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Title: Popular Technology, Vol. I (of 2) - or, Professions and Trades
Author: Hazen, Edward
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Popular Technology, Vol. I (of 2) - or, Professions and Trades" ***

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    POPULAR TECHNOLOGY;

    OR,

    PROFESSIONS AND TRADES.


    [Illustration: The AUTHOR.]


    BY EDWARD HAZEN, A. M.,

    AUTHOR OF

    "THE SYMBOLICAL SPELLING-BOOK," "THE SPELLER AND
    DEFINER," AND "A PRACTICAL GRAMMAR."

    EMBELLISHED WITH EIGHTY-ONE ENGRAVINGS.

    IN TWO VOLUMES.

    VOL. I.


    NEW YORK:
    HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS.



    Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1841, by

    HARPER & BROTHERS,

    In the Clerk's Office of the Southern District of New York.



CONTENTS

OF

THE FIRST VOLUME.


                                                        Page
    Preface                                                7
    The Agriculturist                                     13
    The Horticulturist                                    28
    The Miller                                            34
    The Baker                                             39
    The Confectioner                                      44
    The Brewer, and the Distiller                         47
    The Butcher                                           55
    The Tobacco Planter, and the Tobacconist              59
    The Manufacturer of Cloth                             66
    The Dyer, and the Calico-Printer                      77
    The Hatter                                            84
    The Rope-Maker                                        91
    The Tailor                                            96
    The Milliner, and the Lady's Dress-Maker             100
    The Barber                                           104
    The Tanner, and the Currier                          111
    The Shoe and Boot Maker                              116
    The Saddler and Harness-Maker, and the Trunk-Maker   121
    The Soap-Boiler, and the Candle-Maker                125
    The Comb-Maker, and the Brush-Maker                  134
    The Tavern-Keeper                                    142
    The Hunter                                           147
    The Fisherman                                        154
    The Shipwright                                       171
    The Mariner                                          178
    The Merchant                                         187
    The Auctioneer                                       204
    The Clergyman                                        208
    The Attorney at Law                                  215
    The Physician                                        221
    The Chemist                                          229
    The Druggist and Apothecary                          236
    The Dentist                                          240
    The Teacher                                          249



PREFACE.


The following work has been written for the use of schools and
families, as well as for miscellaneous readers. It embraces a class of
subjects in which every individual is deeply interested, and with
which, as a mere philosophical inspector of the affairs of men, he
should become acquainted.

They, however, challenge attention by considerations of greater moment
than mere curiosity; for, in the present age, a great proportion of
mankind pursue some kind of business as means of subsistence or
distinction; and in this country especially, such pursuit is deemed
honorable and, in fact, indispensable to a reputable position in the
community.

Nevertheless, it is a fact that cannot have escaped the attention of
persons of observation, that many individuals mistake their
appropriate calling, and engage in employments for which they have
neither mental nor physical adaptation; some learn a trade who should
have studied a profession; others study a profession who should have
learned a trade. Hence arise, in a great measure, the ill success and
discontent which so frequently attend the pursuits of men.

For these reasons, parents should be particularly cautious in the
choice of permanent employments for their children; and, in every
case, capacity should be especially regarded, without paying much
attention to the comparative favor in which the several employments
may be held; for a successful prosecution of an humble business is far
more honorable than inferiority or failure in one which may be greatly
esteemed.

To determine the particular genius of children, parents should give
them, at least, a superficial knowledge of the several trades and
professions. To do this effectually, a systematic course of
instruction should be given, not only at the family fireside and in
the schoolroom, but also at places where practical exhibitions of the
several employments may be seen. These means, together with a
competent literary education, and some tools and other facilities for
mechanical operations, can scarcely fail of furnishing clear
indications of intellectual bias.

The course just proposed is not only necessary to a judicious choice
of a trade or profession, but also as means of intellectual
improvement; and as such it should be pursued, at all events, even
though the choice of an employment were not in view.

We are endowed with a nature composed of many faculties both of the
intellectual and the animal kinds, and the reasoning faculties were
originally designed by the Creator to have the ascendency. In the
present moral condition of man, however, they do not commonly maintain
their right of precedence. This failure arises from imbecility,
originating, in part, from a deficiency in judicious cultivation, and
from the superior strength of the passions.

This condition is particularly conspicuous in youth, and shows itself
in disobedience to parents, and in various other aberrations from
moral duty. If, therefore, parents would have their children act a
reasonable part, while in their minority, and, also, after they have
assumed their stations in manhood, they must pursue a course of early
instruction, calculated to secure the ascendency of the reasoning
faculties.

The subjects for instruction best adapted to the cultivation of the
young mind are the _common things_ with which we are surrounded. This
is evident from the fact, that it uniformly expands with great
rapidity under their influence during the first three or four years of
life; for, it is from them, children obtain all their ideas, as well
as a knowledge of the language by which they are expressed.

The rapid progress of young children in the acquisition of knowledge
often excites the surprise of parents of observation, and the fact
that their improvement is almost imperceptible, after they have
attained to the age of four or five years, is equally surprising.
Why, it is often asked, do not children continue to advance in
knowledge with equal and increased rapidity, especially, as their
capabilities increase with age?

The solution of this question is not difficult. Children continue to
improve, while they have the means of doing so; but, having acquired a
knowledge of the objects within their reach, at least, so far as they
may be capable at the time, their advancement must consequently cease.
It is hardly necessary to remark, that the march of mind might be
continued with increased celerity, were new objects or subjects
continually presented.

In supplying subjects for mental improvement, as they may be needed at
the several stages of advancement, there can be but little difficulty,
since we are surrounded by works both of nature and of art. In fact,
the same subjects may be presented several times, and, at each
presentation, instructions might be given adapted to the particular
state of improvement in the pupil.

Instructions of this nature need never interfere injuriously with
those on the elementary branches of education, although the latter
would undoubtedly be considered of minor importance. Had they been
always regarded in this light, our schools would now present a far
more favorable aspect, and we should have been farther removed from
the ignorance and the barbarism of the middle ages.

Were this view of education generally adopted, teachers would soon
find, that the business of communicating instructions to the young has
been changed from an irksome to a pleasant task, since their pupils
will have become studious and intellectual, and, consequently, more
capable of comprehending explanations upon every subject. Such a
course would also be attended with the incidental advantage of good
conduct on the part of pupils, inasmuch as the elevation of the
understanding over the passions uniformly tends to this result.

For carrying into practice a system of intellectual education, the
following work supplies as great an amount of materials as can be
embodied in the same compass. Every article may be made the foundation
of one lecture or more, which might have reference not only to the
particular subject on which it treats, but also to the meaning and
application of the words.

The articles have been concisely written, as must necessarily be the
case in all works embracing so great a variety of subjects. This
particular trait, however, need not be considered objectionable, since
all who may desire to read more extensively on any particular subject,
can easily obtain works which are exclusively devoted to it.

Prolix descriptions of machinery and of mechanical operations have
been studiously avoided; for it has been presumed, that all who might
have perseverance enough to read such details, would feel curiosity
sufficient to visit the shops and manufactories, and see the machines
and operations themselves. Nevertheless, enough has been said, in all
cases, to give a general idea of the business, and to guide in the
researches of those who may wish to obtain information by the
impressive method of actual inspection.

A great proportion of the whole work is occupied in recounting
historical facts, connected with the invention and progress of the
arts. The author was induced to pay especial attention to this branch
of history, from the consideration, that it furnishes very clear
indications of the real state of society in past ages, as well as at
the present time, and also that it would supply the reader with data,
by which he might, in some measure, determine the vast capabilities of
man.

This kind of historical information will be especially beneficial to
the youthful mind, by inducing a habit of investigation and
antiquarian research. In addition to this, a knowledge of the origin
and progress of the various employments which are in active operation
all around, will throw upon the busy world an aspect exceedingly
interesting.

It may be well, however, to caution the reader against expecting too
much information of this kind, in regard to most of the trades
practised in very ancient times. Many of the most useful inventions
were effected, before any permanent means of record had been devised;
and, in after ages, among the Greeks and Romans, the useful arts were
practised almost exclusively by slaves. The latter circumstance led to
their general neglect by the writers among these distinguished people.

The information which may be obtained from this work, especially when
accompanied by the inspection of the operations which it describes,
may be daily applied to some useful purpose. It will be particularly
valuable in furnishing subjects for conversation, and in preventing
the mind from continuing in, or from sinking into, a state of
indifference in regard to the busy scenes of this world.

In the composition of this work, all puerile expressions have been
avoided, not only because they would be offensive to adult individuals
of taste, but because they are at least useless, if not positively
injurious, to younger persons. What parent of reflection would suffer
his children to peruse a book calculated to induce or confirm a manner
of speaking or writing, which he would not have them use after having
arrived to manhood? Every sentence may be rendered perfectly plain by
appropriate explanations and illustrations.

No formal classification of the professions and trades has been
adopted, although those articles which treat of kindred subjects have
been placed near each other, and in that order which seemed to be the
most natural. The paragraphs of the several articles have been
numbered for the especial accommodation of classes in schools, but
this particular feature of the work need meet with no serious
objection from miscellaneous readers, as it has no other effect, in
reference to its use by them, than to give it the aspect of a
school-book.

While writing the articles on the different subjects, the author
consulted several works which embraced the arts and sciences
generally, as well as many which were more circumscribed in their
objects. He, however, relied more upon them for historical facts than
for a knowledge of the operations and processes which he had occasion
to detail. For this he depended, as far as practicable, upon his own
personal researches, although in the employment of appropriate
phraseology, he acknowledges his obligations to predecessors.

With the preceding remarks, the author submits his work to the public,
in the confident expectation, that the subjects which it embraces,
that the care which has been taken in its composition, and that the
skill of the artists employed in its embellishment, will secure to it
an abundant and liberal patronage.



[Illustration: FARMER.]

THE AGRICULTURIST.


1. Agriculture embraces, in its broad application, whatever relates to
the cultivation of the fields, with the view of producing food for man
and those animals which he may have brought into a state of
domestication.

2. If we carry our observations so far back as to reach the
antediluvian history of the earth, we shall find, from the authority
of Scripture, that the cultivation of the soil was the first
employment of man, after his expulsion from the garden of Eden, when
he was commanded to till the ground from which he had been taken. We
shall also learn from the same source of information, that "Cain was a
husbandman," and that "Abel was a keeper of sheep." Hence it may be
inferred, that Adam instructed his sons in the art of husbandry; and
that they, in turn, communicated the knowledge to _their_ posterity,
together with the superadded information which had resulted from their
own experience. Improvement in this art was probably thenceforth
progressive, until the overwhelming catastrophe of the flood.

3. After the waters had retired from the face of the earth, Noah
resorted to husbandry, as the certain means of procuring the
necessaries and comforts of life. The art of cultivating the soil was
uninterruptedly preserved in many branches of the great family of
Noah; but, in others, it was at length entirely lost. In the latter
case, the people, having sunk into a state of barbarism, depended for
subsistence on the natural productions of the earth, and on such
animals as they could contrive to capture by hunting and fishing. Many
of these degenerate tribes did not emerge from this condition for
several succeeding ages; while others have not done so to the present
day.

4. Notwithstanding the great antiquity of agriculture, the husbandmen,
for several centuries immediately succeeding the deluge, seem to have
been but little acquainted with any proper method of restoring
fertility to exhausted soils; for we find them frequently changing
their residence, as their flocks and herds required fresh pasturage,
or as their tillage land became unproductive. As men, however, became
more numerous, and as their flocks increased, this practice became
inconvenient and, in some cases, impracticable. They were, therefore,
compelled, by degrees, to confine their flocks and herds, and their
farming operations, to lands of more narrow and specified limits.

5. The Chaldeans were probably the people who first adopted the
important measure of retaining perpetual possession of the soil which
they had cultivated; and, consequently, were among the first who
became skilful in agriculture. But all the great nations of antiquity
held this art in the highest estimation, and usually attributed its
invention to superhuman agency. The Egyptians even worshipped the
image of the ox in gratitude for the services of the living animal in
the labours of the field.

6. The reader of ancient history can form some idea of the extent to
which this art was cultivated in those days, from the warlike
operations of different nations; for, from no other source, could the
great armies which were then brought into the field, have been
supplied with the necessary provisions. The Greeks and the Romans, who
were more celebrated than any other people for their military
enterprise, were also most attentive to the proper cultivation of the
soil; and many of their distinguished men, especially among the
Romans, were practical husbandmen.

7. Nor was agriculture neglected by the learned men of antiquity.
Several works on this subject, by Greek and Latin authors, have
descended to our times; and the correctness of many of the principles
which they inculcate, has been confirmed by modern experience.

8. Throughout the extensive empire of Rome, agriculture maintained a
respectable standing, until the commencement of those formidable
invasions of the northern hordes, which, finally, nearly extinguished
the arts and sciences in every part of Europe. During the long period
of anarchy which succeeded the settlement of these barbarians in their
newly-acquired possessions, pasturage was, in most cases, preferred to
tillage, as being better suited to their state of civilization, and as
affording facilities of removal, in cases of alarm from invading
enemies. But, when permanent governments had been again established,
and when the nations enjoyed comparative peace, the regular
cultivation of the soil once more revived.

9. The art of husbandry was at a low ebb in England, until the
fourteenth century, when it began to be practised with considerable
success in the midland and south-western parts of the island; yet, it
does not seem to have been cultivated as a science, until the latter
end of the sixteenth century. The first book on husbandry, printed and
published in the English language, appeared in 1534. It was written by
Sir A. Fitzherbert, a judge of the Common Pleas, who had studied the
laws of vegetation, and the nature of soils, with philosophical
accuracy.

10. Very little improvement was made on the theory of this author, for
upwards of a hundred years, when Sir Hugh Platt discovered and brought
into use several kinds of substances for fertilizing and restoring
exhausted soils.

11. Agriculture again received a new impulse, about the middle of the
eighteenth century; and, in 1793, a Board of Agriculture was
established by an act of Parliament, at the suggestion of Sir John
Sinclair, who was elected its first president. Through the influence
of this board, a great number of agricultural societies have been
formed in the kingdom, and much valuable information on rural economy
has been communicated to the public, through the medium of a
voluminous periodical under its superintendence.

12. After the example of Great Britain, agricultural societies have
been formed, and periodical journals published, in various parts of
the continent of Europe, as well as in the United States. The
principal publications devoted to this subject in this country, are
the _American Farmer_, at Baltimore; the _New-England Farmer_, at
Boston; and the _Cultivator_, at Albany.

13. The modern improvements in husbandry consist, principally, in the
proper application of manures, in the mixture of different kinds of
earths, in the use of plaster and lime, in the rotation of crops, in
adapting the crop to the soil, in the introduction of new kinds of
grain, roots, grasses, and fruits, as well as in improvements in the
breeds of domestic animals, and in the implements with which the
various operations of the art are performed.

14. For many of the improved processes which relate to the
amelioration of the soil, we are indebted to chemistry. Before this
science was brought to the aid of the art, the cultivators of the soil
were chiefly guided by the precept and example of their predecessors,
which were often inapplicable. By the aid of chemical analysis, it is
easy to discover the constituent parts of different soils; and, when
this has been done, there is but little difficulty in determining the
best mode of improving them, or in applying the most suitable crops.

15. In the large extent of territory embraced within the United
States, there is great variation of soil and climate; but, in each
state, or district, the attention of the cultivators is directed to
the production of those articles which, under the circumstances,
promise to be the most profitable. In the northern portions of our
country, the cultivators of the soil are called farmers. They direct
their attention chiefly to the production of wheat, rye, corn, oats,
barley, peas, beans, potatoes, pumpkins, and flax, together with
grasses and fruits of various kinds. The same class of men, in the
Southern states, are usually denominated planters, who confine
themselves principally to tobacco, rice, cotton, sugar-cane, or hemp.
In some parts of that portion of our country, however, rye, wheat,
oats, and sweet potatoes, are extensively cultivated; and, in almost
every part, corn is a favourite article.

16. The process of cultivating most of the productions which have
been mentioned, is nearly the same. In general, with the occasional
exception of new lands, the plough is used to prepare the ground for
the reception of the seed. Wheat, rye, barley, oats, peas, and the
seeds of hemp and flax, are scattered with the hand, and covered in
the earth with the harrow. In Great Britain, such seeds are sown in
drills; and this method is thought to be better than ours, as it
admits of the use of the hoe, while the vegetable is growing.

17. Corn, beans, potatoes, and pumpkins, are covered in the earth with
the hoe. The ground is ploughed several times during the summer, to
make it loose, and to keep down the weeds. The hoe is also used in
accomplishing the same objects, and in depositing fresh earth around
the growing vegetable.

18. When ripe, wheat, barley, oats, and peas, are cut down with the
sickle, cradle, or scythe; while hemp and flax are pulled up by the
roots. The seeds are separated from the other parts of the plants with
the flail, or by means of horses or oxen driven round upon them. Of
late, threshing machines are used to effect the same object. Chaff,
and extraneous matter generally, are separated from the grain, or
seeds, by means of a fanning-mill, or with a large fan made of the
twigs of the willow. The same thing was formerly, and is yet
sometimes, effected by the aid of a current of air.

19. When the corn, or maize, has become ripe, the ears, with the
husks, and sometimes the stalks, are deposited in large heaps. To
assist in stripping the husks from the ears, it is customary to call
together the neighbours. In such cases, the owner of the corn provides
for them a supper, together with some means of merriment and good
cheer.

20. This custom is most prevalent, where the greater part of the
labour is performed by slaves. The blacks, when assembled for a
husking match, choose a captain, whose business it is to lead the
song, while the rest join in chorus. Sometimes, they divide the corn
as nearly as possible into two equal heaps, and apportion the hands
accordingly, with a captain to each division. This is done to produce
a contest for the most speedy execution of the task. Should the owner
of the corn be sparing of his refreshments, his want of generosity is
sure to be published in song at every similar frolic in the
neighborhood.

21. Maize, or Indian corn, and potatoes of all kinds, were unknown in
the eastern continent, until the discovery of America. Their origin
is, therefore, known with certainty; but some of the other productions
which have been mentioned, cannot be so satisfactorily traced. This is
particularly the case with regard to those which have been extensively
cultivated for many centuries.

22. The grasses have ever been valuable to man, as affording a supply
of food for domestic animals. Many portions of our country are
particularly adapted to grazing. Where this is the case, the farmers
usually turn their attention to raising live stock, and to making
butter and cheese. Grass reserved in meadows, as a supply of food for
the winter, is cut at maturity with a scythe, dried in the sun, and
stored in barns, or heaped in stacks.

23. Rice was first cultivated in the eastern parts of Asia, and, from
the earliest ages, has been the principal article of food among the
Chinese and Hindoos. To this grain may be attributed, in a great
measure, the early civilization of those nations; and its adaptation
to marshy grounds caused many districts to become populous, which
would otherwise have remained irreclaimable and desolate.

24. Rice was long known in the east, before it was introduced into
Egypt and Greece, whence it spread over Africa generally, and the
southern parts of Europe. It is now cultivated in all the warm parts
of the globe, chiefly on grounds subject to periodical inundations.
The Chinese obtain two crops a year from the same ground, and
cultivate it in this way from generation to generation, without
applying any manure, except the stubble of the preceding crop, and the
mud deposited from the water overflowing it.

25. Soon after the waters of the inundation have retired, a spot is
inclosed with an embankment, lightly ploughed and harrowed, and then
sown very thickly with the grain. Immediately, a thin sheet of water
is brought over it, either by a stream or some hydraulic machinery.
When the plants have grown to the height of six or seven inches, they
are transplanted in furrows; and again water is brought over them, and
kept on, until the crop begins to ripen, when it is withheld.

26. The crop is cut with a sickle, threshed with a flail, or by the
treading of cattle; and the husks, which adhere closely to the kernel,
are beaten off in a stone mortar, or by passing the grain through a
mill, similar to our corn-mills. The mode of cultivating rice in any
part of the world, varies but little from the foregoing process. The
point which requires the greatest attention, is keeping the ground
properly covered with water.

27. Rice was introduced into the Carolinas in 1697, where it is now
produced in greater perfection than in any other part of the world.
The seeds are dropped along, from the small end of a gourd, into
drills made with one corner of the hoe. The plants, when partly grown,
are not transferred to another place, as in Asia, but are suffered to
grow and ripen in the original drills. The crop is secured like wheat,
and the husks are forced from the grain by a machine, which leaves the
kernels more perfect than the methods adopted in other countries.

28. Cotton is cultivated in the East and West Indies, North and South
America, Egypt, and in many other parts of the world, where the
climate is sufficiently warm for the purpose. There are several
species of this plant; of which three kinds are cultivated in the
southern states of the Union--the _nankeen cotton_, the _green seed
cotton_, and the _black seed_, or _sea island cotton_. The first two,
which grow in the middle and upland countries, are denominated _short
staple cotton_: the last is cultivated in the lower country, near the
sea, and on the islands near the main land, and is of a fine quality,
and of a long staple.

29. The plants are propagated annually from seeds, which are sown very
thickly in ridges made with the plough or hoe. After they have grown
to the height of three or four inches, part of them are pulled up, in
order that the rest, while coming to maturity, may stand about four
inches apart. It is henceforth managed, until fully grown, like Indian
corn.

30. The cotton is inclosed in pods, which open as fast as their
contents become fit to be gathered. In Georgia, about eighty pounds of
upland cotton can be gathered by a single hand in a day; but in
Alabama and Mississippi, where the plant thrives better, two hundred
pounds are frequently collected in the same time.

31. The seeds adhere closely to the cotton, when picked from the pods;
but they are properly separated by machines called _gins_; of which
there are two kinds,--the _roller-gin_, and the _saw-gin_. The
essential parts of the former are two cylinders, which are placed
nearly in contact with each other. By their revolving motion, the
cotton is drawn between them, while the size of the seeds prevents
their passage. This machine, being of small size, is worked by hand.

32. The _saw-gin_ is much larger, and is moved by animal, steam, or
water power. It consists of a receiver, having one side covered with
strong wires, placed in a parallel direction about an eighth of an
inch apart, and a number of circular saws, which revolve on a common
axis. The saws pass between these wires, and entangle in their teeth
the cotton, which is thereby drawn through the grating, while the
seeds, from their size, are forced to remain on the other side.

33. Before the invention of the saw-gin, the seeds were separated from
the upland cottons by hand,--a method so extremely tedious, that their
cultivation was attended with but little profit to the planter. This
machine was invented in Georgia by Eli Whitney, of Massachusetts. It
was undertaken at the request of several planters of the former state,
and was there put in operation in 1792.

34. In the preceding year, the whole crop of cotton in the United
States was only sixty-four bales; but, in 1834, it amounted to
1,000,617. The vast increase in the production of this article has
arisen, in part, from the increased demand for it in Europe, and in
the Northern states, but, chiefly, from the use of the invaluable
machine just mentioned.

35. Sugar-cane was cultivated by the Chinese, at a very early period,
probably two thousand years before it was known in Europe; but sugar,
in a candied form, was used in small quantities by the Greeks and
Romans in the days of their prosperity. It was probably brought from
Bengal, Siam, or some of the East India Islands, as it is supposed,
that it grew nowhere else at that time.

36. In the thirteenth century, soon after the merchants of the West
began to traffic in Indian articles of commerce, the plant was
introduced into Arabia Felix, and thence into Egypt, Nubia, Ethiopia,
and Morocco. The Spaniards obtained it from the Moors, and, in the
fifteenth century, introduced it into the Canary Islands. It was
brought to America, and to the West India Islands, by the Spaniards
and Portuguese. It is now cultivated in the United States, below the
thirty-first degree of latitude, and in the warm parts of the globe
generally.

37. Previous to the year 1466, sugar was known in England chiefly, as
a medicine; and, although the sugar-cane was cultivated, at that time,
in several places on the Mediterranean, it was not more extensively
used on the continent. Now, in extent of cultivation, it ranks next to
wheat and rice, and first in maritime commerce.

38. The cultivators of sugar-cane propagate the plant by means of
cuttings from the lower end of the stalks, which are planted in the
spring or autumn, in drills, or in furrows. The new plants spring from
the joints of the cuttings, and are fit to be gathered for use in
eight, ten, twelve, or fourteen months. While growing, sugar-cane is
managed much like Indian corn.

39. When ripe, the cane is cut and brought to the sugar-mill, where
the juice is expressed between iron or stone cylinders, moved by
steam, water, or animal power. The juice thus obtained is evaporated
in large boilers to a syrup, which is afterwards removed to coolers,
where it is agitated with wooden instruments called _stirrers_. To
accelerate its cooling, it is next poured into casks, and, when yet
warm, is conveyed to barrels, placed in an upright position over a
cistern, and pierced in the bottom in several places. The holes being
partially stopped with canes, the part which still remains in the form
of syrup, filters through them into the cistern beneath, while the
rest is left in the form of sugar, in the state called _muscovado_.

40. This sugar is of a yellow colour, being yet in a crude, or raw
state. It is further purified by various processes, such as
redissolving it in water, and again boiling it with lime and bullocks'
blood, or with animal charcoal, and passing the syrup through several
canvas filters.

41. Loaf-sugar is manufactured by pouring the syrup, after it has been
purified, and reduced to a certain thickness by evaporation, into
unglazed earthen vessels of a conical shape. The cones have a hole at
their apex, through which may filter the syrup which separates from
the sugar above. Most of the sugar is imported in a raw or crude
state, and is afterward refined in the cities in sugar-houses.

42. Molasses is far less free from extraneous substances than sugar,
as it is nothing more than the drainings from the latter. Rum is
distilled from inferior molasses, and other saccharine matter of the
cane, which will answer for no other purpose.

43. Sugar is also manufactured from the sap of the sugar-maple, in
considerable quantities, in the northern parts of the United States,
and in the Canadas. The sap is obtained by cutting a notch, or boring
a hole, in the tree, and applying a spout to conduct it to a receiver,
which is either a rude trough, or a cheap vessel made by a cooper.
This operation is performed late in the winter, or early in the
spring, when the weather is freezing at night, and thawing in the day.

44. The liquid in which the saccharine matter is suspended, is
evaporated by heat, as in the case of the juice of the cane. During
the process of evaporation, slices of pork are kept in the kettle, to
prevent the sap or syrup from boiling over.

45. When a sufficient quantity of syrup, of a certain thickness, has
been obtained, it is passed through a strainer, and, having been again
placed over the fire, it is clarified with eggs and milk, the scum, as
it rises, being carefully removed with a skimmer. When sufficiently
reduced, it is usually poured into tin pans, or basins, in which, as
it cools, it consolidates into hard cakes of sugar.

46. Most of the lands in a state of nature, are covered with forest
trees. This is especially the case in North America. When this
division of our continent was first visited by Europeans, it was
nearly one vast wilderness, throughout its entire extent; and even
now, after a lapse of three centuries, a great portion of it remains
in the same condition. The industrious settlers, however, are rapidly
clearing away the natural encumbrances of the soil; and, before a
similar period shall have passed away, we may expect, that civilized
men will have occupied every portion of this vast territory, which may
be worthy of cultivation.

47. The mode of _clearing_ land, as it is termed, varies in different
parts of the United States. In Pennsylvania, and in neighborhoods
settled by people from that state, the large trees are deadened by
girdling them, and the small ones, together with the underbrush, are
felled and burned. This mode is very objectionable, for the reason,
that the limbs on the standing trees, when they have become rotten,
sometimes peril the lives of persons and animals underneath. It seems,
however, that those who pursue this method, prefer risking life in
this way to wearing it out in wielding the axe, and in rolling logs.

48. A very different plan is pursued by settlers from New-England. The
underbrush is first cut down, and piled in heaps. The large trees are
then felled, to serve as foundations for log-heaps; and the smaller
ones are cut so as to fall as nearly parallel to these as practicable.
The smaller trees, as well as the limbs of the larger ones, are cut
into lengths of twelve or fifteen feet.

49. At a proper season of the year, when the brush has become dry
enough, fire is applied, which consumes much of the small stuff. The
logs are next hauled together with oxen or horses, and rolled into
heaps with handspikes. The small stuff which has escaped the first
burning, is thrown upon the heaps, and, fire being applied, the whole
is consumed together.

50. In the Northern, Middle, and Western states, where a great
proportion of the timber is beech, maple, and elm, great quantities of
ashes are obtained in this mode of clearing land. From these ashes are
extracted the pot and pearl ashes of commerce, which have been, and
which still are, among the principal exports of the United States.

51. The usual process of making potash is as follows: the crude ashes
are put into large tubs, or _leeches_, with a small quantity of salt
and lime. The strength of this mixture is extracted by pouring upon it
hot water, which passes through it into a reservoir. The water thus
saturated is called black ley, which is evaporated in large kettles.
The residuum is called black salts, which are converted into potash by
applying to the kettle an intense heat.

52. The process of making pearlash is the same, until the ley has been
reduced to black salts, except that no lime or salt is used. The salts
are baked in large ovens, heated by a blazing fire, which proceeds
from an arch below. Having been thus _scorched_, the salts are
dissolved in hot water. The solution is allowed to be at rest, until
all extraneous substances have settled to the bottom, when it is drawn
off and evaporated as before. The residuum is called white salts.
Another baking, like the former, completes the process.

53. Very few of the settlers have an ashery, as it is called, in which
the whole process of making either pot or pearl ash is performed. They
usually sell the black salts to the store-keepers in their
neighborhood, who complete the process of the manufacture.

54. The trade in ashes is often profitable to the settlers; some of
them even pay, in this way, the whole expense of clearing their land.
Pot and pearl ashes are packed in strong barrels, and sent to the
cities, where, previous to sale, they are inspected, and branded
according to their quality.



[Illustration: GARDENER.]

THE HORTICULTURIST.


1. The Creator of the Universe, having formed man from the dust of the
ground, provided a magnificent garden for his residence, and commanded
him "to dress it and to keep it:" but, having transgressed the
commandment of his lawful Sovereign, he was driven from this
delightful paradise, thenceforth to gain a subsistence from the earth
at large, which had been cursed with barrenness, thorns, thistles, and
briars.

2. Scripture does not inform us, that Adam turned his attention to
gardening; nor have we any means of determining the state of this art,
in the centuries previous to the flood; but it is highly probable,
that it had arrived to considerable perfection, before the advent of
this destructive visitation from Heaven.

3. Gardens, for useful purposes, were probably made, soon after the
waters had subsided; and the statement in Scripture, that "Noah
planted a vineyard," may, perhaps, be regarded as evidence sufficient
to establish it as a fact. If this were the case, the art, doubtless,
continued progressive among those descendants of Noah, who did not
sink into a state of barbarism, after the confusion of tongues.

4. Among savage nations, one of the first indications of advancement
towards a state of civilization, is the cultivation of a little spot
of ground for raising vegetables; and the degree of refinement among
the inhabitants of any country, may be determined, with tolerable
certainty, by the taste and skill exhibited in their gardens.

5. Ornamental gardening is never attended to, in any country, until
the arts in general have advanced to a considerable degree of
perfection; and it uniformly declines with other fine or ornamental
arts. Accordingly, we do not read of splendid gardens among the
Babylonians, Egyptians, Jews, Greeks, Romans, and other nations of
antiquity, until they had reached an exalted state of refinement; and
when these nations descended from this condition, or were overthrown
by barbarians, this art declined or disappeared.

6. During the period of mental darkness, which prevailed between the
eighth and thirteenth centuries, the practice of ornamental gardening
had fallen into such general disuse, that it was confined exclusively
to the monks. After this period, it began again to spread among the
people generally. It revived in Italy, Germany, Holland, and France,
long before any attention was paid to it in England.

7. In the latter country, but few culinary vegetables were consumed
before the beginning of the sixteenth century, and most of these were
brought from Holland; nor was gardening introduced there, as a source
of profit, until about one hundred years after that period. Peaches,
pears, plums, nectarines, apricots, grapes, cherries, strawberries,
and melons, were luxuries but little enjoyed in England, until near
the middle of the seventeenth century. The first _hot_ and _ice
houses_ known on the island, were built by Charles II., who ascended
the British throne in 1660, and soon after introduced French gardening
at Hampton Court, Carlton, and Marlborough.

8. About the beginning of the eighteenth century, this art attracted
the attention of some of the first characters in Great Britain, who
gave it a new impulse in that country. But the style which they
imitated was objectionable, inasmuch as the mode of laying out the
gardens, and of planting and trimming the trees, was too formal and
fantastical.

9. Several eminent writers, among whom were Pope and Addison,
ridiculed this Dutch mode of gardening, as it was called, and
endeavoured to introduce another, more consistent with genuine taste.
Their views were, at length, seconded by practical horticulturists;
and those principles of the art which they advocated, were adopted in
every part of Great Britain. The English mode has been followed and
emulated by the refined nations of the Eastern continent and by many
opulent individuals in the United States.

10. Since the beginning of the present century horticultural societies
have been formed in every kingdom of Europe. In Great Britain alone,
there are no less than fifty; and, it is satisfactory to add, that
there are also several of these institutions in the United States. The
objects of the persons who compose these societies are, to collect and
disseminate information on this interesting art, especially in regard
to the introduction of new and valuable articles of cultivation.

11. The authors who have written upon scientific and practical
gardening, at different periods, and in different countries, are very
numerous. Among the ancient Greek writers, were Hesiod, Theophrastus,
Xenophon, and Ælian. Among the Latins, Varo was the first; to whom
succeeded, Cato, Pliny the elder, Columella, and Palladius.

12. Since the revival of literature, horticulture, in common with
agriculture, has shared largely in the labours of the learned; and
many works, on this important branch of rural economy, have been
published in every language of Europe. But the publications on this
subject, which attract the greatest attention, are the periodicals
under the superintendence of the great horticultural societies. Those
of London and Paris, are particularly distinguished.

13. It is impossible to draw a distinct line between horticulture and
agriculture; since so many articles of cultivation are common to both,
and since a well-regulated farm approaches very nearly to a garden.

14. The divisions of a complete garden, usually adopted by writers on
this subject, are the following: 1st. the culinary garden; 2d. the
flower garden; 3d. the orchard, embracing different kinds of fruits;
4th. the vineyard; 5th. the seminary, for raising seeds; 6th. the
nursery, for raising trees to be transplanted; 7th. the botanical
garden, for raising various kinds of plants; 8th. the arboretum of
ornamental trees; and, 9th. the picturesque, or landscape garden. To
become skilful in the management of even one or two of these branches,
requires much attention; but to become proficient in all, would
require years of the closest application.

15. In Europe, the professed gardeners constitute a large class of the
population. They are employed either in their own gardens, or in those
of the wealthy, who engage them by the day or year. There are many in
this country who devote their attention to this business; but they are
chiefly from the other side of the Atlantic. In our Southern states,
the rich assign one of their slaves to the garden.

16. In the United States, almost every family in the country, and in
the villages, has its garden for the production of vegetables, in
which are also usually reared, a few flowers, ornamental shrubs, and
fruit-trees: but horticulture, as a science, is studied and practised
here by very few, especially that branch of it called picturesque, or
landscape. To produce a pleasing effect, in a garden of this kind,
from twenty to one hundred acres are necessary, according to the
manner in which the ground may be situated. In an area of that extent,
every branch of this pleasing art can be advantageously embraced.

17. Delicate exotic plants, which will not bear exposure to the open
air during the winter, are preserved from the effects of the cold in
_hot_ or _green houses_, which may be warmed by artificial heat. A
_hot-house_ is exhibited in the representation of a garden, at the
head of this article. It is composed chiefly of window-glass set in
sashes of wood. A green-house is usually larger; and is designed for
the preservation of those plants requiring less heat.

18. The vegetables commonly cultivated in gardens for the table,
are,--corn, potatoes, tomatoes, peas, beans, squashes, cucumbers,
melons, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, gooseberries,
currants, beets, parsnips, carrots, onions, radishes, cabbages,
asparagus, lettuce, grapes, and various kinds of fruits. The flowers,
ornamental shrubs, and trees, are very numerous, and are becoming more
so by accessions from the forests, and from foreign countries.

19. The scientific horticulturist, in laying off his garden,
endeavours to unite beauty and utility, locating the flowers,
ornamental shrubs, and trees, where they will be most conspicuous,
and those vegetables less pleasing to the eye, in more retired
situations, yet, in a soil and exposure adapted to their constitution.
In improving the soil of his garden, he brings to his aid the science
of chemistry, together with the experience of practical men. He is
also careful in the choice of his fruit-trees, and in increasing the
variety of their products by engrafting, and by inoculation.



[Illustration: MILLER.]

THE MILLER.


1. The Miller belongs to that class of employments which relates to
the preparation of food and drinks for man. His business consists,
chiefly, in reducing the farinaceous grains to a suitable degree of
fineness.

2. The simplest method by which grain can be reduced to meal, or
flour, is rubbing or pounding it between two stones; and this was
probably the one first practised in all primitive conditions of
society, as it is still pursued among some tribes of uncivilized men.

3. The first machine for comminuting grain, of which we have any
knowledge, was a simple hand-mill, composed of a nether stone fixed in
a horizontal position, and an upper stone, which was put in motion
with the hand by means of a peg. This simple contrivance is still used
in India, as well as in some sequestered parts of Scotland, and on
many of the plantations in the Southern states of our Union. But, in
general, where large quantities of grain are to be ground, it has been
entirely superseded by mills not moved by manual power.

4. The modern corn and flour mill differs from the primitive hand-mill
in the size of the stones, in the addition of an apparatus for
separating the hulls and bran from the farinaceous part of the grain,
and in the power applied for putting it in motion.

5. The grinding surfaces of the stones have channels, or furrows, cut
in them, which proceed obliquely from the centre to the circumference.
The furrows are cut slantwise on one side, and perpendicular on the
other; so that each of the ridges which they form, has a sharp edge;
and, when the upper stone is in motion, these edges pass one another,
like the blades of a pair of scissors, and cut the grain the more
easily, as it falls upon the furrows.

6. By a careful inspection of the following picture, the whole
machinery of a common mill may be understood.

[Illustration]

A represents the water-wheel; B, the shaft to which is attached the
cog-wheel C, which acts on the trundle-head, D; and this, in turn,
acts on the moveable stone. The spindle, trundle-head, and upper
stone, all rest entirely on the beam, F, which can be elevated or
depressed, at pleasure, by a simple apparatus; so that the distance
between the stones can be easily regulated, to grind either fine or
coarse. The grain about to be submitted to the action of the mill, is
thrown into the hopper, H, whence it passes by the shoe, or spout I,
through a hole in the upper stone, and then between them both.

7. The upper stone is a little convex, and the other a little concave.
There is a little difference, however, between the convexity and the
concavity of the two stones: this difference causes the space between
them to become less and less towards their edges; and the grain, being
admitted between them, is, consequently, ground finer and finer, as it
passes out in that direction, in which it is impelled by the
centrifugal power of the moving stone.

8. If the flour, or meal, is not to be separated from the bran, the
simple grinding completes the operation; but, when this separation is
to be made, the comminuted grain, as it is thrown out from between the
stones, is carried, by little leathern buckets fastened to a strap, to
the upper end of an octagonal sieve, placed in an inclined position in
a large box. The coarse bran passes out at the lower end of the sieve,
or bolt, and the flour, or fine particles of bran, through the
bolting-cloth, at different places, according to their fineness. At
the head of the bolt, the superfine flour passes; in the middle, the
fine flour; and at the lower end, the coarse flour and fine bran;
which, when mixed, is called _canel_, or _shorts_.

9. The best material of which mill-stones are made, is the burr-stone,
which is brought from France in small pieces, weighing from ten to
one hundred pounds. These are cemented together with plaster of Paris,
and closely bound around the circumference with hoops made of bar
iron. For grinding corn or rye, those made of sienite, or granite
rock, are frequently used.

10. A mill, exclusively employed in grinding grain, consumed by the
inhabitants of the neighborhood, is called a _grist_ or _custom_ mill;
and a portion of the grist is allowed to the miller, in payment for
his services. The proportion is regulated by law; and, in our own
country, it varies according to the legislation of the different
states.

11. Mills in which flour is manufactured, and packed in barrels for
sale, are called merchant mills. Here, the wheat is purchased by the
miller, or by the owner of the mill, who relies upon the difference
between the original cost of the grain, and the probable amount of its
several products, when sold, to remunerate him for the manufacture,
and his investments of capital. In Virginia, and, perhaps, in some of
the other states, it is a common practice among the farmers, to
deliver to the millers their wheat, for which they receive a specified
quantity of flour.

12. The power most commonly employed to put heavy machinery in
operation, is that supplied by water. This is especially the case with
regard to mills for grinding grain; but, when this cannot be had, a
substitute is found in steam, or animal strength. The wind is also
rendered subservient to this purpose. The wind-mill was invented in
the time of Augustus Cæsar. During the reign of this emperor, and
probably long before, mules and asses were employed by both the Greeks
and Romans in turning their mills. The period at which water-mills
began to be used cannot be certainly determined. Some writers place it
as far back as the Christian era.

13. Wheat flour is one of the staple commodities of the United States,
and there are mills for its manufacture in almost every part of the
country, where wheat is extensively cultivated; but our most
celebrated flour-mills are on the Brandywine Creek, Del., at
Rochester, N. Y., and at Richmond, Va.

14. In our Southern states, hommony is a favorite article of food. It
consists of the flinty portions of Indian corn, which have been
separated from the hulls and eyes of the grain. To effect this
separation, the corn is sometimes ground very coarsely in a mill; but
the most usual method is that of pounding it in a mortar.

15. The mortar is excavated from a log of hard wood, between twelve
and eighteen inches in diameter. The form of the excavation is similar
to that of a common iron mortar, except that it is less flat at the
bottom, to prevent the corn from being reduced to meal during the
operation. The pestle is usually made by confining an iron wedge in
the split end of a round stick, by means of an iron ring.

16. The white flint corn is the kind usually chosen for hommony;
although any kind, possessing the requisite solidity, will do. Having
been poured into the mortar, it is moistened with hot water, and
immediately beaten with the pestle, until the eyes and hulls are
forced from the flinty portions of the grain. The part of the corn
which has been reduced to meal by the foregoing process, is removed by
means of a sieve, and the hulls, by the aid of the wind.

17. Hommony is prepared for the table by boiling it in water for
twelve hours with about one fourth of its quantity of white beans, and
some fat bacon. It is eaten while yet warm, with milk or butter; or,
if suffered to get cold, is again warmed with lard or some other fat
substance, before it is brought to the table.



[Illustration: BAKER.]

THE BAKER.


1. The business of the Baker consists in making bread, rolls,
biscuits, and crackers, and in baking various kinds of provisions.

2. Man appears to be designed by nature, to eat all substances capable
of affording nourishment to his system; but, being more inclined to
vegetable than to animal food, he has, from the earliest times, used
farinaceous grains, as his principal means of sustenance. As these,
however, cannot be eaten in their native state without difficulty,
means have been contrived for extracting their farinaceous part, and
for converting it into an agreeable and wholesome aliment.

3. Those who are accustomed to enjoy all the advantages of the most
useful inventions, without reflecting on the labour expended in their
completion, may fancy that there is nothing more easy than to grind
grain, to make it into paste, and to bake it in an oven; but it must
have been a long time, before men discovered any better method of
preparing their grain, than roasting it in the fire, or boiling it in
water, and forming it into viscous cakes. Accident, probably, at
length furnished some observing person a hint, by which good and
wholesome bread could be made by means of fermentation.

4. Before the invention of the oven, bread was exclusively baked in
the embers, or ashes, or before the fire. These methods, with
sometimes a little variation, are still practised, more or less, in
all parts of the world. In England, the poor class of people place the
loaf on the heated hearth, and invert over it an iron pot or kettle,
which they surround with embers or coals.

5. The invention of the oven must have added much to the conveniences
and comforts of the ancients; but it cannot be determined, at what
period, or by whom, it was contrived. During that period of remote
antiquity, in which the people were generally erratic in their habits,
the ovens were made of clay, and hardened by fire, like earthenware;
and, being small, they could be easily transported from place to
place, like our iron bake-ovens. Such ovens are still in use in some
parts of Asia.

6. There are few nations that do not use bread, or a substitute for
it. Its general use arises from a law of our economy, which requires a
mixture of the animal fluids, in every stage of the process of
digestion. The saliva is, therefore, essential; and the mastication of
dry food is required, to bring it forth from the glands of the mouth.

7. The farinaceous grains most usually employed in making bread,
are,--wheat, rye, barley, maize, and oats. The flour or meal of two
of these are often mixed; and wheat flour is sometimes advantageously
combined with rice, peas, beans, or potatoes.

8. The component parts of wheat, rye, and barley flour, are,--fecula,
or starch, gluten, and saccharine mucilage. Fecula is the most
nutritive part of grain. It is found in all seeds, and is especially
abundant in the potato. Gluten is necessary to the production of light
bread; and wheat flour, containing it in the greatest proportion,
answers the purpose better than any other. The saccharine mucilage is
equally necessary, as this is the substance on which yeast and leaven
act, in producing the internal commotion in the particles of dough
during fermentation.

9. There are three general methods of making bread; 1st. by mixing
meal or flour with water, or with water and milk; 2d. by adding to the
foregoing materials a small quantity of sour dough, or leaven, to
serve as a fermenting agent; and, 3d. by using yeast, to produce the
same general effect.

10. The theory of making light bread, is not difficult to be
understood. The leaven or yeast acts upon the saccharine mucilage of
the dough, and, by the aid of heat and moisture, disengages
carbonaceous matter, which, uniting with oxygen, forms carbonic acid
gas. This, being prevented from escaping by the gluten of the dough,
causes the mass to become light and spongy. During the process of
baking, the increased heat disengages more of the fixed air, which is
further prevented from escaping by the formation of the crust. The
superfluous moisture having been expelled, the substance becomes firm,
and retains that spongy hollowness which distinguishes good bread.

11. Many other substances contain fermenting qualities, and are,
therefore, sometimes used as substitutes for yeast and leaven. The
waters of several mineral springs, both in Europe and America, being
impregnated with carbonic acid gas, are occasionally employed in
making light bread.

12. The three general methods of making bread, and the great number of
materials employed, admit of a great variety in this essential article
of food; so much so, that we cannot enter into details, as regards the
particular modes of manufacture adopted by different nations, or
people. There are, comparatively, but few people on the globe, among
whom this art is not practised in some way or other.

13. It is impossible to ascertain, at what period of time the process
of baking bread became a particular profession. It is supposed, that
the first bakers in Rome came from Greece, about two hundred years
before the Christian era; and that these, together with some freemen
of the city, were incorporated into a college, or company, from which
neither they nor their children were permitted to withdraw. They held
their effects in common, without possessing any individual power of
parting with them.

14. Each bake-house had a patron, or superintendent; and one of the
patrons had the management of the rest, and the care of the college.
So respectable was this class of men in Rome, that one of the body was
occasionally admitted, as a member of the senate; and all, on account
of their peculiar corporate association, and the public utility of
their employment, were exempted from the performance of the civil
duties to which other citizens were liable.

15. In many of the large cities of Europe, the price and weight of
bread sold by bakers, are regulated by law. The weight of the loaves
of different sizes must be always the same; but the price may vary,
according to the current cost of the chief materials. The law was such
in the city of London, a few years ago, that if a loaf fell short in
weight a single ounce, the baker was liable to be put in the pillory;
but now, he is subject only to a fine, varying from one to five
shillings, according to the will of the magistrate before whom he may
be indicted.

16. In this country, laws of a character somewhat similar have been
enacted by the legislatures of several states, and by city
authorities, with a view to protect the community against impositions;
but whether there is a law or not, the bakers regulate the weight,
price, and quality of their loaves by the general principles of trade.

17. There is, perhaps, no business more laborious than that of the
baker of loaf bread, who has a regular set of customers to be supplied
every morning. The twenty-four hours of the day are systematically
appropriated to the performance of certain labours, and to rest.

18. After breakfast, the yeast is prepared, and the oven-wood
provided: at two or three o'clock, the _sponge is set_: the hours from
three to eight or nine o'clock, are appropriated to rest. The baking
commences at nine or ten o'clock at night; and, in large bakeries,
continues until five o'clock in the morning. From that time until the
breakfast hour, the hands are engaged in distributing the bread to
customers. For seven months in the year, and, in some cases, during
the whole of it, part of the hands are employed, from eleven to one
o'clock, in baking pies, puddings, and different kinds of meats, sent
to them from neighboring families.

19. In large cities, the bakers usually confine their attention to
particular branches of the business. Some bake light loaf bread only;
others bake unleavened bread, such as crackers, sea-biscuit, and cakes
for people of the Jewish faith. Some, again, unite several branches
together; and this is especially the case in small cities and towns,
where the demand for different kinds of bread is more limited.



[Illustration: CONFECTIONER.]

THE CONFECTIONER.


1. The Confectioner makes liquid and dry confects, jellies,
marmalades, pastes, conserves, sugar-plums, ice-creams, candies, and
cakes of various kinds.

2. Many of the articles just enumerated, are prepared in families for
domestic use; but, as their preparation requires skill and practice,
and is likewise attended with some trouble, it is sometimes better to
purchase them of the confectioner.

3. _Liquid_ and dry _confects_ are preserves made of various kinds of
fruits and berries, the principal of which are,--peaches, apricots,
pears, quinces, apples, plums, cherries, grapes, strawberries,
gooseberries, currants, and raspberries. The fruit, of whatever kind
it may be, is confected by boiling it in a thick clarified syrup of
sugar, until it is about half cooked. Dry confects are made by
boiling the fruit a little in syrup, and then drying it with a
moderate heat in an oven. The ancients confected with honey; but, at
present, sugar is deemed more suitable for this purpose, and is almost
exclusively employed.

4. _Jellies_ resemble a thin transparent glue, or size. They are made
by mixing the juice of the fruits mentioned in the preceding
paragraph, with a due proportion of sugar, and then boiling the
composition down to a proper consistence. Jellies are also made of the
flesh of animals; but such preparations cannot be long kept, as they
soon become corrupt.

5. _Marmalades_ are thin pastes, usually made of the pulp of fruits
that have some consistence, and about an equal weight of sugar.
_Pastes_ are similar to marmalades, in their materials, and mode of
preparation. The difference consists only in their being reduced by
evaporation to a consistence, which renders them capable of retaining
a form, when put into moulds, and dried in an oven.

6. _Conserves_ are a species of dry confects, compounded of sugar and
flowers. The flowers usually employed, are,--roses, mallows, rosemary,
orange, violets, jessamine, pistachoes, citrons, and sloes.
Orange-peel is also used for the same purpose.

7. _Candies_ are made of clarified sugar, reduced by evaporation to a
suitable degree of consistence. They receive their name from the
essence, or substance, employed in giving them the required flavour.

8. _Sugar-plums_ are small fruits, seeds, little pieces of bark, or
odoriferous and aromatic roots, incrusted with hard sugar. These
trifles are variously denominated; but, in most cases, according to
the name of the substance inclosed by the incrustation.

9. _Ice-cream_ is an article of agreeable refreshment in hot weather.
It is sold in confectionary shops, as well as at the public gardens,
and other places of temporary resort in cities. It is composed,
chiefly, of milk or cream, fruit, and lemon-juice. It is prepared by
beating the materials well together, and rubbing them through a fine
hair sieve. The congelation is effected by placing the containing
vessel in one which is somewhat larger, and filling the surrounding
vacancy with a mixture of salt and fine ice.

10. _Cakes_ are made of a great variety of ingredients; the principal
of which are, flour, butter, eggs, sugar, water, milk, cream, yeast,
wine, brandy, raisins, currants, caraway, lemon, orange, almonds,
cinnamon, nutmeg, allspice, cloves, and ginger. The different
combinations of these materials, produce so great a variety of cakes,
that it would be tedious to detail even their names.

11. The confectioner, in addition to those articles which may be
considered peculiar to his business, deals in various kinds of fruits
and nuts, which grow in different climates. He also sells a variety of
pickles, which he usually procures from those who make it a business
to prepare them.

12. _Soda-water_ is likewise often sold by the confectioner. This
agreeable drink is merely water, impregnated with carbonic acid gas,
by means of a forcing-pump. The confectioners, however, in large
cities, seldom prepare it themselves, as they can procure it at less
expense, and with less trouble, ready made.

13. Sometimes, the business of the pastry-cook is united with that of
the confectioner, especially with that branch of it which relates to
making cakes. Pies and tarts consist of paste, which, in baking,
becomes a crust, and some kind of fruit or meat, or both, with
suitable seasoning. The art of making pies and tarts is practised,
more or less, in every family: it is not, therefore, essential to be
particular in naming the materials employed, or the manner in which
they are combined.



[Illustration: DISTILLER.]

THE BREWER, AND THE DISTILLER.


THE BREWER.

1. Brewing is the art of preparing a liquor, which has received the
general denomination of beer. This beverage can be brewed from any
kind of farinaceous grain; but, on various accounts, barley is usually
preferred. It is prepared for the brewer's use by converting it into
malt, which is effected by the following process.

2. The grain is soaked in a cistern of water about two days, or until
it is completely saturated with that fluid. It is then taken out, and
spread upon a floor in a layer nearly two feet thick. When the inside
of this heap begins to grow warm, and the kernels to germinate, the
maltster checks the rapid growth of the grain in that situation by
changing it to the outside. This operation is continued, until the
saccharine matter in the barley has been sufficiently evolved by the
natural process of germination.

3. The grain is next transferred to the kiln, which is an iron or tile
floor, perforated with small holes, and moderately heated beneath with
a fire of coke or stone coal. Here, the grain is thoroughly dried, and
the principle of germination completely destroyed. The malt thus made
is prepared for being brewed, by crushing it in a common mill, or
between rollers. Malting, in Great Britain, and in some other parts of
Europe, is a business distinct from brewing; but, in the United
States, the brewers generally make their own malt.

4. The first part of the process of brewing is called _mashing_. This
is performed in a large tub, or _tun_, having two bottoms. The upper
one, consisting of several moveable pieces, is perforated with a great
number of small holes; the other, though tight and immoveable at the
edges, has several large holes, furnished with ducts, which lead to a
cistern beneath.

5. The malt, designed for one mashing, is spread in an even layer on
the upper bottom, and thoroughly saturated and incorporated with water
nearly boiling, by means of iron rakes, which are made to revolve and
move round in the tub by the aid of machinery. The water, together
with the soluble parts of the malt, at length passes off, through the
holes before mentioned, into the reservoir beneath.

6. The malt requires to be mashed two or three times in succession
with fresh quantities of water; and the product of each mashing is
appropriated to making liquors of different degrees of strength.

7. The product of the _mashing-tun_ is called _wort_, which, being
transferred to a large copper kettle, is boiled for a considerable
time with a quantity of hops, and then drawn off into large shallow
cisterns, called _coolers_. When the mixture has become cool enough
to be submitted to fermentation, it is drawn off into the _working
tun_.

8. The fermentation is effected with yeast, which, acting on the
saccharine matter, disengages carbonic acid gas. This part of the
process requires from eighteen to forty-eight hours, according to the
degree of heat which may be in the atmosphere.

9. The beer is then drawn off into casks of different dimensions, in
which it undergoes a still further fermentation, sometimes called the
_brewer's cleansing_. During this fermentation, the froth, or yeast,
works out at the bung-hole, and is received in a trough, on the edges
of which the casks have been placed. The froth thus discharged from
the beer, is the yeast used by the brewers.

10. The products of the brewery are denominated _beer_, _ale_, and
_porter_. The difference between these liquors arises, chiefly, from
the manner in which the malt has been prepared, the relative strength
imparted to each, and the extent to which the fermentation has been
carried.

11. There are several kinds of beer; such as table beer, half and
half, and strong beer. They are adapted to use soon after being
brewed, and differ from each other but little, except in the degree of
their strength.

12. Ale and porter are called stock liquors; because, not being
designed for immediate consumption, they are kept for a considerable
time, that they may improve in quality. Porter is usually prepared for
consumption by putting it into bottles. This is done either at the
brewery, or in bottling establishments. In the latter case, the liquor
is purchased in large quantities from the brewer by persons who make
it their business to supply retailers and private families.

13. We have evidence that fermented liquor was in use three thousand
years ago. It was first used in Egypt, whence it passed into adjacent
countries, and afterward into Spain, France, and England. It was
sometimes called the wine of barley; and one kind of it was
denominated Pelusian drink, from the city Pelusium, where it was first
made.

14. Among the nations of modern times, the English are the most
celebrated for brewing good liquors. London porter is especially in
great repute, not only in that city, but in distant countries. Much
fermented liquor of the different kinds, is consumed in the United
States, where it is also made in considerable perfection.


THE DISTILLER.

1. Although alcohol can be extracted from any substance containing
saccharine matter, yet sugar-cane, grapes, apples, peaches, rye, corn,
and rice, on account of their abundance, and superior adaptation to
the purpose, are more commonly used than any other. As whiskey is the
chief article of this kind, manufactured in the United States, it will
be selected to illustrate the general principles of distillation.

2. Corn and rye are the materials from which this liquor is mostly
extracted; and these are used either together or separately, at the
option of the distiller. The meal is scalded and mashed in a large
tub: it is then permitted to stand, until it has become a little
sweet, when more water is poured upon it, and, at a suitable
temperature, a quantity of yeast is added. To aid in producing rapid
fermentation, a little malt is sprinkled on the top.

3. After an adequate fermentation has taken place, the _beer_, as it
is called, is transferred to a large close tub, from the top of which
leads a tube extending to the worm in another tub filled with cold
water. The worm is a long pewter tube, twisted spirally, that it may
occupy a small space.

4. The beer is heated in the close tub, by means of steam, which is
conveyed to it, from a large kettle or boiler, by a copper or iron
pipe. The heat causes the alcoholic particles to rise like vapour, and
pass into the worm, where they are condensed into a watery fluid,
which passes out into a receiver.

5. At first, pure alcohol distils from the worm; but the produce
becomes gradually weaker, until, at length, the spirit in the beer
being exhausted, it consists only of water condensed from steam. The
remains of the beer are given as feed to hogs and cattle.

6. Brandy is distilled from grapes, rum from sugar-cane, arrack from
rice, whiskey from various kinds of grain, peach-brandy from peaches,
and cider-brandy from apples.

7. The great variety of articles employed in the productions of
different kinds of ardent spirits, must necessarily vary the process
of distillation in some particulars; but, in all cases, fermentation
and heat are necessary to disengage the alcoholic properties of the
saccharine matter, and also an apparatus for condensing the same from
a gaseous to a liquid form. In some countries, the _alembic_ is used
as a condenser, instead of a worm. The form of this instrument is much
like that of the retort; and when applied, it is screwed upon the top
of the boiler.

8. Spirits, which come to market in a crude state, are sometimes
distilled for the purpose of improving their quality, or for
disguising them with drugs and colouring substances, that they may
resemble superior liquors. The process by which they are thus changed,
or improved, is called rectification. Many distilleries in large
cities, are employed in this branch of business.

9. There is, perhaps, no kind of merchandise in which the public is
more deceived, than in the quality of ardent spirits and wines. To
illustrate this, it is only necessary to observe, that Holland gin is
made by distilling French brandy with juniper-berries; but most of the
spirits which are vended under that name, consist only of rum or
whiskey, flavoured with the oil of turpentine. Genuine French brandy
is distilled from grapes; but the article usually sold under that
denomination, is whiskey or rum coloured with treacle or scorched
sugar, and flavoured with the oil of wine, or some kind of drug.

10. The ancient Greeks and Romans were acquainted with an instrument
for distillation, which they denominated _ambix_. This was adopted, a
long time afterward, by the Arabian alchemists, for making their
chemical experiments; but they made some improvements in its
construction, and changed its name to _alembic_.

11. The ancients, however, knew nothing of alcohol. The method of
extracting this intoxicating substance, was probably discovered some
time in the twelfth or thirteenth century; but, for many ages after
the discovery, it was used only as a medicine, and was kept for sale
exclusively in apothecary shops. It is now used as a common article of
stimulation, in almost every quarter of the globe.

12. But the opinion is becoming general, among all civilized people,
that the use of alcohol, for this purpose, is destructive of health,
and the primary cause of most of the crimes and pauperism in all
places, where its consumption is common. The formation of Temperance
Societies, and the publication of their reports, together with the
extensive circulation of periodical papers, devoted to the cause of
temperance, have already diminished, to a very great extent, the use
of spirituous liquors.

13. Although the ancients knew nothing of distilling alcohol, yet they
were well versed in the art of making wine. We read of the vineyard,
as far back as the time of Noah, the second father of nations; and,
from that period to the present, the grape has been the object of
careful cultivation, in all civilized nations, where the climate and
soil were adapted to the purpose.

14. The general process of making wine from grapes, is as follows. The
grapes, when gathered, are crushed by treading them with the feet, and
rubbing them in the hands, or by some other means, with the view to
press out the juice. The whole is then suffered to stand in the vat,
until it has passed through what is termed the _vinous_ fermentation,
when the juice, which, in this state, is termed _must_, is drawn off
into open vessels, where it remains until the pressing of the husks is
finished.

15. The husks are submitted, in hair bags, to the press; and the
_must_ which is the result of this operation, is mixed with that drawn
from the vat. The whole is then put into casks, where it undergoes
another fermentation, called the _spirituous_, which occupies from six
to twelve days. The casks are then bunged up, and suffered to stand a
few weeks, when the wine is racked off from the _lees_, and again
returned to the same casks, after they have been perfectly cleansed.
Two such rackings generally render the wine clear and brilliant.

16. In many cases, sugar, brandy, and flavouring substances, are
necessary, to render the wine palatable; but the best kinds of grapes
seldom require any of these additions. Wine-merchants often adulterate
their wines in various ways, and afterwards sell them for those which
are genuine. To correct acidity, and some other unpleasant qualities,
lead, copper, antimony, and corrosive sublimate, are often used by
the dealers in wine; though the practice is attended with deleterious
effects to the health of the consumers.

17. The wines most usually met with in this country, are known by the
following denominations, viz., _Madeira_ and _Teneriffe_, from islands
of the same names; _Port_, from Portugal; _Sherry_ and _Malaga_, from
Spain; _Champagne_, _Burgundy_, and _Claret_, from France; and _Hock_,
from Germany.



[Illustration: BUTCHER.]

THE BUTCHER.


1. Man is designed by nature, to subsist on vegetable and animal food.
This is obvious, from the structure of his organs of mastication and
digestion. It does not follow, however, that animal food is, in all
cases, positively required. In some countries, the mass of the people
subsist chiefly or entirely on vegetables. This is especially the case
in the East Indies, where rice and fruits are the chief articles of
food.

2. On the other hand, the people who live in the higher latitudes
subsist principally on the flesh of animals. This is preferred, not
only because it is better suited to brace the system against the
rigours of the climate, but because it is most easily provided. In
temperate climates, a due proportion of both animal and vegetable
substances is consumed.

3. Although the skins of beasts were used for the purpose of clothing,
soon after the fall of man, we have no intimation from the Scriptures,
that their flesh, or that of any other animal, was used, until after
the flood. The Divine permission was then given to Noah and his
posterity, to use, for this purpose, "every moving thing that liveth."
But in the law of Moses, delivered several centuries after this
period, many exceptions are to be found, which were intended to apply
only to the Jewish people. These restrictions were removed, on the
introduction of Christianity. The unbelieving Jews, however, still
adhere to their ancient law.

4. The doctrine of transmigration has had a great influence in
diminishing the consumption of animal food. This absurd notion arose
somewhere in Central Asia, and, at a very early period, it spread into
Egypt, Greece, Italy, and finally among the remote countries of the
ancient world. It is still entertained by the heathen nations of
Eastern Asia, by the tribes in the vicinity of Mount Caucasus, and by
some of the American savages, and African negroes.

5. The leading feature of this doctrine is, that the souls of departed
men reappear on earth in the bodies of animals, both as a punishment
for crimes committed during life, and as a means of purification from
sin. This dogma was adopted by the Pythagoreans, a sect of Grecian
philosophers; and, as a natural consequence, it led them, as it has
ever done the votaries of this opinion, to the veneration of animals,
and to abstinence from their flesh, lest they might devour that of
some of their deceased friends or relatives.

6. People who dwell thinly scattered in the country, rear and
slaughter the animals for the supply of their own tables; but, in
villages, large towns, and cities, the inhabitants depend chiefly on
the butcher for their meat. The animals commonly slaughtered are,
sheep, cattle, and hogs.

7. The butchers obtain their animals from the farmers, or from
drovers, who make it a business to purchase them in the country, and
drive them to market. The farmers near large cities, who have good
grazing farms, are accustomed to buy lean cattle, brought from a
distance, with a view to fatten them for sale. There are also persons
in the cities, who might, with propriety, be called cattle brokers;
since they supply the butchers of small capital with a single animal
at a time, on a credit of a few days.

8. Every butcher who carries on the business, has a house in which he
kills his animals, and prepares them for sale. When it is intended to
slaughter an ox, a rope is thrown about his horns or neck, with which
he is forced into the _slaughter-house_, and brought to the floor by
the aid of a ring. The butcher then knocks him on the head, cuts his
throat, deprives him of his hide, takes out his entrails, washes the
inside of his body with water, and cuts him up into quarters. The beef
is now ready to be conveyed to the market-house. The process of
dressing other quadrupeds varies but little from this in its general
details. The cellular substance of mutton, lamb and veal, is often
inflated with air, that the meat may appear fat and plump.

9. In large cities and towns, the meat is chiefly sold in the
market-house, where each butcher has a stall rented from the
corporation. It is carried there in a cart, and cut into suitable
pieces with a saw, knife, and a broad iron cleaver.

10. In some of the large cities, it is a practice among the butchers,
to employ _runners_ to carry the meat to the houses, of those
customers who may desire this accommodation. In villages, where there
is no market-house, the butcher carries his meats from door to door
in some kind of vehicle.

11. Those who follow this occupation usually enjoy good health, and,
as they advance in years, in most cases, become corpulent. Their good
health arises from exercise in the open air; and their corpulency,
from subsisting principally on fresh meats. It is thought, however,
that their longevity is not so great as that of men in many other
employments.



[Illustration: TOBACCONIST.]

THE TOBACCO PLANTER, AND THE TOBACCONIST


THE TOBACCO PLANTER.

1. Tobacco is a native production of America, which was in common use
among nearly all of the Indian tribes, when this continent was
discovered by Europeans. Its original name among the nations of the
islands, was _yoli_; whilst, with those of the continent, it was
termed _petum_. The Spaniards, however, chose to call it _tobacco_, a
term in the Haytian language, which designated the instrument in which
the herb was smoked.

2. This plant was first introduced into Spain, then into Portugal and
France, and, at length, into other countries of the Eastern continent.
Sir Walter Raleigh carried it from Virginia to England, and taught his
countrymen the various methods of consuming it among the natives.

3. The introduction of this nauseous plant into Europe, was everywhere
attended with ridicule and opposition. Hundreds of pamphlets were
published, in various languages, dissuading from its use in the
strongest terms. Even James the First, king of Great Britain, did not
regard it as inconsistent with the royal dignity to take up his pen on
the subject. In his "_Counterblast to Tobacco_," published in 1603,
occurs the following remarkable passage: "It is a custom loathsome to
the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain; and, in the black
fume thereof, nearest resembling the horrible Stygian smoke of the pit
that is bottomless."

4. Pope Urban VIII. excommunicated those who took tobacco in churches;
and Queen Elizabeth also prohibited its use in houses of public
worship. In 1689, an ordinance was published in Transylvania,
threatening those who should plant tobacco with the confiscation of
their estates. The grand-duke of Moscow, and the king of Persia,
prohibited its use under the penalty of the loss of the nose, and even
of life. At present, however, the consumption of tobacco is looked
upon with so much greater indulgence, that all the sovereigns of
Europe, and most of those of other nations, derive a considerable
revenue from the trade in this article.

5. But it is truly astonishing, that a nauseous weed, of an acrid
taste, disagreeable odour, and deleterious qualities, should have had
so great an influence on the social condition of nations; that its
culture should have spread more rapidly than that of the most useful
plants; and that it should, consequently, have become an article of
extensive commerce.

6. Of this plant there are several species, which differ from each
other, in size, strength, and flavour. Some one or more of these
varieties, are cultivated in various parts of the world: but
especially in North and South America, and in the West Indies. It is
one of the staple productions of Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, and
Ohio. The whole value of the tobacco, exported annually from the
United States, amounts to about five millions of dollars.

7. The following description of the mode of cultivating this plant,
and preparing it for the tobacconist, is applicable to the state of
Maryland. A little variation in some of the details, would render it
applicable to other parts of the world.

8. A small piece of ground, say one-sixteenth of an acre, is prepared
by burning a large quantity of brush upon it. The surface is rendered
light and even, by means of a hoe and rake; and the seeds, mixed with
ashes, are sown as equally as possible. After they have been covered
with earth, the ground is trodden down with the bare feet. The tobacco
beds are made in March, and the plants become fit for the field in
eight or ten weeks.

9. The field, in which the cultivation of the crop is to be continued,
is ploughed two or three times, and then cross-ploughed into equal
checks, in each of which is made a hill. Immediately after a rain, the
plants are transferred to these hills, in the same manner in which
cabbages are transplanted. While the tobacco is growing, the ground is
ploughed several times, in order to keep it light, and to aid in
destroying the weeds. When the plants are nearly grown, the tops are
lopped or cut off, to prevent them from running to seed, and to cause
the leaves to grow larger and thicker.

10. In July or August, the tobacco-worms begin to make their
appearance, and to threaten the whole crop with destruction. To arrest
the ravages of these insidious enemies, all hands, both great and
small, together with all the turkeys that can be mustered, are brought
into the field. These worms are produced from the eggs of a large
insect, called the horn-bug.

11. The tobacco, when ripe, is cut near the ground, and hung on small
sticks about five feet in length, generally by pegs driven into the
stalks. These sticks are then laid upon poles, arranged at proper
distances from each other in the tobacco-house, shed, or hovel, as the
case may be. It is then suffered to dry gradually in the atmosphere;
or a large fire is made in the tobacco-house, to effect the drying
more rapidly.

12. The leaves are next stripped from the stalks, and tied in small
bunches according to their quality. This can only be done when _in
order_, or rather, when the leaves are rendered tough by the
absorption of moisture from the atmosphere. These bunches, when the
leaves are so damp that they will not break, and so dry that they will
not heat, are packed in hogs-heads by the aid of a large lever press.
The tobacco is inspected in public warehouses, by men who have been
appointed for the purpose by the public authorities.


THE TOBACCONIST.

1. It is the business of the tobacconist to convert the leaves of the
tobacco plant into snuff, cigars, and smoking and chewing tobacco.

2. Although there may seem to be a great variety of snuffs, yet they
may be all reduced to three kinds, viz., Scotch, rappee, and maccouba.
These are variously modified by the quality of the tobacco, by some
little variation in the manufacture, and by the articles employed in
communicating the desired flavour.

3. In manufacturing snuff, the tobacco is ground in a mill of a
peculiar construction. Before the weed is submitted to this operation,
it is reduced to a certain degree of fineness, by means of a cutting
machine; and then spread in a heap, one or two feet thick, and
sprinkled with water, that it may _heat_ and _sweat_. The time
required in this preparation depends upon the state of the weather,
and the kind of snuff for which the tobacco is designed.

4. Scotch snuff is made of the strongest sort of tobacco, and is put
up in bladders and bottles without being scented. Rappee and maccouba
are put up in jars and bottles; and the former is generally scented
with bergamot, and the latter with the ottar of roses. Sometimes,
several ingredients, agreeable to the olfactory nerves, are employed.

5. Cigars are composed of two parts, called the _wrapper_ and the
_filling_. The former is made of pieces of thin leaves, cut to a
proper shape, and the latter of those which are more broken. In all
cases, the leaves used in the manufacture of cigars are deprived of
the stems, which are reserved, either to be converted into inferior
kinds of snuff, or for exportation to Holland, where they are usually
flattened between rollers, and afterwards cut fine for smoking
tobacco, to be sold to the poorer class of people.

6. The value of cigars depends chiefly on the quality of the tobacco.
The best kind for this purpose, grows on the island of Cuba, near
Havana. Tobacco from this seed is raised in many other places; and
such, among tobacconists, is called _seed_; but it passes, among
smokers of limited experience, for the real Havana. A very fine silky
tobacco of this sort, is cultivated in Connecticut, which is much
esteemed.

7. An expert hand will make five or six hundred Spanish cigars in a
day, or from one thousand to fifteen hundred of those composed of
Maryland or Kentucky tobacco. Making cigars, being light work, is well
adapted to females, of whom great numbers are regularly employed in
this branch of business. Tobacco intended for the pipe, is cut in a
machine; and, after having been properly dried, it is put up in papers
of different sizes.

8. Chewing tobacco is almost exclusively prepared from the species of
this plant which is cultivated in Virginia, chiefly in the vicinity of
James river. It is better adapted to this purpose than any other, on
account of its superior strength, and the great amount of resinous
matter which it contains.

9. The first operation in preparing chewing tobacco, is that of
depriving the leaves of the stems. The former are then twisted by hand
into plugs of different sizes, or spun into a continued thread by the
aid of the _tobacco-wheel_, which is a simple machine moved by a
crank. The thread thus produced is formed into bunches, or twists,
containing a definite amount of tobacco.

10. The tobacco, having been put into the form desired, is moistened
with water, packed in strong kegs, and then pressed with powerful
screw-presses. The whole process is completed by heating the kegs,
with their contents, for several days, in an oven or a tight room made
for the purpose. The same change in the quality of the tobacco is also
produced by suffering it to stand nine or twelve months, before it is
disposed of to the consumers.

11. Snuff is very commonly used in the Southern states, as a
dentifrice; or, at least, it is applied to the teeth with this
ostensible object. The application is made by means of a small stick,
having the fibres minutely divided at one end. Although the tobacco
seems to have the desired effect upon the teeth, so far as respects
their appearance, yet its stimulating and narcotic powers are more to
be dreaded in this mode of using it than in any other. Many females
ruin their complexion and constitution, by _rubbing snuff_; and the
deleterious effects of the practice are so well known, that few are
willing to avow it.

12. Tobacco is used, in some one of its various forms, by a great
majority of mankind; and, although it is generally acknowledged to be,
in most cases, injurious to the constitution, and often destructive of
health, yet its consumption seems to be on the increase. It is one of
the objects of trade, even in the most obscure parts of the world; and
its devotees must and will have a supply, even though they stint
themselves in food and clothing.

13. As regards the influence which this plant assumes over its
votaries, it may be classed with alcohol and opium; although its
effects are not so destructive; nor is the expense so considerable;
yet this is an item by no means unworthy of attention, as the
aggregate sum annually expended for this useless narcotic in the
United States, would be sufficient for the support of common schools
in every part of the country.

14. The general use of tobacco is perpetuated from generation to
generation, by the desire, common to children and young people, to act
and appear like older persons. Few ever begin the use of this nauseous
weed, because it is agreeable to the senses to which it is applied;
but because they fancy, in their childish simplicity, that it confers
upon them some additional importance.



[Illustration]

THE MANUFACTURER OF CLOTH.


1. Men, in the primitive ages, were clad with the skins of animals,
until they had acquired sufficient skill to employ a better material.
It cannot be determined from history, at what time cloth began to be
manufactured from animal or vegetable fibre; but it is evident, that
it was done at a very early period, even long before the flood.

2. The fibres of the vegetable kind, most commonly applied to this
purpose, are the bark of several kinds of trees, together with hemp,
flax, and cotton; and those of the animal kingdom are, silk, the wool
of the sheep and lama, and the hair, or wool, of the goat and camel.

3. That the general process of manufacturing cloth may be perfectly
understood, the manner of performing several operations must be
separately described. For the purpose of illustration, cotton, wool,
and flax, will be selected; because these are the materials of which
our clothing is principally fabricated. The operations of making
cloth, may be comprised under _carding_ and _combing_, _spinning_,
_weaving_, and _dressing_.

4. _Carding and Combing._--Wool and cotton are carded, with the view
of disentangling the fibres, and arranging them longitudinally in
small rolls. This is done by means of the teeth of two instruments,
called cards, used by hand on the knee, or by the carding machine,
which acts on the same principle, although far more expeditiously.

5. Machines for carding wool are to be found in every district of
country in the United States, in which the people manufacture much of
their woollen cloths in their own families. On account of the
roughness of the fibres of wool, it is necessary to cover them well
with grease or oil, that they may move freely on each other during the
carding and spinning.

6. Long, coarse, or hard wools, used in the manufacture of camlets,
bombazines, circassians, and other worsted fabrics, are not carded,
but combed. In England, and in other countries where much of this kind
of wool is used, wool-combing forms a distinct trade. The operation
consists, chiefly, in drawing the locks through steel combs, the teeth
of which are similar to our common flax-hatchel. The comb is heated to
a certain temperature, to cause the fibres to straighten, and to
remove from them the roughness which might otherwise cause the cloth
made of them to thicken in washing, like flannel.

7. The old method of combing wool, however, has been in part
superseded by the application of machines, the first of which was
invented by Edmund Cartwright, of England, about the year 1790. The
fibres of flax are arranged in a parallel direction, and freed from
tow, by drawing them through a hatchel.

8. _Spinning._--The process of spinning consists in twisting the
fibres into threads. The most simple method by which this is effected,
is that by the common spinning-wheel. Of this well-known machine there
are two kinds; one of which is applied to spinning wool, cotton, and
tow, and the other, to spinning flax.

9. This operation is, in most cases, performed by females in the
following manner. The roll of cotton or wool is attached to the
spindle, which is put in rapid motion by a band passing over it from
the rim, or periphery of the wheel. While the spinster is turning the
wheel with the right hand, she brings back from the spindle her left,
with which she has laid hold of the roll a few inches from the upper
end. When the yarn thus produced has been sufficiently twisted, she
turns it upon the spindle, and repeats the same operation, until it is
full. This yarn is formed into skeins by winding it upon a reel.

10. The mode of spinning tow is a little different. The material
having been formed into _bats_ by hand-cards, the fibres are drawn out
from between the fingers and thumb by the twisted thread, while the
spinster gradually moves backward. Worsted is spun from combed wool
nearly in the same manner.

11. The _flax_ or _little wheel_ is moved by the foot, so that both
hands of the spinster are used in supplying, disposing, and
occasionally wetting the fibres, as they are drawn from the distaff.
Two bands pass from the periphery of the wheel, each of which performs
a distinct office: the one keeps in motion the spindle, which twists
the thread; the other moves the fliers, which wind the thread upon a
spool, as fast as it is produced.

12. Spinning was almost exclusively performed in the modes just
described, until the year 1767, when Richard Heargreaves, of England,
invented a machine for spinning cotton, which he called a _jenny_.
This consisted, at first, of eight spindles, moved by a common wheel,
or cylinder, which was turned by hand. The number of spindles was
afterwards increased to eighty-four.

13. In 1769, Richard Arkwright, also an Englishman, invented the
_water-spinning-frame_. The essential and most important feature of
this invention, consists in drawing out the cotton, by causing it to
pass between successive pairs of rollers, which revolve with different
velocities, and which act as substitutes for the thumb and fingers, as
applied in common spinning. These rollers are combined with the
spindle and fliers of the common flax-wheel.

14. Another machine was invented by Samuel Crompton, in 1779. It is
called a _mule_, because it combines the principles of the two
preceding machines. It produces finer yarn than either of them, and
has nearly superseded the jenny. Before the cotton is submitted to the
spinning machine, it is prepared by several others, by which it is
carded, extended, and partially twisted.

15. In the manufactories, the fine, short wools, used in the
fabrication of broadcloths, flannels, and a variety of other cloths,
are carded by machinery, and spun on a _slubbing_ or _roving-machine_,
or on a _jenny_ or _mule_, in each of which the spindles are mounted
on a carriage, which is moved backwards in stretching and twisting the
material, and forwards in winding the thread upon the spindle.

16. Worsted still continues to be spun, in most cases, on the common
spinning-wheel, as it can be done more perfectly in this way, than by
any other machine which has hitherto been invented. Several machines
have been constructed, which spin coarse threads of flax very well,
and with great rapidity; but the materials for fine linen fabrics are
still spun on the ancient flax-wheel.

17. _Weaving._--The first step preparatory to weaving, is to form a
warp, consisting of a number of threads, which extend through the
whole piece. To produce this parallel arrangement, the yarn is wound
upon spools, which are afterwards placed in a frame perpendicularly by
means of rods, on which they move as upon an axle. From these spools,
the yarns are stretched upon pegs to the length of the proposed web,
and are carried round or doubled a sufficient number of times to make
it the proper width. The same object is more expeditiously effected,
by winding the yarn spirally on a revolving frame.

18. The next step consists in winding the warp on a cylindrical beam,
which is usually about ten inches in diameter. The threads, having
been put through a harness, composed of moveable parts, called
_heddles_, and also through a sley, or reed, are fastened on the other
side to a large rod, from which three ropes extend to another
cylinder, on which the cloth is wound, as fast as it is woven.

19. The heddles are suspended from cross-pieces, on the top of the
loom, by means of cords and pulleys, and, during the operation of
weaving, are moved up and down alternately by the aid of _treadles_.
This reciprocal motion causes the web to open; and, while in this
position, a shuttle, containing the _woof_, _weft_, or _filling_ on a
quill or bobbin, is passed through from right to left, or from left to
right, as often as the position of the warp is changed. The threads of
the filling are beaten up by the reed, or sley, which is placed in the
_lay_.

20. Weaving is a business extensive in its application, being divided
into almost as many branches as there are woven fabrics. Plain cotton,
linen, woollen, and twilled cloths, silks, satins, carpets, &c., are
all woven in looms of some kind, constructed on the same general
principles. Power-looms, driven by water or steam, are now generally
introduced into the cotton and woollen manufactories, both in Europe
and in this country. One person can attend to two of these looms at
the same time, and each one will weave between twenty and forty yards
in a day.

21. _Dressing._--Cotton fabrics, when the webs are taken from the
loom, are covered with an irregular nap, or down, formed by the
protruding ends of the fibres. From the finest cottons, this is
removed, by drawing them rapidly over an iron cylinder, kept red-hot
by a fire within. The flame of coal-gas has recently been applied, to
effect the same object.

22. Common domestic fabrics are taken from the loom, and, without
further preparation, are folded up into pieces for sale. Finer
articles are usually whitened and calendered, before they pass from
the hand of the manufacturer. Stuffs of all kinds, made of vegetable
fibres, are now whitened by immersing them in a solution of oxymuriate
of lime. Cotton and linen goods, with a view of making them smooth and
glossy, are calendered, or pressed, between steel rollers.

23. Many of the fine cottons are converted into calicoes, by
transferring to them various colors. The process by which this is
done, is called calico-printing, which will be described in a separate
article.

24. The texture of the fabrics made of worsted, or long wool, is
completed, when issued from the loom. The pieces are subsequently
dyed, and then pressed between heated metallic plates, to communicate
to them the required gloss. But weaving does not always complete the
texture of the stuffs made of the short wools. When taken from the
loom, the web is too loose and open, to answer the purposes to which
such cloths are usually applied. It is, therefore, submitted to
another process, called _fulling_.

25. _Fulling_, in common with almost every other operation pertaining
to the manufacture of cloth, constitutes a separate trade. The art is
only applied to stuffs composed of wool, or hair, as these only
possess the properties which render it applicable. The practicability
of fulling cloth depends on a certain roughness of the fibres, which
admits of motion in one way, and retards it in another. This may be
more fully understood by consulting the article on making hats.

26. The cloth, having been prepared by a proper cleansing, is
deposited in a strong box, with a quantity of water and fuller's earth
or soap, and submitted to the action of the _pestles_, or _stampers_,
which are moved in a horizontal direction, backwards and forwards, by
means of appropriate machinery. This operation reduces the dimensions
of the cloth, and greatly improves the beauty and stability of the
texture. The cloth is afterwards dried in the open air on frames
prepared for the purpose.

27. After the cloth has been dyed, a nap is raised on one side of it
by means of the common teazle. The nap is next cut off to an even
surface. This was formerly done with a huge pair of shears; but,
within a few years, it has most commonly been effected by a machine,
the essential part of which is a spiral blade, that revolves in
contact with another blade, while the cloth is stretched over a bed,
or support, just near enough for the projecting filaments to be cut
off at a uniform length, without injuring the main texture. Pressing
and folding the cloth complete the whole process.

28. A great proportion of the woollen fabrics worn in the United
States, are manufactured in families, part of which is sent to the
clothiers to be dressed. Much cotton yarn, spun at the manufactories,
is purchased for domestic use. Formerly, the raw material was
procured, and spun into yarn on the _big wheel_. Coarse linens are
also extensively manufactured in families, especially among the German
population.

29. The manufacture of cloth from wool was introduced into Britain by
the Romans, some time in the Augustan age. At Winchester, they
conducted the business on a scale sufficiently large to supply their
army. After the Romans withdrew from the island, in the fifth century,
the art was comparatively neglected, and gradually declined, until the
reign of Edward III. This monarch invited into his dominions workmen
from Flanders, in which country the manufacture had, for a long time,
been in a flourishing condition.

30. Shortly after the first immigration of the Flemish manufacturers
into England, an act was passed prohibiting the wearing of cloths made
in any other country; and, in the time of Elizabeth, the manufacture
had become so extensive, that the exportation of the raw material was
forbidden by law.

31. It is supposed that there are now, in Great Britain, thirty
millions of sheep; whose annual produce of wool is worth, on an
average, about seven millions of pounds sterling; to this may be added
five millions of pounds weight from foreign countries. This amount is
increased in value, by manufacturing skill, to twenty or thirty
millions of pounds. Not less than three millions of persons are
supposed to be employed in this branch of British industry.

32. Both the woollen and cotton manufactures have arisen to great
importance, of late years, in the United States; and, from the
mechanical skill of our countrymen, the abundance of the raw material,
and the vast amount of water-power, there is every reason to
anticipate a rapid and continual increase in these divisions of
American enterprise.


THE SILK-WORM.

1. Silk is the production of a worm, of the caterpillar species,
which, in due course, passes through several transformations, and at
length becomes a butterfly, like others of the genus. It is produced
from an egg, and when about to die, or rather again to change its
form, spins for itself an envelope, called _a cocoon_. The worm then
changes to a chrysalis, and, after remaining in this state from 5 to 8
days, the butterfly, or moth, comes out, forcing its way through the
cocoon. The moths, or butterflies, eat nothing, and die as soon as
they have provided for the propagation of their species. Enough of
these are suffered to come to maturity, to provide a sufficient stock
of eggs. The rest are killed, in a few days after they have spun their
task, either by heating them in an oven, or by exposing them to the
rays of the sun.

2. The fibres are wound upon a reel. To render this practicable, the
cocoons are put into water heated to a suitable temperature, which
dissolves the gummy substance that holds the fibres together. A number
of threads being detached, and passed through a hole in an iron bar,
form, by the aid of the remaining glutinous matter, one thread, which
is wound upon a reel into skeins.

3. The raw silk, thus produced and prepared, is sold to the
manufacturers, who twist and double the fibres variously, and finally
form them into threads for sewing; or weave them into a great variety
of fabrics, which are too well known to need particular description
here.

4. According to the ancients, the silk-worm was originally a native of
China, and the neighboring parts of Asia, and had there been
domesticated for a long time, before it was known in Europe. For many
years after silk was sold among the nations of the West, even the
merchants were ignorant of both the manner and place of its
production.

5. The Greeks became acquainted with silk, soon after the time of
Alexander the Great; and the Romans knew little of the article, until
the reign of Augustus. Dresses, composed entirely of this material,
were seldom worn; but the fabrics which had been closely woven in the
East, were unravelled, and the threads were recomposed in a looser
texture, intermixed with linen or woollen yarn.

6. The prodigal Hehogabalus is said to have been the first individual,
in the Roman empire, who wore a robe of pure silk. It is also stated,
that the Emperor Aurelian refused his wife a garment of this
description, on account of its exorbitant price. At that time, as well
as at previous periods, it usually sold for its weight in gold.

7. A kind of gauze, originally made by the women on the island of Cos,
was very celebrated. It was dyed purple, with the substance usually
employed in communicating that colour in those days; but this was done
before it was woven, as in that state it was too frail to admit of the
process. Habits, made of this kind of stuff, were denominated "dresses
of glass:" because the body could be seen through them.

8. The Roman empire had been supplied with silk through the medium of
the Persians, until the time of Justinian, in the year 555. This
emperor, having become indignant at the rapacity of the
silk-merchants, determined, if possible, to supply his people from the
insect itself.

9. After many unsuccessful attempts, he at length obtained a small
quantity of the eggs from India, by the assistance of two Persian
monks, who had contrived to conceal them in the hollow of their
canes. The seeds of the mulberry-tree, on the leaves of which the worm
feeds, were also procured at the same time, together with instructions
necessary for the management of the worms.

10. For six hundred years after the period just mentioned, the rearing
of these worms, in Europe, was confined to the Greek empire; but, in
the twelfth century, Roger, king of Sicily, introduced it into that
island, whence it gradually spread into Italy, Spain, France, and
other European countries.

11. The silk-worm was introduced into England by James the First; but
it has never succeeded well in that country, on account of the
dampness and coldness of the climate. The manufacture of fabrics from
silk, however, is there very extensive, the raw material being
obtained, chiefly, from Bengal and Italy. In the latter of these
countries, in France, and other parts of Europe, as well as in Asia,
the manufacture is also extensive.

12. Some attention has been paid to the rearing of silk-worms in the
United States, and attempts have been made to introduce the
manufacture of silks. The mulberry has been planted in various parts
of the Union; and it is highly probable, that, in a few years, we
shall be able to obtain excellent silks, without sending for them to
foreign countries.



[Illustration: DYER.]

THE DYER, AND THE CALICO-PRINTER.


THE DYER.

1. The art of dyeing consists in impregnating flexible fibres with any
color which may be desired, in such a manner, that it will remain
permanent, under the common exposures to which it may be liable.

2. The union of the coloring matter with the fibres receiving the dye,
is purely chemical, and not mechanical, as in the case of the
application of paints. Wool has the greatest attraction for coloring
substances; silk comes next to it; then cotton; and, lastly, hemp and
flax. These materials, also, absorb dye-stuffs in different
proportions.

3. Previous to the application of the dye, the greasy substance which
covers the fibres of wool, and the gluey matter on those of silk, are
removed by some kind of alkali. Their natural color is, also,
discharged by the fumes of sulphur. The resinous matter and natural
color of cotton and linen, are removed by bleaching.

4. The materials used in dyeing are divided into two
classes--_substantive_ and _adjective_. The former communicates
durable tints without the aid of any other substance previously
applied; the latter requires the intervention of some agent which
possesses an attraction for both the coloring matter and the stuff to
be dyed, in order to make the color permanent. The substances used for
this purpose are usually termed _mordants_.

5. Agents capable of acting in some way as mordants, are very
numerous; but _alumina_, _alum_, the _sulphate_ or _acetate of iron_,
the _muriate of tin_, and _nut-galls_, are principally employed. The
mordant not only fixes the color, but, in many cases, alters and
improves the tints. It is always dissolved in water, in which the
stuffs are immersed, previous to the application of the dye. Dyeing
substances are also very numerous; but a few of the most important
have, in practice, taken precedence of the others.

6. Blue, red, yellow, and black, are the chief colors, for which
appropriate coloring substances are applied; but, by a judicious
combination of these same materials, and by a proper application of
mordants, intermediate hues of every shade are produced; thus, a green
is communicated by forming a blue ground of indigo, and then adding a
yellow by means of quercitron bark.

7. The _blue dye_ is made of indigo; the _red dye_, of madder,
cochineal, archil, Brazil-wood, or safflowers; the _yellow dye_, of
quercitron bark, turmeric, hickory, weld, fustic, or saffron; the
_black dye_, of the oxide of iron combined with logwood, or the bark
of the common red, or soft maple, and the sulphate or acetate of
iron. The dyes made of some of these substances require the aid of
mordants, and those from others do not.

8. In communicating the intermediate hues, the different dye-stuffs
forming the leading colors, are sometimes mixed; and, at other times,
they are made into separate dyes, and applied in succession.

9. In this country, the business of the dyer is often united with that
of the clothier; but, where the amount of business will justify it, as
in manufactories, and in cities or large towns, it is a separate
business. The dyers sometimes confine their attention to particular
branches. Some dye wool only or silk, while others confine themselves
to certain colors, such as scarlet and blue. The principal profits of
the dyer, when unconnected with manufacturing establishments, arise
from dyeing garments or stuffs which have been partly worn.

10. The origin of the art of dyeing is involved in great obscurity, as
the ancients have not furnished even a fable, which might guide us in
our researches. It is evident, however, that the art must have made
considerable progress, long before authentic history begins. Moses
speaks of stuffs dyed blue, purple, and scarlet, and of sheep-skins
dyed red. The knowledge of the preparation of these colors, implies an
advanced state of the art, at that early period.

11. Purple was the favorite color of the ancients, and appears to have
been the first which was brought to a state of tolerable perfection.
The discovery of the mode of communicating it, is stated to have been
accidental. A shepherd's dog, while on the sea-shore, incited by
hunger, broke a shell, the contents of which stained his mouth with a
beautiful purple; and the circumstance suggested the application of
the shell-fish, as a coloring substance. This discovery is thought to
have been made about fifteen hundred years before the advent of
Christ.

12. The Jews esteemed this color so highly, that they consecrated it
especially to the service of the Deity, using it in stuffs for
decorating the tabernacle, and for the sacred vestments of the
high-priests. The Babylonians and other idolatrous nations clothed
their idols in habits of purple, and even supposed this color capable
of appeasing the wrath of the gods.

13. Among the heathen nations of antiquity generally, purple was
appropriated to the use of kings and princes, to the exclusion of
their subjects. In Rome, at a later period, purple habits were worn by
the chief officers of the republic, and, at length, by the opulent,
until the emperors reserved to themselves the distinguished privilege.

14. There were several kinds of shell-fish, from which this coloring
substance was obtained, each of which communicated a shade somewhat
different from the others. The kind collected near Tyre was the best;
and hence the Tyrian purple acquired especial celebrity. So highly was
it esteemed by the Romans, in the time of Augustus, that wool imbued
with this color was sold for one thousand denarii per pound, which, in
our currency, amounts to one hundred and sixty-eight dollars.

15. After all, the boasted purple of antiquity is supposed to have
been a very inferior dye, when compared with many which we now
possess; and this is only one among many instances, wherein modern
science has given us a decided superiority over the ancients.

16. The color, second in repute with the people of antiquity, was
scarlet. This color was communicated by means of an insect, called
_coccus_, and which is now denominated _kermes_. Besides the various
hues of purple and scarlet, several others were in some degree of
favor; such as green, orange, and blue. The use of vegetable dyes
appears to have been but little known to the Romans; but the Gauls had
the knowledge of imparting various colors, even the purple and
scarlet, with the juice of certain herbs.

17. The irruption of the northern barbarians into the Roman empire,
destroyed this, with the rest of the arts of civilization, in the
western parts of Europe; but, having been preserved, more or less, in
the East, it was again revived in the West, principally by means of
the intercourse arising from the Crusades.

18. Although indigo seems to have been known to the ancient Greeks and
Romans, yet it does not appear to have been used for dyeing. The first
that was applied to this purpose in Europe, was brought from India by
the Dutch; but its general use was not established without much
opposition from interested individuals. It was strictly prohibited in
England, in the reign of Elizabeth, and, about the same time, in
Saxony. Many valuable acquisitions were made to the materials employed
in this art, on the discovery of America, among which may be
enumerated, cochineal, logwood, Brazil-wood, and Nicaragua, together
with the soft maple and quercitron barks.

19. The first book on the art of dyeing was published in 1429. This,
of course, appeared in manuscript, as the art of printing had not then
been discovered. An edition was printed in 1510. The authors to whom
the world is most indebted for correct information on this subject,
are Dufuy, Hallet, Macquir, and Berthollet, of France; and Henry and
Bancroft, of England; all of whom wrote in the eighteenth century.


THE CALICO-PRINTER.

1. Calico-printing is a combination of the arts of dyeing, engraving,
and printing, wherewith colors are applied in definite figures. This
art is applicable to woven fabrics, and chiefly to those of which the
material is cotton.

2. The first object, after preparing the stuffs, as in dyeing, is to
apply a _mordant_ to those parts of the piece which are to receive the
color. This is now usually done by means of a steel or copper
cylinder, on which have been engraved the proposed figures, as on
plates for copperplate-printing.

3. During the printing, the cylinder, in one part of its revolution,
becomes charged with the mordant, the superfluous part of which is
scraped off by a straight steel edge, leaving only the portion which
fills the lines of the figures. As the cylinder revolves, the cloth
comes into forcible contact with it, and receives the complete
impression of the figures, in the pale color of the mordant.

4. The cloth, after having been washed and dried, is passed through
the _coloring bath_, in which the parts previously printed, become
permanently dyed with the intended color. Although the whole piece
receives the dye, yet, by washing the cloth, and bleaching it on the
grass in the open air, the color is discharged from those parts not
impregnated with the mordant.

5. By the use of different mordants, successively applied, and a
single dye, several colors are often communicated to the same piece of
cloth; thus, if stripes are first made with the acetate of alumina,
and then others with the acetate of iron, a coloring bath of madder
will produce red and brown stripes. The same mordants, with a dye of
quercitron bark, give yellow and olive or drab.

6. Sometimes, the second mordant is applied by means of engravings on
wooden blocks. Cuts, designed for this purpose, are engraved on the
_side_ of the grain, and not on the _end_, like those for printing
books.

7. Calico-printing, so far as chemical affinities are concerned, is
the same with dyeing. The difference consists, chiefly, in the mode of
applying the materials, so as to communicate the desired tints and
figures. The dye-stuffs, most commonly employed by calico-printers,
are indigo, madder, and quercitron bark; by a dexterous application of
these and the mordants, a great variety of colors can be produced.
Indigo, being a substantive color, does not require the aid of
mordants, but, like them, when other dyes are used, is applied
directly to the cloth, sometimes by the engraved cylinder or block,
and at others with the pencil by hand.

8. Calico-printing was practised in India twenty-two centuries ago,
when Alexander the Great visited that country with his victorious
army. The operation was then performed with a pencil. This method is
still used in the East to the exclusion of every other. The art was
also practised in Egypt in Pliny's time.

9. Calicoes were first brought to England in the year 1631. They
derive their name from the city of Calicut, whence they were first
exported to Europe. This branch of business was introduced into London
in the year 1676. Since that time, it has been encouraged by several
acts of Parliament; but it never became extensive in England, until
the introduction of machinery for spinning cotton. It is supposed,
that the amount of cottons annually printed in the United States,
cannot be less than twenty millions of yards.



[Illustration: HATTER.]

THE HATTER.


1. The business, peculiar to the hatter, consists in making hats from
the fur or hair of animals, by the process called _felting_. The hair
of animals is the only material which can be firmly matted together in
this way; yet, that of every animal is not suitable for this purpose.
The fur of the beaver, the otter, the seal, the muskrat, the rabbit,
the hare, the coney, and the nutria, together with the wool of the
lama, sheep, and camel, are employed to the exclusion of almost every
other.

2. The skin of all animals having fur, is covered with two kinds of
hair; the one, long and coarse; the other, short, fine, and thickly
set. The coarse hair is pulled out from the skin, by the aid of a
shoe-knife, and thrown away, while the fine, which is the fur, is cut
from it with one of a circular form, such as the saddlers and
harness-makers use in cutting leather.

3. In the application of the materials, the first object of the hatter
is to make the _body_. In the common three, four, and five dollar
hats, the body is composed of the wool of the sheep; but, in those of
greater value, it is usually made of the wool of the lama, and
different kinds of cheap furs. In describing the process of making
hats, one of the latter kind will be selected.

4. A sufficient quantity of the materials for the body is weighed out,
and divided into two equal parts. One of these is placed on a table,
or, as the hatters call it, a _hurl_. The individual hairs composing
this portion, are separated, and lightly and regularly spread out into
a proper form, by the vibrations of a bow-string, which is plucked
with a wooden pin.

5. The fur is then carefully compressed with a flat piece of
wicker-work, denominated a hatter's basket, and covered with a damp
piece of linen cloth, in which it is afterwards folded, pressed, and
worked, with the hands, until it becomes matted together into a _bat_.
This bat is next folded over a triangular piece of paper, and formed
into a conical cap.

6. When another bat has been made in the same way, from the other half
of the materials, the two are put together to form one, which is then
worked in the damp cloth as before, until it is much contracted and
matted together. After this, having been conveyed to another room, it
is rolled in a woollen cloth, pressed, rubbed, and worked, with the
hands and a rolling-pin, around a kettle of hot water, into which it
is often plunged during the operation, which is called _planking_.

7. In this way, the materials are consolidated into _felt_, and the
body contracted to the proper size. The reason why the process just
described produces this effect, may be found in the nature of the
fibres themselves. Upon a close examination, it will be observed, that
these are covered with little scales, or beards, which admit of motion
in one direction, but retard it in the other. This peculiar formation
causes them to interlock in such a way as to become closely matted
together.

8. When the body has been dried, and shaved on the knee with a sharp
knife, to free it from projecting filaments, it is stiffened with
gum-shellac dissolved in alcohol, and then steamed in a box, to cause
the stiffening _to set_. It is now prepared for being _napped_.

9. The fur for the _nap_ is prepared on the hurl, like the conical cap
first described. In applying the nap to the body, the latter is wet
with hot water, and _flakes_ of the former are matted down upon it, by
working it on the planks around the kettle. After three layers have
been put on in this way, the cap is beaten, while wet, with sticks, to
raise the nap, and then drawn over a cylindrical block, which gives it
the general form of a hat.

10. The nap having been raised with a card, the hat is prepared to be
colored. The dye is made, chiefly, of the extract of logwood,
copperas, and verdigris. The hats, to the number of forty-eight or
more, are hung upon a wheel by means of pegs, which pass through the
centre of the blocks. This wheel can be turned, so as to keep one half
of the hats alternately in the dye. After having been properly
colored, they are taken from the blocks, washed, and dried.

11. The hat is now prepared for the _finisher_, who first whips up the
nap with a ratan, and, after having rendered it pliable with steam,
draws it over the _finishing block_. The fibres composing the nap, are
properly disposed with a card and brush, and rendered smooth and
glossy by means of a hot iron. The superfluous part of the rim is cut
off with a blade, placed in a gauge. The hat is finished by adding
suitable trimmings, the nature of which, and the mode of application,
can be easily learned by examining different kinds of hats.

12. Hats of various colors have been worn; but those most in use are
black, white, and drab. The white hats, which are intended only for
ladies and children, have a nap of rabbits' fur, selected from the
white skins. Drab hats are also made of stuffs of the natural color,
assorted for that purpose.

13. The value of hats depends, of course, upon the workmanship, and
the cost of the materials used in the manufacture. So great is the
difference in these respects, that their price ranges between
seventy-five cents and fifteen dollars. The woollen bodies used by
hatters are now often procured from persons, who devote their
attention exclusively to their manufacture.

14. Several years ago, woollen cloths were made in England, by the
process of felting; but, on trial, they were found to be deficient in
firmness and durability. Since the year 1840, an American citizen has
been manufacturing cloths by this method; but, whether they are liable
to the objection just mentioned, is yet uncertain.

15. Some kind of covering for the head, either for defence or
ornament, appears to have been usually worn in all ages and countries,
where the inhabitants have made the least progress in the arts of
civilized life.

16. The form, substance, and color, of this article of dress, have
been exceedingly various in different ages, according to the
circumstances or humor of the wearer. The ancient Persians wore
turbans, similar to those of the modern Turks; and the nations
inhabiting the Indian Peninsula, wore a kind of head-dress so large,
that it divested the person of all proportion.

17. The imperial turban is said to have been composed of a great many
yards of muslin, twisted and formed into a shape nearly oval, and
surmounted with a woollen cap, encircled with a radiated crown. The
turban of the prime minister was smaller in its dimensions, but of
greater altitude. The chief magi, on account of his superior eminence,
wore a higher turban than those of the monarch and minister united.
Those worn by the inferior magi, were regulated by the dignity of the
stations which they held.

18. The Jewish people and the neighboring nations borrowed the turban
from the Persians; but, at a later period, they very commonly adopted
the cap which the Romans were accustomed to give to their slaves, on
their manumission.

19. The ancient helmet, made of steel, brass, and sometimes of more
costly materials, was worn as a piece of defensive armor in war,
instead of the ordinary coverings, used while engaged in peaceful
occupations.

20. Roman citizens went bare-headed, except upon occasions of sacred
rites, games, and festivals; or when engaged in travelling or in war.
They were accustomed, however, in the city, to throw over their head
the lappet of their toga, as a screen from the wind or sun. The people
of Scotland used to wear a kind of bonnet, as in some parts of that
country they do at the present time; and the English, before the
invention of felt hats, covered the head with knit caps and cloth
hoods, and sometimes with hats made of thrummed silk.

21. The Chinese do not wear hats, but use a cap of peculiar structure,
which the laws of civility will not allow them to put off in public.
The form and material of this is varied with the change of the
season. That used in summer is shaped like a cone, is made of a
beautiful kind of mat, and lined with satin; to this is added, at the
top, a large tuft of red silk, which falls all round to the lower part
of the cap, and which fluctuates gracefully on all sides, while the
wearer is in motion. The kind worn in winter is made of shaggy cloth,
bordered with some kind of fur, and ornamented in a similar manner.

22. Head-dresses, from their variety, simplicity, and mutability, were
but little regulated by commercial or manufacturing interests, until
the introduction of felt hats, which has occasioned a uniformity in
this article of dress, unknown in former ages.

23. Curiosity is naturally excited to become acquainted with the
particulars of the invention of the hat, and the subsequent stages of
improvement in the manufacture. But the operation of individual
interest, so generally connected with the useful arts, seems to have
concealed the whole in obscurity; and little information on the
subject can now be obtained.

24. The hatters have a tradition, that the art of felting originated
with St. Clement, the fourth bishop of Rome. Under this impression, in
Catholic countries, they adopt him as their patron saint, and hold an
annual festival in his honor. The principle of felting is said to have
been suggested to his mind by the following circumstance; while
fleeing from his persecutors, his feet became blistered, and, to
obtain relief, he placed wool between them and his sandals. On
continuing his journey, the wool, by the perspiration, motion, and
pressure of the feet, assumed a compact form.

25. Notwithstanding this tradition, it appears, that felt hats were
invented at Paris, by a Swiss, about the commencement of the fifteenth
century; but they were not generally known, until Charles the Seventh
made his triumphal entry into Rouen, in the year 1492, when he
astonished the people by wearing a hat, lined with red silk, and
surmounted with a plume of feathers.

26. When some of the clergy first adopted this article of dress, it
was considered an unwarrantable indulgence. Councils were held, and
regulations published, forbidding any priest or monk to appear abroad
wearing a hat; and enjoining them to keep to the use of chaperons, or
hoods, made of black cloth, with decent cornets; if they were poor,
they were, at least to have cornets fastened to their hats, upon
penalty of suspension and excommunication.

27. At length, however, the pope permitted even the cardinals to wear
hats; but, enjoined them to wear those of a red color at public
ceremonials, in token of their readiness to spill their blood for
their religion.

28. In England, considerable opposition was made to the use of the
hat. By a statute, enacted in the thirteenth year of the reign of
Elizabeth, every person between certain ages was obliged, on Sundays
and holidays, to wear a woollen cap, made by some of the cappers of
that kingdom, under the penalty of three shillings and four-pence for
every day's neglect. This law continued in force, for about
twenty-five years. The manufacture of hats was commenced, in England,
in the time of Henry the Eighth, by Dutchmen and Spaniards.

29. Hats made of plaited straw, grass, or chip, are much used in the
summer; and caps of cloth or fur are now frequently substituted for
hats, in cold weather. Silk hats have also been much worn, since the
year 1825. They are made of the common hat body, and a texture of silk
with a long nap. The silk is fastened to the body with glue.



[Illustration: ROPE MAKER.]

THE ROPE-MAKER.


1. Ropes may be made of any vegetable substance which has a fibre
sufficiently flexible and tenacious. The Chinese and other orientals,
in making ropes, use the ligneous parts of certain bamboos and reeds,
the fibrous covering of the cocoa-nut, the filaments of the cotton
pod, and the leaves of certain grasses; but the bark of plants and
trees, is the most productive of fibrous matter suitable to this
manufacture. That of the linden-tree, the willow, and the bramble is
frequently used. In Europe and America, however, the fibres of hemp
and flax are more frequently employed, for this purpose, than any
other material.

2. The operations of rope-making are commonly performed in
_rope-walks_, which are sometimes more than a quarter of a mile in
length. These are usually covered with a slight shed, the nature and
appearance of which are well exhibited in the preceding picture.

3. The first part of the process consists in spinning the material
into yarn. The principle on which this is effected, is the same as
that by which cotton or wool is drawn out and twisted into threads,
although the machinery, and the mode of operating, are different.

4. The kind of wheel employed in spinning rope-yarn, is also exhibited
in the cut. A band passes around the periphery, and over the
semicircle above it, in which is placed a number of wheels, the pivots
of which terminate, on the other side, in a small hook.

5. The spinner, having a quantity of the material properly disposed
about the waist, attaches a number of fibres to one of the hooks,
which, being put in motion by the band passing over the whirl, twists
them rapidly into yarn. The part already twisted draws along with it
more fibres from the bundle, and, as the spinner is regulating their
uniform arrangement, he walks backward towards the other end of the
walk.

6. When the thread has been spun to the proposed length, the spinner
cries out to another, who immediately takes it off from the hook,
gives it to a third person, and, in turn, attaches his own fibres to
the same hook. In the meantime, the first spinner keeps fast hold of
the end of his yarn, to prevent it from untwisting or doubling; and,
as it is wound on the reel, proceeds up the walk, keeping the yarn of
an equal tension throughout.

7. The second part of the process consists in forming the yarn into
various kinds of ropes. The component parts of cordage are called
strands; and the operation of uniting them with a permanent twist, is
called _laying_, when applied to small ropes, and _closing_, when
applied to cables or other large ropes.

8. The simplest twist is formed of two strands. The thread used by
sail-makers, and pack-thread, furnish examples of this kind; but
cordage with two strands is not much used; that with three is the most
usual. Lines and cords less than one and a half inches in
circumference, are laid by means of the spinning-wheel. Preparatory to
this operation, the workman fastens the hither end of the yarns to
separate whirl-hooks, and the remote ends to the hook of a swivel,
called the _loper_.

9. The strands having been properly distended, the spinning-wheel is
turned in the same direction as when twisting the yarns. A further
twisting of the strands, during this part of the process, is prevented
by the motion of the loper, which gives way to the strain, and, at the
same time, causes the strands to entwine about each other, and form a
cord. To prevent them from entwining too rapidly, an instrument is
interposed, which, from its form, is called the _top_. It has two or
more notches, which terminate at the apex, and a handle, called a
_staff_. As the top is moved from the loper to the wheel, it regulates
the degree of twist which the cord or rope is to receive.

10. The principle on which large cordage is laid, or closed, is the
same, although some part of the machinery is different. The strands
for large ropes and cables are formed of many yarns, and require
considerable _hardening_. This cannot be done with whirls driven by a
wheel-band; it requires the power of a crank, turned by hand, or by
some other considerable force. The strands, also, when properly
hardened, become very stiff, and, when bent round the top, cannot
transmit force enough to close the unpliant rope: it is, therefore,
necessary that the loper, also, be moved by a crank.

11. Cordage, which is to be exposed to the alternate action of air and
water, is usually tarred. The application of this substance is made,
in most cases, while the material is in a state of yarn. In effecting
this object, the threads are drawn through boiling tar, and then
passed between rollers, or through holes surrounded with oakum, to
remove the superfluous tar. In like manner, ropes and cables are
superficially tarred.

12. Various improvements have been made in the machinery, for
performing the different operations of rope-making; but, these not
having been generally adopted, it is unnecessary to notice them more
particularly; especially, as they do not affect the general principles
of the art.

13. Within a few years, cotton-yarn has been employed in the
manufacture of ropes; but this material has not yet been sufficiently
tested, to determine its fitness for the purpose. A kind of vegetable
fibre, brought from Manilla, and hence called Manilla hemp, is very
extensively applied in making ropes, and, for some purposes, is
preferred to other materials.

14. The intestines of animals are composed of very powerful fibres,
and those of sheep and lambs are manufactured into what is called
_cat-gut_, for the use of musical instrument-makers, hatters,
watch-makers, and a variety of other artificers. Animal hair, as that
from the tail and mane of horses, is frequently employed as the
material for ropes; and such are durable, elastic, and impervious to
moisture. They, however, are not applicable in cases, where the rope
is subject to considerable friction.

15. Hemp is cultivated in various parts of the world, and especially
in Russia, whence it is exported to other countries in great
quantities. It is also produced, to a considerable extent, in the
state of Kentucky, and in many other parts of the United States. Flax
is still more generally cultivated than hemp; but its chief
application is to the manufacture of cloth, as it does not answer well
for any cordage larger than a bed-cord. The formation of cloth from
hemp is also very common; and, in this case, the yarn for the coarse
cloths is spun on the rope-maker's wheel in the manner already
described. The cloth is generally used for making bags,
sacking-bottoms for beds, and sails for vessels.

16. Rope-making is a manufacture of general utility, as cordage of
some kind is used more or less in every family in all civilized
communities; nor are there many trades capable of being carried on,
with convenience, without it. But the great utility of cordage, in all
its varieties, is most conspicuous in the rigging and equipment of
vessels; and the extensive demand for it, in this application, renders
rope-making one of the most important and extensive of the primitive
trades.

17. Nor does the utility of cordage end with its application to the
purposes for which it was originally designed. Old ropes are converted
into oakum by untwisting and picking them to pieces. The oakum thus
produced is driven into the seams of vessels, to render them
water-tight.

18. As regards the invention of this art, nothing can be gathered from
ancient records. We only know, in general, that cordage was in
considerable use among the nations of antiquity, especially among the
Greeks and Romans, who probably learned its application to rigging
vessels from the Phoenicians.



[Illustration: TAILOR.]

THE TAILOR.


1. The business of the tailor consists, principally, in cutting out
and making clothes for men and boys, together with habits and cloaks
for ladies. It is usual for persons who carry on this business in
cities and large towns, to keep a stock of cloths and other stuffs
adapted to the season, which they make up into garments to the order
of customers. In such cases, they are termed _merchant tailors_.

2. The operation, preparatory to cutting out the cloth for a garment,
is that of taking the measure of the person for whom it is designed.
This is done with a narrow strip of paper or parchment, and the
dimensions are either marked on the measure with the scissors, or
entered in a _pattern-book_ kept for the purpose.

3. The cloth is cut to the proper shape, with a large pair of shears.
This is performed either by the individual who carries on the
business, or by a foreman. The parts are sewed together, and the
trimmings applied, by means of thread and silk; this is commonly done
by those who devote their attention to this branch of the trade. It
sometimes happens, however, that the same person performs the whole of
the work, particularly in country places, where the business is very
limited in extent.

4. Females often serve an apprenticeship to this business. Many of
them learn to cut out, and make with skill, certain kinds of garments,
and are after wards employed in families, or by the tailors. Most of
the ready-made clothing, kept for sale in cities, is made up by
females.

5. The instruments employed in performing the operations of the
tailor, are few and simple; the principal of these are the shears, the
scissors, the needle, the thimble, the bodkin, the goose, and the
press-board.

6. The great art of a master tailor consists in fitting the dress to
his customer, in such a manner as to conceal any defect of form, and
display his person to the best advantage. He should, therefore, be a
good judge of the human figure; as, from this knowledge, arises,
chiefly, the superiority of one workman over another in this branch of
the business.

7. The first hint on the art of clothing the human body, was given to
man by the Deity himself; for we read in the Scriptures, that "Unto
Adam and to his wife, the Lord God made coats of skins, and clothed
them." From that time to the present, the art of cutting out garments,
and of sewing their different parts together, has been practised, more
or less, in every place, where there has been any degree of
civilization.

8. For a long time, it is probable, that thongs and the sinews of
animals were used, for want of thread made of silk or vegetable fibre;
and, doubtless, the same necessity caused the substitution of pointed
bones and thorns, instead of needles. Such rude materials and
instruments are still employed for similar purposes by savage nations.
The dresses of the people of Greenland are sewed together with thongs
made of the intestines of the seal, or of some fish, which they have
the skill to cut fine, after having dried them in the air; and even
the inhabitants of Peru, although considerably advanced in
civilization, when that country was first visited by the Spaniards,
made use of long thorns, in sewing and fixing their clothes.

9. We have no means of determining the period of the world, when this
art was first practised, as a particular profession. We know, in
general, that the dress of the ancients was usually more simple in its
construction than that of the people of modern times; and,
consequently, it required less skill to put the materials in the
required form. It may, therefore, be inferred, that either the females
or the slaves of each family usually made up the clothing of all its
members.

10. The distinguishing dress of the Romans was the _toga_, or gown; as
that of the Greeks was the _pallium_, or cloak. The toga was a loose,
woollen robe, and covered nearly the whole person; it was round and
close at the bottom, and open at the top, having no sleeves, but a
large flap, or lappet, which was either thrown over the left shoulder,
or over the head, to protect it from the heat or cold.

11. The Romans, at an early period of their history, used no other
dress, and it was also, at that time, worn by the women. Afterwards,
they wore, under the toga, a white woollen vest called _tunica_,
which extended a little below the knee. At first it was without
sleeves. Tunics, reaching to the ancles, or having sleeves, were
reckoned effeminate; but, under the emperors, they became fashionable.

12. The toga was usually assumed at the age of seventeen. Until then,
the youth wore a kind of gown, bordered with purple, denominated _toga
prætexta_; and such a garment was also worn by females, until they
were married. The youthful dress was laid aside, and the _toga
virilis_, or manly toga, assumed with great solemnity; as, by this
act, the individual assumed the responsibilities of a citizen. The
toga was worn chiefly in the city, and only by Roman citizens.



[Illustration: MILLINER.]

THE MILLINER, AND THE LADY'S DRESS-MAKER.


THE MILLINER.

1. The milliner is one who manufactures and repairs bonnets and hats
for ladies and children. Her business requires the use of pasteboard,
wire, buckram, silks, satins, muslins, ribands, artificial flowers,
spangles, and other materials too numerous to be mentioned.

2. The first part of the process of making a hat, or bonnet, consists
in forming a crown of buckram; which operation is performed on a block
of suitable size and shape; and to this is applied pasteboard, or
buckram, edged with wire, to form the front part. The foundation
having been thus laid, it is usually covered and lined with some of
the materials just enumerated, and finished by applying to it the
trimmings required by the fashion, or by the individual customer.

3. Ladies' hats are also made of rye straw, and a kind of grass, which
grows in Italy; those made of the latter material are called
_Leghorns_, from the name of the city, in or near which they are
principally made. A few years since, these had almost superseded those
made of straw; but the latter, of late, have nearly regained their
former ascendency.

4. In the United States, and likewise in various parts of Europe,
there are several establishments for making straw hats, in which the
proprietors employ females to perform the whole labor. The straw is
first cut into several pieces, so as to leave out the joints, and then
whitened by smoking them with the fumes of brimstone. They are next
split longitudinally into several pieces by a simple machine, and
afterwards plaited with the fingers and thumbs. The braid, or plait,
thus produced, is sewn together to form hats adapted to the prevailing
fashion.

5. Great quantities of straw are, also, plaited in families,
especially in the New-England states, and sold to neighboring
merchants, who, in turn, dispose of it to those who form it into hats.
The milliners usually keep a supply of Leghorn and straw hats, which
they line and trim according to the fancy of their customers.

6. Head-dresses were probably used nearly as early as any other part
of dress; and their form and material have likewise been equally
variable. In the early days of Rome, the head-dress of the women of
that city was very simple; and, when they went abroad, which was
seldom, they covered their faces with a veil; but, when riches and
luxury had increased, dress became, with many, the principal object of
attention; hence, a woman's toilet and ornaments were called her
_world_.

7. The head-dresses of the ladies, in various parts of Europe,
especially in the eighteenth century, were particularly extravagant,
being sometimes so high, that the face seemed to be nearly in the
centre of the body. In 1714, this fashion was at its height in France;
but two English ladies visiting the court of Versailles, introduced
the low head-dresses of their own country.

8. The high head-dresses had no sooner fallen into disuse in France,
than they were adopted in England, and even carried to a greater
degree of extravagance. To build one of these elevated structures in
the fashionable style, both the barber and milliner were necessary.
The head-dresses of the ladies of the present age, are characterized
by great simplicity, when compared with those of several periods in
preceding ages.


THE LADY'S DRESS-MAKER.

1. This business is nearly allied to the foregoing, and is, therefore,
often carried on in conjunction with it. This is especially the case
in villages and small towns, where sufficient business cannot be
obtained in the exclusive pursuit of one branch.

2. The customers of the lady's dress-maker are not always easily
pleased, as they frequently expect more from her skill than it is
possible to accomplish. She, however, can do much towards concealing
the defects of nature; and, by padding and other means, can sometimes
render the person tolerably well proportioned, when, in its natural
shape, it would be quite inelegant. It is to be regretted, however,
that dress-makers are guided by fashion and whim in moulding the
external form of females, rather than by the best specimens of the
human figure, as exhibited by eminent painters and sculptors.

3. The dress-maker should have some acquaintance with the anatomy and
functions of those parts to which pressure is usually applied; for,
who that knows the structure, size, and office of the liver, and other
internal organs of digestion and vitality, would venture to apply to
them a compressive force calculated to interfere most seriously, if
not dangerously, with their healthful action?

4. The fashions for ladies' dresses are chiefly procured from France,
and the dress-makers from that country are, therefore, often preferred
by fashionable ladies. Sometimes, however, a dress-maker, having a
name with a French termination, will answer the purpose.

5. Corset-making is frequently a separate branch of business; but
corsets have become less necessary; inasmuch as small waists are less
admired by the gentlemen than formerly. On this account, also, the
ladies have discovered that tight lacing is somewhat uncomfortable,
especially in hot weather, and in crowded assemblies.



[Illustration: BARBER.]

THE BARBER.


1. It is the business of the barber to cut and dress the hair, to make
wigs and false curls, and to shave the beards of other men. In ancient
times, he used also to trim the nails; and even at the present day, in
Turkey, this is a part of his employment.

2. The period, when men began to shave their beards, is not certainly
known. It appears that the practice was common among the Israelites in
the time of Moses; as that legislator has left on record a prohibitory
law concerning it. They probably borrowed the custom from the
Egyptians. It is stated by Plutarch, that Alexander the Great ordered
his men to be shaved, that their enemies might not lay hold of their
beards in time of battle. Before this time, however, many of the
Greeks shaved their beards.

3. The practice does not appear to have been introduced amongst the
ancient Romans, until about the year 296 before the Christian era,
when Paulus Ticinius Mænas brought to Rome a number of barbers from
Sicily. Scipio Africanus was the first man who shaved his beard every
day.

4. At first, the barbers had no shops, but shaved their customers at
the corners of the streets. After a while, they followed their
vocation in shops, or shades; and, at this period, it was customary
for females to officiate in the various branches of the art. These
places, however, were frequented only by the poorer class of the
people, as opulent families generally kept slaves for the performance
of these duties. The day on which a young Roman first cut off his
beard, was celebrated by him and his friends as one of peculiar
interest; and this much-desired indication of manhood was consecrated
to some one of the gods, generally to Jupiter Capitolinus.

5. The return of barbarism, in the fifth and sixth centuries, banished
this custom from the Western empire; nor was it again revived in
Europe, until the seventeenth century. During the reigns of Louis
XIII. and Louis XIV. of France, both of whom ascended the throne in
boyhood, the courtiers and fashionable people began to use the razor,
that they might appear with smooth chins, and thus resemble, in this
particular, the youthful monarchs. From France, the fashion, at
length, spread all over Europe. At one time, in the reign of the
English queen Elizabeth, the fellows of Lincoln's Inn were compelled
by statute to shave their beards, at least, once in two weeks.
Omission was punished with fine, loss of commons, and finally with
expulsion.

6. The custom of shaving was introduced into Russia by Peter the
Great, who compelled his subjects to pay a tax for the privilege of
retaining their beards. This singular impost was exceedingly
unpopular, and excited greater complaints amongst the people than any
other measure of that emperor. The decree was rigidly enforced, and
every one who would not, or could not, pay the tax, was forcibly
deprived of this favorite ornament, if he would not remove it
voluntarily. Some of the people saved the sad trimmings of their
chins; and, that they might never be entirely separated from these
precious relics, ordered that they should be deposited with their
bodies in their coffins.

7. Among the European nations that have been curious in whiskers, the
Spaniards have been particularly distinguished; and the loss of honor
among them used to be punished by depriving the individual of his
whiskers.

8. The Portuguese were but little, if at all, behind the Spaniards in
their estimate of these valuable ornaments. As an evidence of this, it
is stated, that, in the reign of Catharine, Queen of Portugal, the
brave John de Castro, having taken the castle of Diu in India, and
being afterwards in want of money, applied to the inhabitants of Goa
to loan him one thousand piastres, and, as security for that sum, sent
them one of his whiskers, telling them that "All the gold in the world
cannot equal the value of this natural ornament of my valor." The
people, in admiration of his magnanimity, sent him the money, and, at
the same time, returned his incomparable whisker.

9. In the reign of Louis XIII. of France, whiskers attained the
highest degree of favor. They also continued in fashion during the
early part of the succeeding reign. Louis XIV. and the great men of
France, took a pride in wearing them. It was no uncommon thing, at
that time, for the ladies to comb and dress the whiskers of their
beaux; and the men of fashion were particular in providing
whisker-wax, and every article necessary to this agreeable pastime.

10. The whiskers belonging to the image of the Chinese philosopher
Confucius, which is preserved by his countrymen, are supposed to be
capable of conferring upon those who might wear them, a portion of the
wisdom and manly beauty of that illustrious sage. Great care, however,
is taken that none shall enjoy these great personal qualifications by
such easy means; as decapitation is the penalty for plucking the
whiskers from the position which they occupy.

11. When the practice of shaving off the beard was again revived in
Europe, instrumental music was employed in the barber's shop, to amuse
customers waiting their turn; but, at the present time, newspapers are
furnished for this purpose. In taking off the beard, soft water, good
soap, a brush, and a sharp razor, are the usual requisites. The razor
should be placed nearly flat on the face, and be moved from point to
heel. Barbers have usually some regular customers, many of whom have a
box of soap and a brush appropriated to their individual use.

12. In ancient times, great attention was paid to dressing the hair.
The Hebrew women plaited, and afterwards confined it with gold and
silver pins; they also adorned it with precious stones. The Greeks,
both male and female, at every period of their ancient history, wore
long hair, which they usually permitted to hang gracefully upon the
shoulders, back, and sometimes upon the breast.

13. Adult males, among the Romans, usually wore their hair short, and
dressed with great care, especially in later ages, when attention to
this part of the person was carried to such excess, that ointments and
perfumes were used even in the army. The hair was cut for the first
time, when the boy had attained his seventh year, and the second time,
when he was fourteen years old. His locks, at each cutting, were
commonly dedicated to Apollo or Bacchus.

14. Both men and women, among the Greeks and Romans, sometimes
permitted their hair to grow in honor of some divinity. The Jews,
also, when under the vow of a Nazarite, were not permitted to trim
their hair or beards. In grief and mourning, the Romans suffered their
hair and beards to grow. The Greeks, on the contrary, when in grief,
cut their hair and shaved their beards, as likewise did some of the
barbarous nations of early time.

15. Artificial hair began to be fashionable, at an early period, and
was used by the Greeks, Carthaginians, and Romans. In the time of
Ovid, blond hair was in great favour at Rome; and those ladies who did
not choose to wear wigs, powdered their hair with a kind of gold dust.
They wore hanging curls all round the head, to which they were
fastened with circular pins of silver. Every wealthy Roman lady of
fashion kept at least one slave to frizzle and curl the hair.

16. The time, when wigs first came into use, cannot now be
ascertained. It is certain, however, that they were worn by females a
long time before they became fashionable among the men.

17. Wigs, perukes, or periwigs, were revived in the seventeenth
century. In the reign of Louis XIII., or about the year 1629, they
became fashionable at Paris; and, as that city was generally imitated
by the rest of Europe in things of this nature, they soon became
common. The wigs were very large, as may be seen by examining ancient
portraits, and were covered with a profusion of hair-powder. At first,
it was disreputable for young people to wear them, as the loss of the
hair at an early age was attributed to a disease, which was, of
itself, discreditable.

18. When wigs were first introduced into England, some of the clergy
opposed them violently, considering their use more culpable than
wearing long hair; since, as they alleged, it was more unnatural. Many
preachers inveighed against wigs in their sermons, and cut their own
hair shorter to manifest their abhorrence of the reigning mode.

19. The worldly-wise, however, observed that a periwig procured for
the wearer a degree of respect and deference which otherwise might not
have been accorded; and hence there was a strong tendency to the use
of this appendage. The judges and physicians, especially, understood
well this influence of the wig, and gave to it all the advantages of
length and breadth. The fashion, at length, was adopted by the
ecclesiastics themselves, not only in England, but in most of the
European kingdoms, as well as in the British colonies of America.

20. The fashion, however, except in cases of baldness, wherein alone
it is excusable, is now nearly banished from Europe and America. This
desirable change was effected principally by the example of republican
America, and by the influence of the French Revolution. The law passed
in England in 1795, imposing a tax of a guinea a head per annum on
those who wore hair-powder, contributed to the same result, as well as
to diminish the use of that article.

21. The manufacture of wigs and false curls is an important branch of
the business of the barber. The first process in forming a wig is to
produce, in the hair about to be used for this purpose, a disposition
to curl. This is done by winding it on a cylinder of wood or earth,
and afterwards boiling it in water. It is then dried, and baked in an
oven. Thus prepared, it is woven on a strong thread, and is
subsequently sewn on a caul fitted to the head. False curls are made
on the same principle.

22. Wigs and false curls were not made in ancient times precisely in
the same manner; although their appearance, when finished, was
probably similar. The hair was then attached directly to a piece of
thin leather, by means of some adhesive substance, or composition.

23. Many barbers, especially those who have a reputation for making
wigs and false curls in a fashionable style, keep for sale perfumery,
as well as a variety of cosmetics.

24. From the eleventh to the eighteenth century, surgical operations
were almost exclusively performed by the barbers and bath-keepers. As
phlebotomy was one of the chief sources of profit to the barbers, they
adopted a sign emblematical of this operation. It consisted of a pole,
representing the staff which the individual held in his hand, while
the blood was flowing from the arm. The white band wound spirally
about the pole, represented the fillet of linen with which the arm was
afterwards secured.

25. It is hardly necessary to remark, that the same sign is still
employed by the barbers; although, with a few exceptions, they have
ceased to perform the operation of which it was significant.



[Illustration: TANNER & CURRIER.]

THE TANNER, AND THE CURRIER.


THE TANNER.

1. The art of tanning consists in converting hides and skins into
leather, by impregnating them with astringent matter.

2. It is impossible to determine the period at which the art of
tanning was discovered. It was doubtless known to the ancients, and
probably to the antediluvians, in some degree of perfection; since
skins were applied as means of clothing the human body, before the
arts of spinning and weaving were practised. It is likely, however,
that they were applied to this purpose, for a considerable time, in
their natural state; and that accident, at length, suggested the means
of rendering them more applicable, by saturating them with certain
mineral or vegetable substances.

3. Although the art of converting skins into leather was practised in
remote ages, yet it was not until near the end of the eighteenth
century, that the true principle of the process was understood. Before
this time, it was supposed, that the astringent principle of the
agents employed, was a resinous substance, which adhered mechanically
to the fibres, and thus rendered them firm and insoluble. The correct
explanation was first given by Deyeux, and afterwards more fully
developed by M. Seguin. These chemists clearly proved, that the
formation of leather was the result of a chemical union between a
substance called tannin, and the gelatinous part of the skin.

4. The subject, however, was not thoroughly understood, and reduced to
scientific principles, until the year 1803, when Sir Humphrey Davy
gave it a careful investigation, in a series of chemical experiments.
These inquiries resulted in the conviction, that the method of tanning
which had been in general use, may, with a few alterations, be
considered preferable to that by which the process is carried on with
more rapidity.

5. The skin which envelopes the bodies of animals, consists of three
layers. That on the outside is a thin, white, elastic membrane, called
the _cuticle_, or _scarf skin_; that on the inside is a strong
membrane, denominated the _cutis_, or _true skin_; between these two
is a very thin membrane, to which anatomists have given the name _rete
mucosum_, and in which is situated the substance which gives color to
the animal. The cutis is composed of fibres, which run in every
direction, and, being by far the thickest layer, is the one that is
converted into leather.

6. The skins of large animals, such as those of the ox and horse, are
denominated hides; and those of smaller animals, as of the calf, goat,
and sheep, are called skins. Of the former description, is made thick,
of the latter, thin leather. The process of tanning different skins
varies in many particulars, according to the nature of the leather,
and the uses to which it is to be applied.

7. The general process of changing thick hides into sole-leather, is
as follows: They are first soaked in water, to free them from dirt and
blood; and then, if rigid, they are beaten and rubbed, or rolled under
a large stone, to render them pliable. They are next soaked in
lime-water, or hung up in a warm room, and smoked, until a slight
putrescency takes place. The hair, cuticle, rete mucosum, on one side,
and the fleshy parts on the other, are then scraped off, on a _beam_,
with a circular knife.

8. Nothing now remains but the cutis, or true skin. Several hides, in
this state of preparation, are put together into a vat, for the
purpose of impregnating them with tannin. This substance is found in
astringent vegetables, and is obtained, in a proper state for
application, by infusion in water. In that condition, it is called
_ooze_, which is first applied in a weak state.

9. After the ooze, of different degrees of strength, has been renewed
several times, they are put between layers of bark, and suffered to
remain several months, fresh bark, from time to time, being supplied.
The whole process generally occupies from twelve to sixteen months.
When strong solutions of tannin are used, the leather is formed in a
much shorter time; but, in that case, it is much more rigid, and more
liable to crack. It is rendered smooth and compact, by beating it with
a wooden beetle, or by passing it between rollers.

10. Oak bark, on account of its cheapness, and the quantity of tannin
which it contains, is more extensively employed by tanners than any
other vegetable substance. In sections of country, where this kind
cannot be conveniently obtained, the bark of the hemlock, spruce, and
chestnut, the leaves of the sumach, and various other astringents, are
substituted.

11. The process of tanning calf-skins is somewhat different in many of
its details. They are first put into a solution of lime, where they
remain during ten or fifteen days, and are then scraped on both sides
on the beam, with a circular knife, as in the former case, and for the
same purpose. They are then washed in water, and afterwards immersed
in an infusion of hen or pigeon's dung. Here they are left for a week
or ten days, according to the state of the weather and other
circumstances; during which time, they are frequently _handled_, and
scraped on both sides. By these means, the lime, oil, and saponaceous
matter, are discharged, and the skin is rendered pliable.

12. They are next put into a vat containing weak ooze, and afterwards
removed to several others of regularly increasing strength. In the
mean time, they are taken up and handled every day, that they may be
equally acted upon by the tanning principle. The time occupied in the
whole process, is from two to six months. The light and thin sorts of
hides, designed for upper leather, harnesses, &c., are treated in a
similar manner.

13. The tanner procures his hides and skins from various sources, but
chiefly from the butcher, and from individuals who kill the animals
for their own consumption. Great quantities of dry hides are also
obtained from South America, where cattle are killed in great numbers,
principally for the sake of this valuable envelope of their bodies.


THE CURRIER.

1. It is the business of the currier to dress the thinner kinds of
leather. In most cases, in the United States, except in and near large
cities, the business of tanning and currying are usually united in the
same individual; or, at least, the two branches of business are
carried on together, by the aid of workmen, skilled in their
respective trades.

2. The mode of dressing the different kinds of skins, varies in some
respects; but, as the general method of operating is the same in every
sort, a description applicable in one case will convey a sufficiently
accurate idea of the whole. We shall, therefore, select the calf-skin,
since it is more frequently the subject of the currier's skill than
any other.

3. The skin is first soaked in water, until it has become sufficiently
soft, and then shaved with the _currier's knife_, on the inner side,
over the _currier's beam_. It is then placed on a table, somewhat
inclined from the workman, and scoured on both sides with the edge of
a narrow, smooth stone, set in a handle, and again, with an iron
_sleeker_ of a similar shape. The skin is next _stuffed_ with a
composition of tallow and tanner's oil, on the flesh side, and then
hung up to dry. Afterwards it is rubbed on the hair side with a board,
and again scraped on the flesh side with the knife. Having been thus
prepared, the skin is blacked on the flesh side with lampblack and
tanner's oil, and subsequently rubbed with paste, applied with a
brush. When it has been dried, the whole process is finished by
rubbing both sides with a glass sleeker.

4. Horse hides are blacked on the hair side, or, as the curriers term
it, on the _grain_, with a solution of copperas water. Leather
designed for harnesses, for covering carriages, and for other similar
purposes, is also blacked on that side in the same manner.

5. The trade of the currier is divided into two or three branches.
Some dress only calf-skins and other thick leather designed for shoes,
harnesses, and carriages; others confine themselves to dressing skins,
which are to be applied to binding books, and to other purposes
requiring thin leather. It may be well to remark here, that the
dressers of thin leather usually tan the skins themselves, using the
leaves of sumach, instead of bark.



[Illustration: SHOEMAKER.]

THE SHOE AND BOOT MAKER.


1. As the shoe is an article of primary utility, it was used, more or
less, in the earliest ages. Some writers suppose, that the Deity, in
clothing man with skins, did not leave him to go barefooted, but gave
him shoes of the same material.

2. The shoes of the ancient Egyptians were made of the papyrus. The
Chinese, as well as the inhabitants of India, and some other nations
of antiquity, manufactured them from silk, rushes, linen, wood, the
bark of trees, iron, brass, silver, and gold, and sometimes ornamented
them with precious stones.

3. The Romans had various coverings for the feet, the chief of which
were the _calceus_ and the _solea_. The calceus somewhat resembled the
shoe we wear at present, and was tied upon the instep with a latchet
or lace. The solea, or sandal, was a thick cork sole, covered above
and beneath with leather, and neatly stitched on the edge. It left the
upper part of the foot bare, and was fastened to it by means of
straps, which were crossed over the instep, and wound about the ankle.
Roman citizens wore the calceus with the toga, when they went abroad
in the city, while the solea was worn at home and on journeys. The
solea was also used at entertainments; but it was changed for the
calceus, when the guests were about to surround the table.

4. The senators wore shoes, which came up to the middle of the leg,
and which had a golden or silver crescent on the top of the foot. The
shoes of the women were generally white, sometimes red, scarlet, or
purple, and were adorned with embroidery and pearls; but those of the
men were mostly black. On days of public ceremony, however, the
magistrates wore red shoes.

5. Boots were used in very ancient times, and were primarily worn, as
a kind of armor, with a view of protecting the lower extremities in
battle. They were, at first, made of leather, afterwards of brass or
iron, and were proof against the thrusts and cuts of warlike weapons.
The boot was called _ocrea_ by the Romans, who, as well as the Greeks,
used it in the army, and in riding on horseback, and sometimes in
pedestrian journeys.

6. The fashion of boots and shoes, like every other part of dress, has
been subject to a number of changes, as regards both their form and
material. In Europe, about one thousand years ago, the greatest
princes wore shoes with wooden soles. In the reign of William Rufus,
of England, the shoes of the great had long, sharp points, stuffed
with tow, and twisted like a ram's horn. The clergy preached against
this fashion; but the points continued to increase in length, until
the reign of Richard the Second, when they were tied to the knees with
chains of silver or gold. In the year 1463, Parliament interposed, and
prohibited the manufacture or use of shoes or boots with _pikes_
exceeding two inches in length.

7. Lasts adapted to each foot, commonly called _rights and lefts_,
were not introduced into England, until about the year 1785; nor was
cramping, or _crimping_, the front part of boots practised there for
ten years after that period. These improvements did not become
generally known, or, at least, were not much used, in the United
States, for many years after their adoption in Great Britain.

8. Many facts, besides the preceding, might be adduced to prove, that
the art of making shoes and boots, although uninterruptedly practised
from the earliest ages, has received many important improvements
within the last fifty years.

9. In Europe and America, boots and shoes are commonly made of
leather. In shoes for females, however, it is not unusual to use
prunello, which is a kind of twilled, worsted cloth. In all cases,
thick leather is used for the soles.

10. The business of _making_ boots and shoes is carried on very
systematically in large establishments. The materials are cut out and
fitted by the foreman, or by the person who carries on the business,
whilst the pieces are stitched together, and the work finished, by
workmen who sit upon _the bench_.

11. As a matter of convenience, the trade have fixed upon certain
sizes, which are designated by numbers; and, corresponding to these,
the lasts are formed by the last-maker; but, to be still more exact,
individuals sometimes procure lasts corresponding to their feet, on
which they cause their boots and shoes to be made.

12. The following is a description of the process of making a leather
shoe: after the materials have been cut out according to the measure,
or size, and the parts of the _uppers_ have been stitched together,
the sole-leather is hammered on the _lapstone_, tacked to the last,
and trimmed with a knife. The upper leather is next stretched on the
last with a pair of pincers, fastened to its proper place with tacks,
and then sewed to the bottom of the sole with a waxed thread. A narrow
strip of leather, called a _welt_, is also fastened to the sole by
similar means, and to this is stitched another sole. A heel being
added, the shoe is finished by trimming and polishing it with
appropriate instruments.

13. The edges of fine leather shoes and boots, are trimmed with thin
strips of the like material, whilst those of prunello, and other thin
shoes for ladies, are bound with narrow tape. The binding is applied
by females with thread, by means of a common needle.

14. Shoe-thread is commonly spun from flax; that from hemp is much
stronger, and was formerly preferred; but it is now used only for very
strong work. The greater part of the shoe-thread used in the United
States, is spun by machinery, at Leeds, in England, from Russian flax.
The wax employed by shoemakers, was formerly composed of tar and
rosin; but it is now most usually made of pitch.

15. The shoemaker, in sewing together different parts of his work,
uses threads of various sizes, which are composed of several small
threads of different lengths. A hog's bristle is fastened to each end
of it, which enables the workman to pass it with facility through the
holes made with the awl.

16. An expeditious way of fastening the soles of boots and shoes to
the upper leathers, is found in the use of wooden pegs or brass nails.
The old method, however, is generally preferred, on several accounts;
but chiefly, because the work is more durable, and because it can be
more easily repaired.

17. Journeymen working at this trade most usually confine their
labours to particular kinds of work; as few can follow every branch
with advantage. Some make shoes and boots for men; others confine
their labours to those designed for ladies; but, by their aid, the
master-shoemaker can, and usually does, supply every kind at his
store.

18. It is no uncommon thing in the country, for the farmers to
purchase leather, and employ the shoemaker to make it up; and this is
done, in most cases, on their own premises. The shoemaker employed in
this way, removes from house to house, changing his location, whenever
he has completely served a whole family in his vocation. In such
cases, he is said, by the trade, to be _whipping the cat_. The set of
tools with which he operates, is called his _kit_.

19. The shoemaker usually buys his leather from the manufacturer; and
procures his tools, tacks, and various other articles of a similar
nature, at the _finding stores_. In some cases, the shoemaker with
little or no capital, gets his materials from the _leather-cutter_,
who makes it a business to supply them ready cut to the proper size
and shape. There are, however, but few leather-cutters in our country;
but, in England, this branch of trade is one of considerable
importance, and is frequently connected with that of the
leather-dresser.



[Illustration: HARNESS MAKER &c.]

THE SADDLER AND HARNESS-MAKER, AND THE TRUNK-MAKER.


THE SADDLER AND HARNESS-MAKER.

1. The invention of the saddle has been attributed to the Selians, a
people of ancient Franconia. Under this impression, it has been
supposed that the Latins gave it the name of _sella_. The period at
which it was first used, cannot be ascertained. It is certain,
however, that the horse had been rendered subservient to man, several
centuries before this convenient article was thought of.

2. At first, the rider sat upon the bare back of the animal, and
guided him with a switch, but afterwards with a strap put round the
nose. In the course of time, the rider came to use, upon the back of
the horse, the skins of beasts, in order to render his seat more
easy. The Greeks, and many other refined nations of antiquity,
sometimes used superb trappings, composed of cloth, leather, and skins
dressed with the hair on; and, in addition to the gold, silver, and
precious stones, with which these were ornamented, the horses were
often otherwise decked with bells, collars, and devices of various
kinds.

3. The Romans, in the days of the republic, deemed it more manly to
ride on the bare back of the animal than on coverings. At a later
period, they used a kind of square pannel, without stirrups; and about
the year 340 of the Christian era, they began to ride on saddles. It
appears, that those first employed were very heavy, as the Emperor
Theodosius, in the same century, forbade the use of any which weighed
over sixty pounds. The use of saddles was established in England by
Henry the Seventh, who enjoined on his nobility the practice of riding
upon them.

4. The frame of a saddle is called a _tree_. It is not made by the
saddlers, but by persons who confine their attention to this branch of
business. The trees are constructed of wood, with a small quantity of
iron, and covered with canvas.

5. In making a common saddle, the workman first extends two strips of
_straining web_ from the pommel to the hinder part of the tree, and
fastens them with tacks. The tree is then covered on the upper side
with two thicknesses of linen cloth, between which a quantity of wool
is afterwards interposed. A covering of thin leather, usually made of
hog's-skin, is next tacked on, and the flaps added. Under the whole
are placed the pads and saddle-cloth; the former of which is made of
thin cotton or linen cloth, and thin leather, stuffed with hair. The
addition of four straps, two girths, two stirrup-leathers, and as many
stirrups, completes the whole operation.

6. The roughness, or the little indentations in the flaps, are
produced by passing the leather between rollers, in contact with a
rough surface, or by beating it with a mallet, on the face of which
has been fastened a piece of the skin from a species of shark,
commonly called the dog-fish.

7. Saddles are often covered with buckskin, curiously stitched into
figures, and having the spaces between the seams stuffed with wool;
this is particularly the case in side-saddles. The form of saddles,
and the quality of the materials, together with the workmanship, are
considerably varied, to suit the purposes to which they are to be
applied, and to accommodate the fancy of customers.

8. The process of making bridles and harness for horses, is extremely
simple. The leather is first cut out with a knife of some description,
but usually with one of a crescent-like form, or with a blade set in a
gauge, and then stitched together with the kind of thread used by
shoemakers. The awl employed in punching the holes is straight; and
needles are most commonly used, instead of the bristles which point
the shoemaker's threads. The mode of manufacturing saddle-bags,
portmanteaus, and valises, is too obvious to need description.


THE TRUNK-MAKER.

1. The manufacture of trunks is equally simple with that of making
harness. In common cases, it consists chiefly in lining the inside of
a wooden box with paper, or some kind of cloth, and covering the
outside with a skin, or with leather, which is fastened to the wood by
means of tacks. Narrow strips of leather are fastened upon hair trunks
with brass nails, by way of ornament, as well as to confine the work.

2. Instead of a wooden box, oblong rims of iron, and very thick, solid
pasteboard, fastened together by means of strong thread, are used in
the best kinds of trunks. The frame or body, thus formed, is covered
with some substantial leather, which is first stuck on with paste, and
then secured by sewing it to the pasteboard with a waxed thread. Over
the whole, are applied strips of iron, fastened with brass or copper
nails with large heads. The lines and figures on the leather, added by
way of ornament, are produced by a _crease_, a tool made of wood,
ivory, or whalebone. Its form is much like that of the blade of a
common paper-folder.

3. How long trunk-making has been a separate trade, cannot be exactly
ascertained. The trunk-makers in France were incorporated into a
company, in 1596. In the United States, this branch of business is
very commonly united with that of the saddler and harness-maker.



[Illustration: SOAP & CANDLE MAKER.]

THE SOAP-BOILER, AND THE CANDLE-MAKER.


THE SOAP-BOILER.

1. The business of the soap-boiler consists in manufacturing soap, by
the combination of certain oily and alkaline substances.

2. The earliest notice of this useful article occurs in the works of
Pliny, in which it is stated, that soap was composed of tallow and
ashes; that the mode of combining them was discovered by the Gauls;
but that the German soap was the best.

3. For many ages before the invention of soap, saponaceous plants, and
several kinds of earth, together with animal matters and the ley from
ashes, were employed for the purpose of cleansing the skin, and
articles of clothing. The idea of combining some of these substances,
with the view of forming soap, probably originated in accident.

4. The vegetable oils and animal fats, capable of saponification, are
very numerous; but those most commonly employed in the manufacture of
the soaps of commerce, are olive-oil, whale-oil, tallow, lard,
palm-oil, and rosin; and the alkalies with which these are most
frequently combined, are soda, the ley of ashes, or its residuum,
potash.

5. Soda is sometimes called the _mineral alkali_; because it is found,
in some parts of the world, in the earth. It was known to the
ancients, at a very early period, under the denomination of _natron_.
It received this appellation from the lakes of Natron, in Egypt, from
the waters of which it was produced by evaporation, during the summer
season.

6. The soda of commerce is now chiefly obtained from the _salsola_, a
genus of plants which grows on the sea-shore. In Spain, the plant from
which soda is obtained is denominated _barilla_; hence, the substance
produced from it by incineration has received the same appellation.
The ashes of a sea-weed which grows on the coasts of Scotland and
Ireland, is called _kelp_. In Europe, barilla and kelp are more
extensively employed in the manufacture of soap than any other
alkaline substances; but, in this country, where wood is so much used
for fuel, common ashes are generally preferred.

7. The process of making the ordinary brown or yellow soap, from
wood-ashes, is conducted in the following manner. The alkali is first
obtained in a state of solution in water, by _leeching_ the ashes as
described in page 26, and then poured, in a weak state, into a copper
or iron caldron, having a large wooden tub carefully affixed to the
top of it.

8. When the ley has been properly heated, the tallow, either in a
_tried_ state or in the suet, is gradually added. More ley, of
greater concentration, is poured in; and the ingredients are
moderately boiled for several hours; while a person, as represented in
the preceding cut, aids their chemical union by agitating them with a
wooden spatula.

9. After a quantity of rosin has been added, and properly incorporated
with the other materials, the fire is withdrawn until the next
morning, when it is again raised; then, with the view of forming the
_paste_ into hard soap, a quantity of muriate of soda (common salt) is
added. The muriatic acid of this substance, uniting with the potash,
forms with it muriate of potash, which dissolves in the water, while
the soda combines with the tallow and rosin. Hard soap, therefore,
contains no potash; although this alkali is generally employed during
the early part of the process of making it.

10. After the addition of the muriate of soda, the boiling and
stirring are continued two or three hours, when the fire is withdrawn,
and the contents of the caldron are suffered to be at rest. When the
soap has completely separated from the watery part and extraneous
matters, it is laded into another caldron, again diluted with strong
ley, and heated. The _paste_ having been brought to a proper
consistence, more common salt is added as before, and for the same
purposes.

11. The chemical part of the process having been thus completed, the
soap is laded into single wooden boxes, or into one or more composed
of several distinct frames, which can be removed separately from the
soap, after it has become solid enough to stand without such support.
The soap is cut into bars, of nearly a uniform size, by means of a
small brass wire.

12. Manufacturers of soap have contrived various methods of
adulterating this article, or of adding ingredients which increase
its weight, without adding to its value. The most common means
employed for this purpose is water, which may be added, in some cases,
in considerable quantities, without greatly diminishing the
consistence of the soap.

13. This fraud may be detected by letting the soap lie for some time
exposed to the atmosphere. The water will thus be evaporated, and its
quantity can be known by weighing the soap, after its loss of the
superfluous liquid. To prevent evaporation, while the soap remains on
hand, it is said, that some dealers keep it in saturated solutions of
common salt. Another method of adulteration is found in the use of
pulverized lime, gypsum, or pipe-clay. These substances, however, can
be easily detected by means of a solution in alcohol, which
precipitates them.

14. The process of manufacturing soft soap, differs but little in its
details from that described in the preceding paragraphs. The chief
difference consists in omitting the use of salt. Soft soap, therefore,
is composed of a greater proportion of water, and more alkali than is
necessary to saturate the unctuous matters. Soft soap is made by
almost every family in the country, from ashes, grease, and oily
matters, reserved for the purpose.

15. The celebrated Marseilles white soap, is composed of

    Soda,                                   6.
    Olive-oil,                             60.
    Water,                                 34.

Castile soap, of

    Soda,                                   9.
    Olive-oil,                             76.5.
    Water, with a little coloring matter,  14.5.

Fine toilet-soaps are made with oil of almonds, nut-oil, palm-oil,
suet, or butter, combined with soda or potash, according to their
preparation in a solid or pasty state.

16. In the manufacture of white soap, the tallow is more carefully
purified, and no rosin is used. In other particulars, the process
differs but little from that employed in the production of the common
kind. Two tons of tallow should yield three tons of white soap. In
making the same quantity of common brown or yellow soap, twelve
hundred weight less is required, on account of the substitution of
that amount of yellow rosin.

17. The mottled appearance of some soaps is caused by dispersing the
ley through it, towards the close of the operation, or by adding a
quantity of sulphate of iron, indigo, or the oxide of manganese.
Castile soap, now manufactured in the greatest perfection at
Marseilles, in France, receives its beautifully marbled appearance
from the sulphate of iron.


THE CANDLE-MAKER.

1. The subject of the candle-maker's labors may be defined to be a
wick, covered with tallow, wax, or spermaceti, in a cylindrical form,
which serves, when lighted, for the illumination of objects in the
absence of the sun. The business of candle-making is divided into two
branches; the one is confined to the manufacturing of tallow candles,
and the other, to making those composed of wax or spermaceti.

2. The process of making candles from tallow, as conducted by the
tallow-chandler, needs only a brief description, since it differs but
little from the method pursued by families in the country, with which
most persons are familiar. The difference lies chiefly in the
employment of a few conveniences, by which the candles are more
rapidly multiplied.

3. The first part of the process consists in preparing a wick, to
serve as a foundation. The coarse and slightly twisted yarn used for
this purpose, is spun in the cotton-factories; and, being wound into
balls, is, in that form, sold to the tallow-chandlers, as well as to
individuals who make candles for their own consumption.

4. A sufficient number of threads is combined, to form a wick of a
proper size; and, as they are wound from the balls, they are measured
off, and cut to the proper length, by a simple contrivance, which
consists of a narrow board, a wooden pin, and the blade of a razor.
The pin and razor are placed perpendicular to the board, at a distance
determined by the length of the proposed wick. The wicks are next put
upon cylindrical rods, about three feet long; and a great number of
these are arranged on a long frame.

5. To obtain the tallow in a proper state for use, it is separated
from the membranous part of the suet, by boiling the latter in an iron
or copper kettle, and then subjecting the _cracklings_ to the action
of a press. The substance that remains, after the tallow has been
expressed, is called _greaves_, which are sometimes applied to
fattening ducks for market. This is especially the case in the city of
London.

6. The _tried_ tallow is prepared for application to the wicks, by
heating it to a proper temperature. It is then poured into a suitable
receptacle, where it is kept in _order_ either by a moderate fire
underneath, or by the occasional addition of hot tallow.

7. The _broaches_, as the sticks with their wicks are called, are
taken up, several at a time, either between the fingers or by means of
a simple instrument denominated a _rake_, and dipped into the tallow.
They are then returned to the frame, and suffered to cool, while
successive broaches are treated in the same way. The dipping is
repeated, until the candles have been thickened to the proper size.

8. In the preceding plate, is represented a workman in the act of
dipping several broaches of candles, suspended on a rake, which he
holds in his hands. The mode of making dipped candles just described,
is more generally practised than any other, and in this manner five or
six hundred pounds can be made by one hand, in a single day. In some
establishments, however, a more complicated apparatus is used, by
which every part of the process is greatly expedited.

9. Mould candles are made very differently. The moulds consist of a
frame of wood, in which are arranged several hollow cylinders,
generally made of pewter. At the lower extremity of each cylinder, is
a small hole, for the passage of the wick, which is introduced by
means of a hook on the end of a wire. The cotton is fastened at the
other end, and placed in a perpendicular situation in the centre of
the shafts, by means of a wire, which passes through the loops of the
wicks. The melted tallow, having been poured on the top of the wooden
frame, descends into each mould. After the candles have become
sufficiently cold, they are extracted from the cylinders with a
bodkin, which is inserted into the loop of the wick. One person can
thus mould two or three hundred pounds in a day.

10. Candles are also made of bees-wax and spermaceti; but the mode of
their manufacture differs in no particular from that of common mould
candles. The wicks for wax-candles are usually made of a peculiar kind
of cotton, which grows in Asiatic Turkey.

11. Before the wax is applied to this purpose, the coloring matter is
discharged. This is effected by bleaching the wax, in the following
manner. It is first divided into flakes, or thin laminæ, by pouring
it, in a melted state, through a colander upon a cylindrical wheel,
which, at the same time, is kept revolving, while partly immersed in
cold water. The wax, having been removed from the water, is placed
upon a table or floor covered with some kind of cloth. Here it is
occasionally sprinkled with water, until the bleaching has been
completed. The process occupies several weeks, or even months,
according to the state of the weather, that being best which is most
favorable to a rapid evaporation.

12. Spermaceti is a substance separated from sperm oil, which is
obtained from a species of whale, called _physeter macrocephalus_, or
_spermaceti cachalot_. This oil is obtained from both the head and
body of the animal, but that procured from the former contains twice
the quantity of spermaceti.

13. To separate the spermaceti from the oil yielded by the body, it is
first heated, then put into casks, and suffered to stand two or three
weeks, in order to _granulate_. The oily part is now filtrated through
strainers; and the remainder, which is called _foots_, is again
heated, and put into casks. After having stood several weeks, these
are put into bags, and submitted to the action of a powerful press.
The spermaceti thus obtained, is melted and moulded into cakes. The
oil thus separated from the spermaceti, is called spring or fall
strained; because it is filtered and expressed only during those
seasons of the year.

14. The oil from the head of the whale is treated like that from the
body, in almost every particular. The difference consists,
principally, in omitting the use of the strainer, and in the
employment of stronger bags and a more powerful press. The oil
obtained from the _head-matter_, is called _pressed_, since it is
separated by the action of the press only. It is also denominated
_winter-strained_, because the operation is performed in the cold
weather.

15. The spermaceti, having been melted and moulded into cakes, is
reserved until the succeeding summer, when it is cut into thin
shavings, by means of a large shave, similar to the _spoke-shave_ of
the wheelwrights, and again pressed as before. The oil of this last
pressing is called _taut pressed_, and is the least valuable kind,
since a slight degree of cold causes it to become thick. The
spermaceti obtained from the oil of the body, and that from the
head-matter, are melted together, and purified by means of potash-ley.

16. The sperm-oil, thus freed from the spermaceti, is extensively used
in lamps as a means of illumination; and, for many purposes, it is far
more convenient than tallow. In the country, lard is frequently
employed instead of oil, especially by the German population. In some
European and Asiatic countries, vegetable oils supply the place of
animal fats, in this application.

17. The origin of the art of making candles is not known. It is
evident, however, that the business is comparatively modern, since the
Greeks and Romans, as well as other nations of antiquity, employed
torches of pine and fir, and lamps supplied with oil, in the
production of artificial light. The words in the Scriptures translated
_candle_, imply nothing more nor less than a light produced by some
kind of oil consumed in a lamp.

18. The lamps in ancient times were suspended by a chain or cord from
the ceiling, or supported on stands and moveable tables, which were
called by the Romans _lampadaria_, or _candelabra_. Many specimens of
this utensil are preserved in several museums of Europe, and some have
lately been found in the ruins of Herculaneum.

19. The Chinese make their candles from the tallow obtained from the
seeds and capsules of the tallow-tree. This tree, which is produced in
great abundance in China, is said to grow in various parts of South
Carolina and Georgia. In appearance, it resembles the Lombardy
poplar.



[Illustration: COMB-MAKER.]

THE COMB-MAKER, AND THE BRUSH-MAKER.


THE COMB-MAKER.

1. The comb is a well-known instrument, employed in cleansing,
dressing, and confining the hair. It is made of various materials, but
most commonly of tortoise-shell, the horns and hoofs of cattle, ivory,
bone, and several kinds of hard wood.

2. It is impossible to determine the period of the world at which it
was introduced, since history and tradition, the sources from which we
obtain information of this nature, are silent with regard to its
origin. It is evident, however, that the comb is an instrument of
primary necessity; and hence it must have been invented in the
earliest ages. This opinion is confirmed by the fact, that the comb
has been frequently found in use amongst savages, when first visited
by civilized men.

3. Combs employed in fixing the hair, are made of tortoise-shell, or
of the horns of cattle. The genuine tortoise-shell is taken from the
_testudo imbricata_, or _hawk's-bill turtle_; but a kind of shell,
inferior in quality, is obtained from the _testudo caretta_, or
_loggerhead turtle_. These turtles inhabit the seas of warm and
temperate climates; but they are especially numerous in the West
Indian seas, where _shell_ is a valuable article of commerce. That
from St. Domingo is especially esteemed for its brilliancy of shade
and color.

4. The shell of the hawk's-bill turtle was extensively employed for
ornamental purposes by the refined nations of antiquity; although we
have no account of its application to the manufacture of combs. The
Greeks and Romans decorated with it the doors and pillars of their
houses, as well as their beds and other furniture. The Egyptians dealt
largely with the Romans in this elegant article.

5. The general length of the hawk's-bill turtle is about three feet
from the bill to the end of the shell; but it has been known to
measure five feet, and to weigh five or six hundred pounds. In the
Indian Ocean, especially, specimens of prodigious magnitude are said
to have occurred.

6. The shell employed in the arts, grows upon the back and feet of the
animal. That on the back, consists of thirteen laminæ, or plates,
which lap over each other, like tiles on the roof of a house. The
plates vary in thickness from one-eighth to one-fourth of an inch,
according to the age and size of the turtle. The quantity of
merchantable shell obtained from a single subject of the usual size,
is about eight pounds, which, at the usual price, is worth sixty or
seventy dollars.

7. The process of making combs from the horns of cattle, is not
difficult to be understood. The tips and buts are first cut off with a
saw, and the remaining portion is also divided longitudinally on one
side with the same instrument. The horns are then soaked for several
days, and afterwards boiled in oil, to render them pliable. They are
next spread out and pressed between hot iron plates. This operation
clarifies the horn, and produces a plate of proper thickness.

8. After the plates thus produced, have been cut in pieces
corresponding in size to the proposed combs, and when these have been
shaved to a suitable thickness with instruments adapted to the
purpose, the teeth are cut either with a _twinning saw_, as
represented in the preceding cut, or with a _twinning machine_.

9. In the former case, the plate is fastened with a wooden _clamp_, by
the part which is designed to be left for the back of the comb; and
when twins, or two combs, are to be formed from one piece, the other
end is bent down, so as to render the upper surface considerably
convex. To this surface the _twinning saw_ is applied by the hand of
the workman, who makes a number of incisions; which are completed both
ways with two different kinds of saws, and the end of each tooth is
cut from the back of the opposite comb with an instrument called a
_plugging awl_.

10. The _twinning machine_ was invented, about twenty years ago, by a
Mr. Thomas, of Philadelphia; but it has been successfully improved by
several individuals since that time. It is, altogether, an ingenious
and useful contrivance. The cutting part consists of two chisels,
which are made to act on the plate alternately, and in a perpendicular
direction, each chisel cutting one side of two teeth, and severing one
from the opposite back, at every stroke. It is impossible, however, to
form a clear conception of the manner in which the machine operates,
except by actual inspection. It performs the work with great rapidity;
since from one to two hundred dozens of combs can be cut in twelve
hours; whereas, not one-fourth of that number can be _twinned_ in the
old method, during the same time.

11. After the teeth have been rounded, and in other respects brought
to the proper form with suitable instruments, the combs are polished
by rubbing them first with the dust of a peculiar kind of brick, then
by applying them to a moving cylinder covered with buff leather,
charged with rotten-stone, ashes, or brick-dust; and, finally, by
rubbing them with the hand, charged with rotten-stone and vinegar.

12. The combs are next colored, or stained; and, as the tortoise-shell
is by far the best and most expensive material for this kind of comb,
the great object of the manufacturer is to produce colors as nearly
resembling those of the real shell as practicable. This is done in
considerable perfection, in the following manner:

13. The combs are first dipped in aqua-fortis, and then covered with a
paste made of lime, pearlash, and red lead. To produce the requisite
variety of shades, both taste and judgment are necessary in applying
the composition, and in determining the time which it should remain
upon the combs. To give the combs a still stronger resemblance to
shell, they are also immersed for fifteen or twenty minutes in a dye
of Nicaragua.

14. The combs having been covered with oil, they are next heated upon
iron plates, and brought to the desired shape by bending them upon
wooden blocks with a woollen list. The whole process is finished by
rubbing off the oil with a silk handkerchief.

15. The general process of making shell combs differs but little from
that which has been just described, varying only in a few
particulars, in compliance with the peculiar nature of the material.

16. On account of the great value of shell, the workmen are careful to
make the most of every portion of it; accordingly, when a piece falls
short of the desired size, it is enlarged by _welding_ to it another
of smaller dimensions. The union is effected, by lapping the two
pieces upon each other, and then pressing them together between two
plates of hot iron. The heat of the iron is prevented from injuring
the shell, by the interposition of a wet linen cloth, and by immersing
the whole in hot water. In a similar manner, broken combs are often
mended; and by the same method, two pieces of horn can also be joined
together.

17. Both horn and shell combs are often stamped with figures, and
otherwise ornamented with carved work. In the latter case, the
ornaments are produced, by removing a part of the material with a saw
and graver. The saw employed is not more than the twelfth of an inch
in width; and, being fastened to a frame, it is moved up and down,
with great rapidity, by means of the foot, while the part of the comb
to be cut away is applied to the teeth. The operator is guided in the
work by a pattern, which has been struck on paper from an engraved
plate.

18. Combs for dressing and cleansing the hair, are made of horn,
shell, bone, ivory, and wood; but it is unnecessary to be particular
in describing the manner in which every kind of comb is manufactured.
We will only add, that the teeth of fine ivory and bone combs are cut
with a buzz, or circular saw, which, fastened to a mandrel, is moved
in a lathe.


THE BRUSH-MAKER.

1. There are few manufactured articles in more general use than
brushes. This has arisen from their great utility, and the low prices
at which they can be purchased. The productions of the brush-maker's
labor are denominated variously, according to the purposes to which
they are to be applied.

2. The operations connected with this business are very simple, as
there is scarcely a tool employed which is not familiar to every other
class of mechanics. The brush-maker, however, does not manufacture
every part of the brush. He procures his wooden _stocks_ and handles
from various sources, but chiefly from the turner, and bone handles,
from the tooth-brush handle-maker.

3. The first part of the process which may be considered as belonging
particularly to the brush-maker, consists in boring the holes for the
reception of the bristles. This is done with a _bit_ of a proper size,
which is kept in motion with a lathe, while the wood is brought
against it with both hands. To enable the operator to make the holes
in the right place and in the proper direction, a pattern is applied
to the hither side of the stock.

4. The greater part of the bristles used by the brush-makers in the
United States, are imported from Russia and Germany. Large quantities,
however are obtained from Pennsylvania, and some parts of the Western
States. American bristles are worth from thirty to fifty cents per
pound, a price sufficiently high, one would suppose, to induce the
farmers to preserve them, when they butcher their swine. Were this
generally done, a tolerable supply of the shorter kinds of bristles
might be obtained in our own country.

5. When the bristles come into the hands of the brush-maker, the long
and short, and frequently those of different colors, are mixed
together. These are first assorted, according to color; and those of a
whitish hue are afterwards washed with potash-ley and soap, to free
them from animal fat, and then whitened by bleaching them with the
fumes of brimstone.

6. The bristles are next combed with a row of steel teeth, for the
purpose of placing them in a parallel direction, and with a view of
depriving them of the short hair which may be intermixed. The workman,
immediately after combing a handful, assorts it into separate parcels
of different lengths. This is very readily done, by pulling out the
longest bristles from the top, until those which remain in the hand
have been reduced to a certain length, which is determined by a gauge
marked with numbers. At each pulling, the handful is reduced in height
near half an inch.

7. The stocks and the bristles having been thus prepared, they are
next fastened together. This is effected either with wire or by a
composition of tar and rosin. The wire is used in all cases in which
the fibre is doubled; but when the bristles are required in their full
length, as in sweeping-brushes, the adhesive substance is employed.

8. It is superfluous to enter into detail, to show the manner in which
the wire and composition are applied in fixing the bristles, as any
person, with an ordinary degree of observation, can readily comprehend
the whole, by examining the different kinds of brushes which are met
with in every well-regulated household. The bristles, after having
been fixed to the stock or handle, are trimmed with the shears or
knife, according as they are required to be equal or unequal in
length.

9. The brush is next handed over to the _finisher_, who applies to the
back of the stock a thin veneer of wood, which secures the wire
against the oxidizing influence of the atmosphere, and gives to the
brush a finished appearance. The stock, together with the veneer, is
then brought to the desired shape with suitable instruments, polished
with sand-paper, and covered with varnish.

10. Those brushes which the manufacturer designs to be ornamented, are
sent in great quantities to the _ornamenter_, who applies to them
various figures, in gold or Dutch leaf, japan or bronze, and sometimes
prints, which have been struck on paper from engraved plates.



[Illustration: INN-KEEPER.]

THE TAVERN-KEEPER.


1. A house in which travellers are entertained is denominated a
tavern, inn, coffee-house, hotel, or house of public entertainment;
and an individual who keeps a house of this description, is called an
inn-keeper or tavern-keeper. Of these establishments there are various
grades, from the log cabin with a single room, to the splendid and
commodious edifice with more than a hundred chambers.

2. This business is one of great public utility; since, by this means,
travellers obtain necessary refreshments and a temporary home, with
very little trouble on their part, and that, in most cases, for a
reasonable compensation. This is especially the case in the United
States, where the public houses, taking them together, are said to be
superior to those of any other country.

3. Travellers, in the early ages of the world, either carried with
them the means of sustenance, and protection from the weather, or
relied upon the hospitality of strangers; but, as the intercourse
between different places for the purposes of trade, increased, houses
of public entertainment were established, which at first were chiefly
kept by women.

4. The people of antiquity, in every age and nation, whether barbarous
or civilized, were, however, remarkable for their hospitality. We find
this virtue enjoined in the Mosaic writings, and scriptures generally,
in the poems of Homer, as well as in other distinguished writings,
which have descended to our times. The heathen nations were rendered
more observant of the rites of hospitality by the belief, that their
fabulous gods sometimes appeared on earth in human shape; and the Jews
and ancient Christians, by the circumstance, that Abraham entertained
angels unawares.

5. On account of the occasional acts of violence committed by both the
guest, and the master of the house, it became necessary to take some
precautions for their mutual safety. When, therefore, a stranger
applied for lodgings, it was customary among the Greeks for both to
swear by Jupiter, that they would do each other no harm. This ceremony
took place, while each party stood with his foot placed on his own
side of the threshold; and a violation of this oath by either party,
excited against the offender the greatest horror.

6. The Greeks and Romans, in common with the people of many other
nations, were in the habit of making arrangements with persons at a
distance from their homes, for mutual accommodation, when either party
might be in the vicinity of the other. In these agreements, the
contracting parties included their posterity, and delivered to each
other tokens, which might be afterwards exhibited in proof of ancient
ties of hospitality between the families. They swore fidelity to each
other by the name of Jupiter, who was surnamed the Hospitable; because
he was supposed to be the protector of strangers, and the avenger of
their wrongs.

7. This relation was considered a very intimate one, especially by the
Romans; and, in their language, it was called _hospitium_, or _jus
hospitii_; hence, the guest and entertainer were both called _hostes_,
a word from which _host_ is derived, which is employed to designate
both the landlord and the guest. The Roman nobility used to build, for
the reception of strangers, apartments called _hospitalia_, on the
right and left of the main building of their residence.

8. During the middle ages, also, hospitality was very commonly
practised; and the virtue was not considered one of those which might
be observed or neglected at pleasure; the practice of it was even
enjoined by statute, in many countries, as a positive duty, which
could not be neglected with impunity. In some cases, the moveable
goods of the inhospitable person were confiscated, and his house
burned. If an individual had not the means of entertaining his guest,
he was permitted to steal, in order to obtain the requisite supply.

9. The nobles of Europe, during this period, were generally
distinguished for their cordial entertainment of strangers, and their
immediate adherents. Their extraordinary liberality arose, in part,
from the general customs of the age, and partly from a desire to
attach to their interests as great a number of retainers as possible,
with a view to maintain or increase their political importance.
Strangers were also entertained at the monasteries, which were
numerous in almost every kingdom of Europe. Several of these
institutions were established in solitary places, with the express
purpose of relieving travellers in distress.

10. It is evident, that the arrangements for mutual accommodation, and
the hospitable character of the ancients, were unfavorable to the
business of keeping tavern; but the free intercourse between different
nations, which arose from the Crusades, and the revival of commerce,
contributed greatly to the habit of regularly entertaining strangers
for a compensation, and led to the general establishment of inns.

11. These inns, however, were not, at first, well supported; inasmuch
as travellers had been long accustomed to seek for lodgings in private
houses. In Scotland, inns were established by law, A.D. 1424; and, to
compel travellers to resort to them, they were forbidden, under a
penalty of forty shillings, to use private accommodations, where these
public houses were to be found.

12. How far legislative enactments have been employed for the
establishment of inns in other countries, we have not been able to
learn, as the authorities to which we have referred for information on
this point are silent with regard to it. We know, however, that laws
have been made in almost every part of Europe, as well as in the
United States, with the view of compelling the landlord to preserve
proper order, and to accommodate his customers at reasonable charges.

13. In the United States, and in all other commercial countries, this
business has become one of great importance, not only to the
individuals who have engaged in it, but also to the community in
general. Within the present century, the amount of travelling has
greatly increased, and the excellence of the public houses has
advanced in the same ratio. Some of these establishments in the cities
and large towns, are among the most extensive and splendid edifices of
the country; and, in every place through which there is much
travelling, they are usually equal or superior to the private
dwellings of the neighborhood.

14. The business of keeping tavern, however, is not always confined to
the proper object of entertaining travellers, or persons at some
distance from home. A public house is frequently the resort of the
people who live in the immediate vicinity, and is often the means of
doing much injury, by increasing dissipation.

15. In all cases in which ardent spirits are proposed to be sold, a
license must be obtained from the public authorities, for which must
be paid the sum stipulated by law; but any person is permitted to
lodge travellers, and to supply them with every necessary means of
cheer and comfort for a compensation, without the formality of a legal
permission; yet, a license to sell liquors is called a tavern-license;
because most tavern-keepers regard the profits on the sale of ardent
spirits as one of their chief objects.

16. A public house in which no strong drink is sold, is called a
temperance tavern; and such establishments are becoming common; but
they are not, at present, so well supported as those in which the
popular appetite is more thoroughly complied with. The time, however,
may not be far distant, when the public sentiment will undergo such a
salutary change, that the tavern-keepers generally will find it their
best policy to relinquish the sale of this poisonous article.

17. As travellers often apply to the bar for "something to drink,"
merely to remunerate the landlord for the use of his fire, or some
little attention, the friends of temperance would essentially promote
their cause, by encouraging the practice of paying for a glass of
water, or some trifle of this kind. This would increase the number of
temperance taverns, and, perhaps, be the means of preventing many
generous people from forming those dissipated habits, which are so
often attended with ruinous results.



[Illustration: The HUNTER.]

THE HUNTER.


1. Hunting and fishing are usually considered the primary occupations
of man; not because they were the first employments in which he
engaged, but because they are the chief means of human sustenance
among savage nations.

2. The great and rapid increase of the inferior animals, and,
probably, the diminished fertility of the soil after the deluge,
caused many branches of the family of Noah to forsake the arts of
civilized life, especially after the dispersion caused by the
confusion of tongues.

3. Many of these families, or tribes, continued in this barbarous
state for several ages, or until their increase of numbers, and the
diminished quantity of wild game, rendered a supply of food from the
objects of the chase extremely precarious. Necessity then compelled
them to resort to the domestication of certain animals, and to the
cultivation of the soil. But the practice of hunting wild animals is
not confined to the savage state; as it is an amusement prompted by a
propensity inherent in human nature.

4. The earliest historical notice of this sport is found in the tenth
chapter of Genesis, in which Nimrod is styled, "a mighty hunter before
the Lord." So great was his prowess in this absorbing pursuit, that he
was proverbially celebrated on this account even in the time of Moses.
Nimrod is the first king of whom we read in history; and it is by no
means improbable, that his skill and intrepidity in subduing the wild
beasts of the forest, contributed largely towards elevating him to the
regal station.

5. Although the spoils of the chase are of little consequence to men,
after they have united in regular communities, in which the arts of
civilized life are cultivated; yet the propensity to hunt wild animals
continues, and displays itself more or less among all classes of men.

6. The reader of English history will recollect, that William the
Conqueror, who began his reign in the year 1066, signalized his
passion for this amusement, by laying waste, and converting, into one
vast hunting-ground, the entire county of Hampshire, containing, at
that time, no less than twenty-two populous parishes. Severe laws were
also enacted, prohibiting the destruction of certain kinds of game,
except by a few persons having specified qualifications. With some
modifications, these laws are still in force in Great Britain.

7. In other countries of Europe, also, large tracts have been
appropriated by the kings and nobles to the same object. This
tyrannical monopoly is attempted to be justified by the unreasonable
pretension, that all wild animals belong, of right, to the monarch of
the country, where they roam.

8. The quadrupeds most hunted in Europe, are the stag, the hare, the
fox, the wolf, and the wild boar. These beasts are pursued either on
account of their intrinsic value, or for sport, or to rid the country
of their depredations. In some instances, all three of these objects
may be united. The method of capturing or killing the animals is
various, according to the character and objects of the persons engaged
in it.

9. In Asia, the wolf is sometimes hunted with the eagle; but, in
Europe, the strongest greyhounds are employed to run him down. This
task, however, is one of extreme difficulty, as he can easily run
twenty miles upon a stretch, and is besides very cunning in the means
of eluding his pursuers. Chasing the fox on horseback, with a pack of
hounds, is considered an animating and manly sport, both in Europe and
in North America.

10. The most prominent victim of the hunter, in Africa, is the lion.
He is usually sought in small parties on horseback with dogs; but
sometimes, when one of these formidable animals has been discovered,
the people of the neighborhood assemble, and encircle him in a ring,
three or four miles in circumference. The circle is gradually
contracted, until the hunters have approached sufficiently near to the
beast, when they dispatch him, usually with a musket-ball.

11. In the southern parts of Asia, tiger-hunting is a favorite
amusement. Seated upon an elephant, trained especially for the
purpose, the hunter is in comparative safety, while he pursues and
fires upon the tiger, until his destruction is effected.

12. The white bear and the grisly bear are the most formidable animals
in North America; yet they are industriously hunted by both Indians
and white men, on account of the value of their flesh and skins.
Bisons, or, as they are erroneously called, buffaloes, are found in
great numbers in the vast prairies which occur between the Mississippi
and the Rocky Mountains. They are commonly met with in droves, which
sometimes amount to several thousands.

13. When the Indian hunters propose to destroy these animals, they
ride into the midst of a herd, and dispatch them with repeated wounds;
or, they get a drove between themselves and a precipice, and, by
shouting and yelling, cause the animals to crowd each other off upon
the rocks below. In this manner, great numbers are disabled and taken
at once. The hunters, at other times, drive the bisons into
inclosures, and then shoot them down at their leisure. The hide of
this animal is dressed with the hair adhering to it; and skins, in
this state, are used by the savages for beds, and by the white people,
in wagons, sleighs, and stages.

14. North America, and the northern parts of Asia, have been, and, in
some parts, still are, well stocked with fur-clad animals; and these
are the principal objects of pursuit, with those who make hunting
their regular business. Some of these animals were common in every
part of North America, when this portion of the western continent was
first visited by Europeans; and a trade in peltries, more or less
extensive, has been carried on with the natives, ever since the first
settlement of the country.

15. For the purpose of conducting this trade with advantage, a company
was formed in England, in 1670, by Prince Rupert and others, to whom a
charter was granted, securing to them the exclusive privilege of
trading with the Indians about Hudson's Bay. Another company was
formed in 1783-4, called the North-West Fur Company. Between these
companies, there soon arose dissensions and hostilities, and many
injuries were mutually inflicted by the adherents of the parties. Both
associations, however, were at length united, under the title of the
Hudson's Bay Fur Company. The Indian trade, on the great lakes and the
Upper Mississippi, has long been in possession of the North American
Fur Company. Most of the directors of this company reside in the city
of New-York.

16. The companies just mentioned supply the Indians with coarse blue,
red, and fine scarlet cloths, coarse cottons, blankets, ribands,
beads, kettles, firearms, hatchets, knives, ammunition, and other
articles adapted to the wants of the hunters, receiving, in return,
the skins of the muskrat, beaver, otter, martin, bear, deer, lynx,
fox, &c.

17. The intercourse with the Indians is managed by agents, called
clerks, who receive from the company a salary, ranging from three to
eight hundred dollars per annum. The merchandise is conveyed to the
place of trade, in the autumn, by the aid of Canadian boatmen and
half-Indians. The most considerable portion of the goods are sold to
the Indians on a credit, with the understanding of their making
payment in the following spring; but, as many neglect this duty, a
high price is affixed to the articles thus intrusted to savage
honesty. The clerk furnishes the debtor with a trap, having his own
name stamped upon it, to show that the hunter has pledged every thing
which may be caught in it.

18. Each clerk is supplied with four laborers and an interpreter. The
latter attends to the store in the absence of the clerk, or watches
the debtors in the Indian camp, lest they again sell the produce of
their winter's labors. The peltries, when obtained by the clerk, are
sent to the general agent of the company.

19. The fur trade is also prosecuted, to some extent, by a class of
men in Missouri, who proceed from the city of St. Louis, in bodies
comprising from fifty to two hundred individuals. After having
ascended the Missouri river, or some of its branches, and, perhaps,
after having passed the Rocky Mountains, they separate, and pursue the
different animals on their own individual account, either alone or in
small parties. The Indians regard these men as intruders on their
territories; and, when a favorable opportunity is presented, they
frequently surprise and murder the wandering hunters, and retain
possession of their property.

20. In consequence of the unremitted warfare which has, for a long
time, been carried on against the wild animals of North America, their
number has been greatly diminished; and, in many parts, almost every
species of the larger quadrupeds, and the fur-clad animals, has been
exterminated. Even on the Mississippi, and the great lakes, the latter
description of animals has been so much reduced in number, that the
trade in peltries, in those parts, has become of little value. Another
half century will, probably, nearly terminate the trade in every part
of North America.

21. The fur trade was prosecuted with considerable success, during the
latter part of the last century, principally by the English, on the
north-west coast of America, and the adjacent islands. The peltries
obtained by these enterprising traders, were carried directly to
China. The trade was interrupted for a while by the Spaniards, who
laid claim to those regions, and seized the British traders engaged
there, together with the property in their possession. This affair,
however, was afterwards amicably adjusted by the Spanish and English
governments; and the whole trade, from California north and to China,
was opened to the latter.

22. The fur trade, in those parts, is now chiefly in the hands of the
Russian Company in America, which has a capital of a million of
dollars invested in the business. Most of the persons owning the
stock, are merchants, residing at Irkutsk, a town of Siberia, which is
the centre of the fur trade of that country. The skins obtained in
Russian America are chiefly procured from the sea-otter, and several
species of seal, together with those from foxes, of a blue, black, and
gray color, which are brought from the interior. Parties of Russian
hunters have already passed the Rocky Mountains, and interfered with
the trade of the Hudson's Bay Company. The fur trade of Siberia is
chiefly carried on with China.

23. The chief objects of the hunters in Siberia, are the black fox,
the sable, the ermine, the squirrel, the beaver, and the lynx. In the
region near the Frozen Ocean, are also caught blue and white foxes.
Siberia is the place of banishment for the Russian empire; and the
exiles were formerly required to pay to the government an annual
tribute of a certain number of sable-skins. The conquered tribes in
Siberia, were also compelled to pay their taxes in the skins of the
fox and sable; but now, those of less value, or money, are frequently
substituted.

24. Although the skins of beasts were the first means employed to
clothe the human body, yet it does not appear that the Greeks and
Romans, and the other refined nations of antiquity, ever made use of
furs for this purpose. The custom of wearing them, originated in those
regions, where the fur-clad animals were numerous, and where the
severity of the climate required this species of clothing. The use of
furs was introduced into the southern parts of Europe by the Goths,
Vandals, Huns, and other barbarous nations, which overran the Roman
empire.



[Illustration: WHALER.]

THE FISHERMAN.


1. Although permission was given by the Deity, immediately after the
flood, to employ for human sustenance "every moving thing that
liveth," yet it is not probable, that fishes were used as food, to any
considerable extent, for several centuries afterwards. It is stated by
Plutarch, that the Syrians and Greeks, in very ancient times,
abstained from fish. Menelaus, one of Homer's heroes, complains, on a
certain occasion, that his companions had been reduced by hunger to
the necessity of eating fish; and there is no mention in Homer, that
the Grecians, at any time, used this food at the siege of Troy,
although, for the ten years during which that contest was carried on,
their camp was on the sea-shore.

2. Moses, the Jewish lawgiver, is very explicit in designating the
land animals which might be used by the Israelites as food; and he was
equally so with regard to the animals which inhabit the waters. We
learn, from the twelfth chapter of Numbers, that the children of
Israel, while journeying to the land of Canaan, "remembered the fish
which they did eat," in Egypt.

3. This is the earliest notice on record, of the actual use of that
class of animals for food; although it is probable, that they had been
applied to this purpose, in Egypt, six or seven hundred years before
that period, or soon after the settlement of this country by the
descendants of Ham.

4. For a long time before the advent of Our Saviour, fishing had been
a regular business, even in Judea; and from the class of men who
followed this occupation, he chose several of his apostles. At the
time just mentioned, fish had become a common article of diet, in all
parts of the world subject to the Roman power, and probably in almost
all other countries.

5. The methods of catching fish, pursued in ancient times, were
similar to those of the present day; for then, as now, they were
caught with a hook, with a spear, and with a seine or net, according
to the character of the animal, and the nature of the fishing station.
But the great improvements in navigation, made since the twelfth
century, have given modern fishermen the command of the Atlantic and
Pacific Oceans, and, consequently, a knowledge of many species of fish
which were formerly unknown.

6. According to Linnæus, the great naturalist, about four hundred
species of fish have come to our knowledge; and he presumes, that
those which remain unknown are still more numerous. Notwithstanding
this great variety, the chief attention of fishermen is confined to a
few kinds, which are the most easily caught, and which are the most
valuable when taken.

7. Every place which contains many inhabitants, and which is located
in the vicinity of waters well stored with fish, is supplied with
these animals by men who make fishing a business; still, these
fisheries may be considered local in their benefits, and perhaps do
not require particular notice in this article. We will only remark,
therefore, that, in large cities, fresh fish are sold either in a
fish-market, or are _hawked_ about the streets. The wives of the
fishermen are very often employed in selling the fish caught by their
husbands. The fisheries which are of the greatest consequence, in
general commerce, are those which relate to herring, mackerel, salmon,
seal, and whale.

8. _Herring Fishery._--There are several species of herring; but, of
these, four kinds only are of much importance, viz., the common
herring, the shad, the hard head, and the alewife; of which, the first
is the most valuable, being by far the most numerous, and being, also,
better adapted than the others for preservation.

9. The winter residence of the common herring is within the arctic
circle, whence it emigrates, in the spring, to more southern portions
of the globe, for the purpose of depositing its spawn. The first body
of these migratory animals, appears on the coasts of both Europe and
America, in April, or about the first of May; but these are only the
precursors of the grand shoals which arrive in a few weeks afterwards.

10. Their first approach is indicated by the great number of birds of
prey, which follow them in their course; but, when the main body
appears, the number is so great, that they alter the appearance of the
ocean itself. In this last and principal migration, the shoals are
five or six miles in length, and three or four in breadth; and,
before each of these columns, the water is driven in a kind of ripple.
Sometimes, the fish sink together ten or fifteen minutes, and then
rise again to the surface, when they reflect, in clear weather, the
rays of the sun, in a variety of splendid colors.

11. These fish proceed as far south as France, on the coasts of
Europe, and as far as Georgia, in America, supplying every bay, creek,
and river, which opens into the Atlantic. Having deposited their
spawn, generally in the inland waters, they return to their
head-quarters in the Arctic Ocean, and recruit their emaciated bodies
for another migration in the following spring.

12. In a few weeks, the young ones are hatched by the genial heat of
the sun; and, as they are not found in southern waters in the winter,
it is evident that they proceed northward in the fall, to their
paternal haunts under the ice, and thus repair the vast destruction of
their race, which had been caused by men, fowl, and fish, in the
previous season.

13. These fish are caught in nearly every river, from Maine to
Georgia, which has a free communication with the Atlantic; but the
most extensive fisheries are on the Hudson and Delaware Rivers, and on
those which flow into the Chesapeake Bay.

14. The instrument employed in catching these fish is called a
_seine_, which is a species of net, sometimes in length several
hundred fathoms, and of a width suiting the depth of the water in
which it is to be used. The two edges of the net-work are fastened
each to a rope; and, to cause the seine to spread laterally in the
water, pieces of lead are fastened to one side, and pieces of cork to
the other.

15. In spreading the seine in the water, one end is retained on land
by a number of persons, while the rest of it is strung along from a
boat, which is rowed in the direction from the shore. The seine
having been thus extended, the further end is brought round, in a
sweeping manner, to the shore; and the fish that may be included are
taken into the boats with a scoop-net, or are hauled out upon the
shore. In this way, two or three hundred thousands are sometimes taken
at a single _haul_. This fish dies immediately after having been taken
from the water; hence the common expression, "As dead as a herring."

16. The herrings are sold, as soon as caught, to people who come to
the fishing stations to procure them; or, in case an immediate sale
cannot be effected, they are cured with salt, and afterwards smoked,
or continued in brine. In the Southern states, the herring is
generally thought to be superior to any other fish for the purpose of
salting down; although the shad and some others are preferred while
fresh.

17. The importance of this fishery is superior to that of any other;
since the benefits resulting from it are more generally diffused. The
ancients, however, do not appear to have had any knowledge of this
valuable fish. It was first brought into notice by the Dutch, who are
said to have commenced the herring fishery on the coasts of Scotland,
in the year 1164, and to have retained almost exclusive possession of
it, until the beginning of the present century.

18. The shad is a species of herring, which inhabits the sea near the
mouths of rivers, and which ascends them in the spring, to deposit its
spawn. It is caught in all the rivers terminating on our Atlantic
coasts, as well as in some of the rivers of the North of Europe. This
fish is captured in the same manner and often at the same time with
the common herring. It is highly esteemed in a fresh state; although
it is not so good when salted, as the herring and some other kinds of
fish.

19. _Mackerel Fishery._--The common mackerel is a migratory fish,
like the herring, and ranks next to that tribe of fishes in regard to
numbers, and perhaps in general utility. Its place of retirement in
the winter, is not positively known; but it is supposed by some, to be
far north of the arctic circle; and by others, to be in some part of
the Atlantic farther south. Shoals of this fish appear on the coasts
of both Europe and America, in the summer season. Of this fish there
are twenty-two species.

20. The mode of catching the mackerel, is either with a net or with
hooks and lines. The latter method succeeds best, when the boat or
vessel is driven forward by a gentle breeze; and, in this case, a bit
of red cloth, or a painted feather, is usually employed as a bait.
Several hooks are fastened to a single line, and the fish bite so
readily, that the fishermen occasionally take one on each hook at a
haul. The mackerel is _cured_ in the usual manner, and packed in
barrels, to be sold to dealers.

21. This fish was well known to the ancients, as one of its places of
resort, in the summer, was the Mediterranean Sea. It was highly
esteemed by the Romans, for the reason, that it was the best fish for
making their _sarum_, a kind of pickle or sauce much esteemed by this
luxurious people.

22. _Salmon Fishery._--The salmon is a celebrated fish, belonging to
the trout genus. It inhabits the seas on the European coasts, from
Spitzbergen to Western France; and, on the western shore of the
Atlantic, it is found from Greenland to the Hudson River. It also
abounds on both coasts of the North Pacific Ocean. The length of
full-grown salmon is from three to four feet; and their weight, from
ten to fifteen pounds.

23. As soon as the ice has left the rivers, the salmon begin to ascend
them, for the purpose of depositing their spawn. It has been
ascertained that these fish retain a remarkable attachment to the
river which gave them birth; and, having once deposited their spawn,
they ever afterwards choose the same spot for their annual deposits.
This latter fact has been established by a curious Frenchman, who,
fastening a ring to the posterior fin of several salmon, and then
setting them at liberty, found that some of them made their appearance
at the same place three successive seasons, bearing with them this
distinguishing mark.

24. In ascending the rivers, these fish usually proceed together in
great numbers, mostly swimming in the middle of the stream; and, being
very timid, a sudden noise, or even a floating piece of timber, will
sometimes turn them from their course, and send them back to the sea;
but having advanced a while, they assume a determined resolution,
overcoming rapids and leaping over falls twelve or fifteen feet in
perpendicular height.

25. Salmon are caught chiefly with seines, and sometimes seven or
eight hundred are captured at a single haul; but from fifty to one
hundred is the most usual number, even in a favorable season. They are
also taken in _weirs_, which are inclosures so constructed that they
admit the ingress, but not the regress of the fish.

26. The salmon fisheries are numerous in Great Britain and Ireland, as
well as in most of the northern countries of Europe. In the United
States, the most valuable fisheries of this kind are on the rivers in
Maine, whence the towns and cities farther south are principally
supplied with these fish, in a fresh condition. They are preserved in
ice, while on their way to market. In the cured state, salmon is
highly esteemed; although it is not easily digested.

27. _Cod Fishery._--There are several species of cod-fish, or gadus;
but the most important and interesting of the class, is the common
cod. These fish are found in great abundance on the south and west
coasts of Iceland, on the coasts of Norway, off the Orkney and Western
Isles, and in the Baltic Sea. Farther south, they gradually diminish
in numbers, and entirely disappear, some distance from the Straits of
Gibraltar.

28. But the great rendezvous of cod-fish is on the coasts of Labrador,
the banks of Newfoundland, Cape Breton, and Nova Scotia. They are
invited to these situations by the abundance of small fish, worms, and
other marine animals of the crustaceous and testaceous kinds, on which
they feed. The fishermen resort, in the greatest numbers, to the
banks, which, stretch along the eastern coasts of Newfoundland about
four hundred and fifty miles. The water on these banks varies from
twenty to fifty fathoms in depth.

29. By negociations with Great Britain, the French, Dutch, Spanish,
and Americans, have acquired the right to catch and cure fish, both on
the _Grand Banks_, and several other places on the coasts of the
English possessions in North America. The number of vessels employed
on the several fishing stations, during each successive season,
amounts to six or seven thousand, each measuring from forty to one
hundred and twenty tons, and carrying eight or ten men.

30. The fishing on the Grand Banks commences in April, and continues
until about the first of August. Here, the fish are caught exclusively
with hooks, which are usually baited with a small fish called the
capelin, as well as with herring, clams, and the gills of the cod
itself. But this fish is not very particular in its choice of bait, it
biting greedily at almost any kind which may be presented. An expert
fisherman will frequently catch from one hundred to three hundred cod
in a single day.

31. As soon as the fish have been caught, their heads are cut off,
and their entrails taken out. They are then salted away in bulk in the
hold; and, after having lain three or four days to drain, they are
taken to another part of the vessel, and again salted in the same
manner. The fishermen from New-England, however, give them but one
salting while on the fishing station; but, as soon as a cargo has been
obtained, it is carried home, where conveniences have been prepared
for curing the fish to greater advantage. By pursuing this plan, two
or three trips are made during the season. Some of the fish are
injured before they are taken from the vessel; and these form an
inferior quality, called _Jamaica fish_, because such are generally
sold in that island, for the use of the negroes.

32. The fish which are caught on the coasts of Labrador, at the
entrance of Hudson's Bay, in the Straits of Belleisle, and on fishing
stations of similar advantages, are cured on the shore. They are first
slightly salted, and then dried in the sun, either on the rocks, or on
scaffolds erected for the purpose. In these coast fisheries, the
operations commence in June, and continue until some time in August.
The cod are caught in large seines, as well as with hook and line.

33. _Seal Fishery._--There are several species of the seal; but the
kind which is most numerous, and most important in a commercial view,
is the common seal. It is found on the sea-coasts throughout the
world, but in the greatest numbers in very cold climates, where it
furnishes the rude inhabitants with nearly all their necessaries and
luxuries.

34. The animal is valuable to the civilized world, on account of its
skin and oil. The oil is pure, and is adapted to all the purposes to
which that from the whale is applied. In the spring of the year, the
seals are very fat; and, at that time, even small ones will yield
four or five gallons of oil. The leather manufactured from the skins,
is employed in trunk-making, in saddlery, and in making boots and
shoes.

35. Since the whale fishery has declined in productiveness in the
northern seas, _sealing_ has arisen in importance; and accordingly,
vessels are now frequently fitted out for this purpose, in both Europe
and America; whereas, a few years since, it was regarded only as a
part of the objects of a whaling voyage.

36. Our countrymen of New-England have particularly distinguished
themselves in this branch of business; and the part of the globe which
they have found to be the most favorable to their objects, has been
the islands in the Antarctic Ocean. A sealing voyage to that quarter
often occupies three years, during which time the hunters are exposed
to great hardships, being often left in small detachments on desolate
islands, for the purpose of pursuing the animals to greater advantage.

37. The best time for sealing in the Arctic Ocean, is in March and
April, when the seals are often met with in droves of several
thousands on the ice, which is either fixed, or floating in large
pieces. When the sealers meet with one of these droves, they attack
the animals with clubs, and stun them by a single blow on the nose.
After all that can be reached, have been disabled in this way, the
skin and blubber are taken off together.

38. This operation is called _flenching_, and is sometimes a horrible
business; since some of the seals, being merely stunned, occasionally
recover, and, in their denuded state, often make battle, and even leap
into the water, and swim off. The skins, with the blubber attached to
them, are packed away in the hold; and, in case the vessel is to
return home soon, they are suffered to remain there, until she arrives
in port; but, when this is not expected, the skins, as soon as
convenient, are separated from the blubber, and the latter is put into
casks. There are other methods of capturing the seal; but it is,
perhaps, not necessary to enter into further details.

39. _Whale Fishery._--There are five species of the whale, of which
the _Balæna Physalis_, or razor-back, is the largest. When full grown,
it is supposed to be about one hundred feet in length, and thirty or
thirty-five feet in circumference. It is so powerful an animal, that
it is extremely difficult to capture it; and, when captured, it yields
but little oil and whalebone. The species to which whalers direct
their attention is denominated the _Mystecetus_, or the _right whale_.

40. The mystecetus is found, in the greatest numbers, in the Greenland
seas, about the island of Spitzbergen, in Davis' Straits, in Hudson's
and Baffin's Bays, and in the northern parts of the Pacific Ocean. It
is also found in the Antarctic Ocean, and along the coasts of Africa
and South America, and occasionally on the coasts of the United
States.

41. Each vessel engaged in this fishery, is generally fitted out by
several individuals, who receive, of the return cargo of oil and
whalebone, a portion corresponding to the amount which they have
contributed to the common stock, after the men have received their
proportion of it. Should the voyage prove altogether unsuccessful,
which seldom happens, the owners lose the amount of the outfit, and
the captain and hands, their time.

42. The whalers commence operations in the northern latitudes, in the
month of May; but the whales are most plentiful in June, when they are
met with between the latitudes 75° and 80°, in almost every variety of
situation, sometimes in the open seas, at others in the loose ice, or
at the edges of the _fields_ and _floes_, which are near the main,
impervious body of ice.

43. On the fishing station, the boats are kept always ready for
instant service, being suspended from davits, or cranes, by the sides
of the ship, and being furnished with a lance and a harpoon, to the
latter of which is attached about one hundred and twenty fathoms of
strong but flexible rope. When the weather and situation are
favorable, the _crow's nest_, which is a station at the mast-head, is
occupied by some person with a telescope.

44. The moment a whale is discovered, notice is given to the watch
below, who instantly man one or two boats, and row with swiftness to
the place. Sometimes, a boat is kept manned and afloat near the ship,
that no time may be lost in making ready; or, two or three are sent
out on _the look-out_, having every thing ready for an attack.

45. The whale being very timid and cautious, the men endeavor to
approach him unperceived, and strike him with the harpoon, before he
is aware of their presence. Sometimes, however, he perceives their
approach, and dives into the water, to avoid them; but, being
compelled to come again to the surface to breathe, or, as it is
termed, _to blow_, they make another effort to harpoon him. In this
way, the whalers often pursue him for a considerable time, and
frequently without final success. The animal, when unmolested, remains
about two minutes on the surface, during which time he blows eight or
nine times, and then descends for five or ten minutes, and often,
while feeding, for fifteen or twenty.

46. When the whale has been struck, he generally dives towards the
bottom of the sea either perpendicularly or obliquely, where he
remains about thirty minutes, and sometimes nearly an hour. The
harpoon has, near its point, two barbs, or withers, which cause it to
remain fast in the integuments under the skin; and the rope attached
to it, is coiled in the bow of the boat in such a way, that it runs
out without interruption. When more line is wanted, it is made known
to the other boats by the elevation of an oar. Should the rope prove
too short for the great descent of the whale, it becomes necessary to
sever it from the boat, lest the latter be drawn under water; for this
emergency, the harpooner stands ready with a knife.

47. When the whale reappears, the assisting boats make for the place
with their greatest speed; and, if possible, each harpooner plunges
his weapon into the back of the creature. On convenient occasions, he
is also plied with lances, which are thrust into his vitals. At
length, overcome with wounds, and exhausted by the loss of blood, his
approaching dissolution is indicated by a discharge of blood from his
blow-holes, and sometimes by a convulsive struggle, in which his tail,
raised, whirled, and jerked in the air, resounds to the distance of
several miles. The whale having been thus conquered, and deprived of
life, the captors express their joy with loud huzzas, and communicate
the information to the ship by striking their flag.

48. A position near a large field of solid ice is very advantageous;
because a whale diving under it is obliged to return again to blow;
and this circumstance gives opportunity to make upon him several
attacks. Close fields of drift ice present great difficulties; since
the boats cannot always pass through them with sufficient celerity. In
that case, the men sometimes travel over the ice, leaping from one
piece to another, and carrying with them lances and harpoons, with
which they pierce the animal as often as possible. If they succeed in
thus killing him, they drag him back under the ice with the fast line.

49. The whale, having been towed to the ship, and secured alongside,
is raised a little by means of powerful blocks, or tackle. The
harpooners, with spurs fastened to the bottom of their feet to prevent
them from slipping, descend upon the huge body, and, with spades and
knives adapted to this particular purpose, cut the blubber into oblong
pieces, which are peeled off, and hoisted upon deck with the
_speck-tackle_. These long strips are then cut into chunks, which are
immediately packed away in the hold. After the animal has been thus
successively flenched, and the whale-bone taken out, the carcase is
dismissed to the sharks, bears, and birds of prey.

50. The blubber is somewhat similar, in consistence, to the fat which
surrounds the body of the hog, although not quite so solid. In young
whales, its color is yellowish white; and, in old ones, yellow or red.
Its thickness varies in different parts and in different individuals,
from eight to twenty inches. The weight of a whale sixty feet in
length, is about seventy tons, of which the blubber weighs about
thirty tons.

51. The whale-bone is situated in the mouth. About three hundred
laminæ, or blades, grow parallel to each other on either side of the
upper jaw, being about half an inch thick, and ten or twelve inches
wide, where they are united by the gum. As the whale grows old, they
increase in length, and approach from each side to the roof of the
mouth. The whale, while feeding, swims with his mouth wide open, which
admits a great quantity of water containing insects or small fish, on
which he subsists. The whale-bone acts as a filter, or strainer, in
retaining the little animals, while the water passes off at the
corners of the mouth.

52. Before the whalers leave the fishing station, they cut the blubber
into small pieces, and put it into close casks. Sometimes, however,
when the ship has been very successful, there is a deficiency of
casks. In that case, it is slightly salted, and packed away in the
hold. But, as the ship must necessarily pass through a warmer climate,
on her voyage homeward, the blubber, while packed in this manner, is
liable to melt and be wasted, unless the weather should prove
uncommonly cool.

53. When the vessel has arrived in port, the blubber is found to be
melted. To separate the oil from the _fritters_, or _fenks_, as the
integuments and other impurities are called, the contents of the casks
are poured into copper boilers, and heated. The heat causes a part of
the latter to sink to the bottom, and the former is drawn off into
coolers, where other extraneous matters settle. The pure or fine oil
is then drawn off for sale. An inferior quality of oil, called _brown
oil_, is obtained from the dregs of the blubber.

54. The spermaceti cachalot, or _Physeter Macrocephalus_, is an animal
belonging to the norwal genus; although it is generally denominated
the spermaceti whale. It is found in the greatest abundance in the
Pacific Ocean, where it is sought by American and other whalers, for
the sake of the oil and spermaceti. This animal is gregarious, and is
often met with in herds containing more than two hundred individuals.

55. Whenever a number of the cachalot are seen, several boats, manned
each with six men provided with harpoons and lances, proceed in
pursuit; and, if possible, each boat strikes or fastens to a distinct
animal, which, in most cases, is overcome without much difficulty.
Being towed to the ship, it is deprived of its blubber, and the matter
contained in the head, which consists of spermaceti combined with a
small proportion of oil. The oil is reduced from the blubber, soon
after it has been taken on board, in "try works," with which every
ship engaged in this fishery is provided.

56. About three tons of oil are commonly obtained from a large
cachalot of this species, and from one to two tons from a small one,
besides the head-matter. The manner in which these two products are
treated, when brought into port, has been described in the article on
candle-making.

57. The Biscayans were the first people who prosecuted the whale
fishery, as a commercial pursuit. In the twelfth, thirteenth, and
fourteenth centuries, they carried on this business to a considerable
extent; but the whales taken by them were not so large as those which
have since been captured in the polar seas. At length, the whales
ceased to visit the Bay of Biscay, and the fishery in that quarter was
of course terminated.

58. The voyages of the English and Dutch to the Northern Ocean, in
search of a passage to India, led to the discovery of the principal
haunts of the whale, and induced individuals in those nations to fit
out vessels to pursue these animals in the northern latitudes, the
harpooners and part of the crews being Biscayans. The whales were
found in the greatest abundance about the island of Spitzbergen, and
were, at first, so easily captured, that extra vessels were sent out
in ballast, to assist in bringing home the oil and whalebone; but the
whales, retiring to the centre of the ocean, and to the other side to
the Greenland seas, soon became scarce about that island.

59. The whale fishery was revived, as above stated, about the
beginning of the seventeenth century; and, with the Dutch, it was in
the most flourishing condition in 1680, when it employed about two
hundred and sixty ships, and fourteen thousand men. The wars about the
beginning of the nineteenth century, extending their baleful influence
to almost every part of the ocean, annihilated this branch of business
among the Dutch; and, in 1828, only a single whale-ship sailed from
Holland.

60. The English whale fishery was, at first, carried on by companies
enjoying exclusive privileges; but the pursuit was attended with
little success. In 1732, Parliament decreed a bounty of twenty
shillings per ton, on every whaler measuring more than two hundred
tons; and, although this bounty was increased in 1749 to forty
shillings, yet the English whale fishery has never been very
flourishing.

61. The whale fishery has been carried on with greater success from
the United States than from any other country. It was begun by the
colonists, on their own shores, at a very early period; but the whales
having abandoned the coasts of North America, these hardy navigators
pursued them into the northern and southern oceans.

62. The number of American vessels now employed in pursuit of the
spermaceti cachalot and the mystecetus, amounts to about four hundred,
and the number of men to about ten thousand. The inhabitants of the
island of Nantucket, and of the town of New-Bedford, are more
extensively engaged in these fisheries than the people of any other
part of the United States.



[Illustration: SHIPWRIGHT.]

THE SHIPWRIGHT.


1. The earliest notice we have of the construction of a building to
float on water, is that which relates to Noah's Ark. This was the
largest vessel that has ever been built, and the circumstance proves
that the arts, at that early period, had been brought to considerable
perfection; yet, as several centuries had elapsed, after the flood,
before the descendants of Noah had much occasion for floating vessels,
the art of constructing them seems to have been measurably lost.

2. Early records, which perhaps are worthy of credit, state that the
Egyptians first traversed the river Nile upon rafts, then in the
canoe; and that, to these succeeded the boat, built with joist,
fastened together with wooden pins, and rendered water-tight by
interposing the leaves of the papyrus. To this boat was, at length,
added a mast of acanthus, and a sail of papyrus; but, being prejudiced
against the sea because it swallowed up their sacred river, which they
worshipped as a god, they never attempted to construct vessels adapted
to marine navigation.

3. The Phoenicians, a nation nearly as ancient as the Egyptian, being
situated directly on the sea, without the advantages of a noble river,
were compelled to provide means for sailing on a wider expanse of
water. It is said, however, that they first traversed the
Mediterranean, and even visited distant islands, with no better means
of conveyance than a raft of timber. This is rendered somewhat
probable, from the fact, that the Peruvians, even at the present time,
venture upon the Pacific Ocean on their _balza_, a raft made from a
spongy tree of that name.

4. The vessels first constructed by the Phoenicians, were used for
commercial purposes. They were flat-bottomed, broad, and of a small
draught; and those of the Carthaginians and Greeks were similar in
shape. The ships of war, in early times, were generally mere
row-boats, in which the combatants rushed upon each other, and decided
the combat by valor and physical strength.

5. By successive improvements, the ships of antiquity were, at length,
brought to combine good proportion with considerable beauty. The prows
were sometimes ornamented with the sculptured figures of heathen
deities, and otherwise adorned with paint and gilding, while the
sterns, which were usually in the form of a shield, were elaborately
wrought in carved work. The approved length of a ship of war, was six
or eight times its breadth; and that for mercantile purposes, four
times the breadth; hence, the distinction of _long ships_, and _round
ships_.

6. Both the long and round ships had a single mast, which could be
taken down or elevated at pleasure. These vessels were, however,
propelled with oars on occasions that required it; and the former, in
their improved state, were properly galleys with one, two, or three
banks of oars, which extended from one end of the vessel to the other.
The rowers were all placed under the deck; and, in time of battle, the
combatants contended above, being in part defended from the missiles
of opposing foes by shields carried on the arm, and by screens and
towers placed on the deck. The bow of each vessel was armed with a
brazen or iron beak, with which the contending parties often stove in
the sides of each other's vessels.

7. The general size of vessels in the best days of antiquity, was not
greater than that of our sloops and schooners; but there are instances
on record, which prove that they occasionally equalled in capacity the
largest of modern times. In the early ages, they were very small, and,
for several centuries, were drawn upon the shore at the termination of
every voyage. Stranding, however, became impracticable, after the
increase in size, and the addition of the keel. The anchor and cable
were, therefore, invented, to confine the ship at a suitable distance
from the shore. At first, the anchor was nothing more than a large
stone. Afterwards, it was wood and stone combined; and, finally, iron
was the sole material.

8. The invasion of the Roman empire by the northern barbarians, caused
the operations of war to be almost exclusively conducted on the land.
This, together with the destruction of commerce during the general
desolation of those ruthless incursions, and the barbarism of the
conquerors, occasioned a retrogression, and, in some parts of Europe,
nearly the total destruction of the art of building ships.

9. The active trade which arose in the Mediterranean, during the
middle ages, and the naval enterprises connected with the Crusades,
occasioned a revival of the art of constructing ships; yet, it did
not advance beyond the condition in which the Carthaginians had left
it, until about the middle of the fourteenth century. At this era, the
inconsiderable galleys of former times began to be superseded by
larger vessels, in which, however, oars were not entirely dispensed
with.

10. The great change in the general construction of vessels, arose
from the discovery of the polarity of the magnet, and the application
of astronomy to nautical pursuits; for, by these means, the mariner
was released from his dependence on the sight of the land, in guiding
his vessel on its course. Larger ships were therefore constructed,
capable of withstanding more violent storms and loftier waves.

11. To the Italians, Catalans, and Portuguese, was ship-building most
considerably indebted, in the early days of its revival. The Spaniards
followed up their discovery of the New World with a rapid improvement
in both the form and size of their ships; some of which even rated at
two thousand tons burden. In more modern times, it is said, that the
Spaniards and French are entitled to the credit of nearly all the
improvements which have been made in the theory of the art, the
English having never contributed essentially to advance it, although
the greatest naval power of this or any other time.

12. In the United States, very great improvements have been made in
the construction of vessels, since the commencement of the present
century. Our builders, however, are less guided by scientific rules
than by experience and a practised eye; yet, it is generally conceded,
that our ships of war and first-rate merchantmen, are superior in
swiftness and beauty to those of any other country.

13. In Europe, the first thing done towards building a vessel, is to
exhibit it in three distinct views by as many separate drawings; but,
in the United States, the builder commences by framing a complete
wooden model of the proposed construction--the thing itself in
miniature. From this practice of our naval architects, have arisen the
superior beauty and excellence of our vessels.

14. The timber generally used in the construction of American vessels,
is live-oak, pine, chestnut, locust, and cedar. The trees of mature
growth are chosen, and girdled in the beginning of winter, at which
time they contain but little sap. When sufficiently dry and hardened,
the trees are felled; and, after the timber has been roughly hewn, it
is carefully stored in some dry, airy place, not much exposed to wind
or sun.

15. In collecting ship-timber, the greatest difficulty is found in
procuring the crooked sticks, which form the sides or ribs of the
skeleton of a vessel. In countries where ship-timber has become an
object of careful cultivation, this difficulty is anticipated by
bending the young trees to the desired form, and confining them there,
until they have permanently received the proper inclination. The
timber is brought to market in its rough state, and sold by the foot.

16. The timber having been selected, the workmen proceed to fashion
the various parts of the proposed vessel with appropriate tools, being
guided in their operations by patterns, which have been made after the
exact form of the various parts of the model. Much care is taken to
avoid cutting the wood contrary to the grain, that its strength may
not be impaired.

17. After all the parts of the frame have been made ready, they are
put together. The several blocks of timber on which the vessel is
raised, are called the _stocks_; and to these pieces, the foundation,
called the _keel_, is temporarily fastened in an inclined position.
The keel is inserted into the _stern-post_ at one end, and into the
_stem_ at the other. The _floor-timbers_ are next fixed in the keel,
every other one being there firmly bolted and riveted. Each of these
timbers is a branch and part of the body of a tree; and, when
composing a part of a vessel, they bear the same relation to it as the
ribs to the human body. With equal propriety, the keel has been
compared to the vertebral column, or back-bone.

18. The next step is to apply and fasten the planks, which serve not
only to exclude the water, but to bind all the parts firmly and
harmoniously together. Simple as this part of the operation may seem
to be, it is the most difficult to be effected, and requires a
pre-concerted plan as much as any other part of the fabric. When it is
necessary to bend a plank at the bow or stern, it is heated by steam,
and then forced into place with screws and levers. The planks are
fastened with iron or copper bolts.

19. The planking having been finished, and several particulars
attended to, which cannot be well understood from description, the
vessel is ready for the work of the _caulker_, who carefully stops all
the seams with oakum, and smears them with pitch. After the
superfluous pitch has been cleared away with the _scraper_, water is
pumped into the hold, to ascertain if there is any leak.

20. The bottom of the vessel is next sheathed either with sheets of
copper or pine boards, to protect it from the worms. The latter
materials are employed when the planks have been fastened with iron
since the copper would cause the bolt-heads to corrode, if placed
against them. In either case, sheets of paper, soaked in hot pitch,
are interposed between the planks and the sheathing.

21. The vessel is now ready to be removed from the stocks to the
water. This removal is called _launching_, which, in many cases,
requires much skill in the preparation and successive management. If
there is no permanent inclined plane in the slip, on which the vessel
may glide into the water, a temporary one is prepared, consisting of
two platforms of solid timber, erected one on each side of the keel,
at a distance of a few feet from it, and extending from the stem into
the water. Upon this double platform which is called the _ways_, is
erected another set of timbers, and the space between these and the
vessel is filled all along with wedges. The whole of this
superstructure is called the _cradle_, and the extremities of it are
fastened to the keel, at the bow and stern, with chains and ropes.

22. Every thing having been thus prepared, the wedges are
simultaneously driven on both sides. By this means, the vessel is
raised from the stocks, and made to rest entirely on the cradle. After
the _shores_ have been all removed, the cradle, with its weighty
burden, begins to move; and, in a moment, the vessel is launched upon
its destined element.

23. Among the ancients, a launch was ever an occasion of great
festivity. The mariners were crowned with wreaths, and the ship was
bedecked with streamers and garlands. Safely afloat, she was purified
with a lighted torch, an egg, and brimstone, and solemnly consecrated
to the god whose image she bore. In our less poetic times, there is no
lack of feasting and merriment; although the ceremony of consecration
is different, the oldest sailor on board merely breaking a bottle of
wine or rum over the figure-head--still, perchance, the image of
father Neptune or Apollo.

24. The vessel, now brought to the wharf, is to be equipped. The mode
of doing this, is varied according as it may be a ship, brig,
hermaphrodite brig, schooner, or sloop. The masts are first erected,
and these are supplied with the necessary apparatus of spars, rigging,
and sails. The latter are furnished by the sail-maker, who is
sometimes denominated the _ship's tailor_.



[Illustration: MARINER.]

THE MARINER.


1. The business of the mariner consists in navigating ships and other
vessels from one port to another. This is an employment that requires
much decisive resolution; and Horace has well said, that "his breast
must have been bound with oak and triple brass, who first committed
his frail bark to the tempestuous sea." There is certainly nothing
which speaks louder in praise of human ingenuity, than that art by
which man is able to forsake the land, contend successfully with winds
and waves, and reach, with unerring certainty, his destined port in
some distant part of the world.

2. Nor are the skill and intrepidity exhibited in this arduous
employment, more worthy of our admiration, than the wonderful
advantages resulting from it; for, we are indebted to the exercise of
this art, for those improvements in our condition, which arise from
the exchange of the superfluities of one country for those of another,
and, above all, for the interchange of sentiments, which renders human
knowledge coextensive with the world.

3. Ship-building is so intimately connected with the art of
navigation, that the historical part of the former subject is equally
applicable to the latter. It is, therefore, unnecessary to be
particular on this point. We shall merely supply some omissions in the
preceding article.

4. The sailors of antiquity confined their navigation chiefly to the
rivers, lakes, and inland seas, seldom venturing out of sight of land,
unless, from their knowledge of the coasts ahead, they were certain to
meet with it again in a short time. When they thus ventured from the
land, or were driven from it by tempests, the stars and planets were
their only guides.

5. The qualifications of a skilful pilot or master, even for the
Mediterranean seas, in those days, required more study and more
practical information, than are necessary to render a mariner a
complete general navigator, in the present improved state of the
science of navigation; for then he must needs be acquainted, not only
with the general management of the ship, but also with all the ports,
land-marks, rocks, quicksands, and other dangers, which lay in the
track of his course. Besides this, he was required to be familiar with
the course of the winds, and the indications that preceded them,
together with the movements of the heavenly bodies, and the influence
which they were supposed to exert on the weather. Nor was the ability
to read the various omens which were gathered from the sighing of the
wind in the trees, the murmurs of the waters, and their dash upon the
shore, the flight of birds, and the gambol of fishes, a qualification
to be dispensed with.

6. A voyage, in ancient times, was a momentous undertaking, and was
usually preceded by sacrifices to those gods who were supposed to
preside over the winds and the waves. All omens were carefully
regarded; and a very small matter, such as the perching of swallows on
the ship, or an accidental sneeze to the left, was sufficient to delay
departure. When, under proper auspices, a vessel or fleet had set
sail, and had advanced some distance, it was customary to release a
number of doves, which had been brought from home. The safe arrival of
these birds at the houses of the voyagers, was considered an
auspicious omen of the return of the fleet.

7. Having escaped the multiplied dangers of the sea, the sailors, on
their return, fulfilled the vows which they had made before their
departure, or in seasons of peril, offering thanks to Neptune, and
sacrifices to Jupiter, or some other of their gods, to whose
protection they may have committed themselves. Those who had suffered
shipwreck, felt themselves under greater obligations of gratitude;
and, in addition to the usual sacrifices, they commonly offered the
garment in which they had been saved, together with a pictorial
representation of the disaster. If the individual escaped only with
life, his clothing having been totally lost, his hair was shorn from
the head, and consecrated to the tutelar deity.

8. There is much that is beautiful in these simple acts of piety; and
similar customs, with regard to shipwrecked mariners, are still in
existence in the Catholic countries of the Mediterranean; but the
worship of the heathen deities having been discontinued, a favourite
saint, or perchance the true God, is substituted for them. Although
such acts of piety may not avail to avert impending danger, yet their
natural tendency doubtless is to inspire courage to meet it, when it
may arise.

9. The Carthaginians, for several centuries, were more extensively
engaged in commerce, than any other people of antiquity; and, as they
carried on their lucrative trade with other nations and their own
colonies, by means of ships, they exceeded all others in the art of
navigation. Not content with exploring every nook and corner of the
Mediterranean, they passed the Pillars of Hercules, as the
promontories of the Straits of Gibraltar were then called, and visited
the Atlantic coasts of Europe, as far north as the Scilly Islands,
then denominated the Cassorides. It is asserted by Pliny, that Hanno
even circumnavigated Africa.

10. The destruction of Carthage by the Romans, in the year before
Christ 146, interfered with improvements in the art of navigation; and
the invasion of the northern barbarians, several centuries afterwards,
extinguished nearly all the knowledge which had been previously
acquired; nor was it again revived, and brought to the state in which
it existed in the most flourishing era of antiquity, until about the
middle of the fourteenth century.

11. After the period just mentioned, improvements in this art followed
each other in close succession. The chief cause of this rapid advance
was the discovery of the polarity of the magnet, and the consequent
invention of the mariner's compass. The power of the loadstone to
attract iron, was early known to the Greeks and Chinese; but its
property of pointing in a particular direction, when suspended, and
left to move freely, was not suspected until about the year 1200 of
our era.

12. At first, mariners were accustomed to place the magnetic needle on
a floating straw, whenever they needed its guidance; but, in 1302, one
Flavio Giaio, an obscure individual of the kingdom of Naples, placed
it on a permanent pivot, and added a circular card. Still, it was
nearly half a century after this, before navigators properly
appreciated, and implicitly relied on this new guide. The compass did
not reach its present improved state, until the middle of the
sixteenth century.

13. As soon as the reputation of this instrument had become well
established, navigation assumed a bolder character; and the capacity
of vessels having been enlarged to meet this adventurous spirit, oars
were laid aside as inapplicable, and sails alone were relied upon, as
means of propulsion.

14. Navigation, in the early days of its revival, was indebted to the
Portuguese for many valuable improvements. To them, also, is the world
under obligation for many splendid discoveries, among which was that
of a passage by sea to India. This long-desired discovery was made in
1497, by Vasco de Gama, who had been sent out for the purpose by
Emanuel, king of Portugal.

15. Five years before Vasco de Gama had found his way to India, by the
way of the Cape of Good Hope, Columbus made his discovery of the New
World. This great man had conceived or adopted the idea, that the form
of our earth was spherical, in opposition to the generally received
opinion, that it was an extended plane; and learning that India
stretched to an unknown distance eastward, he supposed, that, by
sailing in an opposite direction, the navigator would meet with its
eastern extremity.

16. Pursuing this idea, he applied successively to the governments of
several states and kingdoms for patronage to enable him to test its
correctness; and having, at length, succeeded in obtaining three small
vessels, with the necessary equipments, from Ferdinand and Isabella,
sovereigns of Arragon and Castile, he proceeded on his proposed
voyage, which resulted in the discovery of the American continent.

17. These two great discoveries gave another powerful impulse to
navigation; and inventions and improvements multiplied in rapid
succession. The learned and ingenious, who at different times have
turned their attention to the subject of navigation, have supplied the
mariner with various means, by which he can direct his course on the
deep with accuracy and certainty.

18. The instruments now employed in navigation, are the mariner's
compass, the azimuth compass, the quadrant, the sextant, the
chronometer, the half minute-glass, the log, and the sounding-line. In
addition to these, the general navigator needs accurate maps and
charts, lists of the latitude and longitude of every part of the
world, the time of high water at every port, and a book of navigation,
containing tables, to aid him in performing various calculations with
facility; and, with a view to calculate the longitude by observation,
he should be furnished with the Nautical Almanac, containing the
places and declinations of the fixed stars and planets, and especially
the distances of the moon from the sun and other heavenly bodies.

19. The mariner's compass, as has been before observed, is employed to
indicate the various points of the horizon; but the magnetic needle
varying more or less from the exact northern and southern direction,
the azimuth compass is used, to show the degree of that variation. The
quadrant and sextant are employed to ascertain the altitude and
relative position of the heavenly bodies, that the mariner may
determine the latitude and longitude in which his vessel may be. The
chronometer is nothing more than a watch, designed to measure time
with great accuracy. This instrument is used to determine the
longitude.

20. The log is used for ascertaining the velocity of the ship on the
water. It consists of a quadrangular piece of wood, eight or nine
inches long, to which is attached a small cord, having knots in it, at
proper distances from each other. In the application, the log is
thrown upon the water, where it will not be disturbed by the wake of
the ship; and the cord, being wound upon a reel, passes from it as
fast as the vessel moves in the water. The number of knots, which pass
off every half minute, indicates the number of miles which the ship
sails per hour; hence, in nautical language, _knots_ and _miles_ are
synonymous terms. The sounding-line is a small cord, with several
pounds of lead of a conical figure attached to it; and is employed in
trying the depth of the water, and the quality of the bottom.

21. Navigation is either _common_ or _proper_. The former is usually
called coasting, as the vessel is either on the same or neighboring
coast, and is seldom far from land, or out of sounding. The latter is
applied to long voyages upon the main ocean, when considerable skill
in mathematics and astronomy, together with an aptness in the use of
instruments for celestial observations, are required in the captain or
master.

22. The application of steam to the purposes of navigation, is one of
the greatest achievements of modern science and art. The great utility
of this agent is particularly conspicuous in our vast country, where
large rivers and bays and mighty lakes are numerous, and where an
energetic people and an active commerce require a rapid
intercommunication. Steamboats are but little used on the great
oceans; as merchandise can there be more cheaply and safely
transported in vessels propelled by sails. Since the year 1839, two
lines of steam packets have been running regularly between this
country and Great Britain. They commonly occupy, in crossing the
Atlantic, between twelve and fifteen days.

23. The chief obstacle to the employment of steam, in long voyages,
arises from the difficulty of generating a sufficient quantity of this
agent, with the fuel which could be carried without overburdening the
vessel; but a remedy for this inconvenience will probably be found, in
improvements in the construction of steam-generators.

24. The power of confined steam acting by its expansive force, was
discovered by the celebrated Marquis of Worcester, about the middle of
the seventeenth century; but the first working steam-engine was
constructed in 1705, by Thomas Newcomen, a blacksmith of Dartmouth,
Devonshire, England. About the year 1769, James Watt, a native of
Glasgow, added a great number of improvements of his own invention.

25. Steam navigation was first suggested in England, in 1736, by
Jonathan Hulls. It was first tried in practice in France, in 1782, by
the Marquis de Jouffroy, and nearly at the same time by James Rumsey,
of Virginia, and John Fitch, of Philadelphia; but it was first
rendered completely successful at New-York, in 1807, by Robert Fulton.

26. The sailors employed by the captain, to aid him in navigating his
ship, are called a _crew_; and the individuals composing it are
responsible to the captain, the captain to the owners, and the owners
to the merchants, for all damages to goods, arising from negligence or
bad management.

27. In England, ample provisions are made at Greenwich Hospital or by
pensions, for seamen disabled by age or otherwise. These benefits,
however, are extended only to those who have been engaged in the
national service. This noble and politic institution is supported
partly by public bounty, and in part by private donations, and a tax
of sixpence per month, deducted from the wages of all the seamen of
the nation. Marine Hospitals, for the temporary accommodation of
seamen, suffering from disease, have been established in several
cities of the continent of Europe, as well as of the United States.

28. Mariners have ever been a distinct class of men, and, in their
general characters, very similar in every age of the world. Their
superstitious regard of the many signs of good and bad luck, is nearly
the same now, that it was two or three thousand years ago. In ancient
times, they had their lucky and unlucky days; and now, very few
sailors are willing to leave port on Friday, lest the circumstance
bring upon them some disaster, before the conclusion of the proposed
voyage.

29. Superstitions of this nature, however, are not confined to the
navigators of the deep. Even in this country, where the inhabitants
enjoy superior intellectual advantages, and boast a high degree of
intelligence, thousands of persons who have never been on board of a
ship, are still under the influence of such heathen notions,
notwithstanding their pretended belief in Christianity, which, in all
cases, when properly understood, would prevent the forebodings of
evil, or expectations of good, from unimportant prognostics.



[Illustration: MERCHANT.]

THE MERCHANT.


1. The word _merchant_, in its most extended application, signifies, a
person who deals in merchandise. This definition, with some
exceptions, agrees very well with general usage in this country;
although, in England, the term is principally restricted to those
dealers who export and import goods on their own account, either in
their own or in chartered vessels. In the United States, dealers of
this class are denominated _importing_ and _exporting_ merchants; or
simply, _importers_ and _exporters_.

2. Such merchants, both here and in Europe, are distinguished from
each other by the kind of goods in which they traffic, or by the
foreign country in which they have their chief correspondence; thus,
one who deals in tobacco is called a tobacco-merchant; a wholesale
dealer in wines is called a wine-merchant; a West India, East India,
or Turkey merchant, exports goods to, and imports goods from, those
respective countries.

3. The business of merchants, in foreign countries, is usually
transacted by agents, called factors, or commission merchants, to whom
goods are consigned to be sold, and by whom other articles of
merchandise are purchased and returned according to order. Sometimes
an agent, called a supercargo, accompanies the vessel; or the captain
may act in this capacity. Goods, however, are often obtained by order,
without the intervention of an agency of any kind.

4. Almost every sort of foreign merchandise is subject to the
imposition of duties by the government of the country in which it is
received. These duties are paid at the _Custom-House_, to persons
appointed by the constituted authorities to collect them. As soon as a
vessel from abroad has entered the harbor, it is visited by a
custom-house officer, called a _Tide-Waiter_, whose business it is to
see that no part of the cargo is removed, until measures have been
taken to secure the customs.

5. Goods brought into the country by importers, are frequently sold,
in succession, to several merchants of different grades, before they
come to the hands of the consumers. Cloths or stuffs of different
kinds, for instance, may be first sold by the bale to one merchant,
who, in turn, may dispose of them by the package to another, and this
last may retail them in small quantities to a greater number of
customers.

6. Dealers in a small way, in cities and large towns, are frequently
denominated shop-keepers; but those who do an extensive retail
business, are usually called merchants or grocers, according as they
deal in dry goods or groceries. In cities, the extensive demand for
goods enables retailers to confine their attention to particular
classes of articles; such as groceries, hardware, crockery, a few
kinds of dry goods, or some articles of domestic manufacture; but in
other places, where trade is more limited, the merchant is obliged to
keep a more general assortment.

7. The general retail merchant is compelled to transact business with
a great number of wholesale dealers, to whom he pays cash in hand, or
agrees to pay it at some future period, say, in four, six, nine, or
twelve months. The people in his vicinity, in turn, purchase his goods
on similar conditions, with this difference, that they often
substitute for cash agricultural and other productions, which the
merchant, at length, turns into ready money.

8. Barter, or the exchange of commodities, prevails to a great extent,
in country places, in almost every part of the United States. In such
exchanges, the currency of the country is made the standard of
reference: for example; a merchant receiving from a customer twenty
bushels of wheat, estimated at one dollar per bushel, gives in return
twenty dollars' worth of goods, at his marked prices; or, in other
words, he gives credit for the wheat, and charges the goods. On the
same principle, merchants of the first class often exchange the
productions of their own country for those of another.

9. Merchants, or store-keepers, as they are indifferently called in
some places, whose location is distant from the seaboard, visit the
city in which they deal once or twice a year, for the purpose of
laying in their stock of goods; but, in order to keep up their
assortment, they sometimes order small lots in the interim. Retailers
more conveniently situated, purchase a smaller amount of goods at a
time, and replenish their stores more frequently.

10. Commerce, on the principles of barter, or a simple exchange of one
commodity for another, must have been practised in the early days of
Adam himself; although we have no positive record of the fact; for it
cannot be imagined that the arts, which are stated in the Scripture to
have flourished long before the flood, could have existed without
commercial transactions. The period at which the precious metals began
to be employed as a standard of value, or as a medium of commercial
intercourse, is not known. They were used for this purpose in the time
of Abraham, and probably many centuries before his day.

11. The earliest hint respecting the existence of trade between
different nations, is to be found in the book of Genesis, where the
transaction regarding the sale of Joseph to the Ishmaelites, or
Midianites, is mentioned. These merchants, it appears, were travelling
in a caravan to Egypt, then the most cultivated and refined part of
the world. Their camels were loaded with balm, myrrh, and spices. The
first of these articles was the production of Gilead; the second, of
Arabia; and the last was probably from India; as in that country the
finer spices are produced. If this were really the case, commerce, in
its widest sense, was carried on much earlier than is generally
supposed.

12. The fertility of Egypt, and its central position, made it an
emporium of commerce; and there it flourished, in an eminent degree,
long before it was cultivated in Europe and in Western Asia. For
several ages, however, the Egyptians, on account of their
superstitious prejudices against the sea, carried on no maritime
commerce.

13. The Phoenicians were the first people who used the Mediterranean
Sea, as a highway for the transportation of merchandise. Tyre and
Sidon were their chief cities; and the latter was called a _great_,
and the former a _strong_ city, even in the time of Joshua, fifteen
hundred years before the advent of Christ. These people, in their
original association as a nation, possessed but a small territory;
and, being surrounded by many powerful nations, they never attempted
its enlargement on the land side.

14. The settlement of the Israelites in the "Promised Land,"
circumscribed their limits to a very small territory, and compelled
them to colonize a great number of their inhabitants. The colonies
which they formed in the various countries bordering upon the
Mediterranean and on the islands, enlarged the boundaries of
civilization, and greatly extended their trade.

15. The Phoenicians continued their colonial system for many centuries
after the period just mentioned, and even extended it to the Atlantic
coasts of Europe. But the most distinguished of all their colonies was
the one which founded the city of Carthage, on the northern coast of
Africa, about the year 869 before Christ. Elissa, or, as she is
otherwise called, Dido, the reputed leader of this colony, makes a
conspicuous figure in one of the books of Virgil's Æneid.

16. Carthage, adopting the same system which had so long been pursued
by the great cities of Phoenicia, rose, in a few centuries, to wealth
and splendor. But, changing, at length, her mercantile for a military
character, she ruled her dependent colonies with a rod of despotism.
This produced a spirit of resistance on the part of her distant
subjects, who applied to Rome for aid to resist her tyranny. The
consequence of this application was the three "Punic wars," so
renowned in history, and which terminated in the destruction of
Carthage, in the year 146 before the Christian era. During the first
Punic war, Carthage contained seven hundred thousand inhabitants; but
at its destruction, scarcely five thousand were found within its
walls.

17. The period of the greatest prosperity of Tyre, may be placed 588
years before Christ, at which time the remarkable prophecies of
Ezekiel concerning it were delivered. Soon after this, it was greatly
injured by Nebuchadnezzar; and was finally destroyed by Alexander the
Great, about the year 332 before Christ.

18. A new channel was opened to commerce by the monarch just
mentioned, he having founded a city in Egypt, to which he gave the
name of Alexandria. His object seems to have been, to render this city
the centre of the commercial world; and its commanding position, at
the mouth of the Nile, was well calculated to make it so; since it was
easy of access from the west by the Mediterranean, from the east by
the Red Sea, and from the central countries of Asia by the Isthmus of
Suez.

19. The plans of Alexander were carried out with vigor by Ptolemy, who
received Egypt as his portion of the Macedonian empire, after the
death of his master; and, by his liberality, he induced great numbers
of people to settle in the new metropolis for the purposes of trade.
Far south, on the Red Sea, he also founded a city, which he called
Berenice, and which he designed as a depôt for the precious
commodities brought into his kingdom from India. From this city, goods
were transported on camels across the country, to a port on the Nile;
and thence they were taken down the river to Alexandria.

20. Ptolemy also kept large fleets both on the Mediterranean and on
the Red Sea, for the protection of commerce, and the defence of his
dominions; yet, the Egyptians, even under the Ptolemies, never
attempted a direct trade to India. They, as the Phoenicians and their
own progenitors had done for ages, depended upon the Arabian merchants
for the productions of that country.

21. The Greeks, before their subjugation to the Roman power, had paid
much attention to nautical affairs; but this had been chiefly for
warlike dominion, rather than for commercial purposes. The city of
Corinth, however, had become wealthy by the attention of its
inhabitants to manufactures and trade; but it was destroyed by the
same barbarian people who, about this time, annihilated Carthage. Both
of these cities were afterwards favored by Julius Cæsar; but they
never regained anything like their former importance.

22. Rome having, at length, obtained the complete dominion of the
Mediterranean Sea, and the countries bordering upon it, as well as
that of many others more distant, and less easy of access, became the
great mart for the sale of merchandise of every description, from all
parts of the known world. For the various commodities brought to the
city, the Romans paid gold and silver; as they had nothing else to
export in return. The money which they had exacted as tribute, or
which they had obtained by plunder, was thus returned to the nations
from which it had been taken.

23. The subjected provinces continued to pour their choicest
productions into Rome, as long as she retained the control of the
empire; and thus they contributed to enervate, by the many luxuries
they afforded, the power by which they had been subdued. The _eternal
city_, as she is sometimes called, in the days of her extensive
dominion, contained about three millions of inhabitants; and, although
this immense population was chiefly supplied by importations, the
Romans never esteemed the character of a merchant. They despised the
peaceful pursuits of industry, whilst they regarded it honorable to
attack without provocation, and plunder without remorse, the weaker
nations of the earth.

24. In the year 328 of the Christian era, Byzantium was made the seat
of government of the Roman empire by Constantine, who, with a view of
perpetuating his own name, called his new capital Constantinople.
However necessary this removal may have been, to keep in subjugation
the eastern provinces, it was fatal to the security of the western
division. The rivalry between the two cities produced frequent
contests for dominion; and these, together with the general corruption
and effeminacy of the people themselves, rendered it impossible to
resist the repeated and fierce invasions of the barbarous people from
the northern parts of Europe.

25. These invasions commenced in the latter part of the fourth
century; and, in less than two hundred years, a great portion of the
inhabitants was destroyed, and the whole Western empire was completely
subverted. The conquerors were too barbarous to encourage or protect
commerce; and, like the arts of peace and civilization generally, it
sunk, with few exceptions, amid the general ruin.

26. The empire of Constantinople, or, as it is usually called, the
Eastern empire, continued in existence several centuries after the
Western empire had been overrun; and commerce continued to flow, for a
considerable time, through some of its former channels to the capital.
At length, the Indian trade, which had so long been carried on chiefly
through Egypt by the Red Sea, was changed to a more northern route,
through Persia.

27. Soon after the commencement of the pretended mission of Mohammed,
or Mahomet, in 609 of the Christian era, the power of the Arabians,
since called Saracens, began to rise. The followers of the Prophet,
impelled by religious zeal, and allured by plunder, in less than 150
years extended their dominion almost to the borders of China on the
one side, and to the Mediterranean and Atlantic on the other. The
trade of the East, of course, fell into their hands; and they
continued to enjoy it, until they, in turn, were subdued by the Turks.

28. So great was the prejudice of the Christians against the followers
of Mohammed, that, for a long time, it was considered heretical for
the former to trade with the latter; but the Saracens having a vast
extent of territory, and having control of the Mediterranean and Red
Seas, as well as of the Persian Gulf, carried on an extensive trade
among themselves.

29. The first European power which rose to commercial eminence, after
the destruction of the Western empire, was the republic of Venice.
This important city owed its origin to some fugitives, who fled for
their lives to a number of small islands in the Adriatic Sea, during
the invasion of Italy by the Huns, under Attila, in the year 452.

30. The houses first built by the refugees, were constructed of mud
and seagrass; and, so insignificant were they in their appearance,
that a writer of that period compares them to a collection of the
nests of water-fowls. The number of these islands, on which so
splendid a city was afterwards built, was, according to some,
seventy-two; but, according to others, ninety, or even one hundred and
fifty. For a considerable time, the distinction of rich and poor was
not known; for all lived upon the same fish-diet, and in houses of
similar form and materials.

31. In less than a century, the inhabitants of these islands had
established a regular government; and, in the year 732, we find them
venturing beyond the Adriatic into the Mediterranean, even as far as
Constantinople, trading in silks, purple draperies, and Indian
commodities. In 813, the French commenced trading to Alexandria, and,
in a few years, the Venetians followed their example, in despite of
the ecclesiastical prohibitions against intercourse with the
followers of Mohammed. In the tenth century, Amalfi, Pisa, Genoa, and
Florence, began to rival Venice in trade.

32. The crusades, which, for two centuries from the year 1095, engaged
so much of the attention of the Christian nations of Europe, greatly
promoted the interests of the commercial cities of Italy; as the
armies in these expeditions were dependent on them for provisions, and
for the means of crossing the sea, which lay between them and the
_Holy Land_. They also gave a new and powerful impulse to commerce in
general, by giving the people, in the unrefined parts of Europe, a
knowledge of the elegances and luxuries of the East.

33. In the thirteenth century, commerce and manufactures began to
command considerable attention in Germany and the adjacent states; but
as the seas and rivers were infested with pirates, and the roads with
banditti, it became necessary for those engaged in commerce to adopt
measures to protect their commodities, while on the way from one place
to another. The citizens of Hamburg and Lubeck first united for this
purpose; and the advantages of such a union of strength becoming
apparent, many other cities soon entered into the confederation.

34. This association was denominated the _Hanse_, or league, and the
cities thus united were called _Hanse Towns_. Most of the commercial
towns in the northern parts of the continent of Europe, at length,
became parties to the Hanseatic league. The number of these cities
varied, at different periods; but in the days of the greatest
prosperity of the association, it amounted to eighty-five.

35. Representatives from the different cities met triennially at
Lubeck, where their common treasury and archives were kept. By this
assembly, which was called a diet, rules for the regulation of
commercial intercourse were made, and other business transacted,
which related to the general welfare of the confederation.

36. In the fourteenth century, the league, in all parts of Europe,
attained a high degree of political importance, and developed that
commercial policy which it had originated, and which has since been
adopted by all civilized nations. The objects of the allied cities
were now declared to be--to protect their commerce against pillage, to
guard and extend their foreign trade, and, as far as possible, to
monopolize it, to maintain and extend the privileges obtained from the
princes of different nations, and to make rules or laws for the
regulation of trade, as well as to establish the necessary tribunals
for their due execution. The decisions of their courts were respected
by the civil authorities of the countries to which their trade
extended.

37. The treasury was chiefly supplied by duties on merchandise; and
the great wealth thus acquired enabled the allied cities to obtain
commercial privileges from needy princes, for pecuniary
accommodations. The league, in defending its commerce, even carried on
wars against kingdoms; and, at length, by its wealth and naval power,
became mistress of the Northern seas, and rendered the different
cities of the confederation in a great measure independent of the
sovereigns of the countries in which they were situated.

38. The conduct of the Hanse Towns, at length, excited the jealousies
of those sovereigns who had, for a long time, favored their union; and
the princes of Europe generally, becoming acquainted with the value of
commerce, both as means of enriching their people, and of filling
their own coffers, combined against the association. In 1518, the
governments of several states commanded all their cities to withdraw
from the league, which soon after voluntarily excluded some others.
After this the Hanse gradually sunk in importance, and finally ceased
to exist in 1630.

39. The trade to the East Indies continued to be carried on through
Persia and Egypt, subject to the extortions of the Saracens, and the
still severer exactions of the merchants of the Italian cities, until
the route to those countries, by the Cape of Good Hope, was
discovered.

40. The use of this new pathway of commerce, combined with the
discovery of America, caused an entire change in both the political
and commercial state of Europe. A strong desire of visiting the remote
parts of the world, thus laid open to the people of Europe,
immediately arose, not only among the Portuguese and Spaniards, but
also among other nations. Colonies were soon planted in the East and
in the West; and the whole world may be said to have been inspired
with new energy.

41. The Portuguese, being considerably in advance of the other
Atlantic nations in the art of navigation, soon gained the entire
control of the East India trade, and were thus raised to great
eminence, prosperity, and power. Their dominions became extensive in
Africa and Asia, and their navy superior to any that had been seen for
several ages before.

42. In 1580, or eighty-three years after Vasco de Gama found his way,
by the Cape, to Calicut, Portugal was subdued by Philip II., king of
Spain. The Spaniards, however, were not enriched by the conquest;
since their commercial energy and enterprise had been destroyed, by
the vast quantities of the precious metals obtained from their
American possessions.

43. In 1579, the people of Holland, with those of six neighboring
provinces, being then subject to Spain, united, under the Prince of
Orange, for the purpose of regaining their liberties. This produced a
sanguinary war, which continued for thirty years, during which time
the Dutch wrested from the Spaniards most of their Portuguese
possessions in India, and, in addition to this, formed many other
settlements in various places from the River Tigris even to Japan.
Batavia, on the Island of Java, was made the grand emporium of trade,
and the seat of the government of their East India possessions.

44. The prosperity of the United Provinces increased with great
rapidity; and, as they were but little interfered with by other
nations in their Eastern dominions, they enjoyed, for half a century
or more, almost the whole of the trade of the East. Besides this, they
shared largely with the rest of the world in almost every other branch
of trade. After the year 1660, other nations, by great exertions,
succeeded in obtaining considerable shares of the commerce of the
East; yet the Dutch still retain valuable possessions there.

45. The chief articles exported from Britain, in ancient times, were
tin, lead, copper, iron, wool, and cattle; for which they received in
return, gold, silver, and manufactured articles. But the commerce of
the British Islands was inconsiderable, when compared with that of
many kingdoms on the Continent, until the beginning of the eighteenth
century.

46. When Elizabeth ascended the throne of England, in 1558, the
circumstances of the nation required an extensive navy for its
protection; and the great attention which the queen paid to this means
of defence, gave animation to all maritime concerns. Under her
patronage, several companies for trading in foreign countries were
formed, which, at that time, and for a long period afterwards, were
very beneficial to trade in general. In her reign, also, the colonial
system of England had its origin, which contributed eventually, more
than any thing else, to the commercial prosperity of that nation.
Since the reign of this wise and judicious princess, the commerce and
manufactures of Great Britain have been, with a few interruptions,
steadily advancing; and, in these two particulars, she surpasses every
other nation.

47. The United States possess superior local advantages for trade, and
embrace a population unsurpassed for enterprise and energy. Since the
Revolution, the resources of our country have been rapidly developing.
Our exports and imports are already next in amount to those of Great
Britain and France and the extensive improvements which have been made
by the different states, to facilitate internal intercourse, are
increasing with great rapidity.

48. The banking system is very intimately interwoven with commercial
affairs in general. Banks are of three kinds, viz., of _discount_, of
_deposit_, and of _circulation_. The term _bank_, in its original
application, signified a place of common deposit for money, and where,
in commercial transactions, individuals could have the amount, or any
part of the amount, of their deposits transferred to each other's
accounts.

49. The term _bank_ is derived from the Italian word _banco_, which
signified a kind of bench, or table, on which the Jews were accustomed
to place the money which they proposed to lend in the markets of the
principal towns. The first bank was established in Venice, about the
middle of the twelfth century; the Bank of Genoa, in 1345; the Bank of
Amsterdam, in 1607; the Bank of Hamburg, in 1619; the Bank of
Rotterdam, in 1635. These were all banks of mere deposit and transfer.

50. _Lending-houses_ may be traced to a very ancient origin. They
were, at first, supported by humane persons, with a view of lending
money to the poor, on pledges, without interest. Augustus Cæsar
appropriated a part of the confiscated effects of criminals to this
purpose; and Tiberias, also, advanced a large capital, to be lent for
three years, without interest, to those who could give security in
lands equal to twice the value of the sum borrowed.

51. In the early ages of Christianity, free gifts were collected
and preserved by ecclesiastics, partly to defray the expenses of
divine service, and partly to relieve the poor of the church; and
the funds thus provided came, at length, to be called _montes
pietatis_--mountains of piety. This appellation was afterwards
applied to the _loaning-houses_, established in modern Italy in
imitation of those of antiquity.

52. In course of time, the loaning-houses were permitted by the Roman
pontiff to charge a moderate interest on a part of their capital, and,
finally, upon the whole of it; still, they retained, for a long
period, the original denomination of _montes pietatis_. The receiving
of interest on loans was declared lawful by the Pope, about the middle
of the fifteenth century. Soon after this period, all the cities of
Italy hastened to establish these institutions; and their example was,
at length, followed in other parts of Europe.

53. But long before the Pope had granted this privilege, individuals
were in the habit of loaning money at an exorbitant usury. These were
principally Jews and merchants from Lombardy; hence, all persons in
those countries, who dealt in money, came to be called _Lombard
merchants_. The prohibitions of the Church against receiving interest
were eluded, when necessary, by causing it to be paid in advance, by
way of present or premium.

54. In the twelfth century, many of the dealers in money were expelled
from England, France, and the Netherlands, for usurious practices;
and, in order to regain possession of their effects, which they had,
in their haste, left in the hands of confidential friends, they
adopted the method of writing concise orders or drafts. Hence
originated bills of exchange, so convenient in commercial
transactions.

55. The Bank of England was established in the year 1694. Hitherto,
the banks of deposit, and loaning-houses, were entirely distinct; but,
in this institution, these two branches of pecuniary operations were
united. It seems, also, that this was the first bank that issued
notes, to serve as a medium of circulation, and to supply, in part,
the place of gold and silver.

56. In the United States, banking institutions are very numerous. They
are all established by companies, incorporated by the legislatures of
the different states, or by the congress of the United States. The act
which grants the privileges of banking, also fixes the amount of the
capital stock, and divides it into equal shares. The holders of the
stock choose the officers to transact the business of the corporation.

57. Our banks receive deposits from individual customers, loan money
on notes of hand, acceptances, and drafts, issue notes of circulation,
and purchase and sell bills of exchange. They are usually authorized,
by their charters, to loan three times the amount, and to issue
bank-notes to twice the amount, of the capital stock paid in. Few
banking companies, however, exercise these privileges to the full
extent, lest the bank be embarrassed by too great a demand for specie.
As soon as a bank ceases to pay specie for its notes, it is said to be
broken, and its operations must cease.

58. The Bank of North America was the first institution of this kind,
established in the United States. It was incorporated by Congress, in
1781, at the suggestion of Robert Morris. In 1791, after the union of
the states had been effected under the present constitution, the first
Bank of the United States was incorporated, with a capital of ten
millions of dollars. Most of the states soon followed this example;
and, before the beginning of the present century, the whole banking
capital amounted to near thirty millions of dollars.

59. The charter of the first Bank of the United States expired, by its
own limitation, in 1811; and a new one, with a capital of thirty-five
millions of dollars, was established in 1816, which also closed its
concerns, as a national bank, in 1836, President Jackson having vetoed
the bill for its recharter. In that year the number of banks was 567,
and the bank capital $251,875,292. In the year 1840, the number of
banks had increased to 722, and their capital to $358,442,692.



[Illustration: AUCTIONEER.]

THE AUCTIONEER.


1. The Auctioneer is one who disposes of property at public sale to
the highest bidder. The sale of property in this manner is regulated,
in some particulars, by legislative enactments, which have for their
object the prevention of fraud, or the imposition of duties.

2. In Pennsylvania, the present law provides for three classes of
auctioneers, each of which is required to pay to the state a specified
sum for a license. The first class pays two thousand dollars per
annum; the second, one thousand; and the third, two hundred; and,
besides this, one and a half per cent. on the amount of all their
sales is required to be paid into the treasury of the state. To each
class are granted privileges corresponding to the cost of the
license.

3. In the state of New-York, the number of auctioneers for the cities,
villages, and counties, is limited by law; and all persons who would
follow the business are compelled to give security for the faithful
execution of its duties. The state requires a duty of one per cent. on
all merchandise imported from beyond the Cape of Good Hope, one and a
half per cent. on such as may be imported from other foreign
countries, and two per cent. on wines and ardent spirits, whether
foreign or domestic. The laws and usages regarding sales at auction,
in most of the United States, are similar, in their general
principles, to those of Pennsylvania or New-York.

4. A great amount of merchandise, both foreign and domestic, in our
principal cities, is sold by auction; and the price which staple
commodities there command is generally considered a tolerable
criterion of their value at the time. It very frequently happens,
however, that articles which are not in steady demand, are sold at a
great sacrifice. Auctioneers seldom import goods, nor is it usual for
them to own the property which they sell.

5. In all cases, before an auction is held, due notice is given to the
public. This is usually done by the circulation of a printed
hand-bill, by a crier, or by an advertisement in a newspaper; or all
three of these modes may be employed to give publicity to one and the
same sale.

6. Persons desirous of becoming purchasers at the proposed auction,
assemble at the time appointed; and, after the auctioneer has stated
the terms of sale, as regards the payment of whatever may be
purchased, he offers the property to the persons present, who make
their respective bids, he, in the mean time, _crying_ the sum
proposed. When no further advance is expected, he _knocks down_ the
article to the last bidder.

7. A mode of sale was formerly, and, in some cases is still,
practised, in various parts of Europe, called _sale by inch of
candle_. The things for sale are offered in the ordinary manner, as
has been described in the preceding paragraph, and, at the same time,
a wax-candle, an inch in length, is lighted. The purchasers bid upon
each other, until the candle has been all consumed; and the last
bidder, when the light goes out, is entitled to the articles or goods
in question.

8. Auctioneers, in large cities, hold their sales at regular periods;
sometimes, every day or evening. On extensive sales of merchandise,
credits of two, three, four, six, or nine months, are commonly given.
In such cases, the auctioneer often gives his own obligations for the
goods, and receives in return those of the purchasers.

9. This mode of sale is employed in the disposition of property taken
by process of law for the payment of debts, in every part of the
world, where the influence of European law has extended. It is used in
preference to any other; because it is the most ready way of sale, and
is moreover the most likely method to secure to the debtor something
like the value of his property.

10. Executors and administrators often employ this convenient method
of sale, in settling the estates of deceased persons; and they, as
well as sheriffs and constables, _ex-officio_, or by virtue of their
office, have a lawful right to act in the capacity of auctioneer, in
performing their respective duties; and no tax is required by the
state, in such cases.

11. The sale by auction was in use among the Romans, even in the early
days of their city. It was first employed in the disposition of spoils
taken in war; hence a spear was adopted as a signal of a public sale;
and this continued to be the auctioneer's emblem, even after this mode
of sale was extended to property in general. The red flag and spear,
or rather the handle of that instrument, both emblematical of blood
and war, are still employed for the same purpose.

12. Several attempts have been made in the United States, to suppress
sales of merchandise by auction; but these endeavors were
unsuccessful, since experience had proved this mode of effecting
exchanges to be prompt and convenient; and since some of the states
had derived considerable revenue from the duties. So long as
conflicting interests remain as they are, this mode of sale will be
likely to continue.



[Illustration: The CLERGYMAN.]

THE CLERGYMAN.


1. The Lord Jesus Christ, our Saviour, during his visit of mercy to
the world, chose from among his disciples twelve men, to be his
especial agents in establishing his church. These men, in our
translation of the New Testament, are denominated apostles. The grand
commission which they received was, "Go ye into all the world, and
preach my gospel to every creature."

2. The apostles commenced their noble enterprise on that memorable day
of Pentecost, which next occurred after the ascension of their Master;
and, in the city of his inveterate enemies, soon succeeded in
establishing a church of several thousand members. The doctrines of
Christianity soon spread to other cities and countries; and, before
the close of that century, they were known and embraced, more or
less, in every province of the Roman empire.

3. The apostles, however, were not the only agents engaged in
spreading and maintaining the doctrines of Christianity; for, in every
church, persons were found capable of taking the supervision of the
rest, and of exercising the office of the ministry. These were
ordained either by the apostles themselves, or by persons authorized
by them to perform the ceremony.

4. After the Church had passed through a great variety of
persecutions, during a period of nearly three centuries, the
Christians became superior in numbers to the pagans in the Roman
empire. In the early part of the fourth century, a free toleration in
religious matters was declared by Constantine the Great, who took the
Church under his especial protection.

5. The Christians of the first and second centuries usually worshipped
God in private houses, or in the open air in retired places, chiefly
on account of the persecutions to which they were often subjected. It
was not until the third century, that they ventured to give greater
publicity to their service, by building churches for general
accommodation. When the Cross had obtained the ascendency, in the
subsequent age, many of the heathen temples were appropriated to
Christian purposes; and many splendid churches were erected,
especially by Constantine and his successors.

6. In the middle ages, a great number of edifices were erected for the
performance of divine worship, which, in loftiness and grandeur, had
never been surpassed; and the greater part of these remain to the
present day. Some of the most famous churches are, St. Peter's, at
Rome; Notre Dame, at Paris; St. Stephen's, at Vienna; the church of
Isaac, at St. Petersburg; the minsters at Strasburg and Cologne and
St. Paul's, in London.

7. Up to the time of the great change in favor of Christianity, just
mentioned, the whole Church had often acted together in matters of
common interest, through the medium of general councils; and this
practice continued for several centuries afterwards. But the variance
and dissensions between the Pope of Rome, and the Patriarch of
Constantinople, combined with some other causes, produced, about the
close of the ninth century, a total separation of the two great
divisions of the Church.

8. At the time of this schism, the whole Christian world had become
subject to these two prelates. The part of the Church ruled by the
Patriarch, was called the _Eastern_, or _Greek Church_; and that part
which yielded obedience to the Pope, was denominated the _Western_, or
_Latin Church_. Many attempts have been since made to reunite these
two branches of the Church; but these endeavors have hitherto proved
unsuccessful.

9. The conquest of the Roman empire, so often mentioned in the
preceding pages, was particularly injurious to the Church, especially
that part of it subject to the Roman pontiff; since it nearly
extinguished the arts and sciences, and since the barbarous conquerors
were received into the Church, before they had attained the proper
moral qualifications. From these causes, chiefly, arose the conduct of
the Church, in the middle ages, which has been so much censured by all
enlightened men, and which has been often unjustly attributed to
Christianity herself, rather than to the ignorance and barbarism of
the times.

10. In the year 1517, while Leo X. occupied the papal chair, Martin
Luther, of Saxony, commenced his well-known opposition to many
practices and doctrines in the Church, which he conceived to be
departures from the spirit of primitive Christianity. He was soon
joined in his opposition by Philip Melancthon, Ulric Zuingle, and
finally by John Calvin, as well as by many other distinguished divines
of that century, in various parts of Europe.

11. These men, with their followers and abettors, for reasons too
obvious to need explanation, received or assumed the appellation of
_Reformers_; and, on account of a solemn protest which they entered
against a certain decree which had been issued against them, they also
became distinguished by the name of _Protestants_. The latter term is
now applied to all sects, of whatever denomination, in the western
division of the Church, that do not acknowledge the authority of the
Roman See.

12. The Protestant division of the Church is called by the Roman
Catholics, the _Western schism_, to distinguish it from that of the
Greek Church, which is termed the _Eastern schism_. The Protestants
are divided into a great number of sects, or parties; and, although
they differ from each other in many of their religious sentiments,
they agree in their steady opposition to the Roman Catholics.

13. The ostensible object of the founders of all the churches
differing from the Romish communion, has been, to bring back
Christianity to the state in which it existed on its first
establishment; and to prove their positions in doctrine and church
government, they appeal to the Scriptures, and sometimes to the
Christian writers of the first four or five centuries. The advocates
of the "mother church," on the contrary, contend that, being
infallible, she can never have departed from primitive principles, on
any point essential to salvation.

14. As to the government of the several churches it is, in most cases,
either Episcopal or Presbyterian. In the former case, three orders of
clergymen are recognized; viz., _bishops_, _presbyters_, and
_deacons_; and these three orders are supposed, by the advocates of
episcopacy, to have been ordained by the apostles. This opinion is
supported by the circumstance, that these orders are mentioned in the
Scriptures; and also by the fact, supposed to be sustained by the
primitive fathers, that they were uniformly established early in the
second century.

15. It is believed by Episcopalians, that these three orders of
ministers were instituted in the Christian Church, in imitation of the
Jewish priesthood; the bishop representing the high-priest; the
presbyters, the priests; and the deacons, the Levites.

16. On the other hand, the advocates of the Presbyterian form of
government, assert, that in the first century of the Church, bishop
and presbyter were the same order of ministers, and that the former
was nothing more than a presbyter, who presided in Christian
assemblies, when met to consult on church affairs.

17. The deacons in the churches that have renounced episcopacy, are
not classed among the clergy, but are chosen from among the private
members, to manage the temporalities of the congregation, or church,
to which they belong, to assist the minister, on some occasions, in
religious assemblies, or to take the lead in religious worship in his
absence. Under this form of government, therefore, there is recognized
but one order of ministers, and every clergyman is denominated
_presbyter_, _priest_, or _elder_.

18. The literary and religious qualifications required of candidates
for orders have varied in different ages of the Church, according to
the existing state of literature and religion; and the requirements in
these two particulars are now different, in the several denominations.
Nearly all, however, require the profession in the candidate, that he
believes he is moved by the Holy Ghost to take upon him the office of
the ministry. Some churches require a collegiate education, with two
or three years of the study of divinity; but others, only such as is
usually obtained in common schools, combined with a tolerable capacity
for public speaking.

19. The clergy in the Roman Catholic Church, is of two kinds; the one
_regular_, comprehending all the religious who have taken upon
themselves monastic vows; the other _secular_, comprehending all the
ecclesiastics who do not assume these obligations. The latter,
however, in common with the former, take a vow of perpetual celibacy.

20. It is the especial duty of clergymen, to preach the gospel, to
administer the ordinances, and to enforce the discipline of that
branch of the Church to which they belong. They are also expected to
administer consolation to persons in distress of mind, arising from
the complicated evils of this life, to unite persons by the bonds of
matrimony, and, finally, in attending on the burial of the dead, to
perform the last ceremony due from man to man.

21. Ministers of the gospel occupy an elevated stand in all Christian
communities, both on account of the high tone of moral feeling which
they generally possess, and on account of the interest which the
people at large feel in the subject of religion. The work of the
ministry is emphatically a work of benevolence; and no man can perform
it with satisfaction to himself, or with acceptance to the people of
his charge, if destitute of love to God and man.

22. In most of the kingdoms of Europe, some one of the several
denominations is supported by legal enactments; but, in the United
States, every branch of the Church enjoys equal favor, so far as
legislation is concerned. In most cases, the institutions of religion
are supported by voluntary contributions or subscriptions.

23. The salary received by ministers of the gospel, in the United
States, is exceedingly various in the different denominations, and in
the same denomination from different congregations. In some instances,
they receive nothing for their services, in others, a liberal
compensation.

24. It is but justice to this profession to remark, that, taking the
ability of its members into account, there is no employment less
productive of wealth; and this is so evidently the case, that some
denominations distribute, annually, a considerable amount among the
widows and orphans of those who have devoted their lives to the
ministry.

25. The meagre support which the ministry usually receives, arises, in
part, from the opinion too commonly entertained, that this profession
ought to be one of benevolence exclusively, and that ministers should,
therefore, be contented with a bare subsistence, and look for their
reward in the consciousness of doing their duty, and in the prospect
of future felicity. This is a very convenient way of paying for the
services of faithful servants, and of relieving the consciences of
those whose duty it is to give them a liberal support.



[Illustration: The LAWYER.]

ATTORNEY AT LAW.


1. A lawyer is one who, by profession, transacts legal business for
others, who, in this relation, are called _clients_. A lawyer is
either an attorney or councillor, or both. The part of legal business,
belonging peculiarly to the attorney, consists in preparing the
details of the _pleadings_ and the _briefs_ for the use of the
councillor, whose especial province it is to make the argument before
the court. When the lawyer prepares his own case and makes the
argument, as he generally does, he acts in the capacity of both
attorney and councillor. In the court of chancery the lawyer is
denominated _solicitor_, and in the admiralty court, _proctor_. Before
a person is permitted to practise law in our courts, he is required to
pass through a regular course of study, and afterwards undergo an
examination before persons learned in the law.

2. This profession has its foundation in the numerous and complicated
laws which have been adopted by men, to govern their intercourse with
each other. These laws, as they exist in our country, may be divided
into _constitutional_ and _municipal_. Constitutional law is that by
which the government of the United States, and those of the different
states, have been established, and by which they are governed in their
action. The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of
the land.

3. Municipal law embraces those rules of civil conduct prescribed by
the supreme power of the state, or of the United States; and is
composed of _statute_ and _common_ law. Statute law is the express
will of the legislative part of the government, rendered authentic by
certain forms and ceremonies prescribed by the Constitution.

4. Common law is a system of rules and usages, which have been applied
in particular cases of litigation. It originated in the dictates of
natural justice, and cultivated reason, and is found more particularly
in the reports of the decisions of the courts of justice. The common
law is employed in cases which positive enactments do not reach, and
in construing and applying positive enactments. The common law of
England has been adopted by every state in the Union, except
Louisiana.

5. The Constitution of the United States, and those of the several
states, provides for three departments in their respective
governments, viz., the legislative, the executive, and the judicial.
It is the chief province of the first to enact laws, and of the second
and third to see that they are duly executed.

6. The judicial power of the United States is vested in one _supreme
court_ and two inferior courts. The Supreme Court is now composed of
seven justices who commence their session in the Capitol, at
Washington, on the second Monday in January. The two inferior courts
are the _District_ and _Circuit Courts_. In the first of these
presides a single judge; in the second, one of the justices of the
Supreme Court, and the district judge.

7. The judiciary of the United States takes cognisance of all cases
which arise under the Constitution, laws, and treaties, of the United
States, and likewise of those cases arising under the law of nations.
It also embraces all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, as
well as those controversies to which the government of the United
States is a party, the controversies between two states, between a
state and citizens of another state, between citizens of different
states, and between a state or citizens thereof, and foreign states,
citizens, or subjects.

8. The judicial systems of all the states correspond, in many
respects, with each other. In all, the office of justice of the peace
is similar. To these magistrates, the general police of the counties
is chiefly committed, as they have authority to cause criminals, and
other disturbers of the peace, to be arrested; and, if the offence is
small, to fix the penalty; but, if the offence is too great to be
brought within their jurisdiction, they commit the offenders to
prison, to be reserved for trial before a higher tribunal.

9. In many of the states, the common magistrates of the county, or a
select number of them, form a court, called County Sessions, which has
a comprehensive jurisdiction in matters of police, and in regulating
the affairs of the county; such as building courthouses, assessing
county taxes, opening roads, and licensing taverns.

10. In Virginia, the County Sessions is an important court. Its
jurisdiction extends to many criminal cases, and to those of a civil
nature involving the amount of $300. Although a great amount of
business passes through these courts, the justices discharge all their
duties without compensation. In most of the states, the common
magistrates, in their individual or collective capacity, have
jurisdiction over civil cases, varying in their greatest amount from
thirteen to one hundred dollars, a right of appeal being reserved to a
higher court.

11. No definite qualifications are required by law or usage for
practising in the magistrates' courts, accordingly, there are many
persons who plead causes here, who do not properly belong to the
profession of law; these are called _pettifoggers_, and the practice
itself, by whomsoever performed, is called _pettifogging_. Lawyers of
inferior abilities and acquirements are, also, frequently termed
pettifoggers.

12. In all the states, a class of county courts is established,
denominated Courts of Common Pleas, County Courts, District or Circuit
Courts, which have original jurisdiction of civil actions at law, or
indictments for crimes. Over these are established the Superior or
Supreme Courts, or Courts of Error and Appeal, to which appeals are
admitted from the inferior courts.

13. Civil cases are frequently decided on principles of equity; and,
in some states, courts of chancery are established for this purpose.
But, in most of the states, there are no decisions of this kind; or
the same courts act as courts of law and equity, as is the case with
the courts of the United States.

14. There are several other courts that might be mentioned; but enough
has been said of these institutions, to give an idea of the extensive
range of the profession of the law. It may be well to remark here,
that few lawyers aspire to the privilege of practising in the supreme
courts; since, to be successful there it would require not only great
abilities, but more extensive reading than the profession generally
are willing to encounter.

15. When a client has stated his case in detail to his attorney, it is
the province of the latter to decide upon the course most proper to be
pursued in regard to it. If the client is the plaintiff, and
litigation is determined upon, the attorney decides upon the court in
which the case should be brought forward, and also upon the manner in
which it should be conducted.

16. The suit having been brought, say into the County Court, it is
tried according to law. If it involves facts or damages, it is
canvassed before a jury of twelve men, who are bound by oath or
affirmation to bring in their verdict according to the evidence
presented by both parties. It is the business of the lawyers, each for
his own client, to sum up the evidence which may have been adduced,
and to present the whole in a light as favorable to his own side of
the question as possible.

17. When the case involves points of law which must needs be
understood by the jury, to enable them to make a correct decision, the
advocates of the parties present their views with regard to them; but,
if these happen to be wrong, the judge, in his charge to the jury,
rectifies the mistake or misrepresentation. The case having been
decided, each party is bound to submit to the decision, or appeal, if
permitted by law, to a higher tribunal.

18. Causes to be determined on legal principles only, are brought
before the judge or judges for adjudication. In such cases, the
advocates present the statute or common law supposed to be applicable,
and then reports of similar cases, which may have been formerly
decided in the same or similar courts. These reports are the exponents
of the common law of the case, and are supposed, in most instances, to
furnish data for correct decisions.

10. Besides the management of causes in public courts, the lawyer has
a great mass of business of a private nature; such as drawing wills,
indentures, deeds, and mortgages. He is consulted in a great variety
of cases of a legal nature, where litigation is not immediately
concerned, and especially in regard to the validity of titles to real
estate; and the many impositions to which the community is liable from
defective titles, render the information which he is able to afford on
this subject, extremely valuable.

20. In the preceding account of this profession, it is easy to
perceive that it is one of great utility and responsibility. It is to
the attorney, that the oppressed repair for redress against the
oppressor; and to him, the orphan and friendless look, to aid them in
obtaining or maintaining their rights. To this profession, also, as
much as to any other, the American people may confidently look for the
maintenance of correct political principles.



[Illustration: The PHYSICIAN.]

THE PHYSICIAN.


1. Among the various avocations of men, that of the physician deserves
to be placed in the foremost rank. The profession is founded in the
multiplicity of diseases to which humanity is liable, and in the
medical qualities of certain substances, which have been found to
supply a remedy.

2. It is implied, though not expressly declared, in the Scriptures,
that the diseases and other calamities pertaining to our earthly
condition, originated in the fall of man from his pristine innocence;
and the Grecian fable of Pandora's box appears to have originated in a
similar tradition. It seems that Jupiter, being angry at Prometheus,
ordered Vulcan to make a woman endowed with every possible perfection.
This workman having finished his task, and presented the workmanship
of his hands to the gods, they loaded her with presents, and sent her
to Prometheus.

3. This prince, however, suspecting a trick, would have nothing to do
with her; but Epimetheus was so captivated with her charms, that he
took her to be his wife. The curiosity of Epimetheus led him to look
into a box, given to her by Jupiter, which he had no sooner opened,
than there issued from it the complicated miseries and diseases, which
have since afflicted the family of man. He instantly shut the box; but
all had flown, save Hope, which had not time to escape; and this is
consequently the only blessing that permanently remains with wretched
mortals.

4. Since the introduction of moral evil into the world, it cannot be
supposed that man has ever enjoyed the blessing of uninterrupted
health; and, as it is an instinct of our nature to seek for means of
relieving pain, we may safely infer that medicinal remedies were
applied in the earliest ages of the human race.

5. Among some of the ancient nations, the origin of diseases was
attributed to the malignant influence of supernatural agents. This
notion produced a corresponding absurdity, in the means of obtaining
relief. Accordingly, idolatrous priests, astrologers, and magicians,
were resorted to, who employed religious ceremonies, astrological
calculations, and cabalistic incantations.

6. The healing art was cultivated at a very early period in Egypt; but
it was crippled in its infancy by ordinances, enjoining, without
discrimination, the remedies for every disease, and the precise time
and mode of their application. The practice was confined to the
priests, who connected with it the grossest superstitions.

7. We are informed by the most ancient historians, that the Chaldeans
and Babylonians exposed their sick in places of public resort, and on
the highways; and that strangers and others were required by law to
give some advice in each case of disease. Amid the variety of
suggestions which must necessarily have been given under such
circumstances, it was expected that some would prove efficacious. This
custom was well calculated to enlarge the boundaries of medical
knowledge.

8. The first records of medicine were kept in the temples dedicated by
the Greeks to Esculapius, who, on account of his skill in medicine,
was honored as the god of health. The name or description of the
disease, and the method of cure, were engraved on durable tablets,
which were suspended, where they could be readily seen by visitors.

9. But medicine did not assume the dignity of a distinct science,
until the days of Hippocrates, who reckons himself the seventeenth
from Esculapius in a lineal descent. This great man, who flourished
about 400 years before the Christian era, is universally esteemed the
"Father of Medicine." After his death, the science was cultivated by
the philosophers of Greece, to whom, however, it owes but few
improvements.

10. After the dismemberment of the Macedonian empire, learning
retreated from contending factions to Egypt, where it was liberally
fostered by the Ptolemies. Under their patronage, a medical school at
Alexandria became eminent, and the healing art flourished beyond all
former example. To the disciples of this school, is the world indebted
for the first correct description of the human structure. Their
knowledge on this subject was obtained from the dissection of the
bodies of criminals, which had been assigned to them by the
government.

11. The acquisitions of the Greeks in medical science at length became
the inheritance of the Romans; but Rome had existed 535 years before
a professional physician was known in the city. This inattention to
the subject of medicine arose, chiefly, from an opinion, common to the
semi-barbarous nations of those times, that maladies were to be cured
by the interposition of superior beings. The sick, therefore, applied
to their idolatrous priests, who offered sacrifices to the gods in
their behalf, and practised over the body of the patient a variety of
magical ceremonies.

12. Sacrifices were especially offered to the gods in cases of
pestilence; and, on one occasion of this kind, a temple was erected to
Apollo, who was regarded as the god of physic; and, on another,
Esculapius, under the form of a serpent, was conducted from Epidaurus,
in Greece, and introduced, with great pomp, upon an islet in the
Tiber, which was thenceforth devoted to his particular service.

13. Archagathus, a Greek, was the first who practised physic, as an
art, at Rome; and he was soon followed by many more of his
professional brethren. These pioneers of medicine, however, were
violently opposed by Cato the Censor, who publicly charged them with a
conspiracy to poison the citizens. But the patients under their care
generally recovering, he began to regard them as impious sorcerers,
who counteracted the course of nature, and restored men to life by
means of unholy charms.

14. Cato having succeeded in producing a general conviction, that the
practice of these physicians was calculated to enervate the
constitutions, and corrupt the manners of the people, restrictions
were laid upon the profession, and practitioners were even forbidden
to settle at Rome. But after the people had become more vicious and
luxurious, diseases became more frequent and obstinate, and physicians
more necessary. The restrictions were, therefore, at length removed.

15. Among the Roman writers on medicine, Celsus was the first who is
worthy of consideration. He has been denominated the Roman
Hippocrates, because he imitated the close observation and practice of
that physician. His work, as well as that of his great prototype, is
read with advantage, even at the present day. He flourished at or near
the time of our Saviour.

16. In the second century of the Christian era, Galen, a Greek
physician from Pergamus, and a disciple of the Alexandrian school,
settled in Rome. He was learned in all branches of medicine, and wrote
more copiously on the subject generally, than any other person amongst
the ancients. For 1300 years, his opinions were received as oracular,
wherever medicine was cultivated.

17. After the destruction of the Western empire by the barbarous
nations, the science of medicine was cultivated only in the Greek
empire, and chiefly at Alexandria, until it began to arrest the
attention of the Arabians, in the seventh century. The works of
several Greek philosophers and physicians were translated into Arabic,
under the patronage of the caliphs, several of whom were zealous
promoters of learning.

18. In the eighth century, the Caliph Almansur established, at Bagdad,
a hospital for the sick, and an academy, in which, among other
branches of knowledge, was taught the medical art. But it was in
Spain, that Arabian learning rose to the highest point, and produced
the most successful results. The University of Cordova became the most
celebrated in the world, and continued to maintain its reputation for
a long series of years. Arabian medicine reached its greatest
eminence, in the eleventh century, under Avicenna.

19. In the tenth century, this science began to be taught in the
schools of other parts of Europe; but its professors derived their
knowledge of the subject from the Arabian school, or from Arabic
translations of the ancient authors; and this continued to be the
case, until the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks, in 1453. At
this time, many erudite Greeks fled into Italy, and carried with them
the ancient writings.

20. Before the general revival of this science in Europe, the cure of
diseases was chiefly confided, in the western nations, to the priests
and monks, who, however, generally relied more upon religious
ceremonies, and the influence of sacred relics, than upon the
application of medical remedies. The superstitions of those barbarous
times, respecting the means of curing diseases, have not yet entirely
disappeared, even from the most enlightened nations of Christendom.

21. The science of chemistry began to attract much attention about the
beginning of the sixteenth century; and the many powerful medical
agents which it supplied, at length produced a great change in the
theory and practice of medicine. Many valuable medicines of the
vegetable kind, were also obtained from America. The discovery of the
circulation of the blood by William Harvey, in 1620, imparted a new
impulse to medicine; but, like chemistry, it gave rise to many absurd
and hurtful theories.

22. Researches in different branches of medicine were continued with
ardor in the seventeenth century, in various parts of Europe; and
numerous discoveries of importance were made, especially in anatomy.
Many theories regarding the origin of diseases, and their treatment,
were proposed, advocated, and controverted; but all these were
overthrown by Stahl, Boerhaave, and Hoffman, three eminent theorists,
in the early part of the eighteenth century.

23. These distinguished men were followed by others of equal
celebrity, in the same century, who, in part at least, exploded the
doctrines of their predecessors. The present century, above all other
periods, is remarkable for men eminent in this profession; and,
although all do not exactly agree in opinion, yet, guided in their
conclusions by a careful observation of facts, they are less under the
influence of visionary theories than physicians of former times.
Besides, many of the subjects of former controversy having been
satisfactorily settled, there are now fewer causes of division and
excitement among the medical profession.

24. Medical science comprises several branches, of which the following
are the principal; viz., Anatomy, Surgery, Materia Medica, Chemistry,
the Theory and Practice of Physic. On these subjects, lectures are
given in several colleges and universities in Europe, and in the
United States. In this country, an attendance on two regular courses
of lectures entitles the student to the degree of Doctor of Medicine,
provided he can sustain with sufficient ability, an examination before
the professors, or, as they are usually termed, the medical faculty.

25. The degree of M. D. conferred by a college or university, is a
passport to practice, in every state of the Union; and, in some
states, none are permitted to attend the sick, professionally, without
having first obtained a diploma conferring such degree. In other
states, however, no legal restrictions are imposed on the
practitioners of the healing art; or, they are licensed by a board of
physicians, constituted by law for the purpose.

26. The practice of this profession is generally attended with great
labor, and, in many cases, with much perplexity. Diseases are often
stubborn or incurable, and effectually baffle the most skilful
practitioner. In most cases, however, diseases are under the control
of medical skill; and the high satisfaction which a benevolent
physician feels, in relieving the sufferings of his fellow-creatures,
may serve as a recompense for the many adverse circumstances which
attend the profession.



[Illustration: The CHEMIST.]

THE CHEMIST.


1. This globe, and every thing appertaining to it, is composed of
substances, which exist either in a compound or simple state. It is
the object of the scientific chemist to investigate the properties of
these substances, and to show their action upon each other. By this
science, therefore, compound bodies are reduced to the simple elements
of which they are composed, or new combinations formed.

2. According to the preceding definitions, chemistry comprehends an
immense variety of objects. It is scarcely possible to name a thing or
phenomenon in the natural world, to which it does not directly or
indirectly apply; even the growth of vegetables, and the preparation
and digestion of our food, depend upon chemical principles.

3. The word chemistry is supposed to be of Egyptian origin, and, in
its primary application, was the same with our phrase natural
philosophy. Its meaning was afterwards restricted to the art of
working those metals which were most esteemed. In the third century,
it came to be applied to the pretended art of transmuting baser metals
into gold. The science, in the latter sense of the word, was eagerly
cultivated by the Greeks; and from them it passed to the Arabians, who
introduced it into Europe under the name of alchemy.

4. The professors of the art were dignified with the appellation of
alchemistic philosophers, and the leading doctrine of the sect was,
that all metals are composed of the most simple substances; and that,
consequently, base metals were capable of being changed into gold;
hence, the chief object of their researches was the discovery of an
agent, by which this great change was to be effected. The substance
supposed to possess this wonderful property was called "the
philosopher's stone;" the touch of which was to change every kind of
metal into gold.

5. The greatest rage for alchemy prevailed between the tenth and
sixteenth centuries. The writers on this subject who appeared during
that period, are very numerous, most of whom are unintelligible,
except to those initiated into the art. Many of them, however, display
great acuteness, and an extensive acquaintance with natural objects.
They all boast, that they are in possession of the philosopher's
stone, and profess the ability of communicating a knowledge of making
it to others.

6. Their writings and confident professions gained almost implicit
credit, and many unwary persons were thus exposed to the tricks of
impostors, who offered to communicate their secret for a pecuniary
reward. Having obtained the sum proposed, they either absconded, or
wearied out their patrons with tedious and expensive processes.

7. Chemists, for a long time, had supposed it possible to discover, by
their art, a medicine which should not only cure, but prevent all
diseases, and prolong life to an indefinite period, even to
immortality. This notion gradually becoming prevalent, the word
_chemistry_ acquired a more extensive application, and embraced not
only the art of making gold, but also that of preparing "the universal
medicine." Some of these visionary men asserted, that the
philosopher's stone was this wonderful panacea.

8. Few readers need be informed, that the researches for the
philosopher's stone, and the universal remedy, were, at length,
abandoned, as fruitless and visionary; yet the numerous experiments
which had been instituted on these accounts, were attended with the
incidental advantage of a considerable dexterity in the performance of
chemical operations, together with the discovery of many new
substances and valuable facts, which, without these strong incentives,
would have remained, at least, much longer in obscurity.

9. Although none of the medicines, produced in the chemical
laboratory, answered the chimerical expectations of the chemists, in
curing all diseases, and in rendering the perishable body of man
immortal, yet they proved sufficiently valuable in the healing art, to
command the attention of the profession all over Europe. The adoption
of chemical medicines, however, was, at first, everywhere opposed,
either as unsafe remedies, or as being inferior in efficacy to those
which had been used for so many centuries.

10. These prejudices having given way to the light of experience,
chemical medicines came, at length, to occupy a conspicuous place in
the Materia Medica; and their value within the present century has
become still more manifest. One of the most useful branches of
chemistry, therefore, is to make the various preparations used in the
medical art.

11. The most efficient agent in the introduction of chemical
medicines, was Theophilus Paracelsus. This singular individual was
born near Zurich, in Switzerland. Having studied chemistry under two
masters, he commenced a rambling life, in pursuit of chemical and
medical knowledge; and, having visited Italy, France, and Germany,
where he met with many whimsical adventures, which contributed greatly
to advance his reputation, he was elected, in 1527, to fill the chair
of chemistry, in the University of Basle.

12. One of the first acts of this arrogant professor was to burn, with
the utmost solemnity, while seated in his chair, the works of Galen
and Avicenna, declaring to his audience, that if God would not impart
the secrets of physic, it was not only allowable, but even
justifiable, to consult the devil. He also treated his contemporaries
with the same insolence, telling them, in a preface to one of his
books, that "the very down on his bald pate had more knowledge than
all their writers; the buckle of his shoes more learning than Galen
and Avicenna; and his beard more experience than all their
universities."

13. It could not be expected, that a man with such a temper could long
retain his situation; and, accordingly, he was driven from it, in
1528, by a quarrel with those who had conferred the appointment. From
this time, he rambled about the country, chiefly in Germany, leading a
life of extreme intemperance, in the lowest company. Nevertheless, he
still maintained his reputation as a physician, by the extraordinary
cures occasionally effected by his powerful remedies; although his
failures were equally conspicuous.

14. But the most signal failure of his remedies occurred in his own
person; for, after having boasted for many years of possessing an
elixir which would prolong life to an indefinite period, he died, in
1541, at Salzburg, with a bottle of his immortal catholicon in his
pocket. The medicines on which Paracelsus chiefly relied, were opium,
antimony, and various preparations of mercury. He has the merit of
applying the last, especially, to cases in which they had not been
before used; and upon this circumstance, his great reputation
depended.

15. We have been thus particular in noticing this individual, because
he was the first who gave public lectures on chemistry in Europe, and
because he gave the first great impulse in favor of chemical
medicines. He also carried his speculations concerning the
philosopher's stone and the universal remedy, to the greatest height
of absurdity; and, by exemplifying their inutility and fallacy in his
own person, he contributed more than any one else to their disrepute,
and subsequent banishment from the science.

16. Researches for the philosopher's stone, and the universal remedy,
having been, at length, relinquished, the chemical facts which had
been collected became, in the general estimation, a heap of rubbish of
little value. At this time, there arose an individual thoroughly
acquainted with these facts, and capable of perceiving the important
purposes to which they might be applied.

17. The name of this individual was John Joachim Becher. He published
a work in 1669, entitled "Physica Subterranica," by which he gave a
new direction to chemistry, by applying it to analyzing and
ascertaining the constituent parts of material bodies; and his system
is the foundation of the science, as it now exists.

18. George Ernest Stahl, a medical professor in the University of
Halle, adopted the theory of Becher, and, after his death, edited the
work just mentioned; but he so simplified and improved it, that he
made it entirely his own; and, accordingly, it has always been
distinguished by the appellation of the Stahlian theory. The principal
work of Stahl, on this subject, was published in 1729; and, since that
time, chemistry has been cultivated with ardor in Germany, and in
other countries in the north of Europe.

19. In France, chemistry became a fashionable study, about the middle
of the eighteenth century. It had, however, been cultivated there by a
few individuals, long before that period. Men of eminence now appeared
in all parts of the kingdom, and discoveries in the science were made
in rapid succession. Some attention was also paid to it in Italy and
Spain.

20. In Great Britain, this subject attracted but little attention,
except from a few individuals, until Dr. Cullen had become professor
of the science, in the University of Edinburgh, in 1756. This accurate
investigator of natural phenomena, succeeded in enkindling an
enthusiasm for chemical investigations among the students; and the
subsequent experiments of Dr. Black, Mr. Cavendish, Dr. Priestley, and
Lavoisier, which resulted in the discovery of the constituent parts of
air and water, diffused the same ardor through every part of the
kingdom.

21. Lavoisier, the celebrated French chemist, having proved the
Stahlian theory to be incorrect, founded another on the chemical
affinities and combinations of oxygen with the various substances in
nature. This system has been generally adopted; since it explains a
great number of phenomena more satisfactorily than any other ever
proposed. The great chemical agent, in the Stahlian system, was
supposed to be an inflammable substance, which was denominated by the
theorist _phlogiston_. To distinguish, therefore, the new theory from
the one which it superseded, it was called the pneumatic, or
anti-phlogistic system.

22. In 1787, a new technical nomenclature was devised, by the aid of
which all the chemical facts are easily retained in the memory. Twelve
or fifteen terms have been found sufficient for the foundation of a
methodical language; and, by changing the terminations of these
radicals, or by prefixing certain words or syllables, the changes that
take place in bodies are clearly expressed. This valuable innovation
originated with Lavoisier and three other French chemists.

23. In the present century, many important discoveries have been made
in this science; and, among those who have been distinguished for
their researches into its mysteries, Sir Humphrey Davy, of Great
Britain, shines pre-eminent. In the United States, it has many able
professors; among whom are Professors Hare and Mitchell, of
Philadelphia, Torrey, Renwick, and Draper, of New-York, Henry, of
Princeton, Beck, of Albany, Silliman, of New-Haven, and Johnson, of
Middletown.

24. Chemistry is so extensive in its application, that we will not
attempt to describe any of the operations of the laboratory. We,
therefore, conclude this article by recommending this science to
general attention; assuring the uninitiated, that it is beset with
fewer difficulties than they are apt to suppose, and that every effort
in the course will be attended with interesting facts and phenomena,
which will abundantly reward the labor of investigation.



[Illustration: APOTHECARY.]

THE DRUGGIST AND APOTHECARY.


1. The druggist is a wholesale dealer in drugs, which, in commerce,
embrace not only articles used or recommended by the medical
profession, but also spices, dye-stuffs, and paints. The commodities
of his trade are obtained from almost every quarter of the globe; but
especially from the countries bordering upon the Mediterranean Sea,
and from the East Indies and Spanish America.

2. The chemist looks to the druggist for most of the materials
employed in his laboratory; and from him the apothecary, physician,
and country merchant, obtain their chief supply of medicines. There
are, however, but few persons in the United States, who confine
themselves exclusively to this branch of business; for most of the
druggists are also apothecaries, and sometimes operative or
manufacturing chemists.

3. Medicinals, when they come into the warehouse of the druggist, are
usually in a crude state; and many, or most of them, must necessarily
undergo a variety of changes, of a chemical or mechanical nature,
before they can be applied in practice. The art by which these changes
are effected is called Pharmacy, or Pharmaceutics; and the books which
treat of pharmaceutical operations are denominated Pharmacopoeias, or
Dispensatories.

4. The operations of Pharmacy, which depend upon chemical principles,
are conducted chiefly by the operative chemist; but those which
consist merely in mechanical reduction, or in mixing together
different ingredients, to form compounds, belong properly to the
vocation of the apothecary.

5. The apothecary sells medicines in small quantities, prepared for
application. Many of the standing compound preparations which have
been authorized by the Pharmacopoeias, and which are in regular
demand, he keeps ready prepared; but a great proportion of his
business consists in compounding and putting up the prescriptions of
the physician, as they are needed by the patient.

6. In country places, where there are generally no apothecary-shops,
the physicians compound and prepare their own prescriptions; but in
cities, where these establishments are numerous, the medical
profession prefer to rid themselves of this trouble. In most cases,
however, they keep by them a few remedies, which can be applied in
cases of emergency.

7. In Great Britain, the apothecary is permitted to attend sick
persons, and administer medicines either according to his own
judgment, or in conformity with the directions of the physician. He
is, therefore, a physician of an inferior order; and, as his fees are
more moderate than those of the regular profession, his practice is
extensive among persons who, from necessity or inclination, are
induced to study economy.

8. The apothecaries in England, Scotland, and Ireland, are obliged to
make up their standing medicines according to the formulas of the
Dispensatories adopted in their respective countries; and their shops
are subject to the visitation of censors, who have authority to
destroy those medicines which they may consider unfit for use; so that
unwholesome or inefficient remedies be not imposed upon the sick. The
apothecaries' halls, in France, are also under the supervision of the
medical faculty.

9. In the United States, there is no censorship of this kind
established by the public authorities; yet the physicians are careful
to recommend apothecaries, in whom they have confidence, to prepare
their prescriptions. The professors in our medical schools are, also,
particular in naming to their students those druggists whom they
consider men of honor; and omit, at least, to name those who have been
detected in selling adulterated medicines.

10. We have, also, an incorporated college of pharmacy both in
New-York and Philadelphia, and in each of these, chemical and
pharmaceutical lectures are delivered by regular professors. These
institutions, although of recent origin, have exerted an important
influence in reforming and preventing abuses in the preparation of
medicines; and public opinion, especially in the cities, is beginning
to render it important for students in pharmacy to obtain a degree
from one of these colleges. Under the auspices of the institution at
Philadelphia, is published a quarterly journal, devoted to
pharmaceutical science.

11. A Pharmacopoeia for the United States was formed at Washington, in
1820, by a delegation of physicians from the principal medical
societies of the Union. A revision of this work is expected to be
made every ten years. Dispensatories, as they exist in this country,
are founded upon the Pharmacopoeias, and may be properly considered
commentaries upon them, since the former contain the whole of the
latter, together with more minute descriptions of the sensible and
real properties of the medicines, as well as their history and exact
mode of preparation.



[Illustration: The DENTIST.]

THE DENTIST.


1. The human family is subject to a variety of diseases in the teeth,
which generally cause the final destruction or loss of these important
instruments, unless judicious remedies are applied in proper season.
These remedies are administered by the dentist.

2. There are few persons, in proportion to the great mass of the
people, who seem to be aware of the utility of dentistry; for, taking
the United States together, not more than one person in a hundred ever
resorts to the professors of this art, with the view of obtaining a
remedy for any dental disease with which he may be afflicted. The
common sentiment seems to be, that diseases of the teeth, and their
final loss, at different periods of life, are inevitable
inconveniences, to which we must submit with the same philosophy with
which we meet other misfortunes.

3. To enable readers who have never examined this subject, to
comprehend its general nature, we will give a slight sketch of some of
the irregularities and diseases to which the teeth are liable, and, as
we proceed, speak of the remedies applied by the dentist.

4. Two sets of teeth regularly appear, at different periods of life;
one in infancy, and the other, at a later period. The first set
consists of twenty, and the second of thirty-two teeth; the former are
called _infant_, and the latter _adult_; and all these, at the age of
six or seven, are upon the jaws at the same time.

5. At the age just mentioned, the infant teeth begin to give way to
those which lie deeper in the sockets, and which are designed to
supersede the former. As the new teeth advance, the roots of the first
are absorbed; and, after having been thus deprived of their support,
they are easily removed; sometimes, by a slight pressure of the
tongue.

6. In a majority of cases, the whole process is carried on by nature
with the utmost regularity; but, as she is not uniformly successful in
this operation, there is no other period at which the teeth of
children require so much attention and care. Sometimes the second set
rise in the socket without causing the absorption of the roots of the
first. In such cases, the former approach in an improper direction;
and, unless the latter are removed in season, deformity will be the
consequence.

7. When, however, these precautions have been neglected, and the teeth
stand in an irregular manner, they can sometimes be reduced to
symmetry by the dentist, without occasioning much pain. When the front
teeth are too much crowded by reason of the restricted dimensions of
the jaw, the small teeth, situated next behind the eye, or canine
teeth, are extracted, one on each side, to give room to the rest.

8. From the ages of six to fifteen years, the teeth of children should
be examined, at least once in six months, by a dentist, who, if
skilful, can seldom fail of rendering these ornaments of the human
countenance regular, healthy, and beautiful. It is customary in
England and France, for the proprietors of seminaries of learning to
employ a dentist to visit their establishments regularly, for the
purpose of performing such operations, and of administering such
remedies, as their pupils may require.

9. The teeth are composed of very hard bone and enamel. The latter is
a substance exceeding in density any other in the body. It covers the
crown of the teeth, and is thickest in those parts which are most
exposed to forcible contact in mastication; but, in no place, is it
more than the twelfth of an inch in thickness.

10. The most common disease of the teeth is _caries_, or decay, and
almost every part of them is liable to be affected by it, but
especially the sides of those in front, and the crowns of those on
other parts of the jaws.

11. The disease begins its attack either on the enamel or on the bony
portion, and gradually extends itself over the tooth, until it reaches
the nerves which supply its natural cavity. These having become
exposed to the sudden changes of temperature, and to the contact of
extraneous substances in mastication, pain and inflammation are
produced, and the extraction of the tooth very commonly becomes the
only means of relief.

12. All persons are more or less subject to this disease, but some
much more than others; and caries of a peculiar character has been so
often traced through whole families, from one generation to another,
that it is considered hereditary, as much as any other disease to
which the system is liable. In many cases, caries seems to be the
effect of some serious disease which affected the constitution, while
the teeth were in the early stages of formation.

13. Although the teeth of some individuals possess but little
durability, and, when caries attacks them, go on rapidly to decay, in
spite of all the aid which science and skill can afford, yet, there
are comparatively but few instances in which seasonable and judicious
treatment will not arrest the progress of the disease.

14. When the teeth are but slightly affected with caries, especially
on the sides, a cure may be accomplished by the removal of the decayed
portion. This is effected, by the most approved dentists, chiefly with
small cutting instruments. Formerly, the file and the saw were
employed for this purpose; and, by their indiscriminate and
injudicious use, many teeth were ruined, and the art of dentistry
itself brought into disrepute.

15. Notwithstanding the injuries which have been inflicted by the
improper application of the saw and file, in some instances they are
indispensable; and, in the hands of the scientific operator, they need
not be feared. They are especially useful in preparing the way for the
employment of other instruments; for, in some cases, the affected part
can with difficulty be reached by any other means. But filing the
teeth for the purpose of improving their appearance, or for rendering
the sides more accessible to the tooth-pick and brush, seems to be
reprobated by the most intelligent part of the profession.

16. When the caries has penetrated far into the tooth, and, in its
removal, a cavity of suitable form and dimensions can be produced, it
is filled with some substance, with the view of protecting the bone
from the action of extraneous agents. The dentist is careful to
remove every particle of the decayed portion, and to render the cavity
perfectly dry by repeated applications of lint or raw cotton, before
he attempts to fill it.

17. Gold is the only substance which possesses sufficient solidity to
withstand the ordinary friction of mastication, and which, at the same
time, is capable of resisting the chemical action of the substances
that come in contact with it; yet lead and tin are frequently
employed; and many have been made to believe that they answer as good,
if not a better purpose, than gold itself. The durability of these
metals, however, can never be depended upon, and they ought not to be
employed, where the tooth is capable of resisting the mechanical force
required to fill it properly with gold.

18. The metal is prepared for the use of the dentist by the
gold-beater, in the manner described in the article which treats upon
the business of the latter. The leaves, however, are not beaten so
thin as those designed for the common purposes of the arts. The
portion to be applied is cut from the leaf, and, after having been
twisted a little, is forced into the cavity. The metal is rendered
perfectly solid by means of instruments adapted to the purpose.

19. This operation, properly performed under favorable circumstances,
generally renders the tooth as serviceable, to the end of life, as if
it had never been diseased. The hopes of the patient, however, are
sometimes disappointed by the unskilfulness of the operator, or by the
general unhealthiness of the mouth, arising from tartar, other decayed
teeth, or want of care in keeping them free from the lodgment of
particles of food.

20. It is a common practice to have teeth extracted, when they are
affected with pain; but this operation is not always necessary. In
many cases, the nerve can be paralyzed, and the tooth plugged. By
these means, teeth which, under the ordinary treatment, would be
prematurely sacrificed, are often retained, for years, in a
serviceable state.

21. The next most destructive affection to which the teeth are liable,
is the accumulation of _tartar_. This is an earthy substance,
deposited from the saliva, and is more or less abundant in different
individuals. This deposit is extremely troublesome, and generally does
much injury to the mouth, even before those who suffer from it are
aware of the mischief.

22. The tartar on the teeth of some individuals, is of a black or
greenish color, and very hard; on those of others, brown or yellow,
and not so firm. When it is first deposited, it is soft, and can be
easily removed with a tooth-brush; but, if suffered to remain, it soon
becomes indurated, and gradually increases in thickness about the neck
of the teeth. The gums become irritated and inflamed. The sockets are
next absorbed, and the teeth, being left without their natural
support, either fall out, or become so loose, that they can be easily
removed.

23. From this cause, old people lose their teeth, when, in many cases,
they are perfectly sound; but comparatively very few are aware of the
origin of this deprivation, or suppose that these valuable instruments
can be retained in old age. The loss is attributed to the deleterious
effects of calomel, or is imagined to be an evil inseparable from
advanced age.

24. The affection of the gums, arising from causes just mentioned, is
frequently called scurvy, and, like caries, produces fetor of the
breath; but, when these two diseases are combined, as is frequently
the case, they render it extremely offensive. Besides, the effluvia
arising from these diseased parts give rise to many maladies which
terminate fatally, if a remedy is not applied sufficiently early to
save the patient.

25. The obvious remedy for diseases arising from tartar, is the
removal of their cause. This is effected by the dentist, with small
sharp cutting instruments of a suitable form. To prevent the tartar
from accumulating again, and to restore the gums to a healthy state,
nothing more is generally requisite than the daily use of a stiff,
elastic brush, and the occasional application of some approved
dentrifice or astringent wash. Sometimes it may be necessary to
scarify the gums, or to apply leeches to them.

26. The operations of dentistry, mentioned in the preceding part of
this article, are those which relate to the preservation of the teeth;
and, if performed in a proper manner, and under favorable
circumstances, they will, in most instances, prove effectual. But, as
few persons resort to the dentist, until the near approach of
deformity, or until they are impelled by pain to seek relief, a great
proportion of dental operations consists in inserting artificial
teeth, and in extracting those which are past recovery.

27. When a tooth has gone so far to decay, that it cannot be cured by
_stopping_, it should not be suffered to remain in the mouth, lest it
infect the rest. Front teeth, however, when the roots remain sound,
and firmly based in the sockets, ought not to be extracted, as upon
the latter artificial teeth can be placed with great advantage. In
such cases, the removal of the crown only is necessary.

28. The instruments commonly employed in extracting teeth, are the
key, or turnkey, the forceps, the hook, and the graver, or punch.
These are supposed to be sufficient to perform all the operations of
this kind which occur in practice; and, although many attempts have
been made to invent others which might answer a better purpose, yet
those we have mentioned, in their improved state, are likely to
continue in general use.

29. It seems to be a common opinion, that any one can pull teeth, who
has a turnkey, and sufficient physical strength to use it;
accordingly, blacksmiths, barbers, and medical students, are the chief
operators in this line of dental surgery. The many fatal accidents
which must inevitably be the consequence, such as breaking the tooth
or jaw-bone, are considered matters of course. These, however, seldom
happen with skilful dentists; and it is to be regretted, that the
latter are not always employed, where unskilfulness may produce such
serious consequences.

30. In the cut, at the head of this article, is represented a dentist,
about to extract a tooth for a lady, who may be supposed to be in a
state of alarm at the sight of the instruments; but he, having thrown
his right hand, which holds them, behind him, shows the other
containing nothing, with the view of allaying her fears. The manner in
which teeth are extracted, needs no description, since it is an
every-day operation in all parts of the world.

31. One of the chief sources of income to this profession, is the
insertion of artificial teeth; for, although few are willing to expend
much to prevent the loss of their teeth, many will incur great expense
in supplying the deficiencies, after they have occurred. So perfectly
and neatly is this operation performed, by some dentists, that it is
difficult to distinguish between teeth which are natural, and those
which are artificial.

32. The materials for artificial teeth were formerly found chiefly in
the teeth and tusks of the hippopotamus, and in the teeth of some
domestic animals; but, within a few years, a mineral composition,
called porcelain, has come into great repute, since it is very
beautiful, and is entirely proof against the most powerful acids.

33. Surgical operations upon the teeth were performed in ancient
Greece and Rome, many of which were similar to those of the present
day. The extraction of teeth must have been practised at a period of
antiquity to which the records of medicine do not reach. The operation
is recommended by Hippocrates, who describes many of the diseases to
which the teeth are liable. He also mentions the practice of fixing
the teeth by means of gold wire, and gives several formulas for making
dentrifices.

34. Celsus, a Roman writer on medicine, who flourished about the
beginning of the Christian era, seems to have been the first author
who described the method of extracting teeth, and the first who
notices the removal of tartar by means of cutting instruments, as well
as filling carious teeth with lead and other substances, with the view
of preventing further decay. Soon after this period, false teeth, of
bone and ivory, were introduced. Actius, a writer of the fourth
century, is the first who mentions the operation of filing the teeth.

35. The return of barbarism to Europe, nearly extinguished the
knowledge of dentistry. As a branch of surgery, however, it was
revived by the Arabian writer, Albucasis, in the tenth century; but,
for many hundred years after this period, it received but little
attention from men of science, the operations of surgery being
confined chiefly to the barbers.

36. The first modern work on the diseases of the teeth was published
at Lyons, in 1581. This was followed by many other publications on the
same subject, in the succeeding century. In the year 1700, it began to
be required in France, that all persons who intended to practise
dentistry in that country, should undergo an examination, to test
their qualifications. From this period is dated the establishment of
the dental art as a distinct branch of medical practice.



[Illustration]

THE TEACHER.


1. Education, in antiquity, was entirely a matter of domestic concern.
In countries where priestly or royal despotism prevailed, schools for
the benefit of the sons of the great, and for the priests, were
established. Moses, the Jewish lawgiver, was educated in a priestly
school in Egypt, and Cyrus, at a seminary belonging to the Persian
court. In Palestine, the Scriptures were taught in the schools of the
prophets; and, at later periods, in the synagogues, and in the schools
of the Rabbis, reading, committing to memory the sacred books, and
hearing explanations of their meaning, constituted the chief
exercises.

2. In the Grecian cities, boys and girls were taught reading, writing,
and arithmetic in private schools; and, after having completed the
primary course, those who aspired to higher degrees of knowledge,
resorted to the instructions of the philosophers and sophists. This
system was commenced as early as 500 years before the advent of
Christ.

3. Two hundred years after this period, the Romans began to have
primary schools for boys, in the cities; and, from the time of Julius
Cæsar, who conferred on teachers the right of citizenship, they
possessed the higher institutions of the grammarians and the
rhetoricians. In the former of these, were taught the Latin and Greek
languages; and in the latter, young men of talent were prepared, by
exercises in declamation, for speaking in public.

4. Children, among the Greeks and Romans, were accompanied to school
by slaves, who, from the performance of this duty, were called
_pedagogues_; but, after slaves and freedmen had made acquirements in
literature and science, they were frequently employed as tutors; hence
the term, at length, came to imply a teacher of children, and it is
still used in reference to this employment, although we usually
connect with it the idea of pedantry.

5. Until the time of Vespasian, who commenced his reign in the year 70
of the Christian era, the schools were sustained entirely by private
enterprise. That emperor instituted public professorships of grammar
and rhetoric with fixed salaries, for the purpose of educating young
men for the public service; and, in A.D. 150, Antoninus Pius founded
imperial schools in the larger cities of the Roman empire. The most
celebrated place for the cultivation of science, in the ancient world,
was Athens; and, to this city, students from all parts of Europe
resorted, even as late as the ninth century.

6. Christianity, by degrees, gave a new turn to education; and, in the
East, it came gradually under the influence of the clergy. Schools
were instituted in the cities and villages for catechumens, and, in
some places, those of a higher grade, for the education of clergymen.
Of the latter kind, that in Alexandria was the most flourishing, from
the second to the fourth century.

7. From the fifth century, these higher institutions began to decline,
and others, called cathedral or episcopal schools, seem to have taken
their place. In these, besides theology, were taught _the seven
liberal arts_--grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry,
astronomy, and music; of which the three first were called the
_trivium_, and the four last the _quadrivium_. The text-book employed
was the Encyclopædia of Marcianus Capella, of Africa. This compendium
was published at Rome, A.D. 470; and, although a meagre production, it
maintained its reputation in the schools of Europe more than 1000
years.

8. The imperial schools established by Antoninus Pius, declined, and
finally became extinct, in the confusion that followed the irruption
of the barbarians; but their places were supplied by the parochial and
cathedral schools just mentioned. These, however, were surpassed, in
the sixth century, by the _conventual_ schools, which were originally
designed to prepare persons for the monastic life, but which soon
began to be resorted to by laymen.

9. These schools were connected with the convents belonging to the
order of St. Benedict, and served as the chief glimmering lights
during the darkest period between ancient and modern civilization, in
Europe. They flourished in Ireland, England, France, and Germany, from
the sixth to the eleventh century. The teachers of these seminaries
were called _scholastici_, and from them the scholastic philosophy
derived its origin and name.

10. In the year 789, Charlemagne, king of the Franks, issued a decree
for the improvement of the schools of his empire, and for increasing
their number. Not only every bishop's see and every convent, but every
parish, was to have its school; the two former for the education of
clergymen and public officers, and the latter for the lower classes of
people. This monarch instituted an academy of learned men, to whom he
himself resorted for instruction, and whom he employed to educate his
children, and a select number of the sons of the nobility and
distinguished persons.

11. The encouragement which these schools had received from government
was soon discontinued after the death of this monarch, and his school
establishment declined like that of Alfred the Great, which was
commenced in the ninth century, on a scale of equal liberality. The
designs of the English monarch were frustrated by the invasions of the
Danes.

12. In the mean time, the Jewish rabbis had schools in Syria and in
Northern Africa, as well as in Europe, which contributed to the
preservation of ancient learning. Arabian schools were also
established, in the ninth century, by the followers of Mohammed, in
their Eastern and African caliphates, and in their Moorish dominions
in Spain. Through these institutions, the mathematical and medical
sciences were again revived in Europe.

13. The cathedral and conventual schools continued, for a long time,
the principal institutions for education in Europe; and from them
proceeded many eminent men. By degrees the light of science began to
shine more brightly; teachers of eminence appeared in different
places, who collected around them a great number of scholars; and a
new kind of schools arose, the heads of which assumed the name of
_rectores_.

14. In Paris, several of these teachers gave instructions in various
branches, but chiefly in rhetoric, philosophy, and theology. The
schools thus collected under different masters, were, in 1206, united
under one rector; and, on this account, the whole mass of teachers and
scholars was denominated _universitas_. Universities, in other parts
of Europe, arose in a similar manner, and some of them, about the same
time. Those of Oxford and Cambridge, according to some writers, were
established about the year 1200; and the two first of these
institutions in Germany were founded at Prague and Vienna, the former
in 1348, and the latter in 1365.

15. The division of the students into four _nations_ was an essential
feature in the early universities. It arose from the circumstance that
the pupils coming from different countries, spoke different languages.
Those whose language was the same or similar, would naturally
associate together, and attend the instructions of the same teachers.
This division into nations is supposed to have grown up at Paris,
previous to the formal union of the several schools under one rector.

16. The first teachers, from whose exertions the universities
originated, commenced their public instructions without permission
from established authority. Subsequently, the state and university
were careful to prevent all persons from giving lectures, who were not
well qualified for the employment. Examinations were therefore
instituted to determine the capabilities of students. Those who were
found competent, received a formal permission to teach, accompanied
with certain symbols in the spirit of the age.

17. The first academical degree was that of _baccalaureus_, the
second, _licentiatus_; and the third _magister_. The last of these
entitled the student to all the privileges of his former teachers, and
constituted him one of the _facultas artium--the faculty of the seven
liberal arts_, since called the philosophic faculty. The other
faculties were those of theology, law, and medicine. The first of
these was instituted at Paris in 1259, and the two last, in 1260. The
faculties elected _deans_ from among their number, who, with the
_procuratores_, or heads of the four nations of students, represented
the university. These representatives possessed the power of
conferring degrees in the different departments of literature and
science.

18. Among the public institutions of the early universities were the
colleges, (_collegia_,) buildings in which students, especially those
who were poor, might live together, under superintendents, without
paying for their lodging. In some cases, they received their board,
and frequently other allowances, gratis. These institutions were
commenced at Paris; but here, as well as in other places, they did not
continue the asylums of the necessitous only. In France and England,
the buildings of universities are composed chiefly of these colleges,
in which the students reside, and in which the business of instruction
is mainly carried on.

19. The teachers in the universities were at first paid for their
services by the students. At a later period, the magistrates of the
town or city where the institution was located, made presents to
eminent scholars, to induce them to remain. This practice finally led
to the payment of regular salaries. From and after the fourteenth
century, universities were not left to grow up of themselves as
formerly, but were expressly established by public authorities or by
the popes.

20. The inactivity and luxury of the clergy, had led to the neglect of
the old seminaries of learning. The universities were therefore
necessary, not only to revive the taste for science and literature,
but also to form a new body of teachers. These institutions, however,
at length became subject to undue clerical influence, since the monks
obtained admission into them as teachers, and then labored to increase
the importance of their several orders, as well as the power of the
Roman pontiff.

21. The monks, also, connected, with their convents, popular schools,
and undertook the education of the children in the cities. But their
method of instruction was exceedingly defective, since the intelligent
investigation of the subjects studied was little encouraged, and since
the memory of the pupils was brought into requisition to the almost
entire exclusion of the other faculties of the mind.

22. In the lower parish schools, the children were not permitted to
learn to write, the monks being desirous of confining to the clergy
the practice of this art, which was very lucrative before the
invention of printing. The art was called _ars clericalis_; and, for a
long time, the privilege of establishing writing schools for the
children of citizens, was a matter of negotiation between the
magistrates and the clergy.

23. But the citizens becoming, at length, more independent, the
magistrates themselves began to superintend the education of youth.
_Trivial_ schools were established, in which the _trivium_, and
reading and writing, were taught; but for these, as well as for the
cathedral and parish schools, which had been neglected for some time
by the higher clergy, itinerant monks and students were employed as
teachers.

24. The elder pupils of the highest class frequently wandered from one
school to another, under the pretence of pursuing their studies,
sometimes taking with them younger scholars, whom they compelled to
beg or steal, in order to supply their wants. As late as the sixteenth
century, Luther complains that these _vacantivi_ (or idlers) were the
persons chiefly employed as schoolmasters in Germany.

25. A pious fraternity, called Jeronymites, consisting of clergymen
and laymen, who lived together, and occupied themselves partly in
mechanic arts, and partly in the instruction of youth, exerted
considerable influence on education in general. They first established
themselves in Italy, and afterwards in the Netherlands, on the Rhine,
and in Northern Germany.

26. Much was done during the last half of the fourteenth century, and
in the one hundred years that followed, to encourage the study of the
ancient classics. The attention of literary men was turned to these
interesting remains of antiquity by the arrival of many learned
Greeks, who had fled from Turkish oppression, and who had brought with
them the ancient writings.

27. These treasures of former civilization were unfolded to the modern
world by the art of printing, which was invented in 1441; and the
reformation, which commenced in 1517, also aided the advancement of
education. The corporations of the German cities in which the reformed
religion was received, founded seminaries, called _gymnasia_, and
_lyceums_, with permanent professorships. A vast amount of property,
belonging to the convents and the Church, was confiscated by the
governments, and appropriated chiefly to the promotion of education.

28. The schools in the countries which adhered to the Roman Catholic
religion, however, continued in nearly the same state, until the
Jesuit schools arose, towards the end of the sixteenth century. These,
on account of the ability with which they were conducted, soon gained
the ascendency, and for a long time maintained their reputation; but
they, at length, degenerated, and finally became extinct, on the
suppression of the order of Jesuits in 1773.

29. Italy, Spain, and Portugal, have, for a long time, been inactive
in relation to education, it being left entirely to the clergy, and
the efforts of the people in their individual capacity. Much has been
done in Austria, within fifty years, to advance this important
interest. Under the late emperor, professorships were constituted, in
the universities and cathedral seminaries, for the instruction of
teachers; and gymnasia, common and Sunday schools, were established in
almost every part of the kingdom.

30. The general organization of schools in France, in the eighteenth
century, was similar to that of most other Catholic countries. The
government did nothing for the education of the people at large; and
the Church, which possessed a large proportion of the property of the
nation, left the people in total ignorance; whence may have arisen
much of the atrocity which marked the early part of the revolution.

31. During the popular reign, the education of youth was declared to
be under the care of the state, and many schools, called
_polytechnic_, were established. Napoleon, also, afterwards instituted
several military schools, and contemplated the introduction of a
system of general education. With this view, he instituted an imperial
university, which was to have the supreme direction of instruction in
France; but his designs were but partially carried into effect.

32. When the Bourbons were again restored to the throne of France,
they, with the clergy, labored to restore the old order of things;
and, to keep the common people from becoming dangerous, the
Lancasterian schools, established in 1816, were abolished. Efficient
measures, however, have been lately adopted by Louis Philip to
establish schools of different grades throughout his kingdom.

33. In England and Ireland, although the middling and higher classes
are comparatively well educated, no system of general instruction has
ever been established for the benefit of the common people. Much,
however, has been accomplished by charity and Sunday schools; the
former of which were commenced in 1698, and the latter in 1812.
Besides these, there are numerous charitable foundations on which many
persons of limited means have been educated at the higher
institutions.

34. In Scotland, more liberal provisions have been made for general
education. The system was commenced in the reign of William and Mary,
when, by an act of Parliament, every parish was required to maintain a
school. The people have so far improved their privileges, that nearly
all of the inhabitants of that part of Great Britain can read and
write.

35. The government of Russia, during the last and present century, has
directed some attention to the promotion of education. According to
the decrees of the Emperor Alexander, schools of different grades were
to be established throughout the empire; but these decrees have been
yet only partially executed.

36. In no part of the world has the education of all classes of people
been more encouraged than in the United States. This has arisen
chiefly from the circumstance, that a remarkable proportion of the
colonists were persons of education. This was particularly the case
with those of New-England, where the instruction of youth, from the
very beginning of the settlements, was made a matter of public
concern.

37. The principle of making public provision for this purpose, thus
early adopted, has never been deserted; on the contrary, it has become
so deeply interwoven with the social condition of the people of
New-England, that there are few families in that part of the Union,
which are not within reach of a public school; and, in every state
where the influence of the people from that section of the country is
predominant, public schools have been organized by legal provisions,
and a fund has been provided, by which at least a part of the expense
of supporting them is paid.

38. In all the states in which these primary institutions are
established by legislative enactments, they are kept in operation, in
country places, between six and nine months of the year. A _master_ is
employed in the winter, and a _mistress_, in the summer: the former
receives for his services from ten to fifteen dollars per month, and
the latter, from seventy-five cents to two dollars per week, together
with boarding. The teachers, however, during their engagement are
compelled to reside in the different families of the _district_, their
stay at each place being determined, with scrupulous exactness, by the
number of children sent to the school.

39. From the low salaries received for these important services, and
the short periods for which engagements are made, it is evident, that
teaching a district school cannot be pursued as a regular employment.
These schools are, therefore, supplied by persons who, during the rest
of the year, follow some other business; or by students, who rely, in
part or entirely, on their own exertions to defray the expenses of
their academical, collegiate, or professional education.

40. These schools are, no doubt, institutions of great value; but, in
the states where they have been established, they are evidently much
overrated. They fail in accomplishing the ends for which they have
been instituted, through the extreme tenacity with which the people
adhere to ancient and defective methods of instruction, the frequent
change of teachers, and the small compensation allowed for the
services of competent instructors.

41. In the cities and populous towns or villages, the public schools
are kept up during the whole of the year, and the system of
instruction is generally better than that pursued in the country. In
New-York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and in some other cities, the
Lancasterian plan of mutual instruction, with many modifications, is
preferred, principally on account of its cheapness.

42. Select-schools and private academies are, also, very numerous.
These are located chiefly in the cities and populous towns, and are
supported entirely by fees for tuition received from the parents or
guardians of the pupils. These institutions do not differ essentially
from those of a private nature in similar situations in other parts of
the United States, where common schools are not established by law.

43. In the Southern states, wealthy families often employ private
tutors. Sometimes two, three, or more families, and even a whole
neighborhood, unite for the purpose of forming a school; and, to
induce a teacher to commence or continue his labors among them, an
adequate amount is made up beforehand by subscription. South of
Pennsylvania, Delaware, and the Ohio River, such engagements are
commonly made for a year, as, in that section of the Union, the
opinion prevails, that a teacher can do but little towards improving
his pupils in a much shorter time.

44. The literary institutions which are next above the common schools,
and which are established by legislative authority, are the academies,
of which there are between five and six hundred in the United States.
Some of these have been founded by the funds of the state in which
they are located, some, by the union of a few spirited individuals, or
by private bequests.

45. The course of instruction pursued in these seminaries of learning
varies considerably from each other. In some of them, it is confined
chiefly to the common branches of education; in others, the course is
pretty extensive, embracing natural and moral philosophy, chemistry,
belles lettres, and a sound course of mathematics, together with
Latin, Greek, and some of the modern languages. One great object in
these institutions is to prepare students for college. The teacher who
has charge of an academy is called the _principal_, while the teacher
who may aid him in his labors is denominated the _assistant_ or
_usher_.

46. The highest institutions of learning among us are the colleges and
universities. Between these, however, there seems to be but little
difference, since the course of studies is nearly or quite the same in
both, and since the charters obtained from the legislatures grant to
both similar powers of conferring honorary degrees. The whole number
of these establishments in the United States is about eighty.

47. The principal teachers in the colleges are denominated
_professors_, who confine their labors to communicating instructions
in particular branches of literature or science. These are aided by
assistants called _tutors_. The latter are generally young men, who
devote two or three years to this employment, before entering upon the
practice of a profession. The number of professors and tutors in the
several colleges varies according to their amount of funds, and number
of students.


    END OF VOL. I.


       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious spelling and punctuation errors and inconsistencies were
repaired, but period spellings retained (e.g. "grisly bear," "lama,"
"pistachoes," "hommony").

Negociat- and negotiat-, whale-bone and whalebone, ancles and ankle,
color- and colour-, endeavor- and endeavour-, favor- and favour-,
labor- and labour-, neighbor- and neighbour-, were retained as in
original.

Contents page, Preface page number reads "7" but actually appears on
page "vii"; retained.

Contents page, "Soapboiler" changed to more frequent "Soap-Boiler."

P. ix, "removed from the ignorance," original reads "ignora ce."

P. 16, "south-western parts," hyphen added for consistency within
text.

P. 47, "maltster checks," original reads "malster."

P. 53, "render the wine palatable," original reads "palateable."

P. 66, Illustration at start of "Manufacturer of Cloth" chapter has
no caption in original.

P. 101, "sewn together to form hats," original reads "sown."

P. 174, "released from his dependence," original reads "dependance."

P. 185, "Thomas Newcomen," original reads "Newcomer."

P. 249, Illustration at start of "Teacher" chapter has no caption in
original.

P. 249 and 252, "rabbis," original reads "rabbies."





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