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Title: Home Occupations for Boys and Girls
Author: Johnston, Bertha
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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HOME OCCUPATIONS FOR BOYS AND GIRLS

by

BERTHA JOHNSTON

Editor of the "Kindergarten Magazine"

Assisted by

FANNY CHAPIN

Former Kindergarten Director of the Chicago Latin School



[Illustration]

Philadelphia
George W. Jacobs & Co.
Publishers

Copyright, 1908
By George W. Jacobs & Co.
Published October, 1908

All rights reserved
Printed in U. S. A.



    Teach him. He is naturally clever. From his earliest years, when he
    was a little fellow only so big, he would build mud houses, carve
    out boats, and make little wagons of leather, and frogs out of
    pomegranate rinds, you can't think how cleverly.

    _Aristophanes_, 421 B. C.



PREFACE


The plan of this book has special reference to the Mother when comes the
woful plaint, "I don't know what to do! Mama, what can I do now?"

Is she busy in the kitchen? She has right there material for the little
one's happy employment. Is she mending the stockings? She can give him
needle and thread and, with the aid of this book, a word of suggestion.
In spare moments both mother and children can together prepare papers,
cards, etc., for future occasions.

It will be found upon examination that although some of the articles
described herein require material peculiar to certain localities, very
many more may be made of things to be found in every home, whether the
city flat or the remote country homestead. Usually a choice is possible.
One may use the cardboard, paper, etc., saved from the scrap-basket or
may send to supply houses for material partially prepared. It is an
undoubted advantage for the child to be trained to see the possibilities
in the raw material lying at hand. It stimulates his inventive
imagination and makes for efficiency and the power to cope with
emergencies.

The child accustomed to looking upon odds and ends of wire, paper,
weeds, seeds, and grasses as hiding delightful secrets which he may
learn to unravel and utilize, may be readily trained to regard all
Nature as a vast storehouse open to his investigation, and a continual
source of inspiration.

The child, habituated to mastering the raw material of his immediate
environment, will not be discomfited if thrown upon an unknown shore,
whether arctic or tropical. He will recognize everywhere about him
possibilities for shelter, food, clothing, and transportation and will
know how to use them.

But the child must be trained to perceive the beautiful and the ideal as
well as the useful. Into each article here described, even the simplest,
enter the elements of beauty, proportion, harmony of line and color, and
good, true workmanship, leading surely, even if unconsciously, to an
appreciation of the best wherever found.

In making an article as a gift for child or adult, thought for others is
cultivated and the frequently needed help of older brother or sister
encourages the spirit of goodwill and kindliness.

The festival occasions are especially valuable in developing the sense
of interdependence and large-mindedness.

Among a people proverbially wasteful it is certainly the part of wisdom
to train the child to economy for the sake of future service. The
contents of the city garbage barrel are found by business men to be
worth sorting and classifying and everything proves to be of some use.
Why should not the child be taught, before throwing away the discarded
picture book, to ask if there is not a use for it still? A nation so
trained will preserve its forests and save its Niagaras. It will see
things material and things spiritual in their true relations.

We would suggest that a little cupboard be placed within easy reach of
the child. Here he may keep his own scissors, paste, pencil and papers,
ready for use when the propitious moment of inspiration seizes him.

Too much exactness must not be required of the very young child, but as
fast as he is able to do good work insist upon the best of which _he_ is
capable. Train him always to try to surpass himself. Above all, let him
be happy in the doing.

The ideas offered in this volume have been garnered from various
sources. Practical experience in the home has suggested many, and actual
daily work in the kindergarten has given rise to others. A few, such as
the thimble biscuit party and croquet with peas, are among the
recollections of happy childhood.

It is a pleasure to acknowledge the obligation to Miss Fanny Chapin, of
Chicago, a kindergartner of long experience, for the comradeship of
thought which made the book possible. Miss Chapin also contributed the
directions for making feather flowers, many of the holiday suggestions,
and other items scattered through the book.

The conversion of corks into a set of furniture was learned from a
German playmate twenty-five years ago. Imagine the interest with which
we discovered a set, almost identical, at the German exhibit of the
recent International Kindergarten Union.

The candlesticks of tin or cardboard, brightened with colored
tissue-paper, varied to suit particular occasions, is a regular feature
of the festival dinners at the Gertrude House, Chicago.

To one and all to whom, consciously or unconsciously, we may be indebted
for any suggestions, we express our thanks.

A perusal of this little volume will show that it is far from exhaustive
of the topics treated. It is largely a book of suggestion. If it
stimulates the child to new investigations and experiments along similar
lines; if it reinforces the spirit of brotherly kindness in the home; or
if it helps to solve any of the problems of the mother, the hopes of the
authors will be accomplished.

BERTHA JOHNSTON.



CONTENTS


  CHAPTER                                           PAGE

     I. The Secrets of the Market Basket              11

    II. Mother Nature's Horn of Plenty                39

   III. Saved from the Scrap Basket                   53

    IV. The Sewing-Basket                             69

     V. The Paint Box                                 73

    VI. Dolls and Doll-Houses                         80

   VII. Plays and Games                               92

  VIII. Festival Occasions                           107

    IX. The Key Basket                               141

     X. The Child's Library                          149

    XI. Kindergarten Materials--The Gifts            155

   XII.      "          "     --The Occupations      164



CHAPTER I

THE SECRETS OF THE MARKET BASKET


The busy but thoughtful mother will find in the contents of the market
basket many possibilities for happily employing the creative instinct of
her child. We give a few suggestions which demand activity of both mind
and body.


STRAWBERRY-BOXES


=Seed-Markers= (_No tools needed but the fingers_)

Remove the rim of wood which binds the box into shape, that the little
tacks may not injure the child. Then let him tear the sides and bottom
into little slats which can be used as seed-markers. Older children can
write upon them the names of seeds, and when planted put one of these
slats into the ground to indicate where the seeds may be expected to
come up.

The little child enjoys the sense of power that he feels simply in being
able to tear these boxes apart, but let there be a thought back of the
action if it seem to degenerate into pure destructiveness.


=Toy-Fences= (_Employing fingers only_)

Split the boxes with the fingers into pieces wide or narrow, as desired,
and the slats thus made can be turned into fences for the play farm in
the sand-box, or for borders for small flower beds. (1) Stick them into
the sand or earth side by side, to suggest a plain board fence; or (2)
Put very narrow ones at short intervals apart to suggest a picket fence.


=Toy-Fences= (_Scissors_, _tacks_)

If old enough to use scissors, let the child cut the boxes apart with
long scissors and use for fences as before. (1) Side by side for board
fence. (2) Cut into very narrow strips for picket fence. Use the rim of
the basket for the rail to unite the pickets, fastening them with the
tiny tacks which are already in it. Pickets might be one inch apart.
Cutting the tops of the pickets into points will complete the
resemblance to a real fence. Put the rails about one-half inch from top.


=Boxes for tacks, seeds, etc.= (_Scissors_, _paste_, _paste-sticks_,
    _ribbon, 8-1/2 inches long, 1-1/2 inches wide_, _wall-paper_, _pan
    with water_)

Take two pieces of a box, each measuring 2 × 5 inches. Soak in water
till soft. Place one directly across the middle of the other, and bend
the four projecting ends up perpendicularly into box form. (1) Hold the
sides in place by winding the ribbon around the four sides, till they
meet, and paste the one overlapping end over the other. (2) Cut a piece
of wall-paper (obtainable often from a wall-hanger's shop) into a strip
1-1/2 × 8-1/2 inches and wind around, pasting one end over the other. If
the child is inexperienced the paper may be cut of exactly the height of
box. If skillful in so doing, let him cut the strip 1/2 inch wider and
turn down over the top to give a little finish. This gives practice in
neatness and skill.

Let the child observe how a Swedish matchbox is made--the wood held
together by strips of thin but tough paper--and then carry his thought
to the far-distant land which sends us the magic wands that give us
light with safety. And all carried in a tiny box made of wood and paper.
Decalcomanias might be used for decoration of the plain wooden box.

Let the child experiment in making boxes of different shapes and sizes
for his collections of seeds, stones, etc. This cultivates his ingenuity
and practical imagination.


=Picture Frames= (_Scissors_, _thumb-tacks_, _gold paint_,
    _water-colors_, _glue_)

Cut three slats, each 1 × 8 inches, to make triangular frame. Unite with
thumb-tacks, one at each of the three corners. To place them exactly the
right way may take a little experimenting, which helps develop the
child's sense of proportion and arrangement. When joined, cut off the
projecting parts at the top to give pointed effect. Good for pictures of
Indians, as wigwam is suggested. Decorate by gilding or painting. Can be
painted with Ivory paints or water-colors.


=Chicken-Coops= (_Scissors_, _glue_)

Remove the rim, bottom (in one piece) and two adjoining sides of a berry
box. This leaves two sides remaining which are already bent into correct
form for coop. Cut the bottom of the box in half from corner to corner.
This gives the triangular back of the coop which must be glued on. The
slats must now be made and put into place. Cut three slats each 3/8
inches wide. (1) In each of the two front edges of the coop cut three
horizontal slits 3/8 inches deep; slip the slats into these and cut off
the projecting ends. The slats at the top will necessarily be shorter
than those at the bottom. (2) Or an older child can cut in each of the
two edges 3 notches 3/8 inches deep and 3/8 inches high and glue the
slats into these, thus:

[Illustration: Chicken-Coop.]


=Paste-Sticks= (_Boxes_, _scissors_)

Cut sides of boxes into slender pieces which can be put aside and used
for paste-sticks when pasting is the order of the day. They will prove
to be better than brushes.


=Wagon= (_Thumb-tacks_, _button-molds_, _skewers_, _glue_, _small,
    slender nails_)

Take two boxes. Remove rims. Bend down one side of each of the boxes so
that it is horizontal. Lap one of these exactly over the other and join
with thumb-tacks. This makes the body of coal wagon. For wheels use (1)
large wooden button-molds or (2) the cardboard circles round which
ribbons come. Make axles of skewers. Glue axle to bottom of wagon, slip
on the wheels and insert small, slender nail to keep wheel from coming
off. If skewers are not at hand whittle a slender piece from a stick of
kindling wood, whittling the ends until slender enough for the wheels to
slip on. Paint spokes on the wheels and paint the wagon, using any paint
at hand.


=Candy-Boxes=  }      (_Fancy paper_, _crinkled-paper or_
=Button-Boxes= }          _silk_, _glue_, _paint_)

Take a berry-box and dye with Diamond dyes. Line it with crinkled paper
or dainty flowered wallpaper or silk. To do this, fold the paper or silk
one inch over on itself from the top, for hem. Gather or pleat the silk
near the top with silk of same color and glue to the inner side of the
basket near the top, leaving a little projecting edge for ruffle. Leave
the lower ends free. The silk should be two inches wider than the depth
of the basket and one and one-third times as long as the four sides of
the basket. Now take a square of cardboard the size of the bottom of the
basket and cover it smoothly with a square of silk, folding the silk
neatly over the sides and catching it across so as to be smooth on the
right side. Put this silk square down in the bottom of the basket and it
will hold the sides of the lining firm. A basket may be lined with paper
in the same way, using glue to hold it in place. As paper can not very
well be gathered, the top may be glued down smoothly or the paper may be
pleated.


=Hanging-Basket= (_Lead from tea-box_, _ribbon or wire_, _earth_,
    _seeds_)

Line a berry box with the lead, fill with good earth and plant vines or
flower-seeds. Suspend by ribbon or wire.


=Dolls' Furniture= (_Spools_, _scissors_, _glue_)

1. Table.--Make a table by cutting a slat from a basket into an oblong
2 × 3 inches and glue to spool for dining-table.

2. Bed.--Soak a few moments and when flexible cut an oblong 2 × 6 inches
and bend one end up 1-1/2 inches to form head of bed. Bend the other
end up 1/2 inch to form the foot. Glue two spools to the bottom of this
for legs, one at each end.

3. Chair.--Make chairs for the same set by cutting a piece of the box to
measure 1 × 2 inches. Bend across the middle so that a right angle is
formed and glue one side to a spool. The other half forms the back of
the chair. Such furniture may be colored with dyes or Ivory paints.


PEAS


=Shelling Peas= (_Tin pans_)

Let the child help Mother to shell the peas for dinner. Children enjoy
work of this kind when coöperating with the mother or father. They like
to do what Mother is doing when she is doing it too. This will be an
excellent time to tell Hans Andersen's story of the "Five Peas that
Dwelt in a Pod". As a reward let the child plant a few peas in a box or
out-of-doors.


=Pea-Pod Boat= (_Pan of water_, _peapods_)

Give a small child a dish-pan filled with water and a peapod for a boat,
with peas for passengers and he will entertain himself for a long time.
Let the frequency with which he is allowed this privilege depend upon
his care in keeping himself and his surroundings dry, thus leading to
neatness and self-control.


=Pea Furniture= (See chapter on kindergarten occupations)


=Numeral Frame or Abacus= (_Hair-wire_, _cardboard stationery box_)

Get ten slender pieces of wire about six inches long. Put one pea on the
first, two on the second, three on the third, etc., until you reach the
last, on which place ten. Take an empty stationery box, and cut away the
bottom leaving the four sides intact as a frame. Into this frame insert
the ten wires, the one with one pea at the top, then No. 2, 3, etc. The
child can then practice counting the different combinations up to ten.

Instead of peas such a series of units could be made by stringing
cranberries or rose-haws on a waxed thread.


POTATOES AND SQUASH


=Potato Horse= (_Three potatoes_, _slender sticks or tooth-picks_,
    _raveled string or coarse black thread_)

Take large potato for body of horse, a smaller one for the neck, and
another for the head. Join them with sticks broken to convenient length.
Four other sticks make the legs, two little ones the ears and the string
or thread the flowing tail. The tail can be attached to a tack or pin
and inserted.


=Squash or Sweet Potato Animals= (_Crooked-neck squash or sweet potato
    for each animal_, _slender sticks_)

Insert sticks for legs into crooked-neck squashes and convert into
animals of various kinds, the kind depending upon the size of the neck
and general shape. Sweet potatoes by their queer shapes will often
suggest animals: pigs, dogs, etc., or ducks, swans, ostriches, and
birds. Use tacks or shoe buttons for eyes. Dolls can be made also.


CORN HUSKS--GREEN


=Mat= (_Husks_, _needle_, _thread_)

Take four smooth husks and press between blotting paper for 24 hours.
Then tear into 1/4 inch strips. Lay eight of these on the table. Take
eight more and weave these under and over the first eight, making mat
for doll-house. Put again between blotters. The next day, slide the
strips together till they lie smooth and even, and close together.
Fasten by sewing the outside strips lightly to the interlacing ones. Cut
the extending parts off about one inch from outside strips.


=Feathers= (_Husks_, _scissors_)

Take a dozen leaves of the husks; cut slits slant-wise down the edges
about 1/4 inch apart. Let dry 24 hours. Then use as feathers for Indian
head dress, using design on copper cent as model.


CORN-COBS--DRY


=Corn-Crib= (_Cobs_, _hammer_, _nails_, _cover of starch-box_)

To a small piece of thin wood like the cover of a starch-box nail four
short cobs of equal length for legs (half an inch or an inch long).
Around the four sides, on top, nail a row of slender cobs for the walls
of the corn crib. Make roof of cobs or lay a piece of cardboard across.
Nail from below, through the board. It will require a little thought to
determine just where the nail must go in order to run through the board
and into the cob above, but tell the child that he is a little carpenter
and must make careful measurements. Ask if he can think why the crib is
raised thus from the ground. (To preserve the corn from the rats and
mice.)


=Toy-Raft= (_Cobs_, _rim of berry-box_, _tacks_)

Lay six or more cobs of equal length side by side upon the table. Take a
piece of binding-rim of a berry-box as long as the row of cobs is wide.
Lay it across the row near one end and nail it fast to each cob. Nail a
similar piece across the other end. This will make a serviceable
toy-raft. Stick in a skewer for a mast and make a sail-boat. Paste on
the mast a triangular piece of paper or muslin for a sail.


=Zig-Zag Fence= (_Cobs only_)

Lay down half a dozen cobs in zigzag fashion, with their ends not quite
as far apart as the length of the cobs. Then across every two ends lay
another cob, and so build up the fence.


=Post-Fence= (_Cobs_, _tacks_, _skewers_, _slats_)

Lay several cobs in a row a few inches apart as posts. Unite them by
laying across them two rows of skewers or kindergarten slats. Join with
tiny tacks. Use in the sand-table or dolls' farm.


=House= (_Cobs_, _nails_)

(1) Take two cobs and place them opposite to each other. Place two
others across the ends of the first two, at right angles to them. Then
two more directly over the first two and so on, building up alternately
for log cabin. This is the first simple building experiment of the
little child. Two such cabins put together will make a two-roomed house.
Thus made it will be crude with wide interstices between the logs, but
this forms no objection to the child.

(2) When he does manifest the desire for something better made--a house
which will not admit the rain and snow--a more solid house can be made
thus: Place three cobs end to end to form three sides of a square.
Directly upon these lay three more, and nail firmly to those beneath at
the ends, with slender nails. Build up in this way as high as desirable.
One side has, however, been left open. Now put in the fourth wall but
leave place for the doorway. Do this by making the lower part of the
wall of cobs so short that they do not even go half way across the
opening. Take two such short cobs and nail each to the side of the
house. A little space will be left between them, say of two inches. Take
two more of same length and place on top of the first two and nail in
place. The third cob may be long enough to extend straight across the
little house making the top of the doorway. Put another and another on
top until the last row is reached. Roof with similar logs or with
cardboard. The child can be trained a little in forethought when led to
save anything like corncobs for possible use in the future.


=Furniture= (_4 short cobs_, _4 long slender ones_, _tacks_,
    _cheesecloth_, _fine cord_, _cotton batting_)

Take four short cobs for sturdy legs. Nail to these four slender cobs
for bed-frame. In the inner part of the long sides of the bed hammer
small tacks about 3/4 inches apart. Then string cord from one tack
across to the opposite one and so on, to make springs. Make mattress of
cheesecloth stuffed with cotton. Other furniture can easily be made in
similar manner.

In this work, as with other suggestions here given, older children will
need to help younger ones and thus the spirit of helpfulness and
sympathy is exercised.


CORN KERNELS--DRY


=Portieres= (_Kernels of corn_, _straws_, _needle_, _coarse thread_,
    _pan_)

Soak corn in pan of water over night or till soft. Get inch-long pieces
of straw at kindergarten supply store, or, if obtainable in the country,
get the straws entire and let the children cut them into inch pieces. In
all this work it is desirable to let the child do as much as possible
himself. Later, when familiar with materials and simple processes, let
him use the prepared bought material.

Now, let him string the corn and straws alternately. He can then vary by
stringing first one kernel and one straw; then two kernels and one
straw; then three, etc. This gives practice in counting, and exercises
also his sense of taste and proportion and his invention. A pretty
effect can be secured by using kernels of the two colors, red and
yellow.

Suspend a number of such strings in the doorway; they may be all of the
same length or may be very short in the middle of the doorway and
gradually get longer as the jamb is approached.


=Designing= (_Red and yellow kernels_)

On a rainy day let the child employ his inventive skill in making
designs of the red and yellow kernels on a flat table. He can lay them
in squares, oblongs, crosses, etc.


POP-CORN

There are few American children who need to be told how to pop corn;
they see it done before they are able to do it themselves. But this
fascinating occupation is not known to many children outside of the
United States. Perhaps it is well that our children should appreciate
their privilege in this respect.

If a popper is unobtainable, corn can be quickly and deliciously popped
by putting a tablespoonful of butter in a deep kettle and when it is hot
dropping in a cupful of popcorn. Shake or rather stir to keep from
burning and in a short time the kettle will be full of the white popping
fairy-like kernels. Salt or sugar can be sprinkled in as desired.


=Balls= (_Corn_, _popper_, _sugar_, _molasses or water_)

Make a thin syrup by boiling together equal quantities of sugar and
water or two cupfuls sugar, one of molasses or syrup, one teaspoonful
vinegar, and butter size of an egg. Cook until it hardens when dropped
in water, then pour it over 8 quarts of popped corn as quickly as
possible and mold into balls, making about twenty. If made with
strawberry syrup the color will be a beautiful red.


=Festoons= (_Popped corn_, _needle_, _coarse thread_)

Thread the kernels to adorn walls or picture frames or Christmas tree.


NUTS


=Boat= (_Walnut shell_, _pan of water_, _toothpicks_, _candle-wax_)

When busy with her baking the mother can give the three-year-old in his
high chair a half walnut shell for a boat. An older child can elaborate
into a sail-boat by cutting a triangular piece of paper for a sail,
glueing it to a toothpick for mast, and then melting a drop of wax from
a candle and inserting the mast while the wax is still warm. A burnt
match can be shaped into a mast also.

Such a fleet of tiny vessels would prettily set a table for a farewell
dinner to one going abroad.


=Surprise Walnuts= (_English walnuts_, _baby-ribbon_, _tiny dolls or
    animals_, _glue_)

Open a number of walnuts carefully so as not to break the shell. Remove
the meats and fasten the two sides together with a tiny strip of ribbon,
which serves as a hinge, glueing the ends of the ribbon to the inside of
the half shells. Ribbon need be only an inch long or less. Put a tiny
doll or a wee china rabbit or kitten inside the shell and tie around
with ribbon. Little china animals come in sets of five or six.

A little verse of greeting or a conundrum can be written and put inside
if the toys are not available.

A group of little children could be kept busy and happy for an afternoon
making some of these little souvenirs for a home dinner or for a fair.


=Nut-Animals= (_Peanuts_, _toothpicks_)

The imagination of most children will quickly perceive resemblances to
all kinds of creatures in the queer shapes of peanuts. Take such a
peanut and stick into it four bits of toothpicks for legs and two tiny
ones for ears. If the toothpicks are not sharp or strong enough to
penetrate of themselves, make incisions with a sharp pin.

One common shape suggests a cat, seated. Two vertical pieces would make
the front legs and two horizontal pieces the back legs resting on the
ground. Eyes and mouth can be inked in. Another shape hints at an owl
with sharp, curved beak. Another will make a hen. Once started on this
line of experiment, the child will discover likenesses for himself.
These creatures can be used in the toy farm.


=Peanut party= (_See page 103_)


APPLES


=Candlestick= (_Apple_, _candle_)

Cut in the top of a rosy apple a hole of right size to hold a candle.
Appropriate for Thanksgiving.

A carrot can also be used thus, but a part must be cut away at the
bottom so as to secure a firm base.


ORANGES


=Baskets= (_Orange_, _smaller fruits_)

Cut an orange horizontally partly through the middle from each side so
as to leave a part in the centre which can be cut into a handle. Hollow
out the interior and put raisins, small nuts, etc., in it.


RED PEPPERS


=Lantern= (_Large red pepper_, _knife_)

Hollow out a large red pepper and cut into it eyes, nose and mouth,
making a miniature Jack-o'-lantern. This makes a pretty table
decoration.

Let the child help as much as possible by making these little table
decorations. If you want boy and girl to love home, give them a share in
making it interesting and attractive. Do not discourage them if their
efforts are a little crude at times. It is the spirit of good-will which
makes the blessed home.


EGG-SHELLS


=Garden= (_Shell_, _earth_, _birdseed_)

Cut an egg-shell in half horizontally, with a sharp pair of scissors,
and three days before Easter put into it a little earth, place in this a
little canary seed, or a single pea or bean, and a little plant will
delight the child.


=Doll's Cradle= (_Shell_, _ribbon half an inch wide_, _paste_,
    _cardboard_)

Take a smooth white egg and blow it. To do this make a tiny pin-hole in
each end, and by blowing into one end steadily the contents can be
emptied out of the other. Draw lines lengthwise and crosswise around the
shell, dividing it into four equal parts. Then, following the line, cut
away the upper quarter toward the small end. This leaves a cradle with a
small canopy. Paste the ribbon neatly around for a binding round the
edge. Rockers can be made by cutting curved pieces 1/4 inch wide out of
thick cardboard, although such a cradle will rock without rockers.

Mattress for above. (_Thin white ribbon_, _milkweed down_, _needle_,
_sewing silk_)

Cut and sew the ribbon into a tiny mattress for this fairy cradle, and
stuff with milkweed down. If the ribbon is just the width of the cradle
the edges of the mattress can be neatly overcast. A tiny doll may then
be placed within the cradle.


=Boat= (_Goose-egg_, _leatherette paper_, _kindergarten slats_)

Blow the egg as described above. Cut in half lengthwise. Cut the paper
into strips 1/2 inch wide. In each side of the shell cut an indentation
3/8 inches deep and 3/8 inches wide for oarlocks. Then bind neatly with
the paper strips. Cut the slats (or a piece of berry box will do) into
tiny oars and paste a seat across, which is also cut out of a slat.

Careful handling is required for these dainty toys, and if the child
seems to get nervous let her do only a little at a time; but much
neatness and skill is exercised in the making, and it is good practice
for older children. The wise mother soon learns to detect the difference
between the poor work which is the result of pure nervousness and that
which is the consequence of carelessness. The latter should never be
permitted to stand. See to it that what the child does is up to his best
capacity.


=Humpty-Dumpty Eggs= (_Shell_, _shot_, _water-color paints_, _a bit of
    cotton-batting_, _and a bit of tough paper_)

Take a shell and empty of contents as described above. Enlarge the hole
at one end sufficiently to drop in a dozen tiny shot obtainable at
hardware store. Paste over the opening the bit of paper, and on that a
little cotton to simulate hair. Paint upon the surface eyes, nose, and
mouth. A comical little toy which always regains its balance, however
placed, is the result. In playing with this the child unconsciously
imbibes a few ideas about equilibrium, equipoise, etc. Tell him you want
him to be a man that, however placed, will always be able to get upon
his feet again.


=Foot-ball=, or rather it might be called Breath-ball (_Egg-shell_,
    _water-color paints_)

Take an empty shell and paint to resemble a football or in some college
or High School colors. See page 99 for directions for game.


=Toy Lamp= (See under Doll-Houses)


PRUNES AND RAISINS


=Turtle= (_Raisin and five cloves_)

Take a plump raisin and stick into it five cloves for head and legs.


=Man= (_Raisins or prunes_, _toothpicks_)

Make a man by running a toothpick through three raisins for a body. Into
the top one stick two other toothpicks, with two raisins each for arms
and two other toothpicks with raisins make the legs. Each leg has a
projecting raisin for a foot and another large raisin makes the head.
These are fun-makers for a children's party, one at each plate.


SEEDS


=Stringing= (_Squash seeds--dried_, _strong thread_, _needle_)

Little children can be happily occupied making chains of squash,
pumpkin, and water-melon seeds that have been saved and made soft by
soaking awhile in water. The black seeds of the water-melon alternate
prettily with the white seeds of the other gourds. Variety can be
introduced by stringing several of one color and then several of
another, counting by twos, threes, etc. This gives exercise in counting,
in pleasing grouping of colors, and so exercises both the invention and
the taste of the very little child.


=Designing= (_Black seeds_, _white seeds_)

Let the child make designs of the seeds upon the table. Place a black
one for a centre and a white one on each side. Repeat this figure for a
foot or more, placing the groups an inch apart and observe the effect.
Tell him thus to make a design for the frieze of the room. Another
effect is produced by placing a white seed as a centre and placing four
or five around it. Vary still further by placing a circle of black seeds
around the whole. These few examples will serve to indicate the endless
variety that can be secured, and is a training in invention and taste.
Let the child always have in mind a design for some particular purpose,
as of wall-paper, oil-cloth, etc. Lead him to observe similar effects in
carpets, wall-paper, etc. The best of these attempts can be made
comparatively permanent by pasting upon small sheets of tinted
bristol-board. The chief value in preserving any such work is for
purposes of comparison as the child improves.


=Counters=

Save out 24 white and 24 black seeds for counters in checkers, go-bang,
etc.


=Squash-Seed Chicken= (_25 seeds_, _white thread_, _two quill
    toothpicks_, _bit of red flannel_, _feather from duster_)

Take 25 squash seeds and soak till soft. Take five of these and place
side by side with pointed ends up. Above these place four, their wide
ends coming between the points of the others. Above these place three in
the same relative position. Above these put two, and above these and
between them place the squash-seed which is to be the head of the
chicken.

Now, beneath the original five, place four, pointed ends up; beneath
these put three, then two, then one. If these are rightly placed, the
pointed ends of one row come just at the sides of the wide end of the
seeds above.

[Illustration: How to String the Seeds.]

Run a thread through the lower end of the two and the upper end of the
three; then through the lower end of three and the upper end of the
four; continue thus till all have been united. The result thus far will
be a double pyramid of the seeds. Draw an eye in the middle of the head,
paste or sew on a bit of quill for a bill and a bit of flannel for a
comb. Attach a few feathers from the duster for a tail. Take two more
seeds and sew to the _middle_ of the row of _five_ for the thigh of the
legs, and to each sew a quill for the rest of the legs, cutting into
points at one end for toes.

[Illustration: Squash-Seed Chicken.]

Make another chicken like the above and suspend the two face to face
upon a slender stick by running a thread through the head and one
through the tail. When the stick is moved the chickens assume very
realistic attitudes. A comical toy, made with no expense save that of
time and patience. (See illustrations.)


=Pincushion or Penwiper= (_Five plump apple-seeds_, _sharp pen-knife_,
    _black thread_, _stiff card_, _square of muslin_, _emery or cotton
    batting_)

Save out five seeds, and cut the cuticle of the large end into two tiny
points to simulate the ears of a mouse. Knot the thread and run a tiny
bit through for a tail. Paste these upon a visiting card, and near them
paste a tiny bag made of white muslin to simulate a flour-bag. It can be
stuffed with cotton or with emery for needles or pins. Or the card can
be sewn upon several layers of cloth as decoration for a penwiper.


=Imitation Water=

Muskmelon seeds placed in an undulating line in the sand-box suggest
water.


SOAP


=Hammering= (_Old-fashioned bar soap_, _hammer_, _nails_)

A wee child will entertain himself for a long time by hammering nails
into a bar of soap if the proper tools be given him. In this simple
activity he exercises both mind and body. It requires good coördination
on the part of the little one to strike the nail just right, and he
enjoys not only the exercise itself, but also the pleasure of imitating
the carpenter who uses the hammer so skilfully.


=Drawing= (_White soap_, _window-pane_)

On a day when he must stay indoors, give your child a piece of white
soap and let him show you what he can draw upon the window-pane. Ships
and trees, houses and flowers have a fairy-like appearance when drawn
with this commonplace material upon the impromptu background of glass.
This allows the freedom of movement found in blackboard work. It gives
scope to the child's imaginative powers and should add nothing to the
housekeeper's cares, being readily removed with a damp cloth. It may
reveal creative possibilities in some otherwise "mute, inglorious"
artist.


CEREAL BOXES


=Moving-Van= (_Cereal-box_, _glue_, _two skewers_, _4 button-molds_, _4
    nails or strong pins_)

Take a box (Quaker Oats or Force, etc.). Cut out doors and side openings
for a moving-van. It may be well to draw these first. For a model, look
at any van or grocer's wagon. It will be seen that models are numerous
and various. If more explicit directions are required we give the
following, although it is always well to have the child use his own mind
as far as possible before going to others for ideas.

Remove the top of the box, which becomes the front of the wagon. The
bottom of the box will be the back of the wagon. This bottom will be
found to consist of two layers of cardboard. Remove the outer one and
cut the inner one once through the middle to make two doors. On each
side of the wagon cut an oblong window 1/2 inch from the top, 1/2 inch
from the bottom, and 1/2 inch from the front. Let it be two inches wide.
Place a seat across from one window to the other; fasten with glue. It
may be just a straight piece one inch wide, or may be two inches wide,
folded once through the middle lengthwise to give a back.

For wheels use wooden button-molds, two inches wide, or circles sawed
from a broom handle. For axles use wooden skewers or cut a piece from a
stick of kindling wood about 1/4 inch wide. Whittle the ends till they
are slender enough to hold the button-molds. Then put on the wheels,
inserting a slender nail or pin outside to keep them from coming off the
axle. Glue the axle to the box. If wheels are cut from broom-handle, a
nail can be driven through the centre for an axle and then pushed into
the side of the box, or a nail pushed through a button-mold directly
into the box will hold.

Punch two holes into the front of the wagon, tie cord through and the
wagon can be drawn along. It may be painted if desired. For horses,
trace a picture of a horse from some book or advertisement on cardboard,
cut out and harness to wagon.


=Lantern= (_Box_, _scissors_, _candle_, _pencil_)

Draw on the box holes to represent eyes, nose and mouth. Then cut these
out. Cut holes near the top of box to put wires through for carrying the
box. Use a wire about two feet long, put the ends through the holes and
bend up. Let a little of the wax drip from the end of the candle to the
bottom of the inside of the box, and when a soft centre has been made
push the candle down and it will stand firm. Only older children should
use these, lest harm result. But children do make them at election times
for transparencies. The openings may be lined with colored tissue paper.


=House= (_Cereal box_, _paste_, _scissors_, _wall-paper_, _etc._)

Remove one broad side. Stand box on one long narrow side as room of
doll's house. Cut an opening in the remaining broad side for a window.
Furnish with paper furniture. (See page 85.)


EDAM CHEESE


=Lantern= (_Cheese_, _knife_, _candle_)

After the interior of one of these round, red cheeses has been scooped
out and eaten by the family, the discarded red shell will make a fine
Jack-o'-lantern, if the proper holes for eyes, nose and mouth be cut
into it and a candle inserted inside. The candle may be inserted in a
socket cut into the bottom of the rind, or it may be made to stand
firmly in a bed of wax or tallow melted from its own lower end.


SALT


=Play for Baby= (_Fine table salt_, _spoon_, _bottle_, _small box or
    pan_)

If clean fine sand is not at the moment available, give the baby a box
containing a heap of salt and a teaspoon and bottle, and he will be
happy for a long time, passing the salt from one bottle or box to
another. To the young mother this may seem akin to foolishness, but in
thus playing simply with sand or with salt the baby is exercising
faculties and working out baby problems which he should be given
opportunity to try. He is becoming acquainted with his environment, his
little world.


TIN CANS


=Burnt-Match Safe= (_Mustard box_, _oil paints_, _brush_, _ribbon_,
    _nail_, _hammer_)

Punch two holes near the upper edge of a discarded mustard box, the
holes to be opposite each other. These may be made by hammering a nail
through the tin, holding the box firmly against a block of wood or stone
for pressure.

With oil paints, one color, begin at the top to paint the box,
graduating from light to darker tones as the bottom is approached.
Lighter tones may be secured by mixing the blue or red with Chinese
white. A flower design may be painted by one skilled in the use of the
brush.

Tie ribbon through the holes by which to suspend the box, and the result
is an article both useful and pretty.


=Flower-Pot= (_Can_, _ivory paints_, _brush_)

Paint an empty can with green or brown ivory paint and use as flower-pot
for growing plant. Children love to handle a paint-brush, and this
offers a legitimate occasion for such occupation. A small hole should be
punched in bottom of can for drainage.


=Hanging-Basket= (_Can_, _nail_, _hammer_, _cord_, _raffia_)

Punch holes for suspending as described above. Then make a covering of
raffia as explained on page 46 and hang up by the cord.


=Wheels= (_Covers of baking-powder tins_, _nail_, _hammer_)

With the nail, hammer a hole through the centre of the cover, placing
upon a stone step or other brace. The little wheels may be used to
complete toy wagons that the child is making.


TIN FOIL


=Toy Dishes= (_Tin foil from cream-cheese wrappers_, _etc_.)

Take the tin foil, and by simple squeezing and pressing and shaping, a
little practice will enable one to make it into tiny pitchers, goblets,
pans, etc., for dolly's table.


=Toy Mirror= (_Tin foil_, _scissors_)

Smooth carefully with the fingers and cut a piece of the tin foil into
the shape and size to fit a little cardboard bureau.

A larger piece will simulate water in the sandbox park.


=Toy Money= (_Tin foil_, _coin_, _scissors_)

Smooth the tin foil with the thumb nail, place a cent or a nickel
beneath, and press and smooth again, making an impression of the coin
that may be cut out and used in playing store.


=Toy Cutlery= (_Tin foil_, _scissors_)

Cut tiny knives, forks and spoons out of the tin foil for the
paper-dolls' table.


CORK

Save all corks and they may be used in a variety of ways.


=Toy Raft= (_Cork_, _wire or hairpins_)

Run several corks on a piece of wire to resemble a log; make several
such and then tie together to make a raft, tying between the corks.


=Toy Boat= (_Circular flat cork_, _tacks_, _wire_, _toothpick_, _paper_)

Insert a toothpick in one of the large flat corks that sometimes cover
pickle glasses. Paste a paper triangle upon this for a sail and set
afloat in a dishpan sea.


=Flower-Rack= (_Flat cork_, _pencil_)

Take a flat piece of cork such as is used by entomologists upon which to
impale insects, or any flat, _thin_ piece of cork will do if several
inches in diameter. Such cork may be easily perforated by a slender
pencil. Make a number of perforations several inches apart, and then the
cork may rest upon a water-filled saucer or other deep dish, and the
stalks of single flowers may be inserted into the holes so that they are
supported by the cork.


=Furniture= (_Circular corks_, _pins_, _worsted of pleasing color_,
    _cashmere or silk goods_)

Into the upper side of a round cork about one inch in diameter insert
five to seven pins. Twist and weave the worsted in and out, under and
over those pins, so as to make a firm, solid back to a little chair. The
ends of the worsted may be neatly disposed of by threading on a needle
and running in and out for a few stitches till concealed.

For legs, insert four strong pins, and wind these round and round with
the worsted, finishing neatly by running with a needle in and out.

If the seat seems too plain it may first, before the chair is made, be
covered with silk or cashmere. To do this cut the cloth into a circle
somewhat larger than the diameter of the cork. Run a gathering thread
around the circumference, and putting the cork in the centre draw the
thread and so gather beneath the seat. To make a really neat finish the
edge should be turned in before gathering.


=Swimming-Float= (_Dozens of corks_, _strong canvas cloth, measuring
    20 × 36 inches_, _needle_, _thread_)

Make two strong canvas bags, measuring about 18 × 20 inches. Fill these
with corks to act as floats. Unite the two bags by a strong band of
canvas about 7 × 20 inches in size, and let the children use when in
bathing.


=Cork in Art=

In making models of world-renowned buildings, such as churches,
cathedrals, temples, etc., cork is used in large and small pieces.

In Germany it is used in making pictures. A sky background is painted in
water-color, and the flat pieces of cork are cut into shape and glued on
to represent walls and towers of buildings. The foliage of trees is
represented by the more spongy pieces of cork, and the effects secured
are interesting and beautiful. The children may like to experiment and
see what they can do in this direction.


=Cork Doll= (_See page 81_)



CHAPTER II

MOTHER NATURE'S HORN OF PLENTY


Many of the articles named under the Market Basket Division of this book
could be classified also under the above head. In addition we present
the following:


STONES AND PEBBLES


=Collections= (_Stones_, _small boxes_)

Collect various pretty little stones and pebbles on river shore, coast
or roadway, and classify in different ways--according to color, shape,
size. This exercises the child's observing powers and trains him in
detecting differences and resemblances. Keep in small boxes.


=Bottled Pebbles= (_Pebbles_, _plain glass bottle_)

Put some pretty pebbles in a glass bottle filled with water which
intensifies the color. Send to some sick friend, especially some one
from the prairies who may seldom see stones. It is always well for the
child to have some definite object in view when he does anything.


=Toy Path-Markers=

Use pebbles in the sand-box for outlining the little paths in the wee
park or farm.


=Jackstones=

Pebbles of right size and shape make good jackstones.


=Toy Vegetables= (_Small square of cheesecloth_, _needle_, _thread_,
    _pebbles_)

Make tiny cheesecloth bags and use pebbles as potatoes, apples, etc., in
play with the little wagons made by the child. In playing store with
them comes opportunity for counting and measuring. Tiny boxes can be
used for quart and pint measures, and the child may be shown that two
pints make one quart, etc.


=Paper-Weight= (_Large, smooth stone_, _oil-paints_)

If you find a large, smooth stone of pretty tone, let the older child
decorate it with a little picture done in oil paints.


SHELLS


=Collections= (_Shells_, _small boxes_)

Collect and classify according to color, shape, etc., and keep in
separate boxes.


=Bottled Shells= (_Shells_, _bottle_)

Put little shells in bottle of water to bring out lovely colors. (See
Bottled Pebbles above.)


=Border for Sand-Table=

Place small shells along little paths in sand-table, sometimes with
concave side up and _vice versa_.

Larger shells, as clamshells, make fine borders for roads and paths in
the country. They outline the road on a dark night.


=Water-Color-Cups=

Collect and save shells to give to some artist friend as extra cups for
his water-color paints.


=Ramekin Dishes=

Large shells make serviceable individual dishes for baked fish, etc.
Appropriate for fish dinner.


=Individual Salt and Butter Dishes=

These can be made of the smaller pink and yellow shells found on many
coasts. Let the children collect shells for this purpose, and use for
fish dinner.


=Toy-Boat=

A small shell is often found which, with the little natural seat found
at one end, at once suggests a little boat. Have the children collect
and save for those far from the shore.


=Pin-Tray= (_Scallop shell_, _oil-paints_)

Paint a marine view in oils inside a shell for pin-tray.


=Pin-Cushion= (_Small piece of satin or velvet_, _saw-dust_, _glue_,
    _two perfect scallop-shells_)

Make a small pin-cushion of satin or velvet, filled with saw-dust, and
glue between a pair of scallop shells, so that it fits in between as
they open out.


=Piano Scarf= (_Several dozen small, thin, yellow shells found on
    Atlantic coast_, _one yard Nile green India silk_, _strong sewing
    silk_)

Hem the silk an inch deep at each end. Sew to one end a fringe of shells
made as follows:

The shells usually have a tiny hole in them when found. If not, one is
easily pierced by a strong needle. Take twelve lengths of strong sewing
silk, white, each 20 inches long. To each of these tie twelve shells at
intervals of an inch each. You will then have twelve strings of shells,
which are to be sewed to the scarf as a fringe, putting them about three
inches apart. Sew two rows of shells directly on the scarf itself,
putting them about four inches apart each way. If desired, in making the
fringe some of the strings may be shorter than others, arranged so that
the long and short ones alternate.


BIRCH BARK


=Needle-Case or Penwiper= (_Squares of chamois skin or flannel_,
    _sewing-silk_, _paint_)

Cut bark into circles, squares, oblongs, etc. Decorate with gold
lettering or borders of gold. Make several leaves of flannel or chamois
skin and sew the bark on to these as a cover. The flannel may be
scalloped. An appropriate sentiment to write upon penwiper cover is
"Extracts from the pen of--" putting in the name of the recipient. The
leaves and cover may be sewed together with a cross-stitch.


=Handkerchief-Box= (_Punch_, _several strands of raffia_)

Cut two pieces of bark 6 × 6 inches. Cut four others 3 × 6 inches. Along
the edge of these punch (with a conductor's punch or one that can be
bought at a kindergarten supply place) holes an inch apart and 1/4 inch
from edge. Sew the four narrow pieces to the square for bottom and sides
of box. Sew remaining square more loosely to one side as cover. Sew with
strands of raffia, sewing through the holes already made. If desired to
give a more finished appearance punch more holes along edge of box and
lid, making them 1/4 inch apart. Then hold a fine basket reed or piece
of raffia along the edges and overcast. If lavender or sweet grass is
obtainable, that will be even better than reed or raffia for the edge,
lending its fragrance to the gift. The box can be still further finished
by lining with dainty silk. Make glove box in same way, but longer in
proportion to width.


=Pencil and Paint-Brush Box= (_Bark_, _raffia_, _needle or crochet
    hook_)

This is cylindrical. Cut a piece of bark 5 × 8 inches. Punch in it a
series of holes 3/4 of an inch apart, and 1/2 inch from edge of each
short side. Place these so that one edge overlaps the other and the
holes coincide with one another. Then sew together with raffia. Use a
short needle or none at all. Raffia can be drawn through holes with a
crochet-hook. Punch holes in the lower end of this cylinder and cut a
circle of same size as diameter of cylinder out of cardboard. Punch
corresponding holes in this and sew the bottom in. Strengthen top by
overcasting over a twist of raffia, sweet grass or sweet clover.


=Canoe= (_Bark_, _pencil_, _thread_, _paper_, _paraffine_)

Fold strong piece of bark and cut an outline of a canoe, rounding the
ends. Sew the ends closely together with stout thread, overcasting the
edges with same. Make watertight by lining with paper dipped in melted
paraffine. Paraffine may be bought at grocer's.


=Fan=, modeled after East Indian pattern (_Bark_, _kindling wood_,
    _dye_, _gold paint_)

Cut two stiff pieces of bark into hatchet-shaped trapezoid. Punch row of
holes in the narrowest side, whittle a handle of pinewood, and sew it
to the narrow edge of bark over and over through the holes.

The handle may be stained with some natural dye and fan decorated with
gold paint.


=Picture-Frame= (_Bark_, _punch_, _sweet grass_)

Cut two pieces of bark 4 × 5 inches, one of smooth bark, one of the
outer bark with pleasing markings. Punch holes around the edges of each
3/4 inches apart. In the rough outside piece cut an oval 2-1/2 × 3
inches. Around this inner oval punch holes near together and bind this
around with sweet grass overcast with fine raffia. Now sew the two
pieces of bark together, first cutting into the back piece a slit near
the bottom into which to slide the photograph.

In using sweet grass as binding it is well to wind the bunch first with
thread to hold the pieces together, and after the grass is firmly sewed
the temporary thread can be cut away. The bunch of grass thus used may
be about as thick as half the little finger.

Punch may be bought at kindergarten store, or conductor's punch will do.


GOURDS


=Darning-Egg=

A smooth well-shaped gourd (mock-orange) makes a serviceable darning
egg.


=Hanging-Basket= (_Large gourd_, _soil_, _plant_)

Clear the gourd of fibre and seeds, after cutting off the top rim
evenly. Pierce the top with two holes through which to attach cord for
hanging, fill with a light, loose soil, and plant in it a drooping,
trailing plant. Cut a hole in the lower end to allow for drainage. Let
the country child save gourds of good shape to present, thus filled, to
city friends.


VEGETABLES


=Sweet-Potato Vine=

Put a sweet potato in sandy loam in a hanging basket and water
occasionally. It will produce a beautiful, graceful vine.


=Carrot-Top=

Cut off the top of a young carrot evenly and place it on top of a pot
filled with sand. Moisten well, and keep in the dark till it has begun
to sprout; when the leaves appear take it out, and the word "Carrot-top"
will acquire a new meaning, the result is so pretty.


=Turnip=

Take a turnip and clean the outside, taking care not to injure the parts
from which the leaves spring. Cut a piece off the bottom and scoop out
the inside, leaving the top intact. Fasten string or wire to it so as to
hang it upside down. Fill and keep filled with water, and soon the
leaves will sprout and curl up, forming a beautiful natural hanging
basket.


RAFFIA

This flexible fiber, long used by florists, is now also used a great
deal in the schools for the educational hand-training it affords. It can
be obtained at kindergarten supply places.


=Reins=

Take three to six strands and braid into reins for playing horse. As the
ends of the strands are approached (each is about a yard long) begin to
weave in a new strand, as inconspicuously as possible. Do not have the
strands all exactly the same length to begin with, because if you reach
the end of all at the same time it makes it difficult to weave in new
ones neatly.


=Mat=

Take such a long braid as described above, and holding one end flat,
turn it round and round spirally but flat, and sew with thread to make a
mat for the tea-pot. By bending up a little as you sew you can make a
basket.


=Picture-Frame= (_Cardboard_, _raffia_, _thread and needle_)

Cut a circle of cardboard 5 × 5 inches in diameter. From the centre cut
out a smaller circle three inches in diameter. This leaves a circular
cardboard frame. Wind this round and round smoothly with the raffia.
Paste another circle on the back to give a good finish, but in this
second circle cut a slit up which to slide the photograph.


=Woven Mat= (_Loom_, _raffia_)

Thread a little loom with raffia warp as described on page 90. Then
weave the woof (also of raffia) back and forth to make a mat or a case
for hanging basket. To make the latter the right size have the warp
threads as _long_ as the can is _around the circumference_, and have the
_width_ about the same as the _height_ of the can.

The raffia can be colored with Diamond dyes and wee rugs made for the
doll-house on tiny looms.


=Grace Hoops= (See under Plays and Games)


LEAVES


=Festoons and Wreaths= (_Leaves, fresh or dried_, _thorns or needle and
    thread_)

City children may need to be told what seems to be handed down to the
country child from generation to generation, that leaves may be made
into wreaths for the head or decoration for the room either by
overlapping one upon another and fastening together with a thorn or
sharp twig, or by stringing together on a stout thread.


=To Dry or Press= (_Blotting paper_, _two small smooth boards_, _strap_,
    _wax or linseed oil_)

Gather and press pretty autumn leaves thus: Have ready two boards
measuring about one by two feet. Put the leaves between sheets of
blotting paper and place these between the boards and then strap them
tightly together, or if no straps are convenient, put the boards beneath
a heavy weight (a book will do). Change the paper every day or so till
sure that they are quite dry.

To preserve and brighten the colors after drying dip in melted wax and
press a moment with a hot iron, or clear, boiled linseed oil will do in
place of the wax, using, however, as little as possible.


=Decoration for Curtains=

Pin to lace curtains in attractive arrangement.


=Transparency= (_Leaves_, _bolting-cloth_, _1 yard white India silk_,
    _sewing silk_, _needle_)

1. Take a piece of bolting-cloth twice the length of the largest leaf
and fold over evenly. Open again and place the leaves upon the
bolting-cloth artistically in a row; fold the cloth over again and
baste. Bind the edges with white ribbon, and at the two upper corners
sew the ends of a narrow ribbon with which to suspend the transparency
in the window.

2. Or, if preferred, sew the bolting-cloth transparency as a border to
the end of a yard of India silk as a scarf for shelf or piano.


=Frieze of Leaves= (_Leaves_, _cartridge or other strong paper of good
    tone_, _glue_)

A pretty frieze for a room can be made by pasting leaves on a long,
foot-high strip of paper which forms a background. The effect will
depend largely upon the harmony between the color of the leaves and the
background, as well as upon the arrangement of the leaves. They may be
arranged in an irregular line, or may be placed so as to form artistic
groups of twos and threes or fours.


=Collections of Leaves=

When the collecting instinct is upon him, let the child collect and
classify leaves according to shape. See if he can tell by the leaf what
tree it came from, and if he recognizes the different varieties of
leaves.


=Four-Leaved Clovers=

Look for four-leaved clovers when on your country walks, and save to
press and afterwards use in writing letters of good-will as decoration
for paper, pasting on at upper left hand corner; or use to decorate
place cards for dinners. It will hardly be necessary to state that the
four-leaved clover has for long years been the symbol of good-luck.


=Shadow Game= (_See under Sun and Shadow_)


FEATHERS


=Feather Flowers= (_A large goose with many white feathers_, _beeswax_,
    _spools of wire of different sizes_, _aniline dyes, though vegetable
    dyes are preferable if obtainable_, _strong scissors suitable for
    cutting wire_, _spools of strong white cotton thread_, _spool of
    milliner's green-covered wire_)

Pluck the breast of the goose. (Feathers come out very easily.) The
feathers, being very light, fly about and therefore it is best to do the
plucking in an uncarpeted room or one in which the floor has been
covered with a large sheet.

Classify the feathers according to size, and arrange in bundles of about
thirty by winding a stout thread around the quills. Thus they are ready
for the dyeing process.

Dye according to directions on packages. For deep green of leaves and
for calyx immerse for several minutes; for more delicate tints immersion
for a second is sufficient.

Suppose we select for our first effort a carnation. Choose a real one
for a model. Having selected about twenty feathers of the required sizes
and colors, cut the ends to resemble the form of the petal and then pink
the edge as in the real flower. The actual number of petals required
will depend upon the size of the flower copied and must be left to the
judgment of the maker.

Take the measure of the length of stem required on the wire and double
it (wire must be twice as long as stem). Wind tightly and evenly around
it the green milliner's wire to make the stem.

Soften the beeswax by heating slightly in a pan till soft enough to mold
between the fingers. Shape it into the form of the calyx, inserting the
stem at the lower end, and pushing it far enough to insure firmness.
Wrap this soft calyx form round with green feathers to represent the
flower copied. Upon accuracy at the beginning depends the success of the
flower, therefore it is necessary to observe the natural one closely.
The green feathers must entirely cover the calyx mold, the upper ones
curving back a little as in the genuine calyx.

Take some colored petals and insert between the calyx and the wax mold,
pushing the quill end of the feather firmly into the wax. Arrange the
petals spirally, beginning at the bottom and building gradually up to
the top. The larger feathers are used first, growing smaller toward the
top. Complete the flower by inserting the stamens and pistil, which are
made by tearing one small feather into narrow strips and curling these
by drawing once over a scissors blade.

The simplest flowers to make are: Carnation pinks, violets, sweet peas,
fuchsias, roses and Easter lilies. With the proper amount of time,
patience and perseverance, any flower can be successfully made.

If leaves are desired, cut green feathers into the required shape and
attach.


=Indian Headdress= (_Large turkey feathers_, _glue_, _cardboard_,
    _paint_)

Save large feathers from turkey or rooster and make Indian headdress by
glueing upon cardboard cut to proper shape. For model look at copper
cent.


FLOWERS


=Pressed Morning-Glories= (_The flowers_, _white tissue-paper_,
    _scissors_, _book or pressing boards_)

Press the flowers between a fold of thin tissue-paper. The delicate
flowers will adhere to the paper, which is sufficiently transparent
however for the morning-glory to be visible through it. When dry, cut
the paper from around the flower and pin to curtains, lambrequin, etc.,
as desired, or attach to letter paper.


=Soldier-Flowers= (_Milkweed blossoms_)

The small blossoms of the milkweed may be made to stand in rows and
columns like soldiers, two by two, four by four, etc., giving practice
in counting.


ROSE-HAWS


=Rosaries= (_Haws_, _stout thread_, _needle_)

When the beautiful red rose-haws ripen let the children string them,
making rosaries to send to city friends.


STRAWS


=Stringing= (_Scissors_, _needle_, _thread_, _cranberries_, _nuts_,
    _etc._)

Save the straw from rye and let the children cut it into one-inch
lengths for stringing alternately with cranberries, nuts, beads, etc.
Use to decorate the room, to make portieres, and to decorate the child
himself when dressing up.


=Blowing Bubbles= (_Straw_, _soapy water_)

Hollow straws several inches long may be used to blow tiny bubbles of
soapy water in the absence of a clay pipe.


SUN AND SHADOW


=Blue-Prints= (_Leaf_, _blue-print paper_, _running water_, _small
    oblong of glass_)

A package of blue-print paper can be bought at any photographic supply
place for from 15 cents up, or can be had in the sheet from an
architect's supply store. It must be carefully protected from the light
till ready for use.

Take a square of the paper and place upon it a leaf or flower or
inconspicuous weed that makes a good shadow on the sidewalk or window
sill. Place this in pleasing position upon the paper and put quickly in
the bright sunshine, holding it in place with the small pane of glass
(common picture glass will do). Leave exposed to the sun for about ten
minutes, then pour cold water over it for a moment or so, and the
"shadow" will be seen to be permanently "fixed" in light blue against a
darker blue background.

An artist acquaintance has a hundred or more such prints of leaves,
plants and flowers beautifully mounted in a Japanese blank-book, the
paper of which makes an exquisite background. She finds these shadows of
the flowers and commonest weeds suggestive in her designing.


=Shadow Game= (_Smooth fence in sunshine_; _branch with leaves_.)

1. Several children sit in row, facing smooth board fence. Another group
of children form their opponents. Of these one walks behind seated row
in such a way that his profile is visible on fence. Seated children
guess opponent from shadow cast.

2. One child casts on wall shadow of leafy branch. Opponents guess name
of parent tree.



CHAPTER III

SAVED FROM THE SCRAP BASKET

or

WORK WITH SCISSORS AND PASTE


What is known as free-hand cutting has been for some time recognized as
of genuine educational value and is a source of great pleasure to the
child when once he learns his capacity in this direction. When he tries,
by means of paper and scissors, to express an idea, to illustrate some
story, or to indicate something that he has seen, his notions of form
and proportion become more definite and precise, and he learns to
express action with remarkable skill and power. He learns to appreciate
beauty of outline as seen in mountains and trees against a clear sky,
and to recognize such beauty as there may be in what artists know as the
"sky line," when darkness deepens and the mammoth buildings of a city
loom up black against the sunset heavens. The definiteness of
observation and skill with the hand acquired in this free cutting serves
the child in many ways when in the school grades.

Many an otherwise useless piece of paper may, with the help of scissors,
give the child hours of pleasure.

But before he is able to use the scissors the child may receive pleasure
and benefit from the use of paper alone.


PAPER


=Tearing Paper= (_Any bit of paper_)

Give the children small pieces of paper and let them try to tear these
into simple definite shapes. Make a shoe, stocking, snowman, tree,
ladder, cat, etc. Watch that they do not grow nervous in doing it. After
a little practice they will become surprisingly expert. Paste what they
make on a good background to save and compare with later efforts.

This is a really educational occupation which involves absolutely no
expense, as any clean piece of paper may be so used. Will employ the
child happily when traveling.

The very youngest children, if they want to tear the newspaper, may be
asked to tear it into tiny pieces which brother and sister can use in
playing "hare and hounds."


=Cutting Paper=

Let the child begin the _cutting_ by making a snowball out of white
paper, and then a snowman. These need only crude outlines, such as are
within his capacity. Then lead him on, little by little, to cut a
picture of the cat and of the dog, and illustrations to his favorite
stories, as the "Three Bears." This is beloved in the kindergarten,
requiring, as it does, pictures of the chairs, the bowls, etc. Those who
have not seen children do this kind of work will be surprised at the
capacity developed.

If he is afraid to attempt the freehand work, give the child pictures to
cut around, as simple outlines of a cat seated, or a piece of fruit.
Then encourage him to cut without the outline. Both efforts may run
along together. If a line be drawn, be sure that it is heavy and
distinct enough to be readily seen and followed.


=Birthday Candles=}      (_Red paper, blank card, colored_
=Firecrackers=    }          _crayon_)

Out of red paper let the child cut six (or any number desired) narrow
strips for red candles, to represent birthday candles. Place in a row
upon a white card, to serve as place cards at a child's party. Draw a
bit of yellow at end of each candle to hint at a flame.

The same may be turned into firecrackers for a "Fourth of July"
festival, a line being drawn to suggest a fuse.


=Soldier-Caps= (_Newspaper_, _pins or paste_)

Take brown wrapping paper or newspaper and cut a square. Place before
you and fold from _back_ to _front_, making an oblong. _While still
folded_ make another fold by turning the left edge so that it exactly
meets the right edge. Open this much out and there is a crease running
from top to bottom. Now take the upper left hand corner and make it
touch the bottom of this crease; take the upper right hand corner and
make it touch the lower end of this crease. This gives a pointed cap,
still unfinished. To finish cut a slit, an inch deep, up from each lower
end of the cap and then fold a kind of hem up from the bottom and paste
the ends over neatly. Turn the hat over and fold a similar hem on the
other side. Turn in the corner and finish by pasting neatly.


=Plume for Hat= (_Paper as above_, _scissors_, _paste or pin_)

Take a strip of paper 6 × 12 inches. Make a fringe or series of cuts in
this about four inches long and 1/2 inch wide, and then roll it up and
attach to hat with paste or a pin.


=Epaulets= for shoulder may be cut in similar way.

The cutting of these fringes gives practice in the use of scissors.

       *       *       *       *       *

The articles whose making we will now describe do not come under the
head of free-hand cutting, as they usually require cutting according to
measurement, and really definite directions. They are given in general
in the order of difficulty in the making.


=Chains= (_Scissors_, _paper_, _paste_, _toothpick_)

Let the little child begin by cutting strips of some bright paper or
smooth wrapping paper into lengths of 1/2 by 3 inches. Make a ring of
one of these, putting a wee bit of paste on the under part of one end
and sticking it fast to the other end by overlapping. Through this ring
run another strip and paste into a similar ring, and so make a long
chain of them wherewith to decorate the child's small person or the
room. To make paste see page 169.

It is well to have a small pomade box, obtainable at a druggist's, in
which to keep the paste. It can then be covered and kept moist until the
next time for using. But a little fresh mucilage or paste can at any
time be put into a butter dish. A toothpick will make a good
paste-stick, which the child can handle more easily than a brush. Show
him that a tiny bit of paste will suffice and that more makes the pretty
ring mussy.

If mother is sewing and the child restless and no bright colored paper
convenient, let the child cut strips of newspaper right at hand and
make the rings. His imagination will readily convert them into links of
gold.


=Mask= (_Paper of any color_, _scissors_, _chalk_, _cord_)

Cut an oval out of paper (or dress-lining) and in it cut holes for eyes,
nose, and mouth, fitting first to the child's face to insure getting
them in the right places. Put a hole in the middle of each side through
which to tie the string which fastens it around over the head. To add to
the fun the mask may be colored with chalks.


=Newspaper Wrappers= (_Smooth brown wrapping paper_, _pencil_, _ruler_)

Take smooth pieces of brown wrapping paper. Cut oblongs 8 × 12 inches.
From one narrow edge then measure an inch down on each side and make a
dot. Make another dot at the middle of this same narrow side. Then draw
a curve from dot to dot and cut along the line. This makes the curved
edge of the wrapper. The curve may be cut free hand by a skilful hand,
or drawn with a compass. Put some mucilage all along the edge of the
curved side about 1/2 inch wide and let dry. Make a dozen of these and
give to father for a present, all ready for use when he wants to mail a
paper. They can be made more complete by affixing a one-cent stamp on
the right hand side where the curved edge begins.


=Papers for Baking Pans= (_Brown paper_, _scissors_, _pencil_)

Give child paper and baking-pans, and let him cut papers ready for your
use when making cake. Let him do measuring.


=Book-Mark= (_Fine white or tinted paper_)

Take a piece of dainty paper and cut into an oblong 1 × 6 inches. Fold
lengthwise and cut a small triangle from each end so as to leave a point
when opened out. Now cut a circle in the middle of the paper (which is
still folded) and cut other shaped openings, diamonds, triangles, etc.,
along the fold, 1/2 or 3/4 inches apart. Open and you have a simple
openwork bookmark the little child can give father for birthday. A
little experiment will show how to secure variety and intricacy of
design.


=Fringed Bon-Bon Papers= (_White tissue paper_, _colored ink or
    water-color paints_, _candy_, _verse of poetry_)

Cut a sheet of tissue paper into little oblongs 4 × 5 inches. Dip each
narrow end 3/4 of an inch into ink, red, green, etc., or into
water-color paints, and let dry. Then cut this colored margin into
narrow slits, making fringe. Copy some appropriate couplet on a narrow
slip of paper and place it with a piece of candy inside the paper,
giving the fringed ends a final twist. The making of these at home for
some future occasion, such as a birthday party, will afford a happy
hour's amusement.


=Paper Money= (_White paper_, _pencil_, _scissors_, _cent_)

Place the cent beneath the paper and then press on it with the bottom of
the pencil, rubbing at the same time with a circular motion. Soon the
impression of the coin will appear on the paper. Cut out and use in
playing store.


=Snowflakes= (_White paper_, _mucilage_, _a ten-cent box of mica
    crystals or five cents' worth of alum powder_)

A six-pointed star must first be made of white paper. To make this take
piece of the paper from 3 to 6 inches square, according to the size of
the star. Fold the paper once and cut an approximate half circle. Then
fold this in thirds, pressing the folds to make creases. If opened out
the circle would be marked by six equi-distant creases radiating from
the centre. Do not, however, open, for you are now ready to cut. Before
doing this, observe if possible some real snowflakes, with microscope or
magnifying glass, or even with the naked eye. Notice the form and
hexagonal structure. This is seen best if the flake is caught on some
woolen fabric. Then look into an unabridged dictionary and study the
picture of the magnified snowflake crystal. Then cut tiny triangles,
circles, etc., into your folded circle so that when opened out it will
suggest an enlarged snowflake with its six varied points. A delicate
appearance is secured by cutting delicate tapering points, or, if the
points be broad, cut holes in them to give a lacey effect. We do not
give more definite directions for cutting, as the great fascination of
the occupation consists in the experiments with their many surprises.

(1) Now take the paper snowflake and brush it lightly over with a thin,
transparent mucilage, and then sift over it some mica crystals
obtainable at a toy-store, one box being sufficient for many flakes.
After drying, cover the other side in the same way. Suspended from the
Christmas tree, these are very effective.

(2) The flakes can be made in another way, thus: Make a solution of
alum water, dissolving five cents' worth of alum in a pint of water. Be
sure it is all dissolved. Then put the flakes in a shallow dish (granite
ware or some material that the acid will not injure). Cover with the
solution and put in a place slightly warm, so that the gradual
evaporation of the water will help in the slow formation of the
crystals. When finally evaporated the lacey "cut-out" will be found
covered with alum crystals. Cover during evaporation with some light
protection from the dust.


=Tailless Kite= (_Two sticks, 3-1/2 feet long and 1/2 inch wide_, _a
    ball of strong but thin twine_, _two pieces tissue paper_, _knife_,
    _flour paste_)

Get the sticks from the saw-mill. Cut a notch in the two ends of each
stick as a catch for the framework of twine which will be put on later.
On one stick make a pencil mark about seven inches from the top. Put the
middle of the second stick across the first at this mark and bind the
two together firmly at right angles to each other. You now have a
skeleton in the form of a cross. Number the ends of the sticks 1, 2, 3,
4, making the top 1, the right hand end 2, the bottom 3, and the left
hand 4, and the place where they join 5.

Now bend the second stick (the cross piece) into a bow and tie a piece
of twine from end to end like a bow-string. You must get the curve of
the bow just right, so that the distance from the middle of the
bow-string to the joinings of the sticks is the same as from the
joinings of the sticks to the top of the main stick, _i. e._, seven
inches.

Now carry twine all around, from end to end of the skeleton, to make a
framework for the paper; put this twine through each notch and around
the end of the stick several times to strengthen. Now paste together,
end to end, lengthwise, the two pieces of paper, to make one long piece
(a single piece is not large enough). Place the paper on the floor or
broad table, and lay the frame upon it. The paper will not be as long or
wide in all places as the framework, hence, fold it over the twine
framework experimentally, and cut off in places where it is too wide.
Allow enough for secure pasting. Use the cut-off corners to lengthen in
other places where necessary, by pasting on. If two colors of paper are
taken, the effect is very pretty, the corners being arranged to match
each other. The best paste is made by a judicious mixture of ordinary
flour and water.

Now the belly-band must be tied on, as the flying string is attached to
the belly-band. The belly-band is attached on the outside or convex side
of the kite, being attached at 5 where the two sticks join; and at 3. It
must be just as long as the distance from 5 to 2 added to the distance
from 2 to 3. When tied at both ends put your pencil through the loop and
move it so that the pencil rests upon the figure 2. The cord will then
make an angle coinciding with 5-2 and 2-3. At the angle 2, attach the
belly-band.

In flying the kite it is important to have a very long flying-string.


CARDBOARD OR BRISTOL BOARD


=Go-Bang Board= (_Bristol board_, _ruler_, _ink_, _pen_, _button-molds_,
    _water-color paints or colored inks_)

Get a piece of bristol board or clean cardboard at stationer's and cut
it 18 inches square. Divide by straight lines into small squares 3/4
inches each way.

To draw the straight lines in ink turn the ruler upside down and run the
penholder against the edge, which is a little raised from the paper.
This keeps the ink from blotting.

Four is the smallest number that can play with much success, and each
should have about a dozen counters. These can be made of the smallest
sized button-molds, each set of 12 painted a different color, or
distinguished by a ring of a particular color drawn upon its upper
surface with ink or paint. Small flat buttons may also be used.

To win the game each player must succeed in getting a certain number of
counters (number previously agreed upon), say four, five or six, in a
straight row, either horizontally, vertically or obliquely. If he gets
three in a row, then the next player should stop this opponent's
progress at one end of the line by putting one of his own men there, and
must depend upon his neighbor to close the other end of the line. One
player must not give warning to another of the prospective success of a
third. Each must keep a lookout on his own account.


=Checker-Board= (_Bristol board or any stiff, smooth cardboard_,
    _smooth, glazed paper of two colors, red and black_, _paste_,
    _scissors_, _ruler_)

Cut from the cardboard a square of 15 inches. Draw a line parallel to
each side one inch from the edge for a border. From each colored sheet
of paper cut 32 squares of 1-3/4 inches each. Paste eight of these in a
row, alternating colors, and arranging so that they just touch the top
border line. Make eight such rows, one beneath the other, and finally
giving 64 squares.

For checkers, button-molds of small size may be used. Twelve will be
needed of one color and twelve of another. Paint these with
water-colors. Flat porcelain buttons may also be used.


=Toy Screen= (_Tinted cardboard_, _punch_, _worsted or ribbon_, _4 small
    pictures_)

Cut four pieces of pale blue Bristol board 3 × 4 inches. Punch two holes
in the two long sides of two of these, and in one side of each of the
remaining ones. Tie the four panels together with the ribbon or worsted
so as to make a tiny screen, first pasting on each panel a miniature
picture of a Madonna and Child or some other similar subject. Suitable
for child to give as Christmas gift. Must be done neatly.


=Fan= (_Bristol board_, _pencil_, _worsted_, _two slats_, _scrap
    picture_)

Cut two pieces of tinted Bristol board into ovals, 6-3/4 × 8 inches.
Make a series of pencil dots 1/4 inch from edge of oval and one inch
apart. Through these, holding the ovals together, punch holes. Sew
together with worsted, using the overhand stitch. Having gone around
once, if cross-stitch effect is desired, go around again the other way,
going thus through each hole a second time. For handles take two long
slats and glue on to each side of the fan from the centre down to the
point of the oval, and beyond. Paste a pretty scrap picture over the
centre to finish off. Tie the worsted around the ends of slats in a
pretty knot to hold them together. Baby ribbon may be used instead of
worsted.


=Cardboard Animals= (_Glue_, _blocks or spools_, _picture-books_,
    _cardboard_, _tissue paper_)

Find models in picture-books, or get from Butterick Fashion Co. their
animal pictures, or same may be had from kindergarten supply stores.
Trace outline upon tissue paper, using soft pencil. Turn paper over on
cardboard and trace firmly again around the outline. This leaves
impression of picture. Cut it out and glue it to block or spool, or
attach a cardboard brace to one side to make stand.


=Candlesticks= (_Squares of bright tissue paper_, _Bristol board_,
    _rubber bands_)

Cut circle of stiff cardboard 5 inches in diameter. Draw upon it two
diameters at right angles to each other. From the _centre_ cut along
each of these diameters for a little less than half an inch. Bend up the
corners thus made and insert a candle.

Cut pieces of tissue paper 12 inches square; place the circle holding
the candle upon the tissue paper, fold the latter around the circle and
the candle, and put a rubber band around to hold in place. The
appearance is improved if two colors of tissue paper be used. The effect
up and down a table of these simple candlesticks is most festive. Colors
may be changed to suit special occasions.


=Chinese Toy= (_Three thin pieces of cardboard 2 × 2-1/2 inches in
    measurement_ [_visiting cards will do_], _6 lengths of taffeta
    binding or baby ribbon, 1/4 inch wide × 3 inches long_)

The following toy can be made with little expense and very little
trouble if directions are followed explicitly. It may be well to have an
older child read each statement as the less experienced one tries to
follow. A child who enjoys attempting things that are a little difficult
will enjoy working this out.

Place the three cards one beneath the other, narrow sides facing each
other.

Letter the cards respectively A, B, C.

[Illustration: Chinese Toy.]

As they lie on the table, write on upper side of each card "right," and
on the under side write "wrong."

Then place each card so that the "right" side is up.

Take card A and on _right_ side at middle of top place figure 1 and at
each lower corner place a figure 2.

Do the same with Card B.

Turn B card over and on _wrong_ side of B put figure 3 at each upper
corner and figure 4 at middle of lower edge.

Do same with card C on _wrong_ side.

Now we are ready to unite the cards by the ribbons.

Take one strip of ribbon and paste one end on right side of card A at
figure 1. Run it beneath the card and bring it out so as to paste the
other end on the right side of card B at figure 1.

Take _two_ strips. Paste one end of each at 2 on card A. Run beneath
card B and turn up over so as to paste on figure 2 of card B.

A and B are thus loosely united and the toy may be considered finished,
but it is more mysterious if made longer, as follows:

Turn over and at each figure 3 on card B paste the ends of two strips
of ribbon. (As ribbons already placed are loose this can be readily
done.)

Run beneath B and bring up so as to paste the ends on each figure 3 of
card C.

Take another strip. Paste the end on 4 of card B. Run ribbon beneath
card C and turn up so as to paste on figure 4 of card C.

This completes set of three. Others can be added _ad infinitum_ by
ingenious children.

To operate (if the word be not too pretentious a one in this connection)
take hold of one of the cards at either end and keep turning it up and
down so that first one narrow edge and then the other is uppermost. The
remaining cards should fall in a continuous cascade.

The rough sides may be finished by pasting on each a pretty paper lining
cut just to fit. (See illustration.)


MISCELLANEOUS


=Chinese Kite= (_Kindergarten slats_, _paper_, _glue_)

Take a firm, light paper (druggist's paper will do). Cut two oblongs,
7 × 10 inches. Cut off all the corners by an oblique line of three inches.
Fold each oblong lengthwise. Place the folded edges back to back, still
folded. Take two slats and place one _under_ one oblong and _over_ the
other, horizontally. Do the same with the other slat, but reversing the
_under_ and _over_ positions. Take four strips of paper, which should be
about one inch wide. Paste two strips over the splints, one on each
side, to hold them in place. Place a third strip from top to bottom of
the folded oblongs to hold them together. (They meanwhile lying back to
back.) Turn the oblongs over and place the remaining strip in
corresponding position. The result is a four-winged kite. Tie a cord
around the slats and it is finished.


=Ash-Tray= (_Cigar bands_, _glass saucer_, _photographer's paste_,
    _square of felt_)

For some time past children who are under the sway of the collecting
instinct have acquired from friends or by purchase the bright colored
bands that come around cigars and then have utilized them thus: Make an
ash receiver by getting at a stationer's a glass dish and its
accompanying piece of felt. Paste bands in pleasing positions upon the
under side of the glass. (Photographer's paste shows no discoloration.)
Meanwhile, the felt should have been thoroughly wet, stretched to fit
the under side of the dish, and hung up to dry. When dry, paste upon the
under side of the dish and trim off neatly the projecting corners.


=Pen-Tray= (_Materials same as above, except that stamps or embossed
    letter-heads are substituted for cigar bands_)

There are many who do not wish to encourage smoking, and to such we
suggest a pleasing modification of the above.

Buy the glass dish and felt above mentioned, and instead of the bands
paste upon the dish canceled postage stamps or letter-head monograms,
etc., for a pen-tray. A smooth glass saucer and any piece of
bright-colored felt that may be in the house may of course be used.


=Scrap-Book= (_Colored paper-muslin_, _heavy sewing silk or worsted_,
    _paste_, _paste-stick_)

Cut paper-muslin of pretty colors, pink, blue or tan, into pieces 8 × 13
inches (six pieces in all). Fold each one over once and fit together to
make a book, the cover being of a color different from the body of the
book. Sew all together by overcasting the back with stitches 1/2 inch
apart in one direction, and then going back in the opposite direction
through the same holes, thus securing a cross-stitch effect. Show the
child how to paste scrap-pictures neatly in this book. He may keep it
for himself or give it to the children's ward in a hospital or to some
younger friend. A very little paste or glue will suffice; a bit in the
centre and towards the corners of a picture.

If the child has collected a large assortment of cards before beginning
to make the book, let him classify them, putting together on one page
animals, on another plants, on another pictures typical of the different
seasons, etc. He may in this way suggest a house, putting on one page
kitchen furniture arranged in some logical order; on another page the
furnishings of bedroom, etc. Pictures for this purpose may be cut from
magazine advertisements, trade journals, etc. In the same fashion a
store may be furnished with articles for sale, the counter, scales, and
desk. This gives practice in selecting and arranging. Good taste may be
inculcated even from such small beginnings.



CHAPTER IV

THE SEWING-BASKET


While busy with thread and needle, the mother may find it necessary to
suggest some happy employment for the little one who asks for something
to do. What do the contents of the sewing-basket hint?


BUTTONS


=Spinning Button= (_Button_, _thread_)

Show the child a button strung upon a strong thread about 12 inches
long. Then hold the thread firmly between thumb and finger of each hand
and twirl it rapidly, drawing it suddenly taut. The button whirls round,
making a pretty spinning figure.


=Stringing Buttons= (_Buttons_, _waxed thread_)

If baby is so old that he is not tempted to swallow a pretty button,
give him a strong thread waxed at the end to make it stiff, and let him
make a chain of buttons. They may be strung according to size or color
or shape, giving practice in counting, in arrangement, and in choice.


=Buttons as Counters= (_Buttons_)

Save disused buttons of the same kind and let the child classify into
two or more sets to be used as counters in games like checkers or
go-bang. See page 62.


=Button-Mold Wheels= (_Molds_, _brush_, _water-color paints_)

Give the child four wooden button-molds of the same size and let him
paint spokes upon them so that they will be ready any time to use as
wheels for a toy wagon. Call him a little wheelwright.


=Button-Mold Tops= (_Molds_, _match or toothpick_, _gilding or paint_)

Paint or gild a button-mold and then stick through the hole a toothpick
or burnt match whittled to right size and show the child how to spin it.


=Button-Mold Counters= (See page 62)


SPOOLS


=Toy Furniture= (See page 15)


=Toy Tree Boxes= (_Spools_, _green paint_, _matches_, _green paper_,
    _scissors_, _paste_)

Let the child paint an empty spool green, to be used as a tree box.
Insert a burnt match to which has been pasted some green paper,
previously fringed, to represent foliage. The child can make a row of
such trees as a little boulevard up which he can draw an empty match box
for a carriage.


=Spool Tower Target= (_A number of spools_, _ball_)

Pile a number of spools one on top of another and let the child try to
knock them down with his ball.


=Toy Road Roller= (_Spool_, _cord_, _toy horse_)

Tie a cord through a spool and hitch it as a road roller to the Noah's
Ark horse.


=Pulley Elevator= (_Narrow cardboard box, such as a corset box or
    shorter one_, _spool_, _cord_, _another small box, either saved or
    made, narrow enough to fit inside the larger one_, _skewer_)

Stand the large box on its narrow end and near the top punch a hole on
each side so that the holes are opposite to each other. Take a spool and
run through it an axle made of a slender piece of wood like a skewer.
Then put the ends of the axle in the holes in the box. This makes the
pulley. Use the smaller box as an elevator. Tie a string to this little
box in such a way that you can hold it up evenly. To do this you must
punch a hole in each of the opposite sides. Then tie one end of a longer
string to the middle of the first named, and put the other end over the
pulley. Revolve the spool by pulling one end of the string and the box
will be raised.


=Matching Colors= (_Spools of silk or cotton of various colors_, _silk
    and cotton fabrics of different colors_)

Have a color game, asking the child to try to match the colors on the
spools with those in the fabrics.


NEEDLES


=Breastpins= (_Broken needles_, _sealing wax_, _candle_)

Take a large broken needle, such that it is intact except for the eye.
Show the child how to make a pretty pin for dolly by melting the wax a
little in the candle flame, inserting the head of the needle, and
molding into shape the bit of wax that adheres.


=Threading Needles= (_Needles_, _thread_)

If eager to do something, give the child a number of needles with thread
of white and black, and let him thread them and put them into a cushion
so that they will be all ready for your use some morning when you are in
a hurry to sew on a button or take a stitch in Tommy's little shirt.


MISCELLANEOUS


=Thimble Biscuits= (See page 104)


=Drawing Scissors= (_Scissors_, _paper_, _pencil_)

Give the child scissors and paper and let him place the scissors on the
paper and draw the outline around them. Then tell him to cut out this
outline. Make several such and play at keeping cutlery store. Draw
scissors open at different angles and tell names of angles; right,
acute, obtuse.


=Guessing Distances= (_Ruler or tape measure_)

Let the children guess the height and length of various objects in the
room. Verify by measuring with the tape-measure. Tell them of Oliver
Wendell Holmes, the great poet, who, whenever he drove into the country,
carried a tape-measure with which to determine the girth of any large
tree he saw.

Let children measure the size of the panes of glass, window-frames,
etc.; have them tell how many feet it would take to carpet the floor.

Tell them to put father's hat on the floor, near the wall, and guess its
height.

Such little exercises develop the powers of accurate observation in a
way that may prove very helpful in an emergency.



CHAPTER V

THE PAINT BOX

or

EXPRESSION WITH PENCIL OR BRUSH


Let the child early be given charcoal or colored chalks, and later the
three pigments--red, blue and yellow--wherewith to express his ideas.
Allow him some choice in the medium he uses--as pencil, charcoal or
brush--as one may be best suited to his purpose one time, and another
one at another time.

Encourage the child to tell a story by painting or drawing. The earliest
graphic method by which man conveyed messages to one at a distance was
through picture-writing.


LEARNING TO OBSERVE


=Painting From the Real Object= (_Paints_, _chalk or charcoal_)

Place before the child an apple, banana or flower of simple form and let
him copy directly from the object without previous drawing. Encourage
his efforts, however crude the results at first. It is more educative to
draw from the real object than from a copy. Give him at first three
colors only, in paints, till he learns how to get other colors by mixing
these. For this purpose point out beautiful sunsets and cloud effects
in Nature.


=Life Stages of Seedling= (_Paper_, _paints_, _seedling_)

Place before the child a bean or pea. Give him an oblong of paper 3 × 8
inches. Fold it into four parts. In the first let him draw or paint the
seed as he sees it. Then let him plant the seed. In a day or so let him
paint a picture of the seedling, after having grown so as to show the
development of the seed leaves. Draw two other pictures to show later
stages of growth. This gives a picture history of the little plant and
while so occupied the child is learning to observe and note that which
he sees.


ACQUIRING SKILL


=Calendars= (_Water-colors_, _brush_, _paper_, _calendar pad_)

Draw circles, squares, etc., and let the child fill in the outlines with
color. A tiny calendar may be pasted in the center and ribbons put
through wherewith to hang it up.

In filling in these figures show the child how to hold the brush lightly
so as to secure freedom of stroke. Let him make long strokes beginning
at the top of the paper and moving from side to side slowly downward, or
rather as rapidly as is consistent with neatness. Have enough water on
the brush so that the color will not dry from one long stroke before you
are able to go back and carry it on to the next stroke. Practice making
a clean, smooth surface.


=Nature Pictures=

Let the child fill one sheet thus with blue, a picture of the sky.
Another sheet may be covered with green, a meadow. Still another sheet
may have the upper part blue and the lower green.


EXPERIMENTS WITH COLOR


=Prism= (_Secure glass prism from kindergarten store or from some
    candelabra you may have at home_)

Place in sunlight and let child observe colors and the order in which
they appear; always in the same order--the cold colors at one end, the
warm ones at the other. Let the little child try to catch and hold the
lovely "light-bird."


=Pigments= (_Water-color paints_, _glasses of water_)

Dissolve a little red, yellow and blue paint in three separate glasses.
Then, by mingling these--the primary colors--show how the secondary
colors--orange, green and violet--may be obtained.


=Transparent Papers=

Get at a kindergarten store the transparent papers and isinglass used in
color work. By overlapping one upon another different hues may be
obtained. This may be done also, though less effectively, with colored
tissue papers; but these are not so pure in tone.


=Color-Top=

Color tops may be procured at kindergarten stores. With the top come
paper circles, of standard colors, with their tints and shades, giving a
great variety. These are so slit that by placing two or more on the top
according to directions and revolving the top, any tint or hue may be
mathematically produced.

If the child has made his own button-mold top, let him cut circles of
white paper and slip them over the axis of the top. Make a dab of color
here or there on the paper with paint or chalk. Whirl around and observe
the effect. This will lead up to a better understanding of the
above-mentioned color-top which is manufactured by the Milton Bradley
Co.


APPLIED ART


=Toy Wagons and Houses=

If the child has made wagons or houses of wood or cardboard, let him
paint them in broad, free strokes. It is desirable that the little child
be given work which involves the free movement of the larger muscles
which such work demands. This may not appeal to one as belonging under
the head of art, but we learn from Mr. Pennell that in Sicily the wagons
of the peasants are beautifully decorated with landscapes and other
pictures, and that the artists are particular to make their names
conspicuous.

In any case a certain artistic feeling is required in choosing the
colors and rightly applying them even in house-painting and wagon
decoration. And meanwhile the child is learning how to wield his
instruments.


=Place Cards=

Take a clover leaf and practice painting from it until able to make a
copy good enough to paint upon a place card for the table. If the
drawing be correct, just a flat wash of color will do for the painting
at first.

An autumn leaf will do for a Thanksgiving card.

See Festival Occasions for other ideas.


=Tops=

If a button-mold top has been made, it may be painted in concentric
rings or the entire surface may be neatly colored.


=Match-Safe=

This has been described upon page 34.


=Designs for Rugs= (_Paper, brown or white_, _paints or chalk_)

Let child draw or paint design for toy rug he is making for doll-house.
He may make an oblong of one color, and at each end draw lines across,
which are to be woven in another color. There may be one line at each
end, or two, or three, etc. The arrangement of these lines and their
distance apart allow much scope for taste and judgment.


=Designs for Wall-Papers, Oilcloths, Etc.= (_Parquetry papers_, _paste_,
    _etc._)

1. Have child observe oilcloth designs and then with kindergarten
parquetry papers try to make similar ones for doll-house.

2. Having made pasted designs, let him copy same in water-colors.


=Design for Stained Glass Window= (_Transparent paper_, _scissors_,
    _white paper_, _paste_)

Cut a circle out of the white paper. Fold it once, which gives a
half-circle; fold again, which gives a quarter-circle. Holding it
folded, cut several ellipses, triangles, etc., into the folded edges.
Open out and you have framework of a rose-window. On the back of this
paste a piece of transparent paper (see page 75), red or green or
yellow, and let the light shine through. Hang in window for
transparency. Suitable for Easter gift. Vary by cutting like cathedral
windows. (See illustrations in dictionary under "Tracery.")


PICTURE-STORY


=Chased by a Goose= (_Pencil_, _paper_)

Once some boys lived in a house (make a dot) surrounded by a strong
fence (draw circle round the dot). A short distance off was a large pond
(an oval, a little below and to the right of the circle). One day the
boys ran down to the pond (draw curved line from house to pond) and
began to splash in the water and to throw it at each other (a number of
oblique lines from right hand end of pond). Some distance off lived some
Indians in two wigwams (two oblique lines meeting at the top and next to
them a similar pair, like two tents, just below the pond). When the
Indians saw the boys throwing the water out they began to chase the
boys, running up a zigzag path (from each tent draw an oblique line to
the right for a short distance and then turn to the left till it meets
the pond). The boys ran as fast as they could up a winding path parallel
to the one they ran down (draw curving line parallel to first one), and
then ran to the left partly around the fence surrounding the house. They
had to run around the barn, too (an oblique line to the left and then
another to the right till it meets the circle again), and when they
looked behind them they found they had been chased by a goose!!!

[Illustration: Chased by a Goose]

A little practice will make this easy for the story teller. The original
dot and circle form the head and eye of the goose. The curving path is
the neck. The water splashing out makes the tail feathers. The wigwams
and the zigzag path form the legs and feet, and the path around the barn
makes the bill.



CHAPTER VI

DOLLS AND DOLL-HOUSES


What little girl does not love a doll? The more variety in their size
and style the better pleased is she. Below are a number of suggestions
for simple home-made dollies that may be prepared as a birthday or other
surprise by older brothers or sisters.


A FEW DOLLS


=1.= =Clay-Pipe Doll=

Ink in the eyes, nose and mouth on the back of the bowl of a pipe; dress
in calico gown and apron, and put on a sunbonnet to conceal the top of
the pipe.


=2.= =Clothespin Doll=

Ink features upon the head of the clothespin and clothe as either boy or
girl.


=3.= =Wishbone Doll= (_Wishbone_, _sealing-wax_, _material for
    trousers_)

Clothe the two limbs in trousers and ink in the features upon the flat
joining bone. Feet may be made of sealing wax melted, pressed into shape
and attached while still warm.


=4.= =Peanut Doll= (_Peanuts_, _sewing-silk_, _glue_, _thread and
    needle_, _silk for dress_)

Make into Chinese doll. Take one peanut and ink in the features, making
the eyes slanting. Glue on a queue of braided silk. String together
several peanuts to make the body. To the upper one add on each side one
or two as arms and string several together to make legs. Dress in
wide-sleeved jacket and wide-legged trousers of Oriental design.


=5.= =Yarn Doll= (_Skein of white cotton yarn_)

Cut the skein into lengths of 12 inches. Double the skein over in the
middle and tie a string tight around about two inches from the top,
forming a neck and so making the head. Tie another string further down
for a waist line, but leave out a few threads on each side, of which to
make two arms. Tie these near the ends to indicate wrists. Before tying
the wrists cut the threads to right lengths for arms. The features may
be put in with ink.


=6.= =Cork Doll= (_16 or more corks saved from olive bottles, etc._,
    _smooth wire or hairpins--three in number_)

String several corks upon the wire or hairpin for head and body. Through
the second cork from the top run a hairpin sideways for arms, and fasten
two corks upon each projecting end, cutting off any of the wire that may
extend beyond the cork. Through the lower cork of the body run another
hairpin and fasten two corks upon it for legs. Turn the end corks
sideways to suggest feet. Dress the doll as desired.


=7.= =Paper Doll= (_Fashion papers and catalogues_, _scissors_, _paint_,
    _paste_)

Most little girls find great pleasure in making their own paper dollies
and the garments therefor. Fashion papers and catalogues afford many
dolls for cutting out, and tissue paper, crinkled paper, the lace paper
found in candy boxes, etc., form the raw material for beautiful Parisian
gowns.

Dolls may of course be cut out of white paper and beautiful countenances
painted upon them, or holes may be cut in the head for eyes, nose and
mouth.


=8.= =Rag Doll= (_White cotton cloth_, _cotton batting_, _paints_,
    _scissors_, _needle_, _thread_, _water-color paints or blueing and
    red ink_, _raveled rope_, _etc._)

Cut a large newspaper pattern of a doll. Then double the cloth, pin the
pattern upon it and cut the two sides for the doll. Run neatly around
with close stitches, beginning at the neck, and when nearly finished
turn inside out, stuff with the cotton batting, and sew up the head.
Paint in the features or use blueing for eyes and red ink for mouth and
cheeks. Ravelings of rope will make silky hair, and fingers may be
indicated by stitches.


SOME DOLL-HOUSES


=1.= =Cigar-Box House= (_Small cigar-box_, _paste_, _scissors_,
    _pictures_, _etc._)

A cigar-box, small as it is, will give great delight to a child who is
aided in furnishing a little room. Stand the box up on the long side.
Paper with wall paper of a small design. Then furnish with things made
by the child himself; pictures cut from catalogues, and other
accessories as described below.


=2.= =Pasteboard-Box House= (_Four pasteboard boxes_, _glue_, _paint_)

Select four strong pasteboard boxes of uniform size. Boxes such as the
"Martha Washington Candles" are packed in will do. They measure 7 × 11
inches. Lay aside the covers and remove any paper which may be attached
to the inside of the box. Spread a thick paste of Spaulding's glue or
furniture glue over the surface of one side of a box. Fit one side of a
second to this glued surface and put aside to dry. The third and fourth
boxes are treated in the same manner. When securely glued in pairs place
the boxes with open sides facing you. Cover upper outside surface of one
pair of boxes with a thick coating of glue and set the second pair on
top of these in the same position.

Now, one has a pasteboard house of four rooms--two upstairs and two
downstairs. When securely fastened together cut in the partition
separating the two upper rooms a door four inches high and three wide.
Two windows measuring 3 × 4 inches, two inches from floor, may be cut in
the back of the house. The same treatment may be given the rooms
downstairs. One may arrange a kitchen and dining-room downstairs and a
parlor and bedroom upstairs.

Oil paints, such as are used in painting furniture, which come already
mixed in small cans, may be used for painting the exterior of the house.

In using this paint it is well to remember always to put sufficient
paint on the brush to cover the entire surface of the wall of the house,
from edge to edge, without lifting the brush. A strict observance of
this rule insures a neatly painted surface. If desired, one may use
yellow, green, or any light color for the interior.

Remnants of cartridge paper or paper decorated in small designs can
often be obtained of paper-hangers for a small sum. It may be fastened
to the floor to serve as a large rug.


=3.= =Soap-Box House= (_Three wooden soap-boxes_, _nails_, _saw_,
    _paint_)

Take three soap-boxes, wooden. Remove the covers from two and place one
upon the other to make a two-story house. Put in partitions thus: Take a
thin piece of board (from a smaller box), saw to needed height and depth
and nail it in place by driving nails from above, below or the side, as
the case may require. A stiff piece of cardboard (taken from a large
box) may be made to serve as partition. If cut to the right size the
pressure from top and bottom will hold in place.

By taking _two small_ boxes for the upper floor instead of one large one
the space which would be naturally left between can be made into a
hallway. Stairs may then be made of stiff cardboard, folded into steps,
with a strip of obliquely-cut paper pasted along the edges of the steps
to keep them in place.

If windows and doorways are desired they must be cut or sawed in after
being drawn where desired in pencil.

The third box is for the gable roof. It is to be placed on top of the
upper floor so that its sides slant for the roof. Put in place and then
mark off all that needs to be sawed away. When ready to be fixed
permanently put in place and nail through.

The furnishing of the little house gives much scope for ingenuity and
invention as well as for the exercise of good sense and good taste.

The exterior of the house can be painted with house paint, and this
gives occasion for the broad use of the larger muscles, and
physiologists tell us that the little child should exercise the larger
muscles and nerves while the finer ones are still undeveloped.


=Tiling= (_Corrugated packing cardboard_, _tacks_, _hammer_)

The roof may be given a tiled effect by covering with corrugated packing
cardboard saved from packages. Tack this on.


=Papering=

1. Paper with wall-paper. Scraps of it may be saved when the home is
being papered.

2. Oil-cloth effects may be obtained by pasting on floors or walls
designs made with the kindergarten parquetry papers. (See page 168.)

3. Friezes may be made in the same way by using circles and squares in
rows, alternately or successively.


DOLL FURNITURE


=1.= =Cork.= (See page 37.)


=2.= =Block= (_Blocks of wood or kindergarten blocks, cubes and
    oblongs_)

Glue these blocks together, three cubes making a little chair, and cubes
and oblongs making a bed or sofa. Get the carpenter to saw a number of
blocks of different shapes and sizes and let the child use his invention
in putting them together. The furniture may be painted or gilded.


=3.= =Paper or Cardboard=

Take a piece of paper 1 × 2 inches. Fold crosswise. Make a dot 1/4 inch
from the folded edge and 1/8 inch from right hand edge. Make dot 1/4
inch from fold and 1/8 inch from left hand edge. From open edges
opposite fold make two parallel cuts to these dots. These cuts make the
four legs. When opened out a table is seen with two extensions for
drop-leaf. Cut one of these extensions off and a chair is made. If the
original paper is longer and wider it can be made into a bed, what were
the leaves of the table being bent up into the head and foot of the bed.
An ingenious child can vary and elaborate this furniture _ad infinitum_.
The backs can be cut into fancy form and arms given to chairs and sofa.

Use one of these paper chairs for a model, place on cardboard and draw
around the outline and so obtain a stiffer bit of furniture. Rockers can
be drawn, added to the feet, and cut out, thus making a rocking chair.


SPECIAL ARTICLES OF FURNITURE


=Pictures and Clocks= (_Trade journals_, _scissors_)

Cut from trade journals and attach to walls.


=Lamp= (_Twist spool_, _toothpick_, _half egg-shell_, _wax_)

Paste a bit of paper on top and bottom of twist spool. Through this
stick a toothpick, which the paper should hold firmly. Upon the top of
the toothpick fasten a half egg-shell for a globe with bit of wax or
glue.


=Stove= (_Cardboard_, _black ink or paint_)

Make oblong box of cardboard. Turn upside down and cut openings for top
of stove. Make a small hole in the back of the stove and insert in it a
piece of paper rolled into a stove-pipe and pasted. Cut openings in
front for the grate and ovens, leaving a door for the latter. Ink or
paint black.


=Windows= (_Thin white paper_, _oil_, _glue_)

Brush a piece of white paper over with ordinary machine oil, or olive
oil, or dip it in the oil and when dry glue in for windows, telling the
children that not very long ago that was the only way in which light was
admitted to many houses before glass became so common.

Isinglass may also be put in for windows.


=Doll's Bedstead= (_Cigar-box_, _glue_, _gilt-headed tacks_)

Saw the _cover_ of box into two pieces, one for the head and one for the
foot. Fasten in place to the box with the decorative tacks. Legs may be
attached if desired.


=Curtains= (_Cheesecloth or lace_, _needle_, _thread_)

Cut small squares of cheesecloth and let the child hem and put in
windows for curtains. Do not insist on very fine sewing for beginners.
Curtains may be edged with lace, or the entire curtain may be made of
lace, tacked or glued to inside of window.


=Telephone= (_Two spools_, _nail_, _tin mucilage top_, _string_, _small
    flat block_)

Take a flat piece of wood about two inches square. Glue to it the flat
end of small spool. That is the 'phone. Another spool is the receiver
hanging, when not in use, upon a nail driven into the wood. The mucilage
top has the slot into which to drop the imaginary nickel.


MISCELLANEOUS


=Grocery Store= (_Wooden soap-box_, _small cardboard box_, _scales_,
    _toy barrels_, _tiny pill boxes_, _sand_, _pebbles_, _etc._)

A small wooden box makes the store. A smaller cardboard box turned
upside down will make the counter, or small pieces of wood can be nailed
together by the little amateur carpenter. Buy toy scales or make some as
described below. Small barrels can be obtained at toy store or little
bottles and boxes can be filled with small quantities of tea and sugar,
with tiny bags of pebbles for potatoes, apples, etc. Cranberries make
acceptable play apples. Corn and nuts also will find places. Tacks can
be hammered in on which to hang tiny brooms, and by hammering in two
long nails and laying a narrow board upon them a shelf can be made for
the canned vegetables. Let the children make their own brown paper bags,
looking at a real one for a model.


=Scales= (_Two small square cardboard boxes, made or bought_, _twine_,
    _skewer or other slender stick of wood or metal_)

In each of the four sides of a box make a small hole near the top. Take
two pieces of twine each four times the width of the box. Tie one of
these through two opposite holes of the box and the other piece through
the two other holes, being sure that the strings when tied are of equal
length. These two strings cross each other. In the middle, exactly where
they cross, tie one end of a string three inches long. Raise the box by
this string and it should hang exactly true. Arrange the other box in
the same way.

Now take the skewer and exactly in the _middle_ tie a string of three
inches. To the ends of the stick tie the ends of the twine already tied
to the boxes. Raise the skewer by this string and the boxes should hang
evenly, like scales. If they do not, slide one or the other back and
forth until they do balance.

Use in the toy grocery store. Playing store is always a fine opportunity
for indicating lessons of honesty in business. Train the child to give
fair weight and measure, even in play.


=Merry-Go-Round for Dolls= (_Cardboard_, _large ribbon spool_, _stiff
    paper or kindergarten folding paper_, _slender pencil_, _tiny flag_)

Cut two circles of cardboard, one five inches in diameter; the other,
ten to twelve. Using the smaller one as a base, stand on it a large
ribbon spool (spool around which baby ribbon comes). Glue the large
circle to the other end of the spool, parallel to the other lower
circle. Make a hole in each circle. Run a slender pencil through the
upper cardboard, then through the spool, and then through the lower
circle, making an axis round which the spool may revolve, carrying with
it the upper circle.

On the upper circle paste alternately animals cut from paper or
cardboard, and benches also cut from cardboard. Elegance may be added by
gilding the spool and letting a tiny flag float from the point of the
pencil. Cut out paper dolls for a ride.


=Dolls' Park= (_Starch-box_, _earth_, _moss_, _twigs_, _tiny mirror_,
    _etc._)

Fill the box with earth and sand for a foundation, and then with moss,
twigs, elder-berry sprigs, etc., fill in the fairy-like details. A toy
swan or boat adds to the reality.


=Rugs for Doll-House=

1. Make the loom by taking a slate and knocking out the slate so as to
leave the frame intact. Hammer a row of small nails half an inch apart
along the two narrow sides. Then make the warp by stringing strong cord
back and forth across the nails. Tie first around one corner nail; carry
_to_ and _around_ the two nails opposite, then back and around the next
two, and so back and forth till it is all strung. The rows of cord
should be parallel.

2. Instead of a slate, looms of various sizes may be roughly made of
four narrow pieces of wood measured, sawed, and nailed together at the
corners. A curtain slat could be so used, or wooden boxes will furnish
raw material for such. A loom 4 × 6 inches is a good size for a
beginner.

For woof, use coarse worsted or ribbon to begin with, or colored
cheesecloth torn into narrow strips.

Use the fingers at first, later a bodkin, weaving under one cord of the
warp and over one, back and forth, till a tiny rug is made. Fasten ends
by weaving in and out a short distance into body of rug. At first make
rug all of one color, or a rag-carpet effect can be obtained by tying
into a long string worsteds of various colors. If a plain color is used
a border can be made by running in a strand or so of a different color.

Let the child employ his artistic and creative abilities in making
designs for the rug with paints or crayons. Draw an oblong of one color
with stripes across the ends, one, two or three in number, at different
distances apart. Variety can be secured by taking up two threads at a
time or running under _one_ and over _two_, etc. Warn the child not to
draw the threads too closely or the rug will have the shape of an
hour-glass when finished.

A washcloth can be made thus by weaving it of narrow pieces of
cheesecloth.

Take the rug or cloth off the loom by raising carefully over the nails.

3. Another simple kind of loom is made by taking a piece of cardboard
measuring 6 × 8 inches. Draw a row of eight dots half an inch apart.
Opposite these, and six inches away, draw another row. With strong cord
sew through these a set of straight stitches, six inches long and half
an inch apart. This makes the warp. Run the worsted woof under and over
these cords as in any weaving, and tear the cardboard away when
finished.



CHAPTER VII

PLAYS AND GAMES


In playing games children learn lessons of fair play, of mutual
forbearance and patience, and of letting a playfellow "have a chance,"
which they learn in no other way. Apart from the important bodily
exercise and development gained in the active physical games, the demand
upon mental and moral qualities is of immeasurable value.

A child should never be permitted to cheat at a game, even "in fun." A
game loses significance as a game when one person does not "play fair."
The child to whom even the thought of so doing is impossible begins the
race of life with an immense advantage, for we believe that the
foundation for all real life is _character_.

We give a few games which have been tried with success either in the
home, the kindergarten, or the playground. Some of these plays require
materials; others do not. In some cases instructions are given for
making the required materials.


TAG GAMES


=Circle Tag=

One person stands in the center of a ring of children and each one in
the ring holds out his right hand. The one in the middle tags one of the
hands and the owner immediately gives chase till he catches the
pursued.

Vary by having both tagged and tagger skip, hop, etc., instead of run.


=Racing Tag=

Players form circle. One goes outside the ring and runs or walks around,
suddenly quietly touching another player, who immediately races with
him, going around the ring in opposite direction.

Vary by having contestants bow three times as they pass each other.


=Wood, Iron or Paper Tag=

One child chases another who touches for goal anything made of wood, or
iron, or paper, etc., as has been decided upon beforehand. If the
pursued is caught before he succeeds in touching such object, he becomes
"it." The goal may be a wooden stick or tree, or an iron rake, or a
paper book, etc.


=Japanese Tag=

Form a long line of children, one following closely behind another in a
march or run. One child outside the line is "it." He tries to tag some
one in the line. The leader endeavors to prevent this by twisting his
file rapidly in and out in a curving line, and, by so throwing out his
arms, as to protect the threatened one, as the line twists and turns
with him. If one is tagged, the leader becomes "it." The leader and his
train of children must of course be alert in mind and active in body.


=Cross-Tag=

Of a group of children the one who is "it" chases any one he chooses to
begin with, but if another child runs in between the chased and the
chaser, the chaser must follow the one who has thus run in between. If
he shows signs of fatigue a third child may run across between the two,
etc., he then being chased until the tagger succeeds in catching some
one, who in turn becomes "it."


RACES

Allied to the tag games are the racing games, of which we give only two.


=Potato Race= (_Twelve potatoes_, _two tablespoons_)

Place six potatoes in a row about three feet apart. Place six others in
a parallel row some distance away. Give two players each a spoon, and at
a signal they start to race. Each player runs up his row, picking up the
potatoes, one by one, carrying each in turn to a given point, then
coming back for another potato, till all are thus carried. The left hand
must not assist. The one who first gets his potatoes safely to the spot
decided upon wins.


=Clothespin Race= (_Handful of clothespins_)

Arrange the children in two rows, equal in number. Give the first child
a handful of clothespins, laid straight. At a signal he passes them down
the line. If one is dropped it must be picked up by the one dropping it
and put as before with the others and then passed on. Reaching the end
of the line, they are at once passed back again to the starting point.
The side wins which first get back all the pins.


AIMING GAMES WITH BEAN-BAGS


=Kinds of Bags= (1. _Ticking or strong calico_, _strong thread_,
    _needle_, _baking-beans_. 2. _Felt_, _sewing silk_)

1. Make a strong bag of bright colored material, 6 × 8 inches in size.
Fill with the ordinary baking-beans and overhand the top.

2. Take a piece of felt or any pretty strong material which will bear
the wear and tear of the game. Cut into two circles 5 or 6 inches in
diameter. Sew together on the wrong side, with a seam of one fourth
inch. Then cut in the center a small circle half an inch in diameter.
Turn the odd-shaped bag inside out, fill with beans and overhand the
small circular opening with close stitches of silk. These bags can be
more easily caught than balls by little hands.


=Kinds of Games=

Children usually hand down familiar games from one generation to
another. Here are a few:

1. Children stand in a circle with one in the center who throws the bag
to each in turn all around the ring, or else tries to catch some one
napping by throwing it unexpectedly.

2. Vary by having children stand in a row and the leader throws to each
in turn. Or children stand in opposite rows and every one in one line
has a bag which all throw in unison to the child opposite. These in turn
throw back in perfect rythm.

3. Vary again by tossing into the air in unison. The accompaniment of
music is always a thing to be desired in such rythmic games.

4. One child stands in center of ring and tries to catch the bag as it
is tossed across to some one on the other side of the ring.


AIMING GAMES WITH BALLS

The games just described may be played with balls as well as with
bean-bags, and thus require more co-ordination on the part of the
child's muscles. We give a few other games in addition.


=Counting-Ball=

Let one child bounce the ball, striking it from above with the palm of
his hand and counting one, two, etc., until he fails to hit it, when
another child takes a turn.


=Guess-Ball=

A row of players number off from one end 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. The last
number steps in front of the row a distance such as may be needed to
secure certainty of aim and touch on the part of those who throw the
ball. The player in front stands with his back to the others. Those in
the row now begin to pass the ball sideways from one to the other. The
player in front having counted a given number, the one who happens to
hold the ball at the time must at once throw it at the player in front.
If struck, the latter turns quickly and tries to judge from the
attitudes of the various players which one threw the ball. If he is
right, places are exchanged. If he guesses wrong, the game continues as
before.


=Cup and Ball= (_Cardboard_, _worsted_, _funnel_)

Make the ball by cutting from cardboard two circles about two inches in
diameter. Inside the large circles draw smaller ones about one-half inch
in diameter. Cut the smaller circles entirely out, thus leaving a hole
in the middle of each large circle. Keep these two large circles
together. Now, with a needle, wind worsted round and round through the
opening in the two circles until it is completely filled, so that the
needle cannot be pushed through. Hold in the left hand, and with sharp
pointed scissors cut the worsted at the edge of the circles, spread the
circles a little apart, and tie a strong thread firmly around the
worsted between the two cardboard circles. Then tear the cardboard
circles away and a pretty ball remains. Tie this ball, with a string
twelve inches long, to a kitchen funnel, and let the child try to catch
the ball in the funnel.


AIMING GAMES--MISCELLANEOUS


=Ring-Toss= (_Small wooden box_, _broom-handle or dowel_, _nail or
    glue_, _embroidery rings or hoops of small keg_)

Saw a foot from a broom-handle or dowel (a child's broom will best serve
the purpose). Glue or nail this to a box. Let the child practice tossing
over this post rings taken from a small keg; or embroidery rings may be
used. These may be wound around with bright colored strips of lining or
with ribbon. The rings should be graduated in size.


=Grace-Hoops= (_Basket reeds_, _raffia_)

Make a wand of three or four basket reeds cut into two foot lengths.
Wind these more or less loosely with string, just so as to hold them
together. Then wind around and around closely and smoothly with a strand
of raffia so as to bind firmly together. If held smoothly, several
strands of raffia may be used at one time. If reeds are not to be had
lilac branches may be used instead. The result should be a wand firm and
stiff.

Make the hoops by soaking the reeds first in water for an hour to make
flexible. They should be cut into lengths of about 2-1/2 feet. Curve
several into a hoop and tie. Then wind smoothly and firmly with the
raffia. The ends of the latter may be disposed of by threading upon a
large needle and running it a short distance in and out of the part
already wound.

Two wands and one hoop are required for each player. One tosses a ring
from her two wands to her opponent, who must catch it upon her own
wands.

This once popular game cultivates both alertness and grace.

In the kindergarten the children use wand and ring in playing "knights."
One child holds the ring while the little knight gallops around the
circle on an imaginary steed and tries to capture the ring on his lance
(wand), as at an old-time tournament.


=Croquet with Peas= (_Peas_, _hairpins or double-headed tacks_, _nail or
    match_, _toothpick_, _cork_, _cover of starch-box_)

Bend hairpins into shape or use double-headed tacks as wickets. Insert
into the cover of a wooden starch-box for ground. For a stake use a nail
or a painted match-stick. Sharpen this to a point and insert it in a
hole previously made by hammering in a nail. Make mallets by inserting
matches or toothpicks into heads made of small pieces of cork. Use peas
for balls.

Put the whole outfit in a box and give to little sister for her doll's
birthday.


=Egg-Shell Game= (_Egg-shell_, _long table_, _four tumblers_)

Blow an egg-shell and paint with some college colors as a foot-ball.
Take four tumblers and place two at one end of a long table for goals
and two at the opposite end for goals, the two which make a pair being
four inches apart. Divide the party into two competing groups. Those on
one side must try to blow the shell between the tumblers of their
opponents. These must try to defend their end of the table and at the
same time try to blow the shell between the tumblers of their opponents.
This makes a merry game for young people.


=Cherry-Stone Game= (_Save and dry a dozen or more cherry-stones_)

Scatter the stones lightly on the table. They will fall so that some lie
closely together, others far apart. The first player selects any two
stones and draws his finger between them so that he touches neither. If
he succeeds thus far he must then try to snap one (with thumb and middle
finger) so that it strikes the other. If this succeeds also the two
stones belong to him and he has another turn, continuing until he either
touches a stone in trying to draw a finger between two or fails to make
one of the two hit the other. The second player will not fare so well,
because the remaining pairs will lie closer together than those first
chosen, so that great care will be needed in drawing the finger between
two. Sometimes it is necessary to use the little finger. At the end the
player having most stones wins the game. The stones may be dyed or
painted if desired. The game suggests tiddledy-winks and crokinole.


=Donkey Game= (_Picture of a donkey, minus a tail, and one dozen
    separate tails. These may be bought in large sheets for ten cents,
    but may be cut out of paper if drawn first by skilful hands_)

Pin the picture to the wall in some spot where it will not deface it.
Give each player a tail with a pin sticking through it. Blindfold him.
Turn him around three times and send him in the direction of the picture
to pin the tail on the donkey. The one who succeeds in fastening a tail
nearest to the proper place wins the game.


=Blowing Out the Candle= (_Candle in candlestick_)

Place a candle on the table. Blindfold a player, turn him around three
times about six feet from the candle. Then let him try to find his way
towards it and blow it out. He may have three trials.


MISCELLANEOUS PLAYS


=The Countess of the Huggermuggers= (_Two candles in candlesticks_)

Give two players each a candle. They take places about eight feet apart.
Then each takes a step forward at the same time and makes a solemn bow
without smiling; then another step and bow; and then a third. Then one
says solemnly, "The Countess of the Huggermuggers is dead." The other
one rejoins, "I am very sorry to hear it." The first one replies, "So am
I." Then each takes three steps backward, with a bow each time, and all
without a smile. Whoever smiles must give up his place to another
player.


=Rope and Sandbag= (_Rope ten feet long, with handle at one end which
    may be made by knotting the rope, and a sandbag or other weight at
    the other. Sandbag may be made of strong goods sewed into a bag and
    filled with sand. In a kindergarten a weight has been improvised out
    of a child's rubber shoe_)

Some one stands in the center of a circle of children and swings the
rope so that the weight just grazes the ground. The children must be
sufficiently attentive and agile to evade the rope by jumping over it as
it passes them. Do not begin until the rope has acquired momentum enough
to move with a degree of regularity.


=Omnibus Swing= (_Strong rope or chain_, _staples_, _soapbox_, _wooden
    plank_, _nails_)

If fortunate enough to have a barn or summer-house, or a playroom with a
strong beam in the roof or ceiling, place a pair of strong staples in
the beam (hammock hooks would serve the same purpose) a few inches
apart. Six feet from these place _another pair_ of staples in the beam.
From each pair of staples or hooks suspend a loop of rope so that it
comes about one foot from the floor.

[Illustration: Omnibus Swing.]

Take a plank about eight feet long and one foot wide and cut four
notches in it, two on each side, about six inches from the ends. Place
the plank so that it hangs held by the two ropes, which slip into the
notches in the plank, the notches keeping the ropes in place. Upon this
several children can swing back and forth lengthwise, and so play at
rowing, riding, trolleying, etc., as imagination dictates. If a soapbox
be nailed at one end the baby may be put into this for a safe ride.


=Anagrams= (_Tinted Bristol board_, _black ink or paint_, _heavy pen or
    brush_)

Cut the Bristol board into 1-inch squares and let the child paint or
draw upon these squares the letters of the alphabet, one letter to each
square. There should be at least a dozen of each letter and many more
A's, E's and S's, as these letters occur frequently in English words.
Two games may be played with these letters as follows:

1. Give the child the four or five letters that compose a word and let
him try to put them together in the right way as: _H-s-e-r-o_ (_Horse_).

2. Several players are needed for this game. The cards must be placed
upside down in a box so that the letters are not seen. Each player takes
a letter in turn, the first time round, and places it in the centre of
the table. At the second time round, each, as he takes a square from the
box, tries to form a word with it, either by using a letter from the
central pool or by taking away an opponent's word. If he takes from an
opponent he must take an entire word. As he forms a word he places it
before himself, the aim being to get five or ten words before any
opponent does. If he can form no word he puts his letter in the pool.
The number of words making the game must be agreed upon beforehand. For
example: In the pool are placed in turn the letters _g, b, f, t_. Player
I, continuing, draws from the box the letter _a_ and with the letters in
the pool can form _bat_, which he places in front of him, leaving _g_
and _f_ in the pool. Player II draws an _l_, and as he can form no word,
he puts it in the pool. Player III draws an _e_ and takes away the _bat_
of No. I, turning it into _beat_. Player II draws an _o_, which with the
_g_ from the pool, he turns into _go_. Player I then draws again, and so
the game continues until one player has, we will say, five words, the
number agreed upon, and so wins.


=Weighing Honey=

One child crouches, clasping his hands beneath his knees tightly. Two
older persons then take the handles of the honey-jar (the child's arms)
and swing him back and forth, counting one, two, three, etc., with each
swing until the hands give way. The number of counts tells the number of
pounds in the jar.


SUGGESTIONS FOR CHILDREN'S PARTIES


=Peanut Party= (_Several quarts of peanuts, and a pretty little bag
    measuring 6 × 8 inches for each guest_)

Before the little guests arrive, hide the peanuts in corners, under
cushions, and in all possible hiding-places, singly, or two or three
together. At a signal all of the children begin to search for the
peanuts. The one finding the most wins. Give a reward of a peanut doll.
(See page 80.)

       *       *       *       *       *

In no such games of competition is it a good plan to have expensive
prizes. That plan ministers to a weakness inherent perhaps in human
nature, but one to be discouraged--the desire to win, not for the sake
of success, but for the sake of the prize. The giving of a valuable
prize engenders feelings of envy and caters too much to the gambling
instinct. It tends to destroy the spirit of fun and play which is the
real object of a social gathering.

A part of such an entertainment would appropriately be the making of
peanut taffy or of peanut animals. (See page 23.)


=Spider-Web Party= (_Balls of pretty twine, one color for each guest_)

Take a ball of twine and to the end attach a card bearing the name of
one guest. Then unwind it, twisting it around different articles of
furniture, chairs, table-legs, door-knob, chandelier, etc., till the
thread is judged to be long enough. Then cut, and to this end tie some
trifling gift. Arrange in this way one ball and gift for each child
expected. When the time for playing the game arrives, give to each child
the card bearing his name, to which twine is attached. At the signal for
beginning, each one follows up his line, unwinding and disentangling it
as he goes along, till the end of the cord bearing the gift is reached.
As each little visitor receives something, there is no unwholesome
spirit of rivalry.


=Thimble-Biscuit Party= (_Dough_, _silver thimbles_)

While making biscuits for supper give the little child a silver thimble
to use as a biscuit cutter, first rolling the dough to a thickness
one-third the height of the thimble. When he has made a good array put
them into the oven. They will bake quickly and to the child will seem to
surpass the best cake made.

Invite a group of little children to a thimble-biscuit party. A dough of
flour, water or milk, a little salt and baking powder will be sufficient
and the little workers will be very happy making the wee biscuits. Only
silver thimbles should be used.

While the biscuits are baking a few games, notably "Hide the Thimble,"
will pass the time. Served with a little jam or milk they will make a
delicious repast, with dolls and Teddy Bears for company.


=Butterfly Party= (_White paper_, _oil paints, in tubes_)

Uncovering the tube, make a dab of paint with it near middle of a sheet
of paper. Immediately beneath make a _long stroke_ of another color. Now
fold over lengthwise along the middle of the long line of paint. While
folded press and smooth with finger over the first spot. This when
opened will be the head of the butterfly. Keep paper still folded,
however, and press along the line of paint to make body and then make a
side pressure to make the wings. Open out, and there is the general
suggestion of a beautiful butterfly, which, held up so that the light
shines through, may be really very pretty. A little experiment will show
how improvements can be made. Any color may be used. Invite your friends
to an evening butterfly party and give a prize for the best one made;
the prize may very suitably be something in butterfly form; a penwiper,
or lamp-shade, or something similar.


=Autograph Picture= (_Ink_, _paper_, _coarse pen_)

At the butterfly party, autograph portraits also may be made. With a
coarse pen, filled with ink, each person writes his own name in turn.
Take the flowing autograph, fold it lengthwise through the middle and
crease, making special pressure at the top and drawing out slightly at
the side. Open up and the result is a queer portrait of the owner of the
autograph with suggestion of head and arms.

Enclose autograph on two sides by straight lines; when folded and then
opened, the portrait will be framed.



CHAPTER VIII

FESTIVAL OCCASIONS


Festivals have always held an important place in the life of home and
community. The anniversary of the day of birth, or of marriage, the day
of graduation, or of coming of age--what opportunities they offer for
strengthening the ties of kinship, for creating hallowed associations
that may often prove bulwarks of safety in later days of temptation and
sorrow!

Christmas, Easter, Thanksgiving, are now National holidays with us, and
our celebration of these beautiful festivals is one more link in the
chain which binds us to all races and creeds; for the return of the sun
at the winter solstice, the renewal of life in the spring, the
ingathering of fruits in the autumn, have appealed to all peoples as
fitting occasions for the expression of religious joy and for mutual
congratulations upon dangers past and the results of work accomplished.

In the joy of such occasions, we must not let them degenerate into the
mere mercenary exchange of material gifts.

Christmas is preëminently the children's day, when we annually remind
ourselves of the divinity inherent in all childhood, and desire to bring
joy to all children and goodwill to all peoples.

Easter means most to the adult who has experienced sorrow and
disappointment and has known something of the anguish and awe and
deepening of life that comes with the message of Death. The pleasure of
the child in the hare and the Easter egg must not be allowed altogether
to overbalance the wondrous symbolism of the Easter lily.

The National holidays--Washington's Birthday, Memorial Day, Independence
Day, etc.--take us outside the limits of the home and remind us that, as
we thank the men and women of the past for the privileges of the present
which we owe to their sacrifices and aspirations, so we should realize
our obligations towards the future.

In celebrating these different festivals, let the child bear his small
part. We give a few ideas of things which he may do or make. It is these
early impressions which are the lasting ones. The actual service
demanded of the child counts much in the formation of character, though
even more important is the spirit which radiates at such times from the
parents and friends who celebrate or prepare to celebrate these
recurrent holidays. It is the "spirit which giveth life," here, as
everywhere.

The suggestions will be given in the order in which the holidays come in
the year. Where an article is described in another part of the book, it
will not be repeated, but the page number will be given for reference.


NEW YEAR'S DAY


=Place Cards at Table= (_White card_, _pressed four-leaf clover, or
    paints_)

1. Having found and pressed four-leaved clovers in the days of summer,
paste one lightly to each place card as symbol of good-luck.

2. Copy a clover-leaf with paints and write on card some appropriate
quotation signifying good-will.


=Decorated Note Paper= (_Writing paper_, _leaf_, _paste or paints_)

Paste a real clover leaf (or paint one) on the writing paper upon which
you may be writing a New Year's letter to your friend.


=Calendar= (_12 oblong blotters, white or colored_, _ribbon to match, 1
    inch wide and about 3/4 yards long_, _tiny calendar pad_, _paste_)

Take the calendar pad apart and paste the leaf for each month upon one
of the blotters. Then tie the blotters together with the ribbon. This
makes suitable New Year's gift. (See also page 74.)


=New Year's Bells= (_Red cardboard_, _scissors_, _paste_, _ribbon_)

Cut out a bell and paste a calendar pad on it. Or cut 12 small bells and
paste one leaf of calendar pad on each, stringing all together with
ribbon.


=Good-Luck Pigs=

With our German population the pig signifies "good-luck," and at New
Year's pigs, big and little, made of various materials, are quite in
order. A favorite candy, made of sugar and bitter-almond, is in the
shape of a pig, and is used to present to friends at this holiday time.
Many suggestions already given may be carried out with the pig idea in
mind.


=Midnight Watching=

If friends stay up to watch the Old Year out, any of the above-named
articles may be made by the children for souvenirs. A poem which may
suitably be read at this time is Tennyson's "Ring Out, Wild Bells;"
also, Longfellow's "The Poet's Calendar." A timely topic for discussion
is the never-answered question: When does the new century begin--with
January 1, 1900, or 1901? Timothy Dwight, President of Yale College,
1795-1817, wrote some clever verses apropos of the subject when he
helped usher in the 19th Century.


ST. VALENTINE'S DAY

Save lace papers from candy and soap boxes and they will prove useful
when St. Valentine's Day comes in making Valentines. With these papers
and scissors, paste, scrap pictures of flowers, doves, etc., the
children will spend happy hours in making these dainty souvenirs. We
give a few directions for making some such.


=Single Hearts= (_Red cardboard_, _lace paper_, _scrap pictures_,
    _scissors_, _paste_)

Cut a heart out of the cardboard and around the edge paste a border of
lace paper, fulling slightly and attaching it to the under side of the
heart. In the centre of the upper side of the heart paste a pretty scrap
picture. This makes a simple but effective Valentine.


=Chain of Hearts= (_Red cardboard_, _scissors_, _scrap pictures_,
    _paste_, _red ribbon_)

Cut several hearts out of the cardboard, and, after punching holes in
the top and bottom of each one, string them together, pasting a scrap
picture on each one if that added touch is desired.


=Double Hearts= (_Red cardboard_, _scissors_, _paste_, _strip of red
    paper_)

Cut two hearts of different sizes. Then take a narrow strip of red
paper measuring 1/4 × 1 inch and fold it into thirds. While still folded
attach one end of this paper to the _centre_ of the _upper side_ of the
large heart and the other end to the _centre_ of the _lower side_ of the
smaller heart. This unites the two, one resting on top of the other, the
paper acting as a kind of spring to raise one above the other. Instead
of a small heart a scrap picture may be thus attached on the larger
heart.

In cutting out these hearts it may be necessary first to cut a pattern
out of newspaper, making several trials before a satisfactory model is
secured.


=Lacy Valentine= (_Gold or silver paper_, _white tissue paper_, _scrap
    pictures_, _paste_)

Cut from a sheet of gold or silver paper a piece measuring 5 × 7 inches.
Fold this once through the middle so as to make a book of 3-1/2 × 5
inches. Cut a piece from the tissue paper of 3-1/2 × 5 inches. Fold this
two or three times and cut into it tiny perforations--oblongs, diamonds,
circles, hearts, etc. Then open out and observe the lacey effect.
Practice this until something pretty and dainty is secured. Then upon
the centre of the book paste a scrap picture and attach the tissue paper
by its edges to the Valentine in such a way that the picture shows a
little between the perforations. A narrow strip of stiff paper folded in
three, to give the effect of a spring as described above, may be used at
each corner. Inside of the booklet paste other pictures as fancy
dictates. Also write therein some appropriate lines.


=Spider-Web Design= (_Gold or silver paper_, _Bristol board_, _scrap
    picture_, _paste_, _scissors_)

Cut a circle of gold or silver paper, three or four inches in diameter.
Fold once, making a semi-circle; fold once more making a quarter-circle.
Beginning at the point of the folded paper, make a tiny cut from one
edge _towards_ the other, but do not cut the point entirely off. Turn
the paper and make a second cut parallel to the first about 1/8 inch
away, the cut being from the other edge of the paper. Turn again and
make a third cut. Each time the cuts grow in length owing to the
increasing width of the triangle or quarter-circle. Continue thus until
the circumference of the folded circle is reached. Then open out and you
have a silver spider-web effect. Take a square or circle somewhat larger
than the web, and in its centre paste a pretty bird, flower, or maiden.
Then paste the web upon this background, putting the paste along the
edges of the web, but leaving the centre free, so that the child can
raise it and peer through the slits at the picture beneath.

Let city children send to country cousins scrap pictures, colored
papers, etc., and sample Valentines, so that their friends may have the
pleasure of making and giving.


Valentine Dinner

SOUP: Put into the clear soup the noodle hearts, which may be purchased
at a grocery store, or have a vegetable soup, slicing the vegetables and
cutting them into little hearts with a knife.

MEAT: Make chicken or beef croquettes, molding them like hearts.

VEGETABLES: Slice the boiled carrots and potatoes and cut into heart
shapes.

BREAD: Cut into hearts.

SALAD: Upon green lettuce leaves place hearts cut from beets.

DESSERT: Ice cream may be obtained in the form of a Cupid or something
similar, and cake may be decorated with white icing having pink hearts
outlined upon it. The peppermint candies in the shape of hearts, which
have sentiments printed upon them, may be passed either at the beginning
or the end of the meal. Cut in half, placing the halves in separate
dishes; then pass one dish to the girls and the other to the boys, and
by matching halves partners may be found. Let the children, however,
remain unconscious of the distinction of sex as many years as possible.

In making preparations for the dinner let the children help.


=Place Cards for Dinner= (_Red paper_, _white cardboard_, _scissors_,
    _pencil_)

Cut a heart from the _red_ paper. From the _white_, cut an arrow,
drawing it after a pattern found in some book. Making two slits in the
heart, run the arrow through it. On the reverse side of the heart write
the name of the guest.


=Decorations for Valentine Dinner= (_Red cardboard_, _red ribbon_)

Cut about two dozen hearts all of same size, or graduated in size.
String these upon the red ribbon and suspend over the table.


WASHINGTON'S BIRTHDAY


=Luncheon Card= (_1._ _Picture hatchet_, _cardboard_, _scissors_,
    _paints_; _2._ _Same_--_also white or reddish brown paper_)

1. Find a picture of a hatchet and use it as a model from which to cut
one about two inches long. Paint this in colors resembling the real
hatchet, and upon the reverse side write the name of the guest.

2. From a piece of white or reddish-brown paper cut a one-inch square.
Paint so as to resemble cherry wood. Roll so that one edge overlaps the
other a trifle, simulating the trunk of a tree. As they overlap cut a
tiny slit through the two. Cut out a tiny cardboard hatchet, paint as
above, and insert in this slit so that it holds the two edges together.
Before fastening in this way, an appropriate quotation may be written
inside, and the name of the guest on the outside. It should stand up if
rightly made.


=Decorative Cherries= (_Paraffine_, _spool of wire, not too fine_,
    _green cloth or paper_, _carmine oil paint_, _brush_, _paste_)

Purchase at the grocer's cakes of paraffine such as is used for
preserving purposes. Heat a cake in a dish so that it is soft enough to
model into balls the size of a cherry. While still pliable make a slight
depression in its surface. Having previously rolled the wire in the
green tissue paper, and cut into inch strips for stems, insert this into
the cherry at the depressed part of its surface. Cut out cherry leaves
of paper, or better dark green cloth, place a little paste on these
leaves at the back and arrange a stem on each one. When the stem of the
cherry is firmly fastened in the fruit, paint the surface with carmine
oil paint. This gives a polished appearance to the surface like the
natural cherry.

The stems of the green leaves may be trimmed about the stems of the
cherries in twos or threes or more, according to the number of cherries
used.


=Paper Chains= (_Colored paper in sheets or cut into strips_, _paste_,
    _small brushes or sticks_)

The making of paper chains, in contrasting or uniform colors, is a
delightful pastime for children of all ages. Very little children may
easily learn to make one loop at a time, and, with assistance, are soon
able to fasten several loops together.

Kindergarten Supply Stores furnish strips of colored paper already cut,
and put up in packages. These strips measure 36 inches in length. It is
very easy, however, to cut strips from large sheets of paper, and it is
an excellent lesson in accurate cutting for children over ten years of
age.

These paper strips may measure one or two inches in width and the entire
length of the sheet. Cut the long strips into short strips measuring
four inches in length. Holding the four inch strip in the left hand, put
a very little paste on the under surface of one end of the strip.
Overlap the pasted end of the strip to its unpasted end, and hold firmly
until fastened. You now have one paper loop. Through this loop is placed
another four inch strip--the paste is added in the same manner. Now you
have two loops. Continue doing this until you have the chain the
required length. These chains are very effective when used in
decorating.

For Washington's Birthday, red, white and blue paper would be used for
the chains.


=Bonbonnieres= (_White tissue paper_, _red and blue aniline dyes_)

Very attractive bonbonnieres may be made by cutting oblong shaped sheets
of white tissue paper, measuring 6 inches in length and 5 inches in
width. Fringe the shorter edges of the paper, making fringe 1 inch
deep.

Dissolve any good red and blue dyes in boiling water, and place in
separate dishes. Dip one fringed end of tissue paper into the red dye
for one second, and dip the other fringed end into the blue dye. Shake
these ends gently in order to let the water drip from them. When they
are dry, place a large sized candy in the centre of the paper, and
gathering up the fringed ends, twist them close to the candy, thus
forming a feathery effect in two colors. These are very pretty when
arranged on the table either in quantity or singly.


=Tents= (_White shelf paper_, _paste_, _match stick_, _red, white and
    blue paper_)

Groups of white tents, made of white shelf paper, capped at the top with
tiny American flags, may be placed at short distances from the centre
piece of a luncheon or supper table with good effect.

The large sheets of shelf paper may be bought at any grocer's. Cut them
into four-inch squares. Place the paper before you on a flat surface, an
edge nearest you. Fold the front edge to the back edge of square; crease
the paper at the fold, open the paper and fold the right edge to left
edge of square; crease the fold again. Open the paper and turn the
square so that a corner points towards you. Fold this front corner to
the back corner, so that the two points exactly meet.

Crease on the fold, open the paper, and fold the left corner to the
right corner of the square. Crease on the fold. Open the paper; before
you you have a square of paper, with eight folds across its surface, a
fold running front edge to back edge, from right edge to left edge,
from right corner to left corner, from left corner to right corner. Turn
the square of paper over so that all the folds on the surface of the
paper are on the upper side of the square. Place the square with a
corner toward you.

You will now see eight folds running from the four edges and four
corners to the centre of the square. Crease with thumb and forefinger of
right hand the fold running from lower right edge to centre of square.
Place this right hand fold of square forward so that it lies along the
fold which extends from the corner directly in front of you to the
centre of the square. Follow the same directions in folding the crease
that runs from the lower left edge to centre of square. These two folds
touch now on the fold that runs from front corner to centre of square.
You will see a small triangle extending below the two folds which thus
meet in front of you. Fold this small triangle back toward the centre,
and underneath the two folds that meet in front of you. One half of your
tent is folded. The same directions must be followed in folding the
other side of the square.

The two small triangles must be carefully folded so that the tent will
stand evenly when finished. You will see when the front and back part of
the tent is finished that you have the right and left corners to dispose
of. Fold these corners underneath the tent, so that when it is placed in
an upright position it will stand firmly. To make the tent stand well,
crease the edges that run from the four corners to top of tent, thus
making an exact pyramid. The use of a little paste in securing the folds
is of great assistance.

To represent the tent pole, a wooden match, gilded, may be used. To this
attach a tiny American flag made of pliable red, white and blue paper.


=Paper Lanterns= (_Scissors_, _red, white and blue paper_, _liquid gold
    paint_, _box of small candles_, _circular box covers_, _baby
    ribbon--red, white and blue_)

Lanterns made of red, white and blue paper, each of one color only,
ornamented with gold paint and tied with the red, white and blue baby
ribbon, are extremely pretty for supper decorations. When suspended from
the chandelier above the centre of a supper table, a lighted candle in
each little lantern, the effect is charming.

In view of entertainments where decorations are called for, it would be
well to lay aside all small circular box covers that find their way into
the household. The small box covers that measure 2-1/2 inches in
diameter may be taken as a standard size. These box covers form the
bottom of the lanterns.

Cut from the colored paper an oblong piece measuring 8 inches in length
and 5 inches in width. Lay the oblong piece of paper before you with its
long edges running right and left. Draw a pencil line the length of the
paper 3/4 of an inch from the upper edge; 3/4 of an inch from its lower
edge draw another line which will be parallel to the first.

From the upper pencil line to the lower pencil line draw 15 lines 1/2
inch apart. These upright lines will form 14 narrow oblongs. Use very
sharp pointed scissors, and cut away each alternate oblong. Paste the
two short edges of the oblong paper together, one end overlapping the
other. The body of the lantern is now finished.

Let a little wax drip from a candle on the inside of the circular box
cover at its centre. When a little bed of soft wax is formed, place an
unlighted candle on it in an upright position. Place a thick coating of
Spaulding's glue on the inner surface of circular rim of the box cover,
and carefully fit the body of the lantern into it.

When the paper lantern is securely fastened, gild heavily the outside
rim of the box cover and the upper and lower circular bands which form
top and bottom borders of the lanterns. In the top circular band punch
four holes equal distances apart, through which the ribbons are run.


ST. PATRICK'S DAY--MARCH 17TH


=Place Cards= (_White cards_, _water-color or oil paints_, _brush_)

Paint a picture of shamrock upon the card. It may be copied from some
picture, if not from the real plant. If not possible to find a picture,
our wild-wood-sorrel (_Oxalis acetosella_) is supposed to be the same as
the shamrock and may be used for model. Some authorities believe the
white clover to be the original shamrock.


=Flags= (_Irish flag_, _green paint_, _gold paint_, _brush_, _scissors_,
    _slender sticks_)

If one Irish flag is bought the children may copy it, painting a number,
one for each guest, or for decorating table. Glue flags to sticks.


=Ribbon Flags= (_Green satin ribbon, one inch wide_, _wooden toothpick_)

Cut the ribbon into oblongs to make wee flags. Glue to tiny flagsticks
and put at places at dinner table.


=Shamrock Plants=

The real shamrock is now brought over and may be purchased in March. A
little plant makes an appropriate souvenir. Or several weeks before the
day, children may plant shamrock seed in tiny pots for use on the 17th.


=Potato Race=

A potato race is an appropriate game for St. Patrick's Day. (See page
94.) Give cork doll for prize to winner of race (page 81), as souvenir
from Cork.


=St. Patrick's Dinner=

Have as many green vegetables and side dishes as possible. Spinach will
color the soup. Green vegetables and salads are easy to obtain and ice
cream may be colored with pistache. Irish flags may be suspended over
the table.


=Dinner Souvenir= (_Blotting paper_, _souvenir postcards_, _green ribbon
    1/2 inch wide_)

Give each guest a blotter made thus: Buy souvenir postcards with
pictures of Killarney and other Irish views. Cut the blotting paper into
sheets of same size as cards. Place together. Punch hole at one end and
tie together with ribbon.


EASTER


=Egg Shell Garden= (See page 25)


=Sponge Garden= (_Small, clean sponge_, _birdseed_)

A few days before Easter, sprinkle the sponge with birdseed. Keep damp
and the seeds will sprout and cover the sponge with growing blades of
green.


=Easter Eggs= (_1._ _Diamond dyes_, _a dozen eggs_. _2._ _Small figured
    calico_, _lye_, _boiling water_)

1. Boil the eggs hard and dye with the colors according to directions on
package, which may be had at drugstore, price five cents.

2. Wind strips of the bright calico around the eggs and boil in water
strongly saturated with lye. The lye extracts the color, which will be
found printed upon the eggs.


=Place Cards for Easter Breakfast= (_1._ _White paper_, _scissors_,
    _paints_. _2._ _Plain white cards_, _paints_)

1. If possible secure a real Easter lily for a model. If this cannot be
obtained, a picture of one will answer. From the paper cut, freehand, if
possible, the shape of the lily and paint it lightly; just a little
shading and the golden center. Place the guest's name upon the reverse
side. It may be necessary to draw the lily first before cutting, but the
freehand cutting is a good exercise.

2. Decorate a white card with the picture of a lily, or a tulip, using
water-color paints. Below the flower write an appropriate flower motto.


=Celluloid Place Cards= (_White celluloid_, _scissors_, _pencil_)

Get from a dictionary or natural history a good picture of a butterfly
with open wings. Draw a pattern from this and then outline a number of
these on the celluloid and cut out. These dainty, spirit-like
butterflies will make suitable place-cards, having the name of guest on
the reverse side.

Cut Easter lily of celluloid in same way.


=Easter Chicken= (_Yellow worsted_, _black beads_, _quill toothpick_,
    _cardboard_, _wooden toothpicks_, _or picture-wire_.)

Make a yellow ball as described on pages 96-7 for the body of the
chicken. A smaller ball makes the head. Sew on the beads for the bright
black eyes; cut the quill into shape of a bill and sew into place. Let
wooden toothpicks form the legs; or, better still, take picture-wire
made of several strands. Wind some of this around the body, letting the
ends of the wire extend about 1-1/2 inches below the body; sew to the
body to keep in place. Then pick out the ends of the wire a little to
suggest toes and wind the legs with worsted. Sew chicken to a card.


=Easter Card= (_Parquetry circles used in kindergarten_, _paste_, _gray
    card_, _scissors_)

The little child may make an Easter card by pasting upon a
neutral-tinted card pictures of tulips made of the kindergarten
parquetry papers. Cut in half either red or yellow circles. Place so
that the lower ends touch and the upper ones are a little apart,
suggesting a tulip. A strip of green paper will represent the stem and
an older child can cut leaves of the green paper and paste on. Have a
real tulip from which to copy. Child may give this to Father on Easter
morning.


=Toy Screen= (See page 63)

Make dainty screen as described, and paste on each panel a tiny _Easter_
picture (Perry pictures may be had by addressing firm in N. Y. City).
Give to Mother on Easter morning.


=Church Window Transparency= (See page 77)


MEMORIAL DAY

We give no special suggestions for the celebration of Memorial or
Decoration Day. The ideas given under the headings of the other
patriotic holidays, as Washington's Birthday and Fourth of July, may be
used also for this holiday, but it is not a day for mere play.

If the parents plan to go to the cemetery let the child accompany them
and carry flowers, preferably those of his own raising or plucking.


=Reading=

It would be well also on this day to read some great piece of patriotic
literature, either prose or poetry, which will help the older children
to realize the great debt which we owe to the preservers of our country,
to whom we dedicate this day. Lincoln's Gettysburg address should be
read. Also Lowell's "The Present Crisis." "Bugle Echoes," compiled by
Francis F. Browne, contains 150 poems of the Civil War, both Northern
and Southern.


=Badge= (_Sheets of red, white, and blue paper_, _scissors_, _paste_)

A simple badge may be made for the children to wear in this fashion:

1. Cut a circle 3/4 inches in diameter out of the red paper. Cut also
from the red, white and blue sheets strips of 2 × 5 inches. Paste the
three strips together at the upper end like ribbons, letting them spread
a little apart at the lower end. Paste the circle at the upper end to
finish off.

2. Another style may be made by placing the three colors so that one
lies directly above the other. In this case the blue is 5 inches long,
the white four inches, and the red three inches. Fasten to dress or coat
with a safety pin.


INDEPENDENCE DAY


=Firecrackers= (_Red paper_, _hemp_ _string_, _paste_)

Get large sheets of red paper to be found at department stores or
wholesale paper houses, measuring about 35 inches in length and 26
inches in width. From each one cut thirteen 2-inch strips, cutting the
length of the sheet. Fold each strip once across the width of the strip,
and cut through the center at the fold. This gives twenty-six 2-inch
strips of paper, the width of the small sized firecrackers.

Hold a strip of paper between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand.
Moisten the thumb of the right hand a very little, and roll the end of
the strip towards the left, as one does in rolling a paper taper. Keep
the strip rolled tightly until the other end of the strip is reached. If
the cracker seems too loosely rolled unroll it a short distance, and
gently pull the strip into form again.

Place a little paste on the under side of the loose end of the strip,
and press the pasted end firmly on the rolled surface of the cracker.
Hold this until it adheres to the surface of the cracker. Cut the hemp
string into three-inch pieces. Dip one end of the string into the paste,
then insert this pasted end into one end of the cracker at the little
opening which is found at the very center. Hold this firmly for a
moment, or until the string is securely fastened.

Tie six or eight firecrackers into bunches with red, white and blue
ribbons, and lay them over the white surface of the luncheon or supper
table.


=Firecracker Card= (See page 55)


=Drums= (_Small wooden boxes_, _liquid gold paint_, _Spaulding's glue_,
    _red, white and blue baby ribbon_, _small sticks for drum sticks_)

The market basket will, from time to time, furnish the housekeeper with
small circular boxes labeled: Electro-Silicon Silver Polish. These
wooden boxes, measuring 8 inches in circumference and 12 inches in
height, make, when prettily ornamented, very attractive drums.

Remove the cover of box, and place on its inner rim a coating of
Spaulding's glue. Place the cover on the box again, and put aside until
it is fastened. Place the box on a sheet of stiff white paper, and
holding it firmly, draw a pencil line around its edge. Now remove the
box, and you will see that you have outlined a circle. Using this circle
as a model, draw a second circle. Cut out these circles, following the
pencil very accurately. These two circles form the two heads of the
drum, and are to be pasted on the top and the bottom of the box. Gild
the circular surface of the box. Cut strips of red or blue paper,
measuring 8-1/2 inches in length and 1-1/2 inches in width. Brush the
under surface of these strips with paste, and place one strip at the top
and one at the bottom of the drum, 3/4 of an inch above the rim of the
drum. These strips answer to the wooden bands which hold the drum heads
in place. Red, white and blue baby ribbon may be carried from the upper
to the lower edges of the drum if desired to represent the cords which
hold the drum securely.

Little wooden sticks, gilded and tied at the side of the drum form the
drumsticks.

The smaller Electro-Silicon boxes, measuring 2-3/4 inches in
circumference and 1-1/3 inches in height, may be used in the same way.


=Rosettes= (_Red, white and blue tissue paper_, _a strong needle_,
    _white sewing silk_, _white library paste or well-made flour paste_)

Lay nine sheets of tissue paper one upon another, alternating the
colors, red, white and blue. Fold these sheets together very smoothly
once, thus making 18 smaller sheets if they were cut apart, but do not
cut. Lay a silver dollar or fifty-cent piece (depending upon the size
required) at the upper left-hand corner of paper. Draw a pencil line
around the rim of the silver piece. Move the piece of money to the right
and draw another circle. Continue this drawing circles until you have
covered the surface of the paper.

Thread a needle with the sewing silk, knot the end of the thread and
take several firm stitches through the center of each circle in order to
hold the sheets of paper together. With sharp scissors cut out each
paper circle, and fringe by cutting, but not too finely, from the edge
to within 1/8 of an inch of the center of the circle. Hold the knot on
the under side of the circle between the thumb and forefinger of the
left hand. Slightly moisten the forefinger of the right hand and brush
gently over the fringed surface toward the center of the rosette. At the
back of each rosette put a bit of paste, then lay rosettes on strips of
paper one inch in width. Do not overlap the rosettes, but arrange to
allow the edges to touch.

These strips of rosettes may be used as festoons. As decorations for
cakes or dishes of fruit they can be used most effectively.


=Shields for Luncheon Cards= (_Cardboard_, _red and blue paper_, _baby
    ribbon--red, white and blue_, _gold paint_, _water-color paints--red
    and blue_)

Attractive luncheon or supper cards, suitable for patriotic occasions,
may be made in the form of shields. Turn to the fourth page of Webster's
Unabridged Dictionary, and find the shield used as the American
Coat-of-Arms. This shield, enlarged to a size measuring 2-1/2 inches in
length and 2-1/2 inches in width across the upper part, forms an
excellent model. If one does not draw habitually, use tracing paper when
tracing the pattern. If one uses watercolor paints successfully, paint
the deep blue band across the upper part of the shield, and the twelve
red stripes running from the band to the lower edge of the shield. For
those who do not paint, dark red and blue paper may be substituted very
successfully. A touch of gold paint on the edge of the shield adds
greatly to the effect.

Write each guest's name on a card measuring 2-1/2 inches in length and
1-1/2 inches in width. Attach a card by means of red, white and blue
ribbon to upper corner of each shield.


=Rockets= (_Red, white and blue paper_, _paste_, _gold paint_, _slender
    wooden sticks_)

Rockets are made in the same manner as firecrackers, excepting that the
paper strips are cut wider, viz.: 3 or 4 inches in width, and more
strips are required to give the proper size. This may be left to the
maker's discretion.

When the rockets are rolled and pasted after the manner of the
firecrackers, insert the sharp point of a pencil into the center of one
end of each roll, and gently push out this center to the distance of two
inches. This will give the pointed end of the rocket. These pointed ends
may be gilded, as well as the slender sticks which are inserted at the
other ends.


LABOR DAY

The words "parade" and "procession" are associated in the minds of most
American children with long lines of soldiers, and the small boy will
play for hours putting his tin soldiers in rank and file, or marching
with his comrades, with pans for drums.

In these later days, when the spirit of the Peace Congress is in the
air, it is well that the children should become interested in struggles
and battles of a different and higher order and in the parades in which
long lines of honorable workers take part.

In this country all self-respecting people are workers in one way or
another, and though in the course of progress of coöperative movements
and combinations, among many kinds of workers, there may have been
much of injustice, such movements have also been accompanied by
self-sacrifice, courage and generosity of a high order. In time the good
will far out-weigh the evil. As Labor Day approaches, the children,
especially if the father expects to take part, will be readily
interested in the day and what it should mean--the solving of the great
problem of the twentieth century. Meanwhile let the children feel the
beauty of Walt Whitman's lines:

    "Ah little recks the laborer
    How near his work is holding him to God,
    The loving Laborer through space and time."

The Labor Day parade is a revival, or survival in modern guise, of the
mediæval processions of the Guilds. Such a procession is charmingly
represented in Wagner's delightful opera, "Die Meistersinger," wherein,
on a festival day, we see the bakers enter, bearing the insignia of
their trade, enormous pretzels and other cakes. The cobblers march in
with gigantic boots and slippers suspended from tall poles; the butchers
carry hams and festoons of sausages, etc. The child may imitate such a
parade in his play.

In talking with the child, emphasize the obligation to do good, true
work and to take pride in such. Let fidelity and trustworthiness be his
watchwords.


=Parade= (_Poles or broom handles_, _wrapping paper or newspaper_,
    _scissors_, _tacks_, _rakes_, _spades_, _etc._, _flags and banners_)

Let the children cut from the paper large outlines of shoes, boots,
hams, saws, try-squares, clocks, watches, enormous pens, knives, forks,
etc., and fasten with pins or tacks to the poles. Then march to the tune
of some stirring air.

Some may be able to secure small garden rakes, spades and toy brooms to
carry. The American flag and banners should also be carried.


=Toy-Processions= (_Trade catalogues_, _toothpicks_, _paper dolls_,
    _etc._)

Cut out paper dolls and let each one carry a tiny toothpick upon which
has been pasted a picture cut from some catalogue. These catalogues will
furnish pictures of shoes, carriages, saws, hammers, watches,
furniture, etc. Be sure that little American flags are also carried.
Dolls may be glued to spools for standards.


=Place Cards for Dinner=

1. (_Bristol board_, _scissors_, _paints_, _brush_)

Make place cards of Bristol board, which may be cut into shape of shoes,
watches, etc., and painted accordingly. The name of guest may be placed
on reverse side. Or, on plain white card, paint a picture emblematic of
a trade and write upon it also some quotation from a writer of
democratic spirit.

2. (_Tiny cast-iron rakes, spades and hatchets--1 cent each._)

As a souvenir, give each guest a tiny cast-iron spade, rake and hatchet
tied together with cord. Or, for a joke, these may be placed by each
plate instead of knife, fork and spoon.

3. (_Pen and ink or pencil_, _white card_.)

Draw on a plain, white card a picture of an ant, bee or beaver as
emblematic of labor. Use for place cards.

4. (_Frances S. Osgood's poem, "Labor,"_ _white cards_, _pen and ink_.)

On each card write one stanza of this beautiful poem, and after the
close of the meal let each guest in turn read the lines on his card. It
would be well for every child to commit this poem to memory. It is long,
but sings itself easily into the mind. The word-pictures it calls up are
exquisite and the learning of it, little by little, would not be an
unhappy task.


HALLOWE'EN

This is the festival which is given over to all kinds of merry pranks
and is dearly loved by the children. It is an opportunity to teach them
to discriminate between the fun which is kindly and that which is
malicious and productive of needless pain.


=Ducking for Apples and Nuts= (_Large pans or tubs_, _apples_, _nuts_,
    _pennies_)

Let the children, young and old, for once get themselves wet, if
necessary, in ducking for the nuts and apples floating in the water.
With a little suction some of the children will be able to get pennies
from the bottom of the tub.


=Fortune-Telling=

1. With Needles. (_Needles_, _pan of water_)

Name a needle for yourself and one for a friend, and put in the water,
but not together. If they move safely across, it betokens good luck. Two
needles meeting indicate life partnership.

2. With Toy Ships. (_Pan of water_, _nut ships as described on page 22_)

Name one little vessel for yourself and one for a friend and set them
afloat. If they come to port on the other side all is well.

3. With Apple Rinds. (_Apple_, _knife_)

Pare an apple so that the skin comes off in one long piece. Toss over
the head upon the floor, and the form it takes will give the initial
letters of the name of one's future mate.

4. With Cake. (_Cake_, _thimble_, _ring_, _penny_, _etc._)

Bake a cake, hiding in the dough a thimble, a ring and a penny. When
cut, the recipient of the ring is fore-doomed to marriage; the one
getting the thimble will be a spinster; the one receiving the penny will
have the pleasures and responsibilities of wealth.


=Apple-Biting Contest= (_Apple suspended from a string_)

1. The apple is set swinging and two people, standing opposite each
other, try as it passes to seize and hold it in the mouth. They must not
touch it with the hands.

2. Tie an apple by its stem to the middle of a string about a yard long.
Then two people, each taking one end of the string in the mouth, begin,
at a signal, to gather it as fast as possible into the mouth, and so to
reach the apple. This belongs to the one reaching it first.


=Refreshments=

Apples, nuts, popcorn, cider, gingerbread and doughnuts are suitable for
lighter refreshments. Baked beans and plain ice-cold rice pudding were
once eaten with decided relish at a New York City Hallowe'en party, the
city people evidently enjoying the contrast between this feast and the
usual caterer's service. Serve fruit from a kettle suspended from three
cross-sticks, _a la_ witch.


=Decorations=

Jack-o'-lanterns of pumpkins; strings of apples, popcorn and
cranberries, and toy brooms hung here and there, as reminders of the
witches who are said to be abroad, will add to the occasion. The
pumpkins should be cut to resemble skulls.


=Reading=

Have some one read "Tam O'Shanter's Mare" (Burns); also some good ghost
story. Thomas Kendrick Bangs' "Ghosts Which I Have Met" contains some
good stories, all absurd. Choose a good reader for this.


=Place Cards=

1. (_White or tinted cards_, _Palmer Cox Brownies_, _ink_, _pen_)

The Brownies are delightfully funny little people without a suggestion
of anything coarse or evil. The children love them. Let the older ones
copy and cut them out to use as invitation cards for the Hallowe'en
party or for place cards.

2. (See "Pricking," page 165.)

Since witches are always associated with the pricking of pins, this is
an appropriate occasion for using the kindergarten pricking. Outline
some of the Brownies on tinted cards and prick as directed on page 165.

3. (See Pumpkin Jack-o'-lantern cards, page 135.)


THANKSGIVING


=Place Cards= (_White paper or cardboard_, _brush and paints or pen and
    ink_)

1. Cut out a turkey, copying from some picture if necessary. (Picture
may be found in dictionary.) If skilful with brush or pen, indicate the
feathers, eye, etc.

2. Draw picture of a pumpkin. Cut it out. Paint in deep orange tones
with shadings of brown. Cut into it eyes, nose and mouth, suggesting
Jack-o'-lantern.

3. On white cards write stanzas from Whittier's poem, "The Pumpkin Pie,"
and let each guest read his stanza in turn.

4. Cut as many triangles as there are guests and paint each to resemble
a slice of pie. One side of triangle should be curved.

5. Find a simple figure of a Puritan maiden and draw in outline; then
cut out and paint or draw in black ink the important lines. Use as place
card.

6. Make little walnut boats (see page 22), and on each sail write name
of guest.

7. Find picture of Mayflower and copy on white card. On reverse side
write a stanza of "The Breaking Waves Dashed High." Let each guest read
his lines. (Or parts of "Hiawatha" about Mondamin may be used.)


=Table Souvenirs= (_Tiny cast-iron gardening tools, 1 cent each_)

As described under Labor Day, these tiny penny tools may be put at each
place, the hatchet representing the knife, the rake the fork, and the
spade the spoon. Attach name of guest to set.


=Butter Modeling= (_Clay modeling tools_, _firm butter_)

If any child has acquired a little skill in clay modeling, let him try
his hand at modeling out of firm butter some form expressing a
Thanksgiving thought. It may be a piece of fruit, or some animal. Get
clay modeling tools at art store.


=Center Piece= (_Pumpkin_, _knife_, _fruits and vegetables_)

Hollow out a pumpkin in such a way that a part of the rind is left as a
handle to the remaining part, which serves as a basket. Into this basket
put a variety of fruits and vegetables, emblematic of the bounties for
which we are grateful.


=Jack-o'-lantern= (_Pumpkin_, _knife_, _candle_)

We doubt if any boy needs to be told how to cut a face in a pumpkin. A
sharp knife will soon make the cuts for eyes, nose and mouth in the
rind, the seedy contents having been previously removed. A hollow may be
cut in the bottom of the interior to hold the candle, which can be made
still steadier by melting a little from the bottom and letting it drip
into this hollow, forming a waxy bed into which the candle may be
inserted.


=Candlesticks=

See pages 24 and 64 for those made of apples and of cardboard and
colored papers.


=Room Decorations=

1. Corn Stalks. (_Strong cord and needle_, _hammer and tacks_.)

Stack cornstalks in the corners of the rooms in effective positions, two
or three to a corner. Those living in cities may find it well to secure
these from farmer friends some time before the holiday.

2. Unhusked Ears of Field Corn. (_Strong cord._)

The corn husks must be turned back from the ears and cut off from them
without loosening the separate leaves. Then a number of these husks may
be strung upon a strong thread or string alternating with the ears of
corn. Hang along the upper part of the wall as a frieze. The rich, warm
tones of the brown and yellow are very effective.

3. Cranberries and Brussels Sprouts. (_String_, _needle_.)

Run upon a string half a dozen cranberries, then a Brussels sprout; then
more cranberries, etc., and suspend this as a festoon along mantelshelf,
in chandelier, or over window.

4. Autumn Leaves. (See page 47.)

5. Autumn Boughs. (_Oak boughs._)

Oak boughs, with the rich red and russet leaves still upon them, are
very handsome in the autumn. The beautiful branches may be gathered by
the young people and hung in parts of the room where most effective.


CHRISTMAS


=Place Cards=

1. (_Sheet black paper_, _Chinese white water-color paint_, _brush_.)
Cut a stocking from the black paper (obtainable at kindergarten supply
store). With the paint, paint in white toes and heels. On the reverse
side write some appropriate quotation and name of guest. Stockings may
be about four inches long.

2. (_White paper_, _black ink or crayon_.) Cut a rough figure of a
snowman out of white paper, put in features with black ink or crayon,
and write name on reverse side.

3. (_Water paper_, _water-colors_, _scissors_, _spray of holly_.) From
real holly or a picture of same, paint a spray of green leaves and red
berries. Cut out around the edges and use as name card.

4. (_Red cardboard_, _scissors_, _pen_, _ink_.) Draw an outline of a
bell on cardboard and cut out. An appropriate sentiment may be written
upon one side and name of guest upon the other.


=Surprise Nuts= (See page 23)


=Snowflakes for Tree= (See page 59)


=Snowball= (_White cotton batting_, _snowflake crystals from toy store_,
    _white cotton cloth_, _sewing thread_, _mucilage_)

Cut two circles of cotton cloth, stuff with the batting, after sewing
into shape of ball. Cover lightly with snowflake crystals, first dipping
ball lightly into thin mucilage. Suspend from tree.


=Candles= (_Paraffine or old candles_, _kettle_, _soft cotton string_,
    _small box of sand_, _pencil_)

Candles have sometimes been made in the kindergarten in either of the
following ways:

1. Heat a pound of paraffine (bought at grocer's), or melt up some old
candle ends in a kettle. Place in front of the child a cigar box
containing about a quart of moist sand, smoothed level. Then with his
pencil let him press into the sand, making a deep, hollow mold just the
width of the pencil. Now let him hold a short piece of string so that it
hangs down into this mold. An older person will then pour some of the
melted wax into the mold. It will cling to the string, and in a moment
or two will cool enough to be drawn out, making a little candle that can
be used for the Christmas tree, or put into a clay candlestick, also
made by the child. (See below.)

2. Put the kettle containing the melted wax before the child and let him
dip into it a piece of string about four inches long. Then let him take
it out in a moment and lay it aside to cool. A very little wax will
cling to it. Meanwhile he dips in another string and puts aside to cool.
When cool he takes up the first one and dips it in a second time, and a
new coat of wax adheres. He proceeds thus until the candles are as large
in diameter as desired (about 1/2 inch at base). The candles may be put
into clay candlesticks, also made by the child.


=Candlesticks= (_Clay_, _a tin or china candlestick to use as model_)

Let the child take a candlestick and copy in clay; it should be of
simple form, a mere cylinder, with just enough of a base to make a firm
standard.


=Candlesticks= (_Cardboard_, _scissors_)

Cut small squares of cardboard. The candles may be made to stand
temporarily upon these by melting the lower ends of the candles and
letting some of the wax drip upon center of the cards, and then pressing
the candle down upon the melted wax. These may be placed upon the table
on Christmas morning.


=Christmas Carols=

Let the children learn some simple old carol, as a secret, and Christmas
morning have them sing it softly and sweetly to awaken father. A full
program of songs suitable for this most beautiful of days will be found
in the little book, "The Children's Messiah," compiled by Mari Ruef
Hofer, price 20 cents. It gives also the address of a firm publishing
stereopticon views for illustrating the program suggested.


=Spider-Web Party= (See page 104)

Arrange the twines of several colors as described on page 104, and at
the end place the gifts belonging to each child.


=Popcorn= (_Popcorn_, _popper_, _thread_, _needle_)

Pop the corn and string into festoons with which to decorate the tree.


=Christmas Bells= (_Red cardboard_, _scissors_, _thread_, _needle_)

Make bells as described on page 109, only make them of various sizes.
String, and use to decorate table or tree, or to festoon from the center
of the ceiling to the corners and sides of the room.


=Kindergarten Lanterns= (_Red, gold, or silver paper_, _scissors_,
    _thread_, _paste_)

Take a kindergarten square of pretty paper or make a square of some
attractive wrapping paper. Fold once into an oblong. Now cut a series of
parallel lines from the fold toward the edge, stopping each about 1/2
inch from edge. Open and paste one end so that it overlaps the other,
the cuts running vertically. This makes the lantern bulge out a little
at the fold, giving a Japanese lantern effect. Suspend by a thread tied
to the upper edge or paste a narrow strip of paper on for a handle. Use
as decoration for Christmas tree.


=Paper Chains= (See pages 56 and 115)


=Reading=

Read a part or the whole of Dickens' "Christmas Carol," "The Chimes," or
"The Cricket on the Hearth;" or "Is There a Santa Claus," by Jacob Riis;
or "The Birds' Christmas Carol," by Kate Douglas Wiggin. Longfellow's
"Arsenal at Springfield" and "A Christmas Hymn," by A. Domett, are also
appropriate.



CHAPTER IX

THE KEY BASKET

or

HOUSEHOLD DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES


Train the children little by little to bear certain light
responsibilities in the home. Even in a home in which all the household
tasks are done by trained servants let the girl and boy have some small
duty to perform, if it be nothing more than to keep the match-safes
filled. They will thus acquire an interest in the home which can be
aroused in no other way.

Indeed, every child, boy and girl, should be trained to do easily and
well the common household tasks upon which depend so much of the
happiness and well-being of the home. Such knowledge and skill often
prove of use in unexpected emergencies and make for general efficiency.
The ancient symbol of the housewife's office is her bunch of keys, hung
at her waist or placed in the key-basket, so we have used this latter
phrase as our chapter heading.


HOME TASKS

Here are a few brief directions for the usual home tasks in which both
boys and girls may to some extent be trained.


=Table Setting= (_Usual dishes and cutlery_)

Different homes vary in unimportant particulars in the placing of the
dishes. The following is a common arrangement for the dinner table:

At each place lay the fork vertically at the left-hand side, the knife
vertically at the right, and the soup-spoon to the right of the knife.
This places each utensil so that it is ready for the hand which uses it
most. Put the teaspoons to the right of the soup-spoon, and the napkin
to the left of the fork. Place the glass just above the knife, the
butterdish above the fork, and the individual salt-cellar, if used,
between the two.

Father and mother sit at the ends of the table. Put carving-knife and
fork at father's place; also the soup ladle, as father serves the soup
and carves. Mother pours the coffee and tea and serves the vegetables.
Therefore the soup and dinner dishes must be placed before the carver,
and the needed vegetable dishes and cups and saucers at the mother's
place. Here, too, must be placed the sugar bowl and cream pitcher.

In the United States it is customary to serve most vegetables upon
individual saucers. In England they are usually served upon the plate.

If salad is to be served, oil and vinegar cruets may be put on.

The dessert is usually served by the mother, and the necessary dishes
must, therefore, be placed at her end of the table.

If possible, always have flowers or a growing plant in the center of the
table, but do not have it so high that it obscures the view of those
persons sitting on opposite sides of the table.

Upon special occasions, particularly if the guests are many, it is
convenient to indicate the place of each person by a "place card"
bearing his name and decorated in some appropriate fashion. Suggestions
for such place cards will be found on other pages of this volume.


=Table-Serving= (_Tray_)

Train both boys and girls to wait on the table _quietly_ and _quickly_.
Then they can save mother many weary steps. Remove soup-tureen first;
then the individual dishes. After the meat-course, remove first the
platter and vegetable dishes; then the plates, saucers, etc., from each
individual place; then, if there is no salad course, the bread and
butter dishes, cruets, etc., from center of table. Next the table must
be crumbed. Do this by quietly removing crumbs from each place with
crumb-knife and tray or by brushing with folded napkin. If salad is
served, crumbing takes place after that course.

Hold all dishes to left of guest, so that he may easily help himself
with his right hand.


=Dish-Washing= (_Hot water in quantity_, _dish pan_, _wire tray_,
    _drainer_, _washing-soda_, _soap_, _dish-mop_, _washcloth_, _towels
    in plenty, both coarse and fine_)

If two people are to work together, let one collect the dishes and
dispose of the left-over food, while the other washes the kettles and
saucepans. Get these heavy cooking utensils out of the way the first
thing; then the drudgery part is over before the workers are tired out.

Dishes in which potatoes, cereals, or eggs have been cooked should be
put to soak, not in hot, but in cold or tepid water; they are then
readily cleaned. Fill with water as soon as emptied.

Keep a little washing-soda on hand, dissolved in water in a canning-jar,
for cleansing greasy dishes. Have hot water in abundance, and, putting a
little soda in with it, scrub the kettles briskly with the wire-brush
that comes for the purpose, or with mop, dish-cloth or chain dish-cloth.
Wipe dry with a heavy towel.

Meanwhile the other worker is collecting, scraping and classifying the
other dishes. Before beginning to wash, have all the dishes assorted
according to kind and size and placed convenient to hand. When putting
away remnants of food it is well to have for the purpose a series of
pitchers ranging from three inches to about nine in height. This gives
sizes suited to any quantity which may be left over of soups, milk,
liquid vegetables, etc. They take less room than bowls, and the
graduated series ornaments the shelf.

A wire strainer should be kept in the sink to prevent the larger
particles of waste, indissoluble parings, coffee grains, etc., from
going down the drain. This saves plumber's bills.

When ready for the washing, begin with the glasses and wash quickly in
hot water, either clear or soapy, as preferred. Have at hand a second
dish-pan in which is placed a wire rack. Put the glasses in the rack,
rinse with hot water, and dry rapidly while still wet and hot. It may be
necessary to keep them in the water a moment or two to get them really
heated through. In washing glass pitchers put a _silver_ spoon in them
before placing in the hot water. This prevents breakage. Treat
canning-jars in the same way.

Next wash the silver, having the water soapy and piping hot, in order to
get a good polish. Keep spoons, knives and forks in separate groups and
all pointing in the same direction.

The smaller, less greasy dishes follow the silver, and then the heavy
china. Here, again, let dishes that have held eggs or starchy foods soak
awhile in cold or tepid water. Rinse greasy dishes well.

Conclude by scrubbing tables and sink with cloth, brush, soap and
sapolio as needed. Put the scrapings in the garbage pail and pour hot
water and soda down the pipe to remove the last vestige of grease. Hang
up the shining dish-pans, after washing out the towels and dish-cloth in
soap and water, if they require it.

A can of Babbitt's Potash of Lye may take the place of the washing-soda.


=Bed-Making= (_Two sheets_, _blanket_, _comforter_, _cover_)

Put the lower sheet on with the right side up. Tuck it in neatly at the
corners much as one would fold in the corners when wrapping up a box in
paper. Place the upper sheet upon this with the right side down. This
brings the two right sides together. Let the broad hem in each case be
at the head of the bed. That of the upper sheet should just reach the
head of the mattress.

Place the blanket with its upper end about six inches from the head of
the bed. Then comes the comforter, placed in the same way. Fold the
sheet down from the top just where the blanket ends. Tuck all in neatly
at the sides and the foot. Now put the spread smoothly over all. It may
be tucked in or may hang down as desired. Place the pillows with the
closed ends of the cases together.

If an extra coverlet is to be placed at the foot of the bed, fold it in
thirds so that the sleeper may reach down and draw it up over himself
without rising to the floor.

To put on a bolster-case easily, turn it wrong side out and then roll it
up over the bolster.

Train children to air beds every morning by shaking up bed-clothing and
extending it over footboard and chair.


=Washing= (_Toy tub or tin basin_, _toy washboard_, _basin for boiler_,
    _soap_, _bit of blueing tied in bag_, _strong cord for line_)

Put dolls' clothes or a few dustcloths or handkerchiefs in tub of warm
water after soaping well. Let soak awhile, then rub out on the little
washboard or between the hands, put into the boiler with cold water and
just bring to a boil. Rinse in warm water or wash vigorously in warm
water if necessary; then rinse in warm and then in cold water; put the
blueing in a basin of cold water till the water is slightly tinged;
remove the blueing bag and rinse the clothes in the water. (The blueing
is to counteract the tendency of white goods to grow yellow with time.)

Hang up to dry in the air and sunshine.

Tell the children that the clothes must always be sorted, white body
clothes being in one class, bed-linen in another, table linen in
another; woolens must be washed by themselves with care to keep the
water of moderate temperature and the _rinsing_ water of the same degree
of heat as the _washing_ water. Flannels must be dried as rapidly as
possible. Colored garments must be washed by themselves.


=Ironing= (_Two irons_, _holders_, _ironing blanket and sheet_,
    _iron-stand_, _cake of beeswax or candle_)

Before ironing the clothes must be sprinkled lightly with cold water,
smoothed out and rolled up tightly for half an hour. Meanwhile pin the
blanket to the ironing board and cover smoothly with the sheet. The
iron must not be so hot as to scorch the clothes. Try it on a piece of
paper. If it seems dirty or rough, rub it on the beeswax to make it
clean and smooth. (In place of wax a candle will serve the purpose if
wrapped around with a piece of clean cotton cloth.) If the garment seems
too wet, put a piece of white cloth over it and iron till somewhat dry.
Then the iron may be placed directly upon the garment.

Starch is prepared by wetting and dissolving it in cold water and then
pouring upon this boiling water and boiling until clear and smooth. The
young child will not need to starch anything, however.


=Sweeping= (_Broom_, _whisk-broom_, _hair-broom_, _sheet_,
    _sweeping-cap_)

Let the little worker don sweeping-cap and apron, and then proceed to
dust carefully small articles and books, place them on the bed and cover
with an old sheet. Put furniture which is movable in the hall after
dusting. Open the window. Then sweep the rugs on both sides and place
outside. Pin up the curtains. Then dampen a newspaper and tear into
small pieces; throw these on the floor to absorb the dust. Wet
tea-leaves may be used for the same purpose.

Sweep, holding the broom rather closely to the floor and taking short
strokes, raising as little dust as possible. Then leave the room for
awhile, for the dust to settle.


=Dusting= (_Dusters of cheesecloth_, _clean pieces of old silk_,
    _chamois-skin_)

On returning to the room after sweeping, wipe off the baseboard, then
the furniture, always working from the top down. To reach high corners
where cobwebs may lurk, pin on the brush of the broom a cap of
cheesecloth and sweep along the edges of the ceiling. For corners under
heavy furniture, a small whisk brush or soft hair brush may be needed.

Rub off mirrors with a damp cloth, drying and polishing with
chamois-skin or crumpled newspaper. Highly polished furniture may be
dusted with soft silk or chamois-skin.

Even small members of the family may be given a share in this work.
Little boys and girls can be shown how to dust chairs and furniture
within reach of the little arms and hands. It may take more time at
first on the mother's part than if she did the work herself; but in the
end she is more than repaid. The little child need not be required to do
much, but let that little be done thoroughly, if only the legs and
rounds of one chair.



CHAPTER X

THE CHILD'S LIBRARY


Every child should be encouraged to possess his own books even in this
age of public libraries. Birthdays and Christmas afford occasions when
the parent can increase the little library, and later the child may be
trained how to choose wisely his own purchases. When he is limited in
the books he possesses public libraries open up opportunities for a wide
range of reading.

We give a brief but varied list of books from which the parent may
select such as suit her child's particular needs. The discriminating
taste in reading must be cultivated from the earliest years if the child
is to read with profit and pleasure in youth and maturity.

All children should be allowed to read a few at least of the traditional
fairy tales. They teach many important life lessons in an impersonal
way; they develop the imagination and widen the sympathies. The
successful business man, the progressive physician or lawyer, and the
truly successful minister is he who understands human nature, who can
put himself in the other person's place; and to do this he requires a
cultivated imagination. The fairy tale also lifts the child from the
restricted life of his environment into the region of boundless
possibilities. It increases his sense of power over untoward
circumstances. Acquaintance with fairy lore also familiarizes one with
many allusions to be met with in reading all great writers.

A love of poetry should be the heritage of every child, because of the
inspiration it gives amidst the sordid cares of life, and because of the
innocent pleasure and refreshment it affords in hours of loneliness and
weariness. The child's first book of verse should, of course, be Mother
Goose. After this there are many valuable compilations of good poetry
that may be used.

A varied library to be found in one large volume is "The Children's
Book" compiled by Scudder. It includes selections from Mother Goose,
from Grimm's fairy tales, from old English fairy tales, the Arabian
Nights, and Hans Andersen. There are also several of Maria Edgeworth's
famous moral stories, a great many of Æsop's fables, many of the old
English ballads, etc. An excellent compilation of verse is Roger
Ingpen's "One Thousand Poems for Children," which contains all the old
favorites of children as well as a large number of the best-known poems
by standard authors.

Standard books on science and nature should be in the home, and the
child's library should include a few books with stories from real life
leading up to biography, history, and travel.

The little one's sense of humor must be accorded recognition. Mother
Goose supplies such a need in part, and Lear's Book of Nonsense may be
added. The Sunday funny sheet should be censored before being put into
the hands of the child. Expurgate anything that expresses disrespect to
old age; that makes light of honor and integrity; or that is coarse in
drawing, color, or subtle suggestion. If the child when grown is to
appreciate the delicate humor of a Charles Lamb, his taste must not be
dulled when he is young.

It is a pity for a child to grow up without knowing and loving the
"Pilgrim's Progress." To give him this pleasure the book should be read
to him or put into his hands when about ten years old. Otherwise the
psychologic moment has passed and he may never learn to care for the
great English classic.

The great mediæval legends should also be known to the child. They are
interwoven with much of history and literature and give a glimpse into a
rapidly receding past.

We include in our list a charming wee volume, "The Young Folks' Book of
Etiquette," by C. S. Griffen, which the mother, wearied of repeating
from day to day the same admonitions as to manners and morals, will find
a great assistance in seconding her efforts. The child will enjoy both
the text and the pictures.

For the child's Bible reading we recommend Moulton's edition of the Old
and New Testaments. The language is identical with that of the familiar
old volume, but the text is condensed so that each story is given in the
form of a continuous narrative, and objectionable passages are omitted.
It may thus safely be put into the hands of very young children, who
enjoy the simple, dignified style.

Music also must form a part of the child's library. The list appended
covers a variety of needs.


FAIRY TALES, MYTHS, AND LEGENDS

     Adventures of Pinocchio, translated from Cullodi by Cramp (an
     Italian classic loved by children).

     Æsop's Fables.

     Alice in Wonderland, Lewis Carroll.

     Among the Farmyard People, Clara D. Pierson.

     Among the Night People, Clara D. Pierson. (Exceptionally good.)

     Arabian Nights Entertainments.

     Bimbi, Ouida. (Collection of beautiful tales.)

     Book of Saints and Friendly Beasts, Abbie Farwell Brown.

     Bow-wow and Mew-mew, Georgiana M. Craik.

     Boys' Odyssey, W. C. Perry.

     Curious Book of Birds, Abbie Farwell Brown.

     Fairy Tales, Hans Christian Andersen.

     Fifty Famous Stories Retold, Baldwin.

     Folk Tales from the Russian, Blumenthal.

     Gods and Heroes, Francillon. (Greek legends.)

     Household Stories, Anna C. Klingensmith.

     Heroes Every Child Should Know, Hamilton Wright Mabie.

     In the Days of Giants, Abbie Farwell Brown. (Norse legends.)

     Japanese Fairy Tales, translated by Williston.

     Jungle Book, Kipling.

     King Arthur and His Court, Frances Nimmo Greene.

     Knights of the Silver Shield, R. M. Alden. (Includes "Why the
     Chimes Rang.")

     Little Black Sambo. (Beloved by young children.)

     Mother Goose (Altemus edition), including a few fairy tales.

     Nights with Uncle Remus, Joel Chandler Harris.

     Norse Gods and Heroes, A. Klingensmith.

     Norse Tales, Hamilton W. Mabie.

     Peterkin Papers, Hale. (Afford pure, wholesome humor.)

     Peter Rabbit, The Tale of, Beatrix Potter.

     Saints of Italy Legends, Ella Noyes.

     Story of Siegfried, Baldwin.

     The Boys' King Arthur, edited by Lanier.

     The Red Book of Romance, edited by Lang.

     The Red Fairy Book and others of same series, edited by Lang.

     Tanglewood Tales, Hawthorne (Greek Legends).

     The Oak Tree Fairy Book, edited by Clifton Johnson.

     The Pilgrim's Progress, Bunyan.

     The Stars in Song and Legend, Jermain G. Porter.

     The Wonder Book, Hawthorne.

     Wagner Story Book, Frost.

     Wandering Heroes, Lillian J. Price.

     Water Babies, Charles Kingsley.

     Wizard of Oz, Baum.


HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY

     Childhood of Ji-Shib the Ojibwa, A. E. Jenks.

     Children of the Cold, Frederick Schwatka. (Life among Esquimaux
     children.)

     Cuore, de Amicis, translated by Mrs. Lucas. (Experiences of a
     school boy in Italy.)

     Each and All, Jane Andrews.

     Five Minute Stories, Laura E. Richards.

     History of the Ancient Greeks, C. D. Shaw.

     Lolami, the Little Cliff-Dweller, Clara K. Bayliss.

     Ten Boys of Long Ago, Andrews.

     The Chinese Boy and Girl, Bishop Headland.

     The Snow Baby, Mrs. Peary.

     Seven Little Sisters, Jane Andrews.

     Story of Joan of Arc for Boys and Girls.

     Story of My Life, Helen Keller.

     Story of Troy, M. Clarke.


NATURE

     A Year in the Fields, Burroughs.

     Everyday Birds, Bradford Torrey.

     First Book of Forestry, Filibert Roth.

     Friends in Feathers and Fur, Johonnot.

     Grasshopper Land, Margaret Morley.

     How to Attract Birds, Neltje Blanchan.

     Lady Hollyhock and Her Friends, Margaret C. Walker. (Tells how to
     make dolls out of flowers.)

     Plant Relations, Coulter.

     Pussy Meow, S. Louise Patteson.

     The Bee People, Margaret Morley.

     The Hall of Shells.

     The Stars in Song and Legend, J. G. Porter.

     The Training of Wild Animals, Frank C. Bostock.

     Trees in Prose and Poetry, Stone and Fickett.

     Ways of the Woodfolk, William J. Long.

     Wilderness Ways, William J. Long.

     Wild Animals I Have Known, Seton Thompson.


POETRY

     Book of Nursery Rhymes, New Collection of Old Mother Goose, Charles
     Welsh.

     Children's Book, The, compilation by Scudder. (Prose and verse.)

     Child's Garden of Verses, Robert L. Stevenson.

     The Chinese Mother Goose, Bishop Headland. (Charmingly illustrated
     with photographic pictures of Chinese children with their parents.)

     Golden Numbers, Kate Douglas Wiggin. (Choice collection of
     miscellaneous poetry; beautifully bound.)

     Little Rhymes for Little Readers, Wilhelmina Seegmiller.

     Lyrica Heroica, edited by W. E. Henley.

     One Thousand Poems for Children, Roger Ingpen. (A very full
     collection.)

     The Listening Child, L. W. Thacher. (Compilation of short poems
     suitable for children over six.)

     The Posy Ring, Kate Douglas Wiggin. (Choice collection for young
     children.)

     The Robin's Christmas Eve. (Old English ballad.)


PICTURE BOOKS

     An Apple Pie, Kate Greenaway.

     At Great Aunt Martha's (Pictures), Kathleen Ainslie. (Illustrations
     of wooden dolls.)

     Book of Nonsense, Edward Lear. (Highly recommended by Ruskin.)

     Dean's Rag Books. (For very young children; will wash and iron.)

     Jingleman Jack (Pictures and verses about the trades), O'Dea and
     Kennedy.

     Four and Twenty Toilers, Lucas. (Hard to procure.)


MUSIC

     Children's Messiah, Mari Ruef Hofer.

     Children's Singing Games, Old and New, Mari Ruef Hofer.

     Christmas-Time Songs and Carols, Mrs. Crosby Adams.

     Finger Plays, Emilie Poulsson.

     Holiday Songs, Emilie Poulsson.

     Merry Songs and Games for the Use of the Kindergarten, Clara B.
     Hubbard.

     Music for the Child World, Mari Ruef Hofer. Two vols. (Music every
     child should know.)

     Nature Songs for Children, Fanny Snow Knowlton.

     Primary and Junior Songs for the Sunday-school, Mari Ruef Hofer.

     Small Songs for Small Singers, illustrated, W. H. Neidlinger.

     Song Stories for the Kindergarten, Mildred and Patty Hill.

     Songs and Games for Little Ones, Walker and Jenks.

     Songs and Games of the Mother-Play Book, Froebel.

     Songs Every Child Should Know, Dolores Bacon.

     Songs for Little Children, Eleanor Smith. Two vols.

     Songs of Childhood, Field de Koven Song Book.

     Songs of the Open, Seeboeck.

     Songs of the Child World, Jessie L. Gaynor.

     St. Nicholas Songs, the Words from St. Nicholas Magazine.


SUNDAY-SCHOOL HELPS

     A Year of Sunday-school Work, Florence U. Palmer.

     Beginnings, A. W. Gould. Pamphlet. Tells of the beginnings of
     world, man, sin, language, death, law, etc., according to the
     Bible, according to Science, and according to old myths.

     Bible for Young People, Century Co.

     Kindergarten Sunday-school Stories, Laura A. Cragin. (New
     Testament.)

     Old and New Testament for Children, edited by Richard G. Moulton.

     Old Testament Bible Stories, Walter L. Sheldon.

     Stories from the Lips of the Teacher, O. B. Frothingham.

     Stories of the Patriarchs, O. B. Frothingham.

     Wonder Stories from the Gospels, Katherine Beebe.



CHAPTER XI

KINDERGARTEN MATERIALS

The Kindergarten Gifts


Friedrich Froebel, after observing and studying thoughtfully the play
and playthings of little children, selected from among these, and
arranged in logical order, a certain series which should help develop
the little one in mind, body, and spirit through childlike play. This
series of related playthings is known as the kindergarten "gifts."

All children of all races play ball, and the first kindergarten gift to
be given, even to a very little child, consists of six soft worsted
balls in the colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet.

The second gift is an oblong box containing a wooden ball or "sphere," a
cube, and a cylinder, with several slender axles and beams to assist in
the little plays.

The third gift is a box containing a two-inch cube divided horizontally
and vertically into eight one-inch cubes.

The fourth gift is a similar cube divided horizontally into eight oblong
blocks.

The fifth gift is evolved from the preceding ones and is a five-inch
cube divided into inch cubes, half cubes, and quarter cubes.

The sixth gift is a cube of the same size divided so that it contains
cubes, oblongs, and plinths.

The third, fourth, fifth, and sixth gifts are derived from the
geometrical solids.

The seventh gift is derived from the geometrical surfaces, and consists
of wooden tablets in shapes of circles, squares, triangles, etc.

The eighth gift represents the geometrical line and is made up of wooden
sticks in lengths of one, two, three, four, five, and six inches. They
may be had in two thicknesses and either colored or uncolored.

The ninth gift, derived from the edge of the circle, consists of metal
rings, half rings, and quarter rings, in several sizes.

The tenth gift, derived from the geometric point, is the lentil.

Kindergartners differ as to the amount of emphasis to be placed upon the
geometric side of the "gifts," and as to whether or not they should
always be presented in a certain logical order. To appreciate their full
value the mother must read her Froebel or take a kindergarten course. We
give below some simple methods of using them, from which the child will
derive both pleasure and benefit. What follows should be entirely clear,
especially if the mother has the "gifts" before her as she reads.


=First Gift Balls= (_Rubber ball 1-1/2 inches in diameter_, _wool in six
    primary colors_, _crochet-hook_)

These balls can be made by taking a _rubber_ ball and crocheting around
it a case of worsted; or a case can be crocheted and then stuffed with
loose wool or cotton. In the latter case to insure a good shape it is
well to crochet _over a ball_ till nearly finished; then take the rubber
ball out and fill with the cotton or wool and then complete the ball.
Then crochet a string about eight inches long and attach to the ball,
for suspending it. The ball can then be swung, raised, lowered, made to
hop like a bird, swing like a pendulum, revolve rapidly like a wheel.
The child may play that it is a bucket being raised or lowered. See how
steadily he can raise it.

The balls lend themselves to many color games.

1. Place them in a row, let one child blind his eyes, another one
removes one of the balls and the first one, opening his eyes, tries to
think which one is missing.

2. Let children observe the colors through a glass prism and try to
arrange balls in similar order. Ask child if he can tell which colors
are uppermost in the rainbow, the cold or the warm ones.

3. If the mother is sewing on a colored dress, let the child try to pick
out the ball resembling it in color.

4. Play hiding the ball, as in hide the thimble.

5. Play store, letting him tell you which ball will best represent a
lemon, an orange, a red apple, etc.


=Second Gift Plays=

Throughout his life, Froebel felt with keen pain all that was discordant
or inharmonious in human society. Beneath all differences and
misunderstandings lay, he believed, the possibility of adjustment, or
reconciliation. Relations most strained might be brought into harmonious
union. This great idea is typified by the second gift. The hard wooden
sphere is _round, curved from all points of view_, with no _angles_ or
_edges_, and is _easily moved_. The cube is a complete contrast to the
sphere, inasmuch as it _stands firmly_, has _flat faces_, _angles_, and
_edges_. The cylinder combines the characteristics and possibilities of
the other two. It has flat faces as well as a curved one, and can both
stand and roll. It forms a bond of connection between the other two
which at first sight seem irreconcilable.

Three of these forms have small staples inserted in side, edge, and
angle so that they may be suspended, swung, and revolved. There are also
perforations through each one admitting the insertion of the axles, when
needed for certain plays.

If an axle be put through cube or cylinder and it be revolved rapidly,
you can see, in the swift moving figure, the spirit, as it were, of the
other forms--an experiment fascinating to young and old.

A little imagination will turn the box in which these blocks come, into
a boat, car, engine, etc., pins, matches, tacks, wire, etc., being
called in as extras.

The little wooden beam may be placed across, held up by the axles and
upon this the blocks may be suspended as objects for sale in a store.

The box with its cover may be used to illustrate the three primary
mechanical principles, the pulley, or wheel, the inclined plane, and the
lever. The pulley is made by placing the cylinder on an axle, tying a
little weight to one end of a cord and drawing it up over the cylinder.
Let the child play the weight is a bucket of water being drawn up from a
well.

Play loading a boat and use the cover for a plank, inclined from the
deck to the ground, up which to roll a barrel (the cylinder).

Play that the cube is a heavy piano box and show how to raise it by
using a stick as a lever.

The students of a kindergarten training school made fine derrick cranes
with this box of blocks, and no two were exactly alike.


=Games with Second Gift Ball=

1. Let children sit crossed-legged on the floor in a circle and let one
child roll the ball across to another child. He in turn rolls it
straight over to some other child and so on.

2. Let one child sit in the center of a circle and roll the ball to each
child in turn, who rolls it back to him.

3. Let several children stand in the center of a ring and try to catch
the ball as it rolls swiftly by.

4. Let children stand in center and try to avoid being touched by the
ball as it rolls along.

5. Draw a circle on the floor and let the children try in turn to so
roll the ball that it will stop inside of the ring.

6. Place the cube in the center of the circle. Put the cylinder on top
of the cube and balance the sphere carefully upon the cylinder. Then let
the children try to hit this target with another ball.

Many are the lessons in self-control, fair play, patience and kindness
which the children practice in playing these simple games, in addition
to the physical exercise and training in alertness, in seeing correctly
and in acting quickly.


=Second Gift Beads=

Mrs. Hailmann, a kindergarten training teacher, some years ago added to
the "gifts" the so-called "second gift beads," much loved by wee
children.

These are perforated wooden beads in shape of the sphere, cube and
cylinder. They come in two sizes and may be had in colors or uncolored.
A shoe lace comes with them for stringing.

In delightful plays with these beads the child learns to distinguish
form and color, and has practice in simple designing.

At first let him have a number of different kinds and let him thread
them as he pleases. Observe him and see if, of his own initiative, he
will distinguish either form or color. After a while he will probably,
without suggestion, begin to string them in some sort of order--one
sphere, one cube, one sphere, one cube, etc. Two spheres, two cubes, two
cylinders, etc.

When he begins to see differences, give him two forms only and let him
arrange. Later give him others. Too many at first will be confusing.

Besides the stringing, these beads may be used in other ways. Make a
fence by putting two cubes and a sphere, one on top of the other for a
post, and then join these to similar posts by running toothpicks or
burnt matches through the perforations.

Place cubes and cylinders, one on top of another, and use as tree box
with tiny twig or elderberry branch for tree. If making a toy village of
blocks or cardboard, these little beads will make good lampposts.


=The Pegboard=

The pegboard, an additional gift devised by Mrs. Alice H. Putnam, can
also be had in two sizes, the large one to be preferred. The board is
perforated with holes at regular intervals and is accompanied with
colored pegs, which the child loves to insert in the openings.

He may arrange them in ranks for soldiers, according to color, two and
two, or four and four, learning thus to count.

A flower-bed with red flowers in one corner and green bushes in another
may be made.

He may play that the pegs are kindergarten children playing follow the
leader, some with red dresses, some with blue waists, etc.

A birthday cake with candles may be represented, or a line of telegraph
poles, if father has gone on a journey, and over the imaginary wires a
message may be sent.

The pegboard is also loved by very young children.


=Plays with the Other Gifts=

The third gift cubes may be built by the little child into houses,
furniture, wagons, etc. It is very simple, and yet when handling it the
child learns something of form and number and gains skill with his tiny
hands.

The fourth gift expresses "proportion." Each block is twice the length
of those in the preceding gift and half as high. He can build with it
objects impossible with the first divided cube. The two may often be
used in conjunction.

The fifth gift requires a decided increase in the child's powers of
coördination. He can make with it a very great variety of objects. Only
a kindergartner can appreciate its many possibilities.

The sixth gift lends itself peculiarly to buildings of a certain type.
It expresses less strength and more grace than the preceding ones.

In playing with these "gifts" under direction of a teacher, the child,
if making the grocery store, proceeds to make the counter, the scales,
the money desk, etc., in succession, and is not allowed to take the
first structure apart in disorderly fashion and then make the next one,
but is supposed to build the counter, or other article, by gradually
transforming the thing already made, removing the blocks in ones, or
twos, or threes in an orderly way. Each block is supposed to have some
relation to the whole. For instance if a shoe store has been made and
one unused block remains, it may represent the footstool used in such a
store.

Froebel thought in this way through simple play to help the child little
by little to feel the relatedness of all life.


=Seventh Gift Plays=

With the seventh gift tablets the child makes designs or "beauty forms,"
becoming familiar with certain geometrical forms and exercising his
powers of invention in pleasing design.

In using the tablets, which are in both light and dark stains, do not
give too many at first. Give him for instance one circle, representing a
picture of a ball, and let him lay a row of such for a frieze design for
a gymnasium.

Give a circle and four squares, and let him place one above, one below,
one to the right and one to the left, touching the circle. This will
suggest a unit for a tile for a playroom fireplace.

Tell him to change the top square so that its angle touches the circle;
then change the lower one in the same way; then the right, then the
left. This transformation gives an entirely new design.

The other tablets may be employed in the same way, the different kinds
of triangles offering opportunity for much variety.


=Eighth Gift Plays=

The sticks may be used in representing designs in which the straight
line prevails. The lines may be placed in vertical or horizontal
position. Sticks may be arranged as soldiers, standing two and two in
straight vertical lines; or as fences in horizontal position.

They may be classified as to length. Let the child sort them as wood for
the woodpile, putting together those of same length. Or play he is in
the store to buy a cane and sees those of different lengths, some for
men, some for children.

For designing give the child four sticks of one length and let him make
a square. Give him four of another length and let him make a larger
square. Then with these eight sticks let him make two oblongs of the
same size. Give him these exercises as puzzles, but do not let him play
with the sticks until he gets nervous in trying to keep them in
position.


=Play With Lentils=

These are necessarily few and simple. Let the child make circles,
squares, etc., by putting the lentils in rows. He can also represent the
mass of a tree's foliage by placing a number of the lentils in a mass.



CHAPTER XII

KINDERGARTEN MATERIALS

The Kindergarten Occupations


The kindergarten gifts proceed, as will have been observed, from the
solid through other forms to the point. The objects made with these are
but temporary, and the same material may be used again and again.

Parallel with these Froebel devised what he calls the "occupations,"
which put into permanent shape the ideas expressed by the gifts.

Among the occupations (we will not name all) are: Peaswork, pricking,
sewing, weaving, parquetry, pasting, cardboard modeling, sand and clay
modeling.

These are arranged in reverse order to the gifts; that is, they proceed
from the point to the solid.


=Peaswork= (_Good well-dried peas_, _wooden toothpicks or hair-wire_)

Soak the peas for 10 or 12 hours till soft. Then make a cane of one pea
and one stick.

Two peas and one stick will make a dumb-bell.

Three of each will make a triangle.

Make a square in the same way, and then by adding to this other peas and
sticks a skeleton chair can be made. All kinds of furniture and
geometrical forms may be thus manufactured. The wire or toothpick must
be inserted in the cheek of the pea. Watch the child carefully to see
that he does not get nervous over the work. Assuming that the peas are
in good condition, there should be little trouble if the forms made are
simple.


=Pricking= (_Thin white cardboard_, _long pin_, _several folds of cloth
    or a piece of felt_)

Froebel recognized the appeal this pastime makes to the mystery-loving
child. As sometimes used it may be injurious to nerves or eyesight; but
used judiciously the child of five or six will find it a source of
harmless entertainment.

Let mother or older brother draw on cardboard a simple strong outline.
Provide a strong steel pin (hat-pin or mourning-pin will do) and a piece
of folded cloth for a cushion. Follow the outline by pricking in it a
succession of holes. The rough side is the right side of the decorated
card. The card may be hung up as a transparency, or may be made up into
blotter or calendar; or, if the outline be that of a vegetable or a
fruit, it will make up into a Thanksgiving place card.

Very beautiful effects are produced by pricking the surface as well as
the outline, a form of embossing, but this is a great strain on the
nerves. Let the child work for only a few moments at a time, and be sure
that the light is good and the drawing is distinct.


=Sewing= (_Cardboard_, _worsted_, _silk or chenille_, _needle_, _punch_)

It is a disputed question now whether or not the cardboard sewing of the
kindergarten, once considered so essential, should be used at all. Some
condemn it entirely; others use it sparingly. Many replace it with
sewing on cloth and other materials soft and flexible, which lend
themselves to the kind of stitching required later in everyday sewing.
We cannot now enter into the discussion, but common-sense rules here as
elsewhere.

Cards with designs already drawn and perforated may be bought, but the
mother need not feel that she must depend upon these. Old visiting and
invitation cards may be used for the purpose. We give a few examples of
objects pretty and useful which may be made of this material. These will
suggest others to the active-minded child. Get punch at kindergarten
supply store; from 50 cents up.

1. Gift Card. Cut a square of cardboard 5 × 5 inches. With a needleful
of red worsted let the child sew upon this card three straight candles
in stitches one inch long. You may first punch in the bottom of the card
three holes as guides. Put them in a row equidistant from each other.
Make parallel to these a row of three dots in pencil. The child will
push the needle through one hole _from below_ and put it through the dot
above, making his own hole. So proceed till finished. A flame may be
drawn with yellow chalk at the upper end of each candle, to make it more
realistic. This card may be used to stand a candlestick upon, or to send
as a birthday card.

A similar card with the red stitches lying horizontally will picture
firecrackers ready to be set off. Use as a mat for a match safe.

2. Cover for Medicine Glass. Draw a circle five inches in diameter. Cut
this out. Parallel to the edge draw a circle four inches in diameter.
Make dots about 1/2 inch apart along this second circle. Punch holes
through these dots. With worsted, ravelings or chenille let the child
sew once around this circle. Then go around the other way to fill up all
the gaps left the first time. Use as cover for glass of medicine. Line
the bottom with clean, white paper.

Vary by overcasting, or from a central hole take long radiating stitches
to the holes in the circumference like the spokes of a wheel.

3. Toy Umbrella. The above circle with spokes may be made into a toy
umbrella if a slender stick be run through for a handle. Stick a pin
about an inch from the top to keep the umbrella part from slipping down.

4. Bookmark. Cut an oblong card 2 × 6 inches. Draw upon this a row of
parallel oblique lines about one inch apart and one inch long. Punch
holes through the ends of the lines at the bottom, sew one slanting line
to show the child, and let him finish the row. A similar oblong will
make a napkin ring if the ends be brought together and tied with the
ends of the worsted.

Squares, oblongs, crosses, etc., may thus be punched and sewed.

If no punch is obtainable, make the holes with a coarse needle or strong
pin.


=Paper Tearing= (See page 54)


=Paper Cutting=

This is another Froebelian occupation. Some suggestions have been given
elsewhere. (See page 54.) We will speak here of a more definite series
of progressive steps.

Take a square of white paper. Fold once to make an oblong. Keep folded
and fold once more, which gives a small square. From the corners of this
square cut pieces, large or small. Keep these. Open the paper and lay it
down. Then arrange around it the cut-off corners to make a design. They
may be arranged in a variety of ways. The pieces cut off the corners
may be of various shapes.

Vary another square by cutting into it, after it has been folded,
triangles or other figures. Open and arrange around it these cut-off
pieces. When a satisfactory design has thus been made, it may be pasted
on a pleasing background of paper.

In kindergarten training, checked paper is provided and the cuttings are
made from lines drawn upon this according to a progressive system.


=Parquetry= (_Colored papers_, _paste_, _kindergarten slat or match for
    paste-stick_)

This occupation has its parallel in the tablets. The designs made
temporarily with the circles, squares, etc., of wood may be put into
more permanent form with the parquetry papers. These are circles,
squares, triangles, etc., of colored papers, the unit of size being the
inch. There are 1,000 in a package, embracing the six colors--red,
orange, yellow, green, blue and violet, with two shades and two tints of
each, besides neutral tones, and black and white.

1. Easter Card. Give the child an oblong piece of gray cardboard, six
inches long, and some yellow circles. Let him paste a row of circles for
dandelion heads and then chalk in the green stems. Give to father for an
Easter card.

Red and yellow circles may be cut in half and so arranged as to suggest
tulips. (See page 122.)

2. Frieze. Let the child make designs for a frieze for the doll-house
parlor, arranging circles and squares successively or alternately on a
strip of paper. Or he can make a design for the doll-house kitchen
oilcloth by pasting squares or circles (one square or circle surrounded
by others) in a square unit.

An inexpensive paste for this work may be made of gum tragacanth. Buy
five cents' worth of the powdered gum. Put a tablespoonful into an empty
mucilage bottle and fill with water. In a few moments it will dissolve
and thicken. Use more or less, according to thickness desired.


=Weaving= (_Colored kindergarten weaving mats_, _weaving needle_)

This is one of the most popular of kindergarten occupations.

Primitive man early learned to interlace the branches of trees to make
for himself a shelter, and to weave together coarse fibres to make his
crude garments. In course of ages great skill was acquired in thus using
all kinds of flexible materials; artistic baskets were produced of
raffia and reeds, and fine garments of linen, wool and cotton. Beautiful
effects in color and form were introduced, the designs usually having a
symbolic meaning.

Froebel devised, for the expression of this natural tendency, a series
of exercises with colored paper, which gave practice in selection of
color harmonies, in designing, in counting, and which led to skill and
neatness in work.

Loom-weaving has been described on another page. (90.) In many
kindergartens it now entirely supersedes the paper-weaving, which we
will here briefly describe.

1. If you do not care to buy the regular kindergarten weaving mats, you
may use smooth gray or brown wrapping paper cut into four-inch squares.
In such a square cut _two_ slits 1/2 inch apart and one inch long. From
some pretty paper cut a strip one inch wide and two inches long and
insert in the slit in the mat, pasting the ends of the strip to the
under side of the mat.

2. Cut _three_ or _four_ slits in similar mats and weave into them
one-inch or half-inch strips, using narrower ones as the child gains
skill. Weave such a strip under one and over one; then weave another,
under two and over two, etc.; thus a variety of effects may be produced
and the child meanwhile has practice incidentally in simple counting.
Such a mat may be used to cover a glass of drinking water or medicine
glass.

3. A larger mat may be made of pretty paper cut into comparatively fine
slits. Paste upon this mat a square of smooth paper as a kind of lining;
fold cornerwise and paste two edges together, making a kind of
cornucopia.

4. Scent-Bag. A scent-bag may be made by putting between the mat and the
lining described above a thin piece of cotton-batting, sprinkled with
scent.

5. Oilcloth or Felt. Instead of paper, mats may be woven of plain
oilcloth or of felt. Have two colors of each material, one for the mat
and one for the strips.

On a 5-inch square of the material draw four parallel lines one inch
apart and one inch from the top and bottom. Then using these as guide
lines, cut four slits and weave in and out as with the paper weaving.
Ribbon may be used for the woof if desired. Such a mat may be used for a
lamp-mat or for a flower-pot mat.

Among the reasons for discarding the paper-weaving are the following:
The colors are somewhat intense, and it is not always easy to secure
good harmonies; the care necessary to avoid tearing the delicate paper
and soiling the delicate colors is often a trial to highly-strung
children. Therefore they should not work at it too long at a time. A
weaving needle comes with the kindergarten weaving papers.


=Paper-Folding=

We give here _only a very few_ of the innumerable forms which may be
made by folding paper according to exact directions. Mother may conduct
such a little play while she is sewing and the child is on the floor or
at the table. But directions must be exact and explicit. After once
having told what to do in quiet, distinct, clear language, do not
repeat. Train the child to hear accurately the first time.

Papers in many tones may be obtained from the kindergarten supply
stores, but any exact square of white paper or of smooth brown wrapping
paper will do.

Place the simple open square before the child, the edge directly in
front of him. Call it a tablecloth and ask where the different members
of the family sit. If able to wield the scissors, let him fringe the
edge all around.

1. Book. Give a second square and, showing him which are the front
corners, tell him to take hold of these and fold the paper over so that
the front edge is just on a line with the back edge. Let him iron the
table cloth (crease the fold with his thumb nail) so as to make a sharp
line when opened. This makes a little book or tent. Ask what he can read
in the book; who camps out in the tent; etc.

2. Window. Make another tent. Keep the tent in front of the child and
tell him to open it and then to fold the left side over so that the left
edge exactly meets the right edge. Crease and open, and the result is a
window with four panes. Have the child tell what he plays he can see
through it.

3. Tunnel. Fold a square once through the middle as before. Open and
notice the sharp line made by the crease. Now fold the front edge to
meet exactly _this line_. Open and then fold the back edge to meet this
line. Open in such a way that the form when standing makes a little
tunnel. Roll a marble under it.

[Illustration: Paper-Folding.]

4. Barn. Fold a square into sixteen little squares by making a tunnel in
one direction and then folding a tunnel in the other direction, so that
the creases cross each other at right angles. Open out and cut from the
_left edge_ and from the _right edge_ three slits along the horizontal
creases to the first intersecting vertical crease. (See illustration.)
Now fold No. 1 over No. 2 so that one little square exactly covers the
other and paste or pin together. Do the same at the other end. This
draws the paper into shape of gable roof. Place remaining flaps so that
one overlaps the other a trifle, as shown in the illustration. Then cut
a door in the side. (See illustration.) This can be made of a large
sheet of strong paper and will house very large paper animals.

5. Sailboat. Place a square of paper directly in front of you. Fold the
front edge backward to meet exactly the back edge and crease. Open and
fold the left edge over to meet exactly the right edge and crease. Open.

Turn the paper over so that _the under side is uppermost_, and place so
that a _corner_ is directly in front of you. Fold the paper so that the
front corner exactly meets the back corner and crease. Open and fold so
that the left corner exactly meets the right corner.

You now have a square crossed by two diameters and by two diagonals.
Number the _corners_ thus: 1, 2, 3, 4, and the _center_ 0. Take the
corners and hold in one hand so that 1-0, 2-0, 3-0 and 4-0 are back to
back. Then crease in that position. The form is a square. Lay down so
that the _folded corner_ faces you. Fold the loose back corner down to
meet the front corner. Then turn over and again fold the remaining back
corner down to meet the front corner, and two sails become visible. Fold
back one-half of the hull to make a base, and the little boat will stand
and move if breathed upon. It can be made water-tight by dipping in
melted paraffine. Melt the paraffine by putting it in a double boiler
with boiling water beneath.


=Cardboard Modeling= (_Cardboard_, _knife_, _pencil_, _scissors_)

This is another of Froebel's materials which is much used in the
kindergarten. The regular kindergarten cardboard comes in large sheets
measured off into inches, half inches and quarter inches by red and
blue lines. These are to assist in the accurate cutting and folding of
the stiff paper. The tinted Bristol board obtainable at stationery
stores is also much used.

With this simple material older children acquire skill of both hand and
eye. The higher school grades are now using it to a great extent in
making geometrical figures, thus gaining practice in making objects
after first making the working drawings for the same. A tinsmith who has
had kindergarten training will find himself better equipped for his life
work because of this early experience in cutting and measuring.

The directions here given assume that the unruled cardboard is used.

To _score_ is to make a long shallow cut or scratch in the cardboard
with a knife, so that it will bend easily. We give a few simple objects
in the order of their difficulty.

1. Book-Mark. Draw an oblong 1 × 8 inches. Cut it out and punch a series
of holes down the middle, one inch apart. Run a bit of baby ribbon in
and out and thus make a simple book-mark.

2. Toy Wash-Bench. Draw and cut an oblong 1 × 6 inches. Draw a line
straight across this one inch from each end, and then score these lines
lightly. Bend and you have a wash-bench for doll's house.

3. Sugar-Scoop. Draw and cut an oblong 2 × 4 inches. Draw a line
lengthwise through the middle. Score this line, and _cut_ along the
score _one inch from each end_. Score again from each end at _right
angles_ to the previous crease. Bend up the scored ends and the side,
and paste the flaps together. This may be used for the toy grocery
store.

4. Box. Read these directions through once. Then begin and work along
as you read again, and all will be clear.

Cut out a square measuring 4 × 4 inches. Place squarely before you, and
then on the front edge, one inch from each side, make a dot. On the back
edge, one inch from each side, make a dot. Unite the dots at front and
back by straight lines. This gives two vertical lines.

Now, on the right hand edge, one inch from each end make a dot, and do
the same on the left hand edge. Unite these dots by straight lines,
which gives two horizontal lines crossing the ones previously made at
right angles. With a sharp knife, and ruler to keep it straight, score
along these lines so that they may be readily bent.

Now, from the right edge cut along each horizontal line a slit one inch
long. From the left edge cut along each horizontal line a slit one inch
long. These cuts will give four flaps. Bend up the four oblong sides and
fold each flap over inside the box and paste.

A little experimentation on the part of older children will show how to
elongate one side so as to make a cover.

Differences in the proportions of the original piece of cardboard will
make boxes of different proportions.

5. Work-Box. Draw a five-inch pentagon. Look up in a geometry to find
the rules for doing this.

Upon each side as a base erect another pentagon. Score at the line of
junction and bend the side pentagons till the edges meet. In these edges
punch holes opposite each other, and through these tie baby ribbon to
hold them together.


=Clay Modeling= (_Potter's clay_, _oilcloth or small smooth board_,
    _curtain pole_)

Clay is one of the important kindergarten materials, and if used with
care need give but little trouble. Buy at kindergarten supply store or
art shop.

Take a yard of table oilcloth and sew tapes to the corners so long that
the oilcloth may be tied to a table and thus held smooth and firm. When
not in use keep rolled up on a curtain-pole, broom-handle or dowel. This
preserves it from untimely cracking. Upon this oilcloth the child can
easily work with the clay, and the small pieces which may stick to it
are readily wiped off with a damp cloth. If preferred, a small board
about a foot square may be used instead of oilcloth. The child soon
learns not to scatter the pieces. It is well for him to wear a little
apron when making his small works of art. When finished with the clay,
let him remove as much as possible from the hands as a rule, what
remains may be rubbed away with a brisk clapping of the hands or is
washed off very readily.

1. If his first impulse is to pound and thump the clay, show the child
how pretty things may be made by gently pressing and molding the clay
between thumb and fingers. If he is still interested in pounding, show
him how to make a sphere by rolling the clay between the palms, and then
by striking it four times hard against the table it is transformed into
a rough sort of cube which further effort will improve.

2. If he inclines to make a number of balls, show him if possible one of
the cheap clay marbles, and tell him to make some like it, though his
will have no glazing.

3. If you see that he is rolling the clay into long lengths, suggest
that he make a snake or links of a chain.

4. Older children may be shown how to roll it with the palm into long
slender cylinders. Then coil these round and round spirally upon
themselves and so build up a jar, as certain primitive races do. Then
smooth it outside and inside until well shaped.

5. Bowls and crude vases are easily made, and these when dried may be
painted and used to hold matches or pencils.

6. Sometimes, to stir the imagination, break off a rough piece of clay
and ask the child if it looks like anything to him. If it suggest a bird
or fish or fruit, show him how the crude form may be made more nearly
perfect.

7. Take a bit of clay and upon it press another bit, and so little by
little smooth and press and build up a plaque 1/2 inch high and four
inches square. Upon this as a background, build up in the same way,
little by little, a raised leaf, or a geometrical figure, such as a
square or a Maltese cross. If a leaf is made, copy from a real leaf.

When thus interested, let the older children read Longfellow's beautiful
poem, "Keramis," and the work of the potter will have a meaning it never
had before.

The children who thus make crude efforts to express the beautiful gain
in power little by little, and will have added capacity to appreciate
the wonderful works of art to be seen in every gallery. They will gain
in discrimination as to what is really beautiful, and will know how to
choose those decorations and ornaments which will make their homes truly
artistic.

Clay lends itself so readily to the slightest turn of thought, and is
so easily employed by the smallest pair of hands, that it is one of the
best materials to give to the little child. He soon learns to tell with
it what he may be able to say in no other way.

When ready to put away, break into small pieces, put the pieces
together, knead a little till made into a mass, punch a few holes in the
mass, fill these with water, put into a stone jar and cover with a damp
cloth. Or put the clay into a cloth, dampen, and then, twisting the four
corners of the cloth together, drop the mass on the floor. Do this
several times and it will be found welded together. Then put into the
stone jar. Disinfect clay by exposing to sunshine.


=Sand-Table= (_Kitchen table_, _saw_, _boards_, _nails_, _zinc_)

From Germany we have finally learned the value of the sand-table and the
sand-pile as means of development to the child, not to speak of their
virtues as pure givers of joy.

Sand-tables may be bought at kindergarten stores, or one may be made of
a kitchen table by sawing off the legs to the size which brings the
table top within reach of the child. Then the top should be fenced in
with boards, from three to six inches high, to keep the sand in. It is a
good plan to line the table with zinc, since it is sometimes desirable
to have the sand pretty wet, although it generally suffices to make it
just damp enough to mold readily. It can be dampened with a
sprinkling-can.

1. The child will play a long while without much suggestion. A little
pail or bottle to be filled and emptied and refilled will furnish
material for his embryonic experiments.

2. A tiny cast-iron spade (price one cent) will add materially to his
happiness.

3. Shells and patty-pans of different shapes and convolutions suggest
bakery plays, and mother must sample the baby's cookery. When houses and
forts and churches are the order of the day, paths must be laid and
bordered with stones and shells; twigs and elderberry branches make tiny
trees for tiny orchards; and a little pan of water or a bit of mirror
makes a wee lake. The kindergarten building gifts make substantial
structures, bridges, park-benches, etc. A winding river can be painted
with blue paint on the zinc. When the child's imagination flags, a word
from the mother or a timely story will start a new series of plays next
time.

4. Older children will enjoy reproducing in the sand the hills and
valleys of their environment, the roads, woods and streams which they
know, etc.

5. Tell of the western plant which, when uprooted from its loose hold in
the desert sand, is sent flying by the wind over the sand, and wherever
it touches makes a perfect spiral. Let the children make such spirals
with a coiled piece of wire.

6. Having noticed the impression made upon the sand by the patty-pans,
the child can be led to make designs with them by making a row of
impressions equal distances apart, arranging these in twos, in threes,
etc.



INDEX


        PAGE

  Abacus, 17

  Acquiring Skill with Brush or Pencil, 74

  Aiming Games, 95, 96, 97

  Anagrams, 102

  Apple-biting Contest, 132

  Apple Candlestick, 24

  Apple-seed Penwiper, 30

  Applied Art, 76

  Ash Tray, 67

  Autograph Picture, 105


  Badge, 123

  Baking Pan Papers, 57

  Balls, 96, 156

  Barn, Paper Folding, 172

  Beads, Second Gift, 159

  Bean Bag Games, 95

  Bean Bags, To Make, 95

  Bed-Making, 145

  Bedstead, Dolls, 87

  Bells, 109, 139

  Berry Baskets or Boxes, 11

  Birchbark, 42

  Biscuit, Thimble, 104

  Block Furniture, 85

  Blowing Bubbles, 51

  Blowing Out Candle, 100

  Boat, 22, 26, 36, 41

  Blue Prints, 52

  Bon-bon Papers, 58, 115

  Booklist, 151

  Bookmark, 58, 174

  Border for Sand-table, 40

  Bottling Shells, 40

  Bottling Stones, 39

  Boxes, 12, 15, 174

  Breastpin, 71

  Bristol Board, 61

  Brush, Pencil or, 73

  Bubbles, 51

  Burnt Match Safe, 34

  Butter Dishes, 41

  Butterflies, 105, 121

  Butterfly Party, 105

  Butter Modeling, 134

  Buttons, 69

  Button-Box, 15

  Button Mold Tops, 70

  Button Mold Wheels, 70


  Calendar, 74, 109

  Candle, Blowing Out, 100

  Candle Design, 55

  Candle Making, 137

  Candle Sticks, 24, 64, 138

  Canoe, 43

  Cardboard, 61

  Cardboard Animals, 63

  Cardboard Modeling, 173

  Cardboard Sewing, 165

  Carols, 138

  Carrot Top, 45

  Celluloid Butterflies, 121

  Center Piece, Pumpkin, 135

  Cereal Boxes, 32

  Chains, 56, 115

  Chased by a Goose, 78

  Checkerboard, 62

  Cherry Stone Game, 99

  Chicken Coop, 13

  Chicken, Easter, 122

  Chicken, Squash Seed, 29

  Child's Library, The, 149

  Chinese Kite, 66

  Chinese Toy, 64

  Christmas, 136

  Cigar-Box Bedstead, 87

  Cigar-Box Dollhouse, 82

  Circle Tag, 92

  Classifying, 39, 40, 48

  Clay, 176

  Clay-pipe Doll, 80

  Clock, Paper, 86

  Clothespin Doll, 80

  Clothespin Race, 94

  Clover, Four-leaf, 48

  Collecting, 39, 40, 48

  Color Top, 75

  Colors, Matching, 71

  Cork, 36

  Cork Doll, 81

  Corn, 18

  Corncobs, 18

  Corncrib, 18

  Cornhusks, 18

  Cornstalks, 135

  Counters for Games, 28, 62, 69

  Countess of the Huggermuggers, 100

  Counting Ball, 96

  Cover for Medicine Glass, 166, 170

  Cradle, Egg Shell, 25

  Cranberries, 136

  Croquet with Peas, 98

  Cross Tag, 93

  Cup and Ball, 96

  Curtains for Dollhouse, 87

  Cutlery, Toy, 36

  Cutting Paper, 54, 167


  Darning Egg, 44

  Decorated Note-Paper, 109

  Decoration Day, 123

  Decorative Cherries, 114

  Decorative Leaves, 47

  Designs, 21, 28, 77

  Dinner Souvenirs, 120, 130, 134

  Dishes, Tin-foil, 35

  Dish-washing, 143

  Distances, Guessing, 72

  Doll Furniture, 15, 37, 85

  Doll-Houses, 82

  Doll Park, 89

  Dolls, 80

  Donkey Game, 100

  Drawing, 31, 72

  Drums, 125

  Ducking for Apples, 131

  Dusting, 147


  Easter, 120

  Easter Card, 122, 168

  Easter Chicken, 122

  East Indian Fan, 43

  Edam Cheese Lantern, 34

  Egg-shell Boat, 26

  Egg-shell Cradle, 25

  Egg-shell Game, 99

  Egg-shell Garden, 25

  Eggs, Humpty Dumpty, 26

  Egg-shell, To Blow, 25

  Egg-shells, 25, 26, 99

  Eighth Gift Plays, 162

  Elevator, Toy, 71

  Epaulettes, 56

  Experiments with Color, 75

  Expression with Pencil and Brush, 73


  Fairy Tales, Myths, etc., 151

  Fan, 43, 63

  Feather, Corn-husk, 18

  Feather Flowers, 49

  Felt Mats, 170

  Fence, 11, 19

  Festival Occasions, 107

  Festoons, 47

  Firecracker Designs, 55

  Firecracker, Imitation, 124

  First Gift Balls, 156

  Flags, 119

  Flower-Pot, 35

  Flower Rack, 37

  Flowers, Feather, 49

  Flowers, Pressing, 51

  Foot-ball, Egg, 99

  Fortune Telling, 131

  Fourth of July, 124

  Frieze, 48, 168

  Fringed Bon-bon Papers, 58, 115

  Furniture, 15, 20, 37, 85


  Games and Plays, 92, 157, 158, 161

  Gift Card, 166

  Gifts, Kindergarten, 155

  Go-Bang Board, 61

  Good Luck Pigs, 109

  Gourds, 44

  Grace Hoops, 97

  Grocery Store, 88

  Guess Ball, 96

  Guessing Distances, 72


  Hallowe'en, 131

  Hammering Soap, 31

  Handkerchief Box, 42

  Hanging Basket, 15, 35, 44

  Hearts, 110

  History and Biography Books, 152

  Home Tasks, 141

  Honey, Weighing, 103

  House, Cob, 19

  House, Doll's, 33, 82

  Household Duties, 141

  Humpty Dumpty Eggs, 26


  Imitation Water, 31

  Independence Day, 124

  Indian Head-dress, 50

  Ironing, 146


  Jack O'Lantern, 135

  Jackstones, 39

  Japanese Tag, 93


  Key-Basket, The, 141

  Kindergarten Materials--Gifts, 155

    "             "     --Occupations, 164

  Kite, 60, 66


  Labor Day, 128

    "    "   Dinner, 130

    "    "   Parade, 129

  Lacy Valentine, 111

  Lamp Mats, 170

  Lamp, Toy, 86

  Lantern, 33, 34, 139

    "      Toy, 24

  Learning to Observe, 73

  Leaves, to Dry and Press, 47

  Lentils, 163

  Library, The Child's, 149

  Looms, 90


  Man, Prunes, Raisins, 27

  Masks, 57

  Matching Colors, 71

  Matchsafe, 34, 177

  Mats, 18, 46, 170

  Medicine Glass Cover, 166, 170

  Memorial Day, 123

  Merry-Go-Round, Dolls', 89

  Midnight Watching, 109

  Mirror, Toy, 36

  Money, Toy, 36, 58

  Morning Glories, Pressed, 51

  Moving Van, 32

  Music Books, 154


  Nature Books, 153

  Needle Case, 42

  Needles, 71

  New Year's Bells, 109

    "    "   Day, 108

  Newspaper Wrappers, 57

  Numeral Frame, 17

  Nuts, 22


  Occupations, Kindergarten, 164

  Oilcloth Mats, 170

  Oiled Paper, 87

  Omnibus Swing, 101

  Orange Basket, 24


  Paint-Box, The, 73

  Paint-Brush Box, 43

  Painting from Object, 73

    "      Wagons or Houses, 76

  Paper, 54

  Paper Chains, 56, 115

  Paper Cutting, 54, 167

  Paper Doll, 81

  Paper Folding, 171

  Paper Furniture, 85

  Paper Lanterns, 118

  Paper Mats, 169

  Paper Money, 58

  Paper-Weight, 40

  Papering House, 85

  Papers for Baking Pans, 57

  Park for Dolls, 89

  Parquetry, 168

  Parties, Suggestions for, 103

  Paste, 169

  Pasteboard Doll House, 82

  Paste Stick, 14

  Path Borders or Markers, 39

  Pea Furniture, 164

  Peanut Animals, 23

    "    Doll, 80

    "    Party, 103

  Pea Pod Boat, 16

  Peas, 16

  Peaswork, 164

  Pebbles, 39

  Pegboard, 160

  Pencil Box, 43

  Pen Tray, 67

  Penwiper, 42

  Perforating or Pricking, 133, 165

  Piano Scarf, 41

  Picture Books, 153

  Picture Frames, 13, 44, 46

  Picture Story, 78

  Pictures of Seedling, 74

  Pigments, 75

  Pincushion, 41

  Pin Tray, 41

  Place or Luncheon Cards, 76, 108, 113, 119, 121, 127, 130, 133 134, 136

  Plays or Games, 92

  Plays with Gifts, 161

  Plumes for Hat, 55

  Poetry Books, 123, 153

  Pop-corn Balls, 22

  Pop-corn Chains or Festoons, 22, 139

  Portieres, 21

  Post Fence, 19, 160

  Potato Horse, 17

    "    Race, 94

  Pressed Leaves, 47

  Pressed Morning Glories, 51

  Pricking, 133, 165

  Prism, 75

  Prunes, 27

  Pulley, Toy, 71

  Pumpkin Basket or Center Piece, 135


  Races, 94

  Racing Tag, 93

  Raffia, 45

  Rafts, 19, 36

  Rag Doll, 82

  Raisins, 27

  Ramekin Dishes, 41

  Reading, 123, 133, 140, 177

  Red Pepper Lantern, 24

  Reins, 46

  Ring Toss, 97

  Road Roller, Spool, 71

  Rockets, Imitation, 127

  Room Decorations, 132, 135

  Rope and Sandbag, 101

  Rose-haw Chains or Rosaries, 51

  Rosettes, 126

  Rug Design, 77

  Rugs, 90


  Sailboat, 23, 36, 173

  St. Patrick's Day, 119

    "     "      "   Dinner, 120

  St. Valentine's Day, 110

    "     "       Dinner, 112

  Salt, 34

  Salt Dishes, 41

  Sand, 178

  Sand Table, 178

  Saved from the Scrap Basket, 53

  Scales, Toy, 88

  Scent Bag, 170

  Scissors, Drawing, 72

  Scrap Books, 68

  Screen, Toy or Miniature, 63, 122

  Second Gift Plays, 157, 158

  Second Gift Beads, 159

  Seedling, Drawing of, 74

  Seed-markers, 11

  Seeds, 27

  Seventh Gift, Tablets, 162

  Sewing, 165

  Sewing Basket, The, 69

  Shadow Game, 52

  Shamrock, 119

  Shells, 40

  Shields, 127

  Snowball, 137

  Snowflakes, 59

  Soap, 31

  Soap Box Doll House, 84

  Soldiers Caps, etc., 55

  Soldier-Flowers, Milkweed, 51

  Spiderweb Party, 104

    "       Valentine, 111

  Spinning Buttons, 69, 70

  Sponge Garden, 120

  Spools, 70

  Squash Animals, 17

  Squash Seed Chicken, 29

  Stained Glass Windows, 77

  Sticks, Kindergarten, 156, 162

  Stones and Pebbles, 39

  Stove, Toy, 86

  Strawberry Boxes, 11

  Straws, 51

  Stringing, 21, 27, 51, 69, 136

  Sugar Scoop, 174

  Suggestions for Parties, 103

  Sun and Shadow, 52

  Sunday-School Helps, 154

  Surprise Walnuts, 23

  Sweeping, 147

  Sweet Potato Animals, 17

  Sweet Potato Vine, 45

  Swimming Float, 37

  Swing, Omnibus, 101


  Table Serving, 143

  Table Setting, 142

  Tablets, Kindergarten, 162

  Tag, 92

  Tailless Kite, 60

  Target, Spool, 70

  Tearing Paper, 54

  Telephone Toy, for Doll House, 87

  Tents, Paper, 116

  Thanksgiving, 133

  Thimble Biscuit Party, 104

  Threading Needles, 72

  Tiling, Doll House, 85

  Tin Cans, 34

  Tin-foil, 35

  Top, 70, 75, 77

  Tower Target, Spool, 70

  Toy Vegetables, 40

  Transparency, 47

  Transparent Papers, 75

  Tree-Boxes, 70

  Tunnel, Paper, 172

  Turnip Basket, 45

  Turtle, 27


  Umbrella, Toy, 167


  Valentine Party Dinner, 112

  Valentines, 110

  Vegetable Animals, 17

  Vegetables, 45

    "         Toy, 40


  Wagon, 14, 32

  Walnut Boats, 23

    "    Surprise, 23

  Washing, 146

  Washbench, Cardboard, 174

  Washington's Birthday, 113

  Water-color Cups, 40

  Water, Imitation, 31

  Waxed Leaves, 47

  Weaving, 90, 169

  Weighing Honey, 103

  Wheels, 14, 32, 35

  Windows, 77, 87

  Wishbone Doll, 80

  Work Box, 175

  Worsted Mats, 90


  Yarn Doll, 81



       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's note:

Obvious printer's errors in the original publication have been
corrected without comment.

Inconsistencies in the author's spelling, use of hyphens and other
punctuation are retained as in the original work.

Pages 152-155 were originally printed in two columns. For the
convenience of readers of this e-publication, the two columns are
represented in this version in a single column.





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