char.,                      139
    annulosa,                              164
    ditto, _var._,                         165
    plumbea,                               139

  _Soft-tail, noisy_,                      138
    _African_,                             170

  Tanagra, Gen. Char.,                     174
    canicapilla,                           ib.

  Tanager, grey-crowned,                   ib.

  Thecla Macaria,                          133

  _Thrush, calling_,                       180

  Trochilus latipennis, male,              130
    ditto, female,                         131

  Troglodytes, Gen. Char.,                 140
    rectirostris,                          ib.

  Turbinellus, Gen. Char.,                 177
    spirillus,                             ib.

  Turdus vociferans,                       180

  _Turnip-shell, carinated_,               177

  _Turnix, white-spotted_,                 163

  Voluta, Gen. Char.,                      161
    pusio,                                 181
    punctata,                              161

  _Volute, dwarf_,                         181
    _red-dotted_,                          161

  Unio fragilis,                           171

  _Warbler, olive-backed_,                 139
    _white-eyed_,                          164
    _New Holland variety_,                 165

  _Wren, straight-billed_,                 140

       *       *       *       *       *


SYSTEMATIC INDEX.

       *       *       *       *       *

VERTEBROSA.

PART III.

       *       *       *       *       *

_ORNITHOLOGY._

                                          Pl.
  CINNYRIS Javanica                       121

  MELLIPHAGA torquata                     129

  TROCHILUS latipennis, male              130
    ditto, female                         131

  MALURUS garrulus                        138
    Africanus                             170

  SYLVIA plumbea                          139
    annulosa                              164
    ditto, New Holland variety            165

  TROGLODYTES rectirostris                140

  PSITTACUS chryseürus                    141
    Malaccensis                           154
    viridissimus                          155

  NECTARINIA flaveola                     142

  MUSCIPETA carinata                      147
    labrosa                               179

  EMBERIZA cristata                       148

  ALCEDO semitorquata                     151

  FRINGILLA oryzivora                     156

  HEMIPODIUS nivosus                      163

  RAMPHASTOS ambiguus                     168

  PTEROGLOSSUS viridis                    169

  GALLINULA ruficollis                    173

  TANAGRA canicapilla                     174

  BUCEROS coronatus                       178

  TURDUS vociferans                       180

       *       *       *       *       *


SYSTEMATIC INDEX.

       *       *       *       *       *

ENTOMOLOGY.

PART III.

                                          Pl.
  LICINIA Crisia                          124

  PAPILIO Nerius                          125
    Polybius                              137

  THECLA Macaria                          133

  MACROGLOSSUM annulosum                  132
    fasciatum                             ib.

  SPHINX fasciata                         150
    Leachii                               ib.

  CASTNIA Fabricii                        149

  SATYRUS argenteus                       159

       *       *       *       *       *


SYSTEMATIC INDEX.

       *       *       *       *       *

CONCHOLOGY.

PART III.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Univalves._

                                          Pl.
  AMPULLARIA corrugata                    120
    crassa                                136
    oblonga                               ib.
    sordida                               143
    puncticulata                          ib.
    effusa                                157
    luteostoma                            ib.
    reflexa                               172
    leucostoma                            175

  ACHATINA virginea, _var._ 1, 2.         122
    ditto, _var._ 3, 4.                   123
    melastoma                             152
    fasciata, 3 _var._                    162

  BULIMUS citrinus                        166

  CONUS vitulinus                         126
    Maldivus                              127
    ditto, variety                        128

  STROMBUS exustus                        134
    lentiginosus                          ib.
    tricornis                             135
    lobatus                               153

  CYPRÆA spadicea                         182
    sanguinolenta                         ib.

  EBURNA Valentiana                       144
    tessellata                            145
    Pacifica                              146

  VOLUTA punctata                         161
    pusio                                 181

  TURBINELLUS spirillus                   177

_Bivalves._

  PINNA bullata                           158

  ANODON purpurascens                     160
    crassus                               167
    elongatus                             176

  UNIO fragilis                           171

       *       *       *       *       *


ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.

  In the Systematic Index, Conchology, Part I. for "_Acephalis_" read
    "_Acéphales_."

  Pl. 92. page 1. line 13, for "_caudi_," read "_caudis_."
                       23, for "_Dentatis_" read "_Dentati_."
            -- 3.   -- 11 from the bottom, for "_Lepidopteræ_" read
                            "_Lepidoptera_."

  -- 102. Add to the Synonyms, _A. virginea_. _Lamarck. Syst._ _tom._ 6.
            _part_ 2. _p._ 131. _Sowerby's Genera._ _Achatina_, _f._ 2.

  -- 124. last line, for "female" read "male;" and in the line above, for
            "male" read "female."

  -- 125. for "_P. Nireus_" read "_P. Nerius_."

  -- 126. Add to the Syn. _Lam. Syst._ 7. _p._ 467. 55; and for _Ency.
            Meth._ _pl._ 326. _f._ 204., read _pl._ 326. _fig._ 2 and 4.

  -- 127. Add to the Syn. _Lam. Syst._ 7. _p._ 465. 50.

  -- 134. _Strombus exustus_, described by Lamarck (_Syst._ 7. _p._ 211)
            under the name of _S. Papilio_. The first of these names,
            however, has the right of priority. (See _Mus. Cal._ 1797.)
            The figures of Martini, tom. 3. tab. 8. f. 825, 826, clearly
            represent this species; although Lamarck has quoted them for
            _S. lentiginosus_.

          _Strombus lentiginosus._ Add to the Synonyms, _Lam. Syst._ 7.
            _p._ 203. _Knorr_, 3. _tab._ 13, _f._ 2. Lamarck has omitted
            to quote any of the figures representing the young shells of
            this and the following species.

  -- 135. _St. tricornis._ Add to the Syn. _Lam. Syst._ 7. _p._ 201.

  -- 139. _Sylvia plumbea._ This bird greatly resembles the female of
            _S. pusilla_ of Wilson (yellow-backed Warbler, Latham), yet
            differs in having the belly golden yellow instead of white: I
            was told, moreover, that this was a male bird: the one inhabits
            North, and the other South America. Latham's description of his
            yellow-backed Warbler, I should think, is not quite accurate;
            as he only alludes to one white bar on the wing covers, whereas
            both Wilson and Vieillot say there are two.

  -- 145. Eburna tessellata. Add to the Syn. _E. Arcolata_, _Lam. Syst._
            7. _p._ 282. 4.

  -- 146. Eburna Pacifica. Add to the Syn. _E. lutosa?_ _Lam. Syst._
            7. 282. 5.

  -- 150. The upper figure is of _Sphinx Leachii_, and the under of
            _S. fasciata_.

  -- 152. Add to the Syn. _Helix regina._ _Ferussac Moll._ _liv._ 19.
            _pl._ 119.

  -- 153.      Ditto      _S. bituberculatus_, _Lam. Syst._ 7. _p._ 202. 6.

  -- 157. Amp. Effusa. Ditto, _Lam. Syst._ 6. 2. _p._ 178. 5.

  -- 164. Add to the Syn. _Le Figuier Tcheric_, _Le Vaill. Ois. d'Af._ 3.
            _pl._ 132.

  -- 166.      Ditto      _Lam. Syst._ 6. 2. _p._ 178. 5.

  -- 170.      Ditto      _Le Vaill. Ois. d'Af._ 3. _pl._ 112. _f._ 2.

  -- 177.      Ditto      _Pyrula Spirillus._ _Lam. Syst._ 7. _p._ 142.

       *       *       *       *       *

NOTES

[1] "Pendant que les naturalistes font des monographies, des ouvrages
généraux où la synonymie, les coupes systématiques sont, à force de temps
et de soins, établies avec rigueur, les auteurs des miscellanées, avec
quelques phrases et des noms nouveaux, font des genres ou des espèces, et
publient 50 cahiers dans lesquels les fruits de dix ans de recherches ou de
voyages sont enlevés à leurs auteurs. (F.)"--_Bulletin des Annonces et des
Nouvelles Scientifiques; publié sous la direction de M. le B. de Ferussac.
N._ 4. _p._ 53.

[2] See the Sketch Book of G. Crayon, vol. i. p. 130.

[3] Bulletin des Annonces et des Nouvelles Scientifiques, N. 6. p. 438.

[4] Donovan's Naturalist's Repository.

[5] The additional list of synonyms subjoined at the end of this volume
almost entirely refer to one or two books which have been subsequently
published: the date of 1822, affixed to the seventh volume of Lamarck's _H.
N. des Animaux sans Vertèbres_, is considerably before the time it was
issued to the public.

[6] I have applied this term to the oblique descent made by the umbo,
towards the basal extremity of the anterior side of bivalves.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Zoological Illustrations, Volume III - or Original Figures and Descriptions of New, Rare, or - Interesting Animals" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home