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Title: Cooley's Cyclopædia of Practical Receipts and Collateral Information in the Arts, Manufactures, Professions, and Trades..., Sixth Edition, Volume I
Author: Tuson, Richard, Cooley, Arnold
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                          COOLEY’S CYCLOPÆDIA
                           PRACTICAL RECEIPTS
                         COLLATERAL INFORMATION
                                 IN THE

           Medicine, Pharmacy, Hygiene, and Domestic Economy

                       DESIGNED AS A COMPREHENSIVE



                      GENERAL BOOK OF REFERENCE

                           HEADS OF FAMILIES

                             SIXTH EDITION


                    RICHARD V. TUSON, F.I.C., F.C.S.


                                 VOL. I






                      PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION

Some one has said that “when a book reaches a fifth edition it scarcely
requires a preface.” If such be true of a fifth, it is probably still
truer of a sixth edition, and therefore this issue of ‘Cooley’s
Cyclopædia’ might fairly be sent forth to the public without any prefatory
remarks whatever. It is, however, desirable to point out that the present
edition is larger than the last by about six hundred pages; that much
greater space than hitherto is devoted to Hygiène (including sanitation,
the composition and adulteration of foods) as well as to the Arts,
Pharmacy, Manufacturing Chemistry, and other subjects of importance to
those for whom the work is intended.

The articles on what is commonly termed ‘Household Medicine’ have been
amplified and numerically increased.

Short accounts of the more common diseases, their causes, symptoms, and
treatment, affecting the domesticated animals have been introduced. “Here,
however, it may be useful to repeat the cautions given in other parts of
this volume, as to the impropriety of unnecessarily meddling with the
healing art or neglecting a prompt application” (where and when possible)
“to a duly qualified practitioner in all cases demanding medical or
surgical aid.” These remarks of Mr Cooley are as applicable to cases of
Veterinary as to those of Human Medicine.

Numerous authors have necessarily been consulted; a list of them, and the
titles of their works from which information has been derived, will be
found at the end of the second volume. When extracts have been introduced
_verbatim_ the authority is quoted in the body of the book.

Many of my scientific _confrères_ have rendered me valuable aid in
preparing this edition; but I am particularly indebted to my accomplished
and zealous friend Mr John Gardner for his hearty and constant
co-operation; to Dr Lionel Beale for his kindness in revising the articles
on “Urine,” “Urinary Diseases,” &c., as well as for the use of cuts from
his celebrated works on these subjects; to my friend and former pupil Mr
F. Woodland Toms for revising and rewriting the articles on “Sewage” and
“Water;” and to my assistants Mr James Bayne and Mr Cuthbert Neison for
correcting “proof.”

The laborious task of preparing a sixth edition of ‘Cooley’ having been
accomplished, it is hoped that, due consideration being given to the
magnitude of the work and to the great variety of the subjects treated, it
will be found to be practically free from important errors, and that it
will meet with, at least, the same gratifying reception as that accorded
to its predecessors.

                                                   RICHARD V. TUSON.

              _January, 1880._


The design of the present work is briefly, but not completely expressed in
its title-page. Independently of a reliable and comprehensive collection
of formulæ and processes in nearly all the industrial and useful arts, it
contains a description of the leading properties and applications of the
substances referred to, together with ample directions, hints, data, and
allied information, calculated to facilitate the development of the
practical value of the book in the shop, the laboratory, the factory, and
the household. Notices of the substances embraced in the Materia Medica of
our national pharmacopœias, in addition to the whole of their
preparations, and numerous other animal and vegetable substances employed
in medicine, as well as most of those used for food, clothing, and fuel,
with their economic applications, have been included in the work. The
synonymes and references are other additions which will prove invaluable
to the reader. Lastly, there have been appended to all the principal
articles referred to brief, but clear, directions for determining their
purity and commercial value, and for detecting their presence and
proportions in compounds.

The sources from which I have derived the vast mass of materials forming
this volume are such as to render it deserving the utmost confidence. I
have invariably resorted to the best and latest authorities, and have
consulted almost innumerable volumes, both British and foreign, during its
compilation. Secondary channels of information have been scarcely ever
relied on when original authorities were within my reach. A large portion
of the work has been derived from my personal experience and observations
in the departments of applied chemistry and hygiene, and from the
processes of various laboratories and manufactories, many of which I can
the more confidently recommend from having either inspected or witnessed
their employment on an extensive scale. The indiscriminate adoption of
matter, without examination, has been uniformly avoided, and in no
instance has any formula or process been admitted into this work, unless
it rested on some well-known fact of science, had been sanctioned by
usage, or come recommended by some respectable authority. The settlement
of doubtful or disputed points has often occupied me a greater number of
hours, and not unfrequently a greater number of days, than that of the
lines of letter-press which convey the results to the public. In all cases
precedence has been given to the standard formulæ of our national
pharmacopœias, and to those processes which long experience, or
well-conducted experiments, have shown to be the most successful,
profitable, and trustworthy. In general, the sources of information have
been indicated, for the purpose of enabling the reader to form a better
estimation of their value. Whenever this is not the case, in reference to
borrowed formulæ and data, the omission has arisen from the impossibility
of determining to whom the merit is justly due.

I have endeavoured as much as possible, in the present work, to avoid
confusion of the medical weights with those commonly used in trade and
commerce——an attempt which, so far as I am aware, has not been
successfully carried out in any other quarter. For this purpose I
determined to entirely abandon the usual arbitrary signs or characters
employed to represent the divisions of the apothecaries’ pound, and to
distinguish the two weights from each other, by simply printing, in
different type, the plain English names and abbreviations representing
their several denominations. The medical signs for the imperial gallon and
its subdivisions have also been abandoned for their common English names.
It would have afforded me pleasure to have reduced all the quantities to
one uniform standard, had it been practicable, or, in all cases,

Under the names of most of the leading diseases that could be profitably
noticed in the present work, such explanations and directions have been
given as accord with the prevailing opinions and practice of the faculty
at the present day. These, when judiciously applied, will prove invaluable
to emigrants, travellers, voyagers, and other parties beyond the reach of
legitimate medical assistance; and, under opposite circumstances, will, in
general, enable those who have the care of the sick the better to second
and carry out the instructions and efforts of the physician for the
benefit of their charge. Here, however, it may be useful to repeat the
cautions given in other parts of this volume, as to the impropriety of
unnecessarily meddling with the healing art, or neglecting a prompt
application to a duly qualified practitioner, in all cases demanding
either medical or surgical aid. It is an indubitable fact that the best
efforts of the inexperienced and uninitiated in the mysteries of medical
science must be always enormously behind those of parties whose whole
lives and study have been devoted to the subject.

The nature of a condensed alphabetical arrangement not permitting
numerous articles to come under distinct heads, or to be referred to under
all their synonymes, the casual reader may often be led to suppose that
this book is most deficient where in reality it is the most copious. In
general I have attempted, as much as possible, to bring together subjects
of a closely allied character, and compounds which are analogous to each
other, either in constitution or the mode of their preparation. Thus, most
of the formulæ for Mixtures, Ointments, Pills, &c., follow in alphabetical
order the general articles under these heads; whilst those for the Oxides,
Salts, &c., follow the names of their respective bases. In like manner, a
notice of a number of preparations will be found included in that of their
principal ingredients. The names under which the leading substances appear
are generally those which are most familiar to well-informed practical
men, and which have commonly reference to either their acknowledged
chemical constitution, or to some long-known and easily recognised
quality. The following extract conveys an important lesson on this
subject, with which I perfectly agree:——“We have been unwilling to make
any unnecessary changes in the nomenclature of substances whose names are
sanctioned by the usage of the present day; for these names have been, for
the most part, rightly assigned by our predecessors, or confirmed by lapse
of time. We are indeed aware that every improvement in the knowledge of
things ought to be embodied in their names; but we must be careful, in
selecting or forming these names, not to make those points appear certain
and established which are as yet doubtful, for it is safer to be in the
rear than advance of natural history.”[1]

[Footnote 1: Preface to the Ph. L., 1851.]

I have exerted myself to the utmost to ensure the accuracy and
completeness of this volume, but I feel conscious that, after all my
efforts for this purpose, some errors have crept into it, that many
subjects which deserve insertion in it have been omitted, and that many
others have been either imperfectly or too briefly noticed. “Yet these
failures, however frequent, may,” I trust, “admit of extenuation and
apology. To have attempted much is always laudable, even where the
enterprise is above the strength that undertakes it. To rest below his aim
is incident to every one whose fancy is active, and whose views are
comprehensive; nor is any man satisfied with himself because he has done
much, but because he conceives little.” When I commenced this work I
resolved to leave nothing within its legitimate limits unexamined or
unelucidated; and I flattered myself with a prospect of the hours which I
should thus “revel away” in a pursuit so congenial to my desires——“the
treasures with which I expected every search into those neglected mines to
reward my labour——and the triumph with which I should display my
acquisitions to mankind.” But these were the dreams of a poet, doomed at
last to wake a “Cyclopædist”. The long task which I had undertaken soon
exhibited its truly onerous character, and daily grew in urgency, until
that which promised to be a pleasure had been transformed into an
exhausting and continuous labour. At first, a sacrifice of the hours of
leisure only seemed necessary to the undertaking——next, those assigned to
professional and business avocations were demanded, and absorbed; but, ere
long, one by one, the hours usually devoted to repose were sucked into the
insatiable vortex, until the bright beams of the rising sun not
unfrequently illumined the lamp-lit study or the gloomy laboratory, and
surprised the author, no longer an enthusiast, at his still-enduring task.
But long ere this I had learned that to carry out my original resolutions
in all their completeness and entirety was impossible, and “that to pursue
perfection was, like the first inhabitants of Arcadia, to chase the sun,
which, when they had reached the hill where he had seemed to rest, was
still at the same distance from them.”[2] All I can further say in
reference to this point is simply to assure the reader that three of the
elements usually deemed essential to give value to a technological
work——viz. zeal, industry, and capital——have not been wanting in the
production of the present one;——the first two depending on the author, and
the other chiefly on the liberality and enterprise of the publisher.

[Footnote 2: Dr Samuel Johnson’s Preface to his English Dictionary.]

As heretofore, I beg to solicit my readers to apprise me of any
inaccuracies or omissions in this volume which may come beneath their
notice. I shall also thankfully receive any hints or suggestions tending
to the improvement of future editions of this work. Such communications,
to be useful, must, however be written on only one side of the paper.
Parties who may thus kindly afford me assistance will, in due course, have
their services publicly acknowledged; and their names and addresses,
unless when otherwise requested, will be published in full.

I have endeavoured to render the present volume as self-explanatory as
possible, and, in general, have appended ample directions to the several
formulæ and processes that seemed to me likely to cause embarrassment to
those inexpert in chemical manipulation; but should any party find it
otherwise, I shall be happy to reply, gratuitously, to any reasonable
questions tending to elucidate the difficulty.

In conclusion, I may add that, having now for nearly a quarter of a
century devoted my attention to the applications of chemistry in most of
the useful arts and manufactures, both British and foreign, and in
sanitation, I am in possession of many valuable processes and formulæ,
hitherto wholly unknown, or but partially developed, with various
improved plans of factories, laboratories, ventilation, &c., which the
limits of this work will not permit me to describe in its pages, but on
which I should be happy to communicate with parties interested in the
same. Persons desirous of establishing any new branch of manufacture, or
of improving an existing one, or of determining the purity or value of
articles of food, wines, liqueurs, medicines, &c., or of obtaining formulæ
or processes which are not contained in this work, may, in like manner,
have their wishes complied with, by enclosing to me samples, or the
requisite information.

                                              ARNOLD J. COOLEY.

                    THE REVISION OF, THIS EDITION

    JOHN ATTFIELD, Ph.D., F.I.C., F.C.S., Professor of Practical
        Chemistry to the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

    J. WORTLEY AXE, P.C.V.M.S., Professor of Histology in the Royal
        Veterinary College.


    E. L. BARRET, B.Sc., F.I.C., F.C.S.

    E. CANTON, F.R.C.S., Surgeon to Charing Cross Hospital.

    SPENCER COBBOLD, M.D., F.R.S., Professor of Parasitology and
        Botany in the Royal Veterinary College.


    DR DE VRIJ, of the Hague.


    WILLIAM HARKNESS, F.I.C., F.C.S., F.R.M.S., Assistant Chemist in
        the Laboratory of the Inland Revenue Department, Somerset

    C. W. HEATON, F.I.C., F.C.S., Lecturer on Chemistry at the
        Charing Cross Hospital.


    WILLIAM PRITCHARD, Professor of Anatomy in the Royal Veterinary

    A. E. SANSOM, M.D. Lond., M.R.C.P., Physician to the Royal
        Hospital for Diseases of the Chest.

    J. B. SIMONDS, Principal of, and Professor of Pathology in, the
        Royal Veterinary College.


    JOHN STENHOUSE, LL.D., F.R.S., formerly Lecturer on chemistry in
        St. Bartholomew’s Hospital.


These, for the most part, consist of the first syllable, or the initial
letter or letters of the words they stand for. As _Prep._, preparation;
_Pur._, purity; _Purif._, purification; _Obs._, observations; _Var._,
varieties, &c.——Ph., stands for _pharmacopœia_; B. P., for _British
Pharmacopœia_; Ind. Ph., for _Indian Pharmacopœia_; Cod., for
_Codex._——L., E., D., P., U. S., &c., associated with the last two
abbreviations, are the initial letters of the cities and countries which
produced the respective works; as, London, Edinburgh, Dublin, Paris,
United States, &c. When no dates are given, the last editions of the
pharmacopœias are referred to.

_lb._, _oz._, _dr._, respectively represent the _pound_, _ounce_, and
_drachm_ (1/8 oz.), AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. This is the only weight employed
in the British and last Dublin Pharmacopœias.

lb., oz., dr., and gr., refer to the _pound_, _ounce_, _drachm_, and

The word ‘_drop_’ in all cases indicates a measured drop or minim.

The _names of individuals_ which appear in this work are those to whom the
immediately attached information or formula is usually attributed, or on
whose recommendation or authority it has been selected.

    ′ denotes the _accented vowel_ or _syllable_.

    ′′ that the following consonant coalesces with the preceding
        letter in utterance.

    † that the name or the definition to which it is attached is

    * that the name or the definition to which it is attached is
        ‘_obsolescent_,’ little used, or objectionable.

    ‡ that the name or the definition to which it is attached is
        ‘_colloquial_,’ or popular, or used only in trade.

    § that the name or the definition to which it is attached is

                        COLLATERAL INFORMATION


=A-, ab-, abs-.= [L.] In _composition_, from, denoting distance,
departure, separation, or opposition; as in _aberration_, _abstraction_,
_abnormal_, &c.

=A-, an-.= [Gr.] In _composition_, no, not, without, denoting the absence
or loss of some quality or thing; as in _achromatic_, _anhydrous_,
_amorphous_, &c.

=AB′ACA= (kăh). A species of vegetable fibre, of several varieties,
obtained in the Philippine Islands, and remarkable for its brilliancy,
strength, and durability. The finer kinds are woven into muslins, and
other delicate fabrics; the coarser are formed into mats, cordage, and
sail-cloth. It has been recently employed in Paris for the manufacture of
various articles of furniture and dress; including bonnets, tapestry,
carpets, network, hammocks, &c. The fibre, and fabrics made of it, may be
bleached and dyed in a similar manner to flax and linen.

=ABATTOIR=. A public slaughter-house for cattle, &c., usually erected
within the walls or precincts of a continental town or city.

=ABBREVIATION=. One or more of the earlier letters of a word used to
express the whole.

1. Abbreviations in general use:——

  A.B., Bachelor of Arts.
  A.D., In the year of our Lord.
  A.I.C., Associate of the Institute of Chemistry.
  A.I.C.E., Associate of the Institute of Civil Engineers.
  A.M., Master of Arts.——Before noon.
  A.R.A., Associate of the Royal Academy.
  B.A., Bachelor of Arts.
  Bart., Baronet.
  B.C., Before Christ.
  B.D., Bachelor of Divinity.
  B.Sc., Bachelor of Science.
  C.B., Companion of the Bath.
  C.E., Civil Engineer.
  C.S., Civil Service.
  D.C.L., Doctor of Civil Laws.
  D.D., Doctor of Divinity.
  D.G., By the Grace of God.
  Dr., Doctor.——Debtor.
  D.Sc., Doctor of Science.
  D.V., God willing.
  Ed., Editor, or Edition.
  e.g., for example.
  F.C.P., Fellow of the College of Preceptors.
  F.C.S., Fellow of the Chemical Society.
  F.G.S., Fellow of the Geological Society.
  F.I.C., Fellow of the Institute of Chemistry.
  F.L.S., Fellow of the Linnean Society.
  F.R.A.S., Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.
  F.R.C.P., Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.
  F.R.C.S., Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons.
  F.R.G.S., Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.
  F.R.S., Fellow of the Royal Society.
  F.R.S.E., Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
  H.M.S., Her Majesty’s Ship.
  H.R.H., His (or Her) Royal Highness.
  i.e., That is.
  Inst., Instant (the present month).
  I.H.S., Jesus the Saviour of Man.
  K.B., Knight of the Bath.
  K.C.B., Knight Commander of the Bath.
  K.G., Knight of the Garter.
  Knt., Knight.
  K.St.P., Knight of St. Patrick.
  K.T., Knight of the Thistle.
  L.A.C., Licentiate of the Apothecaries’ Company.
  Lat., Latitude.
  L.D., Licentiate in Dentistry.
  LL.D., Doctor of Laws.
  L.M., Licentiate in Midwifery.
  Loc. cit., The part referred to.
  Lon. or Long., Longitude.
  M.A., Master of Arts.
  M.B., Bachelor of Medicine.
  M.C., Master of Surgery.——Master of the Ceremonies.
  M.C.P., Member of the College of Preceptors.
  M.D., Doctor of Medicine.
  M.I.B.A., Member of the Institute of British Architects.
  M.R.C.P., Member of the Royal College of Physicians.
  M.R.C.S., Member of the Royal College of Surgeons.
  M.R.C.V.S., Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons.
  M.R.I., Member of the Royal Institution.
  M.R.I.A., Member of the Royal Irish Academy.
  MS., Manuscript.
  MSS., Manuscripts.
  Mus. Doc., Doctor of Music.
  N.B., Mark well.
  Nem. con., Without opposition.
  O.H.M.S., On Her Majesty’s service.
  Op. cit., The work quoted.
  Per cent. (often expressed by the sign %), By the hundred.
  Ph.D., Doctor of Philosophy.
  P.M., Afternoon.
  Prox., The next (month).
  P.S., Postscript.
  Q.C., Queen’s Counsel.
  Qy. (?), Query, Question.
  R.A., Royal Academician——Royal Artillery.
  R.E., Royal Engineers.
  R.H.A., Royal Horse Artillery.
  R.M., Royal Marines.
  R.N., Royal Navy.
  Tr., Translator.
  Ult., The last (month).
  v. or vide, See.
  W.S., Writer to the Signet.
  &, _ampersand_, and.
  &c., et cetera, And so on.

2. Abbreviations used in Prescriptions:——

  _A. aa._, _ana_ (Greek), of each. Equally by weight or measure.
  _Abdom._, _abdomen_, the abdomen, the belly.
  _Abs. febr._, _absente febre_, fever being absent.
  _Ad 2 vic._, _ad secundum vicem_, to the second time; or _ad duas
      vices_, for two times.
  _Ad gr. acid._, _ad gratam aciditatem_, to an agreeable acidity.
  _Ad def. animi_, _ad defectionem animi_, to fainting.
  _Ad del. an._, _ad deliquium animi_, to fainting.
  _Ad libit._, _ad libitum_, at pleasure.
  _Add._, _adde_, or _addantur_, add, or let them be added; _addendus_, to
      be added.
  _Adjac._, _adjacens_, adjacent.
  _Admov._, _admove_, _admoveatur_, _admoveantur_, apply, let it be
      applied, let them be applied.
  _Ads. febre_, _adstante febre_, while the fever is present.
  _Alter. hor._, _alternis horis_, every other hour.
  _Alvo adstr._, _alvo adstrictâ_, when the bowels are confined.
  _Aq. astr._, _aqua astricta_, frozen water.
  _Aq. bull._, _aqua bulliens_, boiling water.
  _Aq. com._, _aqua communis_, common water.
  _Aq. fluv._, _aqua fluviatilis_, river water.
  _Aq. mar._, _aqua marina_, sea water.
  _Aq. niv._, _aqua nivalis_, snow water.
  _Aq. pluv._, _aqua pluviatilis_, or pluvialis, rain water.
  _Aq. ferv._, _aqua fervens_, hot water.
  _Aq. font._, _aqua fontana_, or _aqua fontis_, spring water.
  _Bis ind._, _bis in dies_, twice a day.
  _Bib._, _bibe_, drink.
  _BB._, _Bbds._, _Barbadensis_, Barbadoes, as _aloë Barbadensis_.
  _B.M._, _balneum mariæ_, or _balneum maris_, a warm-water bath.
  _B. P._, or _B. Ph._, British Pharmacopœia.
  _But._, _butyrum_, butter.
  _B.V._, _balneum vaporis_, a vapour bath.
  _Cærul._, _cæruleus_, blue.
  _Cap._, _capiat_, let him (or her) take.
  _Calom._, _calomelas_, calomel, subchloride of mercury.
  _C. C._, _cornu cervi_, hartshorn; it may also signify cucurbitula
      cruenta, the cupping-glass with scarificator.
  _C.C.U._, _cornu cervi ustum_, burnt hartshorn.
  _Cochleat._, _cochleatim_, by spoonfuls.
  _Coch. ampl._, _cochleare amplum_, a large (or table) spoonful; about
      half a fluid ounce.
  _Coch. infant._, _cochleare infantis_, a child’s (or tea) spoonful.
  _Coch. magn._, _cochleare magnum_, a large spoonful.
  _Coch. med._, _cochleare medium_, } a middling or moderate spoonful;
      that is,
  _Coch. mod._, _cochleare modicum_,} a dessert-spoonful——about two fluid
  _Coch. parv._, _cochleare parvum_, a small (or tea) spoonful; it
      contains about one fluid drachm.
  _Col._, _cola_, strain.
  _Col._, _colatus_, strained.
  _Colet._, _coletur_, _colat._, _colatur_, let it be strained;
      _colaturæ_, to the strained liquor.
  _Colent._, _colentur_, let them be strained.
  _Color._, _coloretur_, let it be coloured.
  _Comp._, _compositus_, compounded.
  _Cong._, _congius_, a gallon.
  _Cons._, _conserva_, conserve; also (_imperat. of conservo_) keep.
  _Cont. rem._, or _med._, _continuentur remedia_, or _medicamenta_, let
      the remedies, or the medicines, be continued.
  _Coq._, _coque_, boil; _coquantur_, let them be boiled.
  _Coq. ad med. consumpt._, _coque_ or _coquatur ad medietatis
      consumptionem_, boil, or let it be boiled to the consumption of one
  _Coq. S. A._, _coque secundum artem_, boil according to art.
  _Coq. in S. A._, _coque in sufficiente quantitate aquæ_, boil in a
      sufficient quantity of water.
  _Cort._, _cortex_, bark.
  _C. v._, _cras vespere_, to-morrow evening.
  _C. m. s._, _cras mane sumendus_, to be taken to-morrow morning.
  _C. n._, _cras nocte_, to-morrow night.
  _Crast._, _crastinus_, for to-morrow.
  _Cuj._, _cujus_, of which.
  _Cujusl._, _cujuslibet_, of any.
  _Cyath. theæ_, _cyatho theæ_, in a cup of tea.
  _Cyath._, _cyathus_, vel, a wine-glass; from an ounce and half...
  _C. vinar._, _cyathus vinarius_; to two ounces and half.
  _Deaur. pil._, _deaurentur pilulæ_, let the pills be gilt.
  _Deb. spiss._, _debitur spissitudo_, due consistence.
  _Dec._, _decanta_, pour off.
  _Decub. hor._, _decubitûs horâ_, at the hour of going to bed, or at
  _De d. in d._, _de die in diem_, from day to day.
  _Deglut._, _deglutiatur_, let it be swallowed.
  _Dej. alv._, _dejectiones alvi_, stools.
  _Det._, _detur_, let it be given.
  _Dieb. alt._, _diebus alternis_, every other day.
  _Dieb. tert._, _diebus tertiis_, every third day.
  _Dil._, _dilue_, _dilutus_, dilute (thin), diluted.
  _Diluc._, _diluculo_, at break of day.
  _Dim._, _dimidius_, one half.
  _D. in 2 plo._, _deter in duplo_, let it be given in twice the quantity.
  _D. in p. æq._, _dividatur in partes æquales_, let it be divided in
      equal parts.
  _D. P._, _directione propria_, with a proper direction.
  _Donec alv. bis dej._, _donec alvus bis dejecerit_, until the bowels
      have been twice opened.
  _Donec alv. sol. fuer._, _donec alvus soluta fuerit_, until the bowels
      have been loosened.
  _Donec dol. neph. exulav._, _donec dolor nephriticus exulaverit_, until
      the nephritic pain has been removed.
  _D._, _dosis_, a dose.
  _Eburn._, _eburneus_, made of ivory.
  _Ed._, _edulcorata_, edulcorated.
  _Ejusd._, _ejusdem_, of the same.
  _Elect._, _electuarium_, an electuary.
  _Enem._, _enema_, a clyster.
  _Exhib._, _exhibeatur_, let it be administered.
  _Ext. sup. alut. moll._, _extende super alutam mollem_, spread upon soft
  _F._, _fac_, make; _fiat_, _fiant_, let it be made, let them be made.
  _F. pil._, _fiant pilulæ_, let pills be made.
  _Fasc._, _fasciculus_, a bundle.
  _Feb. dur._, _febre durante_, during the fever.
  _Fem. intern._, _femoribus internis_, to the inside of the thighs.
  _F. venæs._, _fiat venæsectio_, let venesection be performed.
  _F. H._, _fiat haustus_, let a draught be made.
  _Fict._, _fictilis_, earthen.
  _Fil._, _filtrum_, a filter.
  _Fist. arm._, _fistula armata_, a clyster-pipe and bladder fitted for
  _Fl._, _fluidus_, fluid.
  _F. L. A._, _fiat lege artis_, let it be made by the rules of art.
  _F. M._, _fiat mistura_, let a mixture be made.
  _F. S. A._, _fiat secundum artem_, let it be made according to art.
  _Gel. quav._, _gelatina quavis_, in any jelly.
  _G. G. G._, _gummi guttæ gambæ_, gamboge.
  _Gr._, _granum_, a grain; _grana_, grains.
  _Gr. vj pond._, _grana sex pondere_, six grains by weight.
  _Gtt._, _gutta_, a drop; _guttæ_, drops.
  _Gtt. quibusd._, _guttis quibusdam_, with some drops.
  _Guttat._, _guttatim_, by drops.
  _Har. pil. sum. iij_, _harum pilularum sumantur tres_, of these pills
      let three be taken.
  _H. D._, or _hor. decub._, _horâ decubitûs_, at bedtime.
  _H. P._, _haustus purgans_, purging draught.
  _H. S._, _horâ somni_, at the hour of going to sleep.
  _Hor. un. spætio_, _horæ unius spatio_, at the expiration of one hour.
  _Hor. interm._, _horis intermediis_, in the intermediate hours.
  _Hor. 11mâ mat._, _horâ undecimâ matutinâ_, at 11 o’clock in the
  _Ind._, _indies_, daily.
  _In pulm._, _in pulmento_, in gruel.
  _Ind. Ph._, Indian Pharmacopœia.
  _Inf._, _infunde_, infuse.
  _Inj. enem._, _injiciatur enema_, let a clyster be thrown up.
  _Jul._, _julepus_, _julapium_, a julep.
  _Kal. ppt._, _kali præparatum_, prepared kali (_potassæ carbonas_).
  _Lat. dol._, _lateri dolenti_, to the affected side.
  _M._, _misce_, mix; _mensurâ_, by measure; _manipulus_, a handful;
  _minimum_, a minim.
  _Mane pr._, _mane primo_, early in the morning.
  _Man._, _manipulus_, a handful.
  _Min._, _minimum_, a minim, the 60th part of a drachm measure.
  _M. P._, _massa pilularum_, a pill mass.
  _M.R._, _mistura_, a mixture.
  _Mic. pan._, _mica panis_, crumb of bread.
  _Mitt._, _mitte_, send; _mittantur_, let them be sent.
  _Mitt. sang. ad [oz]xij, mitte sanguinem ad [oz]xij_, take blood to
      twelve ounces.
  _Mod. præscr._, _modo præscripto_, in the manner directed.
  _Mor. dict._, _more dicto_, in the way ordered.
  _Mor. sol._, _more solito_, in the usual way.
  _Ne tr. s. num._, _ne tradas sine nummo_, do not deliver it without the
  _No._, _numero_, in number.
  _N. M._, _nux moschata_, a nutmeg.
  _O._, _octarius_, a pint.
  _Ol. lini s. i._, _oleum lini sine ligné_, cold-drawn linseed oil.
  _Omn. hor._, _omni horâ_, every hour.
  _Omn. bid._, _omni biduo_, every two days.
  _Omn. bih._, _omni bihorio_, every two hours.
  _O. M._, or _omn. man._, _omni mane_, every morning.
  _O. N._, or _omn. noct._, _omni nocte_, every night.
  _Omn. quadr. hor._, _omni quadrante horæ_, every quarter of an hour.
  _O. O. O._, _oleum olivæ optimum_, best olive oil.
  _Ov._, _ovum_, an egg.
  _Oz._, the ounce avoirdupois.
  _P. æ._, _part. æqual._, _partes æquales_, equal parts.
  _P. d._, _per deliquium_, by deliquescence.
  _Past._, _pastillus_, a pastil, or ball of paste.
  _P._, _pondere_, by weight.
  _Ph. D._, _Pharmacopœia Dubliniensis_.
  _Ph. E._, _Pharmacopœia Edinensis_.
  _Ph. L._, _Pharmacopœia Londinensis_.
  _Ph. U. S._, _Pharmacopœia of the United States_.
  _Part. vic._, _partitis vicibus_, in divided doses.
  _Per. op. emet._, _peractâ operatione emetici_, the operation of the
      emetic being over.
  _Pocul._, _poculum_, a cup.
  _Pocill._, _pocillum_, a small cup.
  _Post sing. sed. liq._, _post singulas sedes liquidas_, after every
      loose stool.
  _Ppt._, _præparata_, prepared.
  _P. r. n._, _pro re nata_, occasionally.
  _P. rat. ætat._, _pro ratione ætatis_, according to the age.
  _Pug._, _pugillus_, a pinch, a gripe between the thumb and the two first
  _Pulv._, _pulvis_, _pulverizatus_, a powder, pulverised.
  _Q. l._, _quantum lubet_, } as much as you
  _Q. p._, _quantum placet_,} please.
  _Q. s._, _quantum sufficiat_, as much as may suffice.
  _Quor._, _quorum_, of which.
  _Q. V._, _quantum vis_, as much as you will.
  _Red. in pulv._, _redactus in pulverem_, reduced to powder.
  _Redig. in pulv._, _redigatur in pulverem_, let it be reduced into
  _Reg. umbil._, _regio umbilici_, the umbilical region.
  _Repet._, _repetatur_, or _repetantur_, let it, or them, be repeated.
  _S. A._, _secundum artem_, according to art.
  _Scat._, _scatula_, a box.
  _S. N._, _secundum naturam_, according to nature.
  _Semidr._, _semidrachma_, half a drachm.
  _Semih._, _semihora_, half an hour.
  _Sesunc._, _sesuncia_, half an ounce.
  _Sesquih._, _sesquihora_, an hour and a half.
  _Si n. val._, _si non valeat_, if it does not answer.
  _Si op. sit_, _si opus sit_, if it be necessary.
  _Si vir. perm._, _si vires permittant_, if the strength allow it.
  _Signat._, _signatura_, a label.
  _Sign. n. pr._, _signetur nomine proprio_, let it be written upon, let
      it be signed with the proper name (not the trade name).
  _Sing._, _singulorum_, of each.
  _S. S. S._, _stratum super stratum_, layer upon layer.
  _Ss._, _semi_, a half.
  _St._, _stet_, let it stand; _stent_, let them stand.
  _Sub fin. coct._, _sub finem coctionis_, towards the end of boiling,
      when the boiling is nearly finished.
  _Sum. tal._, _sumat talem_, let the patient take one such as this.
  _Summ._, _summitates_, the summits or tops.
  _Sum._, _sume_, _sumat_, _sumatur_, _sumantur_, take, let him or her
      take, let it be taken, let them be taken.
  _S. V._, _spiritus vini_, spirit of wine.
  _S. V. R._, _spiritus vini rectificatus_, rectified spirit of wine.
  _S. V. T._, _spiritus vini tenuis_, proof spirit.
  _Tabel._, _tabella_, a lozenge.
  _Temp. dext._, _tempori dextro_, to the right temple.
  _T. O._, _tinctura opii_, tincture of opium.
  _T. O. C._, _tinctura opii camphorata_, camphorated tincture of opium.
  _Tra._, _tinctura_, tincture.
  _Ult. præscr._, _ultimo præscriptus_, last prescribed.
  _U. S. Ph._, United States’ Pharmacopœia.
  _V. O. S._, _vitello ovi solutus_, dissolved in the yolk of an egg.
  _Vom. urg._, _vomitione urgente_, the vomiting being troublesome.
  _V. S. B._, _venæsectio brachii_, bleeding from the arm.
  _Zz._, _zingiber_, ginger.


=ABDO′MEN.= [Eng., Fr., L.] In _anatomy_, the belly, or lower belly; the
great cavity of the body extending from the thorax, or chest, to the
bottom of the pelvis. It contains the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen,
kidneys, bladder, &c.; and in the female, the uterus, ovaria. &c.

=AB′ERNE′THY MEDICINES.= These originally consisted of a calomel pill, and
subsequently of a mercurial or ‘blue’ pill, to be taken over-night,
followed by an aromatised black draught in the morning. The quantity of
either of the former, for an adult, was about 3 gr. to 3-1/2 gr.,
increased a little in bulk by the addition of some liquorice powder; that
of the latter, from 1 to 1-1/2 fl. oz. As, however, when frequently taken,
these pills sometimes occasioned salivation, which proved prejudicial to
their sale, a little compound extract of colocynth (_Ph. L._, 1836) was
introduced into their composition, by which this objection was obviated.
Ultimately, their composition was settled at 3 gr. of mercurial pill, and
2 gr. of compound extract of colocynth; and these proportions are still
followed as the best by those who prepare and sell them. Persons who
object to black draught, will find a dose of castor oil, or of any other
mild purgative medicine that may be more agreeable to them, equally

The occasional use of these medicines seldom fails to prove highly
beneficial to the plethoric, bilious, and dyspeptic. In ordinary cases of
constipation, headache, &c., arising from deranged stomach or liver,
wherein the administration of mercurials is not contra-indicated, they
will be found of great service. It need scarcely be added that these
medicines are named after Mr Abernethy, the celebrated surgeon, who is
said to have frequently employed them in his practice.

=ABERRA′TION.= [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ ABERRA′TIO, L. A wandering or deviation
from the usual course, or from the normal condition. In _optics_, the
deviation of the rays of light from the true focus, when inflected by a
lens or speculum. This arises from a difference in the physical nature of
the rays, from the figure of the lenses or specula, or from the nature of
the materials of which the media traversed are composed. See ACHROMATISM,
LENS, &c.

=Aberration of mind.= Mental alienation or wandering; insanity. A term
frequently applied, in familiar language, to a mild form of incipient
insanity or dementia, which is more or less occasional or continued,
trifling or severe, according to circumstances. The studious, nervous,
slothful, and those who are engaged in sedentary occupations and spend
much of their time in ill-ventilated apartments, or who indulge in
irregular or vicious habits, as well as ‘fast livers,’ are the most liable
to this affection. It also frequently arises from disordered physical

_Treat., &c._ Change of scene, out-door exercise, agreeable company,
pleasing and continued mental occupation, and due attention to diet,
clothing, ventilation, &c., with the judicious use of some mild aperient
medicine and tepid bathing, will generally alleviate, and frequently
effect a cure. For the prevention of its accession, or its recurrence,
care should be taken to promote the general health, and also, where
necessary, to elevate the spirits and to divert the mind.

=ABLU′TION.= [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ ABLU′TIO, L. In a _general sense_,
washing, cleansing, or purification by water.

=Ablution.= In _hygiène_ and the _toilet_, a washing of the whole body, or
any part of it. The value of frequent and copious affusions of pure water
to the surface of the body is well known. During life, the skin is
continually subjected to abrasion, and the processes of reproduction and
decay, by which the cuticle, its exterior portion, is being constantly
thrown off as effete and useless matter, in the shape of very minute
scales or dust. This, mingling with the oily and saline products of the
skin, acquires sufficient adhesiveness to attach itself to the surface of
the body and clothing, as well as to attract the waste particles of the
dress, and the dust and soot floating in the atmosphere. In this way, if
occasional ablutions be not had recourse to, the channels of perspiration
will become choked, and the clothing itself rendered unwholesome and unfit
for use. The consequence of the pores of the skin being obstructed is
impeded transpiration, by which its functions, as a respiratory organ, are
interfered with or suspended. This adhering pellicle of refuse matter also
acts as an irritant, and forms a favorable medium for the absorption, and
the transmission into the body, of effluvia, miasmata, poisonous gases,
and the infectious and contagious matters of disease. “The greater part of
(contagious) poisons are conveyed to us through the external surface of
our bodies; and it is fully proved that poison, already communicated, has
been by cleanliness removed, before it could actually produce any bad
effects. I here allude, in particular, to frequent washing, bathing,
rinsing the mouth, combing and brushing the hair, and often changing the
linen, clothing, and bedding.” (Hufeland.) Such are the immediate effects
of neglected ablution of the skin; the further consequences are of an
equally serious character. The blood being deprived of one of its sources
of oxygen, and one of the outlets for its carbon, the functions of
nutrition become imperfect, and the animal temperature lessened. The
matters which would be thrown out of the system in the form of
perspiration are retained, and must be eliminated by other channels. The
lungs, the kidneys, the liver, and the bowels, are each, in their turn,
overtasked to perform the functions of another organ. The oppressed
viscera suffer from exhaustion, and incipient disease soon follows. Their
particular offices are languidly performed, the equilibrium of health is
disturbed, and skin diseases, or consumption, diarrhœa, dropsy,
liver-complaints, visceral obesity, or some other serious diseases of the
vital organs, ensue. When it is added, that no dirty or imperfectly washed
skin can long continue healthy, and ceasing to be healthy must also cease
to be agreeable and beautiful, the argument in favour of the daily use of
water of good quality to the whole surface of the body, when possible,
will surely be complete. The inculcation of habits of personal cleanliness
cannot be too forcibly emphasized. The fact, however, cannot be
overlooked, that in order to introduce habits of cleanliness amongst the
poorer classes, a plentiful supply of water, combined with cheap baths,
are requisite. Every officer of health should inquire into the amount as
well as the character of the water supply in the district over which he
has supervision. The body should be washed all over every morning with
either cold or lukewarm water and soap. This custom is more necessary for
workmen employed in laborious and dirty occupations than for those who
live sedentary lives; but all people perspire, and from every drop of
perspiration the water evaporates, and leaves a fraction of solid matter
on and around the pores that excrete the perspiration. If this solid
matter be not washed off, it accumulates and may derange the health.
Instances have occurred in which persons suffering from extensive bodily
burns have died, not from the effect of the injury, but from the
destruction of the pores or excreting vessels, with which the skin is
covered. It is well, therefore, to bear in mind that a dirty skin does not
always come from without, but also from within. Cold ablution, that has
been so indiscriminately recommended, is not half so efficacious, nor so
safe, as lukewarm. The German aurists ascribe the presence of the large
amount of deafness in England to our habit of washing the head and ears
each morning with cold water.

=Ablution.= In _medicine_, the washing the body, externally, as by
bathing; or internally, by diluting drinks. In ancient medicine, according
to Galen, internal ablution was accomplished by the use of profuse
libations of milk-whey; an object now aimed at, by the hydropathists, by
the copious administration of pure cold water. To neglect the daily
ablution of an infant is to discard one of the greatest aids to its
healthy development and physical wellbeing. That disregard of this
precaution is a fertile source of most of the skin diseases that affect
infants and children there seems little question about amongst medical
men. Water at a temperature ranging from 80° to 90° F. should always be
used. Mr Chevasse, in his ‘Counsel to a Mother,’ is emphatic in his
advocacy of rain water. He also advises the employment of Castile soap,
and of glycerine soap, should there be any excoriation of the skin. Of
course the same remarks apply to children as to infants, with this
difference, that the ablution is to be performed with water a few degrees
colder; and both infants and children should be rubbed dry with a dry soft
towel. There are doubtless many persons who deem themselves cleanly
washed, if in addition to their hands and arms, neck and face, undergoing
duly daily ablution, they wash their feet once a week. These individuals
cannot reflect that, because of their less exposure to the depurating
influence of the atmosphere, the feet require to be more frequently washed
than either the hands or face. See BATHING, BATHS, HYDROPATHY, &c.

=ABNORM′AL.= [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ ABNOR′MIS, L. In _medicine_ and the
_collateral sciences_, contrary to, or without system or rule; irregular;
deformed; unnatural. In a diseased or unhealthy state.

=ABORTION IN COWS.= Abortion is the expulsion of the contents of the
pregnant womb before the full period of gestation is complete, and occurs
much more frequently in cows than in any other of the lower animals.
Abortion is often induced by shocks and injuries, feeding on ergotised
grasses, but more commonly by causes which are less obvious. Thus, bad
smells, pasturing on flooded meadows, rich and stimulating food, and even
association with other cows while aborting, are among the exciting causes
of this malady. The premonitory signs are an irritable excited state of
the animal, a discharge from the vagina, looseness and fulness of the
external organs of generation, and, occasionally, sudden enlargement of
the udder. These symptoms may continue for several days, and, if noticed
before straining or other signs of calving have appeared, the animal
should be copiously bled and placed in a comfortable loose-box, kept as
quiet as possible, moderately supplied with soft laxative food, and, if
the bowels be costive, with a pound or two of treacle daily. Powerful
purgatives are too irritant, and must, therefore, be studiously avoided.
Two ounces of laudanum, with the same quantity of sweet spirits of nitre,
should be given twice a day until all danger is over. To prevent the
continuance and spread of the evil, place the cow by herself as soon as
she aborts; remove and bury the fœtus beyond the reach of other cows; feed
off the cow, if practicable, but if she be again bulled, it ought not to
be for several weeks, and until the period of heat is passing off; remove
all disagreeable smells, and see that the remainder of the herd are
moderately fed and carefully watched, so that the earliest symptoms of
abortion may be noticed.

=ABRA′SION.= [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ ABRA′SIO, L. The rubbing or wearing down
of surfaces by friction. In the _arts_, the reduction or figuration of
materials by the use of an abrasive tool, or grinder, of which the
effective portion is an exact counterpart of the form to be produced.

=Abrasion.= In _numismatics_, the ‘wear and tear,’ or waste of the
substance of coins, in the pocket and circulation. It forms a large item
in the expense of a metallic currency. The means employed to obviate, or
to reduce it, consist in either alloying the metal to render it tougher
and harder, or raising the borders so as to lessen the surface exposed to
friction. In well-formed coin both methods are adopted.

=Abrasion.= In _pathology_ and _surgery_——1. A superficial removal or
injury of the skin by fretting or friction.

_Treat., &c._ When the injured surface is large, or exposed, it should be
protected from dirt and further injury, by applying a piece of lint or
soft linen rag, covered with spermaceti cerate, or some other simple
ointment; over which a piece of strapping, or bandage of any sort, may be
placed to keep it on. In many cases, a piece of common sticking-plaster
will be found quite sufficient.

2. A very superficial ulceration or excoriation of the intestinal or other
mucous membrane. _Treat_. Aperients of castor oil, demulcents, and a
light nutritious diet. See EXCORIATIONS.

=ABRUS PRECATORIUS.= (Ind. Ph.) Indian Liquorice Plant. _Habitat._
Tropical portions of both hemispheres, _Officinal part._ The root (_Abri
Radix_, _Indian Liquorice_). Occurs in pieces of various lengths, from 1/2
to 1 inch in diameter; pale brown externally, yellowish internally;
inodorous, taste sweetish and mucilaginous, much resembling officinal
liquorice root. _Properties and uses._ Similar to those of liquorice, for
which it forms an excellent substitute. _Preparation._ EXTRACT OF ABRUS
(_Extractum Abri_). Prepared as Extractum Glycyrrhizæ.

=ABSCESS.= A formation of matter or pus, resulting from inflammation,
either acute or chronic. The symptoms are pain, swelling, heat, and
redness, a conical projection on the swelling, often with a white point at
the apex. Abscess or suppuration may come on any part of the body. When
the local inflammation does not yield to cold lotions, apply poultices; a
pledget of lint dipped in cold water and kept moist by means of oil-silk;
a slice of bread softened with boiling water or milk, or linseed meal,
make the best poultices. Should the pain be severe add laudanum, and
additionally rub it round the swelling. Or apply common white paint by
laying it on gently with a brush, or else tincture of marigold or arnica
in the same manner. Chronic abscesses in the glands in the neck are
usually scrofulous, and should be opened. Abscesses in the breast should
not be opened too early, or others are formed. Those in the gums may be
cut early, not so if in the tonsils. After opening with a needle or
lancet-point external abscesses, continue to poultice till the hardness
disappears, then dress with spermaceti ointment spread on lint. When the
abscess is of a dangerous nature, lose no time in consulting a medical

_Treatment for horses and cattle._ Mr Finlay Dun prescribes fomentations,
poultices, counter-irritants, the knife, cauterisation, carbolic-acid
dressing, stimulating injections, and the administration of sulphites and
chlorate of potash.

is met with in commerce in the form of the dried herb with the flowers of
_Artemisia Absinthium_, having a whitish-grey appearance, a soft feel, an
aromatic and unpleasant odour, and an extremely bitter and aromatic
flavour. The plant is indigenous, and grows in thickets, in mountainous
districts, and on waste ground. Its odour is due to its containing an
essential oil; its bitterness is referable to _absinthin_, a
crystallisable principle which may be extracted from the herb by water or
spirit. The name _absinthe_ is also given to an intoxicating liqueur which
is extensively drunk on the Continent, and which unfortunately appears to
be rapidly attracting consumers in this country. The remarks on this
subject by Blyth in his admirable ‘Dictionary of Hygiène’ are so pregnant
with important facts that they will be here produced _verbatim et
literatim_. “An analysis recently made at the _Conservatoire des Arts_
shows that absinthe now contains a large quantity of antimony, a poison
which cannot fail to add largely to the irritant effects necessarily
produced on the alimentary canal and liver by constant doses of a
concentrated alcoholic liquid. And we have recently received the results
of some experiments made by M. Magnan, of Paris. By means of successive
distillations he has been able to isolate various products——(1) a blue
oil; (2) a yellowish oil; (3) an oxygenated substance. There was besides a
yellowish residue left in the glass. These various substances were tried
on animals; ten grammes of the yellow sediment given to a small dog
produced no effect; thirty centigrammes of the blue oil produced from
eight to ten epileptiform attacks. The oxygenated product proved, however,
the most powerful toxic agent. Fifteen centigrammes of it, injected into
the veins of a large dog, caused the most violent epileptic attacks, which
followed in rapid succession, and ended in death. There was an
extraordinary rise of temperature, from 39° to 42° Centigrade, and the
_post mortem_ showed various apoplectic centres. Dr Decaisne regards the
terrible evil of this almost universal absinthe-drinking as the greatest
national calamity that has ever befallen France, and has made an eloquent
appeal to the Government to strike at once a decisive blow at the trade in
this liqueur. Originally the only important ingredient in its composition
besides alcohol was the essential oil of absinthium or wormwood; and
though this without doubt added something to the mischievous effects of
the liqueur, it would be impossible to trace to it, or to the other
comparatively trivial ingredients, the more serious of the special results
which are now observed to occur to victims of absinthe, though the
habitual drinking even in small doses of _good_ absinthe is believed by Dr
Decaisne, sooner or later, to produce disorders in the animal economy. Now
various deleterious substances are added, the most important of these
being antimony. As at present constituted, therefore, and especially when
drunk in the disastrous excess now common in Paris, and taken, as it
frequently is, on an empty stomach, absinthe forms a chronic poison of
almost unequalled virulence, both as an irritant to the stomach and
bowels, and also as a destroyer of the nervous system. The effect of
absinthe is to produce a superabundant activity of the brain, a cerebral
excitement, which at first is agreeable; intoxication comes on rapidly;
the head swims, and the effect produced is nearly the same as that of
poisoning by a narcotic, which certainly does not occur with an equal dose
of brandy. With the absinthe-drinker, as with the opium-eater, the
excitement the spirit produces diminishes daily in intensity. Each day he
is obliged to augment the dose in order to bring himself up to the right
pitch. The diseases brought on by the excessive drinking of ardent spirits
are produced with greater rapidity by the use of absinthe.” The amount of
absinthe consumed in London has during the last few years been enormously
on the increase. See LIQUEURS.

=ABSINTHIN.= C_{16}H_{22}O_{5}. The bitter principle of wormwood
(_Artemisia absinthium_). A hard crystalline solid, having an intensely
bitter taste; slightly soluble in water, very soluble in alcohol, less so
in ether. Its physiological effects resemble those of extract of wormwood.
_Dose._ 1/2 gr. to 2 gr., or more; in dyspepsia; as a stomachic, to
promote the appetite, &c.; as a substitute for quinine in intermittents;
and in worms.


_chemistry_, pure, unmixed; as _absolute alcohol_, pure spirit of wine,
_i.e._ free from water.

=ABSORBED′= (-sorbd′). _Syn._ CHILLED; ABSORBÉ, Fr. In _painting_, a term
among French connoisseurs, to represent that state of a picture in which
the oil has sunk into the canvas or ground, leaving the colours ‘flat,’
and the touches indistinct. The remedy consists in rubbing the surface of
the picture, previously well cleaned, with a soft sponge dipped in a
little drying oil, and after some days varnishing it; when it should be
kept in a warm room until perfectly dry.

Imbibing; that imbibes or sucks up; variously applied in science and art.
(See _below_.)

=Absorbent Ground.= In _painting_, a picture-ground prepared wholly or
chiefly in distemper or water colour, in order that the redundant oil in
the colours subsequently applied may be immediately ‘absorbed,’ by which
expedition is permitted, and brilliancy imparted to them.

=Absorbent Surfaces.= In the _arts_, these are usually rendered
non-absorbent, preliminary to their being bronzed, gilded, painted, or
varnished, by giving them one, or more, coats of thin size, so as to
destroy their porosity; care being taken to allow each coat to become
thoroughly dry before the application of the next one; and also, finally,
to remove any unabsorbed excess of size from the surface, by means of a
sponge dipped in warm water. This applies to ALABASTER, PAPER, WOOD,
PLASTER CASTS, &c.; and to WALLS and CEILINGS which are not exposed to the
weather, and which there is not time to prepare with drying oil. See

Absorption and consequent adherence in porous moulds, as those of plaster,
are usually prevented by thoroughly saturating the pores of the mould with
melted tallow, or a mixture of tallow and bees’ wax; or for delicate
objects or the electrotype, with white wax. The ‘dry moulds’ are either
heated before the application of these substances, or they are boiled in
them; any portion that may finally remain unabsorbed, being carefully
removed with cotton-wool or a soft rag. Another method is to wash the
moulds over two or three times with drying oil, or to boil them in it;
after which they must be exposed to the air for some days, to dry and
harden. Before being used for plaster, composition, &c., the surface of
these prepared moulds require to be slightly moistened with sweet oil.

_Plaster moulds_ are generally prepared for sulphur, wax, and gutta percha
casts, by simply placing them (upright) with the back immersed in a little
water, contained in any shallow vessel, as a saucer or plate; and letting
them remain there until moisture begins to appear on the surface. The
materials to be cast, or moulded, should then be used at the lowest
possible temperature, to prevent the formation of air-bubbles.

The adherence of wax or mixtures containing it, and of gutta percha, is
best prevented by moistening the surface of the mould (whether of plaster,
metal, or gutta percha), immediately before use, with soft soap reduced to
the consistence of thin cream with water. See CASTS, MOULDS, ELECTROTYPE,

=ABSORB′ENTS.= In _anatomy_ and _physiology_, two distinct sets of small,
delicate, transparent vessels, which imbibe or suck up fluid substances,
and convey them to the blood. They are termed lacteals or lymphatics; the
former take up the chyme from the alimentary canal, the latter pervade
almost every part of the body in which they absorb lymph.

=Absorbents.= In _botany_ and _vegetable physiology_, the origins of the
different vessels constituting the vascular tissue, as they are found in
the root, where they imbibe or suck up the nutritive fluids from the soil.

=Absorbents.= In _agriculture_ and _chemistry_, substances which possess
the power of withdrawing moisture from the atmosphere; as soils,
argillaceous earths, &c. Also (but less frequently) substances which
neutralise acids; as chalk, lime, and magnesia. Absorbents differ from
‘deliquescent salts’; the latter attract moisture and dissolve in it;
whilst the former merely suck it into their pores, as a sponge does water.

=Absorbents.= _Syn._ ABSORBEN′TIA, L. In _medicine_ and _pharmacy_,
substances which remove acidity from the stomach and bowels. Of these the
principal are——magnesia, carbonate and bicarbonate of magnesia, prepared
chalk, and the carbonates and bicarbonates of potash, soda, and ammonia.
The first four are popularly called earthy absorbents; and the others,
alkaline absorbents. See ANTACIDS.

The following absorbent mixtures are taken from Dr Kirby’s valuable work,
‘Selected Remedies’:

1. Infusion of rhubarb, 1-1/2 oz.; compound spirit of ammonia, 1-1/2 dr.;
compound infusion of gentian to 6 oz. Two tablespoonfuls to be taken 3
times a day.

2. Bicarbonate of potash, 1-1/2 dr.; syrup, 2 drs.; compound spirit
ammonia, 1-1/2 dr.; compound infusion of gentian to 6 oz. Two
tablespoonfuls to be taken 3 times a day.

3. Bicarbonate of soda, 1-1/2 dr.; spirits of chloroform, 1-1/2 dr.;
infusion of calumba to 6 oz. Two tablespoonfuls to be taken 3 times a day.

=ABSORP′TION.= [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ ABSORP′TIO, L.; EINSAUGUNG, Ger. The act
or the power of absorbing, in various applications. (See _below_.)

=Absorption.= In _agriculture_, the power possessed by soils of absorbing
moisture from the atmosphere. The more a soil is divided by labour and
vegetation, the greater is its absorbent power, and, consequently, its
fertility. Indeed, the latter chiefly depends on its capacity for imbibing
moisture, and may be illustrated by reference to recent and disintegrated
lava. (Leslie.) The finely divided state, most penetrable by the delicate
fibres of plants, appears to derive its superior power of acting on
atmospheric vapour from the augmentation of its surface and the
multiplication of its points of contact. (Ure.) This method of increasing
the fertility of a soil is well known to scientific farmers, and seldom
neglected by them. (Loudon.) That soil must be regarded as the most
fertile which possesses this power in the greatest degree. Garden-mould
has the highest absorbent power of any mineral substance. (Leslie.)

_Process of ascertaining_ the ABSORBENT POWER OF SOILS, _and other
substances._ Thoroughly dry the article by the suitable application of a
heat not exceeding 212° Fahr., continued for several hours, and transfer
it, while still warm, into a clean dry phial furnished with a perfectly
tight ground-glass stopper. When cold, quickly and cautiously introduce
it, along with a delicate hygrometer, into a large wide-mouthed glass
bottle, the atmosphere of which has been previously rendered as damp as
possible, by suspending a piece of moistened rag or filtering paper in it.
It must now be kept closed for some hours, when the hygrometer will
indicate the degree of dryness of the enclosed air, and, consequently, the
absorbent power of the substance examined.

_Obs._ Experiments of this nature are only relatively correct, and must be
performed under exactly similar circumstances, to furnish reliable
comparative results. The whole process, in each case, must be as similar
as careful manipulation can possibly make them. With this reserve, they
will be found invaluable to the agriculturist.

=Absorption.= In _chemistry_ the passage of gases and vapours into liquid
and solid substances. Thus, water absorbs the oxygen of the air, lime
absorbs water, charcoal absorbs ammoniacal and other gases.

=Absorption.= In _medicine_ and _toxicology_, see MEDICINES and POISONS.

=Absorption.= In _perfumery_, see ENFLEURAGE.

=Absorption.= In _physics_, see HEAT, LIGHT, REFRIGERATION, &c.

=Absorption.= In _physiology_ (animal and vegetable), the function of
sucking, or taking up, of appropriate substances, by the ‘absorbent
vessels.’ It is one of the chief vital functions, the primary object of
which is to convey to the circulatory organs the proper supply of the
materials necessary for the support and growth of the body; and
subsequently, to remove and convey to these organs its effete and useless
portions, in order to their ultimate elimination from the system.

=Absorption.= In _surgery_, the natural process by which tumours and their
contents, morbid growths, and, sometimes, even healthy glands, &c., are
gradually taken up and disappear, by the action of the ‘absorbents.’

=Absorption= (of Surfaces, Moulds, &c). See ABSORBENT SURFACES.

=ABSTERG′ENTS.= _Syn._ ABSTERGEN′TIA, L. In _medicine_ and _pharmacy_,
substances which cleanse or clear away foulness from the surface of the
body or sores; as soap, lotions, &c. See DETERGENT, which has a nearly
similar meaning, and is in more general use.

=AC′ARI= (-rī). [L.; prim. Gr.] _Syn._ ACAR′IDANS; ACAR′IDES (dēz);
ACARID′IÆ. (-e-ē). In _entomology_, a division of arachnidans, including
the _mite_ and _tick_. All the species are either microscopic or extremely
minute, and possess such tenacity of life as to resist for some time the
action of boiling water, and to live with comparative impunity in alcohol.
Leuwenhoek had one that lived eleven weeks glued on its back to the point
of a needle, without food. The following are well known——ACARUS
AUTUMNA′LIS, the _harvest-bug_ or _wheal-worm_; A. DOMES′TICUS, the
_domestic tick_; A. DYSENTE′RIÆ, the _dysentery-tick_; A. FARI′NÆ, the
_meal mite_ (fig. _a_); A. RI′′CINUS (rĭc-), the _dog-tick_; A. SAC′CHARI,
the _sugar-mite_ (fig. _b_); A. SI′′RO, the _cheese-mite_ (fig. _c_); A.
SCABIE′I, the _itch-insect_ (fig. _d_).

The irritation of the skin, caused by these vermin, may be relieved by a
lotion of equal parts of sal volatile and water; and they may be destroyed
by tobacco water, or a lotion or ointment of stavesacre. See ITCH, MANGE,

=Acarus Farinæ=, or _meal-mite_ (fig. _a_). This insect is found only in
damaged flour, and is more frequently met with in the flour of the
_leguminosæ_ (beans, peas) than in that of the _gramineæ_ (wheat, rye,

Now and then a single acarus may occasionally be found in good flour, but
even one should be regarded with suspicion, and the flour should
afterwards be frequently examined to see if they are increasing.

[Illustration: FIG. _a._ Mag. 250 diams.]

=Acarus Sacchari=, or _sugar-mite_ (fig. _b_).

[Illustration: FIG. _b._ Mag. 260 diams.]

Most of the brown sugars of commerce are infested by this pest, which is
of a size sufficiently large to be visible to the naked eye. The following
method of proceeding will lead to its detection:

Dissolve 2 or 3 teaspoonfuls of sugar in a large wineglass of tepid water,
and let the solution remain for an hour or so, at the expiration of which
time the acari may be found, some on the surface of the liquid, some
attaching themselves to the sides of the glass, and some at the bottom,
mixed up with the copious and dark sediment, made up of fragments of cane,
woody fibre, grit, dirt, and starch granules, which usually subside on
dissolving even a small quantity of sugar in hot water. When first hatched
this acarus is hardly visible.

Acari of all sizes——that is, in all stages of growth——may be met with in
most samples of sugar.

Dr Hassall, in seventy-two samples of sugar which he examined, found
sixty-nine containing them.

[Illustration: FIG. _c._]

=Acarus Siro=, the _cheese-mite_ (fig. _c_). The dry and powdery parts of
decayed cheese, which by careful watching may very frequently be seen in
movement, consist almost wholly of this insect and their eggs in different
stages of development. The cheese-mite can hardly be seen without the aid
of the microscope. They are very tenacious of life, even when kept without
food. Mr Blyth says that under these circumstances “it is no uncommon
sight to see them killing and devouring each other; and that cheese is
rapidly destroyed by them; they crumble it into minute pieces, and emit a
liquid substance which causes the decayed parts to spread speedily.” They
may be destroyed by being exposed to a strong heat, or by putting the
cheese for a short time in whisky.

[Illustration: FIG. _d._]

=Acarus Scabiei=, the _itch-insect_ (fig. _d_). The parasitic character of
the disease known as the itch was first demonstrated by Dr Bononio, who
on turning out the contents of one of the little bladders that show
themselves between the fingers of those affected with the complaint, and
placing the fluid under the microscope, discovered a minute animal, very
nimble in its movements, covered with short hairs, having a short head, a
pair of strong mandibles or cutting-jaws, and eight legs, terminating in
remarkable appendages, each provided with a sucker and setæ.

It has no eyes; but when disturbed it quickly draws in its head and feet,
and then somewhat resembles the tortoise in appearance, its march being
precisely the same. It usually lays sixteen eggs, which are carefully
deposited in furrows under the skin, and ranged in pairs; these are
hatched in about ten days.

“To find the itch-insect,” says Mr Jabez Hogg, “the operator must
carefully examine the parts surrounding each pustule; he will then see a
red line or spot communicating with it; this part, and not the pustule,
must be probed with a fine-pointed instrument. The operator must not be
disappointed by repeated failures.”


=ACCIDENTS.= _Black eye._ Bathe the eye frequently with a soft piece of
linen rag dipped in a lotion composed of one part of tincture of arnica
and seven parts of water.

_Burns and Scalds._ Refer to BURNS and SCALDS.

_Charcoal_, _combustion of_, _poisoning by._ Refer to CARBONIC ANHYDRIDE.

_Choking, or suffocation from substances sticking in the throat._ Refer to

_Cut Finger._ Refer to CUTS.

_Precautions against Fires._ Refer to FIRES.

_Precautions against Lightning._ To take refuge under a tree during a
thunderstorm accompanied by lightning is to expose oneself to a double
danger——firstly, because by keeping the clothes dry these are prevented
becoming the non-conductors they would be if damp; and secondly, because
the tree, serving as a point of attraction for the lightning, conducts it
to the ground, and in doing so frequently rends the trunks or branches,
and kills any person or animal who happens to be close to, or in contact
with, it at the time.

Never, therefore, if overtaken by a storm of thunder and lightning fly to
the dangerous cover of a tree, pillar, hay-rick, wall, or hedge, but seek
shelter in the nearest dwelling; or if this is not at hand, get to a part
of the road or field where there is no object to attract the lightning,
and there remain till the storm has expended itself. Also avoid
particularly the proximity of iron gates, palisades, bronze statues, bell
wires, iron railings, and such like. When in the house, do not sit or
stand near the windows, doors, or walls, but place yourself in the middle
of the room, unless there should be a lamp or chandelier hanging from the
ceiling. Franklin recommends persons to keep away from the neighbourhood
of fireplaces.

_Treatment of persons struck by lightning._ In case of any person being
struck by lightning, immediately strip the body and throw bucketsful of
cold water over it for ten or fifteen minutes; continued frictions and
inhalations of the lungs must also be employed, and electricity should be
tried if it be possible.

=Accidents by Poison.= The means to be adopted in cases where poison is
taken, if the poison be known, are embodied in the antidotes, which will
be found given in this volume under the respective poisons.

Under all circumstances, however, medical aid should be sought as
expeditiously as possible, since many of the antidotes themselves being of
a dangerous, if not poisonous, character, should only be administered
under medical supervision. Pending the arrival of the doctor, no time
should be lost in giving an emetic, consisting of a teaspoonful of flour
of mustard in half a pint of warm water, supplemented by copious draughts
of warm water, and tickling the throat with the finger if necessary.

_Fish poisoning._ It is a not unfrequent occurrence to find fish when
eaten giving rise to a species of poisoning of a more or less violent
form, such as a sense of weight at the stomach, accompanied with nausea,
vertigo, headache, heat about the head and eyes, pains in the stomach,
thirst, and often an eruption of the skin resembling nettle-rash. These
symptoms may be sometimes due to the nature of the fish itself; sometimes
to its being in a state unfit to be taken as food, as, for instance, when
it is in a stale or decomposing condition; and occasionally to the
peculiarity of constitution of those who partake of it, even if in a
perfectly fresh condition. Whenever any of the symptoms above described
follow from eating fish, an emetic of mustard and water (a teaspoonful of
mustard in half a pint of water) should be administered. If subsequently a
rash should appear, it would be well to take a dose of brisk purgative
medicine, and, if necessary, a few doses of carbonate of soda 3 or 4 times
during the day.

_Poisonous Mushrooms._ The same treatment should be followed as for fish.
With some people the edible mushroom acts as a poison.

_Sinks._ See that these be securely trapped, and in the event of any
unpleasant smell from them, pour down some disinfectant, such as chloride
of lime, carbolic acid, or Condy’s fluid. The foul emanations from a sink
ought to be regarded as of a most dangerous and pestilential nature.

=Accidents to Children.= Many, if not most, of the casualties to which
children are exposed are given above, together with the best course to be
pursued in the event of their being overtaken by any of them. There are,
however, a few forms of disaster which seem more especially peculiar to
children. Of these we may select——

_Swallowing a piece of broken glass._ In this case avoid giving
purgatives, but give solid farinaceous food, so as to envelope the glass
and enable it to pass through the bowels without causing injury by coming
in contact with them.

_Swallowing a coin._ Give a dose or two of castor oil, and examine the
stools until the coin is perceived.

_A small coin sticking in the windpipe._ Seize the child by the legs,
letting his head hang downwards, then administer several brisk blows on
the back with the palm of the hand, when very frequently the coin will be
coughed out of the mouth and on to the floor. If this plan do not succeed,
send immediately for medical aid.

=ACCLI′MATE=, or =ACCLI′MATISE=. In _botany_ and _zoology_, to inure a
plant or animal to a climate to which it is not indigenous. When so inured
it is said to be ACCLIMATED. In _medicine_, to habituate the body to a
foreign climate, so that it may not be peculiarly liable to its endemic
diseases; or to become so habituated. Thus, a person who has resided
several years at New Orleans without an attack of yellow fever, or having
had an attack has satisfactorily recovered, is said to be ACCLI′MATISED.

=ACCOM′PANIMENTS.= In _cookery_ and _housekeeping_, see TRIMMINGS.

=ACCUMULA′TION.= [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ ACCUMULA′TIO, L. In _medicine_, a term
applied when the effects of the first dose of any substance still continue
when the second is administered (accumulation of action); or when several
doses of insoluble substances remain inactive in the system until their
energy is developed by chemical influence (accumulation of doses). See

=ACEPH′ALANS.= _Syn._ ACEPH′ALA, CUV. In _malacology_, a class of aquatic
mollusca, having no apparent head, but a mouth between the folds of their
mantle. Several of them, as the oyster, cockle, mussel, scallop, &c., are
consumed for food.

_chemistry_, &c., sourness, with bitterness and astringency, or harshness.

diseases. Gum euphorbium, 10 parts; absolute alcohol, 10 parts; olive oil,
80 parts. Digest in a warm-water bath for 24 hours, then boil until all
the spirit has evaporated, and, when cold, strain through cotton. (Hager.)

=ACER′IDES.= Plasters that do not contain wax.

Ger. In _chemistry_, &c., growing sour; slightly tart or acid; having a
tendency to sourness, or to run into the acetic fermentation, as _wine_,
_beer_, _malt-wort_, &c. Hence, ACES′CENCE or ACES′CENCY (_acescen′tia_,
L.; _acescense_, _aigreur_, Fr.; _säurlichkeit_, Ger.), the tendency to
become slightly acid, or the quality of being so. See ACETIFICATION,

=ACETA′′RIOUS= (-tāre′-e-ŭs). Used for salads (as plants); relating to
salads (which see).

Ger. In _chemistry_, a salt consisting of C_{2}H_{3}O_{2} (sometimes
called the acid-radical of the acetates) with hydrogen, a metal, or a
compound basic radical; _e.g._,

  Hydrogen acetate (acetic acid) HC_{2}H_{3}O_{2}
  Potassium acetate              KC_{2}H_{3}O_{2}
  Lead (plumbic) acetate         Pb(C_{2}H_{3}O_{2})_{2}
  Ammonium acetate               NH_{4}C_{2}H_{3}O_{2}
  Salts of acetic acid           (HC_{2}H_{3}O_{2})
      with the alkaloids are likewise termed acetates; _e.g._,
  Morphia acetate                C_{17}H_{19}NO_{3} . C_{2}H_{4}O_{2}

_Prep._ That of the commercial acetates, and of many others, is noticed
under the respective metals. In general, they may all be formed by direct
solution of the carbonate, hydrate or oxide of the metal whose acetate it
is desired to form, in dilute acetic acid; or from a solution of an
acetate and of another salt of the metal, by double decomposition. In
either case, the resulting solution must be carefully evaporated by a
gentle heat, and, where possible, crystallised.

_Prop., &c._ All the neutral acetates, except those of molybdenum and
tungsten, are more or less soluble in water, several so much so as to be
uncrystallizable; many dissolve in alcohol; they suffer decomposition at a
dull red heat, and by distillation, at that temperature, yield acetone and
water, or acetone and acetic acid, and leave a carbonaceous residuum; at a
full red-heat, those of potassium, sodium, barium, strontium, calcium, and
magnesium, are converted into carbonates, whilst the other metallic
acetates leave behind the pure metal, or its oxide. The aqueous solutions
of the alkaline acetates soon turn mouldy and suffer decomposition. No
more of them should, therefore, be dissolved at once than is required for
immediate use.

_Char., tests, &c._ The acetates are known——1. By evolving fumes of acetic
acid, recognisable by its peculiar and characteristic odour, on the
addition of strong sulphuric acid:——2. By evolving the vapour of acetic
ether (known by its peculiar and agreeable odour) when heated with a
mixture of about equal parts of concentrated sulphuric acid and alcohol.

=AC′ETATED= (ăs′-). In _chemistry_ and _pharmacy_, combined or impregnated
with acetic acid or vinegar.

=ACE′TIC.= _Syn._ ACE′TICUS, L.; ACÉTIQUE, Fr. Of or relating to vinegar;
made with acetic acid, as perfumes, &c. (See _below_.)

=ACETIC ACID.= HC_{2}H_{3}O_{2}. _Syn._ PYROLIG′NEOUS ACID (_pure_); ACID
ESSIGSÄURE, Ger.; AZYNZUUR, Dut.; EISEL, Sax. When free from water it
crystallises on cooling, and is distinguished as——ACETIC HYDRATE,
A. A., ACE′TUM GLACIA′LE, ACIDUM ACE′TICUM G., L., &c. the sour principle
of vinegar.

_Var._ Commercial acetic acid is found under the form of the pure acid of
the chemist and pharmaceutist (glacial and dilute), and of vinegar, of
which there are several varieties, which are noticed under their
respective heads.

_Sources._ Fermented liquors; the vinegars of commerce; alcoholic liquors;
wood, from which it is obtained, as pyroligneous acid, by distillation;
the commercial acetates of soda, potassa, lime, lead, copper, &c. The pure
acetic acid of the chemist and of commerce is almost wholly obtained from
the acetates, either by the action of a strong acid, which seizes on the
base, setting the acid free; or, by dry distillation, in which the high
degree of heat employed separates the acetic acid from the base in the
form of vapour. It is also obtained by the oxidation of alcohol.

_Prep._ The following are the principal processes at present adopted to
obtain pure acetic acid:——

1. From the _Acetates_ in the moist way:——

_a._ From ACETATE OF SODA:——

1. Commercial acetate of soda (_i.e._, the ‘pure acetate’ of the
pyroligneous acid works), in crystals, is put into the body of a stout
copper still, and a deep cavity being made in the centre of the mass,
about 35% of sulphuric acid of a sp. gr. of not less than 1·84 is poured
in; the walls of the cavity are then thrown in upon the acid, and the
whole briskly agitated, for a very short time, with a large wooden
spatula; the head of the still is next luted on, and the distillation
conducted at a gentle heat, the receiver being changed as soon as the
distillate begins to acquire a slight empyreumatic odour. The product,
when the process is well managed, is an almost colourless acid of the sp.
gr. of fully 1·05, containing about 40% of glacial acid, or between 34%
and 35% of anhydrous acid. Any trace of colour or empyreuma is removed by
agitation with some well-washed and recently ignited vegetable charcoal,
or with a very small quantity of recently ignited purified animal
charcoal, and subsequently passing it through a prepared calico
bag-filter; or by allowing it to stand, for about a fortnight, in barrels
containing some beech-wood chips; after which it is ready for sale, either
as the ordinary acetic acid or pure pyroligneous acid of commerce, or (on
dilution, &c.) as vinegar.

2. The acid of sp. gr. 1·05 (obtained as above) is distilled with fused
chloride of calcium, the distillate being run into a refrigerator; the
crystals that form are drained at a temperature below 40° or 45° Fahr.,
and after removal to a warmer temperature, where they liquefy, and
agitation with a little peroxide of lead, are submitted to a second
distillation, as before; and this is repeated until the whole of the acid
crystallises at 51° Fahr. The product is the glacial acetic acid of

_Obs._ The above are the processes usually adopted, on the large scale, in
this country.

3. (M. Mollerat’s process——without distillation.) Pure commercial acetate
of soda, in coarse powder, is placed in a hard glazed stoneware or glass
pan or receiver set in a cool situation, and 35% or 36% of concentrated
sulphuric acid, of the sp. gr. 1·843, added, in such a manner that the
acid may flow under the powder, and little heat be generated by the
operation; the whole is then allowed to remain in contact (covered) for
some hours, when crystalline grains of sulphate of soda are found covering
the bottom and sides of the vessel, and hydrated acetic acid, partly
liquid and partly in crystals, the upper portion. The temperature being
now slightly raised to a point just sufficient to cause the liquefaction
of the crystals of acetic acid (_i.e._, to from 62° to 65° Fahr.), the
fluid is poured off, and a very small quantity of pure acetate of lime
added to it gradually, until it ceases to yield any trace of free
sulphuric acid on evaporation. After sufficient repose it is carefully
decanted for use. An excellent commercial strong acetic acid is thus
obtained, without distillation, owing to the insolubility of sulphate of
soda in acetic acid; and from which glacial acid may be procured by
refrigeration. If, however, the process be badly managed, or the
proportions of the ingredients be not carefully observed, the product will
be contaminated with either a little sulphuric acid or saline matter. It
is also important to the success of this process that it be performed in a
cool apartment, and in well-cooled vessels. Perfectly pure acetic acid may
easily be obtained by rectification from this acid. The above plan of
superseding a troublesome distillation is one of the greatest improvements
yet introduced into the manufacture of acetic acid.

4. (Liebig’s process.) Pure acetate of soda, thoroughly dried and finely
powdered, 3 parts, is placed in a capacious retort, and pure concentrated
sulphuric acid, 9·7 parts, poured over it through the tubulature. One
eighth of the acetic acid passes over by the heat developed by the
reaction of the ingredients. The heat of a sand bath is next applied and
continued until the contents of the retort become quite liquid. The
distillate, carefully rectified, yields two parts of pure acid, containing
only 20 per cent. of water. On exposing the latter portion which comes
over in a closed vessel to a temperature below 40° Fahr., crystals of
hydrated acetic acid are deposited. The weaker, or liquid portion, being
poured off, the crystals are again melted and re-crystallised by cooling.
The crystals of the last operation, separated from the liquid, and
carefully drained in a cool and closed vessel, are perfectly pure hydrated
acetic acid.

_Obs._ The above is an excellent process for obtaining a chemically pure
acid. The excess of sulphuric acid left from the process may be recovered
by distillation; or the whole residuum may be employed in a second
distillation with fresh acetate.

[Illustration: (_C._) A Liebig’s Condenser. (The other _reference letters_
are self-explanatory.)]

Although a retort is recommended by Liebig for the distillation, and is
usually adopted, on the small scale, for the purpose, a flask closed by a
cork perforated by two tubes, as exhibited by the _engr._, will be found
more convenient and safe; as the product is then less likely to be
contaminated by the ‘spirting’ of the ingredients over the brim of the
vessel. The heat of a diffused gas-flame may also be often advantageously
substituted for a sand bath.


1. Acetate of potash (fused and powdered) is placed in a still, or other
suitable vessel, and 50% of the strongest sulphuric acid (‘oil of vitriol’
of fully 1·84 sp. gr.) being added, the mixture is distilled to dryness,
as before. The product is 50 to 51% of the weight of the acetate employed,
with a sp. gr. of about 1·0735 to 1·074, containing about 66% of anhydrous
acetic acid, or nearly 80% of ordinary glacial acid. By rectification from
a little dried acetate of lead a perfectly pure acid of almost any
strength may be obtained. The ingredients are nearly in equiv.

_c._ From ACETATE OF LEAD:——

1. (Ure.) Take of dried acetate of lead, 4 parts; strongest oil of
vitriol, 1 part. Distil slowly to dryness. Nearly equal to the last.

2. (Liebig.) Acetate of lead, 3 parts; sulphuric acid, 8 parts; as before.

3. (Dollfuss’ Concentrated Acetic Acid.) Take of dried acetate of lead, 12
oz.; sulphuric acid, 6 oz.; distil 7 ounces.

_d._ From ACETATE OF LIME:——

1. (Christl.) Raw acetate or pyrolignate of lime (prepared by Völckel’s
process), 100 parts, is mixed with hydrochloric acid (20° Baumé, or sp.
gr. 1·1515), 120 parts; and after 12 hours, distilled in a copper vessel,
with a gradually applied heat. The product is 100 parts or lbs. of acetic
acid of 8° Baumé (sp. gr. 1·0556), containing about 47% of hydrated acid,
only slightly coloured and empyreumatic, fit for various manufacturing
purposes. The advantage of this process is the low price of hydrochloric
acid, and the product not being contaminated with sulphuric or sulphurous

_Obs._ It will be found that pyrolignate of lime generally contains 60% to
70% of neutral acetate; but should it contain either more or less, a
proportionate quantity must be employed. When the proper proportions are
used the distillate gives only a scarcely perceptible turbid cloud when
tested with nitrate of silver. If the hydrochloric acid used has the sp.
gr. 1·16, a less quantity being employed, the product will have the sp.
gr. of 1·058 to 1·061, and will then contain from 48 to 51% of the
monohydrate, or 41 or 42% of anhydrous acetic acid. The resin sometimes
found floating on the mixed ingredients should be carefully removed, by
skimming, before distillation.

As acid of the above strength is rarely required, and as the distillation
is more easily conducted when the ingredients are less concentrated, a
little water may be conveniently added either before or towards the end of
the distillation. Hence the following proportions have been recommended:——

2. (Völckel.) Acetate of lime (as last), 100 parts; hydrochloric acid (sp.
gr. 1·16), 90 to 95 parts; water, 25 parts; mix, and proceed as before.
Prod. 96 to 98 parts of an excellent acid, well adapted to trading
purposes, having a sp. gr. about 1·050, and containing nearly 40% of
hydrated acetic acid. It has been correctly remarked, that the acetic acid
produced with hydrochloric acid is always of better quality than that
produced with sulphuric acid; being not only less coloured, but also
entirely free from sulphurous acid. The distillation uniformly proceeds
with ease and regularity, and the whole of the acetic acid passes over
between 212° and 248° Fahr.; by which the danger of contamination with
other products, resulting from a high degree of heat, is obviated.

3. An Acetic acid sufficiently strong and pure for many ordinary purposes
may be obtained without distillation, by pouring strong sulphuric acid, 60
parts, diluted with water, 5 parts, on well-dried acetate of lime, 100
parts; digesting, with occasional agitation in a close vessel, decanting
the clear liquid, and straining the remainder.


  _A_, Furnace.
  _B B B B_, Glass receivers.
  _C_, Stoneware retort.
  _D_, Bottle containing vinegar.
  _E E E E_, Basins containing water.
  _F F F F_, Supports for basins.
  _G_, Welter safety-tube.
  _H_, Supply-pipe of cold water.
  _I I I I_, Cocks to supply water to the basins.
  _J_, Water main.
  _L_, Adapter connecting retort and globes.]

II. _From_ the _Acetates_ by _dry distillation_ with a _sulphate_:——

_a._ From ACETATE OF LEAD:——

1. Acetate of lead (dried), 5 parts; and sulphate of iron (gently
calcined), 2 parts; are separately powdered; and after thorough mixture,
carefully distilled, by the heat of a sand bath, into a well-cooled
receiver. An economical process for a strong acid, under certain
circumstances; but one now seldom adopted.

2. (Bardollier’s Strong Acetous acid.) Dried acetate of lead, 10 oz.;
calcined green vitriol, 12 oz.; as the last.

_b._ From the ACETATES OF COPPER:——By substituting acetate or diacetate of
copper, in equiv. proportions, or better with excess of the sulphate.
Seldom used.

_c._ From ACETATE OF POTASH, as the last.

III. From the _Acetates per se_:——

_Process._ Carefully dry crystallised verdigris (diacetate of copper) by a
very gentle heat, and introduce it into a large stoneware retort (see
_engr._), the bottom of which has been previously coated with a mixture of
clay and horse-dung, to render it more capable of standing the fire. Next
place it in a suitable furnace, and connect it, by an adapter, with 3 or 4
double tubulated globes, the last of which must be furnished with a
vertical tubulature, to which a double Welter’s safety-tube should be
adapted; the other end being immersed in a basin half-filled with
distilled vinegar or water, while the funnel portion communicates with the
atmosphere. Then place each globe in a basin of water, kept cool by a
stream constantly passing through it; and cover the upper portion with
cloths kept continually wet with cold water. After 15 or 20 hours, fire
may be applied, and must be so regulated that the drops follow each other
with considerable rapidity from the end of the adapter, whilst the bubbles
of air cause no inconvenience at the other end of the apparatus. If
otherwise, the fire must be damped a little. The operation should be
continued, and the fire gradually increased, until vapour ceases to come
over, known by the globes gradually cooling, notwithstanding the heat of
the furnace. The operation being concluded, the whole may be allowed to
cool, and the acid collected preparatory to rectification. This may be
effected in a similarly arranged apparatus, except that it must be wholly
of glass; and the retort should not be much more than half-filled. The
operation must now be very carefully conducted, and discontinued before
barely the whole of the acid has distilled over; as the last portion is
apt to injure the flavour and colour of the rest. The first portions which
come over are very weak, and should be kept separate, until the sp. gr.
reaches to about 1·372, when the receiver should be changed, and the
product collected in separate portions, as noticed below.

_Obs._ Good diacetate of copper yields, by careful management, at a
temperature of 400° to 560° Fahr., fully one half its weight of a
greenish-coloured acid, of the sp. gr. of about 1·061, containing above
50% of hydrated acetic acid, or 43% of anhydrous acid. 20 lbs. of the
ordinary acetate yields 9-3/4 lbs. of this rough acid, leaving a residuum
of about 6-1/2 lbs. of metallic copper mixed with a little charcoal, in
the retort; the remainder (nearly 2/10ths of the acid in the acetate)
being decomposed by the heat, and lost. This 9-3/4 lbs. of crude acid
yields by rectification, and dividing the products, 1/2 lb. of acid of the
sp. gr. 1·023; 3 lbs. of the sp. gr. 1·042; and 6 lbs. of the sp. gr.
1·065; exclusive of a little acetone which comes over with it. In the
first distillation, the strongest acid is found in the third receiver, and
the weakest in the first. The acid obtained in this way is always
accompanied with a little fragrant pyro-acetic spirit; which renders it
preferable for aromatic vinegar and perfumery. It dissolves camphor,
resins, and essential oils with facility. This is one of the oldest
methods of obtaining glacial acetic acid, and the product is still
preferred for some purposes. It is the RADICAL VINEGAR of the alchemists,
and it is that which is preferred by the perfumers. Well-dried acetate of
lead, or of iron, as well as several other acetates, may be substituted
for acetate of copper in the above process; but are less economical and
convenient. In all cases, great care must be taken to avoid over-firing,
as thereby the quantity obtained is lessened, and the quality injured. The
residuum of the distillation is pyrophoric and frequently inflames
spontaneously, on exposure to the air. Due caution must be therefore
observed regarding it.

IV. _From Wood_, by _dry distillation_. See PYROLIGNEOUS ACID. The
preparation of the purified acid, by converting it into an acetate, and
subsequent distillation with a strong acid, is noticed _above._


V. _From Alcohol._ (ALCOHOL VINEGAR, GERMAN ACETIC ACID.) In a bell-glass,
or an oblong glass case, perforated shelves are arranged, a few inches
apart, one above another, on which are placed a number of small flat
dishes of porcelain, earthenware, or wood. These dishes are filled with
spirit of wine or dilute alcohol; and over each is suspended a watch-glass
or capsule containing a portion of platinum-black; the whole being
arranged so that the platinum-black and the surface of the alcohol are not
more than 1-1/2 to 2 inches apart. Strips of porous paper are next so hung
in the case, that their bottom edges are immersed in the spirit, to
promote evaporation; and lastly, the apparatus, loosely covered, is set in
a light place at a temperature of from 70° to 90° Fahr.——the sunshine,
when convenient. In a short time the temperature of the platinum rises,
and the formation of acetic acid begins; and the condensed vapour trickles
down the sides of the glass and collects at the bottom of the case, whence
it is removed once or twice a day. (See _engr._) The product of a case of
twelve cubic feet content, with 7 or 8 oz. of platinum-powder, is capable
of producing daily, if well managed, nearly 1·31 lb. of hydrated acetic
acid from 1 lb. of absolute alcohol; 25 lbs. of platinum-powder and 300
lbs. of alcohol will, in like manner, furnish a daily supply of nearly 350
lbs. of pure acid, and of other strengths in proportion. Theoretically,
the product should be 130 parts of the hydrated acid for every 100 parts
of alcohol consumed; but this is never quite obtained in practice, owing
to a small portion of the alcohol mixing with the newly formed acid, and
escaping decomposition; and from another small portion of both the
alcohol, and of the newly formed aldehyd, being carried off by the air
that permeates the apparatus. The platinum-powder does not waste, and the
most inferior spirit may generally be employed.

_Rationale._ In this process, the alcohol (as in other cases of
acetification) is first converted into aldehyd; and this, as rapidly as
formed, absorbs oxygen and passes into hydrated acetic acid. The
simultaneous formation of aldehyd during the oxygenation of that already
formed, may be detected by its odour.

_Obs._ During the mutual action of the platinum-black and the vapour of
alcohol, the temperature increases, and continues to do so until all the
oxygen contained in the air enclosed in the case is consumed, when the
acetification stops. On opening the case for a short time, to admit of a
fresh supply of air, the operation recommences, thus showing its
dependence on the oxygen of the atmosphere. For this transmutation, 100
grains of alcohol require 71 grains (equal to 200 cubic inches) of oxygen,
or about 1000 cubic inches of atmospheric air. To render the process
continuous and rapid, a fresh supply of air must, therefore, be constantly
provided. This may be effected by either having a loosely covered opening
at the top of the case, and several much smaller ones near its lower part;
or (and preferably) by means of two small glass tubes passing through the
lid or cover, one of which terminates just below the point of insertion,
whilst the other divides into branches which reach to within a short
distance from the bottom, as shown in the _engraving_. In this way a very
slow current of fresh air will always be kept up in the apparatus.


In practice, we find, that by loosely spreading the platinum-black on
pieces of platinum-gauze, and supporting these on small tripods or bars of
glass or porcelain (or even wood), the watch-glasses and their troublesome
suspension may be dispensed with; as also may be the strip of porous
paper, provided a temperature of not less than 90° Fahr. be maintained in
the case or acetifier, which may easily be done by the application of
artificial heat in the absence of sunshine. On the large scale, a case of
wood with a glass roof, or even a well-seasoned cask or vat may be
employed, in which case the temperature of the apparatus must be kept up
either by means of steam-pipes or flues, or by the supply of warm air. On
the small scale, a hand bell-glass placed on a dish, with a single
watch-glass or piece of platinum-gauze, and a single capsule containing
alcohol, may be used, provided the bell-glass be supported on three very
small wedges, to admit of a supply of air. A modification of this is
sometimes employed, in which the alcohol is supplied, in drops, to the
platinum-black, by means of a long, tubular funnel passing through the
mouth of the bell-glass, and having its lower extremity drawn to a very
fine point, as shown in the _engr._ To ensure success, the platinum-black
should be either fresh-prepared, or recently washed and very gently
heated, before placing it in the acetifier. Spongy platinum, though
ordered by many chemical compilers, does not answer well for this process.

By the above elegant and economical process, perfectly pure acetic acid of
considerable strength may be produced from even impure alcohol; but it is
impossible in this way to obtain a concentrated acid without a subsequent
operation, because the action of platinum-black on absolute alcohol, or
even on strong alcohol, is so violent that the platinum soon begins to
glow, and inflammation ensues. Unfortunately the revenue laws of this
country, until lately, stood in the way of the adoption of this beautiful
process, unless duty-paid alcohol or methylated spirit be employed; but
there is no statute that prevents an individual employing pure spirit, of
any strength, on the small scale, for private consumption. In Germany, and
in the United States of America, vinegar is manufactured on this plan, and
from the low price of crude alcohol there, it will no doubt prove
ultimately to be the cheapest source of both pure acetic acid and culinary

VI. _Miscellaneous Formulæ_:——

1. An excellent acetic acid, of considerable strength, may be made by
soaking fresh-burnt and perfectly dry charcoal in common vinegar, and then
subjecting it to distillation. The water comes over first, and on
increasing the heat, the acid follows. Vinegar-bottoms and waste vinegar
may be used.

2. By exposing vinegar, or dilute acetic acid, to the air in very cold
weather, or to freezing mixtures, the water separates in the form of ice,
and the strong acetic acid may be obtained by draining it into suitable
glass vessels, observing to do so at a temperature sufficiently low to
keep the water solid. Said to answer well in cold climates.

3. Acetic acid containing 20% of water may be deprived of a good deal of
its superfluous water by standing over dry sulphate of soda. (Liebig.) It
may then be used either with or without distillation.

4. Acetic acid, of ordinary strength, may be concentrated to any degree,
by rectification once, or oftener, from dry acetate of potash or soda,
rejecting the first and last portions. The same acetate may be used
repeatedly. The temperature need not exceed 400°, and must not rise above
570° Fahr.

ACETIC ACID. (B. P.) _Syn._ ACIDUM ACETICUM. Water mixed with 33% of
hydrated acetic acid. Prepared by distilling acetate of soda with
sulphuric acid. Colourless sour liquid. Sp. gr. 1·044.

_Prop._ Pure hydrated acetic acid is a thin, colourless liquid above 62
Fahr.; at 50° to 55° it crystallises in large, brilliant, colourless,
transparent needles and plates, and even at 60° if a crystal of the acid
be dropped in; at 40° it is a solid crystalline mass. Sp. gr.——liquid,
1·063 (Mollerat) to 1·0635 (Mohr);[3]——crystallised, 1·135 at 55° Fahr.
(Ure). Odour, intensely pungent when concentrated, but grateful, fragrant,
and refreshing, when diffused; taste, intensely sour and acrid, becoming
agreeable and refreshing, on sufficient dilution with water; volatile;
inflammable, burning with a white flame; vapour of boiling acid highly
combustible; dissolves camphor, resins, gum resins, volatile oils,
gelatin, gliadin, coagulated albumen, and fibrin (as muscle or the
crassamentum of the blood); it coagulates casein, but not liquid albumen
(as the serum of the blood and white of egg): miscible with alcohol,
ether, and water in all proportions; boils at 248° Fahr.;[4] and is
decomposed at a red heat. Its salts are called ACETATES (which _see_).

[Footnote 3: 1·064——H. M. Witt (Ure’s ‘_Dict., of Arts, M. & M._,’ 5th
ed.); 1·063 to 1·065——Muspratt (‘_Chemistry, Theor. & Prac._,’ p. 2);
1·06296——Pereira (4th ed.); 1·0629——Brande; 1·062——Ure; 1·057——Berzelius
(‘_Jahr. ber._,’ xvi, 192):——variations evidently arising from difference
of purity in the acid examined, or from difference of temperature. The sp.
gr. 1·080, with other numbers given by Prof. Lehmann (‘_Chemistry_,’ Day’s
Transl.), is probably a misprint.]

[Footnote 4: This is the boiling-point given by the best authorities, and
confirmed by Gerhardt (‘_Chimie Organique_,’ i, 718). Ure made it 230°(an
error corrected in 5th ed.), Lehmann says 243·140, and others give it at
235°, 240°, &c. An acid of about 80% (sp. gr. 1·073 to 1·0743), its
maximum density, boils at 219° to 220° Fahr.]

_Char., Tests, &c._——1. Free acetic acid reddens litmus paper, like the
other acids; and may be readily recognised by its odour and
volatility:——2. Sesquichloride of iron being added, and the acid then
nearly saturated with ammonia, the fluid acquires a deep dark-red colour.

_Estim._ See ACETIMETRY. Organic mixtures that cannot be thus tested, or
from which the acid cannot be obtained by simple distillation, may be
neutralised, if acid, with carbonate of lime, boiled for a few minutes,
cooled, filtered, the lime precipitated with dilute sulphuric acid, and
the whole submitted to distillation, when the acid contents of the
distillate may be estimated as above.

_Pur._ By heat, it escapes (entirely) in vapour; nothing is precipitated
on the addition of either hydrosulphuric acid, nitrate of silver, or
chloride of barium. Sometimes it is contaminated with sulphurous acid,
which may be recognised by putting a fluid drachm of the acid, mixed with
an ounce of distilled water and half a drachm of pure hydrochloric acid,
also a few pieces of granulated zinc, into a flask. While effervescence
continues suspend a slip of white blotting-paper, moistened with solution
of sub-acetate of lead, in the upper part of the flask above the liquid,
for about five minutes. The paper should not be discoloured, and thus
indicate the absence of sulphurous acid.

_Adult._ The acetic acid of the shops is chiefly adulterated with water.
Sulphurous acid and lead are accidental contaminations; that of the latter
often reaches 2%, making the acid poisonous.

_Phys. eff., &c._ In its concentrated state it is a corrosive and an acrid
poison. Taken internally, it acts by dissolving the animal tissues, and by
thus destroying the organisation causes death, like the other acids. In
the dilute form it acts as a stimulant, rubefacient, alterative,
refrigerant, and escharotic.

_Uses._ Acetic acid is much employed by the chemist and pharmaceutist, in
the manufacture of various preparations, and in analysis; by the perfumer,
in the composition of several of his most refreshing and agreeable scents;
and in medicine, as an antiseptic, stimulant, rubefacient, alterative,
refrigerant, and escharotic. Acetic acid (B. P.) applied by means of a
piece of rag tied to the end of a small stick, is a nearly certain cure
for ring-worm and scaldhead——one or two applications generally effecting a
cure, and the severe smarting it causes is only of short duration; as a
caustic, it removes warts and corns; a piece of lint or blotting-paper
wetted with it and applied to the skin (evaporation being prevented),
forms a useful extemporaneous blister. It was once employed as a
disinfectant; but is now only used as a fumigation, to disguise the
unpleasant smell of the sickroom and crowded assemblies. It is a popular
refreshing scent in faintings, asphyxia, and nervous headache; and is a
valuable rubefacient, astringent, and local stimulant. It is also used as
a rubefacient and caustic in veterinary practice.

In the _arts_, the commercial acid (pure pyroligneous acid) is used by the
engraver to etch his plates; as an antiseptic in pickling and preserving
animal and vegetable substances used as food, and anatomical preparations;
in dyeing and calico printing, and in the manufacture of medicated
vinegars and other pharmaceutical preparations.

In the dilute state, its properties and applications are similar to those
of ordinary vinegar, and are noticed under that head.

_Poisoning_ from acetic acid is rare. When concentrated, it is capable, by
its corrosive and solvent action, of perforating the coats of the stomach
and digestive canal; and it colours the mucus of these organs by the
chemical action it exerts upon the blood. Vinegar in an excessive quantity
acts in a similar way, but in a slighter degree. The _treatment_ and
_antidotes_ are similar to those directed in cases of poisoning by the
other acids. See POISONS.

_Duty, Excise, &c._ See VINEGAR.

_Gen. commentary._ Acetic acid, on the large scale, is principally
prepared from acetate of soda, which yields by a comparatively
inexpensive, and not a difficult operation, an acid sufficiently strong
and pure for commercial purposes, without the necessity of rectification.
In this process shallow vessels of wood or of copper formed without rivets
or solder (except silver solder) in those parts exposed to the action of
the acid, are generally employed for the purpose of the distillation. A
coil of drawn copper pipe, heated by steam having a pressure of 30 to 40
lbs. to the inch, traverses the bottom of the apparatus, to impart the
necessary heat. The refrigerator consists of well-cooled earthenware,
Berlin ware, or glass vessels; and the adopter pipe is also of the same
materials. Another common form, which is even still more convenient, is a
stout copper still, furnished with a cast-iron jacket to hold
high-pressure steam, the usual refrigeratory being employed. In a few
instances the space between the still and jacket is filled with sand, oil,
tallow, or fusible metal; in which case the apparatus is set in brickwork,
and heated by a naked fire. Stills of earthenware are also frequently
employed; and even worms and condensers of silver, or silvered copper, are
sometimes used, and with advantage. With a leaden worm the product is
always contaminated with a little of that metal; the efforts of the
manufacturer to the contrary, by the exclusion of air, and by rejecting
the first and last portions of the distillate, only lessening and not
preventing this evil. A lute (if any) composed of linseed meal and water,
with or without a little powdered plaster of paris, may be employed; but
flat bands and short tubes of well-seasoned vulcanised india rubber are
infinitely more convenient and efficacious. The ingredients being placed
in the still, and well but hastily stirred together with a wooden spatula,
the head is luted on, and the distillation soon afterwards commenced. The
chief care now should be to increase the heat gradually as the
distillation proceeds; and when a steam-heat is not used, to carefully
avoid over-firing, particularly towards the close of the operation. A
little acetic ether is added by some manufacturers. In this way 4 lbs. of
acid of the sp. gr. 1·050, is obtained for every 3 lbs. of acetate of soda
employed. Should rectification be had recourse to, the addition of about 2
or 3% of bichromate of potash, peroxide of manganese, or red oxide of
lead, will remove empyreuma, if present. The first of these substances is
the most effective; the power of the others being in the order in which
they are printed. In distilling the weaker acids and vinegars, it is found
useful to add from 25 to 30% of chloride of sodium, which, by raising the
boiling-point of the liquid, allows the acid the more freely to pass over
(Stein); but this addition proves disadvantageous when any sulphuric acid
is present, in which case sulphate of soda may be employed instead. If
this addition be not made, the whole of the acid cannot be obtained
without distillation to dryness, and the generation of empyreuma.

On the small scale, glass retorts are usually directed to be used, but
glass alembics or flasks are more convenient and safe, as already noticed.
In the preparation of the pure acid, care should be taken that the acetate
of soda does not contain common salt, as the carbonate of soda prepared by
calcination, and frequently used to form the acetate, is generally
contaminated with it, and yields up its hydrochloric acid or chlorine
during the process of distillation, thus vitiating the product. In all the
methods given the product becomes more concentrated in proportion to the
dryness of the acetate and the strength of the oil of vitriol or muriatic
acid employed. By using the one dry, and the other concentrated, glacial
acid may always be obtained by collecting separately the last two fifths
that come over, and submitting this to refrigeration.

According to Melsens, pure GLACIAL ACETIC ACID is most advantageously
obtained by distilling pure and dry acetate of potash with an excess of
strong and moderately pure acetic acid, rejecting that which first passes

Acetate of soda may be safely dried at a temperature of 400° to 450°,
provided care be taken to avoid ignition from contact with sparks. A less
heat is, however, quite sufficient to drive off the whole of its water of
crystallisation. It is known to be dry by its assuming the appearance of a
smooth oily liquid whilst hot. If, whilst heated, it emits fumes, it is
suffering decomposition. The same applies to the other commercial
acetates. Crystallised acetate of soda loses about 2/5ths of its weight by
thorough drying.

When acetate of soda and sulphuric acid are the ingredients employed in
the production of acetic acid, sulphate of soda is formed, which, in the
large way, the chemist returns to the manufacturer of acetate of soda (_i.
e._ to the pyroligneous acid maker), who employs it in the decomposition
of fresh acetate or pyrolignite of lime. In this way the same soda-salt is
employed over and over again, acting merely as the vehicle for the
separation of the crude acetic acid in the solid form, and its easy and
cheap transportation from one point to another. This ingenious method of
mutual assistance resulting from the application of chemical science to
provide for the wants of everyday life, offers some explanation of the
extraordinarily low price at which acetic acid may now be purchased.

The acetic acid of commerce (pure pyroligneous acid) is almost wholly
obtained from the acetates of soda and lime. The principal supply of crude
acetate (pyrolignite) of soda is from America, Norway, and Sweden; but
much is also obtained from our home manufactories. See ACETIFICATION,

More recently, acetic acid has been obtained by decomposing with
hydrochloric acid the double salt of chloride of calcium and acetate of
lime, mentioned by Fritzsche (‘Ann. de Poggend,’ xxviii, 123). For this
purpose, solutions of acetate of lime and chloride of calcium are mixed
and evaporated, the combined salts readily crystallising in large needles.
These are freed from the mother-liquor and distilled with common muriatic

The acid furnished by this method requires redistillation, and is,
moreover, contaminated with some of the fatty products always present in
the crude pyrolignite.

=Anhydrous Acetic Acid.= _Syn._ ACETIC ANHYDRIDE. Acetic acid deprived of
the elements of water.

    Acetic Acid.     Water.   Acetic Anhydride.
  2C_{2}H_{4}O_{2} - H_{2}O = C_{4}H_{6}O_{3}.

=Aromat′ic Acetic Acid.= _Syn._ AROMATIC VINEGAR; A. SPIRIT OF V.; ACIDUM
ACE′TICUM AROMAT′ICUM, L.——_Prep._ 1. (Ph. E. 1839.) Dried rosemary and
origanum, of each 1 oz.; lavender flowers, 1/2 oz.; bruised cloves, 1/2
dr.; acetic acid (sp. gr. 1·068), 1-1/2 pint; macerate for 7 days,
express, and filter. A fragrant and refreshing perfume. Omitted in Ph. E.
1841 and P. B. 1867.

2. (Ph. E. 1817.) As the last, but using distilled vinegar instead of the
strong acid of the Pharmacopœia. Inferior.

3. (P. Cod. 1839) Camphor, 2 oz.; oil of lavender, 10 gr.; oil of
cinnamon, 20 gr.; oil of cloves, 30 gr.; concentrated acetic acid, 1 pint.
Very fragrant and refreshing.

4. (Ph. Bor. 1847; Cod. Med. Hamb. 1845.) Oil of cloves, 1 dr.; oils of
lavender and citron, of each 2 scrup.; oils of bergamot and thyme, of each
1 scrup.; oil of cinnamon, 10 drops; strongest acetic acid, 1 oz.; mix.
Limpid; yellow-brown; highly fragrant and refreshing. See ACETIC ACID
(Camphorated), and VINEGAR (Aromatic).

=Beaufoy’s Acetic Acid.= A superior commercial acetic acid (_i. e._
purified pyroligneous acid), having a sp. gr. of about 1·044; or
containing about 28% of real acetic acid, or 32 to 33% of the hydrated
acid. Same strength, &c., as ACETIC ACID P. B.

=Cam′phorated Acetic Acid.= _Syn._ CAMPHORATED VINEGAR; ACIDUM ACE′TICUM
CAMPHORA′TUM, L.——_Prep._ 1. (Ph. E. 1841.) Camphor, 1/2 oz.; pulverise it
by means of a few drops of spirit of wine, and then dissolve it in acetic
acid (Ph. E.), 6-1/2 fl. oz.

2. (Ph. D. 1850.) Camphor, 1 oz.; rectified spirit, 1 fl. dr.; pulverise,
and dissolve in strong acetic acid (acid. acet. fort. Ph. D.), 10 fl. oz.

_Obs._ This preparation is intended as a substitute for the aromatic
acetic acid of the shops and previous pharmacopœias. It is also useful as
an embrocation, in rheumatism and neuralgia; as an extemporaneous vesicant
and counter-irritant; and as a fumigation in fevers, &c.

=Dilute′ Acetic Acid.= _Syn._ ACIDUM ACETICUM DILU′TUM, L. Acetic acid, 1
pint; distilled water, 7 pints; mix, Sp. gr. 1·006. One fluid ounce
corresponds to 16 grains of anhydrous acid (3·63 per cent.).

=Glacial Acetic Acid.= _Syn._ ACIDUM ACETICUM GLACIALE. Acetate of soda,
20 oz., is liquefied by a gentle heat, stirred till it becomes
pulverulent, and then further heated until it fuses; it is at once removed
from the fire, and, when cool, the mass is broken up, placed in a 3-pint
stoppered retort connected with a Liebig’s condenser, and then treated
with sulphuric acid, 8 fl. oz. When the distillation slackens heat is to
be applied, and the process continued until 6 fl. oz. of acetic acid have
passed over. If a little of the product strikes a blue colour when mixed
with a solution of iodate of potassium containing mucilage of starch, the
whole product must be agitated with perfectly dry black oxide of
manganese, 1/4 oz., and redistilled. Sp. gr. 1·065; contains 85% of
anhydrous acid.


=ACETICA.= [L.] Medicated vinegars.

=ACETIDUX, Dr DELFER’S.= Made by Döllinger, of Berlin. For the radical and
painless removal of warts, corns, hard skin, &c. A solution of 5 grms. of
chromic acid in 15 grms. of water. (Schädler.)

EINSAÜERN, Ger. In _chemistry_, the act or process of converting into
vinegar; also the state of undergoing such conversion.

Acetic acid is produced either by the partial dehydrogenation and
subsequent oxidation of bodies containing its elements, or by their
destructive distillation. The first is effected——by their exposure, in a
finely divided state, to the action of air or atmospheric oxygen, as in
the quick process of making vinegar; or——by submitting them, in
combination with ferments, to contact with a free supply of atmospheric
air, as in the old field process of making vinegar; or——by exposure to the
direct action of chemical or mechanical oxidizing agents, as condensed air
(platinum-black process), chromic and nitric acid, &c. In general, it is
alcohol more or less dilute, particularly as it exists in fermented
liquors, which is thus converted into acetic acid. In the second process
(destructive distillation), wood is the substance usually employed, and
heat is the agent which develops the acid.

The conversion of alcohol into acetic acid is not immediate and direct.
The atmospheric oxygen first oxidises two atoms of its hydrogen, aldehyd
and water being formed; and this aldehyd uniting with one atom of oxygen
produces one molecule of ACETIC ACID. The changes are represented in the
following equations:——

         Alcohol.  Oxygen.  Aldehyd.    Water.
  =1.=  C_{2}H_{6}O + O = C_{2}H_{4}O + H_{2}O

          Aldehyd.  Oxygen.  Acetic Acid.
  =2.=  C_{2}H_{4}O + O = HC_{2}H_{3}O_{2}

After the first formation of aldehyd, the two processes, unless
artificially checked, go on simultaneously, as long as any undecomposed
alcohol is present.

The conversion of alcohol into acetic acid, although greatly accelerated
by the presence of nitrogenised organic matter (according to Mulder, of a
fungus——the _Mycoderma Vini_ or Vinegar Plant), is rather a case of
eremacausis (slow combustion) than of fermentation. Acetification effects
combination, as shown by the foregoing equations, whereas fermentation
resolves complex bodies into simpler ones, _e.g._ sugar into alcohol and
carbonic anhydride. Moreover, the presence of ferments is not essential to
the change, since pure alcohol becomes acetified when exposed to the
oxidising agents already named.

Another remarkable distinction between acetification and fermentation is,
that the former requires the continued presence of atmospheric oxygen;
whilst the vinous fermentation after being once established, proceeds
perfectly without it.

During the oxidation of the alcohol of vegetable solutions, some of the
other organic matters present also suffer change. A white gelatinous mass
(_mother of vinegar_)[5] is commonly deposited; but this is a secondary
result of the process, and not, as formerly supposed, one essential to it.
In ordinary cases acetification occurs only at or near the surface of the
liquid; which accounts for the length of time required for the operation
under the old process of ‘fielding,’ and the shorter time in which it is
accomplished by the improved process of Mr Ham. It proceeds favorably at
temperatures ranging from 60° to 90° Fahr.; and most rapidly at 95° Fahr.
(Liebig). In the ‘quick process’ of making vinegar a temperature of 90° to
92° is generally aimed at; but it often rises to 100°, or even to 105°,
Fahr. As the temperature falls acetification proceeds more slowly, and at
46 to 50° Fahr. it ceases altogether (Liebig).

[Footnote 5: It has generally been asserted that this substance contains
vibriones, and other low forms of organised life; but Mulder describes it,
under the name _mycoderma aceti_, as a plant of the order ‘fungi.’ It is
formed at the expense of the constituents of the vinegar, and often causes
whole vats of it to pass into water.]

Aldehyd (see _above_) is an exceedingly volatile substance, and easily
dissipated by a slight heat. It is, therefore, of the highest importance
to duly regulate the temperature, as well as the supply of air, during
acetification. In the ‘quick process’ of making vinegar the loss from this
cause is always considerable, and often very great. This loss may be
diminished by passing the heated air, as it escapes from the acetifier,
through a porcelain or silvered copper worm or refrigerator, set in a
chamber containing water of a temperature not higher than 40° to 45°
Fahr.; the connection being made at the _lower_ end of the worm, whilst
the upper end is open to the air. On the small scale, as in the
platinum-black process, the loss may be almost entirely prevented by
causing the upper air tube to pass through a vessel containing ice or a
freezing mixture; or by uniting it with the lower end of a Liebig’s

In liquors undergoing the vinous fermentation, a portion of the newly
formed alcohol is invariably acetified whenever the temperature rises
above 51° Fahr.; and at a higher temperature, this proceeds with a
rapidity often highly injurious to the quality of the liquor. In this way
there is frequently a useless loss of the alcohol, which is rendered more
apparent by the incipient, and sometimes the actual, souring of the

The art or process of determining the quantity of pure acetic acid in
vinegar, or in any other liquid. The plans generally adopted for this
purpose are——

I. From the saturating power of the acid, as in the common methods of

1. The molecular weight of commercially pure bicarbonate of potash, in
crystals, being 100, whilst that of absolute acetic acid is 60, it is
evident that every ten grains of the bicarbonate will exactly equal 6
grains of the acid. To apply this practically, we have only to exactly
neutralise 100 gr. of the vinegar or solution under examination with the
bicarbonate, observing the usual precautions; then, as 10 is to 6, so is
the number of grains used, to the per-centage strength required. In this,
as in other like cases, it is convenient to form a test-solution with the
bicarbonate, by dissolving it in sufficient water to fill the 100
divisions of any simple form of ‘acidimeter,’ as _a_, _b_, or _c_; when
the quantity of the solution, and, consequently, of the salt used, may be
read off at once from the graduated portion of the tube. Still greater
accuracy may be obtained by dissolving the bicarbonate in exactly 1000 gr.
of distilled water contained in a ‘Schuster’s alkalimeter,’ previously
very carefully weighed; in which case each grain of the test-solution will
indicate 1/10th of a grain, or 0·1% of absolute acetic acid, whilst every
10 grains will be equal to 1 grain, or 1%.


The test-solution may also be prepared from bicarbonate of soda, or from
the carbonates of soda or potash, care being taken that the quantity of
the salt dissolved be in proportion to its molecular weight.

2. (Brande.) A small piece of white marble, clean and dry, is weighed, and
then suspended by a silk thread in a weighed sample (say 100 or 1000 grs.)
of the vinegar or acid under examination; the action being promoted by
occasionally stirring the liquid with a glass rod, until the whole of the
acid is saturated, as shown by no further action on the marble being
observable on close inspection. The marble is then withdrawn, washed in
distilled water, dried and weighed. The loss in weight which it has
sustained will be nearly equal to the acetic acid present, or strictly, as
50 (marble) to 60 (absolute acetic acid). The only precautions required
are, to avoid striking the piece of marble with the rod whilst stirring
the solution, or causing loss of substance in it after its withdrawal; and
to allow ample time for the action of the acid on it. If the sample
consists of strong acid, it should be diluted with twice or thrice its
weight of water before suspending the marble in it.

3. (Ure.) 100 grains of the sample under examination is slightly reddened
with tincture of litmus, and ammonia of the sp. gr. 0·992 is added drop by
drop (from an acetimeter holding 1000 water-gr. measure, divided into 100
divisions) until precise neutralisation is effected, indicated by the blue
colour of the litmus being restored. The number of the divisions of the
acetimeter used, multiplied by 60, and the first two right-hand figures of
the product cut off as decimals, gives a number which represents the exact
quantity of absolute acetic acid in the sample. In practice, it is found
more convenient to keep the test-ammonia ready tinged with litmus.

The mode of estimating the per-centage of acetic acid in beers, when
finding their original gravities, is a slight modification of the above. A
test-solution of ammonia is prepared of such a strength that a given bulk
of it will exactly neutralise one per cent. of absolute acetic acid in an
equal bulk of beer, so that, if 100 fluid grains of the solution are
sufficient to neutralise the acid in 1000 fluid grains of beer, such beer
contains one tenth per cent. of acid. A solution of ammonia, diluted with
distilled water until it has the sp. gr. ·9986 at 60°, is of the exact
strength required.

An acetimeter holding 1000 grains, and graduated downwards to 100 equal
divisions, is filled to 0 of the scale with the test-ammonia, which is
then added, drop by drop, to 1000 measured grains of the beer, until
neutralisation takes place. Every division of the acetimeter
(corresponding to ten fluid grains), so emptied, indicates ·01 per cent.
of acetic acid in the beer. The progress of the neutralisation is tested
from time to time with a slip of reddened litmus paper, which should be
suffered to become faintly blue before ceasing to add the ammonia. By this
method the exact per-centage of absolute acetic acid in any sample may be
accurately determined. The only precaution necessary is to be certain that
the ‘test-ammonia’ has the required sp. gr. (·9986). Test-solutions may
also be prepared with pure potash or pure soda.

II. From the specific gravity of the liquid after it has been neutralised
with hydrate of lime:——

Common hydrate of lime (freshly slaked lime), in powder, is added
gradually to the sample under examination, until it is saturated, when the
sp. gr. of the resulting clear solution of acetate of lime is taken by
Taylor’s ACETIMETER. This instrument is so adjusted and graduated as to
float at the mark on the stem called ‘proof,’ in a solution containing 5%
of absolute acetic acid (No. 24 vinegar). For vinegars stronger than proof
small weights are provided, each of which indicates an additional 5 per
cent. To ascertain the per-centage of real acid, 5% must therefore be
added to the acetimeter number. Thus, without being loaded, the
instrument, floating at the ‘proof mark,’ indicates a vinegar of 5%; with
one weight, a vinegar of 10%; with two weights, 15%, and so on. According
to this system of notation, each 5% is called a ‘vinegar.’ An acid of 10%
is said to contain two vinegars; one of 15%, three vinegars, &c. It is
also common to speak of the degrees of the acetimeter as proof or
over-proof. Thus, No. 24 vinegar is said to be proof; one of 5 acetimeter
degrees, 5 over-proof; one of 10 degrees, 10 over-proof, &c. For malt and
wine vinegars, which contain gluten and mucilage, this method is not
strictly accurate, as a portion of these substances escapes precipitation
by the lime, and consequently alters the specific gravity. A small weight
marked ‘M’ is generally supplied with the acetimeters for trying such

III. From the specific gravity:——

The sp. gr. of the sample (carefully determined by any of the usual
methods) is sought in one of the following Tables, when the corresponding
per-centage content of acetic acid is at once seen.

This method furnishes reliable results only with pure, or nearly pure
solutions which do not contain much above 50% of glacial acid, or which
have a sp. gr. not higher than 1·062. It is also more to be depended on
for weak solutions than strong ones. By carefully diluting a strong acid
with an equal weight, or twice or thrice its weight of water, and allowing
the mixture to again acquire its normal temperature, the sp. gr. may be
taken as a guide in all cases in which great accuracy is not required.
When such dilution is made it only becomes necessary to multiply the
indication furnished in the Tables by 2, 3, or 4, as the case may be. As,
however, authorities are not agreed as to the precise sp. gr. of the
monohydrate or glacial acid, and of its solutions, extreme accuracy must
not be expected by this method.

        TABLE I.——_Adapted to the Specific Gravities of common
        vinegar_. By Messrs J. and P. TAYLOR.

  sp. gr.                                                    cent.
  1·0085  contains of anhydrous  or real acetic acid             5
  1·0170       ”                         ”                      10
  1·0257       ”                         ”                      15
  1·0320       ”                         ”                      20
  1·0470       ”                         ”                      30
  1·0580       ”                         ”                      40

        TABLE II.——_Exhibiting the quantity of_ ABSOLUTE _or_
        GLACIAL ACETIC ACID (HC_{2}H_{3}O_{2}), _in acetic acid
        of successive strengths_. By Mr COOLEY.

  |Absolute |       |Absolute |       |Absolute |       |Absolute |       |
  |  Acetic |Sp. Gr.|  Acetic |Sp. Gr.|  Acetic |Sp. Gr.|  Acetic |Sp. Gr.|
  |  Acid,  |       |  Acid,  |       |  Acid,  |       |  Acid,  |       |
  |per cent.|       |per cent.|       |per cent.|       |per cent.|       |
  | _Pure   |       |         |       |         |       |         |       |
  |  acid_, |       |   75    |1·0731 |   49    |1·0593 |   23    |1·0320 |
  | or 100  |1·0630 |   74    |1·0732 |   48    |1·0582 |   22    |1·0311 |
  |   99    |1·0648 |   73    |1·0728 |   47    |1·0568 |   21    |1·0292 |
  |   98    |1·0663 |   72    |1·0721 |   46    |1·0557 |   20    |1·0275 |
  |   97    |1·0677 |   71    |1·0718 |   45    |1·0553 |   19    |1·0264 |
  |   96    |1·0685 |   70    |1·0713 |   44    |1·0544 |   18    |1·0253 |
  |   95    |1·0696 |   69    |1·0711 |   43    |1·0535 |   17    |1·0241 |
  |   94    |1·0704 |   68    |1·0708 |   42    |1·0525 |   16    |1·0229 |
  |   93    |1·0708 |   67    |1·0702 |   41    |1·0518 |   15    |1·0218 |
  |   92    |1·0715 |   66    |1·0701 |   40    |1·0513 |   14    |1·0200 |
  |   91    |1·0721 |   65    |1·0693 |   39    |1·0502 |   13    |1·0173 |
  |   90    |1·0726 |   64    |1·0692 |   38    |1·0492 |   12    |1·0172 |
  |   89    |1·0729 |   63    |1·0685 |   37    |1·0482 |   11    |1·0161 |
  |   88    |1·0730 |   62    |1·0679 |   36    |1·0473 |   10    |1·0150 |
  |   87    |1·0731 |   61    |1·0675 |   35    |1·0460 |   09    |1·0131 |
  |   86    |1·0732 |   60    |1·0672 |   34    |1·0449 |   08    |1·0121 |
  |   85    |1·0733 |   59    |1·0665 |   33    |1·0439 |   07    |1·0102 |
  |   84    |1·0734 |   58    |1·0662 |   32    |1·0425 |   06    |1·0085 |
  |   83    |1·07343|   57    |1·0653 |   31    |1·0413 |   05    |1·0071 |
  |   82    |1·0735 |   56    |1·0645 |   30    |1·0402 |   04    |1·0057 |
  |   81    |1·0738 |   55    |1·0641 |   29    |1·0392 |   03    |1·0042 |
  |   80    |1·0743 |   54    |1·0632 |   28    |1·0380 |   02    |1·0025 |
  |   79    |1·0742 |   53    |1·0628 |   27    |1·0364 |   01    |1·0012 |
  |   78    |1·0740 |   52    |1·0616 |   26    |1·0352 | _Pure   |1·0000 |
  |   77    |1·0739 |   51    |1·0610 |   25    |1·0341 | water._ |       |
  |   76    |1·0736 |   50    |1·0602 |   24    |1·0330 |         |       |

_Concluding remarks_. Before applying the above processes, account should
be taken of any mineral acid which may be present in the sample, such
being not unfrequently added to vinegar to impart artificial strength; and
in those depending on the sp. gr., gum, gluten, &c., must also be allowed
for. The methods depending on the saturating power of the acid will be
found appropriate to acetic acid of all strengths, when unadulterated with
the mineral acid. The method based on the sp. gr. is also very convenient,
and is sufficiently accurate for distilled vinegars and for pure acids of
moderate strength.

It is found that the decimal fraction of the sp. gr. of pure or nearly
pure vinegar is doubled by its conversion into acetate of lime. Thus,
1·0085 in vinegar becomes 1·0170 when converted into a solution of acetate
of lime. In malt vinegar, however, 0·005 may be deducted from the sp. gr.
for mucilage and gluten. The quantity of foreign matter present in vinegar
may therefore be approximatively ascertained, by deducting the decimal of
the sp. gr. of the solution of acetate of lime from double that of the
decimal part of the sp. gr. of the vinegar. Thus:——the sp. gr. of a sample
of vinegar being 1·014, and after saturation with hydrate of calcium
1·023, the sp. gr. of the pure vinegar would be 1·009, and that due to
foreign matter ·005. For——

  ·028 - ·023 = ·005


  1·014 - ·005 = 1·009

The reason why proof-vinegar is called, in commerce, No. 24, is that 1 fl.
oz. of it requires exactly 24 gr. of pure anhydrous carbonate of soda to
neutralise it. Weaker vinegars are represented in the same ‘notation’ by
the Nos. 22, 20, 18, &c., according to their respective strengths
estimated by their saturating power.

=ACETINE.= An essence for the removal of corns. Concentrated vinegar (1·04
sp. gr.) slightly tinged with fuchsine, 15 grms. (Hager.)

=ACETINE, HOCHSTETTER’S.= Prepared by J. C. F. Witte, Berlin. A remedy for
corns, warts, and hard skin. Diluted vinegar, coloured with blue carmine,
16 grms. (Schälder.)

=ACETOLATS.= [Fr.] _Syn._ ESPRITS ACÉTIQUES. In _French pharmacy_,
medicated vinegars obtained by distillation.

=ACETOLES.= [Fr.] In _French pharmacy_, medicated vinegars obtained by


=ACETUM.= [L.] Vinegar.

=ACETYL.= _Syn._ ACETYLE. A name originally given to a hypothetical body,
having the formula C_{2}H_{3}, and regarded by Berzelius as the radical of
the acetates and their congeners. The acetyl of Gerhardt (C_{2}H_{3}O)
is, however, according to that chemist, the true radical of the acetates.
Williamson, in order to remove the confusion of terms occasioned by the
application of the same name to compounds of different composition,
proposed the title of othyl for the radical C_{2}H_{3}O.


=ACEIILE′INE= (-kĭl-). A peculiar bitter principle obtained from achillé a
millefolium (Linn.), or yarrow.

=A′CHOR=, (-kŏr). [Gr.] See SCALD-HEAD.

=ACHROMAT′IC= (ăk-ro-). _Syn._ ACHROMATIQUE, Fr. In _optics_, devoid of
colour; bodies that transmit light without decomposition, and
consequently, without the formation of coloured rings or fringes; applied
to compound lenses, prisms, &c., and to instruments fitted with them.

=ACRO′MATISM.= _Syn._ ACHROMATISME, Fr. In _optics_, the state of being
achromatic; the absence of coloured fringes in the images of objects seen
through a lens or prism.

Light is not homogeneous, but decomposable by refraction, absorption, or
reflection, into coloured rays of unequal refrangibility. A ray of white
light, in passing through a glass prism, is entirely separated into the
coloured rays forming the ‘prismatic spectrum,’ and when it passes through
a lens, an analogous resolution into coloured rays still occurs, though
not so readily observed, and that to an extent often incompatible with
distinct vision. Now, if a convex lens be regarded as a number of prisms
united by their bases round a common centre, and a concave lens, as a
similar number of prisms with their apices in contact, the action of
lenticular and prismatic glasses on light will be reduced to a common
principle. A beam of light thrown on a simple converging lens not only
suffers refraction at the spherical surface (SPHERICAL ABERRATION), but
the different coloured rays of which it is composed, from the causes
mentioned, being unequally bent or refracted, diverge from their original
course (CHROMATIC ABERRATION), forming as many foci on the axis of the
lens as there are colours, and fall separately, instead of together, on
the eye or object which receives them. Hence arise the coloured fringes or
halos that surround objects viewed through ordinary glasses, and which
form the great impediments to the construction of perfect lenses. This
effect, like the refractive power and focal distance, varies in degree in
different diaphanous substances.

The correction of the chromatic aberration of lenses is commonly effected
by combining two, or more, made of materials possessing different
‘dispersive’ powers. Thus, the spectrum formed by flint glass is longer
than that formed by crown glass, for the same deviation. When the two are
combined, so as to form a compound lens, the one tends to correct the
‘dispersion’ of the other. On this principle ACHROMATIC GLASSES are
generally formed in this country. A convex lens of crown glass is combined
with a weaker concave lens of flint glass, the latter counteracting the
dispersion of the former, without materially interfering with its
refractive power. The resulting combination is not absolutely achromatic,
but is sufficiently so for all ordinary purposes. According to Dr Blair, a
compound lens perfectly achromatic for the intermediate, as well as for
the extreme rays, may be made by confining certain fluids, as hydrochloric
acid, between two lenses of crown glass. In order to produce nearly
perfect achromatism in the object-glasses of telescopes, microscopes,
cameras, &c., a concave lens of flint glass is commonly placed between two
convex lenses of crown or plate glass, the adjacent surfaces being
cemented with the purest Canada balsam, to prevent the loss of light by
reflection from so many surfaces.

_Obs._ The production of perfect achromatism in lenses is a subject not
less fraught with difficulty than with practical importance to the
astronomer, the mariner, the microscopist, and the photographer; and it
has hence engaged the attention of the leading mathematicians and artists
of Europe up to the present time. All the larger object-glasses lately
manufactured are said to consist of only two lenses; the resulting
achromatism proving sufficiently exact for all useful purposes. Those of
recent production have come chiefly from the workshops of Dollond, of
London, and the opticians of Bavaria and Switzerland. The achromatism of
prisms depends upon the same principles, and it is effected in the same
way as that of lenses.

=ACIC′ULAR.= Needle-shaped; slender or sharp pointed; spicular; in
_botany_, applied to leaves, and in _chemistry_, to crystals. The last are
also sometimes termed ACIC′ULÆ.

=ACID=, _Syn._ ACIDUM, L.; ACIDE, Fr.; ACIDO, Ital.; SÄURE, G. In familiar
language, any substance possessing a sour taste. In _chemistry_,
substances are said to be acid, or to have an acid reaction, when they are
capable of turning blue litmus red. In _chemistry_, also, the term acid is
applied to a very large class of compounds containing hydrogen (hydrogen
salts), and in which one or more atoms of that element may be replaced by
an equivalent quantity of a metal or other basic radical; _e.g._——

1. The one atom of hydrogen in hydrochloric acid (HCl) may be replaced by
sodium, producing the salt sodium chloride (NaCl).

2. The one atom of hydrogen in nitric acid (HNO_{3}) may be replaced by
silver, producing the salt silver nitrate (AgNO_{3}).

3. One atom of hydrogen in acetic acid (HC_{2}H_{3}O_{2})[6] may be
replaced by the basic radical ammonium (NH_{4}), producing the salt
ammonium acetate (NH_{4}C_{2}H_{3}O_{2}).

[Footnote 6: Symbols indicating the number of atoms of replaceable
hydrogen occupy the foremost position in the formulæ of acids, as shown in
the text.]

Acids which, like those mentioned in the foregoing examples, contain one
atom of replaceable hydrogen are called monobasic; those which contain two
such atoms (_e.g._ sulphuric acid, H_{2}SO_{4}; tartaric acid,
H_{2}C_{4}H_{4}O_{6}),[7] dibasic; those which contain three such atoms
(_e.g._ phosphoric acid, H_{3}PO_{4}; citric acid,
H_{3}C_{6}H_{5}O_{7}),[7] tribasic; and so on with acids of higher
basicity. Acids of greater basicity than unity are frequently termed

[Footnote 7: See footnote, p. 26.]

Besides containing replaceable or basic hydrogen, acids are further
characterised by the property of combining with alkaloids to form salts;

   Sulphuric Acid.        Quinia.
  H_{2}SO_{4} + 2C_{24}H_{24}N_{2}O_{2} =

            Quinia Sulphate.
  (C_{20}H_{24}N_{2}O_{2})_{2} . H_{2}SO_{4}

    Acetic Acid.          Morphia.
  HC_{2}H_{3}O_{2} + C_{17}H_{19}NO_{3} =

            Morphia Acetate.
  C_{17}H_{19}NO_{3} . HC_{2}H_{3}O_{2}

=Dibasic Acids.= See ACID.

=Fatty Acids.= Acids separable from fats or oils; _e.g._ stearic acid,
oleic acid, butyric acid, &c.

=Inorganic Acids.= Same as MINERAL ACIDS (which _see_).

=Mineral Acids.= Acids chiefly or wholly derived from the mineral kingdom.
In _medicine_, sulphuric, hydrochloric, and nitric acids, are commonly so

=Monobasic Acids.= See ACID.

=Organic Acids.= Acids formed by, or derived from organic substances;
_e.g._ acetic acid, tartaric acid, uric acid, &c.

=Polybasic Acids.= See ACID.

=Pyro-acids.= Acids resulting from the decomposition by heat of other
acids, _e.g._ gallic acid, when heated, yields pyro-gallic acid.

=Tribasic Acids.= See ACID.

=ACIDIFICA′TION.= [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ ACIDIFICA′TIO, L. In _chemistry_, the
act, process, or state of acidifying, or of making, becoming, or
impregnated with acid.

An instrument or apparatus employed in acidimetry.

The ordinary acidimeters of the chemist are small tubes, constructed to
hold exactly 1000 grains of distilled water, at 60° Fahr., within the
limits of their scale, which is accurately graduated into 100 divisions.
They are used to contain the alkaline solutions (TEST-LIQUORS, NORMAL or
STANDARD SOLUTIONS) employed in the following processes.

Beaumé’s Acidimeter, and others of the same class, are HYDROMETERS, and
are described under that ‘head.’

The estimation of the strength or quantity of acid, in a free state,
contained in any liquid. It is the reverse of ‘alkalimetry.’ Acidimetrical
assays are understood to refer to the relative strengths of the same acids
(_i. e._, the quantity of real acid of the same kind contained in the
solutions examined), and not to the comparative strengths of acids of
different composition or names.

_Acidimetrical processes._ These are founded chiefly on the capacity of
the acids to saturate the bases; and, in some of the liquid acids, on the
specific gravity.


1. The sample of the acid to be examined (100 gr., or any convenient
aliquot part thereof) is placed in a suitable glass vessel, and if it be
one of the stronger acids, diluted with six or eight times its weight of
water, or if solid (as oxalic, or citric acid), dissolved in a like
quantity. This liquid is then exactly neutralised with an alkali.

This point is usually determined, by the addition of a small quantity of
litmus solution, which turns just blue when the solution is neutralised,
but when a carbonate is used for the alkaline solution, the acid must be
boiled a short time after each addition to expel the carbonic acid. The
quantity of the alkaline solution consumed for this purpose represents an
equivalent quantity of acid, and thus gives us the acid content of the
sample under examination. The common practice is to dissolve one
equivalent of the alkaline test in grains or grammes in water, and to make
up the solution to exactly 1000 parts by measure (_i. e._, 1000
‘water-grains’ or grammes), so as to accurately fill the 100 divisions of
an acidimeter; when the quantity, in grains or grammes, of the sample
tested, bears the same proportion to the equivalent number of the acid
under examination, that the number of acidimeter divisions of the
test-liquor consumed bear to the per-centage of acid sought.
Thus:——suppose 50 gr. of a sample of sulphuric acid take 25 acidimeter
divisions (300 parts or water-grains measure) of the test-liquid to
neutralise it, what is its content of real acid?

The equivalent of sulphuric acid is 49 (half its atomic weight); so, by
the rule of proportion,

  50 : 49 :: 25 : 24-1/2

It therefore contains 24-1/2 parts of real sulphuric acid, in 50.

If the 1000 parts or grain-measures, instead of the number of the
acidimeter divisions, be taken for the calculation, it will, of course, be
necessary to point off the first right-hand figure of the result as a
decimal. Thus; repeating the above example——

  50 : 49 :: 250 : 24·5

Or, since the equivalent of the test-liquid is 100, it will bear the same
proportion to the equiv. of the acid examined as the number of the
acidimeter divisions of the test-liquid consumed in neutralising 100 gr.,
do to the per-centage sought. Thus:——50 gr. of hydrochloric acid take 45
acidimeter divisions to effect neutralisation, what is its real
strength?——The equiv. of hydrochloric acid is 36·5: therefore——

  100 : 36·5 :: 45 : 16·425%

and, since only 50 gr. (instead of 100 gr.) were examined——

  16·425 × 2 = 32·85%

Some operators prefer employing 100 gr. instead of the equivalent weights
of the given tests in making their test-solutions, in which case each gr.
or 1000th part represents 1/10th, and each acidimeter degree 1 gr. of the
alkali or carbonate employed; when a similar proportion will obtain to
that first above given.

In technical analysis it is more convenient if the number of acidimeter
divisions of the ‘test-liquid’ consumed express the per-centage strength
of the acid, without further calculation. For this purpose the number of
grains of the acid taken for the assay should correspond to the equivalent
number of such acid (see _Table_ I, below); or to some convenient aliquot
part of it, as the 1/2, 1/4, 1/5, or 1/10th; the per-centage answer, in
the last case, being doubled, quadrupled, &c., according to the aliquot
part taken. The reason of this is obvious.

For the test-solutions, ammonia, and the dry and crystallised carbonates
and bicarbonates of potash and soda, are used, and are made by dissolving
in water their constituents except ammonia, of which 1000 grains, or one
litre, of solution of specific gravity 0·992 contains exactly one

53 grains (or grammes) of pure anhydrous carbonate of soda, prepared by
gradually heating to redness the crystallised salt, constitute one
equivalent (half the atomic weight), and 69 grains (or grammes) of pure
dry carbonate of potash. Of the crystallised salt 143 grains of carbonate
of soda will be required, and 84 grains (grammes) of the crystallised
bicarbonate of soda, and 100 of the crystallised bicarbonate of potash.
Occasionally solutions containing in one thousand parts, 50 of pure
carbonate of lime or chalk, or 28 of pure caustic lime, are used.

Besides these, a process known as Kiefer’s is practised, and an ammoniacal
solution of oxide of copper is employed as the ‘test-liquor,’ and the
‘point of neutralisation’ is known by the turbidity observed as soon as
the free acid present is completely saturated.

The normal solution or test-liquor is prepared by adding to an aqueous
solution of sulphate of copper, pure ammonia water, until the precipitate,
which at first forms, is just redissolved, carefully avoiding excess. Or
better, by adding a rather strong solution of sulphate of copper, to a
quantity of a rather strong solution of ammonia containing exactly 17 gr.,
or one equiv. of pure ammonia, as long as the precipitate which forms is
redissolved on agitation; the resulting liquid being afterwards diluted
with pure distilled water, until it accurately measures 1000 water-grains,
or fills 100 divisions of an acidimeter, at 60° Fahr. In either case, the
strength of the resulting ‘test-solution’ must be carefully determined by
means of standard sulphuric acid, and adjusted, if necessary.

This method answers well with all the stronger acids (excepting oxalic
acid), even when dilute; and it has the advantage of not being affected by
the presence of a neutral metallic salt with an acid reaction, as sulphate
of copper, or of zinc.

Besides this process a solution of lime in sugar may be used, as proposed
by M. Peligot, and made as follows:——

Pure caustic lime is carefully slaked by sprinkling with water, and 50
grains (or grammes), made up by water to a milky solution, and 100 grains
of pure sugar candy dissolved in 1000 grains of water, are added, and the
whole well shaken. It is allowed to settle in a closed bottle, and the
clear solution poured off and diluted, until 1000 grains neutralise
exactly 100 grains of pure hydrochloric acid of sp. gr. 1·1812. Of course
it only answers with acids whose calcium salts are readily soluble in


The test-liquors or standard solutions of the above methods are made up so
as to _weigh_ exactly 1000 grains, instead of to ‘measure’ 100 acidimeter
divisions. Every grain of the test-liquor thus represents 1/10th gr. of
alkali; and every 10 gr., 1 gr. of alkali; or respectively, 1/10th per
cent. and 1 per cent. The vessel used for containing the solutions is
carefully weighed whilst empty, and 1000 gr. being placed in the opposite
scale, the test-solution, containing exactly one equivalent of base, is
poured in, and the whole made up with distilled water (if necessary) so as
to restore the balance to an equilibrium. After the process of
neutralisation, the acidimeter, with its contents, is again placed in the
scales; its previous weight still remaining there. The number of grains
required to restore the equilibrium of the balance (_i.e._, the loss of
weight), gives the exact weight of the test-liquor consumed. In all other
respects the process is the same as in the ‘volumetrical method’ already

Another method for estimating the strength of the sample of acid is by
weighing the amount of carbonic acid expelled during saturation. (Method
of Fresenius and Will.) This depends on the weight of gaseous carbonic
acid which a given weight of the acid-sample under examination is capable
of expelling from pure bicarbonate of soda (or of potash), which is
estimated by the loss of weight in the acidimeter, or apparatus, after the
gas, rendered perfectly dry by passing through sulphuric acid, has escaped
into the air.

        TABLE I.——_Weights of the respective acids equivalent
        to the given weight of the principal bases, hydrogen
        being taken as unity._

                                                      {51 Acetic acid (anhydrous).
                                                      {60   ”     ”   (crystallised or glacial).
                                                      {99 Arsenious acid (dry).
                                                      {35 Boracic acid (anhydrous).
  17 gr. of pure ammonia.[8]            }             {62   ”     ”   (crystallised).
  31   ”    anhydrous soda.[9]          }             {22 Carbonic acid (dry).
  40   ”    hydrate of soda.[9]         }             {67 Citric acid (crystallised).
  53   ”    dry carbonate of soda.[10]  }             {85 Gallic acid (dried at 212°).
  143  ”    crystallised carbonate of   }             {94   ”     ”   (crystallised).
               soda.[11]                }             {127-1/2 Hydriodic acid (dry or gaseous).
  84   ”    crystallised bicarbonate    }             {27 Hydrocyanic acid (anhydrous).
               of soda.                 }             {36-1/2 Hydrochloric acid (dry or gaseous).
  47   ”    anhydrous potassa.[9]       }             {109         ”       ”   (liquid, sp. gr. 1·162).
  56   ”    hydrate of potassa.[9]      } are         {166-1/2 Iodic acid.
  69   ”    dry carbonate of potassa.[10]} exactly    {54 Nitric acid (anhydrous).
  100  ”    crystallised bicarbonate    } neutralised {63   ”     ”   (liquid, _monohydrated_, sp. gr.
               of potassa.              }        by   {                       1·517 to 1·521).
  50   ”   {pure chalk.                 }             {67-1/2 ”   ”   (liquid, _sesquihydrated_, sp. gr.
           {pure marble.                }             {                       1·5033 to 1·504).
  28   ”    pure caustic lime.          }             {72   ”     ”   (liquid, _binhydrated_, sp. gr.
  37   ”    hydrate of lime (fresh).    }             {                       1·486).
  44   ”    dry carbonic acid (when     }             {90   ”     ”   (liquid, sp. gr 1·42).
               the bicarbonate of       }             {36 Oxalic acid (anhydrous).
               potassa or soda is       }             {63   ”     ”   (crystallised).
               used for testing in      }             {72 Phosphoric acid (anhydrous).
               the process of Fresenius }             {81   ”         ”   (glacial).
               and Will).               }             {50 Succinic acid (dry or anhydrous crystals).
  22   ”    dry carbonic acid (when     }             {59   ”       ”   (ordinary crystals).
               a dry carbonate is       }             {40 Sulphuric acid (anhydrous).
               used).                   }             {49     ”     ”    (liquid, _monohydrated_, sp.
                                                      {                     gr. 1·8485).
                                                      {75 Tartaric acid (crystallised).
                                                      {212 Tannic acid (carefully dried).

[Footnote 8: 1000 water-grains measure of pure liquor of ammonia, sp. gr.
0·992, contains exactly 17 gr., or 1 equiv. of pure gaseous ammonia. A
standard liquor of this strength may be most conveniently prepared by
cautious dilution of a stronger solution, until a hydrostatic bead,
corresponding to the sp. gr., floats indifferently in the middle of the
new solution, at 60° Fahr. By keeping two hydrostatic beads in the
solution——the one made barely to float, and the other barely to sink——we
shall always be able to detect any change of strength or temperature which
it may suffer; since the “loss of a single hundredth part of a grain of
ammonia per cent., or the difference of a single degree of heat, will
cause the beads to” vary their positions. To preserve its integrity it
must be kept in a well-stoppered bottle. (See below.)]

[Footnote 9: These substances, as well as ‘test-solutions’ containing
them, must be perfectly free from carbonic acid, and must be carefully
preserved to prevent the absorption of carbonic acid from the atmosphere.
Mohr states that a dilute solution of either of them is best preserved in
a flask or bottle well closed with a cork fitted with a small bulb tube
(resembling a chloride of calcium tube), filled with a finely triturated
mixture of sulphate of soda and caustic lime, and bearing a very thin open
tube in the exit aperture. Fresenius, and most other foreign chemists,
prefer ‘test-solutions’ of pure soda. With test-solutions containing
caustic alkalies, exact neutralisation of an acid is not only more easily
effected, but more readily perceived, particularly when either solution is
tinted with litmus.]

[Footnote 10: Prepared by gradually heating the pure crystallised
carbonate to redness. From being uniform in composition, and easily
procured or prepared, they are much employed; preference being usually
given to the soda-salt.]

[Footnote 11: The crystals must be free from attached water, but not the
least effloresced.]

_Oper._ A determined amount of the acid under examination is accurately
weighed into the flask _A_ (see _engr._); and if it be a concentrated
acid, or a solid, it is mixed with or dissolved in 6 or 8 times its weight
of water. The little glass tube (_e_) is then nearly filled to the brim
with pure bicarbonate of soda, in powder, and a fine silken thread is tied
round the neck of the tube, by means of which it can be lowered down into
the flask (_A_), so as to remain perpendicularly suspended when the cork
is placed in the latter; the cord being held between the cork and the
mouth of the flask. The flask (_B_) is next about half filled with oil of
vitriol, and the tubes being arranged in their places, as represented in
the _engr._; and time having been allowed for the mixture of acid and
water to cool completely, after the increase of heat caused by mixing, the
whole apparatus is very accurately weighed. The cork in the flask (_A_) is
then slightly loosened, so as to allow the little tube containing the
bicarbonate of soda to fall into the acid, and is again instantly fixed
AIR-TIGHT in its place. The evolution of carbonic acid now commences, and
continues until the acid in the flask (_A_) is neutralised. When this
takes place, which is easily seen by no bubbles being emitted on shaking
the apparatus, the flask (_A_) is put into hot water (120° to 130°
Fahr.), and kept there, with occasional agitation, until the renewed
evolution of gas has completely ceased. The little wax stopper is then
taken off the tube (_a_), the apparatus taken out of the hot water, wiped
dry, and suction applied, by means of a perforated cork, or a small
india-rubber tube, and the mouth, to the end of the tube (_d_), until the
sucked air no longer tastes of carbonic acid. The whole is then allowed to
become quite cold, when it is replaced in the balance (the other scale
still containing the original weights), and weights added to restore the


  (_A_) A wide-mouthed flask, capable of holding 2-1/2 to 8 oz.,
      containing sample for trial (_f_).
  (_B_) Ditto, capable of holding 1-1/2 to 2 oz., partly filled with
      oil of vitriol (_g_).
  (_a_, _c_, _d_) Tubes fitting air-tight in the flasks by means of
      the corks (_i_) and (_j_).
  (_b_) Piece of wax fitting air-tight on the end of _a_.
  (_e_) Small tube capable of holding about 1 drachm of powdered
      bicarbonate of soda or potash.
  (_h_) Open end of the tube (_d_).
  (_k_) Silk cord fastened to the tube (_e_).]

The loss of weight represents the exact quantity of dry carbonic
anhydride, or anhydrous carbonic acid gas, that has been expelled from the
bicarbonate of soda, by the action of the acid in the sample examined.

The quantity of real acid it contained is then deduced by the following
calculation:——One equivalent of gaseous carbonic anhydride, or anhydrous
carbonic acid (= 44) bears the same proportion to one equivalent of the
acid in question, as the amount of the carbonic anhydride expelled does to
the amount of the acid sought. Thus, suppose a dilute sulphuric acid
expels 3 gr. of carbonic anhydride, the arrangement is——

  44 : 49 :: 3 : 3·349

Consequently the sample operated on contained 3·5 (nearly) grains of true
sulphuric acid.

Instead of the above calculation, we may multiply the weights of the
respective acids required to expel 1 gr. of carbonic acid (as exhibited in
the following table) by the number of gr. of dry carbonic acid evolved
during the above operation. The product represents the per-centage
strength, when 100 gr. of the acid have been examined. When only 50, 25,
20, or 10 gr. have been tested, this product must, of course, be doubled,
quadrupled, &c., as the case may be.

        TABLE II.

  Acetic acid (anhydrous)                          1·159
    ”      ”  (hydrated or glacial)                1·364
  Citric acid (crystallised)                       1·523
  Hydrochloric acid (dry or gaseous)                ·829
    ”            ” (sp. gr. 1·16)                  2·478
  Nitric acid (anhydrous)                          1·227
    ”     ” (sp. gr. 1·5)                          1·523
    ”     ” (sp. gr. 1·42)                         2·045
  Oxalic acid (crystallised)                       1·432
  Sulphuric acid (anhydrous)                        ·909
    ”        ”  (sp. gr. 1·8485)                   1·114
  Tartaric acid (anhydrous)                        1·500
    ”        ”  (crystallised)                     1·705

Even this easy calculation may be avoided, in technical analysis, by
simply taking for the assay such a weight of the respective acids as is
capable of disengaging exactly 10 gr. of dry carbonic acid from the
bicarbonate. In this case, the loss of weight in grains, from the
operation, multiplied by 10, at once indicates the exact per-centage
strength sought. The proper weight of any acid to be taken to give
per-centage results is found by simply dividing ten times the equiv. of
that acid by 44. For, taking sulphuric acid as an example,

  as—— 44: 49 :: 10 : 11·1318

or 11·13 nearly.

On this principle are obtained the weights to be taken, as given in——

        TABLE III.

  Acetic acid (anhydrous)                11·59
    ”      ” (hydrated or glacial)       13·64
  Citric acid (crystallised)             15·23
  Hydrochloric acid (dry or gaseous)      8·29
    ”            ”  (sp. gr. 1·16)       24·78
  Nitric acid (anhydrous)                12·27
    ”      ” (sp. gr. 1·5)               15·23
    ”      ” (sp. gr. 1·42)              20·45
  Oxalic acid (crystallised)             14·32
  Sulphuric acid (anhydrous)              9·09
    ”         ”  (sp. gr. 1·845)         11·14
  Tartaric acid (anhydrous)              15·00
    ”        ” (crystallised)            17·05

2. A convenient modification of the preceding method of acidimetry
consists in using the common apparatus figured in the margin and employing
fused chloride of calcium to dry the evolved carbonic acid gas, instead of
concentrated sulphuric acid. The mode of conducting the process and
obtaining the results is precisely the same as in that last explained, and
need not, therefore, be repeated. In this case, however, suction must be
applied to the small tube (_g_), instead of (_d_) in the accompanying

_Obs._ These methods, though apparently complicated, are not difficult to
perform, when once well understood. The application of heat after the
completion of the operation is indispensable, as, if it were neglected,
from 0·3 to 0·4 of a gr. of carbonic acid would be retained in the liquid.
The bicarbonate of soda must be pure, and perfectly free from any neutral
carbonate or sesquicarbonate of soda. To ensure this, the bicarbonate of
commerce is reduced to a uniform powder, put into a glass jar, and covered
with its own weight of cold distilled or rain water, and allowed to stand
for twenty-four hours, with frequent stirring. It is then placed upon a
funnel, the tube of which is stopped with loose cotton, so as to allow the
lye to drain off. It is next washed several times with small quantities of
cold distilled or rain water, and after being dried by pressure between
some sheets of blotting-paper, without the aid of heat, is kept for use in
a well-closed glass bottle. Before use, it may be tested to ascertain its
purity. If pure, it neither reddens turmeric paper, nor gives a brick-red
precipitate with a solution of bichloride of mercury. Pure bicarbonate of
potassa may be used instead of bicarbonate of soda; but in either case it
is always proper to use an excess, so as to leave some undecomposed
carbonate after the operation has ended. The presence of a little sodium
chloride or sulphate in the bicarbonate will not interfere in the least,
but the absence of every trace of neutral carbonate is a _sine quâ non_.


  (_a_) Wide-mouthed flask, containing the sample for examination,
      hermetically stopped by the cork (_e_) and supporting the
      tubes (_b_) and (_c_).
  (_b_) Bulbous tube, containing fragments of fused chloride of
      calcium, terminating in a capillary tube (_g_).
  (_c_) Bent tube, reaching nearly to the bottom of the flask (_a_).
  (_d_) Small tube containing bicarbonate of soda.
  (_e_) Cork fitting bottle (_a_), and the tubes (_b_) and (_c_),
  (_f_) Silken thread, suspending the small tube (_d_).]

The two above methods of estimating the amount of acid are only superior
to the generally used methods first described, when the presence of
colouring matter interferes with the reaction of the litmus used to show
the point of neutralisation.

_Observations._ When great accuracy is required in conducting the
neutralisation of the solution in estimating volumetrically with litmus as
an indicator, it is proper to prepare and keep standard solutions of
sulphuric acid and oxalic acid, with which occasionally to try the
alkaline test-liquor. The only difficulty in the process is to avoid
over-saturation of the acid-sample. Great care must be taken not to exceed
the precise point of neutralisation of the acid. After adding each portion
of the test-liquor, the solution should be well stirred up, and as soon as
the effervescence becomes languid the greatest caution must be observed in
adding more. The proper point is arrived at when the liquor ceases to
redden litmus, and does not alter the colour of turmeric paper; if it
turns the latter brown, too much of the test-liquid has been added, and
the operation becomes useless. Towards the end of the experiment, when
great precision is required, a gentle heat may be applied, in order to
expel the free carbonic acid in the liquor; but otherwise this is
unnecessary. The peculiar soapy odour gradually acquired by the liquor as
it nears saturation will materially assist the operator when testing
vinegars, and some of the other vegetable acids. A good method is to tint
either the acid-sample or the test-liquid with a few drops of litmus, as
noticed under ACETIMETRY; when the reddish shade will gradually deepen
into ‘purple,’ or the purple into ‘red,’ as the point of saturation is
approached; and the blue colour will be perfectly restored as soon as this
point is reached. Dr Ure recommends keeping the ammonia-test ready tinged
with litmus, and the same applies to other test-liquors.

In commerce, the strength of acids is frequently reckoned with reference
to a standard, termed 100 acidimetric degrees. This is taken from the
circumstance that 91 gr. of commercial oil of vitriol, of a sp. gr. of
1·845, exactly saturate 100 gr. of dried carbonate of soda. An acid
requiring only 35, 50, or any other number of grains of the carbonate to
saturate it, is in like manner termed of so many degrees strong; the
number of grains representing in each case an equal number of degrees.
This method originated with the French chemists, and though only
conventional, and principally confined to commercial purposes, is
especially adapted to practical men but little conversant with chemistry,
yet very ready in retaining or calculating anything on the centesimal
scale, from its similarity to monetary language and reckoning.

_chemistry_, the state of being acid. In _physiology_, &c., the impression
given to the organs of taste by tart or acid substances. Sourness. See

=Gas′tric Acidity.= Acidity of the stomach; a common and well-known
symptom of weak or disordered digestion.

_Treat., &c._ Small doses of absorbents or antacids, three or four times
daily, to which some tonic bitter, as calumba, cascarilla, chamomile,
gentian, or orange-peel, may be added. Stomachic stimulants, as capsicum,
ginger, mustard, or wine, &c., taken with, or after, meals, are also
useful. The diet should be light and nutritious; and acescent vegetables,
over-ripe fruit, and weak new beer or other liquors avoided as much as
possible. The bowels should be kept regular, but not open, by the
occasional use of mild aperients, as rhubarb, aloes, castor oil, senna, or
mercurial pill, or compounds containing them. Excessive looseness or
diarrhœa may be checked by a few doses of carbonate of soda,
chalk-mixture, or astringents.

In INFANCY this affection is usually accompanied by restlessness,
continual crying, drawing up of the legs forcibly towards the body,
hiccups, vomiting, diarrhœa, sour eructations, griping pains, green
stools, and debility; often followed, when the irritation is considerable,
by convulsions. The treatment consists in relieving the bowels of all
offending matter by a few doses of rhubarb-and-magnesia. The looseness or
diarrhœa may be checked by a few small doses of carbonate of soda or chalk
mixture; or better, in an infant which is fed by lime-water (1 or 2 fl.
oz.) mixed with as much milk. Two or three drops of caraway, cinnamon,
dill, or peppermint water, on sugar (not with the food) will tend to
promote the expulsion, and prevent the undue generation of gases. The
flatulence usually disappears with the acidity. The occasional
administration of 1 to 3 gr. of quicksilver-with-chalk (‘grey powder’),
will frequently remove the complaint, and prevent its recurrence, when all
other means fail. The diet of both nurse and infant should be carefully


_Treatment for Horses._ Alkalies, their carbonates and bicarbonates;
alterative doses of aloes with alkalies; chalk, carbonate of magnesia;
mineral acids; bismuth, arsenic, nux vomica, or strychnia.

=ACIDS, EFFECTS OF, ON VEGETATION.= This subject has been ably
investigated of recent years by Dr Angus Smith and Mr Rothwell, and the
practical importance of their labours is shown by the circumstance that an
Act of Parliament passed in 1875 renders it penal for the proprietors of
alkali works to condense not less than 95 per cent. of the hydrochloric
acid evolved in the process of manufacturing ‘soda,’ also to allow air,
smoke, or chimney gases to escape into the atmosphere containing more than
one fifth of a grain of hydrochloric acid per cubic foot. Every owner of
an alkali work is likewise required to ‘use the best practical means of
preventing the discharge into the atmosphere of all other noxious gases
arising from such work, or of rendering such gases harmless when

The injurious effects of acids on vegetation are indicated chiefly by the
shrivelled-up appearance which the leaves of herbage, trees, &c., exhibit
in the vicinity of chemical works in which the condensation of noxious
gases (hydrochloric acid, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid, sulphuretted
hydrogen, nitric acid, and oxides of nitrogen and chlorine) is not
effectually carried out. According to Mr Rothwell, ‘in fields exposed to
acid vapours handfuls of dead grass may be pulled up in the spring,
smelling strongly of the vapour, and that trees, under similar influences,
become bark-bound.’

The following is a list of trees arranged in the order of their
susceptibility. (Rothwell.)

_Forest Trees._ Larch, spruce fir, Scotch fir, black Italian poplar,
Lombardy poplar, ash, oak, elm, birch, alder, sycamore.

_Fruit Trees._ Damson, greengage, Halewood plum, Jacob plum, pears,
apples, cherries.

_Shrubs, Evergreens, and Wild Plants._ British laurels, Portugal laurels,
_Aucuba_ _Japonica_, Barberry evergreen, hazel, guelder rose, sloe thorn,
hawthorn, raspberries, gooseberries, blackberries, gorse, hollies.

_Farm Crops._ Potatoes, mangel, white clover and rhubarb, red clover,
trefoil, rye-grass, wheat, oats, barley, common turnips, swedes.

_Second list of Plants affected by Noxious Vapours, mixing the classes
according to the effects produced on each._

I. Fern——only in the summer.

Scotch firs, spruce, and larches——a little in winter.

Clover (white and red), trefoil, rye-grass, poplars, hawthorn,
potatoes——receive damage in winter to roots.

II. Wheat receives some damage in winter.

Oats in May, when in the grass state, soon receive damage.

Barley, mangel, common turnips, rhubarb.

III. Laurels (British and Portugal), aucubas, yews, holly, gorse——receive
damage in winter, but more in summer.

Old grass meadows and pastures receive much damage in winter.

IV. Ashes, oaks, hazels, horse-chestnuts, walnuts, Spanish chestnuts, sloe

V. Swedish turnip and cabbages, damson, other fruit trees, beech, elm,
birch, alder, sycamores.

=ACIDULÆ.= [L. pl.] In _medicine_, mineral waters rich in carbonic acid.

=ACIDULATED=. _Syn_. ACIDULATUS, L.; ACIDULÉ, Fr. Blended or flavoured
with an acid; made slightly sour. See KALI (Acidulated), DROPS, LOZENGES,
&c. In _chemistry_, the addition of an acid to a neutral or alkaline
liquid until it reddens blue litmus paper.

=ACIDUM.= [L.] An acid.

=ACNE.= [_Syn._ PIMPLED FACE.] There are two forms of this affection. 1st.
In young persons of both sexes; generally in phlegmatic habits. The
disease shows itself by hard pimples, with a small black spot on the apex,
unaccompanied with redness or inflammation at first, but after a while
they become red and inflamed, and sometimes suppurate, with a greasy look
of the skin between them. In this form of acne the black spots should be
picked out with a needle or a small pair of tweezers. A long piece of
thick matter, like a worm, is extracted; but is no worm. Afterwards wash
the face with water in which a small piece of Quillar bark has been
steeped, or with bitter almond emulsion, or borax, one drachm, water 4 oz.
When there is no inflammation, use Eau de Cologne, or a few drops of oil
of rosemary dissolved in spirit of wine, taking a small dose of magnesia
in the morning, or milk of sulphur daily. When the pimples are very
sluggish the cautious application of tincture of iodine, or of ointment of
nitrate of mercury, will be found serviceable.

2nd. Arises from intemperance. In this case a gradual change of habits is
essential. The use of soap should be avoided, and recourse had to warm
fomentations of slippery elm, or thin oat gruel. The following should be
applied to the pimples:——Cold cream, 1 oz., Goulard’s extract 20 drops,
mixed together; or lemon juice diluted, or solution of borax in water. The
internal administration of the mineral acids combined with bitter tonics,
or small doses of iodide of potassium, will be found effectual.

_Treatment._ Fomentations, poultices, chloride of zinc solution
externally; sulphur and alteratives internally.

=ACOLOGY=. _Syn._ In _medicine_, the doctrine of, or a discourse on,
remedies or the materia medica.

STURMHUT, Ger. Monkshood; wolfsbane. In _botany_, a genus of exogenous
plants. _Nat. ord._, Ranunculaceæ; _Sex. syst._, Polyandria Trigynia. They
are characterised by showy purple or yellow helmet-shaped flowers growing
in panicles, deeply cut leaves, and perennial (usually) tap-shaped or
tapering roots. The whole plant is highly poisonous, the roots being more
poisonous than the leaves. In _medicine_ and _materia medica_, the plant
Aconitum Napellus (which _see_).

_Symptoms._ Numbness and tingling in the mouth and throat, which are
parched; followed by giddiness, dimness of sight, and (sometimes)
delirium, but seldom complete coma; there is numbness and tingling of the
limbs, a loss of power in the legs, (in some cases) frothing at the mouth,
severe abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhœa; tremors or
twitchings of the voluntary muscles, (sometimes) convulsions (in animals,
but not in man); sharp cries; pupil (generally) dilated, very rarely
contracted; pulse fitful and sinking; skin cold and livid; difficulty of
breathing; general prostration; loss of sensation or feeling,
insensibility, general trembling, fainting, and sudden death. The eyes are
often glaring; and, in some cases, the patient is completely paralysed,
yet retains consciousness to the last. The case generally proves fatal in
from 1 to 8 hours. If it last beyond this period there is hope of
recovery. (Fleming.)

_Antidotes._ Ammonia, or brandy, with artificial respiration if necessary:
cold affusion and friction, with warm towels to the back and limbs. See

=ACONITE LEAVES= (B. Ph.). _Syn._ ACONITI FOLIA, L. The fresh leaves and
flowering tops of _aconitum napellus_, Linn., gathered when about one
third of the flowers are expanded, from plants cultivated in Britain.

_Char._ Leaves smooth, palmate, divided into five deeply cut wedge-shaped
segments; excizing slowly, when chewed, a sensation of tingling. Flowers
numerous, irregular, deep blue, in dense racemes.

_Prep._ Extractum aconiti.

=ACONITE ROOT.= (B. Ph.). _Syn._ ACONITI RADIX, L. The dried root of
_aconitum napellus_. Imported from Germany, or cultivated in Britain, and
collected in the winter or early spring before the leaves have appeared.

_Prep._ Aconitia, the active principle; Linimentum Aconiti, 1 ounce to 1
fluid ounce; Tinctura Aconiti, 54-1/2 grains to 1 fluid ounce.

_Char._ Usually from one to three inches long, not thicker than the finger
at the crown, tapering, blackish-brown, internally whitish. A _minute_
portion, cautiously chewed, causes prolonged tingling and numbness.



=ACONITIA.= C_{30}H_{47}O_{7}N. (B. P.) _Syn._ ACONITIA, L. An alkaloid
obtained from aconite.

  Take of
    Aconite root, in coarse powder, 14 pounds.
    Rectified spirit      }
    Distilled water       }    of each
    Solution or ammonia   }  a sufficiency.
    Pure ether            }
    Diluted sulphuric acid}

Pour upon the aconite root three gallons of the spirit, mix them well, and
heat until ebullition commences; then cool and macerate for four days.
Transfer the whole to a displacement apparatus, and percolate, adding more
spirit, when requisite, until the root is exhausted. Distil off the
greater part of the spirit from the tincture, and evaporate the remainder
over a water bath until the whole of the alcohol has been dissipated. Mix
the residual extract thoroughly with twice its weight of boiling distilled
water, and when it has cooled to the temperature of the atmosphere, filter
through paper. To the filtered liquid add solution of ammonia in slight
excess, and heat them gently over a water bath. Separate the precipitate
on a filter, and dry it. Reduce this to coarse powder, and macerate it in
successive portions of the pure ether with frequent agitation. Decant the
several products, mix and distil off the ether until the extract is dry.
Dissolve the dry extract in warm distilled water acidulated with the
sulphuric acid; and, when the solution is cold, precipitate it by the
cautious addition of solution of ammonia diluted with four times its bulk
of distilled water. Wash the precipitate on a filter with a small quantity
of cold distilled water, and dry it by slight pressure between folds of
filtering paper.

_Characters and Tests._ A white, usually amorphous, solid, soluble in 150
parts of cold, and 50 of hot water, and much more soluble in alcohol and
in ether; strongly alkaline to reddened litmus, neutralising acids, and
precipitated from them by the caustic alkalies, but not by carbonate of
ammonia or the bicarbonates of soda or potash. It melts with heat, and
burns with a smoky flame, leaving no residue when burned with free access
of air. When rubbed on the skin it causes a tingling sensation, followed
by prolonged numbness. It is a very active poison.

=ACONITIA, CRYSTALLISED.= C_{27}H_{40}NO_{10}. Exhaust the root of wild
aconite, carefully picked and powdered, with very strong alcohol, to which
1 per cent. of tartaric acid has been added. Distil at a gentle heat, and
sheltered from the air, to recover the alcohol. Treat the extract with
water to separate all the fatty and resinous matters. The solution which
contains the aconite in the state of acid tartrate is first shaken with
ether to remove colouring matters, and then the alkaloid is set free by
the addition of alkaline bicarbonate, until the cessation of
effervescence. A fresh treatment with ether of this alkaline solution
removes the alkaloid, which crystallizes upon the concentration of the
ethereal liquid, with an addition of petroleum spirit. The crystals are
colourless tables, rhombic or hexagonal, according to the modifications
produced principally in the acute angles. Crystallized aconitia is soluble
in alcohol, ether, benzine, and chloroform; insoluble in petroleum oils
and glycerine.

ACONITIA NITRATE, CRYSTALLISED. Crystallised aconitine q. s.; nitric acid,
sp. gr. 1·442, q. s. Saturate the nitric acid with the aconitine and
evaporate. Voluminous crystals are easily obtained (from ‘Formulæ for New
Medicaments adopted by the Paris Pharmaceutical Society’).——‘Pharm.
Journal.’ Owing to the decomposition which this alkaloid undergoes in the
animal organism, as well as to its liability to decompose during the
process of evaporation, and exposure to the air, it often becomes
extremely difficult, if not impossible, to obtain it in a separate state
in conducting a _post-mortem_ examination. The physiological effects seem
to furnish the most prominent and characteristic evidence of its presence
in such cases, or at any rate these may serve as a valuable guide to the

Uncrystallised aconitia is sometimes contaminated with delphinia, as well
as with aconella, another constituent of aconite root. For the dissection
of these see ALKALOIDS. One fiftieth of a grain of aconitia is stated to
have killed a dog.

_Antidotes._ See ACONITE.

=ACONITIC ACID.= (Identical with _Pyrocitric Acid_.) An acid extracted by
Peschier from _aconitum napellus_, and by Bracconnot from _equisetum
fluviatile_. It exists in these plants chiefly in the form of aconitate of

_Properties._ A white, colourless, semi-crystalline mass.



=ACONI′TUM.= [L.] Aconite. The pharmacopœial name of _aconitum
napellus_(see _below_).

=Aconitum Ferox.= (Ind. P.) _Habitat_. Temperate and sub-Alpine Himalaya,
at 10,000 to 14,000 feet elevation, from Gurhwal to Sikkim.

_Officinal part._ The dried root (_Aconiti ferocis Radix_), in common with
those of other Himalayan species, viz., _aconitum napellus_, _a.
palmatum_, and _a. luridum_, constitutes the drug well known in the
bazaars of Upper India under the Hindostani name of _Bish_ or _Bikh_.

It occurs in the form of tuberous roots of a more or less conical form,
from two to three inches in length, and from half an inch to one inch in
thickness at their upper end. They have usually a shrunken appearance, and
are covered with a dark shrivelled bark; fracture shining and resinous;
sometimes waxy, varying in colour from pale to deep brown. Some specimens
are white and spongy; and these, it is asserted, are superior in activity
to the more compact kinds. Inodorous; taste at first slightly bitter,
leaving a peculiar sense of numbness on the tongue and fauces. Active
principle, aconitia.

_Medical Properties and Uses._ Similar to those of _aconitum napellus_ of
Europe. _Preparations._ This root may be advantageously used for the
manufacture of aconitia, the proportion of this alkaloid being much larger
than in the European drug; and also for the preparation of Linimentum
Aconiti. From its greater activity, however, it is unsuited for the
preparation of this tincture, which is intended for external use.

=Aconitum Hetorophyllum.= (Ind. P.) _Habitat_. Western temperate Himalaya,
at 8000 to 13,000 feet elevation; from Indus to Kumaon. _Officinal part._
The dried root (_Aconiti heterophylli Radix_). Ovoid tuberous roots,
tapering downwards to a point, from one to one and a half inches or more
in length, and from three eighths to half an inch in thickness. The
surface, which is covered with a thin greyish epidermis, is slightly
wrinkled longitudinally, and marked here and there with root scars. It is
inodorous, and of a bitter taste, devoid of acridity. Does not contain
aconitia. It may be readily distinguished from other roots sold in the
bazaars under the same vernacular name (Atis) by its characteristic
bitterness. _Properties._ Tonic and antiperiodic. It may be administered
internally with safety, as it contains no poisonous principle.
_Therapeutic uses_. In convalescence after debilitating diseases, and in
intermittent and other paroxysmal fevers, it has been found an efficient
remedy. _Doses._ Tonic, 5 to 10 grains thrice daily; antiperiodic, 20 to
30 grains of the powdered root every three or four hours, irrespective of
the presence of pyrexia.

=Aconitum Napell′us.= [Linn.] _Syn._ ACONI′TUM, Ph. L., E., & D.;
blue wolfsbane, or deadly aconite. _Hab._ Various parts of Europe; grows
wild in England, flowering in June and July. The fresh and dried leaves
(ACONITI FO′′LIUM), Ph. L. & E. The root (ACONITI RA′DIX), Ph. L. & D.
This is the species of aconite ordered in the pharmacopœias, and commonly
used in medicine. When chewed it imparts a sensation of acrimony, followed
by a pungent heat of the lips, gums, palate, and fauces, which is
succeeded by a general tremor and chilliness. The juice applied to a wound
or the unsound skin affects the whole nervous system. Even by remaining
long in the hand, or on the bosom, it produces unpleasant symptoms. Fatal
cases of poisoning, by eating the root in mistake for horseradish, have
been common of late years. The two roots may be, however, easily
distinguished from one another; when scraped aconite emits an earthy, and
horseradish its well-known pungent odour. Moreover, the shape of the roots
is very different. In the accompanying figure _a_ represents aconite root,
and _b_ horseradish root.


The leaves should be gathered as soon as the flowers appear. The root
should be taken up in autumn. When the whole plant is employed, it should
be gathered as soon as the flowers begin to open. The strength (richness
in aconitia) varies considerably with the time of the year. 1 oz. of the
fresh root contains 1/4 to 3/4 gr. of aconitia; 1 lb. of the dried English
root contains from 12 to 36 gr. (Herapath). The leaves possess the
greatest activity just before flowering; the root, after it. The root is
at all times fully six times as strong as the leaves or herb. The wild
plant contains much more aconitia than that which is cultivated. The herb,
and all its preparations, lose their efficacy if long kept. The powder,
more particularly, cannot be relied on. Mr Holmes says it is difficult to
find in a commercial sample of aconite root one root in a dozen, which
upon fracture appears sound and in good condition.

_Properties, Antidotes, &c._ See ACONITE.

_Tests, &c._ See ACONITE.

_Uses, &c._ In small doses aconite is narcotic, powerfully diaphoretic,
and sometimes diuretic; in larger ones, the symptoms are similar to those
produced by aconitia. It acts as a powerful sedative on the heart’s
action, and destroys sensibility without disturbing the mental faculties.
It has been given in chronic rheumatism, gout, paralysis, scirrhus,
scrofula, cancers, venereal nodes, epilepsy, amaurosis, intermittents,
&c.; but its exhibition requires the greatest possible caution. As a
topical benumber it has been used with great advantage in painful
affections depending on increased sensibility of the nerves. Externally it
“is most valuable for the cure of neuralgic and rheumatic pains. In
neuralgia, no remedy, I believe, will be found equal to it. One
application of the tincture produces some amelioration; and after a few
times’ use, it frequently happens that the patient is cured. In some
cases, the benefit appears almost magical. In others, however, it entirely
fails to give permanent relief.” “I do not think that in any (case) it
proves injurious.” “When it succeeds, it gives more or less relief at the
first application. When the disease depends on inflammation, aconite will
be found, I think, an unavailing remedy.” “In rheumatic pains,
unaccompanied with local swelling or redness, aconite is frequently of
very great service.” (Pereira, iii, 691.) _Dose_, of the powder, 1 to 2
gr., gradually increased to 6 or 8. Dr Stocrk was the first who gave
wolfsbane internally, about the year 1762. It has since been successfully
employed in Germany in cases of chronic rheumatism, gout, &c., some of
which were of long standing and had resisted every other remedy. In
England it has been less extensively used.

=Aconitum Panicula′tum.= Panicled wolfsbane; a species formerly ordered in
the Ph. L.; and, with _a. napellus_, also in the Ph. U. S. It is less
active than the officinal species.

=A′CORN.= _Syn._ GLANS. QUER′CUS, L. The seed or fruit of the oak. In the
early ages of the world, acorns probably formed one of the principal
articles of the food of man. (Ovid, _Met._, i, 106; Virgil, _Georg._, i,
8; &c.) In modern times, during periods of scarcity, they have been
consumed as food on the Continent. Besides starch, they contain a peculiar
species of sugar, which crystallises in prisms, and is unfermentable; they
also contain tannic and gallic acids. Mannite and dulcose are the
substances which it most nearly resembles. (M. Dessaignes.) During the
autumn, acorns are said to be sometimes poisonous to cattle and sheep.
Supposed cases of so-called acorn poisoning are best treated by
withdrawing the supply of acorns, or removing the animals from the
pastures on which the acorns fall, and by the administration of aperients,
alkalies, and stimulants.


=ACOTYLE′DONS= (-ko-te-lē′-). _Syn._ ACOTYLE′DONES (dŏn-ēz; L., prim.
Gr.), Jussieu; ACOTYLÉDONS, Fr.; OHNE SAMENLAPPEN, Ger. In _botany_,
plants whose seeds are not furnished with distinct cotyledons or
seed-lobes. _Acotyledonous plants_ form one of the two great divisions of
the vegetable kingdom, according to the natural system. They are
remarkable by increasing chiefly in length, by additions to their end; and
not by addition to the outside, as in Exogens; nor to the inside, as in
Endogens. They are also termed ASEX′UAL and FLOWERLESS PLANTS, and answer
to the CRYPTOGAMIA of the Linnean system. See ACROGENS, CELLULARES,

=ACOUS′TICS= (-kow′-). The science of audition and sound; that branch of
physics which treats of their cause, nature, and phenomena. The doctrine
of the production and transmission of sound is termed DIACOUS′TICS; that
of reflected sound CATACOUS′TICS.

=Acoustics.= In _medicine_, remedies employed to relieve deafness. See

=ACQUETTA.= [IT., _Little Water._] _Syn._ AQUA TOFFANA; A. TOFFANIA;
ACQUETTA DI NAPOLI DELLA TOFFANA, IT. A celebrated poison, prepared by an
Italian woman named Toffano, or Tophana, and in great request in Rome
about the middle of the 17th century. The composition of this poison has
been a matter of frequent controversy. Pope Alexander VII, in his
proclamation, described it as “aquafortis distilled into arsenic.” This
would produce a concentrated solution of arsenic acid. The Emperor Charles
VI, who was governor of Naples during Toffano’s trial, declared to his
physician, Garelli, that it was arsenic (arsenious acid) dissolved in
_aqua cymbalariá_. According to Gerarde this cymbalarià was an aquatic
species of pennywort, highly poisonous. The only objection to the latter
statement is the smallness of the dose, regard being had to the
comparative insolubility of arsenious acid; but if the woman Toffano
prepared two poisons, as is probable from history——one, a single dose of
which was fatal, and another, of which the dose required repetition, and
which was more gradual in its activity——the discrepancy will be at once

=AC′RID.= _Syn._ AC′ER, AC′RIS, L.; ACRE (âcre), Fr.; BEISSEND, SCHARF,
Ger. In _chemistry_ and _medicine_, sharp, pungent, acrimonious. Acrid
substances are such as excite a sensation of pungency and heat when
tasted, and which irritate and inflame the skin; as mustard, turpentine,
cantharides, &c.

=ACRIDITY.= _Syn._ ACRETÉ, Fr.; ACRITUDO, L. The quality of being acrid.

In _medicine_ and _chemistry_, the quality or property of inflaming,
irritating, corroding, dissolving, or destroying other bodies.

=ACROGENS.= _Syn._ ACROGENÆ, L.; ACROGÈNES, Fr. In _botany_, acotyledonous
or cryptogamic plants, in which stems and leaves, or an organisation
approaching leaves, are distinguishable; which have stomates or breathing
spores on their surface, are propagated by spores, and increase by the
growth of the stem at the point only. Ferns and club-mosses are examples
of this class of plants.

=ACROLEIN.= _Syn._ ACRYLIC ALCOHOL. This substance occurs amongst the
products of decomposition when glycerine or any of its compounds is
subjected to ordinary distillation. It derives its name from its violently
irritant effect upon the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory
organs. It is best prepared by the process of Redtenbacher (see ‘Leibig’s
Ann.,’ xlvii, 114), by distilling in a capacious retort, a mixture of
glycerine with phosphoric anhydride, or with hydric-potassic sulphate (the
acid sulphate or bisulphate of potash); the vapours must be condensed in a
properly cooled receiver, which is luted on to the retort and provided
with a tube opening into a chimney having a good draught. The distilled
liquid separates into two layers, the upper one consisting of acrolein,
and the lower one of an aqueous solution of the same substance mixed with
a quantity of acrylic acid. This distillate, after digestion with finely
powdered litharge, with the object of neutralising the acid, must be
rectified by the heat of a water bath: the acrolein so obtained must be
submitted to a second rectification from calcic chloride. All these
operations must be conducted in vessels filled with carbonic anhydride
(carbonic acid) because acrolein becomes rapidly oxidized when exposed to
the air.

Acrolein is a clear colourless liquid, lighter than water, boiling at
about 125° F. It has great refracting power and a burning taste; when pure
it is neutral to test paper.

Ger. The shoot or sprout of a seed, when it begins to grow; the part of a
germinating seed termed the plume, or plumula.

When the growth of a seed begins to be developed, the germ, from which the
stem originates, shoots forth under the form of a delicate curved fibre,
which, gradually bursting its covering, makes its appearance at the end of
the seed. The fibrils of the radicle first sprout forth from the tip of
the grain; a white elevation appears, that soon divides into three or more
radicles, which rapidly grow larger, and are succeeded by the plumula,
which peeps forth at the same point, in the form of a pale green leaflet,
which, twisting thence beneath the husk to the other end of the seed,
ultimately bursts its prison-house, and becomes a perfect leaf. See


=ACTINISM.= _Syn._ ACTINIC RAYS; CHEMICAL RAYS. A term given to a supposed
principle accompanying the heat and light of the sunbeam. Actinic rays
chiefly exist beyond the violet extremity of the solar spectrum, and are
characterised by the power of exciting chemical change, _e.g._, the
decomposition of certain silver salts (in photography); the combination of
a mixture of chlorine and hydrogen, &c. The so-called vital functions of
animals and plants are also greatly influenced by the actinic or chemical

=ACTINOGRAPH.= An instrument for registering the intensity of the chemical
influence (_actinism_) of the sun’s rays.

=ACT, TOWNS IMPROVEMENT CLAUSES, 1847= (10 & 11 Vict., c. 34), The
following provisions of this Act are incorporated in the Public Health
Act, 1875, and refer exclusively to urban districts:——

1. With respect to naming the streets and numbering the houses.

2. With respect to improving the line of the streets and removing the

3. With respect to ruinous or dangerous buildings.

4. With respect to precautions during the construction and repair of
sewers, streets, and houses.

5. With respect to the regulation of slaughter houses.

Notices for alterations under the 69th, 70th, and 71st sections,
directions under the 73rd section, and orders under the 74th section of
the said Towns Improvement Clauses Act, may, at the option of the urban
authority, be served on owners instead of occupiers, or on owners as well
as occupiers, and the cost of works done under any of these sections may,
when notices have been so served on owners, be recovered from owners
instead of occupiers; and when such cost is recovered from occupiers, so
much thereof may be deducted from the rent of the premises where the work
is done as is allowed in the case of private rates under the Act.

=AC′TUAL.= Real, effectual, absolute; as opposed to that which is merely
virtual or potential. In _surgery_, a red-hot iron, or any other heated
body, used as a cautery, is termed the ACTUAL CAUTERY; whilst a caustic or
escharotic so employed is called the POTENTIAL CAUTERY.


Sharp, pointed, sensitive. Applied to the senses, as acute hearing,
eyesight, &c. In _pathology_, diseases exhibiting violent symptoms, and
whose course is short, are said to be acute diseases.

=ADAPTER.= In _chemistry_, a tube placed between two vessels (commonly a
retort and receiver) for the purpose of uniting them or increasing the
distance between them, so as to facilitate the condensation of vapour in
distillation. (See _figure._)


Linn. A perennial plant, of the natural order Filices (DC.), growing wild
in England. It is found in our woods and pastures, and flowers in May and
June. It was once used to form a celebrated traumatic or vulnerary
ointment and is still highly esteemed among rustic herbalists.




=ADHE′SION= (-hē-zhün). _Syn._ ADHÆ′SIO, L.; ADHESION, Fr.; ANHÄNGUNG,
ARXLEBUNG, Ger. The act or state of sticking or being united.

=Adhesion.= In _physics_, the force with which bodies remain attached to
each other when brought into contact; _e.g._, ink adheres to paper, paint
adheres to wood, &c. It differs from ‘cohesion’ in representing the force
with which different bodies cling together; whereas cohesion is the force
which unites the particles of a homogeneous body with each other, _e.g._,
particles of iron cohere and form a mass of iron; particles of water
cohere and form a mass of water, &c.

=Adhesion.= In _pathology_, the morbid union, from inflammation, of parts
normally contiguous but not adherent.

=Adhesion.= In _surgery_, the reunion of divided parts, by the adhesive
inflammation; as when incised wounds heal by what is termed the ‘first

Ger. In _pharmacy_, &c., having the quality or property of sticking or
adhering. Hence adhe′siveness.

FETEWACHS, Ger. A substance resembling a mixture of fat and wax, resulting
from the decomposition of the flesh of animals in moist situations, or
under water. It is chiefly margarate of ammonium. Lavoisier proposed to
produce this substance artificially, for the purposes of the arts.
Attempts have since been made to convert the dead bodies of cattle
(carrion) into adipocere, for the purposes of the candle-maker and the
soap-boiler, but without success. Besides, dead animal matter can be
worked up more profitably than in making artificial adipocere.

Hatchettine or rock-fat is sometimes called ‘adipocere’; and bog-butter is
a substance nearly similar to it.

=AD′JECTIVE.= _Syn._ ADJECTI′VUS, L.; ADJECTIF, Fr. In _dyeing_, depending
on another, or on something else; applied to those colours which require a
base or mordant to render them permanent. See DYEING.

=AD′JUVANT.= [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ AD′JUVANS, L.; AIDANT, &c., Fr. Assistant;
helping. (As a substantive——) In _prescriptions_, see PRESCRIBING (Art

=ADULTERATION.= Strictly speaking, this term ought only to be applied to
the practice of adding substances to articles of commerce, food or drink,
for the purposes of deception or gain, but a wider interpretation is
frequently placed on the word than the definition given by magistrates and
analysts, these latter often regarding accidental impurity, or even, in
some instances, actual substitution as acts of adulteration.

The following definition of an adulterated substance has been adopted by
the Society of Public Analysts——

A substance shall be deemed to be adulterated——

A. _In the ease of food or drink:_

1. If it contain any ingredient which may render such article injurious to
the health of a consumer.

2. If it contain any substance that sensibly increases its weight, bulk,
or strength, or gives it a fictitious value, unless the amount of such
substance present be due to circumstances necessarily appertaining to its
collection or manufacture, or be necessary for its preservation, or unless
the presence thereof be acknowledged at the time of sale.

3. If any important constituent has been wholly or in part abstracted or
omitted, unless acknowledgment of such abstraction or omission be made at
the time of sale.

4. If it be an imitation of or sold under the name of another article.

B. _In the case of drugs:_

1. If when retailed for medical purposes under a name recognised in the
‘British Pharmacopœia’ it be not equal in strength and purity to the
standard laid down in that work.

2. If when sold under a name not recognised in the ‘British Pharmacopœia’
it differs materially from the standard laid down in approved works on
materia medica, or the professed standard under which it is sold.

_Limits._ The following shall be deemed limits for the respective articles
referred to:

_Milk_ shall contain not less than 9·0 per cent., by weight, of milk
solids, not fat, and not less than 2·5 per cent. of butter fat.

_Skim Milk_ shall contain not less than 9·0 per cent. by weight, of milk
solids not butter fat.

_Butter_ shall contain not less than 80 per cent. of butter fat.

_Tea_ shall not contain more than 8·0 per cent. of mineral matter,
calculated on the tea dried at 100° C., of which at least 3·0 per cent.
shall be soluble in water, and the tea as sold shall yield at least 30 per
cent. of extract.

_Cocoa_ shall contain at least 20 per cent. of cocoa fat.

_Vinegar_ shall contain not less than 3 per cent. of acetic acid.

The practice of fraudulent adulteration has been indulged in for
centuries. In every civilised state there have been enactments against it.
The Romans had their inspectors of meat and corn. In England an Act to
prohibit adulteration was passed as early as 1267, and penalties against
it were in force in 1581, 1604, 1836, 1851. In 1822, Accum published a
work having the sensational title of ‘Death in the Pot,’ and in 1855
appeared Dr Hassall’s book, ‘Food and its Adulterations.’ The information
conveyed in these works, added to the revelations of the ‘Lancet’ Sanitary
Commission, and the contributions to scientific literature on the subject
of food by Letheby, Pavy, Parkes, Blyth, and others, together with the
published evidence given before the House of Commons Commission appointed
to carry out an inquiry into the subject, roused public attention to such
a degree as to lead to the passing by the legislature of the Adulteration

The sophistications may be divided into several distinct classes:

1. To give weight or volume, such as water added to butter, plaster of
paris to flour, &c.; red earths to annatto, sand to tea-leaves, &c.; water
to milk, &c.; all these, therefore, are substitutions of worthless or very
cheap articles which take the place of the real.

2. To give a colour which either makes the article more pleasing to the
eye, or else disguises an inferior one, _e.g._, Prussian blue, black lead,
&c., to green teas; annatto to cheese, &c.; arsenite of copper to
sweetmeats, &c.

3. Substitutions of a cheaper form of the article, or the same substance
from which the strength has been extracted put in the place of the real,
_e.g._, tea mixed with spent leaves, &c.

4. A very small class where the adulteration is really added with no
fraudulent intent, but to enhance the quality of the goods sold——alum to
bread in small quantities.

The following, according to Blyth (‘Dic. of Hygiène’), is a list of
articles most commonly adulterated, with the names of the substances used
in their sophistication:——

  ACONITIA with other alkaloids, _e.g._, delphinia, aconella, &c.
  ALE, common salt, _Cocculus indicus_, grains of paradise, quassia,
      and other bitters, sulphate of iron, alum, &c.
  ALLSPICE, mustard husks.
  ANCHOVIES, other fish, and colouring matters, _e.g._, Armenian
      bole, Venetian red, &c.
  ANNATTO, all sorts of starch, soap, red ferruginous earths,
      carbonate and sulphate of lime, salts, &c.
  ARROWROOT, various other fecula, such as sago, tapioca, potato,
      and others.
  BALSAM OF COPAIBA, turpentine and fixed oils.
  BEEF (POTTED), Armenian bole.
  BISMUTH, carbonate of lead, sometimes arsenic (this latter is an
      impurity not intentional).
  BLOATERS (POTTED), Armenian bole.
  BRANDY, water, burnt sugar, &c.
  BREAD, potatoes (mashed), alum, inferior flour, &c., &c.
  BUTTER, water, salt, colouring matter, lard, tallow, and other
  CAJUPUT OIL, copper, camphor dissolved in oil of rosemary, and
      coloured with copper as a substitute.
  CALAMINE, coloured sulphate of baryta.
  CALOMEL, sulphate of baryta, chalk, white precipitate, white lead,
      pipe-clay, &c., &c.
  CALUMBA, tinged bryony root, root of _Frasera Walteri_, and
  CAMBOGE, starch, &c.
  CAMPHOR, a substitution of Borneo camphor has been made.
  CANTHARIDES, golden beetle, artificially coloured glass, &c.
  CARBONATE OF LEAD, sulphate of baryta, sulphate of lead, chalk,
      &c., &c.
  CARMINE (COCHINEAL), sulphate of baryta, bone black, &c.
  CASSIA (SENNA), leaves of _Solenostemma argel_, and other foreign
  CASTOR OIL, other oils, often small quantities of croton oil.
  CAYENNE, ground rice, vermilion, Venetian red, turmeric.
  CHAMPAGNE, gooseberry and other wines as substitutes, different
      colouring matters, &c.
  CHEESE, annatto, bole (Armenian), and other colouring matters.
  CHICORY, colouring matters, such as ferruginous earths, and burnt
      sugar, Venetian red, &c., and different flours, such as wheat,
      rye, beans, &c., and sometimes sawdust.
  CIDER, lead (as an impurity, not intentional).
  CIGARS, substitutions of hay and other rubbish, inferior tobacco,
      leaves sometimes darkened by some brown vegetable dye.
  CINNAMON, cassia, clove stalks, and different flowers.
  CLARET, brandy, and substitution of inferior wines.
  CLOVES, clove stalks.
  COCOA AND CHOCOLATE, cheaper kinds of arrow-root, such as _Tous
      les mois_ and East Indian, animal matter, corn, sago, tapioca,
  COFFEE, chicory, roasted wheat, rye flowers, and colouring
      matters, such as burnt sugar, &c.
  COD-LIVER OIL, other oils mixed with it.
  COLOCYNTH (COMPOUND EXTRACT OF), the extract is not unfrequently
      made with the pulp and seeds.
  CONFECTIONERY, injurious colouring matters, such as arsenite of
      copper, chromate of lead, &c.
      ingredients omitted, turmeric substituted for saffron, &c.,
  COPAL, gum dammar, resin, &c.
  CURRY-POWDER, red lead, ground rice, salt.
  CUSPARIA BARK, the bark of _Strychnos Nux Vomica_ is said to have
      been substituted.
  CUSTARD AND EGG POWDER, turmeric, chrome yellow, and different
  ELATERIUM, starch, flour, chalk, &c.
  EPSOM SALTS, chloride magnesium, chalk, &c.
  ETHER, alcohol.
  FLOUR, other and inferior flours, as the flour from rice, bean,
      Indian corn, potato, &c., sulphate of lime, alum.
  GELATINE, salt and sugar.
  GIN, water, sugar, capsicum, flavouring matters of different
      kinds, turpentine, alum, tartar.
  GINGER, turmeric, and husks of mustard, flour from wheat, sago,
  GUAIACUM RESIN, other resins.
  HONEY, flour, cane sugar, &c.
  HOPS, _Cocculus indicus_, grains of paradise, &c., &c.
  IODIDE OF POTASSIUM, water, carbonate of potash, chlorides of soda
      and potash, iodate of potash, iodine, &c.
  IODINE, water, plumbago, charcoal, black oxide of manganese, &c.
  IPECAQUANHA, other roots, extraneous woody fibre; when in powder,
      chalk, flour, &c., have been added.
  ISINGLASS, gelatine.
  JALAP, raspings of guaiacum, false jalap root, &c.
  LARD, carbonate of soda, salt, potato, flour, and lime.
  LEMON JUICE, a mixture of sugar and water, acidulated with
      sulphuric acid, has been substituted.
  LIQUORICE, rice, chalk, gelatine, and different flours.
  MAGNESIA, MAGNESIA SULPHATE, lime, carbonate of magnesia.
  MAGNESIA, CARBONATE, lime, sulphate, &c., &c.
  MARMALADE, apple, or turnip pulp.
  MERCURY, lead, tin, zinc, bismuth, &c.
  MERCURY GREEN IODIDE OF, red iodide of
  MERCURY RED OXIDE OF, brick-dust, red lead, &c.
  MERCURY AMMONIATED (WHITE PRECIPITATE), chalk, carbonate of lead,
      plaster of Paris, &c., &c.
  MILK, water.
  MUSTARD, turmeric, wheat flour.
  MYRRH, gum bdellium, and other gum resins.
  OATMEAL, barley flour, rubble.
  OPIUM, stones, sand, clay, vegetable extracts, sugar, treacle,
      water, &c.
  PAREIRA ROOT, different roots substituted.
  PEPPER, linseed meal, different flours, mustard husks, &c.
  PICKLES, salts of copper, acetate of copper.
  PORTER AND STOUT, sugar, treacle, water and salt.
  POTASH, carbonate, sulphate, and chloride of potash, lime, iron,
      and alumina.
  POTASH, ACETATE OF, sulphates, and chlorides of potash.
  POTASH, CARBONATE OF, sulphates, and chlorides of potash.
  POTASH, BICARBONATE OF, carbonate of potash.
  POTASH, CITRATE OF, sulphates of potash.
  POTASH, CHLORATE OF, chloride of potassium.
  POTASH, TARTRATE OF, tartrate of lime.
  POTASH, NITRATE OF, sulphate or chloride of potassium.
  PRESERVES, salts of copper.
  QUININE, sulphate of lime, chalk, magnesia, cane-sugar, sulphate
      of cinchonine, &c.
  RHUBARB, turmeric, and inferior varieties substituted for Turkey.
  RUM, water, cayenne, burnt sugar.
  SAGO, potato flour.
  SAUCE, treacle, salt, cochineal, Armenian bole, and other
      colouring matters.
  SCAMMONY, chalk, starch, guaiacum, jalap, dextrin, &c.
  SENEGA, guiseng, gillenia.
  SENNA, leaves of _cynanchum argel._
  SHERRY, sulphates of potash, soda, brandy, burnt sugar, &c.
  SNUFF, carbonate of ammonia, glass, sand, colouring matter, &c.
  SODA, BICARBONATE, carbonate and sulphate of soda.
  SODA, CARBONATE, sulphate of soda.
  SODA, PHOSPHATE OF, phosphate of lime.
  SPICES, colouring materials, substitutions, and different flours.
  SQUILLS (POWDERED), wheat flour.
  SUGAR (MOIST), sand, flour, &c.
  SULPHUR, sulphurous acid (as an impurity).
  SULPHURIC ACID, lead, water, arsenic, hydrochloric acid, &c.
  TAPIOCA, mixing inferior starches with the pure tapioca.
  TEA, sand, iron filings, exhausted tea leaves, foreign leaves; and
      in green teas, black lead, Prussian blue, China clay.
  TOBACCO, inferior tobacco, water.
  TURMERIC, yellow ochre, carbonate of soda, or potash.
  UVA URSI (BEARBERRY LEAVES), leaves of red whortleberry, and
  VINEGAR, sulphuric acid, and metallic impurities.
  WINES, water, jerupiga, bitartrate of potash, substitution of
      inferior wines, brandy, spirits, and various other matters.
  ZINC, OXIDE OF, chalk, carbonate of magnesia.

“The Sale of Food and Drugs Act” has now supplemented several Acts which
were passed during the present century for the prevention of adulteration.
An Act prohibiting the mixture of injurious ingredients with intoxicating
liquors remains unrepealed, as do also one or two statutes relating to
trade frauds as for example the Adulteration of Seeds Act, 1809. These
latter have not been incorporated in “the Sale of Food and Drugs” Act.

=Æ= (ē). [L.] For words sometimes written with this initial diphthong, and
not found below, look under =E=.

=ÆGI′RINON= (-jī′-). [Gr.] See OINTMENT.

=ÆGYPTI′ACUM=† (-jĭp-tī′-). [Lat.] _Syn._ UNGUEN′TUM ÆGYPTIACUM, L. Oxymel
or liniment of verdigris. The name originated with Hippocrates, who is
said to have learned its composition in Egypt.

=ÆOL′IPILE= (-pĭle). A hollow ball of metal, having a slender neck with a
very small orifice, contrived to exhibit the conversion of water into
steam by the action of heat, and to account for the natural production of
winds. It was known to the ancients, is mentioned by Vitruvius, and was
studied by Descartes and others. It has been used in _surgery_ to produce
eschars, in the same cases as moxas; the effect of the steam being limited
by means of a piece of perforated pasteboard. When filled with alcohol,
and the jet of vapour inflamed, it is sometimes employed as a blowpipe. M.
Soyer used an apparatus of this kind to supply the heat in his portable
furnace. The liquid, however, which he employed was camphine.

=A′ER=, (ā′-ĕr). [L. prim. Gr.] Air.

=A′ERATED= (ā′-ĕr-rāte-ĕd). In _chemistry_, &c., impregnated with carbonic

=AE′′RIAL= (ā-ēre′-e-ăl). Belonging to the air or atmosphere; produced by,
consisting of, depending on, or partaking of the nature of the air.

GAZÉIFICATION, Fr. In _chemistry_, the conversion of a body into gas.

LUFTFORMIG, &c., Ger. In _chemistry_, air-like, gaseous.

=AEROL′OGY.= _Syn._ AËROLO′GIA, L.; AÉROLOGIE, Fr., Ger. In _physics_, a
discourse or treatise of the air. In _physiology_ and _hygiène_, the
doctrine of the air, more especially with regard to its salubrity and
action on organised beings.

=AEROM′ETER.= _Syn._ AËROME′TRUM, L.; AÉROMÈTRE, Fr. An instrument used in

Ger. In _chemistry_ and _physics_, the art of measuring gases, and of
determining their densities.

=AERONAUT′ICS.= _Syn._ AÉRONAUTIQUE, Fr. The art of sailing in, or of
navigating the air. See BALLOONS.

=AEROPHO′BIA.= [L.] _Syn._ AÉROPHOBIE, Fr. In _pathology_, a dread of air
(wind); a common symptom in hydrophobia, and occasionally present in
hysteria and phrenitis.

pneumatics which treats of air, and other elastic fluids, in a state of

=AEROSTA′TION.= [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ AËROSTA′TIO, L. The art of weighing the
air; aërial suspension and navigation. See BALLOONS.

=ÆRU′GO= (ē-). [L.] The rust of brass, bronze, or copper; verdigris.

=ÆSCULIN.= C_{21}H_{24}O_{13}. A crystalline fluorescent substance
existing in the bark of the horse-chestnut (_æsculus hippocastanum_) and
of other trees of the genera _Æsculus_ and _Paria_. In the above-named
sources Æsculin is associated with another fluorescent body called Pariin.


=ÆITHE′′REA= (-thēré-). [L. pl.] Ethers.

=ÆSTHET′ICS= (ēz-). _Syn._ ÆSTHET′ICA, L. Medicines or agents which affect


=AFFEC′TION.= [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ AFFEC′TIO, L. In _pathology_, a term
nearly synonymous with disease.

VERWANDTSCHAFT, Ger. If oil and water be shaken together they produce no
change upon one another, as is proved by their separating into two layers
with their properties unaltered, when the mixture is allowed to remain at
rest for a short time. Such bodies are said, in chemical language, to have
no affinity for one another. If iodine and metallic mercury be rubbed
together in a mortar they will unite in definite proportions by weight,
and form a combination possessing properties totally distinct from those
of its constituents. Thus, iodine is a greyish, metallic-looking solid,
convertible into a violet vapour by heat, perceptibly soluble in water,
and capable of producing a blue compound with starch. Mercury is a
metallic, silvery-looking liquid. The product of their union (biniodide of
mercury) is a scarlet powder, destitute of metallic lustre, convertible
into vapour by heat, without the production of violet fumes, insoluble in
water, and incapable of developing a blue colour with starch. Again, the
greenish-yellow and intensely poisonous gas, chlorine, unites in definite
proportions by weight with the soft, wax-like, and highly poisonous metal
sodium to produce the white crystalline solid chloride of sodium (common
salt), a compound which, except in very large quantities, is not only not
poisonous, but actually beneficial to health.

Such combinations are called chemical compounds, and the force which binds
their constituents together is distinguished from all other attractive
forces by the term affinity or chemical affinity. Bodies united by
affinity are also said to have united chemically.

Affinity is in most cases exerted between different substances, in which
respect it resembles adhesion; but bodies united by adhesion, _e.g._ ink
to paper, paint to wood, &c., unlike those united by affinity, suffer no
change of properties.

Affinity is exerted at immeasurable distances, therefore substances to be
submitted to its influence must be brought into (apparently) actual
contact. This condition is frequently fulfilled by the vaporisation,
fusion, or solution of one or more of the bodies to be submitted to its

In many instances substances which have no affinity for one another at
ordinary temperatures manifest this power when heated.

Whenever chemical union takes place, heat is invariably evolved;
conversely, the decomposition of a chemical compound is always accompanied
by an apparent loss of heat or reduction of temperature.

Finally, the most striking phenomena characteristic of, and accompanying,
chemical affinity are, development of heat, change of properties, and
union in definite or constant proportions by weight.

=AFFUSION.= In _chemistry_, the washing of a precipitate, &c., for the
purpose of removing soluble matters. In _medicine_, affusion is of three

1. _Lotions_, which consist in washing a part of the body with a sponge or
rag soaked in a liquid.

2. _Aspersions_, which consist in throwing a liquid drop by drop, like
rain, upon the body.

3. _Shower baths_, which consist in allowing a number of small streams of
water to fall from a height upon the surface of the body. If the water
fall from a considerable height, affusion is then termed _douche_ by the

=AFT′ER-DAMP.= _Syn._ CHOKE-DAMP. Carbonic acid gas resulting from
explosion of air and fire-damp (light carbonetted hydrogen) in coal mines.

=AFT′ER-PAINS.= Those following childbirth. The only remedy is patience;
they may, however, be frequently alleviated by small doses of morphia or
liquor opii sedativus. Heated cloths and warm fomentations are sometimes
useful, particularly if assisted by moderate but sufficient pressure on
the abdomen, by means of a broad bandage. They seldom follow with severity
the first birth.

_Treatment for Animals._ Remove clots from parts, raise the hind-quarters.
Give clysters of linseed tea, lukewarm, and laudanum or belladonna
extract. Syringe out parts with Condy’s fluid considerably diluted. Give
internally belladonna, opium, or chloroform. Draw away milk.

=AFT′ER-WASH= (wŏsh). In the art of the distiller, the liquor in the still
after the spirit has been drawn over.

PILZ, SCHWAMM, Ger. In _botany_, a genus of fungi, of numerous species,
embracing the mushrooms and champignons. Of these plants, some are edible;
others poisonous. The term is also commonly applied to the boletus found
on oaks (TOUCHWOOD), and on larches (MALE AGARIC). See MUSHROOMS.

M. One of the most narcotic and poisonous of our fungi, producing, in
small doses, intoxication and a pleasing species of delirium; for which
purpose it is commonly employed in Kamschatka. (Hooker.) It possesses the
singular property of imparting an intoxicating quality to the urine, which
continues for a long time after taking it. This secretion is, therefore,
commonly saved by the natives during a scarcity of the fungus. “Thus, with
a few amanitæ, a party of drunkards may keep up their debauch for a week;”
and the intoxication so produced is capable of “being propagated through
five or six individuals.” (Langsdorff.) Water in which it has been boiled
is poisonous; but the boiled fungus itself is inert. The liquid from it is
used as a fly-poison; whence the name mushroom is derived. It may be known
by its rich orange-red colour in autumn.

=AG′ATE= (-āte, -ĕt‡). [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ ACHA′TES (-kā′-tēz), L. A
semi-pellucid uncrystallised species of quartz, remarkable for its
hardness, variety of colour, and susceptibility of receiving a high
polish. It is an aggregate of various siliceous minerals, of which
chalcedony appears generally to be the base. Carnelian, jasper, amethyst,
and other similar minerals, often enter into its composition. The colours
are often delicately arranged in stripes, bands, or clouds. Those which
take an angular form, as the Scotch pebble, are called FORTIFICATION
AGATES. It is the least valuable of the precious stones, and is chiefly
made into rings, seals, beads, burnishers, &c., on account of its
hardness. Its powder is used for cleansing and polishing iron, brass, &c.,
and to sharpen edge-tools.

=AGEING LIQUOR.= Dissolve 3 lbs. of chlorate of potash in 4 galls. of
boiling water. Add 20 lbs. of powdered white arsenic to 20 lbs. of
solution of caustic soda at 60° Tw., and boil until the arsenic is
completely dissolved. Add the latter solution to the former, with
stirring, until the mixture stands at 28° Tw.


ANTHYPNOT′ICA, L. In _medicine_ and _pharmacology_, agents or substances
which prevent sleep; as tea, coffee, digitalis, vinegar, &c.

=A′GUE= (-gŭ). Ague may be defined as febrile phenomena occurring in
paroxysms, and observing a certain regular succession, characterised by
chill, abnormal heat, and unnatural cutaneous discharge, which prove to be
a temporary crisis and usher in a remission. These phenomena are developed
in an uninterrupted series or succession more or less regular, which pass
into each other by insensible stages. Ague is paludal fever, and has
always been observed to prevail in marshy moist districts, and in low,
swampy humid countries, in which seasons of considerable heat occur.

The neighbourhood of marshes, or of a district which has been at some
recent time under water; the banks of extensive lakes, and the shores of
rivers and seas where the water flows sluggishly, and in some places
stagnates; shallow rivers; extensive level tracts of forest land, where
moisture is always present; and the surface of the land constantly covered
with excavation from the ground,——these are the terrestrial physical
conditions, in which marsh and littoral fevers are almost universally to
be found, although it must be admitted that there are some marshy
districts in which the disease does not show itself.

In these latter localities the effects of the miasmatic poison, show
themselves in cholera or typhus. No precise knowledge of the nature and
source of this subtle poison which, in default of a better name we call
_malaria_, has yet been acquired; indeed it has yet to be proved that
_malaria_ has a distinct existence. Science has as yet been unable to
discover the presence of any poisonous principle in the air of ague on
other regions.

Ague may exist without any alteration of structure being set up; but in
the milder forms of this fever a greater number of organs and tissues are
morbidly altered than perhaps in any other form of disease. The parts so
affected are the liver, spleen, lungs, heart, brain, and the serous and
mucous membranes of the body generally. Within certain limits, the
specific action of the malarial poison may be said to be in the inverse
ratio of the intensity of the fever which attends its action. The
affections of the liver and spleen also vary greatly according to the
locality in which the patient is attacked; for instance, whilst in some
parts of India the spleen is the organ principally involved, in other
districts of the same continent it is the liver. In England, under proper
medical treatment, the patient usually recovers without any manifest
derangement either of structure or impairment of function of any organ or
tissue. The liver may, however, become affected if the patient suffering
from the disease has been neglected for any length of time.

Notwithstanding the opinions of Finke and Professor Colin, there appears
to be considerable ground for the supposition that ague may be caused by
drinking marsh and surface water. In an interesting paper on the ‘Indian
Annals’ for 1856, Mr Bettington, of the Madras Civil Service, says:——“It
is notorious that the water produces fever and affections of the spleen.”
In confirmation of this assertion, he brings forward what seems to be some
remarkably strong evidence. He cites cases of villages placed under the
same conditions as to marsh-air in some of which fevers were prevalent,
whilst in others they were absent; and he found on inquiry that whilst the
latter villages were supplied with pure water, the inhabitants of the
former had to drink marsh or mullah water, full of vegetable _débris_. In
one village there were two sources of supply——a spring and a tank, the
first fed by surface, and the other by marsh water. Those only who partook
of the tank water were attacked by fever. Again, in Tulliwaree the fever
was so universal that scarcely any inhabitant escaped it. In this village
Mr Bettington caused a well to be dug, and the result was that the fever
disappeared. Similar cases have occurred in this country. Twenty years ago
Mr Blower, of Bedford, directed the attention of medical men to a case
that occurred in a village, in which ague had nearly disappeared when a
well was dug; and to another instance which occurred in the village of
Houghton. In this parish almost the only family which escaped ague was
that of a farmer; the members of this family partook of well water; whilst
those who did not escape the disease drank ditch water.

In the ‘Indian Annals’ for 1867 is a paper by Dr Moore, confirming the
opinion that ague may be produced by the causes already stated, and M.
Commaille (‘Rec. de Mêm. de Med. Mil.,’ Nov., 1868) states that in
Marseilles, paroxysmal fevers, formerly unknown, have made their
appearance, since the water supply to that city has been drawn from the
Marseilles Canal.

In his report for 1870 Dr Townsend, the Sanitary Commissioner for the
central provinces of India, states that the natives of India hold an
opinion that the use of river and tank water during rainy seasons (when
the water always contains an increased quantity of vegetable matter) will
almost always cause ague. Boudin (‘Traité de Géographie et de Statistiques
Médicale,’ 1857, t. i, p. 142), records an extraordinary case. Eight
hundred soldiers, in good health, embarked in three vessels to pass from
Bona, in Algiers, to Marseilles, in the year 1834. They all arrived at
Marseilles the same day. In two vessels there were 680 men, without a
single sick one amongst them. In the third vessel, the Argo, there had
been 120 soldiers; 13 died during the short passage, and of the 107
survivors no less than 98 were disembarked suffering from all forms of
paludal fevers. We may presume that the diagnosis was correct, since
Boudin himself examined the men. When the vessels started the crew of the
Argo had not a single sick man aboard. The crew and soldiers of all the
boats were exposed to the same atmospheric conditions. The influence of
air must, therefore, be excluded. There is no mention of food, but it has
never been suggested that food has ever been concerned in the production
of malarious fever. It was a very different matter, however, with the
water supply. In two of the vessels the water was good, whilst the Argo
had been supplied with marsh water, which was offensive to the smell, as
well as unpalatable. This latter was supplied to the soldiers, whilst the
crew drank uncontaminated water. Amongst those who deny that marsh water
is the cause of ague must be quoted Professor Colin. The professor, who is
regarded as an authority on intermittent fever, in his work De l’Ingestion
des Eaux Marécageuse comme cause de la Dysenterie et des Fièvres
intermittentes,’ instances numerous cases in Algiers and Italy in which
impure marsh water gives rise to indigestion, diarrhœa, and dysentery, but
in no case to intermittent fever; and he states that in all his
observations he has never met with an instance of ague having such an
origin. Without contesting the case of the Argo, he views it with
considerable suspicion, and doubts whether Boudin is correct in his
details. Finke also states that, in Hungary and Holland, marsh-water is
daily drank without causing any ill-effects. The inhalation of the fumes
of oxide of zinc appears to produce in workers of this metal a variety of
ague termed by Shackrah “brass ague,” and by Dr Greenhow, “brass-founder’s
ague.” The symptoms of the malady are tightness and oppression of the
chest; with indefinite nervous sensations, followed by shivering, an
indistinct hot stage, and profuse perspiration. These attacks, however,
are not periodical.

It is open to doubt whether the malarious poison exists in the form of a
gas, for the observations of microscopists go to show the extreme
minuteness of the germs of disease, which are probably not more than
1/70000th of an inch in size, and it is regarded as probable that the real
cause of ague is the entry into the circulation of some low forms of
spores of fungi, or of some minute animalcules. Ague is always to be met
with in places where fungi grow, and is always associated with what
Pettenkofer calls “the ground air”——that is, the air contained in the
interstices of the soil, no inconsiderable volume of which is drawn into
every house which has a fire on the floor which rests on the earth. That
animalcules (?) may exist in the blood is evidenced by the discovery of Dr
Lewis, who found hair-like worms in the circulation; and whilst
considering this point, we must bear in mind that the remedial agents
employed to check ague, quinine, arsenic, &c., are drugs capable of
destroying animal life, and it is not impossible that they may exercise a
beneficial effect in destroying the spores or animalcules to which the
disease may be due.

The best means to be employed to combat malarial fevers in any district
are thorough and efficient drainage (and it must be remembered that
drainage purifies both the ground-air and the ground water) and a supply
of wholesome water free from decomposing vegetable matter.

That the adoption of the above means cannot fail to succeed is
incontestably proved by the fact, that during the last 200 years, ague in
England has diminished to a wonderful extent, in short, as good drainage
and a pure water supply have prevailed, there has been a proportionate
diminution of paludal poisoning.

During the protectorate of Cromwell great mortality prevailed in London,
from the ravages of ague; at that time London was as swampy as the fens of
Lincolnshire. See FEVER (Intermittent).

=Ague-cake.= The popular name of a tumour felt under the false ribs on the
left side, formed by enlargement and induration of the spleen, following
protracted ague; also, sometimes, of indurations of the liver following

=Ague-drop.= See DROPS.

=Ague-salt= (sŏlt). Disulphate of quinine.

=Ague-tree.= Sassafras.

=Ague-weed.= The herb thorough-wort (‘Eupato′′rium perfolia′tum,’ Linn.).

=AIG′REMORE= (ĕg′r-mor). [Fr.] Pulverised charcoal in the state it is used
to make gunpowder.

[Illustration: Attelettes from Soyer.]

=AIGUILLETTE= (ATTELETTE). [Fr.] In _cookery_, a term applied to several
small dishes, from the articles of which they consist being mounted on
silver needles, or skewers, with ornamental handles or tops. (See _engr._)
They form one of the varieties of the ‘hors-d’œuvres’ of Soyer; and are
commonly served on a napkin. The skewers should be about four inches long,
and of the thickness of an ordinary packing needle. The person eating what
is served on them takes the head of the skewer between the thumb and
fingers of the left hand, and picks it off with his fork. Those noticed by
Soyer are——

=Aiguillettes à l’Éperlan= (_smelts_);

=Aiguillettes aux Huitres= (_oysters_);

=Aiguillettes de Filets de Sole= (_soles_);

=Aiguillettes de Homard= (_lobsters_);

=Aiguillettes de Langue de Bœuf= (_ox-tongue_);

=Aiguillettes de Ris de Veau= (_sweetbread of veal_);

=Aiguillettes de Volaille à la Jolie Fille= (_fowl_);——

all of which are prepared in a nearly similar manner, merely varying the
sauces, &c., to suit the article and palate. See ATTELETTES,

=AHORNZUCKER= (genuine American maple sugar). For coughs, hoarseness, and
all affections of the throat and chest caused by cold. The raw maple sugar
as imported. (Hager.)

=AILANTHUS.= The inner bark of the _ailanthus glandulosa_, a common tree
growing in northern China, said by Dr Dudgeon to have proved very
successful in dysentery.

The _ailanthus glandulosa_ is also well known throughout the United
States. Professor Hétet, of Toulon, tried the effect of the powdered bark,
leaves, and various preparations of the bark or drugs, with the result of
their administration being attended with purgative effect——and the
discharge of worms.

The powdered bark has been given in small cases of tape-worm in the human
subject, with marked success. The dose of the powder found sufficient for
the expulsion of the tapeworm was from seven or eight to thirty grains.

=AIL′MENT.= Pain, indisposition; disease. Its use is generally restricted
to the non-acute, and milder forms of disease.

=AIR.= [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ Aer, L. (from αηρ Gr.); LUFT, Ger.; ATMOSPHERIC
AIR; THE ATMOSPHERE. This name was formerly given to any aëriform body;
thus, by the old chemists ammoniacal gas was called alkaline air;
oxygen,——dephlogisticated, vital, or empyreal air; carbonic anhydride
(carbonic acid), fixed air; hydrogen, inflammable air; heavy carbonetted
hydrogen, olefiant gas, heavy inflammable air; nitrogen,——mephitic,
phlogisticated, or nitrous air. At the present time the term air is
usually restricted to the gaseous envelope surrounding the solid and
liquid parts of our globe.

=Air, Atmospheric= (or simply, The Air). The air chiefly consists of a
mechanical mixture of four volumes of nitrogen and one volume of oxygen,
or more accurately——

             By volume.   By weight.
  Nitrogen      79·1        76·8
  Oxygen        20·9        23·2
               —————       —————
               100         100[12]

[Footnote 12: At a meeting of the Paris Academy of Sciences, held on the
31st of December, 1877, it was announced that M. Cailletet had succeeded
in liquefying atmospheric air.]

We may premise our description of the functions of the constituents of the
atmosphere by the following quotation from Mr Blyth’s ‘Dictionary of
Hygiène and Public Health’:——“One of the most important properties of air
is its power of penetration and its universality. Air is, indeed, present
everywhere; there is scarcely a solid, however compact it may appear to
be, which does not contain pores, and these pores filled with air. The
soil contains no small quantity; indeed, if it were not so the numberless
insects, worms, &c., which burrow in its interstices would cease to exist.
The most compact mortar and walls are penetrated with it, and water of
natural origin contains a large quantity of air in solution. The
atmosphere is supposed to extend to a very great height, from 200 to 300
miles; it used to be considered only five (forty-five) miles high, but
observations on shooting stars, &c., show that this opinion is erroneous.
Owing to the force of gravity, the air is much denser near the earth, and
gets more attenuated layer by layer as you ascend. If, then, the
atmosphere were possessed of colour, it would be very dark just round the
globe, and the tint would gradually fade into space. The air is by no
means wholly gaseous; it contains, indeed, an immense amount of life, and
small particles derived from the whole creation. In the air may be found
animalcules, spores, seeds, pollen cells of all kind, vibriones, elements
of contagion, eggs of insects, &c., and a few fungi, besides formless
dust, sandy, and other particles of local origin; for example, no one can
ride in a railway carriage without being accompanied with dust, a great
portion of which is attracted by a magnet, and is, indeed, minute
particles of iron derived from the rails. The purest air has some dust in
it. There probably never fell a beam of light from the sun since the world
was made which did not show, were there eyes to see it, myriads of motes;
these, however, generally speaking, are quite innocuous to man——some,
indeed, may possibly be beneficial. Another most important property of air
is its mobility; on the calmest day and in the quietest room there are
constant currents of air which rapidly dilute any noxious odours of

The chief functions of the oxygen are to maintain respiration and support
combustion, while the office of the nitrogen is to dilute the oxygen and
control its energy.

Besides nitrogen and oxygen, aqueous vapour, carbonic anhydride, ammonia,
and nitric acid are met with in the atmosphere, the last especially during
and shortly after thunder storms.

Although, doubtless owing to local conditions, trifling variations may
occur in the proportion of oxygen present in the atmosphere, this
variation is so trifling that the difference of the amount in air from
places separated by very long distances will be found in the second
decimal place only; thus, whilst a portion of air taken during a balloon
ascent by Mr Green gave on analysis 20·88 per cent. by vol., Dr Frankland
found in air collected by himself on the summit of Mont Blanc 20·96 per
cent. by vol. A still nearer approximation in uniformity in the amount of
oxygen present in atmospheric air is exhibited in the following table,
which gives the results of 95 analyses by Regnault on air obtained from
nine different localities:——

  100 from Paris gave in 100
      parts, by vol. of oxygen    20·913 to 20·999
  9   from Lyons and around
      gave in 100 parts, by vol.
      of oxygen                   20·918 to 20·966
  30  from Berlin gave in 100
      parts, by vol. of oxygen    20·908 to 20·998
  10  from Madrid gave in 100
      parts, by vol. of oxygen    20·916 to 20·982
  23  from Geneva and Switzerland
      gave in 100 parts,
      by vol. of oxygen           20·909 to 20·993
  15  from Toulon and Mediterranean
      gave in 100
      parts, by vol. of oxygen    20·912 to 20·982
  5   from Atlantic Ocean gave
      in 100 parts, by vol. of
      oxygen                      20·918 to 20·965
  1   from Ecuador gave in 100
      parts, by vol. of oxygen              20·960
  2   from Pichincha gave in
      100 parts, by vol. of
      oxygen                      20·949 to 20·981
                                  ------    ------
  Mean of all foregoing           20·949    20·988
    ”  of the Paris specimens     20·96

Vapour of water is essential to the respiration of animals and plants, in
order that the organs concerned in this operation may be kept in a soft
and moist condition.

Carbonic anhydride is evolved during combustion, putrefaction, and
fermentation; it is also a product of the respiration of animals, and
highly poisonous to them, even when diluted with large proportions of air.
This gas is, however, greedily absorbed by plants, which decompose it;
they assimilate the carbon and return the oxygen to the atmosphere, ready
to be again consumed in supporting the life of the animal world.

Dr Angus Smith has defined a very pure air to be one that contains with
20·99 per cent. of oxygen 0·30 of carbonic acid (anhydride).

This latter varies in amount in the atmosphere of cities, as will be seen
upon inspection of the subjoined table, extracted from Dr Smith’s work
‘Air and Rain’:——

                                                                Per cent.
  Air of Madrid, outside the walls, mean of 12 analyses, by Luna  ·045
  Mean of 12 analyses, within the walls of Madrid, by Luna        ·051
  Mean of 14 analyses, by Angus Smith, in Manchester suburbs      ·369
  In Manchester streets                                           ·403
  Usual weather                                                   ·0403
  During fogs                                                     ·0679

De Saussure’s analyses show that there is more carbonic acid on the
mountains than in the plains, as might be inferred from the comparative
absence of vegetation in elevated positions. Dr Pietra Santa states that
the air of hills or mountains, at the height of 2300 feet, is lighter than
common air, contains a smaller proportion of oxygen, and is impregnated
with a largely increased amount of aqueous vapour. It also contains a
large quantity of ozone. He considers such a climate peculiarly soothing
to persons suffering from chest diseases.

Dr Angus Smith’s analysis of the air from the mountainous districts of
Scotland confirms the above statement of Dr Pietra Santa’s. The heaths and
mountains of that country are remarkably healthy localities, and the air
from them gave on analysis 20·94 per cent. by vol. of oxygen, and only
·033 of carbonic acid.

Ammonia is derived from the putrefaction of animal and vegetable
substances. It is from atmospheric ammoniacal compounds that plants obtain
much of the nitrogen which is essential to the formation of many parts of
their structure.

Nitric acid, like ammonia, is absorbed, and its nitrogen assimilated, by

In addition to the gases and vapours already enumerated, as well as others
which exist in minute quantity, or which are of only occasional
occurrence, Pasteur and other investigators have discovered in the air
living germs which are capable of exciting putrefaction and fermentation,
and which are competent, in some instances, to engender disease when they
are injected into the blood of animals. In fact, the spread of infectious
diseases, _e.g._, smallpox, typhus fever, cattle plague, &c., is
attributed to the presence in the atmosphere of the germs of such
maladies. These germs are believed to be living beings, which develope and
multiply at the expense of the tissues of the larger animals into whose
systems they have found entrance.

=Air, Vitiated.= As has been stated in the previous article, the air
consists chiefly of two gases, oxygen and nitrogen. In all open places it
has a similar composition, as might be concluded from the constant
mingling which takes place by the agency of currents continually in
movement, although sometimes to an inconsiderable extent only. Dr Angus
Smith regards air as very pure when it contains not less than 20·99 per
cent. by volume of oxygen, and 0·030 of carbonic anhydride (acid).
According as the proportion of the former gas diminishes and that of the
latter increases beyond certain limits in the air by which we are
surrounded, it becomes more or less deteriorated and unfit to be breathed,
particularly as the increased amount of carbonic acid is, in crowded
dwellings, assembly rooms, theatres, and confined inhabited spaces,
associated with deleterious and putrescent exhalations from the person.

        _The following tables exhibit the amount of carbonic
        acid in close places in London._

                     =I.=                                    by volume.
  Chancery Court, closed doors, 7 feet from the ground,
      March 3                                                  ·193
  Same, 3 feet from ground                                     ·203
  Chancery Court, doors wide open, 4 feet from ground,
      11·40, March 5                                           ·0507
  Same, 12·40 p.m., 5 feet from ground                         ·045
  Strand Theatre, gallery, 10 p.m.                             ·101
  Surrey Theatre, boxes, March 7, 10·30 p.m.                   ·218
  Olympic, 11·30 p.m.                                          ·0817
  Same, 11·55 p.m.                                             ·1014
  Victoria Theatre, boxes, March 24, 10 p.m.                   ·126
  Haymarket Theatre, dress circle, March 18, 11·30 p.m.        ·0757
  Queen’s Ward, St. Thomas’s Hospital, 3·25 p.m.               ·052
  Edward’s Ward, St. Thomas’s Hospital, 3·30 p.m.              ·052
  Victoria Theatre, boxes, April 4.                            ·076
  Effingham, 10·30 p.m., April 9, Whitechapel                  ·126
  Pavilion, 10·11 p.m., April 9, Whitechapel                   ·152
  City of London Theatre, pit, 11·15 p.m., April 16            ·252
  Standard Theatre, pit, 11 p.m., April 16                     ·320

Dr Angus Smith states that out of 339 specimens of air obtained from
various mines he found 35 normal or nearly so, 81 decidedly impure, and
212 exceedingly bad; he also adds that owing to the frequent firing of
charges of gunpowder within the mines, and from other causes, the
atmosphere is further contaminated with sulphuretted hydrogen, sulphate,
carbonate, sulphide, sulphocyanide of potassium, and nitrate of potassium,
carbon, sulphur, carbonate of ammonia, organic matter, sand, and
sulphurous and arsenious acids.

The air of large cities, which are the seats of manufacturing industry, is
always more or less charged with the exhalations given off by chemical and
other works. The sulphuric-acid works contribute sulphuric, sulphurous,
nitrous, and arsenious acids; copper works, in which pyrites is employed,
give off large quantities of sulphurous acid, mixed with arsenic and a
little copper; manure works, in many cases, send out compounds of
fluorine, besides sulphuric acid; glass works, sulphuric and hydrochloric
acids; and alkali works, hydrochloric acid (although in small quantities),
which very frequently contains arsenic. Of ammonia, Angus Smith remarks:
“It is one measure of the ‘sewage’ of the air; it is the result of
decomposition. It is not, in these small quantities, hurtful, so far as we
know. The ammonia is in no case free, but combined probably with
hydrosulphuric, hydrochloric, and sulphuric acid in towns. In country
places it is, at all events partly, united to carbonic acid.

        II. _London Air.——Carbonic Acid, Metropolitan Railway,
        November, 1869._

  |        |                            |            |Carbonic | Oxygen, |
  | Date.  |          Place.            |Time of Day.|  Acid,  |per cent.|
  |        |                            |            |per cent.|         |
  | 1869.  |Tunnel between Gower Street |            |         |         |
  |Nov. 12.|and King’s Cross Stations;  |  10 a.m.   |  ·150   |  20·60  |
  |        |specimen taken at the open  |            |         |         |
  |        |window, first-class         |            |         |         |
  |        |carriage.                   |            |         |         |
  |        |                            |            |         |         |
  | ”   12.|Tunnel between Gower Street |            |         |         |
  |        |and King’s Cross Stations;  | 7·30 p.m.  |  ·078   |  20·79  |
  |        |specimen taken at the open  |            |         |         |
  |        |window, first-class         |            |         |         |
  |        |carriage.                   |            |         |         |
  |        |                            |            |         |         |
  | ”   12.|Tunnel Praed Street;        |            |         |         |
  |        |specimen taken at the open  | 10·30 a.m. |   ...   |  20·71  |
  |        |window, first-class         |            |         |         |
  |        |carriage.                   |            |         |         |
  |        |                            |            |         |         |
  | ”   15.|Specimen taken during       |            |         |         |
  |        |journey between Gower Street| 10·15 a.m. |  ·338   |  20·66  |
  |        |and King’s Cross,           |            |         |         |
  |        |first-class carriage, window|            |         |         |
  |        |open.                       |            |         |         |
  |        |                            |            |         |         |
  | ”   15.|Same                        |   3 p.m.   |  ·155   |  20·70  |
  |        |                            |            |         |         |
  | ”   15.|Same                        |  11 p.m.   |  ·150   |  20·74  |
  |        |                            |            |         |         |
  |        |Average                     |            |  ·1452  |  20·70  |
                                                          ANGUS SMITH.

        _The Air of Mines_ (_Metalliferous_).

  |Name of Mine,|Description of place,|Thermo-|Number |Oxygen,|Carbonic|
  |and depth    |where taken and time |meter, |of Men | per   | Acid,  |
  |from surface,|when taken.          |Fahr.  |working| cent. |  per   |
  |in fathoms.  |                     |       |in it. |       |  cent. |
  |             |                     |       |       |       |        |
  |    Hurst    |End, 300 ft. beyond  |  ...  |   2   |  ...  |  1·99  |
  |             |a rise, 9 ft. high,  |       |       |       |        |
  |             |7 ft. wide.          |       |       |       |        |
  |             |                     |       |       |       |        |
  |   Old Gang  |End of level         |  ...  |   2   | 20·58 |   ·48  |
  |             |                     |       |       |       |        |
  |     ”       |End of level         |  ...  |   2   |  ...  |   ·28  |
  |             |                     |       |       |       |        |
  |     ”       |(_a_) Rise 7 ft.     |  ...  |   2   | 20·25 |   ·39  |
  |             |high, 132 ft. from   |       |       |       |        |
  |             |current.             |       |       |       |        |
  |             |                     |       |       |       |        |
  | Grassington |(_b_) End of cross   |  ...  |   2   | 20·94 |   ·06  |
  |             |cut, 480 ft. from    |       |       |       |        |
  |             |rise.                |       |       |       |        |
  |             |                     |       |       |       |        |
  |     ”       |End, 480 ft. from    |  ...  |   2   | 19·53 |  1·59  |
  |             |rise.                |       |       |       |        |
  |             |                     |       |       |       |        |
  |     ”       |Rise 60 ft. high in  |  ...  |   2   | 19·52 |  1·72  |
  |             |shale.               |       |       |       |        |
  |             |                     |       |       |       |        |
  |     ”       |End, 60 ft. from     |  ...  |   2   | 20·47 |  1·06  |
  |             |rise.                |       |       |       |        |
  |             |                     |       |       |       |        |
  |     ”       |(_c_)End, 840 ft.    |  ...  |   2   | 20·08 |   ·94  |
  |             |from rise.           |       |       |       |        |
  (_a_) Air machine.
  (_b_) Unusual amount of dust.
  (_c_) Crystals were chiefly hexagons.
                                                  ANGUS SMITH.

The following table, showing the amount of ammonia present in rain
collected at the different places named, is from Dr Smith’s work, ‘Air and

          COMPARATIVE.                           AMMONIA.

  That of Valentia (Ireland) taken as 1 or 100.

  Ireland, Valentia                                 ·1
  Scotland, sea-coast, country places, west        2·69
  Scotland, inland, country places, west           2·96
  Scotland, sea-coast, country places, average     4·10
  Scotland, sea-coast, country places, east        5·51
  England, inland, country places, east            5·94
  England, sea-coast, country places, west        10·55
  German specimens                                10·61
  London, 1869                                    19·17
  Scotland, towns (Glasgow not included)          21·22
  St. Helen’s                                     25·33
  Runcorn                                         25·72
  England, towns                                  28·67
  Liverpool                                       29·89
  Manchester, 1869                                35·33
  Manchester, 1869 and 1870, average              35·94
  Manchester, 1870                                36·54
  Glasgow                                         50·55

The effects resulting from breathing an impure atmosphere are necessarily
dependent upon the extent of the pollution and other conditions. When the
contamination is moderate the first effect is headache, accompanied with
lassitude, and a general paleness of the face and skin, owing to a
diminution of the red corpuscles of the blood or to their imperfect
aëration; the pulse becomes lowered, and at the same time the breathing is
accelerated. When in addition to breathing such air from day to day is
superadded the misfortune of an insufficiency of food, scrofula and
consumption very often follow. Dr Guy has demonstrated the great mortality
that is caused by consumption in those trades in which workmen pursue
their calling in hot, close, gas-lit rooms, in comparison with those who
pass most of their time in the open air. The amount of air required by
each person in a room is no less than 2100 feet per hour; when the
ventilation does not supply this amount of fresh air, the apartment smells
stuffy, the furniture becomes coated with a film of organic matter, unless
constantly cleaned, and the carbonic acid becomes increased beyond its
normal quantity.

Dr Parkes has shown that bronchitis and consumption are more frequently
than not contracted by those who live in an atmosphere of foul air. In the
years 1834 to 1847 the proportion of deaths in the ill-ventilated prison
of Leopoldstadt in Vienna was 86 per 1000, out of which number 51·4 per
1000 was due to phthisis or consumption; while in the well-ventilated
House of Correction in the same city the deaths were 14 per 1000, of which
7·9 were from phthisis; hence 43·5 cases per 1000 of the deaths were
clearly traceable to foul air and nothing else.

Mr Noel Hartley, in his valuable little manual, ‘Water, Air, and
Disinfectants,’ says: “During the outbreak of cattle plague in 1866, in
sheds containing twenty to thirty cows——which the owners kept closed to
such an extent that all chinks in the doors and windows were stuffed with
straw and matting, under an ignorant belief that thus the plague could be
kept out——very frequently the entire stock died in two or three days after
the first appearance of disease; while in other cases where animals were
housed in a well-cleaned and tidily-kept shed, with a plentiful supply of
fresh air, not only did some of them escape the disease altogether, but
the deaths were reduced to one third of the number of beasts attacked.”

The large supply of fresh air necessary in hospitals for contagious
diseases is fully recognised by medical men, and more especially so in
America. Wounds carefully protected from contact with impure air do not
suppurate, and organic fluids do not putrefy. On the other hand, in a bad
atmosphere sores become unhealthy, and are difficult to heal, erysipelas
and hospital gangrene frequently set in, while the best prevention and the
best means of cure for such afflictions is the greatest possible exposure
to fresh air.

Vitiated air, as a consequence of over-crowding, aids the spread of
measles, scarlet fever, and the much to be dreaded smallpox; it brings on
ophthalmia, a troublesome inflammation of the eyes, and is not
unfrequently the cause of the ricketty and scrofulous condition of
children. Although exposure to cold does cause such affections as
bronchitis, pneumonia, cold in the head, sore throat, and other affections
of the respiratory organs, it is more frequently the case that they are
the result of a sudden change of temperature, such as experienced in
coming out of a crowded assembly in a close, badly-ventilated building,
than by actually cold weather. This is decidedly and strikingly shown by
the fact which Dr de Chaumont has quoted, that the British Army when in
the Crimea, when lodged in tents during extremely rigorous weather,
experienced a wonderful condition of health, such a thing as a cold being
an unknown complaint; but when some of the men were placed in huts which
were much warmer, and into which there was a smaller circulation of fresh
air, the sick rate increased, and coughs and colds began to put in an
appearance. Persons who during summer and winter sleep with their windows
more or less open cannot endure a night spent in the chamber with the
chimney closed and the window shut. A less refreshing sleep occupies the
night, and a somewhat feverish sensation is felt next morning.

If in cold weather the window be opened only one inch at the top, the
difference in the air in the bedroom is something quite beyond
comprehension to those who have not paid attention to these things. See

=Air, Analysis of.= Priestley’s discovery of oxygen gas in 1774 prepared
the way for the knowledge of the real composition of air, which was
discovered about the same time by Scheele and Lavoisier. Scheele’s method
of operating was by exposing some atmospheric air to a solution of
sulphide of potassium. Lavoisier effected the same object by the
combustion of iron wire and phosphorus, and subsequently by heating
mercury on a flask filled with air for some time, just below its boiling

These, however, were but elementary methods, which, however creditable to
the ingenuity of the great founders of modern chemistry, not only failed
in accuracy, but took no account of the presence and amount of two most
important constituents in the atmosphere, viz. carbonic anhydride (acid)
and ammonia.

_Determination of Aqueous Vapour._ To effect this an aspirator must be
used (see ASPIRATOR). This instrument is easily made, and is not
expensive. The accompanying figure will illustrate the arrangement
generally adopted: _a_ is an aspirator made of galvanised iron or sheet
zinc. It holds from 50 to 200 litres (from 11 to 44 gallons). By this
means a known volume of air is drawn through the tubes marked _b_, _c_,
_d_, _e_, which may be filled with pumice-stone moistened with strong
sulphuric acid; but if the carbonic acid is to be estimated as well, _b_
and _c_ are filled with moist hydrate of lime (potash used to be employed,
but hydrate of lime is to be preferred, as the potash absorbs oxygen), and
_d_ and _e_ as above. Each of the tubes is accurately weighed previously
to connecting them with the apparatus.


It is imperative to have each of the tubes connected by perfectly
air-tight joints. The gain of weight in _d_ and _e_ gives the water in _b_
and _c_ the carbonic acid.

_Determination of Carbonic Acid._ A better and perhaps more exact means of
determining the carbonic acid is that invented by PETTENKOFER. It may be
briefly described as follows:——Baryta water of definite strength is
prepared and accurately standardised by a standard solution of oxalic
acid. A portion of this baryta water is then made to act upon a definite
quantity of air. It will absorb the whole of the carbonic acid in that

The alkalinity of the liquid will in consequence be diminished; it will
take less of the oxalic-acid solution than before, which shows so much
less caustic baryta, and from which the carbonic acid absorbed may be
easily calculated.

_The actual Analysis._ Two kinds of baryta water may be used, the one
containing 7 grammes to the litre, the other three times that strength; 1
c. c. of the stronger = 3 m. grms. of carbonic acid; 1 c. c. of the weaker
= 1 m. grm. The baryta water is best kept in the bottle represented below.


The bottle (_a_) contains the baryta water. It has an accurately-fitting
double-perforated stoppered caoutchouc. The left-hand tube is connected
with the tube (_b_) containing pumice-stone moistened with potash, while
the right-hand one is a syphon. When required for use the stop-cock (_f_)
is opened, and suction applied by a glass tube to F. The syphon is thus
filled and the stop-cock closed. If a pipette is required to be filled its
nozzle is inserted at F, the stop-cock compressed, and the fluid
immediately rises into the pipette.

The air entering the bottle as the fluid decreases in _a_ is, of course,
thoroughly deprived of its carbonic acid by the tubes at _b_.

The first thing to be done is to standardise the baryta solution by a
solution of oxalic acid, containing 2·8636 grammes of crystallised oxalic
acid to the litre.

Thirty c. c. of baryta solution are run into a small flask, and the oxalic
acid run in from a Mohr’s burette with float, the vanishing-point of the
alkaline reaction being ascertained by delicate turmeric paper. As soon as
a drop placed on turmeric paper does not give a brown ring the end is

The actual analysis is performed by filling a bottle of known capacity,
with the aid of a pair of bellows, with the air to be analysed, then
distributing over its sides 45 c. c. of the baryta water it is left for
half an hour. The turbid water is poured into a cylinder, closely secured,
and allowed to deposit; then take out 30 c. c. by a pipette of the clear
fluid, run in the solution of oxalic acid, multiply the volume used by
1·5, and deduct the produce from the c. c. of oxalic acid used for 45 c.
c. of the fresh baryta water. A different method has been suggested by Dr
Angus Smith, viz. to measure the carbonic anhydride by the turbidities of
the baryta water; this is, in fact, a colorimetric test. For rough
approximative results Dr Smith’s process will be found a very useful and
convenient one. It depends upon the fact that the amount of carbonic acid
in a given quantity of air will not produce a precipitate in a given
quantity of lime or baryta water unless the carbonic acid is in excess.
The following is one of his tables:——Columns 1 and 2 give the rates of
carbonic acid in the quantity of air which will produce no precipitate in
half an ounce of lime water. Column 3 is the same as column 2; but 14·16
c. c. (half an ounce) is added to give the corresponding size of the
bottle, and column 4 gives the size of the bottle in ounces.

        To be used when the point of observation is “no
        precipitate.” Half an ounce of baryta water contains
        about ·08 gramme of baryta.

        Air at 0° C. and 760 millims. Bar.

  Carbonic Acid  Volume of   Size of bottle  Size of bottle
   in the Air,  Air in cubic    in cubic       in ounces
    per cent.   centimètres.  centimètres.    Avoirdupois.

      ·03           185           199            7·06
      ·04           139           154            5·42
      ·05           111           125            4·44
      ·06            93           107            3·78
      ·07            79            93            3·31
      ·08            70            84            2·96
      ·09            62            76            2·69
      ·10            56            70            2·46
      ·11            51            65            2·29
      ·12            46            60            2·14
      ·13            43            57            2·01
      ·14            40            54            1·90
      ·15            37            51            1·81
      ·20            28            42            1·48
      ·25            22            36            1·29
      ·30            19            33            1·16
      ·40            14            28            1·04
      ·50            11            25             ·89
      ·60             9            23             ·89
      ·70             8            22             ·78
      ·80             6            20             ·72
     1·00             5·5          19·7           ·70

Mr Wanklyn’s process for the determination of carbonic acid in the
atmosphere is as follows:——A solution of carbonate of soda is first made
as follows: 4·47 grammes of gently-ignited carbonate of soda are dissolved
in one litre of water, giving a solution of such a strength that 1 c. c.
contains exactly 1 c. c. of carbonic acid (= 1·97 milligrammes of CO_{2});
a large quantity of baryta water (strength about 0·1 per cent.) is

If now 100 c. c. of clear baryta water be treated with 1 c. c. of
carbonate of soda, just described, a certain degree of turbidity is

If 2 c. c. of the solution be taken another degree of turbidity is
produced, and so on. If, then, a bottle capable of holding 2000 c. c. of
air, together with 100 c. c. of baryta water, be filled with the sample of
air to be tested, there will be a certain depth of turbidity produced by
shaking it up. Having got the air to expend itself on 100 c. c. of baryta
water the degree is to be found by comparison with another 100 c. c. of
baryta water, in which a like turbidity has been induced by means of the
standard solution of carbonate.

Every c. c. of soda solution counts for a c. c. of carbonic acid in two
litres of air. A consumption of 1 c. c. will correspond to ·05 volumes of
carbonic acid per cent. Good air should accordingly not take more than 1
c. c. of soda solution, air which takes already 2 c. c. being already bad.

In order practically to carry out this method of estimating carbonic acid
the following apparatus is required:——Several bottles capable of holding
2·210 c. c., and well stoppered (failing bottles of exactly the right
capacity Winchester quart bottles will answer); a small pair of bellows;
several colourless glass cylinders marked at 100 c. c. capacity——the
Nesslerising cylinders will answer for this purpose——a graduated pipette
or burette to deliver tenths of a c. c. of solution, the standard solution
of carbonate of soda, and the baryta water, which may be of moderate

The testing is managed thus: Winchester quart bottles having been made
clean are rinsed with distilled water, and allowed to drain a little. They
are then closed with their stoppers, and are ready for use. The operator
having provided himself with two or three of these bottles and a small
pair of bellows enters the room the air of which is to be tested. The
stopper is then removed from one of the bottles, and some air of the room
blown through with the bellows, and then the stopper is replaced, and the
bottle carried away to be tested.

The testing is done by pouring into the bottle 100 c. c. of clear baryta
water, shaking up for two or three minutes, and then pouring out into a
cylinder of colourless glass, and observing the depth of the turbidity in
various lights and against various backgrounds. The turbidity is to be
exactly imitated by means of the standard solution of carbonate of soda.
In order to imitate the turbidity produced by a Winchester quart full of
good air only 1 c. c. of this solution of carbonate of soda is required.

If 2 c. c. or more than 2 are required, the air is bad and the ventilation
is defective.

In place of the first c. c. of solution of carbonate of soda the carbonic
acid naturally present in a Winchester quart of good average air may be
used, and a little practice and intelligence will suggest the necessary

_Estimation of the Oxygen._——To determine this Angus Smith has recourse to
the endiometer. Five or six of Bunsen’s endiometers were used at once and
the mixed gases were exploded by means of a powerful battery and a
Ruhumkorff’s coil. In his ‘Inorganic Chemistry,’ Miller thus explains the
principle upon which the action of the endiometer is based: “By means of
the endiometer various gaseous mixtures may be analysed with great
exactness. Many different forms of this instrument are in use. One of the
most convenient is Hoffmann’s. It consists of a stout syphon tube. (See
next figure.) Into the sides of the tube, near the sealed end, two
platinum wires (_a_, _b_) are fixed for the purpose of transmitting an
electric spark through the cavity of the tube. The sealed limb is
accurately graduated to tenths of a c. c. or other suitable divisions.
Suppose it be desired to ascertain the proportion of oxygen in atmospheric
air. The instrument is first filled with mercury, after which a small
quantity of air is introduced; the bulk of the air is accurately measured,
taking care that the liquid metal stands at the same level in both tubes,
which is easily effected by adding mercury, or by drawing off the mercury
if needed, through the caoutchouc tube, which is fixed upon the small
inlet tube just above the bend, and which is closed by means of a screw
tap (_c_).


A quantity of pure hydrogen, about equal in bulk to the air, is next
introduced, and the bulk of the mixture is then accurately measured. The
open extremity of the tube is now closed with a cork, below which a column
of atmospheric air is safely included. This portion of air acts as a
spring, which gradually checks the explosive force, when the combination
is effected by passing a spark across the tube by means of the platinum
wires. The mixture is then exploded by the electric spark. The remaining
gas now occupies a smaller volume, owing to the condensation of the steam
which has been formed. Mercury is, therefore, again poured in the open
limb until it stands at the same level in both tubes, and the volume of
the gas is measured a third time. One third of the reduction of the bulk
experienced by the gas will represent the entire volume of oxygen which
the mixture contained. Liebig’s method is as follows. It is based upon the
fact that an alkaline solution of pyrogallic acid absorbs oxygen:

1. A strong measuring tube holding 30 c. c., and divided into one fifth or
one tenth c. c., is filled to two thirds with the air intended for
analysis. The remaining part of the tube is filled with mercury, and the
tube is inverted over that fluid in a tall cylinder widened at the top.

2. The volume of air confined is measured——a quantity of solution of
potash of 1·4 sp. grf. (1 part of dry hydrate of potash to 2 parts of
water), amounting from 1/40th to 1/50th of the volume of the air, is then
introduced into the measuring tube by means of a pipette with the point
bent upwards (see _drawing_), and spread over the entire inner surface of
the tube by shaking the latter. When no further diminution of volume takes
place the decrease is read off. The carbonic acid is thus removed.


3. A solution of pyrogallic acid containing 1 gramme of the acid in 5 or 6
c. c. of water is introduced into the same measuring tube by means of
another pipette similar to the above. The mixed fluid (the pyrogallic acid
and the solution of potash) is spread over the inner surface of the tube
by shaking the latter, and when no further diminution of volume is
observed the residuary nitrogen is measured.

4. The solution of pyrogallic acid mixing with the solution of potash of
course dilutes it, causing thus an error from the diminution of its
tension; but this error is so trifling that it has no appreciable
influence upon the results. It may, moreover, be readily corrected by
introducing into the tube, after the absorption of the oxygen, a small
piece of hydrate of potash, corresponding to the amount of water in the
solution of the pyrogallic acid.

There is another slight error on account of a portion of the fluid
adhering to the inner surface of the tube, so that the volume of the gas
is never read off with absolute accuracy.

In conducting these endiometric experiments the necessary corrections for
temperature and barometric pressure must, of course, be made.

_Estimation of the Nitrogen._ The amount of this gas is usually determined
by deducting the aqueous vapours, oxygen and carbonic acid, from the
volume of air examined.

_Determination of Ammonia and Organic Matter._ These are best determined
by drawing a known volume of air through absolutely pure water. To obtain
this latter it is best to redistil distilled water, to reject the first
portions, then to add an alkaline solution of permanganate of potash, and
to discard any portions of the distillate which give the slightest
reaction with the Nessler test. The water through which the air is drawn
must be kept cool, and afterwards submitted to the proper tests, which
will be found under AMMONIA and WATER ANALYSIS. Mr Blyth says, “Solid
bodies such as vibrionic germs, dust, fungi, &c., may be obtained by using
an aspirator, and drawing the air either through a drop of glycerine or
water. Organic matter may also be obtained by suspending glass vessels
filled with ice water, over or in the places to be investigated, and
submitted to the microscope. High powers, such as immersion lenses, are
requisite for the investigation of germs,” &c.

Of these germs Dr Angus Smith says:——“They may probably be divided into
many kinds——the useful and the deleterious, those which promote health and
those which bring disease. The idea of any of them bringing health is not
founded on anything positive, but we can scarcely imagine these numberless
forms to be all useless. The idea that they bring disease is, I think, one
well confirmed.” See a paper by the same author “On the Air and Rain of
Manchester.” ‘Memoirs of the Literary and Scientific Society of
Manchester,’ vol. x. See AIR, VITIATED.

=AIR-GAS.= Air deprived of its carbonic acid and moisture, and then
impregnated with the vapours of very volatile fluid hydrocarbons, such as
benzine and benzoline, can be used as an illuminating agent. It is
requisite, however, to use burners with wide openings, and to apply a low
pressure, because if the current be too rapid the flame becomes too much
cooled, and is readily extinguished. Apparatus for preparing air-gas have
been devised and constructed by Marcus, Mille, Methei, and others.


=AIR-PUMP.= An instrument designed for the removal of air from closed
vessels. The simplest form of air-pump is the exhausting syringe, which
consists of a cylinder fitted with a stop-cock, and having a valve at the
bottom opening inwards. Another valve opening outwards is attached to a
piston working inside the cylinder, and by screwing the instrument on to a
vessel, and alternately elevating and depressing the piston, all except a
very small quantity of residual and comparatively inelastic air is pumped
out of the vessel (Figs. _a_ and _b_). The accompanying figures show
relative positions of the valve during (_a_) the elevation, and (_b_) the
depression of the piston. In the usual and more convenient form of
air-pump, a brass tube passes from the bottom of the syringe and
terminates in the centre of a disk of brass or glass ground accurately;
the vessel from which the air is to be exhausted has its edge very
accurately ground, and is mounted upon the plate as shown in the subjoined


=Air-pump, Bunsen’s Water.= (See figure on page 53.)

This consists of a wide glass tube, _a_, into which another tube, _b_,
_b′_, _b′′_, passes air-tight. _c_ is an india-rubber tube connecting a
with the water supply, _d_ is a clamp to stop the flow of water through
_c_. _e_ is another clamp to regulate the flow, _f_ is a reservoir to
prevent any water which may accidentally come over from getting into _j_.
_g_ is a plug to let out any water from _f_. _h_ is a screw for connecting
a air-tight to a piece of tubing, which should pass 32 feet, if possible,
below the level of _a_. _i_ is a piece of strong india-rubber tubing to
connect the pump with the vessel to be exhausted. The water rushes in at
_c_ and down _h_, carrying bubbles of air with it till the exhaustion is
complete. The figure illustrates a common application of this pump to the
rapid filtration of liquids which ordinarily pass through paper with
difficulty. _a_ is represented as being about half full of water. _k_ is a
funnel fixed air-tight in the india-rubber stopper of the bell-jar _j_.
_l_ is a small cone of platinum foil to prevent the paper filter which
fits into it from being broken. _m_ is a plate of ground glass, _n_ is a
beaker to receive the filtrate.

[Illustration: Bunsen’s water-air-pump.]

=Air-pump, Sprengel’s.= This apparatus depends on the principle of
converting the space to be exhausted into a torricellian vacuum.

In the subjoined figure, _c_, _d_ is a glass tube longer than a barometer,
open at both ends, and connected by means of india-rubber tubing with a
funnel, A, filled with mercury and supported by a stand. Mercury is
allowed to fall in this tube at a rate regulated by a clamp at C; the
lower end of the tube, _c_, _d_, fits in the flask B, which has a spout at
the side a little higher than the lower end of _c_, _d_; the upper part
has a branch at _x_ to which a receiver R can be tightly fixed. When the
clamp at C is opened, the first portions of mercury which run out close
the tube and prevent air from entering below. As the mercury is allowed to
run down the exhaustion begins, and the whole length of the tube from _x_
to _d_ is fitted with cylinders of air and mercury, having a downward
motion. Air and mercury escape through the spout of the bulb B, which is
above the basin H, where the mercury is collected. It is poured back from
time to time into the funnel A, to be repassed through the tube until the
exhaustion is complete.

[Illustration: Sprengel’s air-pump.]

=AIRY’S (Dr.) NATURE’S MEDICAL TREATMENT= is the title of a pamphlet which
recommends four secret remedies against 166 diseases:

_a._ The Pain Expeller, a mixture of about 35 parts of tincture of
capsicum, 20 parts of diluted spirit, and 20 parts of spirit of ammonia.

_b._ Sarsaparillian, a fluid extract of sarsaparilla and China root,
containing 1 per cent. of iodide of potassium.

_c._ Pills composed of powdered iron, jalap resin, jalap powder, and marsh
mallow powder, made into a mass with some bitter extract. Each pill weighs
0·1 gramme.

_d._ Calming Pastilles are thick, hard tablets, composed of sugar, with
oil of anise, and coloured with liquorice juice. (Hager.)

=AKUSTICON= (an ear essence). A proved remedy for every kind of ear
disease, by Pserhofer. This may be imitated by dissolving in common
glycerine one fifth of its weight of fir tar, filtering, and adding a few
drops of cajeput oil dissolved in spirit (Hager.)

=AL-.= [Ar.] An inseparable article equivalent to the English _the_. It is
found in many chemical and other words derived from the Arabic; as
alchemy, alcohol, alembic, almanac, &c.

=AL′ABASTER.= _Syn._ ALBÂTRE, Fr.; =Alabas′ter=, =Alabastri′tes=,
=Alabas′trum=, L. A soft, white species of calcareous and of gypseous
stone, used by sculptors. There are several varieties, all of which may be
ranged under two heads:——

carbonate of calcium, formed by the deposition of calcareous particles in
the caverns of limestone rocks. It has a foliated, fibrous, or granular
structure, and a pure, soft, rich, semi-translucent whiteness, generally
agreeably variegated with undulating zones or stripes of various shades of
yellow, red, or brown. This variety is that most esteemed by sculptors,
and for the manufacture of alabaster ornaments. The ancients used it for
ointment and perfume boxes. At the baths of San Filippo (Tuscany), the
process of its formation may be examined by the observer. The natural
spring of boiling water holds carbonate of lime in solution by means of
sulphuretted hydrogen, which, escaping into the air, leaves the lime as a
precipitate, which is gradually deposited in a concrete form. (M. Alex.

2. GYP′SEOUS OR COMMON ALABASTER; GYPSUM. A natural hydrated sulphate of
calcium, containing a little carbonate of calcium. That from the quarries
of the Paris basin contains about 12% of the latter substance. When
calcined or roasted, and powdered, it forms the substance known under the
name of PLASTER OF PARIS. The more compact, fine-grained specimens of this
variety are, like the preceding one, sculptured into almost numberless
articles of ornament and utility, such as vases, clock-stands, statuettes,
&c. The inferior kinds only are manufactured into the ‘plaster of Paris’
of the shops. The best specimens are obtained from the lower beds of the
gypsum quarries, and are white, and granular, not unlike Carrara marble.
It takes a high polish; but from its softness and liability to become
discoloured, articles formed of it require more careful treatment than
even those of ‘calcareous alabaster.’

Alabaster is wrought, turned, and fashioned, in a nearly similar manner to
the softer varieties of marble. The tools resemble those employed for the
like operations in ivory and brass. Machinery is now often applied to this

Alabaster is polished, first with pumice-stone, and then with a paste or
pap made of whiting, soap, and milk or water; and lastly, with dry
flannel. A better method, however, is to rub it first with dried
shave-grass (equisetum), and afterwards with finely powdered and sifted
slaked lime formed into a paste with water. The surface is then ‘finished
off’ by friction with finely powdered talc or French chalk, until a satiny
lustre is produced, or with putty powder, in a similar way to marble.

Alabaster is engraved with tools resembling those employed for other soft
minerals. It is etched by covering every part of the surface, except that
to be acted on, with a solution of white wax in oil of turpentine (1 to
4), thickened with a little finely powdered white lead, and subsequent
immersion in water acidulated with acetic acid or hydrochloric acid, for
the calcareous variety; and in spring water, for 20 to 50 hours (according
to the effect desired), for the gypseous variety. The varnish is washed
off with oil of turpentine, and the etched parts carefully brushed over
with finely powdered gypsum.

Alabaster is joined and repaired by means of white of egg, or rice glue,
thickened with finely powdered quicklime; or by a paste of newly baked and
finely powdered gypsum, mixed up with the least possible quantity of

Calcareous alabaster is usually cleaned with a brush and warm
soap-and-water, or with tepid water to which a few grains of carbonate of
soda or of ammonia have been added; followed in either case by rinsing in
clean water. If much discoloured, thoroughly cover the article with a
paste of freshly slaked lime and water, and let it remain twenty-four
hours; then wash off the paste with soap and water, rubbing hard the

Delicate objects in gypseous alabaster can only be safely cleaned with
benzol, or with pure oil of turpentine. If necessary, the surface must be
repolished. Grease spots may be removed from either variety with a little
benzol or oil of turpentine.

Alabaster is occasionally stained or coloured, and, for the calcareous
variety, in a similar way to marble, except that heat is not employed; and
for the gypseous variety, in the manner noticed under PLASTER OF PARIS.
The gypseous variety is also bronzed and hardened in a similar way to that
adopted for casts in the latter substance.

_Obs._ Gypseous alabaster is dissolved by water; and the beauty of both
varieties is almost irrecoverably destroyed by grease, coloured oils,
varnishes, smoke, &c. It is, therefore, unfitted for garden ornaments, or
other objects exposed to the rain or weather, unless it be painted or
bronzed; and is even then very perishable. Contact with acids, alkalies,
and ammoniacal and sulphurous fumes, also injure, and, if prolonged,
destroy it. Even an uncorked phial of smelling-salts placed on a
mantel-piece beside an alabaster vase will soon destroy its beauty. Thus,
all delicate objects in alabaster should be protected by a glass shade.

=Alabaster, Orient′al= (Factitious). Figures, basso relievos, &c., of
considerable hardness and beauty, may be formed by imitating the process
adopted at the baths of San Filippo, before referred to.

_Proc., &c._ Moulds of sulphur are placed either vertically or obliquely
in an open tub or cistern, having a freely perforated bottom. Surmounting
the whole are two or more pieces of wood in the form of a cross or star.
The sulphurous calcareous water, falling on this cross, is scattered into
spray or streamlets, and losing the gaseous portion which holds the lime
in solution, deposits it in the form of oriental alabaster on the surface
of the moulds. In from 1 to 4 months, according to the nature of the
article, a sufficiently thick deposit is obtained. The object is then
removed from the mould, and trimmed and polished. It is found that the
more vertical the position of the mould, the finer is the grain of the
resulting deposit. The water of the Spring of San Filippo may be exactly
and easily imitated by the chemist; and the whole process offers a new and
valuable ornamental art for the amusement and profit of the ingenious and

=Alabaster, Shand’s Chinese.= Carbonate of lime. (Chandler.)

=Alabaster Tablets, John Swine’s Chinese.= Carbonate of lime. (Chandler.)

=ALAMODE′= (ăl-ăh-mōdé). [Fr., _à la mode_.] According to the prevailing
mode or fashion. In _cookery_, applied to several dishes, but more
particularly to one of beef (alamode beef), commonly shortened by the
lower class of Londoners into “alamode.” See BEEF, STEWING, &c.

=ALAN′TINE.= [Eng., Fr., Ger.] _Syn._ ALANTI′NA, L. A substance identical
with inulin, found in the roots of garden angelica (‘angelica
archangelica,’ Linn.).

=ALBA′TA.= [L., Eng.] A name given to several alloys resembling silver.

=ALBION= (Parisian). “Will preserve the skin white and free from
wrinkles.” An aromatic water with chloride of lead and calomel suspended
in it. (Landerer.)

=ALBOLITH.= A cement powder prepared by W. Riemann, Breslau. Made with
calcined magnesia (obtained from magnesite) and chloride of magnesium. It
is recommended for painting walls, stairs, and wooden articles. (Hager.)

Ger. Literally, the white of egg; a peculiar nitrogenous substance which
enters largely into the composition of animal bodies. It abounds in the
blood, muscles, bones, coagulable lymph, vitreous and crystalline humour
of the eye, fluid of dropsy, &c. The white of egg consists of nearly pure
albumen dissolved in water.

A substance identical with albumen is found in many vegetables. It enters
largely into the composition of all the emulsive seeds. According to
Seguin, it exists in considerable quantity in all those vegetables and
fruits that afford a vinous liquor without the addition of yeast.

_Prep._ The white of egg and the serum of blood, when strained through
muslin, furnish albumen, in solution, in a sufficiently pure state for all
the ordinary purposes of the arts. Pure solid albumen may be prepared as

1. Agitate strained white of egg with 10 or 12 times its bulk of alcohol,
collect the precipitated flocculi on a muslin filter, and suffer it to dry
at a temperature not exceeding 120° Fahr.

2. Add a little water to white of egg, mix, filter, exactly neutralise
with acetic acid, and then largely dilute with pure cold water; the
precipitate which falls may be collected on a filter and washed. Strained
serum of blood may be used instead of white of egg, in both the above

_Comp._, _&c._ The following is the composition of albumen according to

  Carbon    53·3
  Hydrogen   7·1
  Nitrogen  15·7
  Oxygen    22·1
  Sulphur    1·8

Chatin found iodine in the white of egg; it also contains chloride,
sulphate, phosphate, and carbonate of sodium, phosphate of calcium, and
traces of potassium in it; but, unlike the sulphur, none of these
substances form a constituent part of pure albumen, though probably always
present in white of egg.

_Prop._ Pure solid albumen (unaltered by heat) is nearly colourless,
inodorous, and tasteless; scarcely soluble in water, but readily so in
water, containing an exceedingly small quantity of caustic soda or potash,
and in a strong solution of nitrate of potassium. When dried by a gentle
heat it shrinks into a translucent horny mass; and when exposed to a
sufficient temperature, yields the usual ammoniacal odour and products of
animal matter. Its solution (as white of egg) is solidified or coagulated
by a heat of from 145° to 165° Fahr., forming a white, opaque mass; when
very dilute, on boiling (only) it separates in fine light flocks. When
thus coagulated, it is insoluble in water at a less temperature than 302°
Fahr. (Wöhler and Vögel), unless alkalised. Ordinary solutions of albumen
give precipitates with sulphuric, hydrochloric, nitric, and metaphosphoric
acids, with tannin and astringent solutions, and with most of the metallic
salts; but are not affected by either acetic acid or tribasic (common)
phosphoric acid. Alcohol, in quantity, also precipitates albumen. Strong
oil of vitriol turns it black in the cold, but on applying a gentle heat,
a gorgeous, red-coloured liquid is produced. Strong hydrochloric acid
gives a deep violet-blue solution. White of egg or serum exposed in a thin
stratum to the air, dries up into a pale, yellow, gum-like substance, and
in this state may be kept for any length of time, retaining its property
of redissolving when immersed in slightly warm water.

_Tests._——1. Both heat and alcohol (or strong spirit) coagulate it:——2. A
solution of perchloride of mercury dropped into a fluid containing
albumen occasions a white precipitate:——3. Subacetate of lead acts in the
same way. Either of the last two will render turbid a solution containing
only the 1-2000th part of fresh white of egg, or the 1-10,000th part of
dry albumen:——4. Tannin and tincture of galls give yellow, pitchy
precipitates:——5. If dry caustic potash or soda be triturated with either
liquid or solid albumen, ammoniacal fumes are evolved, and the mixture on
calcination yields ferrocyanide of potassium:——6. Its coagulability by
heat, and its incoagulability by acetic acid, distinguish it from casein.

_Uses, &c._, Independently of its value as an alimentary substance,
albumen is largely employed in photography as a glaze or varnish, for
fixing colours in calico printing, as a cement, &c., and more particularly
as a clarifier for wines, syrups, vegetable solutions, and other liquids.
Its efficacy for the last purpose depends on its entangling the impurities
in its meshes during coagulation, and either rising to the surface with
them as a ‘scum,’ or sinking with them as a precipitate. In France it is
prepared on an extensive scale, at the abattoirs, by being spread in thin
layers to dry; the source of supply being of course the stream of the
blood of the slaughtered animals. When the liquid operated on does not
spontaneously coagulate albumen, it is necessary to apply heat to it. In
cases of poisoning by the mineral acids, corrosive sublimate, nitrate of
silver, sulphate of copper, bichloride of tin, or sugar of lead, the white
of egg (or indeed the yolk as well) is one of the best antidotes that can
be administered.

=Albumen, Flake.= _Syn._ ALBUMEN IN POWDER, SOLID A., SOLUBLE A.,
PLANTER’S A. _Prep._ Expose strained white of egg or serum of bullock’s
blood, in a thin stratum, to a current of dry air, until it concretes into
a solid transparent substance, resembling horn. In this state it may be
kept any length of time, or it may be further dried until brittle, and
then reduced to coarse powder.

_Use._ It is extensively employed as a ‘clarifier’ in the sugar
plantations of the West Indies, and elsewhere. It is prepared for use by
soaking and stirring it with cold water until it is dissolved, when it is
whisked to a froth in the usual way, and agitated with the liquid to be

=Albumen, Iodised.= 1. To the white of every egg employed add 7-1/2 grains
of iodide of potassium dissolved in an equal weight of distilled water.
Beat the mixture to a froth, let it stand until insoluble matters have
settled, pour the clear portion into a wide-mouthed bottle, and keep in a
cool place. 2. Dissolve 50 grains of iodide of potassium and 10 grains of
bromide of ammonium in 2-1/2 oz. of distilled water, and add 120 minims of
strong liquor ammoniæ. Add this solution to 10 oz. of albumen, let the
mixture stand to settle, and filter. This preparation is said to keep good
for a long time.

=Albumen, Solution of (B. P.).= Take of white of one egg; distilled water,
four fluid ounces. Mix by trituration in a mortar, and filter through
clean tow, first moistened with distilled water. This solution must be
recently prepared.

=Albumen, Vegetable.= This substance, long considered to be a distinct
proximate principle peculiar to the vegetable kingdom, has been shown, by
recent researches, to be identical with animal albumen. It is particularly
abundant in carrots, turnips, cabbages, green stems of peas, and
oleaginous seeds.

=ALBU′MEN.= In _botany_, the solid, fleshy, or horny substance found in
many seeds, between the integuments and the embryo. It is the part that
furnishes the flour of the ‘cereals,’ the flesh of the ‘cocoa-nut,’ and
the great mass of the seeds of coffee and other vegetables. However
poisonous the plants which produce it may be, this substance is never

=ALBUMENISED PAPER.= A French paper highly glazed, having a fine surface,
and made by Rive; a German paper having a more uniform texture, and made
by Saxe; also a paper by Towgood, are recommended for the preparation of
albumenised paper. Positive paper may be albumenised as follows:——Add 15
grains of finely pulverised common salt to the white of every egg used,
and whisk until the mixture is entirely converted into a white froth.
Allow this froth to stand in a glazed earthenware pan which must be rather
larger than the sheets of paper to be albumenised, for about twelve hours.
At the end of this pour the clear portion of the liquid into a flat
porcelain tray. Mark the inferior side of the paper, slightly damp it,
lift it by its ends, and float it carefully on the prepared albumen,
keeping its inferior and dry side uppermost. Then raise the paper at each
end, and if any air bubbles are seen remove them with a card or brush and
replace the paper in the bath. Remove the paper from the bath and suspend
it at the corners by clips. Albumenised paper should be kept dry by
enclosing it in tin or zinc cases.

=ALBUMENOIDS.= A term applied to albumen, fibrin, casein, and similar

EIWEISSTOFFHALTIG, Ger. Formed of, containing, or having the properties of

=Albuminous Plants=. In _botany_, all plants whose seeds contain albumen
in a separate state; as in the cereals, palms, &c.

=Albuminous Principles _or_ Substances.= Albumen, casein, fibrin, gluten,

=ALBURN′UM.= [L.] _Syn._ ALBURN*; SAPWOOD. In _botany_, the white and
softer parts of the wood of exogenous plants, lying between the inner bark
and the heartwood. It consists of empty or nearly empty tubes or cells,
which gradually acquire solidity by the deposition of resins, tannin, and
other products of vegetation, and in time becomes wood. It is through the
alburnum that the ascending sap chiefly flows.

=ALCARAZ′ZA.= [Sp.] A species of porous earthenware, or a vessel formed of
it, made in Spain from a light, sandy marl, and but slightly fired. Their
value as ‘coolers’ arises from the copious evaporation of the water, which
gradually transudes. A similar ware and articles are made in France, under
the name of HYGROCERA′MEN; and in England, under the names of POROUS WARE,
said to be used in our potteries:——

_Prep._ 1. Take of sandy marl, 2 parts; brine, q. s.; make a dough, and
then knead in of common salt, in fine powder, 1 part. Bake the pieces
slowly, and lightly.

2. Good clay, 2 parts; fine siliceous sand, 3 parts; brine, q. s.; common
salt, 1 to 2 parts; as before.

3. Powdered clay, 2 parts; powdered charcoal, 3 parts (by weight); water
q. s. to form a stiff dough. The kilning must be so arranged that the heat
is applied gradually, and the vessels exposed to a current of hot air; and
it must be continued until all the charcoal is burnt out, carefully
avoiding over-firing.

=AL′CHEMY= (-kĭm-). _Syn._ AL′CHYMY (-kĭm-); HERMETIC ART*; ALCHEM′IA,
forerunner of the modern science of chemistry. An imaginative art or
science, having for its objects the discovery of a substance
(PHILOSOPHER’S STONE) capable of transmuting the baser metals into gold——a
panacea, or universal remedy (ELIXER VITÆ), by which disease and death
were to be avoided by its possessor——an alkahest, or universal solvent——a
universal ferment; and other like absurdities. A mixed metal formerly used
for utensils was also called by this name.

=AL′COHOL.= C_{2}H_{6}O. [Eng., L.; B. P.] _Syn._ AL′KOHOL, Eng., L.;
ALCOÖLE, It. A term commonly applied to one kind of spirit——that obtained
by the distillation of any fermented saccharine liquid, and forming the
characteristic principle of wines, beers, spirits, and other intoxicating

_Etym._ Kohol, a Hebrew-Syriac word, is the name given to a preparation of
powdered antimony used by Oriental ladies to paint their eyebrows. In
course of time this term was applied to other fine powders, and ultimately
to highly rectified spirits.

_Hist., &c._ Although the art of distillation was probably known at a
comparatively early age of the world, the preparation of pure rectified
spirit is a discovery of modern times. It was not until the 13th century
that Raymond Lully first showed the way to concentrate spirit by means of
carbonate of potash; after which date pure concentrated spirit gradually
rose into note as an article of trade and commerce in Europe. In the 16th
century its distillation was in common practice in these countries.
(Burns.) By means of chloride of calcium, Dr Black obtained alcohol of sp.
gr. 0·800 (about A.D. 1760); and Richter afterwards procured it of a sp.
gr. so low as 0·796 at 60° Fahr. (Crell’s ‘Annals,’ 1796.) Lavoisier first
demonstrated the composition of alcohol (about 1780). Its analysis was
subsequently perfected by M. Saussure, jun., and confirmed by MM. Dumas
and Boullay, and Gay-Lussac; and by many others since.

_Nat. Hist._ Alcohol is peculiar to the organic kingdom, being exclusively
produced, in the natural way, by the process of fermentation.

_Sources, &c._ Dilute alcohol may be procured, by the ordinary process of
distillation, from all fermented liquors. When drawn from wine (as in
France), it constitutes BRANDY; when from the refuse juice of the
sugar-cane, it is called RUM; when from malt, grain, or molasses (as in
England), it is called MALT, RAW-GRAIN or MOLASSES SPIRIT; and when from
rice or palm-wine, ARRACK. Brandy, rum, Hollands, and whisky, contain only
about half their volume of alcohol; and gin much less. When distilled from
any of these spirituous liquors, the alcohol contains, besides water,
variable quantities of essential oils, ethers, and other flavouring
matters, which, by one or more redistillations with charcoal or lime, it
for the most part loses, and then becomes commercial spirit of wine. By a
further rectification from chloride of calcium, lime, carbonate of potash,
or any other substance having a strong affinity for water, the water is
retained, and a strong spirit passes over containing not more than 10 per
cent. of water. By repeating the process, and using the proper
precautions, it may be obtained almost entirely free from water, and is
then called absolute or anhydrous alcohol.

_Preparation I._ Of _Absolute Alcohol_:——

_a._ Alcohol (highly rectified spirit), of 85% (sp. gr. ·835 to ·822), is
mixed, in a tubulated retort, with about half its weight of fresh-burnt
quick-lime, in coarse powder; and the whole, after securely stopping the
neck with a cork, and agitation, is allowed to repose for several days.
The alcohol is then carefully distilled off, drop by drop, by the heat of
a water bath, until the weight of the distillate nearly equals that of the
‘anhydrous alcohol’ in the spirit operated on. The sp. gr. of the product
should be ·795 or ·796; but by carefully repeating the process with the
distillate and a fresh quantity of lime, and prolonging the last digestion
with the latter for several weeks, absolute alcohol of the sp. gr. ·79381
at 60° Fahr. may be easily obtained.

_b._ (Drinkwater; Fownes.) The strongest rectified spirit of wine is
digested in a stoppered bottle for several days, with about half its
weight of anhydrous carbonate of potash, in powder, frequent agitation
being had recourse to; the alcohol, after repose, is then decanted, and
treated with sufficient fresh-burnt quick-lime to absorb the whole of the
spirit. After 48 hours’ digestion, the spirit, when distilled, will have
the sp. gr. ·793 at 60° Fahr.

_c._ (Liebig; Ure.) Alcohol of about 90% is saturated with fused chloride
of calcium, in powder, and after repose for a few hours in a stoppered
bottle, is submitted to distillation as before. The product should nearly
equal the quantity of dry alcohol in the sample. Ure recommends equal
weights of the spirit and chloride to be taken; and the process to be
stopped as soon as about half the volume of the spirit employed has passed
over, or the distillate acquires a higher sp. gr. than ·791 at 68°, or
·796 at 60° Fahr.

_d._ (B. P. 1867.) Take of rectified spirit, 1 pint; carbonate of potash,
1-1/2 ounce; slaked lime, 10 ounces. Put the carbonate of potash and
spirit into a stoppered bottle and allow them to remain in contact for two
days, frequently shaking the bottle. Expose the slaked lime to a red heat
in a covered crucible for half an hour, then remove it from the fire, and,
when it has cooled, immediately put the lime into a flask or retort, and
add to it the spirit from which the denser aqueous solution of carbonate
of potash, which will have formed a distinct stratum at the bottom of the
bottle, has been carefully and completely separated. Attach a condenser to
the apparatus, and allow it to remain without any external application of
heat for twenty-four hours; then applying a gentle heat, let the spirit
distil until that which has passed over shall measure 1-1/2 fluid ounce;
reject this, and continue the distillation into a fresh receiver until
nothing more passes at a temperature of 200° Fahr.

_e._ (Poggendorff.) Saturate alcohol with caustic potash, then add half
its volume of water, and distil at a low temperature.

II. Of _Hydrated_ or _Commercial Alcohol_:——

_a._ (ALCOHOL, Ph. L. 1836.) Take of rectified spirit (sp. gr. 0·838), 1
gal.; chloride of calcium, 1 lb.; proceed as above, and distil 7 pints and
5 fl. oz. Sp. gr. of product 0·815. It contains about 7% of water, by
weight, and 5% by volume.

_b._ (ALCOHOL, Ph. D. 1826.) Rectified spirit, 1 gal.; pearl-ashes (dried
and still hot), 3-1/2 lbs.; mix, digest in a covered vessel, with frequent
agitation, for seven days; then decant the clear portion, and add to it of
chloride of calcium, 1 lb.; agitate to effect solution, and distil off the
spirit until the mixture in the retort begins to thicken. Sp. gr. of
product 0·810. It contains about 5% of water, by weight.

_c._ (Without distillation.) Rectified spirit is agitated, in a closed
vessel, with anhydrous carbonate of potash (prepared by heating the salt
to redness, and still slightly warm), until the powder sinks to the bottom
undissolved; the carbonate is then added in considerable excess, and the
agitation repeated at short intervals for some hours or even days; lastly,
after sufficient repose, the clear upper portion is decanted.——_Obs._ If a
clean spirit, and pure carbonate of potash (or at least one perfectly free
from caustic potash or any other impurity soluble in strong spirit), be
used, an alcohol sufficiently pure and free from water for many common
purposes may be thus obtained; otherwise the product contains a little
potassa, &c., which can only be removed by distillation. For some
purposes, however, this would not be objectionable. Sp. gr. about ·812.


  _A_, A bottle with two necks, the upper furnished with a
      ground-glass stopper.
  _B_, Loop of cord to hang the apparatus up by.
  _C_, Bladder, containing spirit, filled by means of the bottle
  _D_, Neck of bladder accurately secured to the under neck of the
      bottle _A_.]

III. (Soëmmering.——VARNISH-MAKER’S ALCOHOL.) The bladder of an ox or calf,
thoroughly cleansed from fat, and washed and dried, is nearly filled with
rectified spirit, and then securely fastened and suspended in any dry
situation, at a temperature of about 122° Fahr. In from six to twelve
hours, when the heat is properly maintained, the spirit is generally
sufficiently concentrated, and in a little time longer is rendered nearly
free from water (anhydrous), or of the strength of 96 to 98%.——_Obs._ The
same bladder will serve for more than one hundred operations. If not kept
very nearly full, a portion of the spirit escapes through the empty part.
To prevent this accident, a bottle with a double neck, of the shape
represented in the _engr._, may be employed; by which means the bladder
may be kept constantly full during the process. After the first or second
time of using, the bladder gives alcohol sufficiently pure for all
ordinary purposes. Before hanging the apparatus up, it is better to
enclose it in a coarse potato-netting, to prevent any accident arising
from the strain on the neck of the bladder. Soëmmering recommends both the
inside and outside of the dry bladder to be smeared over 2 or 3 times
with a strong solution of isinglass; but this is not necessary to the
success of the process.

IV. _Rectified Spirit._ (B. P. 1867.) _Spiritus Rectificatus._ Alcohol
with 16 per cent. of water; obtained by the distilling of fermented
saccharine fluids. Sp. gr. 0·838.

V. _Proof Spirit._ (B. P. 1867.) _Spiritus Tenuior._ Take of rectified
spirit, 5 pints; distilled water, 3 pints. Mix. Sp. gr. of product 0·920.

_Prop. of Alcohol._ Light, transparent, colourless; highly volatile and
inflammable, burning with a pale blue and smokeless flame; very mobile;
odour, agreeable; taste, strong and pungent; miscible in all proportions
with water, with the evolution of heat, and temporary expansion, but
ultimate condensation of the mixture, some hours elapsing before the union
is complete, and the normal temperature restored. The mixture has a higher
sp. gr. than the mean of its constituents; and this is greatest when 54
vols. of alcohol are mixed with 49·77 vols. of water, the resulting
compound measuring only 100 volumes. It absorbs water from moist air;
dissolves resins, essential oils, camphor, bitumen, soaps, sugar, carbonic
and boracic acid, iodine and the iodides, lime, ammonia, soda, potash, the
alkaloids, wax and spermaceti (when boiling), all the deliquescent salts
(except carbonate of potassa), and various other substances. It curdles
milk, coagulates albumen, and (in quantity) separates both starch and gum
from their mucilages. It boils, in the air, at 173° Fahr., when in the
anhydrous state. When diluted with water its boiling point rises in
proportion to the amount of water added. It boils, in vacuo, at 56° Fahr.
Every volume of boiling alcohol yields 488·3 vols. of vapour at 212° Fahr.
Its sp. gr. is 0·793811 at 60° Fahr., that of its vapour being 1·6133. It
has never been frozen; when cooled to -166° Fahr., it acquired the
consistence of castor oil, but did not solidify. It contracts by cold;
between -15° and +99° Fahr., this occurs with great regularity, at the
rate of ·00047 part of its volume for every degree of the thermometer. Its
evaporation, like that of ether, produces intense cold. The products of
its combustion are carbonic anhydride and water. It acts as a powerful
antiseptic on organic substances immersed in it, and is in consequence
extensively employed in the preservation of anatomical preparations. With
the acids it forms ethers.

_Phys. eff._ Alcohol is a narcotico-acrid poison. In small doses it
occasions excitement and intoxication; in larger ones, delirium,
somnolency, coma, apoplexy, and death. It acts as a violent nervous
stimulant, and, by abstracting water from the soft tissues of the stomach
and primæ viæ, destroys their organisation. It is alike poisonous to all
animals;——2 drs. will kill a dog. All strong spirits act in the same way,
the effect being proportionate to the state of concentration and the
quantity taken. On plants it acts as a rapid and fatal poison.

_Ant., &c._ Copious internal use of tepid water, with cold affusions to
the head and spine, and injection of cold water into the ears. In the
absence of vomiting, a strong emetic should be given, or the stomach-pump
used. Ammonia may be used as a stimulant, and, added to water just in
sufficient quantity to flavour it, is one of the best antidotes. The head
should be kept elevated, and bleeding had recourse to, if cerebral
congestion threatens.

_Tests in cases of death._ 1. The odour of the contents of the stomach and
ejected matters, and their ready inflammability. 2. The spirit may be
separated by digestion with water, filtration, the addition of carbonate
of potash, and distillation.

_Comp., &c._ Its per-centage composition is——

              Dumas and    Brande and    Ure. sp.
               Boullay.       Ure.       gr. 0·812.
  Carbon        52·37        52·18         47·85
  Hydrogen      13·01        13·04         12·24
  Oxygen        34·61        34·78         39·91
               -------     --------      --------
                99·99       100·00        100·00

This nearly represents 2 equivalents of carbon, 3 eq. of hydrogen, and 1
of oxygen. The atom of alcohol is now regarded as a multiple of these
numbers, and formed by the breaking up of one atom of grape sugar
(C_{13}H_{28}O_{11}) into 4 eq. of alcohol, 8 eq. of carbonic acid, and 4
eq. of water. It was formerly regarded as a compound of 1 eq. of olefiant
gas, and 1 eq. of water; but it is now generally viewed as HYDRATE OF THE
OXIDE OF ETHYLE (C_{2}H_{5}.HO), or a compound of ethylene and water
(C_{2}H_{4}.H_{2}O). Grape sugar alone yields alcohol; cane sugar, before
it undergoes the vinous fermentation, being first converted into this
substance by contact with the ferment.

_Purity._ The presence of water is shown by the specific gravity (see
ALCOHOLOMETRY); the absence of other foreign matter by the following

1. Its colour and transparency is not affected by the addition of a little
colourless oil of vitriol (Liebig), or by a solution of nitrate of silver,
and subsequent exposure for some time to solar light (Vögel), unless
either essential oil or organic matter be present, when it assumes a
reddish tinge. 2. It should be neutral to test-papers, colourless, leave
no residue on evaporation, and be miscible, in all proportions, with water
and with ether. 3. Its boiling point should never be less than 170° Fahr.;
a lower temperature suggests the presence of wood spirits, or acetone, or
one of the ethers. To detect wood spirit (wood naphtha) see Nessler’s
Test. For the reverse of this adulteration——the evasion of the duty by the
introduction of spirit, under the disguise of naphtha, turpentine,
&c.——see those articles.

4. The presence of water in alcohol may be detected, not only by the sp.
gr., but also by white anhydrous sulphate of copper burning blue when
dropped into it. 5. Potassium placed on alcohol does not take fire, unless
a considerable per-centage of water be present.

_Tests, &c._ 1. It may generally be recognised by its volatility,
inflammability, odour, taste, miscibility with water, power of dissolving
camphor and resins, and other qualities already described. 2. If a few
fibres of asbestos be ‘moistened’ with a saturated solution of bichromate
of potash in oil of vitriol, and exposed to the smallest possible portion
of hot alcohol vapour, it is almost instantly turned green, owing to the
formation of oxide of chromium. In practice, the asbestos may be inserted
in the neck of a retort, or even of a bulbed glass-tube containing a few
drops of the suspected solution, when the effect occurs as soon as
distillation commences. Ether and pyroxylic spirit produce a nearly
similar result; but the ‘first’ of these is distinguished from alcohol by
its not being miscible with water in all proportions; and the ‘other’ by
Nessler’s Test; whilst both may be readily distinguished by their peculiar
and characteristic odour. 3. Dissolve 3 pts. crystallised carbonate of
soda in 10 pts. water. To this solution add 1 pt. of liquid to be tested,
and heat to about 160° Fahr. Lastly, add iodine in small pieces, till it
has entirely dissolved, and the liquid has become colourless. If alcohol
be present, iodoform will make its appearance on cooling, and sink to the
bottom in the form of a yellow powder. As a similar result is obtained
with wood spirit, this must be proved to be absent before applying this

The only reliable method of proving that a sample is ethylic alcohol is
the production of ether, by acting on the suspected liquid with sulphuric
acid. See ETHER.

_Uses._ In the _arts_, alcohol is used by the varnish-maker to dissolve
resins; by the perfumer, to extract the odour of plants, and dissolve
essential oils, soaps, and other similar substances; by the pharmaceutist,
to prepare tinctures and other valuable medicinals; by the
instrument-maker, to fill the bulbs of thermometers required to measure
extreme degrees of cold; by the photographer, in the preparation of
collodion; by the chemist, in analysis, and in the manufacture of numerous
preparations; by the anatomist and naturalist, as an antiseptic; and by
the physician, for various purposes and applications as a remedy. It is
also frequently burnt in lamps, and in parts of the world where it is
inexpensive, it is employed in the manufacture of vinegar. Its uses, when
dilute, as in the ‘spirituous liquors’ of commerce, are well known. In
medicine, it is employed both concentrated (‘alcohol,’ ‘rectified spirit’)
and dilute (‘proof spirit,’ ‘brandy,’ ‘gin,’ &c.), as a caustic, irritant,
stimulant, tonic, &c. It has also been used in a multitude of other cases,
and has been applied to an almost infinite variety of other purposes.


_Gen. commentary._ The selection of any one of the processes given above
for the preparation of alcohol must greatly depend on the convenience or
position of the operator. Chloride of calcium, and quick-lime, from their
powerful affinity for water, and easy application, are the hygrometric
substances most generally employed; but the processes involving the use of
the other substances and methods already noticed, have all of them
advantages under particular circumstances. Gay-Lussac has recommended the
use of caustic baryta instead of lime; and others have employed dry
alumina, as an absorbent of the water prior to distillation. Common proof
spirit may be concentrated until its sp. gr. falls to about 0·825, by
simple distillation in a water bath; at which sp. gr. it contains only
about 11% of water, by weight, and is then nearly as volatile as pure

A convenient apparatus for the preparation of alcohol, on the small
scale, is that figured in the _engr._, and which will be self-explanatory
to every one competent to use it. The tank (_i_) should be supplied with
ice-cold water; and the receiver (_g_) should be covered with cloths kept
continually wet with water of the same temperature. The capsule or basin
(_c_) is a water bath heated by the little gas furnace (_d_). On the large
scale, for commercial alcohol, a copper still, fitted with a glass
refrigeratory and receiver, is commonly employed.

By surrounding the capital of a still, or other like apparatus, by a water
bath kept at the proper temperature, the alcoholic richness or content of
the product may be regulated to the greatest nicety, for any desired

The different statements of chemical authors as to the boiling point,
specific gravity, &c., of alcohol, already noticed, may be referred to
their having either experimented with samples which have not been
absolutely anhydrous, or to their not having made the proper corrections
for temperature, and for the different materials of which their vessels
and instruments were composed——some probably having been made of glass,
and others of brass or some other metal. In some instances the differences
are more apparent than real, as in the _Tables_ by Tralles and Lowitz; in
the former of which water, at its lowest sp. gr., is taken as the
standard. Until recently, the only known source of alcohol was the
fermentation of saccharine solutions. Its production by synthesis, though
often attempted, is, however, erroneously said to have always failed. It
had long been employed as an occasional source of bicarburetted hydrogen
(olefiant gas) at a high temperature; but M. Berthelot succeeded in
reproducing it, from bicarburetted hydrogen, by agitating the latter, in a
closed vessel, with sulphuric acid and metallic mercury (‘Journ. de Chimie
Med.,’ 1855, p. 175); and Henry Flennel, nearly thirty years before M.
Berthelot’s discovery, found that pure olefiant gas is absorbed by
agitation with concentrated sulphuric acid, with the formation of
sulphovinic acid, and that by subsequent dilution with water, and
distillation, alcohol passes over into the receiver.

=ALCOHOLATE.= _Syn._ ALCOHATE; ALCOHOLAS, L. A salt in which alcohol
appears to replace the water of crystallisation, as is the case with
certain chlorides, nitrates, &c. Some of them may be formed by simple
solution and crystallisation of the salt in alcohol. (Graham.) They are
all very unstable, being readily decomposed by water.

Ger. Pertaining to, containing, of the nature of, or made with, alcohol.

In _pharmacy_, liquids containing, or preparations made with, alcohol, as
a characteristic ingredient.

&c., Fr.; ALKOHOLISERUNG, Ger. In _chem._ and _pharm._, the development of
the characteristic properties of alcohol in a liquid, or the use of it
either as an addition or a menstruum; also the act or process of obtaining
alcohol from spirit by rectification.


=ALCOHOLOM′ETER= (-lŏm′-). _Syn._ ALCOHOL′METER (hŏl′-; -hŏm′-‡);
instrument or apparatus used in alcoholometry. Alcoholometers are simply
‘hydrometers’ adapted to the densities of alcohol, either concentrated or
dilute. Some of these, as BAUMÉ’S, CARTER’S, &c., merely indicate the
number of degrees corresponding to the state of concentration of the
liquid. Others, of a like construction, as those of RICHTER (_a_), TRALLES
(_b_), and GAY-LUSSAC (_c_), have their stems so graduated as at once to
indicate the proportion per cent. of alcohol present, either by weight, or
by volume, at some standard temperature. (See _engr._) A third class, as
those of the Abbé BROSSARD-VIDAL, FIELD, &c. are essentially thermometers,
with scales which indicate the boiling points of spirits of different
strengths, instead of the common thermometric degrees; whilst to a fourth
class belong the alcoholometer of M. SILBERMANN, which is based upon the
known rate of expansion of alcoholic liquors by heat, expressed in
alcoholometric degrees; and that of M. GEISSLER, which depends on the
measurement of the tension of the vapour of the liquid, as indicated by
the height to which it raises a small column of mercury. In SYKE’S
HYDROMETER, used by officers of the Revenue, the scale of the instrument
is enormously extended by the use of movable weights, with each of which
it becomes, in fact, a separate instrument, adapted to a certain range of
specific gravities.

A very convenient alcoholometer for ordinary purposes (_d_) has been
lately produced by some of the instrument makers. It is of the usual form,
but its stem on one side exhibits the per-centage richness of the sample
in alcohol by volume; and on the other, the per-centage by weight. Thus,
both results may be obtained at one trial. This instrument is sometimes
called RICHTER’S ALCOHOLOMETER, in England. A further improvement, still
more recently introduced, is a similar ‘double-scale’ instrument, showing
the degrees of Sykes on one side, and carrying a small spirit-thermometer
in the bulb, to which a scale is fixed ranging from 35° to 82° Fahr.

the art or process of ascertaining the richness of spirits in alcohol. In
_commerce_, the determination of the quantity of spirit of a certain
strength, taken as a standard, present in any given sample of spirituous
or fermented liquors. In England, this standard is called “proof spirit.”

_Hist., &c._ The great importance of being able accurately to determine
the strength of spirits in the United Kingdom, on account of the high
duties levied on them, has induced the Government authorities, at various
times, to investigate the subject. In 1790, the matter was referred to Sir
C. Blagden, then Secretary to the Royal Society, who instituted an
extensive series of experiments to determine the real specific gravities
of different mixtures of alcohol and water. The results of his labours and
researches were put forward, with ‘Gilpin’s Tables,’ in 1794, but no
practical measures appear to have been taken in consequence. In 1832 a
committee of the Royal Society, at the request of the Lords of the
Treasury, examined into the accuracy of the Tables, and the construction
and application of the instrument (SYKE’S HYDROMETER) now used by the
Revenue officers, on which they reported favorably, and declared that they
were sufficiently perfect for all practical and scientific purposes. The
errors introduced into calculations of the strength of spirits by these
tables were found to be quite unimportant in practice, and did not, in any
one instance, amount to unity in the fourth place of decimals. This method
adapts the specific gravity as the test of the strength of spirits, and is
founded on the fact that alcohol is considerably lighter than water, and
that (with proper corrections for condensation and temperature) the sp.
gr. regularly increases, or decreases, according to the relative
proportions in which the two are mixed.

Several other methods of alcoholometry have been proposed, founded
upon——the variations in temperature of the vapour of alcohol of different
strengths——the heat involved by its admixture with water——its dilatation
by heat——the tension of its vapour——the insolubility of carbonate of
potash in alcohol——its volatility, boiling point, &c. &c., the more
important and useful of which are noticed further on. The method adopted
by the Boards of Inland Revenue and Customs is, however, the one which is
almost exclusively employed in trade and commerce in Great Britain, not
only on account of its simplicity and correctness, but for the purpose of
the results exactly coinciding with the results obtained by the Revenue


1. _Methods based_ on the _specific gravity_, or _per-centage strength_,
by VOLUME:——


_a._ With SYKES’ HYDROMETER. _Revenue system._ The _engraving_ below
represents Sykes’ hydrometer, as made by Mr Bate, under the directions of
the Commissioners of Inland Revenue and Customs. It consists of a
spherical ball or float, with an upper and lower stem, and is made of
brass, which (in the more expensive instruments) is usually coated with
gold, to prevent corrosion from damp, and the acidity so generally present
in spirituous liquors. The upper stem (A) is about four inches long, and
is divided into ten parts, each of which contains five subdivisions. There
are nine movable weights of the form _b_, of different sizes, numbered
respectively 10, 20, 30, &c., to 90, each of which represents so many of
the principal divisions of the stem, as its number indicates. In use, one
of these weights is slipped on to the lower stems; and thus, by means of
them, the instrument acquires a range of above 500 divisions, or degrees,
extending from the Revenue ‘standard alcohol’ (sp. gr. ·825) to water. It
is so formed as to give the sp. gr. with almost perfect accuracy, at 62°
Fahr. When loaded with the weight 60 it sinks in proof spirit to the line
marked (P) on the narrow edge of the stem at 51° Fahr.; and, by further
placing the square weight or cap (also supplied with the instr.) on the
top of the upper stem, it floats exactly at the same point in distilled
water. This weight or cap is found to weigh 43·66 grs., which is
practically 1-12th of the total observed weight of the instrument, and its
poise 60, and hence shows the difference between the gravity of proof
spirit and water, as explained hereafter. The whole is fitted up in a neat
mahogany case, accompanied with a thermometer, and a book of tables
containing corrections for temperature, &c.——_Process._ A glass tube of
the form of fig. _B_ is filled to about the mark (_a_) with the sample for
examination; the thermometer is then placed in the liquor, and stirred
about for two or three minutes (observing not to breathe upon the glass,
nor hold it in the hand), and the temperature noted. The hydrometer is
next immersed in a similar manner, and gently pressed down in the liquor
to the 0 on the stem with the finger; it having been previously loaded
with any one of the nine weights that will cause it to float with the
surface of the spirit at some point on the graduated part of the scale.
The indication at the point cut by the surface of the liquor, as seen from
below, added to the number of the weight with which the float is loaded,
gives a number which must be sought in the hook of Tables, which is always
sold with the instrument. In this book, at the page headed “Temperature as
observed by the Thermometer,” and against the part of the column
appropriated to the given indication (weight), will be found the strength
per cent., expressed in degrees over or under proof, by VOLUME, in whole
numbers or decimal parts. In reading off the indication, to ensure
accuracy, it is necessary to allow for the convexity of the liquor at the
part where it immediately rests against the stem.

_Obs._ In an instrument requiring so much care and skill in its
manufacture the purchaser should be careful to procure a perfect one. A
very slight blow, friction from continual wiping with a rough cloth, and
other apparently trivial causes, tend to injure so delicate an instrument.
The shape of the weights occasionally vary; some being intended to be
attached to the hydrometer at the bottom of the spindle, and others to
rest on its top. The first plan is, perhaps, the best, as it tends to make
the instrument float with greater steadiness in the liquor; but, at the
same time, it renders its adjustment by the maker a matter of greater

In employing this instrument, the Revenue officers are instructed to take
the nearest degree above the surface of the mercury, when it stands
between any two degrees of the thermometer; and the division on the scale
of the hydrometer next below the surface of the liquid, when it cuts the
stem between any two lines; thus giving the difference in favour of the
trader in both cases.

By means of the _Table_ at page 64 the hydrometer indication, or the
degrees over or under proof, of the Revenue system, may be converted into
‘real specific gravities,’ by mere inspection; and the corresponding
‘per-centage richness’ in alcohol of any sample may be found, either by

The specific gravities in this table are such as, on being referred to
Gilpin’s Tables, will give the expressions of proof strength answering to
the whole indications of the Revenue hydrometer. Intermediate values at
fifths of indications may be had by taking proportional differences
between the nearest tabular numbers. Thus, to find the specific gravity
that should stand opposite to Indication 70·6, we first obtain the
difference between the densities standing in a line with Indications 70
and 71 respectively, and then say, as 1 : 0·6 :: ·00192. 00·115, and
·94135 + ·00115 = ·94250, the specific gravity required.

_b._ With GLASS ALCOHOLOMETERS. That of Tralles, and most others of a like
description (as made in England), gave the per-centage strength, by
VOLUME, with tolerable accuracy, at the standard temperature of 60° Fahr.
Gay-Lussac’s ALCOÖMETRE, which closely resembles that of Tralles, is
adjusted for the temperature of 59° Fahr. (15° Cent.). All of these, to
give at once accurate results, must, of course, be employed at the ‘normal
temperature’ of the instrument. As, however, in practice, the experiment
cannot be conveniently performed at any ‘fixed’ temperature but only at
that of the atmosphere, it is obvious that certain corrections are
constantly required in order to obtain results of any value. Perfect
accuracy requires that table for every variation of the thermometer,
founded on actual experiments, should accompany each instrument; as,
without them, tedious and difficult calculations are necessary, which, in
the hurry of the cellar and laboratory, or by persons inexpert at figures,
are not easily performed. A series of such Tables were prepared by
Gay-Lussac, and, with his instrument, are those which are almost
exclusively used in France. For rough purposes, in the absence of Tables
or nicer calculations, it may be useful to know that, for commercial
spirits, at ordinary temperatures, a variation of——

                              By VOLUME,
  5° Fahr. is equal }  1·00%     of Alcohol; }  1·794% of Proof
         to (about) }            or (about)  }     spirit.
  1°   ”     ”         0·20%         ”          0·359%  ”
  5° Cent.   ”         1·80%         ”          3·229%  ”
  1°   ”     ”         0·36%         ”          0·646%  ”

                              By WEIGHT,
  5° Fahr. is equal }  0·80%     of Alcohol; }  1·62%   ”
         to (about) }            or (about)  }
  1°   ”     ”          ·16%         ”           ·32%   ”
  5° Cent.   ”         1·43%         ”          2·9%    ”
  1°   ”     ”          ·28%         ”           ·58%   ”

        TABLE I.——_Showing the Densities and Values of Spirits
        at 60° Fahr., corresponding to every Indication of
        Sykes’ Hydrometer._

  |           |         |          |    Per Cents. of   |
  |  Sykes’   |         |          |  Absolute Alcohol. |
  |Hydrometer |Strength | Specific +----------+---------+
  |Indication.|per cent.| Gravity. |   By     |   By    |
  |           |         |          | Measure. | Weight. |
  |           |   O.P.  |          |          |         |
  |     0     |   67·0  |  ·81520  |   95·28  |  92·78  |
  |     1     |   66·1  |  ·81715  |   94·78  |  92·08  |
  |     2     |   65·3  |  ·81889  |   94·31  |  91·42  |
  |     3     |   64·5  |  ·82061  |   93·84  |  90·78  |
  |     4     |   63·6  |  ·82251  |   93·33  |  90·07  |
  |     5     |   62·7  |  ·82441  |   92·80  |  89·36  |
  |     6     |   61·8  |  ·82622  |   92·29  |  88·67  |
  |     7     |   60·9  |  ·82800  |   91·77  |  87·99  |
  |     8     |   60·0  |  ·82978  |   91·25  |  87·30  |
  |     9     |   59·1  |  ·83151  |   90·74  |  86·63  |
  |    10     |   58·2  |  ·83323  |   90·23  |  85·96  |
  |    11     |   57·3  |  ·83494  |   89·72  |  85·30  |
  |    12     |   56·4  |  ·83661  |   89·21  |  84·65  |
  |    13     |   55·5  |  ·83827  |   88·70  |  84·00  |
  |    14     |   54·6  |  ·83993  |   88·17  |  83·33  |
  |    15     |   53·7  |  ·84153  |   87·67  |  82·70  |
  |    16     |   52·7  |  ·84331  |   87·10  |  81·99  |
  |    17     |   51·7  |  ·84509  |   86·51  |  81·26  |
  |    18     |   50·7  |  ·84680  |   85·95  |  80·58  |
  |    19     |   49·7  |  ·84851  |   85·39  |  79·89  |
  |    20     |   48·7  |  ·85022  |   84·81  |  79·19  |
  |    21     |   47·6  |  ·85205  |   84·19  |  78·44  |
  |    22     |   46·6  |  ·85372  |   83·61  |  77·74  |
  |    23     |   45·6  |  ·85537  |   83·04  |  77·07  |
  |    24     |   44·6  |  ·85700  |   82·47  |  76·39  |
  |    25     |   43·5  |  ·85878  |   81·85  |  75·66  |
  |    26     |   42·4  |  ·86055  |   81·21  |  74·92  |
  |    27     |   41·3  |  ·86229  |   80·59  |  74·19  |
  |    28     |   40·2  |  ·86402  |   79·97  |  73·47  |
  |    29     |   39·1  |  ·86574  |   79·34  |  72·75  |
  |    30     |   38·0  |  ·86745  |   78·71  |  72·03  |
  |    31     |   36·9  |  ·86915  |   78·08  |  71·32  |
  |    32     |   35·7  |  ·87099  |   77·40  |  70·54  |
  |    33     |   34·5  |  ·87282  |   76·71  |  69·77  |
  |    34     |   33·4  |  ·87450  |   76·08  |  69·06  |
  |    35     |   32·2  |  ·87627  |   75·41  |  68·32  |
  |    36     |   31·0  |  ·87809  |   74·72  |  67·55  |
  |    37     |   29·8  |  ·87988  |   74·03  |  66·79  |
  |    38     |   28·5  |  ·88179  |   73·29  |  65·98  |
  |    39     |   27·3  |  ·88355  |   72·60  |  65·23  |
  |    40     |   26·0  |  ·88544  |   71·86  |  64·43  |
  |    41     |   24·8  |  ·88716  |   71·17  |  63·68  |
  |    42     |   23·5  |  ·88901  |   70·43  |  62·89  |
  |    43     |   22·2  |  ·89086  |   69·69  |  62·10  |
  |    44     |   20·9  |  ·89268  |   68·95  |  61·32  |
  |    45     |   19·6  |  ·89451  |   68·21  |  60·53  |
  |    46     |   18·3  |  ·89629  |   67·47  |  59·76  |
  |    47     |   16·9  |  ·89822  |   66·67  |  58·92  |
  |    48     |   15·6  |  ·89997  |   65·93  |  58·15  |
  |    49     |   14·2  |  ·90182  |   65·14  |  57·34  |
  |    50     |   12·8  |  ·90367  |   64·34  |  56·52  |
  |    51     |   11·4  |  ·90551  |   63·54  |  55·70  |
  |    52     |   10·0  |  ·90732  |   62·74  |  54·89  |
  |    53     |    8·6  |  ·90913  |   61·94  |  54·09  |
  |    54     |    7·1  |  ·91107  |   61·09  |  53·23  |
  |    55     |    5·6  |  ·91299  |   60·24  |  52·38  |
  |    56     |    4·2  |  ·91479  |   59·43  |  51·57  |
  |    57     |    2·7  |  ·91666  |   58·58  |  50·73  |
  |    58     |    1·3  |  ·91839  |   57·78  |  49·94  |
  |           |   U.P.  |          |          |         |
  |    59     |    0·3  |  ·92037  |   56·86  |  49·04  |
  |    60     |    1·9  |  ·92228  |   55·96  |  48·17  |
  |    61     |    3·4  |  ·92408  |   55·10  |  47·33  |
  |    62     |    5·0  |  ·92597  |   54·19  |  46·46  |
  |    63     |    6·7  |  ·92798  |   53·22  |  45·53  |
  |    64     |    8·3  |  ·92984  |   52·30  |  44·65  |
  |    65     |   10·0  |  ·93176  |   51·36  |  43·76  |
  |    66     |   11·7  |  ·93367  |   50·39  |  42·84  |
  |    67     |   13·5  |  ·93586  |   49·34  |  41·86  |
  |    68     |   15·3  |  ·93758  |   48·31  |  40·90  |
  |    69     |   17·1  |  ·93949  |   47·29  |  39·96  |
  |    70     |   18·9  |  ·94135  |   46·29  |  39·04  |
  |    71     |   20·8  |  ·94327  |   45·20  |  38·04  |
  |    72     |   22·7  |  ·94518  |   44·09  |  37·03  |
  |    73     |   24·7  |  ·94709  |   42·96  |  36·01  |
  |    74     |   26·7  |  ·94899  |   41·82  |  34·98  |
  |    75     |   28·8  |  ·95092  |   40·63  |  33·92  |
  |    76     |   31·0  |  ·95288  |   39·40  |  32·82  |
  |    77     |   33·2  |  ·95484  |   38·10  |  31·68  |
  |    78     |   35·6  |  ·95677  |   36·76  |  30·50  |
  |    79     |   38·1  |  ·95877  |   35·32  |  29·24  |
  |    80     |   40·6  |  ·96068  |   33·90  |  28·01  |
  |    81     |   43·3  |  ·96259  |   32·41  |  26·73  |
  |    82     |   46·1  |  ·96457  |   30·77  |  25·32  |
  |    83     |   49·1  |  ·96651  |   29·08  |  23·88  |
  |    84     |   52·2  |  ·96846  |   27·31  |  22·38  |
  |    85     |   55·5  |  ·97049  |   25·39  |  20·77  |
  |    86     |   59·0  |  ·97254  |   23·41  |  19·11  |
  |    87     |   62·5  |  ·97458  |   21·39  |  17·42  |
  |    88     |   66·0  |  ·97660  |   19·41  |  15·78  |
  |    89     |   69·4  |  ·97857  |   17·46  |  14·16  |
  |    90     |   72·8  |  ·98057  |   15·51  |  12·56  |
  |    91     |   76·1  |  ·98261  |   13·58  |  10·97  |
  |    92     |   79·2  |  ·98452  |   11·85  |   9·56  |
  |    93     |   82·3  |  ·98657  |   10·04  |   8·08  |
  |    94     |   85·2  |  ·98866  |    8·28  |   6·65  |
  |    95     |   88·0  |  ·99047  |    6·83  |   5·48  |
  |    96     |   90·7  |  ·99251  |    5·25  |   4·20  |
  |    97     |   93·3  |  ·99448  |    3·80  |   3·03  |
  |    98     |   95·9  |  ·99658  |    2·31  |   1·84  |
  |    99     |   98·2  |  ·99851  |    ·997  |   ·793  |
  |   100     |   ...   | 1·00000  |    ...   |   ...   |

This Table {above} has been copied, by permission, from Loftus’s ‘Inland
Revenue Officer’s Manual,’ and its correctness verified by W. H. Johnston,
Esq., Surveying General Examiner.

        TABLE II.——_Table for finding the Specific Gravity of
        any Spirit at 60° Fahr., when the Specific Gravity at
        any other Temperature is given._

                      Water taken as 1000.
  |                 |Correction|                 |Correction|
  |Specific gravity.| for each |Specific gravity.| for each |
  |                 | degree.  |                 | degree.  |
  |   810 to 820    |  ± ·475  |   910 to 920    |  ± ·434  |
  |   820 ”  830    |  ± ·473  |   920 ”  930    |  ± ·424  |
  |   830 ”  840    |  ± ·472  |   930 ”  940    |  ± ·406  |
  |   840 ”  850    |  ± ·471  |   940 ”  950    |  ± ·381  |
  |   850 ”  860    |  ± ·471  |   950 ”  960    |  ± ·340  |
  |   860 ”  870    |  ± ·466  |   960 ”  970    |  ± ·269  |
  |   870 ”  880    |  ± ·460  |   970 ”  980    |  ± ·165  |
  |   880 ”  890    |  ± ·456  |   980 ”  990    |  ± ·090  |
  |   890 ”  900    |  ± ·450  |   990 ”  1000   |  ± ·084  |
  |   900 ”  910    |  ± ·442  |                 |          |

Thus, by making the proper ADDITION to the apparent strength per cent.,
when the observed temperature is BELOW the normal temperature of the
instrument, or a corresponding SUBTRACTION, when it is ABOVE it, the
strength of the sample may be determined sufficiently near for all
practical purposes.

The following Table, taken from Loftus’s ‘Inland Revenue Officer’s
Manual,’ will be found of great value in making these corrections, and has
the merit of being easily applied.

An example will show how this Table is to be used.

_Example._——If a quantity of spirit is of the sp. gr. 894 at 73°, what
will be its sp. gr. at 60°?

Here the sp. gr. being between 890 and 900, we must add ·450 for each
degree of temperature between 73° and 60°. The sp. gr. at 60° would,
therefore, be 894 + (·450 × 13) = 899·85. When the temperature is below
60°, the correction for each degree must be subtracted. When, however,
very accurate results are desired, and the necessary Tables are not
accessible, the sample for trial must be brought to the normal temperature
of the instrument, in the manner explained under HYDROMETRY.

_c._ From the SPECIFIC GRAVITY. The temperature having been taken by a
thermometer, and the specific gravity ascertained by any of the usual
methods, but preferably by means of an accurate glass hydrometer, it
merely becomes necessary to refer to Table I, where, against the number
expressing the specific gravity, the alcoholic content per cent., by
volume, of the sample examined, will be found for 60° Fahr., subject to
the corrections just referred to, when the temperature is either above or
below this point.

If the precise specific gravity sought cannot be found in the _Table_, the
difference between it and the next greater specific gravity must be taken
for the numerator of a fraction, having for its denominator the difference
between the greater and the next less specific gravity in the table. This
fraction, added to the per-centage of alcohol in the fourth column of the
table, opposite the greater sp. gr., will give the true per-centage
sought. Thus, the sp. gr. ·96051 is not in the table, and the next greater
number is ·96068; the former must, therefore, be deducted from the latter,
and the difference (17) put as the numerator of the fraction, having for
its denominator 191, the difference between ·96068 and ·95877. The
fraction (17/191) ·089, so found, added to the per-centage strength
opposite ·96068 in the third column, gives 33·989 as the true per-centage
of alcohol in the given sample.

The per-centage by volume may be converted into per-centage by weight, by
multiplying the former by ·793811, the sp. gr. of absolute alcohol, and
dividing the product by the sp. gr. of the sample. The quotient is the
number of pounds of alcohol in 100 pounds of the given spirit.
Thus:——Suppose 1000 grains by measure of alcohol to weigh 950·92 grains,
and to contain (see Table I) 40·63 per cent. by volume of absolute
alcohol, what per cent. by weight does the sample contain?

·793811 × 40·63 = 32·25254093, and this product divided by ·95092 =
33·917, the true per-centage by weight of absolute alcohol in the sample.

2. Method based on the specific gravity, or per-centage strength by

The specific gravity is ascertained and the Table used in precisely the
same manner as in the “method by volume,” already described.

The per-centage by weight may be converted into per-centage by volume, by
multiplying the former by the sp. gr. of the sample, and dividing the
product by the sp. gr. of absolute alcohol. This is merely the reverse of
the operation described above.

_Obs._ The preceding methods of alcoholometry, as well as all others
depending on the sp. gr. refer to UNSWEETENED SPIRITS only; and are
inapplicable to those holding sugar in solution, or any other organic
matter capable of altering the sp. gr. For sweetened spirits, fermented
worts, wine, beer, &c., one or other of the following processes must be

3. Other methods, adapted to either SWEETENED or UNSWEETENED SPIRITS,
Tinctures, Fermented Liquors, &c.——

_a._ By DISTILLATION as originally proposed by M. Gay-Lussac. 300 parts of
the liquor under examination (measured in a graduated glass tube) are
placed in a retort or small still, and a quantity exactly equal to one
third (_i.e._, 100 parts), carefully drawn over; a graduated glass
tube[13] being used as a receiver, and the operation stopped as soon as
the distillate reaches the hundredth degree. The ‘alcoholic strength’ of
the distilled liquor is then ascertained by any of the usual methods, and
the result divided by three, when the per-centage of alcohol in the
original liquor is at once obtained. If, from want of attention, more than
100 parts should be distilled over, the number which expresses the
relation of the volume of the distilled product to the original bulk of
the liquor tested, must be employed as the divisor. Thus, if 106 parts of
liquor have distilled over (instead of 100), containing 33% of alcohol,
the 300 must be divided by 106, which gives 2·83, and the 33% by this
2·83, which gives 11·66%, the true proportion of alcohol in the original
liquor. The strength at ‘proof’ may be calculated from this in the usual

[Footnote 13: Mulder, in his ‘Chemistry of Wine’ recommends this receiver
to be shaped like a bottle, with its neck, or tubular part, bent at right
angles above the line of its scale; and that it should be set in the
centre of a glass jar kept filled with very cold water.]

To ensure accurate results, the acidity (if any) of the liquor must be
neutralised with carbonate of sodium, prior to distillation. It is also
advisable to add 8% or 10% of common salt to the liquor in the retort or
still; this, by raising the boiling point, causes the whole of the spirit
to pass over into the receiver before the distillate has reached the
required measure. This applies more particularly to weak liquors. With
those of greater strength (as the stronger wines), it is better to distil
over 150 parts, and divide the result by 2 instead of 3. To liquors
stronger than 25% by volume of alcohol, or above 52% to 54% under proof,
add about an equal volume of water to the liquor in the still, and draw
over a quantity equal to that of the sample tested; when the alcoholic
strength of the distillate gives, without calculation, the true strength
sought. To liquors stronger than 48% to 50% (14 to 12 u. p.), add thrice
their bulk of water, and do not stop the process until the volume of the
distillate is double that of the sample tested, when the per-centage
obtained must also be doubled. In each case a proportionate quantity of
salt is employed.

REVENUE METHOD. The following is the method adopted in the Inland Revenue
and Customs Laboratories for the estimation of the per-centage of alcohol
in wines, liqueurs, &c. A measure flask is filled up to a mark on its
neck, with the wine, which is then carefully transferred to a distilling
flask or retort, the traces of wine remaining in the former vessel being
rinsed out with small quantities of distilled water, and the rinsings
added to the wine in the latter vessel. About two thirds of the contents
of the retort are then distilled over into the clean measure flask, and
made up to the original bulk with distilled water, at the same temperature
as the sample was previous to distillation. The strength is then taken by
Sykes’ hydrometer, and this (if u. p.) deducted from 100, gives the
per-centage of proof spirit in the wine. Thus:——

Strength of distillate = 74·6 u. p. = 25·4 per cent. proof spirit.

_b._ From the TEMPERATURE of the VAPOUR, as originally proposed by
Gröning. The bulb of a thermometer is thrust through a cork into the head
of the still, or other vessel employed, and the temperature of the vapour
in which it is immersed being noted, is sought in the following table:——

        TABLE III.——_Showing the Alcoholic Content, by_
        VOLUME_, of Boiling Spirits, and of their Vapour, from
        the Temperature of the latter, as observed by a
        Thermometer._ By GRÖNING.

  |Temperature of | Alcoholic content | Alcoholic content | Temperature of | Alcoholic content | Alcoholic content|
  |  the Vapour.  | of the Distillate |  of the Boiling   |   the Vapour.  | of the Distillate |  of the Boiling  |
  |     Fahr.     |    per cent.      |  Liquid per cent. |     Fahr.      |    per cent.      |  Liquid per cent.|
  |     170·0     |      93           |        92         |     189·8      |      71           |        20        |
  |     171·8     |      92           |        90         |     192·0      |      68           |        18        |
  |     172·0     |      91           |        85         |     194·0      |      66           |        15        |
  |     172·8     |      90-1/2       |        80         |     196·4      |      61           |        12        |
  |     174·0     |      90           |        75         |     198·6      |      55           |        10        |
  |     174·6     |      89           |        70         |     201·0      |      50           |         7        |
  |     176·0     |      87           |        65         |     203·0      |      42           |         5        |
  |     178·3     |      85           |        50         |     205·4      |      36           |         3        |
  |     180·8     |      82           |        40         |     207·7      |      28           |         2        |
  |     183·0     |      80           |        35         |     210·0      |      13           |         1        |
  |     185·0     |      78           |        30         |     212·0      |       0           |         0        |
  |     187·4     |      76           |        25         |                |                   |                  |

This method is admirably adapted to the purposes of the distiller and
rectifier, as it furnishes a ready means of approximately determining the
strength of the spirit passing over, at every part of the process of
distillation, as well as that of the wash left in the still.

_c._ From the BOILING POINT, as originally proposed by M. l’Abbé
Brossard-Vidal. This method is founded on the fact, that the boiling
points of mixtures of alcohol and water, unlike water alone, are scarcely
disturbed by the addition of saline, saccharine, or extractive matter
within certain limits. It hence offers a ready means of determining the
proportion of alcohol present in spirits, wines, fermented liquors, &c.,
with sufficient accuracy for all ordinary purposes. In applying it, a
thermometer, with a large bulb and a narrow bore, and a movable scale
graduated from 180° to 212° Fahr., is usually employed. Before using it as
an alcoholometer, it is set, with its bulb immersed, in a small metallic
boiler (brass or copper) containing distilled water, which is then raised
to the boiling-point, and the 212° of the scale accurately adjusted on a
level with the surface of the mercury, should it vary from that point.
This is necessary on account of variations of atmospheric pressure causing
corresponding variations of the boiling-points of liquids. It is then
ready for several hours’ operations, and, generally, for an entire
business day, without further adjustment. The little boiler is next filled
with the liquor to be examined, and the lamp again lighted. The
temperature as shown by the scale of the instrument at the commencement of
full ebullition being ascertained, may be sought in one of the following
_Tables_, against which the alcoholic content of the liquor will be found

        TABLE IV.——_Exhibiting the_ BOILING POINTS _of Mixtures
        of Alcohol and Water of the given strengths._ By

                 | Alcohol    |                | Alcohol
  Boiling point. | per cent.  | Boiling point. | per cent.
      Fahr.      | by volume. |    Fahr.       | by volume.
     205·34      |    5       |  179·96        |  55
     199·22      |   10       |  179·42        |  60
     195·8       |   15       |  178·7         |  65
     192·38      |   20       |  177·62        |  70
     189·50      |   25       |  176·54        |  75
     187·16      |   30       |  175·46        |  80
     185·        |   35       |  174·92        |  85
     183·38      |   40       |  174·2         |  90
     182·12      |   45       |  173·14        |  95
     181·58      |   50       |  172·          | 100

        TABLE V.——_Showing the_ BOILING POINTS _of ‘under
        proof’ spirit._ By Dr URE.

  Boiling points. | Per-centage | Corresponding
       Fahr.      |  strength.  |    Sp. Gr.
      178·5       |   Proof.    |    ·9200
      179·75      |   10· U.P.  |    ·9321
      180·4       |   20·  ”    |    ·9420
      182·1       |   30·  ”    |    ·9516
      183·4       |   40·  ”    |    ·9600
      185·6       |   50·  ”    |    ·9665
      189·        |   60·  ”    |    ·9729
      191·8       |   70·  ”    |    ·9786
      196·4       |   80·  ”    |    ·9850
      202·        |   90·  ”    |    ·9920

_Obs._ This method does not answer well with spiritous liquor above
‘proof,’ owing to the variations of their boiling point being so slight as
not to be easily observed with accuracy; but with liquors under ‘proof,’
and particularly with wines, beer, and other fermented liquors, due care
being observed, it gives results closely approximating to those obtained
by distillation, and sufficiently accurate for all ordinary purposes. In
testing strong alcoholic solutions it is, therefore, proper to dilute them
with twice their bulk of water; and commercial spirits, with an equal bulk
of water; the results obtained being doubled or tripled as the case may


_d._ From the EXPANSION of the LIQUID when heated: Silbermann’s
DILATATOMETER. The expansion of alcohol between 0° and 212° Fahr. is
triple that of water; and between 77° and 122° Fahr. it is much greater.
Between -14° and -98° Fahr. the rate of expansion is about the ·00047th
part in volume for every degree of Fahrenheit’s scale. The measurement of
this expansion has been proposed as a new and ready method of
alcoholometry, adapted to nearly all spirituous and fermented liquors.
Silbermann’s instrument, which is based on it (see _engr._), simply
consists of a flat brass or ivory plate (_A_), on which are fixed a
mercurial thermometer (_D_) graduated from 22° to 50° Cent. (= 77° to 122°
Fahr.); and the DILATATOMETER (_B_), which is a glass pipette open at both
ends. A valve of cork, or vulcanised india rubber, closes the tapering end
(_c_); this valve is attached to a movable rod (_C_) which is fastened to
the supporting-plate, and connected with a spring (_f_) and a handle
(_g_) bearing a four-threaded screw, by which the lower orifice of the
pipette can be opened or closed at will. In use, the pipette is filled
with the liquor under examination, to a little above the zero point (0) on
the scale. This is effected by suction, by means of a little piston of
leather (_i_), which fits tightly in the long and wider limb of the
pipette; the valve (_d_) being previously opened by turning the knob
(_h_). The proper quantity of liquor being introduced, and the lower end
closed, the piston is moved up and down two or three times, for the
purpose of drawing the air-bubbles and absorbed air out of the liquid, the
presence of which would vitiate the results of the trial. To allow the
piston to be withdrawn without any shock, or the danger of dividing the
column abruptly, the rod attached to it is made hollow throughout. In
using it the operator applies the ball of his forefinger to the top of the
piston-rod (_E_), in order to create a vacuum as he raises it; and then
withdraws it, to readmit the air when he thrusts it down or removes it
from the tube. The excess of liquid (if any) in the pipette is then run
off until its upper surface is exactly level with the zero (0) of the
scale, at 25° C., to which it is raised by immersion in a water bath of
that temperature, as observed by the thermometer; which is done by very
cautiously turning the rod which depresses the valve. The whole apparatus
is now again immersed in the water bath; and, held by the upper portion of
the plate, kept in gentle motion with the hand, until the temperature
rises to exactly 50° C., when the coefficient of expansion is obtained,
and hence also the proportion of alcohol——the scale of the instrument
being so graduated, from actual experiments previously made upon mixtures
of known composition, as to give, at once, the per-centage of alcohol by
VOLUME (nearly).[14]

[Footnote 14: ‘Comptes Rendus,’ xvii, 418.]


_e._ From the TENSION of the VAPOUR:——Geissler’s ALCOHOLOMETER. This
method, for which we are indebted to M. Geissler, of Bonn, depends on the
measurement of the tension or elastic force of the vapour of the liquid,
as indicated by the height to which it raises a small column of mercury.
The spirit, wine, or other liquor, of which it is desired to ascertain the
strength, is put into the little flask (_a_), which, when completely
filled, is screwed on to the curved glass-tube which contains the
mercurial column (which is inverted for the purpose), and is closed by the
stop-cock (_b_). The instrument (see _engr._) is then placed erect, and
the flask and lower part of the tube immersed in a water bath, as in the
previous method. The number, on the graduated scale of the instrument
corresponding to the height of the mercury, at the boiling point of the
liquor under examination, gives the per-centage of alcohol by VOLUME

This method furnishes approximative results with great facility and
expedition; and, with proper care, these do not vary more than 1/3 to 1/2
of 1%, from those obtained by distillation. We find, that by having the
diameter of the part of the tube at which the surface of the mercury is
acted on by the vapour a little larger than that of the longer limb, and
by previously abstracting the air from the sample, as in Silbermann’s
method, or even by agitation and exposure in an open vessel, the two may
be made to correspond almost exactly.

_f._ From the DIFFERENCE between the sp. gr. BEFORE and AFTER
ebullitiom:——Taberié’s method and ŒNOMETER. The sp. gr. of the sample is
first accurately determined by any of the usual methods. It is next
carefully evaporated, in an open vessel, to one half its volume. The
residuum, when cold, is made up with pure water to exactly its original
measure at its original temperature, and the sp. gr. again ascertained.
The difference between the two being due to the spirit originally present,
furnishes the means of calculating a new sp. gr., from which the
per-centage richness of the sample may be obtained by mere inspection of
the Tables. The observed sp. gr. is the true one, whenever the liquor,
after ebullition and restoration to its original volume, has the same sp.
gr. as water (_i. e._, 1·000), at 60° Fahr. Taberié employs a peculiar
instrument, which he calls an œnometer; but its use is not essential to
his method of alcoholometry. The results are, of course, only
approximative, though sufficient for all ordinary purposes. Prof. Mulder,
however, says that he prefers it to any of the previous methods; and that
the results, with care, are almost as accurate as those obtained by

_g._ By means of CARBONATE OF POTASH:——

_g. a._ (Brande’s Method.) The liquor for trial is poured into a long,
narrow glass tube (graduated centesimally), until the vessel is
half-filled, and, after the solution of about 12% or 15% of a strong
solution of subacetate of lead, or a little finely powdered litharge, is
agitated until the colour is entirely, or nearly removed. Anhydrous
carbonate of potash, in powder, is next added, until it sinks undissolved,
even after prolonged agitation of the liquid. The whole is now allowed to
repose for a short time, when the alcohol is seen floating on the top of
the aqueous portion of the liquid in a well-marked stratum. Its quantity,
read off by means of the graduations of the tube, and doubled, gives the
per-centage richness of the sample in alcohol, by volume.

This process answers well with cordials, wines, and the stronger ales; but
with very weak liquors it is not to be relied on. The whole operation may
be performed in two to five minutes, and (with these exceptions) furnishes
very reliable approximative results. In most cases the decolouring part of
the process may be omitted. The alcohol thus separated has a sp. gr. of
from ·8061 to ·8118, and contains 3% or 4% of water; but for ordinary
purposes it may be regarded as pure alcohol.

4. Alcoholometry of MINUTE QUANTITIES of liquid. When only a few drops, or
a quantity too small for the application of the preceding methods, can be
obtained, an organic analysis may be had recourse to, and the quantity of
absolute alcohol calculated from that of the resulting carbonic anhydride
and water; care being previously taken to free the sample from other
volatile bodies, if it contains any of them.

_Gen. commentary._ The duties on spirits in England are charged on the
number of proof gallons they contain, which is ascertained by gauging or
weighing the spirit, and then trying its strength by Sykes’ hydrometer.
The per-centage of proof spirit multiplied by the number of gallons gives
the net amount of proof spirit to be charged.

‘PROOF STRENGTH’ is an arbitrary standard, adopted for the purpose of
facilitating calculations, for which it is well suited; although pure
alcohol would, for this purpose, be more simple. As defined by Act of
Parliament, 58 Geo. III, c. 28, “proof spirit” is such “as shall, at the
temperature of 51° of Fahrenheit’s thermometer, weigh exactly twelve
thirteenth parts of an equal measure of distilled water.”

Taking, therefore, water at 51° Fahr. as unity, the sp. gr. of “proof
spirit” at 51° Fahr. is 12/13 of 1·000 or ·92308. When such spirit is
raised to the temperature of 60° Fahr., its density is ·91984.

Spirit at “proof” contains very nearly equal weights of absolute alcohol
and water; the exact proportions according to recent experiments are:——

                  |           By VOLUME.                  |            |
   By WEIGHT.     |---------------------------------------| Sp. gr. at |
                  |   Bulk before   | Bulk after admixture| 60° Fahr.  |
                  |   admixture.    | and condensation.   |            |
  Alcohol.  Water.| Alcohol.  Water.|                                  |
  100·00 + 103·08 |  100·00 + 81·80 |    175·23            }  ·91984   |
   49·24 +  50·76 |   57·06 + 46·68 |    100·00            }           |

The standard alcohol of the Revenue authorities, and that on which
Gilpin’s Tables are founded, is a spirit of the sp. gr. ·825 at 60° Fahr.,
which is said to contain, by weight, 89% of pure alcohol of ·796; and
92·6% of alcohol, by volume, which corresponds to about 62·5 o. p.

It is of great importance to the spirit dealer to be able to estimate
correctly the number of ‘proof gallons’ in any quantity of his
commodities, or in the whole or any portion of his stock, as disagreeable
errors frequently result from ignorance on this point. Calculations of
this kind are extremely simple. Thus, when we find, by the hydrometer,
that a given sample of spirit is 10 per cent. over-proof, it means, that
100 gallons of such spirit contain as much alcohol as 110 gallons of proof

In over-proof spirit, the per-centage o. p. always represents the quantity
of water which the given spirit requires to reduce it to proof. By adding
this per-centage over-proof to 100, we obtain a number which, multiplied
by any number of gallons, and divided by 100, gives the exact number of
proof gallons which is contained in any quantity of the spirit referred
to. Thus:——A puncheon of rum gauged at 91 galls., and shown by the
hydrometer to be 21 o. p., contains——

  21 o. p. of sample added to 100    121
  No. of gallons of rum               91

  No. of gal. of proof-spirit = 11011 / 100 = 110·11

In like manner when a spirit is said to be 11 u. p., or under-proof, it
means that 100 gal. of such spirit contains 11 gal. of water, and 89 gal.
of ‘proof spirit.’ By deducting the per-centage under-proof from 100, we
not only obtain the number of proof gal. contained in 100 gal. of such
spirit, but, as in the last case, a factor which multiplied by any number
of gal., and divided by 100, gives the exact number of ‘proof gallons’
contained in any quantity of the given strength. Thus:——An ullage brandy
piece containing 45 gal. of spirit at 10 u. p., would have the proof value

  Per cent. u. p. of sample 10, }
    subtracted from 100         } 90
  No. of gall                     45

  Quantity of proof spirit = 4050 / 100 = 40·50

Or exactly 40-1/2 gallons.

The strength of absolute alcohol (sp. gr. ·7938) is estimated at 75-1/4%
over-proof. It therefore contains 175-1/4% of ‘proof spirit,’ whilst
proof spirit (sp. gr. ·91984) contains 57·06% of ‘absolute alcohol,’ both
being by measure or volume. Thus——

  (meas. of alc. × 175-1/4) / 100   = equiv. meas. of pf. spt.


  (meas. of pf. spt. × 57·06) / 100  = equiv. meas. of abs. alc.

From which we derive the ‘constant multipliers’ 1·7525 (or roughly 1-3/4),
and ·5706, applicable to any number of volumes or gallons. For——

  meas. of alc. × 1·7525 = equiv. meas. of pf. spt.


  meas. of pt. spt. × ·5706 = equiv. meas. of alc.

To ascertain what quantity of a spirit at any given strength is equiv. to
or contains 100 lbs. of absolute alcohol, we have only to divide the
constant number 2207·7 by the proof value per cent. of such spirit.[15]
Thus——for a spirit 12 u. p.——this would be

[Footnote 15: This number is obtained thus:——

  100 /·79381 = 12·6 (nearly),

  12·6 × 175·25 = 2207·7.


  100 - 12 = 88% of proof spirit;


  2207·7 / 88 = 25·1 gal. (nearly).

That is, 25-1/10 gal. of such spirit would contain 100 lbs. of absolute

By removing the decimal point one place to the _right_, we have the equiv.
measure of 1000 lbs. By removing it one, two, or three places to the
_left_, we have it respectively for 10 lbs., 1 lb., and 1/10 lb.; from
which the equiv. for all other weights may be easily obtained.

By reversing the above operation, the measure of alcohol corresponding to
any given weight of spirit, at any strength, may also be easily found.

The weight of 1 gal. of absolute alcohol being 7·938 lbs.; that of 1 gal.
of proof spirit, 9·2 lbs,; and that of the ‘alcohol’ in 1 gal. of proof
spirit, 4·53 lbs.; the weight of any number of gallons or volumes of
either, and their equivalents, may be easily found. Thus:——

  gallons of alc. × 7·938 = lbs. weight of alc.
    ”     pf. sp. × 9·2   = lbs. w. of pf. spt.


  gallons of alc. × 16·121 = lbs. weight of pf. spt.
     ”   pf. spt. ×  4·53  = content in lbs. weight of alc.

In these cases a knowledge of the first four rules of decimal fractions is
necessary, or, at least, advantageous; as the Excise officers carry their
calculations to two figures of decimals, or 1/100ths. Their plan is to
reject the third decimal figure when less than 5; but to carry 1 to the
next figure on the left hand, when it exceeds 5. Thus, 5·432 is set down
as only 5·43; but 5·437 is written 5·44. In the delicate chemical
processes of the laboratory, even greater accuracy is observed.

Formerly, spirit was said to be 1 to 3, 1 to 4, &c., over-proof, by which
it was meant that 1 gal. of water added to 3 or 4 gals. of such spirit
would reduce it to ‘proof.’ On the other hand, 1 in 5, or 1 in 8,
under-proof, meant that the 5 or 8 gals., as the case might be, contained
1 gal. of water, and the remainder represented the quantity of ‘proof
spirit.’ This method of calculation has now long given way to the
‘centigrade system,’ which not only admits of greater accuracy, but is
quite as simple. It should be adopted by every spirit-dealer in England,
from being that which is employed by the Revenue officers, whose ‘surveys’
it is absolutely necessary that the trader should understand, in order
that his own estimation of his stock and his business calculations should
correspond with theirs.

Several other methods of alcoholometry, besides those already noticed,
have been adopted at various times, but the majority of them possess so
little accuracy as to be quite inapplicable to the purposes of trade, and
of the laboratory. Thus, the strength was at one time estimated by what
was called the ‘proof.’ A little of the spirit was poured upon a small
quantity of gunpowder, contained in a spoon or saucer, so as just to
moisten it, and was then inflamed. If at the end of the combustion the
gunpowder took fire, the spirit was held to be ‘above proof,’ if it only
languidly fizzed away, or slowly burnt, the spirit was said to be ‘proof,’
but if the gunpowder failed to ignite, the spirit was esteemed ‘below
proof.’ Hence arose the terms ‘proof’ and ‘proof spirit,’ which have since
been adopted by Act of Parliament. Another method was that of dropping oil
into the spirit; if the oil floated, the spirit was considered to be
‘under proof,’ if it sunk, it was rated as ‘proof’ or ‘over-proof.’ The
‘gunpowder test’ is quite fallacious; for, if a certain quantity of a
spirit is capable of firing the gunpowder, a little excess of a spirit 20%
or 25% stronger will often fail to do so, so much water being formed as to
prevent the ignition. The ‘PREUVE D’HOLLAND’ test, of the French, or the
‘BEAD,’ is still frequently employed by persons unacquainted with the use
of the hydrometer. It consists in shaking the spirit in a phial, and
observing the size, number, and duration of the bubbles or beads, as they
are called. The larger and more numerous these are, and the more rapidly
they break and disappear, the stronger the spirit is presumed to be. This
method is unreliable, as the presence of sugar or acid, even in minute
quantities, will sometimes give to a weak sample the appearance of one
many degrees stronger. LOVI’S BEADS are also often employed to ascertain
approximately the strength of spirit, when a hydrometer is not at hand.

The insufficiency of most of the methods of alcoholometry here referred
to, throws us back on the Revenue System (Sykes’ hydrometer), or on the
specific gravity for unsweetened spirits. For sweetened spirits, as
cordials, wines, beers, &c., there are none of the tests which give such
accurate results as the distillation test, previously described as the
Revenue Method.

The spirituous liquors of commerce being sold by measure, and not by
weight, the methods of alcoholometry which give the results, per cent., by
volume, are those we have chiefly explained. In the laboratory, the method
by weight is that most generally employed in delicate processes and in
analyses. By weight, the per-centage of alcohol remains the same for all
temperatures, for the same sample; whilst by volume, the per-centage
varies with the temperature of the liquid. This variation explains the
cause of many of the sudden apparent decreases and increases, which occur
in large stocks of spirits. Persons purchasing spirits during very warm
weather, and paying for them according to their apparent quantity and
strength, lose considerably by selling the same spirit when the weather
becomes colder, without being conscious of such loss from the hydrometer.
The reason of this is obvious, for, whilst the relative proportions of the
alcohol to the water continue the same, the sp. gr. and the volume alter
with the temperature; the latter being increased by warmth, and decreased
by cold, in exact opposition to the former. Accuracy requires, in all
cases, that a spirituous liquor should be tested for its strength at the
temperature at which it was measured; and measured at the same temperature
at which its strength was determined.

A consideration of these facts has led some of the great houses to
introduce the system of weighing their spirits, instead of measuring them,
the weight of an imperial gallon at 60° Fahr. being taken as the standard
gallon. This is the method adopted by the Inland Revenue, at all
distilleries, for assessing the duty, and will be readily understood by
the following example:——

                             Cwts. qrs. lbs.

  Gross weight of full cask =  13   2   27
  Tare                      =  2    2    5
  Net weight of spirit      =  11   0   22

or 1254 lbs. Let us suppose the hydrometer indication to be 43·0, the
weight per imperial gallon would be 8·903 lbs. (see Table VI), and 1254 ÷
8·903 = 140 gallons.

        TABLE VI.——_Table for determining the Weight per Gallon
        of Spirits by Sykes’ Hydrometer._

    A = Indication on Sykes’ Hydrometer.
    B = Weight per Gallon.

    A      B       A      B       A      B       A      B       A      B
   0     8·145      8   8·509      6   8·878      4   9·264      2   9·667
     2   8·157   21     8·512      8   8·881      6   9·267      4   9·671
     4   8·161      2   8·516   42     8·885      8   9·271      6   9·674
     6   8·164      4   8·519      2   8·889   63     9·275      8   9·678
     8   8·168      6   8·523      4   8·892      2   9·279   84     9·682
   1     8·171      8   8·526      6   8·896      4   9·283      2   9·686
     2   8·174   22     8·530      8   8·899      6   9·286      4   9·690
     4   8·178      2   8·533   43     8·903      8   9·290      6   9·694
     6   8·181      4   8·537      2   8·907   64     9·294      8   9·698
     8   8·185      6   8·540      4   8·911      2   9·298   85     9·702
   2     8·188      8   8·544      6   8·914      4   9·302      2   9·706
     2   8·191   23     8·547      8   8·918      6   9·305      4   9·710
     4   8·195      2   8·551   44     8·922      8   9·309      6   9·714
     6   8·198      4   8·554      2   8·926   65     9·313      8   9·718
     8   8·202      6   8·558      4   8·929      2   9·317   86     9·722
   3     8·205      8   8·561      6   8·933      4   9·321      2   9·726
     2   8·208   24     8·565      8   8·936      6   9·324      4   9·730
     4   8·212      2   8·568   45     8·940      8   9·328      6   9·733
     6   8·215      4   8·572      2   8·944   66     9·332      8   9·737
     8   8·219      6   8·575      4   8·947      2   9·336   87     9·741
   4     8·222      8   8·579      6   8·951      4   9·340      2   9·745
     2   8·225   25     8·582      8   8·954      6   9·344      4   9·749
     4   8·229      2   8·586   46     8·958      8   9·348      6   9·753
     6   8·232      4   8·589      2   8·962   67     9·352      8   9·757
     8   8·236      6   8·593      4   8·965      2   9·356   88     9·761
   5     8·239      8   8·596      6   8·969      4   9·360      2   9·765
     2   8·242   26     8·600      8   8·972      6   9·363      4   9·769
     4   8·245      2   8·603   47     8·976      8   9·367      6   9·773
     6   8·249      4   8·607      2   8·980   68     9·371      8   9·777
     8   8·252      6   8·610      4   8·984      2   9·375   89     9·781
   6     8·255      8   8·614      6   8·987      4   9·379      2   9·785
     2   8·258   27     8·617      8   8·991      6   9·382      4   9·789
     4   8·262      2   8·620   48     8·995      8   9·386      6   9·792
     6   8·265      4   8·624      2   8·999   69     9·390      8   9·796
     8   8·269      6   8·628      4   9·002      2   9·394   90     9·800
   7     8·272      8   8·631      6   9·006      4   9·398      2   9·804
     2   8·275   28     8·635      8   9·009      6   9·401      4   9·808
     4   8·279      2   8·639   49     9·013      8   9·405      6   9·812
     6   8·282      4   8·642      2   9·017   70     9·409      8   9·816
     8   8·286      6   8·646      4   9·021      2   9·413   91     9·820
   8     8·289      8   8·649      6   9·024      4   9·417      2   9·824
     2   8·292   29     8·653      8   9·028      6   9·420      4   9·828
     4   8·296      2   8·656   50     9·032      8   9·424      6   9·832
     6   8·299      4   8·660      2   9·036   71     9·428      8   9·836
     8   8·303      6   8·663      4   9·039      2   9·432   92     9·840
   9     8·306      8   8·667      6   9·043      4   9·436      2   9·844
     2   8·309   30     8·670      8   9·046      6   9·440      4   9·848
     4   8·313      2   8·674   51     9·050      8   9·444      6   9·852
     6   8·316      4   8·677      2   9·054   72     9·448      8   9·856
     8   8·320      6   8·681      4   9·058      2   9·452   93     9·860
  10     8·323      8   8·684      6   9·061      4   9·456      2   9·864
     2   8·326   31     8·688      8   9·065      6   9·459      4   9·868
     4   8·330      2   8·692   52     9·069      8   9·463      6   9·872
     6   8·333      4   8·695      2   9·073   73     9·467      8   9·876
     8   8·337      6   8·699      4   9·076      2   9·471   94     9·880
  11     8·340      8   8·702      6   9·080      4   9·475      2   9·884
     2   8·343   32     8·706      8   9·083      6   9·479      4   9·888
     4   8·347      2   8·709   53     9·087      8   9·483      6   9·892
     6   8·350      4   8·713      2   9·091   74     9·487      8   9·896
     8   8·354      6   8·716      4   9·095      2   9·491   95     9·900
  12     8·357      8   8·720      6   9·098      4   9·495      2   9·904
     2   8·361   33     8·723      8   9·102      6   9·498      4   9·908
     4   8·364      2   8·727   54     9·106      8   9·502      6   9·913
     6   8·368      4   8·730      2   9·110   75     9·506      8   9·917
     8   8·371      6   8·734      4   9·114      2   9·510   96     9·921
  13     8·375      8   8·737      6   9·117      4   9·514      2   9·925
     2   8·378   34     8·741      8   9·121      6   9·517      4   9·929
     4   8·382      2   8·745   55     9·125      8   9·521      6   9·934
     6   8·385      4   8·748      2   9·129   76     9·525      8   9·938
     8   8·389      6   8·752      4   9·132      2   9·529   97     9·942
  14     8·392      8   8·755      6   9·136      4   9·533      2   9·946
     2   8·395   35     8·759      8   9·139      6   9·537      4   9·950
     4   8·399      2   8·763   56     9·143      8   9·541      6   9·955
     6   8·402      4   8·766      2   9·147   77     9·545      8   9·959
     8   8·406      6   8·770      4   9·151      2   9·549   98     9·963
  15     8·409      8   8·773      6   9·154      4   9·553      2   9·967
     2   8·412   36     8·777      8   9·158      6   9·557      4   9·972
     4   8·416      2   8·781   57     9·162      8   9·561      6   9·976
     6   8·419      4   8·784      2   9·166   78     9·565      8   9·981
     8   8·423      6   8·788      4   9·170      2   9·569   99     9·985
  16     8·426      8   8·791      6   9·173      4   9·573      2   9·989
     2   8·429   37     8·795      8   9·177      6   9·576      4   9·994
     4   8·433      2   8·799   58     9·181      8   9·580      6   9·998
     6   8·436      4   8·802      2   9·185   79     9·584      8  10·003
     8   8·440      6   8·806      4   9·189      2   9·588   100   10·007
  17     8·443      8   8·809      6   9·192      4   9·592
     2   8·446   38     8·813      8   9·196      6   9·596
     4   8·450      2   8·817   59     9·200      8   9·600
     6   8·453      4   8·820      2   9·204   80     9·604
     8   8·457      6   8·824      4   9·207      2   9·608
  18     8·460      8   8·827      6   9·211      4   9·612
     2   8·464   39     8·831      8   9·214      6   9·615
     4   8·467      2   8·835   60     9·218      8   9·619
     6   8·471      4   8·838      2   9·222   81     9·623
     8   8·474      6   8·842      4   9·226      2   9·627
  19     8·478      8   8·845      6   9·229      4   9·631
     2   8·481   40     8·849      8   9·233      6   9·635
     4   8·485      2   8·853   61     9·237      8   9·639
     6   8·488      4   8·856      2   9·241   82     9·643
     8   8·492      6   8·860      4   9·245      2   9·647
  20     8·495      8   8·863      6   9·248      4   9·651
     2   8·498   41     8·867      8   9·252      6   9·655
     4   8·502      2   8·871   62     9·256      8   9·659
     6   8·505      4   8·874      2   9·260   83     9·663

⁂ For further information in connection with _Alchoholometry_ see ALCOHOL,

=ALCOHOL; EFFECTS OF ALCOHOLISM.= Without entering into the controversy as
to whether the moderate consumption of alcohol, or its total disuse, is
the more conducive to personal health and comfort——whether, as Dr Anstie
and others have asserted it acts, when prudently taken, as a food——or
whether, as other medical authorities contend, even its moderate use is a
disturbing factor in the human economy——there need be no qualification of
the assertion, that when the drinking of spirituous liquids of any kind is
indulged in to excess, the habit, if persisted in, must sooner or later
terminate in impaired health, serious disease, and premature death.

A powerful array of facts could be brought in support of this statement.
For instance, in NELSON’S statistics we find it mentioned that——

  A temperate person’s   | An intemperate person’s
  chance of living is——  | chance of living is——
  At  20 = 44·2 years.   | At 20 = 15·6 years.
   ”  30 = 36·5   ”      | ”  30 = 13·8   ”
   ”  40 = 28·8   ”      | ”  40 = 11·6   ”
   ”  50 = 21·25  ”      | ”  50 = 10·8   ”
   ”  60 = 14·285 ”      | ”  60 = 8·9    ”

The average duration of life after the commencement of habits of
intemperance is——

  Among mechanics, working and labouring men  18 years.
    ”   traders, dealers, and merchants       17   ”
    ”   professional men and gentlemen        15   ”
    ”   females                               14   ”

Again, Dr Dickinson, writing “on the morbid effects of alcohol in persons
who trade in liquor,” gave the results of an examination of 149 traders in
liquor, as compared with 149 persons of various trades. The general
results were diseases of the liver much more common in those who dealt in
alcoholic drinks. In the lungs tubercle affected sixty-one persons of the
alcoholic, forty-four of the non-alcoholic.

Tubercle in the brain, liver, kidneys, spleen, bowels, mesenteric glands,
and peritoneum were twice as common in the alcoholic as in the
non-alcoholic. The verdict, therefore, is unavoidable that alcohol (in
excess) engenders tubercle in the brain, inflammations, atrophy,
hæmorrhages; in the heart and vessels atheroma, hypertrophy, and other
affections, were all more common in the alcoholic than in the
non-alcoholic series. The evidence in kidney disease did not appear so
conclusive, but some forms of kidney disease appear to be increased. The
author sums up thus:——“Alcohol causes fatty infiltration and fibroid
encroachment; it engenders tubercle, encourages suppuration, and retards
healing; it produces untimely atheroma, invites hæmorrhage, and
anticipates age. The most constant fatty change, replacement by oil of the
material of epithelial cells and muscular fibres, though probably nearly
universal, is most noticeable in the liver, the heart, and the kidney.”

Alcohol also seems to be the cause of special diseases, besides those more
common and generally known ones, delirium tremens, alcoholism, &c. Of
these we may mention one recorded by M. GALEZOWSKI, a peculiar affection
of the eyes, which the doctor found very prevalent during the siege of
Paris in 1870-1. In the five months of the siege fifty patients were
affected by it, whilst during the twelve months preceding the siege only
nineteen were to be found. Dr GALOWSKI ascribed the malady to the habit of
taking alcoholic drinks in the morning fasting. A peculiar kind of palsy
has also been referred to alcoholic poisoning.

The following table, compiled by Dr Joseph Williams, lends support to the
fact that an indulgence in alcohol is either the cause of insanity, or
that it tends to its increase:

                           Total     caused by
                        admission.  intemperance.

  Charenton                 855         134
  Bicêtre and Salpêtrière  2012         414
  Bordeaux                  156          20
  Turin, 1830-31            158          17
    ”    1831-36            390          76
  Gard                      209           4
  United States             551         146
  Palermo                   189           9
  Caen                       60          16
  Dundee                     14           4
  M. Parchappe              167          46
  M. Batten                 288          54
                           ————         ———
                           5019         940

Commenting on these figures, Mr Walter Blyth remarks, “There may be
another explanation of the fact that many mad people have been great
drinkers. A large proportion of those subject to insanity are driven by
their morbid minds to drink; so that it may be that insanity causes drink,
and not drink causes insanity.”

Many medical writers who are no advocates for the total abandonment of
alcohol limit its consumption, in healthy people, to one or two fluid
ounces a day, in the form of wine, beer, or spirits and water; two fluid
ounces is, we believe, the quantity apportioned daily to every able-bodied
seaman in the Royal Navy. Any slight habitual departure from this
standard——even when the evidences of excess are not perceptible to
others——all authority, historical, pathological, and physiological (unless
it be given as a medicine), shows to be injurious. The researches of
Anstie, Parkes, and Count Wollowicz, appear to prove that any quantity of
alcohol exceeding an ounce and a half taken by an adult showed itself in
the urine, a circumstance which these writers look upon as tending to show
that the system has taken more alcohol than can be used in the body
itself. In slight doses the action of alcohol is to produce a sedative
effect upon the nerves, to redden slightly the lining membrane of the
stomach, and to stimulate the secretion of the gastric juice.

Thus, in small doses alcohol may, and doubtless does, promote appetite. In
excess, however, all these effects are turned to evil, and then ensue an
inflammatory condition of the stomach, compression of the gland ducts from
thickening of the tissue around them, excessive mucous secretion, and
great loss of appetite. When carried into the circulation it greatly
increases the force of the heart’s action, and at the same time paralyses,
as it were, the restraining nervous supply to the arteries and small
vessels, so that they can no longer oppose themselves to the
blood-current, but dilate. This action in a small degree, occurring in
persons of a weak and languid circulation, is no doubt beneficial; on the
other hand, when in excess, it is most dangerous, and is a cause of the
greater part of the diseases of the heart and great vessels.

“There appears to be a slight fall of temperature with moderate doses of
alcohol, a very decided fall with excessive doses; the muscular and
nervous systems are transitorily stimulated, and may do more work when
small doses are given in cases of fatigue, but in other cases there is a
marked torpor of the nervous and a want of co-ordination of the muscular

Notwithstanding the researches of Percy, Strauch, Masing, Lallemand,
Duroy, Parkes, Dupré, Anstie, Thudichum, and others, there is still a
considerable divergence of opinion as to how alcohol is eliminated from
the body. By some of the authorities just named it is affirmed to be
eliminated as aldehyd, by others as carbonic acid; as to the latter, the
experiments of Dr E. Smith show that the carbonic acid is decreased when
brandy and gin are drunk, and increased by rum.

The only probable supposition, which facts support, tends to show that the
alcohol is turned into acetic acid in the body, some of which unites with
potash and other bases, and some is destroyed. All are pretty well agreed
that in the form of spirits alcohol as a food is valueless, but that in
the form of beer and wine it is possessed of a slight dietetic power,
naturally varying with the amount and nature of the different substances
held in solution in these beverages.

The imports of spirits into this country, in the seven years from 1850 to
1857, amounted to 70,740,980 gallons; whilst the imports in the seven
years following, viz. from 1857 to 1864, were 78,016,071 gallons, showing
an increase of 7,305,091 gallons. The population has, however, increased
in the time, and a deduction on that account, as well as correction on one
or two other heads, are required; still, that there is an increase is

As respects France, a considerable increase in the consumption of spirits
has taken place of late years, as the following table by M. Husson will

        _The Mean Consumption of Spirits for each Inhabitant._

                        Litres.        Litres.

  From 1825 to 1830    8·96 yearly.  ·024 daily.
   ”   1831  ” 1835    8·74   ”      ·023   ”
   ”   1836  ” 1840   10·15   ”      ·026   ”
   ”   1841  ” 1845   11·14   ”      ·031   ”
   ”   1846  ” 1850   11·03   ”      ·030   ”
   ”   1851  ” 1854   14·25   ”      ·039   ”

In the United States, during the period from 1807 to 1828, the average was
27 litres for every inhabitant, which is even greater than the highest of
the two sets of figures just quoted.

The demoralisation of the French army during the late Franco-Prussian war
has been also unanimously ascribed to the excessive consumption of
spirituous liquids.

The following results of an inquiry instituted in 1870 by the
Massachusetts Board of Health into the comparative sobriety of different
nations are gathered from an able paper which appeared in the ‘Medical
Times and Gazette’ of April 15th, 1872, by Dr Druitt, in which he dissects
and summarises the results in question. Dr Druitt writes:

“Highest in the scale of temperance come the Turks and Arabs; next the
Iberians, Levantines, Greeks, and Latin races; lower down the Japanese,
Scandinavians, Belgians, and the Irish Celt; lowest of all the so-called
Anglo-Saxon of either continent.”

Professor Levi contributes to our knowledge on this subject by giving the
following statistics:——In 1860 the committals for drunkenness in England
and Wales were 88,000, and in 1870 134,000, an increase of 50 per cent.

In Manchester the increase from 1860 to 1870 was 375 per cent., or
computed according to the increase of population 35·3 per cent. In London
drunkenness is in the proportion of 5·43 per 1000, in Leeds 7·40, in
Manchester 31·13, and in Liverpool 42·82. It must, however, be remembered
that these figures are based on mere committals, which greatly depend on
the activity of the police, and the noisy or quiet character of the

We quote the following from Dr Blyth’s work on ‘Hygiene,’ without,
however, attempting either to endorse or controvert what he says on the

“_Whether is Alcohol necessary or not._ All experience, both at home and
abroad, shows by facts that cannot be disputed that a person can do quite
as hard work without alcohol as with it; and probably as the limits
between moderation and excess are easily passed, and as the generality of
mankind, even without intending it, err on the latter side, the result is
that a comparison between total abstainers and even temperate men
generally terminates in favour of the former. It would appear that total
abstainers live longer, are better citizens, and can do more work than the
rest of mankind. The figures of the “United Kingdom Temperance and General
Provident Institution” go far to prove the above. This insurance society
is divided into two sections. One section consists of abstainers, the
other of persons selected as not known to be intemperate. The claims for
five years anticipated in the temperance section were £100,446, but the
actual claims were only £72,676. In the general section of the anticipated
claims were £196,352; the actual claims no less than £330,297. In war the
march of 2000 miles in his War of Independence by Cornwallis and his
troops (1783), the Maroon war of Jamaica, the 400 miles’ march of an
English army across the Desert from Komer, on the Red Sea, a march of 1000
miles in the Kaffir war, experiences at sieges, in action, in hot,
temperate, and cold climates, where abstinence was either forced through
circumstances or followed, shows to every unprejudiced mind that soldiers
endure more fatigue, are healthier, and fight better, without stimulants
than with them; and this fact is endorsed by every commander of the
present day.

The excess and abuse of spirits, as before remarked, lost the French their
military prestige in the Franco-German war. In very hot and very cold
climates the Indian observers and the Arctic explorers all unite in
condemning its (that is, the use of alcohol) use in the slightest excess,
or even in moderate doses. It does not warm the body in cold climates, and
the reaction that follows the exciting of the circulation is followed by a
dangerous depression; whilst in hot it combines with the climate, and
quickly produces disease.”

=ALCOHOLIC DRINKS, EFFECTS OF.= In addition to the serious injury to
health caused by an excessive or imprudent indulgence in spirituous
stimulants (see previous article), even a moderate and not injudicious use
of them may often be attended with very disagreeable consequences——a more
or less mild or modified form of poisoning, in fact——if the beverages
themselves are, as very frequently happens, contaminated, either
accidentally or intentionally, with certain objectionable ingredients.
These ingredients are described under the articles BEER, WINES, and the
various SPIRITS, such as GIN, BRANDY, ABSINTHE, &c. Of spirit drinking it
may be observed, that this dangerous practice is intensified by what is to
be feared is the too prevalent custom of taking them undiluted, or “neat,”
as it is termed. There is no doubt that they constitute the very worst
form of alcoholic drinks, and shorten the lives of those who indulge in
them to excess more summarily than any other intoxicating potion. The
greatest and most ineradicable drunkards are almost always found to be
spirit drinkers.

Liebig remarked that less bread was consumed in families where beer was
drunk, and there seems to be little doubt that the different species of
beer, including porter and ale, when pure and free from adulteration,
act, although in a small degree, as food. Probably there are some who will
agree with, whilst others will dissent from, Benjamin Franklin, who said
“there was more sustenance in a penny loaf than in a gallon of beer.” The
starchy extractive matters of the beer no doubt perform the same function
in the animal economy that sugar does. It is well known that those who
drink freely of beer mostly become corpulent, as witness the portly forms
of draymen. The hop contained in the beer has doubtless tonic and
stomachic qualities. We can speak with less certainty about the free acids
contained in malt fluids. It is very certain that some people cannot drink
a glass of beer without experiencing rheumatic pains in the joints, which
effect is generally ascribed to the acidity of the beer; but which is
really supposed to be due to the decreased elimination of urea and
pulmonary carbonic acid from the system caused by the alcohol of the beer.

The heavy low-priced beers occasion drunkenness of a peculiarly violent
and savage kind, a fact which strongly favours the inference that this
form of intoxication is due to some toxic agent, used as an adulterant. Of
wines, the clarets and subacid wines are undoubtedly antiscorbutic in
properties, and light wines as beverages are preferable to the stronger.
Port, sherry, beer, stout, and ale are almost universally condemned in
cases where there is a tendency to gout. The light clarets and Rhine wines
are far more desirable beverages when this is the case, and the German
wines are said to be valuable drinks in many lithic affections. It seems
probable that the ethers and the vegetable salts, together with the sugar
contained in wines, perform the most important part in the human economy.

It has been proposed to introduce the red subacid wines as drinks for our
sailors, because of their antiscorbutic qualities. Some of the alcoholic
drinks prepared in India frequently cause temporary madness.


=AL′COHOLS.= In _chemistry_, a term applied to compounds possessing a
composition, formulæ, and chemical properties similar to those of ordinary
alcohol. They form a series presenting an unmistakable symmetry, and
differ from one another by well-marked gradations, as shown below:——

  Methyl-alcohol (_wood spirit_).      CH_{4}O
  Ethyl-alcohol (_ordinary alcohol_)   C_{2}H_{6}O
  Amyl-alcohol (_füsel-oil_)           C_{5}H_{12}O
  Capryl-alcohol                       C_{8}H_{18}O
  Cetyl-alcohol                        C_{16}H_{34}O
  &c., &c.

=Alcohols.= In _commerce_, pure spirits of a greater strength than about
58 o. p. (sp. gr. 8335), or containing more than about 85% by WEIGHT, or
90% by VOLUME, of pure alcohol, are commonly so called.

=Alcohols.= In _perfumery_, rectified spirit of wine, or commercial
alcohol, holding essential oils or other odorous matters in solution.

=Alcohols.= In _Fr. pharmacy_, alcoholic tinctures and essences.

=ALCOOLATIFS= (alcoölatifs). [F.] _Syn_. ALCOHOLATI′VA, L. In _Fr.
pharmacy_, alcoholic solutions of liniments, embrocations, &c., whether
made by distillation, maceration, or solution.

=ALCOOLATS= (alcoölats). [Fr.] In _Fr. pharmacy_, spirits; applied by
Béral, Henry and Guibourt, and others, to medicated distilled spirits.

=ALCOOLATURES= (alcoölatures). [Fr.] _Syn._ ALCOHOLATU′′RA, L. In. _Fr.
pharmacy_, alcoholic tinctures, elixirs, &c. M. Béral confines the term to
vegetable juices preserved by alcohol.

=ALCOOLES= (alcooölés). [Fr.] Tinctures; the ‘teintures alcoholiques’ of
the Fr. Codex.

=ALCOOLIQUES= (alcoöliques). [Fr.] _Syn._ ALCOHOL′ICA, L. In _Fr.
pharmacy_, alcoholic or spirituous solutions. (Béral.)

=AL′CORNINE= (-nĭn). [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ ALCOR′NOCINE (-sĭn); ALCOR′NEUM,
ALCORNI′NA, L. A crystallisable substance, apparently intermediate between
fat and wax, discovered by Biltz, in alcornoco bark.

bark of an unknown tree of South America. It is astringent and bitter, and
has been highly extolled as a specific in phthisis; but appears to possess
little medicinal virtue. The bark of the young branches of the cork tree
(_quercus suber_), used in tanning, is also sometimes called
alcornoco-bark; but possesses none of the characters of the former

=AL′DECAY.= The galls on the leaves of _myrobalanus chebula_ (Gaertn.), a
forest-tree of Bengal. Equal to the best oak-galls.

=AL′DEHYD= (-hīd). [_al_-(cohol)-_dehyd_ (rogenatus).] C_{2}H_{4}O. Syn.
dehydrogenated alcohol. In _chemistry_, a peculiar ethereal liquid, first
obtained in a pure form by Liebig, from alcohol. It is produced under
various circumstances, particularly during the destructive distillation of
certain organic matters, and in several processes of oxidation. The
following are the most convenient methods of preparing it:——

_Prep._ 1. (Liebig.) Sulphuric acid, 3 parts; is diluted with water, 2
parts; and as soon as the mixture has cooled, alcohol of 80%, 2 parts, is
added; and, subsequently, peroxide of manganese (in fine powder), 3 parts.
The whole, after agitation, is then distilled at a very gentle heat, from
a spacious retort into a receiver surrounded with ice, the connection
between the two being perfectly air-tight. The process is continued until
frothing commences, or the distillate becomes acid which generally occurs
when about one third (3 parts) has passed over. The distillate is next
agitated in a retort, with about its own weight of fused chloride of
calcium, in powder; after which about one half only is drawn over at a
very gentle heat (85° to 90° Fahr.), by means of a water bath. This
rectification is repeated in a precisely similar way. The last distillate
is ANHYDROUS ALDEHYD only slightly contaminated with foreign matters.

2. (Liebig.) Aldehyd-ammonia, 2 parts, is dissolved in an equal weight of
distilled water; and, after being placed in a retort, sulphuric acid, 2 or
3 parts, previously diluted with rather more than its own weight of
distilled water, and allowed to cool, is added. The whole is now
distilled, by means of a water bath, into a receiver surrounded with ice,
or (preferably) a freezing-mixture, the temperature of the bath at first
being very low, and the operation being stopped as soon, or rather before
the water begins to boil. The distillate is then placed in a retort
connected with a well-cooled receiver, as before; and after all the joints
are made perfectly tight, powdered fused chloride of calcium, in weight
equal to that of the liquid in the retort, is added through the
tubulature. The heat produced by the hydration of the chloride causes the
distillation to commence, after which it is carried on, by means of a
water bath, at a temperature ranging from 80° to 82° Fahr. This
rectification being very carefully repeated, the last distillate is PURE

_Prop., &c._ Limpid, colourless, ethereal, neutral, inflammable; mixes in
all proportions with alcohol, ether, and water; odour peculiar,
penetrating, and, when strong, exceedingly suffocating, the vapour, in
quantity, producing spasmodic contraction of the thorax; boils at 72°
Fahr. (70°——Ure, 5th ed.); sp. gr. ·790 at 60°, and ·800 at 32° Fahr.; sp.
gr. of vapour, 1·532; by exposure to air it is gradually converted into
acetic acid, and speedily so under the influence of platinum-black; heated
with caustic potash, a brown substance resembling resin (ALDEHYD-RESIN) is
formed; gently heated with protoxide of silver, or its solutions, metallic
silver is deposited on the inner surface of the vessel, in a uniform and
brilliant film, whilst ALDEHYDATE OF SILVER remains in solution; heated
with hydrocyanic acid it yields ALANINE. By age, even in close vessels, it
passes into one or more isomeric compounds (ELALDEHYDE; METALDEHYDE), with
change of properties. Aldehyde for experiments should, therefore, be
always recently prepared; and it must be kept in a well-stopped bottle, in
a very cold place, and preferably in ice.

_Obs._ Aldehyd is important for its assumed position in the acetyl-series,
and the part which it plays in the process of acetification, &c. The word
is now also commonly employed, by chemists, as a generic term for any
organic substance which, by assimilating two atoms of hydrogen, yields, or
would yield, a compound having the composition or properties of an
alcohol; or which, by taking up one atom of oxygen, yields an acid. Many
of the essential oils (as those of almonds, cinnamon, and cumin) are
composed principally of bodies which may thus be called aldehyds. One of
the most valuable properties of these substances, is their strong tendency
to combine with the bisulphites of ammonium, potassium, and sodium; and by
which they may be separated from complex mixtures.

=AL′DEHYD-AMMO′NIA= (-hĭd-). An ammonia-compound of aldehyd, discovered by
Döbereiner and Liebig.

_Prep._ (Liebig.) Aldehyd (of process No. 1, above) is mixed with an equal
volume of ether,[16] in a flask surrounded with ice, or (what is better) a
freezing-mixture; and is then saturated with dry gaseous ammonia. The
crystals which soon form, after being washed with ether, and dried by
means of bibulous paper and a short exposure to the air, are pure aldehyd

[Footnote 16: Some authorities recommend the use of twice this quantity of

_Prop., &c._ It smells like a mixture of turpentine and ammonia; melts at
165° to 170°; volatilises, unchanged, at 212° Fahr.; decomposed by
exposure to the air; very soluble in water; soluble in alcohol, and more
or less so in most other menstrua, except ether; acids decompose it. With
sulphuretted hydrogen it forms thialdine.——_Use._ Chiefly to make pure
aldehyd (which _see_).

=AL′DER= (awl′-). _Syn._ AL′DER-TREE; AL′NUS (ăl-), L.; A. GLUTINO′SA
(Gaertn.); BETU′LA ALNUS, Linn.; AUNE, AULNE, Fr.; ERLE, Ger. A well-known
English tree, chiefly growing in moist grounds near rivers. Its wood is
used for hurdles, for various articles of turnery and furniture, and when
converted into charcoal, for making gunpowder; it possesses considerable
durability under water; but is otherwise of little value. Bark and leaves
very astringent, and reputed vulnerary; decoction used as a gargle in sore
throat, and, in double the dose of cinchona, as a febrifuge in agues; bark
and sap used in dyeing and tanning. The following belong to different nat.
orders and genera to the preceding:——

=Alder, Black.= _Syn._ WIN′TER-BERRY; PRI′NOS VERTICILLA′TUS, Linn. A tree
growing in the United States of America. Bark febrifuge, tonic, and
astringent; berries tonic and emetic. (Bigelow.) It has been much
recommended in dropsies, diarrhœa, intermittents, &c. _Dose_ (of the dried
bark), 1/2 to 1 dr., 3 or 4 times a day.

Linn. A large shrub found in the woods and thickets of England, &c. Wood,
BLACK DOG′WOOD; bark, bitter, emetic, purgative; used to dye yellow;
root-bark, a drastic purgative; berries, purgative, emetic; unripe berries
yield SAP-GREEN; charcoal of the wood esteemed the best for gunpowder.

CEREVIS′IA ALBA, C. LUPULA′TA, A′LA*, AL′LA*, L. Pale-coloured beer,
prepared from lightly dried malt, by the ordinary process of brewing. The
ale of the modern brewer is manufactured in several varieties, which are
determined by the wants of the consumer, and the particular market for
which it is intended. Thus, the finer kinds of Burton, East India,
Bavarian, and other like ales, having undergone a thorough fermentation,
contain only a small quantity of undecomposed sugar and gum, varying from
1 to 5 per cent. Some of these are highly ‘hopped,’ or ‘bittered,’ the
further to promote their preservation during transit and change of
temperature. Mild or sweet ales, on the contrary, are less attenuated by
lengthened fermentation, and abound in saccharine and gummy matter. They
are, therefore, more nutritious, though less intoxicating, than those
previously referred to.

In brewing the finer kinds of ale, pale malt and the best East Kent hops
of the current season’s growth, are always employed; and when it is
desired to produce a liquor possessing little colour, very great attention
is paid to their selection. With the same object, the boiling is conducted
with more than the usual precautions, and the fermentation is carried on
at a somewhat lower temperature than that commonly allowed for other
varieties of beer. For ordinary ale, intended for immediate use, the malt
may be all pale; but, if the liquor be brewed for keeping, and in warm
weather, when a slight colour is not objectionable, one fifth, or even one
fourth of ‘amber malt’ may be advantageously employed. From 4-1/2 lbs. to
6 lbs. of hops is the quantity commonly used to the quarter of malt, for
‘ordinary ales,’ and 7 lbs. to 10 lbs. for ‘keeping ales.’ The
proportions, however, must greatly depend on the intended quality and
description of the brewing, and the period that will be allowed for its

The stronger varieties of ale usually contain from 6 to 8% of ‘absolute
alcohol,’ ordinary strong ale, 4-1/2 to 6%; mild ale, 3 to 4%; and table
ale, 1% to 1-1/2%; (each by volume); together with some undecomposed
saccharine, gummy, and extractive matter, the bitter and narcotic
principles of the hop, some acetic acid formed by the oxidation of the
alcohol, and very small and variable quantities of mineral and saline
matter. For the adulterants of ale, see PORTER. See BEER, BREWING,

=Ale, Dev′onshire White.= A liquor once generally drunk, and still in
demand, in the neighbourhood of Kingsbridge and Modbury, Devon.

_Prep._ Ordinary ale-wort (preferably pale) sufficient to produce 1
barrel, is slowly boiled with about 3 handfuls of hops, and 12 to 14 lbs.
of crushed groats, until the whole of the soluble matter of the latter is
extracted. The resulting liquor, after being run through a coarse
strainer, and become lukewarm, is fermented with 2 or 3 pints of yeast;
and, as soon as the fermentation is at its height, is either closely
bunged up for ‘draught,’ or is at once put into strong stoneware bottles,
which are then well corked and wired.

_Obs._ White ale is said to be very feeding, though apt to prove laxative
to those unaccustomed to its use. It is drunk in a state of effervescence
or lively fermentation; the glass or cup containing it being kept in
constant motion, when removed from the mouth, until the whole is consumed,
in order that the thicker portion may not subside to the bottom.

=Ales, Med′icated.= _Syn._ BRYT′OLES; BRUTOLÉS, Fr.; CEREVIS′IÆ MEDICA′TÆ,
L. In _pharmacy_, ale prepared by macerating medicinal substances in it,
either at the ordinary temperature of the atmosphere, or when heated;
infusions and decoctions, in which ale or beer is employed as the
menstruum. The old dispensatories enumerate several medicated ales; such
as CEREVISIA OXYDOR′CICA, for the eyes; C. ANTI-ARTHRIT′ICA, for the gout;
C. CEPHAL′ICA, for the head; C. EPILEP′TICA, against epilepsy; &c.
Preparations of this kind are now seldom ordered by the faculty, and their
use is chiefly confined to the practice of empirics, and to domestic
medicine. Bark, rue, savine, antiscorbutic plants, aromatic bitters, and
stomachics, are the substances most commonly administered in this way. Ale
in which wormwood, gentian, orange-peel, and the like, have been steeped,
taken warm early in the morning, is much esteemed as a restorative tonic
by drunkards and dyspeptics. See BEER, PURL, &c.

=ALE′BERRY.= A beverage made by boiling ale with spice, sugar, and
bread-sops; the last commonly toasted. A domestic remedy for a cold.

=ALE′GILL= (_g_ hard). Ale or beer flavoured or medicated by infusing the
leaves of ground ivy in it; pectoral, stomachic, and nervine.

=ALE′WIFE.= The _clupea serrata_, an American species of herring. Its
proper name is a′loof, although the established pronunciation and common
orthography is ale-wife.


DESTILLIRKOLBEN, Ger. An old form of distillatory vessel usually made of
glass or earthenware, but sometimes of metal. The body (_a_) which holds
the liquid for distillation is called the CU′CURBIT; the upper part (_b_)
the HEAD or CAP′ITOL; (_c_) is the RECEIVER. It is still employed in the
laboratory, in the distillation of articles that are apt to spurt over
into the neck of the common retort, and thus vitiate the product.

=ALEUROM′ETER.= _Syn._ ALEUROMÈTRE, Fr. An instrument for determining the
quantity and quality of gluten in wheat-flour, invented by M. Boland. It
essentially consists of a hollow copper cylinder, about 6 inches long, and
3/4 of an inch internal diameter. This tube has two principal parts; the
one, about 2 inches long, is closed at the lower end, forming a kind of
cup, into which the gluten is placed; it screws into the remainder of the
cylinder. The cup being charged with a sample of gluten, and the upper
part of the cylinder being screwed on, it is exposed in an oven, or
(preferably) in an oil bath, to a temperature of 350 to 380° Fahr.[17]
From the length of the tube the gluten occupies in swelling, as measured
by a graduated scale, its quality is determined. The ‘crude gluten’ of
good wheat-flour augments to four or five times its original volume, when
thus treated; but that from bad flour does not swell, becomes viscid and
semi-fluid, and generally gives off a disagreeable odour; whilst that of
good flour merely suggests the smell of hot and highly baked bread.

[Footnote 17: Mr Mitchell recommends the heat to be 420°; whilst Dr
Masprett gives 284° Fahr. as the proper temperature; but of these the
first is too high, and the other too low. About 210 gr. are also ordered
to be taken for examination; but the exact quantity is immaterial. (See
Mitchell’s ‘Falsification of Food.’)]

=AL′GA.= (-gă). [L.] Sea-weed. A common name of grass-wrack (‘zostera
marina’——Linn.), though not one of the algæ.

=AL′GÆ.= (ăl′-jē). [L. pl.] _Syn._ AL′GALS; ALGÆ (DC.), AL′GALES (Lindl.),
_botany_, an order of Thallogens living in water or very moist places,
nourished throughout their whole surface by the medium in which they live,
having no distinct axis of vegetation, and propagated by zoöspores,
coloured spores, or tetraspores. Linnæus defines them——“plants, the roots,
leaves, and stems of which are all in one.” The algæ consist either of
simple vesicles lying in mucus, or of articulated filaments, or of lobed
fronds formed of uniform cellular tissue. Those that vegetate in salt
water are popularly called SEA-WEEDS (fu′ci, L.) and LA′VER (ulvæ, L.);
those found in fresh water CONFER′VÆ. One of their divisions (the
_Zoöspermeæ_) comprehends the lowest known forms of vegetable life, being
merely adhering cells, emitting, at maturity, seeds or sporules having a
distinct animal motion. In _Oscillatorias_, the whole plant twists and
writhes spontaneously; and _Zymenas_ actually copulate like animals. Some
of the Algæ possess great beauty. In the lower grades the colour is green;
in the higher, red or purple.

_Prop., Uses, &c._ None of the Algæ are poisonous. Several are nutritious,
emollient, and demulcent, from containing mucilage (carrageenin), starch,
sugar (mannite), and a little albumen; and are hence used as esculents.
The ash from the dried weed varies in different varieties from 9% to fully
25%; and contains variable quantities of potassa, soda, lime, magnesia,
iron, manganese, and silica, with sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid,
chlorine, and a little iodine and bromine. (Schweitzer; Forchhammer;
Gödechens.) Sea-weeds, their charcoal, and their ashes, have been long
regarded as alterative and resolvent; and anti-phthisic virtues have been
attributed to them by Laennec and others. They were formerly much given in
scrofulous affections and glandular enlargements; but their use is now
almost superseded by that of iodine and its preparations. Dr Stenhouse has
proposed some of the algæ as furnishing an economical source of mannite.
The sea algæ are used for manure; their ashes form KELP.

The following table, showing the results of several analyses of different
kinds of algæ, and illustrating the very large amount of nitrogen
contained in them, is from Mr Walter Blyth’s excellent dictionary of
‘Hygiene and Public Health.’

                               |        |           | Per cent. |   Protein
          Kinds of Algæ.       | Water. |Dry matter.|Nitrogen in|contained in
                               |        |           |dry matter.|dry matter.
  _Chondrus crispus_,          |  17·92 |   82·08   |   1·534   |   9·587
    bleached, from Bewlay      |        |           |           |
    Evans.                     |        |           |           |
  _Chondrus crispus_,          |  21·47 |   78·53   |   2·142   |  13·387
    unbleached, Ballycastle.   |        |           |           |
  _Gigastina mamillosa_,       |  21·55 |   78·45   |   2·198   |  13·737
    Ballycastle.               |        |           |           |
  _Chondrus crispus_,          |  19·79 |   80·21   |   1·485   |   9·281
    bleached, second           |        |           |           |
    experiment.                |        |           |           |
  _Chondrus crispus_,          |  19·96 |   80·04   |   2·510   |  15·687
    unbleached second          |        |           |           |
    experiment.                |        |           |           |
  _Laminaria digitata_, or     |  21·38 |   78·62   |   1·588   |   9·925
    dulse tangle.              |        |           |           |
  _Rhodomenia palmata._        |  16·56 |   83·44   |   3·465   |  21·656
  _Porphyra laciniata._        |  17·41 |   82·59   |   4·650   |  29·062
  _Iridæa edulis._             |  19·61 |   80·39   |   3·088   |  19·300
  _Alaria esculenta._          |  17·91 |   80·09   |   2·424   |  15·150

From the above, we learn the important fact that the sea-weeds found on
our coasts are amongst the most nutritious of vegetable substances, and
that they, when dry, are even richer in nitrogenous matter than either
oatmeal or Indian corn in the same state. The following are the chief
varieties of algæ which are used as food by the dwellers on our coasts as
well as on the continent:——PORPHYRA LACINIATA and VULGARIS, called _laver_
in England, _stoke_ in Ireland, and _slouk_ in Scotland. CHONDRUS CRISPUS,
called _carrageen_ or _Irish moss_, and also _pearl-moss_, and _sea-moss._
LAMINARIA DIGITATA, known as the _sea-girdle_ in England, _tangle_ in
Scotland, and _red-ware_ in the Orkneys; and LAMINARIA SACCHARINA, ALARIA
ESCULENTA, or _bladder-lock_, called also _henware_, and _honey-ware_ by
of Scotland. Under the name of “marine sauce” the LAVER was esteemed a
luxury in London, where it may now occasionally be met with in the shops
of provision merchants. The employment of the CHONDRUS CRISPUS or
_Carrageen_ in the form of an aliment for consumptive and weakly persons,
would seem from the analysis of it given above to be fully justified. In
preparing the algæ for food, they must be soaked in water to remove the
saline matter, and where they are possessed of a bitter flavour this may
be removed by adding a little carbonate of soda to the water. They should
then be stewed in water or milk till they are tender. The best flavourings
are pepper and vinegar. See JELLY.

Linn. A leguminous tree of southern Europe, Palestine, and part of Africa.
Pods (ALGAROBA BEANS), used for food, and to improve the voice; they
contain a sweetish, nutritious powder, and are supposed to have been the
‘locusts’ on which St. John fed in the wilderness; their decoction has
been used as a pectoral in asthma and coughs.

=Algaroba or Algarovil′la.= The astringent pods of prosopis pallida, p.
siliquastrum, and Inga Marthæ (South American trees), bruised and more or
less agglutinated by the extractive exudation of the seed and husks. They
are used in tanning, for which purpose they have been strongly
recommended; indeed that of Chili, and of Santa Martha (New Carthagena),
is said to possess “four times the power of good oak bark” (Ure); and in
dyeing are only inferior to oak-galls.

=ALGONTINE.= A mouth and tooth wash. An aqueous solution of nitrate of
potassium, aromatised with oil of peppermint, tincture of myrrh, and
tincture of cinnamon.

=ALGOPHON= (Bernhard, Salzburg). For pains in decayed teeth. A solution of
ethereal oil of mustard (2 grms.) in spirit of cochlearia (30 grms.),
coloured green by saffron and litmus. (Wittstein.)

=AL′IMENT.= [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ ALIMEN′TUM, L.; NAHRUNG, SPEISE, Ger. Food;
nutriment; anything which nourishes or supports life.

GEHÖRIG, Ger. Pertaining to food or aliment; nutrimental; nourishing.

In _anatomy_, the cavity in the bodies of animals into which the food is
taken for the purpose of being digested; the whole passage or conduit
extending from the mouth to the anus. In some of the lower animals this is
a simple cavity, with only one opening; when the same aperture which
admits the food also gives egress to the excrementitious matter. In others
it is a true canal, with both a mouth and an outlet. Another step, and we
find this canal is divided into a stomach and intestines. In the higher
grades, a mouth, pharynx, and œsophagus precede the stomach. Birds have
one or two sacculi or crops added to the œsophagus. The stomach of the
ruminants consists of four sacs or parts, each of which may be regarded as
a separate stomach; that of the bottle-nose whale contains no less than
seven of such sacs. The part below the stomach, forming the intestines, is
also variously subdivided, complicated, and connected. In man, these
subdivisions are termed——DUODENUM, JEJU′NUM, IL′EUM, CÆ′CUM, CO′LON, and
REC′TUM; the lower end or orifice of the last being called the A′NUS. The
existence of an alimentary canal is said to be the only true
characteristic of an animal. Plants have no common receptacle for their
food, nor canal for carrying away effete matter; but every animal, however
low in the scale of being, possesses an internal cavity which serves it as
a stomach.

=Alimentary Sub′stances.= _Syn._ ALIMENTS; MATE′′RIA ALIMENTA′′RIA, L.
Substances employed as food.

The act, process, power, or state of nourishing, or being nourished.

=AL′IZARI.= [Tur., ali-zari.] The commercial name of madder in the Levant.

=ALIZARIN.= C_{10}H_{6}O_{3} . 2H_{2}O. _Syn._ LAZARIC ACID. A red
colouring matter obtained from madder.

_Prep._ 1. Exhaust madder with boiling water, and precipitate the
decoction by sulphuric acid. Wash the precipitate, and, while yet moist,
boil it with a concentrated solution of hydrate of aluminum in
hydrochloric acid, and mix the solution with hydrochloric acid; red flakes
of impure alizarin deposit. Dissolve this precipitate in alcohol or in
dilute ammonia, and treat the solution with hydrate of aluminum. Boil the
aluminum compound thus formed with carbonate of sodium, and, after freeing
it from resinous impurities by digestion with ether, decompose it with hot
hydrochloric acid. Wash the alizarin thus separated, dry it by simple
exposure to air, and purify it by repeated crystallisation out of alcohol.

2. Sublime on a paper an alcoholic extract of madder. This method yields
the purest alizarin.

_Props._ Red prisms; sublimes at 419° F.; odourless, tasteless, and
neutral to test-paper; sparingly soluble in water, even at the boiling
temperature; soluble in alcohol and ether; not decomposed by hydrochloric
acid; dissolved, without decomposition, by strong sulphuric acid; soluble
in solutions of the alkalies and their carbonates; acids precipitate
alizarin from its alkaline solutions in orange-coloured flakes; alumina
decolorises an alcoholic solution of alizarin, forming a red lake.

=ALIZARIN, ARTIFICIAL.= C_{14}H_{8}O_{4}. This colour was first obtained
by Graebe and Liebermann in 1869 from anthrachinon, an oxidation product
of anthracen, this latter being a substance which is formed during the
destructive distillation of coal-tar. These chemists converted anthracen
into antichinon by means of nitric acid.

The crude anthracen is previously purified by treatment with benzoline
(petroleum spirit), aided by heat, and by being subjected to the action of
the centrifugal machine to fusion, and to sublimation.

According to the original method of preparing alizarin, the anthrachinon
was first converted into a dibromide of anthrachinon by treatment with
bromine, and this bromated compound, by further treatment either with
caustic potash or soda at a temperature of 180° to 200° C., converted into
alizarin-potassium (or alizarin-sodium if caustic soda has been used),
from which the alizarin is set free by means of hydrochloric acid.

Alizarin is now procured from anthrachinon by treatment at a temperature
of 260° C., with concentrated sulphuric acid of 1·84 sp. gr., the
anthrachinon being converted into a sulpho-acid; this acid is next
neutralised with carbonate of lime, the fluid decanted from the deposited
sulphate of lime, and carbonate of potash added to it, with the object of
throwing down all the lime. The clear liquid is then evaporated to
dryness, the resulting saline mass is converted into alizarin-potassium by
heating it with caustic potash. From the alizarin-potassium thus obtained
the alizarin is set free by the aid of hydrochloric acid.

In another method the preparation of anthrachinon is avoided, and
anthracen employed directly, by first converting it, by means of sulphuric
acid and heat, into anthracen sulphonic-acid. After having been diluted
with water, the solution of this acid is treated with oxidising agents
(peroxides of manganese, lead, chromic acid, nitric acid), and the acid
fluid is afterwards neutralised with carbonate of lime. When peroxide of
manganese has been used, the manganese is also precipitated as oxide. The
oxidised sulpho-acid having been previously converted into a potassium
salt, the latter being heated with caustic potash, alizarin is obtained.
The details of these two processes will be found set forth in the terms of
the patent taken out by Messrs Caro, Graebe and Liebermann, further on.

The following method of preparing alizarin from anthracene paranaphthalene
and their homologues is by Girard. The material used is that which distils
between 290° and 360°; it is purified by distillation and pressure, the
portion which passes over, between 300° and 305°, being collected
separately. This mixture is treated with potassium chlorate and
hydrochloric acid, whereby it is converted into tetra-chlorinated
products. These are oxidised either by nitric acid in the water bath, or
by a metallic oxide (red or brown oxide of lead), and sulphuric or acetic
acid. In the first place a mixture of dichloranthraquinine and chloride of
chloroxyanthranyl are obtained. These substances are treated in presence
of a metallic oxide (oxide of zinc, oxide of copper, or litharge), with an
alcoholic solution of sodium acetate. The metallic oxide removes the last
atom of chlorine from the sodium chloroxyanthranilate, and converts it,
like the dichloranthraquinine, into alizarin. The purification is effected
by means of benzine, petroleum, &c., which dissolve out the foreign
matters, and by successive precipitation from the alkaline solutions by
mineral acids. The foreign matters may also be separated by means of a
little alum, when it is necessary to work with neutral potash or soda

Another method for the preparation of alizarin has been patented by Dale
and Schorlemmer. It is as follows: 1 part of anthracen is boiled with 4 to
10 parts of strong sulphuric acid, then diluted with water, and the
solution neutralised with carbonate of calcium, barium, potassium, or
sodium. The resulting sulphates having been removed by nitration or
crystallisation, the solution is heated to between 180° and 260° with
caustic potash or soda, to which a quantity of potassium nitrate or
chlorate has been added, about equal in weight to the anthracen, as long
as a blue-violet colour is thereby produced. From this product the
alizarin is separated in the usual way by precipitation with an acid.
Several other patents have been taken out for the preparation of
artificial alizarin.

The specification of Messrs Caro, Graebe, and Liebermann, and dated June
25th, 1869, was the first which was taken out in England. We quote it here
because it enters more fully into detail than any of the others.

“Our invention is carried into effect by means of either of the two
processes which we will proceed to describe.

“In the one process we proceed as follows——We take about one part by
weight of anthraquinone and about three parts by weight of sulphuric acid
of about specific gravity of 1·488, and introduce the same into a retort,
which may be made of glass, or porcelain, or of any other material not
easily acted upon by sulphuric acid, and the contents are then to be
heated up to about 260° Centigrade, and the temperature is maintained
until the mixture is found no longer to contain any appreciable quantity
of unaltered anthraquinone. The completion of this operation may be
ascertained or tested by withdrawing a small portion of the product from
time to time, and continuing the operation at the high temperature until
such product upon being diluted with water is found to form a
substantially perfect solution, thereby indicating that the anthraquinone
has become either entirely or in greater part converted into the desired
product. The products thus obtained are then allowed to cool, and are
diluted with water; carbonate of lime is then added in order to neutralise
and remove the excess of sulphuric acid contained in the solution; the
mixture is then filtered, and to the filtrate carbonate of potash, or
carbonate of soda, by preference in solution, is to be added until
carbonate of lime is no longer precipitated; the mixture is then filtered,
and the clear solution is evaporated to dryness, by which means the potash
or soda salts of the sulpho-acids of anthraquinone are obtained, and which
are to be treated in the following manner:——We take about one part by
weight of this product, and from two to three parts by weight of solid
caustic, soda, or potash; water may be added or not, but by preference we
add as much water as is necessary to dissolve the alkali after admixture;
we heat the whole in a suitable vessel, and the heating operation is
continued at a temperature of from about 180° to 260° Centigrade, for
about one hour, or until a portion of the mixture is found upon
withdrawing and testing it to give a solution in water, which being
acidulated with an acid, for example, sulphuric acid, will give a copious
precipitate of the colouring matters. The heating operation having been
found to have been continued for a sufficient time, the resulting products
are then dissolved in water, and we either filter or decant the solution
of the same, from which we precipitate the colouring matters or artificial
alizarin, by means of a mineral or organic acid, such, for example, as
sulphuric or acetic acid. The precipitated colouring matters thus obtained
are collected in a filter or otherwise, and after having been washed may
be employed for the purpose of dyeing and printing, either in the same way
as preparations of madder are now used or otherwise.

“In carrying out our other process we proceed as follows:——We take about
one part by weight of anthracene and about four parts by weight of
sulphuric acid of specific gravity of about 1·848, and the mixture being
contained in a suitable vessel, is heated to a temperature of about 100°
Centigrade, and which temperature is to be maintained for the space of
about three hours; the temperature is then to be raised to about 150°
Centigrade, which temperature is to be maintained for about one hour, or
until a small portion of the product when submitted to the two subsequent
processes hereinafter described is found to produce the desired colouring
matters; we then allow the result obtained by this operation to cool, and
dilute it with water, by preference in the proportion of about three times
its weight. To the solution thus obtained we add for every part of
anthracene by weight which had been employed in the previous operations,
from about two to three parts by weight of peroxide of manganese,
preferring to employ an excess, and we boil the whole strongly for some
time, and in order fully to ensure the desired degree of oxidation the
mixture may be subsequently concentrated, and by preference be evaporated
to dryness, and the heat be continued until a small portion of the
oxidised product, when submitted to the subsequent processes hereinafter
described will produce the desired colouring matters. We then neutralise
and remove the sulphuric acid contained in this mixture, and at the same
time precipitate any oxides of manganese that may be held in solution, by
adding an excess of caustic lime, which we use by preference in the form
of milk of lime, and we add the same until the mixture has an alkaline
reaction. We then filter, and add to the filtrate carbonate of potash or
soda, until there is no further precipitation of carbonate of lime. The
solution is then filtered and evaporated to dryness, and we thus obtain
the potash or soda salts of what we call the sulpho-acids of

“In effecting the conversion of the oxidised products thus obtained into
colouring matters, or into what we call artificial alizarin, we proceed as
follows:——We take one part by weight of this product, and from two to
three parts by weight of solid caustic soda or potash, and water may be
added or not, but by preference we add as much water as may be necessary
to dissolve the alkali. After admixture we heat the whole in a suitable
vessel, and continue the heating operation at a temperature of about 180°
to about 260° Centigrade for about one hour, or until a portion of the
mixture is found to give a solution in water, which upon acidulation with
an acid, for example, sulphuric acid, is found to give a copious
precipitate of the colouring matters. The heating operation having been
found to have been continued for a sufficient time, we then dissolve the
product in water, and either filter or decant the solution of the same,
from which we precipitate the colouring matters or artificial alizarin by
means of a mineral or organic acid, such, for example, as sulphuric or
acetic acid. The precipitated colouring matters thus obtained are
collected on a filter or otherwise, and after having been washed may be
employed for the purpose of dyeing and printing, either in the same way as
preparations of madder are now used or otherwise.

“Instead of acting upon anthracen by means of sulphuric acid of the
density before mentioned, fuming sulphuric acid may be employed, but we
prefer to use the ordinary kind before described.

“In order to effect the process of oxidation, before referred to, other
oxidising agents may be used in the place of the oxide of manganese,
before mentioned, such, for example, as perioxide of lead, or chromic,
nitric, or other acids capable of effecting the desired oxidation may be

Mr W. H. Perkin’s patent is similar in principle to that of Messrs Caro,
Graebe, and Liebermann, and is dated only one day later.

The following is an outline of a patent taken out in France in May, 1869,
by MM. Brœnner and Gutzkon, for the manufacture of artificial alizarin.
One part of anthracen is heated with two parts of nitric acid, sp. gr. 1·3
to 1·5. The anthraquinone thus produced is washed and dissolved at a
moderate heat in sulphuric acid. Mercuric nitrate is now added, which
converts the anthraquinone into alizarin, The mass thus formed is
dissolved in an excess of alkali, which precipitates the oxide of mercury,
and retains the colouring matters in solution. The alkaline liquor is
decanted and neutralised with sulphuric acid, and the precipitate thus
formed is washed and collected. If not quite pure the treatment with
alkali must be repeated. (The complete specification of this patent is
published in the ‘Moniteur Scientifique,’ vol. xi, p. 865.)

In England a large quantity of artificial alizarin is manufactured by the
process of Mr Perkin, and is used as a substitute for madder and madder
extract, in Turkey red dyeing and topical styles. The largest makers of
artificial alizarin on the continent are Messrs Gessert Frères, of
Ebelfort, Messrs Maister, Lucius and Co., of Hæchst, near Frankfort, and
the Badische Anilin und Soda Fabric, Mannheim.

The following recipes for printing with artificial alizarin are extracted
from Mr Crookes’ ‘Practical Handbook of Dyeing and Calico Printing’:


  5 lbs. alizarin paste (10 per cent.);
  16 lbs. thickening;
  1 lb. acetate of alumina, at 15° Tw.;
  1/2 lb. acetate of lime, at 25° Tw.


The above diluted with 2 or 3 parts of thickening.

For double printing, when deep red is printed on first, the goods must be
steamed one hour before the second printing takes place. After the second
printing the goods are again steamed for one hour, and aged for
twenty-four hours; they are then passed through one of the following
baths, at from 120 to 140 F., remaining in the bath not longer than 1 to
1-1/2 minute:——

  250 gals. water;
  60 lbs. chalk;
  3 lbs. tin crystals.

  Or, 250 gals. water;
  40 lbs. chalk;
  10 lbs. arseniate of soda.

The goods are then washed, and cleaned as follows:——

Take, for 10 pieces of fifty yards each,——

  1st. Soaping at 120° F., 3 lbs. soap;
  1/4 lb. tin crystals.
  2nd. Soaping at 160° F., 3 lbs. soap;
  3rd. Soaping at 175° F., 3 lbs. soap.
  Wash between each soaping.


  8 lbs. alizarin paste (10 per cent.);
  10 quarts thickening;
  9-1/2 oz. nitrate of alumina, at 23° Tw.;
  19 oz. acetate of alumina, at 15° Tw.;
  13 oz. acetate of lime, at 25° Tw.

  Or, 10 lbs. alizarin paste (10 per cent.);
  10 quarts thickening;
  13 oz. nitrate of alumina, at 23° Tw.;
  19 oz. acetate of alumina, at 15° Tw.;
  16 oz. acetate of lime, at 25° Tw.


  8-1/2 lbs. alizarin paste (10 per cent.);
  9-1/2 lbs. acetic acid, at 12° Tw.;
  3-1/2 lbs. wheat flour;
  5  pints water.

Boil well and stir till cold; then add——

  1 lb. acetate of lime, at 29° Tw.;
  2 lbs. nitrate of alumina, at 23° Tw.;
  3 lbs. hyposulphite of lime, at 13° Tw.


  3 lbs. alizarin paste (10 per cent.);
  10 quarts purple thickening;
  6  oz. pyrolignite of lime, at 18° Tw.;
  12 oz. acetate of lime, at 25° Tw.

The printed goods are steamed for an hour or two, and then aged from
twenty-four to thirty-six hours. They are then padded in the chalk and
arseniate of soda bath; after which they are washed and soaped in a single
soap-bath without tin crystals; and, if needful, cleaned in a weak
solution of bleaching powder.


  12 lbs. wheat starch;
  40 quarts water;
  4 quarts acetic acid, 9^{9} Tw.;
  1-1/4 lbs. gum tragacanth;
  2 lbs. olive oil.

Boil well together, and stir till cold.


  10 lbs. starch;
  27 quarts water;
  3 quarts acetic acid;
  1-1/8 lbs. gum tragacanth;
  2 lbs. olive oil.

Boil well together, and stir till cold.

The mordants in the above recipes are prepared as fellows:


Stir 30 lbs. of hydrate of alumina into six quarts of acetic acid, warm,
filter, and reduce to the specific gravity required.

The hydrate of alumina is prepared by dissolving 72 lbs. of alum in 100
gals. of water, and 62 lbs. soda in 100 gals. of water. The two solutions
are mixed, this precipitate is washed eight times by decantation,
collected on a filter and pressed. It must be dissolved on the filter
before it gets dry.

  2 lbs. nitrate of lead;
  2 lbs. alum;
  2 quarts water.

Dissolve and filter off the liquid from the precipitate, and dilute to
proper standard.

The reds are turned more yellow by nitrate than by acetate of alumina, and
when the former is used more acetate of lime is taken in addition.


A solution of acetate of lime at 25° Tw. contains 25 per cent. of acetate
of lime; generally 1/10th of the weight of alizarin paste is required; but
with a fresh quantity of alizarin it is safer to ascertain, on a small
scale, the amount needed.


  13-1/4 lbs. alizarin paste (15 per cent.);
  9 quarts thickening;
  2 lbs. nitrate of alumina, at 29° Tw.;
  15 oz. acetate of alumina, at 19° Tw.;
  15 oz. red prussiate potash, dissolved in
  1 lb. 1 oz. acetate of lime, at 29° Tw.

To obtain a yellower shade, for every quart of mixed colour, 1 oz. bark
liquor, at 30° Tw., may be added.

Old spoiled red colours may be advantageously used for browns by adding
per quart, 3/4 oz. to 1 oz. red prussiate, dissolved in water.

=ALKALI.= _Syn._ ALKALI, Fr.; LANGENSALZ, Ger. This word has been used in
various senses, but is now usually applied to four substances only, viz.
the hydrates of potassium, sodium, lithium, and ammonium (the latter being
supposed to exist in the aqueous solution of ammonia). In a more general
sense it is applied to the hydrates of barium, strontium, and calcium,
which, for the sake of distinction, are called the alkaline earths. The
following properties are characteristic of the alkalies:——(1) They are
soluble in water, the alkalies proper more so than the alkaline earths.
(2) They change the hue of many vegetable colouring matters; thus, they
turn reddened litmus blue, yellow turmeric brown, and syrup of violets and
infusion of red cabbage green. (3) They neutralise the strongest acids.
(4) They precipitate most of the heavy metals from solutions of their
salts as hydrates or oxides. (5) They saponify the fixed oils and fats.
(6) They exert a caustic or corrosive action on animal and vegetable

=ALKALI ACTS.= The principal alkali Act is the 26 and 27 Vict., c. 24,
amended by 37 and 38 Vict., c. 43, the amended Act having come into
operation in 1875.

Every alkali work must be carried on so as to ensure the condensation of
not less than 95% of muriatic acid evolved therein; and it must be so
condensed that in each cubic foot of air, smoke, or chimney gases,
escaping from the works into the atmosphere, there is not contained more
than one fifth part of a grain of muriatic acid. Penalty for first
conviction, £50; for second and other offences, £100, or less (26 and 27
Vict., c. 124, s. 4; 37 and 38 Vict., c. 43, s. 4).

The owner of every alkali work is also bound “to use the best practicable
means of preventing the discharge into the atmosphere of all other noxious
gases arising from such work; or of rendering such gases harmless when

The noxious gases are defined to be sulphuric acid, sulphurous acid
(except that arising from the combustion of coals), nitric acid, or other
noxious oxides of nitrogen, sulphuretted hydrogen and chlorine (37 and 38
Vict., c. 43, ss. 5 and 8).

The owner is liable for any offence against the Alkali Acts, unless he
prove that the offence was committed by some agent, servant, or workman,
and without his knowledge, in which case the agent, &c., is liable (26 and
27 Vict., c. 124, s. 5).

Every alkali work must be registered; penalty for neglect £5 per day
(ibid., s. 6).

Powers are given to owners to make special rules for the guidance of their
workmen (ibid. s. 13).

_chemistry_, the estimation of the strength of the commercial alkalies;
the art or process of determining the quantity or proportion of pure
caustic alkali, or of its carbonate, in any given sample or simple
solution. It is the reverse of ‘acidimetry,’ and it should be understood
that it does not apply to alkalies occurring under any other form or
condition than those just mentioned. Alkalimetric assays are now also
frequently and conveniently extended to the estimation of the alkaline
earths and their carbonates, as hereafter noticed.

_Alkalimetrical processes._ These, like those of ‘acidimetry,’ are for
the most part founded on——the capacity of the bases to saturate acids——the
estimation of the quantity of dry carbonic acid liberated from a given
weight of an alkaline carbonate under the influence of a stronger acid;
and, in the case of the pure alkalies, the sp. gr. of their solutions.
From any one of these results the exact amount of alkali, or of alkaline
carbonate, present in a sample, is easily found or calculated. These
processes are, indeed, precisely similar to those described under
ACIDIMETRY; but here the unknown quantity sought is the alkali, instead of
the acid.

_Assay._ The SAMPLE is drawn from as near the centre of the cask
containing the alkali as possible, and at once placed in a wide-mouthed
bottle, which is then closely corked up and numbered. Before proceeding to
the assay, the contents of the bottle are thrown on a piece of dry paper,
the lumps crushed small, and the whole reduced to coarse powder as rapidly
as possible. The number of grains required for the trial are then at once
weighed, placed in a phial or small glass tube, and agitated with about
1/2 oz. of hot water. After a short time allowed for repose, the clear
liquid is poured off into a beaker-glass or other vessel in which the
trial is to be made. This process is repeated with a second and a third
quantity of water, or until nothing soluble remains, shown by the last
washings not affecting the colour of turmeric paper. The greatest care
must here be taken not to waste the smallest portion of the liquid, which
would render the results inaccurate.

To the solution in the beaker-glass a little solution of litmus is added,
unless the acid is tinted with it when it is unnecessary. The solution is
now heated until near its boiling point, and a piece of white paper or
porcelain put behind it, to better show up the changes of colour. The
alkaline solution is now treated with the standard test-acid, which is
poured carefully from an alkalimeter or Mohr’s burette, until the
solution, after turning a purple red, suddenly assumes a pink colour.
Neutralisation being thus effected, the operator allows the sides of the
alkalimeter or burette to drain, and then either ‘reads off’ the number of
divisions which have been consumed, or (if using the test-acid by weight)
determines the quantity by again weighing the alkalimeter. The common
practice is to allow two drops (= 1/5th of an alkalimetrical division by
VOLUME, or 2 gr. by WEIGHT) for over-saturation, which is, therefore,
deducted from the ‘observed quantity’ of the test-liquor employed.

In testing solutions of the PURE or CAUSTIC ALKALIES, the colour, on
neutralisation, suddenly changes from blue to pink or red, without any
intermediate vinous or purple colour being produced.

The quantity of test-acid used gives the absolute or per-centage
composition of the sample examined, according to the constitution of the
test-acid used.

_Standard Acids._ The various test-acids in use as described below, each
being used by different operators as they think best.

The most convenient test-acid, or normal solution, both for commercial and
chemical assays, is perhaps dilute sulphuric acid, which, when intended to
be used VOLUMETRICALLY, has the sp. gr. 1·032 at 60° Fahr., and contains
in 100 alkalimetrical divisions 1000 water-grains measure, or 1 litre,
exactly 49 gr. (or grammes) of sulphuric acid; and when intended to be
used GRAVIMETRICALLY, or by weight, has the sp. gr. 1·033, and contains in
1000 gr. (or grammes) weight exactly 49 gr. (grammes) of sulphuric acid;
and, in both cases, consequently corresponds to 1 equiv. of every other
base. These dilute acids are easily prepared by mixing 1 part of the
concentrated acid with 11 or 12 parts of distilled water; the precise
quantity depending on the strength of the acid employed, and must be so
arranged that 1000 grains shall exactly neutralise 1000 grains of water
containing 53 grains of pure anhydrous sodium carbonate.

This acid (as well as all those hereafter mentioned) may be kept faintly
tinged with litmus, which is often more convenient than tinging the
alkaline solution at the time of making the assay.

It will at once be seen that every alkalimeter division of the first of
the above acids, and every 10 gr. of the second, represent the 1/100th
part, or 1% of alkali whenever the equivalent weight[18] of the latter is
taken for the assay. Every 1-10th part of an alkalimeter-division (or
every drop), and every grain weight (when a Schüster’s alkalimeter is
employed) then respectively represents the 1/10 of 1%; and the result
sought is obtained without the necessity of any calculation.

[Footnote 18: See Table II, at the end of this article.]

This is obvious——for if the equivalent of a pure alkali or of
its carbonate (_i. e._ one of 100%) requires an equiv. (100
alkalimeter-divisions, or 1000 gr.) of test-acid to saturate it, an alkali
or alkaline carbonate of 75%, 50%, or 25%, will respectively require only
75, 50, or 25 divisions, or 750, 500, or 250 gr.; and so of other
strengths in proportion. The only precaution necessary is always to take
the standard weight for the assay answering to the equiv. of the
denomination of the per-centage result sought. Thus, in testing a
carbonate of potash, we may either wish to determine its per-centage
richness in ‘dry carbonate,’ or in ‘pure potassa,’ the latter being
usually the case. To obtain the first, we must take 69 gr. for the assay;
and to obtain the second, 47 gr. With _CAUSTIC ALKALIES_, or mixtures
containing them, the weight, in grains, taken for the assay, must always
correspond to the equiv. of the pure base. See Table II, at the end of
this article.

In _commercial assays_, when 100 gr. (or some aliquot part thereof) are
taken for trial, the per-centage result is obtained from the number of
alkalimeter-divisions, or the number of grains, of the test-acid consumed,
by the common Rule of Proportion. Thus:——A crude sample of potash having
taken 90 alkalimeter-divisions of test-acid to neutralise it, would

  100 : 47 :: 90 : 42·30%

or nearly 42-1/3 per cent. of pure potassa. If only 50, 25, or 20 gr. are
tested, the result must, of course, be double, quadruple, &c., as the case
may be. Or the third term of the proportion may be multiplied by the
denominator of the fraction representing the aliquot part. This, in the
case of 50 gr. (repeating the above example), would be——

  10 : 47 :: 45 × 2 : 42·30%

as before; but even these easy calculations may be simplified, as is shown

One of the advantages, and not the least, attending the use of test-acids
corresponding to equivalents, is, that by means of the simple Rule of
Three, the per-centage quantity of alkali may be found whether 100 or any
other number of grains have been submitted to trial. For——The weight of
the sample tested (in grains) bears the same relation to the equivalent
weight of the alkali under examination, that the number of
alkalimeter-divisions or of the grains of test-acid consumed do to the
per-centage of alkali sought. Thus, with a sample of 33 gr. of pearlash
taking 35 alkalimeter-divisions or 350 grains (every 10 gr. being = 1%) of
test-acid for neutralisation, this would be——

  33 : 47 :: 35 : 49·85%

or nearly 50 per cent. of pure potassa. By substituting the equiv. of the
dry carbonate of potash (69), for that of pure potassa used above, the
quantity of that article corresponding to the same weight of the pure
alkali may be at once found. Repeating the last example this will be——

  33 : 69 :: 35 : 73·18%

or nearly 73-1/4 per cent. The same applies to all the alkaline bases and
their carbonates.

For commercial purposes, there is used, amongst others, an empirical
solution, as a test-acid for potassa, soda, and ammonia, to save the
necessity of calculation.

This is dilute sulphuric acid having a sp. gr. of about 1·071; 100
alkalimeter-divisions (1000 water-grains measure) exactly saturate 100 gr.
of pure potassa, or 113 gr. of anhydrous carbonate of soda. The number of
measures consumed, read off by mere inspection from the scale of the
alkalimeter, gives the exact per-centage of alkali in the sample examined,
for POTASH; and by multiplying it by ·66, that for SODA also. By employing
·362 as the multiplier, it gives the like result for AMMONIA. In fact,
occasionally, in order to save the necessity of any calculation, two
‘test-acids’ are frequently employed——the one for potash and the other for

These are made by diluting sulphuric acid to a sp. gr. of near 1·071 and
1·086 respectively; 1000 grains, by measure, of the first neutralising
exactly 100 grains of pure potassa, or 113 of pure anhydrous soda
carbonate, and the latter neutralising exactly 100 grains of pure soda, or
171 gr. of pure anhydrous sodium carbonate.

There is another system of preparing standard acids by means of a
Faraday’s alkalimeter. A strong acid is prepared by diluting sulphuric
acid to a sp. gr. of 1·1268 at 60°, and 455·7 grains exactly neutralise
100 of anhydrous carbonate of soda.

The glass tube here referred to, and known as Faraday’s ALKALIMETER, is
graduated centesimally, in the usual manner; but opposite the numbers
22·1, 48·62, 54·43, and 65, are cut the words ‘soda,’ ‘potassa,’
‘carbonate of soda,’ and ‘carbonate of potassa,’ to indicate the quantity
of the test-acid to be employed for each of these substances. (See
_engr._) It is used by pouring the test-liquor into it until it reaches
the line marked against the alkali, or carbonate, under examination, the
remaining divisions being filled up with pure water, and the whole well
mixed by placing the thumb on the orifice of the tube and shaking it well.
The measure of the resulting dilute acid must then be very carefully
observed, and more water added, if required, to bring it up to the zero
(0) or 1000 gr. on the scale; careful agitation being again employed as
before. The test-acid thus prepared is then added, with the usual
precautions, to the sample until exact neutralisation is effected. The
quantity consumed for this purpose, read off from the graduated scale,
expresses the exact per-centage of the pure ALKALI, or of its CARBONATE,
as the case may be, contained in the sample examined, provided 100 gr.
have been taken for the assay.


Another method sometimes used is that of M. Mohr, and practised as
follows:——The alkaline solution, slightly coloured blue with litmus, is
strongly super-saturated with a standard acid (sulphuric or oxalic) of
known strength, supplied from an alkalimeter in the usual manner; the last
traces of carbonic anhydride being removed by boiling, shaking, blowing
into the flask, and, finally, sucking out the air. A standard solution of
caustic soda (of a strength exactly corresponding to that of the test-acid
already used) is now cautiously added, drop by drop, until the colour,
rendered yellowish-red by the acid, just appears of a light blue. The
difference between the quantity of the solution of the test-alkali and of
the test-acid consumed, expresses the exact quantity of acid neutralised
by the alkali, and hence also its strength.

Besides the above methods, the alkaline carbonates are analysed, by the
loss of carbonic anhydride (carbonic acid) they suffer, by being
decomposed by a strong acid. The best method in use is that of MM.
Fresenius and Will, and depends on the same principle, and is performed in
a similar manner and in a similar apparatus to that described under
ACIDIMETRY; the only difference being that here the uses of the small tube
(_e_) is dispensed with, and that the alkali is tested under the form of
carbonate, instead of bicarbonate.

_Oper._ The smaller flask (_B_) is about half filled with concentrated
sulphuric acid, and the sample of alkali, in solution (under the form of
carbonate), being placed in the larger flask (_A_), water is added until
it is about one third full. The tubes are then fitted into the apparatus
quite air-tight; the end of the tube (_b_) is fastened with a piece of
wax, and the whole is very carefully weighed. The apparatus is now removed
from the scales, and a perforated cork, or a small piece of india-rubber
tube, being temporarily applied to the end of the tube (_h_), a few
bubbles of air are sucked out of the flask (_B_) by means of the lips; the
consequence of which is, that on removing the mouth the acid in (_B_)
ascends to a certain height in the tube (_c_). If in a short time this
little column of liquid maintains its height in the tube, it is a proof
that the apparatus is perfectly air-tight, and as it should be. Suction is
now again cautiously applied to the tube (_h_) and a little of the acid in
(_B_) made to flow over into the flask (_A_), the quantity being
proportionate to the vacuum produced by suction, and capable of being
regulated at will. No sooner does the acid come into contact with the
carbonate in the flask (_A_) than the evolution of carbonic acid
commences, and this, from the construction of the apparatus, having to
pass through the concentrated sulphuric acid, is rendered quite dry before
it can escape by the tube (_d_) into the atmosphere. Whenever the
effervescence flags, a little more acid is sucked over, until the whole of
the carbonate is decomposed; after which an additional quantity is made to
pass into (_A_), so as to raise the temperature considerably, for the
purpose of expelling all the gas absorbed by the fluid during the
operation. As soon as this is effected, the wax is removed from the
aperture (_b_), and suction applied to (_h_), until all the carbonic acid
in the apparatus is replaced by atmospheric air. The whole is now allowed
to cool, and (together with the piece of wax removed) is again accurately
weighed. The loss of weight gives the exact amount of dry carbonic
anhydride, or anhydrous carbonic acid, which was contained in the
specimen, from which the weight of PURE ALKALI is readily estimated, as
every 22 gr. of dry carbonic acid gas evolved represents exactly 31 gr. of
pure SODA, 47 gr. of pure POTASSA, &c. &c.; these numbers being the
equivalents of the respective substances from which the per-centage
strength may be found by the rule of proportion, as before explained.

Thus, in the case of a 100-gr. sample of carbonate of soda which has lost
15-1/4 gr. of carbonic acid, by the assay, this would be——

  22 : 31 :: 15-1/4 : 21·48%

or nearly 21-1/2 per cent. of pure soda. If 53, the equiv. of anhydrous
carbonate of soda, be taken, instead of 31 (the eq. of pure soda), the
answer would have been, in the terms of that substance, 36·748%, or nearly
36-3/4 per cent. When an aliquot part of 100 gr. has been taken for the
assay, either the result, or the third term of the proportion, must, of
course, he multiplied by the denominator and divided by the numerator of
the fraction representing such aliquot part.

By multiplying the weight of carbonic anhydride lost, by the numbers
opposite the names of the respective alkalies and their carbonates in the
second column of the following _Table_ the equivalent per-centage value of
the carbonates examined may be obtained in terms corresponding to the
various denominations named therein, when 100 gr., or any aliquot part of
100 gr., have been tested; the result, in the latter case, being, of
course, multiplied as before.

By taking certain standard weights for the assay, the quantity of carbonic
acid evolved may be made to furnish the per-centage strength or value of
the specimen in the terms of either the pure or carbonated alkalies,
whether in their anhydrous or hydrated state. The numbers in the second
column of the following _Table_ represent the quantity in grains and
decimal parts of each of the substances named in the first column,
equivalent to one grain of carbonic anhydride. These numbers, as already
mentioned, may be employed as factors for converting any numbers
representing grains of that acid into the equivalents of these substances,
true to 4 places of decimals; and further, they furnish us with the data
for determining the exact number of grains which must be tested, so that
the loss of weight in carbonic anhydride shall at once give us the
per-centage richness of the sample in the terms of the denomination for
which it is taken. The numbers in the third column of the _Table_, formed
by simply moving the decimal point of the numbers in the second column one
figure further to the right, indicate the weights to be taken for the
assay, so that the loss of weight, reckoned in tenths of a grain, exactly
represents the per-centage strength in the terms sought. The weights
corresponding to the numbers in the fifth column give the same results,
provided the loss of weight is reckoned in quarter-grains; those in the
sixth column effect the same when the loss of weight is reckoned in
half-grains; whilst those in the last column require that the gas
eliminated should be counted in grains, and are simply the numbers in the
second column of the _Table_ multiplied by 100, or reproduced by moving
the decimal point two figures to the right.

        TABLE I.——_Multipliers and Standard Weights for the
        Principal Alkalies and their Carbonates._ (COOLEY.)


    A - Factors or Multipliers for converting the weight of carbonic
        acid expelled into real strengths.
    B - Quantity (in grains) to be taken, so that the per-centage
        value of the sample tested shall be shown in the terms of
        any of the denominations given, by the weight of the evolved
        Carbonic Acid reckoned——
    C - in tenths of a grain.
    D - Whole numbers and decimals.
    E - Nearest common numbers.
    F - in quarter-grains.
    G - in half-grains.
    H - in grains.

                         |       |                    B                      |
                         |       |--------------------^----------------------+
           NAMES, &c     |       |      C        |         |        |        |
                         |       |------^--------|         |        |        |
                         |   A   |   D  |   E    |    F    |    G   |   H    |
  AMMONIA                |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  (pure, gaseous)        | ·77273| 7·727| 7-3/4  | 19-1/3  | 38-5/8 | 77-3/0 |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  Carbonate of ammonia   |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  (neutral, anhydrous)   |1·77273|17·727|17-3/4  | 44-5/16 | 88-5/8 |177-1/4 |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  Carbonate of ammonia   |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  (neutral,              |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  crystallised)          |1·9773 |19·773|19-3/4  | 49-7/16 | 98-7/8 |197-3/4 |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  Sesquicarbonate of     |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  ammonia (translucent)  |2·6818 |26·818|26-13/16| 67-1/10 |134-1/10|268-1/5 |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  Bicarbonate of ammonia |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  (crystallised)         |3·5909 |35·909|35-9/10 | 89-13/16|179-5/8 |359-1/10|
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  POTASSA (anhydrous)    |2·1364 |21·364|21-1/2  | 53-1/2  |107     |213-3/8 |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  Hydrate of potassa     |2·54546|25·455|25-5/11 | 63-5/8  |127-1/4 |254-1/2 |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  Carbonate of potassa   |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  (anhydrous)            |3·1364 |31·364|31-3/8  | 78-1/2  |157     |313-1/2 |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  Carbonate of potassa   |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  (granulated)           |3·7727 |37·727|37-1/2  | 94-3/10 |188-5/8 |377-1/4 |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  Carbonate of potassa   |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  (crystallised)         |3·9545 |39·545|39-5/8  | 99      |198     |395-1/2 |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  Bicarbonate of potassa |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  (crystallised)         |4·5454 |45·454|45-1/2  |113-3/4  |227-1/2 |454-1/2 |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  SODA (anhydrous)       |1·4091 |14·09 |14-1/10 | 35-1/4  | 70-1/2 |141     |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  Hydrate of soda        |1·8182 |18·182|18-1/5  | 45-1/2  | 91     |182     |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  Carbonate of soda      |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  (anhydrous)            |2·4091 |24·091|24-1/10 | 60-1/4  |120-1/2 |241     |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  Carbonate of soda      |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  (crystallised)         |6·5    |65·   |65      |162-1/2  |325     |650     |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  Sesquicarbonate of soda|       |      |        |         |        |        |
  (dry; theoretical)     |2·9091 |29·091|29-1/10 | 72-1/2  |145     |290     |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  Sesquicarbonate of     |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  soda (Ph. L., 1836)    |3·7273 |37·273|37-1/4  | 93-1/4  |186-1/2 |373     |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  Sesquicarbonate of     |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  soda (average          |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  commercial)            |3·7954 |37·954|38      | 94-7/8  |189-3/4 |379-1/2 |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  Bicarbonate of soda    |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  (crystallised)         |3·8182 |38·182|38-1/5  | 95-1/2  |191     |382     |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  LITHIA (pure,          |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  anhydrous)             | ·6818 | 6·818| 6-13/16| 17-1/20 | 34-1/10| 68-1/5 |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  BARYTA (pure,          |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  caustic)               |3·4773 |34·773|34-4/5  | 86-7/8  |173-7/8 |347-3/4 |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  LIME (pure, caustic)   |1·2727 |12·727|12-3/4  | 31-3/4  | 63-5/8 |127-1/4 |
                         |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  MAGNESIA (pure,        |       |      |        |         |        |        |
  anhydrous)             | ·90909| 9·091| 9-1/11 | 22-3/4  | 45-1/2 | 91     |

In this ingenious method of alkalimetry it is absolutely necessary that
the whole of the alkali in the specimen tested should be in the state of
neutral carbonate. If a sample of potash contains any caustic alkali (as
the potashes and pearlash of commerce generally do), Fresenius and Will
direct it, previously to being tested, to be triturated with its own
weight of pure quartzose sand, and about one third of its weight of
carbonate of ammonia; and the resulting mixture, placed in a small iron
capsule, or a porcelain crucible, to be moistened with water, and exposed
to a gentle heat until it becomes quite dry, and all the ammonia is
expelled. If the sample contains any bicarbonate or sesquicarbonate, it
must be heated to dull redness before being placed in the apparatus and
tested. In the case of crude soda (particularly soda ash), the proportion
of carbonate of ammonia should be equal to at least one half the quantity
operated on. With both alkalies, if the sample contains sulphides,
sulphites, or hyposulphites, the same method is to be followed, except
that solution of ammonia, instead of water, is to be employed for
moistening the powder. To remedy the error which would arise from the
apparent amount of carbonic anhydride liberated during the assay, being
swelled by the disengagement of ‘sulphuretted hydrogen’ or sulphurous acid
from these substances, a small quantity of neutral (_i. e._ yellow)
chromate of potash may be added to the alkaline solution in the flask
(_A_); by which they will be converted into sulphates, sulphur, and water,
which will remain in the apparatus, the carbonic acid only being evolved.
“As most sorts of soda of commerce contain one or other of the substances
(just) named, and as it is far more simple to add at once some chromate of
potassa to the soda solution, than to test the latter for either of the
three salts, it is always advisable to make it a rule, in the examination
of SODA, to add some chromate of potassa.” (Fresenius.)

If the sodium or other carbonate under analysis contains much chloride,
the addition of more sulphuric acid than necessary must be avoided, and
the carbonic anhydride expelled by gently heating over a warm bath, and
not by the addition of excess of acid.


To obviate the difficulties, and to give greater precision and delicacy to
volumetrical assays, the instrument known as Mohr’s ALKALIMETER, or Mohr’s
BURETTE, and which is figured in the margin, may be employed. By means of
it the test-acid in the graduated tube (_a_) may be added to the alkaline
solution in (_f_), in any quantity at a time, however minute, by merely
pressing the handles of the clamp (_d_) with the thumb and finger. The
terminal tube (_e_) has its lower orifice very small, and it is connected
with the burette by means of a small piece of vulcanised india-rubber
tube, on which the clamp (_d_) acts. (See _engr._) The inner cylindrical
part of the arm (_b_) is lined with cork, to prevent injury to the glass
burette, and to hold it the more firmly.

Generally the alkali in the specimen examined may be in either the caustic
or carbonated state, or it may consist of any mixture of caustic alkali,
or carbonates; but it is absolutely necessary for accurate results, that
it should be free from sulphides, sulphites, and hyposulphites, as
sulphuric acid acts upon these substances as well as on carbonates. The
presence of chlorides does not interfere with the accuracy of the assay,
unless a higher degree of heat is employed than that necessary for the
expulsion of the absorbed carbonic acid. The SODA-ASH of commerce
generally contains all these substances besides common salt, sulphate of
soda, and insoluble matter, which do not interfere. Rough samples of
POT-ASHES and PEARL-ASH also generally contain some sulphides, though not
a large quantity. Various plans have been proposed to avoid this source of
error. The best is that of MM. Fresenius and Will, given above, in which
the value of the carbonates is estimated by their yield of carbonic

The difference between an assay of a sample of the unprepared alkali and
of another which has been treated as above, indicates the quantity of
impurities contained in them under the forms just referred to. The
presence of these substances in the commercial alkalies may be detected by
the following tests:——

_Sulphides._ The addition of sulphuric acid causes the evolution of an
odour like that of rotten eggs. The sample in solution yields a black
precipitate with acetate of lead. But the most delicate test is the
splendid violet-blue colour with nitro-prusside of sodium.

_Sulphites and Hyposulphites._ A solution of the alkali, insufficient for
saturation, being added to sulphuric acid tinged reddish yellow with
bichromate of potash, occasions a greenish tinge (owing to the formation
of oxide of chromium), when these are present. Hydrochloric acid added to
a clear solution, after some time, causes a turbidity and odour of
sulphurous anhydride.

_Chlorides_ yield a copious curdy precipitate with nitrate of silver,
soluble in ammonia, and reprecipitated by excess of nitric acid.

The amount of pure caustic alkali in a sample of alkali is best determined
by Fresenius’s method, as follows:——The total amount of pure alkali, both
caustic and carbonated, expressed in per-cents. of carbonate of soda or
carbonate of potassa, is ascertained by any of the usual methods. The
apparent quantity of alkali per cent. is then determined, without previous
treatment of the sample with carbonate of ammonia, by the method of Will
and Fresenius (p. 86). The difference between the results indicates the
per-centage of dry caustic alkali present; or if the volumetric method be
in use, it can be often fairly estimated by adding the first portions of
the test-acid very gradually to the sample, carefully observing the
effect. When the effervescence at length commences the weight or measure
of the test-liquor expended shows the quantity of pure caustic alkali
under treatment (nearly). The result depends upon the fact, that little or
no carbonic-acid gas is expelled from the liquid on the addition of the
test-acid, until the caustic portion is very nearly neutralised.

The quantity of WATER or MOISTURE, per cent., present in an alkaline
carbonate, is indicated by the loss of weight which 100 gr. suffer on
gentle ignition in a loosely-covered iron dish or platinum crucible. So
also with samples containing caustic alkali, except that here the water of
hydration (= 1 equiv. = 9) is not expelled from the ‘caustic’ portion, and
must therefore be determined by calculation.

Other matters deserving the serious attention of the operator are——hitting
the exact point of neutralisation, and——preparing the test-acids of the
proper strength. The method of effecting the former correctly has been
already referred to in this article, and is also fully noticed under

_Test-acids_ may be very simply prepared by gradually diluting
concentrated sulphuric acid with water until it is reduced to the proper
strength; the dilution being made in a glass vessel containing a
‘hydrostatic bead’ exactly corresponding to the desired specific gravity
of the dilute acid. When the proper point is reached, and the mixture has
again acquired the normal temperature of 60° Fahr., the bead rises from
the bottom of the vessel, and floats about indifferently in the middle of
the liquid. The sp. gr. may then he carefully ascertained by means of an
hydrometer or a specific gravity bottle; after which the strength must be
accurately determined by means of a standard solution of either pure
anhydrous carbonate of soda or pure caustic soda. An acid of any given
strength or saturating power may also be prepared in the following
manner:——49 parts of commercial sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol), sp. gr.
1·825, contain nearly 40 parts or 1 equiv. of anhydrous sulphuric acid; if
we, therefore, wish to prepare a dilute acid containing in every 1000
grains weight, or measure, exactly 1 equiv. of hydrated sulphuric acid, we
have only to make 49 gr. of such acid up to 100 gr. weight or measure with
pure water. After it has recovered the proper temperature, its sp. gr., or
rather its saturating power, must be carefully tried, and, if necessary,
readjusted. As, however, it very often happens that the oil of vitriol
employed is not so strong as that above referred to, it is better first to
test its strength with pure anhydrous carbonate of soda, and to calculate
the quantity required by the Rule of Proportion. Every 53 gr. of the dry
carbonate are equal to 40 gr. of ‘dry sulphuric acid.’ Suppose we find the
oil of vitriol to contain only 72% of hydrated acid, then——

  100 : 40 :: 72 : 55·55

or, instead of only 40 gr., fully 55-1/4 gr. will be required, which are
to be made up with water to 1000 gr., as before. Finally, the diluted acid
must be very carefully re-tested, and if found correct, at once put into a
well-stoppered bottle, and labelled, for use. Too much care cannot be
taken to ensure the test-liquid, whether for alkalies or acids, being of
the proper strength, of which the specific gravity alone is an
insufficient proof. In practice, so small a quantity only of test-acid as
that referred to above is, of course, seldom made; but as any larger
quantities are mere multiples of the smaller one, the necessary
proportions to be employed are easily calculated. The common plan is to
prepare one or more gallons or quantities of 10 lbs. each, and to preserve
the liquid in stoppered green glass ‘Winchester-quart bottles,’ so that it
may be always ready for use.

Although, as may be inferred from the text, sulphuric acid is generally
used as the standard acid, yet oxalic acid in pure crystals is recommended
by M. Mohr, and answers admirably, and is prepared and used exactly in the
same manner.

        TABLE II.——_Alkalimetrical Equivalents._

                                       { 17 AMMONIA (pure or gaseous).
                                       { 43-1/2 Carbonate of ammonia
                                       {                 (neutral, hydrated).
                                       { 59 Sesquicarbonate of ammonia
                                       {     (Ph. L.; translucent, hydrated).
                                       { 79   Bicarbonate of ammonia
                                       {                      (crystallised).
                                       { 47   POTASSA (anhydrous).
                                       { 56   Hydrate of potassa (pure
                                       {                    caustic potassa).
                                       { 69   Carbonate of potassa
                                       {                         (anhydrous).
                                       { 83      ”           ”   (granulated,
                                       {                         commercial).
                                       { 87      ”           ”
                                       {                      (crystallised).
                                       {100 Bicarbonate of potassa
                                       {                      (crystallised).
  Grains                               { 31 SODA (anhydrous).
    22 Carbonic anhydride   }          { 40 Hydrate of soda (pure caustic
           (dry).           }          {                               soda).
    63 Oxalic acid          }          { 53 Carbonate of soda (anhydrous).
           (crystallised).  }          {143     ”          ”  (crystallised).
    49 Sulphuric acid       }    are   { 84 Bicarbonate of soda
           (liquid,         }equivalent{                      (crystallised).
           monohydrated,    }   to     { 83-1/2 Sesquicarbonate of soda
           sp. gr. 1·8485). }          {                (average commercial).
    75 Tartaric acid        }          { 84 Bicarbonate of soda (crystals,
           (crystallised).  }          {                 or cryst. powder,
  1000 Dilute sulphuric acid}          {                 free from moisture).
           (sp. gr. 1·033). }          {                ============
                            }          {
  Water——gr. measure.       }          { 15 LITHIA.
  1000 Dilute sulphuric     }          { 24 Hydrate of lithia.
      acid (sp. gr. 1·032). }          { 37 Carbonate of lithia.
                                       {                ============
                                       { 76-1/2 BARYTA (pure, caustic).
                                       { 85-1/2 Hydrate of baryta.
                                       { 98-1/2 Carbonate of baryta.
                                       { 28 LIME (pure, caustic;
                                       {                 _i. e._ quick-lime).
                                       { 37 Hydrate of lime (slaked lime).
                                       { 50 Carbonate of lime
                                       {                     (chalk; marble).
                                       { 20 MAGNESIA (pure, calcined).
                                       { 42 Carbonate of magnesia (dry,
                                       {                            neutral).
                                       { 48-1/2  ”          ”     (ordinary
                                       {                          commercial).
                                       { 52 STRONIA (pure, caustic).
                                       { 61 Hydrate of strontia.
                                       { 74 Carbonate of strontia.

-IDES, or -IDÆ), L.; ALCALOÏDE, ALCALI ORGANIQUE, Fr. In _chemistry_, a
name commonly given to any proximate principle of vegetable origin
possessing alkaline or basic properties, however feeble. In its most
extended sense the term embraces all organic bases, whether obtained from
the animal or vegetable kingdom, or produced artificially. The alkaloids
form a numerous and important class of bodies. They exist in nature nearly
always in the form of salts, the acid being often, like themselves,
peculiar to the plant, or class of plants, in which they are found; whilst
the medicinal activity of the latter, in most cases, almost entirely
depends on their presence.

_Prep._ The following general methods of procuring the alkaloids will be
found applicable to such as full directions are not given for under their
respective heads:——

1. (When the base is insoluble in water, non-volatile, and existing in the
plant in an insoluble form.) The bruised plant is boiled or macerated in
water acidulated with hydrochloric or acetic acid, and the liquor, after
filtration, is neutralised with an alkali (ammonia, potassa, lime, or
magnesia); the resulting precipitate is purified by re-solution in dilute
acid, digestion with a little animal charcoal, and subsequent
crystallisation, or re-precipitation with an alkali; or the first
precipitate is purified by dissolving it once, or, if necessary, several
times, in boiling alcohol, which yields the pure alkaloid either on
cooling or by evaporation.

2. (When the base is insoluble in water, and non-volatile, but existing in
the plant as a soluble salt.) The bruised or sliced plant is boiled or
macerated in water, and the filtered liquor precipitated and otherwise
treated as before.

3. (When the base is soluble in water, and non-volatile.) An infusion made
with very dilute acid, hydrochloric or acetic, is concentrated by a gentle
heat; and the residual liquor treated with potassa (or concentrated
solution of ammonia) and ether conjointly; after repose, the ethereal
solution is decanted and evaporated. For those alkaloids which are
insoluble in ether (as morphia and cinchonia), the previous process may be

4. (When the base is both soluble in water and volatile.) The vegetable,
in a bruised or divided state, or its extract, is alkalised with potassa
and distilled; the distillate is neutralised with dilute oxalic or
sulphuric acid, and carefully evaporated to dryness; the residuum is next
digested in alcohol, and the resulting tincture agitated with potassa and
ether, the former being in quantity just sufficient to seize on all the
acid; lastly, the ethereal solution thus formed, on careful evaporation,
leaves the alkaloid nearly pure. It may be further purified by cautious

As some of the alkaloids are soluble in excess of the alkaline
precipitant, over-saturation should be carefully avoided; or the
precipitant may be used under the form of carbonate or bicarbonate. When
lime and magnesia are employed, they are boiled for a few minutes with the

_Props._ Alcoholic or aqueous solutions of the alkaloids generally exhibit
an alkaline reaction with vegetable colours. Like the alkalies, also, they
combine with acids to form salts which, when dissolved in water, are
capable of producing the ordinary phenomena of saline double
decomposition. Their taste is usually intensely bitter.

The majority of the natural alkaloids contain carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen,
and oxygen, and are, at ordinary temperatures, solid, and not volatile
without decomposition. Some natural alkaloids contain carbon, hydrogen,
and nitrogen only; these are, for the most part, liquid at ordinary
temperatures, and can be distilled without decomposition. The greater
number of the artificial alkalies are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and
nitrogen; some, however, contain oxygen in addition. Alkaloids have also
been obtained artificially, in which nitrogen is replaced by phosphorus,
arsenic, antimony, or bismuth. Most of the alkaloids, as they are obtained
in the free state, correspond in function to ammonia, NH_{3}, rather than
to the fixed alkalies; that is to say, they form salts by direct union
with acids, without elimination of water or any other substance. In order
to make them strictly comparable to the fixed alkalies, they require, like
ammonia, the addition of water (H_{2}O) to their formulæ; they may then be
considered as hydrates of compound radicles analogous to ammonium.

_Physiological action._ The alkaloids generally possess great medicinal
power; some of them act with terrific energy, and are the most violent
poisons with which we are acquainted. Perfectly pure aconitia is about 200
times more poisonous than arsenic, and at least 50 times more poisonous
than ordinary medicinal prussic acid. The greater number act on animals in
the same way as the plants which produce them, provided they are given in
proportionately small doses. Many of them, when judiciously administered,
are most valuable medicines.

_Pois., Ant., &c._ Some of the alkaloids act as narcotic or stupefying
poisons; others are classed with the narcotico-acrid poisons, or those
which produce both narcotism and irritation of the parts they touch. The
general symptoms produced by opium and its preparations may be taken as an
example of the former; those from aconite and strychnia, of the latter. In
large doses of the greater number, narcotism predominates; in smaller
ones, irritation; they are rarely coexistent.——_Treatm._ No common
antidote to the effects of this class of substances has yet been
discovered. The only safe treatment, of at all general application, is to
immediately clear the stomach by means of a strong and quick-acting emetic
(as sulphate of zinc), or the stomach-pump, and to administer copious and
continued draughts of astringent vegetable solutions (as of tannin,
nut-galls, oak-bark, or what is always at hand——very strong tea or
coffee). These may be followed by or combined with a smart purge of castor
oil, as soon as the stomach is thoroughly cleared of the poison. M.
Bouchardat strongly recommends a solution of iodine, 3 gr., and iodide of
potassium, 6 gr., in pure water, 16 fl. oz., in cases of poisoning by
by the alkaloids obtained from them——ACONITINE, ATROPIA, COLCHICINA,
CONIA, MORPHIA, STRYCHNIA, &c., or their salts; but _not_ where foxglove
or digitalin has been taken. The stomach having been well emptied by an
emetic, the solution is to be given by wine-glassfuls for some time; the
vomiting being still encouraged during the early part of the
administration of the antidote. In the case of narcotics (as opium,
morphia, &c.), this is to be followed by the free use of a strong infusion
of coffee. According to Dr Garrod, purified animal charcoal is an
‘excellent antidote’ to many of the alkaloids, including those above
enumerated, when taken in poisonous doses; as it not merely absorbs them,
but, for the most part, renders them inert. To be serviceable it should be
recently prepared and fresh-burnt; and should be given in doses of about
an ounce at a time, diffused in warm or tepid water, and frequently
repeated. The vomiting which follows its use, owing to the warm water,
proves advantageous; but after a sufficient time may be lessened by
employing less water, or cooler or even cold water. Drowsiness, if
present, may be combated by the subsequent use of strong coffee or tea, as
before. We have seen this plan succeed in several cases.——_Lesions._
These, like the symptoms, vary. In some cases there are redness and
inflammation of the stomach and intestines, and turgescence of the vessels
of the lungs and brain; in others, these appearances are either slight or
wholly wanting. Wherever there has been much cerebral disturbance, traces
of congestion are usually discernible.

_Detec., Tests, &c._ The identification of the pure alkaloids is extremely
simple; but their detection, when combined with organic and colouring
matters, is a task of considerable difficulty. One or other of the
following plans may be adopted for this purpose:——

1. (Merck.) The matter under examination is digested, for several hours,
with concentrated acetic acid, added in sufficient quantity to produce a
strongly acid reaction; the fluid portion is then strained from the
insoluble matter, and the latter being washed with water acidulated with
acetic acid, the mixed liquors are gently evaporated to dryness in a water
bath; the residuum of the evaporation is boiled first with rectified
spirit, and next with rectified spirit acidulated with acetic acid; the
mixed liquors are again evaporated, the residuum redissolved or diluted
with distilled water, and carbonate of soda or potassa added to feebly
alkaline reaction, and the whole, after evaporation to the consistence of
a syrup, set aside to repose for 24 hours; it is now again diluted with
water, filtered, and the insoluble portion washed with cold distilled
water, and digested with concentrated acetic acid; this last solution is
diluted with distilled water, and decoloured with pure blood-charcoal (if
it be necessary); the fluid, either at once, or after cautious
evaporation, may then be tested for the alkaloids, in the usual manner.
The charcoal previously used should also be tested in the way described
below. This method answers admirably with all the NON-VOLATILE ALKALOIDS,
and may be applied to the stomach and viscera, and their contents, and to
food, &c., in cases of poisoning.

2. (Stas.) The suspected matter, in a finely divided state, is digested,
at 160° to 165° Fahr., with twice or thrice its weight of strong alcohol
acidulated (according to the quantity) with 1/2 dr. to 2 or 3 dr., or
more, of pure oxalic or tartaric acid. After a sufficient time, and when
the whole has become quite cold, it is thrown on a filter, and the
undissolved portion, after being squeezed dry, is washed with strong
alcohol. The mixed and filtered alcoholic liquids are then evaporated at a
temperature not exceeding 95° Fahr., and, if no insoluble matter
separates, the evaporation is continued nearly to dryness;[19] but if
fatty or other insoluble matter separates during the process of
concentration, the concentrated fluid is passed through a moistened
filter, and the filtrate evaporated nearly to dryness, as before. The
residuum is next digested with absolute alcohol, in the cold, the
insoluble portion, after filtration, washed with alcohol, and the mixed
filtrates again evaporated in the air, or in vacuo. The acid residue is
now dissolved in a little distilled water, and bicarbonate of soda added
as long as effervescence ensues. To this mixture 4 or 5 times its volume
of ether is added, and after lengthened agitation (the bottle or tube
being held in a cold wet cloth), the whole is allowed to repose for a
short time. A little of the supernatant ether is now removed to a small
glass capsule or watch-glass, and allowed to evaporate spontaneously.[19]
When this leaves oily streaks upon the glass, which gradually collect into
a small drop, which emits, when gently heated, a disagreeable, pungent,
and stifling odour, the presence of a LIQUID VOLATILE BASE or ALKALOID is
inferred; whilst a solid residue or a turbid fluid with small solid
particles floating in it, indicates a NON-VOLATILE SOLID BASE.[20] In
either case the blue colour of reddened litmus is permanently restored by
the residuum. If no residuum is left on the capsule, some solution of pure
soda or potassa is added to the liquid, the whole well agitated for
several minutes, and the ether (after repose) decanted; an operation which
is repeated with fresh ether a second, third, and even a fourth time. The
base, or bases (if any are present), will now be found in the mixed
ethereal solution, which is, therefore, tested as before. The presence of
an alkaloid being detected, the mixed ethereal solutions are allowed to
evaporate spontaneously, care being taken, if a volatile alkaloid be
present, to neutralise the liquid with an acid before the final
evaporation. The last residuum is then tested for the particular alkaloid
present, as before.[21]

[Footnote 19: The evaporation, according to Stas, should be conducted
under a bell-glass over sulphuric acid, with or without rarefaction of the
air; or in a tubular retort through which a current of air is made to

[Footnote 20: A merely disagreeable animal odour, without pungency, is
here disregarded.]

[Footnote 21: ‘Bulletin de l’Académie de Méd. Belgique,’ ix, 304; ‘Jahrb.
f. prakt. Pharm,’ xxiv, 313; &c.]

This method, according to Stas, answers well for all the ALKALOIDS which
are soluble in ether; including——ACONITIA, ANILINE, ATROPIA, BRUCIA,
of it Stas found nicotia in the heart-blood of a poisoned dog. With such
alkaloids as are, however, only very sparingly soluble in ether (as
morphia for instance), the result must, necessarily, be doubtful. To
detect these, as well as all the alkaloids which are insoluble in ether,
it is, therefore, necessary, as directed by Otto, to add to the alkaline
fluid left by the decantation of the ether, sufficient solution of soda to
dissolve the morphia, &c. (if any has separated), and after the expulsion
of the last traces of the ether by a gentle heat, to add a concentrated
solution of hydrochlorate of ammonia, and to allow the mixture to repose
for some time in the open air. When MORPHIA is present, it separates under
the form of small crystals.[22] Or the alkaline liquor may be diluted with
distilled water, and treated with charcoal, and this with alcohol, in the
manner noticed under method 4 (_below_).

[Footnote 22: Otto’s ‘How to Detect Poisons.’]

4. (Graham and Hoffmann——slightly modified.) 2 or 3 oz. of purified animal
charcoal are digested in about 1/2 gal. of the (neutral or only slightly
acid) aqueous fluid under examination, with frequent agitation, for 10 to
12 hours, or longer. The liquid is then filtered, and the charcoal left on
the filter is washed twice with cold distilled water. The charcoal
is then boiled for 1/2 an hour with about 1/2 a pint of rectified spirit
of 80 or 90%; the ebullition being conducted in a flask having a very long
tube, open at both ends, fitted air-tight through the cork, to prevent
loss of the alcohol by evaporation. The spirit, which now contains the
alkaloid (if any was present in the original liquor), is next filtered
whilst hot, and the filtrate is submitted to distillation until the whole
of the alcohol is removed. A small quantity (commonly a few drops) of
solutions of potassa is then added to the residual aqueous liquor,
followed by 1 to 2 fl. oz. of pure ether, after which the whole is well
agitated for several minutes, and allowed to repose for a short time.
Lastly, the supernatant ether is decanted, and allowed to evaporate
spontaneously, when the residuum (if any) left in the capsule may be
tested by reagents, as before.

This method was devised for the detection of STRYCHNIA and NUX VOMICA in
malt-liquors; but it is equally applicable to the detection of ANY
ALKALOID which is soluble in ether. The CHARCOAL TEST may also be employed
to detect alkaloids which are insoluble in ether; but then the base must
be sought in the aqueous residuum obtained by the evaporation of the

[Footnote 23: ‘Journ. of the Chem. Soc.,’ v, 173.]

The presence of the alkaloids and their salts, in clear solutions, may be
thus determined:——

I. (Fresenius).——1. The solution is rendered very slightly alkaline with
dilute solution of potassa or soda, added drop by drop:——

    a. No precipitate is formed; total absence of the alkaloids.
        (See 4, _below_.)

    b. A precipitate is formed:——solution of potassa or soda is
        added, drop by drop, until the liquid exhibits a strong
        alkaline reaction:——

      α. The precipitate redissolves; absence of Brucia, Cinchonia,
          Narcotina, Quina, Strychnia, and Veratria; probable
          presence of MORPHIA.

      β. Precipitate does not redissolve, or not completely;
          probable presence of one or more of the first six of the
          above-named alkaloids:——the fluid is filtered from the
          precipitate, mixed with either bicarbonate of soda or of
          potassa, gently boiled nearly to dryness, and treated with
          water. If it dissolves completely; absence of morphia; an
          insoluble residue indicates MORPHIA.

2. The precipitate 1. _b._ β. is washed with cold distilled water,
dissolved in a slight excess of dilute sulphuric acid, neutralised with a
saturated solution of bicarbonate of soda, and allowed to repose a few

[Footnote 24: Before setting the glass aside the liquor should be well
mixed, and the glass stirrer vigorously rubbed against the sides of the

    _a_. No precipitate; absence of Cinchonia, Narcotina, and
        Quina:——the solution is gently evaporated nearly to dryness,
        and treated with cold water:——if it dissolves completely,
        pass on to 4; if there is an insoluble residue, it may
        contain Brucia, Strychnia, or Veratria. (See 3.)

    _b._ A precipitate:——the filtered fluid is treated as directed
        at 2 _a_.; the precipitate is washed with cold distilled
        water, dissolved in a little hydrochloric acid, ammonia is
        added in excess, and subsequently a sufficient quantity of
        ether, agitation being had recourse to:——

      α. The precipitate formed by the ammonia redissolves
          completely in the ether, and the clear fluid separates
          into two layers; absence of Cinchonia; probable presence
          of QUINA or NARCOTINA.

      β. The precipitate produced by the ammonia does not redissolve
          in the ether, or not completely; probable presence of
          CINCHONIA, and perhaps also of Quina or Narcotina. The
          filtered liquid may be tested for these alkaloids as at

3. The insoluble residuum after the evaporation of the solution 2. _a._,
or of the filtrate 2. _b._, is now dried in a water bath, and digested
with absolute alcohol:——

    _a._ It dissolves completely; absence of strychnia; probable
        presence of BRUCIA, QUINA (?), or VERATRIA:——the alcoholic
        solution is evaporated to dryness, and, if quina has been
        already detected, the residue is divided into two portions,
        one of which is tested for Brucia, the other for Veratria.

    _b._ It does not dissolve, or not completely; probable presence
        of STRYCHNIA, and perhaps also of Brucia and Veratria:——the
        filtered fluid is divided into two portions, and tested
        separately as at _a_.

4. The original liquid 1. _a_. may contain Salicine, a proximate vegetable
principle closely allied to the alkaloids:——a portion is boiled with
hydrochloric acid for some time; the formation of a precipitate shows the
presence of SALICIN. (See 2, _below_.)[25]

[Footnote 25: For further information on this subject, see the admirable
‘System of Qual. Chem. Anal.,’ by Dr C. R. Fresenius. Churchill.]

II. (Larocque and Thibierge.) Terchloride of gold is recommended, by these
writers, as a more decisive test for the alkaloids than the ‘double
chloride of gold and sodium’ commonly employed for this purpose. The
following are the colours of the precipitates which it produces with the
aqueous solution of their salts:——BRUCIA, milk-brown, passing into
coffee-brown, and lastly chocolate-brown:——CINCHONIA, sulphur
yellow:——MORPHIA, yellow, then bluish, and lastly violet; in this last
state the gold is reduced, and the precipitate is insoluble in water,
alcohol, the caustic alkalies, and sulphuric, nitric, and hydrochloric
acid; it forms with aqua regia a solution which is precipitated by
protosulphate of iron:——QUINA, buff-coloured:——STRYCHNIA,
canary-yellow:——VERATRIA, pale greenish-yellow. All these precipitates,
with the exception mentioned, are very soluble in alcohol, insoluble in
ether, and only slightly soluble in water. Those with morphia and brucia
are sufficiently marked to prevent these alkalies from being mistaken for
each other; and those with brucia and strychnia are, in like manner,
easily distinguishable.

III.——Mr Wanklyn discriminates the different alkaloids from the estimation
of the ammonia they evolve. His process is as follows:——A small flask with
a lateral tube, and connected with a Liebig’s condenser, is charged with
about 25 c. c. of an alkaline solution of permanganate potash made by
dissolving 200 grammes of caustic potash and 8 grammes of crystallised
permanganate of potash in 1 litre of water. A minute quantity of the
alkaloid carefully and accurately weighed is now introduced, and the
mixture slowly distilled. The most satisfactory results are obtained by
treating from 1 to 5 milligrammes of the alkaloid in this way, but
quantities so small as 1/10th of a milligram will in skilled hands give
accurate results. The ammonia is formed in the distillate by Nesslerising
it, as described under WATER ANALYSIS. For all practical purposes the
poisonous alkaloids may be divided into four classes:

(a) Those which yield from 5 to 2 per cent. of ammonia.

(b) Those which yield from 2 to 3 per cent. of ammonia.

(c) Those which yield from 3 to 5 per cent. of ammonia.

(d) Those which yield a larger quantity than 5 per cent., _e.g._


                                          per cent.

  SOLANINE yields half its nitrogen as
    Ammonia                                 0·98


  MORPHIA yields half its nitrogen as
    Ammonia                                 2·98

  CODEINE, ditto, ditto                     2·87

  PAPAVERINE, ditto, ditto                  2·50

  VERATRIA, ditto, ditto                    2·87


  ATROPIA yields all its nitrogen as
    Ammonia                                 5·73

  NARCOTINE, ditto, ditto                   4·11

  STRYCHNIA yields half its nitrogen as
    Ammonia                                 5·09

  BRUCINE, ditto, ditto                     4·32

  ACONITE, ditto, ditto                     3·50

  CONEINE, ditto, ditto                     4·60


  NICOTINE yields half its nitrogen as
    Ammonia                                10·49

IV. Dr Guy, as well as others, have made researches, having for their
object the determination of the exact temperature at which the poisonous
alkaloids melt and sublime. A very minute speck of the substance is placed
on a porcelain plate or copper disc, and a square or oval of
microscope-covering glass is placed over it, supported by a thin ring of
glass or any other convenient substance.

Heat is then applied to the plate or copper, and the temperature, as
indicated by a thermometer at which the substance fuses or volatilises, is
carefully noted.

  CANTHARIDINE sublimes as a white                 Fahr.  Cent.
       vapour without change of form or colour.    212°   100°

                                    Sublime.         Melt.
                                  /----------\   /----------\
               Sublime, melt and   Fahr. Cent.    Fahr. Cent.
  MORPHINE  } yield carbonaceous { 330°  165°     340°  171°
  STRYCHNINE} residue.           { 345°  174°     430°  224°

                                     Melt.        Sublime.
                                 /----------\   /----------\
                                  Fahr. Cent.    Fahr. Cent.
  ACONITINE }                    { 140°   60°     400°  204°
  ATROPINE  } Melt, change       { 150°   66°     280°  138°
  VERATRINE } colour, sublime,   { 200°   93°     360°  182°
  BRUCINE   } and                { 240°  116°     400°  204°
  DIGITALIN } deposit carbon.    { 310°  154°     310°  154°
  PICROTOXIN}                    { 320°  160°     320°  160°
  SOLANINE  }                    { 420°  215°     420°  216°

_Selmi’s method of extracting poisonous alkaloids in forensic
investigations._ The alcoholic extract of the viscera, acidified and
filtered, is evaporated at 65° C., the residue taken up with water,
filtered to separate fatty matters, and decoloured by means of basic
acetate of lead, leaving the solution in contact with the air for 24
hours. It is then filtered, the lead precipitated by means of sulphuretted
hydrogen, and the solution after concentration repeatedly extracted with
ether. The ethereal solution is then saturated with dry carbonic
anhydride, which generally causes a precipitate of minute drops adhering
to the sides of the vessel, and containing some of the alkaloids. The
ethereal solution is then poured into a clean vessel, mixed with about
half its volume of water, and a current of carbonic anhydride passed for
about twenty minutes, which may cause the precipitation of other alkaloids
not precipitated by dry carbonic anhydride. Usually the whole of the
alkaloids present in the ether are thrown down by these means, but if not,
the solution is dehydrated by agitation with Barium oxide, and then a
solution of tartaric acid in ether added to the clear liquid, taking great
care not to employ excess of acid. This throws down any alkaloid that may
remain. In order to extract any alkaloids that may still remain in the
viscera, they are mixed with Barium hydrate and a little water, and then
agitated with purified amylic alcohol; the alkaloids may subsequently be
extracted from the alcohol by agitation with very dilute sulphuric acid.

A knowledge of the different solubilities of the alkaloids will be found
an important auxiliary in their analysis. The following is a summary of
the relative solubility of the most important of them. The figures denote
the number of parts of the liquid required for their solution:——

_Absolute alcohol._——Strychnine insoluble; brucine soluble.

_Amylic alcohol._——Solanine (1061); digitalin sparingly soluble; morphine
(133); strychnine (122); veratrine, brucine, atropine, aconitine, and
picrotoxin, freely soluble.

_Benzol._——All the poisonous alkaloids, except solanine, are soluble in

_Chloroform._——Solanine (50,000); morphine (6550); strychnine (8); the
rest freely soluble.

_Ether._——Solanine (9000); morphine (7725); strychnine (1400); aconitine
(777); brucine (440); veratrine (108); atropine, picrotoxin,[26] and
digitalin, very soluble.

[Footnote 26: Digitalin and picrotoxin, although not alkaloids, are
inserted in the above list, because they have a general similarity in
chemical properties to them; and for the convenience of the toxicologist.]

_Water_ (_cold_).——Strychnine (8333); veratrine (7860); morphine (4166);
aconitine (1783); solanine (1750); brucine (900); atropine (414);
picrotoxin (150); digitalin very soluble.

The principal Alkaloids and their Salts, in the state of powder, or with
‘conia’ and ‘nicotia,’ in the state of an oily looking liquid, may be thus

1. _a._ The powder is treated with nitric acid:——It is coloured red;
probable presence of Brucia, Delphia, Morphia, or commercial Strychnia. If
the reddened acid becomes violet on the addition of ‘protochloride of
tin,’ it is BRUCIA; if it becomes black and carbonaceous, it is DELPHIA.
If the powder is fusible without decomposition, and strongly decomposes
iodic acid, it is MORPHIA; if it is not fusible without decomposition, and
does not decompose iodic acid, it is STRYCHNIA.

_b._ If instead of a red, the powder strikes a green colour with nitric
acid, it is SOLANIA; if it is insoluble in ‘ether,’ and not reddened by
‘nitric acid,’ it is EMETIA; if soluble in ether, not reddened by ‘nitric
acid,’ but melts and volatilises when heated, it is ATROPIA; if it is thus
affected by ether or nitric acid, but does not volatilise, it is VERATRIA.
(See 2, _below_.)

2. _a._ The powder, or (with ‘conia and nicotia’) concentrated liquor, is
treated with a drop or two of concentrated sulphuric acid:——A red colour
is produced; probable presence of Brucia, Nicotina, Salicine, or Veratria.
If the reddened mixture has at first a roseate hue, turning deep red on
the addition of nitric acid, it is BRUCIA; if the original substance
moistened with solution of potassa evolves the odour of tobacco, it
contains NICOTINE; if the red colour produced by the acid is permanent and
of an intense blood-hue, and the powder agglutinates into lumps like
resin, it is SALICINE; if the colour is at first yellowish, changing to
blood-red, and ultimately to crimson and violet, it is VERATRIA.

_b._ If instead of the substance being ‘reddened’ by strong sulphuric
acid, no particular action ensues in the cold, it contains either Conia or
Strychnia; if a small fragment of bichromate of potassa being now dropped
in, produces a rich violet colour, it is STRYCHNIA; if the original matter
on being heated, or treated with solution of potassa, evolves a
penetrating, disagreeable odour, somewhat analogous to that from
‘hemlock,’ or to a mixture of those from tobacco and mice, it is CONIA.

“_Reactions with ceroso-ceric oxide._ This oxide exhibits characteristic
colours with several alkaloids, especially with STRYCHNINE. When strong
sulphuric acid is poured upon strychnine, and then a small quantity of
ceroso-ceric oxide added, a fine blue colour is produced, similar to that
which strychnine exhibits with potassium bichromate, but much more
permanent. The blue colour gradually changes to cherry-red, and then
remains unaltered for several days. This reaction is capable of detecting
one part of strychnine in a million parts of liquid. BRUCINE similarly
treated acquires an orange-colour, gradually changing to yellow; MORPHINE,
olive-brown, finally brown; NARCOTINE, brown cherry red, finally wine-red;
CODEINE, olive-green, finally brown; QUININE, pale-yellow; CINCHONINE and
THEINE remain colourless; VERATRINE becomes reddish-brown; ATROPINE, dingy
yellowish-brown; SOLANINE, yellow at first, finally brownish; EMETINE,
brown; COLCHICINE, first green, then dirty brown; ANILINE, after a long
time, acquires a blue colour extending from the edges inwards; CONINE
becomes light-yellow. PIPERINE colours the sulphuric acid blood-red, and
is turned dark-brown, almost black by the cerium oxide” (Sonnenschein).

“_Reactions with picric acid._ This acid is a very good precipitant for
alkaloids, affording a very delicate test for many of them, and may
perhaps also serve for separating them one from another. The precipitation
takes place even in solutions containing a large excess of sulphuric
acid, and is sometimes complete. _Precipitated_ are, BRUCINE, STRYCHNINE,
VERATRINE, QUINIDINE, CINCHONINE, and most of the opium alkaloids; _not
and all glucosides” (Hager).

The presence of one or more of the alkaloids being shown by any of the
preceding methods, a portion of the original clear solution or powder, or
of the precipitates or filtrates above referred to, must be treated with
their characteristic tests, as given under the individual notices of these
articles, so as to set at rest all doubt as to their identity. No single
test must ever be relied on as a positive proof. The presence of Brucia,
Morphia and Strychnia may be determined in substances which after being
mixed with the salts of these alkaloids have undergone the acetous,
vinous, or putrefactive fermentation, as shown by Orfila, MM. Larocque and
Thibierge, and many other eminent chemists and toxicologists, and
confirmed, in numerous cases, by our own experiments. Opium and morphia
may thus be readily detected in beer, wine, soup, and milk. A paper by
Professor DRAGENDORF in the ‘American Chemist’ for April, 1876, may be
consulted with advantage.

_Concluding Remarks._ It is a singular fact that none of the organic bases
found in plants have yet been formed artificially, although several
analogous substances have been thus produced. Closely allied to the
alkaloids there also exists an extensive series of neutral proximate
principles, which differ from those substances chiefly in the absence of
basic properties, and in most of them being destitute of nitrogen. They
are usually bitter, and, like the alkaloids, generally represent the
active properties of the plants in which they are found; whilst some of
them possess considerable medicinal energy. Of this kind are asparagin,
elaterin, gentianin, picrotoxin, salicin, &c. These two classes of bodies,
though actually distinct, are frequently confounded. See ALKALI, ORGANIC
the individual alkaloids under their respective heads.

=ALKALOIDS OF ACONITE=. The nature of the active principle of aconite root
does not appear to have been satisfactorily determined. Messrs Groves,
Wright, and Williams contend that the _Aconitum napellus_ yields an active
crystalline alkaloid, which they distinguish as _Aconitine_, and to which
they assign the formula C_{33}H_{43}NO_{12}; they add that additionally
the root contains more or less of another active alkaloid, which they term
_Pseudaconitine_, and which is represented by the formula
C_{36}H_{49}NO_{11}; they also assert that the extract of the roots
contains varying quantities of certain decomposition products resulting
from the saponification of the above bases by the acids, which are
produced by the breaking up of part of the aconitine. The name of these
decomposition products is _Aconine_ and _Pseudaconine_. Of _Aconitum
ferox_ they report that it yields a comparatively large quantity of
_Pseudaconitine_ and a small quantity of _Aconitine_. They further affirm
that the so-called aconitine of commerce is a mixture of true aconitine
and pseudaconitine with variable quantities of their alteration products,
aconine and pseudaconine, and of certain amorphous unnamed alkaloids.

Messrs Paul and Kingzett contest the accuracy of these deductions, and
dispute the correctness of the formula given to aconitine. Dr Paul doubts
whether the alkaloid to which the active properties of the root are
ascribed has ever yet been obtained in an isolated condition. He thinks it
probable that the substance obtained from aconite root was to a great
extent a salt of an acid, like aconitic acid. For further information the
reader is referred to the ‘Pharmaceutical Year Book’ for 1873, 1874, 1875,
1876, and 1877.

OR′CHANET*, DYER’S AL′KANET, D. BU′GLOSS*. The _anchu′sa tincto′′ria_
(Willd.; _lithosper′mum tincto′′rium_——Linn.), a deciduous herbaceous
plant, with a perennial, dark blood-red root. _Hab._ Asia Minor, Greece,
Hungary, &c. It is also largely cultivated in the neighbourhood of
Montpellier. The dried root (ALKANET ROOT; RADIX ANCHUSÆ, R. A. TINCTORIÆ)
is chiefly imported from the Levant. It contains a beautiful blood-red
colour, which it freely gives out to oils, fats, wax, spirits, essences,
and similar substances, by simply infusing it in them, and is consequently
much employed to colour these articles. Wax tinged with it, and applied on
warm marble, stains it of a rich flesh-colour, which sinks deep into the
stone, and possesses considerable durability. Its spirituous tincture also
imparts a deep red to marble.

_Prop._, _&c._ The colouring matter of alkanet was regarded by Pelletier
as a fatty acid (ANCHUSIC ACID); but it has since been shown to be a
species of resin (ANCHUSINE, PSEUDO-ALKANNINE, P.-ALKANIUM). According to
Dr John, good alkanet root contains 5-1/2 per cent. of this substance.
Anchusine melts at 140° Fahr.; is scarcely soluble in water, to which it
only imparts a dirty red colour, but is very soluble in alcohol, oils, and
acetic acid. Alkalies turn it blue. It is found wholly in the root-bark.
In selecting this article, the smaller roots should therefore be chosen,
as they possess more bark than the larger ones, in proportion to their
weight. Exposure to ammoniacal fumes, or even handling it much with the
fingers, changes its red to a crimson or purplish hue.

_Uses_, _&c._ It is much employed by druggists and perfumers to colour
oils, lip-salves, plasters, pomatums, &c.; by varnish-makers, to tinge
their varnishes and lacquers; by statuaries to stain marble; by
dairy-farmers, to colour cheese; by wine-merchants and bottlers (in the
form of tincture), to stain beforehand the corks of their port-wine
bottles, in order to imitate the effects of age, and as colouring and
flavouring for factitious port wine; and by dyers, and others. A species
of crimson rouge was formerly prepared from it (hence its name).


=ALLAN′TOIN.= C_{8}H_{6}O_{6}N_{4}. _Syn._ ALLANTO′IC ACID*, AMNIOT′IC A.†
AM′NIC A.†; ALLANTOÏ′NA, L. A substance discovered by Vauquelin and Buniva
in what they imagined to be the liquor amnii of the cow, and hence named
by them amniotic acid. It was afterwards shown by Dzondi and Lassaigne to
exist in the fluid of the allantoïs, and not of the amnios. It has since
been produced artificially by Wöhler and Liebig.

_Prep._ 1. The allantoïc fluid of the fœtal calf is evaporated to 1-4th or
1-5th of its volume, and then set aside for some time. The crystals thus
obtained are purified by re-solution, digestion with animal charcoal, and

2. (Wöhler and Liebig.) Uric acid, 1 part; is dissolved in water, 20
parts; and freshly precipitated and well-washed binoxide of lead is added
to the solution until the colour ceases to change; the liquid is next
filtered while hot, evaporated until a pellicle forms on the surface, and
then set aside to crystallise; the crystals being purified as before.

_Prop., &c._ Small, but very brilliant prismatic, transparent, colourless
crystals; tasteless; neutral; soluble in 160 parts of cold water, and in
much less at 212°; nitric acid converts it into ALLANTURIC ACID; oil of
vitriol resolves it into ammonia, carbonic acid, and carbonic oxide; hot
concentrated solutions of the caustic alkalies change it into ammonia and
oxalic acid.

=ALLANTOX′ICUM.= [L.] _Syn._ ALLANTOX′ICUM, L. (prim., Gr.). The poison
developed, during putrefaction, in sausages made of blood, liver, &c. “It
often proves speedily fatal.” (Kraus.)

=ALLGEMEINE FLUSSTINCTUR= (Sulzberger, Salzungen). For the relief of a
number of diseases, among which are cholera and sea-sickness. Aloes, 1
part; spirit of wine, 2 parts. (Spau.)

KNOBLAUCHARTIG, &c., Ger. Garlick-like; an epithet applied to substances
having the odour or properties of garlic or onions.

=Alliaceous Plants.= Chives, garlic, leeks, onions, rocambole, shallots,

=ALLIGA′TION.= _Syn._ ALLIGA′TIO, L. In _commercial arithmetic_, a rule
for ascertaining the price or value of mixtures, and for determining the
proportions of the ingredients that must be taken to produce mixtures of
any given price, value, or strength. The first is called ALLIGATION
ME′DIAL; the second, ALLIGATION ALTERN′ATE. Its principles and
applications are explained under MIXTURES (Arithmetic of).

=ALLOP′ATHY.= _Syn._ ALLOPA′THIA, L. (from ἁλλος, _other_, _different_,
and παθος, _affection_ or _disease_, Gr.); ALLOPATHIE, Fr. In _medicine_,
the method of curing disease by the use of remedies which tend to produce
a condition of the system, either differing from, opposed to, or
incompatible with the condition believed to be essential to the disease it
is sought to cure. It is commonly employed to distinguish the ordinary
system of medical practice from homœopathy (which see). Hence (an)
ALLOP′ATHIST, and the corresponding adjective ALLOPATH′IC
(_allopath′icus_, L.).

Literally, a difference in character; another form of the same substance.
In _chemistry_, a term invented, by Berzelius, to express the state or
condition, or the change of character, assumed by certain substances at
different temperatures, or under different treatment, whilst their nature
and composition continue the same. It more particularly relates to colour,
hardness, solubility, texture, &c. Boron, carbon, silicon, iron, sulphur,
and phosphorus, afford striking examples of the changes here referred to.

=ALLOX′ANTIN.= C_{8}H_{4}N_{4}O_{7}.3H_{2}O. A crystallisable substance,
first obtained by Dr Prout from uric acid.

_Prep._ 1. Uric acid, 1 part; is boiled in water, 32 parts; dilute nitric
acid being added until solution is complete; the resulting liquid is
evaporated to 2/3rds its volume, and then set aside for 10 or 12 hours;
the crystals, which are deposited, are purified by re-solution and

2. Sulphuretted hydrogen gas is passed, in a full stream, through a
moderately strong aqueous solution of alloxan, in the cold. The
alloxantin, which is deposited as a crystalline mass, is purified by
draining, cautious washing with cold water, re-solution in boiling water,
and re-crystallisation. The impure mother-liquor from which crystals of
alloxan have separated, if diluted with water, may be used for this

_Prop., &c._ Crystals, small colourless, transparent, four-sided, oblique
rhombic prisms; scarcely soluble in cold water; solution reddens litmus;
with baryta water it gives a characteristic violet-coloured precipitate,
which disappears on heating; and with nitrate of silver a black
precipitate of that metal; the crystals are reddened by ammoniacal

In _coinage_, a compound of the precious metals with another, or others,
of less value; also the least valuable metal, or metals, in such
compounds. In _chemistry_ and _metallurgy_, combinations of the metals
with each other usually obtained by fusion. When mercury is one of
the component metals, the compound is termed an AMALGAM.

_Prep., &c._ No General rules can be given for this purpose. Alloys of
metals differing greatly in fusibility, are commonly made by adding the
more fusible one, either in the melted state, or in small portions at a
time, to the other melted, or heated to the lowest possible temperature at
which a perfect union will take place between them. The mixture is usually
affected under a flux, or some material that will promote liquefaction,
and prevent volatilisation and unnecessary exposure to the air. Thus, in
melting lead and tin together, for solder, resin, or tallow is thrown upon
the surface; in tinning copper, the surface is rubbed with sal ammoniac;
and in combining some metals, powdered charcoal is used for the same
purpose. Quicksilver combines with many metals in the cold, forming

_Comp._ The following _Table_ exhibits the composition of the more
important compounds of this class:——

        _Table of the principal Alloys._[27]

  NAMES.                      COMBINING METALS.

  ALBATA                      See German Silver.
  AMALGAMS                    Mercury and other metals.
  BATH-METAL                  Copper and zinc.
  BELL-METAL                  Copper and tin.
  BRASS                       Copper and zinc.
  BRITANNIA METAL             Tin with antimony, copper, and bismuth.
  BRONZE                      Tin and copper.
  BRONZE ALUMINIUM            Copper and aluminium.
  CANNON-METAL                Tin and copper.
  DUTCH GOLD                  Copper and zinc.
  FUSIBLE METAL               Bismuth, lead, and tin.
  GERMAN SILVER               Copper, nickel, and zinc, with,
                                  sometimes, a little iron and tin.
  GOLD (_standard_)           Gold with copper.
  GOLD (_old standard_)       Gold with copper and silver.
  GUN-METAL                   See Cannon-metal.
  MOSAIC GOLD                 Copper and zinc.
  OR-MOLU                     Copper and zinc.
  PEWTER (_common_)           Tin and lead.
  PEWTER (_best_)             Tin with antimony, bismuth and copper.
  POT-METAL, COCK-METAL       Copper and lead, with,
                                  sometimes, a little zinc.
  QUEEN’S METAL               Tin with antimony, bismuth, and copper.
  SHOT-METAL                  Lead with a little arsenic.
  SILVER (_standard_)         Silver and copper.
  SOLDER                      Tin and lead.
  SPECULUM-METAL              Tin and copper, and arsenic.
  STEREOTYPE-METAL            Lead, antimony, and bismuth.
  TOMBAC, RED TOMBAC          Copper and zinc.
  TUTANIA                     See Britannia metal.
  TYPE-METAL                  Lead and antimony.
  WHITE COPPER (_Packfong_;   Copper and arsenic.

[Footnote 27: For the proportions of the component metals, refer to the
alloys under their respective heads.]

_Prop., &c._ Alloys generally possess characteristics unshared by their
component metals. Thus, copper and zinc form brass, which has a different
density, hardness, and colour to either of its constituents. Whether the
metals tend to unite in atomic proportions, or in any definite ratio, is
still undetermined. The evidence afforded by the natural alloys of gold
and silver, and by the phenomena accompanying the cooling of several
alloys from the state of fusion, goes far to prove that such is the case.
(Rudberg.) The subject is, however, one of considerable difficulty, as
metals and metallic compounds are generally soluble in each other, and
unite by a simple fusion and contact. That they do not combine
indifferently with each other, but exercise a species of elective affinity
not dissimilar to other bodies, is clearly shown by the homogeneity and
superior quality of many alloys in which the constituent metals are in
atomic proportions. The variation of the specific gravity and
melting-points of alloys from the mean of those of their component metals,
also affords strong evidence of a chemical change having taken place.
Thus, alloys generally melt at lower temperatures than those required for
their separate metals. They also usually possess more tenacity and
hardness than the mean of their constituents.

Matthiessen found that when weights are suspend to spirals of hard-drawn
wire made of copper, silver, gold, or platinum, they become nearly
straightened when stretched by a moderate weight; but wires of equal
dimensions composed of copper-tin (12% of tin), silver-platinum (36% of
platinum), and gold-copper (84% of copper), scarcely undergo any permanent
change in form when subjected to tension by the same weight.

The same chemist gives the following approximative results upon the
tenacity of certain metals and wires hard drawn through the same gauge
(No. 23):

Breaking strain for:

  Copper                                  25-30
  Tin                               under     7
  Lead                                ”       7
  Tin-lead (20% lead)               about     7
  Tin-copper (12% copper)             ”       7
  Copper-tin (12% tin)                ”   80-90
  Gold                                    20-25
  Gold-copper (8·4% copper)               70-75
  Silver                                  45-50
  Platinum                                45-50
  Silver-platinum (30% platinum)          75-80

On the other hand, their malleability, ductility, and power of resisting
oxygen is generally diminished. The alloy formed of two brittle metals is
always brittle; that of a brittle and a ductile metal, generally so; and
even two ductile metals sometimes unite to form a brittle compound. The
alloys formed of metals having different fusing-points are usually
malleable whilst cold, and brittle whilst hot. The action of the air on
alloys is generally less than on their simple metals, unless the former
are heated. A mixture of 1 part of tin and 3 parts of lead is scarcely
acted on at common temperatures; but at a red heat it readily takes fire,
and continues to burn for some time like a piece of bad turf. In like
manner, a mixture of tin and zinc, when strongly heated, decomposes both
moist air and steam with almost fearful rapidity.

The specific gravity of alloys is never the arithmetical mean of that of
their constituents, as commonly taught; and in many cases considerable
condensation or expansion occurs. When there is a strong affinity between
two metals, the density of their alloy is generally greater than the
calculated mean; and _vice versâ_, as may be seen in the following

              _Alloys having a density_——

  Greater than the mean of        Less than the mean
    their constituents:——       of their constituents:——

    Copper and bismuth,             Gold and copper,
       ”       palladium,               ”    iridium,
       ”       tin,                     ”    iron,
       ”       zinc,                    ”    lead,
    Gold and antimony,                  ”    nickel,
       ”       bismuth,                 ”    silver,
       ”       cobalt,              Iron and antimony,
       ”       tin,                     ”    bismuth,
       ”       zinc,                    ”    lead,
    Lead and antimony,              Nickel and arsenic,
    Palladium and bismuth,          Silver and copper,
    Platinum and molybdenum,        Tin and antimony,
    Silver and antimony,                ”   lead,
       ”       bismuth,                 ”   palladium,
       ”       lead,                Zinc and antimony.
       ”       tin,
       ”       zinc.

“Every alloy,” says Dr Ure, “is, in reference to the arts and
manufactures, a new metal, on account of its chemical and physical
properties. A vast field here remains to be explored. Not above sixty
alloys have been studied by chemists, out of many hundreds which may be
made, and of these very few have yet been practically employed. Very
slight modifications often constitute very valuable improvements upon


=ALLU′′VIAL.= (-l’ōōv′-yăl). _Syn._ ALLU′′VIOUS*; ALLU′′VIUS, L.;
D′ALLUVION, Fr. In _geology_, applied to partial deposits of mud, sand,
gravel, &c., left by rivers and floods upon land not permanently submerged
beneath water; in _agriculture_, applied to soils so formed or deposited.

Ger. In _geol._ and _agr._, alluvial deposit or soil. See SOILS, &c.

=AL′LYL= (-lĭl). C_{3}H_{5}. In _chemistry_, the radical of the essential
oils containing sulphur, as those of assafœtida, garlic, horseradish,
mustard, onions, &c., which are either sulphides or sulphocyanides of
allyl. Its probable existence was first shown by Captain Reynolds, who
succeeded in producing several of its derivatives. It has since been
obtained, in a separate state, by the action of sodium upon iodide of
allyl. It is an oily substance with a high boiling point.

=Allyl, Sulphide of=, (C_{3}H_{5})_{2}S; obtained (artificially) by acting
on sulphocyanide of allyl with sulphide of potassium. See OIL OF GARLICK.

=Allyl, Sulphocy′anide of=, C_{3}H_{5}CNS; obtained by submitting iodide
of allyl to the action of sulphocyanide of potassium; or by gently heating
a mixed alcoholic solution of sulphide of allyl and bichloride of mercury,
with sulphocyanide of potassium. See OIL OF MUSTARD (VOLATILE).

=AL′MOND= (ah′-mŭnd). _Syn._ AMYG′DALA (also -US, -UM*), L.; AMANDE, Fr.;
MANDEL, Ger., Dut., Dan., Swed. The ‘almond-tree’ (_amyg′dalus
commu′nis_——Linn.; Ph. L., E., and D.; _Amandier_——Fr.), a tree of the
nat. ord. Rosaceæ, indigenous to Persia, Syria, and the north of Africa;
but also extensively cultivated in southern Europe. The almond-tree is
about the size of the peach-tree, which it much resembles in appearance.
It is incapable of ripening its fruit in this country, and is, therefore,
only grown here for the sake of its beautiful vernal flowers. There are
several varieties, of which the most important are the sweet and the
bitter, so named from the flavour of the seed or kernel. These, for the
most part, resemble each other in appearance. De Candolle (‘Prodromus,’
ii, 530) gives five varieties of this species:——A. AMA′′RA
(_bitter-almond_); A. DUL′CIS (_sweet-a._); A. FRAGILIS (_tender-shelled
a._); A. MACROCAR′PA (_large-fruited a._, _pista′chio a._, _sultana a._);
A. PERSICO′ÏDES (_peach a._).

=Almond, Per′sian.= The peach.

=AL′MONDS=. _Syn._ AMYG′DALÆ, L.; AMANDES, Fr.; MANDELN, Ger. The seed or
kernels of the almond-tree. They are met with in commerce both in the
shell (AMYG′DALÆ CUM PUTAM′INE, -ĭn-e, L.), and shelled (AMYGDALÆ, L.). In
the retail shops, most commonly in the latter form. Those rancid, broken,
or worm-eaten should be rejected.

=Almonds, Bitt′er.= _Syn._ AMYG′DALÆ AMA′′RÆ, L.; AMYGDALA AMARA, Ph. E.;
AMANDES AMÈRES, Fr.; BITTERE MANDELN, Ger. A variety imported from
Mogadore, chiefly characterised by possessing the bitter flavour, and when
rubbed with water, the odour of peach-kernels. They are also smaller and
thicker than the sweet almond.

_Uses, &c._ Bitter almonds are used to relieve the flavour of sweet
almonds, to clear muddy water, and to flavour confectionery, liqueurs, &c.
By pressure, they yield their bland oil (OIL OF ALMONDS; O′LEUM AMYG′DALÆ,
L.); the resulting cake (BITTER-A. CAKE; PLACEN′TA A. AMARÆ, L.) is
distilled for the volatile oil (ESSENTIAL OIL OF A.; O. A. A., L.), and is
afterwards again pressed into cakes (A.-CAKE), and used to fatten pigs,
and for other purposes. Bitter almonds are now seldom employed in
medicines, although it is said that they have cured ‘intermittents’ when
bark had failed (Bergius), and that their emulsion has been found useful
in pulmonary and dyspeptic affections, hooping-cough, and asthma; and
externally as a lotion in acne. (Thomson.) In large quantities they are
poisonous, and even in the smallest quantities have been known to produce
nettle-rash (_urticaria_) and other unpleasant symptoms. They have long
been in repute as an antidote to intoxication. The ancient bacchanals
chewed them at their orgies, to lessen the effects of wine, and to enable
them to take it in larger quantities with impunity.

=Almonds, Blanched′= (blăncht′-). _Syn._ AMYG′DALÆ DECORTICA′TÆ, L.
Almonds from which the husk or seed-coat has been removed. This is
effected by soaking them for a short time in warm water, until the skin
can be easily removed by pressure between the thumb and forefinger. They
are then peeled, rinsed in cold water, drained, and dried. When intended
for the table, the last is effected by wiping them with a soft towel; but
when they are intended to be powdered, or kept, they are dried by a very
gentle heat in a stove, or in the sun.

=Almonds, Burnt′.= _Syn._ ROASTED ALMONDS; ALMOND COFFEE. Used to colour
and flavour liqueurs and confectionery; and formerly, as a substitute for

=Almonds, Guia′na.= (g_h_e-ā_h_′-nă; _g_ hard). Brazil-nuts.

=Al′monds, In′dian.= The fruit of _terminalia catappa_ (Linn.). They are
oleaginous, and nutritious; and are used as a substitute for almonds.

=Almonds, Ja′va= (jā_h_′-). The nuts or kernels of _canarium commune_
(Linn.). They are eaten, made into bread, and pressed for their oil.

=Almonds, Sweet′.= _Syn._ ALMONDS; AMYG′DALÆ, L.; A. DULCES, Ph. D.;
AMYGDALA, A. JORDAN′ICA, Ph. L.; A. DULCIS, Ph. E., & Ph. L. 1836;
AMANDES, AMANDES DOUCES, Fr.; SÜSSE MANDELN, Ger. These are the well-known
dessert or table fruit of the name, and are the kind always referred to
when ‘almonds’ (simply) are spoken of or ordered.

_Comm. var._——1. JOR′DAN ALMONDS, which are the finest, and are imported
from Malaga. Of these there are two kinds; the one, above an inch in
length, flat, and with a clear brown cuticle, sweet, mucilaginous, and
rather tough; the other, more plump, and pointed at one end, brittle, but
equally sweet with the former.——2. VALEN′TIA A. (which come next in
quality) are about 3/8ths of an inch broad, not quite an inch long, round
at one end, and obtusely pointed at the other, flat, of a dingy brown
colour, with a dusty cuticle.——3. BAR′BARY and ITAL′IAN A., which resemble
the latter, but are generally smaller and less flattened.——4. A variety,
of medium quality, imported in baskets from Spain.

_Uses, &c._ Sweet almonds are nutritive, emollient, and demulcent; but
frequently disagree with weak stomachs. The husk is apt to occasion
indigestion and nausea. Owing to a peculiar idiosyncrasy of some habits,
dyspepsia, diarrhœa, œdematous swelling of the face, and urticaria
(_nettle-rash_), sometimes, though seldom, follow the use of unblanched
almonds. Blanched almonds do not produce these inconveniences, and,
therefore, should be preferred for the table. In _medicine_, almonds are
employed chiefly under the form of emulsion, confection, &c., and to
suspend oily substances in water. Their uses for dietetical purposes are
well known. Preparations of them are also employed as cosmetics. The cake
left after expressing the oil (ALMOND-CAKE) is used for washing the skin,
which it is said to render beautifully soft and clear. See ALMOND PASTE,

=AL′NIGHT=† (awl′-). A cake of wax with a wick in the midst. The
forerunner of, and a rude form of the modern dumpy night-lights called

=AL′OE= (ăl′-o). _Syn._ AL′OË (-o-ē), L., Fr. (or ALOÈS), Ger., Ital.,
Sp., Belg., Dan., Dut., Swed. The aloe-tree. In _botany_, a genus of
plants of the nat. ord. Liliaceæ (DC). The species, of which there are
several, are succulent plants or small trees with endogenous stems, and
stiff, fleshy, hard, pointed leaves, abounding in a purgative principle
(ALOES), which is obtained from them by either evaporating the expressed
juice or the decoction. They are all natives of warm climates, and most of
them are indigenous to southern Africa.

_Hist._ [Hebrew: a-ènx], _aehleem_ (aloe-trees), were known to the sacred
historians; and both the plant and the inspissated juice are described by
Dioscorides[28] and Pliny.[29]

[Footnote 28: Lib. iii, c. xxv.]

[Footnote 29: ‘Hist. Nat.,’ lib. xxvii, c. v.]

_Uses, &c._ In Africa, the leaves of the Guinea aloe are made into ropes,
fishing-lines, bow-strings, stockings, hammocks, &c. The leaves of another
species are used to catch and hold rain-water. The expressed juice and
decoction are also used by the natives as a distaff. (Vide _infrà_.)
Comparative trials, made in Paris, of the strength of cordage and cables
formed of hemp, and of the aloe from Algiers, are said to have shown the
great superiority of the latter. Fabroni obtained a fine violet colour
from the recent juice of the aloe, which has been proposed as a dye for

[Footnote 30: ‘Annales de Chimie,’ xxv, 305.]

=American Aloe.= The _agave Americana_ (Linn.) is a plant unconnected with
the preceding, and belonging to the nat. ord. Bromeliaceæ. It is found in
all parts of tropical America, and is largely cultivated on the shores of
the Mediterranean; and less frequently, as an exotic plant in this
country. It grows to the height of about 20 feet, and takes many years to
produce its gigantic and magnificent pyramid of flowers; shortly after
which it perishes, exhausted, as it were, by its efforts in bestowing its
rare beauty on the floral world. The vulgar belief is that it blossoms
only once in a century; but, as stated by the late Mr Loudon, it flowers
sooner or later according to the culture bestowed on it. Its sap yields a
kind of honey (AGAVE HONEY), and by fermentation an intoxicating liquor
(PULQUE); desiccated juice, mixed with wood ashes, is used as soap, and
lathers either with sea or fresh water; leaf-fibre, used as hemp to make
thread and twine.

=AL′OE-RESIN.= _Syn._ RESI′NA AL′OËS, L. The resinous matter deposited by
a decoction of aloes as it cools.

_Prep._ (Ph. L. 1746.) Boil aloes, 1 part, in water, 8 parts, and allow
the decoction, strained whilst hot, to repose until the next day; then
wash the deposited RESIN, and dry it by a gentle heat. It is probably a
mixture of aloine and oxidised extractive.

=AL′OES= (-ōze). _Syn._ BITT′ER ALOES‡; AL′OË (-o-ē), L.; ALOÈS, SUC
D’ALOÈS, Fr.; ALOE, GLAUSINDE ALOE, Ger.[31] The inspissated juice or
extract of several species of aloe.

[Footnote 31: Also see ALOE, (above).]

_Comp., Prep., &c._ Aloes is a complex resinous substance containing a
body called aloin, which is its active or purgative principle. It is
completely soluble in boiling water, and in alcohol or rectified spirit.
The decoction deposits an impure resin or resinoid on cooling.

_Phys. eff., Uses, &c._ Aloes is a warm stimulating purgative, in doses of
3 to 10 gr.; whilst even 1 or 2 gr. seldom fail to produce one motion
without pain or inconvenience. It is considered highly serviceable in
hypochondriacal, hysterical, and dyspeptic affections, particularly in
phlegmatic habits, and in cases arising from deficiency of bile. As an
emmenagogue, and a vermifuge, few medicines are more valuable. It acts on
the large intestines, and principally on the rectum; and, therefore,
should be administered with caution, or only in small doses, where there
is a tendency to prolapsus or piles, and in cases where uterine stimulants
(as in pregnancy, &c.) would be improper. “It is remarkable with regard to
it, that it operates almost to as good a purpose in a small as in a large
dose; and one or two grains will produce one considerable dejection, and
twenty grains will do no more, except it be that in the last dose (case)
the operation will be attended with griping, &c. It is one of the best
cures for habitual costiveness.” (Cullen.) Many of the effects complained
of arise from its slow solubility in the primæ viæ, and may be obviated by
administering it in a liquid form, or in a solid form combined with soap,
which renders it freely soluble in the juices of the stomach.

Aloes is more frequently taken than, perhaps, any known purgative. It
enters into the composition of a majority of the aperient medicines
prescribed by the faculty, and forms the principal ingredient of nearly
all the advertised purgative, antibilious, and universal pills of the
nostrum-mongers. The fact of aloetic pills not acting until about 8 to 10
hours after being swallowed——so that if taken on retiring to rest at night
they do not generally disturb the patient before the usual time of rising
in the morning——has contributed more than anything else to make such
remedies popular with parties whose habits or business avocations would be
otherwise interfered with.

Aloes is also extensively used in veterinary practice. It is the most
valuable and reliable purgative for the horse of the whole materia medica;
but is less to be depended on for cattle, sheep, and hogs. Barbadoes aloes
is the best for this purpose. Cape aloes are, however, often employed,
when 1-4th more must be given.——_Dose_ (of the former), for a HORSE, 4 to
8 dr.;[32]——CATTLE, 3 to 6 dr. (followed by a purging drench);——HOGS, 5 to
15 gr.;——SHEEP, 15 to 30 gr.;[33]——DOGS (small ones), 10 to 30 gr.,
(middle-sized) 20 to 44, or even 60 gr., (large) 3/4 to 1 dr., or even 2

[Footnote 32: Aloes takes from 18 to 30, or even 36 hours, to operate on a

[Footnote 33: Aloes, however large the dose, often fails to purge sheep.
In very large quantities it is poisonous to them.]

Aloes is also used in dyeing; and as a colouring matter in stains,
lacquers, and varnishes. Aloes, and several of its preparations, are
likewise extensively employed to adulterate porter.

_Var._ These, arranged in the order of their reputed medicinal value,
are——Socotrine, Hepatic, Barbadoes, Cape, &c.; and alphabetically, as
given below:——

=Aloes, Barba′does.= _Syn._ ALOES IN GOURDS; AL′OË BARBADEN′SIS, L., Ph.
L. & E. Imported from Barbadoes and Jamaica, usually in gourds; sometimes
in boxes. The best is the inspissated juice of the cut leaf of _aloë
vulga′′ris_; an inferior quality is prepared from the decoction.——_Char.,
&c._ Opaque, lustreless, of a liver colour, a little tending to black,
with a bitter nauseous taste, and a very disagreeable odour, especially
when breathed on; powder a dull olive-yellow. It is the ‘hepatic’ aloes of
most continental writers, and said to be the Αλοη of Dioscorides. It is
more active than the other varieties of aloes; but is also more apt to
occasion hæmorrhoids, and to gripe, than any of them.

=Aloes, Cab′alline= (-līne.) _Syn._ FŒT′ID ALOES, HORSE A.; ALOË
(O’Shaughnessy); or from _aloë spica′ta_ by long and careful boiling.
(Lindley.) Used only by farriers. Scarcely known in English commerce.

=Aloes, Cape.= _Syn._ ALOË CAPEN′SIS, A. LU′CIDA (_Geiger_), L. Imported
from the Cape of Good Hope, and obtained from _aloë spica′ta_, and other
Cape species. Odour stronger and even more disagreeable than that of
Barbadoes aloes; colour deep greenish-brown; appearance shining and
resinous; fracture generally glassy; powder a lively greenish-yellow;
almost completely soluble in boiling water, decoction paler than that of
other kinds. It is weaker than Barbadoes or even hepatic aloes, and is
more apt to gripe, &c., than the latter. A finer kind, known as
‘_Bethelsdorp aloes_,’ imported from Algoa Bay, is more of a liver colour,
and softer than the preceding, and hence often called CAPE HEPATIC-ALOES.

SOCOTRINE A.*; ALOË HEPAT′ICA, Ph. L. & D.; A. IN′DICA, Ph. E. Imported
from Bombay and Madras. It is usually said to be obtained from “uncertain
species of aloes;” but it is almost certain that it is “the juice of the
Socotrine aloes plant which has been solidified without the aid of
artificial heat.”[34]——_Char., &c._ “Opaque, of a liver colour, bitter
taste, and an unpleasant odour.” (Ph. L.) It is less odorous, darker
coloured, and more opaque than Socotrine aloes; its powder has also a
duller colour, and weak spirit leaves much undissolved matter. Its
decoction on cooling frequently deposits a yellow powder. The finer and
brighter varieties of hepatic aloes are commonly sold for ‘Socotrines,’
and their medicinal virtues are nearly similar. (See _below._)

[Footnote 34: Pereira, ‘Elem. Mat. Med. and Therap.,’ vol. ii, 188, 4th
Ed.; ‘Pharm. Journ.,’ vol. xi.]

=Aloes, In′dian= (various);——1. Deep brown or black, very opaque, and less
soluble than ordinary aloes. Scarcely known in commerce.——2. Several
varieties ranging in character from ‘Cape aloes’ to ‘hepatics,’ and
occasionally to ‘Barbadoes,’ obtained from several species.

=Aloes, Mo′cha= (-kăh). _Syn._ ALOË DE MOCHÂ, L. Imported from Muscat. An
inferior kind of Indian aloes. (Christison.) It is obtained from the same
plant as produces genuine hepatic aloes. (Lindley.) It holds an
intermediate position between ‘Cape’ and ‘hepatics,’ but contains much
impurity; the latter often amounting to upwards of 25%. Some specimens
are, however, of excellent quality. When melted and ‘doctored,’ it is sold
for Barbadoes, hepatic, and even Socotrine aloes.

=Aloes, Soc′otrine= (-trĭn; sŭk′-‡). _Syn._ SOC′OTORINE ALOES, SMYR′NA A.,
E. “The juice of the cut leaf of uncertain species hardened by the air.”
(Ph. L.) Genuine Socotrine aloes is generally supposed to be obtained from
_aloë spica′ta_; but is referred by De Candolle to a distinct species, A.
SOCOTRI′NA; and by Martius, also to _a. purpuras′cens_. Formerly this
variety was brought from the Island of Socotra or Zocotora (hence the
name), by way of Smyrna and Malta; but it is now chiefly obtained from
Bombay and Madras.——_Char., &c._ Colour garnet red to golden red; smell
peculiar and aromatic, not unlike a decaying russet apple, especially when
fresh-broken, or breathed on, or warmed; taste permanently and intensely
bitter; fracture conchoidal; softens in the hand, and becomes adhesive,
yet retains considerable brittleness; powder bright golden-yellow colour;
central portions of the lumps often soft, especially when first imported.
“It is brittle, bitter, of a reddish-brown colour, and an aromatic odour.
Light permeates thin recently broken laminæ.” (Ph. L.) “In thin pieces,
translucent and garnet red; almost entirely soluble in spirit of the
strength of sherry. Very rare.” (Ph. E.)

Socotrine aloes are always preferred for medicinal purposes, and are the
only variety used in perfumery, varnishes, and other nice purposes in the

=Aloes, Strained.= _Syn._ MELTED ALOES; ALOË COLA′TA, L. _Proc._ 1. The
aloes are melted in a copper pan, by the heat of steam or a water bath,
and are then pressed through a strong hair or wire sieve, and allowed to

2. As above, but with the addition of about twice its weight of water; the
decoction being strained and evaporated.

_Obs._ Mocha, Indian, and other common aloes, treated in this way and
coloured, are frequently sold for melted or strained ‘Socotrines’ and
‘hepatics.’ The colouring matter usually employed is the precipitated
carbonate of iron (sesquioxide), or Venetian red, in very fine powder,
with, sometimes, a little annatto. This fraud is not readily detected by
mere inspection, by those unaccustomed to these matters; and hence the
impunity with which it is perpetrated.

The object in melting aloes is to deprive it of the foreign matters, as
sand, leaves, pieces of wood, &c., which the commoner kinds generally
contain in large quantities. The action of the heat drives off much of
their nauseous smell, at the same time that it deepens their colour, and
renders their appearance more translucent and resinous, to the disguise of
their original nature. The operation, on the large scale, is usually
carried on at night, in consequence of the horribly nauseous fumes
evolved, which may be smelt at a great distance, and contaminate the
clothes of those engaged in it for a long time afterwards.

=AL′OES HEMP.= A plant growing in Peru, the East and West Indies, and
Mexico (_A. Americana_, _A. vivapara_, _A. fœtida, &c._), where the leaf
is cultivated for its fibre, which is generally of a yellowish-white
colour, and used for rope-making.

XYLO-AL′OËS†. A name applied to the wood of _alöex′ylon agal′lochum_
(Lam.), a leguminous tree of Cochin China; and, though apparently less
correctly, to that of _aquila′′ria agallochum_ and _a. ova′ta_ (Lour.),
trees of tropical Asia, belonging to a different nat. order. Both are
highly fragrant and aromatic; used in fumigations and pastilles, and
occasionally by cabinet makers and inlayers. The essential oil of the
wood, dissolved in spirit, was regarded by Hoffmann as one of the best
cordials and invigorants known. The same has also been said of a tincture
of its resin.

The same name and synonyms are popularly applied to the resin of the above
woods (ALOES-WOOD RESIN), of which there are two varieties:——the one,
light and porous, and filled with a highly fragrant resinous substance;
the other, denser and less resinous. It is an oily concretion in the
centre of the tree, the result of disease, which gradually hardens, and,
in time, kills it. It is highly fragrant, and is said to be nervine,
cephalic, cardiac, and stimulant. The powder is regarded as tonic and
astringent. Of all perfumes this is said to be the one most esteemed by
oriental nations.

=ALOE′TIC.= _Syn._ ALOËT′ICUS, L.; ALOÉTIQUE, Fr. Of or belonging to
aloes. In _medicine_, _pharmacy_, &c., applied to any preparation
containing aloes as a characteristic ingredient; made or obtained from
aloes. Substantively, an aloetic medicine.

=AL′OIN= (-o-ĭn). C_{17}H_{18}O_{7}. [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ AL′ÖIN; ALOÏ′NA,
L. The Messrs T. & H. Smith, of Edinburgh, have applied this name to a
crystalline substance, which they assert to be the pure cathartic
principle of aloes. Their process is to evaporate to the consistence of a
syrup, in vacuo, a solution obtained by exhausting a mixture of aloes and
sand, with cold water, and then to set it aside for a few days. The
resulting dark crystalline mass is purified by pressure between folds of
bibulous paper, and repeated crystallisation from hot water. Barbadoes
aloes are commonly used for the purpose; but soft or semi-liquid Socotrine
aloes, or the unevaporated Socotrine-aloes juice, is probably its best
source. Tilden gives the following process for the preparation of
aloin:——The aloes crushed small is to be dissolved in nine or ten times
its weight of boiling water acidified with sulphuric acid. After cooling
and standing for a few hours, the clear liquid is decanted from the resin,
and evaporated. The concentrated solution deposits a mass of yellow
crystals, which can be purified by washing, pressure, and
recrystallisation from hot spirit. After several recrystallisations the
aloin is obtained in the form of beautiful yellow needles, which are
pretty soluble in water and in alcohol, but soluble with difficulty in
ether.——_Dose_, 1 to 2 gr.

=ALOPE′CIA= (-sh′ă). [L.] _Syn._ AL′OPECY, FOX′-EVIL; ALOPÉCIE, Fr.;
FUCHSRAUDE, Ger. In _pathology_, baldness from disease, often extending to
the beard and eyebrows; as distinguished from ‘calvities,’ or ordinary
baldness arising from attenuation of the scalp or defective nutrition. See

=ALPAC′A.= A species of Llama, popularly known as the PERUVIAN SHEEP, an
animal intermediate between the camel and sheep, having long silky hair,
nearly as fine as that of the Cashmere goat. It was introduced to the
British manufacturers in 1834, when only 5700 lbs. of it was imported; but
it soon became an important article of commerce, the quantity imported
having gradually risen to above 2-1/4 millions of lbs. in 1853; whilst
the price has risen from about 9d. to 2s. 7d. the lb., in the same time.
The name is also given to fabrics woven from the wool of this animal; and
to others in fine wool, made in imitation of them. The gigantic factory,
&c., erected at Saltaire, Yorkshire, in 1852, for this manufacture, covers
about 12 acres of land. See LLAMA.

=ALPENKRAUTER-BRUST-TEIG= (Grablowitz, Gras). Pectoral cakes of Alpine
herbs. Gum arabic, 100 parts; sugar, 200 parts; extract liquorice, 1 part;
saffron, 1/8th part. Each box contains 48 lozenge-shaped yellowish cakes.
Made into a mass with decoction of marsh mallow. (Hager.)

=ALPENKRAUTER GESUNDHEIT’S LIQUEUR= (Rudolph Bohl). Medicinal liqueur of
Alpine herbs. A bottle containing 350 grammes of a liqueur which is an
extract of star anise, cassia, frangula bark, centaury, chicory, gentian,
and a little aloes. (Hager.)

=ALPENKRAUTER-MAGENBITTER= (Hauber). Stomachic bitters of Alpine herbs. A
brown liqueur of bitter, spirituous, and slightly aromatic flavour,
containing in 100 parts: oil of anise, 0·5; oil of cloves, 0·5; aloes,
1·5; alcohol, 40; water, 50. 157 grammes in each bottle. (Wittstein.)


=ALPINE ROSE SOAP, SWISS.= A preservative against syphilitic infection (G.
A. Sarpe, Zurich). A glass cylinder corked and sealed, about 2 inches
long, and containing a hard brownish-grey mass weighing 12 grammes,
prepared thus:——Ammonia, 1 part; sublimate, 3 parts; tannin, 2 parts;
chloride of lime, 24 parts; Castile soap, 190 parts; oil of cloves, 1
part; spirit of wine, q. s. (Hager.)

=AL′QUIFOU= (-ke-fōō). _Syn._ BLACK LEAD-ORE, POTTER’S ORE. A native
sulphide of lead used by potters to give a green glaze to coarse wares.

=ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS.= (Ind. Ph.) _Habitat._ Common in forests throughout
India.——_Officinal part._ The bark (_Alstoniæ cortex_). It occurs in
thick, irregular, more or less contorted pieces, easily broken. It
consists of a rough greyish epidermis, investing a buff or pale
cinnamon-coloured bark; internally, still lighter in colour,
and of a spongy texture, having a very bitter taste, but devoid
of odour.——_Properties._ Astringent, tonic, anthelmintic,
antiperiodic——_Therapeutic uses._ In chronic diarrhœa and the advanced
stages of dysentery; also as a tonic in debility after fevers, and other
exhausting diseases.——_Dose._ 3 to 5 grains, either alone or combined, in
bowel affections, with small doses of ipecacuanha and extract of
gentian.——_Preparations._ TINCTURE OF ALSTONIA (_Tinctura Alstoniæ_). Take
of alstonia bark, bruised, 2-1/2 ounces; proof spirit, 1 pint. Macerate
for seven days in a closed vessel, with occasional agitation; filter, and
add sufficient proof spirit to make 1 pint. Or prepare by percolation, as
Tincture of Calumba.——_Dose_, 1 to 2 fluid drachms.

=Alstonia, Infusion of.= (_Infusum Alstoniæ._) Take of alstonia bark,
bruised, 1/2 an ounce; boiling water, 10 fluid ounces. Infuse in a covered
vessel for an hour and strain.——_Dose._ From 1 to 2 fluid ounces twice or
thrice daily. A good serviceable tonic.

=AL′TERATIVE= (awl′-tĕr-ă-tĭv). _Syn._ AL′TERANT*; AL′TERANS (ăl′-), L.;
ALTÉRANT, ALTÉRATIF, Fr. In _medicine_, having power to alter; applied to
substances and agents which occasion a change in the habit or
constitution, and thus re-establish the healthy functions of the body, or
any part of it, without producing any sensible evacuation or other obvious

for the cure of all severe, acute, chronic, or long-standing coughs,
inflammations, hoarseness, scrofulous, and syphilitic diseases. A clear
light-brown fluid, 220 grms., composed of 15 grms. purified honey, 1 grm.
extract of lettuce, 2 grms. laudanum, 100 grms. of proof spirit tasting of
fusel oil and wood spirit, and 105 grms. water. (Hager.)

=AL′TERATIVES= (-tĭvz). _Syn._ ALTERAN′TIA, L.; ALTÉRATIFS, &c., Fr.
Alterative medicines or agents. The preparations of mercury and iodine,
when properly administered, are the most useful members of this class; and
are those which are now the most generally employed.

=ALTHE′IN= (ăl-thē′-ĭn). _Syn._ ALTHÆ′INA, L. The name given by Braconnot
to a substance identical with asparagin, which he discovered in the
‘marsh-mallow’ (_althæ′a officina′lis_, Linn.).

=ALTHOFF WATER= (aqua mirabilis), for torpid ulcers. Wine vinegar, 750
parts; sulphate of copper, 100 parts; potash, 25 parts; ammonia, 30 parts;
salt of sorrel, 8 parts; French brandy, 375 parts. Digest for a few days
in a glass vessel and distil to dryness from a glass retort. (Wittstein.)

=AL′UDEL= (-ū-). In _chemistry_, a pear-shaped glass or earthen pot open
at both ends, formerly much used for connecting other vessels in the
process of sublimation. A number of them joined together are still
employed for the distillation of quicksilver, in Spain.

=AL′UM= K_{2}SO_{4}.Al_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}.24Aq. _Syn._ POT′ASH-ALUM,

The principal alum-works in England, until recently, were those of Lord
Glasgow, at Hurlett and Campsie, near Glasgow, and those of Lords Dundas
and Mulgrave, at Whitby, Yorkshire (est. 1600); but those of Mr Spence, at
Manchester, and at Goole (Yorkshire), and of Mr Pochin, at Manchester, are
now among the largest, if they be not actually the largest in the world.
There are also extensive alum-works at and near Newcastle-on-Tyne; but
none of importance, that we know of, in any other part of these realms.

_Nat. hist._ Alum is found native in some places (NATIVE ALUM), either
effloresced on the surface of bituminous alum-schist (Göttwigg, Austria);
or united with the soil in the neighbourhood of volcanoes (Solfatara,
Naples); when it may be obtained by simple lixiviation and evaporation, a
little potash being commonly added to convert the excess of sulphate of
alumina present into alum. It is also found in certain mineral waters
(East Indies).

_Sources._ The alum of commerce is usually obtained from schistose pyritic
clays, commonly termed alum-ores, aluminous shale, a.-schist, &c.; and
from alum-rock, a.-stone, or alunite. At La Tolfa, Civita Vecchia, where
the best Roman-alum is produced, the source is stratified alum-stone. On
the Continent, and in Great Britain, it is generally pyritaceous clays,
volcanic aluminous ores, aluminous shale, or alum-slate. These minerals
contain sulphide of iron, alumina, bitumen or carbon, and frequently a
salt of potassium. Of late years large quantities of alum have been
prepared on the banks of the Tyne from aluminous clay.

_Prep._ The manufacture of alum is technically said to be conducted
according to the natural process when prepared from alum-schist or
alum-ore; and according to the artificial process when made by acting on
clay with sulphuric acid, and adding a potassium salt to the resulting
lixivium. The manufacture of alum and of sulphate of alumina from such
materials as contain only alumina, to which consequently sulphuric acid
and alkaline salts have to be added, has come largely into practice in
England. The materials employed are, in addition to clay, cryolite or
Greenland spar, a fluoride of aluminum and soda; bauxite, a hydrate of
alumina, of more or less purity; and slag. The following are the details
of these processes:——



1. The mineral (alum-ore, a.-schist, &c.) is placed in heaps, and
moistened from time to time with water, when it becomes gradually hot, and
falls into a pulverulent state. This decomposition commonly occurs either
wholly, or partially, on the floor of the mine. If the ore does not
possess this property on mere exposure to air and moisture, it is broken
into pieces and laid upon a bed of brushwood and small coal, to the depth
of about four feet, when the pile is fired and fresh lumps of the
alum-mineral thrown on, until the mass becomes of considerable height and
size. The combustion, as soon as established, is conducted with a
smothered fire, until the calcination is complete; care being taken to
prevent fusion, or the disengagement of either sulphurous or sulphuric
acid, from contact between the ignited stones and the carbonaceous
fuel.[35] To promote these ends the pile, at the proper time, is ‘mantled’
(as the workmen call it) or covered with a layer of already calcined and
exhausted ore, in order to protect it from high winds and heavy rains; as
also to moderate the heat, and let it proceed gradually, so that the
sulphur present may not be lost or wasted by volatilisation. The roasting
is finally checked by a thicker ‘mantling,’ and the whole allowed to cool.
By this time the pile has usually lost about one half its bulk, and become
open and porous in the interior, so that the air can circulate freely
through the mass; the latter, in dry weather, as the heap cools, being
usually promoted by sprinkling a little water on it, which, by carrying
down some of the saline matter, renders the interior still more open to
the atmosphere. The whole, when cold, or nearly cold, is, if necessary,
still further exposed to the action of air and moisture. The time required
to calcine the heap properly, including that taken by the burned ore to
cool, varies, according to its size and the state of the weather, from
three to nine, or even twelve months. The residuum of the calcination is
next placed in large stone or brick cisterns, and edulcorated with water,
until all the soluble portion is dissolved out; the solution is then
concentrated in another stone cistern, so made that the flame and heated
air of its reverberatory furnace sweep the whole surface of the liquor.
(See _engr._) The evaporation is continued until it just barely reaches
the point at which crystals are deposited on cooling; when it is run off
into coolers. After the sulphate of iron, always present, has been
deposited in crystals, the mother-liquor, containing the sulphate of
aluminum, is run into other cisterns, and a saturated solution of chloride
of potassium, or of sulphate of potassium, or (sometimes) impure sulphate
or carbonate of ammonium, or a mixture of them,[36] is added until a cloud
or milkiness ceases to be produced on addition of more.[37] It is next
allowed to settle and get thoroughly cold, and the supernatant
‘mother-liquor’ being drawn off with a pump or syphon, the precipitate,
which is alum in the form of minute crystals (technically termed ‘flour’),
is well drained, and subsequently washed by stirring it up with a little
very cold water, which is then drained off, and the operation repeated a
second time with fresh water. A saturated solution of the pulverulent alum
(‘flour’) is next formed in a leaden boiler, and the clear portion is run
or pumped off, while boiling hot, into crystallising vessels, called
roaching casks (see _engr._), the staves of which are lined with lead, and
nicely adjusted to each other. After the lapse of a week or ten days, the
hoops and staves of these ‘casks’ are removed, when a thick crust of
crystallised alum is found, which exactly corresponds in form and size to
the interior of the cask. A few holes are then made in the sides of this
mass, near the bottom, to allow the contained mother-liquor to drain off,
after which the whole is broken up and packed in casks for sale. Sometimes
the alum thus obtained, or the lower portion of it, is washed with a
little very cold water, and, if discoloured, or small or slimy, is
purified by a second crystallisation.

[Footnote 35: The generality of alum-minerals require roasting; and their
own bituminous matter is, in many cases, sufficient to produce the heat
required, which need not necessarily exceed 600 to 650° Fahr., provided it
be continued for a sufficient period. It is only when they are less
bituminous or carbonaceous that slack or saw-dust, &c., is employed.]

[Footnote 36: For pure POTASH-ALUM a salt of potash only must be employed.
When ammonia (usually in the form of gas-liquor or gas-sulphate) is used
as the precipitant, the product is AMMONIA-ALUM. The ordinary alums of
commerce are now generally mixtures of the two.]

[Footnote 37: The respective quantities required to produce 100 parts of
alum from the sulphate of alumina liquor are——

  Chloride of potassium    15·7
  Sulphate of     ”        18·4
      ”       ammonium     13·9

In practice, the exact quantity required may be found by a previous trial
of a little of the aluminous liquor; but the indications mentioned in the
text will always show the operator when a sufficient dose is added.]


2. As ammonia-alum (Spence’s process; see _below_), but using a
potash-salt as the precipitant, either wholly or in part, instead of
ammonia; and, in the latter case, supplementing the deficiency of potash
with ammonia, as there explained.


1. Clay, free or nearly free from carbonate of lime and oxide of iron, is
chosen for this purpose. It is moderately calcined (in lumps) in a
reverberatory furnace, until it becomes friable; great care being taken
that the heat be not sufficient to indurate it, which would destroy its
subsequent solubility. It is next reduced to powder, sifted, and mixed
with about 45% of its weight of sulphuric acid (sp. gr. 1·45), the
operation being conducted in a large stone or brick basin arched over with
brickwork. Heat is then applied, the flame and hot air of a reverberatory
furnace being made to sweep over the surface of the liquor. The heat and
agitation are continued for 2 or 3 days, when the mass is raked out and
set aside in a warm place for a few weeks (6 to 8), to allow the acid the
more perfectly to combine with the clay. At the end of this time the
newly-formed sulphate of alumina is washed out, the solution evaporated
until of a sp. gr. of about 1·38 (1·24 for ‘ammonia-alum’), and the salt
of potash added. The remaining operations resemble those above described.
Good alum may be produced by this process at about two thirds the cost of
rock or mine alum.

2. (Process of Mr Pochin.) Fine China clay is heated in a furnace, and
mixed with a suitable proportion of sulphuric acid; the latter being
considerably diluted with water, in order to moderate its action, which
would otherwise be far too violent. The mixture is then passed into
cisterns furnished with movable sides, where, in a few minutes, it heats
violently and boils. The thick liquid gradually becomes thicker, until it
is converted into a solid porous mass; the pores being produced by the
bubbles of steam which are driven through it, owing to the heat resulting
from the reaction of the ingredients on each other. This porous mass
(ALUM-CAKE; CONCENTRATED ALUM) appears perfectly dry, although retaining a
large amount of combined water. It also contains all the silica of the
original clay, but in such a state of fine division, that the whole
appears homogeneous; whilst it imparts a dryness to the touch which can
scarcely be given to pure sulphate of alumina. From this substance a
solution of pure sulphate of alumina is easily obtainable by lixiviation,
and allowing the resulting solution to deposit its silica before using it,
but for many purposes the presence of the finely divided silica is not
objectionable. The sulphate of alumina solution so obtained is adapted to
all the purposes in dyeing for which alum is now employed; the sulphate of
potash or of ammonia in the latter being an unnecessary constituent, and
one merely added to facilitate the purification and subsequent
crystallisation of the salt. To obtain ALUM from the porous alum-cake, the
proper proportion of acid having been used in its preparation, or
subsequently added, it is only necessary to precipitate its concentrated
solution with a strong solution of a salt of potash, or of ammonia, or a
mixture of them, and to otherwise proceed as before.

_Ratio._ In the above process the sulphide of iron of the shale or schist
is converted by atmospheric oxygen into sulphate of iron and sulphuric
acid; the sulphuric acid decomposes the clay, setting silica free, and
producing sulphate of aluminum. The sulphate of iron is mostly got rid of
by concentrating the solution of the mixed sulphates, and the
mother-liquors are converted into alum by the addition of the salt of
potassium. When chloride of potassium is used, it yields chloride of iron
and sulphate of potassium, the latter combining with the sulphate of
aluminum, and the former remaining behind in the mother-liquor. See ALUMS
(in Chemistry).

_Comp._ Potassium alum has the formula

_c._ From CRYOLITE.

1. (Thomson’s method.) Decomposition of cryolite by ignition with
carbonate of lime. From the ignited mass the aluminate of soda is obtained
by lixiviation with water, and into the solution carbonic acid gas is
passed, when there result precipitated hydrated gelatinous alumina and
carbonate of soda, which remains in solution. If it be desired to obtain
the alumina as an earthy compact precipitate, bicarbonate of soda is used
instead of carbonic acid. While the clear liquor is boiled down for the
purpose of obtaining carbonate of soda, the precipitated alumina is
dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid; this solution is evaporated for the
purpose of obtaining sulphate of alumina (the so-called concentrated
alum), or the solution after having been treated with a potassa or an
ammonia salt is converted into alum.

2. (Sauerwein’s method.) Decomposition of cryolite by caustic lime by the
wet way. Very finely ground cryolite is boiled with water and lime, the
purer the better, and as free from iron as possible, in a leaden pan. The
result is the formation of a solution of aluminate of soda, and insoluble
fluoride of calcium (lime). When the fluoride of calcium has deposited,
the clear liquid is decanted, and the sediment washed, the first
wash-water being added to the decanted liquor, and the second and third
wash-waters being used instead of pure water at a subsequent operation. In
order to separate the alumina from the solution of aluminate of soda,
there is added to the liquid while being continuously stirred very finely
pulverised cryolite in excess, the result of the decomposition being
alumina and fluoride of sodium, (soda). When no more caustic soda can be
detected in the liquid, it is left to stand for the purpose of becoming
clear. The clarified solution of fluoride of sodium is then drawn off, and
the alumina treated as above described. The solution of fluoride of sodium
having been boiled with caustic lime yields a caustic soda solution, which
having been decanted from the sediment of fluoride of calcium is
evaporated to dryness. Recently the fluoride of calcium occurring as a
by-product has been used in glass-making.

3. The decomposition of cryolite by sulphuric acid yields sulphate of soda
convertible into carbonate by Leblanc’s process, and sulphate of alumina
free from iron. This method of decomposing cryolite is, however, by no
means to be recommended, as owing to the liberation of hydrofluoric acid,
peculiarly constructed apparatus are required, whilst the sulphate of soda
has to be converted into carbonate.

_d._ From Bauxite. This mineral, occurring in some parts of Southern
France, in Calabria, near Belfast, and in other parts of Europe, consists
essentially (viz. 60 per cent.) of hydrate of alumina, more or less pure.
In order to prepare alums and sulphate of alumina from it, the mineral is
first disintegrated by being ignited with carbonate of soda, or with a
mixture of sulphate of soda and charcoal; in each case the lixiviation of
the ignited mass yields aluminate of soda, from which, by the processes
already described under “Cryolite,” alum, or sulphate of alumina, and soda
are prepared.

_e._ From blast-furnace slag. Lürmann recommends the slag to be decomposed
by means of hydrochloric (muriatic) acid. From the resulting solution of
chloride of aluminum the alumina is precipitated by carbonate of lime, any
dissolved silica being precipitated at the same time. The alumina is
dissolved in sulphuric acid, leaving the silica.


_Prop._ Alum crystallises in regular octahedrons, often with truncated
edges and angles; (see _engr._); and sometimes in cubes, but only when
there is a deficiency of acid in its composition, with the alkali in
slight excess of the proper quantity. (Löwel.)[38] It is slightly
efflorescent in dry air: soluble in 18 parts of cold water, and in rather
less than its own weight of boiling water; tastes sweet, acidulous, and
very astringent; is styptic; and reddens litmus. When heated it melts,
loses its water of crystallisation, and becomes white and spongy (DRIED
ALUM); a strong heat, short of whiteness, decomposes it, with the
evolution of oxygen and a mixture of sulphuric and sulphurous anhydride;
calcined with carbonaceous matter it suffers decomposition, and furnishes
a pyrophoric residuum (HOMBERG’S PYRO′PHORUS). Ignited with alkaline
chlorides, hydrochloric acid is liberated; which also occurs when their
concentrated solutions are boiled together. Ammonia precipitates pure
hydrate of aluminum from potassium alum; but only a subsulphate from the
simple sulphate of alumina. Sp. gr. 1·724; but, when containing ammonia,
often so low as 1·710.

[Footnote 38: The ordinary alum, of commerce, consisting of large
crystalline masses, which do not present any regular geometrical form; but
by immersion in water for a few days, octahedral and rectangular forms are
developed on its surface. (Daniell.)]

_Tests, &c._ It is easily recognised by its crystalline form, its taste,
and by its complete solubility in water. Its aqueous solution gives a
white gelatinous precipitate soluble in excess; a platinum wire moistened
with the solution imparts a violet colour to the blowpipe flame; and
chloride of barium gives a white precipitate insoluble in nitric acid.

_Pur._ When pure, its solution is not darkened by tincture of galls,
sulphuretted hydrogen or ferrocyanide of potassium; neither does it give
any precipitate with solution of nitrate of silver. Heated with caustic
potassa, or quick-lime, it does not evolve fumes of ammonia.

_Adult., &c._ The principal impurity, and one which renders alum unfit for
the use of the dyer, is iron. This may be readily detected by the blue
precipitate it gives with ferrocyanide of potassium, or the black
precipitate with sulphide of ammonium, which are very delicate tests.[39]
Lime, another very injurious contamination, may be detected by
precipitating the alumina and iron (if any) with ammonia, and then adding
oxalate of ammonia to the boiled and filtered liquid. The liquid filtered
from the last precipitate (oxalate of lime) may still contain magnesia,
which may be detected by the white precipitate caused on the addition of
an alkaline phosphate. Common alum frequently contains ammonia, from
urine, or the crude sulphate of the gas-works, having been employed in its
manufacture. Powdered alum is frequently adulterated with common salt, in
which case it gives a white curdy precipitate with nitrate of silver,
turning black by exposure to the light.

[Footnote 39: Good English alum contains less than 0·1% of iron. The best
Roman or Italian alums seldom contain more than ·005% of iron-alum,
notwithstanding their exterior colour.]

_Phys. eff. &c._ In small quantities alum acts as an astringent; in larger
doses as an irritant. It acts chemically on the animal tissues and fluids,
is absorbed, and has been discovered in the liver, spleen, and urine
(Orfila), the last often becoming acid (Kraus). Externally, it is
astringent. The almost general use of alum by the English bakers is one of
the most fertile sources of dyspepsia and liver and bowel complaints in
adults; and of debility and rickets in children. Bad teeth and their early
decay is another consequence of the daily use of alum in our food. The
bone matter (phosphate of lime) of bread, instead of being assimilated by
the system, is either wholly, or in part, converted into a salt of
alumina, which is useless and incapable of appropriation. When alum has
been taken in poisonous doses an emetic should be given, followed by warm
diluents and demulcents, containing a little carbonate of soda; and
subsequently by a purgative.

_Uses, &c._ The applications of alum in the arts and manufactures are
numerous and important. It is used to harden tallow and fats; to render
wood and paper incombustible; to remove greasiness from printers’ blocks
and rollers; to prepare a paper for whitening silver and silvering brass
in the cold; to help the separation of the butter from milk; to purify
turbid water; to dress skins; to fix and brighten the colours in dyeing;
to make lake and pyrophorus, &c., &c. It is also extensively used for
clarifying liquors, and for many other purposes connected with the arts
and everyday life. In _medicine_, alum is used as a tonic and astringent,
in doses of 5 to 20 gr.; as a gargle (1 dr. to 1/2 pint of water); and as
a collyrium and injection (10 to 15 gr. to 6 oz. of water). In lead colic,
1/2 to 1 dr. of alum (dissolved in gum-water), every 3 or 4 hours, is said
to be infallible. Powdered alum is frequently applied with the tips of the
fingers, in cases of sore throat and ulcerations of the mouth, &c. A
teaspoonful of it is said to be one of the very best emetics in croup. (Dr
Meigs.) Alkalies, alkaline carbonates, lime, magnesia, acetate of lead,
astringent vegetables, &c., are incompatible with it.

_Gen. commentary._ In addition to the particulars of its manufacture given
above, we may add, that the plan of getting rid of the ferric salts there
referred to has to some considerable extent been successfully replaced by
that of precipitating the alum, instead of the sulphate of iron, by adding
alkaline matter to the lixivium. The crystalline precipitate is purified
by draining, re-solution, and re-crystallisation; whilst the sulphate of
iron and Epsom-salts contained in the mother liquor are obtained by
subsequent evaporation and crystallisation; after which a fresh crop of
alum may be got from it, by the use of an alkaline precipitant, as before.

In estimating the strength of his solution the alum-maker takes as a
standard a measure or sp. gr. bottle capable of holding exactly 80
pennyweights of distilled water. The excess of the weight of liquor, in
pennyweights, over 80, or that of water, is called so many ‘pennyweights
strong.’ Thus one of 90 pennyweights (90 dwt.) is said to be ‘10 dwt.
strong,’ or simply, ‘one of 90 dwt.’ These numbers correspond to 2-1/2
degrees of Twaddle’s hydrometer, and may easily be found by dividing
Twaddle’s degrees by 2·5 or 2-1/2; or by multiplying them by 4, and
pointing off the right-hand figure of the product for a decimal. The
result is in alum-makers’ pennyweights.

By a patent now expired (Weisman’s, 1839) the ferric salts are
precipitated by the addition of a solution of ferrocyanide of potassium
(prussiate of potash); after which the supernatant clear liquor, which is
now a solution of nearly pure sulphate of alumina, is decanted, and
evaporated for future operations, until it either forms, on cooling, a
concrete mass, which is moulded into bricks or lumps, for the convenience
of ‘packing,’ or until it is sufficiently concentrated to be converted
into ALUM by the addition of a salt of potash or of ammonia in the usual
manner. The product, in each case, is perfectly free from iron. By a like
addition of the ferrocyanide to a solution of ordinary sulphate of
aluminia or alum, the dyer may himself easily render them free from
iron, or iron-alum; when, as mordants for even the most delicate colours,
they are equal to the very best Roman alum.

Another process has been patented (Barlow & Gore, 1851) for the
manufacture of alum from the ash or residue of the combustion of
Boghead-coal, which, though hitherto regarded as almost valueless,
actually contains about 30% of alumina. It has not, however, been found a
convenient material for the purpose.

By the latest and most approved processes the least possible quantity of
boiling water or liquor is employed for making the solutions, so that they
may crystallise without evaporation, and thus economise fuel; and the
mother-liquors of previous operations are constantly employed for this
purpose, when possible. Nor is anything which is convertible to use, from
the drainage of the heaps, to the liquor and slime of the roaching casks,
allowed to be wasted.

By whatever process, or from whatever materials alum is obtained, it is
absolutely necessary for the successful and economical conduct of its
manufacture, that the precise composition of the mineral or minerals
employed should be exactly known. This can only be determined by actual
analysis, which should be extended to several parts of the same bed, and
particularly to the upper and lower strata, which frequently differ in
composition from each other, and thus require different treatment, or may
be most advantageously employed in combinations with each other. The
necessity of this will be seen by reference to the composition of the
following minerals, of which the top contains a larger proportion of
iron-pyrites than the bottom, and the two require to be mixed, to equally
diffuse the sulphuric acid generated by the calcination, &c., to which
they are subjected.

The following is the per-centage composition of certain alum shales:——

  |                  | Whitby, Yorkshire.|
  |                  | (_Richardson._)   |
  |                  +--------+----------+
  |                  |  Top   | Bottom   |
  |                  |  rock. | rock.    |
  |Sulphide of iron  |   4·20 |   8·50   |
  |  (_pyrites_)     |        |          |
  |Silica            |  52·25 |  15·16   |
  |Protoxide of iron |   8·49 |   6·11   |
  |Alumina           |  18·75 |  18·30   |
  |Lime              |   1·25 |   2·15   |
  |Magnesia          |    ·91 |    ·90   |
  |Oxide of manganese| traces | traces   |
  |Sulphuric acid    |   1·37 |   2·50   |
  |  (SO_{3})        |        |          |
  |Potassa           |    ·13 | traces   |
  |Soda              |    ·20 | traces   |
  |Chlorine          | traces | traces   |
  |Coal              |   4·97 |   8·29   |
  |Water             |   2·88 |    ·00   |
  |Loss              |   4·60 |   (?)    |
  |                  |        |          |
  |                  | 100·   | 100·     |

  |                     |   Campsie, near Glasgow.     |
  |                     |        (_Ronalds._)          |
  |                     | Top     |   Top    | Bottom  |
  |                     | rock.   |   rock.  | rock.   |
  |Sulphide of iron     | 40·52   |   38·48  |  9·63(?)|
  |  (_pyrites_)        |         |          |         |
  |Silica               | 15·40   |   15·41  | 20·47(?)|
  |Protoxide of iron    |  ...    |    ...   |  2·18   |
  |Alumina              | 11·35   |   11·64  | 18·91(?)|
  |Lime                 |  1·40   |    2·22  |   ·40   |
  |Magnesia             |   ·50   |     ·32  |  2·17   |
  |Oxide of manganese   |   ·15   |    ...   |   ·55   |
  |Sulphuric acid       |  ...    |    ...   |   ·05   |
  |Potassa              |   ·90   |    ...   |  1·26   |
  |Soda                 |  ...    |    ...   |   ·21   |
  |Carbon or            | 27·65(?)|  28·80   |  (?)    |
  |  bituminous matter  |         |          |         |
  |Coal                 |  ...    |    ...   |  8·51   |
  |Water                |  ...    |    ...   |  8·54   |
  |Loss                 |  2·13(?)|   3·13   |  1·59(?)|
  |                     | 100·    | 100·     | 100·    |

Alum-rock, or alum-stone, is a species of impure alunite, and is not of
very common occurrence. That of Tolfa, near Civita Vecchia, according to
Klaproth, consists of——

  Silica                   56·5
  Alumina                  19·
  Sulphuric acid (SO_{3})  16·5
  Potassa                   4·
  Water                     3·
  Loss                      1·

which exhibits an excess of about 3% of sulphuric acid, and about 14% of
alumina, more than are requisite to form alum with the 4% of potassa;
proportions which, therefore, require to be supplemented with a potassium
salt during the process of manufacture. The alum-stone of Mont d’Or
contains, according to Cordier, 1·4% of oxide of iron.

The presence of lime in alum-ore is most prejudicial, owing to its
affinity for sulphuric acid being greater than that of either alumina or
iron. Ores containing it in any quantity are, therefore, unfitted for the
manufacture of alum. Magnesia is also prejudicial; but in this case the
sulphate of magnesia left in the mother-liquors is not wholly valueless,
as it may be crystallised and sold as ‘Epsom-salt,’——a thing which is
actually done in some English alum-works.

The potash-salt employed by the alum-makers is either the sulphate or the
chloride——chiefly the latter; its sources being the waste liquor of
soap-works, saltpetre refineries, and glass-houses. Wood-ashes, although
rich in potash, do not answer well unless freed by lixiviation from the
large amount of carbonate of lime which is always present in them.

The ammonia-salt used in making alum is generally the crude sulphate
prepared from the ammoniacal liquor of gas-works, or that from the
manufacture of sal-ammoniac by the destructive distillation of animal
matter. Both these liquors may be used without previous conversion into
sulphate of ammonia whenever there is an excess of sulphuric acid in the
aluminous solution.

Soda-salts are seldom, if ever, used as precipitants in the manufacture of
alum, on account of the easy solubility of the resulting SODA-ALUM——a
property which unfits them for this purpose. See ALUMS, AMMONIA, DYEING,

=Alum, Ammonia.= (NH_{4})_{2}SO_{4} . Al_{2}(SO_{4})_{3} . 24 Aq. _Syn_.
AMMONIACAL, Fr. This is an alum in which the sulphate of potassium is
replaced by an equivalent of sulphate of ammonium. It is prepared by
adding crude sulphate of ammonium to solution of sulphate of aluminum; or
gas-liquor, putrid urine, &c., to the acid-sulphate.

Much of the common alum, especially that prepared on the Continent,
contains both potassium and ammonium; and recently enormous works for its
manufacture have been established in England. As an astringent, and as a
source of alumina in dyeing, it resembles potash-alum (_i. e._ ordinary
alum). It may, however, be readily distinguished from the latter by the
fumes of ammonia which are evolved when it is moistened and triturated, or
heated, with caustic potassa or quick-lime; and by the residuum of its
exposure to a white heat being pure alumina. See ALUM (_antè_).

=Alum, Basic.= A variety of alum found native at Tolfa. On calcination and
subsequent lixiviation it yields ordinary alum. A like substance falls as
a white powder, when newly precipitated alumina is boiled in a solution of

=Alum, Baumé’s.= Alum-white. See WHITE PIGMENTS.

=Alum, Dried; Alum, Burnt.= _Syn_. ALU′MEN US′TUM, A. EXSICCA′TUM (B. P.);
deprived of its water of crystallisation by heat.

_Prep._ Take of alum, 4 oz. Heat the alum in a porcelain dish or other
suitable vessel, till it liquefies, then raise and continue the heat, not
allowing it to exceed 400°, till aqueous vapour ceases to be disengaged,
and the salt has lost 47 per cent. of its weight. Reduce the residue to
powder, and preserve it in a well-stopped bottle.

_Prop., &c._ Similar to those of common alum, but it is rather more
astringent, and is less soluble. When moistened, or placed in contact with
water, it resumes its water of crystallisation with evolution of
heat.——_Dose_, 10 to 20 gr.; in colic (especially painters’ colic),
hæmoptysis, &c. It is chiefly used as an escharotic, to destroy ‘proud
flesh,’ &c. It must be kept in a stoppered bottle.

=Alum, Chrome.= See ALUMS (in Chemistry).

=Alum, I′ron= (-ŭrn). _Syn_. ALU′MEN FER′RICUM, SUL′PHAS FER′RI ET

_Comp._ K_{2}SO_{4} . Fe_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}.24Aq.

_Prep._ Take of peroxide of iron, 9 lbs.; sulphuric acid 14 lbs.;
dissolve, dilute the mixture with water, q. s., and add of potassium
sulphate, 10 lbs.; evaporate, and crystallise.

_Prop., &c._ Crystals, beautiful octahedrons of a pinkish or pale violet
colour. It is strongly recommended, by Dr Tyler Smith, as a chalybeate
tonic, and has been used by him, at St. Mary’s Hospital with marked
success. It has also been used as a mordant, in dyeing black.——_Dose_, 1/2
gr. to 5 gr.

=Alum, Ro′man.= _Syn_. RED ALUM*, ROACH A., ROCHE A., ROCK A.*; ALU′MEN
ALUME DI ROCCA, It. In small fragments, covered with a reddish powder
(ALUMEN RUBRUM VE′′RUM); originally imported from Civita Vecchia, where it
occurs native. It is much esteemed by dyers from being nearly free from
iron-alum. That now sold for it in England is ordinary alum coloured with
Venetian red, Armenian bole, or rose-pink (ALUMEN RUBRUM SPU′′RIUM). This
is done by shaking the fragments in a sieve over a vessel of hot water,
and then stirring them up with the colour, until the surface is uniformly
tinged with it. In genuine roach-alum the colour not only covers the
surface, but also partially pervades the substance of the crystals. The
name was formerly also applied to a pure white variety of alum, prepared
at Tolfa; but it is now, in English commerce, exclusively given to common
alum artificially coloured.

=Alum, Saccharated.= Alum, 6 oz., white lead 6 drms., sulphate of zinc 3
drms., sugar 1-1/2 oz. Mix the ingredients reduced to powder into a paste,
with vinegar and white of egg. Used in eye waters and cosmetic washes.

=Alum, So′da.= _Syn_. SULPHAS ALUMINÆ ET SODÆ, L. _Comp._ Na_{2}SO_{4} .
Al_{2}(SO_{4})_{3} . 24Aq. An alum in which the potassium sulphate of
common alum is replaced by a like salt of sodium. It does not occur in
commerce. (Vide _suprà_ et _infrà_.)

=ALUM-EARTH.= Alumina.

=ALUM MOR′DANTS.= In _dyeing_, mordants having for their basis either
common alum or the acetate or sulphate of aluminum. See ALUMS and

root of _heuchera America′na_ (Linn.), a plant of North America. It is
powerfully styptic and astringent; and is used chiefly as an external
application in cancer.


=AL′UMS.= _Syn._ ALU′MINA (pl. of _alu′men_), L. In _chemistry_, a term
applied to a series or group of salts having potassium alum for their
type, which they resemble in crystalline form and constitution.

It is found that the aluminum of common alum may be replaced by any other
metal having a like nature, without affecting the leading characteristics
of the salt; and further, that in the newly formed compound, as in
potassium-alum, the second sulphate may also be replaced under the like
conditions. All the alums crystallise in octahedrons or cubes, and they
all contain the same number of molecules of water. The alums of commerce
(or alums proper) all contain aluminum sulphate and an alkaline sulphate.

_Prep._ All the alums may be made by mixing together solutions of the
respective sulphates in equivalent proportions, when crystals may be
obtained by evaporation in the usual manner. The presence of sulphuric
acid, in slight excess, assists their crystallisation.

=AL′UMED= (al′ŭmd). Mixed or impregnated with alum. In _dyeing_, mordanted
with alum.

=ALU′MEN= (-l′ōō-). [L.] Alum; the pharmacopœial name of alum. (See

=ALUMINIUM.= _Syn._ ALUMINUM (which _see_).

=ALUMINOUS.= In _mineralogy_, of, resembling, or containing aluminum. In
_chemistry_, containing or obtained from alum.

=ALUMINUM.= [Eng., Fr., L.] _Syn._ ALUMINIUM, Eng., Fr., L.; ALUMIUM, Ger.
A metallic radical or element very abundantly distributed, united with
silica. Discovered by M. Wöhler, who succeeded in obtaining it as a grey
metallic powder (A.D. 1827); and later (1845), under the form of globules
exhibiting the leading characteristics of the metal. In 1854, M. Dumas
announced to the ‘Academy of Sciences,’ that M. St. Clair Deville had
procured pure aluminum from clay, and exhibited several specimens of
considerable size and beauty. The result was a general impression that it
might be easily obtained in any quantity, and ultimately at a reasonable
price; expectations which have been only partly, though to a great extent
fulfilled, owing to the expense and trouble of the process,
notwithstanding recent improvements.

_Prep._ (M. Deville; A.D. 1854-59.)——A quantity of chloride of aluminum,
varying from 200 to 300 grammes (say from 6 to 10 oz.), is introduced into
a wide glass or porcelain tube, between two plugs of asbestos to retain it
in position, and a current of hydrogen (thoroughly dried by passing first
through concentrated sulphuric acid, and then through a tube containing
fused chloride of calcium) passed over it; a gentle heat being at the same
time applied to the part of the tube containing the chloride, to drive off
any free hydrochloric acid which might have been formed by the action of
the air upon it. A small porcelain boat, containing sodium, is now
introduced at the other extremity of the glass tube, which is then again
closed; and when the sodium is fused, the chloride is sufficiently heated
to cause its vapour to come into free contact with it. A powerful reaction
ensues, with the evolution of much heat, and this continues as long as any
undecomposed sodium remains to act on the passing vapour. The mass in the
boat, which is now a mixture of the double chloride of aluminum and
sodium, in which small globules of the newly reduced metal are suspended,
is allowed to cool in the hydrogen; after which it is treated with water,
to remove the soluble double chloride. The residuum, consisting of small
globules of aluminum, is, lastly, reduced to a solid button or mass, by
fusion, at a strong heat, under a layer of the fused double chloride of
aluminum and sodium.

On a large scale two cast-iron cylinders are employed, instead of the
glass or porcelain tube just referred to; the anterior one of which
contains the chloride of aluminum, and the posterior one a tray holding
the sodium, of which 10 or 12 lbs. are commonly operated on at once. These
cylinders are united by means of a smaller intermediate one, filled with
clean scraps of iron, which serve to separate iron, free hydrochloric
acid, and chloride of sulphur, from the vapour of the chloride of
aluminum, as it passes through them. During the passage of the vapour of
the chloride this smaller cylinder, or tube, is kept heated to from 400°
to 600° Fahr.; but the two other cylinders are only very gently heated,
since the chloride is volatilised at a comparatively low temperature, and
the reaction between it and the fused sodium, when once commenced, usually
generates sufficient heat for the completion of the process.

Occasionally a mixture of the double chloride of aluminum and sodium, 40
parts; chloride of sodium 20 parts; fluor spar, 20 parts; each separately
dried, powdered, and then blended together; sodium, in small pieces, 7-1/2
to 8 parts, are used instead of the last.

It is likewise made from a mixture of cryolite and fused chloride of
potassium, of each, in powder, 5 parts; sodium, 2 parts; a cast-iron
crucible being employed; the resulting minute globules being collected and
fused to a button under a layer of the double chloride of aluminum and

_Prop., &c._ Aluminum, when quite pure, closely approaches silver in
appearance, except in being rather less white and lustrous than that
metal. Ordinary specimens, called pure, have a slight bluish tint or
tin-white colour, with a perfect lustre, but far inferior to that of pure
silver. Sp. gr. 2·56, which by hammering may be raised to 2·67. It is both
ductile and malleable; fuses at a temperature between the melting-points
of zinc and silver; is not affected by either damp or dry air, or by
oxygen at ordinary temperatures, or by water whether cold or boiling; even
steam, at a red heat, is only slowly decomposed by it. It is not acted on
by nitric acid, however concentrated, unless boiling, and then very
slowly; nor by dilute sulphuric acid, sulphuretted hydrogen, and the
sulphides, or even the fused hydrates of the alkalies. It is, however,
readily dissolved by hydrochloric acid, with the evolution of hydrogen,
even in the cold; and by a concentrated mixture of nitric and sulphuric
acid. It is feebly magnetic, conducts electricity about eight times better
than iron, and is more electro-negative than zinc. Commercial specimens,
owing to the presence of iron and silicon, and often zinc, usually slowly
tarnish in damp air, and possess the other properties described above in a
somewhat diminished degree.

In a finely divided state, particularly in the state of powder or minute
scales in which it was originally obtained, when heated to redness, it
catches fire and burns with great rapidity in the air, and in oxygen gas
with intense brilliancy, the product in each case being alumina.

Aluminum unites with the other metals, forming ALLOYS, of which some
promise to be of great value in the arts. An alloy of 100 parts of
aluminum with 5 parts of silver may be worked like the pure metal, but is
harder and susceptible of a finer polish, whilst its property of not being
affected by sulphuretted hydrogen and acids remains unimpaired; even 3% of
silver is said to be sufficient to impart to it the full brilliance and
colour of pure silver. An alloy containing 10% of gold is softer and
scarcely so malleable as the pure metal. With 8% of iron, or 10% of
copper, it still remains tough and malleable; but a larger proportion of
either of these metals renders it brittle.

The presence of 2 or 3% of zinc destroys its ductility and malleability,
and also impairs its colour and lustre; whilst less than even 1/4% of
bismuth renders it brittle in a high degree. Small quantities of aluminum
added to other metals change their properties in a very remarkable manner.
Thus, copper alloyed with 10%; of aluminum has the colour and brilliancy
of gold, is harder than bronze, very malleable, and may be worked at high
temperatures easier than the best varieties of iron; and with 20% is quite
white, and closely resembles silver. With more than 12% of aluminum the
alloy is harder, but brittle. The alloy formed of 100 parts of silver with
5 parts of aluminum is as hard as the silver of our coinage, whilst the
other properties of the latter metal remain unaltered.

_Uses._ The valuable properties of aluminum adapt it to numerous
applications in the arts and everyday life. Hitherto these have been very
limited, owing to its comparatively high price; which, notwithstanding it
has fallen considerably, is still sufficient to prevent its general or
even extensive application. The ‘eagles’ of the French army have been made
of it, as well as certain articles of jewelry, plate, &c., as brooches,
bracelets, chains, spoons, and other ornamental and useful objects. Owing
to its low sp. gr., it has been used as a suitable material for the minute
decimal weights of chemists, for military helmets, trumpets, &c. A few
cornet-à-pistons, for which its lightness and sonorousness admirably adapt
it, have actually been made of it. Its power of resisting oxygen,
sulphuretted hydrogen, moisture, &c., would render it invaluable as a
coating to metals, particularly iron and lead, to protect them from rust
or corrosion, did not its price intervene. As an internal coating for
water-pipes, cisterns, &c., no other substance, except gold and platinum,
is so well adapted. In _chemistry_, capsules, tubes, &c., either made of
or coated with it, may be often advantageously substituted for those of

In addition to what has been said above, it may be observed that, in
preparing aluminum, the chief care should be to avoid accidents or failure
by the employment of too high a temperature, and to avoid the product
being contaminated with other metals or with carbon. To ensure the purity
of the metal is a matter of the greatest difficulty, owing to the facility
with which foreign matters are taken up, during the process, from the
materials of which the apparatus is composed; and from the substances from
which it is prepared being seldom absolutely pure. Indeed, it is not too
much to assert that chemically pure aluminum has not yet been obtained;
and that even a very close approximation to it is of very rare occurrence.
Whenever a copper boat is used to hold the sodium, the product is always
contaminated with copper. Chloride of aluminum always contains some of the
chlorides of iron and silicon, both of which are volatile, and probably
takes up a further portion from the porcelain or earthenware used to form
the apparatus. Sodium also is seldom uncontaminated with carbon or some
compound of it; in which case, and likewise when it is not carefully freed
from the naphtha in which it has been preserved, the product always
contains carbon. The crucible, whether of porcelain or iron, in which the
final fusion is made, also contributes to contaminate the metal. Hence the
inferior whiteness and brilliancy of commercial specimens of aluminum; a
metal which, in its absolutely pure state, may be reasonably inferred to
be as superior in the above respects to silver as silver is to tin.
Commercial aluminum contains from 88 to 94 per cent. only of pure
aluminum, and from 1 to 4 per cent. of iron, 1/2 to 3 per cent. of
silicon, and from 1 to 6 per cent. of copper.

Aluminum salts are generally colourless, soluble, and crystallise with
difficulty, and are distinguished as follows:——

_Tests._——1. Ammonia and the alkaline carbonates throw down a bulky white
precipitate (hydrate of aluminum) from solutions of its salts, which is
insoluble in excess of the precipitant.——2. Pure potassa and soda throw
down white gelatinous precipitates, freely soluble in excess of the
precipitant; from which the hydrate of aluminum is reprecipitated by
chloride of ammonium, even in the cold:——3. Phosphate of ammonium gives a
white precipitate——4. Iodide of potassium produces a white precipitate,
passing into a permanent yellow:——5. Sulphuretted hydrogen gives no
precipitate:——6. Sulphydrate of ammonium precipitates alumina from these
solutions:——7. Bisulphate of potassium, added to concentrated solutions,
gives a precipitate of octahedral crystals of alum:——8. At a red heat its
salts part with some of their acid; at a white heat, most of it, if not
all:——9. Aluminum compounds, ignited on charcoal before the blowpipe, and
afterwards moistened with a solution of nitrate of cobalt and again
strongly ignited, give an unfused mass, which, on cooling, appears blue by
day, and violet by candlelight; a test, however, which is inapplicable to
fusible compounds of aluminum, and such as are not free, or nearly free,
from other oxides.

=Aluminum, Acetate of.= _Syn._ ACETATE OF ALUMINA. _Prep._ Pure hydrate of
aluminum is digested, to saturation, in strong acetic acid, in the cold;
and the resulting solution, after being filtered or decanted, is either
evaporated by a very gentle heat to a gelatinous, semi-solid consistence
(its usual form), or is preserved in the liquid state. By spontaneous
evaporation it may be obtained in long, transparent crystals.

_Red liquor._ From alum, in powder, 4 parts; warm water, q. s. to
dissolve; acetate of lead, in powder, 3 parts; the solution and mixture
being effected by lengthened agitation in a tub or other wooden vessels,
and the clear liquid, after repose for a sufficient time, decanted or
drawn off from the sediment.

From alum, 2 parts; (dissolved in) warm water, q. s.; solution of
pyrolignite of lime (20° Baumé), 3 parts; as before, but allowing a longer
time for the subsidence of the precipitate, and taking more care in the
decantation than when acetate of lead is employed.

By decomposing a solution of crude sulphate of alumina with neutral or
monobasic acetate of lead.

_Prop._ Its characteristic property is the feeble affinity existing
between its acid and base, which, when it is used as a mordant, is
counterbalanced by that of the fibres of the cloth or yarn to which it is
applied. In other respects it resembles the other simple salts of alumina.

_Uses, &c._ In _dyeing_ and _calico printing_, as a mordant. In
_medicine_, properly diluted, in chronic diarrhœa; and, mixed with syrup
of poppies, in slight cases of hæmoptysis (spitting of blood). It has been
employed by M. Gannal as an injection to preserve animal bodies, which it
will do for years.——_Dose_, 1/2 to 1 dr. daily, in divided portions, taken
in thin mucilage or syrup, or in barley-water; as an injection, 10 to 20
gr., to water, 4 to 6 fl. oz., in gonorrhœa, leucorrhœa, &c.

=Aluminum, Chloride of.= Al_{2}Cl_{6}. _Syn._ SESQUICHLO′′RIDE OF
ALUMINUM; ALUMIN′II CHLORI′DI, &c., L. _Prep._ A thick paste made of dry
precipitated alumina, lampblack, and oil, is strongly heated in a covered
crucible until all the organic matter is carbonised. The residuum is
transferred to a porcelain tube fixed across a furnace, one end of which
is connected with another tube containing dry chloride of calcium, and the
other end with a small tubulated receiver. The porcelain tube is then
heated to redness, whilst chlorine, dried by passing through the
chloride-of-calcium tube, is transmitted through the apparatus. In one or
two hours, or as soon as the tube is choked, the whole is allowed to cool,
and the newly-formed SESQUICHLORIDE collected and preserved in mineral
naphtha for use.

On the large scale:——Chlorine, dried as before, is passed over a mixture
of pure clay, lamp-black, and coal-tar, contained in an iron retort,
similar to that used in the manufacture of coal-gas (previously ignited by
means of a suitable furnace), and connected with a cool chamber accurately
lined with tiles of earthenware. The vapours of the SESQUICHLORIDE
condense in this chamber, as a yellowish crystalline mass, which is
collected and preserved as before.

_Prop., &c._ It is volatile at a dull red heat; excessively greedy of
moisture; and very soluble, with decomposition, hydrochloric acid and
alumina being formed. Once dissolved, it cannot be again recovered. Its
chief use is in the preparation of aluminum.

_Obs._ Although alumina, like magnesia, is freely soluble in hydrochloric
acid, the sesquichloride of aluminum contained in this solution cannot be
obtained in the anhydrous state, or even the solid form, by its
evaporation; the chloride suffering decomposition, with the formation of
hydrochloric acid, which is volatilised, and alumina, which is left

=Aluminum, Ni′trate of.= Al_{2}(NO_{3})_{6}. _Syn._ NITRATE OF ALUMINA;
ALU′MINÆ NI′TRAS, L. _Prep._ Similar to that of the acetate and citrate.
Its concentrated acid solution deposits rhombic crystals, containing 18
equiv. of water.

=Aluminum, Oxide of= (Al_{2}O_{3}), and =Hydrate of= (Al_{2}(HO)_{6}).

_Prep._ Aluminum is precipitated as a hydrate from solutions of aluminum
salts on the addition of an alkali or alkaline carbonate; and this
precipitate, after being thoroughly washed and dried, on ignition loses
its water and becomes anhydrous. The following are the best formulæ for
the purpose:——

Alum is dissolved in about 20 times its weight of distilled water, and the
solution is dropped slowly into pure solution of ammonia, until the latter
is nearly but not entirely saturated, when the whole is set aside for some
time. The clear supernatant liquid is then decanted, and the precipitate
is carefully and thoroughly washed three or four times with tepid
distilled water; after which it is collected on a filter, again well
washed with water, and, lastly, pressed and dried between bibulous paper,
either without heat, or at a temperature not higher than 120° Fahr. The
product is pure hydrate of ammonium, and is converted into anhydrous
alumina by exposure to a white heat in a covered crucible. The residuum,

A solution of alum is slowly added to a solution of carbonate of ammonia,
avoiding excess; and the resulting precipitate, after being washed and
pressed, is dried at a heat of from 120° to 180° Fahr.

_Prop., &c._ A soft white powder. The hydrate is freely soluble in the
acids and in solution of caustic potassa and soda (from which it is
precipitable by sal ammoniac); when anhydrous (as after ignition), it is
scarcely acted on by acids, and when perfectly indurated, or crystallised,
it is wholly insoluble; but on ignition with alkalies, alkaline
ALU′MINATES are formed, and the alumina is then readily dissolved by
acids, forming salts, which are mostly colourless, non-volatile, and
soluble; they have a very astringent and somewhat sweetish taste, redden
litmus paper, and lose their acids by ignition. Its most remarkable, or
rather useful property, is its strong affinity for the fibres of organic
bodies, as cotton, flax, silk, wool, &c., which are capable of taking it
from its salts; and also for organic colouring matters. Hence its great
use in dyeing, and in bleaching liquids and the preparation of lakes.
Hydrate of aluminum agitated or digested with liquids containing vegetable
colouring matter, combines with the latter, and either entirely, or to a
great extent, removes it from the solution.

Moist precipitated alumina, dried at a heat between 70° and 80°, contains
above 58% of water; dried at 212° Fahr., about 32% of water.

_Estim._ Aluminum is weighed as oxide, after ignition. The solubility of
the moist or recently precipitated hydrate in solution of ammonia enable
us to separate it from the ALKALINE EARTHS which, when present, are thrown
down with it.

_Uses, &c._ The moist hydrate is used in several processes in the arts. It
is the base of cobalt-blue, the lake-pigments, &c. In _medicine_, it is
employed as an antacid and astringent, in acidity of the stomach, cholera,
diarrhœa, and dysentery; in which it is said to be superior to the other
absorbent remedies. (Ficinus.) It has also been highly recommended in the
vomiting and diarrhœa of infancy. (Durr; Neumann; Weese; &c.)——_Dose._
Children 3 to 10 gr.; adults, 5 or 6 to 20 or even 30 gr., three to six
times daily, suspended in water, by mucilage or simple syrup.

=Aluminum, Sil′icate of.= Al_{2}(SiO_{2})_{3}. _Syn._ SIL′ICATE OF
ALUMINA. A substance which, in its hydrous form, is the chief and
characteristic ingredient of common clay; and which also occurs, in
combination, in several other important and abundant minerals.

=Aluminum, Sul′phate of.= Al_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}. _Syn._ SESQUISUL′PHATE OF
_Prep._ 1. Saturate dilute sulphuric acid with hydrate of aluminum, gently
evaporate, and crystallise.

2. (Crude, commercial.) By mixing clay and oil of vitriol, in the way
described under ALUM. The product is the ‘CONCENTRATED ALUM’ of the dyers.

_Prop._ Its crystals are needles and thin pearly plates; soluble in 2
parts of water; taste astringent, and somewhat sweetish; reaction acid; a
full red heat expels its acid, leaving a residuum of pure alumina; with
the sulphates of potassium, sodium, and ammonium, it forms alum.

_Uses, &c._ In the _arts_, chiefly as a substitute for alum; the sulphate
of potassium in the latter, being found to be an unnecessary and costly
ingredient, only useful to purify the salt from iron, by forming a
compound of easy crystallisation; an object that may be effected with
greater certainty by cheaper methods. In _medicine_, as a wash for foul
and ill-conditioned ulcers; and as an astringent and antiseptic injection.
M. Gannal has successfully employed a solution of this salt to preserve
animal bodies, by throwing it into the arteries. Even an enema of 1 quart
of it, or an injection of a like quantity into the œsophagus, will suffice
to preserve a body for several weeks. The mineral called AL′UNITE or
ALU′MINITE, found near Newhaven (Sussex), is a native subsulphate or basic
sulphate (DISUL′PHATE) of alumina.

=Aluminum, Sulphide of.= Al_{2}S_{3}. _Syn._ SUL′PHIDE OF ALUMINIUM, &c. A
substance best obtained by passing the vapour of bisulphide of carbon over
pure alumina, at a bright red heat. It is instantly decomposed by water,
with the evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen. See ALUMINUM (_above_).

=Aluminum Tann′ate.= _Syn._ TANNATE OF ALUMINA, Eng.; ALU′MINÆ TANN′AS, L.
_Prep._ Take of pure hydrate of aluminum (dried at 90° Fahr.), 1 part;
tannic acid (dried at 212°), 2 parts; triturate them together for some
time, adding just sufficient water to bring them to the consistence of a
syrup, and carefully evaporate to dryness at a heat not higher than 120°
Fahr.; lastly, reduce the residuum to powder.

_Uses, &c._ A combination of certain constitution, which is said to have
been found very useful in obstinate vomiting and diarrhœa, in dysentery,
and particularly in hæmoptysis, hæmorrhage, &c.——_Dose_, 3 to 12 or 15 gr.

=Aluminium Bronze.= See BRONZE ALUMINIUM.

=AL′VINE= (-vĭn). _Syn._ ALVI′NUS, L.: ALVIN, Fr. Of or from the belly or
intestines; relating to the intestinal secretions.

=AMABELE.= Consists of crushed millets. See MILLET.

combustible substance, being the prepared flesh of _bole′tus
fomenta′′rius_ (Linn.), an indigenous species of fungus found on the oak,
birch, and a few other trees (REAL AMADOU or OAK-AGARIC); for which _b.
ignia′′rius_ (Linn.), a like fungus, found on the willow, cherry, plum,
and other trees, is frequently substituted.

_Collec., Prep., &c._ The outer bark of the fungus (collected in Aug. or
Sept.) having been removed with a knife, the inner spongy substance is
carefully separated from the woody portion lying below, and after being
cut into slices, is well beaten with a mallet until sufficiently soft and
pliable. Sometimes it is first boiled in water, in order to separate the
epidermis and porous parts, and to free it from soluble matter; after
which it is beaten as before. In this state it is used in _surgery_, &c.
To complete its manufacture for TINDER, it is soaked once, or oftener, in
a strong solution of saltpetre (RED AMADOU; BROWN A.); or in a thin paste
made of gunpowder and water, which is thoroughly forced into the pores
(BLACK A.); after which it is dried, and well rubbed to free it from loose
matter. The first is the more cleanly; the last the more combustible.

_Uses, &c._ A light brown or reddish-brown substance. In _surgery_,
_pharmacy_, &c., it is used to stop local bleeding, to spread plasters on,
as a compress, and for other like purposes. When covered with
resin-plaster it forms an excellent article for the protection of abraded
surfaces. A small piece thus prepared, of a circular shape, having a round
hole cut in the middle, the size of the apex of the corn, is one of the
very best corn-plasters known; as from its great softness it at once
protects the part from pressure, and removes the cause. As a material for
shoe-socks it is superior to all other substances. The amadou for surgical
purposes must not contain nitre.

=AMAL′GAM.= [Eng., Ger.] _Syn._ AMAL′GAMA, L.; AMALGAME, Fr. In
_chemistry_ and _metallurgy_, an alloy containing quicksilver; more
particularly one in which that metal plays a conspicuous part. Medallists
improperly apply this term to all soft alloys.

Mercury unites with many of the metals by mere contact; and with some of
them, as gold, silver, tin, and lead, in certain proportions, without
losing its fluidity. In a few cases, as with potassium, this union is
attended with considerable violence, and with the production of light and

_Prep._ Most of these compounds may be formed by agitating or rubbing the
mercury with the other metal, or metals, in the state of filings or small
fragments, either with or without heat; or with the easily fusible metals,
by adding it to them in the melted state; care been taken, in both cases,
that the heat be not sufficient to volatilise the mercury.

_Prop., Uses, &c._ Some amalgams are solid, and not unfrequently
crystalline; others are fluid. Of the latter several crystallise after a
time, becoming solid; being, probably, merely solutions of the solid
amalgams in excess of mercury. The amalgams of gold, silver, tin, zinc,
&c., are extensively employed in gilding, silvering and dentistry, and in
other useful arts and manufactures.

=Amalgam, Ammonium.= An unstable compound produced when a globule of
mercury is placed in a small cavity formed in a piece of sal ammoniac, and
the negative pole of a powerful galvanic battery is brought into contact
with the metal, and the positive pole, with the ammoniacal salt. In a few
seconds the new compound (ammonium amalgam) of the consistence of butter
is formed. On withdrawing the influence of the battery, the whole returns
to its former condition. By putting an amalgam of sodium into the
moistened cavity of the sal ammoniac, similar results are obtained. The
phenomena attending the formation of this new substance have been urged as
evidence of the existence of the theoretical basic radicle AMMONIUM.

=Amalgam, Elec′trical.= _Prep._ 1. Take zinc and grain-tin, of each, 1
_oz._; melt them in an iron ladle, remove it from the fire, and add of
mercury (hot), 3 _oz._; stir the whole well together with an iron rod,
pour it into a well-chalked wooden box, and agitate it violently until
cold; or, instead of this, it may be briskly stirred until cold, and then
powdered. It should be preserved in a corked glass bottle.

2. (La Baumé.) Zinc, 2 _oz._; grain-tin, 1 _oz._; bees’ wax, 1/2 _oz._;
melt, add of mercury, 6 _oz._, and otherwise proceed as before. Preferred
by some to all other mixtures.

3. Zinc, 2 _oz._; mercury, 5 _oz._

_Use._ To cover the cushions of electrical machines. A little of the
powder is poured on a piece of paper, crushed smooth with a flat knife,
and then spread thinly on the surface of the cushion or rubber, previously
slightly smeared with tallow; or the powder may be rubbed down with a
little tallow, prior to the application of it.

=Amalgam, Gild′ing.= _Syn._ AMALGAM OF GOLD.

_Prep._ Take of grain-gold, 1 part; mercury, 8 parts; put them into a
small iron saucepan, or ladle, and apply a gentle heat, using a smooth
piece of iron as a stirrer; when the solution or combination is complete,
pour it out on a clean plate or smooth stone slab.

_Use._ To gild brass, copper, &c., in the common process of wash or
fire-gilding. A less proportion of gold than the above is used when a thin
and cheap gilding is required; as by increasing the quantity of the
mercury the same weight of the precious metal may be extended over a much
larger surface.

=Amalgam, Sil′vering.=——_a._ For METALS. _Syn._ AMALGAM OF SILVER.
_Prep._, _Uses_, &c. As the last, but substituting silver for gold.

_b._ For GLASS. _Prep._ 1. Lead, tin, and bismuth, of each, 1 _oz._; bees’
wax or resin 1/4 _oz._; melt, skim off the dross, cool to the lowest point
at which the mixture will remain liquid, and add of quicksilver 10 _oz._;
mix well with an iron rod.

2. Lead and tin, of each, 1 _oz._; bismuth, 2 _oz._; quicksilver, 4 _oz._;
as the last.

_Uses, &c._ For silvering the insides of hollow glass vessels, globes,
convex mirrors, &c. The glass being thoroughly cleaned and dried, is
carefully warmed, and the amalgam, rendered fluid by a gentle heat, is
poured in, and the vessel turned round and round, so as to bring the metal
into contact with every part which it is desired to cover. At a certain
temperature it will be found to readily adhere to the glass. The excess is
then poured out, and the vessel set aside to cool.

=Amalgams, Tooth.= See DENTISTRY and TOOTH-CEMENTS.

=Amalgam, Var′nisher’s.= _Prep._ Melt grain-tin, 4 _oz._, with bismuth, 1
_oz._; add quicksilver, 1 _oz._, and stir till cold; then grind it very
fine with white-of-egg or with varnish, and apply the mixture to the
figure or surface with a soft brush. It is used in several of the
ornamental trades.

=Amalgamating Salts.= Boil a solution of pernitrate of mercury with excess
of equal parts of powdered persulphate and perchloride of mercury, and
decant the liquid portion of the result for use. Chiefly used for
amalgamating the zinc plates of galvanic batteries, also as a substitute
for mercury in gilding by the amalgam process.

=AMAL′GAMATED.= _Syn._ AMALGAMA′TUS, L.; AMALGAMÉ, Fr. Compounded or
blended with quicksilver; formed into an amalgam.

act or process by which an amalgam is formed; hence loosely, the mixing or
blending of different things. In the art of the refiner, the operation of
separating gold and silver from their ores by means of mercury.

=AM′ANDINE= (-dēne). _Prep._ 1. (Transparent.)——_a._ Fine new white or
pale honey, 4 _oz._; white soft-soap (prepared from lard and potassa), 2
_oz._; mix thoroughly in a marble mortar, adding 1 or 2 teaspoonfuls (if
necessary) of solution of potassa, until a perfectly homogeneous paste or
cream is produced; then rub in, by degrees, and very gradually, of oil of
almonds, 7 _lbs._ (or q. s.), previously mixed with essential oil of
almonds, 1 _oz._; essence (oil) of bergamot, 3/4 _oz._; oil of cloves, 1/2
_oz._; and balsam of Peru, 3 _dr._ The product, which should have a rich,
transparent, jelly-like appearance and behaviour, is, lastly, put into
pots for use or sale.

_b._ (G. W. S. Piesse.) Simple syrup, 4 oz.; white soft-soap (see
_above_), 1 oz.; oil of almonds, 7 _lbs._ (previously scented with——);
essential oil of almonds and bergamot, of each 1 _oz._; oil of cloves, 1/2
_oz._; the whole being mixed, &c., as before. Both the above are of very
fine quality. Glycerin, in the proportion of about 1/2 _oz._ to each _lb._
of the products, added with the soap, improves their softening quality.

2. (Opaque.)——_a._ From white potash-soap and gum-mucilage (thick), of
each 3 _oz._; new white honey, 6 _oz._; and the yelks of 5 large eggs;
well mixed together, and afterwards intimately blended first, with oil of
almonds (scented as before, or at will), 2 _lbs._; and afterwards, with
thick pistachio-milk (made of the fresh-peeled nuts and rose-water), 5
_fl. oz._

_b._ From almond-paste, honey, white potash-soap, and glycerin, of each. 1
_oz._; yelk of 1 egg; oil of almonds, 1/2 pint (holding in solution——);
essential oil of almonds, 1 _dr._; balsam of Peru, 1/2 _dr._

_Uses, &c._ To whiten and soften the skin, and to prevent it chapping. A
small portion, about half the size of a filbert, with a few drops of warm
water, produces a very white and rich lather, with which the hands and
face are lightly rubbed, and the skin, in a short time, gently wiped with
a small napkin, whilst the water on it is still milky.

The manufacture of AMANDINE is a matter of some difficulty and labour. The
details essential to success are given under EMULSINES. It is sometimes
coloured, which is done by infusing or dissolving in the oil, before using
it, a little——spinach-leaves, for GREEN; and palm-oil, or annatto, for
YELLOW and ORANGE. A beautiful SCARLET or CRIMSON tinge may be given to it
by a little liquid rouge or carmine (ammoniacal), added just before
removing it from the mortar. See EMULSINES, OLIVINE, PASTE, &c.

=AMANI′TA MUSCA′′RIA.= The fly-agaric or fly-mushroom. See AGARIC.

=AMANITINE.= _Syn._ AMANITINA, L. The name given by Letellier to the
poisonous principle of _amani′ta muscaria_, and some other species of
fungi. It is brown, uncrystallisable, and soluble.

=AMARA.= [L.] In _medicine_ and _pharmacology_, the bitter tonics.

=AMARANTH.= _Syn._ AMARANTH′US, L.; AMARANTE, Fr. The flower
love-lies-bleeding (_amaranthus caudatus_——Linn.). In _poetry_, an
imaginary flower that never fades. (Milton.) In _chromatics_, a colour
inclining to purple.

=AMARYTH′RINE.= A bitter principle found, in certain lichens, associated
with erythrine (which _see_).

=AMASI.= This, the native name given by the natives of Central Africa to
sour milk, which they prepare by adding to the new milk, a small quantity
of milk previously allowed to become sour. The milk thus acidified is
considered by them far more wholesome than new milk.

=AMAUROSIS.= _Syn._ GUTTA SERENA, SUFFUSIO NIGRA. A diminution or total
loss of sight, arising from paralysis of the retina or optic nerve.

well-known yellowish, semi-transparent, fossil resin, of which trinkets
and the mouth-pieces of pipes are commonly made.

_Nat. hist., &c._ Amber is found in detached pieces on the sea-coast, and
is dug up in diluvial soils. That of commerce comes chiefly from the
southern coasts of the Baltic, where it is cast ashore between Königsberg
and Memel; and from Ducal Prussia, Saxony, Poland, Sicily, and Maryland
(U.S.), where it is dug out of beds or mines. It has also been found on
the shores of Norfolk, and small pieces are occasionally dug up in the
gravel pits round London. It is probably an antediluvian resin; and when
found on the coast, is supposed to be disengaged, by the action of the
sea, from neighbouring beds of lignite or fossil coal. Much diversity of
opinion for a long time prevailed amongst naturalists and chemists as to
the origin of amber, some referring it to the vegetable, others to the
mineral, and some even to the animal kingdom; its natural history and
analysis affording something in favour of each. The vegetable origin of
amber has, however, been recently shown by various facts, and is now
generally admitted. According to Sir David Brewster, its optical
properties are those of an indurated vegetable juice. (‘Ed. Phil. Journ.,’
ii.) Insects and fragments of vegetables are frequently found imbedded in
it; and this in a manner which could only have occurred when the resin was
a viscid fluid. Microscopical researches have led to the conclusion that
it is the production of some species of pine, closely allied to the pinus
balsamea. (‘Entom. Trans.,’ i & ii.)

_Manuf._ Amber is WORKED in a lathe, POLISHED with whiting and water or
rottenstone-and-oil, and FINISHED OFF by friction with flannel. During the
operation the pieces often become hot and electrical, and fly into
fragments; to avoid which they are kept as cool as possible, and only
worked for a short period at a time. The workmen are said to often suffer
considerably from electrical excitement. Amber is JOINED and MENDED by
smearing the surface of the pieces with linseed or boiled oil, and then
strongly pressing them together, at the same time holding them over a
charcoal fire, or heating them in any other convenient way in which they
will not be exposed to injury. The commoner varieties are HARDENED and
rendered CLEARER, either by boiling them in rape oil for about 24 hours,
or by surrounding the pieces with clean sand in an iron pot, and exposing
them to a gradually increasing heat for 30 or 40 hours. During this
process small fragments are kept in the sand at the side of the pot, for
the purpose of occasional examination, lest the heat be raised too high,
or be too long continued.

_Prop., &c._ Hard; brittle; tasteless; glossy; generally translucent, but
sometimes opaque, and occasionally, though rarely, transparent; colour
generally yellow or orange, but sometimes yellowish-white; becomes
negatively electric by friction; smells agreeably when rubbed or heated;
fracture conchoidal and vitreous or resinous; soluble in the pure
alkalies, and, without decomposition, in oil of vitriol, which then
becomes purple; insoluble in the essential and fixed oils without long
digestion and heat; soluble in chloroform; melts at about 550° Fahr.;
burns with a yellow flame, emitting at the same time a peculiar fragrant
odour, and leaving a light and shiny coal. By dry distillation it yields
inflammable gases, a small quantity of water, a little acetic acid, a
volatile oil (OIL OF AMBER; O′LEUM SUC′CINI, L.) at first pale, afterwards
brown, thick, and empyreumatic, and an acid (SUCCIN′IC ACID; ACIDUM
SUCCIN′ICUM, L.); with residual charcoal 12 to 13%. Sp. gr. 1·065 to 1·09,
but usually about 1·070. It cannot be fused without undergoing more or
less chemical change.

_Ident._ Amber may be known from mellite and copal, both of which articles
are occasionally substituted for it, by the following characteristics:——1.
MELLITE is infusible by heat, and burns white:——2. A piece of COPAL,
heated on the point of a knife, catches fire, and runs into drops, which
flatten as they fall:——3. AMBER burns with spitting and frothing, and when
its liquefied particles drop, they rebound from the plane on which they
fall (M. Haüy):——4. Neither mellite nor copal yields succinic acid by
distillation; nor the agreeable odour of amber when burnt; nor do they
become so readily electric by friction.

_Uses._ It is chiefly made into mouth-pieces for pipes, beads for
necklaces, and other ornaments and trinkets. It is also used as the basis
of several excellent varnishes. In _medicine_, it was formerly given in
chronic coughs, hysteria, &c.——_Dose_ (of the powder), 10 to 60 gr.

_Remarks._ The finer sorts of amber fetch very high prices. A piece 1
_lb._ in weight is said to be worth from 10£ to 15£. 5000 dollars a few
years since were offered in Prussia for a piece weighing 13 _lbs._, and
which, it was stated by the Armenian merchants, would fetch from 30,000 to
40,000 dollars in Constantinople. It is more valued in the East than in
England; and chiefly on account of the Turks and other Orientals believing
it to be incapable of transmitting infection. In the royal cabinet,
Berlin, there is a piece weighing 18 _lbs._, supposed to be the largest
ever found. The coarser kinds alone are employed in medicine, chemistry,

=Amber, Ac′id of=* (ăs′-). Succinic acid.

=Amber, Bal′sam of.= _Syn._ BAL′SAMUM SUC′CINI, L. The thick matter left
in the retort after the rectification of oil of amber; and which it
resembles in its properties.

=Amber, Facti′′tious= (-tĭsh′-). _Syn._ SUC′CINUM FACTI′′TIUM, L. Mellite,
copal, and anime, have each been substituted for amber, especially for
small fragments of it. Recently an imitation has been produced by acting
on gutta percha with sulphur, at a high temperature, which, either alone
or in combination with copal, is said to have been extensively passed off
for genuine amber.

=Amber, Liq′uid=†. See LIQUID-AMBAR.

=Amber, Oil of.= See OILS.

=Amber, Re′sin of.= See PYRÉTINE.

=Amber, Salt of.= Succinic Acid.

=Amber, Sol′uble.= _Prep._ Fragments of amber are cautiously heated in an
iron pot, and as soon as it becomes semi-liquid, an equal weight of pale
boiled linseed-oil, previously made hot, is very gradually stirred in, and
the whole thoroughly blended. Used as a cement for glass and earthenware,
and thinned with oil of turpentine to make varnishes. It will keep any
length of time if preserved from the air.

=AMBER-CAM′PHOR.= See PYRÉTINE (Crystalline).

=AM′BER DRINK=†. Amber-coloured malt liquor.

=AM′BER-SEED.= Musk-seed (which _see_).

=AM′BER-TREE.= The popular name of a species of anthospermum, an evergreen
shrub, of which the leaves, when bruised, emit an agreeable odour.

=AM′BERGRIS= (-grĭs; grēse‡). _Syn._ GREY AMBER*; AMBRAGRI′′SEA
(grĭzh′-e-ă), L.; AMBREGRIS, Fr.; AMBRA, AMBAR, Ger. An odorous, solid
substance, found floating on the sea in tropical climates, and in the
cæcum of the cachalot or spermaceti whale (physeter macrocephalus). It has
been supposed by some to be a morbid secretion of the liver or intestines,
analogous to biliary calculi; but according to Mr Beale, it consists of
the mere indurated fæces of the animal, perhaps (as suggested by Brande
and Pereira) somewhat altered by disease. “Some of the semifluid fæces,
dried with the proper precautions, had all the properties of ambergris.”
(Beale.) It is occasionally found in masses weighing from 60 to 225 _lbs._

_Prop., &c._ Solid, opaque, ash-coloured, streaked or variegated, fatty,
inflammable; remarkably light; highly odorous,[40] particularly when
warmed, cut, or handled——the odour being peculiar and not easily described
or imitated, of a very diffusive and penetrating character, and
perceptible in minute quantities; rugged on the surface; does not
effervesce with acids; melts at 140° to 150° Fahr. into a yellowish
resin-like mass; at 212° flies off as a white vapour; very soluble in
alcohol, ether, and the volatile and fixed oils. It appears to be a
non-saponifiable fat, analogous to cholesterine. Sp. gr. 0·780 to

[Footnote 40: It has a “pleasant musk-like odour, which is supposed to be
derived from the squid (‘sepia moschata’) on which the animal feeds,” the
“horny beaks” of which “are often found imbedded in the masses.”
(Pereira.) It has a smell resembling that of dried cow-dung.” (Redwood,
‘Gray’s Supplement,’ 1857, p. 606.)]

[Footnote 41: Sp. gr ·780 to ·896——Brande; ·908 to ·920——Pereira.]

_Pur._ From the high price of genuine ambergris it is very frequently, if
not nearly always, adulterated. When quite pure and of the best quality,
it is——1. Nearly wholly soluble in hot alcohol and ether, and yields about
85% of ambreine:——2. It almost wholly volatilises at a moderate heat, and
when burnt leaves no notable quantity of ashes; a little of it exposed in
a silver spoon melts without bubble or scum; and on the heated point of a
knife it is rapidly and entirely dissipated:——3. It is easily punctured
with a heated needle, and on withdrawing it, not only should the odour be
immediately evolved, but the needle should come out clean, without
anything adhering to it (Normandy):——4. The Chinese are said to try its
genuineness by scraping it fine upon the top of boiling tea. “It should
dissolve (melt) and diffuse itself generally.” Black or white is bad. The
smooth and uniform is generally factitious.[42]

[Footnote 42: Ure’s ‘Dict. of A., M. & M.,’ 5th Ed., i, 128.]

_Uses, &c._ It is highly prized for its odour, which is found greatly to
improve and exalt that of other substances; hence its extensive use in
perfumery. In _medicine_ it was formerly given as an aphrodisiac, in doses
of 3 to 10 gr. “A grain or two, when rubbed down with sugar, and added to
a hogshead of claret, is very perceptible in the wine, and gives it a
flavour, by some considered as an improvement.” (Brande.)

=Ambergris Facti′′tious.= An article of this kind, met with in the shops,
is thus made:——Orris-powder, spermaceti, and gum-benzoin, of each, 1
_lb._; asphaltum, 3 or 4 _oz._; ambergris, 6 _oz._; grain-musk, 3 _dr._;
oil of cloves, 1 _dr._; oil of rhodium, 1/2 _dr._; liquor of ammonia, 1
_fl. oz._; beaten to a smooth hard mass with mucilage, and made into lumps
whilst soft. This fraud is readily detected.

Ger. The fatty, odorous principle of ambergris.

_Prep._ Digest ambergris in hot alcohol (sp. gr. 0·827) until the latter
will dissolve no more, then filter. The AMBREINE will be deposited as the
solution cools, in an irregular crystalline mass, which may be purified by
recrystallisation in alcohol.

_Prop., &c._ Melts at about 90°; volatilises at 212° to 220° Fahr.; nitric
acid converts it into AMBREIC ACID. It closely resembles
cholesterine.——_Prod._ 85%.

=AMBRETTE′= (-brĕt′). [Fr.] Musk-seed.

=AMBROSIA, RING’S VEGETABLE= (Tubbs, Peterborg, U.S.). A liquid with a
sediment, containing 1 per cent. of lead. (Chandler.)

=AMEISEN BALSAM.= Von Dr Livingstone (Ahnelt, Charlottenburg). Balsam of
ants. Castor oil, 72 grms.; balsam of Peru, 2 grms.; bergamot, 5 drops.

=AMERICAN PILLS= (A. H. Boldt, Lexington). For full-blooded, corpulent
persons, and for those of sedentary habits, for irregular menstruation,
and against contagious diseases. Made of scammony, rhubarb, and soap.

=AMERICAN MEDICINES, Dr SAMPSON’S= (New York). Two kinds of pills of
coca:——No. 1. 85 pills composed of coca extract and coca powder, and each
pill containing about 0·006 grm. of a morphia salt. No. 2. 50 pills, also
of coca, and each containing 0·05 grm. of powdered iron. Both kinds are
rolled in lycopodium. (Hager.)

=AMERICAN PILLS FOR ASTHMA.= Gilded pills made of gum ammoniacum.

wine and rum, with some carbonate of ammonia and potash.

=AMERICAN DROPS FOR TOOTHACHE= (Majewsky, Warsaw) have been found of
various composition. Some which profess to have taken a prize at the
Vienna Exhibition were composed of French brandy, containing common salt,
and coloured with cochineal. The first was a spirituous solution of an
ethereal oil with some oil of cloves, coloured rather reddish; No. 2 was a
similar solution with some oil of peppermint and tincture of rhatany; and
No. 3 was merely a diluted solution of No. 2. (Hager.)

diseases, hysteria, nervous debility, epilepsy, stomachic complaints,
asthma, hæmorrhoids, gout, rheumatism, worms, and much besides. White
horehound, marsh mallow, liquorice wood, and sassafras, of each, 10 parts;
anise, coriander and fennel, of each, 5 parts; red poppy petals, 4 parts;
lavender flowers, 2 parts; senna, peppermint, millefoil flowers, and
valerian root, of each, 1 part. (Kuhr and Selle.)

AMETHYS′TUS, L. A beautiful sub-species of quartz or rock crystal, of a
violet-blue colour of varying intensity, in great request for cutting into
seals, brooches, and other like articles of ornament. It was known and
prized in the earliest ages of antiquity. Among the ancients, cups and
vases were made out of this mineral; and it was an opinion of the Greeks
and Persians, that an amethyst bound on the navel would counteract the
effects of wine, and that wine drank out of an amethystine vessel would
not intoxicate. See GEMS.

=Amethyst.= In _chromation_, _dyeing_, &c., a rich variety of deep violet
colour. Hence, AMETHYST′INE (ĭn), &c.

=Amethyst, Orient′al.= A rich violet-blue variety of transparent,
crystallised corundum.

=AM′IANTH= (-e-ănth). _Syn._ AMIANTH′US, AMIAN′TUS, L.; AMIANTE, Fr. The
whiter and more delicate varieties of asbestos, particularly those which
possess a satiny lustre.

=AM′IDIN= (-e-dĭn). [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ AM′YDINE; AMIDI′NA, L. A substance
noticed by Saussure in starch-paste, when long kept. According to
Caventou, it is formed at once by the action of boiling water on starch.
It forms the interior substance of the starch-grains, and its properties
are intermediate between those of starch and gum. It is, indeed, the
soluble part of starch, of which a perfect solution can only be obtained
by prolonged ebullition in a large quantity of water.

=AMID′OGEN.= NH_{2}. Literally, the generator of amides; in _chemistry_,
the name given by Kane to an hypothetical body, composed of two atoms of
hydrogen and one of nitrogen. It forms AMIDES by combining with other

=Amidogen Ba′ses.= In _chemistry_, ‘amines’ in which only one equiv. of
hydrogen is replaced by an organic radical; and hence called PRIMARY

the ammonia of commerce is chiefly prepared from the ammoniacal liquor of
the gas-works and the manufactories of ivory black, animal charcoal, &c.
Lant or stale urine is also an important source of ammonia. In these
places a large quantity of crude ammoniacal liquor is produced; to which
either sulphuric or hydrochloric acid is added, by which it is converted
into a salt, which may be obtained nearly pure by evaporation, and one or
more crystallisations, and, in the case of the hydrochlorate and
carbonate, subsequent sublimation. Other sources and processes have been
sought out and occasionally adopted for the preparation of the principal
salts of ammonia (its sulphate, carbonate, and hydrochlorate); some of
which have been patented, but few of them have got into general use, or
have been carried out on the large scale. For many years the manufacture
of ammonia and its compounds has incessantly engaged the attention of
European chemists.

Many unsuccessful attempts have been made to directly convert the nitrogen
of the atmosphere into ammonia. Of these we may mention one which
consisted in passing a mixture of nitrogen, carbonic oxide and steam over
red-hot hydrate of lime, whereby ammonia and carbonic acid are formed. A
plan for the indirect application of atmospheric nitrogen in the
preparation of ammonia was suggested by Margueritte, in which it was
proposed that cyanide of barium should be prepared, and its nitrogen
converted into ammonia by the aid of a current of superheated steam at
600° C. According to the description of this process in a patent, not,
however, in practice, native carbonate of baryta is calcined with about
30% of coal-tar, for the purpose of rendering the mass porous as well as
more readily converted into caustic baryta at a lower temperature. The
carbonaceous mass is, after cooling, placed in a retort, and kept at a
temperature of 300° C., while air and aqueous vapour are forced in, the
result being the formation of ammonia in considerable quantity, and
carbonate of baryta, which is again used.

Ammonia is evolved from ball soda while cooling; during the formation of
cyanogen and cyanide of potassium in blast furnaces; and the formation of
sal-ammoniac in the process of iron smelting.

Ammonia, in a state of combination, is found, in variable quantities,
among the saline product of volcanoes, in sea and rain water, in
bituminous coal, in urine, in guano, and in the atmosphere, especially
that of large towns. The minute stellated crystals sometimes found on
dirty windows in London, and other populous cities, consist of sulphate of
ammonia. It is also found in clayey and peaty soils, and in minute
quantity in good air and water. (Brande; Fownes; Letheby.) In the free
state it exists in the juices of some plants, and in the living blood of
animals, and it is freely developed during the decomposition of azotised
vegetable substances, and during the putrefaction of animal matter.


_Prep._ A mixture of fresh hydrate of lime with an equal weight of sal
ammoniac (both dry and in fine powder) is introduced into a glass flask or
retort, the beak of which communicates with one end of a U-shaped tube
filled with small fragments of recently burnt quick-lime, and from which
extends another glass tube, about 18 inches long, having its further end
bent up ready to be placed under a gas-jar, on the shelf of a mercurial
pneumatic trough. (See _engr._) The joints being all made air-tight by
collars of india rubber, heat is applied by means of a spirit-lamp, and as
soon as the air contained in the apparatus is expelled, the gas is
collected for use. It cannot be dried by means of chloride of calcium.
Powdered quick-lime may be substituted for the hydrate in the above
process; in which case the evolved gas is anhydrous, but a much greater
heat is then required for its liberation.

_Comp._ Ammonia is a compound of 3 volumes of hydrogen, and 1 vol. of
nitrogen, condensed into two volumes; and by weight of 82·35 parts of
nitrogen, 17·65 parts of hydrogen, or, in other words, of one atomic
weight of nitrogen and three of hydrogen, having the formula NH_{3}.

_Prop._ Gaseous, colourless, invisible; highly pungent, acrid, irritating
and alkaline; irrespirable, unless very largely diluted with air;
extinguishes combustion; burns slowly in oxygen; sp. gr. 0·589; 100 cub.
inches weigh 18·26 gr. Under a pressure of 6·5 atmospheres, at 50° Fahr.,
it forms a transparent, colourless liquid of the sp. gr. 0·731; at 60°
Fahr. this liquid expanded into 1009 times its volume of ammoniacal gas;
at -40° Fahr., and the ordinary atmospheric pressure, it forms a subtle
colourless liquid, which at -103° Fahr. freezes into a white, translucent,
crystalline substance. (Faraday.) It is highly basic; all its salts are
either volatilised or decomposed at, or under, a red heat——those with a
volatile acid sublime unchanged——those with a fixed acid lose their
ammonia. It is decomposed into its elements by transmission through a
red-hot tube; and when in contact with metallic oxides or spongy platinum,
at the same temperature, the newly evolved hydrogen unites with the oxygen
of the oxide or of the atmosphere, forming water. Water at 50° Fahr.
absorbs 670 times its volume of this gas, and the solution has the sp. gr.
0·875. Its concentrated aqueous solution boils at 130°, and freezes at
-40° Fahr.

_Tests, &c._ Ammonia is recognised by——1. Its pungent odour:——2. By
turning vegetable blues green, and vegetable yellows brown; but which soon
regain their previous colours, especially on the application of heat:——3.
By producing dense white fumes when brought in contact with those of
hydrochloric acid:——4. By the Nessler test (see WATER, QUANTITATIVE AND
QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF):——5. If a saturated solution of arsenious acid is
mixed with a solution of nitrate of silver (strength 2%) a trace of
ammonia causes the formation of try-argentic arsenite:——6. Böttger says a
very delicate test for ammonia is afforded by an aqueous solution of
carbolic acid. On adding to a liquid containing the smallest quantity of
ammonia, or an ammoniacal salt, a few drops of this solution, and then a
small quantity of a filtered solution of chloride of lime, the liquid
becomes green, especially when warmed.

_Phys. eff., &c._ Inhaled, undiluted with air, it is an irritant poison,
producing spasms of the glottis, convulsions, and death; even when diluted
it acts as a powerful acrid, and local irritant; applied to the skin it
causes vesication. The use of the pungent odour of common ‘smelling
salts,’ in syncope, headache, &c., is well known. Largely diluted with
air, it has been recently highly extolled in chronic hoarseness, asthma,
&c.; and as an antidote to the fumes of bromine, chlorine, and hydrocyanic
acid. (Smee.)

_Ant., &c._ The vapour of acetic acid or common vinegar, freely inhaled.
It may be produced by sprinkling a little on a piece of hot iron, as a
heated shovel. If bronchial inflammation follows, it must be treated by
purgatives and a low diet; and, if severe, and the patient be plethoric or
robust, by venesection or cupping.

_Uses._ Ammonia is employed in numerous processes in _chemistry_ and the
_arts_; but chiefly in the form of ‘liquor of ammonia,’ ‘spirits of
hartshorn,’ &c., and in combination, under the form of salts. In its pure
or gaseous state it possesses little practical interest.

=Ammonia, Solution of.= _Syn._ SOLUTION OF AMMONIA, LIQUOR AMMONIÆ,
SALMIAK-GEIST, Ger.; LIQUORE DI AMMONIACO, Ital. Ammonia gas readily
dissolves in water, one volume of water absorbing about 670 volumes of
ammonia, much heat being liberated, and the solution increases greatly in

This solution is regarded in two very different lights; firstly and most
generally as simply a solution of gaseous ammonia, a view rendered most
probable by its general physical and by many chemical reactions; by a few,
however, it is looked upon as a solution of ammonium hydrate.


Prepared by distilling, in a tubular retort, equal parts of sal ammoniac,
hydrated lime, or slaked lime and water, and passing the gas evolved
through a set of Wolff’s bottles partially filled with water, as in the
figure above.


  _A_, Cylindrical Iron Retort.
  _B_, Furnace for ditto.
  _C C C C_, Stoneware Receivers.
  _D D D D_, Connecting Pipes.
  _E F_, Waste Pipe and Receiver.
  _G_, Safety Tube. ]

Commercially this article is prepared on the large scale, from a mixture
of about equal parts of fresh-slaked lime and sal-ammoniac or sulphate of
ammonia, which is heated in an iron cylinder or retort connected with a
set of ‘refrigerators,’ the latter consisting of a row of stoneware
bottles with double necks, containing water, and kept very cold. The
general arrangement of the apparatus used in this manufacture is exhibited
above, and with the accompanying references, will be easily understood.
The ‘condensers,’ when in use, are surrounded with cloths (not shown in
the _engr._) kept wet with very cold water, whilst constant current of
cold air is commonly made to pass over them. The pipe (_D_) leading from
the retort is also several feet long, and is advantageously passed through
a wooden screen in order that the radiated heat of the retort and
brickwork of the furnace may be intercepted as much as possible.

Two different methods of proceeding are adopted in this process. In the
one the dry pulverulent ingredients are mixed together, and the resulting
gas distilled over into the water placed in the receivers. In the other
the lime is made into a ‘pap’ with water, and the ammonia-salt, in coarse
powder, being added, the whole is rapidly blended together, before closing
the retort, and applying heat. In either case a proportionate quantity of
water is put into the condensers, and the operation is nearly similar; but
the latter method requires the least heat, and so far as the receivers and
refrigerators are concerned, is, perhaps, the one most easily managed. It
is that which is always, and necessarily followed, when sulphate of
ammonia is employed.

_Prop., Uses, &c._ Highly pungent, caustic, and alkaline; lighter than
water, and presenting in a liquid form most of the characteristics of pure
ammonia. When strongest has a sp. gr. of ·875, and contains about 39 per
cent. of ammonia, but the usual strong ammonia of commerce has a sp. gr.
of but ·88. The liquor ammonia fortior, B. P., has a sp. gr. of about
·893, and contains 32·5 per cent. of ammonia, while the liquor ammoniæ B.
P. has a sp. gr. of about ·940, and contains about 10 per cent. of
ammonia. As a medicine it is antacid, diaphoretic, rubefacient, stimulant,
and counter-irritant; and is used in various affections in which these
remedies are indicated. As a vesicant it is superior to cantharides, and
as a caustic it is used with advantage in the bites of rabid animals,
especially those of serpents and insects. Its vapour is a common nasal
stimulant in faintings, epilepsy, &c. In its concentrated form it is a
corrosive poison.——_Dose_, 5 to 25 drops, in cold water, or milk and
water. It enters into the composition of several valuable external
remedies, and is in constant employment in the _chemical laboratory_, both
as a reagent and for the preparation of other compounds.

_Ant., &c._ When the fumes have been inhaled, the patient should be
exposed to a current of fresh air; and when the liquid has been swallowed,
vinegar or lemon-juice mixed with water may be administered; followed by
an emetic, or, on its failure, by the stomach-pump.

_Estim._ The quantity of gaseous ammonia in pure water of ammonia is
easily determined from the specific gravity of the liquid, or from its
saturating power. When impure or mixed with other substances, a given
weight of the sample is placed in a small retort, the end of which is made
to dip into a vessel containing dilute hydrochloric acid. A strong
solution of caustic potassa is then poured into the retort, and heat
applied by means of a small spirit lamp. When _all_ the ammonia is
distilled over, the acid solution is evaporated to dryness, by the heat of
a water bath, and the residuum (chloride of ammonium) weighed. Each grain
of the chloride thus found represents ·31804 gr. of pure ammonia; 53·5
parts of the former being equivalent to 17 of the latter. If the article
for examination be a solid substance (as a salt), it may be dissolved in
water, or in dilute acid, before being put into the retort.

In accurate experiments in the laboratory, ammonia is usually WEIGHED
either as chloride of ammonium (see _above_), or as ammonio-bichloride of
platinum (NH_{4}Cl, PtCl_{2}); every gr. of the latter representing ·07614
gr. of pure ammonia. Sometimes, though rarely, the quantity of ammonia is
determined from the volume of nitrogen eliminated from it, of which 14 gr.
represent 17 gr. of ammonia.

_Concluding remarks, Patents, &c._ Whatever form or process may be adopted
for the preparation of liquid ammonia, it is absolutely necessary to keep
the receivers as cool as possible, by means of snow, ice, or a current of
very cold water, for the purpose of promoting the absorption of the gas,
and to prevent its loss. On the small scale, the glass receivers or
bottles may be most conveniently surrounded with ice, or a freezing
mixture, and two, or more of them, should be furnished with safety-tubes,
to prevent accidents. On the large scale, a capacious oblong retort,
usually of iron (but sometimes, though seldom, of lead), with a large
opening or tubulature conveniently situated for inserting the ‘charges,’
and withdrawing the residuum of the distillation, is employed. The
tubulature, or opening, is closed by means of a large and accurately
ground iron stopper, or with a door secured by screws, as the case might
be. The stopper is well greased before insertion, and is removed by means
of a powerful lever. Should it become so firmly fixed that it cannot be
displaced in the usual manner, a cloth moistened with cold water, and
carefully wrapped round it, without touching the neck of the retort, will
generally cause it to contract sufficiently to enable the operator to
remove it with facility. Sometimes a large iron kettle, with a moveable
and accurately fitting lid secured in its place like that of a ‘Papin’s
digester,’ and having a large and long tubulature in its centre, is
employed instead of a retort, over which it has the advantage of exposing
a larger opening for the removal of the residuum of the process. In either
case the distillatory vessel is imbedded in sand supported by fire-brick,
and is not exposed directly to the heat of the furnace. Before commencing
the distillation the joints are all well luted, to avoid leakage. An
excellent plan is to pass the gas, as it leaves the retort, through a
silver or pewter ‘worm’ or ‘refrigerator’ set in a tub supplied with a
stream of very cold water; by which it will be sufficiently cooled before
it reaches the ‘receivers’ to obviate the necessity of any further
attention to them than keeping the cloths wrapped round them constantly
moistened with cold water. The lower end of the ‘worm’ should be
connected, by means of a balloon-shaped ‘adopter,’ with the ‘still,’ and
the upper end with the first ‘receiver,’ the use of the balloon being to
intercept any volatilised ammonia-salt that might be accidentally driven
over by the heat being too high, or too suddenly raised.

The heat should be gradually applied, and very gradually raised, to
prevent any of the sal ammoniac or sulphate being volatilised
undecomposed; and even towards the end of the process it should not even
approach redness.

The lime is best ‘slaked’ and ‘papped’ with about 4 parts of water; as a
lower heat is then required to expel the gas, and it passes over more
easily and fully than when less water is employed. This is absolutely
necessary when the sulphate is the ammonia-salt used; as otherwise the
residuum of ‘sulphate of lime’ would become so hard that it could not be
easily removed from the retort.

The gas being wholly expelled from the retort, or other distillatory
vessel, it is disconnected from the receivers, and (when sal ammoniac has
been employed) the heat is raised sufficiently high to fuse the residual
chloride of calcium, which is then at once baled or poured out. Glass
retorts often suffer fracture at this point; but if they escape now, it
generally happens that they are broken when heat is applied for a second
operation. Hence, according to Prof. Muspratt, it is rare to find a
retort, even when carefully handled, that will stand two operations.

When crude sulphate of ammonia is employed it is advisable to have only a
little water in the first receiver, which is placed there merely to purify
the gas which passes through it, and to retain any traces of volatile
empyreumatic or oily matter which may be carried over with it.

Pure solution of ammonia is most easily obtained from ‘sal ammoniac,’ but
crystallised sulphate of ammonia, often crude, is more commonly employed,
on account of its lower price.

The preparation of pure solution of ammonia admits of no other
improvements than such as merely affect the form of the apparatus employed
to produce it; and hence, unlike the ammonia-salts of commerce, has been
little meddled with by inventors and patentees. Among the plans having for
their object the production of an ammoniacal solution, more or less
concentrated, fitted for many of the purposes of the arts, and for the
preparation of salts, but not for chemical and medical use, besides those
of Reece, Spence, Crane and Jullien, &c., already noticed, may be

1. That of Watson (Patent dated 1838) in which gas-liquor mixed with a
proper quantity of fresh-slaked lime is distilled from a spacious retort
or still into a receiver containing cold water, until much steam passes
over with the gas, when the strong alkaline liquor forming the distillate,
and called the first portion, is drawn off. The distillation is then
continued, when a weaker and impurer solution is obtained, called the
second portion. The first portion is then reintroduced into a retort or
still with a small quantity of fresh lime, and the distillation repeated.
The product the patentee calls the first portion of the second
distillation. The latter is a strong ammoniacal liquor sufficient for all
the purposes of scouring, cleaning, conversion into commercial
ammonia-salts, &c. It may be further purified by a third distillation; the
second portion of each operation being transferred again to the still with
the next fresh charge of gas-liquor.

2. A modification of Coffey’s still,[43] patented by Mr W. E. Newton
(1841), under the name of the ‘AMMONIA STILL,’ is now extensively and
successfully employed in this manufacture. By its use ammonia may be
obtained from ‘gas-liquor,’ ‘bone-spirit,’ or any other ammoniacal liquor
or solution, and even from solutions of the salts of ammonia, of almost
any density, and of considerable purity; and this by a process which is
continuous and inexpensive. The body of the apparatus is formed of wood,
the chambers are lined with lead, and the diaphragms are of perforated
sheet iron. The management of the apparatus varies with the form in which
it is desired to obtain the product. When the ammonia is required to leave
the upper chamber of the rectifier in the form of gas, either pure or
impure, the steam which ascends, and the current of ‘ammoniacal liquor’
which descends, are regulated in such relative proportions that the latter
remains at or near the atmospheric temperature during its passage through
some of the upper chambers, becoming successively hotter as it descends,
until at length it enters into ebullition; in which state it passes
through the lower chambers, either to make its escape, or to enter a
cistern provided to receive it. If, on the contrary, the ammonia is
required to leave the upper chamber in combination with the vapour of
water, the supply of steam entering below must be in such proportion to
that of the ammoniacal liquor supplied from above, that the latter may be
at or near the boiling temperature in the upper part of the apparatus.
Crude liquor and ammonia-salts, before being thus submitted to
distillation, are, of course, first treated with a proper quantity of
quick-lime——in the one case to remove most of the impurities, and in the
other to set the ammonia free by seizing on its acid.[44]

[Footnote 43: An _engr._ and description of this still, as employed for
spirit, is given under DISTILLATION (which _see_).]

[Footnote 44: For a full description of the “AMMONIA-STILL,” _see_
Newton’s ‘Patent Journ.,’ ‘Pharm Journ.,’ xiii, 64; &c.]

The water or solution contained in the first bottle or the first receiver
is found to be the strongest, provided it has been kept well cooled; and
that in the others, of progressively decreasing strength. By mixing the
contents of one bottle with another a solution of almost any strength may
be made. It is also easy to prepare liquor of ammonia of any required
strength, or to ascertain the strength of that in the receivers, by
observing the expansion of the liquid. Water, when fully saturated with
ammonia, expands from 3 volumes to 5 vols.; and in less, but corresponding
proportion, according to the quantity absorbed. All that is necessary in
practice is, that each receiver be furnished with a gauge-pipe by which
the degree of expansion may be noted. On the small scale, graduated glass
receivers may be used.

3. Mallet’s Apparatus. This, which is employed in many of the large gas
works, is shown in vertical section in the accompanying woodcut. Steam is
forced into large receptacles, which are filled with gas water, by which
means the carbonate of ammonia is volatilised. When lime, as is sometimes
the case, is added, ammonia gas is evolved, and this being conveyed into
weak sulphuric acid, sulphate of ammonia is the result.


The apparatus consists of two cylindrical boiler-plate vessels, A and B. A
is heated directly by the fire, and has a leaden tube, _c_, which dips
into the liquid contained in B, this vessel being so placed as to catch
the waste heat from the fire. _b_ and _e_ are man-holes; _a_ and _a′_ are
stirrers. By means of the tube _d_ the fluid from B can be run off into A.
Gas-water is poured into both vessels, and lime added; ammonia is
liberated, whilst carbonate of lime and sulphide of calcium are formed,
and these latter remain in the vessels after the volatilisation of the
ammonia. The vessel D is also filled with ammoniacal water, and when the
operation is in action this water, already warmed, is run by the aid of
the tube _h_ from D into B. E is a gas-water tank, from which D is filled
by means of _g_. The ammonia set free in A is, with the steam, conveyed by
the pipe _c_ into B, thence through _c′_ into the wash-vessel C, and
thence again through _c″_ into the first condenser, D. The partially
condensed vapour now passes into the condensing vessel F, the worm of
which is surrounded by cold water. The dilute ammonia is collected in G,
and forced by means of the pump (R) into C, from whence it is occasionally
removed by means of a syphon into either A or B. The non-condensed
ammoniacal gas is carried from G through a series of Wolfe’s bottles, the
first bottle (H) containing olive oil, with the object of retaining any
hydrocarbons that may be present in the gas; the bottle J contains caustic
soda-ley, in order to purify the ammonia and retain impurities; the bottle
K is half filled with distilled water. The ammoniacal gas having passed
through K, is conveyed to the large wooden tank (lined with lead) L,
filled with diluted sulphuric acid, if it is intended to prepare sulphate
of ammonia, or with water, if solution of ammonia be required. The vessel
L is placed in a tank of water; _i_ is a small pipe for introducing acid,
while the tube leading to M serves to carry off any unabsorbed ammonia, M
being likewise filled with acid.

4. By means of Rose’s apparatus, the ammoniacal gas-liquor mixed with one
third of slaked lime is heated in a boiler to a temperature of from 96° to
100°, the ammoniacal gas evolved being passed into hydrochloric acid, and
thence through charcoal into vessels containing from 120 to 150 litres of
water, which is converted into liquid ammonia of a sp. gr. 0·920.

5. In Lunge’s apparatus the gas-water is heated in a boiler, and the
liberated ammoniacal gas passed into sulphuric acid.

Solution of ammonia is now seldom made by the druggist, or on the small
scale, the large manufacturing chemists supplying it at a very low rate,
and of very superior quality. In the shops it is kept of two or three

The estimation of the strength of ammonia solutions in commerce is known
as ammonimetry, and depends upon their specific gravities. The per-centage
richness of solutions of ammonia, or of its carbonates, may be most
accurately determined, by ALKALIMETRY. For all the ordinary purposes of
commerce, and of the laboratory, the strength of pure solutions of ammonia
may, however, be inferred, with sufficient correctness, from their
density; and to this the term AMMONIOMETRY is usually restricted.

The specific gravity of the sample being found either by the
hydrometer[45] or specific gravity bottle, in the usual manner, its
per-centage strength may be seen by inspection of the following _Table_
and the _Table_ on p. 127.

[Footnote 45: An hydrometer specially weighted and graduated for this

        TABLE I.——_Showing the per-centage of_ PURE AMMONIA,
        _and of_ AMMONIA-WATER _of_ ·9000, _in Water of
        Ammonia, of the given specific gravities, at_ 60° Fahr.
        By Dr URE.

  Sp. Gr. by  |  Water of  |  Pure          |  Water,
  experiment. |  Ammonia   |  Ammonia, per  |  per cent.
              |  of 900,   |  cent.         |
              |   per cent.|                |
  ·9000       |   100      |    26·500      |  73·500
  ·9045       |    95      |    25·175      |  74·825
  ·9090       |    90      |    23·850      |  76·150
  ·9133       |    85      |    22·525      |  77·475
  ·9177       |    80      |    21·200      |  78·800
  ·9227       |    75      |    19·875      |  80·125
  ·9275       |    70      |    18·550      |  81·450
  ·9320       |    65      |    17·225      |  82·775
  ·9363       |    60      |    15·900      |  84·100
  ·9410       |    55      |    14·575      |  85·425
  ·9455       |    50      |    13·250      |  86·750
  ·9510       |    45      |    11·925      |  88·075
  ·9564       |    40      |    10·600      |  89·400
  ·9614       |    35      |     9·275      |  90·725
  ·9662       |    30      |     7·950      |  92·050
  ·9716       |    25      |     6·625      |  93·375
  ·9768       |    20      |     5·300      |  94·700
  ·9828       |    15      |     3·975      |  96·025
  ·9887       |    10      |     2·650      |  97·350
  ·9945       |     5      |     1·325      |  98·675

⁂ Strengths corresponding to sp. gr. which are not in the above _Tables_
may be found by the ‘method of differences’ explained under ALCOHOLOMETRY.

⁂ The sp. gr. of any sample of liquid ammonia, expressed in three
integers, deducted from ·998, and the remainder divided by 4, gives a
number which represents the per-centage strength, nearly. (Ure.) This rule
may be sometimes conveniently employed for rough calculations, in the
absence of _Tables_.

=Ammonia, Carbonates of.= (B. P.) _Syn._ AMMONIÆ CARBONAS. See AMMONIUM,

        TABLE II.——_Exhibiting the relations between the_
        SPECIFIC GRAVITY _of Solution of Ammonia and the_
        PER-CENTAGE STRENGTH, _for every variation of ·00125
        sp. gr., from ·87500 to 1·00000, at_ 62° Fahr. Abridged
        from the larger _Table_ of Mr J. J. GRIFFIN.

  Sp. Gr. of|Pure Ammonia|Sp. Gr. of|Pure Ammonia|Sp. Gr. of|Pure Ammonia
  the Liquid| per cent., |the Liquid| per cent.  |the Liquid| per cent.,
   Ammonia. |by Weight.  | Ammonia. |by weight.  | Ammonia. |by weight.
   ·87500   |  34·694    | ·91750   |  21·837    | ·96000   |  10·119
   ·87625   |  34·298    | ·91875   |  21·477    | ·96125   |   9·790
   ·87750   |  33·903    | ·92000   |  21·118    | ·96250   |   9·462
   ·87875   |  33·509    | ·92125   |  20·760    | ·96375   |   9·135
   ·88000   |  33·117    | ·92250   |  20·403    | ·96500   |   8·808
   ·88125   |  32·725    | ·92375   |  20·046    | ·96625   |   8·483
   ·88250   |  32·335    | ·92500   |  19·691    | ·96750   |   8·158
   ·88375   |  31·946    | ·92625   |  19·337    | ·96875   |   7·834
   ·88500   |  31·558    | ·92750   |  18·983    | ·97000   |   7·511
   ·88625   |  31·172    | ·92875   |  18·631    | ·97125   |   7·189
   ·88750   |  30·785    | ·93000   |  18·280    | ·97250   |   6·867
   ·88875   |  30·400    | ·93125   |  17·929    | ·97375   |   6·547
   ·89000   |  30·016    | ·93250   |  17·579    | ·97500   |   6·227
   ·89125   |  29·633    | ·93375   |  17·231    | ·97625   |   5·908
   ·89250   |  29·252    | ·93500   |  16·883    | ·97750   |   5·590
   ·89375   |  28·871    | ·93625   |  16·536    | ·97875   |   5·273
   ·89500   |  28·492    | ·93750   |  16·190    | ·98000   |   4·956
   ·89625   |  28·133    | ·93875   |  15·846    | ·98125   |   4·641
   ·89750   |  27·736    | ·94000   |  15·502    | ·98250   |   4·326
   ·89875   |  27·359    | ·94125   |  15·158    | ·98375   |   4·011
   ·90000   |  26·984    | ·94250   |  14·816    | ·98500   |   3·698
   ·90125   |  26·610    | ·94375   |  14·475    | ·98625   |   3·386
   ·90250   |  26·237    | ·94500   |  14·135    | ·98750   |   3·074
   ·90375   |  25·865    | ·94625   |  13·795    | ·98875   |   2·763
   ·90500   |  25·493    | ·94750   |  13·456    | ·99000   |   2·453
   ·90625   |  25·123    | ·94875   |  13·119    | ·99125   |   2·144
   ·90750   |  24·754    | ·95000   |  12·782    | ·99250   |   1·835
   ·90875   |  24·386    | ·95125   |  12·446    | ·99375   |   1·527
   ·91000   |  24·019    | ·95250   |  12·111    | ·99500   |   1·220
   ·91125   |  23·653    | ·95375   |  11·777    | ·99625   |    ·914
   ·91250   |  23·288    | ·95500   |  11·444    | ·99760   |    ·609
   ·91375   |  22·924    | ·95625   |  11·111    | ·99875   |    ·304
   ·91500   |  22·561    | ·95750   |  10·780    |1·00000   | { 0
   ·91625   |  22·198    | ·95875   |  10·449    |          | {or Water.

  ⁂ The specific gravity of mixtures of pure solution of
  ammonia and pure water is precisely the mean of the specific
  gravities of their constituents. (Davy; Dalton; Christison.) In
  all solutions of ammonia, a quantity of anhydrous ammonia,
  weighing 212-1/2 gr., displaces exactly 300 gr. of water, and
  reduces the sp. gr. of the liquid to the extent of ·00125.
  (Griffin.) The strongest solution of ammonia which it is
  possible to prepare at 62° Fahr. has the sp. gr. ·87500, and
  contains 34·694% of pure ammonia, by weight, or 21,251 gr. per
  gallon. (Griffin.)[46]

[Footnote 46: Mr Griffin, in his ‘System of Ammonimetry,’ calls every
212-1/2 gr. of anhydrous ammonia a TEST-ATOM; and every 7 water gr.
measure, a SEPTEM. Thus, a gallon of water (= 10 _lbs_) contains 100,000
septems. The degrees of his AMMONIA-METER range from 1 to 100, and
indicate the number of test-atoms of ammonia in one _gal_. of the liquid.]

=AMMONIUM.= The name given to a group of atoms, which play the part of a
compound basic, radical, or metallic element. This substance, whose
formula is NH_{4} or (NH_{4})_{2}, has never been isolated, although
capable of forming most stable salts with the various acid radicals.
Several attempts have been made, however, to obtain this compound radical,
or group of elements, in a free state, and with more or less success, but
on account of its great instability it invariably decomposes when set free
into ammonia and hydrogen.

Ammonium salts are some of the most important chemical agents, and are
usually recognised as follows, ammonia solution, however, usually acting
in exactly the same manner as a solution of ammonium hydrate:——By
imparting a deep blue tint to solutions of salts of copper. By exhalation
of ammoniacal gas (recognised by its odour), when triturated or mixed and
heated with caustic potassa, soda, or lime. Added to a solution of
bichloride of platinum, they produce a heavy yellow, crystalline
precipitate, consisting of minute octahedrons easily discernible under
the microscope. With protonitrate of mercury, a black precipitate. With
bichloride of mercury, a heavy, white precipitate. With a concentrated
solution of tartaric acid, a crystalline, white precipitate, nearly
similar to that given with salts of potassa. They are nearly all soluble
in water, volatile, and crystallisable.

Except the carbonate, they are almost invariably estimated by conversion
into ammonia, and estimation by volumetric analyses, as in alkalimetry. In
the laboratory, however, for exact purposes, they are converted into the
double chloride of ammonium and platinum.

=Ammonium Salts:——=

=Ammonium, Acetate of.= NH_{4}C_{2}H_{3}O_{2}. _Syn._ AMMO′′NIÆ ACE′TAS,
of acetate of lime or of potassa and sal ammoniac, equal parts; mix and
distil at a gentle heat. The oily liquid (BINACETATE OF AMMONIUM,
HNH_{4}(C_{2}H_{3}O_{2})_{2}), in the receiver forms a radiated
crystalline mass on cooling. Dry gaseous ammonia passed into this salt,
melted by a gentle heat, transforms it into the solid and inodorous
neutral acetate, NH_{4}C_{2}H_{3}O_{2}.

2. Strong acetic acid is saturated with ammonia or carbonate of ammonium,
and the solution evaporated over sulphuric acid in vacuo; the resulting
crystals, after being carefully drained, are dried by pressure between
bibulous paper.

_Prop., &c._ Long, slender crystals, or a crystalline mass, freely soluble
in both alcohol and water, and deliquescent in the air; taste sharp and
cooling, and somewhat sweetish. Its solutions cannot be evaporated without
loss of the ammonia; even the salt passes off in large quantities with the
vapour of water. Its aqueous solution becomes alkaline on keeping, from
decomposition of the acid. Distilled with anhydrous phosphoric acid, it is
converted into ACETONITRILE. An aqueous solution of this salt was
introduced into the Materia Medica by Boerhaave, and has since been
extensively used as a diaphoretic and febrifuge, under the popular name of
MINDERERUS SPIRIT, after Minderer or Mindererus, who extensively employed
it and extolled its virtues. When pure, both the salt and its solutions
are neutral to test-paper, and are wholly volatilised by heat. See

=Ammonium, Arseniate of.= (NH_{4})_{3}AsO_{4}. _Syn._ AMMONIÆ ARSE′NIAS,
L. _Prep._ 1. (NEUTRAL.) Saturate a warm concentrated solution of arsenic
acid with carbonate of ammonium in slight excess; evaporate by a gentle
heat, that crystals may form on cooling.

2. =Ammonium, Binarseniate of.= H(NH_{4})_{2}AsO_{4}. As above, but adding
an additional equiv. of the acid, as soon as any excess of ammonia has
been expelled by the heat employed to evaporate the solution.——_Dose_ (of
either). 1-24th to 1-12th gr.; in phthisis, certain skin diseases, &c. See
SOLUTIONS (and _below_).

=Ammonium, Arsenite of.= NH_{4}AsO_{2}. _Syn._ AMMONIÆ AR′SENIS, L.
_Prep._ From a hot concentrated solution of arsenious acid, and
sesquicarbonate of ammonium, as the last.——Used (chiefly) to make arsenite
of iron. The properties and physiological effects of the above arsenical
preparations are for the most part similar to those of arseniate and
arsenate of potassa. They are all poisonous.

=Ammonium, Benzoate of.= _Prep._ 1. Dissolve benzoic acid in ammonia
solution to saturation, then further add ammonia in slight excess, and
crystallise by refrigeration, or in vacuo.

2. (LIQUID; SOLU′TIO AMMONIÆ BENZOA′TIS, L.) As the last, but without
evaporating the solution.

_Prop., &c._ Very soluble and very difficult to crystallise. If the
solution is boiled for a short time and then abandoned to spontaneous
evaporation, crystals of ACID BENZOATE OF AMMONIUM are deposited. It is
used chiefly as a chemical test; but has been recently recommended in
chronic bronchitis, old coughs, &c.; and to check the formation of
chalk-stones and urinary calculi.——_Dose_, 10 to 15 gr.; (of the solution)
15 drops to 1 fl. dr., or more. See BENZOIC ACID.

=Ammonium, Bromide of.= NH_{4}Br. _Syn._ AMMO′′NII BROMI′DUM, A. BRO′MIS,
obtained from hydrobromic acid, bromide of iron, &c., by similar processes
to those adopted for the iodide. The following process for the preparation
of bromide of ammonium is from the formula for the new medicaments adopted
by the Paris Pharmaceutical Society: “Add bromine very slowly to a
solution of ammonia, with continual stirring, until the liquid remains
faintly and persistently coloured by a slight excess of bromine.” It forms
white prismatic crystals; and, in its general properties, resembles
bromide of potassium. It is volatile, and easily decomposed.

Used as a nervine in hysterics; especially useful for sleeplessness where
there is no organic disease; given in epilepsy when bromide of potassium
fails.——_Dose_, 2 to 20 grains.

=Ammonium, Carbonates of=[47]——

[Footnote 47: For complete information respecting the various carbonates
of ammonia consult Dr Divers’ papers in the ‘Journal of the Chemical

=Ammonium, Carbonate of.= _Syn._ NEUTRAL CARBONATE OF AMMONIUM. Equal
parts of dry sal ammoniac and sodium carbonate are heated to form the
neutral ammonium carbonate of commerce, which sublimes. Solid crystalline
substance, with a strong ammoniacal odour, volatile and soluble.

_Uses, &c._ In the solid form it is not now used in medicine; but it is
indirectly employed in several liquid preparations in which the
sesquicarbonate is ordered. It is superior to any other preparation of
ammonia for filling smelling bottles; as it is not only more pungent, but
does not lose its pungency by keeping. It volatilises more quickly than
the sesquicarbonate, and the residuum, unlike that of the latter salt,
continues as odorous as ever. It is the basis of several of the most
popular and esteemed advertised smelling salts of the shops. Spirit of
hartshorn is an impure solution of this salt, originally obtained by
distilling hartshorn or bones.

=Ammonium, Sesquicarbonate of.= Probably 2NH_{4}HCO_{3} +
NH_{4}NH_{2}CO_{3}, _i. e._ a mixture or compound of bicarbonate of
ammonium and carbamate of ammonium. _Syn._ (CARBONATE OF AMMONIA, AMMONIÆ
It is prepared on a very large scale commercially as follows:——Sal
ammoniac or sulphate of ammonia, and chalk, equal parts, both dry and in
powder, are mixed as before, and sublimed from a series of iron retorts or
iron pots, into a well-cooled and capacious receiver lined with lead or
earthenware; or, more generally, into such a receiver connected, by iron
or lead pipes, with a second and similar one containing a stratum of
water, to absorb the free ammonia evolved during the process.

The so-called “Volcanic Ammonia” is evolved during the manufacture of
borax, from carbonate of soda and boracic acid. It is largely used in

_Prop._ The carbonate of ammonia, of commerce, usually occurs in the form
of white, fibrous, translucent, or semi-translucent cakes, generally about
two inches thick. It is less volatile and pungent than the neutral
carbonate; soluble in 4 parts of water at 55° Fahr., 3·3 parts at 62°, 2·5
parts at 96°, and 2 parts at 120°; boiling water and alcohol decompose it,
with the evolution of carbonic acid gas and ammonia; by age or exposure to
air, the surface assumes an opaque white colour, from its carbonate flying
off, and the remaining bicarbonate being less volatile. Unlike the
carbonate, it can neither be resublimed nor digested or distilled with
either alcohol or water, without suffering decomposition. Sp. gr. 0·966.

The exact composition of this salt varies, according to its method of

_Uses, &c._ It is commonly employed by bakers to give lightness to their
fancy goods, and to make extemporaneous bread and pastry; by the chemist
and pharmaceutist, for the preparation of other salts of ammonia, and in
analysis, &c. In _medicine_ it is used as a stimulant, antispasmodic,
antacid, and diaphoretic, in acidity of the stomach, dyspeptic affections,
gout, scrofula, hysteria, lowness of spirits, epilepsy, &c.; and in the
convulsions attending dentition. It has been recently recommended, by Dr
Barlow, in diabetes. It is also employed to make effervescing draughts;
and externally as a counter-irritant and stimulant. Its use as a nasal
stimulant in headaches, fainting, &c., is well known. In large doses it is
emetic; in excessive doses poisonous. Its long-continued use, in quantity,
is often productive of very serious consequences——slow fever, debility,
emaciation, scurvy, loss of teeth, hæmorrhage, general cachexy, and even
death. The antidote and restorative treatment are, the free use of
lemon-juice, wine or malt-liquors, new milk, and antiscorbutic vegetables,
with a generous diet, of which the red meats form a large
proportion.——_Dose._ As a stimulant or diaphoretic, 5 to 15 gr., dissolved
in cold water; as an emetic, 20 to 30 gr., in tepid water, repeated if
necessary; as an effervescing saline draught, 15 to 30 gr. A few grains (8
or 10) dissolved in a tumbler of cold water is an excellent ‘refresher’ in
lowness of spirits, or after fatigue; and is highly esteemed by drunkards;
being, in each case, preferable to ‘spirit of sal volatile,’——_Doses for
Animals._ HORSE: 1 to 2 drachms. CATTLE: 2 to 4 drachms. SHEEP: 20 grains
to 1 drachm. PIG: 20 grains to 1 drachm. DOG: 3 to 10 grains; in bolus,
pill, or cold gruel.

_Concluding remarks, Patents, &c._ In extension of the above it may be
added that, on the large scale, the distillation is usually carried on in
cast-iron retorts, similar in size, shape, and character to those employed
in the manufacture of coal-gas, and of which five, or more, are commonly
set horizontally in the same furnace. (See _engr._) Each retort has its
mouth (_a_), through which the ‘charge’ is introduced, closed with a
movable door, which is securely fastened in its place, in the manner shown
in the engr.; and is furnished, at the upper part of its further end, with
an iron pipe (_c_), to carry off the evolved vapours to the condenser or
receiver. The latter consists of two large square wooden chambers (_B,
C_), lined with lead, and either fitted with movable covers, secured by
water-joints, or with doors in the side, to permit of the easy removal of
the sublimed salt. The first receiver communicates with the second by
means of a large lead tube (_d_) near its centre, and by another tube
(_d′_), somewhat smaller, and nearer the bottom, but above the surface of
the stratum of water in the second receiver, before alluded to. These
chambers have also a lead pipe (_e, e_), stopped during the process with a
plug or cock of lead, to allow of the liquid product of the distillation,
&c., to be drawn off, or run into another receiver or cistern, at will.
Both chambers are placed on strong wooden supports, or scaffolding, to
bring them on a level with the retorts. When the impure sulphate or other
ammonia-salt is used in the manufacture of the sesquicarbonate (which is
generally the case), the resulting salt being impure and discoloured, is
resublimed in iron pots (_f, f, f_), furnished with movable leaden heads,
which are kept cool by a current of air passing over them; a little water
being introduced into the subliming pots to render the product
translucent. The heat is applied either by means of a flue passing from
the retort-furnace (_A, b_), or by a water bath heated in the same manner;
the latter being the preferable method, as the temperature should not be
greater than about 200° Fahr., and need not exceed 150° to 155°. These
pots are arranged in sets, as shown at _D_ in the engraving.


The charge of a retort usually consists of about 70 to 72 _lbs._ of
sulphate of ammonia or 57 to 58 _lbs._ of the hydrochlorate to 1 _cwt._ of
chalk; or in these proportions. The product is about 40 _lbs._ of the
crude salt, which, by careful resublimation, yields about 39 _lbs._ of
marketable carbonate of ammonia.

Carbonate of ammonia, like the chloride and sulphate, is now scarcely ever
prepared on the small scale, that of commerce being not only cheaper, but
sufficiently pure for all the purposes of medicine and the arts.

=Ammonium, Bicarbonate of.= HNH_{4}CO_{3}. _Prep._ By digesting cold water
on sesquicarbonate of ammonia in considerable excess, until the whole of
the pungent neutral carbonate is dissolved out. If the salt is reduced to
powder the operation is facilitated.

To powdered sesquicarbonate of ammonia add boiling water just sufficient
to dissolve it, and immediately close the vessel; crystals form as the
liquid cools, containing 2-1/2 equiv. of water.

_Prop., &c._ For the most part similar to the sesquicarbonate, except in
having a taste and smell which is only faintly ammoniacal, and hence more
palatable. Crystallises in oblique prisms, which, as usually obtained,
contain about 23% of water. It requires 8 parts of cold water to dissolve
it. It is distinguished from the previous carbonates by the almost entire
absence of ammoniacal odour, and by its solution giving no immediate
precipitate with chloride of barium, but by standing, or on the addition
of a little liquor of ammonia, a white earthy precipitate, accompanied
with the evolution of carbonic acid gas. A saturated solution of this
salt, evaporated by a very gentle heat, or refrigerated, gives small
prismatic crystals having neither smell nor taste.

_Uses, &c._ Similar to those of the other carbonates.——_Dose_, 6 or 7 to
20 or 25 gr.

=Ammonium, Chloride of.= NH_{4}Cl. _Syn._ MURIATE OF AMMONIA, SAL
AMMONIAC, &c., Fr.; SALMIAK, Ger. A substance which, as already noticed,
appears to have been originally obtained, by sublimation, from the soot of
camels’ dung, in Egypt. In this country, at the present day, it is
manufactured chiefly from the crude ammoniacal liquors obtained as
secondary products in the manufacture of coal-gas and animal charcoal.

_Prep._ 1. From GAS-LIQUOR:——The crude ammoniacal liquor of the gas-works
is, either at once, or after distillation,[48] neutralised with
hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, the choice being given to the one which is
the cheaper and more accessible at the place where the works are situated.
When hydrochloric acid is employed, the SATURATION is usually effected by
allowing the acid to flow from a large wooden vessel or tank lined with
lead or gutta percha into a large underground reservoir or tank containing
the ammoniacal liquor, and having an exit-tube passing into the chimney or
shaft of the steam-engine, to carry off the sulphuretted hydrogen and
other offensive gases liberated during the mixture. Sometimes the
gas-liquor is accumulated in enormous covered wooden tuns, capable of
holding from 10,000 to 20,000 gallons, or more; and the acid is added by
raising the gutta-percha carboys containing it by means of cranes, and
then thoroughly mixing it with the liquor by means of powerful
‘agitators,’ whilst the offensive fumes are either passed off as before,
or made to traverse the fire of the steam-engine before entering the
chimney-shaft. The quantity of acid employed to effect saturation must, of
course, depend on the ammoniacal strength of the gas-liquor operated on.
The usual proportions are 1-1/2 to 2 _lbs._ of the former, to each gal. of
the latter; but in all cases sufficient should be added to impart a very
faint acid reaction to the mixture. This last having been effected, the
saline solution, now containing hydrochlorate of ammonia, is, after
repose, ready to be pumped or run off into the evaporators.

[Footnote 48: This is now generally conducted in a large wrought-iron
boiler, connected with a rude modification of Coffey’s still; the object
being to obtain the liquor freer from tar and more concentrated.]

The EVAPORATION of the crude saline solution is usually carried on in
large square or rectangular cast-iron vats, of very moderate depth, and
capable of holding from 1000 to 1500 gallons, or more. These are encased
in brickwork, and are heated by a furnace, of which the flues pass in a
sinuous course beneath the lining of brickwork on which the vats or pans
rest. During the concentration of the liquid, the tar, &c., which
separates and floats on the surface, and which thus seriously impedes
evaporation, is, from time to time, removed by skimming. As soon as the
sp. gr. reaches 1·25, any excess of acid in the solution is exactly
neutralised with a little fresh ammoniacal liquor; by which any waste of
acid is prevented, at the same time that any ferric salt present, and
which would contaminate the ultimate product, is precipitated as
sesquioxide. After settling for a short time, the hot liquor is ready to
be transferred to the crystallisers.

The vessels employed in the CRYSTALLISATION are pans or tubs, usually
circular and about 7 or 8 feet wide, by 2-1/2 to 3 feet deep; and are
generally set on the ground, or are embedded either partially or wholly in
it. The saline liquor being pumped or run into them at a little below the
boiling temperature, crystallises as it cools; the only interference being
occasional stirring or agitation, to prevent the formation of large
crystals, which would be inconvenient in the subsequent part of the
process. The time occupied in the crystallisation varies, according to the
size of the ‘crystallisers,’ and the weather, from 3 or 4 to 8 or even 10
days. The ‘mother-liquor’ of the ‘crystallisers’ is pumped back into the
evaporating pans for further concentration. The crude blackish salt
(hydrochlorate) thus obtained is contaminated with tarry and oleaginous
matter, free acid, water, &c.; from part of which it is freed by exposing
it in a layer about 4 inches deep, on a cast-iron plate gently heated by a
zigzag flue of a small furnace, until all the water is expelled; care
being taken that the heat never rises high enough to volatilise the salt.
This operation is generally performed under a dome, or the expanded throat
of a large chimney. The salt will now have become of a greyish-white
colour, and is ready for the next operation.


The crude dried salt of the last process is finally purified by
sublimation. For this purpose cast-iron-pots lined with clay, and heated
from below and by flues round their sides, are employed. (See _engr._) The
crude grey salt is beaten down into these pots until they are about 2-3rds
filled, when the heads or capitols are fitted on, and heat applied. The
latter are very heavy, being usually made of lead (sometimes of iron), and
have the form of a dome, or a hemispherical cup, with a small tube or hole
at the apex, in which a plug is loosely placed, to permit the escape of
steam. These domes or heads are so made as to fit closely and firmly on
the flat rim or flange of the ‘sublimers,’ and are retained in their
places, during use, both by their weight, and by 2 or 3 clamps provided
for the purpose. They are also furnished with 3 rings, set at equal
distances, to allow of their being lifted off, or moved, by means of a
pulley and chains. The due application and regulation of the heat is here
of the utmost importance. If the temperature employed be too high, the
sublimed salt will be contaminated with empyreumatic matter, while some of
it will be carried beyond the dome and lost; and if it be extreme, the
head may be altogether blown off, and the contents of the pan scattered
about the building; whilst on the other hand, if the heat employed be too
low, the resulting cake of sal ammonia will be soft, spongy, and either
grey or yellowish. The proper temperature is said to be known by two or
three drops of water readily boiling, and being dissipated in vapour, when
placed on the head or cover of the sublimer; but it should not ‘spit’ or
‘dance about,’ or be raised by the heat out of contact with the metal. The
usual practice is to keep the fires “briskly up until the sublimers and
their surroundings attain a sufficient degree of heat; they are then
slackened, and maintained at a mean temperature.” (Muspratt.) The
sublimation occupies from 5 to 9 days; but it is customary to raise the
heads once, or even twice a week, to ascertain the progress made; the
fires having been purposely neglected or checked for some hours
previously. The process is finally stopped before the whole of the crude
salt in the pots is volatilised; since the heat required for that purpose
would lead to the decomposition of the carbonaceous impurities, and cause
them to emit volatile hydrocarbons, which would materially lessen the
purity and beauty of the product. The unsublimed portion in the pots forms
a conical mass, which is technically called the ‘yolk.’ This is shown in
the second engr. (see _below_), in which the latest improvements in the
form of the subliming apparatus are also exhibited.


The sublimation having been carried to a sufficient extent, the fires are
allowed to die out. The domes, after cooling, are lifted off, and the
attached hemispherical cakes or ‘bells’ of SAL AMMONIAC or HYDROCHLORATE
OF AMMONIA at once removed. These vary from 2 to 5 inches in thickness,
and from 45 or 50 _lbs._ to 1000 _lbs._, and upwards, in weight, according
to the size of the sublimers in which they have been produced. They are
generally nearly pure, except in the outer part which has been in contact
with the metal. From the subliming-house they are taken to the store or
packing-house, and after having been scraped, to remove the discoloured
portion before alluded to, are either preserved entire, or are broken up
into convenient pieces, which are then packed in casks or barrels, and in
either state are ready for the market.

When sulphuric acid[49] is used to neutralise the ammoniacal liquor, the
process is generally, for the most part, the same as when hydrochloric
acid is employed; but here the brown salt obtained by the crystallisation,
and subsequent desiccation, is crude SULPHATE OF AMMONIA, instead of the
hydrochlorate. It is intimately mixed with about an equal weight of
chloride of sodium (common salt) before being put into the sublimers.

[Footnote 49: Sp. gr. 1·33 to 1·38.]

In some cases, particularly where the ammoniacal liquor is rich in
carbonate of ammonia, gypsum is employed as a source of sulphuric acid.
(See _below_.)

Another method is to convert the solution of the crude sulphate into a
solution of the hydrochlorate, during the process, by the addition of
chloride of sodium. Both these last methods are described below.

2. From BONE-LIQUOR, &c.[50]——The ammoniacal liquor technically called
‘bone-liquor’ or ‘bone-spirit,’ and formerly known under the name of
‘spirit of hartshorn,’ is essentially a solution of carbonate of ammonia
more or less contaminated with volatile empyreumatic oil. Its conversion
into SAL AMMONIA may be easily effected by saturating it with hydrochloric
acid, evaporating the resulting neutral solution in lead or iron boilers
until a pellicle begins to form, then pumping or running off the hot
liquors into the crystallisers, and, lastly, draining and drying the
crystals. The salt thus obtained may be purified either by sublimation or
by recrystallisation. The whole series of processes closely resemble those
already described, except in being less troublesome, owing to the absence
of the tarry and other foreign matters which impede and complicate them
when gas-liquor is employed.

[Footnote 50: That employed in England is chiefly obtained, as already
mentioned, from the manufacturers of bone-black or animal charcoal; but,
on the Continent, the liquor obtained by a like destructive distillation
of various animal offals (blood, flesh, horn, hoofs, woollen rags and
waste, hair, scrapings of hides, leather cuttings, &c.) is employed for
the same purpose. The preparatory process by which this liquor is obtained
is essentially the same in each case; except that with animal offal the
temperature should not exceed a red-brown heat, in order that the
resulting charcoal may afterwards serve to make ferrocyanide of potassium
and Prussian blue. These liquors have usually a density ranging between 8°
and 9° Baumé (Ure; = sp. gr. 1·056 to 1·063).]

Another method adopted, particularly on the Continent, and one equally
applicable to any crude ammoniacal liquor rich in free ammonia or its
carbonates, is to employ sulphate of lime instead of sulphuric acid to
neutralise the alkali. For this purpose the ammoniacal liquor is passed
through a series of three or four covered wooden filters lined with lead,
each containing a layer of crushed gypsum to the depth of 3 or 4 inches.
These filters are usually set on ‘stages’ one above another, and each
communicates with a cistern placed beneath it by means of a leaden pipe
furnished with a stop-cock. This last is not opened untill the liquor has
remained some little time in the filter; and a pump throws back once, or
oftener, upon each filter, what has already passed through it, before it
is allowed to run into the next lower one. The ‘liquor’ in each filter is
not allowed to stand higher than from 2 to 3 inches above the surface of
the gypsum; and the lowest or last filter is supplied with fresh gypsum at
each separate charge of fresh liquor. A little water is lastly passed
through the filters to wash out the portion of ammoniacal liquor absorbed
or retained by the filtering media. In this way the gypsum of the filters
is converted into carbonate of lime at the expense of the carbonate of
ammonia in the solution; whilst the ammonia of the latter decomposes the
gypsum, and becomes converted into sulphate of ammonia, which, with some
free ammonia, is found in the filtrate. Sulphuric acid is next added to
the filtered liquor to completely neutralise the free and carbonated
alkali still existing in it; after which it is evaporated in a leaden
boiler, with frequent skimming to remove floating oil, until of the sp.
gr. 1·160. Chloride of sodium (common salt), in sufficient quantity to
convert all the sulphate of ammonia in the liquid into hydrochlorate, by
double decomposition, is now added, with constant stirring; after which
the clear portion is either pumped or syphoned off into a somewhat deep
reservoir or tank, where it is allowed to settle. The liquid after
sufficient repose is pumped from the reservoir to the boilers, and
evaporated, with frequent agitation, so long as the sulphate of soda now
existing in it falls to the bottom in granular crystals. These crystals
are, at intervals, scraped to the cooler portion of the pan or boiler,
whence they are removed by copper rakes and shovels, into
draining-hoppers, placed near the edges of the pan. The liquor in the
boiler is now a strong solution of sal ammoniac, but still containing a
little sulphate of soda, from which it has to be freed by crystallisation.
With this object it is further concentrated, and then run or pumped into
the crystallisers. In 30 or 40 hours, or longer, the mother-liquor is run
or pumped off. The mass of newly-formed crystals is then drained, and
slightly washed, first with a little weak solution of sal ammoniac, and
next with a very little cold water; after which they are again well
drained. The crude HYDROCHLORATE OF AMMONIA, thus obtained, is converted
into the pure salts, by desiccation and sublimation, as before.

In France, where this method is very generally employed, the sublimation
is commonly conducted in stoneware or earthenware balloons or bottles
coated with loam, of about 18 to 20 inches in height in the body, and
either surmounted with inverted ‘cups’ or ‘heads’ 10 or 12 inches high, or
simply covered with a tile, when (in the latter case) the sublimate
collects in the upper part or neck of the balloon, which is above the
action of the fire. A number of these vessels are set on the dome of a
furnace, which is perforated with holes or slits, to allow the heat to
pass through; whilst their necks or heads are sheltered from the action of
the fire by plates of iron or earthenware, having semi-circular
indentations on their edges, so that when placed together they form a
level surface, through which the necks of the sublimers protrude, and fit
closely. The fire is nicely regulated, so as to cause the salts to
condense in the upper and cooler part of the vessels, or in the heads, as
the case may be; and great care is taken to occasionally clear the necks
with a skewer, to prevent choking, and consequent bursting.

In Scotland, where a similar process is also commonly pursued, the
sublimers, according to Dr Ure, are generally “cast-iron pots, lined with
fire-proof tiles; the condensation being effected in globular heads of
green glass, with which each of the iron pots are capped.”[51]

[Footnote 51: Ure’s ‘Dict. of Arts, M., & M.,’ 5th Edn., i, p. 143.]

_Ratio._ Gas-liquor contains carbonate of ammonium (chiefly), with
chloride, sulphate, hydrosulphate, cyanide, sulphocyanide, &c., of the
same radical. On neutralisation with hydrochloric acid, or sulphuric acid,
these are converted into chloride or sulphate of ammonium, according to
the acid used. By sublimation with chloride of sodium, the sulphate of
ammonium is converted, by double decomposition, into chloride of ammonium,
which sublimes; and sulphate of sodium, which remains in the subliming
pot. A similar change occurs when the solution of the sulphate, prior to
crystallisation, is decomposed by the addition of chloride of sodium, or
any other chloride. When the ‘gas-liquor’ is at once converted into
chloride of ammonium by the addition of hydrochloric acid, the sublimation
merely purifies the salt. Like changes occur when bone-spirit is employed.

_Comp._ Chemically considered, this salt consists of equal VOLUMES of
gaseous ammonia and hydrochloric acid gas condensed into the solid form;
or, by WEIGHT, according to the ammonia-theory, of——

                                        Atoms.  Equiv. wt.  Per cent.
  Ammonia (NH_{3})                        1        17·        31·78
  Hydrochloric acid (HCl)                 1        36·5       68·22
                                         ---      -----      ------
  Hydrochlorate of Ammonia (NH_{3}HCl)    1        53·5      100·

Or, according to the ‘ammonium-theory,’ of——

                                  Atoms.      Equiv. wt.   Per cent.
  Ammonium (NH_{4})                 1            18·         33·65
  Chloride (Cl)                     1            35·5        66·35
                                   ---          -----       ------
  Chloride of Ammonium (NH_{4}Cl)   1            53·5       100·

_Prop. &c._ The sal ammoniac of commerce is found under the form of large
white hemispherical, cup-like cakes or masses (or in large fragments which
are sections of them), possessing a tough, fibrous, semi-crystalline
texture, and very difficult to powder. It is odourless, has a saline taste
somewhat sharp or acrid, and sublimes without either fusion or
decomposition. It slightly reddens litmus; dissolves in rather less than 3
parts of cold water, and in about 1 part of boiling water; is soluble in
alcohol; and when crystallised from water, under favorable circumstances,
forms distinct octahedra, or cubes, usually small and aggregated together
in rays or feathery masses. By slowly evaporating its aqueous solution, it
may be sometimes obtained in cakes an inch in thickness. It is anhydrous.
Sp. gr. 1·450.

_Pur._ It should give a colourless solution with water; wholly sublime
with heat; and neither chloride of barium, nor sulphuretted hydrogen,
should affect its solution. A solution, to which a few drops of nitric
acid have been added, should not yield a blue precipitate with
ferrocyanide of potassium. It often contains sesquichloride of iron, and
sometimes lead; both of which may be readily detected by the above tests.
Its complete volatility may be easily determined by heating, in the flame
of a candle, a small fragment held on the point of a knife.

_Tests._——1. It is known to be a salt of ammonium by its cooling
ammoniacal fumes when triturated with lime, or when moistened with caustic
potassa or soda:——2. It is shown to be a chloride by its solution
yielding, with nitrate of silver, a white curdy precipitate, insoluble in
boiling nitric acid, soluble in ammonia.

_Uses, &c._ In the _arts_, chiefly in the coating and soldering of metals,
and the preparation of alloys; in dyeing; and in the manufacture of
ammonia-alum; also, in large quantities, to give a factitious pungency to
snuff. In _chemistry_, as a reagent; and, owing to the cold produced
during its solution, to form frigorific mixtures. In _medicine_ it is
chiefly used externally, as a stimulant and resolvent or discutient; and
occasionally, internally, as a diuretic, stimulant, resolvent, alterative,
tonic, &c., particularly in chronic inflammations of the mucous and serous
membranes, in chronic glandular and visceral enlargements and indurations,
and in amenorrhœa. In rather large doses, frequently repeated, it is said
to prove often highly beneficial in chronic enlargement and induration of
the prostate gland (M. René Vanoye); and also in other like
cases.——_Dose_, 5 to 20 gr., 3 or 4 times daily, either in powder or
solution, mixed with some demulcent; as a discutient or resolvent lotion,
1 to 1-1/2 oz., to 1/2 pint of water, either with or without 4 or 5 fl.
oz. of spirits or strong vinegar (often serviceable in chilblains); as a
weak lotion, or a collyrium or injection, 1 to 4 dr., to water, 1 pint. In
very large doses it is poisonous; the treatment is emetics and
mucilaginous or demulcent drinks.

_Concluding remarks, Patents, &c._ The methods already described are those
by which commercial hydrochlorate of ammonia is usually if not almost
entirely obtained; the various improvements or modifications, from time to
time introduced, affecting chiefly the minor details, and the form or size
of the apparatus and machinery employed, and not the general principles on
which the processes are based. One of the most important of these has for
its object the entire removal of the iron present in the crude salt, some
of which, if it be not removed before sublimation, is volatilised and
contaminates the ultimate product. To obviate this evil, Mr Brewer passes
a few bubbles of chlorine through the hot concentrated solution of the
salt, previous to its crystallisation; by which the protochloride of iron
is converted into the perchloride, which, being acted on by the ammonia
always present in the liquor, is precipitated as ferric hydrate, with the
formation of a small additional quantity of sal ammoniac. The only
precaution necessary is to avoid employing more chlorine gas than is
necessary to peroxidise the iron; as beyond this a portion of the
ammonia-salt itself is decomposed, with the evolution of nitrogen. The
temperature of the liquor is kept up, after the action of the chlorine,
until the whole of the brown flocculent oxide of iron has subsided, when
it is at once decanted or filtered into the crystallisers.

Another modification which has been adopted in two or three places is to
effect neutralisation of the crude ammoniacal liquor by distilling it, and
passing the fumes in at the lower end of a hollow shaft or column filled
with coke, down which the acid trickles; the resulting solution of
sulphate or chloride of ammonium being received in proper cisterns,
conveniently situated near the base of the column.

In Mr Spence’s method of obtaining ammonia-salts from gas-liquor or
bone-spirit, a series of (usually four) cylindrical boilers, or
reservoirs, so placed that the contents of each upper one may be drawn off
into the one next below it are employed. Each boiler has an exit-pipe
which carries the vapour generated in it to that next above it, whilst
that of the highest boiler passes off to a trunk containing the acid
necessary to form the salt. The top boiler is connected with the reservoir
of gas-liquor (which is already mixed with milk of lime) by a charging
pipe furnished with a stop-cock turned by a floating ball, so as to keep
the surface of the liquor constantly at the same height. High-pressure
steam enters the lower boiler, by which its ammonia is driven through the
connecting pipe into the next boiler, and so on in succession, until it
leaves the highest boiler in a concentrated state, and thus enters the
acid-tank. When this last contains moderately strong hydrochloric or
sulphuric acid, the resulting solution of CHLORIDE or SULPHATE OF AMMONIUM
(as the case may be) is sufficiently concentrated to be at once run off
into the crystallisers. As soon as the liquor in the lowest boiler is
exhausted of its ammonia, its contents are drawn off, and replaced by that
of the next boiler, which is followed by a like descent throughout the
whole series.

Among improvements having for their object the substitution of cheap
chlorides[52] for the more expensive commercial acids, may be mentioned
those of——

[Footnote 52: Particularly such chlorides as are the ‘waste or bye
products’ of other manufactures.]

1. Mr Laming (Patent dated 1843), who employs a strong solution of
CHLORIDE OF CALCIUM for converting the ammonia of gas-liquor into the

2. Mr Hills (Patent dated 1846) employs CHLORIDE OF MAGNESIUM[53] in the
same way; and by a subsequent patent proposes to convert the ammonia
eliminated in the distillation of coal into the hydrochlorate, by mixing
CHLORIDE OF MAGNESIUM with the coal in the retorts, or by introducing the
chloride into a retort appropriated for the purpose. The heat dispels the
chlorine of the chloride, in the form of hydrochloric acid, and this,
uniting with the ammoniacal vapour, forms hydrochlorate of ammonia, which
is retained in the liquor of the condenser. From this liquor the salt is
obtained by evaporation, &c., in the usual way.

[Footnote 53: Of the Epsom-salt works, &c.]

3. Mr Croll (Patent dated 1849) converts the crude ammoniacal vapours that
issue with the gas from the common retorts into the hydrochlorate, and
obtains a solution of it by passing the gas through a solution of crude
CHLORIDE OF MANGANESE[54] (1 cwt. of the salt to about 40 galls. of
water), contained in one of the ordinary vessels used for purifying
coal-gas. The manganic solution absorbs the ammonia and its salts,
converting them into the hydrochlorate, whilst a corresponding proportion
of oxide of manganese is precipitated. As soon as the liquor in the
purifier is fully saturated, it is drawn off, and replaced by a fresh
quantity; whilst the saturated liquor containing the hydrochlorate, after
subsidence, or filtration, is evaporated, &c., as before. Crude CHLORIDE
OF IRON may be substituted for the chloride of manganese, in the above
process: as may also SULPHATE OF MANGANESE, but then the product, of
course, will be sulphate of ammonia, instead of the hydrochlorate.

[Footnote 54: Obtained from the chloride-of-lime works. The portion of the
precipitated oxide of manganese saved from the process may be reconverted
into the chloride, by mixing 3 parts of it with 4 parts of common salt,
and heating the mixture to low redness, scarcely perceptible in the dark,
for 2 to 3 hours. 140 _lbs._ of the calcined mass, with 40 galls. of
water, forms a solution that may be again pumped into the purifier.]

4. Mr Laming (Patent dated 1850) also proposes the use of various salts
and mixtures for retaining and condensing the ammoniacal vapour of
coal-gas as it passes from the retorts through the purifiers. Of these the
principal are CHLORIDE OF CALCIUM obtained by decomposing chloride of iron
by hydrate of lime; CHLORIDE OF IRON, obtained by decomposing sulphate of
iron with chloride of sodium; CHLORIDE OF MAGNESIUM; a mixture of SULPHATE
OF LIME and SULPHATE OF IRON; or of moist precipitated oxide of iron with
carbonate of lime, carbonate of magnesia, or magnesian limestone; or one
containing sulphate of magnesia, or chloride of magnesium or calcium, or
one or more of them, in combination with oxide of copper, either with or
without lime or magnesia, or with both or either of them or their
carbonates. These salts, or compounds, are mingled with sawdust, or some
other porous substance not acted on by the gas, before being put into the
purifiers; and after they become saturated with the vapour, the
newly-formed hydrochlorate or sulphate (according to the salt or mixture
employed) is washed out of the mass with water.

Besides the usual sources of SAL AMMONIAC (and the other ammonia-salts of
commerce) it has been proposed to obtain it from guano, peat, shale, &c.,
as noticed under SESQUICARBONATE OF AMMONIA (_suprà_); the substance
employed to effect the neutralisation or decomposition of the ammoniacal
liquor being, in this case either hydrochloric acid or a chloride.

In Young’s Patent (1841) for ‘obtaining AMMONIA and its SALTS,’ a mixture
of 2 parts of guano, and 1 part of hydrate of lime, is distilled in a
retort placed vertically, at a moderate heat, gradually increased until
the bottom of the retort becomes red hot. The ammoniacal portion of the
fumes evolved are absorbed by the cold water contained in a suitable
condenser; whilst the other gases eliminated by the process pass off
uncondensed. By subsequently passing carbonic acid gas into the liquor of
the condenser, a solution of CARBONATE, BICARBONATE, or SESQUICARBONATE of
AMMONIA is formed. By nearly filling the condenser with diluted
hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, instead of with water, a solution of

Stale urine saturated with hydrochloric acid, or with sulphuric acid
diluted with about twice its weight of water, yields SAL AMMONIAC, or
SULPHATE OF AMMONIA (according to the acid used) on evaporation.

Hydrochlorate of ammonia is now wholly prepared on the large scale, and
never by the dealer or retailer, by whom it is only occasionally refined
or purified, in small quantities, for chemical and medical purposes. The
sal ammoniac of commerce is found to be sufficiently pure for all its
ordinary applications in the arts; but when wanted of greater purity, it
is broken into pieces, and resublimed from an earthenware vessel into a
large receiver of earthenware or glass. The product (REFINED SAL AMMONIAC,
DEPURA′TUS†, L.) is popularly known as FLOWERS OF SAL AMMONIAC (flo′res
sa′lis ammoni′aci, L.), from being in a finely divided crystalline state.

The chemically pure chloride of ammonium may be prepared by bringing its
gaseous constituents——ammonia and hydrochloric acid——into contact. During
the combination much heat, and even light, is generated, and the anhydrous
solid salt is precipitated in a minutely divided state, which, under the
microscope, is seen to be crystalline. It may be also more easily and
conveniently prepared by saturating pure and moderately dilute
hydrochloric acid with ammonia or its carbonates, and evaporating the
solution until a pellicle forms, when crystals of the chloride separate as
the liquid cools. A similar but rather more violent reaction occurs when
gaseous chlorine is brought in contact with gaseous ammonia, or is passed
into a nearly saturated solution of ammonia or its carbonates; but in this
case nitrogen is evolved at the expense of the ammonia; moreover, the
process is attended with danger.

The manufacture of sal ammoniac is usually a distinct business, and is
carried on to a very great extent in the neighbourhood of London. Indeed,
the London makers now supply the chief portion of that used in England. A
large quantity is now, however, made at Manchester and Liverpool. A small
quantity is imported from Germany. That from Brunswick is in the form of
sugar-loaves. An inferior quality is also imported, in chests, from the
East Indies.

The red bands frequently seen in the sal ammoniac of commerce are said to
arise from the workmen falling asleep, and allowing the fire to go down,
and then suddenly raising the heat too high. (Muspratt.) They consist
chiefly of ammonio-chloride of iron.

=Ammonium, Citrate of.= (NH_{4})_{2}HC_{6}H_{6}O_{7}. _Syn._ DIAMMONIUM

_Prep._ A concentrated solution of pure citric acid, gently heated, is
saturated with sesquicarbonate of ammonium, in fine powder (about 7 parts
to 6), and slightly in excess; and the resulting liquid is crystallised by
refrigeration in close vessels, or by evaporation in vacuo. If heat be
employed in the evaporation of the solution, an acid citrate will be

_Uses, &c._ Chiefly as a chemical test. An extemporaneous citrate, made
with lemon-juice and drunk effervescing, is employed as a saline draught,
and a mild aperient and diaphoretic, in fevers, &c.

=Ammonium, Ferrocyanide of.= (NH_{4})_{4} FeC_{6}N_{6} . 3Aq. _Syn._
FERROCYANATE D’AMMONIAQUE, Fr. _Prep._ 1. Saturate a solution of
hydroferrocyanic acid with sesquicarbonate of ammonium, in slight excess;
evaporate the solution at a heat below ebullition, and crystallise by

2. Digest ferrocyanide of lead or of iron in a solution of sesquicarbonate
of ammonium, at a gentle heat, for some time; then filter, evaporate, and

_Prop., &c._ It is isomorphous with ferrocyanide of potassium; it is
easily crystallisable, very soluble in water, and is decomposed by

=Ammonium, Iodide of.= NH_{4}I. _Syn._ HYDRIODATE OF AMMONIA; AMMO′′NII
IODI′DUM, L.; HYDRIODATE D’AMMONIAQUE, Fr. _Prep._ An aqueous solution of
hydriodic acid is neutralised with ammonia, or ammonium sesquicarbonate,
in slight excess; and the resulting liquid is either carefully, but
rapidly, evaporated to dryness over a water bath, or it is concentrated by
the same means, and then caused to deposit crystals by refrigeration; in
both cases care is taken to keep a slight excess of ammonia present during
the evaporation. The crystals are dried by pressure between folds of
bibulous paper; and the product, in either form, preserved in a stoppered

Pure iodine is triturated with a little distilled water, and solution of
ammonium sulphydrate added, in small quantities at a time, with continued
trituration, until the red colour of the iodine has entirely disappeared.
The solution, after being gently boiled for a few seconds, to expel the
sulphuretted hydrogen present, is filtered, slightly alkalised, with
ammonia, and evaporated or crystallised, as before.

_Prop., &c._ Colourless; deliquescent; freely soluble in water, and in
spirit; air and light turn it yellowish or brownish, with partial
decomposition. It closely resembles iodide of potassium, than which it is
more active, and thought to be better suited to irritable and relaxed
habits.——_Dose_, 1 to 10 or 12 gr.

=Ammonium, Lac′tate of.= _Syn._ AMMO′′NIÆ LAC′TAS, L. An uncrystallisable
salt prepared by saturating ammonia, or its carbonate, with lactic acid.
It has been found useful in rickets, and in dyspepsia and worms, when
occurring in debilitated habits. For this purpose it is best taken
fresh-prepared, as a draught, flavoured with syrup of orange-peel, 3 or 4
times daily. See LACTATE and LACTIC ACID.

=Ammonium, Nitrate of.= NH_{4}NO_{3}. _Syn._ AMMO′′NIÆ NI′TRAS, L.;
NITRATE D’AMMONIAQUE, Fr. _Prep._ Saturate nitric acid (diluted with 3 or
4 times its weight of water) with sesquicarbonate of ammonium, evaporate
by a gentle heat, and crystallise. When not required in a crystalline
form, it is usually evaporated to dryness at about 212° Fahr.; and the
heat being carefully raised to about 250°, the fused salt is poured out on
a polished slab of iron or stone, and when solidified broken up and put
into bottles.

_Prop._ When the evaporation of the solution is conducted at a heat under
100° Fahr., the salt is obtained in beautiful hexagonal prisms; when at
212°, in long silky fibres; when by rapid evaporation and fusion, it forms
a white, compact, and usually foliated mass. It dissolves in about twice
its weight of water; is slightly deliquescent; melts at 230°, and is
decomposed into nitrous gas and water at 460° Fahr. It deflagrates, like
nitre, on contact with heated combustible matter.

_Uses, &c._ Chiefly to prepare nitrous oxide or laughing gas (of which
nearly 4-1/2 cubic feet may be procured from every _lb._ avoir.); and with
water, to form freezing mixtures, for which purpose it may be used for any
number of times by simply evaporating the solution to dryness, when the
salt, obtained unaltered, is ready for another operation. Care, however,
should be taken not to expose it to too great a heat, as at a certain
temperature it deflagrates with violence. It is occasionally employed in
the laboratory to promote the combustion of organic bodies during
incineration; and sometimes, though seldom, in medicine, as a diuretic
and diaphoretic. It is said to reduce the frequency of the pulse, and the
animal heat, without affecting the head, chest, or stomach.
(Wibmer.)——_Dose_, 10 to 30 gr.

=Ammonium, Nitro-sulphate of.= _Syn._ AMMO′′NIÆ NITRO-SUL′PHAS, L.
Dissolve sulphite of ammonium, 1 part; in solution of ammonia, 5 parts;
and pass nitric oxide gas through the solution; rapidly wash the crystals
that form with solution of ammonia, dry in bibulous paper, without heat,
and preserve them in a well-stopped bottle.——_Dose_, 10 to 20 gr.; in
typhoid fevers, &c.

=Ammonium, Oxalate of.= (NH_{4})_{2}C_{2}O_{4}. _Syn._ AMMO′′NIÆ OX′ALIS,
L.; OXALATE D’AMMONIAQUE, Fr. Neutralise a hot solution of oxalic acid
with sesquicarbonate of ammonia; evaporate and crystallise.

_Prop._ It forms beautiful, colourless, long, rhombic prisms, which
effloresce in the air; slightly soluble in cold water; freely soluble in
hot water; heated in a retort, it yields ammonia, carbonate of ammonia,
cyanogen, and carbonic acid, together with oxamide, which sublimes.

_Uses, &c._ In _chemistry_, chiefly as a test for calcium (with which it
produces a white precipitate soluble in nitric acid), and to separate lime
from magnesium, solutions of the salt of which it does not precipitate. A
BINOX′ALATE may also be formed; but it possesses no practical interest.

=Ammonium, Phosphate of.= (NH_{4})_{3}PO_{4}. _Syn._ AMMO′′NIÆ PHOS′PHAS,
L. _Prep._ Saturate a solution of phosphoric acid with sesquicarbonate of
ammonium, in slight excess; gently evaporate and crystallise by
refrigeration. Diuretic, discutient, and antilithic.——_Dose_, 3 to 10 gr.,
or 20 to 30 drops of a saturated solution, 3 or 4 times a day; in gout,
rheumatism, and calculus, accompanied with the lithic-acid diathesis; also
in rickets and certain forms of dyspepsia.

=Ammonium Suc′cinate.= _Syn._ AMMO′′NIÆ SUC′CINAS, L. _Prep._ 1. Succinic
acid, 1 part; water, 4 parts; dissolve, neutralise with solution of
ammonia, or of ammonium carbonate, in slight excess, and evaporate, and
crystallise as directed under the ‘benzoate’ or ‘phosphate,’——_Dose_, 2 to
10 gr.

=Ammonium, Sul′phate of.= (NH_{4})_{2}SO_{4}. _Syn._ SULPHATE OF OX′IDE OF
AMMONI′ACUM SECRE′TUM GLAUBE′′RI†, &c. Crude sulphate of ammonia exists in
considerable quantity in the soot from pit-coal; and it is obtained, as a
secondary product, from the ammoniacal liquor of gas-works and animal
charcoal manufactories. These last are its chief sources. It is also found
native, associated with sal ammoniac, in the neighbourhood of volcanoes,
under the name of ‘_mascagnine_’ or ‘_massagnine_,’

_Prep._ 1. (Medicinal.) Saturate dilute sulphuric acid with
sesquicarbonate of ammonia, in slight excess; filter, gently evaporate,
and crystallise.

2. (Commercial.) From gas-liquor or bone-spirit, saturated with weak oil
of vitriol, and, the clear portion of the liquid, after repose decanted,
concentrated by rapid evaporation, and crystallised, in the manner noticed

_Prop._ Crystals, long, flattened, six-sided prisms; soluble in 2 parts of
cold, and 1 of boiling water; fuses, with loss of one atom of water, at
about 280° Fahr.; and is volatilised, with entire decomposition, at about
535°. Even its solution, by long boiling, becomes acid from loss of
ammonia. The anhydrous salt does not exist.

_Uses, &c._ Pure sulphate of ammonia is diuretic, aperient, resolvent, and
stimulant.——_Dose_, 10 to 30 gr. It is now seldom employed in medicine.
The crude sulphate is principally used in the preparation of sal ammoniac
and sesquicarbonate of ammonia, and for manure. “A mixture of 10% of this
sulphate with 20% of bone-dust, some gypsum, and farm-yard manure, forms a
very fertilising compost, applicable to a great variety of soils” (Ure);
and we may add——greatly superior to a very large portion of what is now so
commonly vended under the name of ‘guano.’

_Concluding remarks, Patents, &c._ The manufacture of sulphate of ammonia,
on the large scale, has been unavoidably explained in treating on the
salts of that base already noticed. All that is necessary is to saturate
with sulphuric acid the solution of ammonia, crude or otherwise, and
obtained in any manner; and then to evaporate the solution until the salt
crystallises out. At other times, however, instead of adding the acid to
the ammoniacal liquor, the latter, either at once, or after treatment with
lime, is submitted to distillation, and the evolved alkaline vapour is
passed into the acid (previously somewhat diluted), contained in a large
receiver or cistern, or a series of them; the salt being obtained from the
resulting solution in the usual manner. By re-solution and a second
crystallisation the sulphate is generally obtained sufficiently pure for
all commercial purposes; but when the salt is intended for use as manure,
or (unless very rough) for conversion into sal ammoniac, this need not be
had recourse to.

Among modifications and improvements, not previously noticed, may be

1. That of Dr Richardson (Patent dated Jan., 1850), who mixes SULPHATE OF
MAGNESIA with the crude ammoniacal liquor, and thus forms a double
sulphate of magnesia and ammonia, from which he obtains the SULPHATE OF
AMMONIA by sublimation.

2. That of Michiel (Patent dated April, 1850), who prepares sulphate of
ammonia by means of OXYSULPHATE OF LEAD obtained by roasting galena
(sulphide of lead), by exposing it in a crushed state and thin layers for
2 or 3 hours, to the heat of a reverberatory furnace. The resulting
mixture of sulphate and oxide of lead is reduced to the state of coarse
powder, and well worked up with the ammoniacal liquor, when SULPHATE OF
AMMONIA and sulphide and carbonate of lead are produced by the mutual
reaction of the elements present. The first is removed by treatment with
water; and the residuum serves for the manufacture of lead compounds, or
may be reduced to the metallic state by fusion in the usual manner.

3. That of Mr Laming (Patent dated Aug., 1852), in which a stream of
SULPHUROUS ACID GAS is transmitted through the liquor containing the
ammonia, either in the free state or as carbonate, by which SULPHITE OF
AMMONIA is formed. This salt he oxidises, and thus converts into the
SULPHATE OF AMMONIA, by agitation and free exposure to the air.

Sulphate of ammonia, like the hydrochlorate, may also be obtained by
saturating stale urine with the acid, and subsequent evaporation and
OF, and MANURES, &c.

=Ammonium, Sulphide of (neutral).= (NH_{4})_{2}S. _Prep._ Saturate strong
solution of ammonia with pure sulphuretted hydrogen gas; then add a second
portion of solution of ammonia, equal to that first used, and preserve it
in a well-stoppered bottle.

=Ammonium, Sulphydrate of.= NH_{4}HS. _Syn._ SULPHIDE OF AMMONIUM,
sulphuretted hydrogen gas, to saturation, through a mixture composed of
strong solution of ammonia, 1 part, and distilled water, 4 parts.

_Props._ Prepared as above, it has a very fœtid odour. When pure it is
wholly volatilised by heat, and does not disturb a solution of sulphate of
magnesium. Mineral acids decompose it, with the evolution of sulphuretted
hydrogen. By keeping, it decomposes and acquires a yellow colour. This
yellow coloration does not, however, render it unfit for use as a reagent;
but it must be borne in mind that it will now deposit sulphur when mixed
with acids. In this state it proves valuable as a reagent to detect
hydrocyanic acid, and as a solvent to separate metallic sulphides thrown
down by sulphuretted hydrogen.

_Uses, &c._ It is principally employed by chemists as a reagent to
precipitate metals, to separate metallic sulphides, &c.; and by the
perfumers as a mordant in dyeing hair. In _medicine_ it has been used by
Cruickshank, Rollo, and others, to check the morbid appetite, and to
increase the action of the stomach and general tone of the system in
diabetes mellitus. It has also been used by Brauw, Gruithuisen, and
others, in old pulmonary and vesical catarrhs. It is a powerful sedative,
lessening the action of the circulatory system, causing nausea, vomiting,
vertigo, drowsiness, &c.——_Dose_, 3 to 6 drops, three or four times daily,
mixed with pure water, and instantly swallowed. In large doses it is

_Ant._ Very dilute solution of chlorine, or of chloride of lime or soda,
followed by a powerful emetic, or the stomach-pump. When the vapour has
been respired, free exposure to fresh air, with the head a little
elevated, and copious affusions of cold water, with moderate draughts of
brandy-and-water, and the use of the smelling-bottle (ammoniacal) should
be adopted. If need be, artificial respiration should be attempted, and
the air around the patient should be slightly impregnated with the fumes
of chlorine or chloride of lime.

=Ammonium, Persulphide of.= _Syn._ BOYLE’S FUMING-LIQUOR, HOFFMAN’S
PERHYDROSULPHURE′TUM, &c. Authorities differ as to the constitution of
this liquid, which, since its introduction by Beguin in 1650, has passed
under more ‘aliases’ than perhaps any other preparation. Its precise
position amongst the ammonia-compounds is still undecided.

_Prep._ 1. (Beguin.) Sulphur, 1 lb; quick-lime, 1/2 lb; sal ammoniac, 4
oz.; mix and distil.

2. (Boyle.) Sulphur and sal ammoniac, of each, 5 oz.; quick-lime, 6 oz.;
as last.

3. (Liebig.) Agitate the common hydrosulphate of ammonia with pure
sulphur, until the latter ceases to be dissolved; and, after repose,
decant the clear liquid.

_Prop., &c._ An orange-yellow, fuming, fœtid liquid, of an oily
consistence, having the characteristics of the common sulphydrate in a
remarkable degree. It may prove an excellent medicine. “Useful for wounds
and ulcers.” (Beguin.) Diluted with three parts of spirit of wine, it
formed the LIQUOR ANTIPODAG′RICUS of F. Hoffman; of which we are told that
about 30 drops acted as a strong sudorific; and applied externally, mixed
with camphor, “it relieved pain like a charm.” (Hoffman.) The sulphides of
ammonium are now scarcely ever employed as remedies.

=Ammonium, Sul′phite of.= (NH_{4})_{2}SO_{3}.7Aq. _Syn._ AMMONIÆ SULPHIS,
L. Prepared by passing sulphurous acid gas into a solution of ammonia. It
is crystallisable and very soluble in water.

=Ammonium, Sulphocyanide of.= NH_{4}CNS. _Prep._ 1. Neutralise
hydrosulphocyanic acid with ammonia, and gently evaporate the solution to
dryness, by the heat of a water bath.

2. Digest hydrocyanic acid with yellow sulphydrate of ammonium, and, after
a time, evaporate as before.

A deliquescent, white, saline mass, very soluble in water, but seldom
employed out of the laboratory in a pure state. Of late it has been
obtained in quantity as a crude product of the gas-liquors.

=Ammonium, Tartrates of.= Of these there are two:——

=Ammonium, Neutral Tartrate of.= (NH_{4})_{2}C_{4}H_{4}O_{6}. _Syn._
AMMO′′NIÆ TAR′TRAS, L. _Prep._ Saturate a solution of crystallised
tartaric acid, 150 grs.; with sesquicarbonate of ammonium, 118 grs.; and
either evaporate the solution at a gentle heat, and crystallise; or
evaporate to dryness, and powder the residuum.

_Prop., &c._ Prismatic crystals, or a crystalline mass; soluble and
efflorescent. Its medicinal properties and doses resemble those of citrate
of ammonium.

=Ammonium, Bitartrate of.= NH_{4}HC_{4}H_{4}O_{6}. _Syn._ AMMO′′NIÆ
BITAR′TRAS, L. _Prep._ To a strong solution of tartaric acid add another
of sesquicarbonate of ammonium, or of tartrate of ammonium, as long as a
precipitate falls; which must be collected and dried.

_Prop., &c._ A crystalline powder, only slightly soluble in water, closely
resembling ordinary cream of tartar. It is diaphoretic, diuretic, and
deobstruent, and is frequently, though improperly, sold for the preceding

=Ammonium, Valerianate of.= NH_{4}C_{5}H_{9}O_{2}. _Syn._ AMMO′′NIÆ
VALERIA′NAS, L. _Prep._ Saturate valerianic acid with strong solution of
ammonia, and evaporate the resulting liquid to a syrupy consistence at a
heat under 175° Fahr.; then add twice its volume of alcohol, and, after
agitation, allow it to crystallise by spontaneous evaporation.——_Dose_, 2
to 8 or 10 gr.; in neuralgia, epilepsy, hypochondriasis, hysteria, low
fevers of an intermittent kind, &c.; also in dyspepsia and debility
complicated with these affections.

=AMMONI′ACAL.= [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ AMMONIACA′LIS, L. Pertaining to, or
possessing the odour or properties of, ammonia. See AMMONIA, &c.

Fr.; AMMONIAK, Ger. A gummy-resinous exudation from the stem of _dorema
ammoniacum_, in tears and masses, of a pale cinnamon colour, brittle, and
when broken has a white and shining surface. Collected in Persia and the
Punjaub. (B. P.)

Gum ammoniacum has an unpleasant odour, especially when heated, and a
nauseous and slightly bitter taste. It is a mild, stimulating expectorant
and emmenagogue; and its effects on the system resemble those of
assafœtida except in being weaker. Externally, it is resolvent.——_Dose_,
10 to 30 gr. in pills or emulsion.

_Doses for Animals._ HORSE, 2 to 4 drachms. CATTLE, 2 to 4 drachms. SHEEP,
1/2 to 1-1/2 drachm. PIG, 1/2 to 1-1/2 drachm. DOG, 10 to 20 grains.
Either by bolus or emulsion.

=Ammoniacum, Strained′.= _Syn._ PREPARED AMMONIACUM; AMMONI′ACUM
PRÆPARA′TUM (Ph. L.), L. _Prep._ (Ph. L. 1851.) Boil ammoniacum in water
just sufficient to cover it; strain the mixture through a hair sieve, and
constantly stirring, evaporate in a water bath, until, on cooling, it
becomes hard. The product, owing to a loss of volatile oil, is much weaker
than the unprepared gum-resin. The process is only necessary with rough
lump ammoniacum.

=Ammo′′niated.= _Syn._ AMMONIA′TUS, L. In _pharmacy_, _perfumery_, &c.,
applied to preparations containing ammonia.

=AMMO′NIO-, Ammon′ico-.= In _chemistry_, a common prefix to double salts
containing ammonia; as ammonio-citrate, a.-chloride, or a.-tartrate of
iron, &c. See the respective metals.


_chemistry_ and _mineralogy_, applied to substances devoid of regular or
crystalline form; as a lump of chalk, the majority of precipitates, &c.
The corresponding substantives are AMORPH′ISM, AMORPH′OUSNESS*
(_amorphis′mus_, L.; _amorphisme_, Fr.).

=AMPHIB′IA= (fĭb′-y′ă). [L. pl.; prim. Gr.] _Syn._ AMPHIB′IANS (-yănz),
AMPHIB′IALS (-y′ălz). Animals that possess the faculty of living both in
water and on land. In _modern zoology_ it is restricted to those animals
which possess both gills and lungs; as the _batrach′ia_ or frog tribe. The
term is also often applied, colloquially, to otters, seals, walruses,
crocodiles, &c., none of which can breathe under water, although, from the
languid nature of their circulation, they are able to remain a long time
in it.

Ger. In _botany_ and _zoology_, having the faculty of growing or living
both on land and in water. See AMPHIBIA.


=AMYGDALIN.= C_{20}H_{27}NO_{11}.3Aq. This substance exists in bitter
almonds. It crystallises in pearly white plates, which are odourless and
almost tasteless. It is nearly insoluble in hot and cold water and in cold
alcohol, but soluble in boiling alcohol. To prepare amygdalin, boil
well-pressed cake of bitter almonds twice in strong alcohol; strain
through linen, and press the residue; remove any oil that may appear, heat
the liquid again, and filter. In a few days part of the amygdalin
crystallises out. Concentrate the residuary liquor to a sixth part, and
add ether, which will throw down the amygdalin. Press it between blotting
paper, wash it with ether, and set aside to crystallise.

AMYGDALOÏDE, Fr. Almond-shaped. In _mineralogy_, amygdaloid is

=AMYKOS= (Galen, Upsala). A cosmetic and mouth-wash. Claims to be prepared
according to an English patent. It is an aqueous extract of 420 grms.
cloves, boiled in a gallon of water, in which 420 grms. of pure glycerine
are dissolved, and to which 210 grms. of borax are added. (Hager.)

=AMYKOSASEPTIN= is linen saturated with a hot solution of borax.

=AMYLA′CEOUS= (ăm-e-lā′-sh′ŭs). _Syn._ AMYLA′CEUS, L.; AMYLACÉ, Fr. Of or
like starch; consisting of or abounding in starch; starchy. See FOOD,

=AM′YL= (-ĭl). C_{5}H_{11}. The radical of the fusel-oil compounds

=Amyl, Acetate of.= C_{5}H_{11}C_{2}H_{3}O_{2}. _Syn._ PEAR-OIL. _Prep._
From fusel-oil, 1 part; acetate of potassa (dry), 2 parts; concentrated
sulphuric acid, 1 part; distilled, with the usual precautions, from a
glass retort into a cool receiver. The distillate is purified by washing
it with very dilute solution of potassa, and redistilling it from fused
chloride of calcium. A little litharge added to the liquid in the retort,
before rectification, will remove any sulphurous odour, should it be

_Prop., &c._ Liquid, limpid, colourless; insoluble in water; soluble in
alcohol; boils at 272° Fahr.; alcoholic solution of potassa converts it
into an acetate of that base, with reproduction of fusel-oil.

_Obs._ The odour and flavour of this preparation are those of the
Jargonelle pear. It is now extensively manufactured, and, after dilution
with alcohol, is sold under the name of ESSENCE OF JARGONELLE PEAR, for
flavouring liqueurs and confectionery.

=Amyl, Vale′rianate of.= C_{5}H_{11}C_{5}H_{9}O_{2}. _Syn._ APPLE-OIL,
A.-ESSENCE, &c. This compound is abundantly formed during the preparation
of valerianic acid from potato oil, and is recognised by the offensive
odour of rotten apples evolved during the process. By treating the crude
product of the distillation with a weak solution of pure potassa, the
valerianic acid is removed, and the volatile oil obtained nearly pure.
Dissolved in rectified spirit it forms the ‘APPLE-ESSENCE’ now so much
employed as a flavouring ingredient for confectionery and liqueurs. See

=AMYL NITRITE.= _Syn._ AMYL NITRIS, B. P. Produced by the action of nitric
or nitrous acid on amylic alcohol.——_Dose._ By inhalation, the vapour of 2
to 5 minims. To be used with caution. It may be produced by passing a
stream of nitrous acid gas through purified amylic alcohol at a
temperature of 132° C.

For other methods of preparing it consult ‘Wood and Bache’s United States
Dispensatory, 1877.’ Mr Umney (‘Pharm. Journal’) says that true nitrite of
amyl should be made by passing nitrous acid into amylic alcohol which has
been previously submitted to a fractional distillation, until the portion
retained for use has a boiling point of 132° C. A nitrate so prepared,
when deprived of any excess of acid it may contain by rectification over
fused carbonate of potash, will have a boiling point of 98°-99° C.

=AM′YLENE= (-e-lēne). C_{5}H_{10}. [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ AM′ILENE*; AMYLE′NA,
AMYLE′NUM, L. A peculiar volatile, liquid hydrocarbon, discovered by

_Prep._ From fusel-oil repeatedly distilled along with either anhydrous
phosphoric acid, or a concentrated solution of chloride of zinc; the
product being repeatedly rectified at a low temperature, until the boiling
point sinks to 102° Fahr.

_Prop., Uses, &c._ An ethereal liquid, lighter than water, having an
aromatic odour, slightly alliaceous. Sp. gr. of vapour, 2·68. Its vapour
was several times successfully employed, by the late Dr Snow, as a
substitute for ether and chloroform in producing anæsthesia, being, though
less agreeable, also less pungent, and consequently easier to breathe,
than either of them; but its use has since been given up owing to doubts
as to its safety, two or three deaths having followed its inhalation.

=ANADOLI= (Kreller, Nuremburg). An oriental tooth-powder. Powdered soap,
42 parts; starch powder, 44 parts; levantine soapwort, 12 parts; oil of
bergamot and lemon to flavour. (Wittstein.)

=ANÆMIA.= Deficiency of blood.

=ANÆSTHE′SIA= (ăn-ēz-the′-zh′ă; -sh′ă; -thēze′y′ăr). [L.; prim. Gr.]
_Syn._ ANESTHÉSIE, Fr. In _pathology_, diminished or lost sense of

In _surgery_ and _obstetrics_, the production of temporary anæsthesia, for
the purpose of rendering operations painless, relieving the pangs of
childbirth, &c., is effected by the use of——

_pharmacology_ and _surgery_, substances or agents which diminish or
destroy sensibility, or which relieve pain. In its full extent this term
includes both anodynes and narcotics; but it is now more generally
confined to those substances which greatly diminish common sensibility, or
entirely remove susceptibility to pain. Among the most useful, safe, and
powerful of this class are chloroform, ether, nitrous oxide, and intense
cold; besides several chlorinated compounds, such as the bichlorides of
ethylen, methylen, and carbon.

More than 1500 years ago the Chinese are said to have used a preparation
of hemp, or _ma-yo_, to annul the pain attendant upon cauterisation and
other surgical operations. Mandragora (mandrake) was employed for a
similar purpose by the Greeks and Romans; and we learn that as early as
the thirteenth century the vapour from a sponge filled with tinctures of
mandragora, opium, and other sedatives was used for a similar purpose.

Baptista Porta, in his work on natural magic printed in 1597, mentions a
quintessence extracted from medicines by somniferous menstrua, of the
nature of which he leaves us in ignorance. This quintessence was to be
preserved in leaden vessels very perfectly closed, lest the aura should
escape, for the medicine would vanish away. Furthermore, he adds, “when it
is used, the cover being removed, it is applied to the nostrils of the
sleeper, who draws in the most subtle power of the vapour by smelling, and
so blocks up the fortress of the senses, that he is plunged into the most
profound sleep, and cannot be roused without the greatest effort.” Dr Iron
suggested that the volatile substance was sulphuric ether, which he says
had been described more than fifty years before Porta wrote his book. In
the year 1800 Sir Humphry Davy suggested the employment of nitrous oxide,
or laughing gas, as it was then termed, for minor operations in surgery,
and in 1828 Dr Hickman proposed carbonic acid as an anæsthetic. The vapour
of sulphuric ether had been used in his practice by Dr Pearson as early as
1795, for the relief of spasmodic asthma. The fact that sulphuric ether
was capable of producing insensibility was demonstrated by American
physicians; viz. by Godwin in 1822, Mitchell in 1832, Jackson in 1833, and
Wood and Bache in 1834; but the first practitioner to employ it to prevent
the pain of an operation was Dr Morton, a Boston dentist, who successfully
used it for this purpose in 1846. On the 19th of December of the same year
Mr Liston, of University Hospital, London, and Mr Robinson, a dentist,
operated upon patients who had been rendered insensible by means of the
inhalation of the vapour of ether.

Throughout the year 1847 ether was employed as an anæsthetic both in
England and France, but towards the end of that year the anæsthetic
properties of chloroform were pointed out by Flourens. The first, however,
to introduce this agent into surgical and obstetric practice was Dr I. T.
Simpson, of Edinburgh. In 1849 a work on the inhalation of ether was
published by Dr Snow, who afterwards introduced a new anæsthetic, viz.
amylene, which was capable of producing effects similar to those of
chloroform; but as two patients out of but a small number who inhaled the
vapour of amylene died, this latter soon fell into discredit, and
consequent disuse.

Except in dental practice, in which nitrous oxide gas is the anæsthetic
invariably employed, chloroform is almost universally used in surgical
operations, one advantage it possesses over ether being its much more
rapid action, although this latter property must be regarded as one which
constitutes the risk which, although very slight (when the exceedingly
small per-centage of deaths resulting from its administration is taken
into account), undoubtedly attends its inhalation.

Dr Sansom says of chloroform:——“The cause of its danger is its power of
paralysing the cardiac and other motor sources of circulation. This
property resides in large and sudden doses of its vapour.” He strongly
recommends its dilution by air and alcohols. He further remarks that all
anæsthetics modify the endosmotic condition of the blood discs, and
contends that they affect the supply of arterial blood by altering the
calibre of the channels which convey it. He advocates the substitution of
one anæsthetic for another during the inhalation.

Methylene dichloride, introduced by Dr B. W. Richardson, is said to
possess the disadvantage of causing considerable depression.

The mode of administering these agents is by causing the patient to inhale
their vapour mixed with air.

Sometimes they are poured on to a sponge or a handkerchief, or piece of
lint, either of which is then applied to the mouth and nostrils of the
patient in such a manner that the air which passes into his lungs is
saturated with the vapour. Except in extemporised cases, however, this
method is pretty well abandoned, a proper apparatus having supplanted the
sponge or handkerchief, &c. Part of the apparatus consists of a graduated
bottle containing the anæsthetic, by means of which the operator is
enabled to tell how much of this latter is being consumed, and thus to
regulate the quantity inhaled.

The first effect that results from the administration of anæsthetics is a
form of intoxication, caused by the action of the anæsthetic agent on the
cerebral lobes, and as this action extends to the cerebellum, the patient
becomes incapable of directing his movements——an effect like that caused
by intoxication from alcohol.

In the next stage the spinal cord is attacked, unconsciousness supervenes,
and all powers of motion and sensation are lost. The individual is now
said to be in a state of anæsthesia; but the heart continues to beat,
respiration is not impeded, and the other essential functions of the body
go on as usual.

Should, however, the exhibition of the anæsthetic agent be incautiously
continued too long, the bodily temperature falls, the movements of
respiration and circulation become impaired, the heart ceases its action,
and death finally ensues. The introduction of anæsthetics into surgical
practice has been of great and invaluable service to the operator. The
patient being motionless and free from pain, the surgeon is enabled to
perform the operation at his ease, and consequently more efficiently;
moreover, in the reduction of dislocations and of hernia, the muscles
being flaccid, the obstacle produced by their contraction is removed. M.
Velpeau endeavoured to produce local anæsthesia, or insensibility of the
part of the body to be operated upon, by means of a freezing mixture
composed of ice and salt; this method, however, was found impracticable,
and was soon abandoned. Since then local anæsthesia as introduced by Dr
Richardson, when had recourse to, is effected by means of a spray of ether
directed on the part, the intense cold produced by the rapid evaporation
of the ether entirely depriving the part of sensation. It is said that
the pain resulting from the application of this method is a great barrier
to its use.

Amongst anæsthetics, nitrous oxide gas occupies an important place, its
use, as before stated, being almost wholly confined to operations in
dental surgery.[55] As in the case of ether, the American practitioners
were the first to employ nitrous oxide as an anæsthetic. Attention was
directed to its anæsthetic properties in 1844 by Mr Horace Wells, an
American dentist, but little interest seems to have been awakened by his
application of it, since it was not until 1863 that Dr Cotton, of New
York, drew attention to the subject by performing an operation on a
patient under its influence.

[Footnote 55: The ‘British Medical Journal’ for 1868 states it was used
successfully at the Ophthalmic Hospital, Moorfields.]

In March, 1868, Dr Evans, residing in Paris, after a visit from Dr Cotton,
directed the attention of medical men in England to the value of nitrous
oxide as an anæsthetic in dental surgery, and shortly afterwards it was
first employed to produce anæsthesia at the Dental Hospital. Nitrous oxide
is obtained from nitrate of ammonia, and the particulars of its
preparation may be found by referring to the article NITROUS OXIDE.

Immense quantities of the gas are used in dental operations. It has been
computed that in 1870 Messrs Coxeter and Barth could not have prepared
much less than 60,000 gallons in London alone. To fit it for transit it is
reduced by compression. Fifteen gallons may thus be diminished in volume
until it fills an iron bottle holding a quart. Five or six gallons of the
gas are, on an average, required for each patient. In the preparation of
nitrous oxide for surgical purposes Dr Evans advises it to be made at
least 24 hours before it is used, and further recommends its being
thoroughly washed. An apparatus for the preparation of the gas was devised
by Mr Porter, a description of which will be found in the ‘Transactions of
the Odontological Society of Great Britain’ for 1868, in which also
mention is made of a face-piece for its administration, the invention of
Mr Clover. By means of this latter instrument the desiderata that the
nitrous oxide should be inhaled without admixture with atmospheric air,
and contamination arising from the expired air given off by the patient,
are accomplished, for it has been found that when excitement and talking
attend the inhalation of the gas, these effects are due to the presence of
the carbonic acid thrown off by the lungs.

When inhaled in the ordinary way, nitrous oxide gas induces exhilaration
and narcotism, without asphyxia. When, however, the atmospheric air is
carefully excluded, it produces, as we have just seen, anæsthesia without
exhilaration. The time required to produce anæsthesia varies from 25 to
120 seconds, by from 10 to 60 inhalations. A patient has been subjected
for 10 minutes to its action without experiencing any unpleasant symptoms
or after effects. Mr Randle says it is perfectly safe in all short
operations, and possibly in long ones also, provided there is due
admission of air at proper intervals. It seems tolerably certain that
nitrous oxide is largely absorbed by the blood-corpuscles, and it is
probable that its presence in them may temporarily act to the exclusion of
oxygen, and thus prevent for a time that combination of oxygen with
hæmoglobin upon which the red colour of the corpuscles depends. Chemistry,
however, has failed to show that nitrous oxide is decomposed in the blood,
or that it exerts any of the chemical properties of oxygen on the
constituent elements of the blood. Whenever the slightest anæsthetic
effect is communicated to the nervous system, a simultaneous effect is
produced upon the medulla oblongata, the spinal chord, as well as upon the
cerebrum and cerebellum.

The whole available force in the body is undoubtedly due to oxidation.
This oxidation is accomplished by means of the blood, and it is therefore
evident that a continuous flow of oxygenated blood to the nerve centres is
necessary as a source of power and of sensibility, as well as for the
reintegration of nerve tissue. Any deficiency of oxygen in the blood is
followed by a decreased arterialisation of the whole volume of the blood.
Under these conditions the exhalation of carbonic acid is relatively less
rapid than its formation, and life cannot continue if the blood in the
arteries becomes thoroughly venous, as well in colour as in character.
That nitrous oxide, when inhaled, changes the colour of the
blood-corpuscles is evidenced by the livid appearance of the face and
mucous surfaces; the latter, indeed, is a characteristic accompaniment of
its administration, and the darkened colour of the blood may be observed
as it flows from the severed vessels. This colour of the blood is probably
in part due to uneliminated carbonic acid; but that nitrous oxide
possesses in a high degree the property of darkening the blood-corpuscles
may be easily demonstrated by directing a jet of the gas for a few seconds
upon a little arterial blood in a test tube. Yet, from what has previously
been advanced on this point, this latter result may more strictly be due
to physical than to chemical causes. An interruption of the circulation in
any part of the organism is soon followed by local insensibility in the
tissues from which the blood supply may have been withdrawn; and it is
beyond dispute that, during the anæsthetic state, the circulation of the
blood through the capillary system becomes diminished in velocity. A
tendency to stasis begins to appear, accompanied at the same time by a
considerable reduction in the supply of arterial blood. These are facts
that admit of experimental demonstration, as does also another fact, viz.
that during the period of insensibility produced by the inhalation of
nitrous oxide the brain itself is in a state of comparative anæmia. In
short, it appears most probable that an arrest of the capillary
circulation through the brain, to which several writers have attributed a
potential influence as the cause of anæsthesia, is simply, so far as it
may exist, a result of it.

The anæsthesia produced by the inhalation of nitrous oxide would,
therefore, appear to be referable to an altered condition of the blood,
whereby the molecular dynamic changes are interfered with, this
interruption being probably due either to the retention of carbonic acid,
or to the presence of nitrous oxide; or, as the result of both conditions,
to the exclusion of oxygen.

For minor operations nitrous oxide possesses many advantages over other
anæsthetics. The principal of these is its safety. In America, in 200,000
cases in which it had been administered, there was only one case of death.
Furthermore its use is not contra-indicated in patients having any
constitutional derangement, nor for women who are either pregnant or

Nitrogen, coal-gas, and carbonic acid have also been employed as

The ‘British Medical Journal’ for June 13th, 1868, contains an account of
some experiments performed by Dr Burdon Sanderson, at Middlesex Hospital,
with nitrogen. It seems to have been longer in producing insensibility
than nitrous oxide, but no lividity of countenance accompanied, nor
sickness or headache followed, its administration.

=ANALEP′TIC.= _Syn._ ANALEP′TICUS, L.; ANALEPTIQUE, Fr. Restorative; that
recruits the strength lost by sickness.

=Analep′tics.= _Syn._ ANALEP′TICA, L.; ANALEPTIQUES, Fr. In
_pharmacology_, &c., restorative medicines and agents.

=ANAL′YSIS= (-e-sĭs). [Eng. L., Gr.] _Syn._ ANALYSE, Fr.; AUSLÖSUNG,
ZERLEGUNG, Ger. In a gen. sense, the resolution of anything, whether an
object of the senses or of the intellect, into its elementary parts. In
_chemistry_, the resolution or separation of a compound body into its
constituent parts or elements, for the purpose of either determining their
nature, or, when this is known, their relative proportions. It is divided
into PROX′IMATE ANALYSIS and UL′TIMATE ANALYSIS. The first consists in
finding the components of a compound, merely as respects their nature or
names; the second, in finding not merely the component parts, but also the
proportions of each of them; the third gives the results in the names of
the proximate or immediate principles or compounds which, by their union,
form the body under examination; whilst the fourth develops the chemical
elements of which it is composed.[56] An analysis may also be made to
determine whether a certain body is or is not contained in a compound (as
lead in wine); or it may be undertaken to ascertain all the constituents
present; the extent of an investigation being merely limited by the object
in view.

[Footnote 56: Thus, suet consists of olein, palmitin, and stearin. These
would form the ‘terms’ of the PROXIMATE ANALYSIS of this substance. But
olein, palmitin, and stearin consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The
ULTIMATE ANALYSIS of suet would, therefore, have reference to the elements
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.]

For success in chemical analysis a thorough acquaintance with the various
properties of bodies is required, as well as aptitude in applying this
knowledge in discriminating them, and separating them from each other.
Judgment and expertness in manipulation are, indeed, essential
qualifications. The method pursued must likewise be such as to attain the
object in view with unerring certainty, and in the most expeditious
manner. “The mere knowledge of the reagents, and of the reactions of other
bodies with them, will not suffice for the attainment of this end. This
requires the additional knowledge of a systematic and progressive course
of analysis, or, in other words, the knowledge of the order, and
succession, in which solvents, together with general and special reagents,
ought to be applied, both to effect the speedy and safe detection of every
individual component of a compound or mixture, and to prove with certainty
the absence of all other substances. If we do not possess this systematic
knowledge, or if in the hope of attaining an object more rapidly, we
adhere to no method in our investigations and experiments, analysing
becomes (at least in the hands of a novice) mere guesswork, and the
results obtained are no longer the fruits of scientific calculation, but
mere matters of accident, which sometimes may prove lucky hits, and at
others total failures.” (Fresenius.)

=ANALYSIS, SPECTRUM.= More than half a century ago Sir John Herschel
employed the prism in the analysis of coloured flames, and in 1834 Fox
Talbot, by means of the same instrument, distinguished the difference
between the spectra given by strontium and lithium, notwithstanding the
similarity of the two in colour. But it was reserved for Messrs Kirchkoff
and Bunsen, as the inventors of the spectroscope, to devise the only
efficient method of analysing flame, and, at the same time, to furnish
chemists with a means whereby they may detect with unerring certainty the
presence of any known element by observing the spectrum it gives when such
element is submitted to a temperature sufficiently high for it to emit a
luminous vapour. That certain chemical substances when heated in the flame
of the spirit-lamp or the blow-pipe, or any other source of comparatively
white light, imparted characteristic colours to the flame, was a fact that
had long been known to chemists; for example, when a salt of sodium was so
treated, an intense yellow colour was imparted to the flame. A salt of
potassium produced under the same circumstances a violet, strontium, a
crimson colour, &c. These results could only be produced when the
substance under examination contained but one of the salts in question. If
more than one were present, this method of qualitative analysis was
comparatively, if not wholly, valueless, because the specific colour
communicated to the flame by the presence of one element would be masked,
and, consequently, destroyed by the colour developed by the vapour of
another or other elements. For instance, so much more vivid is the yellow
colour given to flame by sodium salts than the violet tint imparted by
those of potassium, that a very small trace of sodium prevents the unaided
eye from perceiving the violet, even when the potassium compound is
present in large quantity.

Very different optical effects, however, follow if the rays from the
various-coloured flames are made to pass through a prism. As is well
known, if a ray of ordinary white light is made to traverse a prism, when
it issues from the prism it has become decomposed or dissected into seven
luminous rays of as many different colours, the coloured image thus
produced being called a prismatic spectrum, or simply a spectrum.

This phenomenon is owing to the prism refracting or bending out of its
course the beam of light sent through it, and to each coloured ray of
which the beam is made up being differently refracted.

“If, however, instead of the white flame coloured flames are examined by
means of a prism, the light being allowed to fall through a narrow slit
upon the prism, it is at once seen that the light thus refracted differs
essentially from white light, inasmuch as it consists of only a particular
set of rays, each flame giving a spectrum containing a few bright bands.
Thus, the spectrum of the yellow soda flame contains only one fine bright
yellow line, whilst the purple potash flame exhibits a spectrum in which
there are two bright lines, one lying at the extreme red, and the other at
the extreme violet end. These peculiar lines are always produced by the
same chemical element, and by no other known substance; and the position
of these lines always remains unaltered. When the spectrum of a flame
tinted by a mixture of sodium and potassium salts is examined, the yellow
ray of sodium is found to be confined to its own position, whilst the
potassium red and purple lines are as plainly seen as they would have been
had no sodium been present.”[57]

[Footnote 57: Roscoe.]

Equally characteristic and well-defined spectra, the bands in which have
each an invariable and fixed position in the spectrum, are also produced
when the coloured flames arising from heating to the requisite point the
remaining salts of the alkalies and alkaline earths are examined by the
prism. On the opposite page the first spectrum shows some of the fixed
dark lines that are always observed when a solar beam is examined by the
spectroscope. These lines are compared with the position of some of the
more important bright lines furnished by the spectra of the metals of the
alkalies and alkaline earths, when their chlorides are heated upon a loop
of platinum wire introduced into the flame of a Bunsen gas-burner. The
characteristic bright lines given by each metal are denoted by the letters
of the Greek alphabet, the earliest letter indicating the most strongly
marked lines.

In the potassium spectrum the most characteristic bright lines are the red
line K α, and violet line K β. In the case of sodium nearly the whole of
the light is concentrated on the intense yellow double line Na α. In the
lithium spectrum a crimson band, Li α, is the prominent line; Li β is
seldom visible, but at the elevated temperature of the voltaic arc an
additional blue line becomes very intense. In the spectrum of cæsium two
lines in the blue, Cs α and Cs β, are strongly marked. In rubidium the
lines Rb α and Rb β in the blue, and Rb γ in the red are almost equally
specific. Thallium is recognised by the intense green line Il α. The
spectra of the metals of the alkaline earths are equally definite, though
more complicated.

By means of the spectroscope quantities so inconceivably minute as the
33,000th of a grain of chloride of rubidium, the 170,000th of a grain of
chloride of cæsium, the 2,500,000th of a grain of sodium, and the
6,000,000th of a grain of lithium, have been detected, and have revealed
themselves to the sight by their characteristic bands in the spectrum.
Hence it is that in making use of this branch of analysis the chemist has
been enabled to show the universality of many elements hitherto regarded
as being very sparingly distributed throughout the globe.

Thus lithium, which until lately was supposed to be one of the rare
elements, has been found as a constituent of tea, tobacco, milk, blood,
and in almost all spring waters. Furthermore, the prodigiously sensitive
reactions afforded by the spectroscope have not only revealed the presence
of infinitesimal quantities of known elements, but have led to the
discovery of new ones which had escaped detection by the older and less
delicate processes of analysis. It was by means of spectrum analysis that
the two alkali metals, cæsium and rubidium, were discovered by Bunsen and
Kirchkoff in 1860 in a mineral water at Durkheim, and that Mr Crookes in
1861 discovered the metal thallium in the deposit found in the flue of a
pyrites furnace; whilst still more recently Messrs Reich and Richter, in a
spectrum examination of a zinc ore from Freiberg, discovered the metal


The most brilliant spectra are given by those salts which are the most
easily volatilised, such as the chlorides, iodides, and bromides of the
different metals. But it is only the metals of the alkalies and alkaline
earths that give spectra that are characteristic. When it is desired to
obtain the spectra of the other metals, they may be raised to the
requisite temperature by means of the electric spark, which in passing
through the two points of the metal operated upon volatilises a minute
quantity of it, and thus enables it to emit its particular light. The
electric sparks are best obtained by means of Ruhmkorff’s coil. Thus each
metal may be made to yield a spectrum which specially belongs to it, and
to it alone. When the electric discharge is sent through a compound gas or
vapour, owing to the intense temperature generated separation of its
constituents must take place, since the spectra produced are those of the
elementary components of the gas. The permanent gases give each their
peculiar spectrum when they are strongly heated, by which they may be
recognised; thus the spectrum of hydrogen is composed of three bands, one
being bright red, one green, and the other blue. Nitrogen gives a very
complicated spectrum.

The accompanying figure exhibits a very complete form of the spectroscope
adapted to a single prism.


P represents a flint-glass prism supported on the cast-iron tripod F, and
retained in its place by the spring _c_. At the end of the tube A nearest
the prism is a lens, placed at the distance of its focus for parallel rays
from a vertical slit at the other end of the tube. The width of the slit
can be regulated by means of the screw _e_. One half of this slit is
covered by a small rectangular prism designed to reflect the rays
proceeding from the source of light D, down the axis of the tube, whilst
the rays from the source of light E pass directly down the tube. By this
arrangement the observer stationed at the end of the telescope B is able
to compare the spectra of both lights, which are seen one above the other,
and he can at once decide whether their lines coincide or differ. _a_ and
_b_ are screws for adjusting the axis of the telescope so as to bring any
part of the slit at _e_ into the centre of the field of vision.

The telescope as well as the tube C is moveable in a horizontal plane
around the axis of the tripod. The tube C contains a lens at the end next
to the prism, and at the other end is a scale formed by transparent lines
on an opaque ground; it is provided with a levelling screw, _d_. When the
telescope has been properly adjusted to the examination of the spectrum,
the tube C is moved until it is placed at such an angle with the telescope
and the face of the prism, that when a light is transmitted through the
scale the image of this scale is reflected into the telescope from the
face of the prism nearest the observer. This image is rendered perfectly
distinct by pushing in the tube which holds the scale nearer to the lens
in C, or withdrawing it to a greater distance, as may be required. The
reflected lines of the scale can then be employed for reading off the
position of the dark or bright lines of the spectrum, as both will appear
simultaneously overlapping each other in the field of the telescope.

By turning the tube C round upon the axis of the tripod any particular
line of the scale can be brought to coincidence with any desired line of
the spectrum. Stray light is excluded by covering the stand, the prism,
and the ends of the tube adjoining it with a loose black cloth. The
dispersive power upon the spectrum may be much increased by using several
prisms instead of one. Kirchkoff used four prisms in his experiments upon
the solar spectrum. Great care must be observed in placing the prisms; the
refracting edge of each prism must be exactly vertical, and the position
of minimum deviation for the rays to be observed must be obtained.

The preceding remarks have reference to the spectra produced when the
vapours of certain elements are evolved in flame derived from artificial
sources. When, however, solar light is examined by the spectroscope,
results entirely the reverse follow.

If a beam of sunlight be sent through the slit of the spectroscope, the
prismatic image is seen to be intersected by a number of fine black lines,
varying in thickness and intensity, and invariably occupying the same
relative position in the solar spectrum. These lines were first noticed so
far back as 1815 by a German optician, Frauenhofer, after whom they were
named Frauenhofer’s lines; but it was not until the invention of the
spectroscope that the origin of these lines could be accounted for. By so
arranging the instrument as to cause the spectrum from a solar beam, and
that from a metallic element, to fall upon the field of the telescope, so
that the solar spectrum shall be above the other, both being perfectly
parallel; the bright bands or lines of the metal are all seen to be
continued in the dark solar lines, for, as may be seen by consulting the
plate of the different spectra, several lines are sometimes produced by
one element alone. If, for instance, the sodium and solar spectra are thus
compared, the bright yellow sodium line will be found to agree exactly
not only in position, but also in intensity and breadth, with one of the
dark solar ones. And the same thing occurs when the comparison is made
with many of the other metals, the bright lines in the respective spectra
furnished by them are each coincident with a particular dark line in the
solar spectrum, and from every dark line in the latter a corresponding
bright one can be found amongst the spectra of the metals. From what has
just been stated, the inference seems irresistible that this coincidence
between the dark solar lines and the bright lines of the metals cannot be
accidental, but must be due to some intimate connection between them, and
that this is the case can be proved beyond refutation by a simple
experiment, in which the bright metallic lines can be changed into dark
ones, corresponding in every particular with those of the solar spectrum.
Thus the bright yellow soda lines coincident with Frauenhofer’s lines can
be converted into dark ones by allowing the rays from a strong source of
white light to pass through a flame coloured with sodium, and then making
them fall upon the slit of the spectroscope. If we examine the spectrum
obtained by this means, instead of seeing the usual bright double band
upon a black ground, there will be presented to our sight a double dark
line, corresponding exactly with the position and width of the sodium
line, and instead of the black ground there will be a continuous spectrum
of white light, as in the solar spectrum.

The explanation of this remarkable phenomenon is due to Kirchkoff, and is
as follows:——When any substance is heated sufficiently to render it
luminous, rays of a certain and definite degree of refrangibility are
given out by it; whilst the same substance has also the power of absorbing
rays of this identical refrangibility. In the above experiment, therefore,
the yellow flame absorbed the same kind of light as it gave out, a
corresponding decrease of intensity in its own particular position in the
spectrum occurred, and a dark line showed itself in consequence.

In the same manner and under similar conditions the spectra of many other
substances have been reversed.

Reasoning on these facts, Kirchkoff has been able to account for the
presence in the solar spectrum of Frauenhofer’s dark lines. He supposes
that in the luminous atmosphere surrounding the sun the vapours of various
metals are present, each of which would give its characteristic system of
bright lines; but behind this incandescent atmosphere containing metallic
vapour is the still more intensely heated solid or liquid nucleus of the
sun, which emits a brilliant continuous spectrum, containing rays of all
degrees of refrangibility.

When the light of this intensely heated nucleus is transmitted through the
incandescent photosphere of the sun, the bright lines which would be
produced by the photosphere are reversed, and Frauenhofer’s dark lines are
only the reversed bright lines which would be visible if the intensely
heated nucleus were no longer there.

The correctness of this theory has been rigorously tested by Kirchkoff
himself, who submitted the solar spectrum to a most minute and searching

As a result of the knowledge thus obtained, the presence of certain metals
in the sun’s atmosphere was an inevitable deduction. The metals hitherto
detected in the solar photosphere are——iron, sodium, magnesium, calcium,
chromium, nickel, barium, copper, zinc, strontium, cadmium, cobalt,
manganese, aluminium, and titanium. Hydrogen also exists in large quantity
as an incandescent gas, and gives rise to the red protuberances that may
be observed during a total eclipse.

During the total eclipse of 1869, M. Janssen, a French astronomer, was
enabled to obtain and figure the specimen of these red protuberances,
which, taken exclusively from that source of light, gave not dark lines,
but bright ones, corresponding in position with those of hydrogen,
magnesium, and sodium.

The fixed stars, unlike the moon and planets, which shine only by
reflected light, are not merely illuminated by self luminous bodies, and
yield spectra, which show them to contain many elements known to us; their
spectra are crossed by dark lines similar to, but not identical with those
given by the sun’s light. The spectrum yielded by the star Aldebaran shows
it to contain hydrogen, sodium, magnesium, calcium, iron, tellurium,
antimony, bismuth, and mercury; in the spectrum of Sirius only sodium,
magnesium, and hydrogen have been found; whilst in that of Orionis there
is an absence of hydrogen. Most of the nebulæ and comets give spectra in
which there are only bright lines. It is hence inferred that these
celestial bodies are composed of masses of glowing gas, and, unlike the
sun and stars, do not consist of a solid or liquid mass surrounded by a
gaseous atmosphere. In the nebulæ hydrogen and nitrogen only have been
found; and in comets, principally carbon.

=ANANAS HEMP= (_Ananassa sativa_, _S. Brumelia ananas_, as well as other
species). This hemp comes from the West Indies and Central and South
America, where the common ananas is cultivated. It is rather inferior to
some varieties for spinning.


=ANATHERIN BALSAM.= The following formula is published by the Netherlands
Society:——Tincture of myrrh, 160 grms.; tincture of catechu, 80 grms.;
tincture of guaiacum, 40 grms.; tincture of rhatany, 40 grms.; tincture of
cloves, 30 grms.; spirit of cochlearia, 20 grms.; oil of cassia, 20 drops;
otto of roses, 1 drop; proof spirit, 630 grms.

=ANATHERIN BALSAM= (J. G. Popp, Vienna). A mouth-wash. Red sandal wood, 20
parts; guaiacum wood, 10 parts; myrrh, 25 parts; cloves, 15 parts;
cinnamon, 5 parts; oils of cloves and cinnamon, of each, 2/3 part; spirit,
90 per cent., 1450 parts; rose water, 725 parts. Digest and filter.

Dr Hager, who gives the above, says that on the expiration of the patent
the following formula was published, but that a preparation made from that
process had only a distant resemblance to the actual compound. Myrrh, 1
part; guaiacum wood, 4 parts; saltpetre, 1 part; to be macerated for a
night with corn brandy, 120 parts; spirit of cochlearia, 180 parts. Then
distil of this 240 parts, in which are to be digested for 14 days garden
rue, cochlearia, rose leaves, black mustard, horseradish, pellitory root,
cinchona bark, club-moss, sage-vetiver, and alkanet root, of each 1 part.
Strain and filter, and to each 120 parts of the filtrate add 1 part of
spirit of nitrous ether. (Hager.)

Belonging to anatomy or dissection.

=Anatomical Prepara′tions.= Objects of interest in both surgical and
pathological anatomy, and specimens in natural history, preserved by
subjecting them to antiseptic processes, to which is also frequently added
injection with coloured fluids (which subsequently harden), amalgams, or
fusible metal, in order to display more fully the minute vessels, or the
microscopic anatomy of the several parts. See FUSIBLE ALLOY, INJECTIONS,

=ANCH′OVY= (-chō′-). _Syn._ ANCHOIS, Fr.; ANCHOVE, ANSCHOVE, Ger.;
ACCIUGHE, ANCHIOVE. It.; ANCHOVA, Port., Sp. The _clu′pea encrasic′olus_
(Linn.), a small fish of the herring tribe, closely resembling the English
sprat. It is common in the Mediterranean, and occurs in the greatest
abundance and of the finest quality about the island of Gorgona, near
Leghorn. It is taken in the night, during May, June, and July.

Anchovies are prepared for sale or exportation by salting or pickling
them——the heads, intestines and pectoral fins having been first removed,
but not the scales, and afterwards packing them, along with rock-salt, in
the small kegs in which they are imported into this country. The small
fish are valued more than the larger ones. For the table they are often
fried to a pale amber colour, in oil or butter; having previously been
scraped clean, soaked for an hour or two in water, wiped dry, opened
(without dividing the fish), and had the back-bones removed. Before being
put into the pan they are usually highly seasoned with cayenne; and after
being again closed, are dipped into a rich light batter. They are also
divided into fillets, and served as sandwiches, or in curried toasts.
Anchovies are also extensively potted (POTTED ANCHOVIES), and made into
butter (A.-BUTTER), and into sauce (A.-SAUCE), particularly the last.

The anchovy has a fine and peculiar flavour, and is eaten as a delicacy
all over Europe. It was known to the Greeks and Romans, who prepared from
it a kind of garum for the table. It is said to be aperitive, stimulant,
and stomachic.

The high price of genuine Gorgona anchovies has led the fraudulent dealer
to either substitute for them, or mix with them, fish of a less expensive
kind. The most frequent SUBSTITUTIONS are Dutch, French, and Sicilian fish
of allied species or varieties, sardines and even the common sprat. The
genuine Gorgona fish is about the length of one’s finger; and may be known
by its silvery appearance; by the greater thickness of its head, which is
sharp-pointed, with the upper jaw considerably the longest, and the mouth
deeply divided; the dusky brown colour of its back,[58] and the pink
salmon colour of its flesh. When only 3 months old, its flesh is pale;
when of 6 months, rather pink; when of 10 to 12 months (or in its prime),
a beautiful deep pink colour; and when much older, darker, but less
lively. The fin-rays, varying in number with the age of the fish, are——

              Yarrell. Hassall.[59]
  Dorsal        14,      16 (?).
  Pectoral      15,      ——
  Ventral        7,      ——
  Anal          18,      19 (?).
  Caudal        19,      26 (?).

These fins are delicate in structure and greenish-white; and the membranes
connecting the rays almost transparent. “The length of the head, compared
with the length of the body alone, is as 1 to 3; the depth of the body but
2-3rds of the length of the head, and compared to the length of the whole
fish is as 1 to 7;” the tail is deeply forked, the gill covers are
elongated, and the scales of the body large and deciduous.” “The breadth
of the eye is 1-5th of the length of the whole head.”[60] Dutch fish may
be generally known by being deprived of the scales, and the French fish by
their larger size; and both by the paler or whiter colour of their flesh;
and sardines and sprats by the flesh being white. The genuine fish may
also be known by the pickle, after repose or filtration, being of a clear
pinkish colour, without any red sediment; whilst that from spurious kinds
is turbid and red only when agitated, and deposits a heavy red sediment
(Armenian bole, Venetian red, or red ochre) on repose. See BUTTER,

[Footnote 58: The colour of the top of the head and back is, in the recent
fish, blue, with a tinge of green. (Yarrell.)]

[Footnote 59: Counted, by Dr A. H. Hassall, in fish in the preserved

[Footnote 60: Yarrell’s ‘British Fishes’.]

=Anchovies, Brit′ish.= See SPRATS.


=ANCHU′SINE.= (-kū′zĭn). [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ ANCHU′SIC ACID*,
constituting the colouring matter of alkanet-root (which _see_).

=ANCHYLO′SIS= (ăngk-e-). [L.; prim. Gr.] _Syn._ ANKYLO′SIS, ANCYLO′SIS
(ăn-se-), L.; ANKYLOSE, Fr., Ger. In _pathology_, stiffness or immobility
of a joint naturally moveable. Anchylosis is either true or complete, as
when the extremities of the bones forming a joint are reunited and
immovable; or false, or incomplete, where the affection depends upon a
contraction of the tendons and ligaments surrounding the joints, which
nevertheless admit of a small degree of motion. For the first there is no
available remedy; for the second gentle and progressive flexion and
extension of the part daily (carefully avoiding violence), friction with
oleaginous and stimulating liniments, and the use of the hot bath, vapour
bath, or hot-air or Turkish bath, and electricity, have been strongly
recommended, and have frequently proved successful.


=ANDITROPFEN= (Kirchner and Menge Arolsen), for weak digestion. Senna, 20
parts; rhubarb, 3 parts; jalap, 6 parts; zedoary root, 2 parts; ginger, 2
parts; galangal, 3 parts; soda, bicarbonate, 5 parts; sugar, 15 parts;
water, 300 parts; spirit, 65 parts. After digestion this is to be strained
and mixed with an infusion of 30 parts of yarrow (with the flowers) in 300
parts of hot water. After standing some time filter. (Hager.)

=ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA.= (Ind. Ph.) _Syn._ KARIYÁT. _Habitat._ Commonly
in shady places all over India.——_Officinal part._ The dried stalks and
root (Andrographis Caules et Radix, Kariyat, Creyat). The stem, which is
usually met with, with the root attached, occurs in pieces of about a foot
or more in length, quadrangular, of a lightish-brown colour, and
persistent bitter taste.——_Properties._ Bitter tonic and stomachic, very
analogous to quassia in its action.——_Therapeutic uses._ In general
debility, in convalescence after fevers, and in the advanced stages of


=Compound Infusion of Kariyát= (Infusum Andrographis compositum). Take of
Kariyát, bruised, 1/2 an ounce; orange-peel and coriander fruit, bruised,
of each, 60 grains; boiling water, 10 fluid ounces. Infuse in a covered
vessel for an hour and strain.——_Dose._ From 1-1/2 to 2 fluid ounces,
twice or thrice daily.

=Compound Tincture of Kariyát= (Tinctura Andrographis composita). Take of
kariyát root, cut small, 6 ounces; myrrh and aloes, in coarse powder, of
each 1 ounce; brandy, 2 pints. Macerate for seven days in a closed vessel,
with occasional agitation; strain, press, filter, and add sufficient
brandy to make two pints.——_Dose._ From 1 to 4 fluid drachms. Said to be
tonic, stimulant, and gently aperient, and to prove valuable in several
forms of dyspepsia, and in torpidity of the bowels.

=ANDROPOGON (CYMBOPOGON) CITRATUM.= Lemon Grass. (Ind. Ph.) _Habitat._
Commonly cultivated in gardens in India; also in Ceylon, upon a large
scale, for the sake of its volatile oil.——_Officinal part._ The volatile
oil (Oleum Andropogi Citrati, Lemon Grass Oil, Oil of Verbena), obtained
by distillation from the fresh plant; of a pale sherry colour,
transparent, extremely pungent taste, and a peculiar fragrant lemon-like
odour.——_Properties._ Stimulant, carminative, antispasmodic, and
diaphoretic; locally applied, rubefacient.——_Therapeutic use._ In
flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels, and in gastric
irritability. In cholera it proves serviceable by aiding the process of
reaction. Externally, as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism, neuralgia,
sprains, and other painful affections.

_Dose._ From 3 to 6 drops, on sugar or in emulsion. For external
application it should be diluted with twice its bulk of soap liniment or
any bland oil.

Peninsula and Ceylon. The volatile oil of this plant has similar
properties to _A. citratum_. and is used for the same purposes.

=ANDROPOGON PACHNODES.= (Ind. Ph.) The volatile oil of this plant
possesses similar properties to that of _A. citratum_, and is used for the
same purposes.

=ANELEC′TRIC= (ăn-e-). Non-electric; a non-electric.

WINDMESSER, Ger. An instrument or apparatus for measuring the force or
velocity of the wind, or of a current of air. Various contrivances have
been adopted for this purpose. The anemometer of Dr Lind being also
applicable to the determination of the draught of a chimney, and the
strength of air-current, in ventilation, may be usefully described here:——


_Uses and Appl._ The open end (_a_) is kept, by means of a vane, presented
to the wind, which acting on the surface of the water, or other liquid in
_b_, raises the level of the fluid in the arm (_c_). The difference of the
level of the fluid in the two arms of the instrument is the measure of the
force of the wind. To estimate the draught of a flue or chimney, the arm
(_c_) is placed in the chimney, and the orifice (_a_) in the

[Footnote 61: The anemometers now generally used in meteorological
observations are those of Mr Follet Osler, Dr Robinson, and Dr Whewell.
For a description of these instruments, see Phillip’s ‘Report on
Anemometry,’ the ‘Trans. of the Brit. Assoc.,’ 1846, ‘Trans. Royal Irish
Acad.,’ &c.]

In _meteorology_, _physics_, &c., the art or act of measuring the velocity
or force of the wind, or of ascertaining its direction.

=ANEM′ONE= (ă-nĕm′-o-ne). _Syn._ ANEM′ONY; ANEM′ONE, L., Gr.; ANÉMONE, Fr.
The wind-flower. In _botany_, a genus of beautiful flowering herbaceous
plants, of the nat. ord. Ranunculaceæ. The double flowers of some of the
species are among the most elegant ornaments of our gardens. Others are
used in medicine. They are all acrid and stimulating.

=Anem′ones, Sea.= (-o-nēz). _Syn._ AN′IMAL-FLOWERS‡, SEA SUN′FLOWERS‡.
Animals of the genus _actin′ia_, so called from the resemblance of their
claws or tentacles, when expanded, to the petals of a flower. They are of
various colours, are generally fixed by one end to rocks or stones in the
sand, and are very voracious, being accused of occasionally swallowing a
mussel or a crab as large as a hen’s egg for a meal. They belong to the
highly organised polypes of Cuvier.


=ANEMONIN.= A crystalline substance found in the leaves of several species
of anemone, viz. _A. pulsatilla_, _A. pretensis_, _A. nemorosa_. Water
distilled from these leaves, after some weeks, deposits a colourless
inodorous substance, which softens at 150° C, giving off water and acrid
vapours. It is purified by repeated crystallisation from boiling alcohol.
Anemonin is a poisonous body. It causes slight irritation when applied to
the skin. By the action of alkalies anemonin is transferred into anemonic

=ANEM′OSCOPE= (ăn′-e——Brande, Mayne). _Syn._ ANEMOSCO′PIUM, L.;
ANÉMOSCOPE, Fr.; ANEMOSKOP, Ger. An instrument to measure the force and
velocity of the wind. See ANEMOMETER.

=AN′EROID= (-royd)[62]. In _physics_, &c., not fluid, or not depending on
water or a fluid for its action; applied to a certain form of barometer
(which _see_)

[Footnote 62: That is——α, _without_, νηρος, (the) _watery_,
ειδος, _form_, as correctly given by Brande. By some strange
mistake, Dr Mayne, in his new ‘Expository Lexicon,’ gives “α,
priv., αηρ, air, terminal _-ides_,” as the derivation of this word; and
marks it ‘_ane′roid_,’]

=ANEURISM.= A tumour on an artery, produced by the rupture of the inner
coat of the vessel, and the blood getting between it and the outer coat.

=ANGEL′ICA= (-jĕl′-). [L., Port., Sp.; Ph. E. & D.] _Syn._ GARDEN
_angelica archangel′ica_ of Linnæus, an aromatic herbaceous plant with a
biennial, fleshy root, indigenous to the north of Europe, but frequently
found wild in England, and largely cultivated in our gardens. Dried root
(ANGELICA, Ph. E.), aperient, carminative, diaphoretic, and tonic; much
esteemed by the Laplanders, both as food and medicine;——fruit or seed
(ANGELICA, Ph. D.) resembles the root, but is weaker. The whole plant has
been extolled as an aromatic tonic. As a masticatory, it leaves an
agreeable glowing heat in the mouth. The aromatic properties of this plant
depend on a peculiar volatile oil and resin.

_Uses, &c._ It has been recommended in diarrhœa, dyspepsia, debility, and
some fevers; but is now seldom used in medicine. _Dose_, 30 gr. to 1 dr.
The dried root and seeds are used by rectifiers to flavour gin and
liqueurs; and the fresh root, tender stems, stalks, &c., are made by the
confectioners into an aromatic candy. See CANDYING, LIQUEURS, &c.

=Angelica Atropurpu′′rea.= [Linn.] _Syn._ AMER′ICAN ANGELICA; ANGELICA,
Ph. U. S. _Hab._ North America. Resembles garden angelica, but placed by
some botanists in a separate, though allied genus. It is a popular remedy
for flatulent colic, indigestion, and cardialgia, in the United States;
and is there regarded as tonic, cordial, and aphrodisiac.

=ANGEL′IC ACID. HC_{5}H_{7}O_{2}.= A volatile substance, noticed by L. A.
Buchner, jun., in angelica-root. It has a pungent sour smell, and a biting
acid taste; is sometimes fluid and oleaginous, and sometimes crystallised
in striated prisms.[63]

[Footnote 63: Schmidt’s ‘Jahrb.,’ 1842.]

CHEVRON D’ANGORA, Fr.; (Engoor′, Engour′, or Engu′ri) TIFTIC, Tur. The
wool of ‘ca′pra Angoren′sis’ or the Angora-goat, of which the shawls of
Cashmere are made, and others in imitation of them. It is also used to
make plush, light cloths for paletôts which are repellent of wet, &c.; and
is extensively employed in France in the manufacture of lace more
brilliant than that of Valenciennes and Chantilly, and at half the price.

=ANGOSTU′RA, Angustu′ra.= (-tūre′-ă). See CUSPARIA.

=Angostura, False.= See BRUCEA, CUSPARIA and STRYCHNOS.

=ANGOSTU′′RINE=, =Angustu′rine= (-ĭn). See CUSPARIN.

=ANHYDRIDE.= Most, if not all modern chemists, adopting GERHARDT’S
practice of limiting the title of acid to a particular class of substances
which contain hydrogen, now regard all true acids as salts of hydrogen.
Formerly many bodies, such as silica or white arsenic, were looked upon as
acids, though if we adopt the foregoing definition they are not really so
until they have combined with water. Such bodies, because they contain no
hydrogen, are now distinguished as anhydrides; the substances, for
example, familiarly known as carbonic, sulphurous, and phosphoric acids,
must, upon the above principle, be designated carbonic, sulphurous, and
phosphoric anhydrides. We may also define an anhydride to be an oxide
which forms an acid on treatment with water.

=ANHY′DROUS= (-drŭs; _an′hydrous_, as marked by Brande, is less usual).
_Syn._ AN′HYDRUS, L.; ANHYDRÉ, Fr.; WASSERFREI, Ger. Free from water; dry.
In _chemistry_ and _mineralogy_, a term frequently applied to substances,
as acids, alcohol, gases, salts, minerals, &c., which do not contain
either free or combined water. GASES may generally be rendered anhydrous
by passing them through a tube containing fused chloride of calcium, or
(_e.g._ AMMONIA and two or three others) quick-lime, in coarse powder; and
some of them, by passing them through concentrated sulphuric acid. SALTS
may generally be dried by cautiously submitting them to the action of
heat, or by exposure to a very dry atmosphere; and alcohol, and many other
volatile fluids, by careful distillation from chloride of calcium, or some
other highly hygrometric substance.

=AN′IL.= [Fr., Sp., L.] The indigof′era anil of botanists——one of the
plants yielding ‘indigo’——a native of America, but now largely cultivated
in the East Indies. See INDIGO (and _below_).

=AN′ILINE=[64] (-een). [Eng., Fr.] C_{6}H_{7}N. _Syn._ PHENYL′AMINE;
ANILI′NA, ANILI′NUM, &c., L. A peculiar volatile organic base first
noticed by Unverdorben in empyreumatic bone-oil, and afterwards obtained
by Runge from coal-tar, and by Fritzsche, Zinin, A. W. Hofmann, and
others, as a product of various reactions, processes, and decompositions,
particularly those attending the destructive distillation of organic

[Footnote 64: For a detailed account of the methods of preparing aniline
commercially, and of the dyes obtained therefrom, _see_ ‘Dictionnaire de
Chimie,’ par A. Wurtz.]

PREP. Aniline is now almost invariably obtained, on the large scale,
either directly or indirectly from coal-tar or indigo; and chiefly from
the basic oil or naphtha, or the nitrobenzol, of which the former is the
principal source. The following are the leading commercial and
experimental processes:

1. From COAL-TAR or COAL-TAR NAPHTHA:——The basic oil or basic portion of
coal-tar or coal-tar naphtha, forming the latter, denser, and least
volatile products of the distillation or rectification of these
substances, is strongly agitated, for some time, along with hydrochloric
acid in slight excess, a glass globe, or, on the large scale, a suitable
vessel of lead, or of enamelled iron, being employed for the purpose; the
clear portion of the liquid (containing the hydrochlorates of the bases
present) is then decanted and carefully evaporated over an open fire until
acrid fumes begin to be disengaged, when it is again decanted or filtered;
the clear liquor, or filtrate is next treated with potash or milk of lime
in excess, by which the bases——chiefly aniline and chinoline——are
liberated under the form of a brownish oil; the whole of the resulting
mixture is now submitted to distillation, the portion which passes over at
or about 360° Fahr., and which consists chiefly of crude aniline, being
collected separately; the product is purified by rectification and
recollection, once or oftener, at the same temperature, and, lastly, by
fresh treatment with hydrochloric acid and careful distillation with
excess of potash, or milk of lime, as before.

2. From NITROBENZOL:——_a._ (Zinin.) An alcoholic solution of nitrobenzol,
after saturation with ammonia, is treated with sulphuretted hydrogen,
until, after some hours, a precipitation of sulphur takes place; the brown
liquid is then repeatedly saturated with fresh sulphuretted hydrogen,
until no more sulphur separates, the reaction being aided by occasionally
heating or distilling the mixture; an excess of acid is next added, and,
after filtering the liquid, and the removal of the alcohol and unaltered
nitrobenzol by ebullition or distillation, the residuum is lastly
distilled with caustic potash, in excess. The ANILINE found in the
receiver may be rendered quite pure by forming it into oxalate of aniline,
repeatedly crystallising the salt from alcohol, and finally distilling it
with excess of caustic potassa, as before.

The following is a cheaper and more convenient process; and probably the
best, or one of the best, that has yet been invented for obtaining

_b._ (M. Béchamps.) From nitrobenzol distilled along with basic
protacetate of iron; or, what is better, by distilling a mixture of
iron-filings, 2 parts, and acetic acid, 1 part, with about an equal volume
of nitrobenzol, the reaction being assisted, whenever the effervescence
flags, by the application of a gentle heat. The liquor found in the
receiver consists of aniline and water, from which the first, forming the
lower portion, is obtained, after sufficient repose in a separator; or
more easily, by adding a very little ether, which by dissolving in the
aniline, causes it to rise to the surface, when it is at once decanted. A
very spacious glass or earthenware retort must be employed in the process,
as the mass swells up violently; and it must be connected with the
receiver, on the small scale, by means of a Liebig’s condenser, and, on
the large scale, by an ordinary worm-pipe and tub, kept in good action by
a sufficient flow of cold water.

The apparatus for carrying out Béchamp’s method was devised by Nicholson,
and is exhibited in the subjoined plate.

“It consists essentially of a cast-iron cylinder (A) of 10 hectolitres
(220 cubic gallons) capacity. A stout iron tube is fitted to this vessel,
reaching nearly to the bottom of the cylinder. The upper part of this tube
is connected with the machinery (G), while the surface of the tube is
fitted with steel projections. The tube serves to admit steam, as well as
acting as a stirring apparatus. Sometimes, instead of this tube, a solid
iron axle is employed, and in this case there is a separate steampipe (D).
Through the opening at K the materials for making aniline are put into the
apparatus, while the volatile products are carried off through E. H serves
for emptying and cleaning the apparatus. The S-shaped tube connected with
the vessel B acts as a safety valve. When it is intended to work with this
apparatus there is poured into it through K 10 parts of acetic acid at 8°
B. (sp. gr. 1·060), previously diluted with six times its weight of water;
next there are added 30 parts of iron filings, or cast-iron borings, and
125 parts of nitrobenzol, and immediately after the stirring apparatus is
set in motion. The reaction ensues directly, and is attended by a
considerable evolution of heat and vapours. Gradually more iron is added
until the quantity amounts to 180 parts. The escaping vapours are
condensed in F, and the liquid condensed in R is from time to time poured
back into the cylinder A. The reduction is finished after a few hours.”


3. From INDIGO:——Powdered indigo is added to a boiling and highly
concentrated solution of caustic potash, as long as it dissolves and
hydrogen gas is liberated; the resulting brownish-red liquid is evaporated
to dryness, and the residuum is submitted to destructive distillation in a
retort, which, owing to the intumesence of the mass, should be strong and
spacious. The ANILINE is found in the receiver under the form of a
brownish oil mixed with ammoniacal liquor, and by separation from the
latter, and subsequent rectification, is obtained nearly colourless. It
may be further purified, as in the preceding processes.——_Prod._ 18 to 20%
of the indigo employed.

4. By fusing, with proper precautions, a mixture of isatine and hydrate of
potassium (both in powder); a retort connected with a well-cooled
receiver, being employed as the apparatus. Said by Profs A. W. Hofmann and
Muspratt to be “the most eligible process for isolating” aniline.[65]

[Footnote 65: Muspratt’s ‘Chemistry,’ i, 599.]

5. From anthranilic acid mixed with powdered glass or sand, and rapidly
heated in a retort.

6. By treating an alcoholic solution of benzine with a little zinc and
hydrochloric acid.

7. By heating phenyl-alcohol with ammonia in sealed tubes.

In Zinin’s process the nitrobenzol is dissolved in alcohol, and the
solution, after the addition of ammonia, is saturated with sulphuretted
hydrogen. After standing some time the solution deposits a large quantity
of sulphur, and the liquid yields aniline.

Many other reducing agents have been proposed for the conversion of
nitrobenzol into aniline, such as arsenite of sodium, powdered zinc, &c.,
but on the large scale they have all been found inferior to the process of
Béchamp. Kremer’s process consists in heating one part of nitrobenzol in a
proper apparatus with five of water and two and a half of zinc dust. When
the reaction is completed the aniline, amounting to about 65% of the
weight of the benzol, is distilled off in a current of steam.

_Prop., &c._ A thin, oily, colourless liquid, with a faintly vinous odour,
and a hot and aromatic taste; very volatile in the air; miscible in all
proportions with alcohol and ether; very slightly soluble in water;
neutral to ordinary test-paper, but exhibiting an alkaline reaction to
dahlia-petal infusion and paper; dissolves camphor, sulphur, and
phosphorus, and coagulates albumen; possesses a high refractive power; and
precipitates the oxides of iron, zinc, and alumina, from solutions of
their salts, and neutralises the acids, like ammonia. With the acids it
forms numerous crystallisable compounds of great beauty, and which are
easily formed, and are precisely analogous to the corresponding salts of
ammonia. These, on exposure to the air, acquired a rose colour, in many
cases gradually passing into brown. Its boiling-point is 359° to 360°
Fahr.; sp. gr. 1·028.

_Tests._——1. Chromic acid gives a deep greenish or bluish-black
precipitate with aniline and its salts:——2. Hypochlorite of lime strikes
an extremely beautiful violet colour, which is soon destroyed:——3. The
addition of two or three drops of nitric acid to anhydrous aniline
produces a fine blue colour, which, on the application of heat, passes
into yellow, and a violent reaction ensues, sometimes followed by
explosion:——4. With bichloride of platinum it yields a double salt
(platino-chloride of aniline) analogous to the like salt of ammonia.
These reactions distinguish it from all other substances.

Commercial aniline is a mixture consisting in great part of aniline,
paratoluidine (solid), and orthotoluidine in variable proportions. In
addition it contains small amounts of metatoluidine, nitrobenzol, odorine,
&c., but for all practical purposes it may be regarded as a mixture of
aniline and toluidine. These anilines are obtained from a portion of the
light coal-tar naphtha boiling between certain temperatures, by treating
it first with nitric acid to convert it into the nitro-compounds, and then
reducing these with iron and acetic acid, as already described under
Béchamp’s process. It is very plain that as the coal-tar naphtha contains
variable proportions of benzol and toluidine, the resulting product must
also vary in the quantities of aniline and toluidine it will contain. In
order to distinguish between various samples of commercial aniline,
Reimann submits them to fractional distillation and compares the results.
He places 100 c. c. of the sample to be tested in a retort fitted with a
thermometer and heated by means of an oil bath. The liquid as it distils
is received in a narrow graduated cylinder, and the amount that passes
over between every 5° C. (9° F.) is noted.

In order to obtain standards for comparison he first distilled a sample of
light aniline, or kuphaniline, as he terms it, then one of heavy aniline
or baraniline; afterwards mixtures of the two in varying proportions. In
the accompanying table the results are given.

   Centigrade {|K. 100    90     85       80       75     60      50       25       0
              {|B.   0    10     15       20       25     40      50       75     100
   Below 180°  |  8-1/2    7    2-1/2    5-1/2    7       ...    7        5-1/2    ...
   180°——185°  | 54       50   29-1/2   22        5-1/2    7     4-1/2    2-1/2    2
   185°——190°  | 34       34   56-1/2   55-1/2   55-1/2   37     7-1/2    4-1/2    1-1/2
   190°——195°  |  ...      5    7-1/2    8-1/2   15       33    42       17        8
   195°——200°  |  ...     ...   ...      ...      9       ...   19       36       18
   200°——205°  |  ...     ...   ...      ...      4-1/2   16    10       16       39
   205°——210°  |  ...     ...   ...      ...      ...     ...    3-1/2    8       19
   210°——215°  |  ...     ...   ...      ...      ...     ...    ...      4-1/2    7
   Residue     |  3-1/2    4    4        8-1/2    3-1/2    7     6-1/2    5        5-1/2

To ascertain the quality of any sample it is only necessary to distil it
in the manner already described, and compare the results with those in the
above table.

(For further information consult Wagner’s ‘Chemical Technology,’ Calvert’s
‘Dyeing and Calico Printing,’ edited by Stenhouse and Groves; Crooke’s
‘Practical Handbook of Dyeing and Calico Printing,’ Ure’s Dictionary,
edited by Hunt.)

_Uses_, _&c_. Chiefly in dyeing, for the production of colouring matter of
various rich shades of purple and violet, some approaching pink, by the
action of chromic acid; and of a splendid crimson, by the action of
various oxidising agents. It forms the basis of the celebrated new dyes
for silks lately patented by Mr W. H. Perkin, and others, and which are
not only more delicate and gorgeous in tint, but also more permanent, than
any produced by other substances.

Besides numerous salts, various substitution compounds of aniline have
been formed, all of which possess vast scientific interest, and several
are likely to prove of importance in the arts. See DYEING, INDIGO, TAR
COLOURS, &c. (also _below_.)

=Aniline, Chro′mates of=. _Prep_. 1. (NEUTRAL CHROMATE.) From sulphate or
oxalate of aniline and chromate of potash, by double decomposition.

2. (BICHRO′MATE:——Mr W. H. Perkin.) Sulphate of aniline and bichromate of
potash, in equivalent quantities, are separately dissolved in water, and
the solutions, after being mixed, are allowed to stand for several hours.
The whole is then thrown upon a filter, and the black precipitate which
forms is washed and dried. It is next digested in coal-tar naphtha (——?
benzol), to extract a brown resinous substance; after which it is digested
in alcohol, to dissolve out the colouring matter (BICHROMATE OF ANILINE),
which is left behind on distilling off the spirit, as a coppery friable
mass. Patented.

=Aniline, Cy′anide of=. Benzonitrile.

=Aniline, Ox′alate of=. (C_{6}H_{7}N)_{2}C_{2}O_{4}. Obtained by
saturating an alcoholic solution of oxalic acid with aniline; the salt
separating as a crystalline mass. It is very soluble in hot water; much
less so in cold water; only slightly soluble in alcohol; and insoluble in
ether. It may be crystallised from hot water or boiling alcohol. Used
chiefly to form other salts.

=Aniline, Sul′phate of=. (C_{6}H_{7}N)_{2}SO_{4}. Prepared by saturating
aniline with dilute sulphuric acid, and gently evaporating the liquid
until the salt separates. By re-solution in boiling alcohol, it
crystallises out, as the liquor cools, under the form of very beautiful
colourless plates, of a silvery lustre. It is freely soluble in water, and
in hot alcohol; scarcely soluble in cold alcohol; and insoluble in ether.
It is chiefly employed in the preparation of the new aniline dyes.

=ANIMAL′CULE= (-kūle). [Eng., Fr.; pl. animal′cules.] _Syn._ ANIMAL′CULUM
(pl., animal′cula[66]), L.; THIERCHEN, Ger. In _zoology_ and _physiology_,
a microscopic animal, or one so extremely small, that it is either
invisible, or not distinctly discernible, without the aid of a lens or
microscope; more especially one that is not perceptible to the naked eye.
“A mite was anciently thought the limit of littleness; but there are
animals 27,000,000 of times smaller than a mite.” A thousand millions of
some of the animalcula found in common water are said to be collectively
of less bulk than a single grain of sand; yet their numbers are so
prodigious as sometimes to give the fluid they inhabit a pale red or
yellow tinge. The milt of a single codfish is said to contain more of
these minute animals than there are people in the whole earth. Animalcula
were first scientifically observed by Leuwenhoek about the year 1677.
Assisted by the microscope he unveiled, as it were, he created a new world
for future naturalists and microscopists to explore.

[Footnote 66: Animalculæ for the plural, sometimes heard and met with, is
a barbarism; yet one not wholly confined to the vulgar, for we find it in
Vincent’s edition of Haydn’s admirable ‘Dict. of Dates,’ not merely twice,
or oftener, in the text, but as a ‘title-word,’ and also in some other
works where we might least expect it.]

“Take any drop of water,” says Professor Rymer Jones, “from our rivers,
from our lakes, or from the vast ocean itself, and place it under the
microscope; you will find therein countless living beings moving therein
in all directions with considerable swiftness, apparently gifted with
sagacity, for they readily elude each other in the active dance they keep
up.... Increase the power of your glasses, and you will soon perceive
inhabiting the same drop, other animals compared to which the former were
elephantine in their dimensions, equally vivacious and equally gifted.
Exhaust the art of the optician, strain your eyes to the utmost, until the
aching sense refuses to perceive the little quivering movement that
indicates the presence of life, and you will find that you have not
exhausted nature in the descending scale.”

Amongst the most remarkable discoveries of modern science must be reckoned
that of fossil animalcules in such abundance as to form the principal part
of extensive strata. This discovery is due to Ehrenberg, who found the
Polierschiefer (the polishing slate or tripoli) of Bilin to be almost
entirely made up of the siliceous shields of a minute fossil animalcule,
the length of one of which is about 1/288th of a line, so that about
23,000,000 of animalcules must have gone to form a cubic line, and
41,000,000,000 to form a cubic inch of the rock. Ehrenberg succeeded in
discovering the formation of similar strata in deposits of mud at the
bottom of lakes and marshes, the mud swarming with living animalcules,
probably in their turn to be fossilised. The bergmehl, or mountain meal of
Sweden and other parts of Europe, which is sometimes used as an article of
food, is entirely composed of the remains of animalcules; not merely,
however, of their siliceous shields, for it contains a considerable
per-centage of dry animal matter. Some animalcules prefer waters
impregnated with iron, and their death gives rise to an ochreous substance
in which iron is a principal ingredient.

=AN′IME= (ăn′-ĭm-e). [Eng., L., Sp.] _Syn._ GUM-AN′IME, A.-RES′IN; ANIMÉ,
brownish-yellow, transparent, brittle resin, which exudes from the
_hymenæa courbaril_ (Linn.) or locust-tree, the _h. martiana_, and other
species of hymenæa growing in tropical America. It contains about ·2% of
volatile oil, which gives it an agreeable odour; melts without
decomposition; is (nearly) insoluble in alcohol and in caoutchoucine, but
forms a gelatinous mass in a mixture of the two. (Ure.) It burns readily,
emitting a very fragrant smell. Sp. gr. 1·054 to 1·057.

_Uses, &c._ As a fumigation in spasmodic asthma; in solution as an
embrocation; and in powder as a substitute for gum guaiacum. In this
country it is chiefly employed to make varnishes and pastilles (which

=AN′ION= (-y′ŭn——Br., We.; ă-nī′-ŭn——Smart). Literally, ‘upward going,’ in
_electro-chemistry_, a substance which is evolved from the surface where
the electrical current is supposed to enter the electrolyte; an
electro-negative body, or one which passes to the positive pole, or anode,
in electrolysis, as opposed to a CATION. See ANODE, IONS, &c.

=AN′ISATED.= _Syn._ ANISA′TUS, L.; ANISÉ, Fr. In _pharmacy_, the art of
the liqueuriste, confectioner, &c., applied to articles or preparations
impregnated or flavoured with aniseed.

=AN′ISE= (-ĭs). _Syn._ ANI′SUM, PIMPINEL′LA A. (Linn.), A. OFFICINA′LE,
L.; ANIS, Fr.; ANIS, GEMEINER ANIS, Ger. An annual plant of the nat. ord.
Umbelliferæ (DC.). _Hab._, Egypt, Scio, and the Levant; but largely
cultivated in Malta, Spain, Germany, and various other parts of Asia and
Europe. “A considerable quantity is cultivated at Mitcham, in Surrey,
chiefly for the use of the rectifiers of British spirits.” (Stephenson.)
Fruit, aniseed. (See _below_.)

ANIS, Sp.; ANICE, It. The aromatic fruit or seed of the _pimpinella
anisum_ just noticed.

_Prop., Uses, &c._ Its aromatic properties depend on the presence of
volatile oil. The seed and oil, and a spirit and a water prepared from
them, are officinal in the pharmacopœias. Both the seed and its
preparations are reputed stimulant, stomachic, carminative, pectoral,
diuretic, and emmenagogue. They are commonly used to relieve flatulence
and colicky pains, and to prevent the griping effects of certain
cathartics; and they have long been popular remedies for coughs, colds,
and other breath ailments. They are esteemed especially useful in warming
the stomach and expelling wind, particularly during infancy and childhood;
the distilled or flavoured water being usually employed. Nurses also take
the latter to promote the secretion of milk, to which it at length imparts
its peculiar odour and flavour. In _veterinary practice_ the powdered seed
is used as a carminative, pectoral, and corroborant. The essential
oil is said to be poisonous to pigeons. (Vogel; Hillefield.)
Aniseed is principally used to flavour liqueurs, sweetmeats, and
confectionery.——_Dose_ (of the powder), 10 gr. to 1 or 2 dr.; for a horse,
1/2 to 1 oz.; cattle, 3/4 to 2 oz.

_Pur., &c._ Powdered aniseed is nearly always adulterated, the adulterant
being generally linseed meal. Sometimes, as for the horse, the latter is
entirely substituted for it, a few drops of oil of aniseed being added to
give it smell. The adulteration is not readily detected by the
uninitiated, owing to the strong odour of aniseed; but readily by the
microscope. The fruit of _myrrhis odorata_ (sweet cicily), and of
_illicium anisatum_ (star-anise), also possess the odour and flavour of
common aniseed; indeed, most of the essential oil now sold as ‘oil of
aniseed’ is star-anise oil. See LIQUEURS, OILS, SPIRITS, WATERS, &c.

=Anise, Star′.= The fruit or seed of _illi′′cium anisa′tum_ (Linn.), an
evergreen tree growing in Japan and China. The odour and properties of
both the seed and oil greatly resemble those of common anise. They are
both employed by the liqueuriste. See ANISEED (_above_), &c.

=ANISETTE′= (ăn-ĭz-ĕt′). [Fr.] Aniseed cordial. See LIQUEURS.

=ANISOCHILUS CARNOSUM.= Nat. order LABIATÆ. An Indian plant. It is
stimulant, diaphoretic, and expectorant; is used in quinsy, and by the
native doctors of Travancore in catarrhal affections. Dr Bidie, an Indian
practitioner, characterises it as a mild stimulating expectorant, and as
such particularly useful in the coughs of childhood. Its properties depend
upon a volatile oil.

=ANISOMELES MALABARICA.= An Indian plant. Nat. order Labiatæ. Few plants
are held in higher esteem, or more frequently employed in native practice
in Southern India, than this. An infusion made of the leaves is very
generally used in affections of the stomach and bowels, catarrhal
complaints, and intermittent fevers.

Dr Wright says that in addition to its internal use in the case of fevers,
patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion, so as to induce
copious diaphoresis. An infusion of the leaves is reported to be
powerfully diaphoretic, and to have been found very useful in the low
continuous fevers of the natives. An oil obtained by distillation from the
leaves is likewise stated to be an effectual external application in

=ANI′SUM.= Aniseed.

of tempering by heat: appropriately, the process by which glass,
porcelain, &c., are rendered less frangible, and metals which have become
brittle by fusion, or long-continued hammering, again rendered tough and

Glass vessels, and other articles of glass, are annealed by being placed
in an oven or apartment near the furnaces at which they are formed, called
the ‘leer,’ where they are allowed to cool very slowly, the process being
prolonged in proportion to their bulk.

Steel, iron, and other metals are annealed by heating them and allowing
them to cool slowly on the hearth of the furnace, or in any other suitable
place, unexposed to the cold. Steel is also annealed by being made
red-hot, and in that state is placed in a heap of dry saw-dust till cold,
when it will be found quite soft.

Cast-iron is rendered tough and malleable, without ‘puddling,’ by
embedding it in ground charcoal or hæmatite, and thus protected, keeping
it exposed at a high temperature for several hours, after which the whole
is allowed to cool very slowly.

Prince Rupert’s drop may be mentioned as an example of unannealed glass,
and common cast-iron of unannealed metals, to which heads the reader is

colouring matter forming the outer pellicle of the seeds of the _bix′a
orella′na_ (Linn.), an exogenous evergreen tree, common in Cayenne and
some other parts of tropical America, and now extensively cultivated in
both the E. and W. Indies. It is usually obtained by macerating the
crushed seeds or seed-pods in water for several weeks, ultimately allowing
the pulp to subside, which is then boiled in coppers to a stiff paste, and
dried in the shade. Sometimes a little oil is added in making it up into
cakes or lumps. A better method is that proposed by Leblond, in which the
crushed seeds are simply exhausted by washing them in water (——?
alkalised), from which the colouring matter is then precipitated by means
of vinegar or lemon-juice; the precipitate being subsequently collected,
and either boiled up in the ordinary manner, or drained in bags and dried,
as is practised with indigo. Annotta so prepared is said to be four times
as valuable as made by the old process.

_Prop._ Good annotta is of a brilliant red colour; brighter in the middle
than on the outside; feels soft and smooth to the touch; has a good
consistence, and a strongly characteristic but not a putrid smell. It is
scarcely soluble in water; freely soluble in alcohol, ether, oils, and
fats, to each of which it imparts a beautiful orange colour, and in
alkaline solutions which darken it; acids precipitate it of an orange red
hue; strong sulphuric acid turns it blue. Its most important property is
the affinity of its colouring matter for the fibres of silk, wool, and

_Pur._ Annotta is very frequently adulterated; indeed, nearly always so.
To what extent the sophistication of annotta is carried may be judged from
the statement of Mr Blyth, who says that on examination of thirty-four
samples of various kinds, as imported and obtained from English makers and
as purchased from dealers, he found only two that were genuine. As annotta
is often used to give colour to different articles of diet, it is
important that it should be as pure as possible; otherwise injurious
effects detrimental to health may be caused by partaking of any food to
which it is added. Now, amongst the list of adulterants given below are
three, at least, unmistakeable poisons, viz. red lead, orange chrome, and
sulphate of copper. It is but right to state of the first of these
substances (red lead) that Mr Blyth says it is extremely doubtful whether
it is now employed to the extent it formerly was. He also ascribes its
presence in annotta to the impure Venetian red which is used, the
employment of this colour being a necessity because of the large
quantities of flour and lime which are mixed with the annotta, which
thereby becomes so reduced in colour that it is essential to have recourse
to salt, alkalies, and the red earths to restore it to its original
standard. The adulterants are generally meal, flour, or farina, and often
chalk or gypsum, with some pearlash and oil, or even soap, to give it an
unctuous character; turmeric, Venetian red, red ochre, orange chrome, or
even red lead, to give it ‘colour,’ and common salt, and sometimes even
sulphate of copper, to prevent decomposition——the last two being
poisonous. Sometimes a little carbonate of ammonia is also added to it to
improve the colour. When quite pure it contains about 28% of resinous
colouring matter, and 20% of colouring extractive matter (Dr John), and
should leave only a small quantity of insoluble residuum after digestion
in alcohol, whilst the ash resulting from its incineration should not
exceed 1-1/2 to 2%. The quantity, colour, &c., of the ash will give an
easy clue to the inorganic adulterants, if any are present, which may be
then followed up by a chemical examination. The presence of red lead may
be detected by heating it on a piece of charcoal in the reducing flame of
the blowpipe, by which a small bead of metallic lead will be obtained. If
it contains chalk, ochre, gypsum, &c., the undissolved residuum of the
washed ash gives the amount of the adulteration (nearly).

_Microscopical Examination of Annotta._——When annotta is subjected to a
microscopical examination the outer red portion will be found to present
an almost homogeneous appearance, whilst the surface of the seed proper
will be seen to consist of narrow or elongated cells or fibres disposed in
a vertical direction, while the inner white portion will be seen to be
made up of cells filled with starch corpuscles, well defined, of medium
size, and resembling in the elongated and stellate hilum the starch
granules of the pea and bean.

When the annotta is manufactured, and an unadulterated sample is examined,
but little structure is met with. Portions of the outer cells may be seen;
and in those samples which in the course of their preparation have not
been subjected to the action of boiling water, a few starch granules may
be observed.

Since annotta, when manufactured, presents so few evidences of structure,
we are easily able, with the microscope at our command, to detect the
presence of most foreign vegetable substances. These consist of turmeric
powder, wheat, rye and barley starch, and sago flours. The salt and alkali
present in the fraudulent annotta generally greatly alter the appearance
of the turmeric. Most of the colouring matter of the cells is discharged,
so that the starch corpuscles contained within them become visible. Loose
starch granules of turmeric may also be frequently seen, and in a much
enlarged condition, owing to the action of the alkali upon them.

The following process for conducting the assay of annotta is given by Mr

“In order to estimate the commercial value and detect adulteration in a
sample, the quickest and best way is the following: Weigh accurately a
gramme in a small platinum dish; dry in the water-bath for a couple of
hours, then weigh; the loss is the water. Finely powder, and digest it for
some hours in alcohol; then boil, filter and treat with successive
portions of alcohol until all the colouring-matter is dissolved; filter,
evaporate the filtrate down and weigh; the result is the resin. The
insoluble portion will in a good commercial specimen consist of woody
matter, extractive, gluten, &c. For the ash weigh another gramme in a
platinum dish; dry for a short time over the water-bath; then powder and
burn until it ceases to lose weight. It is prudent to fuse a little on
charcoal with carbonate of soda before the blow-pipe before burning it in
a platinum vessel, as there may be lead in the annotta. The ash should
then be submitted to the various reagents in order to detect lime,
alumina, &c. A correct determination of ash and resin is all that is
required to definitely pronounce upon the purity or impurity of the

The following is the analysis of a fair commercial sample:——

The sample was in the form of a paste, colour deep red, odour peculiar,
but not disagreeable.

  Water                         24·2
  Resinous colouring matter     28·8
  Ash                           22·5
  Starch and extractive matter  24·5

The following is an analysis of an adulterated specimen. The sample was in
a hard cake of a brown colour, with the maker’s name stamped upon it, and
marked “patent;” texture hard and leathery, odour disagreeable:

  Water                            13·4
  Resin                            11·0
  Ash, consisting of iron, chalk,
    salt, alumina, silica          48·3
  Extractive matter                27·3

Thus, in the one the resin was 28%, the ash 22; in the other the resin was
only 11%, the ash no less than 48%.

_Uses, &c._ To colour varnishes and lacquers; as a pigment for painting
velvet and transparencies; as a colouring matter for cheese (1 _oz._ to 1
_cwt._ of curd), for which purpose it is not injurious, if pure; and as a
dye-stuff for cotton, silk, and wool, particularly the second, to which it
imparts a beautiful orange-yellow hue, the shade of which may be varied
from ‘aurora’ to deep orange by using different proportions of pearlash
with the water it is dissolved in, and by applying different mordants
before putting it into the dye-bath, or different rinsing liquids
afterwards. The hues thus imparted are, however, all more or less

=Annotta Cake.= _Syn._ FLAG ANNOTTA; ORLEA′NA IN FO′LIIS, L. From Cayenne;
bright yellow, firm and soft to the touch; in square cakes, weighing 2 or
3 _lbs._ each.

=Annotta Egg.= _Syn._ LUMP ANNOTTA; ORLEA′NA IN O′VULIS, L. Generally

=Annotta, Eng′lish.= _Syn._ TRADE A., REDUCED’ A.; ORLEA′NA REDUC′TA, L. A
fraudulent mess commonly prepared from egg or flag annotta, gum
tragacanth, flour, or farina, chalk, soap, train-oil, Venetian red, or
bole, common salt, water, mixed by heat in a copper pan, and formed into
rolls. Sold for genuine annotta, from which it is readily distinguished by
its inferior quality and its partial solubility in alcohol.

=Annotta, Liq′uid.= See SOLUTION OF ANNOTTA (_below_).

=Annotta, Pu′′rified.= See ORELLINE.

=Annotta Roll.= _Syn._ Orlea′na in rot′ulis, O. IN BAC′ULIS, L. From the
Brazils; hard, dry, brown outside, yellow within. When pure, this is the
variety most esteemed, and the one preferred for colouring cheese.

=Annotta, Solu′tion of.= _Syn._ ESSENCE OF ANNOTTA, EXTRACT OF A.,
aqueous solution of equal parts of annotta and pearlash, the whole being
heated or boiled together until the ingredients are dissolved. Sold in
bottles. See ANNOTTA (_above_), NANKEEN DYE, &c.

=ANNUALS.= Plants which bear flowers and fruit in the same year when
raised from seed.

=AN′O-.= [Gr.] In _composition_, upwards, &c.; as in anocathar′tic

=AN′ODE.= Literally, ‘upward way,’ in _electro-chemistry_, the ‘way in,’
or that by which the electric current is supposed to enter substances
through which it passes, as opposed to the CATHODE, or that by which it
goes out; the positive pole of a voltaic battery.

=AN′ODYNE= (-dīne). _Syn._ ANO′DYNUS (-dĭnŭs-), L.; ANODIN, Fr.;
SCHMERZSTILLEND, Ger. That allays pain; soothing; atalgic.

=Anodynes.= _Syn._ ANO′DYNA (sing., ano′dy̆̆num), L.; Anodins, REMÈDES A.,
Fr. In _medicine_ and _pharmacy_, substances and agents which allay pain.
Some (as the PAREGORICS) act by actually assuaging pain; others
(HYPNOTICS) by inducing sleep; whilst a third class (NARCOTICS) give ease
by stupefying the senses, or by lessening the susceptibility to pain.
Among the principal anodynes are opium, morphia, henbane, camphor ether,
chloroform, chloral hydrate, and other medicines of the like kind; to
which must be added spirituous liquors, wines, and the stronger varieties
of malt liquor. “The frequent use of anodynes begets the necessity of
their continuance.” (W. Cooley.)

=Anodyne, In′fantile= (-īle). _Syn._ ANO′DYNUM INFAN′TILE (-tĭl-e), L.
_Prep._ Take of syrup of poppies, 1 _oz._; aniseed-water, 3 _oz._; French
brandy, 3/4 _oz._ (or rectified spirit, 1/2 _oz._); calcined magnesia, 1/4
_oz._; mix. An excellent anodyne and antacid for infants.——_Dose._ A small
teaspoonful as required.

=ANODYN= (Müller, Berlin.) Chiefly for rheumatic pains, toothache, &c. Oil
of rosemary, 30 drops; oil of thyme, 10 drops; camphor, 5 grms.; spirit of
ammonia, 12 grms.; spirit, 60 grms. (Hager.)

=ANODYN′IA= (-dĭn′-y′ă). Freedom from pain; anæsthesia.

=AN′OREXY=. _Syn._ ANOREX′IA, L.; ANOREXIE, Fr., Ger. In _pathology_, want
of, or morbidly diminished appetite, without loathing of food. It is
usually symptomatic of other affections. See APPETITE, DYSPEPSIA, &c.

=ANOSMIN FOOT POWDER= (Dr Oscar Bernar, Vienna). “An unfailing remedy for
sweaty feet and bad odour of the feet.” Powdered alum, 21 parts; maize
meal, 1 part. (Hager.)

=ANOSMIN FOOT WATER= (Koch), for a similar purpose. An aqueous solution of
tartaric acid.

=ANO ZABAGLIONE= (-băl-y′ō′-nā). _Prep._ Put 2 eggs, 3 teaspoonfuls of
sugar, and 2 small glassfuls of sherry or marsala, into a chocolate cup,
placed in boiling water, or over the fire, and keep the mixture rapidly
stirred until it begins to rise and thicken a little; then add 1 or 2
teaspoonfuls of orange-flower water or rose water, and serve it up in
wine-glasses. A pleasant Italian domestic remedy for a cold.

=ANT= (ănt). _Syn._ EMM′ET, PIS′MIRE*‡ (pĭz′-); FORMI′CA, L.; FOURMI, Fr.;
AMEISE, Ger.; ÆMET, Sax. This well-known little insect belongs to the
family formic′′idæ, and the order hymenop′tera. Like the bee, it is a
social animal, lives in communities which may be compared to
well-regulated republics, and is of three sexes——male, female, neuter.
Those belonging to the last alone labour and take care of the ova and
young. The red ant contains FORMIC ACID (acid of ants), and a peculiar
RESINOUS OIL. Both of these may be obtained by maceration in rectified
spirit. A tincture so prepared, and flavoured with aromatics, constitutes
Hoffman’s EAU DE MAGNANIMITÉ, once greatly esteemed as an aphrodisiac. See

=ANTAC′ID= (-tăs′-ĭd). _Syn._ ANTAC′IDUS, L.; ANTACIDE, &c., Fr.;
SÄURETILGEND, &c., Ger. An agent which neutralises acids or removes
acidity. (See _below._)

=ANTAC′IDS= (-tăs′-ĭdz). _Syn._ ANTAC′IDA, L.; ANTACIDES, &c., Fr. Antacid
substances. In _medicine_, &c., substances which remove or prevent acidity
of the stomach, and thus tend to relieve heartburn, dyspepsia, and

The principal antacids are potassa, soda, ammonia, lime, and magnesia,
with their carbonates and bicarbonates. AMMONIA is one of the most
powerful, and when the acidity is conjoined with nausea and faintness, or
is accompanied with symptoms of nervous derangement or hysteria, is
undoubtedly the best; when great irritability of the coats of the stomach
exist, POTASH is to be preferred; when the acidity is accompanied with
diarrhœa, carbonate of lime (prepared chalk), lime-water, or Carara-water;
and when with costiveness, MAGNESIA. They may be advantageously combined
with some simple aromatic, as ginger, cinnamon, or peppermint. Their
preparation, doses, administration, &c., will be found under each in its
alphabetical place; and formulæ containing them, under DRAUGHTS, LOZENGES,

=ANTAL′GICS= (-tăl′-). _Syn._ ANTAL′GICA, L. Medicines which relieve pain;

=ANTAL′KALINES= (ănt-ăl′-kă-lĭnz). _Syn._ ANTALKALI′NA, L. Agents or
medicines which correct alkalinity. All the acids except the carbonic are

=AN′TE-.= In _composition_, before, contrary, opposite; generally in the
first sense. See ANTI-.

=ANTEPIDEMICUM UNIVERSALE= (H. Müller, Copenhagen). “A valuable universal
remedy for all sorts of contagious diseases in man or domestic animals.” A
fluid like water, with a weak, almost imperceptible, odour of acetic
ether. Is composed of spring water, in which perhaps two or three drops of
pure carbolic acid are dissolved, and a few drops of acetic ether added to
disguise it. (Hager.)

=ANTHELMIN′TICS, Anthelmin′thics= (-thĕl-). See VERMIFUGES and WORMS.


=ANTHOK′YAN=. _Syn._ SUCC′US VI′OLÆ PREPARA′TUS, L. The expressed juice of
the sweet or purple violet (vi′ola odora′ta——Linn.), defecated, gently
heated in glass or earthenware to 192° Fahr., then skimmed, cooled, and
filtered; a little rectified spirit is next added, and the following day
the whole is again filtered. It must be kept well corked, and in a cool

_Uses, &c._ Chiefly to make syrup of violets, to colour and flavour
liqueurs, and as a chemical test. The London druggists obtain it
principally from Lincolnshire.

=AN′THONY’S FIRE=, Saint (-to-nĭz). See ERYSIPELAS.

=ANTHOSENZ= (Dr Hess, Berlin). General tonic and anodyne balsam. Oil of
cloves, 4 parts; oil of geranium, 2 parts; pine-apple essence, 1 part;
spirit, 50 parts; coloured with alkanet root. (Hager.)


=ANTHRACENE.= C_{14}H_{10}. Anthracene is one of the last products passing
over in the dry distillation of coal-tar. Dr Calvert says it is “found
most abundantly in the ten or fifteen per cent. which comes over between
the temperature at which soft pitch is produced and that at which hard
pitch is formed.”

Coal-tar contains very variable quantities of anthracene, those tars
procured from coals which are richest in naphtha yielding it most
abundantly. The coals of South Staffordshire give the largest yield,
whilst the Newcastle coals give very little. In consequence of the
solubility of anthracene in the oily hydrocarbons which accompany it,
owing to “slight elevation of temperature, its extraction can only be
carried on advantageously in cold weather.”

Gessert prepares anthracene from coal-tar as follows: He places the last
pasty portions (the ‘green grease’) of the coal-tar distillation (which
must not be carried beyond the point at which white pitch is formed) first
in a centrifugal machine, and then in a hydraulic press at 40°, or
subjects the mass heated to 30°-40° directly to pressure in a filter
press. The pressed mass consists of about 60% of anthracene; for further
purification it is boiled with light tar-oil or petroleum naphtha, and
finally heated till it melts. The residue contains 95% of anthracene.

The following method for the purification of crude anthracene contaminated
with oily matters is by Schuller:——The crude anthracene is carefully
heated to commencing ebullition in a capacious retort connected with a
tubulated receiver of glass or earthenware, the lower aperture of which is
closed with a fine wire sieve. A strong current of air is then blown into
the retort with a pair of bellows, whereby the anthracene is driven over
in a very short time nearly pure and dry, and condenses in the receiver as
a faintly yellowish showy mass. By this method a quantity of anthracene,
the purification of which by re-crystallisation or sublimation would take
several days, may be purified in as many hours; moreover it is obtained in
a pulverulent form, in which it is very readily acted on by oxidising
agents. Anthraquinone prepared from crude anthracene may also be obtained
by this method in the form of a light yellow powder, resembling flowers of

Fritzsche obtained anthracene in crystals exhibiting a beautiful violet
colour by exposing a solution of anthracene in coal-tar naphtha to
sunshine, until the solution became colourless.

Pure anthracene assumes the form of fluorescent transparent crystals,
consisting of four- or six-sided plates, which when seen by transmitted
light are of a very pale blue colour, but of a pale violet by reflected

The process for obtaining pure anthracene is a very troublesome one. Mr
Crookes says:——“A trustworthy method for determining the amount of pure
anthracene either in commercial anthracene or in crude green grease is the
following:——The melting-point of the sample in question is first
determined. 5 to 10 grammes are sufficient for the operation. It is put
between thick folds of blotting paper, and placed under a press, between
plates which have been previously warmed. The anthracene remaining upon
the paper after pressure is weighed. The residue after it has been boiled
with a certain quantity of alcohol, filtered, washed with cold alcohol and
dried, is weighed as pure anthracene. It is now advisable to determine the
melting-point of the purified product, which will generally be 210° C.”
Anthracene is only slightly soluble in alcohol, but rather more so in
ether and bisulphide of carbon. It is more soluble in hot, but less so in
cold benzene. Petroleum boiling between 160° and 195° F. dissolves less
than benzene.

“Anthracene dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid with a green colour,
and forms conjugated monsulpho or bisulpho-anthracene acid, according to
the temperature employed. Chlorine and bromine give rise to substitution
products. Nitric acid acts on it with great violence, with formation of
anthraquinone, nitro-anthraquinone, and other compounds according to the
temperature and proportion of the substances taken. With picric acid
anthracene forms a compound crystallising in very bright ruby-red needles,
which by the aid of the microscope are seen to be prisms. To prepare it a
saturated solution of picric acid in water at 80° F. is mixed with a
saturated solution of anthracene in boiling alcohol; on cooling the
compound is deposited in the crystalline state. It is rapidly decomposed
by an excess of alcohol into picric acid and anthracene, the solution
assuming a yellow tint. This reaction can be employed to distinguish
anthracene from naphthalene and other hydrocarbons, naphthalin under
similar circumstances forming a compound which crystallises in fine golden
yellow needles, whilst chrysene gives rise to clusters of very small
yellow needles.” (Calvert’s ‘Dyeing and Calico Printing,’ edited by
Stenhouse and Groves). Another characteristic of anthracene, noticed by
Fritzsche, is its deportment under the microscope with a solution of
binitro-anthraquinone in benzene. In this reaction fine rhomboidal scales
of a beautiful pink colour are formed, the purity and brilliancy of the
colour depending on the purity of the anthracene.

In the ‘Bul. Soc. Chim.,’ vii, 274, several reactions by which anthracene
is formed are described by Berthelot, as by the action of heat on other
hydrocarbons, or by passing the vapours of ethylene, styrolene, and
benzene through a porcelain tube heated to bright redness.

A great number of products are procured from anthracene, by far the most
important of these being artificial alizarin.


species of coal found in the transition-rock formation, consisting chiefly
of dense carbon. It has a conchoidal fracture, a semi-metallic lustre, and
a sp. gr. usually varying from 1·4 to 1·6. It burns without either flame
or smoke, emits an intense heat, and leaves scarcely any ash; but it is
difficult to kindle, and requires a lively draught for its combustion. It
is the common fuel in the United States of America, although, until
recently, scarcely employed in Europe, and that chiefly in a few iron
works and steam furnaces. Its adoption in this country would not merely at
once remove the smoke nuisance, but would produce a vast annual saving to
the community. By contracting the throat of the chimney a little, and
avoiding the use of the poker, it may be burnt in a common grate. The
Americans use a little charcoal as kindle, and seldom supply fresh coal to
the fire oftener than once or twice a day.

The inferior varieties of anthracite are technically and provincially
called culm; as is also the small and waste of the better kinds.

For the analysis, geology, calorific value, &c., of anthracite, see COAL,

De la Beche describes Anthracite as “a variety of coal containing a larger
proportion of carbon, and less bituminous matter, than common coal.”

In the ‘Memoirs of the Geological Survey’ we read:——“We see the same
series of coal beds becoming so altered in their horizontal range that a
set of beds _bituminous_ in one locality is observed gradually to change
into anthracitic in another. Taking the coal measures of South Wales and
Monmouthshire, we have a series of accumulations in which the coal-beds
become not only more anthracitic toward the west, but also exhibit this
change in a plane which may be considered as dipping south-south-east, at
a moderate angle, the amount of which is not yet clearly ascertained, so
that in the natural sections afforded, we have bituminous coals in the
high grounds and anthracite coals beneath. This fact is readily observed
either in the Neath or Swansea valleys, where we have bituminous coals on
the south and anthracite on the north; and more bituminous coal-beds on
the heights than beneath, some distance up these valleys, those of the
Nedd and Tawe. Though the terms bituminous coal and anthracite, have been
applied to marked differences, the changes are that there is no sudden
modification to be seen. To some of the intermediate kinds the term “free
burning” has been given, and thus three chief differences have been

The term _Culm_ is applied both to an inferior kind of anthracite only
worked for lime-making and mixing with clay and to the small pieces of
anthracite obtained in working the beds of true anthracite. It is also
known under the names of _Blind-coal_, _Glance-coal_, and _Kilkenny-coal_.

There are three distinct trades in anthracite. The first one is that where
the coal is sold just as it is brought from the pit. This is termed
_Through Culm_, and is used for lime-burning. This coal is inferior in
quality to that from which the large coal has been removed, and is
sometimes called _Bastard Stone-coal_. The trade in the Neath district is
exclusively of this kind. In Swansea and Llanelly it is partly of this
kind and partly of the kind where the large coal is picked out and sold as
_stone-coal_ for the various purposes to which that coal is put, the small
pieces being left for shipment to places where it is required for
lime-burning, under the name of _stone-coal culm_. No “through culm” is
shipped from Pembrokeshire. Four thousand tons almost in the condition of
dust are annually shipped from Swansea, under the name of _Lambskin_,
being sent to Cardiganshire, where it is used solely for mixing with clay.
This mixture, which is known under the name of _Fireballs_, is used for
household purposes. This mixture, made of the ordinary _stone-coal culm_,
is also in very general use throughout parts of Pembrokeshire and

Anthracite coal is found in this country at Bideford in Devonshire, at
Walsall in Staffordshire, in the western divisions of the South Wales
coalfield, in Ireland, and near Edinburgh. It is very abundant in America.
In the ‘Transactions of the American Geologists’ it is stated by Professor
Roger that in the great Apalachian coal-field, 720 miles in extent, with a
chief breadth of 180 miles, the coal is bituminous towards the western
limit, where it is level and unbroken, becoming anthracite towards the
south-west, where it becomes disturbed. Anthracite coal is also found in
the coal-measures of France, more particularly in the departments of
Isère, the high Alps, Gard, Mayenne, and of Sarth. About 42,271,000
kilogrammes (of 22,046 avoirdupois pounds each) form the annual yield.
Anthracite is also obtained in Belgium. “Anthracite is not an original
variety of coal, but a modification of the same beds which remain
bituminous in other parts of the region. Anthracite beds, therefore, are
not separate deposits in another sea, nor coal-measures in another area,
nor interpolations among bituminous coal; but the bituminous beds
themselves altered into a natural coke, from which the volatile bituminous
oils and gases have been driven off.”——_Lesley on Coal_.

         Locality.        |    Name of Coal.  |Carbon.|Volatile|Ashes.
                          |                   |       |matter. |
                          |   _Bituminous_.   |       |        |
                          |                   |       |        |
   Birtley Works,         |                   |       |        |
     Newcastle-on-Tyne    |                   | 60·50 | 35·50  | 4·00
   Alfreton, Derbyshire   |                   | 52·46 | 42·50  | 2·04
                          |                   |       |        |
                          |   _Anthracite_.   |       |        |
                          |                   |       |        |
   Neath Abbey            |Pwlferon Vein,     | 91·08 |  8·00  | 0·92
                          |  5th bed          |       |        |
   Swansea                |Peacock Coal       | 89·00 |  7·50  | 3·50
   Ystalyfera             |Brass Vein         | 92·46 |  6·04  | 1·50
   Cwm Neath              |Nine-feet Vein     | 93·12 |  5·22  | 1·50
   France                 |Anthracite, common | 79·15 |  7·35  |13·25
     ”                    |Côte-d’Or          | 82·60 |  8·60  | 8·80
     ”                    |Mais Saize         | 83·80 |  7·50  | 9·50
   Pennsylvania           |Beaver Meadow      | 92·30 |  6·42  | 1·28
        ”                 |Shenoweth Vein     | 94·10 |  1·40  | 4·50
        ”                 |Black Spring Gap   | 80·57 |  7·15  | 3·28
        ”                 |Nealey’s Tunnel    | 89·20 |  5·40  | 5·40
   Massachusetts          |Mansfield Mine     | 97·00 | 10·50  | 3·00
   Rhode Island           |Portsmouth Mine    | 85·84 | 10·50  | 3·66
   Westphalia             |Shafberg,          | 82·02 |  8·69  | 9·29
                          |  Alexander Seam   |       |        |

Anthracite, the exclusive employment of which is for iron-making, steam
engines, and for domestic uses in the United States, was some 60 years
since regarded as incombustible refuse, and as such looked upon as rubbish
and thrown away.

The foregoing analyses of bituminous and anthracite coals will
sufficiently show the difference between the two.

        _Principal Localities of Anthracite and
        Anthracitous Coal._
                           Specific  of a
  EUROPE.         Gravity.  cubic yard
                                     in lbs.
  South Wales——Swansea       1·263     2131
               Cyfarthfa     1·337     2256
               Ynscedwin     1·354     2284
               Average       1·445     2278
  Ireland——Mean              1·445     2376
  France——Allier             1·380     2207
          Tantal             1·390     2283
          Brassac            1·430     2413
  Belgium——Mons              1·307     2105
  Westphalia                 1·305     2278
  Prussian Saxony            1·466     2474
  Saxony                     1·300     2193

  Average of Europe                    2281


    Lyken’s Valley          1·327     2240
    Lebanon Co., Grey Vein  1·379     2327
    Schuylkin Co., Lorberry
      Creek                 1·472     2484
    Pottsville, Sharp Mount 1·412     2382
      Peach                 1·446     2440
      Salem Vein            1·574     2649
    Tamaqua, North Vein     1·600     2700
    Maunch Chunk            1·550     2615
    Nesquehoning            1·558     2646
    Wilkesbarre, best       1·472     2884
    West Mahoney            1·371     2313
      Beaver Meadow         1·600     2700
      Girardville           1·600     2700
      Hazelton              1·550     2615
      Broad Mountain        1·700     2869
      Lackawanna            1·609     2715
  Massachusetts——Mansfield  1·710     2882
  Rhode Island——Portsmouth  1·810     3054

  Average in United States            2601

The calorific value of anthracite coal is well shown by the following
results from Dr Fyfe’s experiments, to compare Scotch and English
bituminous coals with anthracite, in regard to their evaporative power, in
a high-pressure boiler of a 4-horse engine having a grate with 8·15 square
feet of surface; also in a waggon-shaped copper boiler, open to the air,
surface 18 feet, grate 1·55:——

  A - Pounds burnt per hour on the Grate.
  B - Duration of the Trial in hours.
  C - Temperature of the Water.
  D - Pounds of Water evaporated from the initial Temperature by 1 lb. of
  E - Pounds of Water at 212° from a lb. of Coal.
  F - Coal per hour on one sq. ft. of Grate.
  G - Time in seconds of consuming 1 lb. of Coal.
  H - Pounds evaporated per hour from each sq. ft. of surface.

     Kind of Fuel    |        |       |      |      |       |       |        |      |
      employed.      |    A   |   B   |   C  |  D   |   E   |   F   |    G   |  H   |   Remarks.
  Middlerig Scotch   |  81·33 | 9     |  45° | 6·66 |  7·74 | 10·00 |  44·27 | ...  |Pressure 17 lbs.
    coal             |        |       |      |      |       |       |        |      | per square in.
  Scotch coal,       | 108    | 5     | 170° | 6·62 |  6·89 | 13·25 |  33·33 | ...  |Ditto.
   different variety |        |       |      |      |       |       |        |      |
   from preceding    |        |       |      |      |       |       |        |      |
  ANTHRACITE         |  47·94 | 8-1/2 |  45° | 8·73 | 10·10 |  5·88 |  75·09 | ...  |Ditto.
  Scotch coal, from  |   8·24 | 8-1/2 |  50° | 5·38 |  6·90 |  5·31 | 436·89 | 3·15 |Lower pressure,
   near Edinburgh    |        |       |      |      |       |       |        |      | open copper
                     |        |       |      |      |       |       |        |      | boiler.
  English bituminous |   6·07 | 8·4   |  50° | 7·84 |  9·07 |  3·91 | 503·08 | 3·06 |Ditto.
   coal              |        |       |      |      |       |       |        |      |

Space will not admit of our entering fully into the question of the
evaporative power of anthracite, but its advantages under certain
conditions are fully established.

AN′THRACOKA′LI, Hamb. C. 1845. _Prep_. 1. (Polya.) Carbonate of potassa, 6
oz.; quick-lime, 3-1/2 oz.; water, 4 pints; proceed as directed for
solution of potassa, then evaporate the clear liquid, in an iron capsule,
to about 6 fl. oz., add of finely powdered mineral coal 5 oz., boil, with
constant stirring, to dryness, and continue the stirring at a reduced
heat, until the whole is converted into a homogeneous black powder, which
must be at once placed in small, dry, and well-stoppered phials.

2. (Hamb. C. 1845; Ph. Baden, 1841.) Hydrate of potassa, 7 dr.; melt, add
of cannel coal, 5 dr., and then proceed as before.

_Prop. &c._ A deliquescent black powder, with a caustic taste, and
empyreumatic smell; 10 gr. with 1 fl. oz. of water, after filtration,
forms a clear, dark brown solution, giving a precipitate with acids,
without effervescence.——_Dose_, 1 to 3 gr., twice or thrice daily; and
externally, made into a pomade or ointment (1/2 to 1 dr., to lard, 1 oz.);
in skin diseases (particularly herpetic eruptions), scrofula, chronic
rheumatism, &c. It has been highly extolled by Dr Gilbert, and by its
inventor, Dr Polya; but apparently undeservedly.

=Anthracokali Sulphuretted.= _Syn._ ANTHRACOKALI SULPHURETUM, L. _Prep._
(Polya.) As formula 1 (_above_), but adding sulphur, 4 dr., immediately
after stirring in the powdered coal.——_Dose_, _use_, &c., as the last. See

KOHLENSÄUREMESSER, Ger. An apparatus used to determine the heating power
or commercial value of coal, or other fuel; also an instrument for finding
the proportion of carbonic acid in any gaseous mixture.

=ANTHRAPURPURIN.= C_{14}H_{8}O_{5}.——A colouring matter obtained as a
secondary product in the preparation of alizarin from anthracen. It may be
prepared by dissolving the crude colouring matter in a dilute solution of
carbonate of soda, and shaking up the resulting solution with freshly
precipitated alumina, which combines with the alizarin, leaving the
anthrapurpurin in solution. This is filtered off from the alizarin lake,
heated to boiling, and acidified with hydrochloric acid. The colouring
matter which is precipitated is thrown on to a filter, washed and dried.

Anthrapurpurin has about the same affinity for mordants as alizarin. It
forms red with alumina, and purple and black with iron mordants. The reds
are much purer and less blue in colour than those of the alizarin, whilst
the purples are bluer and the blacks more intense. The anthrapurpurin
colours resist soap and light quite as effectively as those produced with
alizarin. When employed to dye Turkey-red, anthrapurpurin gives a very
brilliant scarlet shade of colour, which is of remarkable durability.

=ANTHYPNOTICS= (-thĭp-). _Syn._ ANTIHYPNOT′ICS (-hĭp-), &c. See

=AN′TI-.= [Gr., αντι, against.] In _composition_, before, against,
contrary to, corrective of, &c., more especially representing antagonism
or opposition; whilst the Latin _ante-_ is generally used in the sense of
before, having reference to precedence either of place or time.

_Anti-_ is a common prefix in English words derived from the Greek and
Latin, especially those connected with pharmacology and medicine, the
final _i_ being either dropped or retained (but generally the first)
before a, e, and h; as in antacid, antibilious, anti-emetic, anthelmintic,
anti-corbutic, antiseptic, &c., whether used as adjectives or
substantives. These compounds, which are very numerous, are in general

=AN′TIARINE= (-ĭn; -ti′——Brande). [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ AN′THIARINE, Eng.,
Fr.; ANTIARI′NA, ANTHIARI′NA, ANTIA′′RIA, UPA′SIA (-zh′ă), L. The active
principle of the upas poison of Java. It is extracted from the partially
inspissated juice (upas poison) of the upas tree by alcohol, and may be
obtained under the form of small pearly crystalline scales by careful
evaporation.——_Prod._ About 3-1/2% (Mulder).

_Prop., &c._ Soluble in 27 parts of boiling water; freely soluble in
alcohol; scarcely so in ether; heat decomposes it. It is a frightful
poison, to which no antidote is known. Even a minute quantity introduced
into a wound rapidly brings on vomiting, convulsions, and death. “It
renders the heart insensible to the stimulus of the blood.” (Sir B.

=ANTI-ATTRI′′TION= (-trĭsh′-) [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ ANTIFRICTION GREASE,
plumbago (black lead), finely powdered and sifted, so as to be perfectly
free from grit, is gradually added, through a sieve, to 5 times its weight
of good lard contained in an iron pan and rendered semi-fluid, but _not_
liquid, by a gentle heat; the mass being vigorously stirred with a strong
wooden spatula, after each addition, until the mixture is complete, and
the composition smooth and uniform. The heat is then gradually raised
until the whole liquefies, when the vessel is removed from the fire to a
cool situation, and the stirring, which should have been unremitted,
continued until the mixture is quite cold. It is applied in the cold
state, with a brush, about once a day, according to the velocity of the
parts; and is said to be fully 3-4ths cheaper in use than oil, tallow,
tar, or any of the ordinary compo’s. When intended for uses in which it
will be exposed to warmth, and consequent waste by dripping, a part, or
even the whole of the lard is replaced by hard strained grease or tallow,
or a little bees’ wax is added during its manufacture.

2. Black lead, 1 part; tallow or grease, 4 parts; ground together until
perfectly smooth, either with or without camphor, 3 to 5 _lbs._ per cwt.
Expired patent.

3. Scotch soda, 60 _lbs._; water, 30 _galls._; dissolve in a capacious
boiler, and palm oil and hard tallow, of each 1-1/4 _cwt._, and having
withdrawn the heat, stir vigorously as before, until the mass is
homogeneous and nearly solidified. In hot weather the proportion of tallow
is increased, and that of the palm oil diminished; in winter, the reverse.
Used for the axles of railway carriages and other coarse purposes. For
express trains all tallow is usually employed, irrespective of the
weather or season.

4. Melt, but avoid boiling, 16 _lbs._ tallow, and dissolve in it 2-1/4
_lbs._ of sugar of lead; then add 3 _lbs._ of black antimony. The mixture
must be constantly stirred till cold. This composition is for cooling the
necks of shafts, and may be of service where the shafts are not of the
proper length, or the bearings are at fault.

5. Lard, 2-1/2 _lbs._; camphor, 1 _oz._; black lead, 1/2 _lb._ Rub the
camphor in a mortar, into a paste with a small portion of the lard; then
add the remainder of the lard and the black lead, and thoroughly mix.

6. (_Railway Grease._)——For summer use, tallow, 1 _cwt._ 3 _qrs._; palm
oil, 1 _cwt._ 1 _qr._ For autumn or spring, tallow, 1 _cwt._ 2 _qrs._;
palm oil, 1 _cwt._ 2 _qrs._ For winter, tallow, 1 _cwt._ 1 _qr._; palm
oil, 1 _cwt._ 3 _qrs._ Melt the tallow in a boiler, then add to it the
palm oil as soon as the mixture boils, and put out the fire. When the
mixture, which should now be frequently stirred, has cooled down to blood
heat (98° to 100° F.), it should be run through a sieve into a solution of
from 56 to 60 _lbs._ of soda in about 3 _galls._ of water. Thoroughly mix
by stirring.

7. Bean or rye flour, 1 _cwt._; water, 6 _cwt._; mix to a smooth paste,
raise the heat until the mixture boils, and stir in first of milk of lime
(of about the consistence of cream), 7 _cwt._; resin-oil, 10 _cwt._; and
stir vigorously until cold. Inferior.

8. (Booth’s.)——_a._ From Scotch soda, 1/2 _lb._; boiling water, 1 _gall._;
palm oil or tallow, or any mixture of them, 10 _lbs._; as before,
observing to continue the stirring until the mixture has cooled down to
60° or 70° Fahr.

_b._ Soda, 1/2 _lb._; water and rape-oil, of each 1 _gall._; tallow or
palm-oil, 1/2 _lb._; as last. Expired patent.

9. (Mankettrick’s.) From caoutchouc (dissolved in oil of turpentine), 4
_lbs._; Scotch soda, 10 _lbs._; glue, 1 _lb._; (dissolved in) water, 10
_galls._; oil, 10 _galls._; thoroughly incorporated by assiduous stirring,
adding the caoutchouc last.

10. (LIARD, Fr.). Finest rape-oil, 1 _gall._; caoutchouc (cut small), 3
_oz._; dissolve with heat.

_Uses, &c._ To lessen friction in machinery, prevent the bearings rusting,
&c. The simplest are perhaps the best. Of late years several different
liquid hydrocarbons obtained from coal, and particularly paraffin oil,
have been extensively employed in this way. See FRICTION, LUBRICATION, &c.

epithet of medicines that are supposed to remove ailments depending on
disordered action of the liver. Aperients, mercurials, and aloetic
purgatives generally, belong to this class. See ABERNETHY MEDICINES, BILE,
PILLS, &c.


=ANTI-CHOLERA ACID= (H. Ludwig, Vienna; also an American preparation). “A
proved cure and preventive of cholera.” Diluted sulphuric acid, 1 part;
wine, 5 parts; water, 10 parts. (Hager, Buchner, and Wittstein.)

=ANTI-CHOLERA WATER= (Eau Anticholerique de Duboc, Paris), for lead colic
and a preventive of cholera. Composed of water with some brandy and 1/2
per cent. of sulphuric acid. (Gmelin.)

=AN′TICHLORE= (-klōre). Among _bleachers_, any substance, agent, or means,
by which the pernicious after-affects of chlorine are prevented. Washing
with a weak solution of sulphite of soda (which converts any adhering
‘bleaching salt’ into sulphate, sulphide, or chloride) is commonly adopted
for this purpose. Recently chloride of tin, used in the same way, has been
recommended. A cheap sulphite of lime, prepared by agitating milk of lime
with the fumes of burning sulphur, and draining and air-drying the
product, has been lately patented in England and America, by Prof.
Horsford, under the name of ‘ANTICHLORIDE OF LIME,’ See BLEACHING, &c.

=AN′TIDOTE= (-dōte). [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ ANTID′OTUM, ANTID′OTUS, L.;
ANTIDOT, GEGENGIFT, Ger. In _medicine_, _toxicology_, &c., a substance
administered to counteract or lessen the effects of poison.

The principal poisons, with their antidotes, are noticed under their
respective heads. Also see POISONS, TOXICOLOGY, &c.

=ANTI-EPILEPTICUM= (Wepler, Berlin), known as Wepler’s Krampfpulver.
Magnesia alba, 5 parts; rad. dictamni, 15 parts; rad. zedoar, 12 parts;
rad. artemis, 8 parts; soot, 1/2 part; ol. valerian, 1/2 part; ol.
cajeputi, 1/4 part.

Dr Hager is the authority for the above, and he adds that formerly the
same proprietor sold a remedy which consisted of a black powder made by
carbonising hempen thread.

=ANTIFER′MENT= (pop. and more us., in this sense, _an′tiferment′_). [Eng.,
Fr.] _Syn._ ANTIFERMEN′TUM, L. Any substance which prevents or arrests
fermentation. Several nostrums are sold under this name in the
cider-districts. The following are tried and useful formulæ:——

_Prep._ 1. Sulphite (not sulph_ate_) of lime, in fine powder, 1 part;
marble-dust, ground oyster-shells, or chalk, 7 parts; mix, and pack tight,
so as to exclude the air.

2. Sulphite (not sulph_ate_) of potassa, 1 part; new black-mustard seed
(ground in a pepper-mill), 7 parts; mix, and pack so as to perfectly
exclude air and moisture. _Dose_ (of either), 1/2 _oz._ to 1-1/2 _oz._ per

3. Mustard-seed, 14 _lbs._; cloves and capsicum, of each 1-1/4 _lb._; mix,
and grind them to powder in a pepper-mill. _Dose_, 1/4 to 1/2 _lb._ per

_Uses, &c._ The above formulæ are infinitely superior to those commonly
met with in trade; and are quite harmless. A portion of any one of them
added to cider, or perry, soon allays fermentation, when excessive, or
when it has been renewed. The first formula is preferred when there is a
tendency to acidity. The second and third may be advantageously used for
wine and beer, as well as for cider. That of the third formula greatly
improves the flavour and the apparent strength of the liquor, and also
improves its keeping qualities. See CELLAR-MANAGEMENT, FERMENTATION, &c.

=ANTI-FRIC′TION METAL.= _Prep._ 1. From tin, 16 to 20 parts; antimony, 2
parts; lead, 1 part; fused together, and then blended with copper, 80
parts. Used where there is much friction or high velocity.

2. Zinc, 6 parts; tin, 1 part; copper, 20 parts. Used when the metal is
exposed to violent shocks.

3. Lead, 1 part; tin, 2 parts; zinc, 4 parts; copper, 68 parts. Used when
the metal is exposed to heat.

4. (Babbet’s.) Tin, 48 to 50 parts; antimony, 5 parts; copper, 1 part.

5. (Fenton’s.) Tin with some zinc, and a little copper.

6. (Ordinary.) Tin, or hard pewter, with or without a small portion of
antimony or copper. Without the last it is apt to spread out under the
weight of heavy machinery. Used for the bearings of locomotive engines,

_Obs._ These alloys are usually supported by bearings of brass, into which
it is poured after they have been tinned, and heated and put together with
an exact model of the axle, or other working piece, plastic clay being
previously applied, in the usual manner, as a lute or outer mould. Soft
gun-metal is also excellent, and is much used for bearings. They all
become less heated in working than the harder metals, and less grease or
oil is consequently required when they are used. See ALLOYS, FRICTION, &c.

=ANTIGUG′GLER.= A small bent tube of glass or metal inserted into casks
and carboys, to admit air over the liquor whilst it is being poured out or
drawn off, so that the sediment may not be disturbed.

=ANTIHECTICUM POTERII.= Fuse together 4 parts of regulus of antimony, and
5-1/2 of fine tin; pour it on a metal plate, reduce it to powder, and
deflagrate it in a red-hot crucible with 15 parts of nitre; keep it hot
for some time, then wash it, and dry it with a gentle heat.——_Dose_, two
to ten grains in hectic fevers.


=ANTIMO′′NIAL= (-mōne′y-′ăl).[67] [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ ANTIMONIA′LIS, L.
Pertaining to, composed of, or containing antimony. In _medicine_ and
_pharmacy_, applied to preparations or remedies (ANTIMO′′NIALS;
ANTIMONIA′′LIA, L.) in which antimony, or one of its compounds, is the
leading or characteristic ingredient.

[Footnote 67: Antimon′ial (——Mayne) is a barbarism.]

=ANTIMO′NIATED.= _Syn._ ANTIMONIA′TUS, L. Mixed or impregnated with
antimony; antimonial.


_Prep._ 1. Pure metallic antimony, in coarse powder, or small fragments,
is digested in excess of concentrated nitric acid, until the oxidation and
conversion is complete; the excess of nitric acid is then removed by
evaporation nearly to dryness, and the residuum thrown into cold distilled
water; after which the powder (ANTIMONIC ACID) is collected on a calico
filter, washed with distilled water, and dried by a gentle heat. Pure.

2. Metallic antimony (in powder), 1 part; powdered nitre, 6 or 8 parts;
are mixed and ignited or deflagrated in a silver crucible; the mass, when
cold, is powdered; the excess of alkali washed out with hot water, and the
residuum (ANTIMONIATE OF POTASSIUM) decomposed with hydrochloric acid;
lastly, the precipitate (ANTIMONIC ACID) is washed and dried as before.

That obtained by the first process is dibasic, and has the formula
H_{2}Sb_{2}O_{6}, while that produced by the second process is tetrabasic,
and has the formula H_{4}Sb_{2}O_{7}; the former is called simply
antimonic acid, the latter metantimonic acid.

_Prop._ Antimonic acid is a soft white powder, sparingly soluble in water,
reddens litmus, and is dissolved, even in the cold, by strong hydrochloric
acid and by potash. The hydrochloric solution, mixed with a small quantity

of water, yields, after a while, a precipitate of antimonic acid; but if
diluted with a large quantity of water, it remains clear. Ammonia does not
dissolve it in the cold. By heating with a large excess of caustic potash
it is converted into metantimonic acid.

Metantimonic acid is more readily dissolved by acids than antimonic acid,
and is dissolved by ammonia, after a while, even at ordinary temperatures.
It is also perfectly soluble in a large quantity of water, and is
precipitated therefrom by acids. It is very unstable, and easily changes
into antimonic acid, even in water.

ANTIMONIC ACID, PENTOXIDE OF ANTIMONY. Antimonic or metantimonic acid,
heated to a temperature below redness, loses water and yields the
anhydride, Sb_{2}O_{5}. Antimonic anhydride is a yellowish-white powder,
tasteless and insoluble in water and acids. Boiled with a solution of
caustic potash, it is dissolved. If fused with carbonate of potassium,
carbonic anhydride is expelled, and a salt is produced from which
antimonic acid is precipitated by acids.


or containing antimony. See HYDROGEN, &c.

SPIESSGLANZMETALL, Ger.; ANTIMONIO, It., Sp. The term formerly applied to
the native sulphide or greyish-black semi-crystalline ore of antimony; but
now solely appropriated to the pure metal.

_Sources._ Metallic antimony, in combination with silver and iron (NATIVE
ANTIMONY), with sulphur (GREY SULPHIDE OF A.), or with nickel
(NICKELIF′EROUS SULPHIDE OF A.) is found in Bohemia, Hungary, Germany,
Sweden, France, England, Borneo, and America; and oxidised, combined with
oxide of iron, &c. (ANTIMO′′NIAL, O′CHRE, RED ANTIMONY, WHITE A.[68]),
forming ores, either small in quantity or of little value, in various
parts of the world. Of these the only one in sufficient abundance for
smelting is the common sulphide known as ‘grey antimony’ or ‘stibnite.’

[Footnote 68: White A. occurs in considerable quantities in Borneo, and is
used after roasting as a white pigment for iron and other surfaces.]


  _a_, _b_, Grate and fire-place.
  _c_, Bridge.
  _d_, Air-channel.
  _e_, Concave space for ore, resting on a solid bed _f_, formed of
      sand and clay.
  _g_, Door for introducing the ore, and abstracting residuary slag.
  _h_, Pipe to convey away the liquid metal.
  _i_, Chimney.]

_Prep._ Native antimony is freed from impurities by fusion. The sulphide,
after being melted from the gangue, is commonly oxidised by exposure on
the concave hearth of a reverberatory furnace, and is then reduced to the
metallic state by fusion in crucibles with coal-dust, crude tartar, or
some other deoxidising agent. To free the product from iron, it is
generally fused, or re-fused, with a little antimonic oxide; and when the
ore contains arsenic, iron, or its oxide, and an alkaline carbonate or
sulphate, are used in the same way. It is seldom prepared on the small
scale. The following formulæ are in use, or are recommended:——

1. On the SMALL SCALE:——

_a._ From tersulphide of antimony, in coarse powder, 2 parts; iron
filings, 1 part; fused together in a covered crucible, at a heat gradually
raised to dull redness.

_b._ From the teroxide or the oxychloride of antimony, fused together, as
before, with twice its weight of crude tartar.

_c._ (Ph. Castr. Ru. 1840.) Sulphide of antimony, 16 parts; cream of
tartar, 6 parts; both in powder; throw the mixture, in small quantities at
a time, into a vessel (an earthen crucible) heated to redness; when the
reaction is over (having closely covered the vessel), fuse the mass, and
after a quarter of an hour pour it out, and separate the metal from the

_d._ From sulphide of antimony, 8 parts; crude tartar, 6 parts; nitre, 3
parts; as last.

_e._ (Wöhler.) Sulphide of antimony, 10 parts; nitre, 12 parts; dry
carbonate of soda, 15 parts; deflagrate together; powder the resulting
mass, and wash it thoroughly with boiling water; lastly, smelt the dried
residuum with black flux. All the preceding are nearly pure; the impurity,
if any, being traces of copper, lead, or iron.

_f._ (Berzelius.) From metallic antimony, in fine powder, 2 parts;
teroxide of antimony, 1 part; fused together. The product will be pure
provided the antimony employed is free from lead.

_g._ (Muspratt.) From antimony, 9 parts; peroxide of manganese, 1 part;
fused together; the resulting metal being re-fused with 1-10th of its
weight of carbonate of soda.

2. On the LARGE SCALE——commercial:——

_a._ See _above_ (before 1 _a_.).

_b._ From sulphide of antimony, 100 parts; iron (in very small scraps), 40
parts; dry crude sulphate of soda, 10 parts; powdered charcoal, 2-1/2
parts; fused together.——_Prod._ 60 to 65 parts of antimony, besides the
scoriæ or ash, which is also valuable.

_c._ (Berthier.) Sulphide of antimony, 100 parts; hammerschlag (rough
oxide or iron from the shingling or rolling mills), 60 parts; crude
carbonate or sulphate of soda, 45 to 50 parts; charcoal powder, 10 parts;
as last.——_Prod._ 65 to 70 parts.

_Prop., &c._ Bluish-white, lustrous, with a lamellar texture, and a
crystalline or semi-crystalline fracture, with fern-leaf markings on the
surface, when pure (star antimony); extremely brittle (may be powdered);
imparts brittleness to its alloys (even 1-1000th part added to gold
renders it unfit for the purposes of coinage and the arts); melts at
809-810° Fahr., or just under redness; fumes, boils, and volatilises at a
white heat, and, when suddenly exposed to the air, inflames with
conversion into the teroxide, which is deposited in beautiful flowers or
crystals; when perfectly pure and fused without contact with air or
foreign matter, it bears an intense heat without subliming (Thénard);
allowed to cool slowly from a state of perfect fusion, it crystallises in
octahedrons or dodecahedrons; tarnishes, but does not rust by exposure to
air or moisture at common temperatures; hot hydrochloric acid dissolves
it, with the formation of TRICHLORIDE OF ANTIMONY; nitric acid, when
concentrated, converts it into ANTIMONIC ACID; and when dilute, into
TRIOXIDE OF ANTIMONY. Sp. gr. 6·7 to 6·8.[69]

[Footnote 69: When perfectly pure, 6715——Ure.]

_Tests._ Metallic antimony may be recognised by the above properties; its
oxide, salts, &c., by the following reactions:——1. Sulphuretted hydrogen
gives, with acid solutions, an orange-red precipitate, which is sparingly
soluble in ammonia,[70] and insoluble in dilute acids; but readily soluble
in pure potassa and alkaline sulphides, and in hot hydrochloric acid with
the evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen gas:——2. Sulphydrate of ammonium
gives an orange-red precipitate, readily soluble in excess of the
precipitant, if this latter contains sulphur in excess; and the liquor
containing the re-dissolved precipitate gives a yellow or orange-yellow
precipitate on the addition of an acid:——3. Ammonia and potassa, and their
carbonates, give (except in solutions of tartar emetic) a bulky white
precipitate; that with ammonia and its carbonate being insoluble in excess
of the precipitant; that with potassa, readily so; whilst that with
carbonate of potassium is only soluble on the application of heat:——4. A
rod of zinc throws down metallic antimony, as a black powder, from all its
solutions not containing free nitric acid. If the experiment be made with
a few drops of a solution of antimony containing a little free
hydrochloric acid, and a small platinum dish or capsule be employed, the
part covered by the liquid is soon stained brown or blackish, and the
stain is irremovable by cold hydrochloric acid, but may be easily removed
by warm nitric acid:——5. By ebullition of the acidulated liquid along with
copper gauze, foil, or wire, as noticed under ‘Reinsch’s Test.’[71] The
peculiar violet-grey of the deposit is characteristic, and may easily be
distinguished from that given by arsenical solutions:——6. Mixed with
dilute sulphuric acid and poured on some metallic zinc in a gas-generating
flask, provided with a small bent tube (see _engr._), it yields
ANTIMONETTED HYDROGEN (Marsh’s test), recognised by burning with a
bluish-green flame, and furnishing dense white fumes which adhere readily
to any cold substance (as a porcelain plate) held over it; or, if the
plate be depressed upon the flame, a deep black, and almost lustreless
spot of metallic antimony; the fumes and spots in both cases being
insoluble in water, and in dilute solution of chloride (crude
hypochlorite) of soda. On heating the centre of the tube to redness with a
spirit lamp, the bluish-green colour of the flame lessens in intensity,
and a mirror of metallic antimony, of silvery lustre, forms inside the
tube at the ignited part. On passing dry sulphuretted hydrogen through the
tube, still heated by a spirit lamp, this mirror assumes a reddish-yellow
colour, approaching black in its thicker parts; and by exposure to a
feeble stream of hydrochloric acid gas, almost immediately, or in a few
seconds, disappears, being carried off by the gas, which, if passed into a
little distilled water, yields a solution of chloride of antimony, which
may be further submitted to any of the usual tests.[71] If the substance
be in the solid state, it must be reduced to powder and dissolved in
water; or if insoluble in that menstruum, a solution must be obtained by
digestion in either hot hydrochloric or nitrohydrochloric acid, before
proceeding to examine it by this method.

[Footnote 70: The like precipitate from a solution of antimonic acid in
hydrochloric acid, dissolves readily in ammonia, particularly when

[Footnote 71: See ARSENIOUS ACID.]


  _a_, Flask containing the suspected fluid, dilute sulphuric acid,
      and zinc.
  _b_, Small tube, at the one end having an almost capillary
      orifice, where the gas is inflamed.
  _c_, Spirit-lamp.
  _d_, Support.]

_Estim._ Antimony is generally WEIGHED under the form of tersulphide; but
sometimes as antimonious anhydride, and——though more seldom——as pure

1. A solution being obtained as above, if necessary, it is strongly
acidulated with tartaric acid, and the antimony thrown down as a sulphide
by a stream of sulphuretted hydrogen. After warming the solution and
allowing it to cool, the precipitate (TERSULPHIDE) is collected on a
filter, dried, and weighed. A small portion digested in strong
hydrochloric acid will completely dissolve if it be the pure sulphide; in
which case the quantity of ANTIMONY sought will be equal to 71-1/2%
(71·5%) of the weight of the sulphide found (very nearly).[72] Should only
part of the precipitate be soluble, a known weight of it may be introduced
into a flask, and a considerable quantity of fuming nitric acid added,
drop by drop, and afterwards, a little hydrochloric acid, the mixture
being digested, at a gentle heat, until the reaction is complete, and the
whole of the sulphur is dissolved. The resulting solution diluted with
water, strongly acidulated with tartaric acid, and solution of chloride of
barium added as long as it disturbs the liquid, yields a precipitate, of
which the weight, after it has been thoroughly washed, dried, and gently
ignited, multiplied by 136, gives the quantity of SULPHUR in the sample;
and which, deducted from the weight of the sulphide first found, gives the
quantity of pure ANTIMONY, as before.

[Footnote 72: Tersulphide of antimony dried at 212° Fahr. still retains
traces of water, which is not wholly expelled until the heat reaches
390-392°, when it acquires a black colour and a crystalline appearance.]

2. The quantity of PURE ANTIMONY in commercial samples may be determined
by treating them (in powder) with nitric acid, which oxidises the antimony
and leaves it in an insoluble state, whilst it dissolves the other metals.
The resulting oxide is collected on a filter, washed, dried, ignited in an
open porcelain crucible, and weighed——its weight multiplied by ·7898 gives
the quantity of pure metal sought.

3. Dissolve a known weight of the sample in hydrochloric acid, immerse a
blade of pure metallic tin in the solution, and keep the liquor acidulous,
and in a state of gentle ebullition by the heat of a sand bath, when the
whole of the ANTIMONY will be precipitated under the form of a black
powder, and may be collected, washed, dried, and weighed. This is
particularly adapted to alloys of antimony and tin. See _Tests_ (above)
and _Pur._ (below).

_Pur._ The antimony of commerce generally contains a little arsenic, with
variable quantities of iron, lead, sulphur, and tin. These impurities may
be thus detected:——

1. (Arsenic.) By fusing the sample, in powder, mixed with about an equal
weight of tartrate or bitartrate of potassium, in a covered crucible, for
2 or 3 hours, and placing the resulting button, which is an alloy of
antimony and potassium, in a ‘Marsh’s apparatus’ along with a little
water, when the disengagement of hydrogen gas will commence, and may be
tested in the usual manner. See ARSENIC.

2. (Iron.) Dissolve the powdered sample in nitrohydrochloric acid, dilute
the solution with a large quantity of cold water, filter, and pass a
current of sulphuretted hydrogen through the filtrate as long as it
produces a precipitate; again filter, boil the filtered liquor for a few
minutes to drive off the sulphuretted hydrogen, and then test it with
ferrocyanide of potassium, which will give a blue precipitate if iron be
present; or supersaturate the last filtrate with ammonia, and then add
hydrosulphydrate of ammonium, when, under like conditions, a black
precipitate will be formed.

3. (Lead.) Digest the powdered sample in hot nitric acid, which will
dissolve out the LEAD but leave the antimony behind. The whitish powdery
residuum may be washed, dried, ignited, and weighed, as above; the clear
decanted liquor may now be mixed with the first washings, evaporated to
dryness, the residuum re-dissolved in water, and the solution submitted to
reagents (see LEAD). If lead is found to be present, a solution of
sulphate of sodium may be added until it ceases to disturb the liquid, and
the resulting precipitate (sulphate of lead) washed, dried, and gently
ignited (alone) in a porcelain crucible; the weight of the ignited
residuum furnishes a number which, multiplied by ·683, gives the weight of
the LEAD sought.

4. (Sulphur.) The solution in nitrohydrochloric acid, when tested with
either nitrate or chloride of barium, gives a white precipitate of
sulphate of barium, insoluble in both water and acids, which when dried,
ignited, and weighed, and the weight multiplied by ·136, gives the
quantity of SULPHUR as before. In this case, as with the sulphides (see
_above_), free sulphur maybe removed by digesting and washing the powdered
sample in bisulphide of carbon, previous to its solution in the acid, by
which the violence of the subsequent reaction will be lessened.

5. (Tin.) Two samples of equal weight are taken; the one is tested for
ANTIMONY, as described above; the other is dissolved in a mixture of equal
parts of hydrochloric and nitrohydrochloric acid, and a blade of zinc
immersed in the solution (see _above_); the mixed precipitate of tin and
antimony which forms is collected on a weighed filter, washed, dried, and
weighed. The weight of antimony in the first sample subtracted from that
now obtained, leaves a remainder which indicates the quantity of TIN in
the original sample.

_Phys. eff., &c._ Nearly all the salts and preparations of antimony are
emetic and cathartic, and in large doses poisonous——occasioning vomiting,
profuse alvine dejections, acute colic, and inflammation of the stomach
and bowels, often serious, though rarely resulting in death. TARTAR EMETIC
and BUTTER OF ANTIMONY are those from which accidents have principally
occurred.——_Ant., &c._ Copious vomiting, if it has not already occurred,
should be promoted, and the recently prepared hydrated sulphide of iron
administered in considerable doses, followed or accompanied by
mucilaginous drinks and diuretics. If much prostration follows, wine and
stimulants may be had recourse to. In the absence of hydrated sulphide of
iron, a solution of tannin, or decoction of galls; cinchona, or oak bark,
or even powdered cinchona, mixed with tepid water, may be administered.

_Uses._ In the _arts_, antimony enters into the composition of several
&c. It is added to the alloy for concave mirrors, to give them a finer
texture; to bell metal, to render it more sonorous; and to various other
metals to increase their hardness and fusibility; for the latter purpose
it is employed in the casting of cannon balls.

_Concluding Remarks._ In ‘roasting’ or oxidising the native sulphide of
antimony on the bed of the reverberatory furnace, as in the common method
before referred to, care must be taken to regulate and gradually raise the
heat, which, until towards the end of the process, need not be extreme,
and then only should it approach dull redness. Without this precaution
much of the undecomposed sulphide will be lost by volatilisation. During
the whole time the ‘charge’ should also be well stirred with an iron
spatula, to ensure the constant exposure of every part of it to the
atmosphere. The process is complete when the whole mass assumes a
greyish-white appearance. Earthen crucibles are commonly employed for the
subsequent reduction, and after being charged and covered over with ground
charcoal, are heated in a reverberatory furnace. The product is the crude
metallic antimony of commerce. It is generally REFINED by smelting it with
about 1-8th of its weight of the refined sulphide, and about 1-4th of its
weight of carbonate or sulphate of soda; but if there be much iron
present, more of the sulphide——even 1-4th——may be required; for unless
there be sufficient sulphur to combine with the whole of the iron, the
arsenic will not be oxidised, but remain as a contamination. When cold,
the metal is carefully separated from the slag, and is frequently re-fused
with a little fresh carbonate of soda (1 to 1-1/2 part); after which it is
cast into pigs, lumps, or ingots. The crude metal, thus treated, commonly
yields 94% of REFINED METAL of tolerable purity.

Should lead have been present in the sulphide or ore, it remains after a
second, or even a third fusion, although proportionately reduced in
quantity; and it can only be completely separated in the humid way. It is,
therefore, always desirable to select an ore free from lead.

ANTIMO′′NII, ANTIMO′′NIUM CALCINA′TUM*, L. Prepared by roasting the common
grey sulphide of antimony on an iron plate set under a chimney, to carry
off the fumes. The product is a mixture of teroxide of antimony, with some
unburnt sulphide, and a little antimonious acid.

_Prop., &c._ Ash-grey; emetic in small doses. Used chiefly as a cheap
substitute for teroxide of antimony by the manufacturers of tartar emetic;
also to make metallic antimony.

=Antimony, Butt′er of.= See ANTIMONY, TRICHLORIDE OF.

=Antimony, Calx of.= _Syn._ CALX ANTIMO′′NII, L. Sometimes applied to
antimony-ash, but more commonly to crude, unwashed diaphoretic antimony.

=Antimony, Calx of= (Sul′phurated). _Syn._ ANTIMO′′NII CALX SULPHURA′TA,
L. _Prep._ (Hufeland.) Calcined oyster-shells, 10 parts; sulphur, 4 parts;
crude antimony, 3 parts; powder, mix, and calcine in a luted crucible for
an hour. Emetic, resolvent, and alterative.——_Dose_, 1 to 6 gr.; in gout,
rheumatism, scrofula, &c.

=Antimony, Ce′ruse of.= _Syn._ ANTIMO′′NII CERUS′SA, L. _Prep._ (Bate.) As
diaphoretic antimony (over which it possesses no advantage), merely using
the metal instead of the sulphide.

An old preparation made by igniting antimony in the sun’s rays, by means
of a lens, was called ANTIMONII CERUSSA SOLA′′RIS.

=Antimony, Chlo′′rides of= (klōre′-īdz):——

=1. Antimony, Trichloride of.= SbCl_{2}. _Syn._ TERCHLORIDE OF ANTIMONY,
ANTIMON-CHLORID, SPIESSGLANZ-BUTTER, Ger. This is the substance of which
common chloride, or butter of antimony, of the shops, is an impure
concentrated solution containing free acid.

_Prep._ 1. SOLID, ANHYDROUS:——

_a._ Pure commercial tersulphide of antimony, in coarse powder, 1 part;
concentrated hydrochloric acid, 5 parts; are mixed in a capacious
stoneware or glass vessel set under a chimney with a quick draught, to
convey away the fumes, the whole being constantly stirred, and, as the
effervescence slackens, a gradually increasing gentle heat applied until
solution is complete; the resulting liquid is put into a retort, and
distilled, until each drop of the distillate, as it falls into the aqueous
liquid which has previously passed over into the receiver, produces a
copious white precipitate; the receiver is then changed, and the
distillation continued, when pure TRICHLORIDE OF ANTIMONY passes over, and
solidifies on cooling to a white and highly crystalline mass, which must
be carefully excluded from the air.

_b._ From pure metallic antimony, 2 parts; bichloride of mercury, 5 parts;
both in fine powder; mixed and distilled in a retort with a large neck, by
a gentle sand-heat, into a suitable receiver. Chemically pure.

2. LIQUID:——


_Prep._ Take of black antimony, 1 _lb._; hydrochloric acid, 4 pints; place
the black antimony in a porcelain vessel; pour upon it the hydrochloric
acid, and, constantly stirring, apply to the mixture, beneath a flue with
a good draught, a gentle heat, which must be gradually augmented as the
evolution of gas begins to slacken, until the liquid boils. Maintain it at
this temperature for fifteen minutes; then remove the vessel from the
fire, and filter the liquid through calico into another vessel, returning
what passes through first, that a perfectly clear solution may be
obtained. Boil this down to the bulk of two pints, and preserve it in a
stoppered bottle.

_Characters and Tests._ A heavy liquid, usually of a yellowish-red colour.
A little of it dropped into water gives a white precipitate, and the
filtered solution lets fall a copious deposit on the addition of nitrate
of silver. If the white precipitate formed by water be treated with
sulphuretted hydrogen it becomes orange-coloured. The specific gravity of
the solution is 1·47. One fluid drachm of it mixed with a solution of a
quarter of an ounce of tartaric acid in four fluid ounces of water, forms
a clear solution, which, if treated with sulphuretted hydrogen, gives an
orange precipitate, weighing, when washed and dried at 212°, at least 22

_b._ (Commercial.)——_a._ Take of ash or calx of antimony, 3-1/4 _lbs._;
common salt, 2 _lbs._; oil of vitriol, 1-1/2 _lb._; water, 1 _lb._;
proceed as before. Prod., 2-1/2 _lbs._

_c._ From roasted sulphide or glass of antimony, 7 _lbs._; salt, 28
_lbs._; oil of vitriol, 21 _lbs._; water, 14 _lbs._; as before.

_d._ From crude sulphide of antimony (powdered), 25 _lbs._; strongest
commercial hydrochloric acid, 1 _cwt._; nitric acid, 3-1/2 _lbs._; as
before; the product being coloured with a little pernitrate of iron, and
made up to the sp. gr. 1·4. The quality is improved, and the process more
easily conducted, if the crude antimony is roasted before dissolving it in
the acid. The same applies to the other formulæ.

_Prop., &c._——_a._ SOLID. When pure, and nearly free from water, it
somewhat resembles butter, melts with a gentle heat, and partially
crystallises on cooling; is very deliquescent, and quickly passes into an
oily liquid when exposed to damp air; very soluble in strong hydrochloric
acid; water, according to its quantity, more or less decomposes it. When
perfectly pure and anhydrous, it forms a white and highly crystalline
mass, rapidly decomposed by air and moisture.——_b._ SOLUTION. The sp. gr.
of the solution of the shops varies from 1·25 to 1·4, in which state it is
a transparent fuming yellow liquid (unless when artificially coloured),
and extremely acid and caustic. Submitted to distillation, it at first
parts with its water and excess of acid, after which the salt itself is
volatilised. By changing the receiver as soon as the distillate concretes
on cooling, or produces a copious white precipitate on falling into the
liquid already passed over, the pure ANHYDROUS TRICHLORIDE may be readily

_Phys. eff., Ant., Lesions, &c._ See ANTIMONY.

_Uses._ In _medicine_, only externally, and chiefly as a caustic or
escharotic to the wounds caused by rabid and venomous animals, and to
repress excessive granulations in ulcers. In _pharmacy_, as a source of
both oxychloride and oxide of antimony. The residuum in the retort when
corrosive sublimate is used, is sulphide of mercury, and was formerly

=2. Antimony, Pentachlo′′ride of.= Sb_{2}Cl_{5}. _Syn._ PERCHLO′′RIDE OF
ANTIMONY; ANTIMO′′NII PENTACHLORI′DUM, L. Prepared by passing a stream of
chlorine gas over metallic antimony in fine powder, and gently heated. A
mixture of TRICHLORIDE and PENTACHLORIDE OF ANTIMONY is found in the
receiver, from which the latter may be separated by careful distillation.
It is a colourless volatile liquid, forming a crystalline compound with a
small quantity of water, but decomposed by a larger quantity.

=Antimony, Cro′cus of.= _Syn._ SAFF′RON OF ANTIMONY, LIV′ER OF A.; CRO′CUS
SAFFRAN D’A., Fr. _Prep._ 1. From black sulphide of antimony, and
saltpetre, equal parts, deflagrated together by small portions at a time,
and the fused mass (separated from the scoriæ) reduced to fine powder.

2. (ANT. CROCUS, Ph. L. 1788,) Sulphide of antimony, 1 lb.; nitre, 1 lb.;
common salt, 1 oz.; as before.

_Prop., &c._ Its medicinal properties closely resemble those of
diaphoretic antimony. It is a mixture of sulphate of potassium,
antimoniate of potassium, teroxide of antimony, oxysulphide of antimony,
sulphide of potassium, and undecomposed trisulphide of antimony, in
variable and undetermined proportions. When repeatedly washed or boiled in
water, and dried, it forms the WASHED SAFFRON OF ANTIMONY (C. A. LO′TUS,
L.) of old pharmacy, and has then lost its sulphate of potassium, caustic
potash, and sulphide of potassium. Formerly used to make tartar emetic.

=Antimony, Crude.= Native sulphide of antimony melted from the gangue.

=Antimony, Diaphoret′ic.= _Syn._ CALX OF ANTIMONY, CALCINED’ A.,
with numerous synonyms, of which the first two of the above are those
which are now chiefly in use.

_Prep._ 1. Sulphide of antimony, 1 part; nitre, 3 parts; powder, mix, and
deflagrate by spoonfuls in a red-hot crucible, then calcine for half an
hour, and when cold powder the residuum.

A. D. ABLU′TUM (Ph. Bor. 1847), A. CALCINA′TUM (Ph. L. 1788); ANTIMOINE
DIAPHORÉTIQUE LAVÉ, &c., Fr.:——_a._ (Ph. L. 1788.) As the last, but the
powder is subsequently deprived of soluble matter by repeated washings
with water, after which it is collected and dried.

_b._ (Ph. Bor. 1847.) Metallic antimony, 1 part; nitre, 2 parts; as above,
but drying the washed powder at a heat not exceeding 104° F.

_Prop., &c._ A white or greyish-white powder, without either smell or
taste; gently diaphoretic and laxative; its activity greatly depending on
the quantity of acid in the stomach.——_Dose_, 1 to 6 gr., or even 10 gr.;
for _horses_, 1 to 3 or 4 _dr._ It was formerly in high repute; but is now
almost superseded by the present pharmacopœial preparations.

=Antimony, E′thiops of.= _Syn._ Æ′THIOPS ANTIMONIA′LIS, L. _Prep._ 1. From
metallic mercury, 1 part; sulphide of antimony, 2 parts; triturated
together until the globules of the former entirely disappear.——2. Sulphide
of antimony, 3 parts; black sulphide of mercury, 2 parts; triturated
together for some time. An old remedy in certain skin diseases, still
highly esteemed by some provincial practitioners.——_Dose_, 3 to 5 gr.,
gradually increased to 20 or 30 gr.

=Antimony, Flow′ers of.= _Syn._ FLO′′RES ANTIMO′′NII, L.; FLEURS
D′ANTIMOINE, Fr. _Prep._ Throw powdered sulphide of antimony, by spoonfuls
at a time, into an ignited tubulated retort with a short and very wide
neck, until as many ‘flowers’ collect in the receiver as are required. An
impure oxysulphide of antimony, with variable portions of trioxide, and
undecomposed tersulphide. Emetic in doses of 1 to 3 grains.

=Antimony, Flowers of (Ar′gentine).= [-ĭn.] _Syn._ WHITE OX′IDE OF
metallic antimony in a vessel freely exposed to the air, and furnished
with a cool place for the ‘flowers’ to rest on, and collect them as
deposited; or, and what is better, heat the metal to a full red or white
heat in a covered crucible, and then suddenly expose it to the air, when
it will inflame, and the oxidised vapour condense as ‘flowers’ on any cool
surface (as a partially inverted wide-mouthed flask) held at a little
distance over it. The product is TRIOXIDE OF ANTIMONY in a crystalline
form, and received the name of argentine flowers from its silvery
whiteness and beauty.

=Antimony, Flowers of (Helmont’s).= _Syn._ FLO′′RES ANTIMO′′NII
HELMON′TII. An old preparation formed by dissolving sulphide of antimony
in aqua regia, expelling the free water and acid by heat, and subliming
the residuum with an equal weight of sal ammoniac. Violently emetic, even
in small doses, and unfit for internal use.

=Antimony, Flowers of (Red).= _Syn._ FLO′′RES ANTIMO′′NII RU′BRI, L. From
sulphide of antimony, and sal ammoniac, both in fine powder, mixed and
sublimed together. Resembles the last.

=Antimony, Ful′minating.= See FULMINATING COMPOUNDS.

=Antimony, Glass of.= _Syn._ VIT′RIFIED ANTIMONY*, V. OX′IDE OF A.*, GREY
Roast sulphide of antimony in a shallow earthen vessel, over a moderate
fire, stirring it constantly with an iron rod, until it turns whitish-grey
and ceases to emit fumes at a red heat; put the residuum into a covered
crucible which it shall only two thirds fill, and expose it to an intense
heat (gradually raised), until it fuses, then pour it out on an iron
plate. If calcined too much, a little more crude antimony may be added to
make it run well.

_Comp., Prop., &c._ A mixture of sulphide and oxide of antimony
contaminated with a little silica and iron. In fine powder it is emetic,
in doses of 1 to 3 gr.; but owing to the uncertainty and violence of its
operation, is now seldom employed. It has been used as a cheap source of
the TEROXIDE by the manufacturers of tartar emetic.

=Antimony, Glass of (Cera′′ted).= _Syn._ ANTIMO′′NII VIT′RUM CERA′TUM, L.
_Prep._ (Dr Young & Ph. L. 1746.) Glass of antimony, in very fine powder,
1 oz.; yellow wax, 1 dr.; melt together in an iron ladle, and keep it over
a gentle fire free from flame (constantly stirring) for about half an
hour, or until it acquires a snuff colour, then pour it out on a piece of
white paper (or a plate), and when cold, powder it.——_Dose_, 2 to 10 gr.,
in dysentery, &c.

=Antimony, Li′ver of.= _Syn._ HE′PAR ANTIMO′′NII, L.; HÉPAR D’ANTIMOINE,
OXYSULFURE D’ANTIMOINE SILICATÉ, Fr. _Prep._ From sulphide of antimony, 1
part; and dry carbonate of sodium or potassium, 2 parts; melted together,
and heated until it acquires the proper colour, and then cooled and

_Comp., Uses, &c._ A mixture of trioxide of antimony, sulphide of
potassium, carbonate of potassium, and undecomposed trisulphide of
antimony. It is chiefly used by farriers, in doses of 1 to 2 dr., as an
alterative purge for horses, in greasy heels, &c.; and sometimes by
chemists, as a source of the crude oxide. Crocus of antimony, before
noticed, sometimes passes under the name, and is sold for it.

=Antimony, Ore of.= _Syn._ ANTIMONY-ORE. Native sulphide of antimony.

=Antimony, Oxide of.= The B. P. name for Antimony, Trioxide of (which

=Antimony, Oxides of.= Antimony forms with oxygen three definite
compounds, viz the——

  Trioxide or antimonious
  oxide                              Sb_{2}O_{3}

  Tetroxide or antimonoso-antimonic               { or
  oxide                              Sb_{2}O_{4}  {Sb_{2}O_{3}.

  Pentoxide or antimonic
  oxide                              Sb_{2}O_{5}

=Antimony, Trioxide of.= Sb_{2}O_{3}. _Syn._ TEROXIDE OF ANTIMONY,
_Prep._ (B. P.) Take of solution of chloride of antimony, 16 fluid _oz._;
carbonate of soda, 6 _oz._; water, 2 _galls._; distilled water, a
sufficiency. Pour the antimonial solution into the water, mix thoroughly,
let the precipitate settle, remove the supernatant liquid by a siphon, add
one gallon of distilled water, agitate well, let the precipitate subside,
again withdraw the fluid, and repeat the processes of affusion of
distilled water, agitation, and subsidence. Add now the carbonate of soda
previously dissolved in two pints of distilled water, leave them in
contact for half an hour, stirring frequently, collect the deposit on
a calico filter, and wash with boiling distilled water until the washings
cease to give a precipitate with a solution of nitrate of silver
acidulated by nitric acid. Lastly, dry the product at a heat not exceeding

_Char. and Tests._ A greyish-white powder, fusible at a low red heat,
insoluble in water, but readily dissolved by hydrochloric acid. The
solution, dropped into distilled water, gives a white deposit, at once
changed to orange by sulphuretted hydrogen. It dissolves entirely when
boiled with an excess of the acid tartrate of potash.

_Uses._ Chiefly in making tartar emetic and some other salts of antimony;
also in the preparation of pulvis antimonialis. Therapeutically, it is a
diaphoretic and febrifuge.——_Dose_, 1 to 4 grains.

=Antimony, Pentoxide of.= See ANTIMONIC ANHYDRIDE.

=Antimony, Tetroxide of.= Sb_{2}O_{4} or Sb_{2}O_{3}.Sb_{2}O_{5}. _Syn._
or Antimony ochre. Prepared by heating antimonic anhydride, by roasting
the trioxide or trisulphide, or by the action of excess of nitric acid on
finely powdered metallic antimony. Thus prepared, it is a white solid,
unalterable by heat; slightly soluble in water, more so in hydrochloric

=Antimony, Oxychloride of.= SbOCl. _Syn._ POWDER OF ALGAROTH. Thrown down
as a white precipitate when trichloride of antimony is poured into water.
Continued washing with water deprives it of nearly the whole of its
chlorine, and converts it into the trioxide, a change which is more
completely effected by aqueous solutions of the alkalies or their

=Antimony, Oxysulphide of.= The compound Sb_{2}O_{3}.2Sb_{2}S_{3} occurs
native as red antimony. Antimony blende, Kermesome, Rothspiessglanzerz,
Crocus of antimony, Glass of antimony, and similar preparations, are
believed by some authorities to be crude oxysulphides of antimony. See

=Antimony, Red.= See OXYSULPHIDE OF ANTIMONY, before noticed.

=Antimony, Reg′ulus of.= _Syn._ REG′ULUS ANTIMO′′NII, L. Metallic antimony
obtained by fusion. Alloys formed by fusing antimony with iron, tin, lead,
or copper, and a little tartar, were respectively called MAR′TIAL REGULUS
OF ANTIMONY (_r. antimo′′nii martia′lis_, L.), R. A. JOVIA′LIS (L.), R. A.
SATURNI′NUS (L.), R. A. VEN′ERIS (L.), &c. (See _below_.)

=Antimony, Ru′by of.= _Syn._ MEDIC′INAL (-dĭs′-) REG′ULUS OF ANTIMONY;
sulphide of antimony, 5 parts; fused with carbonate of potassa, 1 part;
and the purified portion separated from the scoriæ. See LIVER OF ANTIMONY.

=Antimony, Saff′ron of.= See CROCUS OF ANTIMONY.

=Antimony, Smelt′ed.= _Syn._ ANTIMO′′NIUM PURIFICA′TUM, L. Crude antimony
melted and poured into small conical moulds.——_Uses, &c._ Same as the
ordinary tersulphide.

=Antimony, Snow of.= See ANTIMONY, FLOWERS OF.

=Antimony, Sulphurated.= B. P. _Syn._ OXYSULPHURET, or PRECIPITATED
_oz._ with solution of soda 4-1/2 pints, and boil for two hours, with
frequent stirring, adding distilled water occasionally to maintain the
same volume. Strain the liquor through calico, and before it cools add to
it by degrees dilute sulphuric acid till the latter is in slight excess.
Collect the precipitate on a calico filter, wash with distilled water till
the washings no longer precipitate with chloride of barium, and dry at a
temperature not exceeding 212° F.——_Dose_, 1 to 5 grains.

=Antimony, Sulphantimonate.= _Syn._ SCHLIPPE’S ANTIMONIAL SALT. Mix eight
parts of effloresced sulphate of soda, six of black antimony, and three of
charcoal, and expose to a red-heat in a covered Hessian crucible till the
fused mass ceases to throw up a scum. Boil the residue in a porcelain
vessel with one part of sulphur and sufficient distilled water, and set
the filtered liquor aside for crystallisation.

=Antimony, Pentasulphide of= (Sb_{2}S_{5}), is a yellowish-red powder,
obtained (1) by passing hydrosulphuric acid gas through a mixture of
pentachloride of antimony, water, and tartaric acid; or (2) through
antimonic anhydride suspended in water. It is insoluble in water; hot
hydrochloric acid decomposes it, producing trichloride of antimony,
sulphur, and hydrosulphuric acid. With the more basic metallic sulphides
it unites to form a class of salts called sulphantimonates.

=Antimony, Trisulphide of.= Sb_{2}S_{3}. _Syn._ TERSUL′PHIDE OF ANTIMONY,
SCHWEFEL-SPIESSGLANZ, ANDERTHALB, &c., Ger. This is the grey or
greyish-black substance commonly known as crude antimony, black antimony,
or sulphide of antimony, in commerce, and from which the other compounds
of antimony are chiefly obtained.

_Nat. hist., Sources, &c._ See ANTIMONY.

The crude ore is freed from earthy impurities in the following
manner:——The crushed ore is submitted to ‘eliquation’ in order to separate
the SULPHIDE from the gangue or earthy matter with which it is
contaminated; after which it is remelted and run into ‘loaves’ or large
cakes, in which form it is sent to market. Formerly the operation was
performed by introducing the ore into large pots or crucibles having a
hole in the bottom, and which, after being closely covered, were set in a
circle around a suitable furnace, by which they were heated. At the
present time the process is commonly conducted in a ‘reverberatory
furnace,’ similar to that figured in the _engraving_.


  _a_, _b_, Grate and fire-place.
  _c_, Bridge.
  _e_, Concave space for ore formed by a solid bed (_f_) of clay and
      sand, and having a ‘hole’ near the bottom extending nearly
      horizontally through the wall of the furnace to ‘run off’ the
      fused sulphide.
  _g_, Door for introducing ore, and removing residuum.
  _h_, Chimney.
  _i_, Damper, chain, and lever.]

Native trisulphide of antimony treated in this way and ground to powder

=Antimony, Trisulphide of= (artificially prepared). Saturate an aqueous
solution of tartar emetic with hydrosulphuric acid; an orange precipitate
will be thrown down. This precipitate, when collected on a filter, washed,
and dried, is the pure trisulphide.

_Prop., &c._ (_Native._) Anhydrous, inodorous, insipid, opaque, brittle,
easily pulverisable, and of a dark leaden-grey or steel colour; it has a
striated crystalline texture, and breaks with a rough spicular fracture;
is insoluble in both water and alcohol; soluble, with decomposition, in
hot strong acids and alkaline solutions; melts at a red heat, and is
partly dissipated in white fumes, leaving an impure grey-coloured oxide
mixed with some undecomposed tersulphide (ANTIMONY-ASH). Its powder is
black, of peculiar richness, and stains the fingers. Sp. gr. 4·6 to 4·62.
The pure precipitated (amorphous) tersulphide is of orange colour; is
darkened by a gentle heat, with loss of water, and at a higher temperature
passes from the amorphous to the crystalline condition, at the same time
that it assumes the colour and appearance of the native sulphide. It
dissolves in hot hydrochloric acid, evolving hydrosulphuric acid, and
producing a solution of trichloride of antimony.

_Pur._ The crude commercial sulphide frequently contains lead, iron,
copper, and arsenic, and sometimes manganese. Its goodness is commonly
estimated by its compactness and weight, the largeness and distinctness of
the striæ, and the volatility of its sulphide.

_Uses, &c._ Chiefly as a source of metallic antimony, and of the oxide in
the preparation of other antimonials. Exhibited alone, it possesses little
activity unless it meets with acid in the primæ viæ, when it occasionally
acts with considerable violence both as an emetic and cathartic.——_Dose_,
10 to 30 gr., in powder; as an alterative and diaphoretic in rheumatism,
gout, scrofula, and glandular affections, and in lepra, scabies, and some
other skin diseases. It is a favourite alterative in _veterinary
medicine_, particularly in skin diseases. Farriers and grooms frequently
mix a little of it with the food of horses to improve their coat and
promote their ‘condition,’——_Dose._ For a HORSE, 1 to 4 _dr._, in fine
powder, often combined with nitre and sulphur; for CATTLE, 1/2 to 1 _oz._,
or even 1-1/2 _oz._; DOGS, 5 or 6 to 20 or 30 gr.; HOGS, 20 to 30 gr.,
twice or thrice daily. According to Dr Paris, it is one of the ingredients
in Spilsbury’s Drops. It is also an ingredient in Tisane de Feltz.

=Antimony, Tartarated.= KSbOC_{4}H_{4}O_{6}.Aq. _Syn._ TARTARIZED
Eng.; ANTIMONIUM TARTARATUM, B. P. _Prep._ Various methods have been
devised for the preparation of this compound, but the following, which is
taken from the ‘British Pharmacopœia,’ is to be preferred:——

Take of oxide of antimony 5 _oz._, acid tartrate of potash in fine powder
6 _oz._, distilled water, 2 pints. Mix the oxide of antimony and acid
tartrate of potash with sufficient distilled water to form a paste, and
set aside for 24 hours. Then add the remainder of the water, and boil for
a quarter of an hour, stirring frequently. Filter, and set aside the clear
filtrate to crystallise. Pour off the mother-liquor, evaporate to one
third, and set aside, that more crystals may form. Dry the crystals on
filtering paper at the temperature of the air.

_Char. and Tests._ In colourless transparent crystals exhibiting
triangular facets, soluble in water, and less so in proof spirit. It
decrepitates and blackens upon the application of heat. Its solution in
water gives with hydrochloric acid a white precipitate, soluble in excess,
and which is not formed if tartaric acid be previously added. Twenty
grains dissolve without residue in a fluid ounce of distilled water at
60°, and the solution gives with sulphuretted hydrogen an orange
precipitate which, when washed and dried at 212°, weighs 9·91 grains.

_Phys. eff., Doses, &c._ Externally tartar emetic acts as a powerful local
irritant, causing a pustular eruption, which permanently marks the skin;
for this purpose it is used in the form of solution, ointment, or plaster.
Internally, in small doses (1/16 to 1/8, or even 1/6 gr.), it acts as a
diaphoretic and expectorant; in somewhat larger doses (1/6 to 1/2 gr.) it
excites nausea, and sometimes vomiting, occasioning depression and
relaxation, especially of the muscular fibre; in larger doses (1 to 2 or 3
gr.) it acts as an emetic and sudorific (and often as a purge), depressing
the nervous functions, and producing a feeling of feebleness, exhaustion,
and relaxation, greater than that caused by other emetics; in certain
doses (1/2 to 3, or even 4 gr.), it is used as a sedative and
antiphlogistic, to reduce the force of the circulation, _&c._; in
excessive doses it acts as an irritant poison, and has in some instances
caused death; and even small doses, frequently administered and long
continued, have brought on a state of weakness, prostration, and distaste
for food, which has led to a fatal termination. It is usually exhibited
dissolved in distilled water, either with or without the addition of a
little simple syrup. In acute rheumatism, inflammation of the lungs or
pleura, chorea, hydrocephalus, and apoplexy, it is said to have been given
in doses of 2 to 4, or even 6 gr., with advantage, by Laennec, Rasori, and
others; but these extreme doses are not always safe, and cannot be
commendable when smaller ones (1/4 to 1/2 gr., repeated every two hours)
appear equally beneficial, and distress the patient less.[73] In doses of
1/2 gr. to 3/4 gr. each, combined with calomel, it is a powerful and
excellent alterative in acute rheumatism and many skin diseases. Of all
our sudorifics it is perhaps the most valuable, and the one most generally
available. Triturated with 16 to 20 times its weight of sulphate of
potassa, it forms an excellent substitute for antimonial powder and
James’s powder, as a diaphoretic, in doses of 2 to 4 gr.

[Footnote 73: “In consequence of the violent vomiting” (and it might be
added——prostration) “which (even) 1 gr. has sometimes produced, I have
found patients positively refuse to continue the use of the medicine.”
Pereira ‘Th. & M. M.,’ 4th ed., i, 752.]

Whenever much gastric or intestinal irritation is present, tartar emetic
should be avoided, or very cautiously administered, and then combined with
an opiate, or some other sedative. It should also be given with caution to
children; as, according to Messrs Goodlad and Noble, even in small doses
it sometimes acts as a poison on them.

In _veterinary medicine_ it is employed to promote diaphoresis and
expectoration, and to reduce arterial action, particularly in fevers, and
catarrhal affections, the dose for HORSES being 20 gr. to 1 dr., or even
occasionally _1-1/2_ dr., in gruel, thrice daily; also sometimes as a
diuretic and vermifuge, in doses of 1 to 2 dr., combined with tin-filings,
for 2 or 3 successive days, followed by a purge of aloes. The usual dose
for CATTLE is 20 gr. to 1 dr.; SHEEP, 5 or 6 to 20 gr.; SWINE (chiefly as
an emetic), 2 to 5 or 6 gr.; DOGS (chiefly as an emetic), 1 to 3 gr. It is
sometimes, though seldom, used externally, as a counter-irritant, in chest
affections, &c.; but its employment thus requires caution.

_Pois., &c._ That from large doses has been already noticed under ANTIMONY
(which _see_). In poisoning the treatment is the entire disuse of all
antimonials, followed by tonics, a light nutritious diet, the use of
lemon-juice or ripe fruit, a little wine, warm baths, and mild
restoratives generally.

=Antimony, Tar′tarised.= See ANTIMONY, TARTARATED.

=Antimony, Vit′rified.= See ANTIMONY, GLASS OF.

=ANTI-MIASMATICUM.= A disinfecting powder, manufactured first in Berlin in
1866, and described as “prepared by steam.” Quicklime slaked with a
solution of sulphate of iron and mixed with turf ashes, also probably
containing some carbolic acid. Fluid anti-miasmaticum is a solution of
sulphate of iron in impure acetic acid. (Hager.)

ANTIPHLOGISTIQUE, Fr.; ANTIPHLOGISTISCH, Ger. In _medicine_, the common
epithet of remedies, agents, and treatment (ANTIPHLOGIS′TICS;
ANTIPHLOGISTICA, L.), which lessen inflammatory action, or allay the
excited state of the system which accompanies it. Of these the principal
are bleeding, purging, a low diet, cooling beverages (as water and
acidulous drinks), and sedatives generally.

=ANTIPSILOTHRON=, for preventing loss of hair (Hegewald, Berlin). A
brownish-yellow, clear, pleasant-smelling liquid, which consists of a
filtered extract of 2·5 grms. of nutgalls, with 50 grms. strong spirit and
30 grms. water; perfumed with several ethereal oils. The liquid is not
made turbid by dilution with water. Sold in square bottles containing
about 80 grms. The directions strongly recommend the supplementary use of
a Swiss “vegetable oil,” which probably Switzerland has never seen.

=ANTI-RHEUMATIC DROPS= (Roll, Amsterdam). A turbid, dark-brown liquid,
which consists of a solution of spirituous extract of aconite in a
decoction of couch-grass root, and to which some tincture of opium with
saffron and oil of valerian have been added.

=ANTI-RHEUMATIC SALVE, Mrs HUNGERFORD’S= (Wedecke, Berlin). Recommended
for acute and chronic rheumatism, gout, and nervous pains. Camphor, 1
grm.; carbolic acid, 1 grm.; simple cerate, 12 grms. (Schädler.)

against scurvy. In _medicine_, an epithet of remedies, agents, &c.
(ANTISCORBU′TICS; ANTISCORBU′TICA, L.), used in scurvy. Lemon-juice, ripe
fruit, milk, the salts of potassa, green vegetables, potatoes, meal-bread,
fresh meat, and raw or lightly boiled eggs, belong to this class.

FÄULNISSWIDRIG, Ger. An epithet of substances, agents, &c. (ANTISEP′TICS;
ANTISEP′TICA, L.), that impede, arrest, or prevent putrefaction. The
principal antiseptics in common use are culinary salt, saltpetre, spices,
sugar, vinegar, carbolic acid, creasote, and alcohol; to which may be
added intense cold, desiccation, and the exclusion of air. Among
ANTISEPTIC MEDICINES, bark, dilute acids, quinine, wine, spirits, camphor,
charcoal, and yeast, take the first rank. See PUTREFACTION, SOLUTIONS
(Antiseptic), &c.

ANTISPASMODIQUE, Fr.; KRAMPESTILLEND, Ger. In _medicine_, an epithet of
substances and agents (ANTISPASMOD′ICS; ANTISPASMOD′ICA, L.) which allay
spasms and convulsions. It is frequently incorrectly applied to anodynes
and narcotics, which soothe pain, but do not repress muscular spasm.
Ammonia, assafœtida, bark, camphor, castor, chalybeates, chloral hydrate,
chloroform, ether, Indian hemp and cannabine, musk, opium, saffron, and
valerian, with many other similar substances, are regarded as

=ANTI-SPASMODIC SYRUP=, for hooping-cough (Dessaga, Strasburg). A pleasant
syrup, leaving a slightly sharp taste, containing a little carbonate of
potash, and faintly coloured with rosaniline. (Hager.)

=ANTISUDIN=, a remedy for sweaty feet (Mandowski, Annaberg). Powdered
alum. (Hager.)


=AORT′A= [L., Ger.] _Syn._ AORTE, Fr. In _anatomy_, the main trunk of the
arterial system, arising immediately from the left ventricle of the heart,
and giving origin to all the other arteries of the body, except the
pulmonary artery and its ramifications, which permeate the air-vesicles of
the lungs.

=AP′ATITE= (-tīte). In _mineralogy_, native tricalcium phosphate
(phosphate of lime). It is found in Devonshire and Cornwall, and
abundantly in Spain, whence it is imported for use as manure, and recently
particularly for the manufacture of ARTIFICIAL GUANO. Its powder
phosphoresces on burning coals. It differs from phosphorite in not
containing fluorine.

Apatite (phosphate of lime of similar constitution to bone-earth,
Ca_{3}(PO_{4})_{2}) is found in every fertile soil, and of which it is an
essential ingredient.

=APE′′RIENT= (ă-pēre′-ĕ-ĕnt; -pĕr′-, as marked by Mayne and Smart, though
etym. correct, is less usual). _Syn._ APER′ITIVE (-tĭv); APER′IENS, L.;
APÉRITIF, Fr.; ABFÜHREND, ÖFFNEND, Ger. In _medicine_, opening, laxative,
gently purgative; usually applied as an epithet to substances and agents
(APE′RIENTS; APERIEN′TIA, APERITI′VA, L.) which, in moderate doses, and
under ordinary circumstances, gently, but completely, open the bowels; and
in this respect rank between the simple laxatives on the one hand, and the
stronger purgatives and cathartics on the other. Among these may be named
as examples——Aloes (when combined with soap or aromatics), Castile soap,
castor oil, compound extract of colocynth (in small doses), compound
rhubarb pill, confection of senna, cream of tartar, Epsom salts, Glauber’s
salt, phosphate of soda (tasteless purging salt), pil. rufi, seidlitz
powders, cold-water compress over the abdomen, &c. Several of these, in
larger doses, become active purgatives or cathartics. See PURGATIVES, also

=A′PIOL= (-pe-ōle; or -ŏl). _Prep._ The soft alcoholic extract of
parsley-seed is either digested or agitated for some time with ether;
after sufficient repose in a cool place, the ethereal solution is
decanted, and the ether removed by distillation; the residuum is purified
by solution in rectified spirit, and agitation first with a little
litharge, and next with animal charcoal; after which the spirit is removed
by distillation from the filtered solution.

_Prop., &c._ A yellow, oily, non-volatile liquid, having a peculiar smell,
and a highly disagreeable taste; soluble in alcohol, ether, and
chloroform; insoluble in water; and coloured red by strong sulphuric acid.
Sp. gr. 1·078. In small doses it excites the pulse and nervous system; and
in larger ones it causes headache, giddiness, vertigo, &c. It is said to
be powerfully febrifuge, and has been highly extolled by MM. Joret and
Homalle as a substitute for quinine in intermittents.[74] It has also been
found useful in intermittent neuralgias and the nocturnal sweats of
phthisis. _Dose_, 5 to 15 drops, in capsules.

[Footnote 74: According to Drs G. O. Rees and A. S. Taylor, 66 out of 116
cases were cured by it in their practice; but according to the French
Commission, the cures are only 42%, and in many of these only temporary.]

=A′PIS.= [L.] The bee. In _entomology_, a genus of hymenopterous insects
of the family _anthoph′ila_ or _mellif′era_, section _apia′′riæ_.
(Latreille.) The mouth has two jaws, and a proboscis infolded in a double
sheath; the wings are four; the two foremost covering the hinder ones when
at rest. The sexes are three——prolific females or queens, unprolific
females or workers commonly (termed neuters), and males or drones. The
females and working bees have a sting. The honey or hive bee is
distinguished from the other species of this genus by having the femora of
the posterior pair of legs furnished with a smooth and concave plate on
the outer side, and fringed with hair, forming a basket or pocket for the
reception and conveyance of the pollen of plants; and also in being
destitute of spines at the extremity. The Linnæan genus includes nearly 60
species. See BEE.

=Apis Mellif′ica.= [Linn.] The honey bee.

=APLANAT′IC.= In _optics_, applied as an epithet to lenses, of which the
figure, as well as the materials of which they are composed, are such
that, with a given index of refraction, the amount of aberration, both
chromatic and spherical, is insignificant, or the least that can be
possibly obtained. See ABERRATION, ACHROMATISM, LENS, &c.

=APLOTAXIS AURICULATA.= Nat. ord., COMPOSITÆ. A plant growing in the North
Western Himalayas. It was first shown by the late Dr Hugh Falconer to be
the source of the _Costus Arabicus_ of the ancients, which Dr Royle had
previously identified with the _Patchuck_ or _Koot_ root met with in the
Indian bazaars. Dr Irvine states that formerly, when opium was not
produced in Rajwarra, this root was extensively smoked as a stimulant. He
adds, that it is said to be a narcotic when thus used, and that formerly
great quantities went to China for smoking purposes. It is chiefly used as
a perfume, as for protection of bales of cloth against insects.

=APO-.= [Gr.] In _composition_, from; denoting derivation, separation,
opposition, or departure. It is a common prefix in words from the Greek,
and is etymologically the same as the latin _ab-_.

=APOC′NYINE= (-pŏs′-e-nĭn). _Syn._ APOCYNI′NA, L. A bitter, crystallisable
substance, found in _apŏ′′cynum cannabi′num_ (Linn.), or the Indian hemp
of North America. See ALKALOID.

=APOMORPHINE.= _Syn._ APOMORPHIA. C_{17}H_{17}NO_{2}. A remarkable base,
obtained from morphia by Matthiessen and Wright. It is possessed of
powerful emetic properties. Introduce into a strong glass tube, closed at
one end, 1 part of pure morphia, and 20 parts of pure hydrochloric acid;
these should not occupy more than one fifteenth of the tube. Seal the open
end, and place the glass tube in another of cast iron, closed with a
screw, and heat the whole in an oil-bath at a temperature between 140° and
150° C., during three hours. After cooling, the morphine has been
converted into apomorphine, which can be purified as follows:

The tube is opened, and the liquid it contains diluted with water and
neutralised by bicarbonate of soda; then an excess of this salt being
added, the apomorphine is precipitated with any morphia that may remain.
The liquid is decanted, and the precipitate is exhausted with ether or
chloroform, which dissolves the apomorphine only. To the ethereal or
chloroformic liquor are afterwards added a few drops of hydrochloric acid
to saturate the base. Crystallised apomorphine then separates
spontaneously, and is deposited on the sides of the vessel. These crystals
are washed rapidly with cold water, and purified by crystallisation from
boiling water. The apomorphine can be obtained by precipitating a
concentrated solution of this hydrochlorate by bicarbonate of soda; the
precipitate is white, but turns green rapidly in the air. It should be
washed with a little cold water, and promptly dried to avoid this

=AP′OPLEXY= (-plĕks-e). _Syn._ APOPLEX′IA, APOPLEX′IS, L. (from
απο-πλησσω, I astound, or strike down, Gr.); APOPLEXIE, Fr.; SCHLAGFLUSS,
Ger. A disease so named on account of the suddenness and violence of its

_Symp._ Sudden suspension or loss of the powers of sense and motion; the
heart continuing to beat and the lungs to act, but generally with
difficulty. During the fit the patient usually lies in a state resembling
sleep, or the stupor induced by drunkenness. In some cases there is
paralysis of one side of the body, and convulsions of the other. In the
sanguineous or sthenic variety, or the one which is most common, the pulse
is hard and full, the countenance flushed and bloated, and the breathing
stertorous; in the serous or asthenic variety, the pulse is feeble, the
skin cold, and the countenance pale. “The presence of convulsions is
indicative of great danger.” (Dr Cheyne.) In both cases the patient is
generally found lying on his back, in a state of complete insensibility,
which defies every effort to arouse him; the eyelids almost cover the
eyes, which are fixed and devoid of intelligence, whilst the pupils
scarcely change their dimensions under the varying influence of light and
darkness; the lips are usually purple or very dark; and both the lips and
nostrils have generally a slight trembling movement communicated to them
by the deep and laborious breathing of the patient.

_Treat._ In this disease, more than perhaps any other, medical aid should
be immediately sought. In the mean time the patient should be placed in an
easy posture, in a well-ventilated apartment, and in the sanguineous or
sthenic variety, in as erect a position as possible; but in the asthenic
variety, when the face is pale, with the head and shoulders only
moderately elevated. The neckcloth should be removed, and the clothes
loosened, and the head and neck laid bare. Crowding round the patient
should be particularly avoided, and a free exposure to fresh air secured
in every possible way. When medical aid cannot be immediately procured,
blood should be freely taken (say 15 to 20 fl. oz., or more) from the arm,
by any person competent to do so; unless the face be pale, and the pulse
feeble, when cupping at the back of the neck, or leeches behind the ears,
should be substituted for ordinary bleeding. Cold water should be dashed
on the head, the legs placed in pretty warm water, and blisters or mustard
poultices applied between the shoulders. In the mean time 8 or 10 gr. of
calomel may be administered, and its action subsequently promoted by the
use of saline purgatives and stimulating clysters. When there is a
difficulty of swallowing, a couple of drops of croton oil may be applied
to the tongue; or it may be poured on sugar, before placing it in the
mouth. Indeed, this mode of relieving the bowels should be adopted in all
extreme cases, as soon as possible. Emetics should be carefully avoided.
The only exception to this rule is, when the stomach is distended by a
heavy undigested meal; when an emetic is hazarded as the less of two
evils. Nasal stimulants, as smelling salts or aromatic vinegar, should
also be avoided. If the bleeding has not afforded some relief, it may be
repeated in from 3 to 5 hours. When these means prove successful, the
remainder of the treatment may consist in the administration of mild
purgatives and diaphoretics, and the avoidance of stimulating food or
drinks, and of other like exciting agents.

_Prev., &c._ The premonitory symptoms of apoplexy are giddiness, pain and
swimming in the head, loss of memory, faltering in speech or using one
word for another, diminished sensibility either of body or mind, or both,
drowsiness, noises in the ears, specks floating before the eyes,
nightmare, frightful dreams, laborious respiration, heavy yet unrefreshing
sleep, an inclination to sigh without any moral cause, cramp in the legs
at night when there is no irritation of the bowels to account for them,
&c. &c. When any of these symptoms occur (especially in “free livers”)
aperient medicines and a light diet should be at once had recourse to, and
wine, beer, and spirits avoided as the most dangerous poisons. If the
symptoms increase or continue, active purgation, a still lower diet, and
even bleeding may be had recourse to. Pure air, early rising, regular
habits, gentle muscular exercise, and loose, easy clothing, are powerful
preventives of apoplexy. By attending to the admonitions of nature, and
adopting the simple means which are within the reach of all, it is
indisputable that many fatal cases of apoplexy might have been avoided,
and a still larger number lessened in severity.

Robust, plethoric persons, with short thick necks, are universally
accounted the most liable to apoplexy. In them the fit generally comes on
without warning; and when once attacked with this malady they are
especially liable to its recurrence. But it must be recollected that the
possessor of no particular constitution or temperaments, to whatever class
it may belong, enjoys immunity from the attacks of apoplexy——a disease
more fatal among Englishmen than the natives of other countries.

_Obs._ A loss of consciousness exists alike in apoplexy, epilepsy,
narcotism from opium and opiates, complete intoxication, and common
fainting. These may be distinguished by observing that——in EPILEPSY there
are almost always convulsions, and more or less rigidity of the limbs,
with (generally) foaming at the mouth and gnashing or grinding of the
teeth, and frequently, the utterance of noises often not unlike the
barking of a dog; whilst stertor and laborious breathing, as a rule, are
absent:——in the stupor produced by OPIUM, MORPHIA, &c., the face is pale,
calm, and perspiring, and the respiration is tranquil and without stertor;
whilst the patient can, in almost all cases, be temporarily aroused to
consciousness and kept awake by being made to walk between two attendants;
the odour of opium or laudanum is also frequently perceptible in the
breath or ejected matter:——in the insensibility of INTOXICATION the pulse
is usually feeble, and the patient may be temporarily roused by violent
shouting in the ear, or by the application of nasal stimulants,
particularly the common smelling-bottle (if strong); and the breath, and
ejected matter (if any), smells of liquor:——in ordinary FAINTING the face
and lips are pale, the breathing quiet, the pulse scarcely perceptible,
the limbs mobile, and the fit lasts only a few minutes.

_Treatment for Horses._ Give in the first place a strong stimulant
internally, and apply mustard embrocations to the belly and spine. Bleed,
should the pulse be small and indistinct.——_In the parturient apoplexy of
cows._ Bleed in the very earliest stage; give salts and croton; diluents;
no solid food; let the body and legs be rubbed and clothed; use catheter;
apply ice and refrigerants to head and neck; give frequent clysters of
linseed gruel; remove milk every hour, and apply rubefacients to the

=APOSEP′EDIN= (-dĭn). A substance found in putrid cheese, and supposed to
be a product of the fermentation of caseine. Mulder and others have shown
that it is merely impure leucine.

=AP′OSTEME=† (-tēme or -tĕm). _Syn._ AP′OSTEM†; APOSTE′MA†, L. An abscess
or collection of purulent matter in any part of the body.

=APPARA′TUS.= [L., Eng.; class. pl., appara′tus; Eng. pl.,
appara′tuses——Webster.] _Syn._ APPAREIL, Fr.; APPARAT, GERÄTHSCHAFT, Ger.
In technical language, the instruments, utensils, and mechanical
arrangements, employed in any operation, experiment, or observation, or in
any art or trade.

=Apparatus.= In _anatomy_ and _physiology_, a catenation of organs all
ministering to one general purpose or function; as the digestive
apparatus, respiratory a., &c.

ESSLUST, Ger. The natural desire of gratification, whether corporeal or
mental. In _physiology_, the instinctive inclination to perform certain
natural functions, as those of digestion and generation; but appr., the
natural desire for food. In _psychology_ and _philosophy_, the APPETITES
(pl.) are affections of the mind directed to general objects, as fame,
glory, or riches; these when subsequently turned to particular objects,
constitute the PASSIONS, as envy, gratitude, revenge, or love. In its
common and unqualified sense, the word appetite is confined to the desire
for food; and in that sense chiefly concerns us here.

The sensations of hunger and thirst are seated in the stomach, and their
recurrence at proper intervals is a necessary consequence of vital action,
and is essential to the existence of the body in a state of vigour and
health. Any alteration from their normal condition indicates diseased
action of the stomach, or of the nervous system or circulation; or it may
result from vicious habits. A healthy appetite for food is usually a most
certain indication that nature requires a supply; but in the indulgence of
this appetite certain regulations should be observed, and a boundary
should be put to mere animal gratification. By slowly eating and
thoroughly masticating the food, the stomach becomes gradually and equally
distended, and the individual feels himself satisfied only after he has
taken a quantity sufficient for the nourishment of his body; but, on the
contrary, if the food be swallowed rapidly, and without proper
mastication, it presses heavily and roughly against the sides of the
stomach, and induces a sensation of fulness before a sufficient meal has
been made. The consequences are, that hunger soon returns, and the party
must either have recourse to food between the usual time of meals, or
suffer the consequences of imperfect nutrition. Exercise and labour,
within certain limits, promote the healthy functions of the stomach and
bowels, through the action of the muscles of the abdomen increasing the
peristaltic motion of these viscera. An inordinate appetite in persons
leading a sedentary life is generally indicative of the food passing off
imperfectly digested, or of the coats of the stomach being relaxed, or
even diseased. More food is required in winter than in summer, in
consequence of the greater radiation of the heat of the body; and hence
the increased appetite which is usually an accompaniment of that season.
In persons who lead a more sedentary life in winter than in summer, either
no change of this kind occurs, or the reverse is the case; the want of
exercise producing a diminution of appetite corresponding to the increase
of it that would otherwise result from the seasonal change of atmospheric
temperature, or even greater. Deviations of the appetite from the healthy
standard, or the normal condition, constitutes DEFECTIVE or DISEASED

Deficiency or loss of appetite (AN′OREXY; ANOREX′IA, L.) generally arises
from disordered stomach; but is also frequently symptomatic of other
affections, particularly dyspepsia, biliousness, feverishness, and organic
diseases of the lungs, stomach, and primæ viæ. It is a common consequence
of sedentary life, and of extreme mental anxiety, excitement, or
exhaustion. The _treatment_ will necessarily vary with the cause. In
simple spontaneous cases the appetite may generally be improved by outdoor
exercise, and the occasional use of mild aperients, especially salines and
aloetics. When the affection arises from the stomach being loaded with
bile and crudities, an emetic in the evening, followed by a stomachic
purgative the next morning, with an occasional aperient afterwards, will
seldom fail to effect a cure. With heavy drinkers a gradual reduction of
the quantity of the strong liquors usually consumed is generally followed
by a restoration of the appetite and digestive powers. The change thus
gradually effected in the course of 8 or 10 days is often almost magical.
The excessive use of liquors——especially of spirits, wine, or beer, or
even of warm weak ones, as tea, coffee, soup, &c.——is always prejudicial.
Hence drunkards are particularly subject to defective appetite; and
teetotallers and water-drinkers to a heartiness often almost approaching
voracity. See BILE, DYSPEPSIA, &c.

Depraved appetite (PI′CA, L.), or a desire for unnatural food, as chalk,
cinders, dirt, soap, tallow, &c., when an idiopathic affection or when
depending on vicious tastes or habits (as is often the case in childhood),
it may be treated by admixing very small doses of tartar emetic or
ipecacuanha with the objectionable food or articles. When symptomatic of
pregnancy, a plentiful and nutritious diet, including the red meats, with
a little good malt liquor or wine, may be adopted with advantage. When
symptomatic of chlorosis, to this diet may be added the use of chalybeate
tonics, and sea or tepid bathing; when of dyspepsia, a light diet, bitter
tonics, free exercise, fresh air, and cold bathing, will generally effect
a cure.

Insatiable appetite (CANINE APPETITE, VORACITY; BULIM′IA, L.) is generally
symptomatic of pregnancy, or worms, or diseases of the stomach or the
viscera immediately connected with it; but sometimes exists as a separate
disease, and is even said to be occasionally hereditary. When it occurs in
childhood, worms may be suspected, and vermifuges administered. In adults,
a common cause is imperfect digestion, arising from stomach complaints or
gluttony, when the languor and gnawing pains of disease are mistaken for
hunger. In this case the diet should be regulated and the bowels kept
gently relaxed with mild aperients, and tonics (as bark and steel), or
bitters (as orange-peel and gentian), may be administered. When pregnancy
or vicious habits are the cause, the treatment indicated under DEPRAVED
APPETITE may be adopted. When the affection is occasioned by acidity in
the stomach, an emetic, followed by the moderate use of absorbents or
antacids, will generally effect a cure. In those cases depending on a
highly increased power of the stomach in effecting rapid and complete
digestion, its contractile force and morbid activity may be often allayed
by the copious use of salad oil, fat meat, &c., by the cautious use of
opiates, or by the use, or freer use, of tobacco (either smoked or chewed,
or both). A cathartic daily, with a dose of blue-pill, or mercurial
powder, every second or third day, is also often advantageous. 25 or 30
drops of solution of potassa, in broth, twice or thrice daily, has also
been recommended. See BILE, DYSPEPSIA, WORMS, &c.

=APP′LE= (ăp′l). _Syn._ MA′LUM, PO′MUM, L.; POMME, Fr.; APFEL, Ger.;
APPEL, Dut.; APLE, Swed. This well-known fruit is the product of the
cultivated varieties of _pyrus malus_ (Linn.), or the crab-apple of our
hedges; a tree of the nat. ord. Rosaceæ. The date of its amelioration from
the wild state is probably very remote, as several kinds are noticed by
Pliny in a manner that would lead to the inference of a high antiquity.
Pippins, or ‘seedling improved apples,’ are said to have been introduced
into this country from the South of Europe towards the end of the 16th
century. Don enumerated 1400 varieties of the cultivated apple; there are
now probably above 1650. Rennet apples (POMA RENETTIA) are those ordered
in the P. Cod. to be used in pharmacy. In _botany_ and _composition_, the
term apple (POMUM) is used to designate any large, round, fleshy fruit,
consisting of a ‘pericarp,’ enclosing a tough ‘capsule’ containing several
seeds; as love-apple, pine-apple, &c.

The wood of the apple-tree is much used in turnery; that of the crab-tree
is generally preferred by mill-wrights for the teeth of mortise-wheels.

The expressed juice of 1 _cwt._ of ripe apples, after the free acid has
been saturated with chalk, yields from 11 to 13 _lbs._ of a very sweet,
but uncrystallisable sugar.

Apples have been analysed by Fresenius, and were found to have the
following composition:——

  Sugar                             7·58
  Free acid (reduced to equivalent
  in malic acid)                    1·04
  Albuminous substance              0·22
  Pectous substances, &c.           2·72
  Ash                               0·44
  Seeds                             0·38
  Skins                             1·44
  Pectose                           1·14
  [Ash from insoluble matter included
  in weights given]                [0·13]
  Water                            85·04

=Love′-apple=‡. The tomato.

=Mad′-apple=‡. The larger Mecca or Bussorah gall. They are also called

=Acid of Apples.= Malic acid.

ABRICOT, Fr.; APRIKOSE, Ger. The fruit of _armeniaca vulgaris_ (Lamb.;
_prunus armeniaca_, Linn.), a rosaceous tree indigenous in Armenia,
Cachmere, &c., and now cultivated in every temperate region of the world.
Under the name of _præcox_ it was known in Italy in the time of
Dioscorides; but it was not introduced into England until the reign of
Henry VIII (A.D. 1540). Its cultivation has since been zealously attended
to by our gardeners, and it is now one of the choicest and most esteemed
of our wall-fruits, and is particularly valued for desserts. It is reputed
to be nutritious, easy of digestion, laxative, and stomachic. The seeds
are bitter and saponaceous.

Apricots are principally eaten as gathered; but are also dried, candied,
and made into jam. In _confectionery_, the Brussels and Breda varieties
are preferred to the larger and sweeter kinds. See FRUIT, PRESERVES, &c.

=Apricots, Briançon′.= The fruit of _armeniaca brigantiaca_ (Pers.).
Acidulous; seeds or kernels, by expression, yield HUILE DE MARMOTE.

=A′QUA= (-kwă). [L.] Water.——AQUA DESTILLA′TA or A. DISTILLA′TA, is
distilled water; A. FLUVIA′LIS or A. EX FLU′MINE (-ĭn-e), river-water; A.
FONTA′NA, spring-water; A. MARI′NA or A. MA′′RIS, sea-water; A.
MINERA′LIS, mineral water; A. NIVA′LIS or A. EX NI′VE, snow-water; A.
PLUVIA′LIS, A. PLU′′VIA, or A. IM′BRIUM, rain-water, soft water; A.
PUTEA′NA or A. EX PU′TEO, well, pump, or hard water.

=Aqua.= In _chemistry_ and _pharmacy_, this word was formerly applied to
numerous preparations and articles now included under other heads. See

=Aquafor′tis.= [L.] Literally, ‘strong water,’ the name given by the
alchemists to the acid obtained by distilling a mixture of nitre and
sulphate of iron. The word is still commonly employed by mechanics and
artists to designate the impure fuming nitric acid of commerce, and is
thus also retained in trade. By these parties concentrated nitric acid is
called ‘spirit of nitre.’ ‘Double aquafortis’ merely differs from the
other in strength. See NITRIC ACID.

=Aqua Amarella.= A compound for hair-dyeing; is prepared with sugar of
lead, common salt, and water.

=Aqua Græ′ca, A. Orienta′lis.= See HAIR-DYES.

=Aqua Mari′na.= [L.] The beryl†.

=Aqua Mirab′ilis=†. [L.] Literally, ‘wonderful water,’ a cordial and
carminative spirit distilled from aromatics, and formerly reputed to
possess many virtues.

=Aqua Re′gia.= [L.] Nitrohydrochloric acid, originally so called, by the
alchemists, from its power of dissolving gold.

=Aqua Toffa′nia.= [L.] See ACQUETTA.

=Aqua Vi′tæ=†. [L.] Literally, ‘water of life,’ a name familiarly applied
to the leading native distilled spirit. Thus, it is whiskey in Scotland,
usquebaugh in Ireland, geneva in Holland, and eau de vie or brandy in
France. When the term is employed in England, French brandy is understood
to be referred to. See ALCOHOL, &c.

=Aqua Vitæ Aromatico-Amara.= (F. Bolle, formerly J. B. Claude, Berlin).
Galangal ginger, āā, 2 parts; orange berries, European centaury, gentian,
cinnamon, angelica, āā, 1 part; alcohol, 30 parts; water, 26 parts. Digest
and filter. (Hager.)

=AQUARIUM.= A tank or vessel made of glass, containing either salt or
fresh water, and in which either marine or fresh-water plants and animals
are kept in a living state. In principle, the aquarium depends upon the
interdependence of animal and vegetable life. The carbonic acid evolved by
the animals is decomposed under the influence of solar light by the
plants, and the oxygen necessary for the maintenance of the life of the
animals is thus eliminated, whilst the carbonic acid essential to the
existence of the plants is supplied by the animals. The aquarium,
therefore, must be stocked both with plants and animals, and for the
welfare of both, something like a proper proportion should exist between
them. But even under these conditions the water should be frequently
aërated, whether the aquarium contains fresh or salt-water. This may be
done by simply blowing through a glass tube which reaches to near the
bottom, or, still better, in the following manner:——Take a glass syringe
which can be easily worked. Having filled it with water, hold it with the
nozzle about two inches from the surface of the water in the aquarium,
into which the contents are to be discharged quickly and with a sort of
jerk. By this means a multitude of small bubbles are forced down into the
fluid. This operation should be several times repeated. A simpler method
is to take out a portion of the water from the aquarium and to pour it
back again from a height. When, as not infrequently happens, the aquarium
is provided with a fountain, this of course ensures a continual change of
water; but even where this is the case the joint presence both of plants
and animals is advantageous to the health of both. When sea-water cannot
be procured for the marine aquarium a substitute for it may be made as
follows:——Mix with 970,000 grains of rain-water 27,000 grains of chloride
of sodium, 3600 of chloride of magnesium, 750 of chloride of potassium, 29
of bromide of magnesium, 2300 of sulphate of magnesia, 1400 of sulphate of
lime, 35 of carbonate of lime, and 5 of iodide of sodium. These all being
finely powdered and mixed first, are to be stirred into the water, from
which a stream of air may be caused to pass from the bottom until the
whole is dissolved. On no account is the water to be boiled, or even to be
heated. Into this water, when clear, the rocks and seaweed may be
introduced. As soon as the latter are in a flourishing state the animals
may follow. Care must be taken not to have too many of these, and to
remove immediately any dead ones. The loss that takes place from
evaporation is to be made up by adding clear rain-water. The presence of a
number of molluscous animals, such as the common periwinkle, is necessary
for the consumption of the vegetable matter continually given off by the
growing plants, and of the multitudinous spores, particularly of the
confervæ, which would otherwise soon fill the water, rendering it greenish
or brownish, and turbid. In a fresh-water aquarium the bottom should be
covered with a layer of fine sand and shingle, and in this the weeds
should be planted. The best for this purpose are _valesneria spiralis_,
_anacharis_, and _chara vulgaris_. A few water-snails should also be put
in; the best are _planorbis_, _paludina_, and _amphibia glutinosa_. One
plant and two or three snails should be used for each gallon of water put
into the aquarium.

=AQUATINT′A.= [L., Fr.] _Syn._ A′QUATINT, Eng.; ACQUATINTA, It. A species
of etching on copper, producing an effect resembling a drawing in Indian

=A′QUEOUS= (-kwe-). _Syn._ AQUOSE′*; A′QUEUS, AQUO′SUS, L.; AQUEUX, Fr.;
_Wässerig_, _Wässerhaltig_, Ger. Watery; made with, containing, or
resembling water. In _chemistry_ and _pharmacy_, applied to solutions,
extracts, &c., prepared with water.

=AR′ABESQUE= (-bĕsk). [Fr.] In the Arabian manner; more particularly
applied to a species of capricious, fantastic, and imaginative
ornamentation, consisting of foliage, stalks, plants, &c., to the entire
exclusion of the figures of animals. The designs of this class, now so
much employed in cloth and leather binding, are produced by the pressure
of hot plates or rollers having the pattern engraved on them. See

=AR′ABIN= (-bĭn). C_{12}H_{22}O_{11}. [Eng., Fr.] _Syn._ SOLUBLE GUM;
ARABI′NA, L. The pure soluble principle of gum acacia.

_Prep._ Dissolve white gum arabic in pure water, filter the solution, and
add alcohol as long as it produces curdiness; collect the precipitate, and
dry it by a gentle heat.

_Prop. &c._ Very soluble in water; basic acetate of lead, alcohol, and
ether, precipitate it from its solutions. It is isomeric with crystallised
cane sugar. It possesses no practical superiority over the best gum
arabic, except its paler colour.

Ger. In _agriculture_, fit for or under tillage or aëration; ploughed.

=Arable Land.= In _agriculture_, land which is chiefly or wholly
cultivated by the plough, as distinguished from grass-land, wood-land,
common pasture, and waste. See LAND, SOILS, &c.

=ARACHIS HYPOGÆA.= _Syn._ GROUND NUT PLANT. _Hab._ Cultivated throughout
the tropics of the Old and New World. _Officinal part._ The oil of the
seeds (Oleum Arachis, Ground Nut Oil). Obtained by expression. Limpid,
clear, light yellow, almost inodorous, or with a faint smell and bland
taste. Sp. gr. 0·916.——_Prop. and Uses._ This oil affords a cheap and
excellent substitute for olive oil for pharmaceutical and other purposes.

The following notice, by the Editor of this work, appeared in ‘The
Veterinarian’ for October, 1876:——

“Having in the course of my analytical practice had occasion to examine
some samples of Marseilles earth-nut cake, I take the opportunity of
communicating the results obtained, in the hope of furnishing interesting
information respecting a material which is chiefly employed in the
sophistication of the more expensive feeding cakes, but which I think
might in some instances be with advantage substituted for them.

“Arachis seeds constitute one of the varieties of food termed pulse, and
the oil which exists in them to the extent of from 40 to 50 per cent., is
rapidly being introduced in the making of soap in this and other
countries. It is an article also of the Indian Pharmacopœia.

“By pressure the seeds yield all but about 7 per cent. of their oil, and
the material which remains after the expression of the greater part of the
oil is sent into commerce as earth-nut or ground-nut cake.

“Sometimes the husks of the seeds are first removed and only the kernels
subjected to pressure for the sake of the oil; the cake so produced is
called ‘decorticated earth-nut cake,’ at other times the entire seeds are
subjected to this treatment, and then the resulting cake is known as
‘undecorticated earth-nut cake.’

“The following table shows the composition in 100 parts of both
descriptions of cake, as well as that of linseed cake of first-rate
quality; the last analysis being added for the sake of comparison:——

        _Table showing the Centesimal Composition of
        Decorticated and Undecorticated Earth-nut Cake and
        Linseed Cake._

                                  Decorticated   Undecorticated  Linseed
                                 Earth-nut Cake. Earth-nut Cake.  Cake.
  Moisture                            9·58            9·28        11·72
  Fat and heat producers
    Oil                               7·40            6·99        12·00
    Starch digestible fibre, &c.     27·63           23·66        25·29
  Flesh-formers (albumenoids)        42·81[75]       32·81[76]    32·64
  Indigestible fibre                  7·87           23·80        11·79
  Ash                                 4·71            3·45         6·47
                                    ——————          ——————       ——————
                                    100·00          100·00       100·00

[Footnote 75: Containing 6·85 of nitrogen.]

[Footnote 76: Containing 5·25 of nitrogen.]

“From the foregoing analyses it will be seen that both descriptions of
earth nut are exceedingly rich in flesh-formers, and that they contain a
moderately large amount of oil. They also possess a sweet agreeable
flavour, and are, I believe, very digestible. As these may, I am informed,
be bought at from £6 to £8 per ton, it is evident that farmers would do
well to give earth-nut cakes a trial in the feeding of their stock.

“Pure linseed cake does not contain starch, but in its stead mucilage. The
feeding qualities of starch and mucilage are, however, very similar.”

medulla of the stem and branches of a leguminous tree (a species of
_Centrolobium_) growing in Brazil. It is in extensive use amongst the
natives of India, who employ it in affections of the skin. It has been
applied with success in shingles and ring-worm, in the form of ointment
made as follows:——

  Araroba in powder      20 grains.
  Acetic acid            10 drops.
  Benzoated lard          1 ounce.

Dr Attfield found the powder to contain from 80 to 84 per cent. of
chrysophanic acid, to which substance its remedial powers are doubtless
due. It is now the chief source of this acid.

=ARA′TION*.= In _agriculture_, ploughing; culture by ploughing; tillage.
Lands in a state of aration’ are those under tillage.

=AR′BOR.= [L.] A tree. The seventh family of vegetables in Linnæus’s
system. In _anatomy_ and _chemistry_, a term formerly applied to membranes
and substances having some real or fancied resemblance to a tree or
vegetation. An ar′boret is a little tree; an arborist, or ar′borātor†, is
one who studies or cultivates trees.

=ARBUTIN.= C_{12}H_{16}O_{7}. A substance obtained by KAWALIER from the
leaves of the red bearberry _Arctostophylos uva ursi_, and by ZWENGER and
HIMMELMANN from the leaves of a species of winter-green, _Pyrola
Umbellata_. It is prepared by precipitating the aqueous decoction of the
leaves of either of these plants, with basic acetate of lead, filtering,
removing the excess of lead with sulphuretted hydrogen, and either
treating the filtrate with animal charcoal and leaving it to crystallise
or evaporating and digesting the residue with a mixture of eight parts of
ether and one part of alcohol, which dissolves out the arbutin, and
deposits it on evaporation in the crystalline state.

=ARCA′NUM= [L.] _Syn._ ARCANE, Fr.; GEHEIMNIS, Ger. A secret. In
_alchemy_, a term applied to various preparations without any precise
meaning. “Arcanum is a thing secret, incorporeal, and immortal, which can
only be known to man by experience; for it is the virtue of each thing,
which operates a thousand times more than the thing itself.” (Ruland) In
_ancient medicine_ and _pharmacy_; a nostrum. The word is still
occasionally used in the plural (ARCA′NA, secrets, mysteries), in the
titles of books; as, ‘Arcana of Chemistry,’ a book professing to contain a
full exposition of the mysteries of that art.

Among the old chemists, ARCANUM AL′BUM was ‘pulvis Viennensis albus
virgineus’ (see POWDERS); A. BEC′CHICUM, a sweetened aqueous solution of
liver of sulphur; A. CORALLI′NUM, red oxide of mercury that had been
digested in a solution of potash, washed with water, and then had spirit
of wine burnt on it (once a favourite mercurial and escharotic); A.
DUPLICA′TUM, sulphate of potash; A. D. CATHOL′ICUM, roots of colchicum and
plantain (worn as an amulet against fevers and pestilential diseases); A.
LUDEMAN′NI, oxide of zinc; A. TAR′TARI, acetate of potassa; A. VI′TÆ,
elixir vitæ; &c.

=ARCHE′US= (-kē′-ŭs; ăr′*——Mayne). [L.] _Syn._ ARCHÆ′US, L. A term
invented by Paracelsus, and employed by the alchemists and older
physicians, to imply the occult cause of phenomena, as well as the
sub-causes or agents by which the effects were accomplished. Van Helmont
and Stahl ascribe certain vital functions to the influence and
superintendence of a ‘spiritus archæus’ or intelligent vital principle.
According to others, the powers of ‘Archæus’ were indefinitely extended.
He or it was an occult power of nature, the artificer of all things,
physician-general to the universe, &c. &c., to the utmost bounds of
absurdity and confusion.

From this word comes the adj. ARCHE′AL or ARCHÆ′AL, hidden, operative.

=ARCH′IL= (artsh′-ĭl). _Syn._ ARCH′EL*, OR′CHIL; ARCHIL′LA, ORCHIL′LA (ch
as k), L.; ORSEILLE, Fr., Ger.; ORICELLO, It. A violet-red, purple or blue
colouring matter or dye-stuff, obtained from several species of lichens,
but of the finest quality from roccella tinctoria (DC.), and next from r.
fuciformis (DC.).

The archil of commerce is met with as a liquid paste, or as a thin liquid
dye or stain of more or less intensity. The ordinary archil or orchil of
the shops (ORCHIL-LIQUOR) is under the last form; and is known as either
BLUE OR RED ARCHIL——distinctions which arise as follows:——

_Prep._ 1. BLUE ARCHIL:——The bruised or coarsely ground lichen is steeped
for some time in a mixture of stale urine, or bone-spirit, and lime or
milk of lime, or in any similar ammoniacal solution, contained in covered
wooden vessels in the cold; the process being repeated until all the
colour is extracted.

2. RED OR CRIMSON ARCHIL:——The materials are the same as for the last
variety, but rather less milk of lime is used, and the ‘steep’ is
generally made in earthen jars placed in a room heated by steam,
technically called a stove. The two kinds merely differ in the degree of
their red or violet tint——the addition of a small quantity of lime or
alkali to the one, or of an acid to the other, immediately bringing them
both to the same shade of colour.

_Prop._ Archil has a disagreeable putrid ammoniacal odour. Its colouring
matter is soluble in water, alcohol, urine, ammoniacal and alkaline lyes,
and weak acid liquors; alkalies turn it blue, acids red; alum gives with
it a brownish-red precipitate, and solution of tin a red one; the
alcoholic solution gradually loses its colour when excluded from the air.
Its colouring matter consists chiefly of orcein.

_Pur._ Archil is frequently adulterated with extract of logwood, or of
Lima or Sapan-wood. It may be tested as follows:——1. A solution of 50 or
60 drops of pure archil in about 3 fl. oz. of water slightly acidulated
with acetic acid, almost entirely loses its colour, or presents only a
yellowish tinge, when heated to ebullition in a flask along with 50 drops
of a fresh solution of protochloride of tin made with 1 part of the salt
to 2 parts of water:——2. A drop of fluid extract of logwood treated in the
same way, gives a distinct violet tint, which resists several hours’
boiling; but when only 3 or 4 per cent. of logwood is present, the boiled
liquid has a permanent grey tint:——3. If the boiled liquid retains its red
hue, extract of Sapan-wood is present:——4. The boiled liquor, when the
archil is pure, re-acquires its colour by exposure to the air, and the
addition of an alkali, particularly ammonia; whilst the colour produced by
logwood is destroyed only by an alkaline solution of tin, and is restored
by acids.

_Uses, &c._ It is employed to tinge the spirit used to fill the tubes of
thermometers, and to stain paper, wood, &c. The aqueous solution stains
MARBLE, in the cold, of a beautiful violet colour, of considerable
permanence when not exposed to a vivid light. “Marble thus tinged
preserves its colour unchanged at the end of two years.” (Dufay.) Its
principal use is, however, in dyeing. By proper management it may be made
to produce every shade of pink and crimson to blue and purple.
Unfortunately, although the hues it imparts to silk and wool possess an
exquisite bloom or lustre, they are far from permanent, and unless well
managed, soon decay. It is hence generally employed in combination with
other dye-stuffs, or as a finishing bath to impart a bloom to silk or
woollens already dyed of permanent colours. In using it as a dye it is
added to hot water in the required quantity, and the bath being raised to
nearly the boiling-point, the materials are put in and passed through it,
until the desired shade is produced. A mordant of alum and tartar is
sometimes used, but does not add to the permanence of the colour. Solution
of tin added to the bath increases the durability, but turns the colour
more on the scarlet. (Hellot.) Milk of lime or salt of tartar is added to
darken it; acids or solution of tin to redden it. A beautiful crimson-red
is obtained by first passing the stuff through a mordant of tin and
tartar, and then through a bath of archil mixed with a very little
solution of tin. By the proper management of this dye, lilacs, violets,
mallows, rosemary flower, soupes au vin, agates, and many other shades may
be produced on silk or cloth, either alone or in conjunction with other
dyes to modify it. 1/2 _lb._ of solid archil, or its equivalent in a
liquid form, will dye 1 to 2 _lb._ of cloth. HERB-ARCHIL, it is asserted,
will bear boiling, and gives a more durable tint than the other lichens,
especially with solution of tin. (Hellot.) Recently Mr Lightfoot has
patented a process for dyeing with archil with the aid of oil, after the
manner followed for producing Turkey-red on cottons.

Archil, Facti′′tious:——1. From a mixture of onions (in a state of
incipient putrefaction) with about 1-10th to 1-12th their weight of
carbonate of potash and some ammonia, fermented together; and adding,
after some days, 1-7th to 1-8th of the weight of the potash used in a salt
of lead. The details of the process essential to success are, however, now
unknown, the secret having died with a relative of the writer of this

2. Extract of logwood dissolved in juice of elderberries and putrid urine,
with the addition of a little pearlash for the BLUE, and a very little
oxalic acid or oil of vitriol for the RED variety. Used to stain wood.

=Arch′il, Herb.= Roccella tinctoria. See ARCHIL (_above_), LICHENS, and

=ARE= (ăr; āre——Eng.). [Fr.] See MEASURES.

=ARE′CA.= [L.] In _botany_ a genus of East Indian trees, of the nat. ord.
Palmæ (DC.).

=Areca Cate′chu.= [L.; Linn.] _Syn._ ARE′CA, A. IN′DICA, A. FAUFEL,
BE′TEL-NUT TREE. _Hab._ East Indies. Fruit (BETEL-NUT), astringent and
narcotic; husk of fruit (PENANG or PINANG), sialagogue and stomachic; both
are used as masticatories; wood and nut yield an inferior or bastard sort
of catechu; charcoal of the nut highly esteemed as tooth-powder; also
given in tape-worm in doses of 1/4 _oz._ and 1/2 _oz._; said to be more
efficacious in coarse than in fine powder.——_Doses for Animals_. HORSE, 4
to 6 drachms; CATTLE, 4 to 8 drachms; DOG, 30 grains to 2 drachms.

=Areca Globulif′era.= [L.] Properties similar to the last.

=Areca Olera′cea.= [L.; Willd.] Cabbage-palm.

SANDIG, SANDARTIG, Ger. In agriculture, mineralogy, &c., sandy; resembling
sand; friable.

=ARENA′′RIOUS= (-nare′-). _Syn._ ARENA′′RIUS, L.; ARÉNAIRE, Fr. Sandy,
arenaceous. In _agriculture_ and _botany_ applied to soils (ARENARIOUS
SOILS) in which sand is the prevailing and characteristic ingredient; also
to plants that grow in sandy or arid soils.

Ger. In _medicine_ sandbathing; a practice formerly prevalent, in dropsy,
of applying hot sand, either by immersion or otherwise, to the feet, legs,
or even the whole body.

=ARENOSE′= (ăr-e-nōse’). _Syn._ AR′ENOUS*; ARENO′SUS, L.; ARÉNEUX, Fr.
Sandy; arenaceous (which _see_).

=AREOM′ETER= (ă-re- or ăr-re-; āre-e——Smart). _Syn._ AREOM′ETRUM, L.;
ARÉOMÈTRE, Fr. Literally, a ‘measure of lightness’ or ‘rarity,’ originally
applied to any instrument for determining the specific gravity of
alcoholic and ethereal liquids; but since applied, like the word
‘hydrometer,’ to instruments adjusted to the densities of all liquids. In
this country the term is principally confined to the aréomètres of Baumé,
on account of their general use by Continental chemists. The relations and
equivalents of Baumé’s scales, as now adopted in France, are shown in the
first two of the following _Tables_:——


        1. _Areometer for liquids_ LIGHTER _than_ WATER, or

  Baumé. |Gravity.|Baumé. |Gravity.|Baumé. |Gravity.|Baumé. |Gravity.|Baumé. |Gravity.
   10    | 1·0000 | 21    | 0·9300 | 32    | 0·8690 | 42    | 0·8202 | 52    | 0·7766
   11    | 0·9932 | 22    | 0·9241 | 33    | 0·8639 | 43    | 0·8156 | 53    | 0·7725
   12    | 0·9865 | 23    | 0·9183 | 34    | 0·8588 | 44    | 0·8111 | 54    | 0·7684
   13    | 0·9799 | 24    | 0·9125 | 35    | 0·8538 | 45    | 0·8066 | 55    | 0·7643
   14    | 0·9733 | 25    | 0·9068 | 36    | 0·8488 | 46    | 0·8022 | 56    | 0·7604
   15    | 0·9669 | 26    | 0·9012 | 37    | 0·8439 | 47    | 0·7978 | 57    | 0·7556
   16    | 0·9605 | 27    | 0·8957 | 38    | 0·8391 | 48    | 0·7935 | 58    | 0·7526
   17    | 0·9542 | 28    | 0·8902 | 39    | 0·8343 | 49    | 0·7892 | 59    | 0·7487
   18    | 0·9480 | 29    | 0·8848 | 40    | 0·8295 | 50    | 0·7849 | 60    | 0·7449
   19    | 0·9420 | 30    | 0·8795 | 41    | 0·8249 | 51    | 0·7807 | 61    | 0·7411
   20    | 0·9359 | 31    | 0·8742 |       |        |       |        |       |

[Footnote 77: These instruments were originally adjusted at the
temperature of 12-1/2° Cent., or 54-1/2° Fahr. Those now made in France
are adjusted at 15° C., or 59° F.; and those made in England, at either
59° or (more usually) 60° Fahr. The standard temperature of the instrument
must be known for its correct application.]

        2. _Areometer for liquids_ HEAVIER _than_ WATER;
        _Pèse-acide_, or _Pèse-sirop_.[78]

  |Baumé. |Gravity.|Baumé. |Gravity.|Baumé. |Gravity.|Baumé. |Gravity.|Baumé. |Gravity.|
  |  0    | 1·0000 | 16    | 1·1176 | 32    | 1·2667 | 47    | 1·4476 | 62    | 1·6889 |
  |  1    | 1·0066 | 17    | 1·1259 | 33    | 1·2773 | 48    | 1·4615 | 63    | 1·7079 |
  |  2    | 1·0133 | 18    | 1·1343 | 34    | 1·2881 | 49    | 1·4758 | 64    | 1·7273 |
  |  3    | 1·0201 | 19    | 1·1428 | 35    | 1·2992 | 50    | 1·4902 | 65    | 1·7471 |
  |  4    | 1·0270 | 20    | 1·1515 | 36    | 1·3103 | 51    | 1·5051 | 66    | 1·7674 |
  |  5    | 1·0340 | 21    | 1·1603 | 37    | 1·3217 | 52    | 1·5200 | 67    | 1·7882 |
  |  6    | 1·0411 | 22    | 1·1692 | 38    | 1·3333 | 53    | 1·5353 | 68    | 1·8095 |
  |  7    | 1·0483 | 23    | 1·1783 | 39    | 1·3451 | 54    | 1·5510 | 69    | 1·8313 |
  |  8    | 1·0556 | 24    | 1·1875 | 40    | 1·3571 | 55    | 1·5671 | 70    | 1·8537 |
  |  9    | 1·0630 | 25    | 1·1968 | 41    | 1·3694 | 56    | 1·5833 | 71    | 1·8765 |
  | 10    | 1·0704 | 26    | 1·2063 | 42    | 1·3818 | 57    | 1·6000 | 72    | 1·9000 |
  | 11    | 1·0780 | 27    | 1·2160 | 43    | 1·3945 | 58    | 1·6170 | 73    | 1·9241 |
  | 12    | 1·0857 | 28    | 1·2258 | 44    | 1·4074 | 59    | 1·6344 | 74    | 1·9487 |
  | 13    | 1·0935 | 29    | 1·2358 | 45    | 1·4206 | 60    | 1·6522 | 75    | 1·9740 |
  | 14    | 1·1014 | 30    | 1·2459 | 46    | 1·4339 | 61    | 1·6705 | 76    | 2·0000 |
  | 15    | 1·1095 | 31    | 1·2562 |       |        |       |        |       |        |

II.——_Corresponding_ SPECIFIC GRAVITIES _and_ DEGREES _of_ BAUMÉ’S
AREOMETER _for heavy liquids_.[78] From the Batavian Pharmacopœia.

[Footnote 78: See footnote on previous page.]

  |Baumé. |Gravity.|Baumé. |Gravity.|Baumé. |Gravity.|Baumé. |Gravity.|Baumé. |Gravity.|
  |  0    | 1000   | 16    | 1125   | 32    | 1286   | 47    | 1485   | 62    | 1758   |
  |  1    | 1007   | 17    | 1134   | 33    | 1298   | 48    | 1501   | 63    | 1779   |
  |  2    | 1014   | 18    | 1143   | 34    | 1309   | 49    | 1516   | 64    | 1801   |
  |  3    | 1022   | 19    | 1152   | 35    | 1321   | 50    | 1532   | 65    | 1823   |
  |  4    | 1029   | 20    | 1161   | 36    | 1334   | 51    | 1549   | 66    | 1847   |
  |  5    | 1036   | 21    | 1171   | 37    | 1346   | 52    | 1566   | 67    | 1872   |
  |  6    | 1044   | 22    | 1180   | 38    | 1359   | 53    | 1583   | 68    | 1897   |
  |  7    | 1052   | 23    | 1190   | 39    | 1372   | 54    | 1601   | 69    | 1921   |
  |  8    | 1060   | 24    | 1199   | 40    | 1384   | 55    | 1618   | 70    | 1946   |
  |  9    | 1067   | 25    | 1210   | 41    | 1398   | 56    | 1637   | 71    | 1974   |
  | 10    | 1075   | 26    | 1221   | 42    | 1412   | 57    | 1656   | 72    | 2000   |
  | 11    | 1083   | 27    | 1231   | 43    | 1426   | 58    | 1676   | 73    | 2031   |
  | 12    | 1091   | 28    | 1242   | 44    | 1440   | 59    | 1695   | 74    | 2059   |
  | 13    | 1100   | 29    | 1252   | 45    | 1454   | 60    | 1715   | 75    | 2087   |
  | 14    | 1108   | 30    | 1261   | 46    | 1470   | 61    | 1738   | 76    | 2116   |
  | 15    | 1116   | 31    | 1275   |       |        |       |        |       |        |

=AREOM′ETRY.= _Syn._ AREOME′TRIA, L.; ARÉOMÉTRIE, Fr. The art or operation
of ascertaining the specific gravity of liquids, and hence also their
strength or commercial value; hydrometry. See AREOMETER (_above_),

=ARE′CINA.= C_{23}H_{26}N_{2}O_{4}. An alkaloid discovered by Pelletier
and Comol, in white cinchona bark from Aréca. It is extracted from the
bark by the same process as Quinine, viz., by boiling the bark with
acidulated water, treating the liquor with lime, and digesting the
lime-precipitate in alcohol. The solution filtered at the boiling heat
yields a very dark-coloured liquid, which, after a time, deposits the
greater part of the aricine in crystals. An additional quantity may be
obtained from the mother-liquor by expelling the alcohol by distillation,
treating the residue with a slight excess of hydrochloric acid, separating
the greater part of the colouring matter by means of a saturated solution
of common salts, then throwing down the aricine by ammonia, dissolving the
precipitate in alcohol, decolourising with animal charcoal and

=ARGAMONE MEXICANA= (nat. order PAPAVERACEÆ). A tropical American plant,
now a common weed growing in almost every part of India. A fixed oil is
obtained from the seeds by expression, which has long been employed as an
aperient in the West Indies. In half-drachm doses it is said to act as a
gentle aperient, and at the same time it allays, apparently by its
sedative qualities, the pain in colic. The smallness of the dose, and the
mildness of its operation, commend it to the notice of the medical
practitioner. Its efficiency is impaired by keeping, the freshly prepared
oil proving more active and uniform in its action than that which has been
long on hand. It is reported to exercise a well-marked and soothing
influence when applied to herpetic eruptions and other forms of skin
disease. By the natives of India the expressed yellow glutinous juice of
the plant is held in high repute as a local application to indolent and
foul ulcers.

&c., Ger. Silver-like; pertaining to, resembling, or sounding like silver;

=Ar′gentine.= (-tĭn). [Eng., Fr.] German silver*. In _mineralogy_,
nacreous carbonate of lime, from its whiteness and silvery lustre.

=ARGENT′UM.= [L.] Silver. In _old chemistry_ and _pharmacy_, ARGENTUM,
FUGITI′′VUM†, A. MO′BILE† (-ĭl-e), was quicksilver; A. MOR′TUUM†, dead
silver, grain-s; A. MUSI′VUM†, mosaic s., silver-bronze; A. NITRA′TUM†,
lunar caustic; A. VI′VUM†, quicksilver; A. ZOÖTIN′ICUM†, cyanide of
silver; &c.

=AR′GIL=† (jĭl). _Syn._ ARGIL′LA, L.; ARGILE, Fr. Clay or potter’s earth.

THONARTIG, Ger. Clayey; pertaining to, containing, or of the nature of
clay or argil. In _agriculture_, an epithet of soils (ARGILLACEOUS SOILS)
of which clay is the principal or characteristic ingredient.

=Argil′lo-arena′ceous= (-jĭl-). In _agr._, consisting chiefly of clay and

=Argillo-calca′′reous.= In _agr._, consisting chiefly of clay and chalk.

WEINSTEIN, Ger. Crude bitartrate of potash, as deposited by wine. That
from red wine is RED ARGOL; that from white wine, WHITE ARGOL. See TARTAR.

=ARM′ATURE= (-ă-tūre). _Syn._ ARMATU′′RA, L. In _magnetism_, a piece of
soft iron used to connect the poles of a horseshoe magnet, for the purpose
of preventing loss of power.

=AR′NICA.= [L., Fr., Eng.] _Syn._ ARNIQUE, Fr.; ARNIKA, WOLVERLEI, Ger. In
_botany_, a genus of plants of the nat. ord. Compositæ (DC.). In the Ph.
U. S., arnica montana (see _below_).

=Arnica Monta′na.= [L.; Linn.] _Syn._ ARNICA, MOUN′TAIN A., M. TOBAC′CO,
Ger. _Hab._ Meadows of the cooler parts of Europe, North America, and
Siberia. It is now cultivated in our gardens. Flowers (ARNICA, Ph. U. S.,
Castr. Ruth., and Bor.) and leaves, diaphoretic, diuretic, stimulant, and
narcotic; in large doses emetic and purgative; root discutient; whole herb
diaphoretic, stimulant, and nervine.

_Prop., &c._ Arnica acts as an energetic stimulant on the cerebro-spinal
system, and as an irritant on the stomach and bowels. It is much employed
on the Continent, and is given in a great variety of diseases——amaurosis,
chlorosis, convulsions, diarrhœa, dysentery, gout, paralysis, rheumatism,
&c. It is much used in Germany, instead of bark, in intermittents, putrid
fevers, and gangrene. In France it is commonly employed as an excito-tonic
in paralysis. It has been greatly extolled, as a restorative, and in
bruises and injuries from falls. The Savoyards and inhabitants of the
Vosges both smoke and ‘snuff’ the leaves. In England it is little used
except by homœopaths. It is said that no animal but the goat will eat this
plant. (Thomson.) Its noxious properties chiefly depend on the presence of
cytisine.——_Dose._ Flowers, 5 to 10 gr., in powder, with syrup or honey;
root, 10 to 20 gr. It is most conveniently administered under the form of
infusion or tincture. Severe abdominal pains and vertigo, and even tetanus
and death, have followed excessive doses.

_Obs._ According to Dupuytren, the emetic action of infusion of arnica
depends on minute particles of the down of the plant which remain
suspended in it, and which may be removed by filtration. See INFUSIONS,

=ARNATT′O, Arnott′o.= See ANNOTTA.

=AR′NICINE= (seen). This name has been applied to two substances——the one
discovered by Pfaff; the other by Bastick:——

=Arnicine= (of Pfaff). The resinous matter extracted by alcohol from the
roots and flowers of mountain arnica, and in which their acridity appears
to reside.

=Arnicine= (of Bastick). _Syn._ ARNICI′NA, ARNICI′′A (nīsh′-y′ă), L.
_Prep._ 1. (Bastick.) From the flowers, by a similar process to that by
which he obtains lobelina. 2. From the flowers (or root), as directed
under ARICINA.

_Prop., &c._ Bitter; acrid; crystallisable scarcely soluble in water;
soluble in alcohol and ether; forms salts with the acids, the
hydrochlorate and one or two others being crystallisable. Its
physiological properties and dose have not as yet been accurately

=ARO′MA.= [L.] _Syn._ AROME, Fr.; AROM, GERUCHSTOFF, Ger. The
characteristic odour of substances, particularly the peculiar quality of
plants, and of substances derived from them, which constitutes their


Fragrant; odoriferous; spicy; applied chiefly to plants and their products
GEWURZ, Ger.) characterised by their spicy odour or aroma, and warm
pungent flavour, and of which allspice, cinnamon, cloves, lavender,
pepper, rosemary, sage, &c., are well-known examples. They are all
stimulant, carminative, and antiseptic; and from remote antiquity have
been regarded as prophylactic and disinfectant.

=Aromatic.= In _medicine_, _pharmacy_, _perfumery_, &c., applied to
substances, simple or compound, characterised by an agreeable odour or
carminative properties, or both; as aromatic confection, a. pastilles, a.
vinegar, a. bark (CORTEX AROMATICUS, white canella), &c.

=AROMATIC SULPHUR-SOAP= (Ed. Heger). For cleansing the teeth and mouth. A
hard sulphur-coloured soap externally; on cutting, greyish-brown. Composed
of soap with 10 per cent. of hyposulphite of soda, perfumed with a scent
resembling oil of balm. (Hager.)

=AROMATIQUE= (Albin Müller, Brünn). Spirit (90 per cent.), 50 grms.;
sugar, 45 grms.; extractive matter, 4 grms. (composed of cinnamon, cloves,
galangal, zedoary, angelica, anise); water, 81 grms. Sold in
wine-bottle-shaped bottles, and recommended for all derangements of the
digestive organs. (Hager.)

=ARQUEBUSADE′= (ar-ke-bŏŏ-zade′). [Fr.] Primarily, the shot of an
arquebuse; but afterwards applied to an aromatic spirit (EAU
D′ARQUEBUSADE, Fr.), originally employed as an application to gunshot
(arquebuse) wounds.

=AR′RACK= (_Syn._ RACK) (arrack′——Brande). [Ind.] _Syn._ ARAC, ARACK,
L.; ARACK, Fr.; Arak, Ger. A spirituous liquor imported from the East
Indies. The finer qualities are distilled from the fermented juice (toddy,
palm-wine) of the cocoa-nut tree, palmyra tree, and other palms; and the
other kinds, from the infusion of unhusked rice (rice-beer), fermented
with cocoa-nut or palm-juice, either with or without the addition of
coarse sugar or jaggery.

_Prop., &c._ It is colourless or nearly so, but like other spirit, when
long kept in wood, gradually acquires a slight tinge, similar to that of
old Hollands. The best kinds, when of sufficient age, are pleasant
flavoured, and are probably as wholesome as the other spirits of commerce;
but common arrack has a strong and somewhat nauseous flavour and odour,
depending on the presence of volatile oil derived from the rice, and
corresponding to that of corn-spirit. The inferior qualities are hence
more heating and apt to disagree with the stomach than the other
commercial spirits. In this country it is chiefly used to make punch. When
sliced pine-apples are put into good arrack, and the spirit kept for some
time, it mellows down and acquires a most delicious flavour, and is
thought by many to be then unrivalled for making ‘nectarial punch’ or

_Obs._ Batavian arrack is most esteemed; then that of Madras; and next
that of China. Others are regarded as inferior. The common par′iah arrack
is generally narcotic, very intoxicating, and unwholesome; being commonly
prepared from coarse jaggery, spoilt toddy, refuse rice, &c., and rendered
more intoxicating by the addition of hemp-leaves, poppy-heads, juice of
stramonium, and other deleterious substances.

=Arrack, Facti′′tious.= _Syn._ MOCK AR′RACK, BRIT′ISH A.;
VAUXHALL′NEC′TAR; &c. _Prep._ Good old Jamaica rum (uncoloured), rectified
spirit (54 to 56 o. p.; clean flavoured), and water, of each 1 quart;
flowers of benzoin, 1 dr.; sliced pine-apple, 1/4 oz. (or essence of
pine-apple, 1/2 teaspoonful); digest, with occasional agitation, for a
fortnight; then add of skimmed milk 1 wine-glassful; agitate well for 15
minutes, and in a few days decant the clear portion.

The crude Indian arrack, when subjected to distillation until it has a sp.
gr. ·920, is employed in India, as proof spirit, in the preparation of
official tinctures, and for other pharmaceutical purposes. A very useful
stimulating application, known in India as toddy poultice, and intended as
a substitute for yeast poultice, is prepared by adding freshly drawn toddy
to rice flour, till it has the consistence of a soft poultice, and
subjecting this to heat over a gentle fire, stirring constantly till
fermentation commences.

The light brown cotton-like substance from the outside of the base of the
fronds belonging to the Palmyra palm is employed by the Cyngalese doctors
as a styptic for stopping the hæmorrhage of superficial wounds.

=AR′ROW-ROOT.= The common name of _maran′ta arundina′cea_ (Linn.; _m.
Indi′ca_——Tuss.); a plant of the nat. ord. Marantaceæ (Lindl.;
Cannaceæ——Endl.). It was originally brought from the island of Dominica to
Barbadoes, by Col. James Walker. It has since been extensively cultivated
in the West Indies.

_Tubers_ yield true ARROW-ROOT; when fresh and good they contain about 26%
of starch, of which 23% may be obtained as arrow-root, and the rest by

FLÉCHIÈRE, PIVOT, Fr.; PFEILWURZ, P.-SATZMEHL, Ger. The starch or fecula
obtained from the rhizoma or tubers of _maran′ta arundina′cea_ (Linn.; see
_above_), and which forms the true ‘arrow-root’ of commerce.

_Prep._ The fecula is extracted from the tubers when they are about 10 or
12 months old, by a process similar to that by which the farina is
obtained from potatoes. In Bermuda the tubers, after being washed, are
deprived of their paper-like scales and every discoloured and defective
part by hand; they are then again washed and drained, and next subjected
to the action of a wheel-rasp, the starch being washed from the comminuted
tubers with rain-water; the milky liquid is passed through a hair sieve,
or a coarse cloth, and allowed to deposit its fecula. This is then allowed
to drain, after which it is again carefully washed with clean water, again
drained, and, after being thoroughly dried in the air or sun, is at once
packed for market. (Cogswell.) In St. Vincent (on the Hopewell Estate), a
cylindrical crushing-mill, tinned-copper washing machines, and
German-silver palettes and shovels are employed; whilst the drying is
effected in extensive sheds, under white gauze, to exclude insects. In
Jamaica the washed tubers are generally pulped in deep wooden mortars;
machinery being seldom employed in any part of the process.

_Prop., &c._ A light, dull, dead-white, tasteless, inodorous powder or
small pulverulent masses, feeling firm to the fingers, and crackling when
pressed or rubbed; viewed by a pocket lens it appears to consist of
glistening particles, which are shown by a microscope to be convex,
irregular, ovoid or truncated granules, most of them, according to Mr
Jackson, being ·0010 of an inch in length, and ·0008 of an inch in
breadth; mixed with others varying from about double to only half that
size. In its action with boiling water, and its general properties it
resembles the other starches; than which, however, it is freer from any
peculiar taste and flavour; and thus agrees better with the delicate
stomachs of invalids and infants than the ordinary farinas.

[Illustration: West Indian Arrowroot (_Maranta Arundinacæa_). Scale
1-1000th of an inch.]

_Comp._ Similar to that of the other starches.

_Pur._ A large portion of the arrow-root of the shops consists either
wholly or in part of the fecula or farina of potatoes or of inferior
starches such as _cacuma_, or East Indian arrow-root, _jatropha_, or
Brazilian arrow-root, _canna_, or _tous les mois_; or is more or less
mixed with sago-meal or rice-meal: such materials can be readily detected
by the microscope. Potato starch is known in commerce as ‘FARINA’ or
‘BRITISH ARROW-ROOT,’ or simply ‘arrow-root,’ whereas genuine arrow-root
is always described as ‘Bermuda,’ ‘St. Vincent,’ ‘St. Kitts,’ or, at
least, as ‘West Indian arrow-root.’ The substitution of the inferior
farinas for genuine arrow-root is not only fraudulent on account of their
inferior value, but is reprehensible in a hygienic point of view; as some
of them are offensive to a delicate stomach, and exert of themselves, and
still more when carelessly manufactured, a laxative action on the bowels;
whereas the effect of true arrow-root is that of a slight and soothing

_Uses, &c._ As an agreeable, non-irritable article of diet for invalids
and children, in the form of cakes, biscuits or puddings, or boiled with
milk or water and flavoured with sugar, spices, lemon-juice, or wine, at
pleasure. For young children a little caraway or cinnamon water is to be
preferred. It is especially useful in irritation or debility of the
stomach, bowels, or urinary organs, and in all cases in which a demulcent
or emollient is indicated. It must not, however, be employed to the entire
exclusion of other food, as, being destitute of the nitrogenous elements
of nutrition, it is incapable alone of supporting life. Arrow-root jelly
is prepared by first rubbing the powder up with a very small quantity of
cold water, and then gradually adding the remainder boiling, stirring well
all the time. Beef tea, veal broth, or milk may be used instead of water.
Some persons boil it for a few minutes. This jelly, flavoured with a
little genuine port wine and nutmeg, is almost a specific in cases of
simple diarrhœa arising from habit or debility.

_Obs._ Arrow-root is imported in tins, barrels, and boxes, from all the
West India Islands; and from Calcutta and Sierra Leone. The best quality
was, until recently, solely obtained from Bermuda; but of late equally
fine samples have been produced on the Hopewell Estate, St Vincent, and,
according to Dr Ure, with the advantage of being prepared with the purest
spring water, in profusion, instead of rain water.

In _commerce_, the word arrow-root is now often loosely used as a generic
term to indicate any white, tasteless, and edible starch or fecula.

=Arrow-root, Brazil′ian.= Cassava-starch or tapioca-meal.

=Arrow-root, East In′dian.= Curcuma starch; from the tubers of the
_curcuma angustifolia_ or narrow-leaved turmeric. The _maranta
arundinacea_ is now also extensively cultivated in India under the name of
maranta Indica, and the fecula therefrom extensively exported, which
might, with equal propriety, be called East Indian arrow-root; but this is
not the case in commerce, the whole passing as W. I. arrow-root
irrespective of the place of its production.

=Arrow-root, Eng′lish.= Potato-starch.

=Arrow-root, Portland.= From the underground tubers of _arum maculatum_
(Linn.) or wake-robin.

=Arrow-root, Tahi′ti.= Tacca starch or Otaheite salep; from the tubers of
_tacca oceanica_.

[Illustration: Rio, or Manihot Arrow Root. Scale 1-1000th of an inch.]

ARSE′′NIKSAURE SALZE, Ger. A salt consisting of AsO_{4} and a metal or
other basic radical; _e.g._, ammonio-magnesium arseniate,

ARSENIK, A.-METALL, Ger. ARSENICO, Sp., It. The brittle, grey-coloured
metal, or metalloid, which forms the base of the white arsenic and
orpiment of commerce. Discovered by Geber in the eighth century, but first
accurately described by Brandt (A.D. 1773). The poisonous properties of
arsenious acid were not generally known for some centuries after its
discovery. As a medicine it was first employed in intermittents in

_Sources._ Arsenic is peculiar to the mineral kingdom. The metallic
arsenic of commerce is obtained by roasting arsenical pyrites (MISPICKEL),
in earthen tubes, or in tubular earthen retorts; the arsenic sublimes, and
sulphuret of iron remains behind. On the small scale it is prepared by
sublimation from a mixture of arsenious acid and charcoal or black flux.
Combined with oxygen it frequently exists in mineral waters; and, in a
larger quantity, in certain rivulets and streams.

_Prep._ A mixture of arsenious acid, 1 part; and black flux, 2 or 3 parts;
is exposed to a low red heat in a Hessian crucible over which is luted a
deep empty crucible, or an earthen tube, to receive the metal; the latter
being kept as cool as possible. Charcoal or even oil may be substituted
for black flux, and a retort of hard glass may be used, with the same
result. Or the following method may be used:——White oxide of arsenic, of
commerce, 2 dr.; is placed at the sealed end of a hard German-glass tube
(1/2 × 18 inches), and covered with about 8 inches of dry and coarsely
powdered charcoal; the portion of the tube containing the latter is then
raised to a red heat, whilst a few ignited coals are placed beneath the
oxide to effect its slow sublimation. The sublimed metal gradually
attaches itself to the inside of the tube at its cool extremity. A small
charcoal furnace similar to that used for organic analysis should be
employed, and the process conducted under a flue to carry off any fumes
that may escape. The open end of the tube should be loosely closed with a

_Prop._ Very brittle, so much so that it may be easily powdered in a
mortar; lustre highly metallic; colour steel-grey or bluish-white; texture
crystalline; crystals rhombohedrons; sublimes, without fusion, at 356 to
360° Fahr., (and slowly at lower temperatures), in close vessels
unaltered, but when exposed to the air with conversion into arsenious
acid; at a higher temperature, in open vessels, it burns with a pale-blue
flame. Its vapour or fumes have a characteristic alliaceous odour; it is
slowly oxidised and dissolved by boiling water; but may be preserved
unchanged in pure cold water; it rapidly tarnishes in the air,
particularly when moist, a black film, consisting of metallic arsenic and
arsenious acid forming on its surface; with chlorine, iodine, sulphur, and
hydrogen, it unites to form definite compounds. With oxygen it forms
acids, but no basic oxide. It combines with the metals in a similar manner
to sulphur and phosphorus, the latter of which it resembles in many
respects. These compounds are termed AR′SENIDES, formerly ARSENIURETS. Sp.
gr. 5·7 to 5·9; sp. gr. of vapour, 1·0362.

_Uses, &c._ With copper it forms a white alloy (PACKFONG); and it is added
to some other alloys to increase their whiteness, hardness, and
fusibility. In _medicine_ it is only used in combination. In the metallic
state it is inert; but, from its great affinity for oxygen, it rapidly
becomes oxidised and poisonous; and hence acts as a powerful poison when
swallowed, or when rubbed on the skin. Its fumes are also highly
poisonous. See ARSENIOUS ACID (and _below_).

=Arsenic, Tribro′mide of.= AsBr_{3}. _Syn._ TERBRO′MIDE OF ARSENIC,
arsenic, in powder, cautiously and in a very small quantity at a time, to
pure bromine, contained in a vessel set in ice or a freezing mixture,
until light ceases to be emitted; then cautiously distil into a
well-cooled receiver.

_Prop., &c._ Solid below 68° Fahr.; above it, a yellowish fuming liquid,
which boils at 428° Fahr.

=Arsenic, Trichlo′′ride of.= AsCl_{3}. _Syn._ CHLO′′RIDE OF A., ARSEN′ICI
TERCHLORI′DUM, &c., L. _Prep._ 1. From a mixture of white arsenic, 1 part;
and bichloride of mercury, 6 parts; both in powder, carefully distilled
into a well-cooled receiver.

2. Gently boil powdered white arsenic for some time in hydrochloric acid
to which a little nitric acid has been added; then concentrate cautiously
by evaporation, and distil as before. It is also produced, with the
disengagement of heat and light, when powdered metallic arsenic is thrown
into gaseous chlorine.

_Prop., &c._ A colourless, volatile, highly poisonous liquid, decomposed
by water into arsenious acid and hydrochloric acid. It has been employed
as a caustic in cancer and venereal warts; but its use requires the
greatest caution.

=Arsenic, Flu′oride of.= AsF_{3}. _Syn._ ARSENIC TRIFLUORIDE, TERFLU′ORIDE
OF ARSENIC. A fuming volatile liquid, prepared as the bromide.

=Arsenic, Trii′odide of.= AsI_{3}. _Syn._ TERIODIDE OF ARSENIC, IODIDE OF
_Prep._ 1. From finely-pulverised metallic arsenic, 2 parts; iodide, 11
parts; mixed and gently heated in a bent glass tube, or a suitable retort,
until combination is complete; the heat being then raised, and the
sublimed iodide collected, and at once put into a well-stopped phial.

2. Arsenic, in fine powder, 1 part; iodine, 5 parts; triturate them
together, place the mixture in a small flask or retort just large enough
to contain it, and apply a gentle heat until liquefaction is complete,
avoiding the formation of iodine vapour; when the odour of iodine is no
longer perceptible, and the mass assumes a reddish-yellow colour and
crystallises on the sides of the vessel, the operation is complete,
without having recourse to sublimation. A very easy and excellent process.

_Prop., &c._ A deep orange-red, crystallisable solid; soluble in water,
and highly volatile and poisonous. Its aqueous solution yields the iodine
unchanged by rapid evaporation, but when slowly concentrated and set
aside, white pearly plates are obtained, consisting of arsenious acid and
the teriodide. As a medicine it combines the properties of both arsenious
acid and iodine, but its use requires great caution. It has been
successfully employed by Dr A. T. Thomson, Biett, and others, in obstinate
skin diseases (lepra, impetigo, herpes, lupus, psoriasis, &c.), and in
real or stimulated cancer.——_Dose_, 1/16 to 1/12 g