Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Discoveries among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon
Author: Layard, Austen H.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Discoveries among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Libraries.)



[Illustration: NORTH-EASTERN FACADE AND GRAND ENTRANCE OF SENNACHERIBS
PALACE KOUYUNJIK

Restored from a Sketch by J Fergusson, Esqre

G P PUTNAM & Co NEW YORK.]



  DISCOVERIES AMONG THE RUINS OF NINEVEH AND BABYLON;

  WITH

  TRAVELS IN ARMENIA, KURDISTAN, AND THE DESERT:
  BEING THE RESULT OF A SECOND EXPEDITION
  UNDERTAKEN FOR
  THE TRUSTEES OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM.


  BY AUSTEN H. LAYARD, M. P.
  AUTHOR OF "NINEVEH AND ITS REMAINS."


  "For thou hast made of a city an heap; of a defenced city
  a ruin; a palace of strangers to be no city; it shall never
  be built."--ISAIAH xxv. 2.


  ABRIDGED FROM THE LARGER WORK.


  NEW-YORK:
  G. P. PUTNAM & CO., 10 PARK PLACE.
  1853.



  ENTERED according to Act of Congress in the year 1853, by
  GEORGE P. PUTNAM & CO.,
  In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern
  District of New-York.



PREFATORY NOTE.


The present Abridgment of Mr. Layard's Discoveries among the ruins of
Nineveh and Babylon has been prepared with much care and attention; and a
studious effort has been made to retain, in the Author's own language, the
more interesting and important portions of the larger work. This has been
done by omitting the greater part of the minute details of the
descriptions of sculpture and monumental remains, by dispensing with
several tables of cuneiform characters, elaborate examinations of various
matters by scientific men, &c. At the same time there has been retained
every thing relating to the Bible, and illustrating and enforcing its
truth and the fulfilment of prophecy; as well as the genial and life-like
portraitures of Arab habits and customs, and the pleasant adventures of
the Author in regions that to most men seem like fairy land.

For general use it is confidently hoped and believed that the present
volume will be more widely serviceable than the larger work, from its
expensiveness and size, could possibly be.

S.

_New-York, May 2d, 1853._



PREFACE.


Since the publication of my first work on the discoveries at Nineveh much
progress has been made in deciphering the cuneiform character, and the
contents of many highly interesting and important inscriptions have been
given to the public. For these additions to our knowledge we are mainly
indebted to the sagacity and learning of two English scholars, Col.
Rawlinson and the Rev. Dr. Hincks. In making use of the results of their
researches, I have not omitted to own the sources from which my
information has been derived. I trust, also, that I have in no instance
availed myself of the labors of other writers, or of the help of friends,
without due acknowledgments. I have endeavored to assign to every one his
proper share in the discoveries recorded in these pages.

I am aware that several distinguished French scholars, amongst whom I may
mention my friends, M. Botta and M. de Saulcy, have contributed to the
successful deciphering of the Assyrian inscriptions. Unfortunately I have
been unable to consult the published results of their investigations. If,
therefore, I should have overlooked in any instance their claims to prior
discovery, I have to express my regret for an error arising from
ignorance, and not from any unworthy national prejudice.

Doubts appear to be still entertained by many eminent critics as to the
progress actually made in deciphering the cuneiform writing. These doubts
may have been confirmed by too hasty theories and conclusions, which, on
subsequent investigation, their authors have been the first to withdraw.
But the unbiased inquirer can scarcely now reject the evidence which can
be brought forward to confirm the general accuracy of the interpretations
of the inscriptions. Had they rested upon a single word, or an isolated
paragraph, their soundness might reasonably have been questioned; when,
however, several independent investigators have arrived at the same
results, and have not only detected numerous names of persons, nations,
and cities in historical and geographical series, but have found them
mentioned in proper connection with events recorded by sacred and profane
writers, scarcely any stronger evidence could be desired. The reader, I
would fain hope, will come to this conclusion when I treat of the contents
of the various records discovered in the Assyrian palaces.

To Mr. Thomas Ellis, who has added so much to the value of my work by his
translations of inscriptions on Babylonian bowls, now for the first time,
through his sagacity, deciphered; to those who have assisted me in my
labors, and especially to my friend and companion, Mr. Hormuzd Rassam, to
the Rev. Dr. Hincks, to the Rev. S. C. Malan, who has kindly allowed me
the use of his masterly sketches, to Mr. Fergusson, Mr. Scharf, and to Mr.
Hawkins, Mr. Birch, Mr. Vaux, and the other officers of the British
Museum, I beg to express my grateful thanks and acknowledgments.

London, January, 1853.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


                                                                      PAGE

  N. E. FAÇADE AND ENTRANCE TO SENNACHERIB'S PALACE,
  RESTORED                                                 _Frontispiece._

  THE MELEK TAOUS OR COPPER BIRD OF THE YEZIDIS                         46

  SUBTERRANEAN EXCAVATIONS AT KOUYUNJIK                                 61

  MOUND OF NIMROUD                                                      84

  HEAD-DRESS OF CAPTIVES EMPLOYED BY ASSYRIANS IN
  MOVING BULL (KOUYUNJIK)                                               92

  VILLAGE WITH CONICAL ROOFS NEAR ALEPPO                                97

  BULLS WITH HISTORICAL INSCRIPTIONS OF SENNACHERIB
  (KOUYUNJIK)                                                          113

  SENNACHERIB ON HIS THRONE BEFORE LACHISH                             129

  FEET OF TRIPODS IN BRONZE AND IRON                                   151

  A CAPTIVE (OF THE TOKKARI?) KOUYUNJIK                                193

  LION DISCOVERED AT ARBAN                                             231

  VOLCANIC CONE OF KOUKAB                                              268

  ENTRANCE TO SMALL TEMPLE (NIMROUD)                     _Facing page_ 288

  FISH-GOD AT ENTRANCE TO SMALL TEMPLE (NIMROUD)                       289

  KURDS OF WAN                                                         320

  FIGURES OF ASSYRIAN VENUS IN BAKED CLAY                              383

  THE MUJELIBÉ OR KASR (FROM RICH)                                     392

  PLAN OF PART OF THE RUINS OF BABYLON ON THE EASTERN
  BANK OF THE EUPHRATES                                                396

  JUG OF SOAPSTONE, FROM THE MOUND OF BABEL                            409

  ASSYRIAN PEDESTAL, FROM KOUYUNJIK                                    477

  PART OF COLOSSAL HEAD, FROM KOUYUNJIK                                481

  PLAN OF THE INCLOSURE WALLS AND DITCHES AT KOUYUNJIK                 536

  MAP OF ASSYRIA, ETC.       }                               _at the end._
  GENERAL MAP OF MESOPOTAMIA }



CONTENTS.


  CHAPTER I.

  The Trustees of the British Museum resume Excavations at
  Nineveh.--Departure from Constantinople.--Description of our
  Party.--Roads from Trebizond to Erzeroom.--Description of the
  Country.--Armenian Churches.--Erzeroom.--Reshid Pasha.--The
  Dudjook Tribes.--Shahan Bey.--Turkish Reform.--Journey through
  Armenia.--An Armenian Bishop.--The Lakes of Shailu and Nazik          15


  CHAPTER II.

  The Lake of Wan.--Akhlat.--Tatar Tombs.--Ancient Remains.--A
  Dervish.--A Friend.--The Mudir.--Armenian Remains.--An Armenian
  Convent and Bishop.--Journey to Bitlis.--Nimroud Dagh.--
  Bitlis.--Journey to Kherzan.--Yezidi Village                          30


  CHAPTER III.

  Reception by the Yezidis.--Village of Guzelder.--Triumphal
  March to Redwan.--Redwan.--Armenian Church.--The Melek Taous,
  or Brazen Bird.--Tilleh.--Valley of the Tigris.--Bas-reliefs.--
  Journey to Dereboun.--To Semil.--Abde Agha.--Journey to
  Mosul.--The Yezidi Chiefs.--Arrival at Mosul.--Xenophon's March
  from the Zab to the Black Sea                                         42


  CHAPTER IV.

  State of the Excavations on my Return to Mosul.--Discoveries at
  Kouyunjik.--Tunnels in the Mound.--Bas-reliefs representing
  Assyrian Conquests.--A Well.--Siege of a City.--Nature of
  Sculptures at Kouyunjik.--Arrangement for Renewal of
  Excavations.--Description of Mound.--Kiamil Pasha.--Visit to
  Sheikh Adi.--Yezidi Ceremonies.--Sheikh Jindi.--Yezidi
  Meeting.--Dress of the Women.--Bavian.--Doctrines of the
  Yezidi.--Jerraiyah.--Return to Mosul                                  61


  CHAPTER V.

  Renewal of Excavations at Kouyunjik.--First Visit to Nimroud.--
  State of Ruins.--Renew Excavations in Mound.--Visit of Col.
  Rawlinson.--Mr. H. Rassam.--The Jebour Workmen at Kouyunjik.--
  Discoveries at Kouyunjik.--Sculptures representing moving of
  great Stones and Winged Bulls.--Methods adopted.--Epigraphs on
  Bas-reliefs of moving Bulls.--Sculptures representing Invasion
  of Mountainous Country, and Sack of City.--Discovery of
  Gateway.--Excavation in high conical Mound at Nimroud.--
  Discovery of Wall of Stone.--Visit to Khorsabad.--Discovery of
  Slab.--State of the Ruins.--Futhliyah.--Baazani.--Baasheikhah         84


  CHAPTER VI.

  Discovery of Grand Entrance to the Palace of Kouyunjik.--Of the
  Name of Sennacherib in the Inscriptions.--The Records of that
  King in the Inscriptions on the Bulls.--An Abridged Translation
  of them.--Name of Hezekiah.--Account of Sennacherib's Wars with
  the Jews.--Dr. Hincks and Col. Rawlinson.--The Names of Sargon
  and Shalmaneser.--Discovery of Sculptures at Kouyunjik,
  representing the Siege of Lachish.--Description of the
  Sculptures.--Discovery of Clay Seals.--Of Signets of Egyptian
  and Assyrian Kings.--Cartouche of Sabaco.--Name of
  Essarhaddon.--Confirmation of Historical Records of the
  Bible.--Royal Cylinder of Sennacherib                                113


  CHAPTER VII.

  Road open for removal of Winged Lions.--Discovery of Vaulted
  Drain.--Of other Arches.--Of Painted Bricks.--Attack of the Tai
  on the Village of Nimroud.--Visit to the Howar.--Description of
  the Encampment of the Tai.--The Plain of Shomamok.--Sheikh
  Faras.--Wali Bey.--Return to Nimroud                                 137


  CHAPTER VIII.

  Contents of newly-discovered Chamber.--A Well.--Large Copper
  Caldrons.--Bells, Rings, and other Objects in Metal.--
  Tripods.--Caldrons and large Vessels.--Bronze Bowls, Cups, and
  Dishes.--Description of the Embossings upon them.--Arms and
  Armour.--Shields.--Iron Instruments.--Ivory Remains.--Bronze
  Cubes inlaid with Gold.--Glass Bowls.--Lens.--The Royal Throne       150


  CHAPTER IX.

  Visit to the Winged Lions by Night.--The Bitumen Springs.--
  Removal of the Winged Lions to the River.--Floods at Nimroud.--
  Yezidi Marriage Festival.--Baazani.--Visit to Bavian.--Site of
  the Battle of Arbela.--Description of Rock-Sculptures.--
  Inscriptions.--The Shabbaks                                          167


  CHAPTER X.

  Visit to Kalah Sherghat prevented.--Visit to Shomamok.--
  Keshaf.--The Howar.--A Bedouin.--His Mission.--Descent of Arab
  Horses.--Their Pedigree.--Ruins of Mokhamour.--The Mound of the
  Kasr.--Plain of Shomamok.--The Gla or Kalah.--Xenophon and the
  Ten Thousand.--A Wolf.--Return to Nimroud and Mosul.--
  Discoveries at Kouyunjik.--Description of the Bas-reliefs            182


  CHAPTER XI.

  Preparations for a Journey to the Khabour.--Sculptures
  discovered there.--Sheikh Suttum.--His Rediff.--Departure from
  Mosul.--First Encampment.--Abou Khameera.--A Storm.--Tel
  Ermah.--A Stranger.--Tel Jemal.--The Chief of Tel Afer.--A
  Sunset in the Desert.--A Jebour Encampment.--The Belled
  Sinjar.--The Sinjar Hill.--Mirkan.--Bukra.--The dress of the
  Yezidis.--The Shomal.--Ossofa.--Aldina.--Return to the
  Belled.--A Snake-Charmer.--Journey continued in the Desert.--
  Rishwan.--Encampment of the Boraij.--Dress of Arab Women.--
  Rathaiyah.--A Deputation from the Yezidis.--Arab Encampments.--
  The Khabour.--Mohammed Emin.--Arrival at Arban                       195


  CHAPTER XII.

  Arban.--Our Encampment.--Suttum and Mohammed Emin.--Winged
  Bulls discovered.--Excavations commenced.--Their Results.--
  Discovery of Small Objects--of Second Pair of Winged Bulls.--of
  Lion--of Chinese Bottle--of Vase--of Egyptian Scarabs--of
  Tombs.--The Scene of the Captivity                                   225


  CHAPTER XIII.

  Residence at Arban.--Mohammed Emin's Tent.--The Agaydat.--our
  Tents.--Bread-baking.--Food of the Bedouins.--Thin Bread.--The
  Produce of their Flocks.--Diseases amongst them.--Their
  Remedies.--The Deloul or Dromedary.--Bedouin Warfare.--Suttum's
  First Wife.--A Storm.--Turtles.--Lions.--A Bedouin Robber.--
  Beavers.--Ride to Ledjmiyat--A Plundering Expedition.--Loss of
  a Hawk.--Ruins of Shemshani.--Return to Arban.--Visit to
  Moghamis                                                             237


  CHAPTER XIV.

  Leave Arban.--The Banks of the Khabour.--Artificial Mounds.--
  Mijwell.--The Cadi of the Bedouins.--The _Thar_ or
  Blood-Revenge.--Caution of Arabs.--A natural Cavern.--An
  extinct volcano.--The Confluents of the Khabour.--Bedouin
  Marks.--Suleiman Agha.--Encampment at Um-Jerjeh.--The Turkish
  Irregular Cavalry.--Mound of Mijdel.--Ruins on the Khabour.--
  Mohammed Emin leaves us.--Visit to Kurdish Tents and Harem.--
  The Milli Kurds.--The Family of Rishwan.--Arab Love-making.--
  The Dakheel.--Bedouin Poets and Poetry.--Turkish Cavalry Horses      252


  CHAPTER XV.

  Departure from the Khabour.--Arab Sagacity.--The Hol.--The Lake
  of Khatouniyah.--Return of Suttum.--Encampment of the
  Shammar.--Arab Horses--their Breeds--their Value--their
  Speed.--Sheikh Ferhan.--Yezidi Villages.--Falcons.--An Alarm.--
  Abou Maria.--Eski Mosul.--Arrival at Mosul.--Return of Suttum
  to the Desert                                                        268


  CHAPTER XVI.

  Discoveries at Kouyunjik.--Procession of Figures bearing Fruit
  and Game.--Locusts.--Led Horses.--An Assyrian Campaign.--Dagon,
  or the Fish-God.--The Chambers of Records.--Inscribed Clay
  Tablets.--Return to Nimroud.--Effects of the Flood.--
  Discoveries.--Small Temple under high Mound.--The Evil
  Spirit.--Fish-God.--Fine Bas-relief of the King.--Extracts from
  the Inscription.--Great inscribed Monolith.--Extracts from the
  Inscription.--Cedar Beams.--Small Objects.--Second Temple.--
  Marble Figure and other Objects                                      280


  CHAPTER XVII.

  The Summer.--Encampment at Kouyunjik.--Visitors.--Mode of
  Life.--Departure for the Mountains.--Akra.--Rock-Tablets at
  Gunduk.--District of Zibari.--Namet Agha.--District of
  Shirwan--of Baradost--of Gherdi--of Shemdina.--Mousa Bey.--
  Nestorian Bishop.--Convent of Mar Hananisho.--Dizza.--An
  Albanian Friend.--Bash-Kalah.--Izzet Pasha.--A Jewish
  Encampment.--High Mountain Pass.--Mahmoudiyah.--First View of
  Wan                                                                  300


  CHAPTER XVIII.

  Mehemet Pasha.--Description of Wan.--Its History.--Improvement
  in its Condition.--The Armenian Bishop.--The Cuneiform
  Inscriptions.--The Caves of Khorkhor.--The Meher Kapousi.--A
  Tradition.--Observations on the Inscriptions.--The Bairam.--An
  American School.--The American Missions.--Protestant Movement
  in Turkey.--Amikh.--The Convent of Yedi Klissia                      320


  CHAPTER XIX.

  Leave Wan.--The Armenian Patriarch.--The Island of Akhtamar.--
  An Armenian Church.--History of the Convent.--Pass into
  Mukus.--The District of Mukus--of Shattak--of Nourdooz.--A
  Nestorian Village.--Encampments.--Mount Ararat.--Mar Shamoun.--
  Julamerik.--Valley of Diz.--Pass into Jelu.--Nestorian District
  of Jelu.--An ancient Church.--The Bishop.--District of Baz--of
  Tkhoma.--Return to Mosul                                             337


  CHAPTER XX.

  Discoveries at Kouyunjik during the Summer.--Description of the
  Sculptures.--Capture of Cities on a great River.--Pomp of
  Assyrian King.--Alabaster Pavement.--Conquest of Tribes
  inhabiting a Marsh.--Their Wealth.--Chambers with Sculptures
  belonging to a new King.--Description of the Sculptures.--
  Conquest of the People of Susiana.--Portrait of the King.--His
  guards and Attendants.--The City of Shushan.--Captive Prince.--
  Musicians.--Captives put to the Torture.--Artistic Character of
  the Sculptures.--An Inclined Passage.--Two small Chambers.--
  Colossal Figures.--More Sculptures                                   356


  CHAPTER XXI.

  Preparations for leaving Nineveh.--Departure for Babylon.--
  Descent of the River.--Tekrit.--The State of the Rivers of
  Mesopotamia.--Commerce upon them.--Turkish Roads.--The Plain of
  Dura.--The Naharwan.--Samarrah.--Kadesia.--Palm Groves.--
  Kathimain.--Approach to Baghdad.--The City.--Arrival.--Dr.
  Ross.--A British Steamer.--Modern Baghdad.--Tel Mohammed.--
  Departure for Babylon.--A Persian Prince.--Abde Pasha's
  Camp.--Eastern Falconry.--Hawking the Gazelle.--Approach to
  Babylon.--The Ruins.--Arrival at Hillah                              372


  CHAPTER XXII.

  The Chiefs of Hillah.--Present of Lions.--The Son of the
  Governor.--Description of the Town.--Zaid.--The Ruins of
  Babylon.--Changes in the Course of the Euphrates.--The Walls.--
  Visit to the Birs Nimroud.--Description of the Ruin.--View from
  it.--Excavations and Discoveries in the Mound of Babel.--In the
  Mujelibé or Kasr.--The Tree Athelé.--Excavations in the Ruin of
  Amran.--Bowls, with Inscriptions in Hebrew and Syriac
  Characters.--The Jews of Babylonia                                   392


  CHAPTER XXIII.

  State of the Ruins of Babylon.--Cause of the Disappearance of
  Buildings.--Nature of original Edifices.--Babylonian Bricks.--
  The History of Babylon.--Its Fall.--Its Remarkable Position.--
  Commerce.--Canals and Roads.--Skill of Babylonians in the
  Arts.--Engraved Gems.--Corruption of Manners, and consequent
  Fall of the City.--The Mecca Pilgrimage.--Sheikh Ibn Reshid.--
  The Gebel Shammar.--The Mounds of El Hymer--of Anana                 419


  CHAPTER XXIV.

  Ruins in Southern Mesopotamia.--Departure from Hillah.--
  Sand-Hills.--Villages in the Jezireh.--Sheikh Karboul.--
  Ruins.--First View of Niffer.--The Marshes.--Arab Boats.--
  Arrive at Souk-el-Afaij.--Sheikh Agab.--Town of the Afaij.--
  Description of the Ruins of Niffer.--Excavations in the
  Mounds.--Discovery of Coffins--of various Relics.--Mr. Loftus'
  Discoveries at Wurka.--The Arab Tribes.--Wild Beasts.--Lions.--
  Customs of the Afaij.--Leave the Marshes.--Return to Baghdad.--
  A Mirage                                                             437


  CHAPTER XXV.

  Preparations for Departure.--Sahiman.--Plunder of his Camels.--
  Leave Baghdad.--Journey through Mesopotamia.--Early Arab
  Remains.--The Median Wall.--Tekrit.--Horses stolen.--Instances
  of Bedouin Honesty.--Excavations at Kalah Sherghat.--Reach
  Mosul.--Discoveries during Absence.--New Chambers at
  Kouyunjik.--Description of Bas-reliefs.--Extent of the Ruins
  explored.--Bases of Pillars.--Small objects.--Roman Coins
  struck at Nineveh.--Hoard of Denarii.--Greek Relics.--Absence
  of Assyrian Tombs.--Fragment with Egyptian Characters.--
  Assyrian Relics.--Remains beneath the Tomb of Jonah.--
  Discoveries at Shereef-Khan--at Nimroud.--Assyrian Weights.--
  Engraved Cylinders                                                   463


  CHAPTER XXVI.

  Results of the Discoveries to Chronology and History.--Names of
  Assyrian Kings in the Inscriptions.--A Date fixed.--The Name of
  Jehu.--The Obelisk King.--The earlier Kings--Sardanapalus.--His
  Successors.--Pul, or Tiglath Pileser.--Sargon.--Sennacherib.--
  Essarhaddon.--The last Assyrian Kings.--Tables of proper Names
  in the Assyrian Inscriptions.--Antiquity of Nineveh.--Of the
  Name of Assyria.--Illustrations of Scripture.--State of Judæa
  and Assyria compared.--Political Condition of the Empire.--
  Assyrian Colonies.--Prosperity of the Country.--Religion.--
  Extent of Nineveh.--Assyrian Architecture--Compared with
  Jewish.--Palace of Kouyunjik restored.--Platform at Nimroud
  restored.--The Assyrian fortified Inclosures.--Description of
  Kouyunjik.--Conclusion                                               491



NINEVEH AND BABYLON.



CHAPTER I.

    THE TRUSTEES OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM RESUME EXCAVATIONS AT
    NINEVEH.--DEPARTURE FROM CONSTANTINOPLE.--DESCRIPTION OF OUR
    PARTY.--ROADS FROM TREBIZOND TO ERZEROOM.--DESCRIPTION OF THE
    COUNTRY.--ARMENIAN CHURCHES.--ERZEROOM.--RESHID PASHA.--THE DUDJOOK
    TRIBES.--SHAHAN BEY.--TURKISH REFORM.--JOURNEY THROUGH ARMENIA.--AN
    ARMENIAN BISHOP.--THE LAKES OF SHAILU AND NAZIK.


After a few months' residence in England during the year 1848, to recruit
a constitution worn by long exposure to the extremes of an Eastern
climate, I received orders to proceed to my post at Her Majesty's Embassy
in Turkey. The Trustees of the British Museum did not, at that time,
contemplate further excavations on the site of ancient Nineveh. Ill health
and limited time had prevented me from placing before the public, previous
to my return from the East, the results of my first researches, with the
illustrations of the monuments and copies of the inscriptions recovered
from the ruins of Assyria. They were not published until some time after
my departure, and did not consequently receive that careful
superintendence and revision necessary to works of this nature. It was at
Constantinople that I first learnt the general interest felt in England
in the discoveries, and that they had been universally received as fresh
illustrations of Scripture and prophecy, as well as of ancient history
sacred and profane.

And let me here, at the very outset, gratefully acknowledge that generous
spirit of English criticism which overlooks the incapacity and
shortcomings of the laborer when his object is worthy of praise, and that
object is sought with sincerity and singleness of purpose. The gratitude,
which I deeply felt for encouragement rarely equalled, could be best shown
by cheerfully consenting, without hesitation, to the request made to me by
the Trustees of the British Museum, urged by public opinion, to undertake
the superintendence of a second expedition into Assyria. Being asked to
furnish a plan of operations, I stated what appeared to me to be the
course best calculated to produce interesting and important results, and
to enable us to obtain the most accurate information on the ancient
history, language, and arts, not only of Assyria, but of its sister
kingdom, Babylonia. Perhaps my plan was too vast and general to admit of
performance or warrant adoption. I was merely directed to return to the
site of Nineveh, and to continue the researches commenced amongst its
ruins.

Arrangements were hastily, and of course inadequately, made in England.
The assistance of a competent artist was most desirable, to portray with
fidelity those monuments which injury and decay had rendered unfit for
removal. Mr. F. Cooper was selected by the Trustees of the British Museum
to accompany the expedition in this capacity. Mr. Hormuzd Rassam, already
well known to many of my readers for the share he had taken in my first
discoveries, quitted England with him. They both joined me at
Constantinople. Dr. Sandwith, an English physician on a visit to the
East, was induced to form one of our party. One Abd-el-Messiah, a Catholic
Syrian of Mardin, an active and trustworthy servant during my former
residence in Assyria, was fortunately at this time in the capital, and
again entered my service: my other attendants were Mohammed Agha, a
cawass, and an Armenian named Serkis. The faithful Bairakdar, who had so
well served me during my previous journey, had accompanied the English
commission for the settlement of the boundaries between Turkey and Persia;
with the understanding, however, that he was to meet me at Mosul, in case
I should return. Cawal Yusuf, the head of the Preachers of the Yezidis,
with four chiefs of the districts in the neighbourhood of Diarbekir, who
had been for some months in Constantinople, completed my party.

In consequence of the severe and unjust treatment of the Yezidis, in
compelling them to serve in the Turkish army, Hussein Bey and Sheikh Nasr,
the chiefs of the whole community, hearing that I was at Constantinople,
sent a deputation to the Sultan. Through Sir Stratford Canning's friendly
interference, a firman was obtained, and they were freed from all illegal
impositions for the future.

Our arrangements were complete by the 28th of August (1849), and on that
day we left the Bosphorus by an English steamer bound for Trebizond. The
size of my party and its consequent incumbrances rendering a caravan
journey absolutely necessary, I determined to avoid the usual tracks, and
to cross eastern Armenia and Kurdistan, both on account of the novelty of
part of the country in a geographical point of view, and its political
interest as having only recently been brought under the immediate control
of the Turkish government.

We disembarked at Trebizond on the 31st, and on the following day
commenced our land journey. The country between this port and Erzeroom has
been frequently traversed and described. Through it pass the caravan
routes connecting Persia with the Black Sea, the great lines of
intercourse and commerce between Europe and central Asia. The roads
usually frequented are three in number. The summer, or upper, road is the
shortest, but is most precipitous, and, crossing very lofty mountains, is
closed after the snows commence; it is called _Tchaïrler_, from its fine
upland pastures, on which the horses are usually fed when caravans take
this route. The middle road has few advantages over the upper, and is
rarely followed by merchants, who prefer the lower, although making a
considerable detour by Gumish Khaneh, or the Silver Mines. The three unite
at the town of Baiburt, midway between the sea and Erzeroom. Although an
active and daily increasing trade is carried on by these roads, no means
whatever have until recently been taken to improve them. They consist of
mere mountain tracks, deep in mud or dust according to the season of the
year. The bridges have been long permitted to fall into decay, and
commerce is frequently stopped for days by the swollen torrent or fordless
stream. This has been one of the many evil results of the system of
centralization so vigorously commenced by Sultan Mahmoud, and so steadily
carried out during the present reign.

Since my visit to Trebizond a road for carts has been commenced, which is
to lead from that port to the Persian frontiers; but it will, probably,
like other undertakings of the kind be abandoned long before completed, or
if ever completed will be permitted at once to fall to ruin from the want
of common repair. And yet the Persian trade is one of the chief sources of
revenue of the Turkish empire, and unless conveniences are afforded for
its prosecution, will speedily pass into other hands. The southern shores
of the Black Sea, twelve years ago rarely visited by a foreign vessel, are
now coasted by steamers belonging to three companies, which touch nearly
weekly at the principal ports; and there is commerce and traffic enough
for more. The want of proper harbors is a considerable drawback in the
navigation of a sea so unstable and dangerous as the Euxine. Trebizond has
a mere roadstead, and from its position is otherwise little calculated for
a great commercial port, which, like many other places, it has become
rather from its hereditary claims as the representative of a city once
famous, than from any local advantages. The only harbour on the southern
coast is that of Batoun, nor is there any retreat for vessels on the
Circassian shores. This place is therefore probably destined to become the
emporium of trade, both from its safe and spacious port, and from the
facility it affords of internal communication with Persia, Georgia, and
Armenia.

At the back of Trebizond, as indeed along the whole of this singularly
bold and beautiful coast, the mountains rise in lofty peaks, and are
wooded with trees of enormous growth and admirable quality, furnishing an
unlimited supply of timber for commerce or war. Innumerable streams force
their way to the sea through deep and rocky ravines. The more sheltered
spots are occupied by villages and hamlets, chiefly inhabited by a hardy
and industrious race of Greeks. In spring the choicest flowers perfume the
air, and luxuriant creepers clothe the limbs of gigantic trees. In summer
the richest pastures enamel the uplands, and the inhabitants of the coasts
drive their flocks and herds to the higher regions of the hills.

Our journey to Erzeroom was performed without incident. A heavy and
uninterrupted rain for two days tried the patience and temper of those who
for the first time encountered the difficulties and incidents of Eastern
travel. The only place of any interest, passed during our ride, was a
small Armenian village, the remains of a larger, with the ruins of three
early Christian churches, or baptisteries. These remarkable buildings, of
which many examples exist, belong to an order of architecture peculiar to
the most eastern districts of Asia Minor and to the ruins of ancient
Armenian cities, on the borders of Turkey and Persia. There are many
interesting questions connected with this Armenian architecture which will
deserve elucidation. From it was probably derived much that passed into
the Gothic, whilst the Tatar conquerors of Asia Minor adopted it, as will
be hereafter seen, for their mausoleums and places of worship. It is
peculiarly elegant both in its decorations, its proportions, and the
general arrangement of the masses, and might with advantage be studied by
the modern architect. Indeed, Asia Minor contains a mine of similar
materials unexplored and almost unknown.

We reached Erzeroom on the 8th, and were most hospitably received by the
British consul, Mr. Brant, a gentleman who has long, well, and honorably
sustained our influence in this part of Turkey, and who was the first to
open an important field for our commerce in Asia Minor. With him I visited
the commander-in-chief of the Turkish forces in Anatolia, who had recently
returned from a successful expedition against the wild mountain tribes of
central Armenia. Reshid Pasha, known as the "_Guzlu_," or the "Wearer of
Spectacles," enjoyed the advantages of an European education, and had
already distinguished himself in the military career. With a knowledge of
the French language he united a taste for European literature, which,
during his numerous expeditions into districts unknown to western
travellers, had led him to examine their geographical features, and to
make inquiries into the manners and religion of their inhabitants. His
last exploit had been the subjugation of the tribes inhabiting the Dudjook
Mountains, to the south-west of Erzeroom, long in open rebellion against
the Sultan. The account he gave me of the country and its occupants,
though curious and interesting, is not perhaps to be strictly relied on,
but a district hitherto inaccessible may possibly contain the remains of
ancient races, monuments of antiquity, and natural productions of
sufficient importance to merit the attention of the traveller in Asia
Minor.

The city of Erzeroom is rapidly declining in importance, and is almost
solely supported by the Persian transit trade. It would be nearly deserted
if that traffic were to be thrown into a new channel by the construction
of the direct road from Batoun to the Persian frontiers. It contains no
buildings of any interest, with the exception of a few ruins of monuments
of early Mussulman domination; and the modern Turkish edifices, dignified
with the names of palaces and barracks, are meeting the fate of neglected
mud.

The districts of Armenia and Kurdistan, through which lay our road from
Erzeroom to Mosul, are sufficiently unknown and interesting to merit more
than a casual mention. Our route by the lake of Wan, Bitlis, and Jezirah
was nearly a direct one. It had been but recently opened to caravans. The
haunts of the last of the Kurdish rebels were on the shores of this lake.
After the fall of the most powerful of their chiefs, Beder Khan Bey, they
had one by one been subdued and carried away into captivity. Only a few
months had, however, elapsed since the Beys of Bitlis, who had longest
resisted the Turkish arms, had been captured. With them rebellion was
extinguished for the time in Kurdistan.

Our caravan consisted of my own party, with the addition of a muleteer and
his two assistants, natives of Bitlis, who furnished me with seventeen
horses and mules from Erzeroom to Mosul. The first day's ride, as is
customary in the East, where friends accompany the traveller far beyond
the city gates, and where the preparations for a journey are so numerous
that everything cannot well be remembered, scarcely exceeded nine miles.
We rested for the night in the village of Guli, whose owner, one Shahan
Bey, had been apprised of my intended visit. He had rendered his
newly-built house as comfortable as his means would permit for our
accommodation, and, after providing us with an excellent supper, passed
the evening with me. Descended from an ancient family of Dereh-Beys, he
had inherited the hospitality and polished manners of a class now almost
extinct, in consequence of the policy pursued by the Turkish sultans,
Mahmoud and Abdul-Medjid, to break down the great families and men of
middle rank, who were more or less independent, and to consolidate and
centralize the vast Ottoman empire.

It is customary to regard these old Turkish lords as inexorable
tyrants--robber chiefs, who lived on the plunder of travellers and of
their subjects. That there were many who answered to this description
cannot be denied; but they were, I believe, exceptions. Amongst them were
some rich in virtues and high and noble feeling. It has been frequently my
lot to find a representative of this nearly extinct class in some remote
and almost unknown spot in Asia Minor or Albania. I have been received
with affectionate warmth at the end of a day's journey by a venerable Bey
or Agha in his spacious mansion, now fast crumbling to ruin, but still
bright with the remains of rich, yet tasteful, oriental decoration; his
long beard, white as snow, falling low on his breast; his many-folded
turban shadowing his benevolent yet manly countenance, and his limbs
enveloped in the noble garments rejected by the new generation; his hall
open to all comers, the guest neither asked from whence he came or whither
he was going, dipping his hands with him in the same dish; his servants,
standing with reverence before him, rather his children than his servants;
his revenues spent in raising fountains[1] on the wayside for the weary
traveller, or in building caravanserais on the dreary plain; not only
professing, but practising all the duties and virtues enjoined by the
Koran, which are Christian duties and virtues too; in his manners, his
appearance, his hospitality, and his faithfulness, a perfect model for a
Christian gentleman. The race is fast passing away, and I feel grateful in
being able to testify, with a few others, to its existence once, against
prejudice, intolerance, and so-called reform.

Our host at Guli, Shahan Bey, although not an old man, was a very
favorable specimen of the class I have described. He was truly, in the
noble and expressive phraseology of the East, an "Ojiak Zadeh," "a child
of the hearth," a gentleman born. His family had originally migrated from
Daghistan, and his father, a pasha, had distinguished himself in the wars
with Russia. He entertained me with animated accounts of feuds between his
ancestors and the neighbouring chiefs; and steadily refused to allow any
recompense to himself or his servants for his hospitality.

From Guli we crossed a high range of mountains, running nearly east and
west, by a pass called Ali-Baba, or Ala-Baba, enjoying from the summit an
extensive view of the plain of Pasvin, once one of the most thickly
peopled and best cultivated districts in Armenia. The Christian
inhabitants were partly induced by promises of land and protection, and
partly compelled by force, to accompany the Russian army into Georgia
after the end of the last war with Turkey. By similar means, that part of
the Pashalic of Erzeroom adjoining the Russian territories was almost
stripped of its most industrious Armenian population. To the south of us
rose the snow-capped mountains of the Bin-Ghiul, or the "Thousand Lakes,"
in which the Araxes and several confluents of the Euphrates have their
source. We descended from the pass into undulating and barren downs. The
villages, thinly scattered over the low hills, were deserted by their
inhabitants, who, at this season of the year, pitch their tents and seek
pasture for their flocks in the uplands.

Next day we continued our journey amongst undulating hills, abounding in
flocks of the great and lesser bustard. Innumerable sheep-walks branched
from the beaten path, a sign that villages were near; but, like those we
had passed the day before, they had been deserted for the _yilaks_, or
summer pastures. These villages are still such as they were when Xenophon
traversed Armenia. "Their houses," says he, "were under ground; the mouth
resembling that of a well, but spacious below: there was an entrance dug
for the cattle, but the inhabitants descended by ladders. In these houses
were goats, sheep, cows, and fowls, with their young."[2] The low hovels,
mere holes in the hill-side, and the common refuge of man, poultry, and
cattle, cannot be seen from any distance, and they are purposely built
away from the road, to escape the unwelcome visits of travelling
government officers and marching troops. It is not uncommon for a
traveller to receive the first intimation of his approach to a village by
finding his horse's fore feet down a chimney, and himself taking his place
unexpectedly in the family circle through the roof. Numerous small streams
wind among the valleys, marking by meandering lines of perpetual green
their course to the Arras, or Araxes. We crossed that river about mid-day
by a ford not more than three feet deep, but the bed of the stream is
wide, and after rains, and during the spring, is completely filled by an
impassable torrent.

During the afternoon we crossed the western spur of the Tiektab Mountains,
a high and bold range with three well defined peaks, which had been
visible from the summit of the Ala-Baba pass. From the crest we had the
first view of Subhan, or Sipan, Dagh, a magnificent conical peak, covered
with eternal snow, and rising abruptly from the plain to the north of Lake
Wan. It is a conspicuous and beautiful object from every part of the
surrounding country. We descended into the wide and fertile plain of
Hinnis. The town was just visible in the distance, but we left it to the
right, and halted for the night in the large Armenian village of Kosli,
after a ride of more than nine hours. I was received at the guesthouse (a
house reserved for travellers, and supported by joint contributions), with
great hospitality by one Misrab Agha, a Turk, to whom the village formerly
belonged as Spahilik or military tenure, and who, deprived of his
hereditary rights, had now farmed its revenues. He hurried with a long
stick among the low houses, and heaps of dry dung, piled up in every open
space for winter fuel, collecting fowls, curds, bread, and barley, abusing
at the same time the _tanzimat_, which compelled such exalted travellers
as ourselves, he said, "to pay for the provisions we condescended to
accept." The inhabitants were not, however, backward in furnishing us with
all we wanted, and the flourish of Misrab Agha's stick was only the
remains of an old habit. I invited him to supper with me, an invitation he
gladly accepted, having himself contributed a tender lamb roasted whole
towards our entertainment.

The inhabitants of Kosli could scarcely be distinguished either by their
dress or by their general appearance from the Kurds. They seemed
prosperous and were on the best terms with the Mussulman farmer of their
tithes. The village stands at the foot of the hills forming the southern
boundary of the plain of Hinnis, through which flows a branch of the Murad
Su, or Lower Euphrates. We forded this river near the ruins of a bridge at
Kara Kupri. The plain is generally well cultivated, the principal produce
being corn and hemp. The villages, which are thickly scattered over it,
have the appearance of extreme wretchedness, and, with their low houses
and heaps of dried manure piled upon the roofs and in the open spaces
around, look more like gigantic dunghills than human habitations. The
Kurds and Armenian Christians, both hardy and industrious races, are
pretty equally divided in numbers, and live sociably in the same filth and
misery.

We left the plain of Hinnis by a pass through the mountain range of
Zernak. On reaching the top of the pass we had an interrupted view of the
Subhan Dagh. From the village of Karagol, where we halted for the night,
it rose abruptly before us. This magnificent peak, with the rugged
mountains of Kurdistan, the river Euphrates winding through the plain, the
peasants driving the oxen over the corn on the threshing-floor, and the
groups of Kurdish horsemen with their long spears and flowing garments,
formed one of those scenes of Eastern travel which leave an indelible
impression on the imagination, and bring back in after years indescribable
feelings of pleasure and repose.

We crossed the principal branch of the Euphrates soon after leaving
Karagol. Although the river is fordable at this time of year, during the
spring it is nearly a mile in breadth, overflowing its banks, and
converting the entire plain into one great marsh. We had now to pick our
way through a swamp, scaring, as we advanced, myriads of wild-fowl. I have
rarely seen game in such abundance and such variety in one spot; the water
swarmed with geese, duck, and teal, the marshy ground with herons and
snipe, and the stubble with bustards and cranes. After the rains the lower
road is impassable, and caravans are obliged to make a considerable
circuit along the foot of the hills.

We were not sorry to escape the fever-breeding swamp and mud of the plain,
and to enter a line of low hills, separating us from the lake of Gula
Shailu. I stopped for a few minutes at an Armenian monastery, situated on
a small platform overlooking the plain. The bishop was at his breakfast,
his fare frugal and episcopal enough, consisting of nothing more than
boiled beans and sour milk. He insisted that I should partake of his
repast, and I did so, in a small room scarcely large enough to admit the
round tray containing the dishes, into which I dipped my hand with him and
his chaplain. I found him profoundly ignorant, like the rest of his class,
grumbling about taxes, and abusing the Turkish government.

After a pleasant ride of five hours we reached a deep clear lake, embedded
in the mountains, two or three pelicans, "swan and shadow double," and
myriads of waterfowl, lazily floating on its blue waters. Piron, the
village where we halted for the night, stands at the further end of the
Gula Shailu, and is inhabited by Kurds of the tribe of Hasananlu, and by
Armenians, all living in good fellowship amidst the dirt and wretchedness
of their eternal dung-heaps. Ophthalmia had made sad havoc amongst them,
and the doctor was soon surrounded by a crowd of the blind and diseased
clamoring for relief. The villagers said that a Persian, professing to be
a Hakim, had passed through the place some time before, and had offered to
cure all bad eyes on payment of a certain sum in advance. These terms
being agreed to, he gave his patients a powder which left the sore eyes as
they were, and destroyed the good ones. He then went his way: "And with
the money in his pocket too," added a ferocious-looking Kurd, whose
appearance certainly threw considerable doubt on the assertion; "but what
can one do in these days of accursed Tanzimat (reform)?"

The lake of Shailu is separated from the larger lake of Nazik, by a range
of low hills about six miles in breadth. We reached the small village of
Khers, built on its western extremity, in about two hours and a half, and
found the chief, surrounded by the principal inhabitants, seated on a
raised platform near a well-built stone house. He assured me, stroking a
beard of spotless white to confirm his words, that he was above ninety
years of age, and had never seen an European before the day of my visit.
Half blind, he peered at me through his blear eyes until he had fully
satisfied his curiosity; then spoke contemptuously of the Franks, and
abused the Tanzimat. The old gentleman, notwithstanding his rough
exterior, was hospitable after his fashion, and would not suffer us to
depart until we had eaten of every delicacy the village could afford.

Leaving the Nazik Gul, we entered an undulating country traversed by very
deep ravines, mere channels cut into the sandstone by mountain torrents.
The villages are built at the bottom of these gulleys, amidst fruit-trees
and gardens, sheltered by perpendicular rocks and watered by running
streams. They are undiscovered until the traveller reaches the very edge
of the precipice, when a pleasant and cheerful scene opens suddenly
beneath his feet. He would have believed the upper country a mere desert
had he not spied here and there in the distance a peasant slowly driving
his plough through the rich soil. The inhabitants of this district are
more industrious and ingenious than their neighbours. They carry the
produce of their harvest not on the backs of animals, as in most parts of
Asia Minor, but in carts entirely made of wood, no iron being used even in
the wheels, which are ingeniously built of walnut, oak, and kara agatch
(literally, black tree--? thorn), the stronger woods being used for rough
spokes let into the nave. The plough also differs from that in general use
in Asia. To the share are attached two parallel boards, about four feet
long and a foot broad, which separate the soil and leave a deep and well
defined furrow.

We rode for two or three hours on these uplands, until, suddenly reaching
the edge of a ravine, a beautiful prospect of a lake, woodland, and
mountain opened before us.



CHAPTER II.

    THE LAKE OF WAN.--AKHLAT.-TATAR TOMBS.--ANCIENT REMAINS.--A
    DERVISH.--A FRIEND.--THE MUDIR.--ARMENIAN REMAINS.--AN ARMENIAN
    CONVENT AND BISHOP.--JOURNEY TO BITLIS.--NIMROUD
    DAGH.--BITLIS.--JOURNEY TO KHERZAN.--YEZIDI VILLAGE.


The first view the traveller obtains of the Lake of Wan, on descending
towards it from the hills above Akhlat, is singularly beautiful. This
great inland sea, of the deepest blue, is bounded to the east by ranges of
serrated snow-capped mountains, peering one above the other, and springing
here and there into the highest peaks of Tiyari and Kurdistan; beneath
them lies the sacred island of Akhtamar, just visible in the distance,
like a dark shadow on the water. At the further end rises the one sublime
cone of the Subhan, and along the lower part of the eastern shores
stretches the Nimroud Dagh, varied in shape, and rich in local traditions.

At our feet, as we drew nigh to the lake, were the gardens of the ancient
city of Akhlat, leaning minarets and pointed Mausoleums peeping above the
trees. We rode through vast burying-grounds, a perfect forest of upright
stones seven or eight feet high of the richest red colour, most delicately
and tastefully carved with arabesque ornaments and inscriptions in the
massive character of the early Mussulman age. In the midst of them rose
here and there a conical _turbeh_[3] of beautiful shape, covered with
exquisite tracery. The monuments of the dead still stand, and have become
the monuments of a city, itself long crumbled into dust. Amidst orchards
and gardens are scattered here and there low houses rudely built out of
the remains of the earlier habitations, and fragments of cornice and
sculpture are piled up into the walls around the cultivated plots.

Beyond the turbeh, said to be that of Sultan Baiandour through a deep
ravine such as I have already described, runs a brawling stream, crossed
by an old bridge; orchards and gardens make the bottom of the narrow
valley, and the cultivated ledges as seen from above, a bed of foliage.
The lofty perpendicular rocks rising on both sides are literally
honeycombed with entrances to artificial caves, ancient tombs, or
dwelling-places. On a high isolated mass of sandstone stand the walls and
towers of a castle, the remains of the ancient city of Khelath, celebrated
in Armenian history, and one of the seats of Armenian power. I ascended to
the crumbling ruins, and examined the excavations in the rocks. The latter
are now used as habitations, and as stables for herds and flocks.

Many of the tombs are approached by flights of steps, also cut in the
rock. An entrance, generally square, unless subsequently widened, and
either perfectly plain or decorated with a simple cornice, opens into a
spacious chamber, which frequently leads into others on the same level, or
by narrow flights of steps into upper rooms. There are no traces of the
means by which these entrances were closed: they probably were so by
stones, turning on rude hinges, or rolling on rollers.

Leaving the valley and winding through a forest of fruit trees, here and
there interspersed with a few primitive dwellings, I came to the old
Turkish castle, standing on the very edge of the lake. It is a pure
Ottoman edifice, less ancient than the turbehs, or the old walls towering
above the ravine. Inscriptions over the gateways state that it was partly
built by Sultan Selim, and partly by Sultan Suleiman, and over the
northern entrance occurs the date of 975 of the Hejira. In the fort there
dwelt, until very recently, a notorious Kurdish freebooter, of the name of
Mehemet Bey, who, secure in this stronghold, ravaged the surrounding
country, and sorely vexed its Christian inhabitants. He fled on the
approach of the Turkish troops, after their successful expedition against
Nur-Ullah Bey, and is supposed to be wandering in the mountains of
southern Kurdistan.

The ancient city of Khelath was the capital of the Armenian province of
Peznouni. It came under the Mohammedan power as early as the ninth
century, but was conquered by the Greeks of the Lower Empire at the end of
the tenth. The Seljuks took it from them, and it then again became a
Mussulman principality. It was long a place of contention for the early
Arab and Tartar conquerors. Shah Armen[4] reduced it towards the end of
the twelfth century. It was besieged, without result, by the celebrated
Saleh-ed-din, and was finally captured by his nephew, the son of Melek
Adel, in A. D. 1207.

The sun was setting as I returned to the tents. The whole scene was
lighted up with its golden tints, and Claude never composed a subject more
beautiful than was here furnished by nature herself. I was seated outside
my tent gazing listlessly on the scene, when I was roused by a
well-remembered cry, but one which I had not heard for years. I turned
about and saw standing before me a Persian Dervish, clothed in the
fawn-colored gazelle skin, and wearing the conical red cap, edged with
fur, and embroidered in black braid with verses from the Koran and
invocations to Ali, the patron of his sect. He was no less surprised than
I had been at his greeting, when I gave him the answer peculiar to men of
his order. He was my devoted friend and servant from that moment, and sent
his boy to fetch a dish of pears, for which he actually refused a present
ten times their value.

Whilst we were seated chatting in the soft moonlight, Hormuzd was suddenly
embraced by a young man resplendent with silk and gold embroidery and
armed to the teeth. He was a chief from the district of Mosul, and well
known to us. Hearing of our arrival he had hastened from his village at
some distance to welcome us, and to endeavour to persuade me to move the
encampment and partake of his hospitality. Failing of course, in
prevailing upon me to change my quarters for the night, he sent his
servant to his wife, who was a lady of Mosul, and formerly a friend of my
companion's, for a sheep. We found ourselves thus unexpectedly amongst
friends. Our circle was further increased by Christians and Mussulmans of
Akhlat, and the night was far spent before we retired to rest.

In the morning, soon after sunrise, I renewed my wanderings amongst the
ruins, first calling upon the Mudir, or governor, who received me seated
under his own fig-tree. He was an old greybeard, a native of the place,
and of a straightforward, honest bearing. I had to listen to the usual
complaints of poverty and over-taxation, although, after all, the village,
with its extensive gardens, only contributed yearly ten purses, or less
than forty-five pounds, to the public revenue. This sum seems small
enough, but without trade, and distant from any high road, there was not
a para of ready money, according to the Mudir, in the place.

From the Mudir's house I rode to the more ancient part of the city and to
the rock-tombs. I entered many of these; and found all of them to be of
the same character, though varying in size. Amongst them there are
galleries and passages in the cliffs without apparent use, and flights of
steps, cut out of the rock, which seem to lead nowhere. I searched and
inquired in vain for inscriptions and remains of sculpture, and yet the
place is of undoubted antiquity, and in the immediate vicinity of
cotemporary sites where cuneiform inscriptions do exist.

During my wanderings I entered an Armenian church and convent standing on
a ledge of rock overhanging the stream, about four miles up the southern
ravine. The convent was tenanted by a bishop and two priests. They dwelt
in a small low room, scarcely lighted by a hole carefully blocked up with
a sheet of oiled paper to shut out the cold; dark, musty, and damp, a very
parish clerk in England would have shuddered at the sight of such a
residence. Their bed, a carpet worn to threads, spread on the rotten
boards; their diet, the coarsest sandy bread and a little sour curds, with
beans and mangy meat for a jubilee. A miserable old woman sat in a kind of
vault under the staircase preparing their food, and passing her days in
pushing to and fro with her skinny hands the goat's skin containing the
milk to be shaken into butter. She was the housekeeper and handmaiden of
the episcopal establishment. The church was somewhat higher, though even
darker than the dwelling-room, and was partly used to store a heap of
mouldy corn and some primitive agricultural implements. The whole was well
and strongly built, and had the evident marks of antiquity. The bishop
showed me a rude cross carved on a rock outside the convent, which, he
declared, had been cut by one of the disciples of the Saviour himself. It
is, at any rate, considered a relic of very great sanctity, and is an
object of pilgrimage for the surrounding Christian population.

On my return to our encampment the tents were struck, and the caravan had
already begun its march. Time would not permit me to delay, and with a
deep longing to linger on this favored spot, I slowly followed the road
leading along the margin of the lake to Bitlis. I have seldom seen a
fairer scene, one richer in natural beauties. The artist and the lover of
nature may equally find at Akhlat objects of study and delight. The
architect, or the traveller, interested in the history of that graceful
and highly original branch of art, which attained its full perfection
under the Arab rulers of Egypt and Spain, should extend his journey to the
remains of ancient Armenian cities, far from high roads and mostly
unexplored. He would then trace how that architecture, deriving its name
from Byzantium, had taken the same development in the East as it did in
the West, and how its subsequent combination with the elaborate
decoration, the varied outline, and tasteful coloring of Persia had
produced the style termed Saracenic, Arabic, and Moresque. He would
discover almost daily, details, ornaments, and forms, recalling to his
mind the various orders of architecture, which, at an early period,
succeeded to each other in Western Europe and in England; modifications of
style for which we are mainly indebted to the East during its close union
with the West by the bond of Christianity. The Crusaders, too, brought
back into Christendom, on their return from Asia, a taste for that rich
and harmonious union of color and architecture which had already been so
successfully introduced by the Arabs into the countries they had
conquered.

Our road skirted the foot of the Nimroud Dagh, which stretches from Akhlat
to the southern extremity of the lake. We crossed several dykes of lava
and scoria, and wide mud-torrents now dry, the outpourings of a volcano
long since extinct. Our road gradually led away from the lake. With Cawal
Yusuf and my companions I left the caravan far behind. The night came on,
and we were shrouded in darkness. We sought in vain for the village which
was to afford us a resting-place, and soon lost our uncertain track. The
Cawal took the opportunity of relating tales collected during former
journeys on this spot, of robber Kurds and murdered travellers, which did
not tend to remove the anxiety felt by some of my party. At length, after
wandering to and fro for above an hour, we heard the distant jingle of the
caravan bells. We rode in the direction of the welcome sound, and soon
found ourselves at the Armenian village of Keswak, standing in a small
bay, and sheltered by a rocky promontory jutting boldly into the lake.

Next morning we rode along the margin of the lake, still crossing the
spurs of the Nimroud Dagh, furrowed by numerous streams of lava and mud.
In one of the deep gulleys, opening from the mountain to the water's edge,
are a number of isolated masses of sandstone, worn into fantastic shapes
by the winter torrents, which sweep down from the hills. The people of the
country call them "the Camels of Nimrod." Tradition says that the
rebellious patriarch, endeavoring to build an inaccessible castle, strong
enough to defy both God and man, the Almighty, to punish his arrogance,
turned the workmen, as they were working, into stone. The rocks on the
border of the lake are the camels, who, with their burdens, were
petrified into a perpetual memorial of the Divine vengeance. The
unfinished walls of the castle are still to be seen on the top of the
mountain; and the surrounding country, the seat of a primeæval race,
abounds in similar traditions.

We left the southern end of the lake, near the Armenian village of Tadwan,
once a place of some importance, and soon entered a rugged ravine, worn by
the mountain rills, collected into a large stream. This was one of the
many head-waters of the Tigris. It was flowing tumultuously to our own
bourne, and, as we gazed upon the troubled waters, they seemed to carry us
nearer to our journey's end. The ravine was at first wild and rocky;
cultivated spots next appeared, scattered in the dry bed of the torrent;
then a few gigantic trees; gardens and orchards followed, and at length
the narrow valley opened on the long, straggling town of Bitlis. The
governor had here provided quarters for us in a large house belonging to
an Armenian, who had been tailor to Beder Khan Bey.

My party was now, for the first time during the journey, visited with that
curse of Eastern travel, fever and ague. The doctor was prostrate, and
having then no experience of the malady, at once had dreams of typhus and
malignant fever. A day's rest was necessary, and our jaded horses needed
it as well as we, for there were bad mountain roads and long marches
before us. I had a further object in remaining:--this was, to obtain
indemnity for the robbery committed on some relations of Cawal Yusuf two
years before. The official order of Reshid Pasha, and the governor's
intervention, speedily effected the desired arrangement.

The governor ordered cawasses to accompany me through the town. I had been
told that ancient inscriptions existed in the castle, or on the rock, but
I searched in vain for them: those pointed out to me were early
Mohammedan. Bitlis contains many picturesque remains of mosques, baths,
and bridges, and was once a place of considerable size and importance. It
is built in the very bottom of a deep valley, and on the sides of ravines,
worn by small tributaries of the Tigris. The export trade is chiefly
supplied by the produce of the mountains; galls, honey, wax, wool, and
carpets and stuffs, woven and dyed in the tents. The dyes of Kurdistan,
and particularly those from the districts around Bitlis, Sert, and
Jezireh, are celebrated for their brilliancy. They are made from herbs
gathered in the mountains, and from indigo, yellow berries, and other
materials, imported into the country. The carpets are of a rich soft
texture, the patterns displaying considerable elegance and taste: they are
much esteemed in Turkey. There was a fair show of Manchester goods and
coarse English cutlery in the shops. The sale of arms, once extensively
carried on, had been prohibited.

Having examined the town, I visited the Armenian bishop, who dwells in a
large convent in one of the ravines branching off from the main valley. On
my way I passed several hot springs, some gurgling up in the very bed of
the torrent. The bishop was maudlin, old, and decrepit; he cried over his
own personal woes, and over those of his community, abused the Turks, and
the American missionaries, whispering confidentially in my ear as if the
Kurds were at his door. He insisted in the most endearing terms, and
occasionally throwing his arms round my neck, that I should drink a couple
of glasses of fiery raki, although it was still early morning, pledging me
himself in each glass. He showed me his church, an ancient building, well
hung with miserable daubs of saints and miracles.

There are three roads from Bitlis to Jezireh; two over the mountains
through Sert, generally frequented by caravans, but very difficult and
precipitous; a third more circuitous, and winding through the valleys of
the eastern branch of the Tigris. I chose the last, as it enabled me to
visit the Yezidi villages of the district of Kherzan. We left Bitlis on
the 20th.

About five miles from Bitlis the road is carried by a tunnel, about twenty
feet in length, through a mass of calcareous rock, projecting like a huge
rib from the mountain's side. The mineral stream, which in the lapse of
ages has formed this deposit, is still at work, projecting great
stalactites from its sides, and threatening to close ere long the tunnel
itself. There is no inscription to record by whom and at what period this
passage was cut.

We continued during the following day in the same ravine, crossing by
ancient bridges the stream, which was gradually gathering strength as it
advanced towards the low country. About noon we passed a large Kurdish
village, called Goeena, belonging to Sheikh Kassim, one of those religious
fanatics who are the curse of Kurdistan. He was notorious for his hatred
of the Yezidis, on whose districts he had committed numerous depredations,
murdering those who came within his reach. His last expedition had not
proved successful; he was repulsed, with the loss of many of his
followers. We encamped in the afternoon on the bank of the torrent, near a
cluster of Kurdish tents, concealed from view by the brushwood and high
reeds. The owners were poor but hospitable, bringing us a lamb, yahgourt,
and milk. Late in the evening a party of horsemen rode to our encampment.
They were a young Kurdish chief, with his retainers, carrying off a girl
with whom he had fallen in love,--not an uncommon occurrence in Kurdistan.
They dismounted, eat bread, and then hastened on their journey to escape
pursuit.

Starting next morning soon after dawn we rode for two hours along the
banks of the stream, and then, turning from the valley, entered a country
of low undulating hills. We halted for a few minutes in the village of
Omais-el-Koran, belonging to one of the innumerable saints of the Kurdish
mountains. The Sheikh himself was on his terrace superintending the repair
of his house, gratuitously undertaken by the neighbouring villagers, who
came eagerly to engage in a good and pious work. Leaving a small plain, we
ascended a low range of hills by a precipitous pathway, and halted on the
summit at a Kurdish village named Khokhi. It was filled with Bashi-Bozuks,
or irregular troops, collecting the revenue, and there was such a general
confusion, quarrelling of men and screaming of women, that we could
scarcely get bread to eat. Yet the officer assured me that the whole sum
to be raised amounted to no more than seventy piastres (about thirteen
shillings.) The poverty of the village must indeed have been extreme, or
the bad will of the inhabitants outrageous.

It was evening before we descended into the plain country of the district
of Kherzan. The Yezidi village of Hamki had been visible for some time
from the heights, and we turned towards it. As the sun was fast sinking,
the peasants were leaving the threshing-floor, and gathering together
their implements of husbandry. They saw the large company of horsemen
drawing nigh, and took us for irregular troops,--the terror of an Eastern
village. Cawal Yusuf, concealing all but his eyes with the Arab kefieh,
which he then wore, rode into the midst of them, and demanded in a
peremptory voice provisions and quarters for the night. The poor creatures
huddled together, unwilling to grant, yet fearing to refuse. The Cawal,
having enjoyed their alarm for a moment, threw his kerchief from his face,
exclaiming, "O evil ones, will you refuse bread to your priest, and turn
him hungry from your door?" There was surely then no unwillingness to
receive us. Casting aside their shovels and forks, the men threw
themselves upon the Cawal, each struggling to kiss his hand. The news
spread rapidly, and the rejoicing was so great that the village was alive
with merriment and feasting.

Yusuf was soon seated in the midst of a circle of the elders. He told his
whole history, with such details and illustrations as an Eastern alone can
introduce, to bring every fact vividly before his listeners. Nothing was
omitted: his arrival at Constantinople, his reception by me, his
introduction to the ambassador, his interview with the great ministers of
state, the firman of future protection for the Yezidis, prospects of peace
and happiness for the tribe, our departure from the capital, the nature of
steamboats, the tossing of the waves, the pains of sea-sickness, and our
journey to Kherzan. Not the smallest particular was forgotten; and, when
he had finished, it was my turn to be the object of unbounded welcomes and
salutations.

As the Cawal sat on the ground, with his noble features and flowing robes,
surrounded by the elders of the village, eager listeners to every word
which dropped from their priest, and looking towards him with looks of
profound veneration, the picture brought vividly to my mind many scenes
described in the sacred volumes. Let the painter who would throw off the
conventionalities of the age, who would feel as well as portray the
incidents of Holy Writ, wander in the East, and mix, not as the ordinary
traveller, but as a student of men and of nature, with its people. He
will daily meet with customs which he will otherwise be at a loss to
understand, and be brought face to face with those who have retained with
little change the manners, language, and dress of a patriarchal race.



CHAPTER III.

    RECEPTION BY THE YEZIDIS.--VILLAGE OF GUZELDER.--TRIUMPHAL MARCH TO
    REDWAN.--REDWAN.--ARMENIAN CHURCH.--THE MELEK TAOUS, OR BRAZEN
    BIRD.--TILLEH.--VALLEY OF THE TIGRIS.--BAS RELIEFS.--JOURNEY TO
    DEREBOUN--TO SEMIL--ABDE AGHA--JOURNEY TO MOSUL.--THE YEZIDI
    CHIEFS.--ARRIVAL AT MOSUL.--XENOPHON'S MARCH FROM THE ZAB TO THE BLACK
    SEA.


I was awoke on the following morning by the tread of horses and the noise
of many voices. The good people of Hamki having sent messengers in the
night to the surrounding villages to spread the news of our arrival, a
large body of Yezidis on horse and on foot had already assembled, although
it was not yet dawn, to greet us and to escort us on our journey. They
were dressed in their gayest garments, and had adorned their turbans with
flowers and green leaves. Their chief was Akko, a warrior well known in
the Yezidi wars, still active and daring, although his beard had long
turned grey. The head of the village of Guzelder, with the principal
inhabitants, had come to invite me to eat bread in his house, and we
followed him. As we rode along we were joined by parties of horsemen and
footmen, each man kissing my hand as he arrived, the horsemen alighting
for that purpose. Before we reached Guzelder the procession had swollen to
many hundreds. The men had assembled at some distance from the village,
the women and children, dressed in their holiday attire, and carrying
boughs of trees, congregated on the housetops.

Soon after our arrival several Fakirs[5], in their dark coarse dresses and
red and black turbans, came to us from the neighbouring villages. Other
chiefs and horsemen also flocked in, and were invited to join in the
feast, which was not, however, served up until Cawal Yusuf had related his
whole history once more, without omitting a single detail. After we had
eaten of stuffed lambs, pillaws, and savory dishes and most luscious
grapes, the produce of the district, our entertainer placed a present of
home-made carpets at my feet, and we rose to depart. The horsemen, the
Fakirs, and the principal inhabitants of Guzelder on foot accompanied me.
At a short distance from the village we were met by another large body of
Yezidis, and by many Jacobites. A bishop and several priests were with
him. Two hours' ride, with this great company, the horsemen galloping to
and fro, the footmen discharging their firearms, brought us to the large
village of Koshana. The whole of the population, mostly dressed in pure
white, and wearing leaves and flowers in their turbans, had turned out to
meet us; women stood on the road-side with jars of fresh water and bowls
of sour milk, whilst others with the children were assembled on the
housetops making the _tahlel_. Resisting an invitation to alight and eat
bread, and having merely stopped to exchange salutations with those
assembled, I continued on the road to Redwan, our party swollen by a fresh
accession of followers from the village. As we passed through the defile
leading into the plain of Redwan, we had the appearance of a triumphal
procession, but as we approached the small town a still more enthusiastic
reception awaited us. First came a large body of horsemen, collected from
the place itself, and the neighbouring villages. They were followed by
Yezidis on foot, carrying flowers and branches of trees, and preceded by
musicians playing on the tubbul and zernai.[6] Next were the Armenian
community headed by their clergy, and then the Jacobite and other
Christian sects, also with their respective priests; the women and
children lined the entrance to the place and thronged the housetops. I
alighted amidst the din of music and the "tahlel" at the house of Nazi,
the chief of the whole Yezidi district, two sheep being slain before me as
I took my feet from the stirrups.

I took up my quarters in the Armenian church, dining in the evening with
the chiefs to witness the festivities.

The change was indeed grateful to me, and I found at length a little
repose and leisure to reflect upon the gratifying scene to which I had
that day been witness. I have, perhaps, been too minute in the account of
my reception at Redwan, but I record with pleasure this instance of a
sincere and spontaneous display of gratitude on the part of a much
maligned and oppressed race. To those, unfortunately too many, who believe
that Easterns can only be managed by violence and swayed by fear, let this
record be a proof that there are high and generous feelings which may not
only be relied and acted upon without interfering with their authority, or
compromising their dignity, but with every hope of laying the foundation
of real attachment and mutual esteem.

The church stands on the slope of a mound, on the summit of which are the
ruins of a castle belonging to the former chiefs of Redwan. It was built
expressly for the Christians of the Armenian sect by Mirza Agha, the last
semi-independent Yezidi chief, a pleasing example of toleration and
liberality well worthy of imitation by more civilised men. Service was
performed in the open iwan, or large vaulted chamber, during the
afternoon, the congregation kneeling uncovered in the yard. The priests of
the different communities called upon me as soon as I was ready to receive
their visits. The most intelligent amongst them was a Roman Catholic
Chaldæan, a good humoured, tolerant fellow, who with a very small
congregation of his own did not bear any ill-will to his neighbours. With
the principal Yezidi chiefs, too, I had a long and interesting
conversation on the state of their people and on their prospects.

Redwan is called a town, because it has a bazar, and is the chief place of
a considerable district. It may contain about eight hundred rudely-built
huts, and stands on a large stream, which joins the Diarbekir branch of
the Tigris, about five or six miles below. The inhabitants are Yezidis,
with the exception of about one hundred Armenian, and forty or fifty
Jacobite and Chaldæan families. A Turkish Mudir, or petty governor,
generally resides in the place, but was absent at the time of my visit.

We slept in a long room opening on the courtyard, and were awoke long
before daybreak by the jingling of small bells and the mumbling of
priests. It was Sunday, and the Armenians commence their church services
betimes. I gazed half dozing, and without rising from my bed, upon the
ceremonies, the bowing, raising of crosses, and shaking of bells, which
continued for above three hours, until priests and congregation must have
been well nigh exhausted. The people, as during the previous afternoon's
service, stood and knelt uncovered in the courtyard.

[Illustration: The Melek Taous, or Copper Bird of the Yezidis.]

The Cawals, who are sent yearly by Hussein Bey and Sheikh Nasr to instruct
the Yezidis in their faith, and to collect the contributions forming the
revenues of the great chief, and of the tomb of Sheikh Adi, were now in
Redwan. The same Cawals do not take the same rounds every year. The
Yezidis are parcelled out into four divisions for the purpose of these
annual visitations, those of the Sinjar, of Kherzan, of the pashalic of
Aleppo, and of the villages in northern Armenia, and within the Russian
frontiers. The Yezidis of the Mosul districts have the Cawals always
amongst them. I was aware that on the occasion of these journeys the
priests carry with them the celebrated Melek Taous, or brazen peacock, as
a warrant for their mission. As this was a favorable opportunity, I asked
and obtained a sight of this mysterious figure. A stand of bright copper
or brass, in shape like the candlesticks generally used in Mosul and
Baghdad, was surmounted by the rude image of a bird in the same metal, and
more like an Indian or Mexican idol than a cock or peacock. Its peculiar
workmanship indicated some antiquity, but I could see no traces of
inscription upon it. Before it stood a copper bowl to receive
contributions, and a bag to contain the bird and stand, which takes to
pieces when carried from place to place. There are four such images, one
for each district visited by the Cawals. The Yezidis declare that,
notwithstanding the frequent wars and massacres to which the sect has been
exposed, and the plunder and murder of the priests during their journeys,
no Melek Taous has ever fallen into the hands of the Mussulmans. Mr.
Hormuzd Rassam was alone permitted to visit the image with me. As I have
elsewhere observed,[7] it is not looked upon as an idol, but as a symbol
or banner, as Sheikh Nasr termed it, of the house of Hussein Bey.

Having breakfasted at Nazi's house we left Redwan, followed by a large
company of Yezidis, whom I had great difficulty in persuading to turn back
about three or four miles from the town. My party was increased by a very
handsome black and tan greyhound with long silky hair, a present from old
Akko, the Yezidi chief. Touar, for such was the dog's name, soon forgot
his old masters, and formed an equal attachment for his new.

Cawal Yusuf, and the Yezidi chiefs, had sent messengers even to Hussein
Bey to apprise him of our coming. As they travelled along they scattered
the news through the country, and I was received outside every village by
its inhabitants. At Tilleh, the united waters of Bitlis, Sert, and the
upper districts of Bohtan, join the western branch of the Tigris. The two
streams are about equal in size, and at this time of the year both
fordable in certain places. We crossed the lower, or eastern, which we
found wide and exceedingly rapid, the water, however, not reaching above
the saddle-girths.

The spot at which we crossed was one of peculiar interest. It was here
that the Ten Thousand in their memorable retreat forded this river,
called, by Xenophon, the Centritis. The Greeks having fought their way
over the lofty mountains of the Carduchians, found their further progress
towards Armenia arrested by a rapid stream. The ford was deep, and its
passage disputed by a formidable force of Armenians, Mygdonians, and
Chaldæans, drawn up on an eminence 300 or 400 feet from the river. In
this strait Xenophon dreamt that he was in chains, and that suddenly his
fetters burst asunder of their own accord. His dream was fulfilled when
two youths casually found a more practicable ford, by which the army,
after a skilful stratagem on the part of their commander, safely reached
the opposite bank.[8]

The sun had set before our baggage had been crossed, and we sought, by the
light of the moon, the difficult track along the Tigris, where the river
forces its way to the low country of Assyria, through a long, narrow, and
deep gorge. Huge rocks rose perpendicularly on either side, broken into
many fantastic shapes, and throwing their dark shadows over the water. In
some places they scarcely left room for the river to pursue its course;
and then a footpath, hardly wide enough to admit the loaded mules, was
carried along a mere ledge overhanging the gurgling stream. The gradual
deepening of this outlet during countless centuries is strikingly shown by
the ledges which jutt out like a succession of cornices from the sides of
the cliffs. The last ledge left by the retiring waters formed our pathway.

We found no village until we reached Chellek. The place had been deserted
by its inhabitants for the Yilaks, or mountain pastures.

For three hours during the following morning we followed the bold and
majestic ravine of the Tigris, scenes rivalling each other in grandeur and
beauty opening at every turn. Leaving the river, where it makes a sudden
bend to the northward, we commenced a steep ascent, and in an hour and a
half reached the Christian village of Khouara. We rested during the heat
of the day under the grateful shade of a grove of trees, and in the
afternoon we stood on the brink of the great platform of Central Asia.
Beneath us were the vast plains of Mesopotamia, lost in the hazy distance,
the undulating land between them and the Taurus confounded, from so great
a height, with the plains themselves; the hills of the Sinjar and of
Zakko, like ridges on an embossed map; the Tigris and the Khabour, winding
through the low country to their place of junction at Dereboun; to the
right, facing the setting sun, and catching its last rays, the high cone
of Mardin; behind, a confused mass of peaks, some snow-capped, all rugged
and broken, of the lofty mountains of Bohtan and Malataiyah; between them
and the northern range of Taurus, the deep ravine of the river and the
valley of Redwan. I watched the shadows as they lengthened over the plain,
melting one by one into the general gloom, and then descended to the large
Kurdish village of Funduk, whose inhabitants, during the rule of Beder
Khan Bey, were notorious amongst even the savage tribes of Bohtan for
their hatred and insolence to Christians.

Although we had now nothing to fear, I preferred seeking another spot for
our night's halt, but this was not permitted by Resoul Kiayah, who sent
after us, and was so urgent in his hospitality that we were compelled to
pass the night in the village. The Kurds of Funduk wear the Bohtan dress
in its full perfection, a turban nearly three feet in diameter, shalwars
or trowsers of enormous width, loose embroidered jackets, and shirt
sleeves sweeping the ground; all being striped deep dull red and black,
except the under-linen and one kerchief tied diagonally across the turban,
which is generally of bright yellow. They are armed, too, to the teeth,
and as they crouched round the fires on the housetops, their savage
countenances peering through the gloom, my London companion, unused to
such scenes, might well have fancied himself in a den of thieves. The
Kiayah, notwithstanding his bad reputation, was exact in all the duties of
hospitality; the supper was abundant, the coffee flowed perpetually, and
he satisfied my curiosity upon many points of revenue, internal
administration, tribe-history, and local curiosities.

We passed the night on the roof without any adventure, and resumed our
journey before dawn on the following morning, to the great relief of Mr.
C., who rejoiced to feel himself well out of the hands of such dangerous
hosts. Crossing a mountain wooded with dwarf oaks, by a very difficult
pathway, carried along and over rocks containing many excavated tombs, we
descended to Fynyk, a village on the Tigris supposed to occupy the site of
an ancient town (Phoenica).[9]

After we had breakfasted, some Kurds who had gathered round us, offered to
take me to a rock, sculptured, they said, with unknown Frank figures. We
rode up a narrow and shady ravine, through which leapt a brawling torrent,
watering fruit trees and melon beds. The rocks on both sides were
honeycombed with tombs. The bas-relief is somewhat above the line of
cultivation, and is surrounded by excavated chambers. It consists of two
figures, dressed in loose vests and trowsers, one apparently resting his
hand on the shoulder of the other. There are the remains of an
inscription, but too much weather-worn to be copied with any accuracy. The
costume of the figures, and the forms of the characters, as far as they
can be distinguished, prove that the tablet belongs to the Parthian
period.

We quitted Fynyk in the afternoon. Accompanied by Cawal Yusuf and Mr. C.,
I left the caravan to examine some rock-sculptures, in a valley leading
from Jezireh to Derghileh, the former stronghold of Beder Khan Bey. The
sculptures are about two miles from the high road, near a small fort built
by Mir Saif-ed-din, and now occupied by a garrison of Arnaouts. There are
two tablets, one above the other; the upper contains a warrior on
horseback, the lower a single figure. Although no traces of inscription
remain, the bas-reliefs may confidently be assigned to the same period as
that at Fynyk.

We found the caravan at Mansouriyah, where they had established themselves
for the night. This is one of the very few Nestorian Chaldæan villages of
the plains which has not gone over to the Roman Catholic faith. It
contains a church, and supports a priest. The inhabitants complained much
of oppression, and unfortunately, chiefly from brother Christians formerly
of their own creed. I was much struck with the intelligence and beauty of
the children; one boy, scarcely twelve years of age, was already a
shamasha, or deacon, and could read with ease the Scriptures and the
commentaries.

We left Mansouriyah at four in the morning, passing Jezireh about dawn,
its towers and walls just visible through the haze on the opposite bank of
the Tigris. Shortly after we were unexpectedly met by a number of Yezidi
horsemen, from whom we learnt that the country was in a very disturbed
state, on account of the incursions of the Desert Arabs; but as a strong
party was waiting to accompany us to Semil, I determined upon taking the
shorter, though more dangerous and less frequented, road by Dereboun. This
road, impracticable to caravans except when the river Khabour is
fordable, winds round the spur of the Zakko hills, and thus avoids a
difficult and precipitous pass. Dereboun is a large Yezidi village
standing on the western spur of the Zakko range. Numerous springs burst
from the surrounding rocks, and irrigate extensive rice-grounds. Below is
the large Christian village of Feshapoor, where there is a ferry across
the Tigris. We were most hospitably entertained by the Yezidi chief, one
of the horsemen who had met us near Jezireh.

We mounted our horses as the moon rose, and resumed our journey,
accompanied by a strong escort, which left us when we were within five or
six miles of Semil. It was late in the forenoon before we reached our
halting-place, after a dreary and fatiguing ride. We were now fairly in
the Assyrian plains; the heat was intense--that heavy heat, which seems to
paralyse all nature, causing the very air itself to vibrate. The high
artificial mound of the Yezidi village, crowned by a modern mud-built
castle, had been visible in the distance long before we reached it,
miraged into double its real size, and into an imposing group of towers
and fortifications. Almost overcome with weariness, we toiled up to it,
and found its owner, Abde Agha, the Yezidi chieftain, seated in the gate,
a vaulted entrance with deep recesses on both sides, used as places of
assembly for business during the day,[10] and as places of rest for guests
during the night. He was of a tall, commanding figure, with the deepest
and most powerful voice I ever heard. We arrived earlier than he had
expected, our forced march from Dereboun having saved us some hours, and
he apologised for not having ridden out to meet us. His reception was most
hospitable; the lamb was slain and the feast prepared. But a sudden attack
by the Bedouin on a neighbouring village obliged him reluctantly to leave
us, and be absent during our stay. Being urged to depart, through
apprehension of the Bedouin, we pushed forward, when suddenly a large body
of horsemen appeared on a rising ground to the east of us. We could
scarcely expect Arabs from that quarter; however, all our party made ready
for an attack. Cawal Yusuf and myself, being the best mounted, rode
towards them to reconnoitre. Then one or two horsemen advanced warily from
the opposite party. We neared each other. Yusuf spied the well-known black
turban, dashed forward with a shout of joy, and in a moment we were
surrounded, and in the embrace of friends. Hussein Bey and Sheikh Nasr,
with the Cawals and Yezidi elders, had ridden nearly forty miles through
the night to meet and escort me, if needful, to Mosul! Their delight at
seeing us knew no bounds; nor was I less touched by a display of gratitude
and good feeling, equally unexpected and sincere.

They rode with us as far as Tel Eskoff, where the danger from the Arabs
ceased; and I was now once more with old friends. In the afternoon, as we
rode towards Tel Kef, I left the high road with Hormuzd to drink water at
some Arab tents. As we approached we were greeted with exclamations of
joy, and were soon in the midst of a crowd of men and women, kissing our
knees, and exhibiting other tokens of welcome. They were Jebours, who had
been employed in the excavations. Hearing that we were again going to dig
after old stones, they at once set about striking their tents to join us
at Mosul or Nimroud.

As we neared Tel Kef we found groups of my old superintendents and workmen
by the roadside. There were fat Toma, Mansour, Behnan, and Hannah, joyful
at meeting me once more, and at the prospect of fresh service. In the
village we found Mr. Rassam (the vice-consul) and Khodja Toma, his
dragoman, who had made ready the feast for us at the house of the Chaldæan
bishop. Next morning, as we rode the three last hours of our journey, we
met fresh groups of familiar faces. Then as we ascend an eminence midway,
walls, towers, minarets, and domes rise boldly from the margin of the
broad river, cheating us into the belief, too soon to be dispelled, that
Mosul is still a not unworthy representative of the great Nineveh. As we
draw near, the long line of lofty mounds, the only remains of mighty
bulwarks and spacious gates, detach themselves from the low undulating
hills; now the vast mound of Kouyunjik overtops the surrounding heaps:
then above it peers the white cone of the tomb of the prophet Jonah; many
other well-remembered spots follow in rapid succession; but we cannot
linger. Hastening over the creaking bridge of boats, we force our way
through the crowded bazars, and alight at the house I had left two years
ago. Old servants take their places as a matter of course, and, uninvited,
pursue their regular occupations as if they had never been interrupted.
Indeed it seemed as if we had but returned from a summer's ride: two years
had passed away like a dream.

I may in this place add a few words on part of the route pursued by
Xenophon and the Ten Thousand during their memorable retreat, the
identification of which had been one of my principal objects during our
journey. I have, in the course of my narrative, already pointed out one
or two spots signalled by remarkable events on their march.

I must first state my conviction that the parasang, like its
representative, the modern farsang or farsakh of Persia, was not a measure
of distance very accurately determined, but rather indicated a certain
amount of time employed in traversing a given space. That Xenophon
reckoned by the common mode of computation of the country is evident, by
his employing, almost always, the Persian "parasang," instead of the Greek
stadium; and that the parasang was the same as the modern hour, we find by
the distance between Larissa (Nimroud) and Mespila (Kouyunjik) being given
as six parasangs, corresponding exactly with the number of hours assigned
by the present inhabitants of the country, and by the authorities of the
Turkish post, to the same road. The six hours in this instance are equal
to about eighteen English miles.

The ford, by which the Greeks crossed the Great Zab (Zabates) may, I
think, be accurately determined. It is still the principal ford in this
part of the river, and must, from the nature of the bed of the stream,
have been so from the earliest periods. It is about twenty-five miles from
the confluence of the Zab and Tigris.[11] The Greeks could not have
crossed the Zab above the spot I have indicated, as the bed of the river
is deep, and confined within high rocky banks. They might have done so
_below_ the junction of the Ghazir, and a ravine worn by winter rains may
correspond with the valley mentioned by Xenophon, but I think the Ghazir
far more likely to have been the torrent bed viewed with so much alarm by
the Greek commander, and the passage of which Mithridates might have
disputed with some prospect of success.[12]

That Larissa and Mespila are represented by the ruins of Nimroud and
Kouyunjik no one can reasonably doubt. Xenophon's description corresponds
most accurately with the ruins and with the distance between them.

From Mespila the Greeks marched four parasangs, and probably halted near
the modern village of Batnai, between Tel Kef and Tel Eskof, an ancient
site exactly four hours, by the usual caravan road, from Kouyunjik.
Instead of fording the Khabour near its junction with the Tigris, and thus
avoiding the hills, they crossed them by a precipitous pass to the site of
the modern Zakko. They reached this range in four days, traversing it on
the fifth, probably by the modern caravan road. They were probably much
retarded during the last day, by having to fight their way over three
distinct mountain ridges. It is remarkable that Xenophon does not mention
the Khahour, although he must have crossed that river either by a ford or
by a bridge[13] before reaching the plain. Yet the stream is broad and
rapid, and the fords at all times deep. Nor does he allude to the Hazel, a
confluent of the Khabour, to which he came during his first day's march,
after leaving Zakko. These omissions prove that he does not give an
accurate itinerary of his route.

Four days' march, the first of only sixty stadia, or about seven
miles,[14] brought the Greeks to the high mountains of Kurdistan, which,
meeting the Tigris, shut out all further advance, except by difficult and
precipitous passes, already occupied by the Persians. Xenophon, having
dislodged the enemy from the first ridge, returned to the main body of the
army, which had remained in the plain. This must have been near Fynyk,
where the very foot of the Kurdish mountains is first washed by the river.
The spot agrees accurately with Xenophon's description, as it does with
the distance. "The Greeks," says he, "came to a place where the river
Tigris is, both from its depth and breadth, absolutely impassable; no road
appeared, the craggy mountains of the Carduchians hanging over the river."
Xenophon preferred the route across the mountains of Kurdistan, as it led
into Armenia, a country from which they might choose their own road to the
sea, and which abounded in villages and the necessaries of life.

Beyond the Carduchian mountains there were, according to the prisoners,
two roads into Armenia, one crossing the head waters of the principal
branch of the Tigris, the other going round them; that is, leaving them to
the left. These are the roads to this day followed by caravans, one
crossing the plains of Kherzan to Diarbekir, and thence, by well-known
mountain-passes to Kharput, the other passing through Bitlis. Xenophon
chose the latter. The villages in the valleys and recesses of the
mountains are still found around Funduk; and, on their first day's march
over the Carduchian hills, the Greeks probably reached the neighbourhood
of this village. There now remained about ten parasangs to the plain
through which flows the eastern branch of the Tigris; but the country was
difficult, and at this time of the year (nearly midwinter)[15], the lower
road along the river was impassable. The Greeks had, therefore, to force
their way over a series of difficult passes, all stoutly defended by
warlike tribes. They were consequently four days in reaching the
Centritis, or eastern Tigris, the united waters of the rivers of Bitlis,
Sert, and Bohtan. It was impossible to cross the river at this spot in the
face of the enemy. At length, a ford was discovered higher up, and
Xenophon, by skilful strategy, effected the passage. This must have been
at a short distance from Tilleh, as the river, narrowed between rocky
banks, is no longer fordable higher up.

Owing to the frequent incursions of the Carduchi, the villages along the
banks of the Bitlis had been abandoned, and the Greeks were compelled to
turn to the westward, to find provisions and habitations. Still _there was
no road_ into Armenia, particularly at this time of year, for an army
encumbered with baggage, except that through the Bitlis valley. The
remains of an ancient causeway are even now to be traced, and this
probably has always been the great thoroughfare between western Armenia
and the Assyrian plains. Xenophon consequently made nearly the same
detour as I had made on my way from Constantinople.

Six marches, of five parasangs each, brought them to the small river
Teleboas, which I believe to have been the river of Bitlis. After crossing
the low country of Kherzan, well described by Xenophon as "a plain varied
by hills of an easy ascent," the Greeks must necessarily have turned
slightly to the eastward to reach the Bitlis valley, as inaccessible
mountains stopped all further progress. My caravan was thirty-three hours
in journeying from Bitlis to Tilleh, corresponding exactly with the six
days' march of the Greeks. They probably came to the river somewhat below
the site of the modern town, where it well deserves the epithet of
"beautiful." It may have then had, as at this day, many villages near its
banks. It will be observed that Xenophon says that _they came to_, not
that they _crossed_, the Teleboas.

From this river they reached the Euphrates in six marches, making, as
usual, five parasangs each day; in all, thirty parasangs, or hours. I
believe, therefore, that, after issuing from the valley of Bitlis,
Xenophon turned to the westward, leaving the lake of Wan a little to the
right, though completely concealed from him by a range of low hills.[16]
Skirting the western foot of the Nimroud Dagh range, he passed through a
plain thickly inhabited, abounding in well-provisioned villages, and
crossed here and there by ranges of hills. This country still tallies
precisely with Xenophon's description.

We have not, I conceive, sufficient data in Xenophon's narrative to
identify with any degree of certainty his route after crossing the
Euphrates. We know that about twenty parasangs from that river the Greeks
encamped near a hot spring, and this spring might be recognised in one of
the many which abound in the country. It is most probable that the Greeks
took the road still used by caravans through the plains of Hinnis and
Hassan-Kalah, as offering the fewest difficulties. But what rivers are we
to identify with the Phasis and Harpasus, the distance between the
Euphrates and Phasis being seventy parasangs, and between the Phasis and
Harpasus ninety-five, and the Harpasus being the larger of the two rivers?
I am on the whole inclined to believe, that either the Greeks took a very
tortuous course after leaving the Euphrates, making daily but little
actual progress towards the great end of their arduous journey, the
sea-coast, or that there is a considerable error in the amount of
parasangs given by Xenophon; that the Harpasus must be the Tcherouk, and
the Phasis either the Araxes or the Kur[17]; and that Mount Theches, the
holy mountain from which the Greeks beheld the sea, was between Batoun and
Trebizond, the army having followed the valley of the Tcherouk, but
leaving it before reaching the site of the modern port on the Black Sea.



[Illustration: Subterranean Excavations at Kouyunjik.]


CHAPTER IV.

    STATE OF THE EXCAVATIONS ON MY RETURN TO MOSUL.--DISCOVERIES AT
    KOUYUNJIK.--TUNNELS IN THE MOUND.--BAS-RELIEFS REPRESENTING ASSYRIAN
    CONQUESTS.--A WELL.--SIEGE OF A CITY.--NATURE OF SCULPTURES AT
    KOUYUNJIK.--ARRANGEMENTS FOR RENEWAL OF EXCAVATIONS.--DESCRIPTION OF
    MOUND.--KIAMIL PASHA.--VISIT TO SHEIK ADI.--YEZIDI CEREMONIES.--SHEIKH
    JINDI.--YEZIDI MEETING.--DRESS OF THE WOMEN.--BAVIAN.--DOCTRINES OF
    THE YEZIDI--JERRAIYAH.--RETURN TO MOSUL.


On the morning after our arrival in Mosul, I rode at sunrise to Kouyunjik.
The reader may remember that, on my return to Europe in 1847, Mr. Ross had
continued the researches in that mound, and had uncovered several
interesting bas-reliefs, which I have already described from his own
account of his discoveries.[18] That gentleman had, to my great regret,
left Mosul. Since his departure the excavations had been placed under the
charge of Mr. Rassam, the English vice-consul, who was directed by the
Trustees of the British Museum to employ a small number of men, rather to
retain possession of the spot, and to prevent interference on the part of
others, than to carry on extensive operations. Toma Shishman, or "the
Fat," was still the overseer of the workmen, and accompanied me on my
first visit to the ruins.

But little change had taken place in the great mound since I had last seen
it. It was yellow and bare, as it always is at this time of the year.
Heaps of earth marked the site of former excavations, the chambers first
discovered having been again completely buried with rubbish. Of the
sculptured walls laid bare two years before no traces now remained. The
trenches dug under Mr. Ross's directions, in the southern corner, opposite
the town of Mosul, were still open. It was evident at a glance that the
chambers he had entered did not, as he had been led to suppose, belong to
a second palace. They formed part of the same great edifice once standing
on this angle of the mound, and already partly explored. The style of the
bas-reliefs, and of the inscriptions, marked them at once as of the same
epoch as those previously discovered.

The walls of two chambers had been laid bare. In one, the lower part of a
long series of sculptures was still partly preserved, but the upper had
been completely destroyed, the very alabaster itself having disappeared.
The bas-reliefs recorded the subjection by the Assyrian king of a nation
inhabiting the banks of a river. The captive women are distinguished by
long embroidered robes fringed with tassels, and the castles have a
peculiar wedge-shaped ornament on the walls. The towns probably stood in
the midst of marshes, as they appear to be surrounded by canes or reeds,
as well as by groves of palm trees. The Assyrians having captured the
strong places by escalade, carried the inhabitants into captivity, and
drove away cattle, camels, and carts drawn by oxen. Some of the men bear
large baskets of osier work, and the women vases or cauldrons. The king,
standing in his chariot, attended by his warriors, and preceded by an
eunuch registering the number of prisoners and the amount of the spoil,
receives the conquered chiefs. Not a vestige of inscription remains to
record the name of the vanquished people; but we may conjecture, from the
river and the palm trees, that they inhabited some district in southern
Mesopotamia. In the southern wall of this chamber was a doorway formed by
plain, upright slabs of a close-grained magnesian limestone, almost as
hard as flint; between them were two small, crouching lions, in the usual
alabaster. This entrance led into a further room, of which only a small
part had been explored. The walls were panelled with unsculptured slabs of
the same compact limestone.

The sculptured remains hitherto discovered in the mound of Kouyunjik had
been reached by digging down to them from the surface, and then removing
the rubbish. After the departure of Mr. Ross, the accumulation of earth
above the ruins, had become so considerable, frequently exceeding thirty
feet, that the workmen, to avoid the labor of clearing it away, began to
tunnel along the walls, sinking shafts at intervals to admit light and
air. These long galleries, dimly lighted, lined with the remains of
ancient art, broken urns projecting from the crumbling sides, and the wild
Arab and hardy Nestorian wandering through their intricacies, or working
in their dark recesses, were singularly picturesque.

Toma Shishman had removed the workmen from the southern corner of the
mound, where the sculptures were much injured, and had opened tunnels in a
part of the building previously explored, commencing where I had left off
on my departure from Mosul. I descended into the vaulted passages by an
inclined way, through which the workmen issued from beneath to throw away
the rubbish dug out from the ruins. At the bottom I found myself before a
wall forming the southern side of the great Hall, discovered, though only
partly explored, during my former researches. The sculptures, faintly seen
through the gloom, were still well enough preserved to give a complete
history of the subject represented, although, with the rest of the
bas-reliefs of Kouyunjik, the fire had nearly turned them to lime, and had
cracked them into a thousand pieces. The faces of the slabs had been
entirely covered with figures, varying from three inches to one foot in
height, carefully finished, and designed with great spirit.

In this series of bas-reliefs the history of an Assyrian conquest was more
fully portrayed than in any other yet discovered, from the going out of
the monarch to battle, to his triumphal return after a complete victory.
The first part of the subject has already been described in my former
work.[19] The king, accompanied by his chariots and horsemen, and leaving
his capital in the Assyrian plains, passed through a mountainous and
wooded district.[20] He does not appear to have been delayed by the siege
of many towns or castles, but to have carried the war at once into the
high country. His troops, cavalry and infantry, are represented in close
combat with their enemies, pursuing them over hills and through valleys,
beside streams, and in the midst of vineyards. The Assyrian horsemen are
armed with the spear and the bow, using both weapons whilst at full speed:
their opponents seem to be all archers. The vanquished turn to ask for
quarter; or, wounded, fall under the feet of the advancing horses, raising
their hands imploringly to ward off the impending deathblow. The triumph
follows. The king standing in his chariot, beneath the royal parasol,
followed by long lines of dismounted warriors leading richly caparisoned
horses, and by foot soldiers variously armed and accoutred, is receiving
the captives and spoil taken from the conquered people. First approach the
victorious warriors, throwing the heads of the slain into heaps before the
registering officers. They are followed by others leading, and urging
onwards with staves, the prisoners--men chained together, or bound singly
in fetters, and women, some on foot, carrying their children on their
shoulders, and leading them by the hand, others riding on mules. The
procession is finished by asses, mules, and flocks of sheep. As on the
bas-reliefs uncovered by Mr. Ross, there is unfortunately no inscription
by which the name of the conquered people can be determined. The
mountains, valleys, and streams, the vines and dwarf oaks, probably
indicate a region north of Assyria, in Armenia, Media, or Kurdistan,
countries we know to have been invaded by the royal builder of the palace.
The dress of the men consists of a short tunic; that of the women, of a
shirt falling to the ankles, and cut low in front of the neck.

In the side of the hall sculptured with these bas-reliefs was a wide
portal, formed by a pair of gigantic human-headed bulls. They had
suffered, like all those previously discovered, from the fire, and the
upper part, the wings and human head, had been completely destroyed. The
lower half had, however, escaped, and the inscriptions were consequently
nearly entire. Joined to the forepart of the bulls were four small
figures, two on each side, and one above the other. They had long hair,
falling in large and massive curls on their shoulders, wore short tunics
descending to the knee, and held a pole topped by a kind of cone in one
hand, raising the other as in act of adoration. At right angles with the
slabs bearing these sculptures were colossal figures carrying the
oft-repeated cone and basket.

In this entrance a well, cut through the large pavement slab between the
bulls, was afterwards discovered. It contained broken pottery, not one
vase having been taken out whole, apparently human remains, and _some
fragments of calcined sculptured alabaster_, evidently detached from the
bas-reliefs on the walls. It is doubtful whether this well was sunk after
the Assyrian ruins had been buried, or whether it had been from the
earliest times a place of deposit for the dead.

A small doorway to the right of the portal formed by the winged bulls, led
into a further chamber, in which an entrance had been found into a third
room, whose walls had been completely uncovered. Its dimensions were 26
feet by 23, and it had but this one outlet, flanked on either side by two
colossal figures, whose lower extremities alone remained, the upper part
of the slabs having been destroyed: one appeared to have been
eagle-headed, with the body of a man, and the other a monster, with human
head and the feet of a lion. The bas-reliefs round the chamber represented
the siege of a castle standing on an artificial mound, surrounded at its
base by houses. The besieged defended themselves on the walls and turrets
with bows, spears, and stones. The Assyrian army was composed of spearmen,
slingers, and bowmen, some of whom had already gained the housetops. Male
and female captives had been taken and heads cut off; the victorious
warriors according to custom, and probably to claim a reward,[21] bringing
them to the registrars. In the back ground were wooded mountains; vines
and other trees formed a distinct band in the middle of the slabs; and a
river ran at the foot of the mound. The dress of the male prisoners
consisted either of a long robe falling to the ankles, or of a tunic
reaching to the knees, over which was thrown an outer garment, apparently
made of the skins of animals, and they wore greaves laced up in front. The
women were clothed in a robe descending to the feet, with an outer fringed
garment thrown over the shoulders; a kind of hood or veil covered the back
of the head, and fell over the neck. Above the castle was the fragment of
an inscription in two lines, containing the name of the city, of which
unfortunately the first character is wanting. It reads: "_The city of_ ...
alammo I attacked and captured; I carried away its spoil." No name,
however, corresponding with it has yet been found in the royal annals, and
we can only infer, from the nature of the country represented, that the
place was in a mountainous district to the north of Assyria.

This doorway to a third outlet opening to the west, led into a narrow
passage, one side of which had alone been excavated; on it was represented
the siege of a walled city, divided into two parts by a river. One half of
the place had been captured by the Assyrians, who had gained possession
of the towers and battlements, but that on the opposite bank of the stream
was still defended by slingers and bowmen. Against its walls had been
thrown banks or mounds, built of stones, bricks, and branches of
trees.[22] The battering-rams, covered with skins or hides looped
together, had been rolled up these inclined ways, and had already made a
breach in the fortifications. Archers and spearmen were hurrying to the
assault, whilst others were driving off the captives, and carrying away
the idols of the enemy. The dress of the male prisoners consisted of a
plain under-shirt, an upper garment falling below the knees, divided in
the front and buttoned at the neck, and laced greaves. Their hair and
beards were shorter and less elaborately curled than those of the
Assyrians. The women were distinguished by high rounded turbans,
ornamented with plaits or folds. A veil fell from the back of this
head-dress over the shoulders.[23] No inscription remained to record the
name of the vanquished nation.

Such were the discoveries that had been made during my absence. There
could be no doubt whatever that all the chambers hitherto excavated
belonged to one great edifice, built by one and the same king. I have
already shown how the bas-reliefs of Kouyunjik differed from those of the
older palaces of Nimroud, but closely resembled those of Khorsabad in the
general treatment, in the costumes of the Assyrian warriors, as well as of
the nations with whom they warred, and in the character of the ornaments,
inscriptions, and details. Those newly uncovered were, in all these
respects, like the bas-reliefs found before my departure, and upon which I
had ventured to form an opinion as to the respective antiquity and origin
of the various ruins hitherto explored in Assyria.

At Kouyunjik there were probably few bas-reliefs, particularly those
containing representations of castles and cities, that were not
accompanied by a short epigraph or label, giving the name of the conquered
king and country, and even the names of the principal prisoners,
especially if royal personages. Unfortunately these inscriptions having
been usually placed on the upper part of the slabs, which has very rarely
escaped destruction, but few of them remain. These remarks should be borne
in mind to enable the reader to understand the descriptions of the
excavated chambers at Kouyunjik, which will be given in the following
pages in the order that they were discovered.

I lost no time in making arrangements for continuing the excavations with
as much activity as the funds granted to the Trustees of the British
Museum would permit. Toma Shishman was placed over Kouyunjik; Mansour,
Behnan (the marble cutter), and Hannah (the carpenter), again entered my
service. Ali Rahal, a sheikh of the Jebours, was appointed "sheikh of the
mound," and duly invested with the customary robe of honor on the
occasion.

The accumulation of soil above the ruins was so great, that I determined
to continue the tunnelling, removing only as much earth as was necessary
to show the sculptured walls. But to facilitate the labor of the workmen,
and to avoid the necessity of their leaving the tunnels to empty their
baskets, I made a number of rude triangles and wooden pulleys, by which
the excavated rubbish could be raised by ropes through the shafts, sunk
at intervals for this purpose, as well as to admit light and air. One or
two passages then sufficed for the workmen to descend into the
subterranean galleries.

Many of the Nestorians formerly in my service as diggers, having also
heard of my intended return, had left their mountains, and had joined me a
day or two after my arrival. There were Jebours enough in the immediate
neighbourhood of the town to make up four or five gangs of excavators, and
I placed parties at once in the galleries already opened, in different
parts of Kouyunjik not previously explored, and at a high mound in the
north-west walls, forming one side of the great inclosure opposite
Mosul--a ruin which I had only partially examined during my previous
visit.[24]

The shape of this great ruin is very irregular; nearly square at the S. W.
corner, it narrows almost to a point at the N. E. The palace occupies the
southern angle. At the opposite, or northern, extremity are the remains of
the village of Kouyunjik, from which the mound takes its name.[25] From
this spot a steep road leads to the plain, forming the only access to the
summit of the mound for loaded animals or carts. There are ravines on all
sides of Kouyunjik, except that facing the Tigris. If not entirely worn by
the winter rains, they have, undoubtedly, been deepened and increased by
them. They are strewed with fragments of pottery, bricks, and sometimes
stone and burnt alabaster, whilst the falling earth frequently discloses
in their sides vast masses of solid brick masonry, which fall in when
undermined by the rains. Through these ravines are carried the steep and
narrow pathways leading to the top of the mound.

The Khauser winds round the eastern base of Kouyunjik, and leaving it near
the angle occupied by the ruins of the palace, runs in a direct line to
the Tigris. Although a small and sluggish stream, it has worn for itself a
deep bed, and is only fordable near the mound immediately below the
southern corner, where the direct road from Mosul crosses it, and at the
northern extremity where a flour mill is turned by its waters. After rain
it becomes an impetuous torrent, overflowing its banks, and carrying all
before it. It then rises very suddenly, and as suddenly subsides. The
Tigris now flows about half a mile from the mound, but once undoubtedly
washed its base. Between them is a rich alluvium deposited by the river
during its gradual retreat; it is always under cultivation, and is divided
into corn fields, and melon and cucumber beds.[26] In this plain stands
the small modern village of Kouyunjik, removed for convenience from its
ancient site on the summit of the mound.

In Mosul I had to call upon the governor, and renew my acquaintance with
the principal inhabitants, whose good will was in some way necessary to
the pleasant, if not successful, prosecution of my labors. Kiamil Pasha
had been lately named to the pashalic. He was the sixth or seventh pasha
who had been appointed since I left, for it is one of the banes of Turkish
administration that, as soon as an officer becomes acquainted with the
country he is sent to govern, and obtains any influence over its
inhabitants, he is recalled to make room for a new ruler. Kiamil had been
ambassador at Berlin, and had visited several European courts. His manners
were eminently courteous and polished; his intelligence, and what is of
far more importance in a Turkish governor, his integrity, were
acknowledged. His principal defects were great inactivity and indolence,
and an unfortunate irritability of temper, leading him to do foolish and
mischievous things, of which he generally soon found cause to repent.

Soon after my arrival, my old friends Sheikh Abd-ur-rahman, of the Abou
Salman, and Abd-rubbou, chief of the Jebours, rode into the town to see
me; where I had scarcely settled myself, when Cawal Yusuf came in from
Baadri, with a party of Yezidi Cawals, to invite me, on the part of
Hussein Bey and Sheikh Nasr, to the annual festival at Sheikh Adi. The
invitation was too earnest to be refused.

I was accompanied in this visit by my own party, with the addition of Mr.
Rassam, the vice-consul, and his dragoman. We rode the first day to
Baadri, and were met on the road by Hussein Bey and a large company of
Yezidi horsemen. Sheikh Nasr had already gone to the tomb, to make ready
for the ceremonies. The young chief entertained us for the night, and on
the following morning, an hour after sunrise, we left the village for
Sheikh Adi. At some distance from the sacred valley we were met by Sheikh
Nasr, Pir Sino, the Cawals, the priests, and the chiefs. They conducted us
to the same building in the sacred grove that I had occupied on my former
visit. The Cawals assembled around us and welcomed our coming on their
tambourines and flutes; and soon about us was formed one of those
singularly beautiful and picturesque groups which I have attempted to
describe in my previous account of the Yezidi festival.[27]

The Yezidis had assembled in less numbers this year than when I had last
met them in the valley. Only a few of the best armed of the people of
Sinjar had ventured to face the dangers of the road now occupied by the
Bedouins. Abde Agha and his adherents were fully occupied in defending
their villages against the Arab marauders, who, although repulsed after we
quitted Semil, were still hanging about the district, bent upon revenge.
The Kochers, and the tribes of Dereboun, were kept away by the same fears.
The inhabitants of Kherzan and Redwan were harassed by the conscription.
Even the people of Baasheikhah and Baazani had been so much vexed by a
recent visit from the Pasha that they had no heart for festivities. His
excellency not fostering feelings of the most friendly nature towards
Namik Pasha, the new commander-in-chief of Arabia, who was passing through
Mosul on his way to the head-quarters of the army at Baghdad, and
unwilling to entertain him, was suddenly taken ill and retired for the
benefit of his health to Baasheikhah. On the morning after his arrival he
complained that the asses by their braying during the night had allowed
him no rest; and the asses were accordingly peremptorily banished from the
village. The dawn of the next day was announced, to the great discomfort
of his Excellency, who had no interest in the matter, by the cocks; and
the irregular troops who formed his body-guard were immediately incited to
a general slaughter of the race. The third night his sleep was disturbed
by the crying of the children, who, with their mothers, were at once
locked up, for the rest of his sojourn, in the cellars. On the fourth he
was awoke at daybreak by the chirping of sparrows, and every gun in the
village was ordered to be brought out to wage a war of extermination
against them. But on the fifth morning his rest was sorely broken by the
flies, and the enraged Pasha insisted upon their instant destruction. The
Kiayah, who, as chief of the village, had the task of carrying out the
Governor's orders, now threw himself at his Excellency's feet, exclaiming,
"Your Highness has seen that all the animals here, praise be to God, obey
our Lord the Sultan; the infidel flies alone are rebellious to his
authority. I am a man of low degree and small power, and can do nothing
against them; it now behoves a great Vizir like your Highness to enforce
the commands of our Lord and Master." The Pasha, who relished a joke,
forgave the flies, but left the village.

I have already so fully described the general nature of the annual
festival at Sheikh Adi, and the appearance of the valley on that occasion,
that I shall confine myself to an account of such ceremonies as I was now
permitted to witness for the first time.

About an hour after sunset, Cawal Yusuf summoned Hormuzd and myself, who
were alone allowed to be present, to the inner yard, or sanctuary, of the
Temple. We were placed in a room from the windows of which we could see
all that took place in the court. The Cawals, Sheikhs, Fakirs, and
principal chiefs were already assembled. In the centre of the court was an
iron lamp, with four burners--a simple dish with four lips for the wicks,
supported on a sharp iron rod driven into the ground. Near it stood a
Fakir, holding in one hand a lighted torch, and in the other a large
vessel of oil, from which he, from time to time, replenished the lamp,
loudly invoking Sheikh Adi. The Cawals stood against the wall on one side
of the court, and commenced a slow chant, some playing on the flute,
others on the tambourine, and accompanying the measure with their voices.
The Sheikhs and chiefs now formed a procession, walking two by two. At
their head was Sheikh Jindi. He wore a tall shaggy black cap, the hair of
which hung far over the upper part of his face. A long robe, striped with
horizontal stripes of black and dark red, fell to his feet. A countenance
more severe, and yet more imposing, than that of Sheikh Jindi could not
well be pictured by the most fanciful imagination. A beard, black as jet,
waved low on his breast; his dark piercing eyes glittered through ragged
eyebrows, like burning coals through the bars of a grate. The color of his
face was of the deepest brown, his teeth white as snow, and his features,
though stern beyond measure, singularly noble and well formed. It was a
byword with us that Sheikh Jindi had never been seen to smile. To look at
him was to feel that a laugh could not be born in him. As he moved, with a
slow and solemn step, the flickering lamp deepening the shadows of his
solemn and rugged countenance, it would have been impossible to conceive a
being more eminently fitted to take the lead in ceremonies consecrated to
the evil one. He is the _Peesh-namaz_, "the leader of prayer," to the
Yezidi sect. Behind him were two venerable sheikhs. They were followed by
Hussein Bey and Sheikh Nasr, and the other chiefs and Sheikhs came after.
Their long robes were all of the purest white. As they walked slowly
round, sometimes stopping, then resuming their measured step, they chanted
prayers in glory and honor of the Deity. The Cawals accompanied the chant
with their flutes, beating at intervals the tambourines. Round the
burning lamp, and within the circle formed by the procession, danced the
Fakirs in their black dresses, with solemn pace timed to the music,
raising and swinging to and fro their arms after the fashion of Eastern
dancers, and placing themselves in attitudes not less decorous than
elegant. To hymns in praise of the Deity succeeded others in honor of
Melek Isa and Sheikh Adi. The chants passed into quicker strains, the
tambourines were beaten more frequently, the Fakirs became more active in
their motions, and the women made the loud _tahlel_, the ceremonies ending
with that extraordinary scene of noise and excitement that I have
attempted to describe in relating my first visit. When the prayers were
ended, those who marched in procession kissed, as they passed by, the
right side of the doorway leading into the temple, where a serpent is
figured on the wall; but not, as I was assured, the image itself, which
has no typical or other meaning, according to Sheikh Nasr and Cawal Yusuf.
Hussein Bey then placing himself on the step at this entrance, received
the homage of the Sheikhs and elders, each touching the hand of the young
chief with his own, and raising it to his lips. All present, afterwards,
gave one another the kiss of peace.

The ceremonies having thus been brought to a close, Hussein Bey and Sheikh
Nasr came to me, and led me into the inner court. Carpets had been spread
at the doorway of the temple for myself and the two chiefs; the Sheikhs,
Cawals, and principal people of the sect, seated themselves, or rather
crouched, against the walls. By the light of a lamp, dimly breaking the
gloom within the temple, I could see Sheikh Jindi unrobing. During the
prayers, priests were stationed at the doorway, and none were allowed to
enter except a few women and girls: the wives and daughters of sheikhs and
cawals had free access to the building, and appeared to join in the
ceremonies. The Vice-Consul and Khodja Toma were now admitted, and took
their places with us at the upper end of the court. Cawal Yusuf was then
called upon to give a full account of the result of his mission to
Constantinople, which he did with the same detail, and almost in the same
words, that he had used so frequently during our journey. After he had
concluded, I endeavored to urge upon them to avail themselves of the new
privileges and opportunities for advancement and cultivation thus afforded
them. It was finally agreed that letters of thanks, sealed by all the
chiefs of the Yezidis, should be sent to the Grand Vizir, Reshid Pasha,
for the reception given to the Yezidi deputation, and to Sir Stratford
Canning for his generous intercession in their behalf.

Soon after sunrise on the following morning the Sheikhs and Cawals offered
up a short prayer in the court of the temple, but without any of the
ceremonies of the previous evening. Some prayed in the sanctuary,
frequently kissing the threshold and holy places within the building. When
they had ended, they took the green cloth covering from the tomb of Sheikh
Adi, and, followed by the Cawals playing on their tambourines and flutes,
walked with it round the outer court. The people flocked about them, and
reverently carried the corner of the drapery to their lips, making
afterwards a small offering of money. After the cover had again been
thrown over the tomb, the chiefs and priests seated themselves round the
inner court. The Fakirs and Sheikhs especially devoted to the service of
the sanctuary, who are called Kotcheks, now issued from the kitchens of
the temple bearing large platters of smoking _harisa_[28], which they
placed on the ground. The company collected in hungry groups round the
messes, and whilst they were eating, the _Kotcheks_ standing by called
upon them continually in a loud voice to partake of the hospitality of
Sheikh Adi. After the empty plates had been removed, a collection was made
towards the support of the temple and tomb of the saint.

These ceremonies occupied us until nearly mid-day; we then sat by the
fountain in the valley, and the men and women danced before us, the boys
climbing into the trees and hanging on the boughs to see the dancers.
Sugar, dates, and raisins were afterwards scrambled amongst the children.
The men soon took part in the amusement. A party of Kurds, bringing grapes
from the mountains to sell at the festival, were maliciously pointed out
as good objects for a joke. The hint was no sooner given than they, their
donkeys, and their grapes, were all rolled into one heap under a mountain
of human beings. The Kurds, who were armed, resisted manfully; and,
ignorant of our intentions, might have revenged themselves on their
assailants, but were soon restored to good humour when they found that
they were to receive ample compensation for their losses and personal
injuries. There was general laughing in the valley, and the Yezidis will
long remember these days of simple merriment and happiness.

In the afternoon the wives and daughters of the chiefs and Cawals called
upon me. The families of the Cawals, evidently descended from the same
stock, are remarkable for the beauty both of the men and women, all of
whom are strikingly like one another. Their complexion is, perhaps, too
dark, but their features are regular and admirably formed. The dresses of
the girls were elegant, and as rich as the material they could obtain
would allow. Some wove flowers into their hair, others encircled their
black turbans with a single wreath of myrtle, a simple and elegant
ornament. They all wore many strings of coins, amber, coral, agate, and
glass beads round their necks, and some had the black skull cap completely
covered with gold and silver money. A kind of apron of grey or yellowish
check, like a Scotch plaid, tied over one shoulder, and falling in front
over the silk dress, is a peculiar feature in the costume of the Yezidi
girls, and of some Christians from the same district. Unmarried women have
the neck bare, the married conceal it with a white kerchief, which passes
under the chin, and is tied on the top of the head. The brightest colors
are worn by the girls, but the matrons are usually clothed in plain white.
The females of the Cawal families always wear black turbans and skull
caps. Cawal Yusuf, to show how the Frank ladies he had seen at
Constantinople were honored by their husbands, made his young wife walk
arm in arm with him before us, to the great amusement of the bystanders.

At night the same religious ceremonies were repeated in the temple, and I
was allowed to sleep in the room overlooking the inner court from whence I
had witnessed them on the previous evening. After all had retired to rest,
the Yezidi Mullah recited, in a low chanting tone, a religious history, or
discourse, consisting of the adventures and teachings of a certain Mirza
Mohammed. He stood before the burning lamp, and around him were at full
length on the stone pavement, and covered by their white cloaks, the
sleeping Sheikhs and Cawals. The scene was singularly picturesque and
impressive.

Next morning I visited, with Mr. Rassam and Mr. Cooper, the
rock-sculptures of Bavian, which are not more than six miles from the
valley of Sheikh Adi in the same range of hills; but I will defer a
description of these remarkable monuments until I come to relate my second
journey to the spot.

Cawal Yusuf had promised, on the occasion of the festival, to show me the
sacred book of the Yezidis. He accordingly brought a volume to me one
morning, accompanied by the secretary of Sheikh Nasr, the only Yezidi, as
far as I am aware, who could read it. It consisted of a few tattered
leaves, of no ancient date, containing a poetical rhapsody on the merits
and attributes of Sheikh Adi, who is identified with the Deity himself, as
the origin and creator of all things, though evidently distinguished from
the Eternal Essence by being represented as seeking the truth, and as
reaching through it the highest place, which he declares to be attainable
by all those who like him shall find the truth.[29]

This was the only written work that I was able to obtain from the Yezidis;
their cawals repeated several prayers and hymns to me, which were purely
laudatory of the Deity, and unobjectionable in substance. Numerous
occupations during the remainder of my residence in Assyria prevented me
prosecuting my inquiries much further on this subject. Cawal Yusuf
informed me that before the great massacre of the sect by the Bey of
Rahwanduz, they possessed many books which were lost during the general
panic, or destroyed by the Kurds. He admitted that this was only a
fragmentary composition, and by no means "the Book" which contained the
theology and religious laws of the Yezidi. He even hinted that the great
work did still exist, and I am by no means certain that there is not a
copy at Baasheikhah or Baazani. The account given by the Cawal seems to be
confirmed by the allusion made in the poem to the "Book of Glad Tidings,"
and "the Book that comforteth the oppressed," which could scarcely have
been inserted for any particular purpose, such as to deceive their
Mohammedan neighbours.

I will here add a few notes concerning the Yezidis and their faith to
those contained in my former work; they were chiefly obtained from Cawal
Yusuf.

They believe that Christ will come to govern the world, but that after him
Sheikh Medi will appear, to whom will be given special jurisdiction over
those speaking the Kurdish language, including the Yezidis (this is
evidently a modern interpolation, derived from Mussulman sources, perhaps
invented to conciliate the Mohammedans).

All who go to heaven must first pass an expiatory period in hell, but no
one will be punished eternally. Mohammedans they exclude from all future
life, but not Christians. (This may have been said to avoid giving
offence.)

The Yezidis will not receive converts to their faith; circumcision is
optional. When a child is born near enough to the tomb of Sheikh Adi, to
be taken there without great inconvenience or danger, it should be
baptized as early as possible after birth. The Cawals in their periodical
visitations carry a bottle or skin filled with the holy water, to baptize
those children who cannot be brought to the shrine.

There are forty days fast in the spring of the year, but they are observed
by few; one person in a family may fast for the rest.[30] They should
abstain during that period as completely as the Chaldæans from animal
food. Sheikh Nasr fasts rigidly for one month in the year, eating only
once in twenty-four hours and immediately after sunset.

Only one wife is strictly lawful, although the chief takes more; but
concubines are not forbidden. The wife may be turned away for great
misconduct, and the husband, with the consent of the Sheikhs, may marry
again; but the discarded wife never can. Even such divorces ought only to
be given in cases of adultery; for formerly, when the Yezidis administered
their own temporal laws, the wife was punished with death, and the husband
of course was then released.

The religious, as well as the political, head of all Yezidis, wherever
they may reside, is Hussein Bey, who is called the Kalifa, and he holds
this position by inheritance. As he is young and inexperienced, he deputes
his religious duties to Sheikh Nasr. Sheikh Nasr is only the chief of the
Sheikhs of the district of Sheikhan. The Cawals are all of one family, and
are under the orders of Hussein Bey, who sends them periodically to
collect the voluntary contributions of the various tribes. The amount
received by them is divided into two equal parts, one of which goes to the
support of the tomb of Sheikh Adi, and half of the other to Hussein Bey,
the remainder being equally shared by the Cawals. Neither the priests nor
Hussein Bey ever shave their beards. They ought not to marry out of their
own order, and though the men do not observe this rule very strictly, the
women are never given in marriage to one out of the rank of the
priesthood. Hussein Bey ought to take his wife from the family of Chul
Beg.

After death, the body of a Yezidi, like that of a Mohammedan, is washed in
running water, and then buried with the face turned towards the north
star.

I have stated that it is unlawful amongst the Yezidis to know how to read
or write. This, I am assured, is not the case, and their ignorance arises
from want of means and proper teachers. Formerly a Chaldæan deacon used to
instruct the children. Cawal Yusuf mentioned accidentally, that, amongst
the Yezidis, the ancient name for God was Azed, and from it he derived the
name of his sect. Their Kublah, he declared, was the polar star and not
the east.

On my way to Mosul from Sheikh Adi, I visited the ruins of Jerraiyah,
where excavations had been again carried on by one of my agents. No
ancient buildings were discovered. The principal mound is lofty and
conical in shape, and the base is surrounded by smaller mounds, and
irregularities in the soil which denote the remains of houses. I had not
leisure during my residence in Assyria to examine the spot as fully as it
may deserve.



[Illustration: Mound of Nimroud.]


CHAPTER V.

    RENEWAL OF EXCAVATIONS AT KOUYUNJIK.--FIRST VISIT TO NIMROUD.--STATE
    OF RUINS.--RENEW EXCAVATIONS IN MOUND.--VISIT OF COLONEL
    RAWLINSON.--MR. H. RASSAM.--THE JEBOUR WORKMEN AT
    KOUYUNJIK.--DISCOVERIES AT KOUYUNJIK.--SCULPTURES REPRESENTING MOVING
    OF GREAT STONES AND WINGED BULLS.--METHODS ADOPTED.--EPIGRAPHS ON
    BAS-RELIEFS OF MOVING BULLS.--SCULPTURES REPRESENTING INVASION OF
    MOUNTAINOUS COUNTRY, AND SACK OF CITY.--DISCOVERY OF
    GATEWAY.--EXCAVATION IN HIGH CONICAL MOUND AT NIMROUD.--DISCOVERY OF
    WALL OF STONE.--VISIT TO KHORSABAD.--DISCOVERY OF SLAB.--STATE OF THE
    RUINS.--FUTHLIYAH.--BAAZANI.--BAASHEIKHAH.


We were again in Mosul by the 12th of October. The Jebours, my old
workmen, had now brought their families to the town. I directed them to
cross the river, and to pitch their tents over the excavations at
Kouyunjik, as they had formerly done around the trenches at Nimroud. The
Bedouins, unchecked in their forays by the Turkish authorities, had become
so bold, that they ventured to the very walls of Mosul, and I felt it
necessary to have a strong party on the ruins for self-defence. The
Jebours were, however, on good terms with the Bedouins, and had lately
encamped amongst them.

About one hundred workmen, divided into twelve or fourteen parties, were
employed at Kouyunjik. The Arabs, as before, removed the earth and
rubbish, whilst the more difficult labor with the pick was left entirely
to the Nestorian mountaineers. My old friend, Yakoub, the Rais of
Asheetha, was named superintendent of the Tiyari workmen, for whom I built
mud huts near the foot of the mound.

The work having been thus begun at Kouyunjik, I rode with Hormuzd to
Nimroud for the first time on the 18th of October. It seemed but yesterday
that we had followed the same track. We stopped at each village, and found
in each old acquaintances ready to welcome us. From the crest of the hill
half way, the first view of Nimroud opened upon us; the old mound, on
which I had gazed so often from this spot, and with which so many happy
recollections were bound up, rising boldly above the Jaif, the river
winding through the plain, the distant wreaths of smoke marking the
villages of Naifa and Nimroud. I dismounted at my old house, which was
still standing, though somewhat in ruins, for it had been the habitation
of the Kiayah during my absence, and to avoid the vermin swarming in the
rooms, my tent was pitched in the court-yard, and I dwelt entirely in it.

The village had still, comparatively speaking, a flourishing appearance,
and had not diminished in size since my last visit. The _tanzimat_, or
reformed system of local administration, had been introduced into the
pashalic of Mosul, and although many of its regulations were evaded, and
arbitrary acts were still occasionally committed, yet on the whole a
marked improvement had taken place in the dealings of the authorities with
the subjects of the Sultan. The great cause of complaint was the want of
security. The troops under the command of the Pasha were not sufficient in
number to keep the Bedouins in check, and there was scarcely a village in
the low country which had not suffered more or less from their
depredations. Nimroud was particularly exposed to their incursions, and
the inhabitants lived in continual agitation and alarm.

By sunrise I was amongst the ruins. The mound had undergone no change.
There it rose from the plain, the same sun-burnt yellow heap that it had
stood for twenty centuries. The earth and rubbish, which had been heaped
over the excavated chambers and sculptured slabs, had settled, and had
left uncovered in sinking the upper part of several bas-reliefs. A few
colossal heads of winged figures rose calmly above the level of the soil,
and with two pairs of winged bulls, which had not been reburied on account
of their mutilated condition, was all that remained above ground of the
north-west palace, that great storehouse of Assyrian history and art.

Collecting together my old excavators from the Shemutti and Jehesh (the
Arab tribes who inhabit Nimroud and Naifa), and from the tents of a few
Jebours who still lingered round the village to glean a scanty subsistence
after the harvest, I placed workmen in different parts of the mound. The
north-west palace had not been fully explored. Most of the chambers which
did not contain sculptured slabs, but were simply built of sundried
bricks, had been left unopened. I consequently directed a party of workmen
to resume the excavations where they had been formerly abandoned. New
trenches were also opened in the ruins of the centre palace, where, as
yet, no sculptures had been discovered in their original position against
the walls. The high conical mound forming the north-west corner of
Nimroud, the pyramid as it has usually been called, had always been an
object of peculiar interest, which want of means had hitherto prevented me
fully examining. With the exception of a shaft, about forty feet deep,
sunk nearly in the centre, and passing through a solid mass of sun-dried
bricks, no other opening had been made into this singular ruin. I now
ordered a tunnel to be carried into its base on the western face, and on a
level with the conglomerate rock upon which it rested.

As I ascended the mound next morning I perceived a group of travellers on
its summit, their horses picketted in the stubble. Ere I could learn what
strangers had thus wandered to this remote region, my hand was seized by
the faithful Bairakdar. Beneath, in an excavated chamber, wrapped in his
travelling cloak, was Rawlinson deep in sleep, wearied by a long and
harassing night's ride. For the first time we met in the Assyrian ruins,
and besides the greetings of old friendship there was much to be seen
together, and much to be talked over. The fatigues of the journey had,
however, brought on fever, and we were soon compelled, after visiting the
principal excavations, to take refuge from the heat of the sun in the mud
huts of the village. The attack increasing in the evening it was deemed
prudent to ride into Mosul at once, and we mounted our horses in the
middle of the night.

During two days Col. Rawlinson was too ill to visit the excavations at
Kouyunjik. On the third we rode together to the mound. After a hasty
survey of the ruins we parted, and he continued his journey to
Constantinople and to England, to reap the laurels of a well-earned fame.

My readers would be wearied were I to relate, day by day, the progress of
the excavations, and to record, as they were gradually made, the
discoveries in the various ruins. It will give a more complete idea of the
results of the researches to describe the sculptured walls of a whole
chamber when entirely explored, instead of noting, one by one, as dug out,
bas-reliefs which form but part of the same subject. I will, therefore,
merely mention that during the months of October and November, my time was
spent between Kouyunjik and Nimroud, and that the excavations were carried
on at both places without interruption. Mr. Cooper was occupied in drawing
the bas-reliefs discovered at Kouyunjik, living in Mosul, and riding over
daily to the ruins. To Mr. Hormuzd Rassam, who usually accompanied me in
my journeys, were confided, as before, the general superintendence of the
operations, the payment of the workmen, the settlement of disputes, &c.
His services were invaluable, and of the greatest consequence to the
success of my labors.

The Arab workmen were divided into several classes, and their wages varied
according to their respective occupations, as well as according to the
time of year. They were generally paid weekly by Hormuzd. The diggers, who
were exposed to very severe labor, and even to considerable risk, received
from two piastres and a half to three piastres (from 5_d._ to 6_d._)
a-day; those who filled the baskets from two piastres to two and a half;
and the general workmen from one and a half to two piastres. The earth,
when removed, was sifted by boys, who earned about one piastre for their
day's labor. These wages may appear low, but they are amply sufficient for
the support of a family in a country where the camel-load of wheat (nearly
480 lbs.) is sold for about four shillings, and where no other protection
from the inclemencies of the weather is needed than a linen shirt and the
black folds of an Arab tent.[31]

The Kouyunjik workmen were usually paid in the subterraneous galleries,
some convenient space where several passages met being chosen for the
purpose; those of Nimroud generally in the village. A scene of wild
confusion ensued on these occasions, from which an inexperienced observer
might argue a sad want of order and method. This was, however, but the way
of doing business usual in the country. When there was a difference of
opinion, he who cried the loudest gained the day, and after a desperate
struggle of voices matters relapsed into their usual state, every one
being perfectly satisfied. Screaming and gesticulation with Easterns by no
means signify ill will, or even serious disagreement. Without them, except
of course amongst the Turks, who are staid and dignified to a proverb, the
most ordinary transactions cannot be carried on, and they are frequently
rather symptoms of friendship than of hostility.

By the end of November several entire chambers had been excavated at
Kouyunjik, and many bas-reliefs of great interest had been discovered. The
four sides of the hall, part of which has already been described,[32] had
now been explored.[33] In the centre of each side was a grand entrance,
guarded by colossal human-headed bulls.[34] This magnificent hall was no
less than 124 feet in length by 90 feet in breadth, the longest sides
being those to the north and south. It appears to have formed a centre,
around which the principal chambers in this part of the palace were
grouped. Its walls had been completely covered with the most elaborate and
highly-finished sculptures. Unfortunately all the bas-reliefs, as well as
the gigantic monsters at the entrances, had suffered more or less from the
fire which had destroyed the edifice; but enough of them still remained to
show the subject, and even to enable me in many places to restore it
entirely.

The narrow passage leading from the great hall at the south-west corner
had been completely explored. Its sculptures have already been
described.[35] It opened into a chamber 24 feet by 19, from which branched
two other passages. The one to the west was entered by a wide doorway, in
which stood two plain spherical stones about three feet high, having the
appearance of the bases of columns, although no traces of any such
architectural ornament could be found. This was the entrance into a broad
and spacious gallery, about 218 feet long and 25 wide. A tunnel at its
western end, cut through the solid wall, as there was no doorway on this
side of the gallery, led into the chambers excavated by Mr. Ross, thus
connecting them with the rest of the building.

I have already described the bas-reliefs representing the conquest of a
mountainous country on the southern side of the great hall.[36] The same
subject was continued on the western wall, without much variety in the
details. But on the northern, the sculptures differed from any others yet
discovered, and from their interest and novelty merit a particular
notice. But before giving a description of them, I must return to the long
gallery to the west of the great hall, as the sculptures still preserved
in it form part of and complete this important series.

The slabs on one side of this gallery had been entirely destroyed, except
at the eastern end; and from the few which still remained, every trace of
sculpture had been carefully removed by some sharp instrument. Along the
opposite wall (that to the right on leaving the great hall) only eight
bas-reliefs still stood in their original position, and even of these only
the lower part was preserved. Detached fragments of others were found in
the rubbish, and from them I ascertained that the whole gallery had been
occupied by one continuous series, representing the different processes
adopted by the Assyrians in moving and placing various objects used in
their buildings, and especially the human-headed bulls, from the first
transport of the huge stone in the rough from the quarry, to the raising
of these gigantic sculptures in the gateways of the palace-temples. On
these fragments were seen the king in his chariot, superintending the
operations, and workmen carrying cables, or dragging carts loaded with
coils of ropes, and various implements for moving the colossi.

I will commence, then, by a description of the sculptures still standing
in their original position in the gallery. A huge block of stone (probably
of the alabaster used in the Assyrian edifices), somewhat elongated in
form so as to resemble an obelisk in the rough, is lying on a low
flat-bottomed boat floating on a river. It has probably been towed down
the Tigris from some quarry, and is to be landed near the site of the
intended palace, to be carved by the sculptor into the form of a colossal
bull. It exceeds the boat considerably in length, projecting beyond both
the head and stern, and is held by upright beams fastened to the sides of
the vessel, and kept firm in their places by wooden wedges. Two cables are
passed through holes cut in the stone itself, and a third is tied to a
strong pin projecting from the head of the boat. Each cable is held by a
large body of men, who pull by means of small ropes fastened to it and
passed round their shoulders. Some of these trackers walk in the water,
others on dry land. The number altogether represented must have been
nearly 300, about 100 to each cable, and they appear to be divided into
distinct bands, each distinguished by a peculiar costume. Some wear a kind
of embroidered turban, through which their long hair is gathered behind;
the heads of others are encircled by a fringed shawl, whose ends hang over
the ears and neck, leaving the hair to fall in long curls upon the
shoulders. Many are represented naked, but the greater number are dressed
in short chequered tunics, with a long fringe attached to the girdle. They
are urged on by taskmasters armed with swords and staves. The boat is also
pushed by men wading through the stream. An overseer, who regulates the
whole proceedings, is seated astride on the fore-part of the stone. His
hands are stretched out in the act of giving commands.

[Illustration: Head-dress of Captives employed by Assyrians in moving Bull
(Kouyunjik).]

The huge stone having been landed, and carved by the Assyrian sculptor
into the form of a colossal human-headed bull, is to be moved from the
bank of the river to the site it is meant to occupy permanently in the
palace-temple. This process is represented on the walls of the great
hall. From these bas-reliefs, as well as from discoveries to be hereafter
mentioned, it is therefore evident that the Assyrians sculptured their
gigantic figures before, and not after, the slabs had been raised in the
edifice, although all the details and the finishing touches were not put
in, as it will be seen, until they had been finally placed.[37] I am
still, however, of opinion, that the smaller bas-reliefs were entirely
executed after the slabs had been attached to the walls.

In the first bas-relief I shall describe, the colossal bull rests
horizontally on a sledge similar in form to the boat containing the rough
block from the quarry, but either in the carving the stone has been
greatly reduced in size, or the sledge is much larger than the boat, as it
considerably exceeds the sculpture in length. The bull faces the
spectator, and the human head rests on the fore-part of the sledge, which
is curved upwards and strengthened by a thick beam, apparently running
completely through from side to side. The upper part, or deck, is
otherwise nearly horizontal; the under, or keel, being slightly curved
throughout. Props, probably of wood, are placed under different parts of
the sculpture to secure an equal pressure. The sledge was dragged by
cables, and impelled by levers. The cables are four in number; two
fastened to strong projecting pins in front, and two to similar pins
behind. They are pulled by small ropes passing over the shoulders of the
men, as in the bas-reliefs already described.

On the bull itself are four persons, probably the superintending officers.
The first is kneeling, and appears to be clapping his hands, probably
beating time, to regulate the motions of the workmen, who unless they
applied their strength at one and the same moment would be unable to move
so large a weight. Behind him stands a second officer with outstretched
arm, evidently giving the word of command. The next holds to his mouth,
either a speaking-trumpet, or an instrument of music. If the former, it
proves that the Assyrians were acquainted with a means of conveying sound,
presumed to be of modern invention. In form it undoubtedly resembles the
modern speaking-trumpet, and in no bas-relief hitherto discovered does a
similar object occur as an instrument of music. The fourth officer, also
standing, carries a mace, and is probably stationed behind to give
directions to those who work the levers. The sledge bearing the sculpture
is followed by men with coils of ropes and various implements, and drawing
carts laden with cables and beams.

A subject similar to that just described is represented in another series
of bas-reliefs, with even fuller details. The bull is placed in the same
manner on the sledge, which is also moved by cables and levers. It is
accompanied by workmen with saws, hatchets, pick-axes, shovels, ropes, and
props, and by carts carrying cables and beams. Upon it are three officers
directing the operations, one holding the trumpet in his hands, and in
front walk four other overseers. Above the sledge and the workmen are rows
of trees, and a river on which are circular boats resembling in shape the
"kufas," now used on the lower part of the Tigris, and probably, like
them, built of reeds and ozier twigs, covered with square pieces of hide.
They are heavily laden with beams and implements required for moving the
bulls.

On a fallen slab, forming part of the same general series, is the king
standing in a richly decorated chariot, the pole of which, curved upwards
at the end, and ornamented with the head of a horse, is raised by
eunuchs. From the peculiar form of this chariot and the absence of a yoke,
it would seem to have been intended purposely for such occasions as that
represented in the bas-relief, and to have been a kind of moveable throne
drawn by men and not by horses. Behind the monarch, who holds a kind of
flower, or ornament in the shape of the fruit of the pine, in one hand,
stand two eunuchs, one raising a parasol to shade him from the sun, the
other cooling him with a fan. He appears to have been superintending the
transport of one of the colossal sculptures, and his chariot is preceded
and followed by his body-guard armed with maces.

The next series of bas-reliefs represents the building of the artificial
platforms on which the palaces were erected, and the Assyrians moving to
their summit the colossal bulls. The king is again seen in his chariot
drawn by eunuchs, whilst an attendant raises the royal parasol above his
head. He overlooks the operations from that part of the mound to which the
sledge is being dragged, and before him stands his body-guard, a long line
of alternate spearmen and archers, resting their arms and shields upon the
ground. At the bottom of the slab is represented a river, on the banks of
which are seen men raising water by a simple machine, still generally used
for irrigation in the East, as well as in Southern Europe, and called in
Egypt a _shadoof_. It consists of a long pole, balanced on a shaft of
masonry, and turning on a pivot; to one end is attached a stone, and to
the other a bucket, which, after being lowered into the water and filled,
is easily raised by the help of the opposite weight. Its contents are then
emptied into a conduit communicating with the various watercourses running
through the fields. In the neighbourhood of Mosul this mode of irrigation
is now rarely used, the larger skins raised by oxen affording a better
supply, and giving, it is considered, less trouble to the cultivator.[38]

It would appear that the men employed in building the artificial mound
were captives and malefactors, for many of them are in chains, some
singly, others bound together by an iron rod attached to rings in their
girdles. The fetters, like those of modern criminals, confine the legs,
and are supported by a bar fastened to the waist, or consist of simple
shackles round the ankles. They wear a short tunic, and a conical cap,
somewhat resembling the Phrygian bonnet, with the curved crest turned
backwards, a costume very similar to that of the tribute bearers on the
Nimroud obelisk. Each band of workmen is followed and urged on by
task-masters armed with staves.

The mound, or artificial platform, having been thus built, not always, as
it has been seen, with regular layers of sun-dried bricks, but frequently
in parts with mere heaped-up earth and rubbish, the next step was to drag
to its summit the colossal figures prepared for the palace. As some of the
largest of these sculptures were full twenty feet square, and must have
weighed between forty and fifty tons, this was no easy task with such
means as the Assyrians possessed. The only aid to mere manual strength was
derived from the rollers and levers.

Behind the monarch, on an adjoining slab, are carts bearing the cables,
wedges, and implements required in moving the sculpture. A long beam or
lever is slung by ropes from the shoulders of three men, and one of the
great wedges is carried in the same way. In the upper compartment of this
slab is a stream issuing from the foot of hills wooded with vines,
fig-trees, and pomegranates. Beneath stands a town or village, the houses
of which have domes and high conical roofs, probably built of mud, as in
parts of northern Syria. The domes have the appearance of dish-covers with
a handle, the upper part being topped by a small circular projection,
perhaps intended as an aperture to admit light and air.

[Illustration: Village with the conical Roofs, near Aleppo.]

This interesting series is completed by a bas-relief, showing, it would
seem, the final placing of the colossal bull. The figure no longer lies
horizontally on the sledge, but is raised by men with ropes and forked
wooden props. It is kept in its erect position by beams, held together by
cross bars and wedges,[39] and is further supported by blocks of stone, or
wood, piled up under the body. Cables, ropes, rollers, and levers are also
employed on this occasion to move the gigantic sculpture. The captives are
distinguished by the peculiar turbans before described.[40]

We have thus represented, with remarkable fidelity and spirit[41], the
several processes employed to place these colossi where they still stand,
from the transport down the river of the rough block to the final removal
of the sculptured figure to the palace. From these bas-reliefs we find
that the Assyrians were well acquainted with the lever and the roller, and
that they ingeniously made use of the former by carrying with them wedges,
of different dimensions, and probably of wood, to vary the height of the
fulcrum. When moving the winged bulls and lions now in the British Museum
from the ruins to the banks of the Tigris, I used almost the same means.
The Assyrians, like the Egyptians, had made considerable progress in rope
twisting, an art now only known in its rudest state in the same part of
the East. The cables appear to be of great length and thickness, and ropes
of various dimensions are represented in the sculptures.

On comparing representations of similar works among the Egyptians, it will
be found that they succeeded in removing masses of stone far exceeding in
weight any sculpture which has yet been discovered in Assyria. Yet it is a
singular fact, that whilst the quarries of Egypt bear witness of
themselves to the stupendous nature of the works of the ancient
inhabitants of the country, and still show on their sides engraved records
of those who made them, no traces whatever, notwithstanding the most
careful research, have yet been found to indicate from whence the builders
of the Assyrian palaces obtained their large slabs of alabaster. That they
were in the immediate neighbourhood of Nineveh there is scarcely any
reason to doubt, as strata of this material, easily accessible, abound,
not only in the hills but in the plains. This very abundance may have
rendered any particular quarry unnecessary, and blocks were probably taken
as required from convenient spots, which have since been covered by the
soil.

There can be no doubt, as will hereafter be shown, that the king
represented as superintending the building of the mounds and the placing
of the colossal bulls is Sennacherib himself, and that the sculptures
celebrate the building at Nineveh of the great palace and its adjacent
temples described in the inscriptions as the work of this monarch.
Unfortunately only fragments of the epigraphs have been preserved. From
them it would appear that the transport of more than one object was
represented on the walls. Besides bulls and sphynxes in stone are
mentioned figures in some kind of wood, perhaps of olive, like "the two
cherubims of olive tree, each ten cubits high," in the temple of
Solomon.[42] Over the king superintending the removal of one of these
colossi is the following short inscription thus translated by Dr.
Hincks:--

"Sennacherib, king of Assyria, the great figures of bulls, which in the
land of Belad, were made for his royal palace at Nineveh, he transported
_thither_." (?)

The land of Belad, mentioned in these inscriptions, appears to have been a
district in the immediate vicinity of Nineveh, and probably on the Tigris,
as these great masses of stone would have been quarried near the river for
the greater convenience of moving them to the palace. The district of
Belad may indeed have been that in which the city itself stood.

Over the representation of the building of the mound there were two
epigraphs, both precisely similar, but both unfortunately much mutilated.
As far as they can be restored, they have thus been interpreted by Dr.
Hincks:--

"Sennacherib, king of Assyria. Hewn stones, _which_, as the gods[43]
willed, were found in the land of Belad, for the _walls_ (?) (or
foundations, the word reads '_shibri_') of my palace, _I caused the
inhabitants of foreign countries_ (?) and the people of the forests
(Kershani), the great bulls for the gates of my palace to _drag_ (?) (or
bring)."

If this inscription be rightly rendered, we have direct evidence that
captives from foreign countries were employed in the great public works
undertaken by the Assyrian kings, as we were led to infer, from the
variety of costume represented in the bas-reliefs, and from the fetters on
the legs of some of the workmen. The Jews themselves, after their
captivity, may have been thus condemned to labor, as their forefathers had
been in Egypt, in erecting the monuments of their conquerors; and we may,
perhaps, recognise them amongst the builders portrayed in the sculptures.

From the long gallery, we have unfortunately only three fragments of
inscriptions without the sculptured representations of the events
recorded. The most perfect is interesting on more than one account.
According to Dr. Hincks it is to be translated:--

"Sennacherib, king of Assyria ... (some object, the nature not
ascertained) of wood, which from the Tigris I caused to be brought up
(_through_ ?) the Kharri, or Khasri, on sledges (or boats), I caused to be
carried (or to mount)."

The name of the river in this inscription very nearly resembles that of
the small stream which sweeps round the foot of the great mound of
Kouyunjik.

In the fragment of another epigraph, we have mention of some objects also
of wood "brought from Mount Lebanon, and taken up (to the top of the
mound) from the Tigris." These may have been beams of cedar, which, it
will be hereafter seen, were extensively used in the Assyrian palaces. It
is highly interesting thus to find the inhabitants of Nineveh fetching
their rare and precious woods from the same spots that king Solomon had
brought the choicest woodwork of the temple of the Lord and of his own
palaces.

On a third fragment similar objects are described as coming from or up the
same Kharri or Khasri. I have mentioned that the long gallery containing
the bas-relief representing the moving of the great stone, led out of a
chamber, whose walls had been completely uncovered. The sculptures upon
them were partly preserved, and recorded the conquest of a city standing
on a broad river, in the midst of mountains and forests.

The last bas-relief of the series represented the king seated within a
fortified camp, on a throne of elaborate workmanship, and having beneath
his feet a footstool of equally elegant form. He was receiving the
captives, who wore long robes falling to their ankles. Unfortunately, no
inscription remained by which we might identify the conquered nation.

It will be remembered that excavations had been resumed in a lofty mound
in the north-west line of walls forming the enclosure round Kouyunjik. It
was apparently the remains of a gate leading into this quarter of the
city, and part of a building, with fragments of two colossal winged
figures, had already been discovered in it. By the end of November, the
whole had been explored, and the results were of considerable interest. As
the mound rises nearly fifty feet over the plain, we were obliged to
tunnel along the walls of the building within it, through a compact mass
of rubbish, consisting almost entirely of loose bricks. Following the rows
of low limestone slabs, from the south side of the mound, and passing
through two halls or chambers, we came at length to the opposite entrance.
This gateway, facing the open country, was formed by a pair of majestic
human-headed bulls, fourteen feet in length, still entire, though cracked
and injured by fire. They were similar in form to those of Khorsabad and
Kouyunjik, wearing the lofty head-dress, richly ornamented with rosettes,
and edged with a fringe of feathers peculiar to that period. Their faces
were in full, and the relief was high and bold. More knowledge of art was
shown in the outline of the limbs and in the delineation of the muscles,
than in any sculpture I have seen of this period. The naked leg and foot
were designed with a spirit and truthfulness worthy of a Greek artist. It
is, however, remarkable that the four figures were unfinished, none of the
details having been put in, and parts being but roughly outlined.

The sculptures to the left, on entering from the open country, were in a
far more unfinished state than those on the opposite side. The hair and
beard were but roughly marked out, square bosses being left for carving
the elaborate curls. The horned cap of the human-headed bull was, as yet,
unornamented, and the wings merely outlined. The limbs and features were
hard and angular, still requiring to be rounded off, and to have
expression given to them by the finishing touch of the artist. The other
two figures were more perfect. No inscription had yet been carved on
either sculpture.

The entrance formed by these colossal bulls was fourteen feet and a
quarter wide. It was paved with large slabs of limestone, still bearing
the marks of chariot wheels. The sculptures were buried in a mass of
brick and earth, mingled with charcoal and charred wood; for "the gates of
the land had been set wide open unto the enemy, and the fire had devoured
the bars."[44] They were lighted from above by a deep shaft sunk from the
top of the mound. It would be difficult to describe the effect produced,
or the reflections suggested by these solemn and majestic figures, dimly
visible amidst the gloom, when, after winding through the dark,
underground passages, you suddenly came into their presence. Between them
Sennacherib and his hosts had gone forth in all their might and glory to
the conquest of distant lands, and had returned rich with spoil and
captives, amongst whom may have been the handmaidens and wealth of Israel.
Through them, too, the Assyrian monarch had entered his capital in shame,
after his last and fatal defeat. Then the lofty walls, now but long lines
of low, wave-like mounds, had stretched far to the right and to the
left--a basement of stone supporting a curtain of solid brick masonry,
crowned with battlements and studded with frowning towers.

Behind the colossal figures, and between the outer and inner face of the
gateway, were two chambers, nearly 70 feet in length, by 23 in breadth. Of
that part of the entrance which was within the walls, only the fragments
of winged figures, discovered during my previous researches, now remained.

The whole entrance thus consisted of two distinct chambers and three
gateways, two formed by human-headed bulls, and a third between them
simply panelled with low limestone slabs like the chambers. Its original
height, including the tower, must have been full one hundred feet. Most of
the baked bricks found amongst the rubbish bore the name of Sennacherib,
the builder of the palace of Kouyunjik. A similar gateway, but without any
remains of sculptured figures, and panelled with plain alabaster slabs,
was subsequently discovered in the inner line of walls forming the eastern
side of the quadrangle, where the road to Baashiekhah and Baazani leaves
the ruins.

At Nimroud discoveries of very considerable importance were made in the
high conical mound at the north-west corner. Desirous of fully exploring
that remarkable ruin, I had employed nearly all the workmen in opening a
tunnel into its western base. After penetrating for no less than
eighty-four feet through a compact mass of rubbish, composed of loose
gravel, earth, burnt bricks, and fragments of stone, the excavators came
to a wall of solid stone masonry. I have already observed that the edifice
covered by this high mound was originally built upon the natural rock, a
bank of hard conglomerate rising about fifteen feet above the plain, and
washed in days of yore by the waters of the Tigris. Our tunnel was carried
for thirty-four feet on a level with this rock, which appears to have been
covered by a kind of flooring of sun-dried bricks, probably once forming a
platform in front of the building. It was buried to the distance of thirty
feet from the wall, by baked bricks, broken and entire, and by fragments
of stone, remains of the superstructure once resting upon the basement of
still existing stone masonry. This mass of rubbish was about thirty feet
high, and in it were found bones apparently human, and a yellow earthen
jar, rudely colored with simple black designs. The rest of this part of
the mound consisted of earth, through which ran two thin lines of
extraneous deposit, one _of pebbles_, the other of fragments of brick and
pottery. I am totally at a loss to account for their formation.

I ordered tunnels to be carried along the basement wall in both
directions, hoping to reach some doorway or entrance, but it was found to
consist of solid masonry, extending nearly the whole length of the mound.
Its height was exactly twenty feet, which, singularly enough, coincides
with that assigned by Xenophon to the stone basement of the wall of the
city (Larissa).[45] The stones in this structure were carefully fitted
together, though not united with mortar, unless the earth which filled the
crevices was the remains of mud, used, as it still is in the country, as a
cement. They were bevelled with a slanting bevel, and in the face of the
wall were eight recesses or false windows, four on each side of a square
projecting block between gradines.

The basement, of which this wall proved to be only one face, was not
excavated on the northern and eastern side until a later period, but I
will describe all the discoveries connected with this singular building at
once. The northern side was of the same height as, and resembled in its
masonry, the western. It had a semicircular hollow projection in the
centre, sixteen feet in diameter, on the east side of which were two
recesses, and on the west four, so that the two ends of the wall were not
uniform. That part of the basement against which the great artificial
mound or platform abutted, and which was consequently concealed by it,
that is, the eastern and southern sides, was of simple stone masonry
without recesses or ornament. The upper part of the edifice, resting on
the stone substructure, consisted of compact masonry of burnt bricks,
which were mostly inscribed with the name of the founder of the centre
palace (the obelisk king), the inscription being in many instances turned
outwards.

It was thus evident that the high conical mound forming the north-west
corner of the ruins of Nimroud, was the remains of a square tower, and not
of a pyramid, as had previously been conjectured. The lower part, built of
solid stone masonry, had withstood the wreck of ages, but the upper walls
of burnt brick, and the inner mass of sun-dried brick which they encased,
falling outwards, and having been subsequently covered with earth and
vegetation, the ruin had taken the pyramidal form that loose materials
falling in this manner would naturally assume.

It is very probable that this ruin represents the tomb of Sardanapalus,
which, according to the Greek geographers, stood at the entrance of the
city of Nineveh. It will hereafter be seen that it is not impossible the
builder of the north-west palace of Nimroud was a king of that name,
although it is doubtful whether he can be identified with the historical
Sardanapalus. Subsequent discoveries proved that he must himself have
raised the stone substructure, although his son, whose name is found upon
the bricks, completed the building. It was, of course, natural to
conjecture that some traces of the chamber in which the royal remains were
deposited, were to be found in the ruin, and I determined to examine it as
fully as I was able. Having first ascertained the exact centre of the
western stone basement, I there forced a passage through it. This was a
work of some difficulty, as the wall was 8 ft. 9 in. thick, and strongly
built of large rough stones. Having, however, accomplished this step, I
carried a tunnel completely through the mound, at its very base, and on a
level with the natural rock, until we reached the opposite basement wall,
at a distance of 150 feet. Nothing having been discovered by this cutting,
I directed a second to be made at right angles to it, crossing it exactly
in the centre, and reaching from the northern to the southern basement;
but without any discovery.

The next cutting was made in the centre of the mound, on a line with the
top of the stone basement wall, which was also the level of the platform
of the north-west palace. The workmen soon came to a narrow gallery, about
100 feet long, 12 feet high, and 6 feet broad, which was blocked up at the
two ends without any entrance being left into it. It was vaulted with
sun-dried bricks, a further proof of the use of the arch at a very early
period, and the vault had in one or two places fallen in. No remains
whatever were found in it, neither fragments of sculpture or inscription,
nor any smaller relic. There were, however, undoubted traces of its having
once been broken into on the western side, by digging into the face of the
mound after the edifice was in ruins, and consequently, therefore, long
after the fall of the Assyrian empire. The remains which it may have
contained, probably the embalmed body of the king, with vessels of
precious metals and other objects of value buried with it, had been
carried off by those who had opened the tomb at some remote period, in
search of treasure. They must have had some clue to the precise position
of the chamber, or how could they have dug into the mound exactly at the
right spot? Had this depositary of the dead escaped earlier violation, who
can tell with what valuable and important relics of Assyrian art or
Assyrian history it might have furnished us? I explored, with feelings of
great disappointment, the empty chamber, and then opened other tunnels,
without further results, in the upper parts of the mound.

It was evident that the long gallery or chamber I have described was the
place of deposit for the body of the king, if this were really his tomb.
The tunnels and cuttings in other parts of the mound only exposed a
compact and solid mass of sun-dried brick masonry. I much doubt, for many
reasons, whether any sepulchre exists in the rock beneath the foundations
of the tower, though, of course, it is not impossible that such may be the
case.[46]

From the present state of the ruin it is difficult to conjecture the exact
original form and height of this edifice. There can be no doubt that it
was a vast square tower, and it is not improbable that it may have
terminated in a series of three or more gradines, like the obelisk of
black marble from the centre palace now in the British Museum. Like the
palaces, too, it was probably painted on the outside with various mythic
figures and devices, and its summit may have been crowned by an altar, on
which the Assyrian king offered up his great sacrifices, or on which was
fed the ever-burning sacred fire. But I will defer any further remarks
upon this subject until I treat of the architecture of the Assyrians.

As the ruin is 140 feet high, the building could scarcely have been much
less than 200, whilst the immense mass of rubbish surrounding and covering
the base shows that it might have been considerably more.

During the two months in which the greater part of the discoveries
described in this chapter were made, I was occupied almost entirely with
the excavations, my time being spent between Nimroud and Kouyunjik.

Wishing to visit Baasheikhah, Khorsabad, and other ruins at the foot of
the range of low hills of the Gebel Makloub, I left Nimroud on the 26th of
November with Hormuzd and the Bairakdar. Four hours' ride brought us to
some small artificial mounds near the village of Lak, about three miles to
the east of the high road to Mosul. Here we found a party of workmen
excavating under one of the Christian superintendents. Nothing had been
discovered except fragments of pottery and a few bricks bearing the name
of the Kouyunjik king. As the ruins, from their size, did not promise
other results, I sent the men back to Mosul. We reached Khorsabad after
riding for nearly eight hours over a rich plain, capable of very high
cultivation, though wanting in water, and still well stocked with
villages, between which we startled large flocks of gazelles and bustards.
I had sent one of my overseers there some days before to uncover the
platform to the west of the principal edifice, a part of the building I
was desirous of examining. Whilst clearing away the rubbish, he had
discovered two bas-reliefs sculptured in black stone. They represented a
hunting scene, and were executed with much truth and spirit. They belonged
to a small building, believed to be a temple, entirely constructed of
black marble, and attached to the palace. It stood upon a platform 165
feet in length and 100 in width, raised about six feet above the level of
the flooring of the chambers, and ascended from the main building by a
flight of broad steps. This platform, or stylobate, is remarkable for a
cornice in grey limestone carried round the four sides,--one of the few
remains of exterior decoration in Assyrian architecture, with which we
are acquainted. It is carefully built of separate stones, placed _side by
side_, each forming part of the section of the cornice. Mr. Fergusson
observes,[47] with reference to it, "at first sight it seems almost purely
Egyptian; but there are peculiarities in which it differs from any found
in that country, especially in the curve being continued beyond the
vertical tangent, and the consequent projection of the torus giving a
second shadow. Whether the effect of this would be pleasant or not in a
cornice placed so high that we must look up to it, is not quite clear; but
below the level of the eye, or slightly above it, the result must have
been more pleasing than any form found in Egypt, and where sculpture is
not added might be used with effect anywhere."

Many fragments of bas-reliefs in the same black marble, chiefly parts of
winged figures, had been uncovered; but this building has been more
completely destroyed than any other part of the palace of Khorsabad, and
there is scarcely enough rubbish even to cover the few remains of
sculpture which are scattered over the platform.

The sculptures in the palace itself had rapidly fallen to decay, and of
those which had been left exposed to the air after M. Botta's departure,
scarcely any traces remained. Since my former visit to Khorsabad, the
French consul at Mosul had sold to Col. Rawlinson the pair of colossal
human-headed bulls and winged figures, now in the great hall of the
British Museum. They had stood in a propylæum, about 900 feet to the
south-east of the palace, within the quadrangle, but not upon the
artificial mound. In form this small building appears to have been nearly
the same as the gateway, in the walls of Kouyunjik, and like it was built
of brick and panelled with low limestone slabs. From the number of
enamelled bricks discovered in the ruins it is probable that it was richly
decorated in color.

Trenches had also been opened in one of the higher mounds in the line of
walls, and in the group of ruins at the S. W. corner of the quadrangle,
but no discoveries of any interest had been made. The centre of the
quadrangle was now occupied by a fever-breeding marsh formed by the waters
of the Khauser.

We passed the night at Futhliyah, a village built at the foot of the Gabel
Makloub, about a mile and a half from Khorsabad. Near Futhliyah, and about
two miles from the palace of Khorsabad, is a lofty conical Tel visible
from Mosul, and from most parts of the surrounding country. It is one of
those isolated mounds so numerous in the plains of Assyria, which do not
appear to form part of any group of ruins, and the nature of which I have
been unable to determine. Its vicinity to Khorsabad led me to believe that
it might have been connected with those remains, and might have been
raised over a tomb. By my directions deep trenches were opened into its
sides, but only fragments of pottery were discovered.

From Futhliyah we rode across the plain to the large village of Baazani,
chiefly inhabited by Yezidis. There we found Hussein Bey, Sheikh Nasr, and
a large party of Cawals assembled at the house of one Abd-ur-rahman
Chelibi, a Mussulman gentleman of Mosul, who had farmed the revenues of
the place.

Near Baazani are a group of artificial mounds of no great size. Having
examined them, and taken leave of the chiefs, I rode to the neighbouring
village of Baasheikhah, only separated from Baazani by a deep watercourse,
dry except during the rains. Both stand at the very foot of the Gebel
Makloub. Immediately behind them are craggy ravines worn by winter
torrents. In these valleys are quarries of the kind of alabaster used in
the Assyrian palaces, but I could find no remains to show that the
Assyrians had obtained their great slabs from them, although they appear
to be of ancient date.

I have mentioned, in my former work, the Assyrian ruin near Baasheikhah.
It is a vast mound, little inferior in size to Nimroud, irregular in
shape, uneven in level, and furrowed by deep ravines worn by the winter
rains. Standing, as it does, near abundant quarries of the favorite
sculpture-material of the Assyrians, and resembling the platforms of
Kouyunjik or Khorsabad, there was every probability that it contained the
remains of an edifice like those ruins. There are a few low mounds
scattered around it, but no distinct line of walls forming an inclosure.
During the former excavations only earthen jars, and bricks, inscribed
with the name of the founder of the centre palace at Nimroud, had been
discovered. A party of Arabs and Tiyari were now opening trenches and
tunnels in various parts of the mound, under the superintendence of Yakoub
Rais of Asheetha. The workmen had uncovered, on the west side of the ruin
near the surface, some large blocks of yellowish limestone apparently
forming a flight of steps; the only other antiquities of any interest
found during the excavations were a few bricks bearing the name of the
early Nimroud king, and numerous fragments of earthenware.

It is remarkable that no remains of more interest have been discovered in
this mound, which must contain a monument of considerable size and
antiquity. Although the trenches opened in it were numerous and deep, yet
the ruin has not yet probably been sufficiently examined. It can scarcely
be doubted that on the artificial platform, as on others of the same
nature, stood a royal palace, or some monument of equal importance.



[Illustration: Bulls, with historical Inscriptions of Sennacherib
(Kouyunjik).]


CHAPTER VI.

    DISCOVERY OF GRAND ENTRANCE TO THE PALACE OF KOUYUNJIK.--OF THE NAME
    OF SENNACHERIB IN THE INSCRIPTIONS.--THE RECORDS OF THAT KING IN THE
    INSCRIPTIONS ON THE BULLS.--AN ABRIDGED TRANSLATION OF THEM.--NAME OF
    HEZEKIAH.--ACCOUNT OF SENNACHERIB'S WARS WITH THE JEWS.--DR. HINCKS
    AND COL. RAWLINSON.--THE NAMES OF SARGON AND SHALMANESER.--DISCOVERY
    OF SCULPTURES AT KOUYUNJIK, REPRESENTING THE SIEGE OF
    LACHISH.--DESCRIPTION OF THE SCULPTURES.--DISCOVERY OF CLAY SEALS--OF
    SIGNETS OF EGYPTIAN AND ASSYRIAN KINGS.--CARTOUCHE OF SABACO.--NAME OF
    ESSARHADDON.--CONFIRMATION OF HISTORICAL RECORDS OF THE BIBLE.--ROYAL
    CYLINDER OF SENNACHERIB.


During the month of December, several discoveries of the greatest interest
and importance were made, both at Kouyunjik and Nimroud. I will first
describe the results of the excavations in the ruins opposite Mosul.

I must remind the reader that, shortly before my departure for Europe in
1848, the forepart of a human-headed bull of colossal dimensions had been
uncovered on the east side of the Kouyunjik Palace. This sculpture then
appeared to form one side of an entrance or doorway, and it is so placed
in the plan of the ruins accompanying my former work.[48] The excavations
had, however, been abandoned before any attempt could be made to ascertain
the fact. On my return, I had directed the workmen to dig out the opposite
sculpture. A tunnel, nearly 100 feet in length, was accordingly opened at
right angles to the bull, first discovered, but without coming upon any
other remains than a pavement of square limestone slabs which stretched
without interruption as far as the excavation was carried. I consequently
discontinued the cutting, as it was evident that no entrance could be of
so great a width, and as there were not even traces of building in that
direction.

The workmen having been then ordered to uncover the bull which was still
partly buried in the rubbish, it was found that adjoining it were other
sculptures, and that it formed part of an exterior façade. The upper half
of the next slab had been destroyed, but the lower still remained, and
enabled me to restore the figure of the Assyrian Hercules strangling the
lion, similar to that discovered between the bulls in the propylæa of
Khorsabad, and now in the Louvre. The hinder part of the animal was still
preserved. Its claws grasped the huge limbs of the giant, who lashed it
with the serpent-headed scourge. The legs, feet, and drapery of the god
were in the boldest relief, and designed with great truth and vigor.
Beyond this figure, in the same line, was a second bull. The façade then
opened into a wide portal, guarded by a pair of winged bulls, twenty feet
long, and probably, when entire, more than twenty feet high. Forming the
angle between them and the outer bulls were gigantic winged figures in low
relief, and flanking them were two smaller figures, one above the other.
Beyond this entrance was a group similar to and corresponding with that on
the opposite side, also leading to a smaller entrance into the palace, and
to a wall of sculptured slabs; but here all traces of building and
sculpture ceased, and we found ourselves near the edge of the water-worn
ravine.

Thus a façade of the south-east side of the palace, forming apparently the
grand entrance to the edifice, had been discovered. Ten colossal bulls,
with six human figures of gigantic proportions, were here grouped
together, and the length of the whole, without including the sculptured
walls continued beyond the smaller entrances, was 180 feet. They had
represented the conquest of a district, probably part of Babylonia,
watered by a broad river and wooded with palms, spearmen on foot in combat
with Assyrian horsemen, castles besieged, long lines of prisoners, and
beasts of burden carrying away the spoil. Amongst various animals brought
as tribute to the conquerors, could be distinguished a lion led by a
chain.

The bulls, as I have already observed, were all more or less injured. The
same convulsion of nature--for I can scarcely attribute to any human
violence the overthrow of these great masses--had shattered some of them
into pieces, and scattered the fragments amongst the ruins. Fortunately,
however, the lower parts of all, and, consequently, the inscriptions, had
been more or less preserved. To this fact we owe the recovery of some of
the most precious records with which the monuments of the ancient world
have rewarded the labors of the antiquary.

On the great bulls forming the centre portal of the grand entrance, was
one continuous inscription, injured in parts, but still so far preserved
as to be legible almost throughout. It contained 152 lines. On the four
bulls of the façade were two inscriptions, one inscription being carried
over each pair, and the two being of precisely the same import. These two
distinct records contain the annals of six years of the reign of
Sennacherib, besides numerous particulars connected with the religion of
the Assyrians, their gods, their temples, and the erection of their
palaces, all of the highest interest and importance.

In my first work I pointed out the evidence, irrespective of the
inscriptions, which led me to identify the builder of the great palace of
Kouyunjik with Sennacherib.[49] Dr. Hincks, in a memoir on the
inscriptions of Khorsabad, read in June, 1849, but published in the
"Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy"[50] in 1850, was the first to
detect the name of this king in the group of arrowheaded characters at the
commencement of nearly all the inscriptions, and occurring on all the
inscribed bricks from the ruins of this edifice. Subsequent discoveries
confirmed this identification, but it was not until August, 1851, that the
mention of any actual event recorded in the Bible, and in ancient profane
history, was detected on the monuments, thus removing all further doubt as
to the king who had raised them.

Shortly after my return to England my copies of these inscriptions having
been seen by Colonel Rawlinson, he announced in the Athenæum of the 23d
August, 1851, that he had found in them notices of the reign of
Sennacherib, "which placed beyond the reach of dispute his historic
identity," and he gave a recapitulation of the principal events recorded
on the monuments, the greater part of which are known to us through
history either sacred or profane. These inscriptions have since been
examined by Dr. Hincks, and translated by him independently of Colonel
Rawlinson. He has kindly assisted me in giving the following abridgment of
their contents.

The inscriptions begin with the name and titles of Sennacherib. It is to
be remarked that he does not style himself "King, or rather High Priest,
of Babylon," as his father had done in the latter part of his reign, from
which it may be inferred that at the time of engraving the record he was
not the immediate sovereign of that city, although its chief may have paid
tribute to him, and, no doubt, acknowledged his supremacy. He calls
himself "the subduer of kings from the upper sea of the setting sun (the
Mediterranean) to the lower sea of the rising sun (the Persian Gulf)." In
the first year of his reign he defeated Merodach Baladan, a name with
which we are familiar, for it is this king who is mentioned in the Old
Testament as sending letters and a present to Hezekiah[51], when the
Jewish monarch in his pride showed the ambassadors "the house of his
precious things, the silver and the gold, and the spices, and the precious
ointment, and all the house of his armour, and all that was found in his
treasures: there was nothing in his house, nor in all his dominions that
Hezekiah showed them not;" an act of vain boasting which led to the
reproof of the prophet Isaiah, and to his foretelling that all this
wealth, together with the descendants of its owner, should be carried away
as spoil to the very city from which these ambassadors came. Merodach
Baladan is called king of Kar-Duniyas, a city and country frequently
mentioned in the Assyrian inscriptions, and comprising the southernmost
part of Mesopotamia, near the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates,
together with the districts watered by those two rivers, to the borders of
Susiana. This king, with the help of his Susianian allies, had recently
recovered Babylon, from which Sargon, Sennacherib's father, had expelled
him in the twelfth year of his reign. The battle appears to have been
fought considerably to the north of that city. The result was that
Sennacherib totally defeated Merodach Baladan, who fled to save his life,
leaving behind him his chariots, _wagons_ (?), horses, mares, _asses_ (?),
camels, and _riding horses with their trappings for war_ (?). The
victorious king then advanced to Babylon, where he plundered the palace,
carrying off a vast treasure of gold, silver, vessels of gold and silver,
precious stones, men and women servants, and a variety of objects which
cannot yet be satisfactorily determined. No less than seventy-nine cities
(or fortresses), all the castles of the Chaldæans, and eight hundred and
twenty small towns (or villages), dependent upon them, were taken and
spoiled by the Assyrian army, and the great wandering tribes "that dwelt
around the cities of Mesopotamia," the Syrians (Arameans), and Chaldæans,
&c., &c., were brought under subjection. Sennacherib having made
Belib[52], one of his own officers, sovereign of the conquered provinces,
proceeded to subdue the powerful tribes who border on the Euphrates and
Tigris, and amongst them the Hagarenes and Nabathæans. From these
wandering people he declares that he carried off to Assyria, probably
colonising with them, as was the custom, new-built towns and villages,
208,000 men, women, and children, together with 7200 horses and mares,
11,063 _asses_ (?), 5230 camels, 120,100 oxen, and 800,500 sheep. It is
remarkable that the camels should bear so small a proportion to the oxen
and asses in this enumeration of the spoil. Amongst the Bedouin tribes,
who now inhabit the same country, the camels would be far more
numerous.[53] It is interesting to find, that in those days, as at a later
period, there was both a nomade and stationary population in Northern
Arabia.

In the same year, Sennacherib received a great tribute from the conquered
Khararah, and subdued the people of Kherimmi, whom he declares to have
been long rebellious (neither people can as yet be identified), rebuilding
(? or consecrating) the city of the latter, and sacrificing on the
occasion, for its dedication to the gods of Assyria, one ox, ten sheep,
ten goats or lambs, and twenty other animals.

In the second year of his reign, Sennacherib appears to have turned his
arms to the north of Nineveh, having reduced in his first year the
southern country to obedience. By the help of Ashur, he says, he went to
Bishi and Yasubirablai (both names of doubtful reading and not
identified), who had long been rebellious to the kings his fathers. He
took Beth Kilamzakh, their principal city, and carried away their men,
small and great, horses, mares, _asses_ (?), oxen, and sheep. The people
of Bishi and Yasubirablai, who had fled from his servants, he brought
down from the mountains and placed them under one of his eunuchs, the
governor of the city of Arapkha. He made tablets, and _wrote on them the
laws (or tribute) imposed upon the conquered, and set them up_ in the
city. He took permanent possession of the country of Illibi (Luristan ?),
and Ispabara, its king, after being defeated, fled, leaving the cities of
Marubishti and Akkuddu, the royal residences, with thirty-four principal
towns, and villages not to be counted, to be destroyed by the Assyrians,
who carried away a large amount of captives and cattle. Beth-barrua, the
city itself and its dependencies, Sennacherib separated from Illibi, and
added to his immediate dominions. The city of _Ilbinzash_ (?) he appointed
to be the chief city in this district. He abolished its former name,
called it Kar-Sanakhirba (_i. e._ the city of Sennacherib), and placed in
it a new people, annexing it to the government of Kharkhar, which must
have been in the neighbourhood of Holwan, commanding the pass through
Mount Zagros.

In the third year of his reign, Sennacherib appears to have overran with
his armies the whole of Syria. He probably crossed the Euphrates above
Carchemish, at or near the ford of Thapsacus, and marched to the
sea-coast, over the northern spur of Mount Lebanon. The Syrians are called
by their familiar biblical name of Hittites, the Khatti, or Khetta, by
which they were also known to the Egyptians. The first opposition he
appears to have received was from Luli (or Luliya), king of Sidon, who had
withheld his homage; but who was soon compelled to fly from Tyre to Yavan
in the middle of the sea. Dr. Hincks identifies this country with the
island of Crete, or some part of the southern coast of Asia Minor, and
with the Yavan ([Hebrew]) of the Old Testament, the country of the
Ionians or Greeks, an identification which I believe to be correct. This
very Phoenician king is mentioned by Josephus (quoting from Menander),
under the name of Elulæus, as warring with Shalmaneser, a predecessor of
Sennacherib. He appears not to have been completely subdued before this,
but only to have paid homage or tribute to the Assyrian monarchs.[54]
Sennacherib placed a person, whose name is doubtful (Col. Rawlinson reads
it Tubaal), upon the throne of Luli, and appointed his annual tribute. All
the kings of the sea-coast then submitted to him, except Zidkaha (compare
Zedekiah) or Zidkabal, king of Ascalon. This chief was, however, soon
subdued, and was sent, with his household and wealth, to Assyria,
----(name destroyed), the son of _Rukipti_ (?), a former king, being
placed on the throne in his stead. The cities dependent upon Ascalon,
which had not been obedient to his authority, he captured and plundered. A
passage of great importance, which now occurs, is unfortunately so much
injured that it has not yet been satisfactorily restored. It appears to
state that the _chief priests_ (?) and people of Ekron (?) had dethroned
their king Padiya, who was dependent upon Assyria, and had delivered him
up to Hezekiah, king of Judæa. The kings of Egypt sent an army, the main
part of which is said to have belonged to the king of Milukhkha, (Meroe,
or Æthiopia), to Judæa, probably to help their Jewish allies. Sennacherib
joined battle with the Egyptians, totally defeated them near the city of
Al....ku, capturing the charioteers of the king of Milukhkha, and placing
them in confinement. This battle between the armies of the Assyrians and
Egyptians appears to be hinted at in Isaiah and in the Book of Kings.[55]
Padiya having been brought back from Jerusalem, was replaced by
Sennacherib on his throne. "Hezekiah, king of Judah," says the Assyrian
king, "who had not submitted to my authority, forty-six of his principal
cities, and fortresses and villages depending upon them, of which I took
no account, I captured and carried away their spoil. I _shut up_ (?)
himself within Jerusalem, his capital city. The fortified towns, and the
rest of his towns, which I spoiled, I severed from his country, and gave
to the kings of Ascalon, Ekron, and Gaza, so as to make his country small.
In addition to the former tribute imposed upon their countries, I added a
tribute, the nature of which I fixed." The next passage is somewhat
defaced, but the substance of it appears to be, that he took from Hezekiah
the treasure he had collected in Jerusalem, 30 talents of gold and 800
talents of silver, the treasures of his palace, besides his sons and his
daughters, and his male and female servants or slaves, and brought them
all to Nineveh. The city itself, however, he does not pretend to have
taken.

There can be little doubt that the campaign against the cities of
Palestine recorded in the inscriptions of Sennacherib at Kouyunjik, is
that described in the Old Testament. The events agree with considerable
accuracy. We are told in the Book of Kings, that the king of Assyria, in
the fourteenth year of the reign of Hezekiah, "came up against all the
fenced cities of Judah and took them,"[56] as he declares himself to have
done in his annals. And, what is most important, and perhaps one of the
most remarkable coincidences of historic testimony on record, the amount
of the treasure in gold taken from Hezekiah, thirty talents, agrees in the
two perfectly independent accounts.[57] Too much stress cannot be laid on
this singular fact, as it tends to prove the general accuracy of the
historical details contained in the Assyrian inscriptions. There is a
difference of 500 talents, as it will be observed, in the amount of
silver. It is probable that Hezekiah was much pressed by Sennacherib, and
compelled to give him all the wealth that he could collect, as we find him
actually taking the silver from the house of the Lord, as well as from his
own treasury, and cutting off the gold from the doors and pillars of the
temple, to satisfy the demands of the Assyrian king. The Bible may
therefore only include the actual amount of money in the 300 talents of
silver, whilst the Assyrian records comprise all the precious metal taken
away. There are some chronological discrepancies which cannot at present
be satisfactorily reconciled, and which I will not attempt to explain. It
is natural to suppose that Sennacherib would not perpetuate the memory of
his own overthrow; and that, having been unsuccessful in an attempt upon
Jerusalem, his army being visited by the plague described in Scripture, he
should gloss over his defeat by describing the tribute he had previously
received from Hezekiah as the general result of his campaign.

There is no reason to believe, from the biblical account, that Sennacherib
was slain by his sons _immediately_ after his return to Nineveh; on the
contrary, the expression "he returned and dwelt at Nineveh," infers that
he continued to reign for some time over Assyria. We have accordingly his
further annals on the monuments he erected. In his fourth year he went
southward, and subdued the country of Beth-Yakin, defeating Susubira, the
Chaldæan, who dwelt in the city of Bittut on the river--(Agammi, according
to Rawlinson). Further mention is made of Merodach Baladan. "This king
whom I had defeated in a former campaign, escaped from my principal
servants and fled to an island (name lost); his brothers, the seed of his
father's house, whom he left behind him on the coast, with the rest of the
men of his country from Beth-Yakin, near the _salt_ (?) river (the
Shat-el-Arab, or united waters of the Tigris and Euphrates), I carried
away, and several of his towns I threw down and burnt; Assurnad_immi_ (?
Assurnadin, according to Rawlinson), my son, I placed on the throne of his
kingdom." He appears then to have made a large government, of which
Babylon was the chief place.

In the fifth year he defeated the Tokkari, capturing their principal
stronghold or Nipour (_detached hill-fort_ ?), and others of their
castles. He also attacked Maniyakh, king of _Okku_ or _Wukku_ (?), a
country to which no previous Assyrian king had penetrated. This chief
deserted his capital and fled to a distance. Sennacherib carried off the
spoil of his palace and plundered his cities. This expedition seems to
have been to the north of Assyria in Armenia or Asia Minor.

In the following year Sennacherib again marched to the mouths of the
Euphrates and Tigris, and attacked the two cities of Naghit and Naghit
Dibeena. Both cities belonged to the King of Elam (Elamti), or Nuvaki, the
two names being used indifferently for the same country. The Assyrian
king, in order to reach them, was compelled to build ships, and to employ
the mariners of Tyre, Sidon, and Yavan, as navigators. He brought these
vessels down the Tigris, and crossed on them to the Susianian side of the
river, after having first, it would seem, taken the city Naghit which
stood on the western bank. He offered precious sacrifices to a god (?
Neptune, but name doubtful) on the bank of the salt river, and dedicated
to him a ship of gold, and two other golden objects, the nature of which
has not been determined. Mention is then made of his having captured
Naghit Dibeena, together with three other cities, whose names cannot be
well ascertained, and of his crossing the river _Ula_ (? the Ulai of
Daniel, the Eulæus of the Greeks, and the modern Karoon). Unfortunately
the whole of the passage which contains the record of the expedition
against these cities is much defaced, and has not yet been satisfactorily
restored. It appears to give interesting details of the building of the
ships on the Tigris, by the men of Tyre and Sidon, and of the navigation
of that river.

Such are the principal historical facts recorded on the bulls placed by
Sennacherib in his palace at Nineveh. I have given them fully, in order
that we may endeavour to identify the sculptured representations of these
events on the walls of the chambers and halls of that magnificent
building, described in the course of this work.

As the name of Sennacherib, as well as those of many kings, countries and
cities, are not written phonetically, that is, by letters having a certain
alphabetic value, but by monograms, and the deciphering of them is a
peculiar process, which may sometimes appear suspicious to those not
acquainted with the subject, a few words of explanation may be acceptable
to my readers. The greater number of Assyrian proper names with which we
are acquainted, whether royal or not, appear to have been made up of the
name, epithet, or title, of one of the national deities, and of a second
word, such as "slave of," "servant of," "beloved of," "protected by;" like
the "Theodosius," "Theodorus," &c. of the Greeks, and the "Abdullah," and
"Abd-ur-Rahman," of Mohammedan nations. The names of the gods being
commonly written with a monogram, the first step in deciphering is to know
which god this particular sign denotes. Thus, in the name of Sennacherib,
we have first the determinative of "god," to which no phonetic value is
attached; whilst the second character denotes an Assyrian god, whose name
was San. The first component part of the name of Essarhaddon, is the
monogram for the god Assur. It is this fact which renders it so difficult
to determine, with any degree of confidence, most of the Assyrian names,
and which leads me to warn my readers that, with the exception of such as
can with certainty be identified with well-known historic kings, as
Sargon, Sennacherib, and Essarhaddon, the interpretation of all those
which are found on the monuments of Nineveh, is liable to very
considerable doubt. In speaking of them I shall, therefore, not use any of
the readings which have been suggested by different writers.

Although no question can reasonably exist as to the identification of the
king who built the palace of Kouyunjik with the Sennacherib of Scripture,
it may still be desirable to place before my readers all the corroborative
evidence connected with the subject. In so doing, however, I shall have to
refer to the discoveries made at a subsequent period, and which ought
consequently to be described, if the order of the narrative be strictly
preserved, in a subsequent part of this work. In the first place, it must
be remembered that the Kouyunjik king was undoubtedly the son of the
founder of the palace at Khorsabad. He is so called in the inscriptions
behind the bulls in the S. W. palace at Nimroud, and in numerous detached
inscriptions on bricks, and on other remains from those ruins and from
Kouyunjik. Now the name of the Khorsabad king was generally admitted to be
Sargon, even before his relationship to the Kouyunjik king was known;
although here again we are obliged to attach phonetic powers to characters
used as monograms, which, when occurring as simple letters, appear to have
totally different values. Colonel Rawlinson states, that this king bears
in other inscriptions the name of Shalmaneser, by which he was better
known to the Jews.[58] Dr. Hincks denies that the two names belong to the
same person.

Unfortunately the upper parts of nearly all the bas-reliefs at Kouyunjik
having been destroyed the epigraphs are wanting; and we are unable, as
yet, to identify with certainty the subject represented with any known
event in the reign of Sennacherib. There is, however, one remarkable
exception.

During the latter part of my residence at Mosul a chamber was discovered
in which the sculptures were in better preservation than any before found
at Kouyunjik. Some of the slabs, indeed, were almost entire, though
cracked and otherwise injured by fire; and the epigraph, which fortunately
explained the event portrayed, was complete. These bas-reliefs represented
the siege and capture by the Assyrians, of a city evidently of great
extent and importance. It appears to have been defended by double walls,
with battlements and towers, and by fortified outworks. The country around
it was hilly and wooded, producing the fig and the vine. The whole power
of the great king seems to have been called forth to take this
stronghold. In no other sculptures were so many armed warriors seen drawn
up in array before a besieged city. The besieged defended themselves with
great determination. Spearmen, archers, and slingers thronged the
battlements and towers, showering arrows, javelins, stones, and blazing
torches upon the assailants. Part of the city had, however, been taken.
Beneath its walls were seen Assyrian warriors impaling their prisoners,
and from the gateway of an advanced tower, or fort, issued a procession of
captives, reaching to the presence of the king, who, gorgeously arrayed,
received them seated on his throne. The vanquished people were
distinguished from the conquerors by their dress, those who defended the
battlements wore a pointed helmet, differing from that of the Assyrian
warriors in having a fringed lappet falling over the ears. Some of the
captives had a kind of turban with one end hanging down to the shoulder,
not unlike that worn by the modern Arabs of the Hedjaz. Others had no
head-dress, and short hair and beards. Their garments consisted either of
a robe reaching to the ankles, or of a tunic scarcely falling lower than
the thigh, and confined at the waist by a girdle. The women wore long
shirts, with an outer cloak thrown, like the veil of modern Eastern
ladies, over the back of the head and falling to the feet.

Several prisoners were already in the hands of the torturers. Two were
stretched naked upon the ground to be flayed alive, others were being
slain by the sword before the throne of the king. The haughty monarch was
receiving the chiefs of the conquered nation, who crouched and knelt
humbly before him. They were brought into the royal presence by the Tartan
of the Assyrian forces, probably the Rabshakeh himself, followed by his
principal officers. The general was clothed in embroidered robes, and wore
on his head a fillet adorned with rosettes and long tasseled bands.

The throne of the king stood upon an elevated platform, probably an
artificial mound, in the hill country. Its arms and sides were supported
by three rows of figures one above the other. The wood was richly carved,
or encased in embossed metal, and the legs ended in pine-shaped ornaments,
probably of bronze. The throne, indeed, appears to have resembled, in
every respect, one discovered in the north-west palace at Nimroud, which I
shall hereafter describe.[59] Over the high back was thrown an embroidered
cloth, doubtless of some rare and beautiful material.

[Illustration: Sennacherib on his Throne before Lachish.]

The royal feet rested upon a high footstool of elegant form, fashioned
like the throne, and cased with embossed metal; the legs ended in lions'
paws. Behind the king were two attendant eunuchs raising fans above his
head, and holding the embroidered napkins.

The monarch himself was attired in long loose robes richly ornamented, and
edged with tassels and fringes. In his right hand he raised two arrows,
and his left rested upon a bow; an attitude, probably denoting triumph
over his enemies, and in which he is usually portrayed when receiving
prisoners after a victory.

Behind the king was the royal tent or pavilion: and beneath him were his
led horses, and an attendant on foot carrying the parasol, the emblem of
royalty. His two chariots with their charioteers, were waiting for him.
The trappings of the horses were handsomely decorated, and an embroidered
cloth, hung with tassels, fell on their chests. Two quivers, holding a
bow, a hatchet, and arrows, were fixed to the side of the chariot.

This fine series of bas-reliefs, occupying thirteen slabs, was finished by
the ground-plan of a castle, or of a fortified camp containing tents and
houses. Within the walls was also seen a fire-altar with two beardless
priests, wearing high conical caps, standing before it. In front of the
altar, on which burned the sacred flame, was a table bearing various
sacrificial objects, and beyond it two sacred chariots, such as
accompanied the Persian kings in their wars.[60] The horses had been taken
out, and the yokes rested upon stands. Each chariot carried a lofty pole
surmounted by a globe, and long tassels or streamers; similar standards
were introduced into scenes representing sacrifices[61] in the sculptures
of Khorsabad.

Above the head of the king was an inscription, which may be translated,
"Sennacherib, the mighty king, king of the country of Assyria, sitting on
the throne of judgment, before (or at the entrance of) the city of Lachish
(Lakhisha). I give permission for its slaughter."

Here, therefore, was the actual picture of the taking of Lachish, the
city, as we know from the Bible, besieged by Sennacherib, when he sent his
generals to demand tribute of Hezekiah, and which he had captured before
their return[62]; evidence of the most remarkable character to confirm the
interpretation of the inscriptions, and to identify the king who caused
them to be engraved with the Sennacherib of Scripture. This highly
interesting series of bas-reliefs contained, moreover, an undoubted
representation of a king, a city, and a people, with whose names we are
acquainted, and of an event described in Holy Writ. They furnish us,
therefore, with illustrations of the Bible of very great importance. The
captives were undoubtedly Jews, their physiognomy was strikingly indicated
in the sculptures, but they had been stripped of their ornaments and their
fine raiment, and were left bare-footed and half-clothed. From the women,
too, had been removed "the splendor of the foot ornaments and the caps of
network, and the crescents; the ear-pendants, and the bracelets, and the
thin veils; the head-dress, and the ornaments of the legs and the girdles,
and the perfume-boxes and the amulets; the rings and the jewels of the
nose; the embroidered robes and the tunics, and the cloaks and the
satchels; the transparent garments, and the fine linen vests, and the
turbans and the mantles, for they wore instead of a girdle, a rope; and
instead of a stomacher, a girdling of sackcloth."[63]

Other corroborative evidence as to the identity of the king who built the
palace of Kouyunjik with Sennacherib, is scarcely less remarkable. In a
chamber, or passage, in the south-west corner of this edifice, were found
a large number of pieces of fine clay bearing the impressions of seals,
which, there is no doubt, had been affixed, like modern official seals of
wax, to documents written on leather, papyrus, or parchment. Such
documents, with seals in clay still attached, have been discovered in
Egypt, and specimens are preserved in the British Museum. The writings
themselves had been consumed by the fire which destroyed the building or
had perished from decay. In the stamped clay, however, may still be seen
the holes for the string, or strips of skin, by which the seal was
fastened; in some instances the ashes of the string itself remain,[64]
with the marks of the fingers and thumb.

The greater part of these seals are Assyrian, but with them are others
bearing Egyptian, Phoenician, and doubtful symbols and characters.
Sometimes the same seal is impressed more than once on the same piece of
clay. The Assyrian devices are of various kinds; the most common is that
of a king plunging a dagger into the body of a rampant lion. This appears
to have been the royal, and, indeed, the national, seal or signet. It is
frequently encircled by a short inscription, which has not yet been
deciphered, or by a simple guilloche border. The same group, emblematic of
the superior power and wisdom of the king, as well as of his sacred
character, is found on Assyrian cylinders, gems, and monuments.

Other devices found among these impressions of seals are:--1. A king,
attended by a priest, in act of adoration before a deity standing on a
lion, and surrounded by seven stars: above the god's head, on one seal, is
a scorpion. 2. The king, followed by an attendant bearing a parasol, and
preceded by a rampant horse. 3. A god, or the king, probably the former,
rising from a crescent. There appears to be a fish in front of the figure.
4. The king, with an eunuch or priest before him; a flower, or ornamented
staff, between them. 5. A scorpion, surrounded by a guilloche border (a
device of very frequent occurrence, and probably astronomical). 6. A
priest worshipping before a god. Behind him are a bull, and the sacred
astronomical emblems. 8. An ear of corn, surrounded by a fancy border. 9.
An object resembling a dagger, with flowers attached to the handle;
perhaps a sacrificial knife. 10. The head of a bull and a trident, two
sacred symbols of frequent occurrence on Assyrian monuments. 11. A
crescent in the midst of a many-rayed star. 12. Several rudely cut seals,
representing priests and various sacred animals, stars, &c.

The seals most remarkable for beauty of design and skilful execution
represent horsemen, one at full speed raising a spear, the other hunting a
stag. The impressions show that they were little inferior to Greek
intaglios. No Assyrian or Babylonian relics yet discovered, equal them in
delicacy of workmanship, and the best examples of the art of engraving on
gems,--an art which appears to have reached great perfection amongst the
Assyrians,--are unknown to us, except through these impressions.

There are three seals apparently Phoenician; two of them bearing
Phoenician characters, for which I cannot suggest any interpretation. A
few have doubtful symbols upon them, which I will not attempt to explain;
perhaps hieroglyphical signs.

Of the purely Egyptian seals there are four. One has two cartouches placed
on the symbol of gold, and each surmounted by a tall plume; they probably
contained the prænomen and name of a king, but not the slightest trace
remains of the hieroglyphs. The impression is concave, having been made
from a convex surface: the back of some of the Egyptian ovals, the rudest
form of the scarabæus, are of this shape. On the second seal is the figure
of the Egyptian god Harpocrates, seated on a lotus flower, with his finger
placed upon his mouth; an attitude in which he is represented on an ivory
from Nimroud. The hieroglyph before him does not appear to be Egyptian.

But the most remarkable and important of the Egyptian seals are two
impressions of a royal signet, which, though imperfect, retain the
cartouche, with the name of the king, so as to be perfectly legible. It is
one well known to Egyptian scholars, as that of the second Sabaco the
Æthiopian, of the twenty-fifth dynasty. On the same piece of clay is
impressed an Assyrian seal, with a device representing a priest
ministering before the king, probably a royal signet.

There can be no doubt whatever as to the identity of the cartouche. Sabaco
reigned in Egypt at the end of the seventh century before Christ, the
exact time at which Sennacherib came to the throne. He is probably the So
mentioned in the second book of Kings (xvii. 4.) as having received
ambassadors from Hoshea, the king of Israel, who, by entering into a
league with the Egyptians, called down the vengeance of Shalmaneser, whose
tributary he was, which led to the first great captivity of the people of
Samaria. Shalmaneser we know to have been an immediate predecessor of
Sennacherib, and Tirakhah, the Egyptian king, who was defeated by the
Assyrians near Lachish, was the immediate successor of Sabaco II.

It would seem that a peace having been concluded between the Egyptians and
one of the Assyrian monarchs, probably Sennacherib, the royal signets of
the two kings, thus found together, were attached to the treaty, which was
deposited amongst the archives of the kingdom. Whilst the document itself,
written upon parchment or papyrus, has completely perished, this singular
proof of the alliance, if not actual meeting, of the two monarchs is still
preserved amidst the remains of the state papers of the Assyrian empire;
furnishing one of the most remarkable instances of confirmatory evidence
on record,[65] whether we regard it as verifying the correctness of the
interpretation of the cuneiform character, or as an illustration of
Scripture history.

Little doubt, I trust, can now exist in the minds of my readers as to the
identification of the builder of the palace of Kouyunjik, with the
Sennacherib of Scripture. Had the name stood alone, we might reasonably
have questioned the correctness of the reading, especially as the signs or
monograms, with which it is written, are admitted to have no phonetic
power. But when characters, whose alphabetic values have been determined
from a perfectly distinct source, such as the Babylonian column of the
trilingual inscriptions, furnish us with names in the records attributed
to Sennacherib, written almost identically as in the Hebrew version of the
Bible, such as Hezekiah, Jerusalem, Judah, Sidon, and others, and all
occurring in one and the same paragraph, their reading, moreover,
confirmed by synchronisms, and illustrated by sculptured representations
of the events, the identification must be admitted to be complete.

The palace of Khorsabad, as I have already observed, was built by the
father of Sennacherib. The edifice in the south-west corner of Nimroud was
raised by the son, as we learn from the inscription on the back of the
bulls discovered in that building. The name of the king is admitted to be
Essarhaddon, and there are events, as it will hereafter be seen, mentioned
in his records, which further tend to identify him with the Essarhaddon of
Scripture, who, after the murder of his father Sennacherib, succeeded to
the throne.

I may mention in conclusion, as connected with the bulls forming the grand
entrance, that in the rubbish at the foot of one of them were found four
cylinders and several beads, with a scorpion in lapis lazuli, all
apparently once strung together. On one cylinder of translucent green
felspar, called amazon stone, which I believe to have been the signet, or
amulet, of Sennacherib himself, is engraved the king standing in an arched
frame as on the rock tablets at Bavian, and at the Nahr-el-Kelb in Syria.
The intaglio of this beautiful gem is not deep but sharp and distinct, and
the details are so minute, that a magnifying glass is almost required to
perceive them.

On a smaller cylinder, in the same green felspar, is a cuneiform
inscription, which has not yet been deciphered, but which does not appear
to contain any royal name. On two cylinders of onyx, also found at
Kouyunjik, and now in the British Museum, are, however, the name and
titles of Sennacherib.



CHAPTER VII.

    ROAD OPENED FOR REMOVAL OF WINGED LIONS.--DISCOVERY OF VAULTED
    DRAIN.--OF OTHER ARCHES.--OF PAINTED BRICKS.--ATTACK OF THE TAI ON THE
    VILLAGE OF NIMROUD.--VISIT TO THE HOWAR.--DESCRIPTION OF THE
    ENCAMPMENT OF THE TAI.--THE PLAIN OF SHOMAMOK.--SHEIKH FARAS.--WALI
    BEY.--RETURN TO NIMROUD.


The gigantic human-headed lions, first discovered in the north-west palace
at Nimroud, were still standing in their original position. Having been
carefully covered up with earth previous to my departure in 1848, they had
been preserved from exposure to the effects of the weather, and to wanton
injury on the part of the Arabs. The Trustees of the British Museum
wishing to add these fine sculptures to the national collection, I was
directed to remove them entire. A road through the ruins, for their
transport to the edge of the mound, was in the first place necessary, and
it was commenced early in December. They would thus be ready for
embarkation as soon as the waters of the river were sufficiently high to
bear a raft so heavily laden, over the rapids and shallows between Nimroud
and Baghdad. This road was dug to the level of the pavement or artificial
platform, and was not finished till the end of February, as a large mass
of earth and rubbish had to be taken away to the depth of fifteen or
twenty feet. During the progress of the work we found some carved
fragments of ivory similar to those already placed in the British Museum;
and two massive sockets in bronze, in which turned the hinges of a gate of
the palace. No remains of the door-posts, or other parts of the gate,
were discovered in the ruins, and it is uncertain whether these rings were
fixed in stone or wood.[66]

In the south-eastern corner of the mound tunnels carried beneath the
ruined edifice, which is of the seventh century B. C., showed the remains
of an earlier building. A _vaulted_ drain, about five feet in width, was
also discovered. The arch was turned with large kiln-burnt bricks, and
rested upon side walls of the same material. The bricks being square, and
not expressly made for vaulting, a space was left above the centre of the
arch, which was filled up by bricks, laid longitudinally.

Although this may not be a perfect arch, we have seen from the vaulted
chamber discovered in the very centre of the high mound at the north-west
corner, that the Assyrians were well acquainted at an early period with
its true principle. Other examples were not wanting in the ruins. The
earth falling away from the sides of the deep trench opened in the
north-west palace for the removal of the bull and lion during the former
excavations, left uncovered the entrance to a vaulted drain or passage,
built of sun-dried bricks. Beneath was a small watercourse, inclosed by
square pieces of alabaster. A third arch, equally perfect in character,
was found beneath the ruins of the south-east edifice. A tunnel had been
opened almost on a level with the plain, and carried far into the southern
face of the mound, but without the discovery of any other remains of
building than this solitary brick arch.

In the south-east corner of the quadrangle, formed by the low mounds
marking the walls once surrounding this quarter of the city of Nineveh, or
the park attached to the royal residence, the level of the soil is
considerably higher than in any other part of the inclosed space. This
sudden inequality evidently indicates the site of some ancient edifice.
Connected with it, rising abruptly, and almost perpendicularly, from the
plain, and forming one of the corners of the walls, is a lofty, irregular
mound, which is known to the Arabs by the name of the Tel of Athur, the
Lieutenant of Nimroud.[67] Tunnels and trenches opened in it showed
nothing but earth, unmingled even with bricks or fragments of stone.
Remains of walls and a pavement of baked bricks were, however, discovered
in the lower part of the platform. The bricks had evidently been taken
from some other building, for upon them were traces of coloured figures
and patterns, of the same character as those on the sculptured walls of
the palaces. Their painted faces were placed downwards, as if purposely to
conceal them, and the designs upon them were in most instances injured or
destroyed. A few fragments were collected, and are now in the British
Museum. The colors have faded, but were probably once as bright as the
enamels of Khorsabad. The outlines are white, and the ground a pale blue
and olive green. The only other color used is a dull yellow. The most
interesting specimens are:--

1. Four captives tied together by their necks, the end of the rope being
held by the foremost prisoner, whose hands are free, whilst the others
have their arms bound behind. They probably formed part of a line of
captives led by an Assyrian warrior. They are beardless, and have bald
heads, to which is attached a single feather.[68] Two of them have white
cloths round their loins, the others long white shirts open in front, like
the shirt of the modern Arab. The figures on this fragment are yellow on a
blue ground.

2. Similar captives followed by an Assyrian soldier. The armour of the
warrior is that of the later period, the scales and greaves are painted
blue and yellow, and the tunic blue. The ground blue.

3. Parts of two horses, of a man holding a dagger, and of an Assyrian
warrior. The horses are blue. The man appears to have been wounded or
slain in battle, and is naked, with the exception of a twisted blue cloth
round the loins. Ground an olive green.

4. Fragment, with Assyrian warriors on horses. Horses yellow, with blue
trappings. Ground olive green.

5. Part of a chariot and horse, yellow on a blue ground.

6. A man, with a white cloth round his loins, pierced by two arrows. A
fish, blue, with the scales marked in white; and part of a horse's head,
yellow. Ground yellow.

7. Part of a walled tower, or fort, with square battlements; white, on a
blue ground.

8. Fragment of a very spirited design representing a chariot and horses
passing over a naked figure, pierced through the neck by an arrow. Under
this group are the heads, and parts of the shields, of two Assyrian
warriors. The wounded man wears a fillet round his head, to which is
attached a feather. The horses are blue, and their trappings white; the
wheels of the chariot, yellow. The shields of the warriors are blue, edged
by a band of alternate squares of blue and yellow; their helmets are
yellow, but the faces appear to be merely outlined in white on the olive
green ground.

9. The lower part of an Assyrian warrior, his armour and greaves blue,
yellow, and white. The naked hand is of a pale brown color. Ground olive
green.

10. A castle, with angular battlements; white, with yellow bands on a blue
ground. A square door is painted blue.

All these fragments evidently belong to the same period, and probably to
the same general subject. I should conjecture that they had been taken
from the same building as the detached bas-reliefs in the south-west
palace, and that consequently they may be attributed to the same king.[69]
The outlines are spirited, in character and treatment resembling the
sculptures.

A fragment of painted brick, found in the ruins of the north-west palace,
is undoubtedly of a different, and of an earlier, period. The outline is
in black, and not in white. The upper robe is blue, the under yellow, and
the fringes white. The ground is yellow.

But the most perfect and interesting specimen of painting is that on a
brick, 12 inches by 9, discovered in the centre of the mound of Nimroud,
and now in the British Museum. It represents the king followed by his
attendant eunuch, receiving his general or vizir, a group very similar to
those seen in the sculptures from the north-west palace. Above his head is
a kind of fringed pavilion and part of an inscription, which appears to
have contained his name; beneath him is the Assyrian guilloche border. The
outline is in black upon a pale yellow ground, the colors having probably
faded. From the costume of the king I believe him to be either the builder
of the north-west or centre palace. This is an unique specimen of an
entire Assyrian painting.

During the greater part of the month of December I resided at Nimroud. One
morning, I was suddenly disturbed by the reports of firearms, mingled with
the shouts of men and the shrieks of women. Issuing immediately from the
house, I found the open space behind it a scene of wild excitement and
confusion. Horsemen, galloping in all directions and singing their war
song, were driving before them with their long spears the cattle and sheep
of the village. The men were firing at the invaders; the women, armed with
tent poles and pitchforks, and filling the air with their shrill screams,
were trying to rescue the animals. The horsemen of the Arab tribe of Tai
had taken advantage of a thick mist hanging over the Jaif, to cross the
Zab early in the morning, and to fall upon us before we were aware of
their approach. No time was to be lost to prevent bloodshed, and all its
disagreeable consequences. A horse was soon ready, and I rode towards the
one who appeared to be the chief of the attacking party. Although his
features were concealed by the _keffieh_ closely drawn over the lower part
of his face, after the Bedouin fashion in war, he had been recognised as
Saleh, the brother of the Howar, the Sheikh of the Tai. At my urgent
solicitation Saleh consented to restore all that had been stolen, and each
one was accordingly invited to claim his own property. In the midst of the
crowd of wranglers about lost cloaks, handkerchiefs, and the like, a hare
suddenly sprang from her form and darted over the plain. My greyhounds,
who had followed me from the house, immediately pursued her. This was too
much for the Arabs; their love of the chase overcame even their propensity
for appropriating other people's property; cattle, cloaks, swords, and
_keffiehs_ were abandoned to their respective claimants, and the whole
band of marauders joined wildly in the pursuit. Before we had reached the
game we were far distant from Nimroud. I seized the opportunity to
conclude the truce, and Saleh with his followers rode slowly back towards
the ford of the Zab to seek his brother's tents. I promised to visit, the
Howar in two or three days, and we parted with mutual assurances of
friendship.

I spent Christmas-day at Nimroud, and on the 28th set out to visit the
Howar. Schloss again accompanied me, Mr. Rolland (a traveller, who had
recently joined us), Hormuzd, and Awad being of the party. Leaving the
Kuther Elias to the left, we passed the ruined village of Kini-Hareim,
taking the direct track to the Zab. The river, winding through a rich
alluvial plain, divides itself into four branches, before entering a range
of low conglomerate hills, between which it sweeps in its narrowed bed
with great velocity. The four channels are each fordable, except during
floods, and the Arabs generally cross at this spot. The water reached
above the bellies of our horses, but we found no difficulty in stemming
the current. The islands and the banks were clothed with trees and
brushwood. In the mud and sand near the jungle were innumerable deep,
sharp prints of the hoof of the wild boar.

The tents of the Howar were still higher up the Zab. Sending a horseman to
apprise the chief of our approach, we rode leisurely towards them. As we
passed by a small village named Kaaitli, the women came out with their
children, and pointing to me exclaimed, "Look, look! this is the Beg who
is come from the other end of the world to dig up the bones of our
grandfathers and grandmothers!" a sacrilege which they seemed inclined to
resent. Saleh, at the head of fifty or sixty horsemen, met us beyond the
village, and conducted us to the encampment of his brother.

The tents were pitched in long, parallel lines. That of the chief held the
foremost place, and was distinguished by its size, the upright spears
tufted with ostrich feathers at its entrance, and the many high-bred mares
tethered before it. As we approached, a tall, commanding figure, of erect
and noble carriage, issued from beneath the black canvass, and advanced to
receive me. I had never seen amongst the Arabs a man of such lofty
stature. His features were regular and handsome, but his beard, having
been fresh dyed with hennah alone, was of a bright brick-red hue, ill
suited to the gravity and dignity of his countenance. His head was
encircled by a rich cashmere shawl, one end falling over his shoulder, as
is the custom amongst the Arabs of the Hedjaz. He wore a crimson satin
robe and a black cloak, elegantly embroidered down the back, and on one of
the wide sleeves with gold thread and many-colored silks. This was Sheikh
Howar.

As I dismounted, the Sheikh advanced to embrace me, and when his arms were
round my neck my head scarcely reached to his shoulder. He led me into
that part of the tent which is set aside for guests. It had been prepared
for my reception, and was not ill furnished with cushions of silk and soft
Kurdish carpets. The tent itself was more capacious than those usually
found amongst Arabs. The black goat-hair canvass alone was the load of
three camels[70], and was supported by six poles down the centre, with the
same number on either side. Around a bright fire was an array of highly
burnished metal coffee-pots, the largest containing several quarts, and
the smallest scarcely big enough to fill the diminutive cup reserved for
the solitary stranger.

Coffee was, of course, the first business. It was highly spiced, as drank
by the Bedouins. The Howar, after some general conversation, spoke of the
politics of the Tai, and their differences with the Turkish government.
The same ruinous system which has turned some of the richest districts of
Asia into a desert, and has driven every Arab clan into open rebellion
against the Sultan, had been pursued towards himself and his tribe. Owing
to the extortionate demands of the Turkish governors, and intestine
dissensions and broils between the Arabs themselves, the country had
rapidly been reduced to a state of anarchy. The Arabs, having no one
responsible chief, took, of course, to plundering. The villages on the
Mosul side of the Zab, as well as in the populous district of Arbil, were
laid waste. The Kurds, who came down into the plains during the winter,
were encouraged to follow the example of the Tai, and, from the
rapaciousness and misconduct of one or two officers of the Turkish
government, evils had ensued whose consequences will be felt for years,
and which will end in adding another rich district to the desert. Such is
the history of almost every tribe in Turkey, and such the causes of the
desolation that has spread over her finest provinces.

The Tai is a remnant of one of the most ancient and renowned tribes of
Arabia. The Howar himself traces his descent from Hatem, a sheikh of the
tribe who lived in the seventh century, and who, as the impersonation of
all the virtues of Bedouin life, is the theme to this day of the Arab
muse. His hospitality, his generosity, his courage, and his skill as a
horseman were alike unequalled, and there is no name more honored amongst
the wild inhabitants of the desert than that of Hatem Tai. The Howar is
proud of his heroic ancestor, and the Bedouins acknowledge and respect his
descent.[71]

We dined with the Sheikh and sat until the night was far spent, listening
to tales of Arab life, and to the traditions of his tribe.

On the following morning the tents were struck at sunrise, and the chief
moved with his followers to new pastures. The crowd of camels, flocks,
cattle, laden beasts of burden, horsemen, footmen, women and children
darkened the plain for some miles. We passed through the midst of them
with the Sheikh, and leaving him to fix the spot for his encampment, we
turned from the river and rode inland towards the tents of his rival and
cousin, Faras. Saleh, with a few horsemen, accompanied me, one of my
special objects being to bring about a reconciliation between the two
chiefs.

The plain, bounded by the Tigris, the great and lesser Zab, and the
Kurdish hills, is renowned for its fertility. It is the granary of
Baghdad, and it is a common saying amongst the Arabs, "that if there were
a famine over the rest of the earth, Shomamok (for so the principal part
of the plain is called) would still have its harvest." This district
belongs chiefly to the Tai Arabs, who wander from pasture to pasture, and
leave the cultivation of the soil to small sedentary tribes of Arabs,
Turcomans, and Kurds, who dwell in villages, and pay an annual tribute in
money or in kind.

As we rode along we passed many peasants industriously driving the plough
through the rich soil. Large flocks of gazelles grazed in the cultivated
patches, scarcely fearing the husbandman, though speedily bounding away
over the plain as horsemen approached. Artificial mounds rose on all sides
of us, and near one of the largest, called Abou-Jerdeh, we found the black
tents of Sheikh Faras. The rain began to fall in torrents before we
reached the encampment. The chief had ridden out to a neighbouring village
to make arrangements for our better protection against the weather. He
soon returned urging his mare to the top of her speed. In person he was a
strange contrast to the elder member of his family. He was short, squat,
and fat, and his coarse features were buried in a frame of hair dyed
bright red. He was, however, profuse in assurances of friendship, talked
incessantly, agreed to all I proposed with regard to a reconciliation with
the other branch of the tribe, and received Saleh with every outward sign
of cordiality. His son had more of the dignity of his race, but the
expression of his countenance was forbidding and sinister. The two young
men, as they sat, cast looks of defiance at each other, and I had some
difficulty in restraining Saleh from breaking out in invectives, which
probably would have ended in an appeal to the sword.

As the rain increased in violence, and the tent offered but an imperfect
shelter, we moved to the village, where a house had been prepared for us
by its honest, kind-hearted Turcoman chief, Wali Bey. With unaffected
hospitality he insisted that we should become his guests, and had already
slain the sheep for our entertainment. I have met few men who exceed, in
honesty and fidelity, the descendants of the pure Turcoman race, scattered
over Asia Minor and the districts watered by the Tigris.

On the following morning, Wali Bey provided an ample breakfast, in which
all the luxuries of the village were set before us. On reaching the Zab,
we found it rising rapidly from the rains of the previous day. Our
servants had already crossed, but the river was now impassable. We sought
a ford higher up, and above the junction of the Ghazir. Having struggled
in vain against the swollen stream, we were compelled to give up the
attempt. Nothing remained but to seek the ferry on the high road, between
Arbil and Mosul. We did not reach the small village, where a raft is kept
for the use of travellers and caravans, until nearly four o'clock in the
afternoon, and it was sunset before we had crossed the river.

We hurried along the direct track to Nimroud, hoping to cross the Ghazir
before night-fall. But fresh difficulties awaited us. That small river,
collecting the torrents of the Missouri hills, had overflown its bed, and
its waters were rushing tumultuously onwards, with a breadth of stream
almost equalling the Tigris. We rode along its banks, hoping to find an
encampment where we could pass the night. At length, in the twilight, we
spied some Arabs, who immediately took refuge behind the walls of a ruined
village, and believing us to be marauders from the desert, prepared to
defend themselves and their cattle. Directing the rest of the party to
stop, I rode forward with the Bairakdar, and was in time to prevent a
discharge of fire-arms pointed against us.

The nearest inhabited village was Tel Aswad, or Kara Tuppeh, still far
distant. As we rode towards it in the dusk, one or two wolves lazily stole
from the brushwood, and jackals and other beasts of prey occasionally
crossed our path. We found the Kiayah seated with some travellers round a
blazing fire. The miserable hut was soon cleared of its occupants, and we
prepared to pass the night as we best could.

Towards dawn the Kiayah brought us word that the Ghazir had subsided
sufficiently to allow us to ford. We started under his guidance, and found
that the stream, although divided into three branches, reached in some
places almost to the backs of the horses. Safe over, we struck across the
country towards Nimroud, and reached the ruins as a thick morning mist was
gradually withdrawn from the lofty mound.

During our absence, a new chamber had been opened in the north-west
palace, to the south of the great centre hall. The walls were of plain,
sun-dried brick, and there were no remains of sculptured slabs, but in the
earth and rubbish which had filled it, were discovered some of the most
interesting relics obtained from the ruins of Assyria. A description of
its contents alone will occupy a chapter.



CHAPTER VIII.

    CONTENTS OF NEWLY DISCOVERED CHAMBER.--A WELL.--LARGE COPPER
    CALDRONS.--BELLS, RINGS, AND OTHER OBJECTS IN
    METAL.--TRIPODS.--CALDRONS AND LARGE VESSELS.--BRONZE BOWLS, CUPS, AND
    DISHES.--DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBOSSINGS UPON THEM.--ARMS AND
    ARMOUR.--SHIELDS.--IRON INSTRUMENTS.--IVORY REMAINS.--BRONZE CUBES
    INLAID WITH GOLD.--GLASS BOWLS.--LENS.--THE ROYAL THRONE.


The newly discovered chamber was part of the north-west palace, and
adjoining a room previously explored.[72] Its only entrance was to the
west, and almost on the edge of the mound. It must, consequently, have
opened upon a gallery or terrace running along the river front of the
building. The walls were of sun-dried brick, panelled round the bottom
with large burnt bricks, about three feet high, placed one against the
other. They were coated with bitumen, and, like those forming the
pavement, were inscribed with the name and usual titles of the royal
founder of the building. In one corner, and partly in a kind of recess,
was a well, the mouth of which was formed by brickwork about three feet
high. Its sides were also bricked down to the conglomerate rock, and holes
had been left at regular intervals for descent. When first discovered it
was choked with earth. The workmen emptied it until they came, at the
depth of nearly sixty feet, to brackish water.[73]

The first objects found in this chamber were two plain copper vessels or
caldrons, about 2-1/2 feet in diameter, and 3 feet deep, resting upon a
stand of brickwork, with their mouths closed by large tiles. Near them was
a copper jar, which fell to pieces almost as soon as uncovered. Several
vases of the same metal, though smaller in size, had been dug out of other
parts of the ruins; but they were empty, whilst those I am describing were
filled with curious relics. I first took out a number of small bronze
bells[74] with iron tongues, and various small copper ornaments, some
suspended to wires. With them were a quantity of tapering bronze rods,
bent into a hook, and ending in a kind of lip. Beneath were several bronze
cups and dishes, which I succeeded in removing entire. Scattered in the
earth amongst these objects were several hundred studs and buttons in
mother of pearl and ivory, with many small rosettes in metal.

[Illustration: Feet of Tripods in Bronze and Iron.]

All the objects contained in these caldrons, with the exception of the
cups and dishes, were probably ornaments of horse and chariot furniture.

Beneath the caldrons were heaped lions' and bulls' feet of bronze; and
the remains of iron rings and bars, probably parts of tripods, or stands,
for supporting vessels and bowls; which, as the iron had rusted away, had
fallen to pieces, leaving such parts entire as were in the more durable
metal.

Two other caldrons, found further within the chamber, contained, besides
several plates and dishes, four crown shaped bronze ornaments, perhaps
belonging to a throne or couch; two long, ornamented bands of copper,
rounded at both ends, apparently belts, such as were worn by warriors in
armour; a grotesque head in bronze, probably the top of a mace; a metal
wine-strainer of elegant shape; various metal vessels of peculiar form,
and a bronze ornament, probably the handle of a dish or vase.

Eight more caldrons and jars were found in other parts of the chamber. One
contained ashes and bones, the rest were empty. Some of the larger vessels
were crushed almost flat, probably by the falling in of the upper part of
the building.

With the caldrons were discovered two circular flat vessels, nearly six
feet in diameter, and about two feet deep, which I can only compare with
the brazen sea that stood in the temple of Solomon.[75]

Caldrons are frequently represented as part of the spoil and tribute, in
the sculptures of Nimroud and Kouyunjik. They were so much valued by the
ancients that, it appears from the Homeric poems, they were given as
prizes at public games, and were considered amongst the most precious
objects that could be carried away from a captured city. They were
frequently embossed with flowers and other ornaments. Homer declares one
so adorned to be worth an ox.[76]

Behind the caldrons was a heap of curious and interesting objects. In one
place were piled without order, one above the other, bronze cups, bowls,
and dishes of various sizes and shapes. The upper vessels having been most
exposed to damp, the metal had been eaten away by rust, and was crumbling
into fragments, or into a green powder. As they were cleared away, more
perfect specimens were taken out, until, near the pavement of the chamber,
some were found almost entire. Many of the bowls and plates fitted so
closely, one within the other, that they have only been detached in
England. It required the greatest care and patience to separate them from
the tenacious soil in which they were embedded.

Although a green crystaline deposit, arising from the decomposition of the
metal, encrusted all the vessels, I could distinguish upon many of them
traces of embossed and engraved ornaments. Since they have been in England
they have been carefully and skilfully cleaned, and the very beautiful and
elaborate designs upon them brought to light.

The bronze objects thus discovered may be classed under four heads--dishes
with handles, plates, deep bowls, and cups. Some are plain, others have a
simple rosette, scarab, or star in the centre, and many are most
elaborately ornamented with the figures of men and animals, and with
elegant fancy designs, either embossed or incised. The inside, and not the
outside, of these vessels is ornamented. The embossed figures have been
raised in the metal by a blunt instrument, three or four strokes of which
in many instances very ingeniously produce the image of an animal. Even
those ornaments which are not embossed but incised, appear to have been
formed by a similar process, except that the punch was applied on the
inside. The tool of the graver has been sparingly used.

The most interesting dishes in the collection brought to England are:--

No. 1., with moving circular handle (the handle wanting), secured by three
bosses; diameter 10-3/4 inches, depth 2-1/4 inches; divided into two
friezes surrounding a circular medallion containing a male deity _with
bull's ears_ (?) and hair in ample curls[77], wearing bracelets and a
necklace of an Egyptian character, and a short tunic; the arms crossed,
and the hands held by two _Egyptians_ (?), who place their other hands on
the head of the centre figure. The inner frieze contains horsemen draped
as Egyptians, galloping round in pairs; the outer, figures also wearing
the Egyptian "_shenti_" or tunic, hunting lions on horseback, on foot, and
in chariots. The hair of these figures is dressed after a fashion, which
prevailed in Egypt from the ninth to the eighth century B. C. Each frieze
is separated by a band of guilloche ornament.

No. 2., diameter 10-1/2 inches, having a low rim, partly destroyed;
ornamented with an embossed rosette of elegant shape, surrounded by three
friezes of animals in high relief, divided by a guilloche band. The outer
frieze contains twelve walking bulls, designed with considerable spirit;
between each is a dwarf shrub or tree. The second frieze has a bull, a
winged griffin, an ibex, and a gazelle, walking one behind the other, and
the same animals seized by leopards or lions, in all fourteen figures.
The inner frieze contains twelve gazelles. The handle is formed by a plain
movable ring. The ornaments on this dish, as well as the design, are of an
Assyrian character.

No. 3., diameter 10-3/4 inches, and 1-1/2 inch deep, with a raised star in
the centre; the handle formed by two rings, working in sockets fastened to
a rim, running about one-third round the margin, and secured by five nails
or bosses; four bands of embossed ornaments in low relief round the
centre, the outer band consisting of alternate standing bulls and
crouching lions, Assyrian in character and treatment; the others, of an
elegant pattern, slightly varied from the usual Assyrian border by the
introduction of a fanlike flower in the place of the tulip.

Other dishes were found still better preserved than those just described,
but perfectly plain, or having only a star, more or less elaborate,
embossed or engraved in the centre. Many fragments were also discovered
with elegant handles, some formed by the figures of rams and bulls.

Of the plates the most remarkable are:--

No. 1., shallow, and 8-3/4 inches in diameter, the centre slightly raised
and incised with a star and five bands of tulip-shaped ornaments; the rest
occupied by four groups, each consisting of two winged hawk-headed
sphinxes, wearing the "pshent," or crown of the upper and lower country of
Egypt; one paw raised, and resting upon the head of a man kneeling on one
knee, and lifting his hands in the act of adoration. Between the sphinxes,
on a column in the form of a papyrus-sceptre, is the bust of a figure
wearing on his head the sun's disc, with the uræi serpents, a collar round
the neck, and four feathers; above are two winged globes with the asps,
and a row of birds. Each group is inclosed by two columns with capitals
in the form of the Assyrian tulip ornament, and is separated from that
adjoining by a scarab with out-spread wings, raising the globe with its
fore feet, and resting with its hind on a papyrus-sceptre pillar. This
plate is in good preservation, having been found at the very bottom of a
heap of similar relics.

No. 2., depth, 1-3/4 in.; diameter, 9-1/8 in., with a broad, raised rim,
like that of a soup plate, embossed with figures of greyhounds pursuing a
hare. The centre contains a frieze in high relief, representing combats
between men and lions, and a smaller border of gazelles, between guilloche
bands, encircling an embossed star. In this very fine specimen, although
the costumes of the figures are Egyptian in character, the treatment and
design are Assyrian.

No. 3., shallow; 9-1/2 inches diameter; an oval in the centre, covered
with dotted lozenges, and set with nine silver bosses, probably intended
to represent a lake or valley, surrounded by four groups of hills, each
with three crests in high relief, on which are incised in outline trees
and stags, wild goats, bears, and leopards. On the sides of the hills, in
relief, are similar figures of animals. The outer rim is incised with
trees and deer. The workmanship of this specimen is Assyrian, and very
minute and curious.

No. 4., diameter, 7-1/4 inches, the centre raised, and containing an
eight-rayed star, with smaller stars between each ray, encircled by a
guilloche band. The remainder of the plate is divided into eight
compartments, by eight double-faced figures of Egyptian character in high
relief; between each figure are five rows of animals, inclosed by
guilloche bands; the first three consisting of stags and hinds, the fourth
of lions, and the fifth of hares, each compartment containing thirteen
figures. A very beautiful specimen, unfortunately much injured.

No. 5., diameter, 8-3/4 inches; depth, 1-1/4 inch. The embossings and
ornaments on this plate are of an Egyptian character. The centre consists
of four heads of the cow-eared goddess Athor (?), forming, with lines of
bosses, an eight-rayed star, surrounded by hills, indicated as in plate
No. 3., but filled in with rosettes and other ornaments. Between the hills
are incised animals and trees. A border of figures, almost purely
Egyptian, but unfortunately only in part preserved, encircles the plate;
the first remaining group is that of a man seated on a throne, beneath an
ornamented arch, with the Egyptian Baal, represented as on the coins of
Cossura, standing full face; to the right of this figure is a square
ornament with pendants (resembling a sealed document), and beneath it the
crux ansata or Egyptian symbol of life. The next group is that of a
warrior in Egyptian attire, holding a mace in his right hand, and in his
left a bow and arrow, with the hair of a captive of smaller proportions,
who crouches before him. The next group represents the Egyptian Baal (?),
with a lion's skin round his body, and plumes on his head, having on each
side an Egyptian figure wearing the "_shent_," or short tunic, carrying a
bow, and plucking the plumes from the head of the god, perhaps symbolical
of the victory of Horus over Typhon. The Egyptian god Amon, bearing a bird
in one hand and a falchion in the other, with female figures similar to
that last described, appears to form the next group; but unfortunately
this part of the plate has been nearly destroyed: the whole border,
however, appears to have represented a mixture of religious and historical
scenes.

No. 6., diameter, 6 in.; depth, 1-1/2 in.; a projecting rim, ornamented
with figures of vultures with out-spread wings; an embossed rosette,
encircled by two rows of fan-shaped flowers and guilloche bands, occupies
a raised centre, which is surrounded by a frieze, consisting of groups of
two vultures devouring a hare. A highly finished and very beautiful
specimen. On the back of this plate are five letters, either in the
Phoenician or Assyrian cursive character.

Nos. 7. and 8.; covered with groups of small stags, surrounding an
elaborate star, one plate containing above 600 figures; the animals are
formed by three blows from a blunt instrument or punch. These plates are
ornamented with small bosses of silver and gold let into the copper.

No. 9., diameter, 7-5/8 inches; depth, 1-1/2 inch, of fine workmanship;
the centre formed by an incised star, surrounded by guilloche and tulip
bands. Four groups on the sides representing a lion, lurking amongst
papyri or reeds, and about to spring on a bull.

No. 10., diameter 7-1/2 inches. In the centre a winged scarab raising the
disc of the sun, surrounded by guilloche and tulip bands, and by a double
frieze, the inner consisting of trees, deer, winged uræi, sphinxes, and
papyrus plants; the outer, of winged scarabs, flying serpents, deer, and
trees, all incised.

The plates above described are the most interesting specimens brought to
this country: there are others, indeed, scarcely less remarkable for
beauty of workmanship, or, when plain or ornamented with a simple star in
the centre, for elegance of form. Of the seventeen deep bowls discovered,
only three have embossings, sufficiently well preserved, to be described;
the greater part appear to be perfectly plain. The most remarkable is
8-1/2 inches in diameter, and 3-3/4 inches deep, and has at the bottom, in
the centre, an embossed star, surrounded by a rosette, and on the sides a
hunting scene in bold relief.

A second, 7-1/2 inches in diameter, and 3-3/4 inches deep, has in the
centre a medallion similar to that in the one last described, and on the
sides, in very high relief, two lions and two sphinxes of Egyptian
character, wearing a collar, feathers, and housings, and a head-dress
formed by a disc with two uræi. Both bowls are remarkable for the boldness
of the relief and the archaic treatment of the figures, in this respect
resembling the ivories previously discovered at Nimroud. They forcibly
call to mind the early remains of Greece, and especially the metal work,
and painted pottery found in very ancient tombs in Etruria, which they so
closely resemble not only in design but in subject, the same mythic
animals and the same ornaments being introduced, that we cannot but
attribute to both the same origin. The third, 7-3/4 inches in diameter,
and 2-1/2 inches deep, has in the centre a star formed by the Egyptian
hawk of the sun, bearing the disc, and having at its side a whip, between
two rays ending in lotus flowers; on the sides are embossed figures of
wild goats, lotus-shaped shrubs, and dwarf trees of peculiar form.

Of the cups the most remarkable are:--

No. 1., diameter 5-5/8 inches, and 2-1/4 inches deep, very elaborately
ornamented with figures of animals, interlaced and grouped together in
singular confusion, covering the whole inner surface; apparently
representing a combat between griffins and lions; a very curious and
interesting specimen, not unlike some of the Italian chasing of the cinque
cento. No. 2., a fragment, embossed with the figures of lions and bulls,
of very fine workmanship.

Of the remaining cups many are plain but of elegant shape, one or two are
ribbed, and some have simply an embossed star in the centre.

About 150 bronze vessels discovered in this chamber are now in the British
Museum, without including numerous fragments, which, although showing
traces of ornament, are too far destroyed by decomposition to be cleaned.

The metal of the dishes, bowls, and rings, has been carefully analysed,
and has been found to contain one part of tin to ten of copper, being
exactly the relative proportions of the best ancient and modern bronze.
The bells, however, have fourteen per cent. of tin, showing that the
Assyrians were well aware of the effect produced by changing the
proportions of the metals. These two facts show the advance made by them
in the metallurgic art.

The effect of age and decay has been to cover the surface of all these
bronze objects with a coating of beautiful crystals of malachite, beneath
which the component substances have been converted into suboxide of copper
and peroxide of tin, leaving in many instances no traces whatever of the
metals.

It would appear that the Assyrians were unable to give elegant forms or a
pleasing appearance to objects in iron alone, and that consequently they
frequently overlaid that metal with bronze, either entirely, or partially,
by way of ornament. The feet of the ring tripods previously described,
furnish highly interesting specimens of this process, and prove the
progress made by the Assyrians in it. The iron inclosed within the copper
has not been exposed to the same decay as that detached from it, and will
still take a polish.

The tin was probably obtained from Phoenicia; and consequently that used
in the bronzes of the British Museum may actually have been exported,
nearly three thousand years ago, from the British Isles! We find the
Assyrians and Babylonians making an extensive use of this metal, which was
probably one of the chief articles of trade supplied by the cities of the
Syrian coast, whose seamen sought for it on the distant shores of the
Atlantic.

The embossed and engraved vessels from Nimroud afford many interesting
illustrations of the progress made by the ancients in metallurgy. From the
Egyptian character of the designs, and especially of the drapery of the
figures, in several of the specimens, it may be inferred that some of them
were not Assyrian, but had been brought from a foreign people. As in the
ivories, however, the workmanship, subjects, and mode of treatment are
more Assyrian than Egyptian, and seem to show that the artist either
copied from Egyptian models, or was a native of a country under the
influence of the arts and taste of Egypt. The Sidonians, and other
inhabitants of the Phoenician coast, were the most renowned workers in
metal of the ancient world. In the Homeric poems they are frequently
mentioned as the artificers who fashioned and embossed metal cups and
bowls, and Solomon sought cunning men from Tyre to make the gold and
brazen utensils for his temple and palaces.[78] It is, therefore, not
impossible that the vessels discovered at Nimroud were the work of
Phoenician artists, brought expressly from Tyre, or carried away amongst
the captives when their cities were taken by the Assyrians, who, we know
from many passages in the Bible[79], always secured the smiths and
artisans, and placed them in their own immediate dominions. They may have
been used for sacrificial purposes, at royal banquets, or when the king
performed certain religious ceremonies, for in the bas-reliefs he is
frequently represented on such occasions with a cup or bowl in his hand;
or they may have formed part of the spoil of some Syrian nation, placed
in a temple at Nineveh, as the holy utensils of the Jews, after the
destruction of the sanctuary, were kept in the temple of Babylon.[80] It
is not, indeed, impossible, that some of them may have been actually
brought from the cities round Jerusalem by Sennacherib himself, or from
Samaria by Shalmaneser or Sargon, who, we find, inhabited the palace at
Nimroud, and of whom several relics have already been discovered in the
ruins.

Around the vessels I have described were heaped arms, remains of armour,
iron instruments, glass bowls, and various objects in ivory and bronze.
The arms consisted of swords, daggers, shields, and the heads of spears
and arrows, which being chiefly of iron fell to pieces almost as soon as
exposed to the air. The shields are of bronze, and circular, the rim
bending inwards, and forming a deep groove round the edge. The handles are
of iron, and fastened by six bosses or nails, the heads of which form an
ornament on the outer face of the shield.[81] The diameter of the largest
and most perfect is two feet six inches. Although their weight must have
impeded the movements of an armed warrior, the Assyrian spearmen are
constantly represented in the bas-reliefs with them. Such, too, were
probably the bucklers that Solomon hung on his towers.[82]

A number of thin iron rods, adhering together in bundles, were found
amongst the arms. They may have been the shafts of arrows, which, it has
been conjectured from several passages in the Old Testament, were
sometimes of burnished metal. To "make bright the arrows"[83] may,
however, only allude to the head fastened to a reed, or shaft of some
light wood. The armour consisted of parts of breast-plates (?) and of
other fragments, embossed with figures and ornaments.

Amongst the iron instruments were the head of a pick, a double-handled saw
(about 3 feet 6 inches in length), several objects resembling the heads of
sledge-hammers, and a large blunt spear-head, such as we find from the
sculptures were used during sieges to force stones from the walls of
besieged cities.

The most interesting of the ivory relics were, a carved staff, perhaps a
royal sceptre, part of which has been preserved, although in the last
stage of decay; and several entire elephants' tusks, the largest being
about 2 feet 5 inches long.

The ivory could with difficulty be detached from the earth in which it was
imbedded. It fell to small fragments, and even to dust, almost as soon as
exposed to the air. I have described elsewhere[84] the frequent use of
ivory for the adornment of ancient Eastern palaces and temples, as well as
for thrones and furniture. Ezekiel includes "horns of ivory" amongst the
objects brought to Tyre from Dedan, and the Assyrians may have obtained
their supplies from the same country, which some believe to have been in
the Persian Gulf.[85]

Amongst various small objects in bronze were two cubes, each having on one
face the figure of a scarab with outstretched wings, inlaid in gold; very
interesting specimens, and probably amongst the earliest known, of an art
carried in modern times to great perfection in the East.

Two entire glass bowls, with fragments of others, were also found in this
chamber; the glass, like all that from the ruins, is covered with pearly
scales, which, on being removed, leave prismatic opal-like colors of the
greatest brilliancy, showing, under different lights, the most varied and
beautiful tints. On this highly interesting relic is the name of Sargon,
with his title of king of Assyria, in cuneiform characters, and the figure
of a lion. We are, therefore, able to fix its date to the latter part of
the seventh century B. C. It is, consequently, the most ancient known
specimen of _transparent_ glass, none from Egypt being, it is believed,
earlier than the time of the Psamettici (the end of the sixth or beginning
of the fifth century B. C.). Opaque colored glass was, however,
manufactured at a much earlier period, and some exists of the fifteenth
century B. C. The Sargon vase was blown in one solid piece, and then
shaped and hollowed out by a turning-machine, of which the marks are still
plainly visible. With it were found, it will be remembered, two larger
vases in white alabaster, inscribed with the name of the same king. They
were all probably used for holding some ointment or cosmetic.[86]

With the glass bowls was discovered a rock-crystal lens, with opposite
convex and plane faces. Its properties could scarcely have been unknown to
the Assyrians, and we have consequently the earliest specimen of a
magnifying and burning-glass. It was buried beneath a heap of fragments of
beautiful blue opaque glass, apparently the enamel of some object in ivory
or wood, which had perished.

In the further corner of the chamber, to the left hand, stood the royal
throne. Although it was utterly impossible, from the complete state of
decay of the materials, to preserve any part of it entire, I was able, by
carefully removing the earth, to ascertain that it resembled in shape the
chair of state of the king, as seen in the sculptures of Kouyunjik and
Khorsabad, and particularly that represented in the bas-relief already
described, of Sennacherib receiving the captives and spoil, after the
conquest of the city of Lachish.[87] With the exception of the legs, which
appear to have been partly of ivory, it was of wood, cased or overlaid
with bronze, as the throne of Solomon was of ivory, overlaid with
gold.[88] The metal was most elaborately engraved and embossed with
symbolical figures and ornaments, like those embroidered on the robes of
the early Nimroud king, such as winged deities struggling with griffins,
mythic animals, men before the sacred tree, and the winged lion and bull.
As the woodwork over which the bronze was fastened by means of small nails
of the same material, had rotted away, the throne fell to pieces, but the
metal casing was partly preserved. The legs were adorned with lion's paws
resting on a pine-shaped ornament, like the thrones of the later Assyrian
sculptures, and stood on a bronze base. A rod with loose rings, to which
was once hung embroidered drapery, or some rich stuff, appears to have
belonged to the back of the chair, or to a frame-work raised above or
behind it.

In front of the throne was the foot-stool, also of wood overlaid with
embossed metal, and adorned with the heads of rams or bulls. The feet
ended in lion's paws and pine cones, like those of the throne. The two
pieces of furniture may have been placed together in a temple as an
offering to the gods, as Midas placed his throne in the temple of
Delphi.[89] The ornaments on them were so purely Assyrian, that there can
be little doubt of their having been expressly made for the Assyrian king,
and not having been the spoil of some foreign nation.

Such, with an alabaster jar, and a few other objects in metal, were the
relics found in the newly-opened room. After the examination I had made of
the building during my former excavations, this accidental discovery
proves that other treasures may still exist in the mound of Nimroud, and
increases my regret that means were not at my command to remove the
rubbish from the centre of the other chambers in the palace.



CHAPTER IX.

    VISIT TO THE WINGED LIONS BY NIGHT.--THE BITUMEN SPRINGS.--REMOVAL OF
    THE WINGED LIONS TO THE RIVER.--FLOODS AT NIMROUD.--YEZIDI MARRIAGE
    FESTIVAL.--BAAZANI.--VISIT TO BAVIAN.--SITE OF THE BATTLE OF
    ARBELA.--DESCRIPTION OF ROOK SCULPTURES.--INSCRIPTIONS.--THE SHABBAKS.


By the 28th of January, the colossal lions forming the portal to the great
hall in the north-west palace of Nimroud were ready to be dragged to the
river-bank. The walls and their sculptured panelling had been removed from
both sides of them, and they stood isolated in the midst of the ruins. We
rode one calm cloudless night to the mound, to look on them for the last
time before they were taken from their old resting-places. The moon was at
her full, and as we drew nigh to the edge of the deep wall of earth rising
around them, her soft light was creeping over the stern features of the
human heads, and driving before it the dark shadows which still clothed
the lion forms. One by one the limbs of the gigantic sphinxes emerged from
the gloom, until the monsters were unveiled before us. I shall never
forget that night, or the emotions which those venerable figures caused
within me. A few hours more and they were to stand no longer where they
had stood unscathed amidst the wreck of man and his works for ages. It
seemed almost sacrilege to tear them from their old haunts to make them a
mere wonder-stock to the busy crowd of a new world. They were better
suited to the desolation around them; for they had guarded the palace in
its glory, and it was for them to watch over it in its ruin. Sheikh
Abd-ur-Rahman, who had ridden with us to the mound, was troubled with no
such reflections. He gazed listlessly at the grim images, wondered at the
folly of the Franks, thought the night cold, and turned his mare towards
his tents. We scarcely heeded his going, but stood speechless in the
deserted portal, until the shadows again began to creep over its hoary
guardians.

Beyond the ruined palaces a scene scarcely less solemn awaited us. I had
sent a party of Jebours to the bitumen springs, outside the walls to the
east of the inclosure. The Arabs having lighted a small fire with
brushwood, awaited our coming to throw the burning sticks upon the pitchy
pools. A thick heavy smoke rolled upwards in curling volumes, hiding the
light of the moon, and spreading wide over the sky. Tongues of flame and
jets of gas, driven from the burning pit, shot through the murky canopy.
As the fire brightened, a thousand fantastic forms of light played amidst
the smoke. To break the cindered crust, and to bring fresh slime to the
surface, the Arabs threw large stones into the springs; a new volume of
fire then burst forth, throwing a deep red glare upon the figures and upon
the landscape. The Jebours danced round the burning pools, like demons in
some midnight orgie, shouting their war-cry, and brandishing their
glittering arms. In an hour the bitumen was exhausted for the time, the
dense smoke gradually died away, and the pale light of the moon again
shone over the black slime pits.

The colossal lions were moved by still simpler and ruder means than those
adopted on my first expedition. They were tilted over upon loose earth
heaped behind them, their too rapid descent being checked by a hawser,
which was afterwards replaced by props of wood and stone. They were then
lowered, by levers and jackscrews, upon the cart brought under them. A
road paved with flat stones had been made to the edge of the mound, and
the sculpture was, without difficulty, dragged from the trenches.

Owing to recent heavy rains, which had left in many places deep swamps, we
experienced much difficulty in dragging the cart over the plain to the
river side. Three days were spent in transporting each lion. The unwieldy
mass was propelled from behind by enormous levers of poplar wood; and in
the costumes of those who worked, as well as in the means adopted to move
the colossal sculptures, except that we used a wheeled cart instead of a
sledge, the procession closely resembled that which in days of yore
transported the same great figures, and which we see so graphically
represented on the walls of Kouyunjik. As they had been brought so were
they taken away.

It was necessary to humor and excite the Arabs to induce them to persevere
in the arduous work of dragging the cart through the deep soft soil into
which it continually sank. At one time, after many vain efforts to move
the buried wheels, it was unanimously declared that Mr. Cooper, the
artist, brought ill luck, and no one would work until he retired. The
cumbrous machine crept onwards for a few more yards, but again all
exertions were fruitless. Then the Frank lady would bring good fortune if
she sat on the sculpture. The wheels rolled heavily along, but were soon
clogged once more in the yielding soil. An evil eye surely lurked among
the workmen or the bystanders. Search was quickly made, and one having
been detected upon whom this curse had alighted, he was ignominiously
driven away with shouts and execrations. This impediment having been
removed, the cart drew nearer to the village, but soon again came to a
standstill. All the Sheikhs were now summarily degraded from their rank
and honors, and a weak ragged boy having been dressed up in tawdry
kerchiefs, and invested with a cloak, was pronounced by Hormuzd to be the
only fit chief for such puny men. The cart moved forwards, until the ropes
gave way, under the new excitement caused by this reflection upon the
character of the Arabs. When that had subsided, and the presence of the
youthful Sheikh no longer encouraged his subjects, he was as summarily
deposed as he had been elected, and a greybeard of ninety was raised to
the dignity in his stead. He had his turn; then the most unpopular of the
Sheikhs were compelled to lie down on the ground, that the groaning wheels
might pass over them, like the car of Juggernaut over its votaries. With
yells, shrieks, and wild antics the cart was drawn within a few inches of
the prostrate men. As a last resource I seized a rope myself, and with
shouts of defiance between the different tribes, who were divided into
separate parties and pulled against each other, and amidst the deafening
_tahlel_ of the women, the lion was at length fairly brought to the
water's edge.

The winter rains had not yet swelled the waters of the river so as to
enable a raft bearing a very heavy cargo to float with safety to Baghdad.
It was not until the month of April, after I had left Mosul on my journey
to the Khabour, that the floods, from the melting of the snows in the
higher mountains of Kurdistan, swept down the valley of the Tigris. I was
consequently obliged to confide the task of embarking the sculptures to
Behnan, my principal overseer, a Mosuleean stonecutter of considerable
skill and experience, Mr. Vice-consul Rassam kindly undertaking to
superintend the operation. Owing to extraordinary storms in the hills,
the river rose suddenly and with unexampled rapidity. The Jaif was one
vast sea, and a furious wind drove the waves against the foot of the
mound. The Arabs had never seen a similar inundation, and before they
could escape to the high land many persons were overwhelmed in the waters.

When the flood had subsided, the lions on the river bank, though covered
with mud and silt, were found uninjured. They were speedily placed on the
rafts prepared for them, but unfortunately during the operation one of
them, which had previously been cracked nearly across, separated into two
parts. Both sculptures were doomed to misfortune. Some person, uncovering
the other during the night, broke the nose. I was unable to discover the
author of this wanton mischief. He was probably a stranger, who had some
feud with the Arabs working in the excavations.[90]

The rafts reached Baghdad in safety. After receiving the necessary repairs
they floated onwards to Busrah; and although they encountered several
serious dangers and mishaps, they finally reached England.

During my hasty visit in the autumn to Bavian, I had been unable either to
examine the rock-tablets with sufficient care, or to copy the
inscriptions. The lions having been moved, I seized the first leisure
moment to return to those remarkable monuments.

Cawal Yusuf having invited me to the marriage of his niece at Baashiekhah,
we left Nimroud early in the morning for that village. The Cawal, followed
by the principal inhabitants on horseback, and by a large concourse of
people on foot, accompanied by music, and by children bringing lambs as
offerings, met us not far from the village. It was already the second day
of the marriage. On the previous day the parties had entered into the
contract before the usual witnesses, amidst rejoicing and dances. After
our arrival, the bride was led to the house of the bridegroom, surrounded
by the inhabitants, dressed in their gayest robes, and by the Cawals
playing on their instruments of music. She was covered from head to foot
by a thick veil, and was kept behind a curtain in the corner of a darkened
room. Here she remained until the guests had feasted three days, after
which the bridegroom was allowed to approach her.

The courtyard of the house was filled with dancers, and during the day and
the greater part of the night, nothing was heard but the loud signs of
rejoicing of the women, and the noise of the drum and the pipe.

On the third day the bridegroom was sought early in the morning, and led
in triumph by his friends from house to house, receiving at each a
trifling present. He was then placed within a circle of dancers, and the
guests and bystanders, wetting small coins, stuck them on his forehead.
The money was collected as it fell, in an open kerchief held by his
companions under his chin.

After this ceremony a party of young men, who had attached themselves to
the bridegroom, rushed into the crowd, and carrying off the most wealthy
of the guests, locked them up in a dark room until they consented to pay a
ransom for their release. The money thus collected was added to the dowry
of the newly married couple.

Leaving the revellers I rode to Baazani with Cawal Yusuf, Sheikh Jindi
(the stern leader of the religious ceremonies at Sheikh Adi), and a few
Yezidi notables, to examine the rocky valleys behind the village. I once
more searched in vain for some traces of ancient quarries from whence the
Assyrians might have obtained the slabs used in their buildings. At the
entrance of one of the deep ravines, which runs into the Gebel Makloub, a
clear spring gushes from a grotto in the hill-side. Tradition says that
this is the cave of the Seven Sleepers and their Dog, and the Yezidis have
made the spot a _ziareh_, or place of pilgrimage.[91]

A ride of seven hours brought us to the foot of the higher limestone
range, and to the mouth of the ravine containing the rock-sculptures.
Bavian is a mere Kurdish hamlet of five or six miserable huts on the left
bank of the Ghazir. We stopped at the larger village of Khinnis; the two
being scarcely half a mile apart, the place is usually called
"Khinnis-Bavian." The Arab population ceases with the plains, the villages
in the hills being inhabited by Kurds, and included in the district of
Missouri. Adjoining is the Yezidi district of Sheikhan.

The rock-sculptures of Bavian are the most important that have yet been
discovered in Assyria.[92] They are carved in relief on the side of a
narrow, rocky ravine, on the right bank of the Gomel, a brawling mountain
torrent issuing from the Missouri hills, and one of the principal feeders
of the small river Ghazir, the ancient Bumadus. The Gomel or Gomela may,
perhaps, be traced in the ancient name of Gaugamela, celebrated for that
great victory which gave to the Macedonian conqueror the dominion of the
Eastern world. Although the battle-field was called after Arbela, a
neighbouring city, we know that the river Zab intervened between them, and
that the battle was fought near the village of Gaugamela, on the banks of
the Bumadus or Ghazir, the Gomela of the Kurds. It is remarkable that
tradition has not preserved any record of the precise scene of an event
which so materially affected the destinies of the East. The history of
this great battle is unknown to the present inhabitants of the country;
nor does any local name, except perhaps that which I have pointed out,
serve to connect it with these plains. The battle-field was probably in
the neighbourhood of Tel Aswad, or between it and the junction of the
Ghazir with the Zab, on the direct line of march to the fords of that
river. We had undoubtedly crossed the very spot during our ride to Bavian.
The whole of the country between the Makloub range and the Tigris is
equally well suited to the operations of mighty armies, but from the
scanty topographical details given by the historians of Alexander, we are
unable to identify the exact place of his victory. It is curious that
hitherto no remains or relics have been turned up by the plough which
would serve to mark the precise site of so great a battle as that of
Arbela.

The principal rock-tablet at Bavian contains four figures, sculptured in
relief upon the smoothed face of a limestone cliff, rising perpendicularly
from the bed of the torrent. They are inclosed by a kind of frame 28 feet
high by 30 feet wide, and are protected by an overhanging cornice from the
water which trickles down the face of the precipice. Two deities, facing
each other, are represented, as they frequently are on monuments and
relics of the same period, standing on mythic animals resembling dogs.
They wear the high square head-dress, with horns uniting in front,
peculiar to the human-headed bulls of the later Assyrian palaces. One
holds in the left hand a kind of staff surmounted by the sacred tree. To
the centre of this staff is attached a ring encircling a figure, probably
that of the king. The other hand is stretched forth towards the opposite
god, who carries a similar staff, and grasps in the right hand an object
which is too much injured to be accurately described. These two figures
may represent but one and the same great tutelary deity of the Assyrians,
as the two kings who stand in act of adoration before them are undoubtedly
but one and the same king. The monarch, thus doubly portrayed, is behind
the god. He raises one hand, and holds in the other the sacred mace,
ending in a ball. His dress resembles that of the builder of the Kouyunjik
palace, Sennacherib, with whom the inscriptions I shall presently
describe, identify him.

This bas-relief has suffered greatly from the effects of the atmosphere,
and in many parts the details can no longer be distinguished. But they
have been still more injured by those who occupied the country after the
fall of the Assyrian empire. Strangers, having no reverence for the
records or sacred monuments of those who went before them, excavated in
the ready-scarped rocks the sepulchral chambers of their dead.[93] In this
great tablet there are four such tombs. I entered them by means of a rope
lowered from above by a party of Kurds. They were empty, their contents
having, of course, been long before carried away, or destroyed.

To the left of this great bas-relief, and nearer the mouth of the ravine,
is a second tablet containing a horseman at full speed, and the remains of
other figures. Both horse and rider are of colossal proportions, and
remarkable for the spirit of the outline. The warrior wears the Assyrian
pointed helmet, and couches a long ponderous spear, as in the act of
charging the enemy. Before him is a colossal figure of the king, and
behind him a deity with a horned cap; above his head a row of smaller
figures of gods standing on animals of various forms, as in the
rock-sculptures of Malthaiyah.

This fine bas-relief has, unfortunately, suffered even more than the other
monuments from the effects of the atmosphere, and would easily escape
notice without an acquaintance with its position.

Scattered over the cliff, on each side of the principal bas-reliefs, are
eleven small tablets, some easily accessible, others so high up on the
face of the precipice, that they are scarcely seen from below. One is on a
level with the bed of the stream, and was, indeed, almost covered by the
mud deposit of the floods. Each arched recess, for they are cut into the
rock, contains a figure of the king, as at the Nahr-el-Kelb, near Beyrout
in Syria[94], 5 feet 6 inches high. Above his head are the sacred symbols,
arranged in four distinct groups. The first group consists of three
tiaras, like those worn by the gods and human-headed bulls, and of a kind
of altar on which stands a staff ending in the head of a ram; the second
of a crescent and of the winged disk, or globe; the third of a pedestal,
on which are a trident and three staffs, one topped by a cone, another
without ornament, and the last ending in two bulls' heads turned in
opposite directions; and the fourth of a Maltese cross (? symbolical of
the sun) and the seven stars. Some of these symbols have reference, it
would seem, to the astral worship of the Assyrians; whilst others,
probably, represent instruments used during sacrifices, or sacred
ceremonies.

Across three of these royal tablets are inscriptions. One can be reached
from the foot of the cliff, the others, being on the higher sculptures,
cannot be seen from below. They are all more or less injured, but being
very nearly, word for word, the same, they can to some extent be restored.
I was lowered by ropes to those on the face of the precipice, which are
not otherwise accessible. Standing on a ledge scarcely six inches wide,
overlooking a giddy depth, and in a constrained and painful position, I
had some difficulty in copying them. The stupidity and clumsiness,
moreover, of the Kurds, who had never aided in such proceedings before,
rendered my attempts to reach the sculptures somewhat dangerous.

The inscriptions, the longest of which contains sixty-three lines, are in
many respects of considerable importance, and have been partly translated
by Dr. Hincks. They commence with an invocation to Ashur and the great
deities of Assyria, the names of only eleven of whom are legible, although
probably the whole thirteen are enumerated, as on the monuments from
Nimroud. Then follow the name and titles of Sennacherib. Next there is an
account of various great works for irrigation undertaken by this king.
From eighteen districts, or villages, he declares he dug eighteen canals
to the Ussur or Khusur (?), in which he collected their waters. He also
dug a canal, from the borders of the town or district of Kisri to
Nineveh, and brought these waters through it; he called it the canal of
Sennacherib.

A long obscure passage precedes a very detailed account of the expedition
to Babylon and Kar-Duniyas against Merodach-baladan, recorded under the
first year of the annals on the Kouyunjik bulls.[95] After mentioning some
canals which he had made in the south of Assyria, Sennacherib speaks of
the army which defended the workmen being attacked by the king of Elam and
the king of Babylon, with many kings of the hills and the plains who were
their allies. He defeated them in the neighbourhood of Khalul (site
undetermined). Many of the great people of the king of Elam and the son of
the king of Kar-Duniyas were either killed or taken prisoners, while the
kings themselves fled to their respective countries. Sennacherib then
mentions his advance to Babylon, his conquest and plunder of it, and
concludes with saying, that he brought back from that city the images of
the gods which had been taken by _Merodach-adakhe_ (?), the king of
Mesopotamia, from Assyria 418 years before, and put them in their places.

Now, the importance of this inscription, presuming it to be correctly
interpreted, will at once be perceived, for it proves almost beyond a
doubt, that at that remote period the Assyrians kept an exact computation
of time. We may consequently hope that sooner or later chronological
tables may be discovered, which will furnish us with minute and accurate
information as to the precise epoch of the occurrence of various important
events in Assyrian history. It is, indeed, remarkable that Sennacherib
should mark so exactly the year of the carrying away of the Assyrian
gods. This very date enables us, as will hereafter be seen, to restore
much of the chronology, and to place, almost with certainty, in the
dynastic lists, a king whose position was before unknown.

We find also that the greater part, if not the whole, of the
rock-sculptures were executed either at the end of the first, or at the
beginning of the second, year of the reign of Sennacherib. As he
particularly describes six tablets, it is probable that the others were
added at some future period, and after some fresh victory. When the whole
inscription is restored, we shall probably obtain many other important
details which are wanting in the annals of Kouyunjik, and in the records
of the same period.

Beneath the sculptured tablets, and in the bed of the Gomel, are two
enormous fragments of rock, which appear to have been torn from the
overhanging cliff, and to have been hurled by some mighty convulsion of
nature into the torrent below. The pent up waters eddy round them in deep
and dangerous whirlpools, and when swollen by the winter rains sweep
completely over them. They still bear the remains of sculpture. One has
been broken by the fall into two pieces. On them is the Assyrian Hercules
strangling the lion between two winged human-headed bulls, back to back,
as at the grand entrances of the palaces of Kouyunjik and Khorsabad. Above
this group is the king, worshipping between two deities, who stand on
mythic animals, having the heads of eagles, the bodies and fore feet of
lions, and hind legs armed with the talons of a bird of prey. The height
of the whole sculpture is 24 feet, that of the winged bull 8 ft. 6 in.

Near the entrance to the ravine the face of the cliff has been scraped for
some yards to the level of the bed of the torrent. A party of Kurds were
hired to excavate at this spot, as well as in other parts of the narrow
valley. Remains and foundations of buildings in well-hewn stone were
discovered under the thick mud deposited by the Gomel when swollen by
rains. Higher up the gorge, on removing the earth, I found a series of
basins cut in the rock, and descending in steps to the stream. The water
had originally been led from one to the other through small conduits, the
lowest of which was ornamented at its mouth with two rampant lions in
relief. These outlets were choked up, but we cleared them, and by pouring
water into the upper basin restored the fountain as it had been in the
time of the Assyrians.

From the nature and number of the monuments at Bavian, it would seem that
this ravine was a sacred spot, devoted to religious ceremonies and to
national sacrifices. When the buildings, whose remains still exist, were
used for these purposes, the waters must have been pent up between quays
or embankments. They now occasionally spread over the bottom of the
valley, leaving no pathway at the foot of the lofty cliffs. The remains of
a well-built raised causeway of stone, leading to Bavian from the city of
Nineveh, may still be traced across the plain to the east of the Gebel
Makloub.

The place, from its picturesque beauty and its cool refreshing shade even
in the hottest day of summer, is a grateful retreat, well suited to
devotion and to holy rites. The brawling stream almost fills the bed of
the narrow ravine with its clear and limpid waters. The beetling cliffs
rise abruptly on each side, and above them tower the wooded declivities of
the Kurdish hills. As the valley opens into the plain, the sides of the
limestone mountains are broken into a series of distinct strata, and
resemble a vast flight of steps leading up to the high lands of central
Asia. The banks of the torrent are clothed with shrubs and dwarf trees,
amongst which are the green myrtle and the gay oleander, bending under the
weight of its rosy blossoms.

I remained two days at Bavian to copy the inscriptions, and to explore the
Assyrian remains. Wishing to visit the Yezidi chiefs, I took the road to
Ain Sifni, passing through two large Kurdish villages, Atrush and
Om-es-sukr, and leaving the entrance to the valley of Sheikh Adi to the
right. The district to the north-west of Khinnis is partly inhabited by a
tribe professing peculiar religious tenets, and known by the name of
Shabbak. Although strange and mysterious rites are, as usual, attributed
to them, I suspect that they are simply the descendants of Kurds, who
emigrated at some distant period from the Persian slopes of the mountains,
and who still profess Sheeite doctrines.

We passed the night in the village of Esseeyah, where Sheikh Nasr had
recently built a dwelling-house. I occupied the same room with the Sheikh,
Hussein Bey, and a large body of Yezidi Cawals, and was lulled to sleep by
an interminable tale, about the prophet Mohammed and a stork, which, when
we had all lain down to rest, a Yezidi priest related with the same
soporific effect upon the whole party. On the following day I hunted
gazelles with Hussein Bey, and was his guest for the night at Baadri,
returning next morning to Mosul.



CHAPTER X.

    VISIT TO KALAH SHERGHAT PREVENTED.--VISIT TO SHOMAMOK.--KESHAF.--THE
    HOWAR.--A BEDOUIN.--HIS MISSION.--DESCENT OF ARAB HORSES.--THEIR
    PEDIGREE.--RUINS OF MOKHAMOUR.--THE MOUND OF THE KASR.--PLAIN OF
    SHOMAMOK.--THE GLA OR KALAH.--XENOPHON AND THE TEN THOUSAND.--A
    WOLF.--RETURN TO NIMROUD AND MOSUL.--DISCOVERIES AT
    KOUYUNJIK.--DESCRIPTION OF THE BAS-RELIEFS.


The mound of Kalah Sherghat having been very imperfectly examined during
my former residence in Assyria[96], I had made arrangements to return to
the ruins. All my preparations were complete by the 22d of February, and I
floated down the Tigris on a raft laden with provisions and tools
necessary for at least a month's residence and work in the desert. I had
expected to find Mohammed Seyyid, one of my Jebour Sheikhs, with a party
of the Ajel, his own particular tribe, ready to accompany me. The
Bedouins, however, were moving to the north, and their horsemen had
already been seen in the neighbourhood of Kalah Sherghat. Nothing would
consequently induce the Ajel, who were not on the best terms with the
Shammar Arabs, to leave their tents, and, after much useless discussion, I
was obliged to give up the journey.

Awad, with a party of Jehesh, had been for nearly six weeks exploring the
mounds in the plain of Shomamok, the country of the Tai Arabs, and had
sent to tell me that he had found remains of buildings, vases, and
inscribed bricks. I determined, therefore, to spend a few days in
inspecting his excavations, and in carefully examining those ruins which I
had only hastily visited on my previous journey. I accordingly started
from Nimroud on the 2d of March, accompanied by Hormuzd, the doctor, and
Mr. Rolland. We descended the Tigris to its junction with the Zab, whose
waters, swollen by the melting of the snows in the Kurdish mountains, were
no longer fordable. Near the confluence of the streams, and on the
southern bank of the Zab, is the lofty mound of Keshaf, where are the
remains of a deserted fort, commanding the two rivers. It was garrisoned a
few years ago by an officer and a company of irregular troops from
Baghdad, who were able from this stronghold to check the inroads of the
Bedouins, as well as of the Tai and other tribes, who plundered the Mosul
villages. Since it has been abandoned, the country has again been exposed
to the incursions of these marauders, who now cross the rivers unmolested,
and lay waste the cultivated districts.

The tents of the Howar were about five miles from Keshaf. Since my last
visit, he had become once more the acknowledged chief of the Tai. Faras
had, however, withdrawn from his rival, and, followed by his own
adherents, had moved to the banks of the Lesser Zab. The Shammar Bedouins,
encouraged by the division in the tribe, had, only three days before our
visit, crossed the Tigris and fallen suddenly upon the Kochers, or Kurdish
wanderers, of the Herki clans. These nomades descend annually from the
highest mountain regions to winter in the rich meadows of Shomamok. They
pay a small tribute to the Tai for permission to pasture their flocks, and
for protection against the desert Arabs. The Howar was consequently bound
to defend them; but in endeavoring to do so, had been beaten with the loss
of forty of their finest mares.

We found the Howar much cast down and vexed by his recent misfortunes. The
chiefs of the tribe were with him, in gloomy consultation over their
losses. A Bedouin, wrapped in his ragged cloak, was seated listlessly in
the tent. He had been my guest the previous evening at Nimroud, and had
announced himself on a mission from the Shammar to the Tai, to learn the
breed of the mares which had been taken in the late conflict. His message
might appear, to those ignorant of the customs of the Arabs, one of insult
and defiance. But he was on a common errand, and although there was blood
between the tribes, his person was as sacred as that of an ambassador in
any civilised community. After a battle or a foray, the tribes who have
taken horses from the enemy will send an envoy to ask their breed, and a
person so chosen passes from tent to tent unharmed, hearing from each man,
as he eats his bread, the descent and qualities of the animal he may have
lost.

Amongst men who attach the highest value to the pure blood of their
horses, and who have no written pedigree, for amongst the Bedouins
documents of this kind do not exist, such customs are necessary. The
descent of a horse is preserved by tradition, and the birth of a colt is
an event known to the whole tribe. It would be considered disgraceful to
the character of a true Bedouin to give false testimony on such a point,
and his word is usually received with implicit confidence.

The morning following, though the Howar and the Arabs refused to accompany
me, I set off for the ruins, which are in the deserted district between
the Karachok range and the river Tigris. The plains in which they are
situated are celebrated for the richness of their pastures, and are sought
in spring by the Tai and the Kurdish Kochers. We kept as much as possible
in the broken country at the foot of the mountain to escape observation.
The wooded banks of the Tigris and the white dome of the tomb of Sultan
Abdallah were faintly visible in the distance, and a few artificial mounds
rose in the plains. The pastures were already fit for the flocks, and
luxuriant grass furnished food for our horses amidst the ruins.

The principal mound of Mokhamour is of considerable height, and ends in a
cone. It is apparently the remains of a platform built of earth and
sun-dried bricks, originally divided into several distinct stages or
terraces. On one side are the traces of an inclined ascent, or of a flight
of steps, once leading to the summit. It stands in the centre of a
quadrangle of lower mounds, about 480 paces square. I could find no
remains of masonry, nor any fragments of inscribed bricks, pottery, or
sculptured alabaster.

The ruins are near the southern spur of Karachok, where that mountain,
after falling suddenly into low broken hills, again rises into a solitary
ridge, called Bismar, stretching to the Lesser Zab, Mokhamour being
between the two rivers. These detached limestone ridges, running parallel
to the great range of Kurdistan, such as the Makloub, Sinjar, Karachok,
and Hamrin, are a peculiar feature in the geological structure of the
country lying between the ancient province of Cilicia and the Persian
Gulf.

Having examined the ruins, taken bearings of the principal landmarks, and
allowed our horses to refresh themselves in the high grass, I returned to
the encampment of the Tai. A ride of three hours next morning, across the
spurs of the Karachok, brought us to the ruins of Abou-Jerdeh, near which
we had found the tents of Faras on our last visit. The mound is of
considerable size, and on its summit are traces of foundations in stone
masonry; but I could find no remains to connect it with the Assyrian
period.

We breakfasted with our old host Wali Beg, and then continued our journey
to one of the principal artificial mounds of Shomamok, called the "Kasr,"
or palace. The pastures were covered with the flocks of the Arabs, the
Kochers, and the Disdayi Kurds. We crossed a broad and deep valley, called
the Kordereh, and encamped for the night at the foot of the Kasr, on the
banks of a rivulet called As-Surayji, which joins the Kordereh below
Abou-Jerdeh, near a village named "Salam Aleik," or "Peace be with you."

The mound is both large and lofty, and is surrounded by the remains of an
earthen embankment. It is divided almost into two distinct equal parts by
a ravine or watercourse, where an ascent probably once led from the plain
to the edifice on the summit of the platform. Awad had opened several deep
trenches and tunnels in the mound, and had discovered chambers, some with
walls of plain sun-dried bricks, others panelled round the lower part with
slabs of reddish limestone, about 3-1/2 or 4 feet high. He had also found
inscribed bricks, with inscriptions declaring that Sennacherib had here
built a city, or rather palace, for the name of which, as written in the
cuneiform characters, I am not able to suggest a reading. I observed a
thin deposit, or layer, of pebbles and rubble above the remains of the
Assyrian building, and about eight feet beneath the surface, as at
Kouyunjik.

From the summit of the Kasr of Shomamok I took bearings of twenty-five
considerable mounds, the remains of ancient Assyrian population;[97] the
largest being in the direction of the Lesser Zab. Wishing to examine
several ruins in the neighbourhood I left our tents early on the
following morning, and rode to the mound of Abd-ul-Azeez, about eight or
nine miles distant, and on the road between Baghdad and Arbil. The latter
town, with its castle perched upon a lofty artificial mound, all that
remains of the ancient city of Arbela, which gave its name to one of the
greatest battles the world ever saw, was visible during the greater part
of our day's ride. The plain abounds in villages and canals for
irrigation, supplied by the As-Surayji. The soil thus irrigated produces
cotton, rice, tobacco, millet, melons, cucumbers, and a few vegetables.
The jurisdiction of the Tai Sheikh ends at the Kasr; the villages beyond
are under the immediate control of the governor of Arbil, to whom they pay
their taxes. The inhabitants complained loudly of oppression, and appeared
to be an active, industrious race. Upon the banks of the Lesser Zab, below
Altun Kupri (or Guntera, the "Bridge," as the Arabs call the place),
encamp the Arab tribe of Abou-Hamdan, renowned for the beauty of its
women.

The mounds I examined, and particularly that of Abd-ul-Azeez, abound in
sepulchral urns and in pottery, apparently not Assyrian.

The most remarkable spot in the district of Shomamok is the Gla (an Arab
corruption of Kalah), or the Castle, about two miles distant from the
Kasr. It is a natural elevation, left by the stream of the Kordereh, which
has worn a deep channel in the soil, and dividing itself at this place
into two branches forms an island, whose summit, but little increased by
artificial means, is, therefore, nearly on a level with the top of the
opposite precipices. The valley may be in some places about a mile wide,
in others only four or five hundred yards. The Gla is consequently a
natural stronghold, above one hundred feet high, furnished on all sides
with outworks, resembling the artificial embankments of a modern citadel.
A few isolated mounds near it have the appearance of detached forts, and
nature seems to have formed a complete system of fortification. I have
rarely seen a more curious place.

There are no remains of modern habitations on the summit of the Gla, which
can only be ascended without difficulty from one side. Awad excavated by
my directions in the mound, and discovered traces of Assyrian buildings,
and several inscribed bricks, bearing the name of Sennacherib, and of a
castle or palace, which, like that on the bricks from the Kasr, I am
unable to interpret.

From the Gla I crossed the plain to the mound of Abou Sheetha, in which
Awad had excavated for some time without making any discovery of interest.
Near this ruin, perhaps at its very foot, must have taken place an event
which led to one of the most celebrated episodes of ancient history. Here
were treacherously seized Clearchus, Proxenus, Menon, Agias, and Socrates;
and Xenophon, elected to the command of the Greek auxiliaries, commenced
the ever-memorable retreat of the Ten Thousand. The camp of Tissaphernes,
dappled with its many-colored tents, and glittering with golden arms and
silken standards, the gorgeous display of Persian pomp, probably stood on
the Kordereh, between Abou-Sheetha and the Kasr. The Greeks having taken
the lower road, to the west of the Karachok range, through a plain even
then as now a desert[98], turned to the east, and crossed the spur of the
mountain, where we had recently seen the tents of the Howar, in order to
reach the fords of the Zab. I have already pointed out the probability of
their having forded that river above the junction of the Ghazir[99], and
to this day the ford to the east of Abou-Sheetha is the best, and that
usually frequented by the Arabs. Still not openly molested by the
Persians, the Greeks halted for three days on the banks of the stream, and
Clearchus, to put an end to the jealousies which had broken out between
the two armies, sought an interview with the Persian chief. The crafty
Eastern, knowing no policy but that to which the descendants of his race
are still true, inveigled the Greek commanders into his power, and, having
seized them, sent them in chains to the Persian monarch. He then put to
death many of their bravest companions and soldiers, who had accompanied
their chiefs. The effect which this perfidious act had on the Greek
troops, surrounded by powerful enemies, wandering in the midst of an
unknown and hostile country, betrayed by those they had come so far to
serve, and separated from their native land by impassable rivers,
waterless deserts, and inaccessible mountains, without even a guide to
direct their steps, is touchingly described by the great leader and
historian of their retreat: "Few ate anything that evening, few made
fires, and many that night never came to their quarters, but laid
themselves down, every man in the place where he happened to be, unable to
sleep, through sorrow and longing for their country, their parents, their
wives, and children, whom they never expected to see again." But there was
one in the army who was equal to the difficulties which encompassed them,
and who had resolved to encourage his hopeless countrymen to make one
great effort for their liberty and their lives. Before the break of day,
Xenophon had formed his plans. Dressed in the most beautiful armour he
could find, "for he thought if the gods granted him victory these
ornaments would become a conqueror, and if he were to die they would
decorate his fall," he harangued the desponding Greeks, and showed them
how alone they could again see their homes. His eloquence and courage
gave them new life, and, after fording the river Zab, they commenced that
series of marches, directed with a skill and energy unequalled, which led
them through difficulties almost insurmountable to their native shores.

Near Abou-Sheetha, too, Darius, a fugitive, urged his flying horses
through the Zab, followed by the scattered remnants of an army which
numbered in its ranks men of almost every race and clime of Asia. A few
hours after, the Macedonian plunged into the ford in pursuit of the fallen
monarch, at the head of those invincible legions which he was to lead,
without almost a second check, to the banks of the Indus. The plains which
stretch from the Zab below Abou-Sheetha have since been more than once the
battle-field of Europe and Asia.

I gazed with deep interest upon the scene of such great events--a plain,
where nothing remains to tell of the vast armies which once moved across
it, of European valour, or of Eastern magnificence.

Whilst riding through the jungle towards Negoub, a wolf rose before me
from its lair, and ran towards the plain. Following the animal, I wounded
it with one barrel of my pistol, and was about to discharge the second,
when my horse slipt on some wet straw left by a recent encampment, and we
fell together upon the wolf. It struggled and freed itself, leaving me
besmeared with its blood. The cock of the pistol fortunately broke in
going off whilst the muzzle was close to my head, and I escaped without
other injury than a bruised hand, the complete use of which I did not
recover for some months.

On my return to Nimroud, I remained there a few days to give directions to
the overseers for continuing the work during a prolonged absence which I
meditated in the desert. At Kouyunjik several new chambers had been
opened. The western portal of the great hall, whose four sides were now
completely uncovered, led into a long narrow chamber (eighty-two feet by
twenty-six), the walls of which had unfortunately been almost entirely
destroyed. In the chamber beyond, a few slabs were still standing in their
original places. In length this room was the same as that parallel to it,
but in breadth it was only eighteen feet. The bas-reliefs represented the
siege and sack of one of the many cities taken by the great king, and the
transfer of its captives to some distant province of Assyria. The
Assyrians, as was their custom, carried away in triumph the images of the
gods of the conquered nation, which were placed on poles and borne in
procession on men's shoulders. "Hath any god of the nations delivered his
land out of the hand of the king of Assyria?" exclaimed the Assyrian
general to the Jews. "Where are the gods of Hamath and Arphad? where are
the gods of Sepharvaim?"[100] They had been carried away with the
captives, and the very idols that were represented in this bas-relief may
be amongst those to which Rabshakeh made this boasting allusion. The
captured gods were three, a human figure with outstretched arms, a
lion-headed man carrying a long staff in one hand, and an image inclosed
by a square frame.

On the northern side of the great hall the portal formed by the winged
bulls, and the two smaller doorways guarded by colossal winged figures,
led into a chamber one hundred feet by twenty-four, which opened into a
further room of somewhat smaller dimensions. In the first, a few slabs
were still standing, to show that on the walls had been represented some
warlike expedition of the Assyrian king, and, as usual, the triumphant
issue of the campaign. The monarch, in his chariot, and surrounded by his
body-guards, was seen receiving the captives and the spoil in a hilly
country, whilst his warriors were dragging their horses up a steep
mountain near a fortified town, driving their chariots along the banks of
a river, and slaying with the spear the flying enemy.

The bas-reliefs, which had once ornamented the second chamber, had been
still more completely destroyed. A few fragments proved that they had
recorded the wars of the Assyrians with a maritime people, whose overthrow
was represented on more than one sculptured wall in the palace, and who
may probably be identified with some nation on the Phoenician coast
conquered by Sennacherib, and mentioned in his great inscriptions. Their
galleys, rowed by double banks of oarsmen, and the high conical head-dress
of their women, have already been described.[101] On the best preserved
slab was the interior of a fortified camp, amidst mountains. Within the
walls were tents whose owners were engaged in various domestic
occupations, cooking in pots placed on stones over the fire, receiving the
blood of a slaughtered sheep in a jar, and making ready the couches.
Warriors were seated before a table, with their shields hung to the
tent-pole above them.

To the south of the palace, but part of the same great building, though
somewhat removed from the new excavations, and adjoining those formerly
carried on, an additional chamber had been opened, in which several
bas-reliefs of considerable interest had been discovered.

Its principal entrance, facing the west, was formed by a pair of colossal
human-headed lions, carved in coarse limestone, so much injured that even
the inscriptions on the lower part of them were nearly illegible.
Unfortunately the bas-reliefs were equally mutilated, four slabs only
retaining any traces of sculpture. One of them represented Assyrian
warriors leading captives, who differed in costume from any other
conquered people hitherto found on the walls of the palaces. Their
head-dress consisted of high feathers, forming a kind of tiara like that
of an Indian chief, and they wore a robe confined at the waist, by an
ornamented girdle. Some of them carried an object resembling a torch.
Amongst the enemies of the Egyptians represented on their monuments is a
tribe similarly attired. Their name has been read Tokkari, and they have
been identified with an Asiatic nation. We have seen that in the
inscriptions on the bulls, the Tokkari are mentioned amongst the people
conquered by Sennacherib[102], and it is highly probable that the captives
in the bas-reliefs I am describing belonged to them. Unfortunately no
epigraph, or vestige of an inscription, remained on the sculptures
themselves, to enable us to identify them.

[Illustration: A captive (of the Tokkari?) Kouyunjik.]

On a second slab, preserved in this chamber, was represented a
double-walled city with arched gateways, and inclined approaches leading
to them from the outer walls. Within were warriors with horses; outside
the fortifications was a narrow stream or canal, planted on both sides
with trees, and flowing into a broad river, on which were large boats,
holding several persons, and a raft of skins, bearing a man fishing, and
two others seated before a pot or caldron. Along the banks, and apparently
washed by the stream, was a wall with equidistant towers and battlements.
On another part of the same river were men ferrying horses across the
river in boats, whilst others were swimming over on inflated skins. The
water swarmed with fish and crabs. Gardens and orchards, with various
kinds of trees, appeared to be watered by canals similar to those which
once spread fertility over the plains of Babylonia, and of which the
choked-up beds still remain. A man, suspended by a rope, was being lowered
into the water. Upon the corner of a slab almost destroyed, was a hanging
garden, supported upon columns, whose capitals were not unlike those of
the Corinthian order. This representation of ornamental gardens was highly
curious. It is much to be regretted that the bas-reliefs had sustained too
much injury to be restored or removed.



CHAPTER XI.

    PREPARATIONS FOR A JOURNEY TO THE KHABOUR.--SCULPTURES DISCOVERED
    THERE.--SHEIKH SUTTUM.--HIS REDIFF.--DEPARTURE FROM MOSUL.--FIRST
    ENCAMPMENT.--ABOU KHAMEERA.--A STORM.--TEL ERMAH.--A STRANGER.--TEL
    JEMAL.--THE CHIEF OF TEL AFER.--A SUNSET IN THE DESERT.--A JEBOUR
    ENCAMPMENT.--THE BELLED SINJAR.--THE SINJAR
    HILL.--MIRKAN.--BUKRA.--THE DRESS OF THE YEZIDIS.--THE
    SHOMAL.--OSSOFA.--ALDINA.--RETURN TO THE BELLED.--A
    SNAKE-CHARMER.--JOURNEY CONTINUED IN THE DESERT.--RISHWAN.--ENCAMPMENT
    OF THE BORAIJ.--DRESS OF ARAB WOMEN.--RATHAIYAH.--A DEPUTATION FROM
    THE YEZIDIS.--ARAB ENCAMPMENTS.--THE KHABOUR.--MOHAMMED EMIN.--ARRIVAL
    AT ARBAN.


I had long wished to visit the banks of the Khabour. This river, the
Chaboras of the Greek geographers, and the Habor, or Chebar, of the
Samaritan captivity[103], rises in the north of Mesopotamia, and flowing
to the west of the Sinjar hill, falls into the Euphrates near the site of
the ancient city of Carchemish[104] or Circesium, still known to the
Bedouins by the name of Carkeseea. As it winds through the midst of the
desert, and its rich pastures are the resort of wandering tribes of Arabs,
it is always difficult of access to the traveller. It was examined, for a
short distance from its mouth, by the expedition under Colonel Chesney;
but the general course of the river was imperfectly known, and several
geographical questions of interest connected with it were undetermined
previous to my visit.

With the Bedouins, who were occasionally my guests at Mosul or Nimroud,
as well as with the Jebours, whose encamping grounds were originally on
its banks, the Khabour was a constant theme of exaggerated praise. The
richness of its pastures, the beauty of its flowers, its jungles teeming
with game of all kinds, and the leafy thickness of its trees yielding an
agreeable shade during the hottest days of summer, formed a terrestrial
paradise to which the wandering Arab eagerly turned his steps when he
could lead his flocks thither in safety. My old friend Sheikh Mohammed
Emin, who had pitched his tents on the river, having invited me to visit
him, and sent me word that two colossal idols, similar to those of
Nimroud, had suddenly appeared in a mound by the river side, I did not
hesitate, but determined to start at once for the Khabour.

As the Shammar Bedouins were scattered over the desert between Mosul and
the Khabour, and their horsemen continually scoured the plains in search
of plunder, it was necessary that we should be protected and accompanied
by an influential chief of the tribe. I accordingly made arrangements with
Suttum, a Sheikh of the Boraij, one of the principal branches of the
Shammar, whose tents were at that time pitched between the river and the
ruins of El Hather, and punctual to his appointment, he brought his camels
to Mosul on the 19th of March. He was accompanied by Khoraif, his
_rediff_, as the person who sits on the dromedary[105] behind the
principal rider is called by the Bedouins. Amongst the two great nomade
tribes of the Shammar and Aneyza, the word "rediff" frequently infers a
more intimate connection than a mere companionship on a camel. It is
customary with them for a warrior to swear a kind of brotherhood with a
person not only not related to him by blood, but frequently even of a
different tribe. Two men connected by this tie are inseparable. They go
together to war, they live in the same tent, and are allowed to see each
other's wives. They become, indeed, more than brothers. Khoraif was of the
tribe of the Aneyza, who have a deadly feud with the Shammar, and was
consequently able to render equal services to any of his old or new
friends, who might fall into each other's hands. It is on this account
that a warrior generally chooses his rediff from a warlike tribe with
which he is at enmity, for if taken in war, he would then be _dakheel_,
that is, protected, by the family, or rather particular sept, of his
companion. On the other hand, should one of the rediff's friends become
the prisoner of the sub-tribe into which his kinsman has been adopted, he
would be under its protection, and could not be molested. He rides, when
travelling, on the naked back of the animal, clinging to the hinder part
of the saddle, his legs crouched up almost to his chin--a very
uncomfortable position for one not accustomed from childhood to a hard
seat and a rough motion.

As our desert trip would probably last for more than two months, during
which time we should meet with no villages, or permanent settlements, we
were obliged to take with us supplies of all kinds, both for ourselves and
the workmen; consequently, flour, rice, burghoul (prepared wheat, to be
used as a substitute for rice), and biscuits, formed a large portion of
our baggage. Various luxuries, such as sugar, coffee, tea, and spices,
with robes of silk and cotton, and red and yellow boots, together with
baskets, tools for excavating, tents, and working utensils, formed the
rest of our baggage.

As it was my intention to explore any ruins of importance that we might
see on our way, I chose about fifty of my best Arab excavators, and twelve
Tiyari, or Nestorians, to accompany us. They were to follow on foot, but
one or two extra camels were provided in case any were unable from fatigue
to keep up with the caravan. After the usual noise and confusion in
settling the loads on the camels, and such matters, about mid-day the
caravan got ready to set out.

I did not leave the town until nearly an hour and a half after the
caravan, to give time for the loads to be finally adjusted, and the line
of march to be formed. When we had all assembled outside the Sinjar gate,
our party had swollen into a little army. The Doctor, Mr. Cooper, and Mr.
Hormuzd Rassam, of course, with other friends, accompanied me. Thirteen or
fourteen Bedouins had charge of the camels, so that, with the workmen and
servants, our caravan consisted of nearly one hundred well-armed men; a
force sufficient to defy almost any hostile party with which we were
likely to fall in during our journey. Hussein Bey, the Yezidi chief, and
many of our friends, as it is customary in the East, rode with us during
part of our first stage; and my excellent friend, the Rev. Mr. Ford, an
American missionary, then resident in Mosul, passed the first evening
under our tents in the desert.

Suttum, with his rediff, rode a light fleet dromedary, which had been
taken in a plundering expedition from the Aneyza. Its name was Dhwaila.
Its high and picturesque saddle was profusely ornamented with brass bosses
and nails; over the seat was thrown the Baghdad double bags adorned with
long tassels and fringes of many-colored wools, so much coveted by the
Bedouin. The Sheikh had the general direction and superintendence of our
march. The Mesopotamian desert had been his home from his birth, and he
knew every spring and pasture. He was of the Saadi, one of the most
illustrious families of the Shammar, and he possessed great personal
influence in the tribe. His intelligence was of a very high order, and he
was as well known for his skill in Bedouin intrigue, as for his courage
and daring in war. In person he was of middle height, of spare habit, but
well made, and of noble and dignified carriage; although a musket wound in
the thigh, from which the ball had not been extracted, gave him a slight
lameness in his gait. His features were regular and well proportioned, and
of that delicate character so frequently found amongst the nomades of the
desert. A restless and sparkling eye of the deepest black spoke the inner
man, and seemed to scan and penetrate everything within its ken. His dark
hair was platted into many long tails; his beard, like that of the Arabs
in general, was scanty. He wore the usual Arab shirt, and over it a cloak
of blue cloth, trimmed with red silk and lined with fur, a present from
some Pasha as he pretended, but more probably a part of some great man's
wardrobe that had been appropriated without its owner's consent. He was
the very picture of a true Bedouin Sheikh, and his liveliness, his wit,
and his singular powers of conversation, which made him the most agreeable
of companions, did not belie his race.[106] The Bairakdar had the general
management of the caravan, superintending, with untiring zeal and
activity, the loading and unloading of the animals, the pitching of the
tents, and the night watches, which are highly necessary in the desert.

As we wound slowly over the low rocky hills to the west of the town of
Mosul, in a long straggling line, our caravan had a strange and motley
appearance; Europeans, Turks, Bedouins, town-Arabs, Tiyari, and Yezidis,
were mingled in singular confusion; each adding, by difference of costume
and a profusion of bright colors, to the general picturesqueness and
gaiety of the scene.

The Tigris, from its entrance into the low country at the foot of the
Kurdish mountains near Jezireh, to the ruined town of Tekrit, is separated
from the Mesopotamian plains by a range of low limestone hills. We rode
over this undulating ground for about an hour and a half, and then
descended into the plain of Zerga, encamping for the night near the ruins
of a small village. There is now scarcely one permanent settlement on the
banks of the Tigris from Jezireh to the immediate vicinity of Baghdad,
with the exception of Mosul and Tekrit. One of the most fertile countries
in the world, watered by a river navigable for nearly six hundred miles,
has been turned into a desert and a wilderness, by continued
misgovernment, oppression, and neglect.

The loads had not yet been fairly divided amongst the camels, and the sun
had risen above the horizon, before the Bedouins had arranged them to
their satisfaction, and were ready to depart. The plain of Zerga was
carpeted with tender grass, scarcely yet forward enough to afford pasture
for our animals. Scattered here and there were tulips of a bright scarlet
hue, the earliest flower of the spring.

A ride of three hours and a quarter brought us to a second line of
limestone hills, the continuation of the Tel Afer and Sinjar range,
dividing the small plain of Zerga from the true Mesopotamian desert. From
a peak which I ascended to take bearings, the vast level country,
stretching to the Euphrates, lay a map beneath me, dotted with mounds, but
otherwise unbroken by a single eminence. The nearest and most remarkable
group of ruins was called Abou Khameera, and consisted of a lofty, conical
mound surrounded by a square inclosure, or ridge of earth, marking, as at
Kouyunjik and Nimroud, the remains of ancient walls.

Eight or ten of my workmen, under a Christian superintendent, had been for
some days excavating in the ruins of Abou Khameera. I therefore ordered
the tents to be pitched near the reedy stream, and galloped to the mounds,
which were rather more than a mile distant. In general plan the ruins
closely resemble those of Mokhamour in the Tai country.[107] The workmen
had opened deep trenches and tunnels in several parts of the principal
ruin, and had found walls of sun-dried brick, unsculptured alabaster
slabs, and some circular stone sockets for the hinges of gates, similar to
those discovered at Nimroud. The baked bricks and the pieces of gypsum and
pottery scattered amongst the rubbish bore no inscriptions, nor could I,
after the most careful search, find the smallest fragment of sculpture. I
have no hesitation, however, in assigning the ruins to the Assyrian
period.

One of those furious and sudden storms, which frequently sweep over the
plains of Mesopotamia during the spring season, burst over us in the
night. Whilst incessant lightnings broke the gloom, a raging wind almost
drowned the deep roll of the thunder. The united strength of the Arabs
could scarcely hold the flapping canvass of the tents. Rain descended in
torrents, sparing us no place of shelter. Towards dawn the hurricane had
passed away, leaving a still and cloudless sky. When the round clear sun
rose from the broad expanse of the desert, a delightful calm and freshness
pervaded the air, producing mingled sensations of pleasure and repose.

The vegetation was far more forward in that part of the desert traversed
during the day's journey than in the plain of Zerga. We trod on a carpet
of the brightest verdure, mingled with gaudy flowers. On all sides of us
rose lofty Assyrian mounds, now covered with soft herbage. These, seen
from a great distance, and the best of landmarks in a vast plain, guide
the Bedouin in his yearly wanderings.[108]

Tel Ermah, "the mound of the spears," had been visible from our tents,
rising far above the surrounding ruins. As it was a little out of the
direct line of march, Suttum mounted one of our led horses, and leaving
Khoraif to protect the caravan, rode with me to the spot. The mound is
precisely similar in character to Abou Khameera and Mokhamour, and, like
them, stands within a quadrangle of earthen walls. I was unable to find
any inscribed fragments of stone or brick.

Whilst I was examining the ruins, Suttum, from the highest mound, had been
scanning the plain with his eagle eye. At length it rested upon a distant
moving object. Although with a telescope I could scarcely distinguish
that to which he pointed, the Sheikh saw that it was a rider on a
dromedary. He now, therefore, began to watch the stranger with that eager
curiosity and suspicion always shown by a Bedouin, when the solitude of
the desert is broken by a human being of whose condition and business he
is ignorant. Suttum soon satisfied himself as to the character of the
solitary wanderer. He declared him to be a messenger from his own tribe,
who had been sent to lead us to his father's tents. Mounting his horse, he
galloped towards him. The Arab soon perceived the approaching horseman,
and then commenced on both sides a series of manoeuvres practised by those
who meet in the desert, and are as yet distrustful of each other. I marked
them from the ruin as they cautiously approached, now halting, now drawing
nigh, and then pretending to ride away in an opposite direction. At
length, recognising one another, they met, and, having first dismounted to
embrace, came together towards us. As Suttum had conjectured, a messenger
had been sent to him from his father's tribe, to say that their tents
would be pitched in three or four days beneath the Sinjar hill.

From this spot the old castle of Tel Afer, standing boldly on an eminence
about ten miles distant, was plainly visible. Continuing our march we
reached, towards evening, a group of mounds known as Tel Jemal, and
pitched in the midst of them on a green lawn, enamelled with flowers, that
furnished a carpet for our tents unequalled in softness of texture, or in
richness of color, by the looms of Cashmere.

The tents had scarcely been raised when a party of horsemen were seen
coming towards us. As they approached our encampment they played the Jerid
with their long spears, galloping to and fro on their well-trained mares.
They were the principal inhabitants of Tel Afer with Ozair Agha, their
chief, who brought us a present of lambs, flour, and fresh vegetables. The
Agha rode on a light chestnut mare of beautiful proportions and rare
breed. His dress, as well as that of his followers, was singularly
picturesque. His people are Turcomans, a solitary colony in the midst of
the desert; and although their connection with the Bedouins has taught
them the tongue and the habits of the wandering tribes, yet they still
wear the turban of many folds, and the gay flowing robes of their
ancestors. They allow their hair to grow long, and to fall in curls on
their shoulders.

As the evening crept on, I watched from the highest mound the sun as it
gradually sank in unclouded splendor below the sea-like expanse before me.
On all sides, as far as the eye could reach, rose the grass-covered heaps
marking the site of ancient habitations. The great tide of civilisation
had long since ebbed, leaving these scattered wrecks on the solitary
shore. Are those waters to flow again, bearing back the seeds of knowledge
and of wealth that they have wafted to the West? We wanderers were seeking
what they had left behind, as children gather up the colored shells on the
deserted sands. At my feet there was a busy scene, making more lonely the
unbroken solitude which reigned in the vast plain around, where the only
thing having life or motion were the shadows of the lofty mounds as they
lengthened before the declining sun. Above three years before, when,
watching the approach of night from the old castle of Tel Afer, I had
counted nearly one hundred ruins[109], now, when in the midst of them, no
less than double that number were seen from Tel Jemal. Our tents crowning
the lip of a natural amphitheatre bright with flowers, Ozair Agha and his
Turcomans seated on the greensward in earnest talk with the Arab chief,
the horses picketed in the long grass, the Bedouins driving home their
camels for the night's rest, the servants and grooms busied with their
various labors; such was the foreground to a picture of perfect calm and
stillness. In the distance was the long range of the Sinjar hills,
furrowed with countless ravines, each marked by a dark purple shadow,
gradually melting into the evening haze.

We had a long day's march before us to the village of Sinjar. The
wilderness appeared still more beautiful than it had done the day before.
The recent storm had given new life to a vegetation which, concealed
beneath a crust of apparently fruitful earth, only waits for a spring
shower to burst, as if by enchantment, through the thirsty soil. Here and
there grew patches of a shrub-like plant with an edible root, having a
sharp pungent taste like mustard, eaten raw and much relished by the
Bedouins. Among them lurked game of various kinds. Troops of gazelles
sprang from the low cover, and bounded over the plain. The greyhounds
coursed hares; the horsemen followed a wild boar of enormous size, and
nearly white from age; and the Doctor, who was the sportsman of the party,
shot a bustard, with a beautiful speckled plumage, and a ruff of long
feathers round its neck.

We rode in a direct line to the Belled Sinjar, the residence of the
governor of the district. There was no beaten track, and the camels
wandered along as they listed, cropping as they went the young grass. The
horsemen and footmen, too, scattered themselves over the plain in search
of game. War-songs were chanted, and general hilarity prevailed. The more
sedate Bedouins smiled in contempt at these noisy effusions of joy, only
worthy of tribes who have touched the plough; but they indulged in no
less keen, though more suppressed, emotions of delight. Even the Tiyari
caught the general enthusiasm, and sung their mountain songs as they
walked along.

As we drew near to the foot of the hills we found a large encampment,
formed partly by Jebours belonging to Sheikh Abdul-Azeez, and partly by a
Sinjar tribe called Mendka, under a chief known as the "Effendi," who
enjoys considerable influence in this district.

I dismounted at a short distance from the encampment, to avoid a breach of
good manners, as to refuse to eat bread, or to spend the night, after
alighting near a tent, would be thought a grave slight upon its owner. The
caravan continued its journey towards the village. I was soon surrounded
by the principal people of the camp; amongst them was one of my old
workmen, Khuther, who now cultivated a small plot of ground in the desert.
It was with difficulty that I resisted the entreaties of the Effendi to
partake of his hospitality, and we did not reach the Belled until after
the sun had gone down, the caravan having been ten hours in unceasing
march.

I had scarcely entered my tent when the governor of the district, who
resides in a small modern castle built on the hill-side, came to see me.
He was a Turkish officer belonging to the household of Kiamil Pasha, and
complained bitterly of his solitude, of the difficulties of collecting the
taxes, and of dealing with the Bedouins who haunted the plains. He was
almost shut up within the walls of his wretched fort, in company with a
garrison of a score of half-starved Albanians. This state of things was
chiefly owing to the misconduct of his predecessor, who, when the
inhabitants of the Sinjar were quiet and obedient, had treacherously
seized two of their principal chiefs, Mahmoud and Murad, and had carried
them in chains to Mosul, where they had been thrown into prison. A
deputation having been sent to obtain their release, I had been able to
intercede with Kiamil Pasha in their behalf, and now bore to their
followers the welcome news of their speedy return to their homes.

Early on the following morning, I returned the visit of the governor, and,
from the tower of the small castle, took bearings of the principal objects
in the plain. The three remarkable peaks rising in the low range of
Kebriteeyah, behind Abou Khameera, were still visible in the extreme
distance, and enabled me to fix with some accuracy the position of many
ruins. About four or five miles distant from the Belled, is another large
group of mounds, resembling that of Abou Khameera, called by the Bedouins
simply the "Hosh," the courtyard or inclosure.

The ruins of the ancient town, known to the Arabs as "El Belled," or _the_
city, are divided into two distinct parts by a range of rocky hills,
which, however, are cleft in the centre by the bed of a torrent, forming a
narrow ravine between them. The ruins are, undoubtedly, those of the town
of Sinjar, the capital of an Arab principality in the time of the Caliphs.
Its princes frequently asserted their independence, coined money, and
ruled from the Khabour and Euphrates to the neighbourhood of Mosul. The
province was included within the dominions of the celebrated Saleh-ed-din
(the Saladin of the Crusades), and was more than once visited by him. The
ruins of Sinjar are also believed to represent the Singara of the Romans.
On coins struck under the Emperor Gordian, and bearing his effigy with
that of the empress Tranquillina, this city is represented by a female
wearing a mural crown surmounted by a centaur, seated on a hill _with a
river at her feet_ (?). According to the Arab geographers, the Sinjar was
celebrated for its palms. This tree is no longer found there, nor does it
bear fruit, I believe, anywhere to the north of Tekrit in Mesopotamia.

Wishing to visit the villages of the _Shomal_, or northern side of the
mountain, and at the same time to put an end, if possible, to the
bloodshed between their inhabitants, and to induce them to submit to the
governor, I quitted the Belled in the afternoon, accompanied by Cawal
Yusuf and his Yezidi companions, Mr. and Mrs. R., the Doctor, and Mr.
Cooper. We followed a precipitous pathway along the hill-side to Mirkan,
the village destroyed by Tahyar Pasha on my first visit to the
Sinjar.[110] Mirkan was in open rebellion, and had refused both to pay
taxes and to receive the officer of the Pasha of Mosul. I was, at first,
somewhat doubtful of our reception. Esau, the chief, came out, however, to
meet me, and led us to his house. We were soon surrounded by the principal
men of the village. They were also at war with the tribes of the "Shomal."
Seconded by Cawal Yusuf, I endeavored to make them feel that peace and
union amongst themselves was essential to their welfare; and after a
lengthened discussion the chief consented to accompany me to the
neighbouring village of Bukra, with whose inhabitants his people had been
for some time at war.

Mirkan had been partly rebuilt since its destruction three years before;
but the ruins and charred timbers of houses still occupied much of its
former site. There are two pathways from Mirkan to the "Shomal," one
winding through narrow valleys, the other crossing the shoulder of the
mountain. I chose the latter, as it enabled me to obtain an extensive view
of the surrounding country, and to take bearings of many points of
interest. Near the crest of the hill we passed a white conical building,
shaded by a grove of trees. It was the tomb of the father of Murad, one of
Yusuf s companions, a Cawal of note, who had died near the spot of the
plague some years before. The walls were hung with the horns of sheep,
slain in sacrifice, by occasional pilgrims.

I had little anticipated the beauty and extent of the view which opened
round us on the top of the pass. The Sinjar hill is a solitary ridge
rising abruptly in the midst of the desert; from its summit, therefore,
the eye ranges on one side over the vast level wilderness stretching to
the Euphrates, and on the other over the plain bounded by the Tigris and
the lofty mountains of Kurdistan. Nisibin and Mardin were both visible in
the distance. I could distinguish the hills of Baadri and Sheikh Adi, and
many well-known peaks of the Kurdish Alps. Behind the lower ranges, each
distinctly marked by its sharp, serrated outline, were the snow-covered
heights of Tiyari and Bohtan. Whilst to the south of the Sinjar artificial
mounds appeared to abound, to the north I could distinguish but few such
remains. We dismounted to gaze upon this truly magnificent scene lighted
up by the setting sun. I have rarely seen any prospect more impressive
than these boundless plains viewed from a considerable elevation. Besides
the idea of vastness they convey, the light and shade of passing clouds
flitting over the face of the land, and the shadows as they lengthen
towards the close of day, produce constantly changing effects of singular
variety and beauty.[111]

It was night before we reached Bukra, where we were welcomed with great
hospitality. The best house in the village had been made ready for us, and
was scrupulously neat and clean, as the houses of the Yezidis usually
are. The elders of Bukra came to me after we had dined, and seated
themselves respectfully and decorously round the room. They were not
averse to the reconciliation I proposed, received the hostile chief
without hesitation, and promised to accompany me on the morrow to the
adjoining village of Ossofa, with which they were also at war. In the
morning we visited several houses in the village. They were all neat and
clean. The women received us without concealing their faces, which are,
however, far from pleasing, their features being irregular, and their
complexion sallow. Those who are married dress entirely in white, with a
white kerchief under their chins, and another over their heads held by the
_agal_, or woollen cord, of the Bedouins. The girls wear white shirts and
drawers, but over them colored _zabouns_, or long silk dresses, open in
front, and confined at the waist by a girdle ornamented with pieces of
silver. They twist gay kerchiefs round their heads, and adorn themselves
with coins, and glass and amber beads, when their parents are able to
procure them. But the Yezidis of the Sinjar are now very poor, and nearly
all the trinkets of the women have long since fallen into the hands of the
Turkish soldiery, or have been sold to pay taxes and arbitrary fines. The
men have a dark complexion, black and piercing eyes, and frequently a
fierce and forbidding countenance. They are of small stature, but have
well proportioned limbs strongly knit together, and are muscular, active,
and capable of bearing great fatigue. Their dress consists of a shirt,
loose trowsers and cloak, all white, and a black turban, from beneath
which their hair falls in ringlets.

The Yezidis are, by one of their religious laws, forbidden to wear the
common Eastern shirt open in front, and this article of their dress is
always closed up to the neck. This is a distinctive mark of the sect, by
which its members may be recognised at a glance. The language of the
people of Sinjar is Kurdish, and few speak Arabic.

As the people of Ossofa, or Usifa, were at war with their neighbours, and
as this was one of the principal seats of rebellion and discontent, I was
anxious to have an interview with its chief. The position of Ossofa is
very picturesque. It stands on the edge of a deep ravine; behind it are
lofty crags and narrow gorges, whose sides are filled with natural
caverns. On overhanging rocks, towering above the village, are two
_ziarehs_, or holy places, of the Yezidis, distinguished from afar by
their white fluted spires. Pulo, the chief, met us at the head of the
principal inhabitants and led me to his house, where a large assembly was
soon collected to discuss the principal object of my visit. The chiefs of
Mirkan and Bukra were induced to make offers of peace, which were
accepted, and, after much discussion, the terms of an amicable arrangement
were agreed to and ratified by general consent. Sheep were slain to
celebrate the event.

We passed the night at Aldina, in the house of Murad, one of the
imprisoned chiefs, whose release I had obtained before leaving Mosul. I
was able to announce the good tidings of his approaching return to his
wife, to whom he had been lately married, and who had given birth to a
child during his absence.

Below Aldina stands a remarkable _ziareh_, inclosed by a wall of cyclopean
dimensions. In the plain beneath, in the midst of a grove of trees, is the
tomb of Cawal Hussein, the father of Cawal Yusuf, who died in the Sinjar
during one of his periodical visitations. He was a priest of sanctity and
influence, and his grave is still visited as a place of pilgrimage.
Sacrifices of sheep are made there, but they are merely in remembrance of
the deceased, and have no particular religious meaning attached to them.
The flesh is distributed amongst the poor, and a sum of money is
frequently added. Approving the ceremony as one tending to promote charity
and kindly feeling, I gave a sheep to be sacrificed at the tomb of the
Cawal, and one of my fellow travellers added a second, the carcases being
afterwards divided among the needy.

A messenger brought me word during the night that Suttum had returned from
his tribe, and was waiting with a party of horsemen to escort us to his
tents. I determined, therefore, to cross at once to the Belled by a direct
though difficult pass. We visited Nogray and Ameera, before entering the
gorge leading to the pass. Only two other villages of any importance,
Semoka and Jafri, were left unseen. The ascent of the mountain was
extremely precipitous, and we were nearly two hours in reaching the
summit. We then found ourselves on a broad green platform, thickly wooded
with dwarf oak. I was surprised to see snow still lying in the sheltered
nooks. On both sides of us stretched the great Mesopotamian plains. To the
south, glittering in the sun, was a small salt lake about fifteen miles
distant from the Sinjar, called by the Arabs, Munaif. From it the
Bedouins, when in their northern pastures, obtain their supplies of salt.

We descended to the Belled through a narrow valley, thick with oak and
various shrubs, and were nearly five hours in crossing the mountain.
Suttum and his Bedouin companions were waiting for us, but were not
anxious to start before the following morning. A Yezidi snake-charmer,
with his son, a boy of seven or eight years old, came to my tents in the
afternoon, and exhibited his tricks in the midst of a circle of astonished
beholders. He first pulled from a bag a number of snakes knotted together,
which the bystanders declared to be of the most venomous kind. The child
took the reptiles fearlessly from his father, and placing them in his
bosom allowed them to twine themselves round his neck and arms. The
Bedouins gazed in mute wonder at these proceedings, but when the Sheikh,
feigning rage against one of the snakes which had drawn blood from his
son, seized it, and biting off its head with his teeth threw the writhing
body amongst them, they could no longer restrain their horror and
indignation. They uttered loud curses on the infidel snake-charmer and his
kindred to the remotest generations. Suttum did not regain his composure
during the whole evening, frequently relapsing into profound thought, then
suddenly breaking out in a fresh curse upon the Sheikh, who, he declared,
had a very close and unholy connection with the evil one. Many days passed
before he had completely got over the horror the poor Yezidi's feats had
caused him.

Suttum had changed his deloul for a white mare of great beauty, named
Athaiba. She was of the race of Kohaila, of exquisite symmetry, in temper
docile as a lamb, yet with an eye of fire, and of a proud and noble
carriage when excited in war or in the chase. His saddle was the simple
stuffed pad generally used by the Bedouins, without stirrups. A halter
alone served to guide the gentle animal.

We followed a pathway over the broken ground at the foot of the Sinjar,
crossing deep watercourses worn by the small streams, which lose
themselves in the desert. The villages, as on the opposite slope, or
"Shomal," are high up on the hill-side. We encamped, after a short ride,
upon a pleasant stream beneath the village of Jedaila. We remained here a
whole day in order to visit Suttum's tribe, which was now migrating
towards the Sinjar. Early in the morning a vast crowd of moving objects
could be faintly perceived on the horizon. These were the camels and
sheep of the Boraij, followed by the usual crowd of men, women, children,
and beasts of burden. We watched them as they scattered themselves over
the plain, and gradually settled in different pastures. By midday the
encampment had been formed, and all the stragglers collected. We could
scarcely distinguish the black tents, and their site was only marked by
curling wreaths of white smoke.

In the afternoon Suttum's father, Rishwan, came to us, accompanied by
several Sheikhs of the Boraij. He rode on a white deloul, celebrated for
her beauty and swiftness. His saddle and the neck of the animal were
profusely adorned with woollen tassels of many colors, glass beads, and
small shells, after the manner of the Arabs of Nejd. The well-trained
dromedary having knelt at the door of my tent, the old man alighted, and
throwing his arms round my neck kissed me on both shoulders. He was tall,
and of noble carriage. His beard was white with age, but his form was
still erect and his footsteps firm. Rishwan was one of the bravest
warriors of the Shammar. He was a noble specimen of the true Bedouin, both
in character and appearance. With the skill and daring of the Arab
warrior, he united the hospitality, generosity, and good faith of a hero
of Arab romance.

The Yezidi chiefs of Kerraniyah or Sekkiniyah (the village is known by
both names) came to our encampment soon after Rishwan's arrival. As they
had a feud with the Bedouins, I took advantage of their visit to effect a
reconciliation, both parties swearing on my hospitality to abstain from
plundering one another hereafter. Being anxious to reach the end of our
journey I declined Suttum's invitation to sleep in his tent, but sending
the caravan to the place appointed for our night's encampment, I made a
detour to visit his father, accompanied by Mr. and Mrs. R., the Doctor,
Mr. C., and Hormuzd. Although the Boraij were above six miles from the
small rivulet of Jedaila, they were obliged to send to it for water.[112]
As we rode towards their tents we passed their camels and sheep slowly
wandering towards the stream. In the throng we met Sahiman, the elder
brother of Suttum. He was riding on a bay horse, whose fame had spread far
and wide amongst the tribes, and whose exploits were a constant theme of
praise and wonder with the Shammar. He was of the race of Obeyan Sherakh,
a breed now almost extinct, and perhaps more highly prized than any other
of the Desert. He had established his fame when but two years old. Ferhan,
with the principal warriors of the Khurusseh, had crossed the Euphrates to
plunder the Aneyza. They were met by a superior force, and were completely
defeated. The best mares of the tribe fell into the hands of the enemy,
and the bay colt alone, although followed by the fleetest horses of the
Aneyza, distanced his pursuers.[113] Such noble qualities, united with the
purest blood, rendered him worthy to be looked upon as the public property
of the Shammar, and no sum of money would induce his owner to part with
him.

Near the encampment of the Boraij was a group of mounds resembling in
every respect those I have already described. The Bedouins call them
Abou-Khaima. Are these singular ruins those of towns or of temples? Their
similarity of form,--a centre mound divided into a series of terraces,
ascended by an inclined way or steps, and surrounded by equilateral
walls,--would lead to the conjecture that they were fire temples, or vast
altars, destined for Astral worship. It will be seen hereafter that the
well-known ruin of the Birs Nimroud, on or near the site of ancient
Babylon, is very nearly the same in shape. When I come to describe those
remarkable remains, I will add some further observations upon their
original form.

The Bedouins who accompanied us galloped to and fro, engaging in mimic war
with their long quivering spears, until we reached the encampment of the
Boraij. Rishwan, Suttum, Mijwell his younger brother, and the elders of
the tribe, were standing before the tent ready to receive us. All the old
carpets and coverlets of the family, and ragged enough they were, had been
spread out for their guests. As we seated ourselves two sheep were slain
before us for the feast; a ceremony it would not have been considered
sufficiently hospitable to perform previous to our arrival, as it might
have been doubtful whether the animals had been slain wholly for us. The
chief men of the encampment collected round us, crouching in a wide circle
on the grass. We talked of Arab politics and Arab war, _ghazous_ (or party
for plundering), and Aneyza mares stolen or carried off in battle by the
Shammar. Huge wooden platters, heavy with the steaming messes of rice and
boiled meat, were soon brought in and placed on the ground before us.
Immense lumps of fresh butter were then heaped upon them, and allowed to
melt, the chief occasionally mixing and kneading the whole up together
with his hands. When the dishes had cooled[114] the venerable Rishwan
stood up in the centre of the tent, and called in a loud voice upon each
person by name and in his turn to come to the feast. We fared first with a
few of the principal Sheikhs. The most influential men were next summoned,
each however resisting the honor, and allowing himself to be dragged by
Suttum and Mijwell to his place. The children, as is usual, were admitted
last, and wound up the entertainment by a general scramble for the
fragments and the bones. Neither Rishwan nor his sons would eat of the
repast they had prepared, the laws of hospitality requiring that it should
be left entirely to their guests.

After we had eaten I accompanied Mrs. R. to the harem, where we found
assembled the wives and daughters of Rishwan, of his sons, and of the
elders of the tribe, who had met together to see the Frank lady. Amongst
them were several of considerable beauty. The wife of Sahiman, the eldest
of the three brothers, was most distinguished for her good looks. They
were all dressed in the usual long blue shirt, and striped, or black,
abba, with a black headkerchief, or keffieh, confined by a band of spun
camel's wool. Massive rings of silver, adorned with gems and coral, hung
from their noses[115], and bracelets in the same metal, and also set with
precious stones, encircled their wrists and ankles.

Their eyes are large, almond-shaped, expressive, and of extraordinary
brilliancy and fire. They suffer their black, and luxuriant hair to fall
in clusters of curls. Their carriage in youth is erect and graceful. They
are able to bear much fatigue, and show great courage and spirit in
moments of difficulty and danger. But their beauty is only the companion
of extreme youth. With few exceptions, soon after twenty, and the birth of
one or two children, they rapidly change into the most hideous of old
hags, the lightning-like brightness of the eye alone surviving the general
wreck. When young, the daughters and wives of the chiefs are well cared
for; they move with the tribe in the covered camel-saddle, shaded by
carpets from the rays of the sun. Daughters are looked upon in the Desert
as a source of strength and advantage, from the alliances they enable the
father to make with powerful and influential chiefs, being frequently the
means of healing feuds which have existed for many years.

Before we left the encampment Suttum led before me as a present a handsome
grey colt, which was as usual returned with a request to take care of it
until it was required, the polite way to decline a gift of this
nature.[116]

Suttum having saddled his deloul was ready to accompany us on our journey.
As he was to be for some time absent from his tents, he asked to take his
wife with him, and I willingly consented. Rathaiyah was the sister of
Suttam el Meekh, the chief of the powerful tribe of the Abde, one of the
principal divisions of the Shammar. She was a lady of a very haughty and
imperious temper, as poor Suttum had found to his cost, for she carried
matters with so high a hand that he had been compelled, almost immediately
after his marriage, to send back a young and beautiful wife to her
father's tent. She rode on the dromedary behind her lord, a comfortable
seat having been made for her with a rug and a coverlet.

The true Sinjar mountain ends about nine miles from Jedaila, the high
ridge suddenly subsiding into low broken hills. From all parts of the
plain it is a very beautiful object. Its limestone rocks, wooded here and
there with dwarf oak, are of a rich golden color; and the numberless
ravines, which furrow its sides, form ribs of deep purple shadow. The
western part of the Sinjar is inhabited by the Yezidi tribe of
Kherraniyah. We rode over the plain in a parallel line to the mountain,
and about seven or eight miles from it. Towards nightfall we skirted a
ridge of very low hills rising to our left: but night set in before we
could see the tents. No sound except the mournful note of the small desert
owl, which has often misled the weary wanderer,[117] broke the deep
silence, nor could we distinguish the distant fires usually marking the
site of an encampment. Suttum, however, well knew where the Bedouins would
halt, and about an hour after dark we heard the well-known voice of
Dervish, and others of my workmen, who, anxious at our delay, had come out
to seek us.

Our encampment was full of Yezidis of the Kherraniyah tribe, who had
ridden from the tents to see me, bringing presents of sheep, flour, and
figs. They were at war, both with the Bedouins and the inhabitants of the
northern side of the mountain. My large tent was soon crowded with guests.
They squatted down on the ground in double ranks. For the last time I
spoke on the advantage of peace and union amongst themselves, and I
exacted from them a solemn promise that they would meet the assembled
tribes at the next great festival in the valley of Sheikh Adi, referring
their differences in future to the decision of Hussein Bey, Sheikh Nasr,
and the Cawals, instead of appealing to arms. I also reconciled them with
the Bedouins, Suttum entering into an engagement for his tribe, and both
parties agreeing to abstain from lifting each other's flocks when they
should again meet in the pastures at the foot of the hills. The
inhabitants of the Sinjar are too powerful and independent to pay
_kowee_,[118] or black mail, to the Shammar, who, indeed, stand in much
awe of their Yezidi enemies.

The Yezidis returned to their encampment late at night, but about a
hundred of their horsemen were again with me before the tents were struck
in the morning. They promised to fulfil the engagements entered into on
the previous evening, and accompanied me for some miles on our day's
journey. Cawal Yusuf returned with them on his way back to Mosul. It was
agreed that he should buy, at the annual auction, the Mokhatta, or
revenues of the Sinjar,[119] and save the inhabitants from the tyranny and
exactions of the Turkish tax-gatherer. I wrote letters for him to the
authorities of Mosul, recommending such an arrangement, as equally
beneficial to the tranquillity of the mountain and the treasury of the
Pasha.

After leaving Om-el-Dhiban we entered an undulating country crossed by
deep ravines, worn by the winter torrents. Four hours' ride brought us to
a scanty spring; half an hour beyond we passed a second; and in five and a
half hours pitched the tents, for the rest of the day, near a small
stream. All these springs are called Maalaga, and rising in the gypsum or
Mosul marble, have a brackish and disagreeable taste. The Bedouins
declare, that, although unpalatable, they are exceedingly wholesome, and
that even their mares fatten on the waters of Jeraiba.

Suttum came to me before nightfall, somewhat downcast in look, as if a
heavy weight were on his mind. At length, after various circumlocutions,
he said that his wife would not sleep under the white tent which I had
lent her, such luxuries being, as she declared, only worthy of city
ladies, and altogether unbecoming the wife and daughter of a Bedouin. "So
determined is she," said Suttum, "in the matter, that, Billah! she
deserted my bed last night and slept on the grass in the open air; and now
she swears she will leave me and return on foot to her kindred, unless I
save her from the indignity of sleeping under a white tent." It was
inconvenient to humor the fancies of the Arab lady, but as she was
inexorable, I gave her a black Arab tent, used by the servants for a
kitchen. Under this sheet of goat-hair canvass, open on all sides to the
air, she said she could breathe freely, and feel again that she was a
Bedouin.

We crossed, during the following evening, a beautiful plain covered with
sweet smelling flowers and aromatic herbs, and abounding in gazelles,
hares, and bustards. We reached in about two hours the encampments, whose
smoke we had seen during the preceding evening. They belonged to Bedouins
of the Hamoud branch of the Shammar, and had recently been plundering a
government caravan and slaughtering the soldiers guarding it. They are
notorious for treachery and cruelty, and certainly the looks of those who
gathered around us, many of them grotesquely attired in the plundered
garments of the slaughtered Turkish soldiery, did not belie their
reputation. They fingered every article of dress we had on, to learn its
texture and value.

Leaving their encampments, we rode through vast herds of camels and flocks
of sheep belonging to the tribe, and at length came in sight of the river.

The Khabour flows through the richest pastures and meadows. Its banks were
now covered with flowers of every hue, and its windings through the green
plain were like the coils of a mighty serpent. I never beheld a more
lovely scene. An uncontrollable emotion of joy seized all our party when
they saw the end of their journey before them. The horsemen urged their
horses to full speed; the Jebours dancing in a circle, raised their
colored kerchiefs on their spears, and shouted their war cry, Hormuzd
leading the chorus; the Tiyari sang their mountain songs and fired their
muskets into the air.

The tents of Mohammed Emin, the Jebour Sheikh, were pitched under the
ruins of Arban, and on the right or northern bank of the river, which was
not at this time fordable. As we drew near to them, after a ride of nearly
two hours, the Sheikh pointed in triumph to the sculptures, which were the
principal objects of my visit. They stood a little above the water's edge,
at the base of a mound of considerable size. We had passed several tels
and the double banks of ancient canals, showing that we were still amidst
the remains of ancient civilisation.

At length we stopped opposite to the encampment of the Jebour Sheikh, but
it was too late to cross the river, some time being required to make ready
the rafts. We raised our tents, therefore, for the night on the southern
bank. They were soon filled by a motley group of Boraij, Hamoud, Assaiyah,
and Jebour Arabs. Moghamis, Suttum's uncle, came shortly after our
arrival, bringing me as a present a well-trained hawk and some bustards,
the fruits of his morning's sport. The falcon was duly placed on his stand
in the centre of the spacious tent, and remained during the rest of my
sojourn in the East a member of my establishment. His name was Fawaz, and
he was a native of the hills of Makhhoul, near Tekrit, celebrated for
their breed of hawks. He was of the species called "chark," and had been
given by Sadoun-el-Mustafa, the chief of the great tribe of Obeid, to
Ferhan, the Sheikh of the Shammar, who had bestowed him in token of
friendship on Moghamis.

A Sheikh of the Hamoud also brought us a wild ass-colt, scarcely two
months old, which had been caught whilst following its dam, and had been
since fed upon camel's milk. Indeed, nearly all those who came to my tent
had some offering, either sheep, milk, curds, or butter; even the Arab
boys had caught for us the elegant jerboa, which burrows in vast numbers
on the banks of the river. Suitable presents were made in return. Dinner
was cooked for all our guests, and we celebrated our first night on the
Khabour by general festivities.



CHAPTER XII.

    ARBAN.--OUR ENCAMPMENT.--SUTTUM AND MOHAMMED EMIN.--WINGED BULLS
    DISCOVERED.--EXCAVATIONS COMMENCED.--THEIR RESULTS.--DISCOVERY OF
    SMALL OBJECTS--OF SECOND PAIR OF WINGED BULLS--OF LION--OF CHINESE
    BOTTLE--OF VASE--OF EGYPTIAN SCARABS--OF TOMBS.--THE SCENE OF THE
    CAPTIVITY.


On the morning after our arrival in front of the encampment of Sheikh
Mohammed Emin, we crossed the Khabour on a small raft, and pitched our
tents on its right, or northern, bank. I found the ruins to consist of a
large artificial mound of irregular shape, washed, and indeed partly
carried away by the river, which was gradually undermining the
perpendicular cliff left by the falling earth. The Jebours were encamped
to the west of it. I chose for our tents a recess, like an amphitheatre,
facing the stream. We were thus surrounded and protected on all sides.
Behind us and to the east rose the mound, and to the west were the family
and dependents of Mohammed Emin. In the Desert, beyond the ruins, were
scattered far and wide the tents of the Jebours, and of several Arab
tribes who had placed themselves under their protection; the Sherabeen,
wandering keepers of herds of buffaloes; the Buggara, driven by the
incursions of the Aneyza from their pasture grounds at Ras-al-Ain (the
source of the Khabour); and some families of the Jays, a large clan
residing in the district of Orfa, whose sheikh having quarrelled with his
brother chiefs had now joined Mohammed Emin. From the top of the mound the
eye ranged over a level country bright with flowers, and spotted with
black tents, and innumerable flocks of sheep and camels. During our stay
at Arban the color of these great plains was undergoing a continual
change. After being for some days of a golden yellow, a new family of
flowers would spring up, and it would turn almost in a night to a bright
scarlet, which would again as suddenly give way to the deepest blue. Then
the meadows would be mottled with various hues, or would put on the
emerald green of the most luxuriant of pastures. The glowing descriptions
I had so frequently received from the Bedouins of the beauty and fertility
of the banks of the Khabour were more than realised.

In the extreme distance, to the east of us, rose a solitary conical
elevation, called by the Arabs, Koukab. In front, to the south, was the
beautiful hill of the Sinjar, ever varying in color and in outline as the
declining sun left fresh shadows on its furrowed sides. Behind us, and not
far distant, was the low, wooded range of Abd-ul-Azeez. Artificial mounds,
smaller in size than Arban, rose here and there above the thin belt of
trees and shrubs skirting the river bank.

I had brought with me a tent large enough to hold full two hundred
persons, and intended as a "museef," or place of reception, always open to
the wayfarer and the Arab visitor; for the first duty of a traveller
wishing to mix with true Bedouins, and to gain an influence over them, is
the exercise of hospitality. This great pavilion was pitched in the centre
of my encampment, with its entrance facing the river. To the right were
the tents of the Cawass and servants; one fitted up expressly for the
Doctor to receive patients, of whom there was no lack at all times, and
the black Arab tent of Rathaiyah, who would not mix with the Jebours. To
the left were those of my fellow travellers, and about two hundred yards
beyond, near the excavations, my own private tent, to which I retired
during the day, when wishing to be undisturbed, and to which the Arabs
were not admitted. In it, also, we usually breakfasted and dined, except
when there were any Arab guests of distinction with whom it was necessary
to eat bread. In front of our encampment, and between it and the river,
was a small lawn, on which were picketed our horses. Suttum and Mohammed
Emin usually eat with us, and soon became perfectly reconciled to knives
and forks, and the other restraints of civilised life. Suttum's tact and
intelligence were indeed remarkable. Nothing escaped his hawk-like eye. A
few hours had enabled him to form a correct estimate of the character of
each one of the party, and he had detected peculiarities which might have
escaped the notice of the most observant European. The most polished Turk
would have been far less at home in the society of ladies, and during the
whole of our journey he never committed a breach of manners, only acquired
after a few hours' residence with us. As a companion he was
delightful,--full of anecdote, of unclouded spirits, acquainted with the
history of every Bedouin tribe, their politics and their wars, and
intimate with every part of the Desert, its productions and its
inhabitants. Many happy hours I spent with him, seated, after the sun went
down, on a mound overlooking the great plain and the winding river,
listening to the rich flow of his graceful Bedouin dialect, to his
eloquent stories of Arab life, and to his animated descriptions of forays,
wars, and single combats.

Mohammed Emin, the Sheikh of the Jebours, was a good-natured portly Arab,
in intelligence inferior to Suttum, and wanting many of the qualities of
the pure Bedouin. During our intercourse I had every reason to be
satisfied with his hospitality and the cordial aid he afforded me. The
Jebour chief was a complete patriarch in his tribe, having no less than
sixteen children, of whom six sons were horsemen and the owners of mares.
The youngest, a boy of four years old, named Sultan, was as handsome and
dirty as the best of Arab children. His mother, who had recently died, was
the beautiful sister of Abd-rubbou. I chanced to be her brother's guest
when the news of her death was brought to him. An Arab of the tribe, weary
and wayworn, entered the tent and seated himself without giving the usual
salutation; all present knew that he had come from the Khabour and from
distant friends. His silence argued evil tidings. By an indirect remark,
immediately understood, he told his errand to one who sat next him, and
who in turn whispered it to Sheikh Ibrahim, the chief's uncle. The old man
said aloud, with a sigh, "It is the will and mercy of God; she is not dead
but released!" Abd-rubbou at once understood of whom he spake. He arose
and went forth, and the wailing of the mother and of the women soon issued
from the inner recesses of the tent.

My first care, after crossing to Arban, was to examine the sculptures
described by the Arabs. The river having gradually worn away the mound
had, during the recent floods, left uncovered a pair of winged
human-headed bulls, some six feet above the water's edge, and full fifty
beneath the level of the ruin. Only the forepart of these figures had been
exposed to view, and Mohammed Emin would not allow any of the soil to be
removed before my arrival. The earth was soon cleared away, and I found
them to be of a coarse limestone, not exceeding 5-1/2 feet in height by
4-1/2 in length. Between them was a pavement slab of the same material.
They resembled in general form the well-known winged bulls of Nineveh, but
in the style of art they differed considerably from them. The outline and
treatment was bold and angular, with an archaic feeling conveying the
impression of great antiquity. They bore the same relation to the more
delicately finished and highly ornamented sculptures of Nimroud, as the
earliest remains of Greek art do to the exquisite monuments of Phidias and
Praxiteles. The human features were unfortunately much injured, but such
parts as remained were sufficient to show that the countenance had a
peculiar character, differing from the Assyrian type. The sockets of the
eyes were deeply sunk, probably to receive the white and the ball of the
eye in ivory or glass. The nose was flat and large, and the lips thick and
overhanging like those of a negro. Human ears were attached to the head,
and bull's ears to the horned cap, which was low and square at the top,
not high and ornamented like those of Khorsabad and Kouyunjik, nor rounded
like those of Nimroud. The hair was elaborately curled, as in the pure
Assyrian sculptures, though more rudely carved. The wings were small in
proportion to the size of the body, and had not the majestic spread of
those of the bulls that adorned the palaces of Nineveh.

It would appear from them that the sculptures belonged to the palace of a
king whose name has been found on no other monument. No titles are
attached to it, not even that of "king;" nor is the country over which he
reigned mentioned; so that some doubt may exist as to whether it really be
a royal name.

The great accumulation of earth above these sculptures proves that, since
the destruction of the edifice in which they stood, other habitations have
been raised on its ruins. Arban, indeed, is mentioned by the Arab
geographers as a flourishing city, in a singularly fertile district of the
Khabour. Part of a minaret, whose walls were cased with colored tiles,
and ornamented with cufic inscriptions in relief, like that of the Sinjar,
and the foundations of buildings, are still seen on the mound; and at its
foot; on the western side, are the remains of a bridge which once spanned
the stream. But the river has changed its course. The piers, adorned with
elegantly shaped arabesque characters, are now on the dry land.

I will describe, at once, the results of the excavations carried on during
the three weeks our tents were pitched at Arban. To please the Jebour
Sheikh, and to keep around our encampment, for greater security, a body of
armed men, when the tribe changed their pastures, I hired about fifty of
Mohammed Emin's Arabs, and placed them in parties with the workmen who had
accompanied me from Mosul. Tunnels were opened behind the bulls already
uncovered, and in various parts of the ruins on the same level. Trenches
were also dug into the surface of the mound.

Behind the bulls were found various Assyrian relics; amongst them a copper
bell, like those from Nimroud, and fragments of bricks with arrow-headed
characters painted yellow with white outlines, upon a pale green ground.
In other parts of the mound were discovered glass and pottery, some
Assyrian, others of a more doubtful character. Several fragments of
earthenware, ornamented with flowers and scrollwork, and highly glazed,
had assumed the brilliant and varied iridescence of ancient glass.[120]

It was natural to conclude, from the usual architectural arrangement of
Assyrian edifices, that the two bulls described stood at an entrance to a
hall or chamber. We searched in vain for the remains of walls, although
digging for three days to the right and left of the sculptures, a work of
considerable difficulty in consequence of the immense heap of
superincumbent earth. I then directed a tunnel to be carried towards the
centre of the mound, hoping to find a corresponding doorway opposite. I
was not disappointed. On the fifth day a similar pair of winged bulls were
discovered. They were of the same size, and inscribed with the same
characters. A part of one having been originally broken off, either in
carving the sculpture or in moving it, a fresh piece of stone had been
carefully fitted into its place. I also dug to the right and left of these
sculptures for remains of walls, but without success, and then resumed
the tunnelling towards the centre of the mound. In a few days a lion, with
extended jaws, sculptured in the same coarse limestone, and in the same
bold archaic style as the bulls, was discovered. It had five legs, and the
tail had the claw at the end, as in the Nineveh bas-reliefs. In height it
was nearly the same as the bulls. I searched in vain for the one which
must have formed the opposite side of the doorway.

[Illustration: Lion discovered at Arban.]

With the exception of these sculptures, no remains of building were found
in this part of the mound. In another tunnel, opened at some distance from
the bulls, half of a human figure in relief was discovered.[121] The face
was in full. One hand grasped a sword or dagger; the other held some
object to the breast. The hair and beard were long and flowing, and
ornamented with a profusion of curls as in the Assyrian bas-reliefs. The
head-dress appeared to consist of a kind of circular helmet, ending in a
sharp point. The treatment and style marked the sculpture to be of the
same period as the bull and lion.

Such were the sculptures discovered in the mound of Arban. Amongst smaller
objects of different periods were some of considerable interest, jars,
vases, funeral urns, highly-glazed pottery, and fragments of glass. In a
trench, on the south side of the ruin, was found a small green and white
bottle, inscribed with Chinese characters.

A jar, about four feet high, in coarse half-baked clay, was dug out of the
centre of the mound. The handles were formed by rudely-designed human
figures, and the sides covered with grotesque representations of men and
animals, and arabesque ornaments in relief.

Vases of the same material, ornamented with figures, are frequently
discovered in digging the foundations of houses in the modern town of
Mosul. They appear to belong to a comparatively recent period, later
probably than the Christian era, but previous to the Arab occupation. As
they have upon them human figures, dressed in a peculiar costume,
consisting of a high cap and embroidered robes, I should attribute them to
the Persians. A vase similar in size and shape to that of Arban, and also
covered with grotesque representations of monstrous animals, the finest
specimen I have seen of this class of antiquities, was found beneath the
foundations of the very ancient Chaldæan church of Meskinta at Mosul, when
that edifice was pulled down and rebuilt two years ago. It was given to me
by the Catholic Chaldæan Patriarch, to whom it belonged as chief of the
community, but was unfortunately destroyed, with other interesting relics,
by the Arabs, who plundered a raft laden with antiquities, on its way to
Baghdad, after my return to Europe.

Amongst other relics discovered at Arban were, a large copper ring,
apparently Assyrian; an ornament in earthenware, resembling the pine-cone
of the Assyrian sculptures; a bull's head in terracotta; fragments of
painted bricks, probably of the same period; and several Egyptian
scarabæi. It is singular that engraved stones and scarabs bearing Egyptian
devices, and in some instances even royal cartouches, should have been
found on the banks of the Khabour. Similar objects were subsequently dug
up at Nimroud, and brought to me by the Arabs from various ruins in
Assyria.

It may be well for the reader to observe in this connection, that most of
the Egyptian relics discovered in the Assyrian ruins are of the time of
the 18th Egyptian dynasty, or of the 15th century before Christ; a period
when, as we learn from Egyptian monuments, there was a close connection
between Assyria and Egypt.

Several tombs were also found in the ruins, consisting principally of
boxes, or sarcophagi, of earthenware, like those existing above the
Assyrian palaces near Mosul. Some, however, were formed by two large
earthen jars, like the common Eastern vessel for holding oil, laid
horizontally, and joined mouth to mouth. These terracotta coffins appear
to be of the same period as those found in all the great ruins on the
banks of the rivers of Mesopotamia, and are not Assyrian. They contained
human remains turned to dust, with the exception of the skull and a few of
the larger bones, and generally three or four urns of highly-glazed blue
pottery.

Fewer remains and objects of antiquity were discovered in the mounds on
the Khabour than I had anticipated. They were sufficient, however, to
prove that the ruins are, on the whole, of the same character as those on
the banks of the Tigris. That the Assyrian empire at one time embraced the
whole of Mesopotamia, including the country watered by the Khabour, there
can be no doubt, as indeed is shown by the inscriptions on the monuments
of Nineveh. Whether the sculptures at Arban belong to the period of
Assyrian domination, or to a distinct nation afterwards conquered, or
whether they may be looked upon as cotemporary with, or more ancient than,
the bas-reliefs of Nimroud, are questions not so easily answered. The
archaic character of the treatment and design, the peculiar form of the
features, the rude though forcible delineation of the muscles, and the
simplicity of the details, certainly convey the impression of greater
antiquity than any monuments hitherto discovered in Assyria Proper.[122]

A deep interest, at the same time, attaches to these remains from the site
they occupy. To the Chebar were transported by the Assyrian king, after
the destruction of Samaria, the captive children of Israel, and on its
banks "the heavens were opened" to Ezekiel, and "he saw visions of God,"
and spake his prophecies to his brother exiles.[123] Around Arban may have
been pitched the tents of the sorrowing Jews, as those of the Arabs were
during my visit. To the same pastures they led their sheep, and they drank
of the same waters. Then the banks of the river were covered with towns
and villages, and a palace-temple still stood on the mound, reflected in
the transparent stream. We have, however, but one name connected with the
Khabour recorded in Scripture, that of Tel-Abib, "the mound of Abib, or,
of the heaps of ears of corn," but whether it applies to a town, or to a
simple artificial elevation, such as still abound, and are still called
"tels," is a matter of doubt. I sought in vain for some trace of the word
amongst the names now given by the wandering Arab to the various ruins on
the Khabour and its confluents.[124]

We know that Jews still lingered in the cities of the Khabour until long
after the Arab invasion; and we may perhaps recognise in the Jewish
communities of Ras-al-Ain, at the sources of the river, and of Karkisia,
or Carchemish, at its confluence with the Euphrates, visited and described
by Benjamin of Tudela, in the latter end of the twelfth century of the
Christian æra, the descendants of the captive Israelites.

But the hand of time has long since swept even this remnant away, with the
busy crowds which thronged the banks of the river. From its mouth to its
source, from Carchemish to Ras-al-Ain, there is now no single permanent
human habitation on the Khabour. Its rich meadows and its deserted ruins
are alike become the encamping places of the wandering Arab.



CHAPTER XIII.

    RESIDENCE AT ARBAN.--MOHAMMED EMIN'S TENT.--THE AGAYDAT.--OUR
    TENTS.--BREAD-BAKING.--FOOD OF THE BEDOUINS.--THIN BREAD.--THE PRODUCE
    OF THEIR FLOCKS.--DISEASES AMONGST THEM.--THEIR REMEDIES.--THE DELOUL
    OR DROMEDARY.--BEDOUIN WARFARE.--SUTTUM'S FIRST WIFE.--A
    STORM.--TURTLES.--LIONS.--A BEDOUIN ROBBER.--BEAVERS.--RIDE TO
    LEDJMIYAT.--A PLUNDERING EXPEDITION.--LOSS OF A HAWK.--RUINS OF
    SHEMSHANI.--RETURN TO ARBAN.--VISIT TO MOGHAMIS.


In the preceding chapter I have given an account of the discoveries made
in the ruins of Arban, I will now add a few notes of our residence on the
Khabour. A sketch of Arab life, and a description of a country not
previously visited by European travellers, may be new and not
uninteresting to my readers.

During the time we dwelt at Arban, we were the guests and under the
protection of Mohammed Emin, the Sheikh of the Jebours. On the day we
crossed the river, he celebrated our arrival by a feast after the Arab
fashion, to which the notables of the tribe were invited. Sheep, as usual,
were boiled and served up piecemeal in large wooden bowls, with a mass of
butter and bread soaked in the gravy. The chief's tent was spacious,
though poorly furnished. It was the general resort of those who chanced to
wander, either on business or for pleasure, to the Khabour, and was,
consequently, never without a goodly array of guests; from a company of
Shammar horsemen out on a foray to the solitary Bedouin who was seeking
to become a warrior in his tribe, by first stealing a mare from some
hostile encampment.

Amongst the strangers partaking, at the time of our visit, of the Sheikh's
hospitality, were Serhan, a chief of the Agaydat, and Dervish Agha, the
hereditary Lord of Nisibin, the ancient Nisibis. The tents of the former
were at the junction of the Khabour and Euphrates, near Karkisia (the
ancient Carchemish), or, as it is more generally called by the Arabs,
Abou-Psera. The fertile meadows near the confluence of the two rivers
formerly belonged to the Jebours, who occupied the banks of the Khabour
throughout nearly the whole of its course. An old feud kept them at
continual war with the great tribe of the Aneyza. They long successfully
struggled with their enemies, but having at length been overcome they
sought refuge in the neighborhood of Mosul. Having returned to the
Khabour, they claimed their former rights, and Mohammed Emin was invited
by Serhan to settle the contending claims; but it was to no effect.

Dervish Agha, of Kurdish descent, was the representative of an ancient
family, and had come to persuade the Jebour Sheikh to assist Ferhan in
recovering the plundered treasure from the Hamoud. My own large tent was
no less a place of resort than that of Mohammed Emin, and as we were
objects of curiosity, Bedouins from all parts flocked to see us. With some
of them I was already acquainted, having either received them as my guests
at Mosul, or met them during excursions in the Desert. They generally
passed one night with us, and then returned to their own tents. A sheep
was always slain for them, and boiled with rice, or prepared wheat, in the
Arab way: if there were not strangers enough to consume the whole, the
rest was given to the workmen or to the needy, as it is considered
derogatory to the character of a truly hospitable and generous man to
keep meat until the following day, or to serve it up a second time when
cold. Even the poorest Bedouin who kills a sheep, invites all his friends
and neighbours to the repast, and if there be still any remnants,
distributes them amongst the poor and the hungry, although he should
himself want on the morrow.

The wandering Arabs have no other means of grinding their corn than by
handmills, which they carry with them wherever they go. They are always
worked by the women, for it is considered unworthy of a man to engage in
any domestic occupation. These handmills are simply two circular flat
stones, generally about eighteen inches in diameter, the upper turning
loosely upon a wooden pivot, and moved quickly round by a wooden handle.
The grain is poured through the hole of the pivot, and the flour is
collected in a cloth spread under the mill. It is then mixed with water,
kneaded in a wooden bowl, and pressed by the hand into round balls ready
for baking. During these processes, the women are usually seated on the
bare ground: hence, in Isaiah (xlvii. 1, 2), is the daughter of Babylon
told to sit in the dust and on the ground, and "to take the mill-stones to
grind meal."

The tribes who are always moving from place to place bake their bread on a
slightly convex iron plate, called a _sadj_, moderately heated over a low
fire of brushwood or camels' dung. The lumps of dough are rolled, on a
wooden platter, into thin cakes, a foot or more in diameter, and laid by
means of the roller upon the iron. They are baked in a very short time,
and should be eaten hot. The Kurds, whose flour is far whiter and more
carefully prepared than that of the Arabs, roll the dough into large
cakes, scarcely thicker than a sheet of paper. When carefully baked by
the same process, it becomes crisp and exceedingly agreeable to the taste.
All Arab bread is unleavened.

If a Bedouin tribe be moving in great haste before an enemy, and should be
unable to stop for many hours, or be making a forced march to avoid
pursuit over a desert where the wells are very distant from each other,
the women sometimes prepare bread whilst riding on camels. The fire is
then lighted in an earthen vessel. One woman kneads the flour, a second
rolls out the dough, and a third bakes, boys or women on foot passing the
materials, as required, from one to the other. But it is very rare that
the Bedouins are obliged to have recourse to this process, and I have only
once witnessed it.

The fuel used by the Arabs consists chiefly of the dwarf shrubs, growing
in most parts of the Desert, of dry grass and of camels' dung. They
frequently carry bags of the latter with them when in summer they march
over very arid tracts. On the banks of the great rivers of Mesopotamia,
the tamarisk and other trees furnish them with abundant firewood. They are
entirely dependent for their supplies of wheat upon the villages on the
borders of the Desert, or on the sedentary Arabs, who, whilst living in
tents, cultivate the soil. The Bedouins usually draw near to the towns and
cultivated districts soon after the harvest, to lay in their stock of
grain. A party of men and women, chosen by their companions, then take
with them money, or objects for sale or exchange, and drive the camels to
the villages, where they load them and return to their tents.

Nearly the whole revenue of an Arab Sheikh, whatever it may be, is laid
out in corn, rice and other provisions. The quantity of food consumed in
the tents of some of the great chiefs of the Bedouins is very
considerable. The common Bedouin can rarely get meat. His food consists
almost exclusively of wheaten bread with truffles, which are found in
great abundance during the spring, a few wild herbs, such as asparagus,
onions, and garlic, fresh butter, curds, and sour milk. But, at certain
seasons, even these luxuries cannot be obtained; for months together he
often eats bread alone. Roasted meat is very rarely seen in a Bedouin
tent. Rice is only eaten by the Sheikhs, except amongst the tribes who
encamp in the marshes of Southern Mesopotamia, where rice of an inferior
quality is very largely cultivated. There it is boiled with meat and made
into pilaws.

The Bedouins do not make cheese. The milk of their sheep and goats is
shaken into butter or turned into curds: it is rarely or never drank
fresh, new milk being thought very unwholesome, as by experience I soon
found it to be, in the Desert. The sour milk, or sheneena, an universal
beverage amongst the Arabs, is either buttermilk pure and diluted, or
curds mixed with water. Camel's milk is drank fresh. It is pleasant to the
taste, rich, and exceedingly nourishing. It is given in large quantities
to the horses. The Shammar and Aneyza Bedouins have no cows or oxen, those
animals being looked upon as the peculiar property of tribes who have
forgotten their independence, and degraded themselves by the cultivation
of land. The sheep are milked at dawn, or even before daybreak, and again
in the evening on their return from the pastures. The milk is immediately
turned into leben, or boiled to be shaken into butter. Amongst the
Bedouins and Jebours it is considered derogatory to the character of a man
to milk a cow or a sheep, but not to milk a camel.

The Sheikhs occasionally obtain dates from the cities. They are either
eaten dry with bread and leben, or fried in butter, a very favorite dish
of the Bedouin.[125]

To this spare and simple dish the Bedouins owe their freedom from
sickness, and their extraordinary power of bearing fatigue. Diseases are
rare amongst them; and the epidemics, which rage in the cities, seldom
reach their tents. The cholera, which has of late visited Mosul and
Baghdad with fearful severity, has not yet struck the Bedouins, and they
have frequently escaped the plague, when the settlements on the borders of
the Desert have been nearly depopulated by it. The small pox, however,
occasionally makes great havoc amongst them, vaccination being still
unknown to the Shammar, and intermittent fever prevails in the autumn,
particularly when the tribes encamp near the marshes in Southern
Mesopotamia. Rheumatism prevails somewhat, and Ophthalmia is common in the
Desert as well as in all other parts of the East, and may be attributed as
much to dirt and neglect as to any other cause.

The Bedouins are acquainted with few medicines. The Desert yields some
valuable simples, which are, however, rarely used. Dr. Sandwith hearing
from Suttum that the Arabs had no opiates, asked what they did with one
who could not sleep. "Do!" answered the Sheikh, "why, we make use of him,
and set him to watch the camels." If a Bedouin be ill, or have received a
wound, he sometimes comes to the nearest town to consult the barbers, who
are frequently not unskilful surgeons.

The women suffer little in labor, which often takes place during a march,
or when they are far from the encampment watering the flocks or
collecting fuel. They allow their children to remain at the breast until
they are nearly two and even three years old, and, consequently, have
rarely many offspring.

Soon after our arrival at the Khabour I bought a deloul, or dromedary, as
more convenient than a horse for making excursions in the Desert. Her name
was Sahaima, and she belonged to Moghamis, the uncle of Suttum, having
been taken by him from the Aneyza; she was well trained, and swift and
easy in her paces. The best delouls come from Nedjd and the Gebel Shammar.
They are small and lightly made, the difference between them and a common
camel being as great as that between a high-bred Arab mare and an English
cart-horse. Their powers of endurance are very great.

The deloul is much prized, and the race is carefully preserved. The Arabs
breed from them once in two years, and are very particular in the choice
of the male. An ordinary animal can work for twenty years. Suttum assured
me that they could travel in the spring as many as six days without water.
Their color is generally light brown and white, darker colors and black
are more uncommon. Their pace is a light trot kept up for many hours
together without fatigue; they can increase it to an unwieldy gallop, a
speed they cannot long maintain. A good deloul is worth at the most
10_l._, the common price is about 5_l._

After the day's work at Arban I generally rode with Suttum into the Desert
on our delouls, with the hawks and greyhounds. During these rides over the
flowered greensward, the Arab Sheikh would entertain me with stories of
his tribe, of their wars and intrigues, their successful plundering
expeditions, and their occasional defeats. In the evening Mohammed Emin
would join our party in the tent, remaining until the night was far
spent.

The grass around Arban having been eaten by the flocks, the Jebours struck
their tents at dawn on the 4th of April, and wandered down the Khabour in
search of fresh pastures. The Boraij, too, moved further inland from the
river. During the whole morning the Desert around the ruins was a busy
scene; sheep, cattle, beasts of burden, men, women, and children being
scattered far and wide over the plain. By mid-day the crowd had
disappeared, and the meadows, which a few hours before had been teeming
with living things, were now again left lonely and bare. Mohammed Emin
alone, with a few Sherabeen Arabs, remained to protect us.

Soon after our arrival at the Khabour, Adla, Suttum's first wife, came to
us with her child. After the Sheikh's marriage with Rathaiyah, she had
been driven from her husband's tent by the imperious temper of his new
bride, and had returned to Moghamis, her father. Her eldest sister was the
wife of Suttum's eldest brother Sahiman, and her youngest, Maizi, was
betrothed to Suttum's youngest brother Midjwell. The three were remarkable
for their beauty; their dark eyes had the true Bedouin fire, and their
long black hair fell in clusters on their shoulders. Their cousins, the
three brothers, had claimed them as their brides, according to Bedouin
law. Adla now sought to be reconciled through me to her husband. After
much difficulty, all the outward forms of perfect reconciliation between
the two wives were satisfactorily gone through, although Suttum evidently
saw that there was a different reception in store for himself when there
were no European eye-witnesses. Such are the trials of married life in the
Desert![126]

On the sixth of April we witnessed a remarkable electrical phenomenon.
During the day heavy clouds had been hanging on the horizon, foreboding
one of those furious storms which at this time of the year occasionally
visit the Desert. Late in the afternoon these clouds had gathered into one
vast circle, which moved slowly round, like an enormous wheel, presenting
one of the most extraordinary and awful appearances I ever saw. From its
sides leaped, without ceasing, forked flames of lightning. Clouds
springing up from all sides of the heavens, were dragged hurriedly into
the vortex, which advanced gradually towards us, and threatened soon to
break over our encampment. Fortunately, however, we only felt the very
edge of the storm,--a deluge of rain and of hail of the size of pigeons'
eggs. The great rolling cloud, attracted by the Sinjar hill, soon passed
away, leaving in undiminished splendor the setting sun.

_Monday, 8th of April._ The Mogdessi, one of my servants, caught a turtle
in the river measuring three feet in length. The Arabs have many stories
of the voracity of these animals, which attain, I am assured, to even a
larger size, and Suttum declared that a man had been pulled under water
and devoured by one, probably an Arab exaggeration.

A Bedouin, who had been attacked by a lion whilst resting, about five
hours lower down on the banks of the river, came to our encampment. He had
escaped with the loss of his mare. The lion is not uncommon in the jungles
of the Khabour, and the Bedouins and Jebours frequently find their cubs in
the spring season.

_April 9th._ A Bedouin youth, thin and sickly, though of a daring and
resolute countenance, sat in my guest tent. His singular appearance at
once drew my attention. His only clothing was a kerchief, very dirty and
torn, falling over his head, and a ragged cloak, which he drew tightly
round him, allowing the end of a knotted club to appear above its folds.
His story, which he was at length induced to tell, was characteristic of
Bedouin education. He was of the Boraij tribe, and related to Suttum. His
father was too poor to equip him with mare and spear, and he was ashamed
to be seen by the Arabs on foot and unarmed. He had now become a man, for
he was about fourteen years old, and he resolved to trust to his own skill
for his outfit as a warrior. Leaving in his father's tent all his clothes,
except his dirty keffieh and his tattered aba, and, without communicating
his plans to his friends, he bent his way to the Euphrates. For three
months his family hearing nothing of him, believed him to be dead. During
that time, however, he had lived in the river jungle, feeding on roots and
herbs, hiding himself during the day in the thickets, and prowling at
night round the tents of the Aneyza in search of a mare that might have
strayed, or might be less carefully guarded than usual. At length the
object of his ambition was found, and such a mare had never been seen
before; but, alas! her legs were bound with iron shackles, and he had
brought no file with him. He succeeded in leading her to some distance
from the encampment, where, as morning dawned, to avoid detection, he was
obliged to leave his prize and return to his hiding-place. He was now on
his way back to his tents, intending to set forth again, after recruiting
his strength, on new adventures in search of a mare and spear, promising
to be wiser in future, and to carry a file under his cloak. Suttum seemed
very proud of his relative, and introduced him to me as a promising, if
not distinguished, character.[127] It is thought no disgrace thus to
steal a mare as long as the thief has not eaten bread in the tent of her
owner.

_April 11th._ The waters of this river had been rising rapidly since the
recent storm, and had now spread over the meadows. We moved our tents, and
the Arabs took refuge on the mound, which stood like an island in the
midst of the flood. The Jebours killed four beavers, and brought three of
their young to us alive. They had been driven from their holes by the
swollen stream. Mohammed Emin eagerly accepted the musk bags, which are
much valued as _majouns_ by the Turks, and, consequently, fetch a large
price in the towns. Beavers were formerly found in large numbers on the
Khabour, but in consequence of the value attached to the musk bag, they
have been hunted almost to extermination by the Arabs. Mohammed Emin
assured me that for several years not more than one or two had been seen.
Sofuk, the great Shammar Sheikh, used to consider the musk bag of a beaver
the most acceptable present he could send to a Turkish Pasha, whose
friendship he wished to secure.

_April 12th._ We rode this morning to the tents of the Jebours, which had
now been moved some miles down the river. Rathaiyah remained behind. The
large tents and the workmen were left under the care of the Bairakdar.
About three miles from Arban we passed a small artificial mound called Tel
Hamer (the red); and similar ruins abound on the banks of the river. Three
hours from Arban we reached a remarkable artificial mound called Shedadi,
washed by the Khabour. It consists of a lofty platform, nearly square,
from the centre of which springs a cone. On the top are the tombs of
several Jebour chiefs, marked by the raised earth, and by small trees now
dry, fixed upright in the graves. I found fragments of pottery and bricks,
but no trace of inscriptions.

We did not reach the encampment of Mohammed Emin, spreading three or four
miles along the Khabour, until after sunset. The chief's tents were
pitched near a mound called Ledjmiyat, on a bend of the river, and
opposite to a very thick _zor_ or jungle, known to the Arabs as El Bostan
"the garden," a kind of stronghold of the tribe, which the Sheikh declared
could resist the attack of any number of _nizam_ (regular troops), if only
defended by Jebours. Suttum looked upon the grove rather as a delicious
retreat from the rays of the summer's sun, to which the Boraij
occasionally resorted, than as a place for war.

During the evening, the different Sheikhs assembled in my tent to plan a
_ghazou_, or plundering expedition, for the following day, against the
Agaydat, encamped at Abou Psera (Carchemish). On the following morning,
Mohammed Emin, with two of his sons, the horsemen of the tribe, and the
Sheikhs who were his guests, started on their _ghazou_. The plain, like
all the country watered by the Khabour, was one vast meadow teeming with
flowers. Game abounded, and the falcon soon flew towards a bustard, which
his piercing eye had seen lurking in the long grass. The sun was high in
the heavens, already soaring in the sky, was the enemy of the trained
hawk, the "agab," a kind of kite or eagle, whose name, signifying
"butcher," denotes his bloody propensities.[128] Although far beyond our
ken, he soon saw Hattab, and darted upon him in one swoop. The affrighted
falcon immediately turned from his quarry, and with shrill cries of
distress flew towards us. After circling round, unable from fear to
alight, he turned towards the Desert, still followed by his relentless
enemy. In vain his master, following as long as his mare could carry him,
waved the lure, and called the hawk by his name; he saw him no more.
Whether the noble bird escaped, or fell a victim to the "butcher," we
never knew.

Suttum was inconsolable at his loss. He wept when he returned without his
falcon on his wrist, and for days he would suddenly exclaim, "O Bej!
Billah! Hattab was not a bird, he was my brother." He was one of the best
trained hawks I ever saw amongst the Bedouins, and was of some substantial
value to his owner, as he would daily catch six or seven bustards, except
during the hottest part of summer, when the falcon is unable to hunt.

About a mile and a half below Ledjmiyat, but on the opposite bank of the
river, was another large mound called Fedghami. We reached Shemshani in an
hour and three quarters. It is a considerable ruin on the Khabour, and
consists of one lofty mound, surrounded on the Desert side by smaller
mounds and heaps of rubbish. It abounds in fragments of glazed and plain
pottery, bricks, and black basaltic stone, but I could find no traces of
sculpture or inscription.

Leaving Mohammed Emin to continue his journey we returned to our tents. On
our road we met Moghamis, and a large party of Bedouins on their way to
join the Jebour horsemen, for they also had been invited to take part in
the attack on the Agaydat, and to share in the spoil. They rode their
swift dromedaries, two men on each, the _rediff_ leading the mare of his
companion; that of the Sheikh was of the Obeyan race, and far famed in the
Desert. She was without saddle or clothes, and we could admire the
exquisite symmetry and beauty of her form.

We dismounted, embraced, and exchanged a few words. The Bedouins then
continued their rapid course over the Desert. We passed other riders on
delouls and mares, hastening to join the main body, or to meet their
friends at the rendezvous for the night near Abou Psera. The attack on the
tents was to be made at dawn on the following morning, the true Bedouin
never taking an unfair advantage of his enemy in the dark.

On the 16th of April, Mohammed Emin and his sons returned from their
expedition, driving before them their spoil of cows, oxen, and mares. The
Agaydat were taken by surprise, and made but a feeble defence; there was,
consequently, little bloodshed, as is usually the case when Arabs go on
these forays. The fine horse of the Jays chief had received a bad gunshot
wound, and this was the only casualty amongst my friends. Mohammed Emin
brought me one or two of the captured mares as an offering. They were, of
course, returned, but they involved the present of silk dresses to the
Sheikh and his sons.

_April 18th._ To-day we visited the tents of Moghamis and his tribe; they
were pitched about five miles from the river. The face of the desert was
as burnished gold. Its last change was to flowers of the brightest yellow
hue, and the whole plain was dressed with them. Suttum rioted in the
luxuriant herbage and scented air. I never saw him so exhilarated. "What
Kef (delight)," he continually exclaimed, as his mare waded through the
flowers, "has God given us equal to this? It is the only thing worth
living for. Ya Bej! what do the dwellers in cities know of true
happiness, they have never seen grass or flowers? May God have pity on
them!"

Moghamis clad himself in a coat of chain mail, of ordinary materials and
rude workmanship, but still strong enough to resist the coarse iron
spear-heads of the Arab lance, though certainly no protection against a
well-tempered blade. The Arabs wear their armour beneath the shirt,
because an enemy would otherwise strike at the mare and not at her
rider.[129]

After we had enjoyed all the luxuries of an Arab feast, visited the
women's compartments, where most of the ladies of the tribe had assembled
to greet us, examined the "chetab," or camel saddle, used by the wives of
the chiefs, and enquired into various details of the harem, we returned as
we came, through the flowers and long grass to our tents at Arban.



CHAPTER XIV.

    LEAVE ARBAN.--THE BANKS OF THE KHABOUR.--ARTIFICIAL
    MOUNDS.--MIJWELL.--THE CADI OF THE BEDOUINS.--THE THAR, OR BLOOD
    REVENGE.--CAUTION OF ARABS.--A NATURAL CAVERN.--AN EXTINCT
    VOLCANO.--THE CONFLUENTS OF THE KHABOUR.--BEDOUIN MARKS.--SULEIMAN
    AGHA.--ENCAMPMENT AT UM-JERJEH.--THE TURKISH IRREGULAR CAVALRY.--MOUND
    OF MIJDEL.--RUINS OF THE KHABOUR.--MOHAMMED EMIN LEAVES US.--VISIT TO
    KURDISH TENTS AND HAREM.--THE MILLI KURDS.--THE FAMILY OF
    RISHWAN.--ARAB LOVE-MAKING.--THE DAKHEEL.--BEDOUIN POETS AND
    POETRY.--TURKISH CAVALRY HORSES.


The hot weather was rapidly drawing near. Enough had not been discovered
in the mound of Arban, nor were there ruins of sufficient importance near
the river, to induce me to remain much longer on the Khabour. I wished,
however, to explore the stream, as far as I was able, towards its
principal source, and to visit Suleiman Agha, the Turkish commander, who
was now encamped on its banks. In answer to a letter, he urged me to come
to his tents, and to bring the Sheikh of the Jebours with me, pledging
himself to place no restraint whatever on the perfect liberty of the
chief. With such a guarantee, I ventured to invite Mohammed Emin to
accompany me. After much hesitation, arising from a very natural fear of
treachery, he consented to do so.

On the 19th of April we crossed the Khabour, and on the following morning
we commenced our journey to the eastward. Mohammed Emin was still in doubt
as to whether he should go with me or not; but at last, after more than
once turning back, he took a desperate resolution, and pushed his mare
boldly forward. His children commended him, with tears, to my protection,
and then left our caravan for their tents.

We rode from bend to bend of the river, without following its tortuous
course. Its banks are belted with poplars, tamarisks, and brushwood, the
retreat of wild boars, francolins, and other game, and studded with
artificial mounds, the remains of ancient settlements. This deserted
though rich and fertile district must, at one time, have been the seat of
a dense population. It is only under such a government as that of Turkey
that it could remain a wilderness. The first large ruin above Arban, and
some miles from it on the left bank of the river, is called Mishnak. About
one mile and a half beyond is another ruin called Abou Shalah, and three
miles further up the stream a third, called Taaban, upon which are the
remains of a modern fort. After a short day's journey of four hours and a
half, we encamped near a large mound named Mehlaibiyah.

Next morning Suttum returned to his tents with Rathaiyah, leaving us under
the care of his younger brother Mijwell. After I had visited the Turkish
commander, whom he did not appear over anxious to meet, he was to join us
in the Desert, and accompany me to Mosul. Mijwell was even of a more
amiable disposition than his brother; and although he could neither read
nor write, he was one of the cadis or judges of the Shammar, an office
hereditary in the family of the Saadi, at the head of which is Rishwan.
The old man had delegated the dignity to his younger son, who, by the
consent of his brothers, will enjoy it after their father's death.
Disputes of all kinds are referred to these recognised judges. Their
decrees are obeyed with readiness, and the other members of the tribe are
rarely called upon to enforce them. They administer rude justice; and,
although pretending to follow the words of the Prophet, are rather guided
by ancient custom than by the law of the Koran, which binds the rest of
the Mohammedan world. The most common source of litigation is, of course,
stolen property. They receive for their decrees, payment in money or in
kind; and he who gains the suit has to pay the fee. Amongst the Shammar,
if the dispute relates to a deloul, the cadi gets two gazees, about eight
shillings; if to a mare, a deloul; if to a man, a mare. Various ordeals,
such as licking a red-iron, are in use, to prove a man's innocence. If the
accused's tongue is burnt, no doubt exists as to his guilt.

One of the most remarkable laws in force amongst the wandering Arabs, and
one probably of the highest antiquity, is the law of blood, called the
Thar, prescribing the degrees of consanguinity within which it is lawful
to revenge a homicide. Although a law, rendering a man responsible for
blood shed by any one related to him within the fifth degree, may appear
to members of a civilised community one of extraordinary rigour, and
involving almost manifest injustice, it must nevertheless be admitted,
that no power vested in any one individual, and no punishment, however
severe, could tend more to the maintenance of order and the prevention of
bloodshed amongst the wild tribes of the Desert. As Burckhardt has justly
remarked, "this salutary institution has contributed in a greater degree
than any other circumstance, to prevent the warlike tribes of Arabia from
exterminating one another."

If a man commit a homicide, the cadi endeavours to prevail upon the family
of the victim to accept a compensation for the blood in money or in kind,
the amount being regulated according to custom in different tribes.
Should the offer of "blood-money" be refused, the "Thar" comes into
operation, and any person within the "khomse," or the fifth degree of
blood of the homicide, may be legally killed by any one within the same
degree of consanguinity to the victim.[130]

Mijwell now took Suttum's place in the caravan, and directed the order of
our march. Leaving the caravan to pursue the direct road, I struck across
the country to the hill of Koukab, accompanied by Mohammed Emin and
Mijwell. This remarkable cone, rising in the midst of the plain, had been
visible from our furthest point on the Khabour. Some of the Arabs declared
it to be an artificial mound; others said, that it was a mountain of
stones. Mohammed Emin would tell me of a subterranean lake beneath it, in
a cavern large enough to afford refuge to any number of men.

After descending some fifty feet into the cave, we found ourselves on the
margin of a lake of fresh water. The pitchy darkness prevented our
ascertaining its size, which could not have been very great, although the
Arabs declared that no one could reach the opposite side. The cave is
frequently a place of refuge for the wandering Arabs, and the Bedouins
encamp near it in summer to drink the cool water of this natural
reservoir.

Leaving the cavern and issuing from the ravine, we came to the edge of a
wide crater, in the centre of which rose the remarkable cone of Koukab.
All around were evidences of the remains of an extinct volcano, which had
been active within a comparatively recent geological period, even perhaps
within the time of history, or tradition, as the name of the mound amongst
the Arabs denotes a jet of fire or flame, as well as a constellation.

I ascended the cone, which is about 300 feet high, and composed entirely
of loose lava, scoria, and ashes, thus resembling precisely the cone
rising in the craters of Vesuvius and Ætna. It is steep and difficult of
ascent, except on one side, where the summit is easily reached even by
horses. Within, for it is hollow, it resembles an enormous funnel, broken
away at one edge, as if a molten stream had burst through it. Anemonies
and poppies, of the brightest scarlet hue, covered its sides; although the
dry lava and loose ashes scarcely seemed to have collected sufficient soil
to nourish their roots. It would be difficult to describe the richness and
brilliancy of this mass of flowers, the cone from a distance having the
appearance of a huge inverted cup of burnished copper, over which poured
streams of blood.

From the summit of Koukab I gazed upon a scene as varied as extensive.
Beneath me the two principal branches of the Khabour united their waters.
To the left, or the west, was the true Khabour, the Chaboras of the
ancients; a name it bears from its source at Ras-al-ain (_i. e._ the head
of the spring). The second stream, that to the east, is the ancient
Mygdonius, flowing through Nisibin. Khatouniyah and its lake were just
visible, backed by the solitary hill of the Sinjar. The Kurdish mountains
bounded the view to the east. In the plain, and on the banks of the
rivers, rose many artificial mounds; whilst, in the extreme distance to
the north could be distinguished the flocks and black tents of a large
wandering tribe. They were those of the Chichi and Milli Kurds, encamped
with the Turkish commander Suleiman Agha.

We found our companions near the junction of the rivers, where a raft had
been constructed to enable us to cross the smaller stream. I had sent the
Bairakdar two days before to apprise Suleiman Agha of my intended visit,
and to learn how far I could with safety take Mohammed Emin with me to the
Turkish camp. He had returned, and was waiting for me. The Agha had given
a satisfactory guarantee for the Sheikh's safety, and had sent an officer,
with a party of irregular troops, to receive me.

We had scarcely crossed the river before a large body of horsemen were
seen approaching us. As they drew nigh I recognised in the Turkish
commander an old friend, "the Topal," or lame, Suleiman Agha, as he was
generally called in the country. He had been Kiayah or
lieutenant-governor, to the celebrated Injeh Bairakdar Mohammed Pasha,
and, like his former master, possessed considerable intelligence, energy,
and activity. From his long connection with the tribes of the Desert, his
knowledge of their manners, and his skill in detecting and devising
treacheries and stratagems, he was generally chosen to lead expeditions
against the Arabs. He was now, as I have stated, endeavoring to recover
the government treasure plundered by the Hamoud Bedouins.

His tents were about six miles distant; and, after exchanging the usual
salutations, we turned towards them. Many fair speeches could scarcely
calm the fears of the timid Jebour Sheikh. Mijwell, on the other hand,
rode boldly along, casting contemptuous glances at the irregular cavalry,
as they galloped to and fro in mimic combat. The delta, formed by the
two streams, was covered with tents. We wended our way through crowds of
sheep, horses, cattle, and camels. Suleiman Agha lived under the spacious
canvas of the chief of the Chichi Kurds. The tents of the Kurdish tribes,
who wander in the low country at the foot of the mountains in winter and
spring, and seek the hill pastures in the summer, and especially those of
the principal men, are remarkable for their size, and the richness of
their carpets and furniture. They are often divided into as many as four
or five distinct compartments, by screens of light cane or reeds, bound
together with many-colored woollen threads, disposed in elegant patterns
and devices. Carpets hung above these screens complete the divisions. In
the tents of the great chiefs there is a separate compartment for the
servants, and one for the mares and colts.

I sat a short time with Suleiman Agha, drank coffee, smoked, and listened
patiently to a long discourse on the benefits of _tanzimat_, which had put
an end to bribes, treachery, and irregular taxation, especially intended
for Mohammed Emin, who was however by no means reassured by it. I then
adjourned to my own tents, which had been pitched upon the banks of the
river opposite a well-wooded island, and near a ledge of rocks forming one
of those beautiful falls of water so frequent in this part of the Khabour.

We were encamped near the foot of a large artificial Tel called Umjerjeh;
and on the opposite side of the Khabour were other mounds of the same
name. My Jebour workmen began to excavate in the ruins the day after our
arrival. I remained in my tent to receive the visits of the Kurdish chiefs
and of the Hyta-Bashis, or commanders of the irregular cavalry. From these
free-booters I have derived much curious and interesting information
relating to the various provinces of the Turkish empire and their
inhabitants, mingled with pleasant anecdotes and vivid descriptions of men
and manners. They are generally very intelligent, frank, and hospitable.
Although too often unscrupulous and cruel, they unite many of the good
qualities of the old Turkish soldier with most of his vices. They love
hard-drinking and gambling, staking their horses, arms, and even clothes,
on the most childish game of chance. Their pay, at the same time, is
miserably small, rarely exceeding a few shillings a month, and they are
obliged to plunder the peaceable inhabitants to supply their actual wants.
The race is now fast disappearing before the Nizam, or regular troops.

On the second day, accompanied by Mijwell, I visited a large mound called
Mijdel, on the right bank of the river about five miles above Umjerjeh. It
is a lofty platform, surrounded by groups of smaller mounds, amongst which
may still be traced the lines of streets and canals. It is about four or
five miles from the ridge of Abd-ul-Azeez. These low hills, scantily
wooded with dwarf oak, are broken into innumerable valleys and ravines,
which abound, it is said, with wild goats, boars, leopards, and other
animals. According to my Bedouin informants, the ruins of ancient towns
and villages still exist, but they could only give me the name of one,
Zakkarah. On the opposite side of the Khabour, and running parallel with
the Abd-ul-Azeez range, is another line of small hills, called Hamma, in
which there are many wells.

The Shammar Bedouins encamp on the banks of this part of the Khabour
during the hot months. The mound of Mijdel is a favorite resort of the
Boraij in the "eye of the summer:" the waters of the river are always
cool, and there is sufficient pasture for the flocks and herds of the
whole tribe.

An Arab whom I met in the tent of one of the Hyta-Bashis, pretended that
he was well acquainted with the ruins called _Verhan-Shehr_[131], of which
I had so frequently heard from the natives of Mardin and the Shammar. He
described them as being on a hill three days distant from our encampment,
and to consist of columns, buildings, and sculptured stones like those of
Palmyra.

In the evening Mohammed Emin left us. Suleiman Agha had already invested
him with a robe of honor, and had prevailed upon him to join with Ferhan
in taking measures for the recovery of the plundered treasure. The scarlet
cloak and civil treatment had conciliated the Jebour chief, and when he
parted with the Turkish commander in my tent there was an unusual display
of mutual compliments and pledges of eternal friendship. Mijwell looked on
with indignant contempt, swearing between his teeth that all Jebours were
but degenerate, ploughing Arabs, and cursing the whole order of
_temminahs_.[132]

We were detained at Umjerjeh several days by the severe illness of Mr.
Hormuzd Rassam. I took the opportunity to visit the tents of the Milli,
whose chief, Mousa Agha, had invited us to a feast. The spacious tent of
the chief was divided by partitions of reeds tastefully interwoven with
colored wool. The coolest part of the salamlik had been prepared for our
reception, and was spread with fine carpets and silken cushions. The chief
and his brothers, followed by their servants bearing trays loaded with
cups, presented the coffee to their guests.

After some conversation we went to the harem, and were received by his
mother, a venerable lady, with long silvery locks and a dignified
countenance and demeanor. Her dress was of the purest white and
scrupulously clean. Altogether she was almost the only comely woman I had
seen amongst Eastern tribes. The wives and daughters of the chiefs, with a
crowd of women, were collected in the tent; but it was evident, at a
glance, that they were of a different race from the wandering tribes of
the Desert.

The principal ladies led us into the private compartment, divided by
colored screens from the rest of the tent. It was furnished with more than
usual luxury. The cushions were of the choicest silk, and the carpets (in
the manufacture of which the Milli excel) of the best fabric. Sweetmeats
and coffee had been prepared for us, and the women did not object to
partake of them at the same time. Mousa Agha's mother described the
various marriage ceremonies of the tribe. Our account of similar matters
in Europe excited great amusement amongst the ladies. The Milli girls are
highly prized by the Kurds. Twenty purses, nearly 100_l._, we were
boastingly told, had been given for one of unusual attractions. The chief
pointed out one of his own wives who had cost him that sum. Other members
of the same establishment had deserved a less extravagant investiture of
money. The prettiest girls were called before us, and the old lady
appraised each, amidst the loud laughter of their companions, who no doubt
rejoiced to see their friends valued at their true worth. They were all
tatooed on the arms, and on other parts of the body, but less so than the
Bedouin ladies. The Kurdish ladies do not, like the Mussulman women of the
town, conceal their features with a veil; nor do they object to mingle, or
even eat, with the men. During my stay at Umjerjeh I invited the harem of
the Chichi chief, and their friends, to a feast in my tent--an
invitation they accepted with every sign of satisfaction.

The Milli were formerly one of the wealthiest Kurdish tribes; but they
were wantonly plundered, and almost reduced to want, by the Turkish troops
three years ago. Although the Porte openly condemned the outrage, and had
promised compensation, no step whatever had been taken to restore the
stolen property, the greater part of which had passed into the government
treasury.

Mijwell, during our visit, had been seated in a corner, his eyes wandering
from the tent and its furniture to the horses and mares picketed without,
and to the flocks pasturing around. He cast, every now and then,
significant glances towards me, which said plainly enough, "All this ought
to belong to the Bedouins. These people and their property were made for
_ghazous_." As we rode away I accused him of evil intentions. "Billah, ya
Bej!" said he, "there is, indeed, enough to make a man's heart grow white
with envy; but I have now eaten his bread under your shadow, and should
even his stick, wherewith he drives his camel, fall into my hand, I would
send it to him." He entertained me, as we returned home, with the domestic
affairs of his family. Rathaiyah had offered herself in marriage to
Suttum, and not he to her; a common proceeding, it would appear, among the
Bedouins. Mijwell rather looked upon his brother with pity, as a henpecked
husband. He himself, although already married to one wife, and betrothed
to Maizi, whom he would soon be able to claim, was projecting a third
marriage. His heart had been stolen by an unseen damsel, whose beauties
and virtues had been the theme of some wandering Arab rhymers, and she was
of the Fedhan Aneyza, the mortal enemies of the Shammar. Her father was
the sheikh of the tribe, and his tents were on the other side of the
Euphrates. The difficulties and dangers of the courtship served only to
excite still more the ardent mind of the Bedouin. His romantic imagination
had pictured a perfection of loveliness; his whole thoughts were now
occupied in devising the means of possessing this treasure.[133] He had
already apprised the girl of his love by a trusty messenger, one of her
own tribe, living with the Shammar, and she had, at last, promised him her
hand, if he could claim her in her own tent. Mijwell had now planned a
scheme which he was eager to put into execution. Waiting until the Fedhan
were so encamped that he could approach them without being previously
seen, he would mount his deloul, and leading his best mare, ride to the
tent of the girl's father. Meat would, of course, be laid before him, and
having eaten he would be the guest, and under the protection of the
Sheikh. On the following morning he would present his mare, describing her
race and qualities, to his host, and ask his daughter; offering, at the
same time, to add any other gift that might be thought worthy of her. The
father, who would probably not be ignorant of what had passed between the
lovers, would at once consent to the union, and give back the mare to his
future son-in-law. The marriage would shortly afterwards be solemnised,
and an alliance would thus be formed between the two tribes. Such was
Mijwell's plan, and it was one not unfrequently adopted by Bedouins under
similar circumstances.

The laws of Dakheel, another very remarkable branch of Bedouin
legislation, in force amongst the Shammar, are nearly the same as those of
the Aneyza and Hedjaz Arabs, of which Burckhardt has given so full and
interesting an account. I have little, therefore, to add upon the
subject, but its importance demands a few words. No customs are more
religiously respected by the true Arab than those regulating the mutual
relations of the protected and protector. A violation of Dakheel (as this
law is called) would be considered a disgrace not only upon the individual
but upon his family, and even upon his tribe, which never could be wiped
out. No greater insult can be offered to a man, or to his clan, than to
say that he has broken the Dakheel. A disregard of this sacred obligation
is the first symptom of degeneracy in an Arab tribe; and when once it
exists, the treachery and vices of the Turk rapidly succeed to the honesty
and fidelity of the true Arab character. The relations between the Dakheel
and the Dakhal (or the protector and protected) arise from a variety of
circumstances, the principal of which are, eating a man's salt and bread,
and claiming his protection by doing certain acts, or repeating a certain
formula of words. Amongst the Shammar, if a man can seize the end of a
string or thread, the other end of which is held by his enemy, he
immediately becomes his Dakheel. If he touch the canvas of a tent, or can
even throw his mace towards it, he is the Dakheel of its owner. If he can
spit upon a man, or touch any article belonging to him with his teeth, he
is Dakhal, unless of course, in case of theft, it be the person who caught
him. A woman can protect any number of persons, or even of tents.[134] If
a horseman ride into a tent, he and his horse are Dakhal. A stranger who
has eaten with a Shammar, can give Dakheel to his enemy; for instance, I
could protect an Aneyza, though there is blood between his tribe and the
Shammar. According to Mijwell, any person, by previously calling out
"Nuffo" (I renounce), may reject an application for Dakheel.

An Arab who has given his protection to another, whether formally, or by
an act which confers the privilege of Dakheel, is bound to protect his
Dakhal under all circumstances, even to the risk of his own property and
life. I could relate many instances of the greatest sacrifices having been
made by individuals, and even of whole tribes having been involved in war
with powerful enemies by whom they have been almost utterly destroyed, in
defence of this most sacred obligation. Even the Turkish rulers respect a
law to which they may one day owe their safety, and more than one haughty
Pasha of Baghdad has found refuge and protection in the tent of a poor
Arab Sheikh, whom, during the days of his prosperity, he had subjected to
every injury and wrong, and yet who would then defy the government itself,
and risk his very life, rather than surrender his guest. The essence of
Arab virtue is a respect for the laws of hospitality, of which the Dakheel
in all its various forms is but a part.

Amongst the Bedouins who watched our camels was one Saoud, a poet of
renown amongst the tribes. With the exception of a few ballads that he had
formerly composed in honor of Sofuk, and other celebrated Shammar Sheikhs,
he chiefly recited extemporary stanzas on passing events, or on persons
who were present. He would sit in my tent of an evening, and sing his
verses in a wild, though plaintive, strain, to the great delight of the
assembled guests, and particularly of Mijwell, who, like a true Bedouin,
was easily affected by poetry, especially with such as might touch his own
passion for the unknown lady. When the bard improvised an amatory ditty,
the young chief's excitement was almost beyond control. The other Bedouins
were scarcely less moved by these rude measures, which have the same kind
of effect on the wild tribes of the Persian mountains. Such verses,
chanted by their self-taught poets, or by the girls of their encampment,
will drive warriors to the combat, fearless of death, or prove an ample
reward on their return from the dangers of the _ghazou_ or the fight. The
excitement they produce exceeds that of the grape. He who would understand
the influence of the Homeric ballads in the heroic ages, should witness
the effect which similar compositions have upon the wild nomades of the
East. The art of improvising seems innate in the Bedouin. Although his
metre and mode of recitation are rude to European ears, his rich and
sonorous language lends itself to this species of poetry, whilst his
exuberant imagination furnishes him with endless beautiful and appropriate
allegories. The wars between the tribes, the _ghazou_, and their struggles
with the Turks, are inexhaustible themes for verse, and in an Arab tent
there is little else to afford excitement or amusement. The Bedouins have
no books; even a Koran is seldom seen amongst them: it is equally rare to
find a wandering Arab who can read. They have no written literature, and
their traditional history consists of a little more than the tales of a
few storytellers who wander from encampment to encampment, and earn their
bread by chanting verses to the monotonous tones of a one-stringed fiddle
made of a gourd covered with sheep-skin.

The day of our departure now drew nigh, and Suleiman Agha, to do us honor,
invited us to a general review of the irregular troops under his command.
The horsemen of the Milli and Chichi Kurds, and of the Arab tribes who
encamped with them, joined the Turkish cavalry, and added to the interest
and beauty of the display. The Hyta-Bashis were, as usual, resplendent in
silk and gold. There were some high-bred horses in the field; but the men,
on the whole, were badly mounted, and the irregular cavalry is daily
degenerating throughout the empire. The Turkish Government have unwisely
neglected a branch of their national armies to which they owed most of
their great victories, and at one time their superiority over all their
neighbours. The abolition of the Spahiliks, and other military tenures,
has, of course, contributed much to this result, and has led to the
deterioration of that excellent breed of horses which once distinguished
the Ottoman light cavalry. No effort is now made by the government to keep
up the race, and the scanty pay of the irregular troops is not sufficient
to enable them to obtain even second-rate animals. Everything has been
sacrificed to the regular army, undoubtedly an essential element of
national defence; but in a future war the Turks will probably find reason
to regret that they have altogether sacrificed it to the ancient irregular
horse.

The Kurds, although encumbered by their long flowing garments and huge
turbans, are not bad horsemen. Mijwell, however, as he scanned the motley
crowd with his eagle eye, included them all in one expression of ineffable
contempt.



[Illustration: Volcanic Cone of Koukab.]


CHAPTER XV.

    DEPARTURE FROM THE KHABOUR.--ARAB SAGACITY.--THE HOL.--THE LAKE OF
    KHATOUNIYAH.--RETURN OF SUTTUM.--ENCAMPMENT OF THE SHAMMAR.--ARAB
    HORSES.--THEIR BREEDS.--THEIR VALUE.--THEIR SPEED.--SHEIKH
    FERHAN.--YEZIDI VILLAGES.--FALCONS.--AN ALARM. ABOU MARIA.--ESKI
    MOSUL.--ARRIVAL AT MOSUL.--RETURN OF SUTTUM TO THE DESERT.


Mr. Hormuzd Rassam having sufficiently recovered from his dangerous
illness to be able to ride a deloul, and no remains, except pottery and
bricks, having been discovered in the mounds of Umjerjeh, we left the
encampment of Suleiman Agha on the 29th of April, on our return to Mosul.

We again visited the remarkable volcanic cone of Koukab. As we drew near
to it, Mijwell detected, in the loose soil, the footprints of two men,
which he immediately recognised to be those of Shammar thieves returning
from the Kurdish encampments. The sagacity of the Bedouin in determining
from such marks, whether of man or beast, and, from similar indications,
the tribe, time of passing, and business, of those who may have left them,
with many other particulars, is well known. In this respect he resembles
the American Indian, though the circumstances differ under which the two
are called upon to exercise this peculiar faculty. The one seeks or avoids
his enemy in vast plains, which, for three-fourths of the year, are
without any vegetation; the other tracks his prey through thick woods and
high grass. The quickness of perception is the result of continual
observation and of caution encouraged from earliest youth. Whilst the
child in a civilised country is still under the care of its nurse, the
Bedouin boy is compelled to exercise his highest faculties, and on his
prudence and sagacity may sometimes depend the safety of his tribe.

The expert Bedouin can draw conclusions from the footprints and dung of
animals that would excite the astonishment of an European. He will tell
whether the camel was loaded or unloaded, whether recently fed or
suffering from hunger, whether fatigued or fresh, the time when it passed
by, whether the owner was a man of the desert or of the town, whether a
friend or foe, and sometimes even the name of his tribe.

We encamped for the night near the mound of Thenenir, and resumed our
journey on the following morning. Bidding farewell to the pleasant banks
of the Khabour, we struck into the Desert in the direction of the Sinjar.
Extensive beds of gypsum, or alabaster, such as was used in the Assyrian
edifices, formed for some miles the surface of the plain. We soon
approached a dense mass of reeds and rank herbage, covering a swamp called
the Hol, which extends from the Lake of Khatouniyah to within a short
distance of the Khabour. This jungle is the hiding-place of many kinds of
wild beasts: lions lurk in it, and in the thick cover the Bedouins find
their cubs.

During our journey an Arab joined us, riding on a deloul, with his wife.
His two children were crammed into a pair of saddle-bags, a black head
peeping out of either side. He had quarrelled with his kinsmen, and was
moving with his family and little property to another tribe.

After a six hours' ride we found ourselves upon the margin of a small
lake, whose surface reflected the deep blue of the cloudless sky. In the
midst was a peninsula, joined to the mainland by a narrow causeway, and
beyond it a small island. On the former were the ruins of a town, whose
falling walls and towers were doubled in the clear waters.

The small town of Khatouniyah was, until recently, inhabited by a tribe of
Arabs. A feud, arising out of the rival pretensions of two chiefs, sprang
up amongst them. The factions fought, many persons were killed, and the
place was consequently deserted, one party joining the Tai Arabs near
Nisibin, the other the Yezidis of Keraniyah. We traced the remains of
cultivation, and the dry water-courses, which once irrigated plots of rice
and melon beds. The lake may be about six miles in circumference. The
water, although brackish, like nearly all the springs in this part of the
Desert, is not only drinkable, but, according to the Bedouins, exceedingly
wholesome for man and beast. It abounds in fish, some of which are said to
be of very considerable size, and waterfowl and waders, of various kinds,
congregate on the shores.

We had scarcely resumed our march in the morning when we spied Suttum and
Khoraif coming towards us, and urging their fleet mares to the top of
their speed. A Jebour, leaving our encampment at Umjerjeh, when Hormuzd
was dangerously ill, had spread a report[135] in the Desert, that he was
actually dead. To give additional authenticity to his tale he had minutely
described the process by which my companion's body had been first salted,
and then sent to Frankistan in a box, on a camel. Suttum, as we met,
showed the most lively signs of grief; but when he saw the dead man
himself restored to life, his joy and his embraces knew no bounds.

We rode over a low undulating country, at the foot of the Sinjar hills,
every dell and ravine being a bed of flowers. About five miles from
Khatouniyah we passed a small reedy stream, called Suffeyra, on which the
Boraij (Suttum's tribe) had been encamped on the previous day. They had
now moved further into the plain, and we stopped at their watering-place,
a brackish rivulet called Sayhel, their tents being about three miles
distant from us in the Desert. Their mares, camels, and sheep came to
Sayhel for water, and during the whole day there was one endless line of
animals passing to and fro before our encampment. I sat watching them from
my tent. As each mare and horse stopped to drink at the troubled stream,
Suttum named its owner and its breed, and described its exploits. The
mares were generally followed by two or three colts, who are suffered,
even in their third year, to run loose after their dams, and to gambol
unrestrained over the plain. It is to their perfect freedom whilst young
that the horses of the Desert owe their speed and the suppleness of their
limbs.

It may not be out of place to add a few remarks on the subject of Arab
horses. The Bedouins, as it is well known, divide their thorough-breds
into five races, descended, as some declare, from the five favourite mares
of the Prophet. The names, however, of these breeds vary amongst different
tribes. According to Suttum, who was better acquainted with the history
and traditions of the Bedouins than almost any Arab I ever met, they are
all derived from one original stock, the Koheyleh, which, in course of
time, was divided, after the names of celebrated mares, into the following
five branches:--Obeyan Sherakh, Hedba Zayhi, Manekia Hedrehji, Shouaymah
Sablah, and Margoub. These form the _Kamse_, or the five breeds, from
which alone entire horses are chosen to propagate the race. From the
_Kamse_ have sprung a number of families no less noble, perhaps, than the
original five; but the Shammar receive their stallions with suspicion, or
reject them altogether. Among the best known are the Wathna Khersan, so
called from the mares being said to be worth their weight in gold; (noble
horses of this breed are found amongst the Arab tribes inhabiting the
districts to the east of the Euphrates, the Beni Lam, Al Kamees, and Al
Kithere;) Khalawi, thus named from a wonderful feat of speed performed by
a celebrated mare in Southern Mesopotamia; Jaiaythani, and Julfa. The only
esteemed race in the Desert which, according to Suttum, cannot be traced
to the _Kamse_, is the Saklawi, although considered by the Shammar and by
the Bedouins of the Gebel Shammar, as one of the noblest, if not the
noblest, of all. It is divided into three branches, the most valued being
the Saklawi Jedran, which is said to be now almost extinct.

To understand how a man, who has perhaps not even bread to feed himself
and his children, can withstand the temptation of such large sums, it must
be remembered that, besides the affection proverbially felt by the Bedouin
for his mare, which might, perhaps, not be proof against such a test, he
is entirely dependent upon her for his happiness, his glory, and, indeed,
his very existence. An Arab possessing a horse unrivalled in speed and
endurance, and it would only be for such that enormous prices would be
offered, is entirely his own master, and can defy the world. Once on its
back, no one can catch him. He may rob, plunder, fight, and go to and fro
as he lists. No man has a keener sense of the joys of liberty, and a
heartier hatred of restraint, than the true Bedouin. Give him the Desert,
his mare, and his spear, and he will not envy the wealth and power of the
greatest of the earth. He plunders and robs for the mere pleasure and
excitement which danger and glory afford.

A mare is generally the property of two or more persons, who have a share
in her progeny, regulated by custom, and differing according to the tribe.

The largest number of horses, as well as those of the most esteemed
breeds, are still to be found, as in the time of Burckhardt, amongst the
tribes who inhabit Mesopotamia and the great plains watered by the
Euphrates and Tigris. These rich pastures, nourished by the rains of
winter and spring, the climate, and--according to the Arabs--the brackish
water of the springs rising in the gypsum, seem especially favorable to
the rearing of horses. The best probably belong to the Shammar and Aneyza
tribes.

The present Sheikh of the Gebel Shammar, Ibn Reshid, has, I am informed, a
very choice stud of mares of the finest breeds, and their reputation has
spread far and wide over the Desert. The Nawab of Oude, the
Ekbal-ed-Doulah, a good judge of horses, who had visited many of the
tribes, and had made the pilgrimage to the holy cities by the little
frequented route through the interior of Nedjd, assured me that the finest
horses he had ever seen were in the possession of the Shereef of Mecca.

The Arab horse is more remarkable for its exquisite symmetry and beautiful
proportions, united with wonderful powers of endurance, than for
extraordinary speed. I doubt whether any Arab of the best blood has ever
been brought to England. The difficulty of obtaining them is so great,
that they are scarcely ever seen beyond the limits of the Desert.

Their color is generally white, light or dark grey, light chestnut, and
bay, with white or black feet. Black is exceedingly rare, and I never
remember to have seen dun, sorrel, or dapple. I refer, of course, to the
true-bred Arab, and not to the Turcoman or to Kurdish and Turkish races,
which are a cross between the Arab and Persian.

Their average height is from 14 hands to 14-3/4, rarely reaching 15; I
have only seen one mare that exceeded it. Notwithstanding the smallness of
their stature they often possess great strength and courage. But their
most remarkable and valuable quality is the power of performing long and
arduous marches upon the smallest possible allowance of food and water. It
is only the mare of the wealthy Bedouin that gets even a regular feed of
about twelve handfuls of barley, or of rice in the husk, once in
twenty-four hours. During the spring alone, when the pastures are green,
the horses of the Arabs are sleek and beautiful in appearance. At other
times they eat nothing but the withered herbs and scanty hay gathered from
the parched soil, and are lean and unsightly. They are never placed under
cover during the intense heat of an Arabian summer, nor protected from the
biting cold of the Desert winds during the winter. The saddle is rarely
taken from their backs, nor are they ever cleaned or groomed. Thus
apparently neglected, they are but skin and bone, and the townsman marvels
at seeing an animal, which he would scarcely take the trouble to ride
home, valued almost beyond price.

The Shammar Bedouins give their horses, particularly when young, large
quantities of camels' milk. I have heard of mares eating raw flesh, and
dates are frequently mixed with their food by the tribes living near the
mouth of the Euphrates. The Shammar and Aneyza shoe their horses if
possible, and wandering farriers regularly visit their tents. The Arab
horse has but two ordinary paces, a quick and easy walk, sometimes
averaging between four and five miles an hour, and a half running canter.
The Bedouin rarely puts his mare to full speed unless pursued or pursuing.

In the evening, as I was seated before my tent, I observed a large party
of horsemen and riders on delouls approaching our encampment. They stopped
at the entrance of the large pavilion reserved for guests, and picketing
their mares, and turning loose their dromedaries adorned with gay
trappings, seated themselves on the carpets. The chiefs were our old
friends, Mohammed Emin and Ferhan, the great Shammar Sheikh. We cordially
embraced after the Bedouin fashion. I had not seen Ferhan since the
treacherous murder of his father by Nejib Pasha of Baghdad[136], to which
he alluded with touching expressions of grief, bewailing his own
incompetency to fill Sofuk's place, and to govern the divided tribe. He
was now on his way with the Jebour Sheikh to recover, if possible, the
government treasure, plundered by the Hamoud, for which, as head of the
Shammar, he was held responsible by the Porte.

After they had eaten of the feast we were able to prepare for them, they
departed about sunset for the tents of the Jebours. I embraced Mohammed
Emin for the last time, and saw him no more during my residence in
Assyria.

On the 4th of May we made a short day's journey of five hours to a
beautiful stream issuing from the Sinjar hill, beneath the village of
Khersa or Chersa. A Bedouin of the Boraij tribe accompanied us riding on a
swift white dromedary of a true Nedjid breed. This animal was scarcely
taller than a large English horse.

Leaving the plain, which was speckled as far as the eye could reach with
the flocks and tents of the Bedouins, we skirted the very foot of the
Sinjar. Khersa had been deserted by its inhabitants, who had rebuilt their
village higher up on the side of the hill.

Since the loss of Hattab, Suttum had never ceased pining for a falcon
worthy to take his place. He had been counting the hours of his visit to
this part of the Sinjar, known only to yield to the borders of the Persian
Gulf in producing the finest and bravest hawks for the chase. He was not
successful, however, in pleasing himself with those which were offered to
him.

Next day we made but little progress, encamping near a spring under the
village of Aldina, whose chief, Murad, had now returned from his
captivity. Grateful for my intercession in his behalf, he brought us sheep
and other provisions, and met us with his people as we entered the valley.
At his urgent request, I aided materially in inducing the people to pay
the dues of the tax-gatherer who was at that time in the village.

During the negociations, Suttum, surrounded by clamorous Yezidis, was
sitting in the shade, examining unfledged hawks. At length three were
deemed worthy of his notice: one being pretty well advanced in days was
sent to his tent for education, under the charge of the rider of the Nedjd
deloul. The others, being yet in a weak state, were restored to the nest,
to be claimed on his return from Mosul. The largest bird, being a very
promising specimen, cost five gazees or 1_l._; the others, three gazees
and a half, as the times were hard, and the tax-gatherers urgent for ready
money.

We rode on the following day for about an hour along the foot of the
Sinjar hill, which suddenly subsides into a low undulating country. The
narrow valleys and ravines were blood-red with gigantic poppies. The
Bedouins adorned the camels and horses with the scarlet flowers, and
twisted them into their own head-dresses and long garments. Even the
Tiyari dressed themselves up in the gaudy trappings of nature, and as we
journeyed chanting an Arab war-song, we resembled the return of a festive
procession from some sacrifice of old. During our weary marches under a
burning sun, it required some such episodes to keep up the drooping
spirits of the men, who toiled on foot by our sides. Poetry and flowers
are the wine and spirits of the Arab; a couplet is equal to a bottle, and
a rose to a dram, without the evil effects of either. Would that in more
civilised climes the sources of excitement were equally harmless!

In the evening Suttum inveighed bitterly against a habit of some
travellers of continually taking notes before strangers. I endeavoured to
explain the object and to remove his fears. "It is all very well," said
the Sheikh, "and I can understand, and am willing to believe, all you tell
me. But supposing the Turks, or any body else, should hereafter come
against us, there are many foolish and suspicious men in the tribe, and I
have enemies, who would say that I had brought them, for I have shown you
everything. You know what would be the consequences to me of such a
report. As for you, you are in this place to-day, and 100 days' journey
off to-morrow, but I am always here. There is not a plot of grass or a
spring that that man (alluding to one of our party) does not write down."
Suttum's complaints were not unreasonable, and travellers cannot be too
cautious in this respect, when amongst independent tribes, for even if
they do not bring difficulties upon themselves, they may do so upon
others.

We had a seven hours' ride on the delouls, leaving the caravan to follow,
to the large ruin of Abou Maria,[137] passing through Tel Afer. The Jehesh
were encamped about two miles from the place. My workmen had excavated for
some time in these remarkable mounds, and had discovered chambers and
several enormous slabs of Mosul marble, but no remains whatever of
sculpture.

A short ride of three hours brought us to Eski (old) Mosul, on the banks
of the Tigris. According to tradition this is the original site of the
city. There are mounds, and the remains of walls, which are probably
Assyrian. Mosul was still nine caravan hours distant, and we encamped the
next night at Hamaydat, where many of our friends came out to meet us. On
the 10th of May we were again within the walls of the town, our desert
trip having been accomplished without any mishap or accident whatever.

Suttum left us two days after for his tents, fearing lest he should be too
late to join the warriors of the Khorusseh, who had planned a grand
_ghazou_ into Nedjd. He urged me to accompany them; but I had long
renounced such evil habits, and other occupations kept me in Mosul.
Finding that I was not to be persuaded, and that the time was at length
come for us to part, he embraced me, crammed the presents we had made to
himself and his wives into his saddle-bags, and, mounting his deloul, rode
off with Mijwell towards the Desert.



CHAPTER XVI.

    DISCOVERIES AT KOUYUNJIK.--PROCESSION OF FIGURES BEARING FRUIT AND
    GAME.--LOCUSTS.--LED HORSES.--AN ASSYRIAN CAMPAIGN.--DAGON, OR THE
    FISH-GOD.--THE CHAMBERS OF RECORDS.--INSCRIBED CLAY TABLETS.--RETURN
    TO NIMROUD.--EFFECTS OF THE FLOOD.--DISCOVERIES.--SMALL TEMPLE UNDER
    HIGH MOUND.--THE EVIL SPIRIT.--FISH-GOD.--FINE BAS-RELIEF OF THE
    KING.--EXTRACTS FROM THE INSCRIPTION.--GREAT INSCRIBED
    MONOLITH.--EXTRACTS FROM THE INSCRIPTION.--CEDAR BEAMS.--SMALL
    OBJECTS.--SECOND TEMPLE.--MARBLE FIGURE AND OTHER OBJECTS.


During my absence in the Desert, the excavations at Kouyunjik had been
actively carried on under the superintendence of Toma Shishman. On my
arrival he described many interesting discoveries, and I hastened to the
ruins, crossing in a rude ferry-boat the river, now swollen, by the spring
rains, to more than double its usual size.[138]

The earth had been completely removed from the sides of the long gallery,
on the walls of which had been portrayed the transport of the large stone
and of the winged bulls. An outlet was discovered near its western end,
opening into a narrow descending passage; an entrance, it would appear,
into the palace from the river side. Its length was ninety-six feet, its
breadth not more than thirteen. The walls were panelled with sculptured
slabs about six feet high. Those to the right, in descending, represented
a procession of servants carrying fruit, flowers, game, and supplies for a
banquet, preceded by mace-bearers. The first servant following the guard
bore an object which I should not hesitate to identify with the pineapple,
unless there were every reason to believe that the Assyrians were
unacquainted with that fruit. The leaves sprouting from the top proved
that it was not the cone of a pine tree or fir. After all, the sacred
symbol held by the winged figures in the Assyrian sculptures, may be the
same fruit, and not, as I have conjectured, that of a coniferous tree.

The attendants who followed carried clusters of ripe dates and flat
baskets of osier-work, filled with pomegranates, apples, and bunches of
grapes. They raised in one hand small green boughs to drive away the
flies. Then came men bearing hares, partridges, and dried locusts fastened
on rods. The locust has ever been an article of food in the East, and is
still sold in the markets of many towns in Arabia.[139] Being introduced
in this bas-relief amongst the choice delicacies of a banquet, it was
probably highly prized by the Assyrians.

The locust-bearers were followed by a man with strings of pomegranates;
then came, two by two, attendants carrying on their shoulders low tables,
such as are still used in the East at feasts, loaded with baskets of cakes
and fruits of various kinds. The procession was finished by a long line of
servants bearing vases of flowers.

These figures were dressed in a short tunic, confined at the waist by a
shawl or girdle. They wore no headgear, their hair falling in curls on
their shoulders.

On the opposite walls of the passage were fourteen horses without
trappings, each horse having a simple halter twisted round its lower jaw,
by which it was led by a groom. The animals and men were designed with
considerable truth and spirit.

It is probable that the sculptures forming the upper end of the passage,
but now entirely destroyed, represented the king receiving this double
procession. The passage may have led to the banqueting-hall, or to a
chamber, where royal feasts were sometimes held, and was therefore adorned
with appropriate subjects. At its western end the gallery turned abruptly
to the north, its walls being there built of solid stone-masonry. I lost
all further traces of it, as the workmen were unable, at that time, to
carry on the tunnel beneath an accumulated mass of earth and rubbish about
forty feet thick.

As the workmen could no longer, without some danger, excavate in this part
of the ruins, they had returned to the chamber already described as
containing a series of bas-reliefs representing the capture and sack of a
large city in the mountains, and as opening into the broad gallery on
whose walls were depictured the various processes employed by the
Assyrians in moving their colossal figures. From this chamber branched to
the south a narrow passage, whose sculptured panels had been purposely
destroyed. It led into a great hall, which the workmen did not then
explore. They continued for a few feet along its western side, and then
turning through a doorway, discovered a chamber, from which again, always
following the line of wall, they entered a spacious apartment, completely
surrounded with bas-reliefs, representing one continuous subject. The
Assyrian army was seen fording a broad river amidst wooded mountains. The
king in his chariot was followed by a long retinue of warriors on foot and
on horses richly caparisoned, by led horses with even gayer trappings, and
by men bearing on their shoulders his second chariot, which had a yoke
ornamented with bosses and carvings. After crossing the river they
attacked the enemy's strongholds, which they captured one by one, putting
to death or carrying into captivity their inhabitants. The captives wore a
kind of turban wrapped in several folds round the head, and a short tunic
confined at the waist by a broad belt. From the nature of the country it
may be conjectured that the sculptures represented a campaign in some part
of Armenia, and I am inclined to identify the river with the Euphrates,
near whose head-waters, as we learn from the bull inscriptions,
Sennacherib waged one of his most important wars.

The slabs at the western end of this chamber were actually _curved
backwards_, showing the enormous pressure that must have taken place from
the falling in of the upper part of the building, by which not only the
alabaster was bent, but driven into the wall of sundried bricks.

On the north side of the chamber were two doorways leading into separate
apartments. Each entrance was formed by two colossal bas-reliefs of Dagon,
or the fish-god. Unfortunately the upper part of all these figures had
been destroyed, but as the lower remained from above the waist we can have
no difficulty in restoring the whole, especially as the same image is
seen entire on a fine Assyrian cylinder of agate in my possession. It
combined the human shape with that of the fish. The head of the fish
formed a mitre above that of the man, whilst its scaly back and fanlike
tail fell as a cloak behind, leaving the human limbs and feet exposed. The
figure wore a fringed tunic, and bore the two sacred emblems, the basket
and the cone.

We can scarcely hesitate to identify this mythic form with the Oannes, or
sacred man-fish, who, according to the traditions preserved by Berossus,
issued from the Erythræan Sea, instructed the Chaldæans, in all wisdom, in
the sciences, and in the fine arts, and was afterwards worshipped as a god
in the temples of Babylonia. Its body, says the historian, was that of a
fish, _but under the head of a fish was that of a man_, and to its tail
were joined women's feet. Five such monsters rose from the Persian Gulf at
fabulous intervals of time.[140]

The Dagon of the Philistines and of the inhabitants of the Phoenician
coast was worshipped, according to the united opinion of the Hebrew
commentators on the Bible, under the same form.[141] When the ark of the
Lord was brought into the great temple of the idol at Ashdod, and the
statue fell a second time, "the head of Dagon and both the palms of his
hands were cut off upon the threshold; only the _fishy part_ of Dagon was
left to him."[142] His worship appears to have extended over Syria, as
well as Mesopotamia and Chaldæa. He had many temples, as we learn from
the Bible, in the country of the Philistines, and it was probably under
the ruins of one of them that Samson buried the people of Gaza who had
"gathered them together for to offer a great sacrifice unto Dagon their
god, and to rejoice."[143] We also find a Beth-Dagon, or the house of
Dagon, amongst the uttermost cities of the children of Judah[144], and
another city of the same name in the inheritance of the children of
Asher.[145]

The first doorway, guarded by the fish-gods, led into two small chambers
opening into each other, and once panelled with bas-reliefs, the greater
part of which had been destroyed. I shall call these chambers "the
chambers of records," for, like "the house of the rolls," or records,
which Darius ordered to be searched for the decree of Cyrus, concerning
the building of the temple of Jerusalem[146], they appear to have
contained the decrees of the Assyrian kings, as well as the archives of
the empire.

I have mentioned elsewhere[147] that the historical records and public
documents of the Assyrians were kept on tablets and cylinders of baked
clay. Many specimens have been brought to this country. The importance of
such relics will be readily understood. They present, in a small compass,
an abridgment, or recapitulation, of the inscriptions on the great
monuments and palace walls, giving in a chronological series the events of
each monarch's reign. The writing is so minute, and the letters are so
close one to another, that it requires considerable experience to separate
and transcribe them.

The chambers I am describing appear to have been a depository in the
palace of Nineveh for such documents. To the height of a foot or more from
the floor they were entirely filled with them; some entire, but the
greater part broken into many fragments, probably by the falling in of the
upper part of the building. They were of different sizes; the largest
tablets were flat, and measured about 9 inches by 6-1/2 inches; the
smaller were slightly convex, and some were not more than an inch long,
with but one or two lines of writing. The cuneiform characters on most of
them were singularly sharp and well defined, but so minute in some
instances as to be almost illegible without a magnifying glass. These
documents appear to be of various kinds. Many are historical records of
wars, and distant expeditions undertaken by the Assyrians; some seem to be
royal decrees, and are stamped with the name of a king, the son of
Essarhaddon; others again, divided into parallel columns by horizontal
lines, contain lists of the gods, and probably a register of offerings
made in their temples. On one Dr. Hincks has detected a table of the value
of certain cuneiform letters, expressed by different alphabetical signs,
according to various modes of using them; a most important discovery: on
another, apparently a list of the sacred days in each month; and on a
third, what seems to be a calendar. As we find from the Bavian
inscriptions, that the Assyrians kept a very accurate computation of time,
we may reasonably expect to obtain valuable chronological tables and some
information as to their methods of dividing the year, and even the day.
Many are sealed with seals, and may prove to be legal contracts or
conveyances of land. Others bear rolled impressions of those engraved
cylinders so frequently found in Babylonia and Assyria, by some believed
to be amulets. The characters appear to have been formed by a very
delicate instrument before the clay was hardened by fire, and the process
of accurately making letters so minute and complicated must have required
considerable ingenuity and experience. On some tablets are found
Phoenician, or cursive Assyrian characters and other signs.

The adjoining chambers contained similar relics, but in far smaller
numbers. Many cases were filled with these tablets before I left Assyria,
and a vast number of them have been found, I understand, since my
departure. A large collection of them is already deposited in the British
Museum. We cannot overrate their value. They furnish us with the materials
for the complete decipherment of the cuneiform character, for restoring
the language and history of Assyria, and for inquiring into the customs,
sciences, and, we may perhaps even add, literature, of its people. The
documents that have thus been discovered at Nineveh probably exceed all
that have yet been afforded by the monuments of Egypt. But years must
elapse before the innumerable fragments can be put together, and the
inscriptions transcribed for the use of those who in England and elsewhere
may engage in the study of the cuneiform character. It is to be hoped that
the Trustees of the British Museum will undertake the publication of
documents of such importance to the history of the ancient world.

The second entrance formed by the fish-gods opened into a small chamber,
whose sides had been lined with bas-reliefs; but there were no remains of
inscriptions.

A few days after our return to Mosul, I floated down the river on a raft
to Nimroud. The flood which had spread over the plain during my absence in
the Desert, had destroyed a part of the village. The centre of the plain
of Nimroud was now a large lake, and the cultivated fields were overspread
with slime. The Shemutti gathered round me as I arrived, and told me of
crops destroyed, and of houses swept away.

The workmen had not been idle during my absence, and discoveries of
considerable interest and importance had been made in the high mound on
the level of the artificial platform. The first trenches had been opened
in the side of the ravine between the ruins of the tower and those of the
north-west palace. A pavement of large square bricks, bearing the usual
superscription of the early Nimroud king, was soon uncovered. It led to a
wall of sundried bricks, coated with plaster, which proved to be part of a
small temple.

I have already mentioned[148] that a superstructure of bricks rested upon
the stone basement-wall of the tower, at the north-west corner of the
mound. It was against the eastern and southern faces of this upper
building that the newly discovered temple abutted. Four of its chambers
were explored, chiefly by means of tunnels carried through the enormous
mass of earth and rubbish in which the ruins were buried. The great
entrances were to the east. The principal portal was formed by two
colossal human-headed lions, sixteen feet and a half high and fifteen feet
long. They were flanked by three small winged figures, one above the
other, and divided by an ornamental cornice, and between them was an
inscribed pavement slab of alabaster. In front of each was a square stone,
apparently the pedestal of an altar, and the walls on both sides were
adorned with enamelled bricks.

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO A SMALL TEMPLE, (NIMROUD.)]

About thirty feet to the right, or north, of the lion gateway was a
second entrance, at each side of which were two singular figures. One was
that of a monster, whose head, of fanciful and hideous form, had long
pointed ears and extended jaws, armed with huge teeth. Its body was
covered with feathers, its fore-feet were those of a lion, its hind legs
ended in the talons of an eagle, and it had spreading wings and the tail
of a bird. Behind this strange image was a winged man, whose dress
consisted of an upper garment with a skirt of skin or fur, an under robe
fringed with tassels, and the sacred horned hat. A long sword was
suspended from his shoulders by an embossed belt; sandals, armlets, and
bracelets, completed his attire. He grasped in each hand an object in the
form of a double trident, resembling the thunderbolt of the Greek Jove,
which he was in the attitude of hurling against the monster, who turned
furiously towards him.

[Illustration: Fish-God, at Entrance to small Temple (Nimroud.)]

This group appears to represent the bad spirit driven out by a good deity;
a fit subject for the entrance to a temple, dedicated to the god of war.
The singular combination of forms by which the Assyrian sculptor
portrayed the evil principle, so prominent an element in the Chaldæan,
and afterwards in the Magian, religions system, cannot fail to strike the
reader.

On the slabs at right angles to these sculptures, forming the outer part
of the entrance, were two colossal human figures, without wings, wearing
garlands on their heads, and bearing branches ending in three flowers.

Within the temple, at right angles to the entrance, were sculptured
fish-gods, somewhat different in form from those in the palace of
Kouyunjik. The fish's head formed part of the three-horned cap usually
worn by the winged figures. The tail only reached to the waist of the man,
who was dressed in the tunic and long furred robe, commonly seen in the
bas-reliefs of Nimroud.

To the right of this entrance, and apparently outside the walls of the
temple, was discovered one of the finest specimens of Assyrian sculpture
brought to this country. It represents the early Nimroud king in high
relief, carved on a solid block of limestone, cut into the shape of an
arched frame, in the form of the rock tablets of Bavian and the
Nahr-el-Kelb. The monarch wears his sacrificial robes, and carries the
sacred mace in his left hand. Round his neck are hung the four sacred
signs, the crescent, the star or sun, the trident, and the cross. His
waist is encircled by the knotted cord, and in his girdle are three
daggers. Above his head are the mythic symbols of Assyrian worship, the
winged globe, the crescent, the star, the bident, and the horned cap. The
entire slab, 8 ft. 8 in. high, by 4 ft. 6 in. broad, and 1 ft. 3 in.
thick, is covered, behind and before, except where the sculpture
intervenes, with an inscription, in small and admirably formed
arrow-headed characters.

Unfortunately, the heat of the fire which had consumed the building, had
also broken this monument into two pieces. From the carelessness shown in
its transport to England, this fine specimen of Assyrian sculpture
sustained still further injury, and the lower part is now almost
destroyed.

The inscription must have contained when entire several hundred lines, and
is divided on the back of the slabs into two columns. It commences with an
invocation to the god Ashur, the supreme lord, the king of the circle of
the twelve great gods. Then follow the names of these deities. The
first-named is _Anu_ (?), the last Ishtar, probably Astarte, or the moon,
and not Venus, as some have believed.[149]

After this invocation occurs the name of the founder of the north-west
palace, read by Dr. Hincks, Assaracbal, and by Colonel Rawlinson,
Sardanapalus, with a long exordium, apparently of a religious nature,
which has not yet been satisfactorily deciphered. Then follows a full
account of his various campaigns and wars.

The lion entrance led into a chamber 46 ft. by 19 ft. Nearly opposite to
the entrance was a doorway panelled with slabs sculptured with winged
figures carrying maces. The inner door led into a chamber 47 ft. by 31
ft., ending in a recess paved with one enormous alabaster slab, no less
than 21 ft. by 16 ft. 7 in., and 1 ft. 1 in. thick. This monolith had been
broken into several pieces probably by the falling in of the roof of the
building, and had in several places been reduced to lime by the burning
beams of the ceiling. The whole of its surface, as well as the side facing
the chamber, was occupied by one inscription, 325 lines in length, divided
into two parallel horizontal columns, and carved with the greatest
sharpness and care. On subsequently raising the detached pieces, I found
that the back of the slab, resting on a solid mass of sun-dried bricks,
was also covered with cuneiform writing, occupying three columns. It is
difficult to understand why so much labor should have been apparently
thrown away upon an inscription which would remain unseen until the
edifice itself was utterly destroyed. Still more curious is the fact, that
whilst this inscription contains all the historical details of that on the
opposite side, the records of two or three more years are added, and that
the upper inscription stops abruptly in the middle of a sentence. It is
possible that the builders of the temple, foreseeing its ruin, had
determined that if their enemies should through malice deface their
annals, there should yet remain another record, inaccessible and unknown,
which would preserve the history of their greatness and glory unto all
time.

The inscription on this great monolith appears to have been similar in its
historical details to that on the king in the frame. I shall quote some
specimens, translated by Dr. Hincks, to show the minuteness with which the
Assyrian kings chronicled every event of their reign, and the consequent
value of their historical records. It is to be remarked that, although
these inscriptions are in the form of annals, the years are not mentioned.
The king generally sets out on his campaigns in one particular month, the
name of which is given; probably in the autumn, when the heats of summer
were over. In the beginning of his reign he collected his army, and made
his first expedition into the country of Nummi, or Nûmi, probably Elam or
Susiana, subsequently, as we shall find, called Numaki or Nuvaki. He took
many cities, towns, and districts whose names have not been identified.
He slew their women, their slaves, and their children, and carried away
their cattle and flocks. _Their fighting men escaped to a hill fort_ (?).
"Their houses he burned like _stubble_" (?). Many other countries to the
south and south-east of Assyria, some of which are mentioned on the
obelisk, were conquered during this campaign. The city of _Nishtun_ (?) is
particularly described as one of considerable importance. He seized its
king or governor, whose name reads Babou, the son of Baboua, and
imprisoned him in Babylon. "At that time the cities of Nerib (their
position is doubtful), their principal cities, he destroyed. From Nerib he
departed to the city of Tushka.... A palace for his dwelling he made
there, and placed _pillars_ (?) at the gates, and put a statue of ...
(probably some kind of stone) ... and set up tablets, and made a place for
them in the citadel."

An account follows of the building of the north-west palace of Nimroud,
which, when deciphered, will be of considerable interest, and may enable
us to restore that edifice. He also built two cities on the Euphrates,
_one on each bank_ (?), calling one after his own name, and the other
after the name of the great god Ashur.

Numerous expeditions to countries to the north, west, and south of Assyria
are then related in detail. Amongst them one to Carchemish, where he
received the tribute of Sangara, king of the Khatti (the Hittites or
people of Syria), including a great variety of gold and silver ornaments,
some apparently to be recognised by their pure Hebrew names. As few of the
cities and countries conquered and visited by this king have yet been
identified, and a mere repetition of the same dry details would scarcely
interest the reader, I will merely give literal versions, as far as they
can be given, of the history of two of the most important campaigns. They
will show the style of these remarkable chronicles, and the minuteness
with which events were recorded.

The first paragraph relates to the campaign of the king on the borders of
the Euphrates.

"On the 22nd day of the month.... I departed from Calah (the quarter of
Nineveh now called Nimroud). I crossed the Tigris. On the banks of the
Tigris I received much tribute. In the city of Tabit I halted. I occupied
the banks of the river Karma (? the Hermus, or eastern confluent of the
Khabour). In the city of Megarice I halted. From the city of Megarice I
departed. I occupied the banks of the Kabour (Chaboras). I halted at the
city of _Sadikanni_ (? or Kar-dikanni). I received the tribute of the city
of Kedni. From Kedni I departed to the city of ...lemmi. In the city of
...lemmi I halted. From the city of ...lemmi I departed. In the city of
Beth-Khilapi I halted. The tribute of Beth-Khilapi I received, gold,
silver," and many other articles, amongst which are apparently objects of
clothing, or embroidered stuffs. Then follow his marches day by day to the
cities of Sirki, Tzufri, Naqua-rabani, and Kindani, from each of which he
received tribute in gold, silver, several objects not identified, cattle,
and sheep. The inscription goes on--"The city of Kindani stands on the
right bank of the river Euphrates. From Kindani I departed: on the
mountain, by the side of the Euphrates, I halted. From the mountain I
departed. In Beth-Shebaiya, over against Karid, I halted. The city of
Karid stands on the right bank of the river Euphrates. From Bath-Shebaiya
I departed: on the top of (or above) Anat I halted. Anat stands in the
middle of the Euphrates" (agreeing with the position of the modern town of
Ana). He then attacked and took the principal city of _Shadu_ (?), of the
country of Suka, and the city of _Tzur_ (?), the capital of _Shadu_ (?),
whose inhabitants were assisted by the soldiers of Bishi (a nation also
alluded to in the second year of the annals of Sennacherib). Nebo-Baladan,
king of Kar-Duniyas, is then mentioned, showing that the campaign was
carried _down_ the banks of the Euphrates far to the south of Babylon.

The second extract is from the records of a campaign in northern Syria.
Having first crossed the Euphrates:

"From Kunulua, the capital of Lubarna, the Sharutinian[150], I departed.
The Arantu (Orontes) I crossed. On the banks of the Arantu I encamped.
From the banks of the Arantu I departed. Between the countries of
_Saraban_ and _Tapan_ (?) I occupied the country. By the seashore I
encamped. To the city of _Ariboua_ (?), a principal city of Lubarna, the
Sharutinian, I returned.... (undeciphered passage). _I caused some men of
Assyria to dwell in his palace_ (?). Whilst I was in Ariboua the cities of
Lukuta I took. I slew many of their men. I overthrew and burned their
cities. Their _fighting men_ (or ? the deserters from my army) I laid hold
of. On stakes over against their city I impaled them.[151] At that time
the countries that are upon Lebanon I took possession of, to the great
sea of the country of Akkari (the Mediterranean). On the great sea _I put_
my servants (?). Sacrifices to the gods I offered. The tribute of the
kings of the people who dwelt near the sea, of the Tyrians, the Sidonians,
the Kubalians, the _Mahalatai_ (?), the Ma...ai, the Kha..., and the
Akkarians (all nations to the north of Tyre), and of the city of Arvad,
which is in the middle of the sea--silver and gold pieces, rings (?) of
copper, _ingots_ (?) of copper, two kinds of _clothing_ (?) (perhaps the
dyed cloth of Tyre, or embroideries such as are frequently mentioned in
the Bible), great '_yagouti_' and small '_pagouti_' (meaning not
determined), some wooden objects, apparently of cedar, and _pearls_ (?),
from the rivers at or between the sea.[152] I went to the mountain of
Kamana (the Camanus, in the north of Syria). I sacrificed to the gods. I
made _bridges_ (or beams), and _pillars_ (?). From Kamana I brought them
to Bithkara, for my own house, for the temple of San, for the temple of
the sun. I went to the forests and cut them down, and made _bridges_ (?)
(or roofs or beams) of the wood, for Ishtar, mistress of the city of
Nineveh, my protectress."[153]

The chief events of the reign of this king are briefly alluded to in the
standard and other inscriptions discovered in the north-west palace at
Nimroud; but in the records just described we have a minuteness of
geographical detail, which enables us to trace the course of his
expeditions with great certainty.

Standing one day on a distant part of the mound, I smelt the sweet smell
of burning cedar. The Arab workmen, excavating in the small temple, had
dug out a beam, and, the weather being cold, had at once made a fire to
warm themselves. The wood was cedar; probably one of the very beams
mentioned in the inscription as brought from the forests of Lebanon by the
king who built the edifice. After a lapse of nearly three thousand years,
it had retained its original fragrance. It is likely that the whole
superstructure, as well as the roof and floor of the building, like those
of the temple and palace of Solomon, were of this precious material.

In these ruins was also found a mass of lead melted by the fire, for
embedded in it was the iron head of a hatchet. Amongst the various small
objects collected were figures of winged deities, &c., of clay, colored in
the mass with a blue derived from copper; eyes, beards, hair, and
ornaments in enamel, probably belonging to figures of wood, metal, or
ivory, resembling the cryselaphantine statues of the Greeks; eyes of black
marble inlaid with ivory, with the eye-balls of a bright blue enamel,
belonging to similar statues; and arms, legs, and other parts of figures
in charred wood.

Fragments of porcelain (?), parts of a cup or vase, with carvings in low
relief, several inscribed fragments of agate, lapis-lazuli, cornelian, and
other precious materials, beads, cylinders, and one or two clay tablets
with inscriptions and impressions of seals, complete the list of small
objects discovered in this temple.

About one hundred feet to the east of the building last described, and on
the very edge of the artificial platform, I discovered a second temple.
Its principal entrance faced the south, and was on the same level as the
north-west palace. This gateway was formed by two colossal lions with
extended jaws, gathered up lips and nostrils, flowing manes, and ruffs of
bristly hair. The heads, though to a certain extent conventional in form,
were designed with that vigor so remarkably displayed by the Assyrian
sculptor in the delineation of animals. The limbs conveyed the idea of
strength and power, the veins and muscles were accurately portrayed, and
the outline of the body was not deficient in grace and truth. But the
front of the animal, which was in full, was narrow and cramped, and
unequal in dignity to the side. The sculptor has given five legs to the
animal for the same reason that he gave them to the sphinxes, that they
might offer a complete front and side view.

This gateway, about eight feet wide, was paved with one inscribed slab.
The height of the lions was about eight feet, and their length thirteen.
An inscription was carved across them. In front of them, in the corners
formed by walls projecting at right angles with the entrance, were two
altars, hollow at the top, and ornamented with gradines resembling the
battlements of a castle. The exterior walls appeared to have been adorned
with enamelled bricks, many of which still remained.

Unfortunately, one of these lions had been too much injured by fire to
bear removal. The other, although cracked in several places when
discovered, and consequently moved in pieces, has been preserved, and is
now in the British Museum.

The Lion portal led into a chamber 57 feet by 25. At one end was a recess
similar to that in the opposite temple, and also paved with one great
alabaster slab, inscribed on both sides. This monolith, 19-1/2 ft. by 12
ft., was likewise broken into several pieces, and had been injured in
parts by fire.

The inscription on the upper side, divided into two columns, and
containing 230 lines, was nearly the same as that on the king in the frame
and on the monolith in the other temple. It was also a record of the wars
and campaigns of the early Nimroud king.

The other rooms in the same building contained no inscriptions,
sculptures, or other objects of interest.

In the earth above the great inscribed slab was found an interesting
figure, 3 feet 4 inches high, and cut in a hard, compact limestone. It
appeared to represent the king himself, attired as high priest in his
sacrificial robes. In his right hand he held an instrument resembling a
sickle, and in his left the sacred mace. Round his waist was the knotted
girdle; and his left arm, like that of the king in the opposite temple,
was partly concealed by an outer robe. His garments descended to his feet,
the toes alone projecting from them. The beard and hair were elaborately
curled, the features were majestic, and the general proportions of the
statue not altogether incorrect, with the exception of a want of breadth
in the side view peculiar to Assyrian works of art of this nature. It was,
however, chiefly remarkable as being the only entire statue "in the round"
of this period, hitherto discovered in the ruins of Nineveh.

On the breast is an inscription nearly in these words:--After the name and
titles of the king, "The conqueror from the upper passage of the Tigris to
Lebanon and the Great Sea, who all countries, from the rising of the sun
to the going down thereof, has reduced under his authority." The statue
was, therefore, probably raised after his return from the campaign in
Syria described, as we have seen, on the monoliths, and alluded to in the
standard inscription.

This statue originally stood on a pedestal of reddish limestone, which,
with the figure itself, was found broken into several pieces. They have
been restored, and are now in the British Museum.

The two interesting buildings just described, the only undoubted remains
of temples hitherto found at Nimroud, complete the discoveries at the
northern extremity of the mound. They enable us, as will hereafter be
seen, to restore part of the group of edifices raised on the grand
platform in this quarter of Nineveh.



CHAPTER XVII.

    THE SUMMER.--ENCAMPMENT AT KOUYUNJIK.--VISITORS.--MODE OF
    LIFE.--DEPARTURE FOR THE MOUNTAINS.--AKRA.--ROCK-TABLETS AT
    GUNDUK.--DISTRICT OF ZIBARI.--NAMET AGHA.--DISTRICT OF SHIRWAN--OF
    BARADOST--OF GHERDI--OF SHEMDINA.--MOUSA BEY.--NESTORIAN
    BISHOP.--CONTENT OF MAR HANANISHO.--DIZZA.--AN ALBANIAN
    FRIEND.--BASH-KALAH.--IZZET PASHA.--A JEWISH ENCAMPMENT.--HIGH
    MOUNTAIN PASS.--MAHMOUDIYAH.--FIRST VIEW OF WAN.


The difficulties and delay in crossing the Tigris, now swollen by the
melting of the mountain snows, induced me to pitch my tents on the mound
of Kouyunjik, and to reside there with all my party, instead of daily
passing to and fro in the rude ferry-boats to the ruins. The small
European community at Mosul was increased in June by the arrival of a
large party of travellers. Two English gentlemen and their wives, who
passed through on their way to Baghdad: the Hon. Mr. Walpole, who has
since published an account of his adventures in the East; the Rev. Mr.
Malan, to whom I am indebted for many beautiful sketches; the Rev. Mr.
Bowen, an English clergyman, on a tour of inspection to the Eastern
churches, with whom I spent many agreeable and profitable hours amongst
the ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, and his companion, Mr. Sandresky, were
our visitors, and were most of them my guests.

Our tents were pitched at the northern corner of Kouyunjik. The spring was
now fast passing away; the heat became daily greater; the corn was cut,
and the plains and hills put on their summer clothing of dull parched
yellow. "The pasture is withered, the tender herb faileth, the green herb
is no more."[154] It was the season, too, of the sherghis, or burning
winds from the south, which occasionally sweep over the face of the
country, driving, in their short-lived fury, everything before them. Their
coming was foretold by a sudden fall in the barometer, which rose again as
soon as they had passed.

At Nimroud the excavations had been almost stopped: at Kouyunjik they were
still carried on as actively as my means would permit. I was now occupied
in moving and packing sculptures from both ruins. From Nimroud the
beautiful bas-relief of the king in the arched frame, described in the
previous chapter, the good spirit driving out the evil principle, the
fish-god, the colossal lion from the small temple, and several other
interesting sculptures, were taken to the river-bank, and sent on rafts to
Busrah. At Kouyunjik none of the slabs could be removed entire. I could
only pack in fragments several of the bas-reliefs. The cases were dragged
in carts to the Tigris, unloaded below the piers of the ancient bridge,
and there placed on rafts prepared to receive them.

During the day, when not otherwise occupied, I made drawings of the
bas-reliefs discovered in the subterranean passages. My guests, choosing
some convenient place underground near the parties who were at work,
spread their carpets beneath the crumbling sculptures. We all went below
soon after the sun had risen, and remained there, without again seeking
the open air, until it was far down in the western horizon. The
temperature in the dark tunnels was cool and agreeable, nearly twenty
degrees of Fahrenheit lower than that in the shade above but I found it
unwholesome, the sudden change in going in and out causing intermittent
fever.

After the sun had set we dined outside the tents, and afterwards reclined
on our carpets to enjoy the cool balmy air of an Eastern night. We slept
under the open sky, making our beds in the field.

July had set in, and we were now in "the eye of the summer." My companions
had been unable to resist its heat. One by one we dropped off with fever.
The Doctor, after long suffering, had gone with Mr. Walpole to the cooler
regions of the Kurdish hills, there to wait until the state of the
excavations might enable me to join them. Mr. Cooper, too, had so much
declined in health that I sent him to the convent of Mar Metti, on the
summit of the Gebel Makloub. Mr. Hormuzd Rassam and myself struggled on
the longest, but at length we also gave way. Fortunately our ague attacks
did not coincide. We were prostrate alternate days, and were, therefore,
able to take charge alternately of the works. By the 11th of July I had
sent to Busrah the first collection of sculptures from Kouyunjik, and on
that day, in the middle of the hot stage of fever, and half delirious, I
left Mosul for the mountains.

While necessarily absent, I determined to visit those parts of central
Kurdistan not yet explored by European travellers, to devote some days to
the examination of the ruins and cuneiform inscriptions in and near the
city of Wan, and then to return to Mosul through the unexplored uplands
to the south of the lake of Wan, and by such of the Nestorian valleys as I
had not seen during my former journey in the mountains. I should then
spend the hottest part of the summer in the cool regions of Kurdistan, and
be again at Nineveh by September, when the heats begin to decline.

As few European travellers can brave the perpendicular rays of an Assyrian
sun, we struck our tents late in the afternoon, and got upon our horses at
the foot of the mound of Kouyunjik as the sun went down. With me were
Hormuzd, my old servants, and the faithful Bairakdar. Mr. Cooper was to
join us on the following day, and we were to seek the Doctor and Mr.
Walpole at Akra.

Five hours' ride over the plain brought us to the small Turcoman village
of Bir Hillan (the well of stone), which stands on the south-eastern spur
of the Makloub hills. After two hours' rest we continued our journey, and
crossed this spur before morning dawned. Leaving the Gebel Makloub, we
descended into a broad plain, stretching from it to the first Kurdish
range, and soon found ourselves on the banks of the Ghazir, here a clear
sparkling stream clothed with tall oleanders, now bending under their rosy
blossoms. We sought the shade of some spreading walnut-trees, during the
heat of the day, near the small Kurdish village of Kaimawa.

Here Mr. Cooper joined us, and we were again on our way in the afternoon.
Instead of striking for the mountains by the direct path across the plain
of Navkur, we rode along the foot of a range of low hills, forming its
western boundary, to the large Kurdish village of Bardaresh. Having rested
for a few hours, we descended in the middle of the night into a plain
receiving the drainage of the surrounding highlands, and during the rainy
season almost impassable from mud. Artificial mounds, the remains of
ancient civilisation, but of small size when compared with the great ruins
of Assyria, rise amongst the hovels of the Kurdish peasants.

After we had crossed the parched and burning plain we entered a valley in
the Kurdish hills, watered by a stream called Melik or Gherasin. We had to
climb over much broken ground--rocky ridge and ravine--before reaching the
slope of the mountain covered with the gardens and orchards of Akra. We
tarried for a moment at a cool spring rising in a natural grotto, and
collected into two large basins.

We had no difficulty in finding our European fellow-travellers. The first
Kurd we met pointed towards a well-wooded garden; above its trees peered
their white tents. As we rode into it, however, no one came out to welcome
us. I entered the first tent, and there, stretched on their carpets, in a
state of half-consciousness, the prey to countless flies, lay the Doctor
and Mr. Walpole. It was with difficulty I could rouse them to learn the
history of their fever. The whole party were in the same state; the
servants prostrate like their masters. I lost no time in enforcing a
system of diet, and placing my patients under a course of treatment for
ague, with which long experience had given me some acquaintance.

Some days elapsed before my companions were able to journey. I took
advantage of the delay to visit some bas-reliefs near the neighbouring
village of Gunduk. There are two sculptured tablets in the rocks above
Gunduk. They have been carved at the mouth of a spacious natural cavern,
whose roof is fretted with stalactites, and down whose sides trickles cool
clear water, and hang dank ferns and creeping plants. It is called Guppa
d'Mar Yohanna, or the cure of St. John, and near it is an ancient
Nestorian church dedicated to Saint Audishio. The bas-reliefs are
Assyrian. The upper represents a man slaying a wild goat with a spear. In
the lower, as far as I could distinguish the sculpture, which is high on
the rock and much injured, are two women facing each other, and seated on
stools. Each holds a child above a kind of basin or circular vessel, as if
in the act of baptizing it. Behind the seated female to the left, a figure
bears a third child, and is followed by a woman. On the opposite side is a
group of three persons, apparently sacrificing an animal. There are no
traces of inscriptions on or near the tablets.

On the 17th July my companions were able to move to the higher mountains.
We all longed for a cooler climate, and we rejoiced as at sunrise we left
our garden. A precipitous and difficult path leads up the mountain. From
the summit of the pass, the eye wanders over the plains of Navkur and
Sheikhan, the broken hill country around Arbil, and the windings of the
Zab and the Ghazir. On the opposite side is a deep valley dividing the
Akra hills from a second and loftier range. Through the valley ran a broad
clear stream, one of the confluents of the Zab, called by the Kurds
Durusho or Bairaisho.[155] We rode along its banks for nearly an hour, and
then struck into a narrow gorge thickly wooded with oak. Another stony and
precipitous pass was between us and the principal district of Zibari.
Descending into the low country we rode by the village of Birikapra, the
residence of Mustafa Agha, the former head of the Zibari tribes. The
present chief, Namet Agha, dwells at Heren, about two miles beyond. He had
lately been at Mosul to receive from the Pasha his cloak of investiture,
and during his visit had been my guest. His abilities and acquirements
were above the ordinary Kurdish standard, which indeed is low enough; for,
as the Arab proverb declares, "Be the Kurd a Kurd or a prophet, he will
still be a bear." He spoke Persian with fluency, and was not ignorant of
Arabic. As he was well acquainted with the geography of Kurdistan, I
learnt from him many interesting particulars relating to the less-known
districts of the mountains.

The chief welcomed me with friendly warmth; and, although forbidden to eat
himself, he did not leave his guests uncared for. The breakfast brought to
us from his harem comprised a variety of sweetmeats and savoury dishes,
which did credit to the skill of the Kurdish ladies.

I was the bearer of a letter to him from the Pasha: no acceptable
communication, however, as it treated of new taxes, a subject very
generally disagreeable, upon tobacco, cotton, and fruit, which the Zibari
Kurds were now called upon for the first time to pay. The salian, too, a
kind of property tax, was raised from twenty-five to sixty thousand
piastres (about 550_l._). The late successful expeditions against the
chiefs of Bohtan and Hakkiari had encouraged the Porte to ask money of the
previously independent tribes under Namet Agha; and although no Turkish
troops had yet entered their mountains, the Kurds deemed it advisable to
comply for the present with the demand rather than run the risk of an
invasion, and a still more dreaded evil, the conscription.

Namet Agha's authority extended over Zibari, Shirwan, Gherdi, Baradost,
and Shemdeena, from Akra to the Persian frontier. These districts are
occupied by different Kurdish tribes, each having its own chief; but they
had then submitted to the Agha of Zibari, and paid their tribute through
him to the governor of Mosul. Namet placed me under the protection of his
cousin, Mullah Agha, who was ordered to escort us to the borders of the
pashalic of Hakkiari, now occupied by the Turkish troops. Our guide was a
tall sinewy mountaineer, dressed in the many-colored loose garments, and
huge red and black turban folded round the high conical felt cap, which
gives a peculiar and ungainly appearance to the inhabitants of central
Kurdistan. He was accompanied by three attendants, and all were on foot,
the precipitous and rocky pathways of the mountains being scarcely
practicable for horses, which are rarely kept but by the chiefs. They
carried their long rifles across their shoulders, and enormous daggers in
their girdles.

We left Heren early on the morning of the 19th, and soon reaching the Zab
rode for two hours along its banks, to a spot where a small raft had been
made ready for us to cross the stream. We had some difficulty in crossing,
and were compelled to pass the night in the small village of Rizan, near
the ferry, as one of the baggage-mules refused to swim the stream, and was
not forced over until near dawn of the following morning.

We now entered the tract which has probably been followed for ages by the
mountain clans in their periodical migrations. Besides the sedentary
population of these districts, there are certain nomade Kurdish tribe
called Kochers, who subsist entirely by their flocks. They are notorious
petty thieves and robbers, and during their annual migrations commit
serious depredations upon the settled inhabitants of the district on their
way, and more especially upon the Christians. As they possess vast flocks
of sheep and herds of cattle, their track has in most places the
appearance of a beaten road, and is, consequently, well-fitted for beasts
of burden.

On the 21st July, crossing a high ridge, we left the district of Zibari,
and entered that of Shirwan, whose chief, Miran Bey, came out to meet us
at the head of his armed retainers. He led us to the large village of
Bersiyah, situated beneath a bold and lofty peak called Piran. Most of the
villages in these mountains have small mud forts, with either four or six
towers,--the places of refuge and defence of the numerous petty chiefs
during their frequent broils and blood-feuds. We met a few Jewish families
who wander from village to village. The men are pedlars and goldsmiths,
and are not unwelcome guests, even in the intolerant families of the
Kurds, as they make and refashion the ornaments of the ladies.

On one of the many towering peaks, is the large village of Khan-i-resh,
with its orchards and gardens, the residence of the chief of the district
of Baradost. We reached it by a very rapid ascent in an hour and a
half.[156]

We were received by the Mir, Fezullah Bey,[157] in a spacious chamber,
supported by wooden pillars, and completely open on the side facing the
valley, over which it commanded an extensive and beautiful prospect.
Though quite restive under the Turkish control, he received Mullah Agha
with civility, and read the letters of introduction from Namet Agha, of
which I was the bearer. Like most of the mountain chiefs, he spoke
Persian, the language used in Kurdistan for all written communications,
and in books, except the Koran and a few pious works, which are in
Arabic. The Kurdish dialects are mere corruptions of the Persian, and are
not, with rare exceptions, employed in writing.

The Mir pressed me to pass the night with him as his guest; but after
partaking of his breakfast, I continued my journey, and reached, by
sunset, the small turreted stronghold of Beygishni.

The next morning we crossed one of the shoulders of the lofty peak of
Ser-i-Resh, into the valley of Chappata. We were met on the way by a party
of Nestorians, who had come out to see me, headed by the brother of the
Bishop of Gherdi. He walked by me as far as Zernin, the castle of the
Kurdish chief, and then left a relation to guide us to the dwelling of the
Bishop of Shemesdin or Shemdeena. As usual, he complained of bitter
oppression and injustice from the Kurdish Mirs, who had lately driven a
large part of the Christian population across the frontiers into Persia.

After enjoying the hospitality of Iahya Bey, the Mir of Gherdi, at the
village of Rua, we left the naked hills which skirt the Assyrian plains,
and entered the wooded districts of Kurdistan. On the following day we
journeyed through a valley thick with walnuts and other large trees, and
followed the windings of a stream, called by the Kurds Shambo, one of the
principal confluents of the Zab. We crossed it, backwards and forwards, by
wicker suspension bridges, until we ascended, through a forest of orchards
watered by innumerable streamlets, to Nera, the village of Mousa Bey, the
chief of Shemdina. We pitched our tents near some springs on an open lawn,
and waited the return of an aged servant who had been disturbed by the
noise of our caravan, and had undertaken to announce our arrival to his
master.

We had evidently to deal with a man of civilisation and luxury, for the
old Kurd shortly returned followed by numerous attendants, bearing
sherbets and various Persian delicacies, in china bowls. Mousa Bey himself
came to us in the afternoon, and his manners and conversation confirmed
the impression that his breakfast had produced. Intercourse with Persia,
beyond whose frontiers his own tribe sometimes wandered, had taught him
the manners and language of his neighbours. He told me that he was
descended from one of the most ancient of Kurdish families, whose records
for many hundred years still exist; and he boasted that Sheikh Tahar, the
great saint, had deemed him the only chief worthy, from his independence
of the infidel government of the Sultan, to receive so holy a personage as
himself after the downfall of Beder Khan Bey. This Sheikh Tahar, who as
the main instigator of many atrocious massacres of the Christians, and
especially of the Nestorians, ought to have been pursued into the
uttermost parts of the mountains by the Turkish troops, and hanged as a
public example, was now suffering from fever. He sent to me for medicine;
but as his sanctity would not permit him to see, face to face, an
unbelieving Frank, and as he wished to have a remedy without going through
the usual form of an interview with the Doctor, I declined giving him any
help in the matter.

Mousa Bey was at this time almost the only chief in Kurdistan who had not
yet made a formal submission to the Turkish government. His territories
were, therefore, a place of refuge for those fugitives who, less fortunate
than himself, had been driven from their strongholds by the arms or
intrigues of the Porte. He bewailed the discords which severed the tribes,
and made them an easy prey to the Osmanli. The Turks, wise in their
generation, have pursued their usual policy successfully in Kurdistan;
the dissensions of the chiefs have been fomented, and, thus divided, they
have fallen one by one victims to treachery or to force.

We rose early on the following day, and left Nera long before the
population was stirring, by a very steep pathway, winding over the face of
a precipice, and completely overhanging the village. Reaching the top of
the pass we came upon a natural carpet of Alpine flowers of every hue,
spread over the eastern declivity of the mountain. Leaving the caravan to
proceed to our night's resting-place, I turned down the valley with my
companions to visit the bishop of Shemisden at his convent[158] of Mar
Hananisho.

A ride of three quarters of an hour brought us to the episcopal
residence.[159] Mar Isho, the bishop, met me at some distance from it. He
was shabbily dressed, and not of prepossessing appearance; but he appeared
to be good-natured, and to have a fair stock of common sense. After we had
exchanged the common salutations, seated on a bank of wild thyme, he led
the way to the porch of the church. Ragged carpets and felts had been
spread in the dark vestibule, in the midst of sacks of corn, bourghoul,
and other provisions for the bishop's establishment. Various rude
agricultural instruments, and spinning wheels, almost filled up the rest
of the room; for these primitive Christians rely on the sanctity of their
places of worship for the protection of their temporal stores. The title
of the bishop is "Metropolitan of Roustak," a name of which I could not
learn the origin. His jurisdiction extends over many Nestorian villages
chiefly in the valley of Shemisden. Half of this district is within the
Persian territories, and from the convent we could see the frontier
dominions of the Shah. It is in the high road of the periodical migrations
of the great tribe of Herki, who pass like a locust-cloud twice a year
over the settlements of the unfortunate Christians, driving before them
the flocks, spoiling the granaries, and carrying away even the miserable
furniture of the hovels. It is in vain that the sufferers carry their
complaints to their Kurdish master; _he_ takes from them double the lawful
taxes and tithes. The Turkish government has in this part of the mountains
no power, if it had the inclination, to protect its Christian subjects.

After we had partaken of the frugal breakfast of milk, honey, and fruit
prepared for us by the bishop, we turned again into the high road to
Bash-Kalah. We had another pass to cross before descending into the valley
of Harouna, where our caravan had encamped for the night. On the mountain
top were several Nestorian families crouching, half naked, for shelter
beneath a projecting rock. They seized the bridles of our horses as we
rode by, beseeching us to help them to recover their little property,
which, but a few hours before, had been swept away by a party of Herki
Kurds. I could do nothing for these poor people, who seemed in the last
stage of misery.

From the summit of the pass we looked down into two deep and well-wooded
valleys, hemmed in by mountains of singularly picturesque form. We
descended into the more northern valley, and passing the miserable
Nestorian hamlet of Sourasor, and the ruined church and deserted Christian
village of Tellana, reached our tents about sunset. They were pitched near
Harouna, whose Nestorian inhabitants were too poor to furnish us with
even the common coarse black bread of barley.

We had now quitted the semi-independent Kurdish valleys, and had entered
the newly created province of Hakkiari, governed by a Pasha, who resides
at Bash-Kalah. The adjacent plain of Ghaour is, however, exposed to the
depredations of the Herki Kurds, who, when pursued by the Turkish troops,
seek a secure retreat in their rocky fastnesses, beyond the limits of the
pashalic.

The district contains many villages, inhabited by a hardy and industrious
race of Nestorian Christians. The American missionaries of Ooroomiyah have
crossed the frontier since my visit, and have, I am informed, opened
schools in them with encouraging prospects of success. Ghaour is a
Nestorian bishopric.

A ride of six hours and a-half brought us to the large village of Dizza,
the chief place of the district, and the residence of a Turkish Mudir, or
petty governor. This office was filled by one Adel Bey, with whom I found
my old friend Ismail Agha of Tepelin, who had shown me hospitality three
years before in the ruined castle of Amadiyah.[160] He was now in command
of the Albanian troops forming part of the garrison. A change had come
over him since we last met. The jacket and arms which had once glittered
with gold, were now greasy and dull. His face was as worn as his garments.
After a cordial greeting he made me a long speech on his fortunes, and on
that of Albanian irregulars in general. "Ah! Bey," said he, "the power and
wealth of the Osmanlis is at an end. The Sultan has no longer any
authority. The accursed Tanzimat (Reform) has been the ruin of all good
men. Why, see Bey, I am obliged to live upon my pay; I cannot eat from
the treasury, nor can I squeeze a piastre--what do I say, a piastre? not a
miserable half-starved fowl, out of the villagers, even though they be
Christians. Forsooth they must talk to me about reform, and ask for money!
The Albanian's occupation is gone. Even Tafil-Bousi (a celebrated Albanian
condottiere) smokes his pipe, and becomes fat like a Turk. It is the will
of God. I have forsworn raki, I believe in the Koran, and I keep Ramazan."

The night was exceedingly cold. The change from the heat of the plains to
the cool nights of the mountains had made havoc amongst our party. Nearly
all our servants were laid up with fever, as well as the Doctor and Mr.
Walpole, who had rarely been free from its attacks during the journey. I
could not, however, delay, and on the following morning our sickly caravan
was again toiling over the hills. We had now entered the Armenian
districts. The Christian inhabitants of Dizza are of that race and faith.
We encamped for the night at the Kurdish village of Perauniss.

Next day we forded a branch of the Zab, and entered the valley of this
great confluent of the Tigris, its principal source being but a few miles
to the north of us, near the frontiers of Persia. The land is so heavy,
that the rude plough of the country requires frequently as many as eight
pairs of oxen. The Armenian ploughmen sit on the yokes, and whilst guiding
or urging the beasts with a long iron-pointed goad, chant a monotonous
ditty to which the animals appear so well accustomed, that when the driver
ceases from his dirge, they also stop from their labors.

A dell near our path was pointed out to me as the spot where the
unfortunate traveller Schulz was murdered by Nur Ullah Bey, the Kurdish
chief of Hakkiari. Turning up a narrow valley towards the high mountains,
we suddenly came in sight of the castle of Bash-Kalah, one of the ancient
strongholds of Kurdistan. Its position is remarkably picturesque. It
stands on a lofty rock, jutting out from the mountains which rise in a
perpendicular wall behind it. At the foot are grouped the houses of a
village. I found Izzet Pasha encamped at a considerable elevation in the
rocky ravine[161], which we reached, guided by cawasses carrying huge
glass lanterns, by a very precipitous and difficult track. I remained with
him until the night was far advanced, and then returned to our encampment.
He informed me that there was a direct road from Bash-Kalah to Mosul of
forty hours, through Beit-Shebbet, Daoudiyah, and Dohuk, which, with very
little labor and expense, could be made practicable for guns.

Bash-Kalah was formerly the dwelling-place of Nur Ullah Bey, a Kurdish
chief well-known for his rapacious and blood-thirsty character, and as the
murderer of Schulz. He joined Beder Khan Bey in the great massacres of the
Nestorians, and for many years sorely vexed those Christians who were
within his rule. After a long resistance to the troops of the Sultan, he
was captured about two years before my visit, and banished for life to the
island of Candia.

My companions and servants being much in want of rest, I stopped a day at
Bash-Kalah. On resuming our journey we took a direct though difficult
track to Wan only open in the middle of summer. Following a small stream,
we entered a ravine leading into the very heart of the mountains. Three
hours' ride, always rapidly ascending along the banks of the rivulet,
brought us to a large encampment. The features of the women and of the
men, who came out of their tents as we rode up, as well as the tongue in
which they addressed one another, showed at once that they were not Kurds.
They were Jews, shepherds and wanderers, of the stock, may be, of those
who, with their high priest, Hyrcanus, were carried away captive from
Jerusalem by Tigranes in the second century of our era, and placed in the
city and neighbourhood of Wan. Their descendants, two hundred years after,
were already so numerous that Shapour (Sapores) II. destroyed no less than
10,000 families in Wan alone.

We encamped near the Jewish nomades, and I visited their tents, but could
learn nothing of their history. They fed their flocks, as their fathers
had done before them, in these hills, and paid taxes to the governor of
Bash-Kalah.

We had now reached the higher regions of Kurdistan.[162] Next morning we
soon left the narrow flowery valley and the brawling stream, and entered
an undulating upland covered with deep snow, considerably more than ten
thousand feet above the level of the sea. On all sides of us were towering
peaks, and to the west a perfect sea of mountains, including the lofty
ranges of Hakkiari and Bohtan. Far away to the north was the azure basin
of Lake Wan, and beyond it rose the solitary white cone of the Subhan
Dagh.

Descending rapidly, and passing, near the foot of the mountain, one or two
miserable, half-deserted Kurdish hamlets, we entered a long narrow ravine,
shut in by perpendicular cliffs of sandstone and conglomerate. This outlet
of the mountain streams opens into the valley of Mahmoudiyah, in the
centre of which rises an isolated rock crowned by the picturesque castle
of Kosh-Ab.

We pitched our tents on a green lawn, near the bank of the foaming stream
which sweeps round the foot of the castellated rock. Soon after our
arrival a Kurdish Bey, of venerable appearance, a descendant of the
hereditary chiefs of Mahmoudiyah, called upon me. He had once been the
owner of the castle, but it had been wrested from him by two brothers,
named Khan Murad and Khan Abdal, mere mountain robbers. In this stronghold
the brothers long defied the Turkish government, levying black-mail upon
such caravans as ventured to pass through their territories, and
oppressing with fines and forced conversions their Christian subjects. It
was but the year before our visit that they had yielded to the troops sent
against them, and had been sent into banishment, with the rest of the
rebel chiefs, to Candia.

With the Kurdish Bey came one Ahmed Agha, a chief of the large border
tribe of Mogri, an intelligent man, who conversed freely on the state of
the country, and gave me some interesting information regarding the
frontiers. The fear of the conscription has driven many families into
Persia, and into the more independent districts of Kurdistan. On the
whole, the wandering tribes are becoming less formidable to the Porte than
they formerly were.

To the east of the district of Mahmoudiyah, and in that of Karasou, are
many Yezidi villages and a considerable Jewish population.[163] Both races
are much oppressed by the Kurdish chiefs, who take their property, and
even their lives, with perfect indifference, "the Cadis," as Ahmed Agha
informed me, "having given _fetwahs_ (decrees) that both were lawful to
the true believer."

We rose early next morning, and went up to the castle. It is falling into
ruins, though its towers still rise boldly from the edge of the precipice,
overhanging at a giddy height the valley below. In them, open to the cool
breezes of the mountain, are the dwelling-rooms of the old Kurdish chiefs,
adorned with tasteful lattice-work, and with the painted panellings and
gilded cornices of Persia. They are now tenanted by the Turkish troops,
whose bright arms and highly-polished kitchen utensils hang on the gaudy
walls. After drinking coffee and smoking pipes with the captain of the
guard, we walked down the narrow pathway leading to the valley, and,
mounting our horses, joined the caravan, which had preceded us on the road
to Wan.

On the following morning we crossed this valley to Nourtchouk, at the
outskirts of which I was met by the priest at the head of the inhabitants.
A range of low hills now separated us from the plain and lake of Wan. We
soon reached their crest, and a landscape of surpassing beauty was before
us. At our feet, intensely blue and sparkling in the rays of the sun, was
the inland sea, with the sublime peak of the Subhan Dagh, mirrored in its
transparent waters. The city, with its castle-crowned rock and its
embattled walls and towers, lay embowered in orchards and gardens. To our
right a rugged snow-capped mountain opened midway into an amphitheatre, in
which, amidst lofty trees, stood the Armenian convent of Yedi Klissia (the
seven churches). To the west of the lake was the Nimroud Dagh, and the
highlands nourishing the sources of the great rivers of Mesopotamia. The
hills forming the foreground of our picture were carpeted with the
brightest flowers, over which wandered the flocks, whilst the gaily
dressed shepherds gathered around us as we halted to contemplate the
enchanting scene.

We now descended rapidly towards Wan, and as we issued into the plain, a
party of horsemen galloped towards us. I soon recognised amongst them my
friend Mr. Bowen; with him were the Cawass-Bashi and a troop of irregular
cavalry, sent out by the Pasha to escort me into the city. Nor did the
governor's kindness end with this display of welcome. After winding for
nearly an hour through orchards and gardens, whose trees were bending
under the weight of fruit, and then through the narrow and crowded
streets, we were led to his serai or palace, which, such as it was, had
been made ready for our use, and where his treasurer was waiting to
receive us. Notwithstanding the fast, an abundant breakfast of various
meats and sweet messes, cooked after the Turkish fashion, had been
prepared for us, and we soon found repose upon a spacious divan,
surrounded by all the luxuries of Eastern life.



[Illustration: Kurds of Wan.]


CHAPTER XVIII.

    MEHEMET PASHA.--DESCRIPTION OF WAN.--ITS HISTORY.--IMPROVEMENT IN ITS
    CONDITION.--THE ARMENIAN BISHOP.--THE CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS.--THE
    CAVES OF KHORKHOR.--THE MEHER KAPOUSI.--A TRADITION.--OBSERVATIONS ON
    THE INSCRIPTIONS.--THE BAIRAM.--AN ARMENIAN SCHOOL.--THE AMERICAN
    MISSIONS.--PROTESTANT MOVEMENT IN TURKEY.--AMIKH.--THE CONVENT OF YEDI
    KLISSIA.


Mehemet Pasha was living during the fast of Ramazan in a kiosk in one of
the gardens outside the city walls. We had scarcely eaten, before he came
himself to welcome us to Wan. He was the son of the last Bostandji-Bashi
of Constantinople, and having been brought up from a child in the imperial
palace, was a man of pleasing and dignified manners, and of considerable
information. Although he had never left his native country, he was not
ignorant of the habits and customs of Europe. He had long served the
Sultan in difficult and responsible posts, and to his discretion and
sagacity was chiefly to be attributed the subjugation of Beder-Khan Bey
and the rebel Kurdish tribes. His rule was mild and conciliating, and he
possessed those qualities so rare in a Turkish governor, yet so
indispensable to the civilisation and well-being of the empire,--a strict
honesty in the administration of the revenues of his province, and a sense
of justice beyond the reach of bribes. From Christians and Kurds we had
received during our journey through his pashalic, the highest testimony to
his tolerance and integrity.

In the evening I returned his visit, and found him surrounded by the
chiefs and elders of the city, and by the officers of his household. I sat
with him till midnight, the time passing in that agreeable conversation
which a well-educated Turk so well knows how to sustain.

I remained a week at Wan, chiefly engaged in copying the cuneiform
inscriptions, and in examining its numerous remarkable monuments of
antiquity.

The city is of very ancient date. It stands on the borders of a large and
beautiful lake, a site eminently suited to a prosperous community. The
lofty mountains bordering the inland sea to the east, here recede in the
form of an amphitheatre, leaving a rich plain five or six miles in
breadth, in the midst of which rises an isolated calcareous rock. To the
summit of this natural stronghold, there is no approach, except on the
western side, where a gradual but narrow ascent is defended by the walls
and bastions. From the earliest ages it has consequently been the
acropolis of the city, and no position could be stronger before the
discovery of the engines of modern warfare. The fortifications and
castle, of a comparatively recent date, are now in ruins, and are scarcely
defensible, with their few rusty guns, against the attacks of the
neighbouring Kurds.

According to Armenian history, the Assyrian queen Semiramis founded the
city; it having fallen to decay, it is said to have been rebuilt, shortly
before the invasion of Alexander the Great, by an Armenian king named Wan,
after whom it was subsequently called. It appears to have been again
abandoned, for we find that it was once more raised from its foundations
in the second century B. C. by Vagharschag, the first king of the Arsacian
dynasty of Armenia, who made it the strongest city in the kingdom. In the
eleventh century it was ceded by the royal family of the Ardz-rounis to
the Greek emperors, from whom it was taken by the Seljuk Turks. It fell,
in 1392, into the hands of Timourlane, who, according to his custom, gave
the inhabitants over to the sword. Even in his day, the great monuments of
solid stone, raised by the Assyrian queen, were still shown to the
stranger.

Moses of Chorene, the early historian of Armenia, has faithfully described
its position and its antiquities; the isolated hill, rising in the midst
of a broad plain covered with flourishing villages, and watered by
innumerable streams; the chapels, chambers, treasuries, and caverns cut in
the living rock, and the great inscriptions written, as it were, on the
face of the precipice, as pages are written with a pen on wax.

The first traveller who, in modern times, examined the remarkable remains
of antiquity at Wan was the unfortunate Schulz. He visited the place in
1827. The cuneiform inscriptions carved on the rock were known to exist
long before his day, but he was the first to copy them, and from his
copies they have been published by the Asiatic Society of France. Since
the time of Schulz, the city has undergone many changes. It was seized by
the rebel Kurdish chief, Khan Mahmoud; but after many vain attempts made
to recover the place, it finally yielded two years before my journey.
Under the mild rule of Mehemet Pasha it was rapidly rising to prosperity.
The protection he had given to the Armenians had encouraged that
enterprising and industrious people to enlarge their commerce, and to
build warehouses for trade. Two handsome khans, with bazars attached, were
nearly finished. Shops for the sale of European articles of clothing and
of luxury had been opened; and, what was of still more importance, several
native schools had already been established. These improvements were
chiefly due to one Sharân, an Armenian merchant and a man of liberal and
enlightened views, who had seconded with energy and liberality the desire
of the Pasha to ameliorate the social condition of the Christian
population.[164]

Shortly after my arrival, the Armenian bishop called upon me. He was
dressed in the peculiar costume of his order,--long black robes and a
capacious black hood almost concealing his head,--and was accompanied by
the priests and principal laymen of his diocese. On his breast he wore the
rich diamond crescent and star of the Turkish order of merit, of which he
was justly proud. Although he had been duly elected several years before
to his episcopal dignity, he still wanted the formal consecration of the
patriarch of his church, owing to difficulties connected with the
political position of the patriarch; he was now, however, on the eve of
his departure to receive that consecration which was essential to his due
admission into the Armenian hierarchy.

The modern town of Wan stands at the foot, and to the south of, the
isolated rock. Its streets and bazars are small, narrow, and dirty; but
its houses are not ill built. It is surrounded by fruitful gardens and
orchards, irrigated by artificial rivulets derived from the streams rising
in the Yedi Klissia mountains. It may contain between twelve and fifteen
thousand inhabitants. The whole pashalic at the time of my visit paid an
annual sum of six thousand purses (about 27,000_l._) to the Turkish
treasury. In the town there was a garrison of a thousand foot and five
hundred horse, and the commander of the troops in the district and in the
adjoining province of Hakkiari was at the head of five thousand men.[165]

The old hereditary pashas of Wan, as well as the principal families, were
of Turkish origin, and came, I was informed by some of their descendants,
from Konia (Iconium), about three hundred years ago. The chiefs, however,
of the surrounding districts are Kurds. Two families, named the
Topchi-oglus and the Timour-oglus, divided the town into opposite
factions, which were continually at war, and carried their bloody feuds
almost daily into the streets. The Timour-oglus were the most powerful,
and it was through their means that Khan Mahmoud possessed himself of the
place.

The inscriptions of Wan are of two distinct periods, though all of the
cuneiform writing. The most ancient are in a character identical with that
on the oldest monuments of Assyria. The earliest inscriptions are found on
two square stones built into a wall near the western gateway of the city,
and immediately beneath the only entrance to the castle. The language of
these inscriptions appears to be Assyrian, whilst that of all the others
is peculiar to Wan. Nevertheless the names of the kings in them can be
genealogically connected with those on the other monuments.

But the most important records at Wan are carved on the southern face of
the isolated rock, round the entrance to a set of excavated chambers,
probably once serving as tombs. As those inscriptions record the victories
and deeds of a monarch, it is highly probable that they were placed over
royal sepulchres.

A flight of twenty narrow steps cut in the perpendicular face of the
precipice, and partly destroyed, so as to be somewhat difficult and
dangerous, leads to a narrow ledge, above which the rock has been
carefully smoothed, and is still covered with inscriptions in the
cuneiform character. Here an entrance, about 7 feet deep, opens into a
hall, 34-1/2 feet long, by nearly 21 wide and 12 high, leading by four
doorways into as many distinct chambers. Around its walls are window-like
recesses, and between them, and on each side of the doorways, are
ornamental niches, with holes in the centre, which may have held metal
lamps. The floor has been excavated in two places into squares a few
inches deep; I cannot conjecture for what purpose.

The door to the left on entering leads into a small chamber, 11 ft. 8 in.,
by 9 ft. 8 in., surrounded by similar window-like recesses. In it is a
second doorway opening upon a well or pit, filled to within a few feet of
the mouth with stones and rubbish. There were no means of ascertaining its
depth or original use without removing the contents. The three other doors
in the entrance hall lead to square rooms, surrounded by niches, but
without other ornament. The excavations are sometimes called by the Turks
"Khorkhor Mugaralari," the caves of Khorkhor, from a garden of that name
below them.

The inscriptions on the face of the rock around the outer entrance to
these chambers are contained in eight parallel columns, including in all
above 300 lines and thirteen consecutive paragraphs. The letters are large
and admirably carved, and the writing is divided by horizontal lines.
These rock-tablets are the records of a king whose name, according to Dr.
Hincks, is Arghistis. He invokes the gods of his nation, and celebrates
the conquest of various peoples or tribes, whose names still require to be
identified, but who probably inhabited countries to the north of Armenia;
he describes the burning of their temples and palaces, and the carrying
away of captives and of an immense spoil of horses, camels, cattle, and
sheep, the numbers of each being given with apparent exactness. The name
of the region in which these conquests were chiefly made, seems to read
Mana.

The remaining inscriptions are on the northern face of the rock. They are
five in number. The longest and most important contains twenty-nine lines,
and is on the side wall to the left on entering an artificial vaulted
recess. It has been partly destroyed by a rude cross cut by the Armenians
across the tablet. The cave is called the "Khazana Kapousi," or the
treasure gate, and is held to be a sacred spot by Christians and
Mussulmans.

An inscription of seventeen lines is carved at the entrance to a second
artificial chamber, and on tablets cut in the rock are three more, each
of nineteen lines, word for word alike, but with orthographical variations
in the royal name.

Four of these inscriptions belong to the father of the king, who recorded
his conquests on the southern face of the rock. His name, according to Dr.
Hincks, may be read Minuas. They merely contain the royal titles and
invocations to the gods. The long inscription in the vaulted recess is of
the grandson of Minuas, the latest king mentioned on the monuments of Wan.
It is of considerable interest as containing the name of a country, which
Dr. Hincks identifies with Babylon, and as enumerating, first in detail,
the amount of booty taken from three different countries, and afterwards
giving the total amount of the whole. By this double account, the one
checking the other, a clue was afforded to the signs representing numerals
in the Assyrian inscriptions, as well as to their respective values, a
discovery for which we are indebted to the sagacity of Dr. Hincks.

The Pasha had kindly placed the "Mimar Bashi," or architect in chief of
the town, an honest Armenian, named Nikòos, under my orders during my
researches at Wan. The excavations, however, which were made came to no
result worth mentioning.

About a mile and a half to the east of the town, near a small village in
the gardens of Wan, is a recess in the rock 15 feet 8 inches high, and 6
feet 7 inches broad, containing a long cuneiform inscription. The
inscription is called Meher Kapousi, which, according to the people of
Wan, means the Shepherd's Gate, from a tradition that a shepherd, having
fallen asleep beneath it, was told in a dream the magic word that opened
the spell-bound portal. He awoke and straightway tried the talisman. The
stone doors flew apart, disclosing to his wondering eyes a vast hall
filled with inexhaustible treasures; but as he entered they shut again
behind him. He filled with gold the bag in which, as he tended his flocks,
he carried his daily food. After repeating the magic summons, he was
permitted to issue into the open air. But he had left his crook, and must
return for it. The doors were once more unclosed at his bidding. He sought
to retrace his steps, but had forgotten the talisman. His faithful dog
waited outside until nightfall. As its master did not come back, it then
took up the bag of gold and carrying it to the shepherd's wife, led her to
the gates of the cave. She could hear the cries of her husband, and they
are heard to this day, but none can give him help.

The inscription of the Meher Kapousi originally consisted of ninety-five
lines, comprising the same record twice repeated. Only about sixty are now
legible. Near the Shepherd's Gate the rocks are excavated into a vast
number of caves. In some places long flights of steps lead nowhere, but
finish abruptly in the face of the perpendicular precipice; in others the
cliff is scarped to a great height without any apparent object. A singular
shaft, with stairs, leading into a cavern, is called Zimzim. It is
difficult to account for the use and origin of these singular excavations;
their height from the plain and their inaccessible position almost
preclude the idea of their having been quarries.

Several slabs of black basalt, inscribed with cuneiform characters, have
been built into the interior walls of two ancient Armenian churches within
the town of Wan. In the church of St. Peter and St. Paul I found parts of
four legends, which are historical, containing a record of the capture of
many cities, and of the amount of spoil carried away from conquered
countries. In the church of Surp Sahak I was able to transcribe two
inscriptions, one under the altar, the other in the vestibule beneath the
level of the floor, which had to be broken up and removed before I could
reach the stone. The longest consists of forty lines, the other of
twenty-seven. The beginning and ending of the lines in both are wanting.

The only inscription at Wan that I could not copy was the trilingual
tablet of Xerxes. It is on the most inaccessible part of the rock, about
seventy or eighty feet above the plain. Not having a glass of sufficient
power, I was unable to distinguish the characters from below. As it had
been accurately transcribed by Schulz, and resembles those of the same
king at Persepolis and Hamadan, I did not think it necessary to incur any
risk or expense in reaching it by means of ropes or scaffolding.[166]

In the rock there are numerous excavated chambers, some even exceeding in
dimensions those I have described; but, with the exception of a simple
seat or bench of stone, about two and a half feet high on one side of
them, they are perfectly plain and unornamented. They appear to have been
used as tombs. Some are approached by flights of steps cut in the
precipice; others are altogether inaccessible except by ropes from above.

It is yet doubtful to what family of languages the Wan inscriptions must
be assigned. Some believe it to be a Tatar dialect; Dr. Hincks, on the
contrary, is of opinion that it is Indo-Germanic. Two of the inscriptions,
and the earliest in date, as I have already observed, are in pure
Assyrian.

With regard to the date of the monuments there appears to be a clue which
may enable us to fix it with some degree of certainty. In an inscription
from Khorsabad, amongst the kings conquered by Sargon one is mentioned
whose name corresponds with Arghistis, the fifth in the Wan dynasty.
Supposing the two, therefore, to be the same, and there is no reason to
doubt their being so, we may assume that the monarchs of the Wan records
reigned from about the middle of the eighth century before Christ to the
end of the seventh; and the evidence afforded by the forms of the
characters leads to this conjecture.

At sunrise, on the 8th August, the roaring of cannon, re-echoed by the
lofty rock, announced the end of Ramazan, and the beginning of the
periodical festivities of the Bairam. Early in the morning the Pasha,
glittering with gold and jewels, and surrounded by the members of his
household, the officers of the garrison, and the gaily-dressed chiefs of
the irregular troops, rode in procession through the streets of the town.
As it is customary he received in the palace the visits of the cadi,
mollahs, and principal Mussulman inhabitants of Wan, as well as of the
bishop, clergy, and elders of the Armenian church. The population,
rejoicing at their release from a fast almost intolerable in summer,
decked themselves in holiday garments, and made merry in the houses and
highways. The sounds of music and revelry issued from the coffee-houses
and places of public resort. The children repaired to swings,
merry-go-rounds, and stalls of sweetmeats, which had been raised in the
open spaces within the walls. The Christians add the feast to their own
festivals, already too numerous,[167] and, like their Mussulman
neighbours, pay visits of compliment and ceremony. Their women, who are
said to be handsome, but are even more rigidly concealed than the
Mohammedan ladies, crept through the streets in their long white veils.

I called in the evening on the bishop, and next morning, at his
invitation, visited the principal schools. Five have been established
since the fall of the Kurdish Beys, and the enjoyment of comparative
protection by the Christian population. Only one had been opened within
the walls; the rest were in the gardens, which are thickly inhabited by
Armenians, and form extensive suburbs to Wan. More than two hundred
children of all ages were assembled. They went through their exercises and
devotions at the sound of a bell with great order and precision,
alternately standing and squatting on their hams on small cushions placed
in rows across the hall. An outer room held basins and towels for washing,
and the cloaks and shoes taken off on entering. Books were scarce. There
were not more than a score in the whole school. The first class, which had
made some progress, had a few elementary works on astronomy and history,
published by the Armenian press at Constantinople and Smyrna, but only one
copy of each. The boys, at my request, sang and chanted their prayers, and
repeated their simple lessons.

Such schools, imperfect though they be, are proofs of a great and
increasing improvement in the Christian communities of Turkey.[168] A
change of considerable importance, and which, it is to be hoped, may lead
to the most beneficial results, is now taking place in the Armenian
Church. It is undoubtedly to be attributed to the judicious, earnest, and
zealous exertions of the American missionaries; their establishments,
scattered over nearly the whole Turkish empire, have awakened amongst the
Christians, and principally amongst the Armenians, a spirit of inquiry and
a desire for the reform of abuses, and for the cultivation of their minds,
which must ultimately tend to raise their political, as well as their
social, position in the human scale. It is scarcely fifteen years since
the first institution for Christian instruction on Protestant
(independent) principles was opened by those excellent men in
Constantinople. By a wise selection of youths from different parts of the
empire, who from their character and abilities were deemed worthy of the
choice, they were shortly enabled to send into the provinces those who
could sow the seeds of truth and knowledge, without incurring the
suspicions attaching to strangers, and without laboring under that
ignorance of the manners and languages of those amongst whom they mix,
which must always prove so serious an obstacle to foreigners in their
intercourse with the natives. A movement of this nature could scarcely
escape persecution. The Armenian clergy, not unfavorable to the darkness
and bigotry which had for centuries disgraced their Church, and exercising
an uncontrolled power over an ignorant and simple people, soon raised a
cry against the "Evangelists," as they were contemptuously called. By such
misrepresentations and calumnies as are always ready at hand to the
enemies of progress and reform, they were able to enlist in their favor
the Turkish authorities at the capital and in the provinces.
Unfortunately, four sects alone, the Roman Catholic, the Armenian, the
Greek, and the Copt, were recognised by the Porte amongst their Christian
subjects. The reformed Armenian Church was consequently without an
acknowledged head, and unable, to communicate directly with the
government, to make known its tenets, or to complain of the acts of
injustice and persecution to which it was exposed. Many persons fell
victims to their opinions. Some were cruelly tortured in the house of the
Patriarch himself, and others were imprisoned or utterly ruined in
Constantinople and the provinces. Through the exertions of the English
minister at Constantinople, a firman was obtained from the Sultan, placing
the new Protestant community on the same footing as the other Churches of
the empire, assigning to it a head, or agent, through whom it could apply
directly to the ministers, and extending to it other privileges enjoyed by
the Roman Catholics and Greeks. Fortunately for the cause, many men of
irreproachable character, and of undoubted sincerity from the Armenian
nation have been associated with it, and its success has not been
endangered, like that of so many other movements of the same kind, by
interested, or hasty conversions.

The influence of this spirit of inquiry, fostered by the American
missions, has not been alone confined to those who have been cut off from
their own community. The Armenian clergy have found it their true interest
to promote reform in their own Church. Schools in opposition to the
American establishments have been opened in the capital and in most of the
large towns of Asia Minor; and elementary and theological works, of a far
more liberal character than any hitherto published in Turkey, have been
printed by Armenian printing-presses in Constantinople and Smyrna, or
introduced into the country from Venice.

Whilst on this subject, and connected as I have been with the Nestorians,
I must not omit a tribute of praise to the admirable establishments of the
American missions amongst the Chaldæans of Ooroomiyah in Persia, under the
able direction of the Rev. Mr. Perkins.[169] It was with much regret that
I was compelled to give up the plan I had formed of visiting that small
colony from the New World. The Rev. Mr. Bowen, who crossed the frontiers
from Wan, has in a true Christian spirit borne witness in the English
Church to the enlightened and liberal spirit in which their labors are
carried on. Forty or fifty schools have been opened in the town of
Ooroomiyah and surrounding villages. The abuses that have crept into this
primitive and highly interesting Church are being reformed, and the
ignorance of its simple clergy gradually dispelled. A printing-press, for
which type has been purposely cut, now publishes for general circulation
the Scriptures and works of education in the dialect and character
peculiar to the mountain tribes. The English language has been planted in
the heart of Asia, and the benefits of knowledge are extended to a race
which, a few years ago, was almost unknown even by name to Europe.

The Armenian bishop of Wan was not wanting in intelligence and in liberal
feeling; but, like most of his order, he was profoundly ignorant. The
convents of Wan and of the neighbourhood, he said, were once rich in
ancient manuscripts, but they had been carried away by camel-loads some
two hundred years before by the Persians, and were believed still to be
preserved in Isfahan. With the exception of a few printed copies of the
Scriptures, and some religious works for the use of the churches, there
are now no books in the city. He received with pleasure from Mr. Bowen a
copy of the New Testament in the vulgar Armenian tongue, remarking that it
would be a great advantage to the common people to have a version of the
Scriptures in a language which they could understand. He was probably not
aware that the head of his church had utterly condemned its use, and had
anathematised all those who received it.

My companions had been compelled, from ill health, to leave the plain, and
had taken refuge in the convent of Yedi Klissia, from the sultry heats of
the plain. Before joining them, I visited the village of Amikh, where,
according to my Armenian guide, Nikòos, an inscription was engraved on the
rocks. I left the city on the 10th of August; but the time and labor
bestowed resulted only in disappointment.

From Amikh I rode across the country in a direct line to the monastery of
Yedi Klissia, whose gardens on the side of the lofty mountain of Wurrak
are visible from most parts of the plain. I stopped for an hour at the
church of Kormawor before ascending to the convent. An aged priest, with
beard white as snow, and wearing a melon-shaped cap, and long black robes,
was the guardian of the place. He led me into an arcade surrounding the
inner court of the building. Seeing that I was a Frank, he fancied at once
that I was searching for inscriptions, and pointed to a circular stone,
the base of a wooden column, which, he said, he had shown many years
before to a traveller, meaning Schulz. It bears three imperfect lines of
cuneiform writing, part of an inscription belonging to one of the Wan
kings, whose name Dr. Hincks read Minuas. It appears to record the
foundation of a temple. A second inscription on a black stone, and several
fragments with the same royal name, are built into the walls.

Eight hours' ride from Amikh brought me to the large Armenian convent of
Yedi Klissia, or the seven churches, built of substantial stone masonry,
and inclosing a spacious courtyard planted with trees. It has more the
appearance of a caravanserai than that of a place of religious retreat,
and is beautifully situated near the mouth of a wooded ravine, half-way up
a bold mountain, which ends in snowy peaks. Spread beneath it is a blue
lake and a smiling plain, and the city, with its bold castellated rock,
and its turreted walls half hid in gardens and orchards.

The church, a substantial modern edifice, stands within the courtyard. Its
walls are covered with pictures as primitive in design as in execution.
There is a victorious St. George blowing out the brains of a formidable
dragon with a bright brass blunderbuss, and saints, attired in the
traditionary garments of Europe, performing extravagant miracles. The
intelligence of the good priest at the head of the convent was pretty well
on a par with his illustrated church history. He was a specimen of the
Armenian clergy of Asia Minor. As he described each subject to me, he
spoke of the Nestorians as heretics, because they were allowed, by the
canons of their church, to marry their mothers and grandmothers; of the
Protestants as freemasons or atheists; and of the great nations of Europe
as the Portuguese, the Inglese, the Muscovs, and the Abbash (Abyssinians).

I found two short cuneiform inscriptions; one on a stone amongst the ruins
of the old church, the other built into the walls of the new. They also
belong to Minuas, and merely contain the name and titles of the king.



CHAPTER XIX.

    LEAVE WAN.--THE ARMENIAN PATRIARCH.--THE ISLAND OF AKHTAMAR.--AN
    ARMENIAN CHURCH.--HISTORY OF THE CONVENT.--PASS INTO MUKUS.--THE
    DISTRICT OF MUKUS.--OF SHATTAK.--OF NOURDOOZ.--A NESTORIAN
    VILLAGE.--ENCAMPMENTS.--MOUNT ARARAT.--MAR
    SHAMOUN.--JULAMERIK.--VALLEY OF DIZ.--PASS INTO JELU.--NESTORIAN
    DISTRICT OF JELU.--AN ANCIENT CHURCH.--THE BISHOP.--DISTRICT OF
    BAZ.--OF TKHOMA.--RETURN TO MOSUL.


Sickness had overcome both Dr. Sandwith and Mr. Cooper. A return to the
burning plains of Assyria might have proved fatal, and I advised them to
seek, without further delay, the cooler climate of Europe. Mr. Walpole,
too, who had been long suffering from fever, now determined upon quitting
my party and taking the direct road to Erzeroom.

In the afternoon of the 12th August I left the gates of the convent of
Yedi Klissia with Mr. Hormuzd Rassam. Once more I was alone with my
faithful friend, and we trod together the winding pathway which led down
the mountain side. We had both been suffering from fever, but we still had
strength to meet its attacks, and to bear cheerfully, now unhindered, the
difficulties and anxieties of our wandering life.

We made a short journey of three and a half hours to the pleasant village
of Artamit or Adremit, and encamped beneath its fruit trees in a garden
near the lake. Our path on the following day led through a hilly district,
sometimes edging a deep bay, then again winding over a rocky promontory.
We crossed by a bridge the large stream which we had seen at Mahmoudiyah,
and which here discharges itself into the lake.

On the shores of the lake we found many encampments of gipsies; the men to
be distinguished by their swarthy countenances, the women and children by
their taste for begging.

We passed through Vastan; in the eleventh century the residence of the
royal Armenian family of Ardzrouni, but now a mere village. The convent
boat was on the beach, three miles above the usual landing-place. Four
sturdy monks were about to row it back to the island. As they offered to
take me with them, I left the caravan to journey onwards to our night's
encamping place, and with Mr. Rassam and the Bairakdar, we were soon
gliding over the calm surface of the lake. Not a breeze rippled the blue
expanse. The burning rays of the sun were still full upon us, and the
panting boatmen were nearly two hours before they reached the convent.

In the absence of the Patriarch we were received by an intelligent and
courteous monk named Kirikor. His hair, as well as his beard, had never
known the scissors, and fell in long luxuriant curls over his shoulders.
It was of jetty black, for he was still a young man, although he had
already passed twenty years of a monastic life. He led us through an
arched doorway into the spacious courtyard of the convent, and thence into
an upper room furnished with comfortable divans for the reception of
guests. Tea was brought to us after the Persian fashion, and afterwards a
more substantial breakfast, in which the dried fish of the lake formed the
principal dish. Kirikor had visited Jerusalem and Constantinople, had read
many of the works issued by the Venetian press, and was a man of superior
acquirements for an Armenian monk of the orthodox faith.

The church, which is within the convent walls, is built of the sandstone
of a rich deep red color that has been quarried for the turbehs of Akhlat.
Like other religious edifices of the same period and of the same nation,
it is in the form of a cross, with a small hexagonal tower, ending in a
conical roof, rising above the centre. The interior is simple. A few rude
pictures of saints and miracles adorn the walls, and a gilded throne for
the Patriarch stands near the altar. The exterior, however, is elaborately
ornamented with friezes and broad bands of sculptured figures and scroll
work, the upper part being almost covered with bas-reliefs, giving to the
whole building a very striking and original appearance. I know of no
similar specimen of Armenian architecture, and I regret that time would
not allow me to make detailed drawings of the edifice.

In a grave-yard outside the church are several most elaborately carved
tombstones belonging to the early Armenian patriarchs. That of Zachariah,
who died in the fourteenth century, and who was for one year patriarch at
Echmiadsin and for nine years at Akhtamar, is especially worthy of notice
for the richness and elegance of its ornaments.

The convent and church are built on a small rocky island about five miles
from the shore. On an adjacent islet are the ruined walls of a castle
partly covered by the rising waters of the lake. Intercourse with the main
land is carried on by the one crank boat which, whenever the weather
permits, goes backwards and forwards daily for such provisions as are
required by the inmates of the monastery. Khan Mahmoud took the place by
collecting together the vessels belonging to Wan for the transport of his
troops.

Late in the afternoon, accompanied by the monk Kirikor, I was rowed to the
farm and garden belonging to the convent, near the village of Ashayansk. A
few monks live on the farm, and tend the property of the convent,
supplying the Patriarch with the produce of the dairy and orchards. They
received us very hospitably. Kirikor rode with me on the following morning
as far as the large Armenian village of Narek, in which there is a church
dedicated to St. George, much frequented in pilgrimage by the Christians
of Wan and the surrounding country. It is a strong solid building, of the
same red sandstone as the tombs of Akhlat.

We had now left the lake of Wan, and our track led up a deep ravine, which
gradually became more narrow as we drew nigh to the high mountains that
separated us from the unexplored districts of Mukus and Bohtan. We passed
a large Armenian village named Pagwantz, near which, on the summit of a
precipitous rock, stands the ruined castle of Khan Mahmoud, the rebel
chief. He was the eldest of seven brothers, all of whom governed under him
different districts on the borders of the lake, and sorely oppressed the
Christian inhabitants. Five were captured and are in banishment.

Ere long we entered a rocky barren tract, patched here and there with
fragrant Alpine flowers. After climbing up a steep declivity of loose
stones like the moraine of a Swiss glacier, and dragging our horses with
much difficulty after us, we found ourselves amidst eternal snow, over
which we toiled for nearly two hours, until we reached the crest of the
mountain, and looked down into the deep valley of Mukus. This is
considered one of the highest passes in Kurdistan, and one of the most
difficult for beasts of burden. The descent was even more rapid and
precipitous than the ascent, and we could scarcely prevent our weary
horses from rolling down into the ravine with the stones which we put into
motion at every step. At the foot of the pass is a small Armenian church
called Khorous Klissia, or "the church of the cock," because a black cock
is said to warn the traveller when the snowdrifts hide the mountain
tracks.

A ride of eight hours brought us to the large scattered village of Mukus,
the principal place of the district of the same name. We were met, as we
drew near, by the Mudir or governor, an active bustling Turk, who had
already chosen, with the usual taste of an Eastern, the prettiest spot, a
lawn on the banks of the river, for our tents, and had collected
provisions for ourselves and our horses. The good Pasha of Wan had sent to
the different chiefs on our way, and had ordered preparation to be
everywhere made for our reception. The Tigris is here a deep stream, and
is crossed by a stone bridge.

The district of Mukus, anciently Mogkh, and one of the provinces of the
Armenian kingdom, had only lately been brought under the authority of the
Sultan. Of its sixty villages forty are inhabited by Christian Armenians.
The revenues amounted the year of my visit to little more than 100,000
piastres (about 910_l._), of which the village of Mukus contributed
42,000. The garrison consisted of only forty regular soldiers and forty
Albanians, so completely had the seizure of their chiefs discouraged the
wild Kurdish tribes who dwell in the mountains, and were formerly in open
rebellion against the Porte. This nomade race forms the principal part of
the Mussulman population, and is the most fierce and independent in
Kurdistan.

The Mudir showed the greatest anxiety for our welfare during the night,
continually visiting our tents to see that the Albanians he had placed as
guards over our property did not sleep, as the village swarmed with Bohtan
thieves.

The principal Armenians of Mukus with their priests spent a morning with
me. They knew of no ruins or inscriptions in the district, and I found
them even more ignorant than their fellow-countrymen of the districts
around Wan, whose stupidity has passed into a Turkish proverb.

We left Mukus early in the afternoon, accompanied by the Mudir. The path
following the course of the river, leads to Sert Jezireh and the Assyrian
plains. Next day we crossed a high mountain ridge covered in some places
with snow, separating the district of Mukus from that of Shattak. Its
northern and western slopes are the summer pastures of the Miran Kurds,
whose flocks were still feeding on the green lawns and in the flowery
glens. On the opposite side of the pass we found an encampment of Hartushi
Kurds, under one Omar Agha, a noble old chieftain, who welcomed us with
unbounded hospitality, and set before me every luxury that he possessed.
Shattak, the Mudir of which village had prepared for our reception, is a
small town, rather than a village. It is chiefly inhabited by Armenians,
an industrious and hardy race, cultivating the sides of the mountains, on
which are built their villages, and weaving in considerable quantities the
gay-colored woollen stuffs so much esteemed by the Kurds. In nearly every
house was a loom, and the rattle of the shuttle came from almost every
door. The mountains produce galls, wool (some of which has the same silky
texture as that of Angora), the small under-wool of the goat called
_teftik_ (a valuable article of export), and minerals. In the bazar at
Shattak I saw a few English prints, and other European wares brought for
sale from Wan.

The priests and principal Armenians of the place came to me soon after my
arrival, and I learnt from them that efforts had already been made to
improve the condition of the Christian community, now that the oppressive
rule of the Kurdish hereditary chiefs had been succeeded by the more
tolerant government of the Sultan. A school had been opened, chiefly by
the help of Sheran, the active and liberal Armenian banker of Wan.

The town itself is called by the Armenians Tauk, by the Kurds Shokh, and
when spoken of together with the numerous villages that surround it,
Shattak. It stands near the junction of two considerable streams, forming
one of the head-waters of the eastern Tigris, and uniting with the
Bohtan-Su. The largest comes from the district of Albagh. These streams,
as well as that of Mukus, abound in trout of the most delicious flavor.
The entire district contains fifty villages and numerous _mezras_ or
hamlets. The revenues are about the same as those of Mukus.

We left Shokh on the 17th August by a bridge crossing the principal
stream. The Mudir rode with us up a steep mountain, rising on the very
outskirts of the town. After a long and difficult ascent we came to a
broad green platform called Tagu, the pastures of the people of Shattak,
and now covered with their tents and flocks. This high ground overlooked
the deep valleys, through which wound the two streams, and on whose sides
were many smiling gardens and villages.

Crossing a high mountain pass, on which snow still lingered, we descended
into a deep valley like that of Shattak, chiefly cultivated by Armenians.
We crossed a small stream, and ascended on the opposite side to Ashkaun,
whose inhabitants were outside the village, near a clear spring, washing
and shearing their sheep. We had now entered Nourdooz, a district under a
Mudir appointed by the Pasha of Wan, and living at a large village called
Pir-bedelan.

Our ride on the following day was over upland pastures of great richness,
and through narrow valleys watered by numerous streams. Here and there
were villages inhabited by Kurds and Armenians. We were now approaching
the Nestorian districts. The first man of the tribe we met was an aged
buffalo-keeper, who, in answer to a question in Kurdish, spoke to me in
the Chaldee dialect of the mountains. Hormuzd and my servants rejoiced at
the prospect of leaving the Armenian settlements, whose inhabitants, they
declared, were for stupidity worse than Kurds, and for rapacity worse than
Jews. Chilghiri was the first Nestorian village on our way. The men, with
their handsome wives and healthful children, came out to meet us. We did
not stop there, but continued our journey to Merwanen, which we found
deserted by its inhabitants for the Zomas, or summer pastures. Although
poor and needy, the people of Merwanen were not less hospitable than other
Nestorians I had met with. They brought us as the sun went down smoking
messes of millet boiled in sour milk and mixed with mountain herbs.

The next day we came to a large encampment of Hartushi Kurds, near the
outlet of a green valley, watered by many streams, forming the most
easterly sources of the Tigris.[170] Abd-ur-Rahman, the chief, was absent
from his tents collecting the annual salian or revenue of the tribe. In
his absence we were very hospitably treated, and were witnesses of the
activity and industry of the Kurdish community.

The mountain rising above us was the boundary between the pashalics of Wan
and Hakkiari and the watershed of the Tigris and Zab. On the opposite side
the streams uniting their waters flowed towards the latter river. The
first district we entered was that of Lewen, inhabited chiefly by
Nestorians. The whole population with their flocks had deserted their
villages for the Zomas. We ascended to the encampment of the people of
Billi, a wretched assemblage of dirty hovels, half tent and half cabin,
built of stones and black canvas. Behind it towered, amidst eternal snows,
a bold and majestic peak, called Karnessa-ou-Daoleh.[171] Round the base
of this mountain, over loose stones and sharp rocks, and through ravines
deep in snow, we dragged our weary horses next day. The Kurdish shepherds
that wander there, a wild and hardy race, have no tents, but, during the
summer months, live in the open fields with their flocks, without any
covering whatever.

After a wearisome and indeed dangerous ride, we found ourselves on a snowy
platform variegated with Alpine plants. The tiny streams which trickled
through the ice were edged with forget-me-nots of the tenderest blue, and
with many well-remembered European flowers. I climbed up a solitary rock
to take bearings of the principal peaks around us. A sight as magnificent
as unexpected awaited me. Far to the north, and high above the dark
mountain ranges which spread like a troubled sea beneath my feet, rose one
solitary cone of unspotted white sparkling in the rays of the sun. Its
form could not be mistaken; it was Mount Ararat. My Nestorian guide knew
no more of this stately mountain, to him a kind of mythic land far beyond
the reach of human travel, than that it was within the territories of the
Muscovites, and that the Christians called it Bashut-tama-hamda. From this
point alone was it visible, and we saw it no more during our journey.[172]

We descended rapidly by a difficult track, passing here and there
encampments of Kurds and the tents and flocks of the people of Julamerik.
To the green pastures succeeded the region of cultivated fields, and we
seemed to approach more settled habitations. Following a precipitous
pathway, and mounted on a tall and sturdy mule, we spied an aged man with
long robes, black turban, and a white beard which fell almost to his
girdle. We at once recognised the features of Mar Shamoun, the Patriarch
of the Nestorians, or, as he proudly terms himself, "of the Chaldæans of
the East." He had not known of our coming, and he shed tears of joy as he
embraced us. Kochhannes, his residence, was not far distant, and he turned
back with us to the village. Since I had seen him misfortune and grief,
more than age, had worn deep furrows in his brow, and had turned his hair
and beard to silvery grey.

The garments of the Patriarch were worn and ragged. Even the miserable
allowance of 300 piastres (about 2_1._ 10_s._), which the Porte had
promised to pay him monthly on his return to the mountains, was long in
arrears, and he was supported entirely by the contributions of his
faithful but poverty-stricken flock. Kochhannes was, moreover, still a
heap of ruins. At the time of the massacre Mar Shamoun sacredly saved
himself by a precipitous flight before the ferocious Kurds of Beder Khan
Bey entered the village and slew those who still lingered in it, and were
from age or infirmities unable to escape.

Mar Shamoun, at the time of my visit, had no less cause to bewail the
misfortunes of his people than his personal sufferings. The latter were
perhaps partly to be attributed to his own want of prudence and foresight.
Old influences, which I could not but deeply deplore, and to which I do
not in Christian charity wish further to allude[173], had been at work,
and I found him even more bitter in his speech against the American
missionaries than against his Turkish or Kurdish oppressors. He had been
taught, and it is to be regretted that his teachers were of the Church of
England, that those who were endeavoring to civilise and instruct his
flock were seceders from the orthodox community of Christians, heretical
in doctrine, rejecting all the sacraments and ordinances of the true
faith, and intent upon reducing the Nestorians to their own hopeless
condition of infidelity. His fears were worked on by the assurance that,
ere long, through their means and teaching, his spiritual as well as his
temporal authority would be entirely destroyed. I found him bent upon
deeds of violence and intolerant persecution, which might have endangered,
for the second time, the safety of this people as well as his own. I
strove, and I trust not without success, to set before the old man his
true interest in regard to educating his clergy and people, circulating
the Scriptures, reforming abuses, &c.

The Nestorian community had greater wrongs to complain of than their
Patriarch. The Turkish government, so far from fulfilling the pledges
given to the British embassy, had sent officers to the mountains who had
grievously ill-treated and oppressed the Christian inhabitants; and they
had suffered all kinds of outrage and oppression which the rapacious Turks
could inflict. There was no tribunal to which they could apply for
redress. A deputation sent to the Pasha had been ill-treated, and some of
its members were still in prison. There was no one in authority to plead
for them. They had even suffered less under the sway of their old
oppressors, for, as a priest touchingly remarked to me, "The Kurds took
away our lives, but the Turks take away wherewith we have to live."

We remained a day with the Patriarch, and then took the road to Julamerik,
three caravan hours distant from Kochhannes. This town has been more than
once visited and described by English travellers.

Near Julamerik we met many poor Nestorians flying, with their wives and
children, they knew not whither, from the oppression of the Turkish
governors.

The direct road by Tiyari to Mosul is carried along the river Zab, through
ravines scarcely practicable to beasts of burden. It issues into the lower
valleys near the village of Lizan. On the banks of the Zab, I found the
remains of an ancient road, cut in many places in the solid rock. It
probably led from the Assyrian plains into the upper provinces of Armenia.
There are no inscriptions or ruins to show the period of its construction;
but, from the greatness of the work, I am inclined to attribute it to the
Assyrians.

We picked our way over the slippery pavement as long as we could find some
footing for ourselves and our beasts, but in many places, where it had
been entirely destroyed, we were compelled to drag our horses by main
force over the steep rocks and loose detritus, which sloped to the very
edge of the river. Before reaching the first Nestorian village in the
valley of Diz, we had to ford an impetuous torrent boiling and foaming
over smooth rocks, and reaching above our saddle-girths. One of the
baggage mules lost its footing. The eddying waters hurried it along and
soon hurled it into the midst of the Zab. The animal having, at length,
relieved itself from its burden, swam to the bank. Unfortunately it bore
my own trunks; my notes and inscriptions, the fruits of my labors at Wan,
together with the little property I possessed, were carried far away by
the stream. After the men from the village had long searched in vain, the
lost load was found about midnight, stopped by a rock some miles down the
river.

We passed the night in the miserable village of Rabban Audishio. On the
opposite side of the valley, but high in the mountains, was the village of
Seramus. The pathway to it being precipitous, and inaccessible even to
mules, we turned to Madis, the residence of the Melek, or chief, of the
district of Diz. The villages of Diz, like those of the Nestorian valleys
in general, stand in the midst of orchards and cultivated terraces. They
were laid waste, and the houses burnt, during the first massacre. Diz was
the first Christian district attacked by Beder Khan Bey. The inhabitants
made a long and determined resistance, but were at length overpowered by
numbers.

We continued our journey through a deep and narrow valley hemmed in by
high mountains and by perpendicular cliffs. The Melek met us on the road
near the village of Cherichereh, or Klissa. The old man had the too
common tale to tell us, of oppression and wrong on the part of the Turks.
Melek Beniamen implored me to help him in his difficulties; but I could do
no more than offer words of sympathy and consolation. Leaving the Melek to
pursue his tax-gathering, we rode through a magnificent valley, now
narrowing into a wild gorge walled with precipitous cliffs, then opening
into an amphitheatre of rocks encircling a village imbedded in trees. The
valley at length was abruptly closed by the towering peaks and precipices
of the Jelu mountain. At its foot is the village of Khouresin, where we
encamped for the night. The inhabitants were, for the most part, like the
other people of Diz, in the Zomas, or summer pastures.

Not far from the Zomas of Diz were the tents of the villagers of Jelu.
They also had encamped on the very verge of eternal snow, but within the
boundaries of Diz, as there were no pastures on the other side of the pass
in their own district. They were better clothed, and showed more signs of
comfort, if not of wealth, than their unfortunate neighbours. Many of the
men spoke a little Arabic, and even Turkish, learnt during their yearly
visits as basket-makers to the low country.

We were still separated from the valley of Jelu by a shoulder jutting from
the lofty Soppa-Durek mountain. Before reaching this rocky ridge, we had
to cross a broad tract of deep snow, over which we had much difficulty in
dragging our heavily laden mules. When on the crest of the pass we found
ourselves surrounded on all sides by rugged peaks, the highest being that
known as the Toura Jelu, of which we had scarcely lost sight from the day
we had left Mosul. It is probably the highest mountain in central
Kurdistan, and cannot be under, if it be not indeed above, 15,000 feet.
The pass we crossed before descending into the valley of Jelu is
considered the highest in the Nestorian country, and is probably more
than 11,000 feet above the level of the sea.

From the top of the pass we looked down into a deep abyss. The pathway was
fearfully dangerous, and over steep and slippery rocks. Down this terrible
descent we had to drag our jaded horses, leaving our track marked in
blood. I have had some experience in bad mountain roads, but I do not
remember to have seen any much worse than that leading into Jelu. After
numerous accidents and great labor we left a rocky gully, and found
ourselves on a slope ending, at a dizzy depth, in a torrent scarcely
visible from our path. The yielding soil offered even a more difficult
footing for our beasts than the polished rocks.

The wild mountain ravine was now changed for the smiling valley of Jelu.
Villages, embowered in trees, filled every nook and sheltered place. We
descended to Zerin or Zerayni, the principal settlement, and the residence
of the Melek. To our left were two other villages, Alzan and Meedee.

As my large caravan descended the hill-side, the inhabitants of Zerin took
us at once for Turks, whose appearance is the signal for a general panic.
The women hide in the innermost recesses to save themselves from insult;
the men slink into their houses, and offer a vain protest against the
seizure of their property. When, at last, we had satisfied the trembling
people of Zerin that we were not Mussulmans, they insisted upon our being
Americans, of whom they had, at that moment, for certain religious
reasons, almost as great a distrust. At length they made out that I was
the Balios[174] of Mosul, and the Melek arriving at this crisis, we were
received with due hospitality. Our baggage was carried to the roof of a
house, and provisions were brought to us without delay.

Although, during his expedition into Tiyari, Beder Khan Bey had seized the
flocks of the people of Jelu, and had compelled them, moreover, to pay
large contributions in money and in kind, he had not been able to enter
their deep and well-guarded valleys.

The Nestorians of Jelu have no trade to add to their wealth. Many of the
men, however, wander during the winter into Asia Minor, and even into
Syria and Palestine, following the trade of basket-making, in which they
are very expert; but their travels, and their intercourse with the rest of
the Christian world have not improved their morals, their habits, or their
faith.

The district of Jelu is under a bishop whose spiritual jurisdiction also
extends over Baz. He resides at Martha d'Umra (the village of the church)
separated by a bold rocky ridge from Zerin. It was Sunday as we descended
through orchards, by a precipitous pathway, to his dwelling. The bishop
was away. He had gone lower down the valley to celebrate divine service
for a distant congregation. The inhabitants of the village were gathered
round the church in their holiday attire, and received us kindly and
hospitably. From a belfry issued the silvery tones of a bell, which echoed
through the valley, and gave an inexpressible charm to the scene. It is
not often that such sounds break upon the traveller's ear in the far East,
to awaken a thousand pleasant thoughts, and to recall to memory many a
happy hour.

This church is said to be the oldest in the Nestorian mountains, and is a
plain, substantial, square building, with a very small entrance. To me it
was peculiarly interesting, as having been the only one that had escaped
the ravages of the Kurds, and as containing therefore its ancient
furniture and ornaments. Both the church and the dark vestibule were so
thickly hung with relics of the most singular and motley description, that
the ceiling was completely concealed by them. Notwithstanding the
undoubted antiquity of the church and its escape from plunder, I searched
in vain for ancient manuscripts.

We followed the valley to the village of Nara, where the bishop was
resting after his morning duties. A young man of lofty stature and
handsome countenance, dressed in the red-striped loose garments of the
Kurds, and only distinguished by a turban of black silk from those around
him, came out to meet us. A less episcopal figure could scarcely be
imagined; but, although he seemed some Kurdish hunter or warrior, he gave
us his benediction as he drew near.

It was difficult to determine whom the poor bishop feared most, the Turks
or the American missionaries; the first, he declared, threatened his
temporal, the others his spiritual, authority. I gave him the best advice
I was able on both subjects, and urged him not to reject the offer that
had been made to instruct his people, but identify himself with a progress
on which might be founded the only reasonable hope for the regeneration of
his creed and race. Unfortunately, as in the case of Mar Shamoun, strange
influences had been at work to prejudice the mind of the bishop.

We were now in the track I had followed during my former visit to the
mountains.[175] Crossing the precipitous pass to the west of Baz, which,
since my first visit, had been the scene of one of the bloodiest episodes
of the Nestorian massacre, we entered the long narrow ravine leading into
the valley of Tkhoma. We stopped at Gunduktha, where, four years before, I
had taken leave of the good priest Bodaka, who had been amongst the first
victims of the fury of the Kurdish invaders. The Kasha, who now ministered
to the spiritual wants of the people, the Rais of the village, and the
principal inhabitants, came to us as we stopped in the churchyard. But
they were no longer the gaily dressed and well-armed men who had welcomed
me on my first journey. Their garments were tattered and worn, and their
countenances haggard and wan. The church, too, was in ruins; around were
the charred remains of the burnt cottages, and the neglected orchards
overgrown with weeds. A body of Turkish troops had lately visited the
village, and had destroyed the little that had been restored since the
Kurdish invasion. The same taxes had been collected three times, and even
four times, over. The relations of those who had ran away to escape from
these exactions had been compelled to pay for the fugitives. The chief had
been thrown, with his arms tied behind his back, on a heap of burning
straw, and compelled to disclose where a little money that had been saved
by the villagers had been buried. The priest had been torn from the altar,
and beaten before his congregation. Men showed me the marks of torture on
their body, and of iron fetters round their limbs. For the sake of
wringing a few piastres from this poverty-stricken people, all these deeds
of violence had been committed by officers sent by the Porte to protect
the Christian subjects of the Sultan, whom they pretended to have released
from the misrule of the Kurdish chiefs.

The smiling villages described in the account of my previous journey were
now a heap of ruins. From four of them alone 770 persons had been slain.
Beder Khan Bey had driven off, according to the returns made by the
Meleks, 24,000 sheep, 300 mules, and 10,000 head of cattle; and the
confederate chiefs had each taken a proportionate share of the property of
the Christians. No flocks were left by which they might raise money
wherewith to pay the taxes now levied upon them, and even the beasts of
burden, which could have carried to the markets of more wealthy districts
the produce of their valley, had been taken away.[176]

We remained a night in Tkhoma to see the Meleks who came to us from Tkhoma
Gowaia. Leaving the valley, we crossed the high mountain inclosing Tkhoma
to the south, and passed through Pinianish into Chaal, a district
inhabited by Mussulmans, and which had consequently not suffered from the
ravages of the Kurdish chiefs. It presented, with its still flourishing
villages surrounded by gardens and vineyards, a vivid contrast to the
unfortunate Christian valley we had just left.

A rapid descent through a rocky gorge brought us to the Zab, over which
there were still the remains of a bridge, consisting of two poles fastened
together by osier bands placed across the stone piers. It almost required
the steady foot and practised head of a mountaineer to cross the roaring
stream by this perilous structure. The horses and mules were with much
trouble and delay driven into the river, and after buffeting with the
whirlpools and eddies reached, almost exhausted, the opposite bank.

We now entered the valley of Berwari, and, crossing the pass of Amadiyah,
took the road to Mosul, through a country I had already more than once
visited. Leaving the caravan and our jaded horses, I hastened onwards with
Hormuzd, and travelling through a night reached Mosul in the afternoon of
the 30th of August, after an absence of seven weeks.



CHAPTER XX.

    DISCOVERIES AT KOUYUNJIK DURING THE SUMMER.--DESCRIPTION OF THE
    SCULPTURES.--CAPTURE OF CITIES ON A GREAT RIVER.--POMP OF ASSYRIAN
    KING.--ALABASTER PAVEMENT.--CONQUEST OF TRIBES INHABITING A
    MARSH.--THEIR WEALTH.--CHAMBERS WITH SCULPTURES BELONGING TO A NEW
    KING.--DESCRIPTION OF THE SCULPTURES.--CONQUEST OF THE PEOPLE OF
    SUSIANA.--PORTRAIT OF THE KING.--HIS GUARDS AND ATTENDANTS.--THE CITY
    OF SHUSHAN.--CAPTIVE PRINCE.--MUSICIANS.--CAPTIVES PUT TO THE
    TORTURE.--ARTISTIC CHARACTER OF THE SCULPTURES.--AN INCLINED
    PASSAGE.--TWO SMALL CHAMBERS.--COLOSSAL FIGURES.--MORE SCULPTURES.


Whilst I had been absent in the mountains the excavations had been
continued at Kouyunjik, notwithstanding the summer heats. Nearly all the
Arabs employed in the spring at Nimroud had been removed to these ruins,
and considerable progress had consequently been made in clearing the earth
from them. Several chambers, discovered before I left Mosul, had been
emptied, and new rooms with interesting sculptures had been explored.

It has been seen that the narrow passage leading out of the south-west
corner of the great hall containing the bas-reliefs representing the
moving of the winged bulls turned to the left, and by another gallery
connected this part of the edifice with a second hall of even larger
proportions than that first discovered.

The sculptures panelling the western wall were for the most part still
entire. They recorded, as usual, a campaign and a victory, and were
probably but a portion of one continuous subject carried round the entire
hall. The conquered country appeared to have been traversed by a great
river, the representation of which took up a third of the bas-relief.

Next came the siege and capture of a city standing on the opposite bank of
the same great river, and surrounded by a ditch edged with lofty reeds.
The Assyrian footmen and cavalry had already crossed this dike, and were
closely pressing the besieged, who, no longer seeking to defend
themselves, were asking for quarter. On the other side of the river,
Sennacherib in his gorgeous war chariot, and surrounded by his guards,
received the captives and the spoil. It is remarkable that this was almost
the only figure of the king which had not been wantonly mutilated,
probably by those who overthrew the Assyrian empire, burned its palaces,
and levelled its cities with the dust.[177]

In this bas-relief the furniture of the horses was particularly rich and
elaborate. Above the yoke rose a semicircular ornament, set round with
stars, and containing the image of a deity. The chariot of the Assyrian
monarch, his retinue, and his attire, accurately corresponded with the
descriptions given by Xenophon of those of Cyrus, when he marched out of
his palace in procession, and by Quintus Curtius of those of Darius, when
he went to battle in the midst of his army. The Greek general had seen the
pomp of the Persian kings, and could describe it as an eye-witness.[178]
The description of Quintus Curtius is no less illustrative of the Assyrian
monuments. "The doryphori (a chosen body of spearmen) preceded the
chariot, on either side of which were the effigies of the gods in gold and
silver. The yoke was inlaid with the rarest jewels. _From it projected two
golden figures of Ninus and Belus_, each a cubit in length.... The king
was distinguished from all those who surrounded him, by the magnificence
of his robes, and by the cidaris or mitre upon his head. By his side
walked two hundred of his relations. Ten thousand warriors bearing spears,
whose staffs were of silver and heads of gold, followed the royal chariot.
The king's led horses, forty in number, concluded the procession."[179]
Allowing for a little exaggeration on the part of the historian, and for
the conventional numbers used by the Assyrian sculptor to represent large
bodies of footmen and cavalry, we might suppose that Quintus Curtius had
seen the very bas-reliefs I am describing, so completely do they tally
with his description of the appearance and retinue of the Persian king.

The captives, bearing skins probably containing water and flour to nourish
them during a long and harassing march, were fettered in pairs, and urged
onwards by their guards. The women were partly on foot, and partly with
their children on mules and in carts drawn by oxen. Mothers were
represented holding the water-skins for their young ones to quench their
thirst, whilst in some instances fathers had placed their weary children
on their shoulders, for they were marching during the heat of a
Mesopotamian summer, as the sculptor had shown by introducing large
clusters of dates on the palms. Thus were driven the inhabitants of
Samaria through the Desert to Halah and Habor, by the river of Gozan and
the cities of the Medes,[180] and we may see in these bas-reliefs a
picture of the hardships and sufferings to which the captive people of
Israel were exposed when their cities fell into the hands of the Assyrian
king, and their inhabitants were sent to colonise the distant provinces of
his empire.

On the south side of the hall, parts of four slabs only had been
preserved; the sculpture upon the others had been so completely destroyed,
that even the subject could no longer be ascertained. The fragments still
remaining, graphically depicted the passage of the river by the great
king. The bas-reliefs represented very accurately a scene that may be
daily witnessed, without the royal warrior, on the banks of the Tigris and
Euphrates.

Not a fragment of inscription remained to identify the country represented
in the bas-reliefs I have just described. From the size of the river, far
exceeding that of any other seen in the sculptures of Kouyunjik, I am
inclined to believe that it must have been the combined waters of the
Euphrates and Tigris, now known as the Shat-el-Arab.

In the south side of the hall a centre portal flanked by winged bulls, and
two small entrances, formed by gigantic figures, opened into a long
chamber, whose sculptured walls had been burnt to lime. To judge from the
fragments that remained of this series of sculptures, the most skilful
artist of the day must have been employed in its execution. At both ends
of the chamber, doors, guarded by colossal figures, led into smaller
apartments, in which the bas-reliefs had been almost entirely destroyed.

Returning to the great hall we found an entrance formed by colossal
figures leading into a long narrow chamber, about 70 feet by 12, whose
walls had partly escaped the general wreck. It appeared to be the remains
of an entrance into the palace, like that on the western face, or a
gallery leading to the outer terrace, which probably surrounded the
building. On its alabaster panels were sculptured the conquest of some of
those tribes which inhabited, from the remotest period, the vast marshes
formed by the Euphrates and Tigris in Chaldæa Babylonia.

Although the people represented in these bas-reliefs dwelt in the swampy
districts of Chaldæa, unless, indeed, they had only taken refuge in them
to escape the vengeance of the Assyrian king, they appear to have been as
rich, if not richer, than any others conquered by Sennacherib. With the
exception of three slabs and part of a fourth, containing the battle in
the marsh, the entire walls of the chamber were sculptured with the
captives and spoil brought by the victorious troops to their king.
Unfortunately the image of Sennacherib himself in his chariot, which, to
judge from a fragment or two found in the rubbish, must have exceeded all
others in the palace, both in size and in the finish and richness of the
details, had been entirely destroyed.

Returning to the great hall, from which this gallery led, I found on its
western side three other entrances, corresponding with those on the
southern, the centre formed by a pair of winged bulls in a fossiliferous
limestone. They led into a chamber 58 feet by 34, panelled with
unsculptured slabs of the same material as the colossi at the principal
portal. Three similar doorways opened into a parallel chamber of the same
length, though rather narrower. Its walls had been ornamented with carved
alabaster slabs, of which a few fragments remained.

Three doorways on the western side of this chamber, similar to those on
the eastern, led into as many distinct rooms, unconnected with each other.
There were thus three magnificent portals, one behind the other, each
formed by winged bulls facing the same way, and all looking towards the
great hall; the largest colossi, those in front, being above 18 feet high,
and the smallest, those leading into the inner chamber, about 12. It would
be difficult to conceive any interior architectural arrangement more
imposing than this triple group of gigantic forms, as seen in perspective
by those who stood in the centre of the hall, dimly lighted from above,
and harmoniously colored or overlaid, like the cherubims in the temple of
Solomon, with gold.

At the upper or southern ends of the two parallel chambers just described,
were entrances opening into a room 82 feet by 24, whose walls were of the
same unsculptured limestone. From it a portal formed by winged lions in
the same material, led into an apartment 76 feet by 26, standing on the
edge of the mound, and consequently one of the last on this side of the
palace. Only six slabs, neither of them entire, remained against its
walls; the rest had been purposely destroyed and the fragments used for
the foundations of a building raised over the Assyrian ruins. They were
covered from top to bottom with small figures, most elaborately carved,
and designed with great spirit. Although bearing a general resemblance to
the bas-reliefs of Kouyunjik, there was sufficient in the style of art and
in the details, to show that they were not of exactly the same period.
Fortunately several epigraphs still remained over the principal groups,
and enable us to determine to what monarch the sculptures belong, and to
identify the events and incidents they portray.

The three slabs to the right of the winged lions on entering, were
occupied by a highly curious representation of a battle. The subject was
incomplete, and could not be restored; and from the number of figures
introduced, and the complicated nature of the action, it is difficult to
describe these important bas-reliefs intelligibly. Above one of the groups
of figures was an epigraph, unfortunately much mutilated, which recorded
the slaughter of a king, whose name was (? Tiranish), and who, we learn
from other inscriptions on the same sculptures, reigned over Elam, or
Susiana. The lines being incomplete, the meaning of the whole inscription
is not quite clear.

Behind the cart with the Assyrian warriors, was the tent of the registrar,
to which had been led a captive chief and his two attendants. Within were
collected a heap of human heads, whilst warriors were bringing more of
these bloody trophies to the appointed scribes. Several of the captives
were apparently about to undergo some dreadful torture; with their hands
manacled in iron fetters, they knelt over an object which might be a
chafing-dish with hot coals or a vessel to receive their blood. One of the
torturers held his victim by a collar round his neck; whilst a second,
seizing the unfortunate prisoner by the hair, was about to strike him with
ah iron-headed mace.

The epigraphs declare that the war recorded by these sculptures was
undertaken by an Assyrian king, whose image was represented on a slab not
yet described, against the people of Elam or Susiana. It is of
considerable importance thus to identify the conquered people, and to be
able to ascertain the costume, the arms, and the mode of warfare of a
nation well known in ancient history.

Amongst the captives were men clothed in fringed robes and a short
under-tunic: these were probably the lords of the land. The women wore
their hair in curls, falling on their shoulders, and bound above the
temples by a band or fillet. Some had one long ringlet on each side of the
face. Their children were either naked or clothed in simple shirts.

The Assyrian troops were divided into cavalry and foot. The horsemen
carried the bow and spear, and wore coats of mail, high greaves, and the
pointed helmet, that characteristic part of the Assyrian military costume
from the earliest period. Their horses were covered with clothes, and
even, it would seem, with a kind of leather armour, reaching from the head
to the tail, to protect them from the arrows of the enemy.[181] The
costumes of the footmen, as in the bas-reliefs of Sennacherib, varied
according to their arms. The archers, probably auxiliaries from different
tribes in alliance with the Assyrians, were dressed in very short tunics
scarcely covering the thigh. A broad belt, with the fringed ornament
peculiar to the later Assyrian period, encircled their waist, and over
their shoulders they wore a cross belt, of chequered cloth, resembling a
Scottish plaid, to support the quiver. Their hair, confined by a plain
fillet, was rolled up behind in one large curl. All the spearmen had the
pointed helmet; but some wore coats of mail and metal greaves, and others
a simple tunic, without any covering to their legs. Their shields
protected nearly the whole person, and were rounded at the top and
straight at the bottom. Some appear to have been faced with small square
pieces of leather, others to have been made entirely of metal, with
embossed edges. For the first time we see in these bas-reliefs, the
Assyrians using the battle-axe and the mace in battle.

On the opposite side of the lion-entrance were also three slabs, but
better preserved than those I have just described. They formed part of the
same subject, which had evidently been carried round the four walls of the
chamber. They represented the triumph of the Assyrian king, and, like the
battle scenes, were divided by horizontal lines into several bands or
friezes. The monarch stood in his chariot, surrounded by his body-guard.
Unfortunately his face, with those of the charioteer and the eunuch
bearing the parasol, had been purposely defaced, like that of Sennacherib
on his monuments, probably when the united armies of the Medes and
Babylonians destroyed the palace. The royal robes were profusely adorned
with rosettes and fringes.

In front of the chariot were two warriors or guards in embroidered robes
and greaves. Their long hair was bound by a fillet, whose tasselled ends
fell loose behind. They were preceded by two remarkable figures, both
eunuchs, and probably intended for portraits of some well-known officers
of the royal household. One was old and corpulent; his forehead was high
and ample; his nose curved and small, and his chin round and double. The
wrinkles of the brow, the shaggy eyebrows, and the bloated cheeks, with
the stubble beard peculiar to beings of his class, were very faithfully
represented. His short hair was tied with a fillet. His companion was
younger, and had not the same marked features. He carried before him a
square object resembling a closed box or book, perhaps a clay tablet
containing some decree or register, such as were discovered in the ruins.
Both wore long plain shirts, and round their waists a simple cord, in
which was fixed a whip, probably a sign of their office.

Above this remarkable group was an inscription in eight lines fortunately
almost entire. From it we learn the name of the king, whose deeds were
thus recorded. He was the son of Essarhaddon, and the grandson of
Sennacherib, and the conqueror of Susiana. He was the Assordanes of the
chronological tables, and his name begins with the monogram for the
Assyrian deity, Asshur.

These bas-reliefs record his conquest of the country of (Nuvaki ?), a name
by which Susiana or Elymais was anciently known; as we also find from the
inscriptions at Khorsabad, as well as from those of Bisutun.

It is highly probable that we have, in the bas-relief, a representation of
the city of Susa or Shusan. Its position between two rivers well agrees
with that of existing ruins generally believed to mark its site. The
smaller stream would be the Shapour, and the larger the Euloeus or river
of Dizful. The city was surrounded by a wall, with equidistant towers and
gateways. The houses were flat roofed, and some had one tower or upper
chamber, and others two. They had no windows, and their doors were square.
Thus, in general form, and probably in the interior arrangements, they
closely resembled the common dwellings of the Egyptians, of which a very
interesting model is now in the British Museum.[182] Nor were they unlike
the meaner houses of the modern town of Shushter, the representative of
ancient Susa.

The adjoining slab was divided into eight bands or friezes, by parallel
lines, and the next slab into seven. On both were represented the
Assyrian army returning from its victorious campaign, and bringing to the
king the captives and the spoil. The prisoners, who were probably
considered rather rebels to his authority than enemies, were being cruelly
tortured in his presence. The principal group was that of the eunuch
general, or Tartan, leading a chief or prince of the conquered people.
Above him was an inscription unfortunately much mutilated. It appears to
have declared that he was one of the sons or chiefs of the Susianian
monarch, defeated and slain in battle near the district of Madaktu (the
name over the city on the adjoining slab), and near the city of Shushan;
and that the Assyrian king had placed one of his own generals on the
conquered throne.[183]

Before the captive prince were gathered a number of the Susianians,
probably the subjects of the slaughtered king, who had come to surrender
to the Assyrian general, for they still carried their arms, and were not
led by the victorious warriors. Some of them knelt, some bowed to the
ground, and others, stretched at full length, rubbed their heads in the
dust, all signs of grief and submission still practised in the East. The
Assyrian generals were welcomed by bands of men and women, dancing,
singing, and playing on instruments of music. Thus, "when David was
returned from the slaughter of the Philistines, the women came out of all
the cities of Israel, singing and dancing to meet Saul, with tabrets,
with joy, and with instruments of music."[184] We find from various
passages in the Scriptures, that the instruments of music chiefly used on
such triumphant occasions were the harp, one with ten strings (rendered
viol or lyre in some versions, but probably a kind of dulcimer), the tabor
and the pipe[185], precisely those represented in the bas-reliefs.

The whole scene was curiously illustrative of modern Eastern customs. The
musicians portrayed in the bas-reliefs were probably of that class of
public performers who appear in Turkey and Egypt at marriages, and on
other occasions of rejoicing.

Above the Assyrian warriors were the captives and their torturers. The
former differed in costume from the Susianian fighting-men represented in
the adjoining bas-reliefs. They were distinguished by the smallness of
their stature, and by a very marked Jewish countenance--a sharp, hooked
nose, short bushy beard, and long narrow eyes. Could they have belonged to
the Hebrew tribes which were carried away from Samaria and Jerusalem, and
placed by Shalmaneser, Sennacherib, or Essarhaddon, as colonists in the
distant regions of Elam, and who, having become powerful in their new
settlements, had revolted against their Assyrian rulers, and were once
again subdued? Some in iron fetters were being led before the king, for
judgment or pardon. Others had been condemned to the torture, and were
already in the hands of the executioners. Two were stretched naked at full
length on the ground, and whilst their limbs were held apart by pegs and
cords they were being flayed alive. Beneath them were other unfortunate
victims, undergoing abominable punishments. The brains of one were
apparently being beaten out with an iron mace, whilst an officer held him
by the beard. A torturer was wrenching the tongue out of the mouth of a
second wretch who had been pinioned to the ground. The bleeding heads of
the slain were tied round the necks of the living, who seemed reserved for
still more barbarous tortures.

Above these groups was a short epigraph, commencing by two determinative
signs of proper names, each followed by a blank space, which the sculptor
probably left to be filled up with the names of the principal victims. It
then declares that these men, having spoken blasphemies (?) against
Asshur, the great god of the Assyrians, their tongues had been pulled out
(_Lishaneshunu eshlup_, both words being almost purely Hebrew), and that
they had afterwards been put to death (or tortured). The inscription,
therefore, corresponds with the sculpture beneath. It is by such
confirmatory evidence that the accuracy of the translations of the
cuneiform characters may be tested.

These highly interesting bas-reliefs had been exposed, like all the other
sculptures of Kouyunjik, to the fire which had destroyed the palace.
Although each slab was cracked into many pieces, the sculptures themselves
had suffered less injury than any others discovered in the same ruins, the
hard fossiliferous limestone not having become calcined by the heat like
the alabaster. The outline was still sharp, and the details perfectly
preserved. Considerable care was required to move them. But the pieces
were at length packed, and since their arrival in England have been
admirably restored.

Some bas-reliefs sculptured by order of the son and successor of
Essarhaddon, have been discovered at Kouyunjik and Nebbi Yunus. These
bas-reliefs prove that many changes had taken place in the arts and dress
of the people of Assyria between the reign of Sennacherib and that of his
grandson. The later sculptures are principally distinguished by their
minute finish, the sharpness of the outline, and the very correct
delineation of the animals, and especially of the horses. We now approach
the period of the fall of the Assyrian empire and of the rise of the
kingdoms of Babylon and Persia. The arts passed from Assyria to the sister
nations and to Ionia. There is much in the bas-reliefs I have just
described to remind us of the early works of the Greeks immediately after
the Persian war, and to illustrate a remark of the illustrious Niebuhr,
that "a critical history of Greek art would show how late the Greeks
commenced to practise the arts. After the Persian war a new world opens at
once, and from that time they advanced with great strides. But everything
that was produced before the Persian war--a few of those works are still
extant--was, if we judge of it without prejudice, altogether
barbarous."[186]

The chamber containing these sculptures had an entrance opening upon the
edge of the mound. Of this doorway there only remained, on each side, a
block of plain limestone, which may, however, have been the base of a
sphinx or other figure. The outer walls to which it led had been panelled
with the usual alabaster slabs, with bas-reliefs of a campaign in a
country already represented in another part of the palace, and
distinguished by the same deep valley watered by a river, the vineyards
and wooded mountains. Over one of the castles captured and destroyed by
the Assyrians was written, "Sennacherib, King of Assyria. The city of
Bit-Kubitalmi I took, the spoil I carried away, (the city) I burned."

Whether these walls belonged to a chamber or formed part of the southern
face of the palace could not now be determined, as they were on the very
brink of the platform. At right angles to them, to the west, a pair of
winged bulls opened upon another wall, of which there were scarcely any
remains, and midway between the two entrances was a deep doorway, flanked
on both sides by four colossal mythic figures, amongst which were the fish
god and the deity with the lion's head and eagle's feet. It led to an
inclined or ascending passage, nine feet wide in the narrowest part and
ten in the broadest, and forty-four feet in length to where it turned at
right angles to the left. It was paved with hard lime or plaster about an
inch and a half thick. The walls were built of the finest sundried bricks,
admirably fitted together, and still perfectly preserved.

This inclined way probably led to the upper chambers of the palace, or to
the galleries which may have been carried round the principal chambers and
halls.

I have only to describe two more rooms discovered in this part of the
ruins during the summer. They opened into the chamber parallel with that
containing the sculptured records of the son of Essarhaddon. The entrances
to both were formed by two pairs of colossal figures, each pair consisting
of a man wearing the horned cap surmounted by a fleur-de-lis, and a
lion-headed and eagle-footed human figure raising a dagger in one hand,
and holding a mace in the other. These sculptures were remarkable for the
boldness of the relief and their high finish.

The bas-reliefs on the walls of the two chambers recorded the same
campaign against a nation dwelling amidst a wooded and mountainous
country, and in strongly fortified cities, which the Assyrians took by
assault, using battering rams to make breaches in the walls and scaling
ladders to mount to the assault. The besieged defended themselves with
arrows and stones, but their strongholds were captured, and a vast amount
of spoil and captives fell into the hands of the conquerors. The men had
short, bushy hair and beards, and wore an inner garment reaching to the
knee, an outer cloak of skins or fur, and gaiters laced in front. The
robes of the women were short; their hair hung low down their backs, and
was then gathered up into one large curl.

Such were the discoveries made at Kouyunjik during the summer. At Nimroud
the excavations had been almost suspended. I have already described those
parts of the high mound or tower, and of the adjoining small temples which
were explored by the few workmen who still remained amongst the ruins,
rather to retain possession of the place than to carry on extensive
operations.

I was engaged until the middle of October in moving and packing
bas-reliefs from Kouyunjik; a task of considerable trouble, and demanding
much time and labor, as the slabs, split into a thousand fragments by the
fire, had to be taken completely to pieces, and then arranged and
numbered, with a view to their future restoration. Nearly a hundred cases
containing these remains were at length dragged to the river side, to wait
the rafts by which they were to be forwarded to Busrah, where a vessel was
shortly expected to transport them to England.



CHAPTER XXI.

    PREPARATIONS FOR LEAVING NINEVEH.--DEPARTURE FOR BABYLON.--DESCENT OF
    THE RIVER.--TEKRIT.--THE STATE OF THE RIVERS OF MESOPOTAMIA.--COMMERCE
    UPON THEM.--TURKISH ROADS.--THE PLAIN OF DURA.--THE
    NAHARWAN.--SAMARRAH.--KADESIA.--PALM GROVES.--KATHIMAIN.--APPROACH TO
    BAGHDAD.--THE CITY.--ARRIVAL.--DR. ROSS.--A BRITISH STEAMER.--MODERN
    BAGHDAD.--TEL MOHAMMED.--DEPARTURE FOR BABYLON.--A PERSIAN
    PRINCE.--ABDE PASHA'S CAMP.--EASTERN FALCONRY.--HAWKING THE
    GAZELLE.--APPROACH TO BABYLON.--THE RUINS.--ARRIVAL AT HILLAH.


The winter was now drawing near, and the season was favorable for
examining the remains of ancient cities in Babylonia. The Trustees of the
British Museum had partly sanctioned a plan submitted to them for
excavations amongst ruins, no less important and vast, and of no less
biblical and historical interest than those of Nineveh. I had included, in
my original scheme, many remarkable sites both in Chaldæa and Susiana,
but, as I have before observed, my limited means did not permit me to
carry out my plan to its fullest extent. As the operations at Nimroud were
now, however, suspended, I determined to employ fewer men at Kouyunjik,
and to devote myself, during the cold weather, to researches amongst the
great mounds of Southern Mesopotamia.

My Jebours were now so skilled and experienced in excavating, that I
deemed it more economical to take a party of them with me than to engage
new workmen on the various sites that I might visit. At the same time,
having thus my own men, I should be independent of the people of the
country, who might either be unwilling to labor, or might require
exorbitant pay. I accordingly selected about thirty of the best Arabs
employed in the excavations at Nineveh, to accompany me on the rafts which
bore the sculptures.

Having again entrusted Toma Shisman with the superintendence of the
excavations, and given him all necessary directions for carrying on the
work, I quitted Mosul on the 18th of October, accompanied by Hormuzd and
Mr. Romaine, an English traveller, on his way to India. There were cases
enough containing sculptures from Kouyunjik to load a raft of considerable
size. Hormuzd, who had met with a severe accident, was placed in a bed on
a small _kellek_; Mr. Romaine occupied with me another of the same size.
The servants and cooking apparatus were on the large raft, and we all kept
close company for convenience and mutual protection.

There were still some arrangements connected with the excavations to be
made at Nimroud, and it was not until the 20th that we fairly began our
voyage. The navigation of the river as far as Kalah Sherghat was so
insecure, that I deemed it prudent, in order to avoid a collision with the
Arabs, to engage a Bedouin chief to accompany us. We engaged one Awaythe,
a Sheikh of the Fedagha Shammar, to give us his protection until we had
passed the danger. Placing one of his sons on his mare, and ordering him
to follow us along the banks of the river, he stepped upon my raft, where
he spent his time in giving us accounts of wars and ghazous, smoking his
pipe and pounding coffee.

We reached Tekrit in three days without accident or adventure. Bedouin
tents and moving swarms of men and animals were occasionally seen on the
river banks, but under the protection of our Sheikh we met with no
hindrance. Tekrit is almost the only permanent settlement of any
importance between Mosul and Baghdad. It is now a small town, but was once
a place of some size and strength. Tekrit is chiefly famous as the
birthplace of the celebrated Saleh-ed-din, better known to the English
reader as Saladin, the hero of the crusades, and the magnanimous enemy of
our Richard Coeur-de-Lion. His father, Ayub, a chief of a Kurdish tribe of
Rahwanduz, was governor of its castle for the Seljukian monarchs of
Persia. Mosul itself sustained a siege from Saladin, who was repulsed by
its Atabeg, or hereditary prince. Military expeditions into the Sinjar and
other parts of Mesopotamia were amongst the exploits of this great
Mussulman hero.

Tekrit is now inhabited by a few Arabs, who carry on, as raftsmen, the
traffic of the river between Mosul and Baghdad.

Nothing marks more completely the results of the unjust and injurious
system pursued by the Porte in its Arabian territories than the almost
entire absence of permanent settlements and of commercial intercourse on
the banks of the Euphrates and Tigris. Two of the finest rivers of Asia,
reaching into the very heart of the Turkish dominions, spreading fertility
through districts almost unequalled for the richness of their soil and for
the varied nature of their produce, and navigable one for nearly 850 miles
from the sea, the other for nearly 600 miles, are of no account whatever
to the State upon which nature has conferred such eminent advantages. The
depredations of the Arabs, unchecked by the government, and the rapacity
and dishonesty of the Turkish authorities, who levy illegal and exorbitant
taxes upon every mode of transit whether by land or water, and who make
monopolies of all articles of produce and of merchandise, effectually
check the efforts of the natives themselves, by no means deficient in
commercial activity and enterprise, to engage in trade, or to navigate the
rivers. Even the European merchant, with privileges secured by treaties,
and protection afforded by consuls and diplomatic agency, is scarcely able
to struggle against the insecurity of the country through which he must
convey his goods, and against the black-mail exacted by Arab Sheikhs,
secretly encouraged or abetted by the Turkish governors. From the most
wanton and disgraceful neglect, the Tigris and Euphrates, in the lower
part of their course, are breaking from their natural beds, forming vast
marshes, turning fertile districts into a wilderness, and becoming
unnavigable to vessels of even the smallest burden.

The very high-way from Mosul, and, consequently, from the capital, to
Baghdad, in order to avoid the restless Bedouin, is carried along the foot
of the Kurdish hills, leaving the river, adding many days to the journey,
and exposing caravans to long delays from swollen streams. Even this road
is no longer secure, for the utter negligence and dishonesty that have of
late marked the conduct of the Turkish authorities in Southern Turkey have
led to the interruption of this channel of commerce.

The direct road to Baghdad from the north would be across Mesopotamia, and
along the banks of the Tigris, through a country uninterrupted by a single
stream of any size, or by a single hill. Whilst caravans are now
frequently nearly six weeks on their way from Mosul to Baghdad, they would
scarcely be as many days by the Desert. A few military posts on the river,
a proper system of police, encouragement to the cultivating tribes to
settle in villages, and the construction of a common cart-road, would soon
lead to perfect security and to the establishment of considerable trade.
This is not the place to discuss the relative merits of the various routes
to India, but it may be observed that the time is probably not far
distant, when a more direct and speedy communication than hitherto exists
with that empire, will be sought by the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates,
where railways and steam navigation can both be advantageously brought
into operation. The navigation of the Persian Gulf is, at all times, open
and safe; and a glance at the map will show that a line through the
Mediterranean, the port of Suedia, Aleppo, Mosul, Baghdad, Busrah, and the
Indian Ocean to Bombay is as direct as can well be desired. This must be
the second Indian route before extended civilisation and Christianity can
afford a reasonable basis for those gigantic schemes which would carry a
line of iron through countries almost unknown, and scarcely yet visited by
a solitary European traveller.

Between Tekrit and Baghdad there is much to interest the traveller who for
the first time floats down a river winding through the great alluvial
plains of Chaldæa. The country has, however, been so frequently
described[187], that I will not detain the reader with more than a general
sketch of it. Our rafts glided noiselessly onwards, without furrowing with
a ripple the quiet surface of the stream. Leaving Tekrit, we first passed
a small whitewashed Mussulman tomb, rising on the left or eastern bank, in
a plain that still bears the name of Dura. It was here, as some believe,
that "Nebuchadnezzar the king made an image of gold, whose height was
threescore cubits and breadth six cubits, and called together the princes,
the governors, and the captains, the judges, the treasurers, the
counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces to its
dedication, and that certain Jews would not serve his gods, nor fall down
and worship the golden image that he had set up."[188] It is now a
wilderness, with here end there a shapeless mound, the remains of some
ancient habitation. The place is not otherwise unknown to history, for it
was here that, after the death of the Emperor Julian, his successor Jovian
concluded a disgraceful peace with the Persian king Sapores (Shapour), and
saved the Roman army by yielding to the enemy the five great provinces to
the east of the Tigris. It was here, too, that he crossed the Tigris, a
broad and deep stream, and commenced his disastrous retreat through
Mesopotamia.

Not far below, and on the same side of the river, the great canal of the
Naharwan, the wonder of Arab geographers, robbed the Tigris of a large
portion of its waters.

Below the Naharwan, ruins, walls, and dwellings, built chiefly of large
pebbles, united by a strong cement, a mode of construction peculiar to the
Sassanian and early Arab periods, stand on the alluvial cliffs. They are
called Eski, or old, Baghdad; the Arabs, as usual, assigning a more
ancient site to the modern city.

A tower, about two hundred feet high, now rises above the eastern bank of
the river. An ascending way winds round it on the outside like the spiral
of a screw, reminding the traveller of the common ideal pictures of the
Tower of Babel. It marks the site of the ancient city of Samarrah, where
the Roman army under Jovian rested after marching and fighting a long
summer's day. It subsequently became the capital of Motassem Billah, the
eighth caliph of the Abbasside dynasty. Weary of the frequent seditions of
the turbulent inhabitants of Baghdad, he resolved to change the seat of
government, and chose Samarrah as his residence. If he did not build, he
beautified, the city, and displayed in it great magnificence. The modern
town, inhabited by Arabs, consists of a few falling houses surrounded by a
mud wall, defended by bastions and towers.

On both sides of the river, as the raft is carried gently along by the now
sluggish current, the traveller sees huge masses of brick work jutting out
from the falling banks, or overhanging the precipice of earth which hems
in the stream. Here and there one sees the remains of the palaces and
castles of the last Persian kings and of the first Caliphs. The place is
still called Gadesia or Kadesia, and near it was fought that great battle
which gave to the new nation issuing from the wilds of Arabia the dominion
of the Eastern world.

Remains of an earlier period are not wanting. A huge mound abutting on the
west bank of the river, and still within sight of Samarrah, is known to
the Arabs as the Sidd-ul-Nimroud, the wall or rampart of Nimroud. The
current becomes more gentle at every broad reach, until the raft scarcely
glides past the low banks. The water has lost its clearness and its
purity; tinged by the alluvial soil it has turned to a pale yellow color.
The river at length widens into a noble stream. Groups of half-naked Arabs
gather together on the banks to gaze at the travellers. A solitary raft of
firewood for Baghdad floats, like ourselves, almost imperceptibly along.

We are now amidst the date groves. If it be autumn, clusters of golden
fruit hang beneath the fan-like leaves; if spring, the odor of orange
blossoms fills the air. The cooing of the doves that flutter amongst the
branches, begets a pleasing melancholy, and a feeling of listlessness and
repose.

The raft creeps round a projecting bank and two gilded domes and four
stately minarets, all glittering in the rays of an eastern sun, suddenly
rise high above the dense bed of palms. They are of the mosque of
Kathimain, which covers the tombs of two of the Imaums or holy saints of
the Sheeah sect.

The low banks swarm with Arabs,--men, women, and naked children. Mud
hovels screened by yellow mats, and groaning water-wheels worked by the
patient ox, are seen beneath the palms. The Tigris becomes wider and
wider, and the stream is almost motionless. Circular boats, of reeds
coated with bitumen, skim over the water. Horsemen, and riders on white
asses,[189] hurry along the river side. Turks in flowing robes and white
turbans, Persians in high black caps and close-fitting tunics, the Bokhara
pilgrim in his white head-dress and way-worn garments, the Bedouin chief
in his tasseled keffieh and striped aba, Baghdad ladies with their scarlet
and white draperies fretted with threads of gold, and their black
horsehair veils, concealing even their wanton eyes, Persian women wrapped
in their sightless garments, and Arab girls in their simple blue shirts,
are all mingled together in one motley crowd. A busy stream of travellers
flows without ceasing from the gates of the western suburb of Baghdad to
the sacred precincts of Kathimain.

A pine-shaped cone of snowy whiteness rises to the right; near it are one
or two drooping palms, that seem fast falling to decay, like the building
over which they can no longer throw their shade. This is the tomb of
Zobeide, the lovely queen of Haroun-al-Reshid, a name that raises many a
pleasant association, and recalls to memory a thousand romantic dreams of
early youth.

We pass the palace of the governor, an edifice of mean materials and
proportions. At its windows the pasha himself and the various officers of
his household may be seen reclining on their divans, amidst wreaths of
smoke. A crazy bridge of boats crosses the stream, and appears to bar all
further progress. At length the chains are loosened, two or three of the
rude vessels are withdrawn, and the rafts glide gently through. A few
minutes more, and we are anchored beneath the spreading folds of the
British flag, opposite a handsome building, not crumbling into ruins like
its neighbours, but kept in repair with European neatness. A small iron
steamer floats motionless before it. We have arrived at the dwelling of
the English Consul-general and political agent of the East India Company
at Baghdad.

It was early in the morning of the 26th October that I landed at the
well-remembered quay of the British residency. In the absence of Colonel
Rawlinson, then in England, his political duties had been confided to
Captain Kemball, now the East India Company's Resident at Bushire. He
received me with great kindness, and I acknowledge with gratitude the
hospitality and effective assistance I invariably experienced from him
during my sojourn at Baghdad, and my researches in Babylonia.

More than ten years had passed since my first visit to the city. Time had
worked its changes amongst those who then formed the happy and hospitable
English society of Baghdad. Dr. Ross was no more. In him Arab as well as
European, rich as well as poor, Mohammedan as well as Christian, had lost
a generous and faithful friend.

Twelve years ago four steamers floated on the Tigris, and were engaged in
exploring the then almost unknown rivers of Mesopotamia and Susiana.
Their officers formed a small English colony in Baghdad. Three of those
vessels had long been withdrawn, one alone having been left to keep up a
monthly communication between this city and Busrah. It is to be regretted,
however, that a vessel better suited to the navigation of the rivers has
not been selected.

The expedition under Col. Chesney, and the subsequent ascent of the
Euphrates, by far the most arduous undertaking connected with its
navigation, but accomplished with great skill by Captain Campbell of the
East India Company's service, have proved that for ordinary purposes this
river in its present condition is not navigable even in the lower part of
its course. The neglect to keep up the embankments has increased the
obstacles, and it is doubtful whether a steamer of even the smallest
useful size, could now find its way through the great marshes that absorb
the waters of the Euphrates for nearly 200 miles above its confluence with
the Tigris at Korna. The latter river is, for the present, navigable from
the Persian Gulf to vessels drawing from three to four feet water almost
as far as Tekrit, and probably, for vessels purposely constructed, as far
as Nimroud. The usual negligence and indifference of the Turkish
government are, however, bringing about the same changes in the course and
condition of this stream as in those of the Euphrates.

Baghdad, with its long vaulted bazars rich with the produce and
merchandise of every clime, its mixed population of Turks, Arabs,
Persians, Indians, and men of all Eastern nations, its palm groves and
gardens, its painted palaces and unsightly hovels, its present misery and
its former magnificence, have been so frequently described, that I will
not detain the reader with any minute account of this celebrated city.
Tyranny, disease, and inundations have brought it very low. Nearly half
of the space inclosed within its walls is now covered by heaps of ruins,
and the population is daily decreasing, without the hope of change. During
my residence in Baghdad no one could go far beyond the gates without the
risk of falling into the hands of wandering Arabs, who prowled unchecked
over the plains, keeping the city itself almost in a continual state of
siege. Notwithstanding these drawbacks, the importance of its position is
so great that Baghdad must at all times command a considerable trade. It
is a link between the East and the West; it is the store-house from which
the tribes of the Desert obtain their clothing and their supplies, and it
is the key to the holy places annually sought by thousands upon thousands
of Persian pilgrims of the Sheeah sect.[190]

The only remains of the Babylonian period hitherto discovered within the
city walls are the ruins of an enormous drain or subterranean passage,
built of large square bricks bearing the name of Nebuchadnezzar; the lofty
pile of sundried bricks, intermixed with layers of reeds, called
Akker-Kuf, which now rises in the midst of a marsh to the west of the
Tigris, about four or five miles from the city gates, has frequently been
described. During my visit to Baghdad it was not easy to reach this ruin
on account of the swamp, and as it is merely a solid mass of mud masonry,
excavations in it would scarcely have led to results of any interest or
importance.

I found the country around Baghdad so overrun with Bedouins and other
tribes in open revolt against the government, that it was some time before
I could venture to leave the city for the ruins of Babylon. Not to lose
time, I employed the Jebours who had accompanied me from Mosul in
excavating some mounds not far from the gates of the city, on the eastern
bank of the Tigris. The largest was called Tel Mohammed, and was about
four miles from Baghdad, near the Arab village of Gherara. The only
objects of any interest discovered there were several hollow bronze balls,
with the name of a king engraved upon them in Babylonian cuneiform
characters; a few rude images of the Assyrian Venus in baked clay, such as
are found in most ruins of the same period; a pair of bronze ankle-rings,
some terracotta vases, and other relics of the same nature. Foundations in
brick masonry were also uncovered, but there were no traces of sculpture
or inscriptions.

[Illustration: Figures of Assyrian Venus in baked Clay.]

It was not until the 5th of December that I was able to leave Baghdad. I
had been struggling with my old enemy, intermittent fever, and the
surrounding country was still in the hands of the Arabs, two reasons for
remaining within the gates. At length Abde Pasha, the governor of the
province, placed himself at the head of his troops, and marched against
the rebellious tribes. Before beginning his campaign, however, he had to
dam the mouth of a large canal called the Hindiyah, in order to drain the
vast marshes to the west of Babylon. Into these inaccessible swamps the
Arabs had driven their buffaloes, and there they defied the Turkish
troops.

Before going to Hillah I determined to visit the governor, and to make
acquaintance with several Sheikhs of the southern tribes friendly to the
Turkish government who were in his camp. I accordingly left Baghdad,
accompanied by M. Aristarki, an accomplished Greek gentleman in the
service of the Porte, and by one Ahmed-al-Khod, a highly intelligent,
active and faithful Arab of the tribe of the Agayl, who had long been in
the service of Captain Jones. His acquaintance with the country, and his
connection by marriage with Ferhan the Shammar chief, rendered him a very
useful guide and companion in a journey through the Desert.

Leaving Baghdad, after fording ditches and wading through water and deep
mud, in three hours' time we came to the caravanserai of Khan-i-Zad, where
we found Timour Mirza, one of the exiled Persian princes. He was
surrounded by hawks of various kinds standing on perches fixed in the
ground, and by numerous attendants, each bearing a falcon on his wrist.
Amongst his own countrymen and the Arabs the prince held the first place
as a sportsman; his gun was unerring in its aim, his falcons were
unequalled for their training, and he knew every hunting-ground within
many days' journey of Baghdad. He was no less famed for courage in war
than for skill in the chase, and his exploits in both are equally
notorious among the tribes of Mesopotamia.

The plains between Khan-i-Zad and the Euphrates are covered with a perfect
network of ancient canals and watercourses; but "a drought is upon the
waters of Babylon, and they were dried."[191] Their lofty embankments,
stretching on every side in long lines until they are lost in the hazy
distance, or magnified by the mirage into mountains, still defy the hand
of time, and seem rather the work of nature than of man. The face of the
country, too, is dotted with mounds and shapeless heaps, the remains of
ancient towns and villages. A long ride of ten hours through this scene of
solitude and desolation brought us to the tents of the Pasha of Baghdad,
pitched on the western bank of the Euphrates, below the village of
Musseiyib, and on the inlet of the Hindiyah canal. A string of boats had
been placed across the river to connect the camp of the governor with
Baghdad. As we approached we heard a loud hum of human voices; but the
whole encampment was concealed by dense clouds of dust. Once over the
bridge we found ourselves in the midst of a crowd of Turkish soldiers,
Arabs, and workmen of every kind hurrying to and fro in wild disorder;
some bearing earth and mud in baskets, or in their cloaks, others bending
under the weight of bundles of brushwood, mats, and ropes. Women and girls
were mingled with the men, and as they labored they chanted in a
monotonous tone verses on the Pasha and their chiefs, improvised for the
occasion.

This busy throng was building up the dam which was to shut out the waters
of the Euphrates from the canal, dry the marshes, and bring the rebellious
tribes to obedience. The nature of the materials and of the work did not,
however, promise a very favorable or speedy result. They had indeed no
sooner raised half their frail barrier of earth and fascines, than the
impetuous current washed away in a night the fruits of a month's toil. The
Pasha had summoned to his aid all the tribes that still owned his
authority; his tents were crowded with Arab Sheikhs from the plains, and
Kurdish Beys from the mountains. About two thousand regular troops and a
large body of irregular horse and foot completed the motley army he had
gathered round him at the Hindiyah.

I spent the following day with Abde Pasha, who was an ardent sportsman,
and entertained me with hawking. The Arab and Kurdish chiefs, who were in
his camp, were summoned at dawn to accompany him. We formed altogether a
very gay and goodly company. Bustards, hares, gazelles, francolins, and
several wild animals abounded in the jungle and the plains, and before we
returned in the afternoon scarcely a horseman was without some trophy of
the chase dangling from his saddle.

The hawk most valued by Eastern sportsmen is the _Shaheen_, a variety of
the northern peregrine falcon, and esteemed the most noble of the race.
Although the smallest in size, it is celebrated for its courage and
daring, and is constantly the theme of Persian verse. Those from the Gebel
Shammar, in Nedjd, are the most prized, but being only brought by
occasional pilgrims from Mecca, are very rare. The next best are said to
come from Tokat, in Asia Minor. The Shaheen should be caught and trained
when young. It strikes its quarry in the air, and may be taught to attack
even the largest eagle.

The next in value is the _Balaban_, which can be trained to strike its
quarry either in the air or on the ground. It is found in the
neighbourhood of Baghdad and in other parts of Mesopotamia; is caught and
trained when full grown, and is flown at gazelles, hares, cranes,
bustards, partridges, and francolins.

The _Baz_ and _Shah Baz_ (? Astur palumbarius, the goshawk, and the Falco
lanarius) is remarkable for the beauty of its speckled plumage and for its
size. It strikes in the air and on the ground, and, if well trained, may
take cranes and other large game.

The _Chark_ (? Falco cervialis), the usual falcon of the Bedouins, always
strikes its quarry on the ground, except the eagle, which it may be
trained to fly at in the air. It is chiefly used for gazelles and
bustards, but will also take hares and other game.

The bird usually hawked by the Arabs is the middle-sized bustard, or
houbara. It is almost always captured on the ground, and defends itself
vigorously with wings and beak against its assailant, which is often
disabled in the encounter. The falcon is generally trained to this quarry
with a fowl. The method pursued is very simple. It is first taught to take
its raw meat from a man, or from the ground, the distance being daily
increased by the falconer. When the habit is acquired, the flesh is tied
to the back of a fowl; the falcon will at once seize its usual food, and
receives also the liver of the fowl, which is immediately killed. A
bustard is then, if possible, captured alive, and used in the same way. In
a few days the training is complete, and the hawk may be flown at any
large bird on the ground.

The falconry, however, in which Easterns take most delight, is that of the
gazelle. For this very noble and exciting sport, the falcon and greyhound
must be trained to hunt together by a process unfortunately somewhat
cruel. In the first place, the bird is taught to eat its daily ration of
raw meat fastened on the stuffed head of a gazelle. The next step is to
accustom it to look for its food between the horns of a tame gazelle. The
distance between the animal and the falconer is daily increased, until the
hawk will seek its meat when about half a mile off. A greyhound is now
loosed upon the gazelle, the falcon being flown at the same. When the
animal is seized, which of course soon takes place, its throat is cut, and
the hawk is fed with a part of its flesh. After thus sacrificing three
gazelles, the education of the falcon and greyhound is declared to be
complete. The chief art in training is to teach the two to single out the
same gazelle, and the dog not to injure the falcon when struggling on the
ground with the quarry. The greyhound, however, soon learns to watch the
movements of its companion, without whose assistance it could not capture
its prey.

The falcon, when loosed from its jesses, flies steadily and near the
ground towards the retreating gazelles, and marking one, soon separates it
from the herd. It then darts at the head of the affrighted animal, throws
it to the ground, or only checks it in its rapid course. The greyhound
rarely comes up before the blow has been more than once repeated. The
falconer then hastens to secure the quarry. Should the dog not succeed in
capturing the gazelle after it has been struck for the third or fourth
time, the hawk will generally sulk and refuse to hunt any longer. I once
saw a very powerful falcon belonging to Abde Pasha hold a gazelle until
the horsemen succeeded in spearing the animal. The fleetness of the
gazelle is so great, that, without the aid of the hawk, very few dogs can
overtake it, unless the ground be heavy after rain.

The pursuit of the gazelle with the falcon and hound over the boundless
plains of Assyria and Babylonia is one of the most exhilarating and
graceful of sports, displaying equally the noble qualities of the horse,
the dog, and the bird.

The time of day best suited for hawking is very early in the morning,
before the eagles and kites are soaring in the sky. The falcon should not
be fed for several hours before it is taken to the chase. When not
hunting, the Arabs give it meat only once a day. Some hawks require to be
hooded, such as the Chark and the Shaheen; others need no covering for the
eyes. The hood is generally made of colored leather, with eyes worked on
it in beads, and gold and variegated threads. Tassels and ornaments of
various kinds are added, and the great chiefs frequently adorn a favourite
bird with pearls and precious stones. To the legs are sometimes fastened
small bells. Few hawks will return to the falconer without the lure, which
consists of the wing of a bustard or fowl, or of a piece of meat attached
to a string, and swung round in the air. The Eastern huntsman has a
different call for each variety of falcon. A good chark will sometimes
take as many as eight or ten bustards or five or six gazelles in the
course of a morning.

I have introduced these remarks on falconry, founded on personal
experience, as this noble science is probably of the greatest antiquity,
and is still the favorite pursuit of the Eastern warrior.

Before leaving the camp I obtained letters to the principal chiefs of the
southern tribes from the Pasha as well as from Wadi, the Sheikh of the
Zobeide, and other influential Sheikhs. After riding about four hours we
perceived a huge hill to the south. As we drew nearer, its flat table-like
top and perpendicular sides, rising abruptly from an alluvial plain,
showed that it was the work of man, and not a natural elevation. At length
we could plainly distinguish around it great embankments, the remains of
walls and canals. Gradually, as the caravan slowly advanced, the ruin
assumed a definite shape. It was the mound of Babel, better known to
travellers as the Mujelibé, a name not now given to it by the Arab
inhabitants of the surrounding country.

This is the first great ruin seen on approaching ancient Babylon from the
north. Beyond it long lines of palms hem in the Euphrates, which now
winds through the midst of the ancient city. To the vast mound of Babel
succeed long undulating heaps of earth, bricks, and pottery. A solitary
mass of brickwork, rising from the summit of the largest mound, marks the
remains known to the Arabs as the "Mujelibé," or the "overturned."[192]

Other shapeless heaps of rubbish cover for many an acre the face of the
land. On all sides, fragments of glass, marble, pottery, and inscribed
brick are mingled with that peculiar nitrous and blanched soil, which,
bred from the remains of ancient habitations, checks or destroys
vegetation, and renders the site of Babylon a naked and hideous waste.
Owls start from the scanty thickets, and the foul jackal skulks through
the furrows. Truly "the glory of kingdoms and the beauty of the Chaldees'
excellency is as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. Wild beasts of the
desert lie there; and their houses are full of doleful creatures; and owls
dwell there, and satyrs dance there. And the wild beasts of the islands
cry in their desolate houses, and dragons in their pleasant palaces," for
her day has come.[193]

A few black tents and flocks of sheep and camels were scattered over the
yellow plain. They belonged chiefly to the Zobeide, an ancient tribe,
renowned in the history of the conquering Arabs under their first caliphs,
and now pasturing their flocks in the wilds of Babylonia.[194] From Amran,
the last of the great mounds, a broad and well-trodden track winds
through thick groves of palms. About an hour's ride beneath a pleasant
shade brings the traveller to the falling gateway of the town of Hillah. A
mean bazar, crowded with Arabs, camels, and asses, leads to a bridge of
boats across the Euphrates. The principal part of the town, containing the
fort and the residence of the governor, is on the opposite side of the
river. We turned off, however, to the left, as our quarters had been made
ready on the western bank. A party of irregular troops sent out to meet
me, conducted my caravan to a spacious house standing on the very edge of
the stream, and belonging to one of the principal families of the place.
It had once contained rich furniture, and handsomely decorated rooms in
the Persian style, but was now fast falling into utter ruin. The cold wind
whistled through the rotten wooden panels of the windows, for there was no
glass, and the crumbling ceiling and floor threatened to give way
together. In this frail dwelling we prepared to pass a part of our winter
in Babylonia.



[Illustration: The Mujelibé or Kasr (from Rich).]


CHAPTER XXII.

    THE CHIEFS OF HILLAH.--PRESENT OF LIONS.--THE SON OF THE
    GOVERNOR.--DESCRIPTION OF THE TOWN.--ZAID.--THE RUINS OF
    BABYLON.--CHANGES IN THE COURSE OF THE EUPHRATES.--THE WALLS.--VISIT
    TO THE BIRS NIMROUD.--DESCRIPTION OF THE RUIN.--VIEW FROM
    IT.--EXCAVATIONS AND DISCOVERIES IN THE MOUND OF BABEL.--IN THE
    MUJELIBÉ OR KASR.--THE TREE ATHELÉ.--EXCAVATIONS IN THE RUIN OF
    AMRAN.--BOWLS, WITH INSCRIPTIONS IN HEBREW AND SYRIAC CHARACTERS.--THE
    JEWS OF BABYLONIA.


My first care on arriving at Hillah was to establish friendly relations
with the principal inhabitants of the town as well as with the Turkish
officer in command of the small garrison that guarded its mud fort. Osman
Pasha, the general, received me with courtesy and kindness, and during the
remainder of my stay gave me all the help I could require. On my first
visit he presented me with two lions. One was nearly of fall size, and was
well known in the bazars and thoroughfares of Hillah, through which he was
allowed to wander unrestrained. He was accustomed to help himself at the
stalls of the butchers, and from the wicker boats of the fishermen; and
when full, he allowed the boys to play their pranks upon him. He was
taller and larger than a St. Bernard dog, and, like the lion, generally
found on the banks of the rivers of Mesopotamia, was without the dark and
shaggy mane of the African species. The other lion was but a cub, and had
recently been found by an Arab in the Hindiyah marshes. Unfortunately it
fell ill of the mange, to which the animal when confined is very liable,
and soon after died. The other was too old to be sent to England by land,
and I was thus unable to procure specimens for this country of the
Babylonian lion, which has not, I believe, been seen in Europe.

The Mudir, or governor of Hillah, was Shabib Agha, the head of one of the
principal families of the town. He claimed a kind of hereditary right to
this office. He was aged and infirm, suffering from asthma, and little
able to manage public affairs, which were chiefly confided to his youngest
and favorite son, a boy of about twelve years old. It was with this child
that, in common with the inhabitants of Hillah, I transacted business. He
received and paid visits with wonderful dignity and decorum. His notes and
his inquiries after my health and wants were couched in the most eloquent
and suitable terms. He showed a warm and affectionate interest in my
welfare and in the success of my undertakings which was quite touching.
Every morning he crossed the river with a crowd of secretaries, slaves,
and attendants, to ascertain by personal inspection whether I needed any
help. He was a noble boy, with black sparkling eyes, and a bright olive
complexion. He wore the long silken robes of a town Arab, with the fringed
keffieh or striped headkerchief of the Bedouin falling over his shoulders.
On the whole, he made as good and active a governor as I have often met
with in an Eastern town, and was an instance of that precocity which is
frequently seen in Eastern children. A cordial friendship was soon
established between us, and, during my stay at Hillah, Azeez Agha, for
such was his name, was my constant guest.

From the principal people of Hillah, as well as from Shabib Agha (the
father of Azeez), I received every help. Like most towns in this part of
Turkey, it is peopled by Arabs, once belonging to different tribes, but
now forgetting their clanships in a sedentary life. They maintain,
however, a friendly intercourse with the Bedouins and with the wild
inhabitants of the marshes, being always ready to unite with them in
throwing off their obedience to the Sultan, and frequently maintaining for
some time their independence.

At the time of my visit, its inhabitants were anxiously waiting the result
of the expedition of Abde Pasha against the rebellious tribes. Their
allegiance to the Turkish governor and the consequent payment of taxes
depended upon its success. If the Pasha were beaten they would declare
openly in favor of the Arabs, with whom, it was suspected, they were
already in communication. The Hindiyah marshes are within sight of the
town, and the Kazail (the tribe that dwell in them) ravaged the country to
its gates. I was consequently unable to do more than visit the celebrated
ruin of the Birs Nimroud. To excavate in it in the then disturbed state
of the country was impossible.

Hillah may contain about eight or nine thousand inhabitants. The Euphrates
flows through the town, and is about two hundred yards wide and fifteen
feet deep; a noble stream, with a gentle current, admirably fitted for
steam navigation. The houses, chiefly built of bricks taken from the ruins
of ancient Babylon, are small and mean. Around the town, and above and
below it for some miles, are groves of palm trees, forming a broad belt on
both sides of the river. In the plain beyond them a few canals bear water
to plots cultivated with wheat, barley and rice.

Amongst the inhabitants of Hillah with whom I became acquainted was one
Zaid, a Sheikh of the Agayl, a very worthy, hospitable fellow. He lived in
Hillah, where his house, open to every traveller, was a place of meeting
for the Arabs of the Desert from Nejd to the Sinjar. To keep up this
unbounded hospitality he had a date grove and a few sheep, and cultivated
a little land outside the walls of the town. He was thus supplied with
nearly all that was necessary for an Arab entertainment.[195] He usually
accompanied me in my expeditions, and proved an invaluable guide. With one
Ali, also a chief of the Agayl, a man of wit and anecdote, though somewhat
of a buffoon, and with other Sheikhs, he usually spent the evening with
me, relating Arab stories, and describing distant regions and tribes,
until the night was far spent.

Having thus established relations with the principal inhabitants of the
town, who could assist or interrupt me, as they were well or ill
disposed, I could venture to commence excavations in the most important
ruins on the site of Babylon. Half concealed among the palm trees on the
eastern banks of the Euphrates above Hillah, are a few hamlets belonging
to Arabs, who till the soil. From them I was able to procure workmen, and
thus to make up, with the addition of my Jebours, several parties of
excavators. They were placed under the superintendence of Latiff Agha and
an intelligent Chaldæan Christian of Baghdad, who had entered my service.

[Illustration: Plan of Part of the Ruins of Babylon on the Eastern Bank of
the Euphrates.]

The ruins of Babylon have been frequently described[196], so that I shall
here only give a general sketch of them, without entering into accurate
details of measurements and distances; at the same time referring my
reader to the accompanying plan, which will enable him to understand the
position of the principal mounds.

The road from Baghdad to Hillah crosses, near the village of Mohawill, a
wide and deep canal still carrying water to distant gardens. On the
southern bank of this artificial stream is a line of earthen ramparts,
which are generally believed to be the most northern remains of the
ancient city of Babylon. From their summit the traveller scans a boundless
plain, through which winds the Euphrates, with its dark belt of evergreen
palms. Rising in the distance, high above all surrounding objects, is the
one square mound, in form and size more like a natural hill than the work
of men's hands. This is the first great ruin to the east of the river, and
the Arab, as I have said, names it "Babel."

The traveller, before reaching this ruin, still about four miles distant,
follows a beaten track winding amidst low mounds, and crossing the
embankments of canals long since dry, or avoiding the heaps of drifted
earth which cover the walls and foundations of buildings. Some have here
traced the lines of the streets, and the divisions between the inhabited
quarters of ancient Babylon. As yet no traces whatever have been
discovered of that great wall of earth rising, according to Herodotus, to
the height of 200 royal cubits, and no less than fifty cubits broad; nor
of the ditch that encompassed it. The mounds seem to be scattered without
order, and to be gradually lost in the vast plains to the eastward.

But southward of Babel, for the distance of nearly three miles, there is
almost an uninterrupted line of mounds, the ruins of vast edifices,
collected together as in the heart of a great city. They are inclosed by
earthen ramparts, the remains of a line of walls which, leaving the foot
of Babel, stretched inland about two miles and a half from the present bed
of the Euphrates, and then turning nearly at right angles completed the
defences on the southern side of the principal buildings that mark the
site of Babylon, on the eastern bank of the river. Between its most
southern point and Hillah, as between Mohawill and Babel, can only be
traced low heaps and embankments, scattered irregularly over the plain.

It is evident that the space inclosed within this continuous rampart,
could not have contained the whole of that mighty city, whose magnificence
and extent were the wonder of the ancient world. The walls of Babylon,
according to Herodotus, measured 120 stadia on each side, and formed a
perfect square of 480 stadia, or nearly sixty miles. Several later writers
have repeated his statement. Strabo and Diodorus Siculus have however
reduced the circuit of the city to 385 and 360 stadia; and such, according
to Clitarchus, were its dimensions when it yielded to Alexander.

The existing remains within the rampart agree as little in form as in size
with the descriptions of Babylon; for the city was a perfect square. Mr.
Rich, in order to explain these difficulties, was the first to suggest
that the vast ruin to the west of the Euphrates, called the Birs Nimroud,
should be included within the limits of Babylon. There is no doubt that,
by imagining a square large enough to include the smaller mounds scattered
over the plains from Mohawill to below Hillah on one side of the river,
and the Birs Nimroud at its south-western angle on the other, the site of
a city of the dimensions attributed to Babylon might be satisfactorily
determined. But then it must be assumed, that neither the outer wall nor
the ditch so minutely described by Herodotus ever existed.

According to the united testimony of ancient authors, the city was
divided by the Euphrates into two parts. The principal existing ruins are
to the east side of the river; there are very few remains to the west,
between Hillah and the Birs Nimroud. Indeed, in some parts of the plain,
there are none at all. This fact might, to a certain extent, be explained
in the following manner. To this day the Euphrates has a tendency to
change its course and to lose itself in marshes _to the west_ of its
actual bed. We find that the low country on that side was subject to
continual inundations from the earliest periods, and that, according to a
tradition, Semiramis built embankments to restrain the river.

The changes in its course to which the Euphrates was thus liable, appear
only to have taken place _to the west_ of its present bed. After the most
careful examination of the country, I could find no traces whatever of its
having at any time flowed much further than it now does to the east,
although during unusual floods it occasionally spreads over the plain on
that side. The great mounds still rising on the eastern bank prove this.
Supposing, therefore, the river from different causes to have advanced and
receded during many centuries, between the Hindiyah marshes and its
present channel, it will easily be understood how the ruins, which may
once have stood on the western bank, have gradually been washed away, and
how the existing flat alluvial plain has taken their place. In this manner
the complete disappearance of the principal part of the western division
of the city may, I think, be accounted for.

It is more difficult to explain the total absence of all traces of the
external wall and ditch so fully and minutely described by Herodotus and
other ancient writers, and, according to their concurrent accounts, of
such enormous dimensions. If a vast line of fortifications, with its
gates, and equidistant towers, all of stupendous height and thickness,
did once exist, it is scarcely to be believed that no part whatever of it
should now remain. Darius and other conquerors, it is true, are said to
have pulled down and destroyed these defences; but it is surely impossible
that any human labor could have obliterated their very traces. Even
supposing that the ruins around Hillah do not represent the site of
ancient Babylon, there are no remains elsewhere in Mesopotamia to
correspond with those great ramparts. If there had been, they could not
have escaped the researches of modern travellers.

But Herodotus states that, in the midst of each division of the city,
there was a circular space surrounded by a lofty wall: one contained the
royal palace; the other, the temple of Belus. There can be little
difficulty in admitting that the mounds within the earthen rampart on the
eastern bank of the river might represent the first of these fortified
inclosures, which we know to have been on that side of the Euphrates. It
is not impossible, as Rich has suggested, that the Birs Nimroud--around
which--as it will be seen--there are still the traces of a regular wall,
may be the remains of the second; or that the gradual changes in the
course of the river just described, may have completely destroyed all
traces of it.

It may be inferred, I think, from the descriptions of Herodotus and
Diodorus Siculus, that Babylon was built on the same general plan as
Nineveh. It must not be forgotten, also, that the outer walls of Nineveh
as well as those of Babylon have entirely disappeared. Are we to suppose
that the historians in their descriptions confounded them with those
surrounding the temples and palaces; and that these exterior
fortifications were mere ramparts of mud and brushwood, such as are still
raised round modern Eastern cities? Such defences, when once neglected,
would soon fall to dust, and leave no traces behind. I confess that I can
see no other way of accounting for the entire disappearance of these
exterior walls.[197]

I will now describe the results of my researches amongst the ruins near
Hillah. Parties of workmen were placed at once on the two most important
mounds, the Babel of the Arabs (the Mujelibé of Rich) and the Mujelibé
(the Kasr of the same traveller). I was compelled, as I have stated, to
abandon my plan of excavating in the Birs Nimroud. This great pile of
masonry is about six miles to the south-west of Hillah. It stands on the
very edge of the vast marsh, formed by the waters of the Hindiyah canal,
and by the periodical floods of the Euphrates. The plain between it and
the town is, in times of quiet, under cultivation, and is irrigated by a
canal derived from the Euphrates near the village of Anana.

Shortly after my arrival at Hillah I visited the Birs Nimroud, accompanied
by Zaid, and a party of well-armed Agayls. This was unfortunately the only
opportunity I had of examining these remarkable ruins during my residence
in Babylonia.[198] The country became daily more disturbed, and no Arabs
could be induced to pitch their tents near the mounds, or to work there.

The Birs Nimroud, "the palace of Nimrod" of the Arabs, and "the prison of
Nebuchadnezzar" of the Jews; by old travellers believed to be the very
ruins of the tower of Babel; by some, again, supposed to represent the
temple of Belus, the wonder of the ancient world; and, by others, to mark
the site of Borsippa, a city celebrated as the highplace of the Chaldean
worship, is a vast heap of bricks, slag, and broken pottery. The dry
nitrous earth of the parched plain, driven before the furious south wind,
has thrown over the huge mass a thin covering of soil in which no herb or
green thing can find nourishment or take root. Thus, unlike the
grass-clothed mounds of the more fertile districts of Assyria, the Birs
Nimroud is ever a bare and yellow heap. It rises to the height of 198
feet, and has on its summit a compact mass of brickwork, 37 feet high by
28 broad,[199] the whole being thus 235 in perpendicular height. Neither
the original form or object of the edifice, of which it is the ruin, have
hitherto been determined. It is too solid for the walls of a building, and
its shape is not that of the remains of a tower. It is pierced by square
holes, apparently made to admit air through the compact structure. On one
side of it, beneath the crowning masonry, lie huge fragments torn from the
pile itself. The calcined and vitreous surface of the bricks fused into
rock-like masses, show that their fall may have been caused by lighting;
and, as the ruin is rent almost from top to bottom, early Christian
travellers, as well as some of more recent date, have not hesitated to
recognise in them proofs of that divine vengeance, which, according to
tradition, arrested by fire from heaven the impious attempt of the first
descendants of Noah. Even the Jews, as it would appear, from Benjamin of
Tudela, at one time identified the Birs Nimroud with the Tower of Babel.

Whatever may have been the original edifice, of which the Birs Nimroud is
the ruin, or whoever its founder, it is certain that as yet no remains
have been discovered there more ancient than of the time of
Nebuchadnezzar. Every inscribed brick taken from it--and there are
thousands and tens of thousands--bear the name of this king. It must,
however, be remembered, that this fact is no proof that he actually
founded the building. He may have merely added to, or rebuilt an earlier
edifice. Thus, although it would appear by the inscriptions from Nimroud,
that the north-west palace was originally raised by a king who lived long
before him whose name occurs on the walls of that monument, yet not one
fragment has been found of the time of that earlier monarch. Such is the
case in other Assyrian ruins. It is, therefore, not impossible that at
some future time more ancient remains may be discovered at the Birs.

I will now describe the ruins. It must be first observed, that they are
divided into two distinct parts, undoubtedly the remains of two different
buildings. A rampart or wall, the remains of which are marked by mounds of
earth, appears to have inclosed both of them. To the west of the high
mound, topped by the tower-like pile of masonry, is a second, which is
larger but lower, and in shape more like the ruins on the eastern bank of
the Euphrates. It is traversed by ravines and water-courses, and strewed
over it are the usual fragments of stone, brick, and pottery. Upon its
summit are two small Mohammedan chapels, one of which, the Arabs declare,
is built over the spot where Nimroud cast the patriarch Abraham into the
fiery furnace, according to the common Eastern tradition. Not having been
able to excavate in this mound, I could not ascertain whether it covers
the remains of any ancient building.

Travellers, as far as I am aware, have hitherto failed in suggesting any
satisfactory restoration of the Birs. It is generally represented, without
sufficient accuracy, as a mere shapeless mass. But if examined from the
summit of the adjoining mound, its outline would at once strike any one
acquainted with the ruins to the west of Mosul, described in a former of
this work.[200] The similarity between them will be recognised, and it
will be seen that they are all the remains of edifices built upon very
nearly, if not precisely, the same plan. The best published
representations of the Birs Nimroud appear to me to be those contained in
a memoir of that accurate and observing traveller, the late Mr. Rich.

The mound rises abruptly from the plain on one face, the western, and
falls to its level by a series of gradations on the opposite. Such is
precisely the case with the ruins of Mokhamour, Abou-Khameera, and Tel
Ermah. The brickwork still visible in the lower parts of the mound, as
well as in the upper, shows the sides of several distinct stages or
terraces. I believe the isolated mass of masonry to be the remains of one
of the highest terraces, if not the highest, and the whole edifice to have
consisted, on the eastern or south-eastern side, of a series of stages
rising one above the other, and, on the western or north-western, of one
solid perpendicular wall. The back of the building may have been painted,
as, according to Diodorus Siculus,[201] were the palaces of Babylon, with
hunting or sacred scenes, and may have been decorated with cornices or
other architectural ornaments. There were no means of ascent to it. Nor
was it accessible in any part unless narrow galleries were carried round
it at different elevations.

It is probable that the ascents from terrace to terrace consisted of
broad flights of steps, or of inclined ways, carried up the centre of each
stage. Such we may judge, from the descriptions of Diodorus, was the form
of some of the great buildings at Babylon. The ascents to the different
terraces of the hanging gardens, he says, were like the gradines of a
theatre.[202] There are certainly traces of them in the mounds in the
Desert west of Mosul, if not in the Birs Nimroud. Herodotus states that
the temple of Belus at Babylon consisted of a series of towers. His
description is not very clear, but it may be inferred that the various
parts of the structure were nearly square. The base was undoubtedly so,
and so also may have been the upper stories, although generally
represented as round. There is nothing in the word used by Herodotus
([Greek: purgos]) to show that they were circular, and that they were
solid masses of masonry appears to me to be evident, for upon the upper
one, was constructed the temple of the god. The ascent, too, was on the
outside. Without, however, venturing to identify the Birs Nimroud with the
ruins of this temple, it may be observed that it is highly probable one
uniform system of building was adopted in the East, for sacred purposes,
and that these ascending and receding platforms formed the general type of
the Chaldæan and Assyrian temples.

The edifice, of which this remarkable ruin is the remains, was built of
kiln-burnt bricks. Fragments of stone, marble, and basalt, scattered
amongst the rubbish, show that it was adorned with other materials. The
cement by which the bricks were united is of so tenacious a quality, that
it is almost impossible to detach one from the mass entire. The ruin is a
specimen of the perfection of the Babylonian masonry.

I will not enter into the many disputed questions connected with the
topography of Babylon, nor will I endeavor to identify the various
existing ruins with the magnificent edifices described by ancient authors.
The subject was fully investigated by the late Mr. Rich, and the published
controversy between him and Major Rennell, has left little to be added. A
theory, first I believe put forward by Col. Rawlinson, that the ruins
around Hillah do not mark the site of the first Babylon, which must be
sought for further to the south, as far even as Niffer, has, I presume,
been abandoned. There cannot, however, be a doubt that Nebuchadnezzar
almost entirely rebuilt the city, and perhaps not exactly on the ancient
site; a conjecture, as I have shown, perfectly in accordance with
Scripture and with Eastern customs.[203] An accurate survey of the ruins
is now chiefly required. Recent travellers are of opinion that the Birs
Nimroud cannot be identified, as conjectured by Rich, with the temple of
Belus, but that it marks the site of the celebrated Chaldæan city of
Borsippa, which Rich traced four leagues to the south of Hillah, in some
mounds called Boursa by the Arabs. Until more authentic information be
obtained from inscriptions and actual remains, the question cannot, I
think, be considered as settled.

From the summit of the Birs Nimroud I gazed over a vast marsh, for Babylon
is made "a possession for the bittern and pools of water."[204] In the
midst of the swamps could be faintly distinguished the Arab settlements
which showed the activity of a hive of bees. Light boats were skimming to
and fro over the shallow water, whilst men and women urged onwards their
flocks and laden cattle. The booming of the cannons of the Turkish army,
directed against the fort of Hawaina, resounded in the distance; and the
inhabitants of the marsh were already hurrying with their property to
safer retreats in anticipation of the fall of their stronghold.

To the south-west, in the extreme distance, rose the palm-trees of Kifil,
casting their scanty shade over a small dome, the tomb of Ezekiel. To this
spot annually flock in crowds, as their forefathers have done for
centuries, the Jews of Baghdad, Hillah, and other cities of Chaldæa, the
descendants of the captives of Jerusalem, who still linger in the land of
their exile. Although tradition alone may place in the neighbourhood of
Babylon the tomb of the prophet, yet from a very early period the spot
appears to have been sought in pilgrimage by the pious Hebrew. I visited
the edifice some years ago. It is now but a plain building, despoiled of
the ornaments and manuscripts which it once appears to have contained.
Benjamin of Tudela, gives a curious and interesting description of it,
which the reader will find well worth examining.[205]

We galloped back from the Birs Nimroud to Hillah, crossing the dreary and
deserted plain without meeting any of those marauders who were wandering
over the face of the country.

I remained in Hillah until the 19th December, riding every day to the
ruins on the eastern bank of the river, and personally superintending the
excavations. The first trenches were opened in the great mound of Babel,
about five miles from the gate of Hillah, and three quarters of a mile
from the river. I sought the subterranean passage opened and described by
Mr. Rich, and on removing the rubbish I soon came to "the quadrangular
funnel, about thirteen feet square, of burnt brick and bitumen," which he
had discovered. After the lapse of forty years, it had been once more
completely filled with earth. The workmen again entered the underground
chamber in which Mr. Rich found a coffin of wood, containing a skeleton
still well preserved.

Beneath this masonry were found several entire coffins, precisely similar
to that discovered by Mr. Rich. They still held skeletons, more or less
entire, which fell to pieces as soon as exposed to the air. No relic or
ornament had been buried with the bodies. The wood of the coffins was in
the last stage of decay, and could only be taken out piecemeal. A foul and
unbearable stench issued from these loathsome remains, and from the
passages which had become the dens of wild beasts, who had worked their
way into them from above. It was almost impossible to stay for many
minutes under ground. Even the Arabs were compelled to leave their work
after a few days.

On the northern side of the mound, above these places of sepulture, are
the remains of a massive wall of sun-dried brick. The masonry is not
united by bituminous cement, as in the vaults, but apparently by simple
mud, as in modern Arab buildings, and between each course of bricks are
spread thin layers of reeds still perfectly preserved.

The coffins discovered at Babel are of a comparatively recent period, and
are not pure Babylonian. At the very earliest they may be of the time of
the Seleucidæ, but I am inclined to think that they are even of a still
later date. It is evident that they were buried after the destruction of
the edifice covered by the mound.

Numerous deep trenches opened on the surface of the mound, and several
tunnels carried into its sides at different levels, led to no other
discovery than that of numerous relics of a doubtful period, such as are
found in large numbers, in a more or less perfect state, amongst all
Babylonian ruins, especially after heavy rains have washed away the loose
soil, or have deepened the ravines. The most interesting were arrowheads
in bronze and iron, small glass bottles, some colored, others ribbed and
otherwise ornamented, and vases of earthenware of various forms and sizes,
sometimes glazed with a rich blue color. These, and in general what
travellers have found, may be set down as of the time of the Greek
occupation, and some as late as the sixth or seventh century of the
Christian era.

[Illustration: Jug of Soapstone, from the Mound of Babel.]

At Babel was also found, at some depth below the surface, a curious jug,
which I should have been inclined to believe altogether modern, had there
not been one nearly similar in form, and of the same substance, in Mr.
Rich's collection in the British Museum, and consequently, it may be
presumed, obtained from the same ruins. It is of soapstone, rudely carved
and ornamented, and resembles in shape the vessels still used by the Arabs
for ablutions.

Scattered over the mound, and at a little depth beneath the surface, were
numerous bricks, bearing the usual superscription of Nebuchadnezzar. No
ancient masonry was, however, discovered, from which these bricks had been
detached.

It was thus evident that the remains of the original edifice, if any still
existed, were to be sought far beneath the surface, and I accordingly
opened tunnels at the very foot of the mound nearly on a level with the
plain. A few days labor enabled me to ascertain that we had at last found
the ancient building. On the eastern side the workmen soon reached solid
piers and walls of brick masonry, buried under an enormous mass of loose
bricks, earth, and rubbish. We uncovered eight or ten piers and several
walls branching in various directions, but I failed to trace any plan, or
to discover any remains whatever of sculptured stone or painted plaster.

During the remainder of my stay in Babylonia, workmen continued to
excavate in this part of the mound, uncovering a confused heap of ruins
and standing masonry. The enormous accumulation of loose rubbish above
them, not a hard compact mass, as at Nineveh, but continually crumbling
and falling in, exposed the men to a risk scarcely warranted by the
results of their labors. I much doubt whether even more extensive
excavations would lead to any important discoveries. It is possible,
however, that detached inscriptions or sculptured slabs might be
obtained.

On the western and southern sides of the mound were also discovered, at
the very base, remains of solid masonry. The bricks bore the usual
superscription of Nebuchadnezzar, and were firmly cemented together with
fine white mortar. It is thus evident that a vast edifice once stood
either on the level of the plain, or raised upon enormous piers and
buttresses of brickwork, and that the tombs, and any traces of building
that may exist on or near the present surface of the mound, are of a more
recent period. I will not attempt to decide whether Babel be the remains
of a great palace of Nebuchadnezzar, of the celebrated hanging gardens, or
of a temple.

The only remains of building not covered by soil and sand, but still
standing above ground, on the site of Babylon, and part of the ancient
city, are about one mile to the south of the mound last described. It is
the Kasr, or Palace, of Rich, a name by which it is now generally known to
travellers, but the Arabs call it the Mujelibé, or the "overturned." It
rises on the river bank, and is about seven hundred yards square. The
principal part of this great ruin consists of loose bricks, tiles, and
fragments of stone; but nearly in the centre a solid mass of masonry,
still entire, and even retaining traces of architectural ornament,
protrudes from the confused heap of rubbish. Piers, buttresses, and
pilasters may be traced; but the work of destruction has been too complete
to allow us to determine whether they belong to the interior or exterior
of a palace. I sought in vain for some clue to the general plan of the
edifice. Upon nearly every brick is clearly and deeply stamped the name
and titles of Nebuchadnezzar, and the inscribed face is always placed
downwards. This wonderful piece of masonry is so perfect, and of so fresh
a pale yellow color, that it seems but the work of yesterday, although it
is undoubtedly part of a building which stood in the midst of old Babylon.

This ruin has for ages been the mine from which the builders of cities
rising after the fall of Babylon have obtained their materials. To this
day there are men who have no other trade than that of gathering bricks
from this vast heap and taking them for sale to the neighbouring towns and
villages, and even to Baghdad. There is scarcely a house in Hillah which
is not almost entirely built with them; and as the traveller passes
through the narrow streets, he sees in the walls of every hovel a record
of the glory and power of Nebuchadnezzar.

A large number of the fragments of brick found in this ruin are covered
with a thick enamel or glaze. The colors have resisted the effects of
time, and preserve their original brightness. Parts of figures and
ornaments may still be traced on many specimens. The principal colors are
a brilliant blue, red, a deep yellow, white, and black. We learn from
ancient authors that the walls of the palaces of Babylon were painted with
the figures of men and animals, and there can be no doubt that these
enamelled bricks are from the walls of an edifice. Fragments of glass,
Babylonian gems and cylinders, small bronze figures, and other relics of
this nature are occasionally found on the mound by the Arabs, and are
bought by the Jews of Hillah, who sell them again to European travellers.

The huge lion described by Rich still exists half buried in the rubbish.
The animal stands over a man with outstretched arms, which has led some
imaginative travellers to see in the group a representation of Daniel in
the lions' den. The figures are in black basalt, either so barbarously
executed as to show very little progress in art, or left unfinished by the
sculptor. It would scarcely be worth removal.

Near the northern edge of the ruin is the solitary tree Athelé,
well-known to the Arabs, and the source of various traditions. It is said
to have stood in the hanging gardens of Babylon, and to have been saved by
God from the general destruction which overwhelmed the impious city, that
Ali might tie his horse to its trunk after the defeat of the enemies of
the Prophet in the great battle of Hillah. No other tree of the same kind
exists, according to the same tradition, in the whole world. It is,
however, I believe, a species of tamarisk, whose long feathery branches
tremble in the breeze with a melancholy murmur well suited to the desolate
heap over which it may have waved for a thousand years.

It was a hopeless task to excavate in a shapeless heap of rubbish of such
vast extent, which had already been explored in every direction. With the
exception of the solitary pile of masonry rising in the centre, the ruin
consisted of little else than of shattered brickwork. I continued,
however, a few of the tunnels already opened, but the falling rubbish,
which had more than once overwhelmed the seekers after bricks, soon
compelled me to desist. The only relic of any interest I was fortunate
enough to discover was a fragment of limestone, on which were parts of two
figures, undoubtedly those of gods. The name of one deity is added in
Babylonian characters to its sculptured image. It is probably only a small
portion of a slab or frieze containing a series of similar figures; but I
was unable, after a careful and prolonged search, to find any other
pieces. The fragment, however, is interesting, as showing that the
Babylonians portrayed their divinities in the same manner as the
Assyrians. They wear the same high head-dress ornamented with feathers and
rosettes, the long curled hair and beard, and the embroidered garments,
and they hold the same staff with a ring as the gods in the rock
sculptures of Bavian.

With the exception of a few rudely engraved gems and enamelled bricks,
this was the only relic I obtained from the Mujelibé.

Excavations were carried on for some days in the smaller mounds scattered
over the plain between Babel and the ruin last described, but without any
results, except the discovery of the remains of brick masonry, of a few
earthen vases, and of some fragments of glass.

The last ruin I examined was a mound of great extent, sometimes called by
the Arabs Jumjuma, from a neighbouring village of that name, and
sometimes, as stated by Rich, Amran ben Ali, from a Koubbé, or small domed
tomb, of a Mohammedan saint on its summit. No masonry is here seen as in
the Mujelibé. All remains of buildings, if there be any still existing,
are deeply buried beneath the loose nitrous earth. It is traversed by
innumerable ravines, and its form and level are equally irregular. I
opened trenches in various parts, but could find no traces of an edifice
of any kind. Some small objects of considerable interest, were, however,
discovered. Although not of the true Babylonian epoch, they are, on more
than one account, highly important.

The mound of Amran, as well as nearly all those in Babylonia, had been
used as a place of burial for the dead long after the destruction of the
great edifices whose ruins it covers. Some specimens of glass, and several
terracotta figures, lamps, and jars, dug out of it, are evidently of the
time of the Seleucidæ or of the Greek occupation. With these relics were
five cups or bowls of earthenware, and fragments of others, covered on the
inner surface with letters written in a kind of ink. Similar objects had
already been found in other Babylonian ruins. Two from the collection of
the late Mr. Stewart had been deposited in the British Museum, and
amongst the antiquities recently purchased by the Trustees from Colonel
Rawlinson are eight specimens, obtained at Baghdad, where they are
sometimes offered for sale by the Arabs; but it is not known from what
sites they were brought. The characters upon them are in form not unlike
the Hebrew, and on some they resembled the Sabæan and Syriac. These bowls
had not attracted notice, nor had the inscriptions upon them been fully
examined before they were placed in the hands of Mr. Thomas Ellis, of the
manuscript department in the British Museum, a gentleman of great learning
and ingenuity as a Hebrew scholar. Mr. E. has succeeded, after much labor,
in deciphering the inscriptions.[206]

Little doubt can, I think, exist as to the Jewish origin of these bowls:
and such being the case, there is no reason to question their having
belonged to the descendants of those Jews who were carried captive by
Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon and the surrounding cities. These strangers
appear to have clung with a tenacity peculiar to their race to the land of
their exile. We can trace them about Babylon from almost the time of their
deportation down to the twelfth century of the Christian era, when the
Hebrew traveller, Benjamin of Tudela, wandered over the regions of the
East and among the cities of the captivity to seek the remnant of his
ancient nation. During the Persian dominion in Mesopotamia we find them
enduring tortures and persecutions rather than help to rebuild a temple
dedicated to a false god.[207] In the time of the Roman supremacy in the
East they appear to have been a turbulent race, rebelling against their
rulers and waging civil war amongst themselves. They had celebrated
schools in many cities of Assyria and Chaldæa.

As early as the third century Hebrew travellers visited Babylon, and some
of them have left records of the state of their countrymen. The Babylonian
Talmud, compiled in the beginning of the sixth century, contains many
valuable notices of the condition of the Jewish colonies in Babylonia, and
enumerates more than two hundred Babylonian towns then under the Persian
rule, inhabited by Jewish families. In manuscripts of the eighth and ninth
centuries we have further mention of these colonies.

In the twelfth century, Benjamin of Tudela found no less than twenty
thousand Jews dwelling within twenty miles of Babylon, and worshipping in
the synagogue, built, according to tradition, by the prophet Daniel
himself. In Hillah alone were ten thousand persons and four synagogues,
and he gives the number of families and of their places of worship, in
every town he visited, keeping during his journey an exact daily
itinerary, which includes nearly all the stations on the modern caravan
routes. Allowing for some exaggeration on the part of this traveller, it
is still evident that a very considerable Jewish population lived in the
cities of Babylonia. It has greatly diminished, and in some places has
entirely disappeared. A few families still linger at Hillah, and in
Baghdad the principal native trade and money transactions are carried on
by Jews, who are the bankers and brokers of the governors of the city, as
they no doubt anciently were of the Abasside Caliphs.

According to their own tradition these Hebrew families were descended from
the Jews of the captivity. They still preserved their pedigrees, and
traced their lineage to the princes and prophets of Judah. Their chief
resided at Baghdad, and his title was "Lord Prince of the Captivity." He
was lineally descended, according to his people, from king David himself.
Even Mohammedans acknowledged his claim to this noble birth, and called
him "Our Lord, the Son of David." His authority extended over the
countries of the East as far as Thibet and Hisdostan. He was treated on
all occasions with the greatest honor and respect, and when he appeared in
public he wore robes of embroidered silk, and a white turban encircled by
a diadem of gold.[208]

We may then safely conclude, that these earthen bowls belonged to Jews of
Babylonia and Chaldæa. Similar relics have been found as I have stated in
many ruins near Babylon. I discovered an entire bowl, as well as many
fragments, at Niffer. Nearly at the same time, several were dug out of a
mound about half-way between Baghdad and Hillah, but they were
unfortunately dispersed or destroyed before I could obtain possession of
them. On all these sites during the first centuries of the Christian era,
dwelt Jewish families.

As no date whatever is found in the inscriptions, it is difficult to
determine the exact time when they were written. We must endeavour to form
some opinion upon such internal evidence as they may afford. Mr. Ellis
remarks, that, "as this is the first time anything of the kind has been
examined in Europe, he can only hazard a conjecture from the forms of the
letters, which are, certainly, the most ancient known specimens of the
Chaldæan, and appear to have been invented for the purpose of writing the
cuneiform character in a more cursive and expeditious manner."[209] In
support of this conjecture he cites the language of the Assyrian
inscriptions as closely resembling that on the bowls. The relics, however,
are evidently of different dates. The most ancient might be referred to
the second or third century before Christ, but may be of a later period.
Others are undoubtedly of a more recent date, and might even have been
written as late as the fifth century of our era. The Syriac characters on
the latter bowl appear to have marks of a Sabæan or Mendean origin, and on
a bowl from Mr. Stewart's collection there is an inscription,
unfortunately almost destroyed and no longer decipherable, in that
peculiar character still used by the Sabæans of Susiana.

In the forms of expression and in the names of the angels, these
inscriptions bear a striking analogy to the apocryphal book of Enoch,
which is supposed to have been written by a Jew of the captivity, shortly
before the Christian era. That singular rhapsody also mentions the
"sorceries, incantations, and dividing of roots and trees," which appear
to have been practised by the Jews at that period, and to be alluded to on
the bowls.[210]

As to the original use of these vessels it is not improbable, as
conjectured by Mr. Ellis, that the writing was to be dissolved in water,
to be drank as a cure against disease, or a precaution against the arts of
witchcraft and magic. Similar remedies are still resorted to in the East
in cases of obstinate illness, and there are Mullahs who make the
preparation of such charms their peculiar profession. The modern
inscriptions generally consist of sentences from the Koran, interspersed
with various mystic signs and letters. But if such was their object, it is
evident that they could not have been used for that purpose, as the
writing upon them is perfectly fresh, and it is essential that it should
be entirely washed into the water to make the remedy efficacious. As they
were found at a considerable depth beneath the surface in mounds which had
undoubtedly been used as places of sepulture, I am rather inclined to
believe that they were charms buried with the dead, or employed for some
purpose at funeral ceremonies, and afterwards placed in the grave.



CHAPTER XXIII.

    STATE OF THE RUINS OF BABYLON.--CAUSE OF THE DISAPPEARANCE OF
    BUILDINGS.--NATURE OF ORIGINAL EDIFICES.--BABYLONIAN BRICKS.--THE
    HISTORY OF BABYLON.--ITS FALL.--ITS REMARKABLE
    POSITION.--COMMERCE.--CANALS AND ROADS.--SKILL OF BABYLONIANS IN THE
    ARTS.--ENGRAVED GEMS.--CORRUPTION OF MANNERS, AND CONSEQUENT FALL OF
    THE CITY.--THE MECCA PILGRIMAGE.--SHEIKH IBN RESHID.--THE GEBEL
    SHAMMAR.--THE MOUNDS OF EL HYMER.--OF ANANA.


Such then were the discoveries amongst the ruins of ancient Babylon. They
were far less numerous and important than I could have anticipated, nor
did they tend to prove that there were remains beneath the heaps of earth
and rubbish which would reward more extensive excavations. It was not even
possible to trace the general plan of any one edifice; only shapeless
piles of masonry, and isolated walls and piers, were brought to
light--giving no clue whatever to the original form of the buildings to
which they belonged. If the tradition be true that Xerxes, to punish the
Babylonians and humiliate their priests, ordered them utterly to destroy
their temples and other great public edifices, and that Alexander the
Great employed 10,000 men in vain to clear away the rubbish from the
temple of Belus alone,[211] it is not surprising that with a small band of
Arabs little progress should have been made in uncovering any part of the
ancient buildings.

No sculptures or inscribed slabs, the panelling of the walls of palaces,
have been discovered amongst the ruins of Babylon as in those of Nineveh.
Scarcely a detached figure in stone, or a solitary tablet, has been dug
out of the vast heaps of rubbish. "Babylon is fallen, is fallen; and all
the graven images of her gods he hath broken unto the ground."[212]

The complete absence of such remains is to be explained by the nature of
the materials used in the erection of even the most costly edifices. In
the immediate vicinity of Babylon there were no quarries of alabaster, or
of limestone, such as existed near Nineveh. The city was built in the
midst of an alluvial country, far removed from the hills. Consequently
stone for building purposes could only be obtained from a distance. The
black basalt, a favorite material amongst the Babylonians for carving
detached figures, and for architectural ornaments, as appears from
numerous fragments found amongst the ruins, came from the Kurdish
mountains, or from the north of Mesopotamia. It was probably floated down
the Euphrates and Tigris on rafts from those districts. The Assyrian
alabaster could have been brought from Nineveh, and the water
communication by the rivers and canals offered great facilities for
transport; yet enormous labor and expense would have been required to
supply such materials in sufficient quantities to construct an entire
edifice, or even to panel the walls of its chambers.

The Babylonians were, therefore, content to avail themselves of the
building materials which they found on the spot. With the tenacious mud of
their alluvial plains, mixed with chopped straw, they made bricks, whilst
bitumen and other substances collected from the immediate neighborhood
furnished them with an excellent cement. A knowledge of the art of
manufacturing glaze, and of compounding colors, enabled them to cover
their bricks with a rich enamel, thereby rendering them equally ornamental
for the exterior and interior of their edifices. The walls of their
palaces and temples were also coated, as we learn from several passages in
the Bible, with mortar and plaster, which, judging from their cement, must
have been of very fine quality. The fingers of the man's hand wrote the
words of condemnation of the Babylonian empire "upon the plaster of the
wall of the king's palace."[213] Upon those walls were painted historical
and religious subjects, and various ornaments, and, according to Diodorus
Siculus, the bricks were enamelled with the figures of men and animals.
Images of stone were no doubt introduced into the buildings. We learn from
the Bible that figures of the gods in this material, as well as in metal,
were kept in the Babylonian temples. But such sculptures were not common,
otherwise more remains of them must have been discovered in the ruins.

On one of the most important Babylonian relics brought to this country we
have some highly curious notices of the architecture of the Babylonians.
They are contained in tablets inscribed upon a black stone, and divided
into ten columns. The inscription commences according to Dr. Hincks, with
the name and titles of Nebuchadnezzar the Great, whose reign began, it may
be inferred from Ptolemy's Canon, B. C. 604. He is called
"Nabukudurruchur, king of Babylon, son of Nabubaluchun, king of Babylon."
We may infer that his grandfather was not a king from the omission of his
name. The subsequent part of the inscription contains no notice of any
foreign conquests, but speaks of the building of various temples and
palaces in addition to the walls of Babylon and Borsippa. If the tablets
could be completely deciphered, and the meaning of many doubtful words
accurately ascertained, much information would be obtained relating to
Babylonian architecture. The walls were built of burned bricks and bitumen
lined with gypsum and other materials. Some seem to have been wainscotted.
Over these walls was woodwork, and on the top an awning sustained by
poles, like "the white, green, and blue hangings, fastened with cords of
fine linen and purple to silver rings, and pillars of marble," in
Ahasuerus' palace at Shushan.[214] Some of the woodwork is said to have
been gilt, other parts silvered: and a large portion of it was brought
from Lebanon.

Marduk appears in this inscription as the principal deity of Babylon,
holding the place that Ashur does on the monuments of Nineveh. He is
called "the great Lord," "Lord of Lord," "Elder of the Gods," &c. Nebu
seems to hold the second rank. The king offers him thanksgiving for what
he has already done, and prays for his blessing on himself and his
house.[215]

It may be conjectured that in their general plan the Babylonian palaces
and temples resembled those of Assyria. We know that the arts, the
religion, the customs, and the laws of the two kindred people were nearly
identical. They spoke, also, the same language, and used, very nearly, the
same written characters. One appears to have borrowed from the other; and,
without attempting to decide the question of priority of independent
existence as a nation and of civilisation, it can be admitted that they
had to a certain extent a common origin, and that they maintained for many
centuries an intimate connection. We find no remains of columns at
Babylon, as none have been found at Nineveh. If such architectural
ornaments were used, they must have been either of wood or of brick. The
massy pillars, with Egyptian-like capitals, usually chosen by artists for
the restoration of Belshazzar's palaces and temples, are the mere
creations of fancy, and are not warranted by any existing remains
whatever. The Babylonian column more probably resembled, in form and
proportions, that of Nineveh and Persepolis. It may have been a
modification of the Assyrian which afterwards gave birth to the Persian,
for it was through Babylon that the arts appear to have penetrated partly,
if not entirely, into Persia.

Although the building materials thus used in the great edifices of Babylon
may seem extremely mean when compared with those employed in the
stupendous palace temples of Egypt, and even in the less massive edifices
of Assyria, yet the Babylonians appear to have raised, with them alone,
structures which excited the wonder and admiration of the most famous
travellers of antiquity. The profuse use of color, and the taste displayed
in its combination, and in the ornamental designs, together with the
solidity and vastness of the immense substructure upon which the buildings
proudly stood, may have chiefly contributed to produce this effect upon
the minds of strangers. The palaces and temples, like those of Nineveh,
were erected upon lofty platforms of brickwork. The origin of Assyrian
architecture, which I have elsewhere described,[216] was especially that
of Babylon. The bricks, as in Assyria, were either simply baked in the
sun, or were burnt in the kiln. The latter are of more than one shape and
quality. Some are square; others are oblong.[217] Those from the Birs
Nimroud are generally of a dark red color, whilst those from the Mujelibé
are mostly of a light yellow. Specimens have been frequently brought to
this country, and are to be found in many public and private collections.
The Babylonian inscribed bricks long excited the curiosity of the learned,
and gave rise to a variety of ingenious speculations as to their use and
meaning. By some they were believed to be public documents; others saw in
the writing dedications to the gods, or registers of gifts to temples. The
question has now been entirely set at rest by the discovery made by Dr.
Hincks, that almost every brick hitherto obtained from the ruins of
Babylon bears the same inscription, with the exception of one or two
unimportant words, and that they record the building of the city of
Nebuchadnezzar the son of Nabubaluchun (?)

A few inscribed tablets of stone and baked clay, figures in bronze and
terracotta, metal objects of various kinds, and engraved cylinders and
gems, have been almost the only undoubted Babylonian antiquities hitherto
brought to Europe. Such relics are preserved in many cabinets. The small
original collection in the British Museum belonged partly to Sir Robert
Ker Porter, and partly to Mr. Rich.

It may not be out of place to add a few remarks upon the history of
Babylon. The time of the foundation of this celebrated city is still a
question which does not admit of a satisfactory determination, and into
which I will not enter. Some believe it to have taken place at a
comparatively recent date; but if, as Egyptian scholars assert, the name
of Babylon is found on monuments of the eighteenth Egyptian dynasty, we
have positive evidence of its existence at least in the fifteenth century
before Christ.[218] After the rise of the Assyrian empire, it appears to
have been at one time under the direct rule of the kings of Nineveh, and
at another to have been governed by its own independent chiefs.
Expeditions against Babylonia are recorded in the earliest inscriptions
yet discovered in Assyria; and, as it has been seen, even in the time of
Sennacherib and his immediate predecessors, large armies were still
frequently sent against its rebellious inhabitants. The Babylonian kingdom
was, however, almost absorbed in that of Assyria, the dominant power of
the East. When this great empire began to decline, Babylon rose for the
last time. Media and Persia were equally ready to throw off the Assyrian
yoke, and at length the allied armies of Cyaxares and the father of
Nebuchadnezzar captured and destroyed the capital of the Eastern world.

Babylon now rapidly succeeded to that proud position so long held by
Nineveh. Under Nebuchadnezzar she acquired the power forfeited by her
rival. The bounds of the city were extended; buildings of extraordinary
size and magnificence were erected; her victorious armies conquered Syria
and Palestine, and penetrated into Egypt. Her commerce, too, had now
spread far and wide, from the east to the west, and she became "a land of
traffic and a city of merchants."[219]

But her greatness as an independent nation was short-lived. The
neighbouring kingdoms of Media and Persia, united under one monarch, had
profited, no less than Babylon, by the ruin of the Assyrian empire, and
were ready to dispute with her the dominion of Asia. Scarcely half a
century had elapsed from the fall of Nineveh, when "Belshazzar, the king
of the Chaldæeans, was slain, and Darius, the Median, took the
kingdom."[220] From that time Babylonia sank into a mere province of
Persia.

After the defeat of Darius and the overthrow of the Persian supremacy,
Babylon opened its gates to Alexander, who deemed the city not unworthy to
become the capital of his mighty empire. On his return from India he
wished to rebuild the temple of Belus, which had fallen into ruins, and in
that great work he had intended to employ his army, now no longer needed
for war. The priests, however, who had appropriated the revenues of this
sacred shrine, and feared lest they would have again to apply them to
their rightful purposes, appear to have prevented him from carrying out
his design.[221]

The last blow to the prosperity and even existence of Babylon was given by
Seleucus when he laid the foundation of his new capital on the banks of
the Tigris (B. C. 322). Already Patrocles, his general, had compelled a
large number of the inhabitants to abandon their homes, and to take refuge
in the Desert, and in the province of Susiana. The city, exhausted by the
neighbourhood of Seleucia, returned to its ancient solitude. According to
some authors, neither the walls nor the temple of Belus existed any
longer, and only a few Chaldæans continued to dwell around the ruins of
their sacred edifices.

Still, however, a part of the population appears to have returned to their
former seats, for in the early part of the second century of the Christian
era we find the Parthian king, Evemerus, sending numerous families from
Babylon into Media to be sold as slaves, and burning many great and
beautiful edifices still standing in the city.

In the time of Augustus, the city is said to have been entirely deserted,
except by a few Jews who still lingered amongst the ruins. St. Cyril, of
Alexandria, declares, that in his day, about the beginning of the fifth
century, in consequence of the choking up of the great canals derived from
the Euphrates, Babylon had become a vast marsh: and fifty years later the
river is described as having changed its course, leaving only a small
channel to mark its ancient bed. Then were verified the prophecies of
Isaiah and Jeremiah, that the mighty Babylon should be but "pools of
water," "that the sea should come upon her, and that she should be covered
with the multitude of the waves thereof."[222]

In the beginning of the seventh century, at the time of the Arab invasion,
the ancient cities of Babylonia were "a desolation, a dry land, and a
wilderness." Amidst the heaps that marked the site of Babylon herself
there rose the small town of Hillah.[223]

Long before Babylon had overcome her rival Nineveh she was famous for the
extent and importance of her commerce. No position could have then been
more favourable than hers for carrying on a trade with all the regions of
the known world. Even only moderate skill and enterprise could scarcely
fail to make Babylon, not only the emporium of the Eastern world, but the
main link of commercial intercourse between the East and the West.

The inhabitants did not neglect the advantages bestowed upon them by
nature. A system of navigable canals that may excite the admiration of
even the modern engineer, connected together the Euphrates and Tigris,
those great arteries of her commerce. With a skill, showing no common
knowledge of the art of surveying, and of the principles of hydraulics,
the Babylonians took advantage of the different levels in the plains, and
of the periodical rises in the two rivers, to complete the water
communication between all parts of the province, and to fertilise by
artificial irrigation an otherwise barren and unproductive soil.
Alexander, after he had transferred the seat of his empire to the East,
so fully understood the importance of these great works, that he ordered
them to be cleansed and repaired, and superintended the work in person,
steering his boat with his own hand through the channels.

High-roads and causeways across the Desert united Syria and Palestine with
Babylonia. Fortified stations protected the merchant from the wandering
tribes of Arabia, walled cities served as resting-places and store-houses,
and wells at regular intervals gave an abundant supply of water during the
hottest season of the year. One of those highways was carried through the
centre of Mesopotamia, and crossing the Euphrates near the town of
Anthemusia led into central Syria. A second appears to have left Babylon
by the western quarter of the city, and entered Idumæa, after passing
through the country of the Nabathæans. Others branched off to Tadmor, and
to cities which were built in the midst of the Desert almost solely for
purposes of trade.

To the east of Babylonia was the celebrated military and commercial road
described by Herodotus. It led from Sardis to Susa in ninety days journey,
and was furnished, at intervals of about fifteen miles, with stations and
public hostelries, probably resembling the modern caravanserais of Persia.

Merchandise and travellers descended the rivers upon rafts of skins, as
well as in boats built of reeds coated with bitumen, or of more solid
materials. The land trade was no doubt principally carried on, as at the
present day, by caravans of merchants, who loaded their goods on the backs
of camels, horses, and asses.

It is difficult to determine to how far the Babylonians may have navigated
in vessels the Indian Ocean. Of the various articles of merchandise stored
in Babylon, the produce of the islands and shores of the Persian Gulf,
and even of India, formed no inconsiderable part. Pearls, from the
fisheries of Bahrein, which still supply Arabia, Persia, and Turkey, and
perhaps even from Ceylon; cotton, spices, frankincense, precious stones,
ivory, ebony, silks, and dyes, were amongst the objects of trade brought
to her markets. They could only have been obtained from the southern
coasts of Arabia, and directly or indirectly from the Indian peninsula. We
learn from the Kouyunjik inscriptions that the people inhabiting the
country at the mouths of the united waters of the Tigris and Euphrates
possessed vessels in which, when defeated by the Assyrians, they took
refuge on the sea. The prophet Isaiah also alludes to the ships of the
Chaldæans.[224] Timber for shipbuilding could have been floated with ease
from the mountains of Armenia to the very quays of Babylon, or to her
ports at the head of the Persian Gulf.

A race of dogs, much prized by the Babylonians, was brought from India. A
satrap of Babylon is declared to have devoted the revenues of four cities,
to the support of a number of these animals. On a small terracotta tablet
in the British Museum, from Col. Rawlinson's collection, obtained, I
believe, at Baghdad, but probably found in some ancient ruin in the
neighbourhood, is the figure of a man leading a large and powerful dog,
which has been identified with a species still existing in Thibet.

Tin, cedar-wood, and various articles, were brought from Phoenicia and
other parts of Syria, which were in return supplied with the produce of
India and the Persian Gulf, through Babylon.[225]

Whilst the Babylonians thus imported the produce of the East and West,
they also supplied foreign countries with many valuable articles of
trade. Corn, which according to tradition first grew wild in Mesopotamia,
and was there first eaten by man, was cultivated to a great extent, and
was sent to distant provinces. The Babylonian carpets, silks, and woollen
fabrics, woven or embroidered with figures of mythic animals and with
exquisite designs, were not less famous for the beauty of their texture
and workmanship, than for the richness and variety of their colors. The
much-prized Sindones, or flowing garments, were the work of the looms of
Babylon even long after she had ceased to be a city.[226]

The engraved gems and cylinders discovered in the ruins bear ample witness
to the skill of the Babylonian lapidaries. Many of these relics exist in
European collections, and, during my residence at Hillah, I was able to
obtain several interesting specimens from the Arabs, who usually pick them
up on the mounds after rain. The most remarkable of them is a cylinder of
spotted sienite, upon which are incised seven figures, and a few
Babylonian characters. The letters of the inscription are rudely formed,
and have not yet been deciphered.

Another interesting gem obtained by me at Babylon is an agate cone, upon
the base of which is engraved a winged priest or deity, standing in an
attitude of prayer before a cock on an altar. Above this group is the
crescent moon. The Hebrew commentators conjecture that Nergal, the idol of
the men of Cuth, had the form of a cock.[227]

The vast trade, that rendered Babylon the gathering-place of men from all
parts of the known world, and supplied her with luxuries from the remotest
climes, had at the same time the effect of corrupting the manners of her
people, and producing that general profligacy and those effeminate customs
which mainly contributed to her fall. The description given by Herodotus
of the state of the population of the city when under the dominion of the
Persian kings, is fully sufficient to explain the cause of her speedy
decay and ultimate ruin. The account of the Greek historian fully tallies
with the denunciations of the Hebrew prophets against the sin and
wickedness of Babylon. Her inhabitants had gradually lost their warlike
character. When the Persians broke into their city they were revelling in
debauchery and lust; and when the Macedonian conqueror appeared at their
gates, they received with indifference the yoke of a new master.

It is not difficult to account for the rapid decay of the country around
Babylon. As the inhabitants deserted the city, the canals were neglected.
When once those great sources of fertility were choked up, the plains
became a wilderness. Upon the waters conveyed by their channels to the
innermost parts of Mesopotamia depended not only the harvests, the
gardens, and the palm groves, but the very existence of the numerous
towns and villages far removed from the river banks. They soon turned to
mere heaps of earth and rubbish. Vegetation ceased, and the plains,
parched by the burning heat of the sun, were ere long once again a vast
arid waste.

Such has been the history of Babylon. Her career was equally short and
splendid; and although she has thus perished from the face of the earth,
her ruins are still classic, indeed sacred, ground. The traveller visits,
with no common emotion, those shapeless heaps, the scene of so many great
and solemn events. In this plain, according to tradition, the primitive
families of our race first found a resting-place. Here Nebuchadnezzar
boasted of the glories of his city, and was punished for his pride. To
these deserted halls were brought the captives of Judæa. In them Daniel,
undazzled by the glories around him, remained steadfast to his faith, rose
to be a governor amongst his rulers, and prophesied the downfall of the
kingdom. There was held Belshazzar's feast, and was seen the writing upon
the wall. Between those crumbling mounds Cyrus entered the neglected
gates. Those massive ruins cover the spot where Alexander died.

Soon after my arrival at Hillah, the caravan of the Hadj, or annual
pilgrimage to Mecca, passed through the town on its way to Baghdad. The
holy places had this year been visited by the cholera, and of the many who
had crossed the Desert few had survived. In the crowd that had assembled
on the high road were mingled scenes of grief and joy. The mournful wail
of the women was heard above the merry laugh of those who had again found
their friends. The wild Bedouins of Nejd, who had guided and protected the
pilgrims during their arduous journey, passed through the throng on their
weary dromedaries.

After a lapse of some years the annual hadj from the south of Turkey and
Persia had been able to follow the direct road to Mecca across the desert
of Nejd and the interior of Arabia. Since, Ibn Reshid, a chief of the
Gebel Shammar, has by his courage and abilities acquired the whole of that
district; and has rendered himself sufficiently powerful to hold in check
the various tribes which surround it. Pilgrims under his protection could,
therefore, again venture to take the shortest road to Mecca. He undertook
to furnish them with camels, and to answer for their safety from Hillah to
the holy cities and back.

The chief punctually fulfilled his engagement, and the caravan I have
described was the first that had crossed the Desert for many years without
accident or molestation. It was under the charge of Abd-ur-Rahman, a
relation of Ibn Reshid. I frequently saw this Sheikh during his short
residence at Hillah, and he urged me to return with him to the Gebel
Shammar. Zaid and several other Agayls offered to accompany me; and it was
with great regret that I felt unable, on various accounts, to undertake a
journey into a country so little known, and so interesting, as central
Arabia. A better opportunity could scarcely have occurred for entering
Nedjd.

Sheikh Abd-ur-Rahman described the Gebel Shammar as abounding in fertile
valleys, where the Arabs had villages and cultivated lands. The
inhabitants are of the same great tribe of Shammar as those who wander
over the plains of Mesopotamia. Suttum told me that his family still
possessed their gardens in the hills; and although, from long absence,
their produce had been gathered by strangers, yet that he could by law at
any time return and claim them.

Ibn Reshid was described to me as a powerful, and for an Arab, an
enlightened chief, who had restored security to the country, and who
desired to encourage trade and the passage of caravans through his
territories. His mares and horses, collected from the tribes of central
Arabia, were declared to excel all those of the Desert in beauty and in
blood. Hawking and hunting are his favorite amusements, and game abounds
in the hills and plains. Amongst the wild animals are lions, leopards,
deer, and a kind of ox or large antelope, I could not learn exactly which,
called Wothaiyah, said to have long spiral horns, and to be exceedingly
fierce and dangerous.

I was assured that in the Gebel Shammar there are ruins of large cities,
attributed by the Arabs to the Jews. Inscriptions in an unknown character
are also said to exist on slabs of stone and on rocks. They may be that
class called Himyari, found in other parts of the Arabian peninsula.

About two hours and a half, or eight miles to the north-east of Hillah, a
mound, scarcely inferior in size to those of Babylon, rises in the plain.
It is called El Hymer, meaning, according to the Arabs, the red, from its
color. The ruin has assumed a pyramidal form, but it is evidently the
remains of a solid square structure, consisting, like the Birs Nimroud, of
a series of terraces or platforms. It may be conjectured, therefore, that
it was a sacred edifice built upon the same general plan as all the
temples of Babylonia and Assyria. The basement or substructure appears to
have been of sun-dried brick; the upper part, and probably the casing of
the lower, of bricks burnt in the kiln. Many of the latter are inscribed
with the name and titles of Nebuchadnezzar. Although the masonry is solid
and firmly bound together, it is not united by a white cement like that of
the Mujelibé. The same tenacious mud that was used for making the bricks
has been daubed, as far as I could ascertain, between each layer. The ruin
is traversed like the Birs by square holes to admit air.

Around the centre structure are scattered smaller mounds and heaps of
rubbish, covered with the usual fragments of pottery, glass and bricks.

Opposite to the Mujelibé (or Kasr), on the western bank of the Euphrates,
is a village called Anana, and near it a quadrangle of earthen ramparts,
like the remains of a fortified inclosure. A large mass of brick masonry
is still seen in the river bed when the stream is low. The inhabitants of
the village brought me a fragment of black stone with a rosette ornament
upon it, very Assyrian in character. With the exception of these remains,
and the Birs Nimroud, there are scarcely any ruins of ancient buildings on
the Arabian side of the Euphrates.

On the eastern bank low mounds covered with broken pottery and glass are
found in almost every direction. One resembles another, and there is
nothing either in their appearance or in their contents, as far as they
have hitherto been ascertained, deserving of particular description. They
only prove how vast and thriving the population of this part of
Mesopotamia must at one time have been, and how complete is the
destruction that has fallen upon this devoted land.



CHAPTER XXIV.

    RUINS IN SOUTHERN MESOPOTAMIA.--DEPARTURE FROM
    HILLAH.--SAND-HILLS.--VILLAGES IN THE JEZIREH.--SHEIKH
    KARBOUL.--RUINS.--FIRST VIEW OF NIFFER.--THE MARSHES.--ARAB
    BOATS.--ARRIVE AT SOUK-EL-AFAIJ.--SHEIKH AGAB.--TOWN OF THE
    AFAIJ.--DESCRIPTION OF THE RUINS OF NIFFER.--EXCAVATIONS IN THE
    MOUNDS.--DISCOVERY OF COFFINS.--OF VARIOUS RELICS.--MR. LOFTUS'
    DISCOVERIES AT WURKA.--THE ARAB TRIBES.--WILD BEASTS.--LIONS.--CUSTOMS
    OF THE AFAIJ.--LEAVE THE MARSHES.--RETURN TO BAGHDAD.--A MIRAGE.


The south of Mesopotamia abounds in extensive and important ruins, of
which little is known. The country around them is inhabited by Arabs of
the tribes of Rubbiyah and Ahl Maidan, notorious for their lawlessness,
and scarcely more intelligent or human than the buffaloes which they tend.
One or two travellers have passed these remains of ancient civilisation
when journeying through the Jezireh, or have received descriptions of them
from natives of the country. Mr. Loftus was the first to explore the most
important. Being attached, as geologist, to the mission for the settlement
of the boundaries between Persia and Turkey, he went by land from Baghdad
to Busrah to join its other members. As he was accompanied by an escort of
troops he was able to visit the principal ruins on the way without risk.
He found the tribes well-disposed towards Europeans, though very hostile
to the Turks. Taking advantage of this favorable feeling, and relying upon
the protection of the Arab Sheikhs, Mr. Loftus returned a second time
alone, and was able to excavate in some of the larger mounds. He obtained
during this expedition the highly interesting collection of antiquities
from Wurka, now in the British Museum.

All these ruins are best reached from Hillah. The Sheikhs of the Arab
tribes living near them are usually in friendly communication with the
principal people of that town. Owing, however, to the present disturbed
state of the country, I was compelled to ask for safe conduct from Agab,
the Sheikh of the Afaij.

The Afaij dwell in the midst of extensive marshes formed by the Euphrates,
about fifty miles below Hillah. On the eastern border of these swamps rise
the great ruins of Niffer, which I was first desirous of examining. After
some discussion, it was finally settled that we were to go by land,
keeping as much as possible in the centre of Mesopotamia, and thus
avoiding the neighbourhood of the Euphrates, as the Arabs were now
congregated along the banks of the river. Zaid, with an Agayl of his
acquaintance, agreed to accompany me. My own Jebours were, of course, of
the party. Having hired mules and laid in a proper stock of provisions,
tools, and packing cases to hold any antiquities that might be discovered,
we began our journey on Wednesday, the 15th of January.

The weather was bright and intensely cold. The sky was cloudless, but a
biting north wind swept across the plain. It was the middle of the
Babylonian winter, and a hard frost daily whitened the ground. We left
Hillah by the Baghdad gate. The Bairakdar was with me, with the rest of my
Mosul servants. My huntsman, old Seyyid Jasim, wrapt up in his thick Arab
cloak, bore his favorite hawk on his wrist. He was followed, as usual, by
the greyhounds. The Jebours went partly on foot, riding by turns on the
baggage horses. Mr. Hormuzd Rassam was wanting to complete our party. He
had been kept in Baghdad by severe illness almost since our arrival, and
for the first time during my wanderings in Mesopotamia he was not with me.

We followed a track leading towards the centre of the Mesopotamian Desert.
Our course was nearly due east. About six miles from the town we found
ourselves amidst moving sand-hills, extending far and wide on all sides.
The fine sand shifts with every breeze, and the wrinkled heaps are like
the rippled surface of a lake. When the furious southerly wind sweeps over
them, it raises a dense suffocating dust, blinding the wayfaring Arab, and
leaving him to perish in the trackless labyrinth.

After four hours' ride we left the sand-heaps, and again came in sight of
the black belt of palm trees. After stopping to drink water we proceeded
to a small hamlet called Allak, and took up our quarters for the night in
the museef of its Sheikh, who, notwithstanding his poverty, received us
very hospitably. He related to me how from the numerous artificial mounds
in the surrounding plains were frequently taken, after rain had washed
away the soil, earthen jars and coffins containing ornaments of gold and
silver.

As we continued our journey during the following day, still keeping in the
Desert, we passed one or two small encampments of the Zobeide tribe. The
Arabs, alarmed at the approach of so large a party, and believing us to be
horsemen on a foray, sallied forth to meet us at some distance from their
tents, flourishing their weapons and chanting their wild war-cry. The
plain, although now without any stationary population, was once thickly
inhabited. The lion, the hyena, the wolf, the jackal, the wild boar, the
fox, and the porcupine now alone break the solitude of a wilderness once
the seat of the most luxurious and civilised nation of the East.

It would be needless to describe the few deserted villages we passed
during our day's journey; their mud walls, once a protection against the
wandering Arab, are unable to resist the encroaching sand, which has
already overwhelmed the empty dwellings. In this region the habitations of
men are turned almost in a day to mere heaps of earth. The district is
called Shomali.

After a ride of six hours we reached an ancient mound of considerable
size, called Haroun. On its summit was a ruined Imaum-zadeh (Mussulman
oratory). It was a sacred place to the Arab, and on this account had been
used as a burying-place. The grave of the wandering Arab is rarely far
beneath the surface of the soil, and the wild beasts of the Desert soon
scrape away the scanty earth. Human skulls and remains, scarcely yet
bleached by the sun, were scattered over the ruins, mingled with bricks,
pottery, broken glass, and other relics of ancient population.

We had scarcely passed Haroun when a party of Arabs on horseback and on
foot suddenly came forth from behind the lofty banks of a dry canal. They
had seen our caravan from afar, and had waylaid us. After they had
followed us for some distance they turned back to their tribe, deeming it
prudent not to venture an attack, as we were fully prepared for them.

Shortly after their departure, a gazelle rose from a thicket, and bounded
across the plain. Seyyid Jasim unloosed his hawk, and I pursued with the
dogs. The sight of horsemen galloping to and fro alarmed an Arab
settlement gathered round a small mud fort belonging to a chief called
Karboul. The men armed themselves and came out against us. Our Afaij
guides, however, soon made themselves known to them, and they then
escorted our caravan to their tents, dancing a wild dance, shouting their
war-cries, singing war-songs, and firing their matchlocks. Most of them
had no other clothing than the shirt taken off their shoulders and tied
round their loins. Their countenances were singularly ferocious, their
bright eyes and white teeth making them even more hideous. Long black
matted hair was scattered over their heads in horrid confusion, and their
bodies were tanned by the burning sun to the color and substance of old
leather.

Their Sheikh, Karboul, was scarcely less savage in his appearance, though
somewhat better clothed. However ill-disposed he might have been towards
Europeans, or travellers in general, he acknowledged the protection that
had been extended to us by the Afaij chief, and led me with words of
welcome to his spacious tent. His followers, excited by the late alarm,
and now full of warlike enthusiasm, were not, however, to be dismissed
until they had satisfied themselves by performing various warlike dances.
They did so in circles before the tent, raising a few tattered flags, and
deafening me by their shouts and barbarous songs.

These wild beings, little better than mere beasts, lived in hovels made of
mats and brushwood. They fed large herds of buffaloes; but the greater
part of their sheep and cattle had been driven away by the Bedouins. Their
tribe was the Shabaneh, a branch of the Ahl Ukra.

Next morning Karboul sent his son and a party of horsemen to escort us for
some distance on our road. We had to make a considerable circuit to the
east to encompass the marsh, which has now spread over the lower part of
the Mesopotamian plain. We passed numerous artificial mounds, covered with
fragments of bricks, pottery, glazed tiles, richly-colored glass and other
relics that mark the site of Babylonian ruins. Canals, too, no longer fed
by the Euphrates, everywhere crossed our path, and limited our view. The
parched soil outside the swamp has become fine sand, amidst which small
tufts of the hardy tamarisk form the only vegetation.

After two hours' ride, we emerged from the labyrinth of dry canals, and
ascending a heap of rubbish covering some ancient ruin, we beheld, looming
on the horizon like a distant mountain, the principal object of my
journey--the mounds of Niffer. They were still nearly ten miles from us.
Magnified as they were by the mirage they appeared far to exceed in size
and height any artificial elevation that I had hitherto seen.

To the east of us rose another great ruin, called Zibbliyah, a lofty,
square mass, apparently of sundried brick. It resembled in form, and was
scarcely less in size than the well-known remains of Akkerkuf, near
Baghdad.

Between us and Niffer were still many mounds and ancient canals. The
largest of the former, covered with bricks and pottery, was called by our
Arab guides El Hamra, "the red." The principal canal, whose waters had
once been confined between two enormous embankments, ran in a direct line
towards the ruins. It is now dry, but appears to have once supplied the
city.

After a journey of five hours we reached the ruins of Niffer. They differ
in general form from the great mounds of Assyria, with which my
descriptions may have familiarised the reader. Although at their
north-east corner is a cone similar to those of Nimroud and
Kalah-Sherghat, yet, in their broken outline and in their division into
several distinct parts, they have more the appearance of the remains of
different buildings than that of one regular platform surrounded by walls.
In this respect they are not unlike the Mujelibé (Kasr) and the Amran of
Babylon. The mounds cover altogether a very considerable area of ground,
and stand on the edge of the marsh, which is gradually encroaching upon
them, and which occasionally during high floods of the Euphrates
completely surrounds them. They are strewed with the usual fragments of
brick, glazed and unglazed pottery, and glass. A loose nitrous soil, into
which the feet sink above the ankles, forms a coating about a yard deep
over a harder and more compact soil. In the ravines large earthen jars and
portions of brick masonry are occasionally uncovered by the rains.
Commencing my search after antiquities as soon as we had reached the
summit of the principal mound, it was not long before I discovered, in one
of these newly-formed ruts, a perfect vase, about five feet high,
containing human remains. Other objects of the same kind were found by the
Arabs who were with me. But I left more careful researches to the time
when I could commence excavations below the surface. Leaving, therefore,
the ruins, I hastened to the place where my tents were pitched about two
miles beyond the ruins on the margin of the marsh. In front of the
encampment was a small lake or pond, from which the reeds seemed to have
been carefully cleared.

We had sent one of our Afaij guides to inform Sheikh Agab of our approach.
I had not been long seated in my tent when suddenly a number of black
boats, each bearing a party of Arabs, darted from the reeds and approached
the shore. They were of various sizes. In the bottom of some, eight or ten
persons sat crouched on their hams; in others, only one or two. Men
standing at the head and stern with long bamboo poles of great lightness
guided and impelled them. The largest were built of teakwood, but the
others consisted simply of a very narrow frame-work of rushes covered with
bitumen, resembling probably "the vessels of bulrushes" mentioned by
Isaiah.[228] They skimmed over the surface of the water with great
rapidity.

The tiradas, for so these boats are called by the Arabs, drew up along the
bank in the open basin before our tents. The largest evidently contained
three chiefs, who landed and advanced towards me. They were the sons of
the Sheikh of the Afaij. Their father had sent them to welcome me to his
territories. They brought with them provisions for my caravan, as their
village, they said, was still far distant, and it would be impossible to
transport our baggage and lead our horses thither before nightfall. The
young men were handsome, well-dressed and well-armed, and very courteous.
The complexion of these marsh Arabs, from constant exposure to the intense
heat of the sun, is almost black, with the usual contrast of eyes of
extraordinary brilliancy, and teeth of the whiteness of pearls. They wear
their hair in long, well-greased plaits.

The young Sheikhs had been ordered by their father to remain with me
during the night, and to place a proper guard round the tents, as the
outskirts of the marsh were infested, we were assured, by roving Bedouins
and midnight thieves. I gained, as other travellers had done before me,
some credit for wisdom and superhuman knowledge by predicting, through the
aid of an almanack, a partial eclipse of the moon. It duly took place to
the great dismay of my guests, who well nigh knocked out the bottoms of
all my kitchen utensils in their endeavor to frighten away the Jins who
had thus laid hold of the planet.[229]

Soon after sunrise the Sheikh's own tirada issued from the reeds into the
open space. It had been spread with carpets and silken cushions for my
reception. The baggage was placed in other boats, but the unfortunate
horses, under the guidance of a party of naked Arabs, had to swim the
stream, and to struggle through the swamp as they best could. The armed
men entered their various vessels, and we all left the shore together.

The tirada in which I sat was skilfully managed by two Arabs with long
bamboo poles. It skimmed rapidly over the small lake, and then turned into
a broad street cut through green reeds rising fourteen or fifteen feet on
both sides of us. The current, where the vegetation had thus been cleared
away, ran at the rate of about two miles an hour, and, as we were going
towards the Euphrates, was against us. We passed the entrances to many
lanes branching off to the right and to the left. From them came black
boats filled with Arab men and women carrying the produce of their buffalo
herds to the Souk or market.

Herds of buffaloes here and there struggled and splashed amongst the
rushes, their unwieldy bodies completely concealed under water, and their
hideous heads just visible upon the surface. Occasionally a small plot of
ground, scarcely an inch above the level of the marsh, and itself half a
swamp, was covered with huts built of reeds, canes, and bright yellow
mats. These were the dwellings of the Afaij, and, as we passed by, troops
of half-naked men, women, and children issued from them, and stood on the
bank to gaze at the strangers.

The lanes now became more crowded with tiradas. The boatmen, however,
darted by the heavier vessels, turned the sharp corners, and managed their
frail barks with great skill and ease. The openings in the reeds began to
be more numerous, and it required a perfect knowledge of the various
windings and streets to follow the right way. This singular scene recalled
vividly to my mind the sculptures of Kouyunjik representing the Assyrian
wars in marshes of the same nature, and probably formed by the waters of
the same river. The streets through the reeds, and the tiradas or boats of
rushes smeared with bitumen, are faithfully delineated in the bas-reliefs,
showing how little the barbarous inhabitants of these great swamps have
changed after the lapse of nearly three thousand years. If we may judge,
however, from the spoil of furniture and of vessels of metal, probably of
gold and silver, carried away from them by the conquerors, the ancient
tribes appear to have been more wealthy and more ingenious than their
descendants.

Soon after entering a narrow canal, we stopped near some larger and better
built huts than any we had yet seen. Before them, at the water's edge, and
waiting to receive us, were drawn up a number of armed men, at the head of
whom stood a tall, handsome Arab. He was attired in a long robe of scarlet
silk of Damascus, over which he wore one of those cloaks richly
embroidered in gold thread down the back and one arm, peculiar to Baghdad.
This was Agab, Sheikh of the Afaij. As I stepped out of the tirada he
threw his arms round my neck, and gave me the usual embrace of welcome.

The chief led us at once to the museef. The guesthouse was built of the
same materials as the smaller cabins, but they were far more tastefully
put together. It resembled in shape the boiler of some enormous
steam-engine. Reeds bound together, were bent into arches at regular
intervals, and formed a series of ribs, upon which were stretched the
choicest mats. About fifty persons could conveniently sit in this hut. In
the centre was the usual array of bright pots and tiny cups ranged in
circular trays, round a smouldering fire. A hideous black slave, crouching
upon his haunches, was roasting coffee and pounding the fragrant beans in
an iron mortar. Down both sides were spread carpets and mats; soft
cushions of figured silk were specially prepared for the European guest.

The museef stood at a short distance from the other huts, and in a corner
formed by two water-streets branching off at right angles. In front of it
was the harem of the Sheikh. It consisted of several cabins in an
enclosure formed entirely by walls of reeds and mats. Beyond was a great
collection of huts, and in the middle of them the bazars, consisting of
double rows of shops, all of the same frail materials. So that this Arab
town was built entirely of mats and reeds.

Agab received me in the most friendly manner, and entered at once into my
plans for excavating, describing the ruins existing in the neighbourhood.
He ordered his people to raise a hut for my servants and the Jebour
workmen, and to pitch my tents in the open space opposite the museef.
Building is not a lengthy or difficult process where the materials are so
simple. Within an hour the mats had been dragged from the harem, the
bundles of reeds turned into graceful arches, and the cabin duly covered
in. As a dwelling-place, however, the small island on which the Sheikh of
the Afaij had thought fit to erect his moveable capital was not perhaps
the most desirable in the world. Had the Euphrates risen by any sudden
flood we should have been completely under water. My proposition to
encamp on the mounds of Niffer was negatived by Agab, on account of the
dangers from the Bedouins, evil spirits, beasts of prey, and the like. So
I made up my mind to remain at the Souk.

The Sheikh believing I was in search of gold, was always my attendant with
his followers. He knew so many authentic instances of enormous wealth
having been dug up at Niffer, that it was useless to argue with him upon
the subject. He related to me in the usual expressive manner of the Arabs,
the following story:--In the time of Hatab, the uncle of Wadi, Sheikh of
the Zobeide, a cameleer of that tribe chanced to be at Damascus with his
camels. As he was walking one day in the bazar, an aged man accosted him.
"O Sheikh of the Caravan," said he, "I know that thou art from the
southern Jezireh, and from the land of the Zobeide. God be praised for
sending thee to me! Now there is in that country a great mound, that marks
the site of an ancient city of the Unbelievers, called Niffer. Go, dig in
the dry bed of the Shat-el-Neel, in the midst of the ruins, and thou wilt
find a stone white as milk; bring it to me, and thou shalt have for a
reward double the usual hire for thy camels both there and back." The
cameleer was at a loss to guess how the old man knew of the stone, but he
did as he had been asked, and in the place described to him he found the
white stone, which was just a camel's burden. He took it to Damascus, and
gave it to the Sheikh, who first paid him his just reward, and then broke
the stone into pieces before him. It was, of course, full of gold, and the
philosopher had learned where it was to be found in the books of the
Infidels.

Being thus compelled to remain at the Souk, I fitted up my tent and cabins
as well as I was able. The weather was intensely cold, and it was the
middle of the rainy season. By the help of mats we were able to keep out
the water to a certain extent. The excavations were carried on until the
3rd of February, and I will describe at once their general results.

Niffer, as I have already observed, consists rather of a collection of
mounds of unequal height, and irregular form, than of one compact
platform, like the principal ruins of Assyria. They may be divided into
four distinct groups, each surrounded, and separated from the others, by
deep ravines, which have the appearance of ancient streets. The high cone
at the north-east corner is probably the remains of a square tower
constructed entirely of large sundried bricks. Beneath the cone masonry of
sundried and kiln-burnt bricks protrudes from the sides of the ravines.
The bricks are generally smaller in dimensions than those from Babylon,
and long and narrow in shape. Many of them are stamped with inscriptions
in the Babylonian character, containing the name of a king and of the
city.

My workmen were divided into gangs, or karkhanehs, as they are called by
the Arabs, and were placed in different parts of the ruins. On the first
day some cells or recesses containing human remains were discovered.

During the two subsequent days we found many vases and jars of
earthenware, some glazed and others plain. With these relics was a bowl,
unfortunately much broken, covered with ancient Hebrew characters, similar
to those discovered at Babylon. Fragments of similar vessels were
afterwards dug out of the ruins.

On the mound of Niffer, as on other ruins of the same period in this part
of Mesopotamia, are found numerous fragments of highly-glazed pottery, of
a rich blue color, but very coarse and fragile in texture. I was at a loss
to conjecture the nature of the objects of which they had originally
formed part, until, on the fourth day of the excavations, a party of
workmen uncovered a coffin or sarcophagus, of precisely the same material.
Within it were human remains, which crumbled to dust almost as soon as
exposed to the air. The earthenware was so ill-burnt, and had suffered so
much from age, that I was unable to remove this coffin entire. It fell to
pieces as soon as I endeavored to detach it from the soil by which it was
surrounded. But beneath it was found a second, and subsequently scarcely a
day elapsed without the discovery of four or five similar coffins. The
largest were about six feet long; some, containing the remains of
children, scarcely exceeded three. They were all of nearly the same shape;
an oval, about two feet wide, for the head and shoulders of the corpse,
joined to a narrow box for the legs and feet. The oval was closed by a
detached flat lid; the rest of the coffin was covered, and there was a
small hole at the very end. The body must, consequently, have been forced
into the sarcophagus from the top or open part.

All these coffins were covered with bright greenish, blue glaze-colored
with copper, like that on pottery and bricks from the ruins of Babylon.
Some were ornamented with scroll work and other designs; others, with rude
figures of men and animals in relief. They were all of the same fragile
material. The clay, moreover, having been only partially burnt, had been
exposed to the action of the nitre so abundant in the soil. Without
considerable care it was impossible to remove any entire, although the
surrounding earth was easily detached from them.

Human remains, more or less perfect, were found in all these sarcophagi.
Sometimes, as the lid was carefully removed, I could almost distinguish
the body, wrapped in its grave clothes, and still lying in its narrow
resting-place. But no sooner did the outer air reach the empty crust of
humanity than it fell away into dust, leaving only the skull and great
bones of the arms and legs to show what these now empty cases had once
contained. One or two small cups or vases in the same glazed pottery, and
a few beads and engraved gems, were occasionally gathered from the
crumbling remains; but no ornaments of gold or silver were discovered at
Niffer, though it appears that the Arabs frequently find them in similar
coffins from other ruins in southern Mesopotamia. It is remarkable,
however, that there were no ornaments whatever in metal in nearly a
hundred coffins which I opened at Niffer.

It is impossible to estimate the number of these earthen coffins; the
upper part of the mound in some places appeared to consist almost entirely
of them. They generally rested one upon the other, but in some cases were
separated by a layer of flat bricks or tiles. As fast as the fragments of
one were removed a second appeared beneath it; and notwithstanding the
number thus taken away, I did not penetrate many feet beneath the surface.
In the lower part of Mesopotamia are many ruins in which similar remains
are equally abundant. Fragments of glazed pottery, broken from them, are
seen on every ancient site to the south of Babylon. According to Mr.
Loftus, the vast mound of Wurka is built almost entirely of such coffins,
piled one above the other, and consequently many thousands, or rather
hundreds of thousands must exist in it alone.

It is difficult to arrive at a very satisfactory conclusion as to the
precise date of these remains. My own impression is that they are
comparatively modern; that is, that they are to be attributed to a period
subsequent to the fall of the Babylonian empire, extending from the
second or first century before the Christian era to even the time of the
Arab invasion. Colonel Rawlinson entertains, I believe, a different
opinion, and would attribute them to a much earlier period. If the great
mounds of Niffer be the remains of a Babylonian city, as they probably
are, it is evident that that city must have been completely destroyed, and
its ruins covered with earth long before a people, afterwards inhabiting
the country, could have buried their dead above them.

In one part of the mound, in a kind of recess or small chamber of brick
masonry, was discovered a heap of pottery of a yellow color, very thin and
fragile, much resembling that still made at Baghdad to hold water in hot
weather. Many vases and cups were still entire. With them were fragments
of glass bottles, jars, and other vessels; and several highly glazed or
enamelled dishes. These relics appeared to be of the same period as the
sarcophagi. A large number of coarse jars or urns, some nearly six feet
high, were dug out of various parts of the mound. They contained bones of
men and animals, and their mouths had been carefully closed by a tile or
brick plastered with bitumen.

Although many deep trenches were opened in the ruins, and in the conical
mound at the north-east corner, no other remains or relics were
discovered. With the exception of a few massive foundations, and the
bricks bearing a cuneiform superscription, I much doubt whether anything
found at Niffer was of the true Babylonian period. The Arabs have a story
that a great black stone exists somewhere in the ruins. I had once
conjectured that it might be the identical obelisk said to have been
brought by Semiramis from Armenia to Babylon.[230] After I had searched
in vain for it, I was assured that it was near some mounds several miles
to the east of Niffer. I sent a party of workmen to the spot, but with no
better success. On the whole, I am much inclined to question whether
extensive excavations carried on at Niffer would produce any very
important or interesting results.

In the Afaij bazar I was able to purchase a few relics from the Arabs;
they consisted chiefly of cylinders and engraved gems. But even such
remains were far more scarce than I had anticipated. A ram in baked clay,
with three holes for holding colors or ointments, apparently Babylonian,
and a pebble of white marble, on which are rudely engraved two goats
before the sacred tree, and a few cuneiform characters, were brought to me
from some neighboring ruin. Such were all the antiquities I obtained
during my visit to Niffer. With the pottery collected at the mound they
are now in the British Museum.

One of my principal objects in journeying into these wild tracts of
southern Mesopotamia, was to visit and explore the great mound of Wurka.
These remains had already been partly examined, as I have stated, by Mr.
Loftus. A highly interesting collection of relics, comprising inscribed
clay tablets, glazed pottery, ornaments in metal, and engraved gems, had
been obtained by that gentleman during his short residence among the
ruins. They are now in the British Museum. Amongst them, and deserving
particular notice, are the fragments of a shell, on which are engraved the
heads of two horses, apparently part of a subject representing a warrior
in his chariot. The outline upon them is not without spirit, but they are
principally remarkable for being almost identical with a similar engraved
shell found in an Etruscan tomb, and now in the British Museum. This is
not the only instance, as it has been seen, of relics from Assyria and
Etruria being of the same character,--showing a close connection between
the two countries either direct, or by mutual intercourse with some
intermediate nation.

Unfortunately the state of the country to the south of the marshes was
such that I was unable even to make an attempt to reach the remarkable
ruins of Wurka. The great Arab tribe of Montefik, dwelling on the banks of
the lower Euphrates, and exercising a certain control over all the smaller
tribes inhabiting the southern part of Mesopotamia, was split into
opposite factions on account of the rival pretensions of two chiefs. Much
blood had already been spilt, and the war was now extending to the Afaij.
The surrounding tribes taking advantage of the general confusion and of
the unsuccessful attempt of the Pasha to subdue the Maidan Arabs, had
openly rebelled against the government, and were laying waste the province
and plundering each other. It was, indeed, scarcely possible even to leave
the Afaij territory, and Agab, who, like all other Arab Sheikhs, was not
without his rival, began to fear an outbreak amongst his own people. He
had already been summoned to take part in the war between the two Montefik
chiefs, and he was anxious that I should be on safe ground before his
troubles commenced. He, therefore, seriously urged me to return to
Baghdad.

The Sheikh, with other chiefs of his tribe, was accustomed to pass the
evening in my tent. He would on those occasions describe the unsettled and
dangerous state of the country, and lament the insecurity caused by the
misrule of the Turkish authorities.

At the same time he would entertain me with accounts of the districts to
the south of the Afaij, their productions, and the manners of the curious
populations inhabiting those vast marshes.

The greater part of the country below ancient Babylon has now been for
centuries one great swamp. It is, indeed, what the prophet foretold it
should be, "a desert of the sea."[231] The embankments of the rivers,
utterly neglected, have broken away, and the waters have spread over the
face of the land. The best known of these marshes are the Lemlud, formed
by the Euphrates above its confluence with the Tigris at Korna. But they
now only form a part of those which are yearly increasing, and threaten to
cover the whole of southern Mesopotamia.

The Arab tribes inhabiting them are, as I have already observed, amongst
the most wild and ignorant that can be found in this part of Asia. The
relations between them and the Porte have generally consisted of little
more than a trial of treachery and deceit; and, whilst the Turk looks upon
these Arabs as mere wild beasts, they in return have lost all confidence
in the faith and honor of the Ottoman government. But it is not so with
respect to the English, who have always treated them honorably and kindly,
and whom consequently they have allowed to pass to and fro without harm.
This respect for the British name is mainly to be attributed to the
admirable conduct and management of Captain Jones during the time he has
commanded the steamer on the Tigris.

These Arabs are of the Sheeah sect of Mussulmans, and belong to the great
tribes of Rubbiyah and Ahl Maidan. Each tribe has innumerable
subdivisions, with distinct names and separate and independent Sheikhs.
They live in mat huts and in small black tents. Their chief wealth
consists in vast herds of buffaloes, and they are, on the whole,
notwithstanding the wretched appearance of their dwellings and the scanty
clothing of both men and women, richer than most Arab tribes. This is to
be attributed to their having hitherto been able, in their almost
inaccessible retreats, to defy the Turkish authorities.

Their buffaloes supply them with large quantities of butter and milk; the
former is exported, and is a considerable article of trade. These hideous
animals appear to thrive in the marshy lands, and some districts actually
swarm with them. They are generally inoffensive and easily managed.

These tribes have also flocks of sheep and goats, but the animals are
small, and their wool thin, and generally too coarse to form an article of
commerce. They raise very little corn and barley; rice, of an inferior
quality, forms their principal food.

The marshes and the jungles near the rivers are the retreats of many kinds
of wild animals. Lions abound. I have seen them frequently, and during the
excavations at Niffer we found fresh traces of their footsteps almost
daily amongst the ruins. The Maidan Arabs boast of capturing them in the
following manner, and trustworthy persons have assured me that they have
seen the feat performed. A man, having bound his right arm with strips of
tamarisk, and holding in his hand a strong piece of the same wood, about a
foot or more in length, hardened in the fire and sharpened at both ends,
will advance boldly into the animal's lair. When the lion springs upon
him, he forces the wood into the animal's extended jaws, which will then
be held open whilst he can dispatch the astonished beast at his leisure
with the pistol that he holds in his left hand.

In the jungles are also found leopards, lynxes, wild cats, wolves, hyenas,
jackals, deer, porcupines, boars in vast numbers, and other animals. Wild
fowl, cranes, and bustards abound, and that beautiful game-bird the
francolin, or black partridge, swarms in the low brushwood. The Arabs
shoot them with ball. The marshes are full of fish, which attain a
considerable size. They are chiefly, I believe, a kind of barbel. Their
flesh is coarse and full of bones, but they afford the Arabs a constant
supply of food. They are generally taken by the spear.

Although the inhabitants of the marshes recognise some of the laws of the
Bedouins, they are wanting in many of the virtues of the Arabs of the
Desert. They have, however, several customs relating to the duties of
hospitality, which are rigidly adhered to. To say of a Maidan "that he has
sold bread," is to offer him the greatest of insults. To part with a loaf
for money is accounted an act bringing disgrace not only upon the
perpetrator, but upon his whole family. I found this peculiar custom
exceedingly inconvenient during my residence amongst the Afaij. Sheikh
Agab insisted upon giving daily to my large party their supplies of bread;
and it was impossible to obtain it in any other manner. Even its sale in
the public market was forbidden. I was, at length, compelled to send to a
considerable distance for flour, and then to employ my own workmen in
baking it. The same scruples do not exist with regard to other articles of
food. They are sold in the bazar, as in all Eastern towns.

In the souk or bazar, of the Afaij tribe, were exposed for sale a few
common Manchester prints--those world-wide evidences of the extent of
British trade--English stuffs (printed and dyed at Baghdad called
tangebs), keffiehs, Damascus silks, striped abas, dates, rice, coffee,
spices, powder and arms, the usual stores of an Eastern market. A few
Christian jewellers fashion gold and silver ornaments for the women, and
an occasional pedlar from Hillah or Baghdad excites the admiration of the
Arabs by the display of a stock of coarse knives, and common European
hardware.

The dampness of the soil upon which my tent was pitched, and the
unwholesome air of the surrounding marshes, brought on a severe attack of
pleurisy and fever. I was soon unable to move from my bed, and was reduced
at length to a state of extreme weakness. Fortunately it occurred to me to
use a blistering fluid given to me for an injured horse, or I should
probably not again have left the Afaij swamps. Notwithstanding the
severity of the remedy it gave me immediate relief, and when Hormuzd
joined me on the 28th of January, I resolved to make an attempt, without
further delay, to reach Baghdad, where I could obtain medical aid. To add
to our misfortunes, the rain fell in unceasing torrents for four days, and
of course soon made its way through our tents. The waters of the marsh
began to rise perceptibly, and the Afaij were preparing to abandon their
mat huts, and to seek, in their light tiradas, a safer retreat.

Some days elapsed, however, before I could rise from my carpet. The state
of affairs was daily getting worse. Abde Pasha had been suddenly deprived
of his government by the Porte on account of the failure of his expedition
against the Kazail Arabs, and his fall had increased the general anarchy.
It was only by joining a large party of horsemen on their way to the seat
of war in the south that Hormuzd had been able to reach Niffer. I found
that it was quite impossible to penetrate further into Mesopotamia, and
that by remaining much longer amongst the Afaij we ran the risk of being
cut off from Baghdad altogether. I determined, therefore, to strike once
more into the Desert, where we were less likely to meet with hostile Arabs
than in the beaten tracks, and to make a forced march to some village in
the neighbourhood of Hillah.

Fortunately I had my own riding horse with me, and his easy paces enabled
me to undertake the journey although in a state of complete exhaustion. On
the 2d of February, I took leave of Agab, and pitched my tents for the
night beneath the mounds of Niffer. Before dawn on the following morning
we were urging our horses over the desert plains of the centre of
Mesopotamia. Two armed adherents of the Sheikh were with us, rather to act
as guides than to protect us from enemies. We travelled without any cause
for alarm as far as the great ruin of Zibbliyah. A large body of horsemen
then suddenly appeared in the distance. We ascended the mound, and
prepared to defend ourselves from this elevated position. But either the
Arabs did not perceive us, or were bent upon some warlike expedition which
did not admit of delay, for they passed onwards, and left us to continue
our journey.

Zibbliyah closely resembles the celebrated ruin of Akkerkuf near Baghdad.
It rises from a heap of rubbish in the centre of the Desert, and consists
of a solid mass of large, crumbling, sundried bricks, between the courses
of which, at certain intervals, are layers of reeds as in many of the
Babylonian buildings.

We saw no human habitation until long after nightfall, when we reached the
small Arab hamlet of Bashayi. It was surrounded, for defence, by a low mud
wall, and some time was spent in a parley and explanation before the timid
inhabitants would open their gates to so large a company of strangers. I
could hardly remain in my saddle until their fears were set at rest, and
we were admitted within the inclosure. At length I tottered into a hovel,
thick with smoke, and sank down exhausted, after a ride of fourteen hours
and a fortnight's complete abstinence from food.

My poor Jebour workmen being on foot had been unable to keep up with the
caravan during our forced march. They did not reach the village until
daybreak, and then in a very sorry plight, for they were stript to the
skin. They had approached, in search of water, the tents of some Arabs,
and falling in with a plundering party had been robbed of every thing, and
left naked in the Desert.

Next morning I had scarcely strength to mount my horse. Hormuzd turned off
to Hillah to put a stop to the excavations at Babylon. With the caravan I
made another forced march in the beaten track to Baghdad, and reached the
khan of Iskanderiyah.

We were now within a few hours of the end of our journey, and leaving the
servants and baggage to follow at leisure, I quitted the khan with the
Bairakdar before dawn to canter into Baghdad. As the sun rose from the
sea-like plain, the great ruin of Ctesiphon appeared above the eastern
horizon.

This ruin, with a few mounds and heaps of rubbish scattered around it, is
all that now remains of the capital of the Parthian empire. On the
opposite bank of the Tigris long lines of earthen ramparts, forming a
quadrangle and inclosing the usual signs of former habitations, mark the
site of the city built by Seleucus after the last fall of Babylon.

The victorious Arabs, under Saad, the general of the Caliph Omar, pillaged
Ctesiphon after they had overthrown the Persian armies in the decisive
battle of Cadesia, in the sixteenth year of the Hegira. They found in the
palace the throne, the crown, and the standard of the Persian kings,
together with a carpet which covered the floor of the great hall, and was
of such extraordinary beauty and value that it excited the wonder of the
conquerors, and was considered amongst the most precious spoil taken from
their enemies.

Ctesiphon and Seleucia received from the Arabs the name of Al Madain, or
the twin cities. When Baghdad was founded on the Tigris, a few miles above
them, the Caliph Al Mansour wished to pull down the palace of Chosroes for
materials to build his own capital. His vizir, who had recently turned
from the Magian religion, endeavored to dissuade him. The caliph upbraided
him for being but an insincere convert to Islam, and for sympathising with
those who still professed his former faith, and whose monuments he
therefore wished to preserve. The attempt to destroy the vast edifice was
fruitless; but when it was about to be abandoned, the vizir urged his
master to persevere, exclaiming, "that if he now ceased to pull down the
palace, history would say that Al Mansour with all his power was unable to
overthrow that which another prince had built."

I did not visit Ctesiphon on this occasion; the river separated me from
the ruins, and I only mention them in this place to describe a remarkable
effect of mirage which I witnessed as I rode towards Baghdad. As the
quivering sun rose in unclouded splendor, the palace was transformed into
a vast arcade of enormous arches resting upon columns and masses of
masonry. Gradually this arcade was, as it were, compressed like the slides
of a telescope, but the building gained in height what it lost in length,
and one arch slowly appeared above the other, until the ruin assumed the
shape of a tower reaching to the sky, and pierced from the base to the
summit by innumerable arches. In a few minutes this strange edifice began
to melt away into the air, and I saw a magnified, though perfect image of
the palace; but upon it was its exact counterpart upside down. Other
equally singular changes succeeded until the sun was high in the heavens,
and the ruin at length disappeared in the distance. The small bushes of
camel-thorn scattered over the Desert were during this time turned into
forest trees, and a transparent lake imaged for a fleeting hour in its
counterfeit waters the varying forms of the unsubstantial edifice.
Although I have seen many extraordinary effects of mirage during my
wanderings in the East, I scarcely remember to have witnessed one more
striking or more beautiful than that near the ruins of Ctesiphon.

I had just strength left me to reach the gates of Baghdad. Once in the
city, under the friendly care of Dr. Hyslop, I soon recovered my health,
and was ready to start on fresh adventures.



CHAPTER XXV.

    PREPARATIONS FOR DEPARTURE.--SAHIMAN.--PLUNDER OF HIS CAMELS.--LEAVE
    BAGHDAD.--JOURNEY THROUGH MESOPOTAMIA.--EARLY ARAB REMAINS.--THE
    MEDIAN WALL.--TEKRIT.--HORSES STOLEN.--INSTANCES OF BEDOUIN
    HONESTY.--EXCAVATIONS AT KALAH SHERGHAT.--REACH MOSUL.--DISCOVERIES
    DURING ABSENCE.--NEW CHAMBERS AT KOUYUNJIK.--DESCRIPTION OF
    BAS-RELIEFS.--EXTENT OF THE RUINS EXPLORED.--BASES OF PILLARS.--SMALL
    OBJECTS.--ROMAN COINS STRUCK AT NINEVEH.--HOARD OF DENARII.--GREEK
    RELICS.--ABSENCE OF ASSYRIAN TOMBS.--FRAGMENT WITH EGYPTIAN
    CHARACTERS.--ASSYRIAN RELICS.--REMAINS BENEATH THE TOMB OF
    JONAH.--DISCOVERIES AT SHEREEF-KHAN--AT NIMROUD.--ASSYRIAN
    WEIGHTS.--ENGRAVED CYLINDERS.


There was no hope of improvement in the state of the country round
Baghdad. The Pasha had left the dam of the Hindiyah, which shortly after
again gave way, and afforded fresh retreats to the Arabs. Under these
circumstances, and for other reasons, I deemed it prudent to give up for
the time the excavations in the ruins of Babylonia. When tranquillity had
been to some extent restored in the pashalic, an expedition might be
undertaken either by myself, or by some other traveller, with better
prospects of success.

The Shammar Bedouins were now moving northwards towards their spring and
summer pastures. I had been in continual communication with the sons of
Rishwan. Suttum, whose wife's imperious temper still kept him apart from
his family, had encamped during the winter with another branch of the
tribe in the neighbourhood of Tekrit. It was suspected that he had been
privy to more than one successful attack on the Turkish post, and on
certain treasure convoys belonging to the government. The roads between
Baghdad and Mosul were completely closed by bands of Bedouins, who
plundered every caravan that came within their reach. Sahiman and Mijwell
had accompanied their father to the plains of southern Babylonia. The
latter had been severely wounded in some affray.

As Sahiman was journeying northwards with the rest of his tribe, I thought
this a good opportunity of following under his protection the direct track
to Mosul through the Desert and along the western bank of the Tigris. He
at once consented to escort me, only stipulating that I should obtain
permission from the Pasha for his camels and flocks to pass through the
suburbs of Baghdad, instead of following the longer and more difficult
road through the marshes, like those of the rest of the tribe. The request
was granted, and a guarantee was given to me by the governor and the
commander in chief of the troops, that my Bedouin friend, with his family
and property, should cross the city in safety. They had no sooner,
however, entered the gates, than they were fallen upon by the inhabitants
of the quarter, aided by a body of irregular troops and Agayls. Abandoning
nearly eight hundred camels, Sahiman and his brother Arabs fled into the
Desert.

Warmly supported by Capt. Kemball, I remonstrated indignantly against this
act of treachery. The Turkish authorities declared that it was an accident
beyond their control, and at length adopted means to recover the stolen
camels. It was, however, with some difficulty, that I was able to find
Sahiman, and then to induce him to return to Baghdad. Eventually the
greater part of his property was restored to him. It is thus that the
Bedouins are encouraged in continual enmity to the Porte, and that their
reliance on the good faith of the Turks and of the inhabitants of towns
has been completely destroyed.

This untimely occurrence, as well as repeated attacks of fever, delayed my
departure for some days, and it was not until the 27th of February that,
bidding adieu to my good friends of Baghdad, I crossed the Tigris by the
crazy bridge of boats, and took the crowded road to Kathimain. There I
passed the night beneath the hospitable roof of the Nawab of Oude. At
daybreak on the following morning, under the guidance of Sahiman, and
accompanied by Hormuzd, the Jebours, and my servants, I left the sacred
suburb, and followed a beaten track leading to the Desert. In order to
avoid the windings of the river, we struck across the barren plain. The
low houses of Kathimain soon disappeared from our sight, but for some
miles we watched the gilded domes and minarets of the tombs of the Imaums,
rising above the dark belt of palms, and glittering in the rays of the
morning sun. At last they too vanished, and I had looked for the last time
upon Baghdad. We were now in as complete a wilderness as if we had been
wandering in the midst of Arabia, and not within a few miles of a great
city. Not a living creature broke the solitude. Here and there we saw the
sites of former encampments, but the Arabs had long since left them,
either to move further into the Desert, or to seek security from an enemy
amongst the date groves on the banks of the river.

We travelled with speed over the plain. After a ride of nine hours we
found ourselves in the midst of the palm trees of a village called
Summaichah, formerly a town of some importance, and still watered by the
Dujail, a wide and deep canal of the time of the Caliphs, derived from the
Tigris. The inhabitants seeing horsemen in the distance mistook us for
enemies; but finding that we were travellers and friends they escorted us
to the house of their Sheikh, Hashem, who immediately slew a sheep, and
made other hospitable preparations for our entertainment. This chief,
although now ruling over a stationary tribe who till the soil, is of
Shammar descent, and is married to a Bedouin lady. As his wife, however,
will not condescend to live within four walls, he is obliged to compromise
matters by passing one half of the year under her tent, and the other in
his hovel amongst his own people. As we expected to fall in with her tribe
during our journey northwards, he entrusted me with a bundle of
embroidered cloaks and colored kerchiefs as presents to her and her kin.
His museef was crowded with Bedouins, for amongst the Arabs the
hospitality of Hashem had become a proverb. Summaichah, too, being on the
edge of the Desert, is convenient for hearing news from the town, and as a
place of meeting before or after plundering expeditions, although a
Turkish mudir, with a garrison of a dozen half-starved Albanians, resides
within the walls of its ruined serai.

The plain on all sides is intersected by the remains of innumerable canals
and watercourses, derived from the Tigris and the Dujail. Their lofty
banks narrow the view, and it was only as we passed over them, after
quitting Summaichah, that we saw the distant palm groves of the large
village of Belled. We left the village to the right, and passed through
the ruins of an Arab town of the time of the Caliphs. Beyond it we crossed
the Dujail, by a falling bridge of four large arches, with a small arch
between each. The beauty of the masonry, the ornamental inscriptions, and
rich tracery of this ruin, showed that it was of the best period of Arab
architecture.

To the north of the Dujail we wound through a perfect maze of ancient
canals now dry. It required the practised eye of the Bedouin to follow the
sand-covered track. About eight miles beyond the bridge the embankments
suddenly ceased. A high rampart of earth then stretched as far as the eye
could see, to the right and to the left. At certain distances were mounds,
forming square inclosures, like ruined outworks. A few hundred yards in
advance was a second rampart, much lower and narrower than the first. We
had reached what some believe to be the famous Median wall, one of the
many wonders of Babylonia, built by the Babylonians from river to river
across Mesopotamia, to guard their wealthy city and thickly peopled
provinces against invasion from the north. Captain Jones, however, who has
examined these remains with more care and for a greater distance than any
other traveller, or than I could do during a hasty journey, is of opinion
that they are not those of a wall of defence, but merely of an embankment,
stretching for miles inland, and originally raised to protect the lower
country from inundations, and to regulate its irrigation. I confess that
my own impression, even after this explanation, was in favor of the
rampart. At any rate, if this be not the Median wall, no traces of which
have been as yet found in any other part of Mesopotamia, it appeared to me
to be a regular line of fortification. It is called by the Arabs, at the
place we crossed it, Farriyah; elsewhere, the Sidr al Nimroud, or the
rampart of Nimrod.

Beyond the Median wall we entered upon undulating gravelly downs, furrowed
by deep ravines, and occasionally rising into low hills. With the rich
alluvial soil of Babylonia, we had left the boundaries of the ancient
province. The banks of the Tigris are here, in general, too high, and the
face of the country too unequal, to admit of artificial irrigation being
carried far inland by watercourses derived from the river.

The spiral tower, the dome, and the minarets of Samarrah at length
appeared above the eastern horizon, and we rode towards them. After nine
hours and a half's journey we encamped for the night on the Tigris
opposite to the town. As the sun went down we watched the women who, on
the other side of the river, came to fetch their evening supplies of
water, and gracefully bearing their pitchers on their heads returned to
the gates. But on our bank the solitude was only broken by a lonely hyæna
coming to drink at the stream, and the hungry jackals that prowled round
our tents. The ruins of an early Arab town, called Ashik, stood on a hill
in the distance, and near our camping place were the deserted walls of a
more recent settlement.

On the third day of our journey another ride of nine hours and a half,
along the banks of the Tigris, brought us to Tekrit. The Arabs were
keeping the small town of Tekrit in a state of siege, and its supplies
having been cut off, we had some difficulty in getting provisions for
ourselves and our horses. We were not sorry to leave Tekrit, whose
inhabitants did not belie a notoriously bad character. Next morning we
struck inland, in order to avoid the precipitous hills of Makhoul, at
whose very feet sweeps the Tigris. They form part of a long isolated
limestone range which commences with the Sinjar, runs through the centre
of Mesopotamia, crosses the river near Khan Karnaineh, then takes the name
of Hamrin, and approaching the mountains of Luristan continues parallel
with them to the Persian province of Fars. In the Makhoul hills are
several ruins. Some falling walls and towers hanging over the Tigris, and
once, probably, the stronghold of a freebooter, who levied blackmail on
travellers, are called by the Arabs the "Castle of the Giants," and are
said to be the dwelling-place of jins and various other supernatural
beings.

Our track led through a perfect wilderness. We found no water, nor saw any
moving thing. When, after a long ride of about eleven hours, we reached
some brackish springs, called Belaliss, the complete solitude lulled us
into a feeling of security, and we all slept without keeping the
accustomed watch. I was awoke in the middle of the night by an unusual
noise close to my tent. I immediately gave the alarm, but it was too late.
Two of our horses had been stolen, and in the darkness we could not pursue
the thieves. Sahiman broke out in reproaches of himself as the cause of
our mishap, and wandered about until dawn in search of some clue to the
authors of the theft. At length he tracked them, declared unhesitatingly
that they were of the Shammar, pointed out, from marks almost
imperceptible to any eye but to that of a Bedouin, that they were four in
number, had left their delouls at some distance from our tents, and had
already journeyed far before they had been drawn by our fires to the
encampment. These indications were enough. He swore an oath that he would
follow and bring back our stolen horses wherever they might be, for it was
a shame upon him and his tribe that, whilst under his protection in the
Desert, we had lost anything belonging to us. And he religiously kept his
oath. When we parted at the end of our journey, he began at once to trace
the animals. After six weeks' search, during which he went as far as Ana
on the Euphrates, where one had been sold to an Arab of the town, he
brought them to Mosul. I was away at the time, but he left them with Mr.
Rassam, and returned to the Desert without asking a reward for performing
an act of duty imperative on a Bedouin. Such instances of honesty and
good faith are not uncommon amongst the wandering Arabs, as I can bear
witness, from personal experience.

Mr. Rassam frequently sent Suttum across the Desert with as much as five
or six hundred pounds in money, and always with the most complete
confidence. His only reward was an occasional silk dress, or one or two
camel loads of corn for his family, the whole of the value of a few
shillings.[232] Of late years the wool of the Bedouin sheep has been in
considerable demand in the European markets, and a large trade in this
article has already been opened with the Shammar. Money is generally
advanced some months before the sheep are sheared, to enable the Arabs to
buy their winter stock of provisions. Mr. Rassam has thus paid beforehand
several thousand pounds without any written or other guarantee whatever.
The tribes leave the neighbourhood of the town, and are not again heard of
until their long strings of camels are seen bringing the promised wool. I
remember a Bedouin coming all the way alone from the neighbourhood of
Baghdad to pay Mr. Rassam a trifling sum, I think between three and four
shillings, the balance of a wool account between them.

A youth of the great tribe of the Aneyza having quarrelled with his
parents, ran away and came to Mosul, when he entered as a student in a
college. He became a Mullah, and had almost forgotten his early friends,
when the tribe, driven by a famine from the Syrian desert, crossed the
Euphrates, and encamped near the town to buy corn. Ibn Gayshish, their
Sheikh, hearing by chance that the fugitive was still alive, and now a
member of the priesthood, sent a messenger to him to say, that since he
had quitted his tents his father had died, and had left a certain number
of camels, which had been divided according to the law amongst his family.
Those allotted to him had been in the safe keeping of the tribe, and had
increased yearly. The chief was now ready to do with them as their
rightful owner might direct.

Mr. Rassam had, at my request, sent a party of Jebours to renew the
excavations at Kalah Sherghat, which had been very imperfectly examined.
The springs of Belaliss are separated from the shoulder of the Gebel
Makhoul, which overhangs the ruins, by a wild rocky valley, called Wadi
Jehannem, the Valley of Hell. We crossed it and the hills in about three
hours and a half, and came suddenly upon the workmen, who, of course, took
us for Bedouin plunderers, and prepared to defend themselves. They had
opened trenches in various parts of the great mound, but had made no
discoveries of any importance, and I am inclined to doubt whether an
edifice containing any number of sculptures or inscriptions ever existed
on the platform. Fragments of a winged bull in the alabaster of the
Nineveh palaces, part of a statue in black stone with a few cuneiform
characters, and pieces of a large inscribed slab of copper, were found in
the ruins; I collected also the fragments of a large inscribed cylinder in
baked clay[233], and a copper cup, a few vases in common pottery, and some
beads.

We encamped in the jungle to the north of the ruins, and were visited by
fifteen men of the Albou Mohammed, who frankly confessed that they were
thieves, out on their vocation. As the tribe does not bear a very good
character for honesty, and as it might have struck our guests that they
had no need of going further to fulfil the object of their journey, we
violated the duties of hospitality, and put some of them in irons for the
night, as a guarantee for the good conduct of the rest.

I ordered the Jebours to leave Kalah Sherghat, and to return with us to
Mosul, which we reached the following day. Mr. Bell, who had been sent to
Assyria by the Trustees of the British Museum to succeed Mr. Cooper as
artist to the expedition, had arrived in the town two days before. I rode
with him without delay to Kouyunjik, to examine the excavations made
during my absence. I will now describe the sculptures uncovered whilst I
was at Baghdad and after my return to Mosul, previous to my departure for
England.

To the north of the great centre hall four new chambers had been
discovered. The first was 96 feet by 23. On its walls were represented the
return of an Assyrian army from war, with their spoil of captives and
cattle. The prisoners were distinguished by a cap turned back at the top,
not unlike the Phrygian bonnet reversed, short tunics, and a broad belt.
The women had long curls falling over their shoulders, and were clothed in
fringed robes. The fighting-men of the conquered tribe wore a simple
fillet round their short hair; a tunic, falling in front to the knee, and
behind, to the calf of the leg; a wavy girdle, and a cross-belt round
their breasts, ending in two large tassels. A kneeling camel, receiving
its load, was designed with considerable truth and spirit. The legs bent
under, the tail raised, the foot of the man on the neck of the animal to
keep it from rising, whilst a second adjusts the burden from behind, form
a group seen every day in the Desert and in an Eastern town. The camel
saddle, too, nearly resembled that still used by the Arabs.

This chamber opened at one end into a small room, 23 feet by 13. On its
walls were represented a captive tribe, dressed in short tunics, a skin
falling from their shoulders, boots laced up in front, and cross-bands
round their legs; they had short, bushy hair and beards.

In the outer chamber two doorways opposite the grand entrances into the
great hall, led into a parallel apartment, 62 feet by 16 feet. On its
walls was represented the conquest of the same people, wearing the
reversed Phrygian bonnet. There were long lines of prisoners; some in
carts, others on foot. The fighting-men, armed with bows and quivers, were
made to bear part of the spoil. In the costumes of the warriors and
captives, and in the forms of the waggons and war-carts, these bas-reliefs
bore a striking resemblance to the sculptures of the son of Essarhaddon,
described in a previous chapter.[234] It may, therefore, be inferred that
the conquest of the same nation was celebrated in both, and that on these
walls we have recorded the successful wars of Sennacherib in the country
of Susiana or Elam.

This chamber, like the one parallel to it, led at one end into a small
room 17 feet square. On its walls, the campaign recorded in the adjoining
chamber had been continued. These rooms completed the discoveries on the
southern side of the palace. On the northern side of the same edifice, and
on the river-face of the platform, one wall of a third great hall had been
uncovered; the other walls had not been excavated at the time of my
departure from Mosul. From the very ruinous state of this part of the
building, and from the small accumulation of earth above the level of the
foundations, it is doubtful whether any sculptures still exist in it. The
standing wall had three entrances, the centre formed by winged lions, and
the others by fish gods. Of the bas-reliefs only fragments now remained.
In one set was depictured the conquest of another tribe dwelling in the
marshes of southern Mesopotamia. The Assyrians pursued their enemies in
wicker boats, such as I have described in my account of the Afaij Arabs;
and on the islands formed by the small streams flowing through the morass,
were Assyrian warriors on horseback.

On the same side of the hall was represented the conquest of a second
nation, whose men were clothed in long garments, and whose women wore
turbans, with veils falling to their feet. The Assyrians had plundered
their temples, and were seen carrying away their idols. "Of a truth, Lord,
the kings of Assyria have laid waste all the nations and their countries,
and have cast their gods into the fire; for they were no gods, but the
work of men's hands, wood and stone; therefore they have destroyed
them."[235] Unfortunately the bas-reliefs were so much injured that the
nature of these images could not be satisfactorily ascertained. The
figures appeared to be beardless, with the exception of one, which is that
of a man raising his right arm, and bearing a mace.

The three entrances led into one chamber 86 feet by 24. On its calcined
walls were only the faint traces of bas-reliefs. I could distinguish a
line of chariots in a ravine between mountains, warriors throwing logs on
a great burning pile of wood, castles on the tops of hills, Assyrians
carrying away spoil, amongst which was a royal umbrella, and the king on
his throne receiving his army on their return from battle with the
captives and booty.

Opposite to and corresponding with the three entrances from the hall were
three other doorways leading into a parallel chamber of somewhat smaller
dimensions. Parts of four slabs were the only sculptures sufficiently well
preserved to be drawn: they represented the siege of a great city, whose
many-towered walls were defended by slingers, archers, and spearmen. The
king himself in his chariot was present at the attack. Around him were his
warriors and his led-horses.

Three more chambers were discovered in this part of the building. They
were on the very edge of the river-face of the mound. The walls of the
outer room had been almost entirely destroyed. An entrance, formed by
colossal winged figures, led from it into a second chamber, about 24 feet
square, in which the sculptures were still partly preserved. Amongst the
bas-reliefs was another battle in a marsh. The Assyrian warriors were seen
fighting in boats, and bringing their captives to the shore, one of the
vessels being towed by a man swimming on an inflated skin. Sennacherib
himself, in his chariot, in the midst of a grove of palm-trees, received
the prisoners, and the heads of the slain. Above him was a short epigraph,
which appears to read, "Sennacherib, king of the country of Assyria, the
spoil of the river Agammi, from the city of Sakrina" (the last line not
interpreted). Although the name of this city has not yet been found, as
far as I know, in the records on the bulls and on other monuments of the
same king, yet the mention of the river enables us to recognise in the
bas-reliefs a representation of part of the campaign, undertaken by
Sennacherib, in the fourth year of his reign, against Susubira the
Chaldæan: whose capital was Bittul, on the same stream. Although the river
itself has not as yet been identified, it is evidently either a part of
the Tigris or Euphrates, or one of their confluents, near the Persian
Gulf. We have no difficulty, indeed, in determining the site of the
country whose conquest is depictured. The marshes and palm-trees show that
it must have been in southern Mesopotamia, or in the districts watered by
the Shat el Arab.

A great retinue of charioteers and horsemen appear to have followed
Sennacherib to this war. Large circular shields were fixed to the sides of
the chariots represented in the sculptures.

The third chamber, entered from that last described through a doorway
guarded by colossal eagle-footed figures, contained the sculptured records
of the conquest of part of Babylonia, or of some other district to the
south of it. Long lines of chariots, horsemen and warriors, divided into
companies according to their arms and their costume, accompanied the king.
The Assyrians having taken the principal city of the invaded country, cut
down the palm-trees within and without its walls. Men beating drums, such
as are still seen in the same country, and women clapping their hands in
cadence to their song, came out to greet the conquerors. Beneath the walls
was represented a great caldron, which appears to have been supported upon
metal images of oxen; perhaps a vessel resembling the brazen sea of the
temple of Solomon.[236]

Such were the discoveries in the ruined palace of Sennacherib at the time
of my departure for Europe. In this magnificent edifice I had opened no
less than seventy-one halls, chambers, and passages, whose walls, almost
without an exception, had been panelled with slabs of sculptured alabaster
recording the wars, the triumphs, and the great deeds of the Assyrian
king. By a rough calculation, about 9880 feet, or nearly two miles, of
bas-reliefs, with twenty-seven portals, formed by colossal winged bulls
and lion-sphinxes, were uncovered in that part alone of the building
explored during my researches. The greatest length of the excavations was
about 720 feet, the greatest breadth about 600 feet.[237] The pavement of
the chambers was from 20 to 35 feet below the surface of the mound.

Only a part, however, of the palace has been explored, and much still
remains underground of this enormous structure. Since my return to Europe
other rooms and sculptures have been discovered.

[Illustration: Assyrian Pedestal, from Kouyunjik.]

The excavations were not limited to the corner of Kouyunjik containing the
palace. Deep trenches and tunnels were opened, and experimental shafts
sunk in various parts of the mound. Enormous walls and foundations of
brick masonry, fragments of sculptured and unsculptured alabaster,
inscribed bricks, numerous small objects, and various other remains, were
discovered.[238] To the north of the ruins on the same level, and resting
upon a pavement of limestone slabs, were found four circular pedestals.
They appeared to form a part of a double line of similar objects,
extending from the edge of the platform to an entrance to the palace, and
may have supported the wooden columns of a covered way, or have served as
bases to an avenue of statues.[239] The earth not having been sufficiently
cleared away around them, I was unable to ascertain whether there was more
than a double row. They were amongst the very few architectural remains
dug out at Nineveh. The ornament upon them is not inelegant, and is
somewhat Saracenic in its character.

I will now describe some of the most interesting small objects discovered
in the earth and rubbish during the excavations at Kouyunjik. It must be
borne in mind that the mound within which was the buried palace, was used
more than once, and by more than one distinct people, for the site of a
castle, if not of a town. We know that Nineveh was utterly destroyed by
the united armies of the Medes and Babylonians; yet we find Meherdates
taking the castle of Ninos, and the same place is mentioned by several
later authors.[240]

Coins of more than one Roman emperor were, according to the
superscription, struck at Nineveh. One bears the head of Trajan, and, on
the reverse, the legend AUG. FELI. NINI. CLAV. (col.), round an eagle with
expanded wings between two military standards. Another has on one side the
head of the Emperor Maximinus, and on the reverse a naked figure holding
an object resembling a bull's head in one hand, with the legend COL.
NINIVA CLAVD. It would appear from these coins that Claudius, who
established many colonies in the East, was the founder of one called after
him Niniva Claudiopolis.

As buildings thus appear to have been erected at various times on the
mound, we accordingly find in the rubbish remains of various periods.
Amongst the relics occasionally brought to me by the workmen were a few
fragments of pottery, and coins, and ill-cut gems with inscriptions in the
Pehlevi character, of the time of the Sassanian kings of Persia, that is,
from the first half of the third to the seventh century after Christ. Of
the Roman period we have terracotta figures and lamps, and a hoard of
eighty-nine silver denarii of the Emperors Vespasian, Titus, Domitian,
Trajan, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, Commodus, and
Septimius Severus, according to the dates on the coins themselves, from A.
D. 74 to A. D. 201. Mr. R. Stuart Poole, of the British Museum,--to whom I
am indebted for a list and description of these coins,--conjectures, with
much probability, that they were buried by a Roman soldier during the
second expedition undertaken by Severus against the Arabs of Mesopotamia
(A. D. 202), or during the Parthian war, carried on by the same emperor.
The number of coins of Commodus, and the fact that there are none of any
emperor after Severus, lead to the belief that the hoard was buried about
this time. It is worthy of remark, too, that the latest have few, if any,
marks of having been in circulation. Unfortunately there are no coins
amongst them actually struck at Nineveh, although they mostly belong to
Eastern cities.

Of the time of the Seleucidæ and of the Greek occupation of Assyria and
Babylonia, we have several relics: amongst them a small head of Hercules,
with the eyes inlaid in ivory, one or two figures in terracotta, some
copper and glass vessels, and various objects in pottery and bronze. To
this period I am now inclined to attribute the earthen sarcophagi, the
great jars, and other sepulchral remains found at Nimroud, Kalah Sherghat,
Kouyunjik, and in other Assyrian mounds, which, when my former work was
written, I believed to belong to a much earlier epoch. Since my return to
England, Mr. Vice-consul Rassam has discovered at Kouyunjik several tombs
built of slabs of stone, and apparently of even a later date, for in one
of them, I understand, was found a gold coin of the Emperor Maximinus.
They contained, however, very interesting relics in the same precious
metal and in glass.

It is remarkable that, notwithstanding the most careful search, in all
parts of the country around Mosul, I have been unable to find one
undoubted Assyrian tomb, nor can I conjecture how or where the people of
Nineveh buried their dead. The sepulchral chambers in the hills, so
frequently described in these pages, are unquestionably of a comparatively
late period. The rocky gullies outside and between the inclosure walls of
Kouyunjik have been examined over and over again with the greatest care
for traces of tombs, but in vain. In the numerous isolated conical mounds
scattered over the face of the country, I have detected nothing to show
that they were places of sepulture. It must, however, be confessed that
they have not yet been sufficiently excavated. Further experiments should
be made in them, and tunnels opened into their very foundations. The only
Assyrian sepulchre hitherto discovered is probably the vaulted chamber in
the high mound of Nimroud, which may have once contained the remains of
the royal builder of the north-west palace. Did the Assyrians, like the
fire-worshippers of Persia, expose their dead until nought remained but
the bleached bones, or did they burn them and then scatter their ashes to
the winds? Not a clue is given to their customs in this matter by any
bas-relief or monument hitherto discovered. The Assyrians appear to have
avoided all allusions to their dead and to their funeral rites; unlike the
Egyptians, who portrayed the ceremonies observed after death, and even the
events of a future state, upon the walls of almost every temple and tomb.

The only relics found at Kouyunjik which I can refer to the Achæmenian
Persian period, are the remains of several dishes and vases in serpentine
and marble. One fragment of this nature is inscribed with Egyptian
hieroglyphs, characteristic, according to Mr. Birch, of the time of the
Ptolemies.

[Illustration: Part of Colossal Head, from Kouyunjik.]

Of Assyrian relics obtained from the ruins, the most interesting are

A colossal beardless head in limestone, remarkable for the boldness of
the style. It is, probably, part of a lion-sphinx.

Handles in the form of the heads of lions, and other fragments of vases
and dishes.

A fragment of striped marble, carved with figures in relief, and bearing
an inscription with the genealogy and titles of Essarhaddon.

A gold ear-ring adorned with pearls, resembling those still in common use
amongst Arab women.

A rude circular vessel in limestone, ornamented on the outside with
figures in relief of the Assyrian Hercules struggling with the lion.

Moulds for casting ear-rings and other ornaments in gold and silver. The
forms upon them are all purely Assyrian, as the lion-headed deity, the
cone, the bull's head, and the sacred signs seen in the Nimroud sculptures
round the neck of the king. The largest mould is in limestone, the others
in serpentine. They are precisely such as are used to this day by Arab
goldsmiths.

Various copper instruments (one in the shape of a sickle), a key,[241] a
comb, and other objects, such as the heads of spears and arrows, in iron;
glass bottles, pottery, fragments of terracotta, and marble with
inscriptions, and many other relics, all of which, with those above
enumerated, are now in the British Museum.

I had long been desirous of making some experiments in the mound on which
stands the so-called tomb of the prophet Jonah. It forms part of the great
group of ruins opposite Mosul, and is, like Kouyunjik, in the line of the
inclosure walls. Some have believed it to represent the real site of
ancient Nineveh, Kouyunjik being the remains of a palace added to the city
at a later period. It was important, therefore, to ascertain the nature
and probable date of the edifice covered by the mound. The sanctity of the
place prevented any attempt to excavate openly, and it was necessary to
carry on my researches without exciting the suspicion of the Mussulman
inhabitants of the neighbourhood.

A village has risen round the mosque containing the tomb. The rest of the
mound is occupied by a burying ground, thickly set with Mussulman
gravestones. True believers from the surrounding country bring their dead
to this sacred spot, and to disturb a grave on Nebbi Yunus would cause a
tumult which might lead to no agreeable results. The pretended tomb itself
is in a dark inner room. None but Mussulmans should be admitted within the
holy precincts, but I have more than once visited the shrine, with the
sanction of my good friend, Mullah Sultan, a guardian of the mosque. A
square plaster or wooden sarcophagus, entirely concealed by a green cloth
embroidered with sentences from the Koran, stands in the centre of an
apartment spread with a common European carpet. A few ostrich eggs and
colored tassels, such as are seen in similar Mohammedan buildings, hang
from the ceiling. A small grated window looks into the hall, where the
true believers assemble for prayer. A staircase leads into the holy
chamber. It is needless to repeat that the tradition which places the tomb
on this spot is a mere fable.[242]

The village of Nebbi Yunus is inhabited by Turcoman families. Some of
their dwellings occupy a considerable space. Hearing that the owner of one
of the largest wished to make serdaubs, or underground apartments for
summer, I offered, through my agent, Toma Shishman, to dig them for him,
on condition that I should have all the relics and sculptures discovered
during the excavations. By these means I was able to examine a small part
of the mound.

After a few days' labor, the workmen came to the walls of a chamber. They
were panelled with inscribed, but unsculptured, alabaster slabs. The
inscriptions merely contained the name, titles, and genealogy of
Essarhaddon, such as were found on the bulls and sphinxes of the
south-west palace at Nimroud. Several bricks and fragments of stone were
also obtained from the ruins, but they all bore the same inscription. No
remains whatever of more ancient building, and no relics of an earlier
period were discovered during my residence at Mosul in the mound of the
Prophet Jonah.

Since my return to England an inhabitant of the village, whilst digging
the foundations of his house, uncovered a pair of colossal human-headed
bulls, and two figures of the Assyrian Hercules slaying the lion, similar
to those in the Louvre. He communicated his discovery at once to the
English Vice-consul, who informed Mr. Hodder, the artist sent out by the
Trustees of the British Museum. Through some neglect these interesting
specimens were not visited and secured before others became acquainted
with their existence, and endeavored to obtain possession of them. The
Turkish authorities, of course, settled the claims of the rival
antiquaries by seizing the sculptures for themselves. On several grounds
this is much to be regretted. These remains will, however, probably prove
to be of the time of Essarhaddon.

Three miles to the north of the inclosure of Kouyunjik, and on the bank of
the Tigris, is a village called Shereef-Khan. Near it are several mounds.
The largest, though much inferior in size to the great ruins of Assyria,
is distinguished, like those of Nimroud and Khorsabad, by a conical heap
at one corner. For some time excavations were carried on in this mound
under my superintendence, and discoveries of interest were made in it. At
a small depth beneath the surface of the soil are the remains of a
building. The walls of the chambers are of sun-dried bricks, but several
slabs of alabaster, and painted and inscribed bricks were found in the
ruins. A broad flight of alabaster steps appeared to connect an upper with
a lower part of the edifice.

The inscriptions upon the bricks contain the names of Sargon and
Sennacherib. Those of the former king read, "Sargon, king of Assyria, the
city (or place) of the mound of the fort of Sargon I called it; a temple
of the sun ... near it I built." Other bricks mention a temple dedicated
to Mars, or some other Assyrian deity.[243] There are several smaller
mounds in the neighbourhood, which have not been explored.

At Nimroud the excavations had been almost suspended. A few Arabs, still
working in the centre of the mound, had found the remains of sculptured
walls, forming part of the edifice previously discovered there. The lower
half of several colossal figures, amongst them winged men struggling with
lions and mythic animals, had been preserved.

A few small objects of interest were discovered in different parts of the
ruins, and some additional rooms were explored in the north-west and
south-east palaces. In none of them, however, were there sculptures, or
even inscriptions, except such as were impressed on bricks. The bricks
found amongst its ruins prove that it was built by the grandson of
Essarhaddon, who must consequently have been one of the last of the
Assyrian kings.

Several tombs containing vases, beads and ornaments, were discovered above
the centre palace. A few large earthen jars from different parts of the
mound, a number of small cups of peculiar shape from the ruins of the
upper chambers, other pottery of various kinds, and some rude figures in
baked clay, were the principal relics found during the excavations at
Nimroud.

In the north-west palace was also discovered a duck, with its head turned
upon its back, in greenstone, similar to that in white marble engraved in
the first series of the Monuments of Nineveh. These two objects are of
considerable interest, as we learn from short inscriptions upon them,
deciphered by Dr. Hincks, that they are weights of thirty mana, or half a
Babylonian talent.

They have been examined at the mint, and are found to weigh 40 lb. 4 oz. 4
dwt. 4 gr. and 39 lb. 1 oz. 1 dwt. 6 gr. The difference between them is
owing to the head of one having been broken off.[244]

It may be inferred that two similar figures in baked clay, inscribed with
Assyrian numerals, from the same ruins, and others of small size in agate,
onyx, and other hard materials, are likewise weights, probably parts of
the talent or of the mana. It is also highly probable that the curious
series of bronze lions discovered at Nimroud during my first researches
were used for a like purpose. Since the coating of green rust has been
removed from them, they are found in several instances to bear two short
inscriptions, one in cuneiform characters with the name of Sennacherib,
the other in Phoenician, or cursive Semetic letters, accompanied by
parallel lines or notches cut in the bronze. Dr. Lepsius has recently
published a bas-relief from an Egyptian tomb, representing a man weighing
rings of gold or silver, with weights in the form of a bull's head, and of
a seated lion with a ring on its back, precisely similar to those from
Nineveh, now in the British Museum.

The engraved cylinders or gems, of which a large collection was brought by
me to England, form an important as well as an interesting class of
Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities. They vary in size, from about two
inches to a quarter of an inch, and are either circular, or barrel-shaped,
or slightly curved inwards. They are usually of lapis-lazuli,
rock-crystal, cornelian, amethyst, chalcedony, agate, onyx, jasper,
quartz, serpentine, sienite, oriental alabaster, green felspar, and
hæmatite. The workmanship varies in different specimens, that of some
being of considerable sharpness and delicacy, and that of others so coarse
as scarcely to enable us to recognise the objects engraved upon them. The
subjects are generally either religious or historical, usually the former,
and on many are short inscriptions in the cuneiform character. These
cylinders belong to several distinct periods. The most ancient with which
I am acquainted are those of the time of the kings who built the oldest
edifices hitherto discovered at Nineveh. The subjects are usually the king
in his chariot discharging his arrows against a lion or wild bull,
warriors in battle, the monarch or priests in adoration before the emblem
of the deity, the eagle-headed god, winged bulls and lions, and other
mythic animals, accompanied by the common Assyrian symbols, the sun, the
moon, the seven stars, the winged globe, the sacred tree, and the wedge or
cuneatic element.

The next in order of date are those of the time of Sargon and his
successors. To this period belong the cylinder with the fish-god, and that
which I believe to be the signet of Sennacherib himself, described in a
previous part of this work.[245] A very fine specimen, cut in agate,
represents an Assyrian goddess, perhaps Astarte, or the Moon, surrounded
by ten stars, with a dog seated before her. In front of her is the moon's
crescent, and a priest in an attitude of adoration. A tree and a rampant
goat, both common Assyrian symbols, complete the group. On others of the
same age we find the gods represented under various forms, the king and
priests worshipping before them, altars and various signs peculiar to the
period, and the usual mythic emblems.

The pure Babylonian cylinders are more commonly found in European
collections than the Assyrian. They are usually engraved with sacred
figures, accompanied by a short inscription in the Babylonian cuneiform
character, containing the names of the owner of the seal and of the
divinity, under whose particular protection he had probably placed
himself. They are usually cut in a red iron ore or hæmatite, which appears
to have been a favorite material for such objects. Many specimens,
however, are in agate, jasper, and other hard substances.

A class of cylinders of very rude workmanship, and usually in hæmatite,
are probably of the latest Babylonian period. Upon them are usually found
the figures of various deities, and especially of Venus, sometimes
represented with the waters of life flowing from her breasts.

A few cylinders and gems, Assyrian in character, are inscribed with
Semetic letters, resembling the Phoenician and cursive Babylonian. They
are rare, and have chiefly been found, I believe, in ruins on the banks of
the Euphrates to the north of Babylon, near Hit and Ana. I would attribute
them, therefore, to the Semetic population which inhabited the districts
on the eastern borders of the Syrian desert. They appear to belong to
various periods, from the time of the lower Assyrian dynasty (of which
three fine specimens are in possession of Captain Jones of Baghdad) to
that of the Persian occupation of Babylonia.

Persian cylinders frequently bear an inscription in the cuneiform
character peculiar to the monuments of the Achæmenian dynasty. The most
interesting specimen of this class is the well-known gem of green
chalcedony in the British Museum, on which is engraved king Darius in his
chariot, with his name and that of his father. This was probably a royal
signet. Another, in the same collection, bears the name of one Arsaces,
who appears to have been a chamberlain, or to have held some other office
in the Persian court. A very fine cylinder in rock crystal, brought by me
to this country, and now also in the British Museum, has the god Ormuzd
represented as at Persepolis, raised by two winged bulls with human heads,
above an oval, containing the image of a king. The engraving on this gem
is remarkable for its delicacy and minuteness.

Persian cylinders are recognised at once by the draperies of the figures,
gathered up into folds, as in the sculptures of the Achæmenian dynasty, a
peculiarity never found on pure Assyrian or Babylonian monuments; by the
crown of the king; by the form of the supreme deity, or Ormuzd and by the
monstrous animals, resembling the sculptures on the walls of Persepolis.

It has been conjectured that these cylinders were amulets engraved with a
kind of horoscope of the owner, or with the figures of the deities who
were supposed to preside over his nativity and fortunes. But it is evident
from the specimens above described, that they were seals or signets to be
impressed on clay and other materials on which public and private
documents were written. Herodotus states that the Babylonians were
accustomed to have their signets constantly with them, as a modern Eastern
always carries his seal.[246]

The seal was evidently rolled on the moist clay, at the same time as the
letters were impressed.[247] The tablet was then placed in the furnace and
baked. All these cylinders have been pierced, and one specimen, found by
my workmen in a mound in the desert near the Sinjar, still retained its
copper setting. They revolved upon a metal axis, like a garden
rolling-stone.

Such then were the objects of sculpture and the smaller relics found at
Nimroud and Kouyunjik. I will now endeavour to convey to the reader, in
conclusion, a general idea of the results of the excavations, as far as
they may tend to increase our acquaintance with the history of Assyria,
and to illustrate the religion, the arts, and the manners of her
inhabitants.



CHAPTER XXVI.

    RESULTS OF THE DISCOVERIES TO CHRONOLOGY AND HISTORY.--NAMES OF
    ASSYRIAN KINGS IN THE INSCRIPTIONS.--A DATE FIXED.--THE NAME OF
    JEHU.--THE OBELISK KING.--THE EARLIER KINGS.--SARDANAPALUS.--HIS
    SUCCESSORS.--PUL, OR TIGLATH
    PILESER.--SARGON.--SENNACHERIR.--ESSARHADDON.--THE LAST ASSYRIAN
    KINGS.--TABLES OF PROPER NAMES IN THE ASSYRIAN
    INSCRIPTIONS.--ANTIQUITY OF NINEVEH.--OF THE NAME OF
    ASSYRIA.--ILLUSTRATIONS OF SCRIPTURE.--STATE OF JUDÆA AND ASSYRIA
    COMPARED.--POLITICAL CONDITION OF THE EMPIRE.--ASSYRIAN
    COLONIES.--PROSPERITY OF THE COUNTRY.--RELIGION.--EXTENT OF
    NINEVEH.--ASSYRIAN ARCHITECTURE.--COMPARED WITH JEWISH.--PALACE OF
    KOUYUNJIK RESTORED.--PLATFORM AT NIMROUD RESTORED.--THE ASSYRIAN
    FORTIFIED INCLOSURES.--DESCRIPTION OF KOUYUNJIK.--CONCLUSION.


Although ten years have barely elapsed since the first discovery of ruins
on the site of the great city of Nineveh, a mass of information, scarcely
to be overrated for its importance and interest, has already been added to
our previous knowledge of the early history and comparative geography of
the East. When in 1849 I published the narrative of my first researches in
Assyria, the numerous inscriptions recovered from the remains of the
buried palaces were still almost a sealed book; for although an
interpretation of some had been hazarded, it was rather upon mere
conjecture than upon any well-established philological basis. I then,
however, expressed my belief, that ere long their contents would be known
with almost certainty, and that they would be found to furnish a history,
previously almost unknown, of one of the earliest and most powerful
empires of the ancient world. Since that time the labors of English
scholars, and especially of Col. Rawlinson and Dr. Hincks, and of M. de
Saulcy, and other eminent investigators on the Continent, have nearly led
to the fulfilment of those anticipations; and my present work would be
incomplete were I not to give a general sketch of the results of their
investigations, as well as of my own researches.

I will not detain the reader by any account of the various processes
adopted in deciphering, and of the steps gradually made in the
investigation; nor will I recapitulate the curious corroborative evidence
which has led in many instances to the verification of the
interpretations. Such details, philologically of the highest interest, and
very creditable to the sagacity and learning of those pursuing this
difficult inquiry, will be found in the several treatises published by the
investigators themselves. The results, however, are still very incomplete.
It is, indeed, a matter of astonishment that, considering the time which
has elapsed since the discovery of the monuments, so much progress has
been already made. But there is every prospect of our being able, ere
long, to ascertain the general contents of almost every Assyrian record.
The Babylonian column of the Bisutun inscription, that invaluable key to
the various branches of cuneiform writing, has at length been published by
Col. Rawlinson, and will enable others to carry on the investigation upon
sure grounds.

I will proceed, therefore, to give a slight sketch of the contents of the
inscriptions as far as they have been examined. The earliest king of whose
reign we have any detailed account was the builder of the north-west
palace at Nimroud, the most ancient edifice hitherto discovered in
Assyria. His records, however, with other inscriptions, furnish the names
of five, if not seven, of his predecessors, some of whom, there is reason
to believe, erected palaces at Nineveh, and originally founded those which
were only rebuilt by subsequent monarchs. It is consequently important to
ascertain the period of the accession of this early Assyrian king, and we
apparently have the means of fixing it with sufficient accuracy. His son,
we know, built the centre palace at Nimroud, and raised the obelisk, now
in the British Museum, inscribing upon it the principal events of his
reign. He was a great conqueror, and subdued many distant nations. The
names of the subject kings who paid him tribute are duly recorded on the
obelisk, in some instances with sculptured representations of the various
objects sent. Amongst those kings was one whose name reads "Jehu, the son
of Khumri (Omri)," and who has been identified by Dr. Hincks and Col.
Rawlinson with Jehu, king of Israel. This monarch was certainly not the
son, although one of the successors of Omri, but the term "son of" appears
to have been used throughout the East in those days, as it still is, to
denote connection generally, either by descent or by succession. Thus we
find in Scripture the same person called "the son of Nimshi," and "the son
of Jehoshaphat, the son of Nimshi."[248] An identification connected with
this word Khumri or Omri is one of the most interesting instances of
corroborative evidence that can be adduced of the accuracy of the
interpretations of the cuneiform character. It was observed that the name
of a city resembling Samaria was connected, and that in inscriptions
containing very different texts, with one reading Beth Khumri or
Omri.[249] This fact was unexplained until Col. Rawlinson perceived that
the names were, in fact, applied to the same place, or one to the
district, and the other to the town. Samaria having been built by Omri,
nothing is more probable than that--in accordance with a common Eastern
custom--it should have been called, after its founder, Beth Khumri, or the
house of Omri. As a further proof of the identity of the Jehu mentioned on
the obelisk with the king of Israel, Dr. Hincks, to whom we owe this
important discovery, has found on the same monument the name of Hazael,
whom Elijah was ordered by the Almighty to anoint king of Syria.[250]

Supposing, therefore, these names to be correctly identified,--and our
Assyrian chronology for this period rests as yet, it must be admitted,
almost entirely upon this supposition,--we can fix an approximate date for
the reign of the obelisk king. Jehu ascended the throne about 885 B. C.;
the accession of the Assyrian monarch must, consequently, be placed
somewhere between that time and the commencement of the ninth century B.
C., and that of his father in the latter part of the tenth.[251]

In his records the builder of the north-west palace mentions, amongst his
predecessors, a king whose name is identical with the one from whom,
according to the inscriptions at Bavian, were taken certain idols of
Assyria 418 years before the first or second year of the reign of
Sennacherib. According to Dr. Hincks, Sennacherib ascended the throne in
703 B. C. We have, therefore, 1121 B. C. for the date of the reign of this
early king.

There are still two kings mentioned by name in the inscriptions from the
north-west palace at Nimroud, as ancestors of its builder, who have not
yet been satisfactorily placed. It is probable that the earliest reigned
somewhere about the middle of the twelfth century B. C. Colonel Rawlinson
calls him _the founder_ of Nineveh; but there is no proof whatever, as far
as I am aware, in support of this conjecture. It is possible, however,
that he may have been the first of a dynasty which _extended_ the bounds
of the Assyrian empire, and was founded, according to Herodotus, about
five centuries before the Median invasion, or in the twelfth century B.
C.; but there appears to be evidence to show that a city bearing the name
of Nineveh stood on the banks of the Tigris long before that period.[252]

The second king, whose name is unplaced, appears to be mentioned in the
inscriptions as the original _founder_ of the north-west palace at
Nimroud. According to the views just expressed, he must have reigned about
the end of the twelfth century B. C.

The father and grandfather of the _builder_ of the north-west palace are
mentioned in nearly every inscription from that edifice. Their names,
according to Colonel Rawlinson, are Adrammelech and Anáku-Merodach. They
must have reigned in the middle of the tenth century B. C. We have no
records of either of them.

The first king of whom we have any connected historical chronicle was the
builder of the well-known edifice at Nimroud from which were obtained the
most perfect and interesting bas-reliefs brought to this country. In my
former work I stated that Colonel Rawlinson believed his name to be Ninus,
and had identified him with that ancient king, according to Greek history,
the founder of the Assyrian empire. He has since given up this reading,
and has suggested that of Assardanbal, agreeing with the historic
Sardanapalus. Dr. Hincks, however, assigning a different value to the
middle character (the name being usually written with three), reads
Ashurakhbal. It is certain that the first monogram stands both for the
name of the country of Assyria and for that of its protecting deity. We
might consequently assume, even were other proof wanting, that it should
be read Assur or Ashur.

I have elsewhere given a description of the various great monumental
records of this king, with extracts from their contents. He appears to
have carried his arms to the west of Nineveh across Syria to the
Mediterranean Sea, to the south into Chaldæa, probably beyond Babylon (the
name of this city does not, however, as far as I am aware, occur in the
inscriptions), and to the north into Asia Minor and Armenia.

Of his son, whose name Colonel Rawlinson reads Temenbar and Divanubara,
and Dr. Hincks Divanubar, we have full and important historical annals,
including the principal events of thirty-one years of his reign. They are
engraved upon the black obelisk, and upon the backs of the bulls in the
centre of the mound of Nimroud. This king, like his father, was a great
conqueror. He waged war, either in person or by his generals, in Syria,
Armenia, Babylonia, Chaldæa, Media, and Persia.

The two royal names next in order occur on the pavement slabs of the upper
chambers, on the west face of the mound of Nimroud.[253] They may belong
to the son and grandson, and immediate successors, of the obelisk king.
The two names, however, have not been satisfactorily deciphered. Colonel
Rawlinson reads them Shamas-Adar and Adrammelech II.; Dr. Hincks only
ventures to suggest Shamsiyav for the first.

On the Assyrian tablet from the tunnel of Negoub[254], are apparently two
royal names, which may be placed next in order. They are merely mentioned
as those of ancestors or predecessors of the king who caused the record to
be engraved. Dr. Hincks reads them Baldasi and Ashurkish. As the
inscription is much mutilated, some doubt may exist as to the correctness
of its interpretation.

The next king of whom we have any actual records appears to have rebuilt
or added to the palace in the centre of the mound of Nimroud. The edifice
was destroyed by a subsequent monarch, who carried away its sculptures to
decorate a palace of his own. All the remains found amongst its ruins,
with the exception of the great bulls and the obelisk, belong to a king
whose name occurs on a pavement-slab discovered in the south-west palace.
The walls and chambers of this building were, it will be remembered,
decorated with bas-reliefs brought from elsewhere. By comparing the
inscriptions upon them, and upon a pavement-slab of the same period, with
the sculptures in the ruins of the centre palace, we find that they all
belong to the same king, and we are able to identify him through a most
important discovery, for which we are also indebted to Dr. Hincks. In an
inscription on a bas-relief representing part of a line of war-chariots,
he has detected the name of Menahem, the king of Israel, amongst those of
other monarchs paying tribute to the king of Assyria, in the eighth year
of his reign.[255] This Assyrian king, must, consequently, have been
either the immediate predecessor of Pul, Pul himself, or Tiglath Pileser,
the name on the pavement-slab not having yet been deciphered.[256]

The bas-reliefs adorning his palace, like those at Khorsabad, appear to
have been accompanied by a complete series of his annals. Unfortunately
only fragments of them remain. His first campaign seems to have been in
Chaldæa, and during his reign he carried his arms into the remotest parts
of Armenia, and across the Euphrates into Syria as far as Tyre and Sidon.
There is a passage in one of his inscriptions still unpublished, which
reads, "as far as the river Oukarish," that might lead us to believe that
his conquests were even extended to the central provinces of Asia and to
the Oxus. His annals contain very ample lists of conquered towns and
tribes. Amongst the former are Harran and Ur. He rebuilt many cities, and
placed his subjects to dwell in them.

The next monarch, whose name is found on Assyrian monuments, was the
builder of the palace of Khorsabad, now so well known from M. Botta's
excavations and the engravings of its sculptures published by the French
government. His name, though read with slight variations by different
interpreters, is admitted by all to be that of Sargon, the Assyrian king
mentioned by Isaiah. The names of his father and grandfather are said to
have been found on a clay tablet discovered at Kouyunjik, but they do not
appear to have been monarchs of Assyria. The ruins of Khorsabad furnish us
with the most detailed and ample annals of his reign. Unfortunately an
inscription, containing an account of a campaign against Samaria in his
first or second year, has been almost entirely destroyed. But, in one
still preserved, 27,280 Israelites are described as having been carried
into captivity by him from Samaria and the several districts or provincial
towns dependent upon that city. Sargon, like his predecessors, was a great
warrior. He even extended his conquests beyond Syria to the islands of the
Mediterranean Sea, and a tablet set up by him has been found in Cyprus. He
warred also in Babylonia, Susiana, Armenia, and Media, and apparently
received tribute from the kings of Egypt.

Colonel Rawlinson believed that the names "Tiglath Pileser" and
"Shalmaneser," were found on the monuments of Khorsabad as epithets of
Sargon, and that they were applied in the Old Testament to the same king.
He has now changed his opinion with regard to the first, and Dr. Hincks
contends that the second is not a name of this king, but of his
predecessor,--of whom, however, it must be observed, we have hitherto been
unable to trace any mention on the monuments, unless, as that scholar
suggests, he is alluded to in an inscription of Sargon from Khorsabad.

From the reign of Sargon we have a complete list of kings to the fall of
the empire, or to a period not far distant from that event. He was
succeeded by Sennacherib, whose annals have been given in a former part of
this volume. His name was identified, as I have before stated, by Dr.
Hincks, and this great discovery furnished the first satisfactory
starting-point, from which the various events recorded in the inscriptions
have been linked with Scripture history. Colonel Rawlinson places the
accession of Sennacherib to the throne in 716, Dr. Hincks in 703, which
appears to be more in accordance with the canon of Ptolemy. The events of
his reign, as recorded in the inscriptions on the walls of his palace,
are mostly related or alluded to in sacred and profane history. I have
already described his wars in Judæa, and have compared his own account
with that contained in Holy Writ. His second campaign in Babylonia is
mentioned in a fragment of Polyhistor, preserved by Eusebius, in which the
name given to Sennacherib's son, and the general history of the war appear
to be nearly the same as those on the monuments. The fragment is highly
interesting as corroborating the accuracy of the interpretation of the
inscriptions. I was not aware of its existence when the translation given
in the sixth chapter of this volume was printed. "After the reign of the
brother of Sennacherib, Acises reigned over the Babylonians, and when he
had governed for the space of thirty days he was slain by Merodach
Baladan, who held the empire by force during six months; and he was slain
and succeeded by a person named Elibus (Belib). But in the third year of
his (Elibus) reign Sennacherib, king of the Assyrians, levied an army
against the Babylonians; and in a battle, in which they were engaged,
routed and took him prisoner with his adherents, and commanded them to be
carried into the land of the Assyrians. Having taken upon himself the
government of the Babylonians, he appointed his son, Asordanius, their
king, and he himself retired again into Assyria." This son, however, was
not Essarhaddon, his successor on the throne of Assyria. The two names are
distinguished by a distinct orthography in the cuneiform inscriptions.
Sennacherib raised monuments and caused tablets recording his victories to
be carved in many countries which he visited and subdued. His image and
inscriptions at the mouth of the Nahr-el-Kelb in Syria are well known.
During my journey to Europe I found one of his tablets near the village of
Hasana (or Hasan Agha), chiefly remarkable from being at the foot of
Gebel Judi, the mountain upon which, according to a widespread Eastern
tradition, the ark of Noah rested after the deluge.[257]

Essarhaddon, his son, was his successor, as we know from the Bible. He
built the south-west palace at Nimroud, and an edifice whose ruins are now
covered by the mound of the tomb of Jonah opposite Mosul. Like his father
he was a great warrior, and he styles himself in his inscriptions "King of
Egypt, conqueror of Æthiopia." It was probably this king who carried
Manasseh, king of Jerusalem, captive to Babylon.[258]

The name of the son and successor of Essarhaddon was the same as that of
the builder of the north-west palace at Nimroud. His father had erected a
dwelling for him in the suburbs or on the outskirts of Nineveh. His
principal campaign appears to have been in Susiana or Elam. As the great
number of the inscribed tablets found in the ruins of the palace of
Sennacherib, at Kouyunjik, are of his time, many of them bearing his name,
we may hope to obtain some record of the principal events of his reign.

His son built the south-east palace on the mound of Nimroud, probably over
the remains of an earlier edifice. Bricks from its ruins give his name,
which has not yet been deciphered, and those of his father and
grandfather. We know nothing of his history from cotemporaneous records.
He was one of the last, if not the last, king of the second dynasty; and
may, indeed, as I have already suggested, have been that monarch,
Sardanapalus, or Saracus, who was conquered by the combined armies of the
Medes and Babylonians under Cyaxares in B. C. 606, and who made of his
palace, his wealth, and his wives one great funeral pile.[259]

For convenience of reference I give a table of the royal names, according
to the versions of Dr. Hincks and Col. Rawlinson, the principal monuments
on which they are found, and the approximate date of the reigns of the
several kings. In a second table will be found the most important proper
and geographical names in the Assyrian inscriptions which have been
identified with those in the Bible. A third table contains the names of
the thirteen great gods of Assyria, according to the version of Dr.
Hincks.

TABLE I.--NAMES of ASSYRIAN KINGS in the Inscriptions from Nineveh.

  --------------------------+------------------------------+--------------
     Conjectural reading.   |         Where found.         |Approximate
                            |                              |Date of reign.
  --------------------------+------------------------------+--------------
  1. Derceto    (R[260])      | Pavement Slab, (B. M. Series,| 1250 B. C.
                            |   p. 70, l. 25)              |
                            |                              |
  2. Divanukha (R)          |Standard Inscription, Nimroud,| 1200 B. C.
     Divanurish (H)         |  &c.                         |
                            |                              |
  3. Anakbar-beth-hira (R)  | Slabs from Temples in        | 1130 B. C.
     Shimish-bal-Bithkhira  |  North of Mound of Nimroud;  |
     (H)                    |  Bavian tablets,             |
                            |  &c.                         |
                            |                              |
     Mardokempad (?) (R)    | A cylinder from Shereef-Khan |
     Mesessimordacus (?) (R)|                              |
  4. Adrammelech I. (R)     | Standard Inscription,        | 1000 B. C.
                            |   Bricks, &c., from N. W.    |
                            |   Palace, Nimroud            |
                            |                              |
  5. Anaku Merodak (R)      |                              |
     Shimish Bar (H)        | Idem                         | 960 B. C.
       (Son of preceding)   |                              |
                            |                              |
  6. Sardanapalus I. (R)    | Standard Inscription,        | 930 B. C.
     Ashurakhbal (H)        |   Bricks, &c., from N. W.    |
       (Son of preceding)   |   Palace, Nimroud, Abou      |
                            |   Maria, &c., &c.            |
                            |                              |
  7. Divanubara (R)         | Centre Palace, Nimroud;      | 900 B. C.
     Divanubar (H)          |   Obelisk; Bricks; Kalah-    |
       (Son of preceding)   |   Sherghat; Baashiekha       |
                            |                              |
  8. Shamas Adar (R)        | Pavement Slab, Upper         | 870 B. C.
     Shamsiyav (H)          | Chambers, Nimroud            |
                            |                              |
  9. Adrammelech II. (R)    | Idem                         | 840 B. C.
                            |                              |
  10. Baldasi (?) (H)       | Slab from the tunnel of      |
                            |   Negoub                     |
                            |                              |
  11. Ashurkish (?) (H)     | Idem                         |
                            |                              |
  12. ? Pul or Tiglath-     | Pavement Slab, and Slabs     | 750 B. C.
        Pileser             |   built into the S. W.       |
                            |   Palace, Nimroud            |
                            |                              |
  13. Sargon                | Khorsabad; Nimroud;          | 722 B. C.
                            |   Karamless, &c., &c.        |
                            |                              |
  14. Sennacherib           | Kouyunjik, &c.               | 703 B. C.
  (Son of preceding)        |                              |
                            |                              |
  15. Essarhaddon           | S. W. Palace, Nimroud;       | 690 B. C.?
  (Son of preceding)        |   Nebbi Yunus; Shereef-Khan  |
                            |                              |
  16. Sardanapalus III. (R) | Kouyunjik; Shereef-Khan      |
      Ashurakhbal (H)       |                              |
        (Son of preceding)  |                              |
                            |                              |
  17. (Son of preceding)    | S. E. Edifice, Nimroud       |
                            |                              |
  18. Shamishakhadon (?) (H)| Black Stone, in possession   |
                            |   of Lord Aberdeen           |

TABLE II.--NAMES OF KINGS, COUNTRIES, CITIES, &c., mentioned in the Old
Testament, which occur in the A Inscriptions.

  Jehu,
  Omri,
  Menahem,
  Hezekiah,
  Hazael,
  Merodach Baladan,
  Pharoah,
  Sargon,
  Sennacherib,
  Essarhaddon,
  Dagon,
  Nebo,
  Judæa,
  Jerusalem,
  Samaria,
  Ashdod,
  Lachish,
  Damascus,
  Hamath,
  Hittites (the),
  Tyre,
  Sidon,
  Gaza,
  Ekron,
  Askelon,
  Arvad,
  Gubal (the people of),
  Lebanon,
  Egypt,
  Euphrates,
  Carchemish,
  Hebar or Chebar (river),
  Harran,
  Ur,
  Gozan (the people of),
  Mesopotamia,
  Children of Eden,
  Tigris,
  Nineveh,
  Babylon,
  Elam,
  Shushan,
  Media,
  Persia,
  Yavan,
  Ararat,
  Hagarenes,
  Nabathæans,
  Aramæans,
  Chaldæans,
  Meshek,
  Tubal,
  Assyria,
  Assyrians,
  Pethor,
  Telassar.


TABLE III.--Names of THIRTEEN GREAT GODS OF ASSYRIA, as they occur on the
upright tablet of the King, discovered at Nimroud.

    1. ASSHUR, the King of the Circle of the Great Gods.

    2. ANU, the Lord of the Mountains, or of Foreign Countries.

    3.(?) [Not yet deciphered.]

    4. SAN.

    5. MERODACH (? Mars).

    6. YAV (? Jupiter).

    7. BAR.

    8. NEBO (? Mercury).

    9. (?) Mylit (or Gula), called the Consort of Bel and the Mother of
    the Great Gods (? Venus).

    10. (?) Dagon.

    11. BEL (? Saturn) Father of the Gods.

    12. SHAMASH (the Sun).

    13. ISHTAR (the Moon).

Although no mention appears to be made in the Assyrian inscriptions of
kings who reigned before the twelfth century B. C., this is by no means a
proof that the empire, and its capital Nineveh, did not exist long before
that time. I cannot agree with those who would limit the foundation of
both to that period. The supposition seems to me quite at variance with
the testimony of sacred and profane history. The existence of the name of
Nineveh on monuments of the eighteenth Egyptian dynasty is still
considered almost certain by Egyptian scholars. I have in my former work
quoted an instance of it on a tablet of the time of Thothmes III., or of
the beginning of the fourteenth century B. C.[261] Mr. Birch has since
pointed out to me three interesting cartouches copied by Dr. Lepsius in
Egypt, which completely remove any doubt as to the name of Assyria having
been also known as early as the eighteenth dynasty. They occur at the foot
of one of the columns of Soleb, and are of the age of Amenophis III., or
about the middle of the fourteenth century before Christ. The three
figures, with their arms bound behind, represent Asiatic captives, as is
proved by their peculiar features and head-dress, a knotted fillet round
the temples, corresponding with that seen in the Nineveh sculptures. Each
cartouche contains the name of the country from which the prisoner was
brought. The first is Patana, or Padan-Aram; the second is written
A-su-ru, or Assyria; and the third, Ka-ru-ka-mishi, Carchemish. On another
column are Saenkar (? Shinar or Sinjar); Naharaina, or Mesopotamia; and
the Khita, or Hittites. The mention in succession of these Asiatic
nations, contiguous one to the other, proves the correctness of the
reading of the word Assyria, which might have been doubted had the name
of that country stood alone.

Mr. Birch has detected a still earlier notice of Assyria in the
statistical tablet of Karnak. The king of that country is there stated to
have sent to Thothmes III., in his fortieth year, a tribute of fifty
pounds nine ounces of some article called chesbit, supposed to be a stone
for coloring blue. It would appear, therefore, that in the fifteenth
century a kingdom, known by the name of Assyria, with Nineveh for its
capital, had been established on the borders of the Tigris. Supposing the
date now assigned by Col. Rawlinson to the monuments at Nimroud to be
correct, no sculptures or relics have yet been found which we can safely
attribute to that period; future researches and a more complete
examination of the ancient sites may, however, hereafter lead to the
discovery of earlier remains.

As I have thus given a general sketch of the contents of the inscriptions,
it may not be out of place to make a few observations upon the nature of
the Assyrian records, and their importance to the study of Scripture and
profane history. In the first place, the care with which the events of
each king's reign were chronicled is worthy of remark. They were usually
written in the form of regular annals, and in some cases, as on the great
monoliths at Nimroud, the royal progress during a campaign appears to have
been described almost day by day. We are thus furnished with an
interesting illustration of the historical books of the Jews. There is,
however, this marked difference between them, that whilst the Assyrian
records are nothing but a dry narrative, or rather register, of military
campaigns, spoliations, and cruelties, events of little importance but to
those immediately concerned in them, the historical books of the Old
Testament, apart from the deeds of war and blood which they chronicle,
contain the most interesting of private episodes, and the most sublime of
moral lessons. It need scarcely be added, that this distinction is
precisely what we might have expected to find between them, and that the
Christian will not fail to give to it a due weight.

The monuments of Nineveh, as well as the testimony of history, tend to
prove that the Assyrian monarch was a thorough Eastern despot, unchecked
by popular opinion, and having complete power over the lives and property
of his subjects--rather adored as a god than feared as a man, and yet
himself claiming that authority and general obedience in virtue of his
reverence for the national deities and the national religion. It was only
when the gods themselves seemed to interpose that any check was placed
upon the royal pride and lust; and it is probable that when Jonah entered
Nineveh crying to the people to repent, the king, believing him to be a
special minister from the supreme deity of the nation, "arose from his
throne, and laid his robe from him, and covered him with sackcloth, and
sat in ashes."[262] The Hebrew state, on the contrary, was, to a certain
extent, a limited monarchy. The Jewish kings were amenable to, and even
guided by, the opinion of their subjects. The prophets boldly upbraided
and threatened them; their warnings and menaces were usually received with
respect and fear. "Good is the word of the Lord which thou hast spoken,"
exclaimed Hezekiah to Isaiah, when the prophet reproved him for his
pride, and foretold the captivity of his sons and the destruction of his
kingdom;[263] a prophecy which none would have dared utter in the presence
of the Assyrian king, except, as it would appear by the story of Jonah, he
were a stranger. It can scarcely, therefore, be expected that any history
other than bare chronicles of the victories and triumphs of the kings,
omitting all allusion to their reverses and defeats, could be found in
Assyria, even were portable rolls or books still to exist, as in Egypt,
beneath the ruins.

It is remarkable that the Assyrian records should, on the whole, be so
free from the exaggerated forms of expression, and the magniloquent royal
titles, which are found in Egyptian documents of the same nature, and even
in those of modern Eastern sovereigns. I have already pointed out the
internal evidence of their truthfulness so far as they go. We are further
led to place confidence in the statements contained in the inscriptions by
the very minuteness with which they even give the amount of the spoil; the
two registrars, "the scribes of the host," as they are called in the
Bible,[264] being seen in almost every bas-relief, writing down the
various objects brought to them by the victorious warriors,--the heads of
the slain, the prisoners, the cattle, the sheep,[265] the furniture, and
the vessels of metal.

The next reflection arising from an examination of the Assyrian records
relates to the political condition and constitution of the empire, which
appear to have been of a very peculiar nature. The king, we may infer,
exercised but little direct authority beyond the immediate districts
around Nineveh. The Assyrian dominions, as far as we can yet learn from
the inscriptions, did not extend much further than the central provinces
of Asia Minor and Armenia to the north, not reaching to the Black Sea,
though probably to the Caspian. To the east they included the western
provinces of Persia; to the south, Susiana, Babylonia, and the northern
part of Arabia. To the west the Assyrians may have penetrated into Lycia,
and perhaps Lydia; and Syria was considered within the territories of the
great king; Egypt and Meroe (Æthiopia) were the farthest limits reached by
the Assyrian armies. According to Greek history, however, a much greater
extent must be assigned to Assyrian influence, if not to the actual
Assyrian empire, and we may hereafter find that such was in fact the case.
I am here merely referring to the evidence afforded by actual records as
far as they have been deciphered.

The empire appears to have been at all times a kind of confederation
formed by many tributary states, whose kings were so far independent, that
they were only bound to furnish troops to the supreme lord in time of war,
and to pay him yearly a certain tribute. Hence we find successive Assyrian
kings fighting with exactly the same nations and tribes, some of which
were scarcely more than four or five days' march from the gates of
Nineveh.

The Jewish tribes, as it had long been suspected by biblical scholars, can
now be proved to have held their dependent position upon the Assyrian
king, from a very early period, indeed, long before the time inferred by
any passage in Scripture. Whenever an expedition against the kings of
Judah or Israel is mentioned in the Assyrian records, it is stated to have
been undertaken on the ground that they had not paid their customary
tribute.[266]

The political state of the Jewish kingdom under Solomon appears to have
been very nearly the same as that of the Assyrian empire. The inscriptions
in this instance again furnish us with an interesting illustration of the
Bible. The scriptural account of the power of the Hebrew king resembles,
almost word for word, some of the paragraphs in the great inscriptions at
Nimroud. "Solomon reigned over the kingdoms from the river unto the land
of the Philistines, and unto the border of Egypt: they brought presents,
and served Solomon all the days of his life.... He had dominion over all
the region on this side the river, from Tipsah even unto the Azzah, _over
all the kings_ on this side the river."[267]

In the custom, frequently alluded to in the inscriptions, of removing the
inhabitants of conquered cities and districts to distant parts of the
empire, and of replacing them by colonists from Nineveh or from other
subdued countries, we have another interesting illustration of Scripture
history. It has generally been inferred that there was but one carrying
away, or at the most two, of the people of Samaria, although three, at
least, appear to be distinctly alluded to in the Bible; the first, by
Pul;[268] the second, by Tiglath-Pileser[269]; the third, by
Shalmaneser.[270] It was not until the time of the last king that Samaria
was destroyed as an independent kingdom. On former occasions only the
inhabitants of the surrounding towns and villages seem to have been taken
as captives. Such we find to have been the case with many other nations
who were subdued or punished for rebellion by the Assyrians. The
conquerors, too, as we also learn from the inscriptions, established the
worship of their own gods in the conquered cities, raising altars and
temples, and appointing priests for their service. So after the fall of
Samaria, the strangers who were placed in its cities, "made gods of their
own and put them in the houses of the high places which the Samaritans had
made."[271]

The vast number of families thus sent to dwell in distant countries, must
have wrought great changes in the physical condition, language, and
religion of the people with which they were intermixed. When the Assyrian
records are with more certainty interpreted, we may, perhaps, be able to
explain many of the anomalies of ancient Eastern philology and comparative
geography.

We further gather from the records of the campaigns of the Assyrian kings,
that the country, both in Mesopotamia and to the west of the Euphrates,
now included in the general term of "the Desert," was at that remote
period, teeming with a dense population both sedentary and nomade; that
cities, towns, and villages arose on all sides; and that, consequently,
the soil brought forth produce for the support of this great congregation
of human beings. All those settlements depended almost exclusively upon
artificial irrigation. Hence the dry beds of enormous canals and
countless watercourses, which are spread like a network over the face of
the country. Even the traveller, accustomed to the triumphs of modern
science and civilization, gazes with wonder and awe upon these gigantic
works, and reflects with admiration upon the industry, the skill, and the
power of those who made them. And may not the waters be again turned into
the empty channels, and may not life be again spread over those parched
and arid wastes? Upon them no other curse has alighted than that of a
false religion and a listless race.

Of the information as to the religious system of the Assyrians which may
be derived from the inscriptions, I am still unwilling to treat in the
present state of our knowledge of their contents. A far more intimate
acquaintance with the character than we yet possess is required before the
translation of such documents can be fully relied on. All we can now
venture to infer is, that the Assyrians worshipped one supreme God, as the
great national deity under whose immediate and special protection they
lived, and their empire existed. The name of this god appears to have been
Asshur, as nearly as can be determined, at present, from the inscriptions.
It was identified with that of the empire itself, always called "the
country of Asshur;" it entered into those of both kings and private
persons, and was also applied to particular cities. With Asshur, but
apparently far inferior to him in the celestial hierarchy, although called
the great gods, were associated twelve other deities, whose names I have
given in table No. 3. Some of them may possibly be identified with the
divinities of the Greek Pantheon, although it is scarcely wise to hazard
conjectures which must ere long be again abandoned. These twelve gods may
also have presided over the twelve months of the year, and the vast number
of still inferior gods, in one inscription, I believe, stated to be no
less than 4000, over the days of the year, various phenomena and
productions of nature, and the celestial bodies. It is difficult to
understand such a system of polytheism, unless we suppose that whilst
there was but one supreme god, represented sometimes under a triune form,
all the so-called inferior gods were originally mere names for events and
outward things, or symbols and myths. Although at one time generally
accepted as such even by the common people, their true meaning was only
known in a corrupted age to the priests, by whom they were turned into a
mystery and a trade. It may, indeed, be inferred from many passages in the
Scriptures, that a system of theology not far differing from the Assyrian
prevailed at times amongst the Jews themselves. Asshur is generally, if
not always, typified by the winged figure in the circle.[272]

The question as to the space occupied by the city of Nineveh at the time
of its greatest prosperity is still far from being set at rest. Col.
Rawlinson, founding his opinion upon the names on bricks from the several
sites, believes the inclosures of Nimroud, Kouyunjik, and Khorsabad, and
the small mounds of Shereef-Khan, scarcely three miles from Kouyunjik, as
well as others in the immediate neighbourhood, to be the remains of
distinct cities. He would even separate the mound of Nebbi Yunus from
Kouyunjik, identifying the former with Nineveh, and making the latter a
mere suburb. A glance at the plan of the ruins will show this conjecture
to be quite untenable. Discoveries in both mounds prove that they belong
to nearly the same period, and that Nebbi Yunus is the more recent of the
two. The supposition that any of these groups of mounds represent alone
the city of Nineveh can in no way be reconciled with the accounts in
Scripture and in the Greek authors, which so remarkably coincide as to its
extent; a difficulty which leads Col. Rawlinson to say, that all these
ruins "formed one of that group of cities which, in the time of the
prophet Jonah, were known by the common name of Nineveh." It is indeed
true, that, on bricks from different mounds, distinct names appear to be
given to each locality, and that those from Kouyunjik are inscribed with
the name of Nineveh, whilst those from Nimroud and Khorsabad bear others
which have not yet been satisfactorily deciphered. These names are
preceded by a determinative monogram assumed to signify a city, but which
undoubtedly also applies to a fort or fortified palace. Nahum describes
Nineveh as a city of many strongholds and gates,[273] and such I believe
it to have been, each fort or stronghold having a different name. The most
important, as it was the best defended, may at one time have been the
palace at Kouyunjik, which being especially called Nineveh, gave its name
to the whole city. By no other supposition can we reconcile the united
testimony of ancient writers as to the great size of Nineveh with the
present remains.

It is very doubtful whether these fortified inclosures contained many
buildings beside the royal palaces, and such temples and public edifices
as were attached to them. At Nimroud, excavations were made in various
parts of the inclosed space, and it was carefully examined with a view to
ascertain whether any foundations or remains of houses still existed. None
were discovered except at the south-eastern corner, where the height of
the earth above the usual level at once showed the existence of ruins. In
most parts of the inclosure, the natural soil seems never to have been
disturbed, and in some places the conglomerate rock is almost denuded of
earth.

Such is also the case opposite Mosul. The remains of one or two buildings
appear to exist within the inclosure; but in the greater part there are no
indications whatever of ancient edifices, and the conglomerate rock is, as
at Nimroud, on a level with the surrounding soil.

At Khorsabad, the greater part of the inclosed space is so much _below_
the surrounding country, that it is covered with a marsh formed by the
small river Khauser, which flows near the ruins. Within the walls, which
are scarcely more than a mile square, can only be traced the remains of
one or two buildings, and of a propylæum, standing below the platform, and
above two hundred yards from the ascent to the palace[274], but they are
at once perceived by well-defined inequalities in the soil.

If the walls forming the inclosures of Khorsabad and other Assyrian ruins
were the outer defences of a city, abruptly facing the open country, it is
difficult to account for the fact of the palace having been built in the
same line, and actually forming part of them. All access to it must have
been strongly fortified, and even the view over the surrounding country,
the chief object of such a position, must have been shut out.

After several careful excavations of the ruins and of the spaces inclosed
by the ramparts of earth, I am still inclined to the opinion that they
were royal dwellings with their dependent buildings, and parks or
paradises, fortified like the palace-temples of Egypt, capable of standing
a prolonged siege, and a place of refuge for the inhabitants in case of
invasion. They may have been called by different names, but they were all
included within the area of that great city known to the Jews and to the
Greeks as Nineveh. I will not pretend to say that the whole of this vast
space was thickly inhabited or built upon. As I have elsewhere observed,
we must not judge of Eastern cities by those of Europe.[275] In Asia,
gardens and orchards, containing suburbs and even distinct villages,
collected round a walled city are all included by the natives under one
general name. Such is the case with Isfahan and Damascus, and such I
believe it to have been with ancient Nineveh.

A few remarks are necessary on the additional information afforded by
recent discoveries as to the architecture and architectural decorations,
external and internal, of the Assyrian palaces. The inscriptions on their
walls, especially on those of Kouyunjik and Khorsabad, appear to contain
important and even minute details, not only as to their general plan and
mode of construction, but even as to the materials employed for their
different parts, and for the objects of sculpture and ornaments placed in
them. This fact furnishes another remarkable analogy between the records
of the Jewish and the Assyrian kings. To the history of their monarchs and
of their nation, the Hebrew chroniclers have added a full account of the
building and adornments of the temple and palaces of Solomon. In both
cases, from the use of technical words, we can scarcely hope to
understand, with any degree of certainty, all the details. It is
impossible to comprehend, by the help of the descriptions alone, the plan
or appearance of the temple of Solomon. This arises not only from our
being unacquainted with the exact meaning of various Hebrew architectural
terms, but also from the difficulty experienced even in ordinary cases, of
restoring from mere description an edifice of any kind. In the Assyrian
inscriptions we labor, of course, under still greater disadvantages. The
language in which they are written is as yet but very imperfectly known,
and although we may be able to explain with some confidence the general
meaning of the historical paragraphs, yet when we come to technical words
relating to architecture, even with a very intimate acquaintance with the
Assyrian tongue, we could scarcely hope to ascertain their precise
signification. On the other hand, the materials, and the general plan of
the Assyrian palaces are still preserved, whilst of the great edifices of
the Jews, not a fragment of masonry, nor the smallest remains are left to
guide us. The architecture of the one people, however, may be illustrated
by that of the other. With the help of the sacred books, and of the ruins
of the palaces of Nineveh, together with that of cotemporary and later
remains, as well as from customs still existing in the East, we may, to a
certain extent, restore the principal buildings of both nations.

Before suggesting a general restoration of the royal edifices of Nineveh,
I shall endeavor to point out the analogies which appear to exist between
their actual remains and what is recorded of the temple and palaces of
Solomon. In the first place, as Sennacherib in his inscriptions declares
himself to have done, the Jewish king sent the bearers of burdens and the
hewers into the mountains to bring great stones, costly stones, and hewed
stones[276], to lay the foundations, which were probably artificial
platforms, resembling the Assyrian mounds, though constructed of more
solid materials. We have the remains of such a terrace or stage of stone
masonry, perhaps built by king Solomon himself, at Baalbec. The enormous
size of some of the hewn stones existing in that structure, and of those
still seen in the quarries, some being more than sixty feet long, has
excited the wonder of modern travellers. The dimensions of the temple of
Jerusalem, threescore cubits long[277], twenty broad, and thirty high,
were much smaller than those of the great edifices explored in Assyria.
Solomon's own palace, however, appears to have been considerably larger,
and to have more nearly approached in its proportions those of the kings
of Nineveh, for it was one hundred cubits long, fifty broad, and thirty
high. "The porch before the temple," twenty cubits by ten,[278] may have
been a propylæum, such as was discovered at Khorsabad in front of the
palace. The chambers, with the exception of the oracle, were exceedingly
small, the largest being only seven cubits broad, "for without, _in the
wall_ of the house, he made numerous rests round about, that _the beams_
should not be fastened in the walls of the house." The words in italics
are inserted in our version to make good the sense, and may consequently
not convey the exact meaning, which may be, that these chambers were thus
narrow that the beams might be supported without the use of pillars, a
reason already suggested for the narrowness of the greater number of
chambers in the Assyrian palaces. These smaller rooms appear to have been
built round a large central chamber, called the oracle, the whole
arrangement thus corresponding with the halls and surrounding rooms at
Nimroud, Khorsabad, and Kouyunjik. The oracle itself was twenty cubits
square, smaller far in dimensions than the Nineveh halls; but it was
twenty cubits _high_--an important fact, illustrative of Assyrian
architecture, for as the building was thirty cubits in height, the oracle
must not only have been much loftier than the adjoining chambers, but must
have had an upper structure of ten cubits.[279] Within it were the two
cherubim of olive wood ten cubits high, with wings each five cubits long,
"and he carved all the house around with carved figures of cherubim and
palm trees, and open flowers, within and without." The cherubim have been
described by Biblical commentators as mythic figures, uniting the human
head with the body of a lion, or an ox, and the wings of an eagle.[280]
If for the palm trees we substitute the sacred tree of the Nineveh
sculptures, and for the open flowers the Assyrian tulip-shaped
ornament--objects most probably very nearly resembling each other--we find
that the oracle of the temple was almost identical, in general form and in
its ornaments, with some of the chambers of Nimroud and Khorsabad. In the
Assyrian halls, too, the winged human-headed bulls were on the side of the
wall, and their wings, like those of the cherubim, "touched one another in
the midst of the house."[281] The dimensions of these figures were in some
cases nearly the same, namely, fifteen feet square. The doors were also
carved with cherubim and palm trees, and open flowers, and thus, with the
other parts of the building, corresponded with those of the Assyrian
palaces. On the walls at Nineveh the only addition appears to have been
the introduction of the human form and the image of the king, which were
an abomination to the Jews. The pomegranates and lilies of Solomon's
temple must have been nearly identical with the usual Assyrian ornament,
in which, and particularly at Khorsabad, the pomegranate frequently takes
the place of the tulip and the cone.

But the description given by Josephus of the interior of one of Solomon's
houses, already quoted by Mr. Fergusson in support of his ingenious
arguments, even more completely corresponds with, and illustrates the
chambers in the palaces of Nineveh. "Solomon built some of these (houses)
with stones of ten cubits, and _wainscoted the walls with other stones
that were sawed_, and were of great value, such as were dug out of the
bowels of the earth, for ornaments of temples, &c. The arrangement of the
curious workmanship of these stones was in three rows; but the fourth was
pre-eminent for the beauty of its sculpture, for on it were represented
trees, and all sorts of plants, with the shadows caused by their branches
and the leaves that hung down from them. These trees and plants covered
the stone that was beneath them, and their leaves were wrought so
wonderfully thin and subtile, that they appeared almost in motion; but the
rest of the wall, up to the roof, was plastered over, and, as it were,
wrought over with various colors and pictures."[282]

To complete the analogy between the two edifices, it would appear that
Solomon was seven years building the temple, and Sennacherib about the
same time building his great palace at Kouyunjik.[283]

The ceiling, roof, and beams of the temple were of cedar wood. The
discoveries in the ruins at Nimroud show that the same precious wood was
used in the Assyrian edifices; and the king of Nineveh, as we learn from
the inscriptions, employed men, precisely as Solomon had done, to cut it
in Mount Lebanon. Fir was also employed in the Jewish buildings, and
probably in those of Assyria.[284]

In the proposed restoration of the palace at Kouyunjik from the existing
remains, the building does not face the cardinal points of the compass. I
will, however, assume, for convenience sake, that it stands due north and
south. To the west, therefore, it immediately overlooked the Tigris; and
on that side was one of its principal façades. The edifice must have risen
on the very edge of the platform, the foot of which was at that time
washed by the river. If, therefore, there were any access to the palace on
the river front, it must necessarily have been by a flight of steps, or an
inclined way leading down to the water's edge, and there might have been
great stairs parallel to the basement wall as at Persepolis. Although from
the fact of there having been a grand entrance to the palace on this side,
it is highly probable that some such approach once existed, no remains
whatever of it have been discovered. The western façade, like the eastern,
was formed by five pairs of human-headed bulls, and numerous colossal
figures[285], forming three distinct gateways.

The principal approach to the palace appears, however, to have been on the
eastern side, where the great bulls bearing the annals of Sennacherib
still stand. In the frontispiece I have been able, by the assistance of
Mr. Fergusson, to give a restoration of this magnificent façade and
entrance. Inclined ways, or broad flights of steps, appear to have led up
to it from the foot of the platform, and the remains of them, consisting
of huge squared stones, are still seen in the ravines, which are but the
ancient ascents, deepened by the winter rains of centuries. From this
grand entrance direct access could be had to all the principal halls and
chambers in the palace; that on the western face, as appears from the
ruins, only opened into a set of eight rooms.

The chambers hitherto explored appear to have been grouped round three
great halls. It must be borne in mind, however, that the palace extended
considerably to the north-east of the grand entrance, and that there may
have been another hall, and similar dependent chambers in that part of the
edifice. Only a part of the palace has been hitherto excavated, and we
are not in possession of a perfect ground-plan of it.

The general arrangement of the chambers at Kouyunjik is similar to that of
Khorsabad, though the extent of the building is very much greater. It is
also to be remarked that the Khorsabad mound falls gradually to the level
of the plain, apparently showing the remains of a succession of broad
terraces, and that parts of the palace, such as the propylæa, were
actually beneath the platform, and removed some distance from it in the
midst of the walled inclosure. At Kouyunjik, however, the whole of the
royal edifice, with its dependent buildings, appears to have stood on the
summit of the artificial basement[286], whose lofty perpendicular sides
could only have been accessible by steps, or inclined ways. No propylæa,
or other edifices connected with the palace, have as yet been discovered
below the platform.

The inscriptions appear to refer to four distinct parts of the palace,
three of which, inhabited by the women, seem subsequently to have been
reduced to one. It is not clear whether they were all on the ground-floor,
or whether they formed different stories. Mr. Fergusson, in his ingenious
work on the restoration of the palaces of Nineveh, in which he has, with
great learning and research, fully examined the subject of the
architecture of the Assyrians and ancient Persians, availing himself of
the facts then furnished by the discoveries, endeavors to divide the
Khorsabad palace, after the manner of modern Mussulman houses, into the
Salamlik or apartments of the men, and the Harem or those of the women.
The division he suggests, must, of course, depend upon conjecture; but it
may, I think, be considered as highly probable, until fuller and more
accurate translations of the inscriptions than can yet be made may
furnish us with some positive data on the subject. In the ruins of
Kouyunjik there is nothing, as far as I am aware, to mark the distinction
between the male and female apartments. Of a temple no remains have as yet
been found at Kouyunjik, nor is there any high conical mound as at Nimroud
and Khorsabad.

In all the Assyrian edifices hitherto explored, we have the same general
interior plan. On the four sides of the great halls are two or three
narrow parallel chambers opening one into the other. Most of them have
doorways at each and leading into smaller rooms, which have no other
outlet. It seems highly probable that this uniform plan was adopted with
reference to the peculiar architectural arrangements required by the
building, and I agree with Mr. Fergusson in attributing it to the mode
resorted to for lighting the apartments.

In my former work I expressed a belief that the chambers received light
through an opening in the roof. Although this may have been the case in
some instances, yet recent discoveries now prove that the Assyrian palaces
had more than one story. Such being the fact, it is evident that other
means must have been adopted to admit daylight to the inner rooms on the
ground-floor. Mr. Fergusson's suggestion, that the upper part of the halls
and principal chambers was formed by a row of pillars supporting the
ceiling and admitting a free circulation of light and air, appears to me
to meet, to a certain extent, the difficulty. It has, moreover, been borne
out by subsequent discoveries, and by the representation of a large
building, apparently a palace, on one of the bas-reliefs discovered at
Kouyunjik. In the restoration of the exterior of the Kouyunjik palace
forming the frontispiece to this volume, a somewhat similar capital has
been adopted in preference to that taken by Mr. Fergusson from
Persepolis, which, although undoubtedly like the other architectural
details of those celebrated ruins, Assyrian in character, are not
authorised by any known Assyrian remains.

A row of pillars, or of alternate pillars and masonry, would answer the
purpose intended, if they opened into a well-lighted hall. Yet inner
chambers, such as are found in the ruins of Kouyunjik, must have remained
in almost entire darkness. And it is not improbable that such was the
case, to judge from modern Eastern houses, in which the absence of light
is considered essential to secure a cool temperature. The sculptures and
decorations in them could then only be seen by torchlight. The great halls
were probably in some cases entirely open to the air, like the court-yards
of the modern houses of Mosul, whose walls are still adorned with
sculptured alabaster. When they were covered in the roof was borne by
enormous pillars of wood or brickwork, and rose so far above the
surrounding part of the building, that light was admitted by columns and
buttresses immediately beneath the ceiling. It is most probable that there
were two or three stories of chambers opening into them, either by columns
or by windows. Such appears to have been the case in Solomon's temple; for
Josephus tells us that the great inner sanctuary was surrounded by small
rooms, "over these rooms were other rooms, and others above them, equal
both in their measure and numbers, and that these reached to a height
equal to the _lower part_ of the house, for the upper had no buildings
about it." We have also an illustration of this arrangement of chambers in
the modern houses of some parts of Persia, in which a great central hall,
called an Iwan, rises to the top of the building, and has small rooms in
two or three separate stories, opening by windows into it, whilst the
inner chambers, having no windows at all, have no more light than that
which reaches them through the door. Sometimes these side chambers open
into a centre court, as I have suggested may have been the case in the
Nineveh palaces, then a projecting roof of woodwork protects the carved
and painted walls from injury by the weather. Curtains and awnings were
also suspended above the windows and entrances, to ward off the rays of
the sun.

Although no remains or even traces of pillars have hitherto been
discovered in the Assyrian ruins, I now think it highly probable, as
suggested by Mr. Fergusson, that they were used to support the roof. It is
curious, however, that no stone pedestals, upon which wooden columns may
have rested, have been found in the ruins, nor are there marks of them on
the pavement. I can scarcely account for the entire absence of all such
traces. However, unless some support of this kind were resorted to, it is
impossible that even the large chambers at Kouyunjik, without including
the central halls, could have been covered in. The great hall, or house as
it is rendered in the Bible,[287] of the forest of Lebanon was thirty
cubits high, upon four rows of cedar pillars with cedar beams upon the
pillars. The Assyrian kings, we have seen, cut wood in the same forests as
King Solomon; and probably used it for the same purposes, namely, for
pillars, beams, and ceilings. The dimensions of this hall, 100 cubits
(about 150 feet) by 50 cubits (75 feet), very much resemble those of the
centre halls of the palaces of Nineveh. "The porch of pillars" was fifty
cubits in length; equal, therefore, to the breadth of the hall, of which I
presume it to have been an inclosed space at the upper end, whilst "the
porch for the throne where he might judge, even the porch of judgment ...
covered with cedar wood from one side of the floor to the other," was
probably a raised place beneath it, corresponding with a similar platform
where the host and guests of honor are seated in a modern Eastern house.
Supposing the three parts of the building to have been arranged as I have
suggested, we should have an exact counterpart of them in the hall of
audience of the Persian palaces. The upper part of the room in which I
have frequently seen the governor of Isfahan, was divided from the rest of
a magnificent hall by columns, and his throne was a raised place of carved
woodwork adorned with rich stuffs, ivory, and other precious materials.
Suppliants and attendants stood outside the line of pillars, and the
officers of the court within. Such also may have been the interior
arrangement of the great halls in the Assyrian edifices.

That the Ninevite palaces had more than one story, at least in some parts
if not in all, can now no longer be doubted. The inscriptions appear to
describe distinctly the upper rooms, and at Kouyunjik, as it has been
seen, an inclined way was discovered leading to them. Without there had
been an upper structure, it would be impossible to account for the
enormous accumulation of rubbish, consisting chiefly of remains of
buildings, over the ruins of Kouyunjik and Khorsabad. These upper rooms
were probably built of sundried bricks and wood, but principally of the
latter material, and may have been connected with the lower by winding
staircases, as in the temple of Solomon, as well as by inclined ways. The
roofs were flat, as those of all Eastern houses are to this day; and, as
suggested by Mr. Fergusson,[288] they may have been crowned by a wooden
talar, or platform, and altars upon which sacrifices were offered,--"The
houses upon whose roofs they have burned incense unto all the host of
heaven, and have poured out drink-offerings to other gods."[289]

I have already described the internal decorations of the Assyrian
palaces,[290] and have little more to add upon the subject. The walls of
Kouyunjik were more elaborately decorated than those of Nimroud and
Khorsabad. Almost every chamber explored, and they amount to above
seventy, was panelled with alabaster slabs carved with numerous figures
and with the minutest details. Each room appears to have been dedicated to
some particular event, and in each, apparently, was the image of the king
himself. In fact, the walls recorded in sculpture what the inscriptions
did in writing,--the whole history of Sennacherib's reign, his great deeds
in peace as well as in war. It will be remarked that whilst in other
Assyrian edifices the king is frequently represented taking an active part
in war, slaying his enemies, and fighting beneath a besieged city, he is
never represented at Kouyunjik otherwise than in an attitude of triumph,
in his chariot or on his throne, receiving the captives and the spoil. Nor
is he ever seen torturing his prisoners, or putting them to death with his
own hand.

There were chambers, however, in the palace of Sennacherib, as well as in
those of Nimroud and Khorsabad, whose walls were simply coated with
plaster, like the walls of Belshazzar's palace at Babylon.[291] They may
have been richly ornamented in color with figures of men and animals, as
well as with elegant designs; or they may have been panelled with cedar
wainscoting, as the chambers in the temple and palaces of Solomon, and in
the great edifices of Babylon. Gilding, too, appears to have been
extensively used in decoration, and some of the great sphinxes may have
been overlaid with gold, like the cherubim in Solomon's temple.[292]

At Kouyunjik, the pavement slabs were not inscribed as at Nimroud; but
those between the winged bulls at some of the entrances, were carved with
an elaborate and very elegant pattern. The doors were probably of wood,
gilt and adorned with precious materials, like the gates of the temple of
Jerusalem, and they appear to have turned in stone sockets, for amongst
the ruins were found many black stones hollowed in the centre, and bearing
an inscription in these words: "Sennacherib, the great king, king of
Assyria, brought this stone from the distant mountains, and used it for
the sockets of the pillars of the doors of his palace."

To ward off the glare of an Eastern sun hangings or curtains of gay colors
and of rich materials were probably suspended to the pillars supporting
the ceiling, or to wooden poles raised for the purpose, as in the palaces
of Babylon and Shushan. Such hangings, as we have seen, appear to be
described in the tablets of king Nebuchadnezzar. The frontispiece to this
volume will enable the reader to understand how they were used. This
engraving from a beautiful water-color drawing, made by Mr. Baynes under
the superintendence of Mr. Fergusson, represents the Eastern façade and
the great entrance to the palace of Sennacherib, as they are supposed
originally to have been. The lower part of the building actually exists,
and is drawn to scale; the upper part of course is mainly founded upon
conjecture; but the preceding remarks may show that we are not altogether
without materials to authorise some such restoration. The edifice
represented in the bas-relief discovered at Kouyunjik has furnished some
of the architectural details, the battlemented finish to the walls is
still seen at Kouyunjik and Nimroud, and the various decorations
introduced in other places are all taken from Assyrian monuments. The two
poles with streamers in the foreground, are from a bas-relief at
Khorsabad. The sculptures at the sides of the steps are those from the
descending passage at Kouyunjik. The stone facing of the platform is that
of the basement of the tower at Nimroud. The lions, Assyrian in character,
are placed on the steps conjecturally, and the steps themselves are
restored. The design upon the pavement is found on slabs at the entrances
at Kouyunjik.

The excavations carried on at Nimroud during the last expedition have
enabled me to restore, to a certain extent, the several buildings on the
platform, and to obtain some idea of their original appearance. On the
artificial platform, built of regular layers of sundried bricks in some
parts, and entirely of rubbish in others, but cased on all sides with
solid stone masonry, stood at one time at least nine distinct buildings.
Between each was a terrace, paved with stone, or with large kiln-burnt
bricks, from one and a half to two feet square. At the north-western
corner rose the great tower, the tomb of the founder of the principal
palace. Its basement was encased with massive masonry of stone, relieved
by recesses and other architectural ornaments. The upper part built of
brick, was most probably painted, like the palaces of Babylon, with
figures and mythic emblems. Its summit, I conjecture, to have consisted of
several receding gradines like the top of the black obelisk, and I would
venture to crown it with an altar on which may have burnt the eternal
fire. Adjoining this tower were, two small temples, dedicated to Assyrian
gods. One actually abutted on it, although there was no communication
whatever, as far as I could discover, between the interior of the two
buildings; the other was about 100 feet to the east. They were both
adorned with sculptures, and had evidently been more than one story high,
and their beams and ceilings were of cedar wood. They contained statues of
the gods, and the fullest records of the reign of the king their founder,
engraved on immense monoliths. Between them was a way up to the platform
from the north.

Between the small temples and the north-west palace were two great flights
of steps, or inclined ways, leading up from the margin of the river. Their
sites are still marked by deep ravines. They opened upon a broad paved
terrace. The north-west palace having been so fully described in my former
work, I need only add that I have now been able to ascertain the position
of its principal façade and entrance. It was to the north, facing the
tower, and nearly resembled the grand approaches to Kouyunjik and
Khorsabad. The two gateways formed by the sphinxes with the human form to
the waist, appear to have flanked a grand centre portal to which they
were united on both sides, as in Sennacherib's palace, by colossal
figures of human-headed bulls and lions and winged priests. The remains of
no other great entrance to the palace have yet been discovered, but I have
little doubt from several indications in the ruins, that there was a
similar façade on the river side, and that a terrace, ascended by broad
flights of steps, overlooked the Tigris.

To the south of the north-west palace was a third ascent to the summit of
the platform, also marked by a ravine in the side of the mound. Beyond it
were the upper chambers, built by the fourth king in succession from
Sardanapalus, probably over the remains of an earlier edifice. Excavations
made in different parts of the small mound covering their ruins, show that
they consisted of three distinct groups, built round a solid central mass
of sundried bricks. The great accumulation of earth above them, proves
that this building must have had more than one story.

The upper chambers were separated from the palace of Essarhaddon, the most
southern on this side of the platform, by a fourth grand approach to the
terraces. Remains of great blocks of stone, of winged bulls, and of
colossal figures in yellow limestone, were found in the ravine.

Essarhaddon's palace was raised some feet above the north-west and centre
edifices. It has been so entirely destroyed by fire, and by the removal of
the slabs from its walls, that a complete ground-plan of it cannot be
restored. In the arrangement of its chambers, as far as we are able to
judge from the ruins, it differed from other Assyrian buildings with which
we are acquainted. The hall, above 220 feet long, and 100 broad, opening
at the northern end by a gateway of winged bulls on a terrace, which
overlooked the grand approach and the principal palaces, and at the
opposite end having a triple portal guarded by three pairs of colossal
sphinxes, which commanded the open country and the Tigris winding through
the plain, must have been a truly magnificent feature in this palace. It
occupied the corner of the platform, and an approach of which considerable
remains still exist led up from the plain to its southern face. Around the
grand hall appear to have been built a number of small chambers; and this
Assyrian building probably answers in its general plan, more than any
other yet discovered, to the descriptions in the Bible of the palace of
Solomon, especially if we assume that the antechamber, divided into two
parts, corresponds with the portico of the Jewish structures.

The palace of Essarhaddon was considerably below the level of that of his
grandson, and was separated from it by what appears, from a very deep and
wide ravine, to have been the principal approach to the platform. The
south-east edifice was very inferior, both in the size of its apartments
and in the materials employed in its construction, to the other royal
buildings. It was probably built when the empire was fast falling to
decay, and, as is usual in such cases, the arts seem to have declined with
the power of the people.

Returning northwards, we come to the only traces of an approach on the
eastern side of the platform, and consequently from the interior of the
walled inclosure. It is remarkable that there should have been but one on
this face; and it is even more curious, that the only sides of the mound
on which there are any remains of walls or fortifications, are the eastern
and northern, where the royal residences would have overlooked the city,
supposing it to have been contained within the existing ramparts of earth.
The edifices facing what would, in that case, have been the open country,
were left apparently defenceless.

On the west side of the platform no actual ruins have been discovered,
although there are undoubtedly traces of building in several places, and I
think it not improbable that a temple, or some similar edifice, stood
there.

It only remains for me to mention the palace in the centre of the
platform, founded by the king whose name is believed to read Divanubar or
Divanubra, but rebuilt almost entirely by Pul or Tiglath-Pileser.
Excavations carried on during the second expedition, brought to light the
walls of a few additional chambers and numerous fragments of interesting
sculptures. But the edifice was so utterly destroyed by Essarhaddon, who
used the materials in the construction of his own dwelling-place, that it
is impossible to ascertain its general plan, or even the arrangement of
any of its rooms. The great inscribed bulls and the obelisk, we know to
have been of the time of the older king; and the bas-reliefs of battles
and sieges, heaped up together as if ready for removal, to have belonged
to the later.

In the ramparts of earth, marking the inclosure wall of Nimroud to the
north, fifty-eight towers can still be distinctly traced. To the east
there were about fifty, but all traces of some of them are entirely gone.
To the south the wall has almost disappeared, so that it could not have
been of great size or thickness on that side. The level of the inclosure
is here, however, considerably above the plain, and it is not improbable
that the Tigris actually flowed beneath part of it, and that the remainder
was defended by a wide and deep ditch, either supplied by the small stream
still running near the ruins, or by the river.

At the south-eastern corner of the inclosure, is a mound of considerable
height, and the remains of a square edifice; they may have been a fort or
castle. I searched in vain for traces of gates in the walls on the
northern side. A high double mound, which probably marks the ruins of an
entrance, was excavated; but no stone masonry or sculptured figures were
discovered, as in a similar mound in the inclosure of Kouyunjik. I
conclude, therefore, that the gateways of the quarter of Nineveh
represented by Nimroud were not, like those of the more northern divisions
of the city, adorned with sculptures, but were built of the same materials
as the walls, and were either arched or square, being formed, like the
gates of modern Arab cities, by simple beams of wood.

It is evident that the inclosure of Nimroud was regularly fortified, and
defended by walls built for the purpose of resisting an enemy, and
sustaining a prolonged siege. That of Khorsabad was precisely similar.
There also the platform, on which the great palace stood, formed part of
the walls,--a fact for which I can scarcely offer any satisfactory
explanation. It would seem more consistent with security that the dwelling
of the king, the temples of the gods, and the edifices containing the
archives and treasures of the kingdom, should have been in the centre of
the fortifications, equally protected on all sides. The palaces of Nimroud
and Kouyunjik, built on a platform, washed by a deep and broad river,
were, to a certain extent, guarded from the approach of an enemy. But at
Khorsabad such was not the case. The royal residence overlooked the plain
country, and was accessible from it, unless the summit of the platform
were strongly fortified on the western side, of which there is no trace.

Of the fortified inclosures still existing, that surrounding Kouyunjik is
the most remarkable, and was best calculated to withstand the attack of a
powerful and numerous army. I give a plan of the ruins from Mr. Rich's
survey, which will enable the reader to understand the following
description.[293]

[Illustration: Plan of the Inclosure Walls and Ditches at Kouyunjik.]

Its form, it will be perceived, was irregular. The side facing the river,
including the mounds of Kouyunjik and Nebbi-Yunus (_a_), and the northern
(or north-western) (_b_), are at right angles to each other, and in
nearly a straight line. From the eastern corner of the northern face, the
inner wall (_c_) forms the segment of a circle towards the southern end of
the western, the two being only 873 yards apart at their extremities
(_d_).[294] On the four sides are the remains of towers and curtains, and
the walls appear to have consisted of a basement of stone and an upper
structure of sundried bricks. The top of the stone masonry was ornamented
with gradines, as at Nimroud.

The western wall (_a_) was washed by the river, and needed no other
defence.[295] A deep ditch, of which traces still exist, appears to have
been dug beneath the northern (_b_). That to the south (_d_) was also
protected by a dyke and the Tigris. The side most accessible to an enemy
was that to the east (_c_), and it was accordingly fortified with
extraordinary care and strength. The small river Khauser flows nearly in a
direct line from the hills to the north-eastern corner of the inclosure,
makes a sweep to the south (at _e_) before reaching it, and after running
for some distance beneath a perpendicular bank formed by conglomerate
hills (_g_) parallel to the walls, but about three quarters of a mile from
them, again turns to the westward (at _f_), and enters the inclosure
almost in the centre. It then traverses this quarter of the city, winds
round the base of Kouyunjik, and falls into the Tigris. Nearly one half of
the eastern wall was, consequently, provided with natural defences. The
Khauser served as a ditch; and the conglomerate ridge, slightly increased
by artificial means, as a strong line of fortification. The remains of one
or more ramparts of earth are still to be traced between the stream and
the inner wall, but they could not have been of very considerable size.
The north-eastern extremity of these outer defences appears to have joined
the ditch which was carried along the northern face of the inclosure, thus
completing the fortification in this part.

Below, or to the south of, the entry of the Khauser into the inclosure,
the inner wall was defended by a complete system of outworks. In the first
place a deep ditch, about one hundred and fifty feet wide, was cut
immediately beneath it, and was divided for half its length into two
separate parts, between which was a rampart. A parallel wall (_h_) was
then carried from the banks of the Khauser to the dyke on the southern
side of the inclosure. A second ditch, about one hundred and eight feet
wide, and of considerable depth, probably supplied by the Khauser,
extended from the point at which that stream turns to the westward, as far
as the southern line of defences. A third wall (_i_), the remains of which
are above one hundred feet high on the inner face, abutted to the north on
the ridge of conglomerate hills (_g_), and completed the outer defences. A
few mounds rising in the level country beyond, the principal of which,
near the southern extremity of the lines, is called Tel-ez-zembil (the
Mound of the Basket), appear to have been fortified outposts, probably
detached towers, such as are represented in the bas-reliefs of Kouyunjik.

An enemy coming from the east, the side on which the inclosure was most
open to attack, had consequently first to force a stupendous wall
strengthened by detached forts. Two deep ditches and two more walls, the
inner being scarcely inferior in size to the outer, had then to be passed
before the city could be taken.[296] The remains still existing of these
fortifications almost confirm the statements of Diodorus Siculus, that the
walls were a hundred feet high, and that three chariots could drive upon
them abreast; and lead to the conclusion that in describing the ramparts
forming the circuit round the whole city, ancient historians were
confounding them with those which inclosed only a separate quarter or a
royal residence, as they have also done in speaking of Babylon. Whilst the
inner walls were constructed of stone and brick masonry, the outer appear
to have consisted of little else than of the earth, loose pebbles, and
rubble dug out from the ditches, which were cut with enormous labor into
the solid conglomerate rock.[297]

The walls and ditches around Kouyunjik were a favourite ride during my
residence among the ruins. The summit of the outer ramparts commands an
extensive and beautiful prospect over all the great mounds, the plains
bounded by the several mountain ranges of Kurdistan, the windings of the
river, and the town of Mosul. "Niniue (that which God himself calleth that
Great Citie) hath not one stone standing, which may giue memorie of the
being of a towne: one English mile from it is a place called Mosul, a
small thing, rather to be a witnesse of the other's mightenesse, and God's
judgement, than of any fashion of magnificence in itselfe."[298] Such are
the simple though impressive words of an old English traveller, who
probably looked down upon the site of Nineveh from the same spot two
centuries and a half ago.

Beaten tracks from the neighbouring villages have for ages led, and still
lead, through the ruins. Along them Arabs and Kurds with their camels and
laden beasts may be seen slowly wending their way to the town. But the
space between the walls is deserted except by the timid gazelle and the
jackals and hyenas which make their dens in the holes and caves in the
sides of the mounds and in the rocky banks of the ancient ditches.

The spring called by the Arabs Damlamajeh, and described by Mr. Rich,[299]
is a small pool of cool and refreshing water in a natural cavern, the fore
part of which is adorned with an arch, cornice, and stonework, evidently
of Roman or Greek construction. Upon the masonry are still to be traced
the names of Mrs. Rich, and of the companions of the distinguished
traveller.



CONCLUSION.


The time was drawing near for my departure. Once more I was about to leave
the ruins amidst which I had spent so many happy hours, and to which I was
bound by so many pleasant and solemn ties; and probably to return no more.

I only waited the arrival of Abde, the late Pasha of Baghdad, who was now
on his way to his new government of Diarbekir. He was travelling with a
large company of attendants, and without a strong escort it was scarcely
prudent to venture on a journey. It was doubly necessary for me to have
proper protection, as I took with me the valuable collection of bronzes
and other small objects discovered in the ruins. I gladly, therefore,
availed myself of this opportunity of joining so numerous and powerful a
caravan.

At length, after the usual Eastern delays, the Pasha arrived at Mosul. He
remained encamped outside the town for two or three days, and during that
time visited the excavations, his curiosity having been excited by the
description he had received of the wondrous idols dug out of the ruins. He
marvelled at what he saw, as a Turk marvels at strange things which he can
neither understand nor explain. It would be in vain to speak to him of the
true objects of such researches, the knowledge they impart, the lessons
they teach, or the thoughts they beget.

In these pages I have occasionally indulged in reflections suggested by
the scenes I have had to describe, and have ventured to point out the
moral of the strange tale I have had to relate. I cannot better conclude
than by showing the spirit in which Eastern philosophy and Mussulman
resignation contemplate the evidences of ancient greatness and
civilization, suddenly rising up in the midst of modern ignorance and
decay. A letter in my possession contained so true and characteristic a
picture of the feelings that such an event excites in the mind of a good
Mohammedan, that I here give a literal translation of its contents. It was
written to a friend of mine by a Turkish Cadi, in reply to some inquiries
as to the commerce, population, and remains of antiquity of an ancient
city, in which dwelt the head of the law. These are its words:--

    "My Illustrious Friend, and Joy of my Liver!

    "The thing you ask of me is both difficult and useless. Although I
    have passed all my days in this place, I have neither counted the
    houses nor have I inquired into the number of the inhabitants; and as
    to what one person loads on his mules and the other stows away in the
    bottom of his ship, that is no business of mine. But, above all, as to
    the previous history of this city, God only knows the amount of dirt
    and confusion that the infidels may have eaten before the coming of
    the sword of Islam. It were unprofitable for us to inquire into it.

    "Oh, my soul! oh, my lamb! seek not after the things which concern
    thee not. Thou camest unto us, and we welcomed thee: go in peace.

    "Of a truth, thou hast spoken many words; and there is no harm done,
    for the speaker is one and the listener is another. After the fashion
    of thy people thou hast wandered from one place to another until thou
    art happy and content in none. We (praise be to God) were born here,
    and never desire to quit it. Is it possible then that the idea of a
    general intercourse between mankind should make any impression on our
    understandings? God forbid!

    "Listen, oh my son! There is no wisdom equal unto the belief in God!
    He created the world, and shall we liken ourselves unto him in seeking
    to penetrate into the mysteries of his creation? Shall we say, behold
    this star spinneth round that star, and this other star with a tail
    goeth and cometh in so many years! Let it go! He from whose hand it
    came will guide and direct it.

    "But thou wilt say unto me, Stand aside, oh man, for I am more learned
    than thou art, and have seen more things. If thou thinkest that thou
    art in this respect better than I am, thou art welcome. I praise God
    that I seek not that which I require not. Thou art learned in the
    things I care not for; and as for that which thou hast seen I defile
    it. Will much knowledge create thee a double belly, or wilt thou seek
    Paradise with thine eyes?

    "Oh, my friend! If thou wilt be happy, say, There is no God but God!
    Do no evil, and thus wilt thou fear neither man nor death; for surely
    thine hour will come!

      "The meek in spirit (El Fakir),
        "IMAUM ALI ZADE."

On the 28th of April I bid a last farewell to my faithful Arab friends,
and with a heavy heart turned from the ruins of ancient Nineveh.


THE END.



[Illustration]



INDEX.


  A.

  _Abde Pasha_, 383, 540.

  _Abdi Agha_, 52.

  _Abd-ul-Azeez_, mound of, 187.
    Hills of, 259.

  _Abou-Jerdeh_, mound, 186.

  _Abou-Khameera_, ruins of, 201, 202.

  _Abou-Maria_, excavations at, 278.

  _Abou-Sheetha_, mound of, 188.

  _Abraham_ thrown into the furnace by Nimrod, 403.

  _Adremit_, village of, 338.

  _Adrammelech_, name of, according to Rawlinson, 497.

  _Æthiopia_, mentioned in inscriptions, 121.

  _Afaij_, visit to tribe of, 438.
    Their boats, 443.
    Their huts, 445.

  _Agab_, Sheikh of the Afaij, 446.

  _Agammi_ river, 124, 475.

  _Agayl_, tribe of, 395.

  _Akhlat_, village of, 30.

  _Akhtamar_, patriarch of, 339.
    Visit to the island of, _ib._
    Church of, _ib._

  _Akkari_, sea of the Mediterranean, 296.

  _Akker-Kuf_, ruin of, 382.

  _Akko_, a Yezidi chief, 42, 47.

  _Albanian_, an, 313.

  _Alabaster_, jars in, 164, 165.

  _Alexander the Great_, 174, 190.
    Wish to uncover ruins of Temple of Belus, 420.
    To rebuild it, 426.
    To restore canals, 428.

  _Ali-Baba_ mountains, 24.

  _Altars_ discovered at Khorsabad, 110.
    At Nimroud, 288.

  _American_ missionaries, their establishments, 313, 332, 334, and _note_.
    Their schools at Ooroomiyah, 334.
    Intercourse with Nestorians, 347.

  _Amran_, mound of, 390.
    Discoveries in, 414.

  _Ana_, town of, mentioned in inscriptions, 294.

  _Anana_, ruin and village, 436.

  _Antioch_, Egyptian monument at, 295, _note_.

  _Ararat_, name of Armenia, 403.
    View of mount, 423.

  _Araxes_ river, 25.

  _Arban_, arrival at, 223.
    Description of, 226.
    Excavations at, 228.
    Departure from, 252.

  _Arbela_, battle of, 174.

  _Arabs._ _See_ Bedouins.

  _Arab_ workmen, 88.
    Instances of honesty in, 470.

  _Arabkha_, a city under Sennacherib, 120.

  _Aramæans_ defeated by Sennacherib, 118.

  _Arch_ at Nimroud, 138.

  _Architecture_, Armenian, 35.
    Assyrian, 120.
    Babylonian, 423.
    Early Persian, 460.
    Comparison between Assyrian and Jewish, 517.

  _Armenia_, a bishop of, 27, 392.
    Ploughs in, 29, 38.
    Schools in, 331.
    Reform in church, 332.
    Books in language of, 334.
    Ignorance of Christians in, 335.

  _Armour_, parts of, discovered, 152, 162.
    Worn by Bedouins, 251.

  _Arms_ in iron and bronze discovered, 162.

  _Arrows_, heads of, discovered, 162.

  _Art_, Assyrian, of lower period, 369.

  _Arvad_, name of, in inscriptions, 296.

  _Ascalon_, name of, in inscriptions, 122.

  _Ashayansk_, village of, 340.

  _Ashtoreth_, or Astarte, the moon, 291, and _note_.

  _Ashur_, the supreme god of the Assyrians, 504.

  _Ashurakhbal._ _See_ Sardanapalus.

  _Ass_, a wild, 224.
    White, of Bagdad, 379.

  _Assordanes_, name in inscriptions, 365.

  _Assurnadin_, son of Sennacherib, 124.

  _Assyria_, computation of time in, 178.
    Greek coin of, 479.
    Name of, on Egyptian monuments, 505.
    Records of, compared with Jewish, 506.
    Nature of government, 507.
    Bounds of empire, 509.

  _Athur_ or _Assur_, mound of, 139.

  _Azeez Agha_, a young Sheikh, 393.


  B.

  _Baashiekhah_, village of, 112.

  _Baazani_, village of, 111.

  _Babel_, mound of, 389, 397.
    Excavations and discoveries in, 408.
    Small objects from, 409.

  _Babylon_ taken by Sennacherib, 118, 178, 500.
    In possession of early Nimroud king, 293.
    Name of, in Wan inscriptions, 327.
    Approach to ruins of, 389.
    Excavations commenced at, 394.
    Walls of, not traced, 397.
    Dimensions of walls, 398.
    General plan of, 400.
    Hanging gardens of, 405.
    Temple of Belus, 406.
    Painted walls at, 412.
    Deities of, 413.
    Jews of the captivity at, 415.
    Building materials of, 420.
    History of, 425.
    Destruction of, 427.
    Commerce of, 428.
    Fabrics of, 431.
    Inhabitants impaled by Darius, 295, _note_.
    Common origin of inhabitants with Assyrians, 423.
    Cupidity of their priests, 427.
    Commerce and roads of, 428.
    Corruption of, 432.
    Cylinders and gems of, 488.

  _Badger_, the Rev. Mr., his intercourse with the Nestorians, 347, _note_.

  _Baghdad_, departure for, 373.
    Entrance to, 380.
    Description of, 381.
    Departure from, 465.

  _Baiandour_, Sultan, the tomb of, 31.

  _Bairam_, Mussulman feast of, 330.

  _Bash-Kalah_, castle of, 315.

  _Bavian_, sculptures of, 173.
    Inscriptions of, 177, 494.

  _Baz_, district of, 353.

  _Beavers_ of the Khabour, 247.

  _Bedouins_, customs of, with regard to captured horses, 184.
    On seeing a stranger, 202.
    Their women, 217.
    Their bread, 239.
    Their hospitality, 240.
    Their food, _ib._
    Diseases amongst, 242.
    Their Cadis, 253.
    Lovemaking of, 262.
    Laws of Dakheel, or protection, 263.
    Their poetry, 265.
    Their sagacity, 269.
    Their horses, 272.
    Their honesty, 470.

  _Belad_, ancient district of, 99.

  _Belib_, made king of Babylon, 118, 500.

  _Bells_ discovered at Nimroud, 151.
    Analyses of copper of, 160.

  _Benjamin_ of Tudela, his description of Babylon, 402.
    Of tomb of Ezekiel, 407.
    Of tomb of Ezra, 407, _note_.
    Account of captive Jews, 416.

  _Beth-Khumri_, or Samaria, 494.

  _Bimerstein_, Dr., 323, _note_.

  _Birs-Nimroud_, the, 401.
    Restoration of, 404.

  _Bishi_ country conquered by Sennacherib, 119.

  _Bitlis_, town of, 38.

  _Bitumen_ pits fired, 168.
    Used for cement, 422.

  _Blood-revenge_ among Bedouins, 253.

  _Boats_ of Afaij, 443.

  _Borsippa_, the Birs Nimroud, 402.

  _Bowen_, the Rev. Mr., 300, 319, 334.

  _Bowls_ of bronze from Nimroud, 153.
    Earthenware with Hebrew inscriptions, 415.
    Date of, 417.

  _Brant_, Mr., 20.

  _Bread_, Arab mode of baking, 239.
    Unlawful to see among Afaij, 457.

  _Bricks_, painted, at Khorsabad, 110.
    Nimroud, 139.
    Babylonian, 141, 405.

  _Bronzes_, discovery of, 151.
    Analysis of, 160.
    Origin of, 161.

  _Buffalos_ of Arabs, 406.

  _Bukra_, village of, 209.

  _Bulls_, winged, transport of represented in bas-reliefs, 91, 99.
    At gateway, 102.
    In façade of Kouyunjik, 115.
    At Arban, 228.

  _Burchardt_, his account of the Bedouins, 199, _note_, 263.

  _Bustard_, the, 205.
    Hawking the, 386.


  C.

  _Calah_, ancient name of Nimroud, 294.

  _Caldrons_, discovery, at Nimroud, 151.
    Value of, among ancients, 152.
    Represented in bas-relief, 588.

  _Camanus_ mountain. _See_ Kamana.

  _Camels_ of Nimroud, 36.
    Abstinence from water, 215, _note_.
    Represented in bas-reliefs, 476.

  _Canals_ of Babylonia, 478.

  _Canning_, Sir S., 17.
    Protects reformed Armenians, 333.

  _Captives_ in bas-reliefs, with feathers in their heads, 139.
    With feathered head-dress, 192.

  _Captivity_, Prince of the, 417.
    The history of the Jews of the, 416.

  _Carchemish_, 195, 236, 238.

  _Cavalry_, Turkish irregular, 267.

  _Cavern_, a natural, 255.
    Artificial, at Wan, 328.

  _Cedar-wood_ brought by Assyrians from Lebanon, 297, 521.
    Discovered at Nimroud, 297.
    Employed in palaces, 527.

  _Centre Palace_, Nimroud, builder of, 497.
    State of, 534.

  _Chaldæans_ defeated by Sennacherib, 118.

  _Chariot_, an Assyrian, 130.
    Royal, 364.

  _Chark_, a hawk used by Bedouins, 387.

  _Charms_, Eastern, 418.

  _Chellek_, village of, 48.

  _Cherubim_ of Jews compared with Assyrian figures, 519.

  _Chinese_ bottles discovered at Arban, 332.

  _Chesney_, Col., expedition under, 381.

  _Cock_, image of, on Babylonian gems, 432.

  _Commerce_ of Babylon, 432.

  _Coffins_ of earthenware at Arban, 234.
    At Niffer, 449.
    Of wood, at Babel, 408.

  _Colonies_, Assyrian, 513.

  _Colors_ on bricks, 139.

  _Columns_ not found at Babylon, 423.
    Used at Nineveh, 526.

  _Cooper_, Mr., 16, 88.
    Returns to England, 337.

  _Copper_ used in colors, 297.

  _Convent_, a Nestorian, 311.
    An Armenian, 339.

  _Corinthian_ capital, 194.

  _Cowley_, Lord, protects the Armenians, 333.

  _Ctesiphon_, ruin of, 460.
    Tradition connected with, 461.

  _Cuneiform_, progress in deciphering, 492.

  _Cuth_, country of, 432, _note_.

  _Cylinders_, of Sennacherib, 136.
    Babylonian, 432.
    Assyrian, 488.
    Phoenician, 487.
    Persian, 488.
    Used as seals, 490.

  _Cyprus_, Assyrian tablet found in, 499.

  _Cyrus_, description of, 357.
    Takes Babylon, 426.


  D.

  _Dagon_, represented in bas-reliefs, 284, 289.

  _Dakheel_, the law of, among Bedouins, 263.

  _Dam_, building up a, 385.

  _Dumlamajeh_, spring of, 540.

  _Darius_, cylinder of, 489.

  _Deloul._ _See_ Dromedary.

  _Denarii_ found at Kouyunjik, 479.

  _Dereboun_, village of, 52.

  _Dereh Beys_, the, 22.

  _Dervish_, a Persian, 32.

  _Desert_, the, described, 204, 205, 250.

  _Divanubar_, name of Assyrian king, 496.

  _Diz_, district of, 349.

  _Dizza_, town of, 313.

  _Dromedary_, the, 196, _note_, 249, 278.

  _Ducks_, in marble, &c. used as weights, 486, and _note_.

  _Dudjook_ tribes, 21.

  _Dujail_, canal of, 465.

  _Dura_, plain of, 376.


  E.

  _Earring_ of gold from Kouyunjik, 482.
    Moulds for casting, _ib._

  _Eclipse_, Eastern prejudice concerning, 444, and _note_.

  _Effendi_, the, a Yezidi chief, 200.

  _Egypt_, seal of king of, 134.
    Bronzes of Egyptian character, 154, 156, 157.
    Relics of, discovered at Kouyunjik, 482.
    Conquered by Essarhaddon, 501.

  _Egyptians_, mode of transport of great stones, 98.
    Defeated by Sennacherib, 121.
    Antiquities of, at Antioch, 295.
    Weights used by, 487.

  _Elam_, ancient name of, 124, 365.
    Conquest of, 178, 292, 362, 473.

  _Elulæus_, king of Tyre, mentioned in inscriptions, 121.

  _Ekron_, name in inscriptions, 121.

  _Embossing_ on bronze vessels, 153.

  _Enamel_, Assyrian, 165, 297.
    Babylonian, 412.

  _Enoch_, book of, 418.

  _Erzeroom_, roads to city of, 17, 20.

  _Eski Baghdad_, ruins of, 377.

  _Eski Mosul_, ruins at, 278.

  _Essarhaddon_, name of, 136.
    Cylinder of, 286.
    Name at Nebbi Yunus, 484.
    His monuments, 501.
    His palace at Nimroud, 532.

  _Essarhaddon's son_, his bas-reliefs, 362.
    His name, 365.
    His palace at Shereef-Khan, 484.
    His monuments, 501.

  _Eulæus_, river, 125.

  _Eunuch_, represented in bas-relief, 364.

  _Euphrates_, river, 27.
    Represented in bas-reliefs, 359.
    Banks of, deserted, 374.
    Navigation of, 381.
    State of, _ib._
    Changes in its course at Babylon, 399.

  _Evemerus_, king of Parthia, sends Babylonians to Media, 427.

  _Evil Spirit_, the, represented in bas-reliefs, 289.

  _Eyes_ in marble and enamel, 297.

  _Ezekiel_, tomb of, 407.

  _Ezra_, tomb of 407, _note_.


  F.

  _Façade_ of Kouyunjik palace, 115.

  _Falcons._ _See_ Hawking.

  _Faras_, Sheikh of the Tai, 147.

  _Fawaz_, a hawk, 224.

  _Fergusson_, Mr., remarks on Assyrian cornice, 110.
    Restoration of Assyrian palaces, 519, 520, 523, 526.

  _Ferhan_, son of Sofuk, 276.

  _Ferry-boat_ at Mosul, 300.

  _Fish-god._ _See_ Dagon.

  _Footstool_ of bronze discovered, 166.

  _Ford_, the Rev. Mr., 198.

  _Fountain_, an Assyrian, 180.

  _Funduk_, village of, 49.

  _Futhliyah_, village and mound of, 111.

  _Fynyk_, rock sculptures at, 50.


  G.

  _Galleys_ represented in bas-reliefs, 192.

  _Gate_ of Eastern cities, 52.
    Of Nineveh, 101.
    Of palace, 529.
    None discovered at Nimroud, 535.

  _Gaza_, name of, in inscriptions, 122.

  _Gazelle_, hawking the, 387.

  _Ghazir_ river, the, 148, 303.

  _Gherdi_, district of, 306.

  _Gherara_, mound of, excavated, 383.

  _Glass_ bowls, 164.
    Vase of Sargon, 164.
    From Babel, 409.
    From Kouyunjik, 480.

  _Gods_, the twelve Assyrian, 291.
    Table of, 504.

  _Gold_ inlaid in bronze, 165.
    Laid over figures in temples, 529.

  _Gomel_ river, 173.

  _Greek_ art, resemblance to Assyrian, 369.
    Remains at Kouyunjik, 480.

  _Greyhound_, Persian, 47.

  _Guagamela_, battle of, 173.

  _Gula Shailu_ lake, 28.

  _Guli_, village of, 23.

  _Gunduk_, Assyrian bas-reliefs at, 304.

  _Guzelder_, village of, 43.


  H.

  _Hadj_, the, or caravan to Mecca, 433.

  _Hagarenes_, conquered by Sennacherib, 119.

  _Hakkiari_, pashalic of, 307.

  _Hall_, great, in palace of Kouyunjik, 360.

  _Hamki_, village of, 40.

  _Hangings_ of silk in Babylonian palace, 422.
    At Nineveh, 529.

  _Hanging gardens_, 194, 405.

  _Harisa_, an Arab dish, 77.

  _Hartushi_ Kurds, 344.

  _Haroun_, mound of, 440.

  _Hatem Tai_, anecdote of, 146, _note_.

  _Hawking_, 223, 248.
    Falcons, 277.
    Training, 387.

  _Hazael_, king of Syria, mentioned in inscriptions, 494.

  _Hebar._ _See_ Khabour.

  _Hercules_, the Assyrian, 114, 179, 482, 484.

  _Herki_, tribe of, 183.

  _Hermus_, river, mentioned in inscriptions, 294.

  _Hezekiah_, name of, in inscriptions, 121.
    Wars of Sennacherib with, 122.

  _Hillah_, arrival at, 391.
    Governor of, 393.
    Built of Babylonian bricks, 412.

  _Hincks_, the Rev. Dr., translations of inscriptions, 99, 117, 177, 291.
    Discovery of name of Sennacherib, 116.
    Of Nebuchadnezzar, 116, _note_.
    Of syllabarium, 286.
    Discoveries, 492.
    On Wan inscriptions, 327, 329.
    Translation of inscription of Nebuchadnezzar, 422.

  _Hindiyah_ canal and marshes, 383, 401.

  _Hittites_, the, name of Syrians, 120.
    Tribute of, 293.
    Name of, on Egyptian monuments, 505.

  _Horses_, trappings of, 151.
    Pedigrees of Bedouin, 184.
    Bedouin, 215.
    Turkish, 267.
    Arab breeds, 272.
    Represented in bas-reliefs, 282.
    Clothed in armour, 363.

  _Howar_, Sheikh of the Tai, 144, 183.

  _Hymer_, the ruins of, 436.


  I. J.

  _Idols_ of Assyrians carried away, 179.
    Taken by Assyrians, 191, 474.

  _Jehesh_, tribe of, 200.

  _Jehu_, name of, on obelisk, 493.

  _Jelu_, mountains of, 350.
    Valley of, 350.
    Ancient church in, 352.
    Bishop of, 352.

  _Jerraiyah_, mound of, 83.

  _Jews_ represented in bas-reliefs, 131, 367.
    Dress of, 131.
    Captives on the Hebar, 235, 359.
    Families in Kurdistan, 308.
    Nomades, 317.
    Pilgrimage to Ezekiel's tomb, 407.
    Relics of, from Babylon, 414.
    Their history after the captivity, 415.
    Ancient political state of, compared with Assyria, 509.

  _Jiulamerik_, town of, 346.

  _Illibi_, a country conquered by Sennacherib, 120.

  _Impalement_, 295.

  _India_, overland road to, 375.
    Intercourse of Babylonians with, 429.
    Dogs of, brought to Babylon, 430.

  _Inclined_ way discovered, 370.

  _Inclosures_ of Nimroud and Kouyunjik, 514, 534.

  _Inlaying_, art of, known to Assyrians, 164.

  _Inscriptions_ deciphered, 100.
    Progress made in, 492.

  _Jones_, Capt. Conduct towards Arabs, 455.

  _Jonah_, tomb of, 482.
    Excavations in mound of, 483.
    His preaching, 507.

  _Jovian_, retreat of, 377.

  _Iron_, bronze cast over, 163.
    Objects discovered in, 297, 482.

  _Judi_ mountain, ark rested on, 501.
    Tablet at foot of, _ib._

  _Jumjuma._ _See_ Amran.

  _Ivory_, objects in, discovered, 297.


  K.

  _Kadesia_, site of battle, 378.

  _Kalah-Sherghat_, excavations at, 471.

  _Kamana_, mountain of, mentioned in inscriptions, 296.

  _Kara-chok_, hills of, 185.

  _Karagol_, village of, 26.

  _Kar-Duniyas_, a city of Chaldæa, 118, 178, 295.

  _Karboul_ Sheikh, 440.

  _Karnaineh_ Khan, 468.

  _Karnessa ou Daoleh_ mountain, 345.

  _Kasr_, the, of Rich, 411. _See_ Mujelibé.

  _Kathimain_, tombs of, 379, 465.

  _Keshaf_, mound of, 183.

  _Khabour_ river, 52, 56.
    Journey to, 195.
    Arrival at, 223.
    Discoveries on, 234.
    Ancient condition of country on, 235.
    Course of, 256.
    Sources of, 259.

  _Khan-i-resh_, village of, 308.

  _Khan Mahmoud_, a Kurdish chief, 323, 340.

  _Kharareh_, subdued by Sennacherib, 119.

  _Kharkhar_, a country conquered by Sennacherib, 120.

  _Khatouniyah_, lake of, 270.

  _Khauser_, the river, 71, 101, 177.

  _Khazana Kapousi_, tablet at Wan, 326.

  _Khelath._ _See_ Akhlat.

  _Kherimmi_ conquered by Sennacherib, 120.

  _Khoraif_, a Bedouin, 197.

  _Khorkhor_, name of gardens at Wan, 326.

  _Khorsabad_, discoveries at, 109.
    Builder of, 126.
    Inclosure of, 449.

  _Kiamil Pasha_, 71.

  _Kifil_, tomb of Ezekiel, 407.

  _King_, bas-relief of, at Nimroud, 290.
    On bas-relief, 358.
    Table of names, 502.

  _Kirikor_, an Armenian monk, 338.

  _Kochers_, or nomades, 184, 307.

  _Kormawor_, inscription in church of, 335.

  _Kosh-ab_, castle of, 317.

  _Kosli_, village of, 25.

  _Koukab_, volcanic hill of, 226, 255, 268.

  _Kouyunjik_, discoveries at, 61, 69, 99, 118, &c.
    General description of, 70.
    Excavations renewed in, 85, 88.
    Grand entrance discovered, 114.
    Descending passage, 280.
    Residence at, 301.
    Extent of ruins excavated, 476.
    Small objects from, 478, 481, 482.
    Restoration of palace, 521, 527.
    Inclosure and defences, 535.

  _Kurdistan_, journey into, 305.
    Dialects of, 309.
    Chiefs of, 391.

  _Kurds_, chief of, 49, 309.
    Character of, 307.
    Fanaticism, 310.


  L.

  _Lachish_, siege of, represented, 128.
    Name of, on bas-reliefs, 130, 131, _note_.

  _Lak_, mounds of, 109.

  _Lead_ found in ruins, 297.

  _Lebanon_, cedar wood from, 101, 297.
    Conquered by Sardanapalus, 299.

  _Ledjmiyat_, encampment at, 248.

  _Lens_ of rock crystal, 164.

  _Levers_ used by Assyrians, 98.

  _Limestone_ in palace of Kouyunjik, 368.

  _Lions_ brought as tribute, 115.
    Statue of at Arban, 231.
    Found on the Khabour, 245.
    Colossal statues, at Nimroud, 298.
    Tame, at Hillah, 393.
    Found in marshes of Babylonia, 456.
    Mode of capturing, 456.
    Bronze weights, 486, and _note_.

  _Lions_ (_winged_), removal of, 137, 167.
    Sent to Baghdad, 170.
    Colossal, discovered at Nimroud, 288.

  _Lion_ (_headed_) figure, 370.

  _Locusts_ represented in bas-reliefs, 281.

  _Loftus_, Mr., discoveries at Wurka, 437.


  M.

  _Mahmoudiyah_ valley and town of, 316.

  _Maidan_ Arabs, 456.

  _Makhoul_ hills, 468.

  _Makloub_ hills, 302.

  _Malan_, Rev. Mr., 300.

  _Mar Shamoun_, 352.

  _Mansouriyah_, village of, 51.

  _Median Wall_, 378, 467.

  _Marduk_, a god of the Babylonians, 422.

  _Mecca_, return of caravan from, 433.

  _Marshes_ represented in bas-reliefs, 475.
    Of the Afaij, 443.
    Of Southern Mesopotamia, 455.

  _Mar Shamoun_, 346.

  _Mediterranean_ Sea mentioned in inscriptions, 296.

  _Meher_-Kapousi, inscription of, 327.

  _Mehemet_, Pasha of Wan, 320.

  _Melek Beniamen_, 350.

  _Melek Taous_ of Yezidis, 46.

  _Menahem_, discovery of name, 497.

  _Merodach Baladin_, his name in inscriptions, 117, 124, 178.
    War against, described by Eusebius, 500.

  _Meroe._ _See_ Æthiopia.

  _Mesopotamia_, ancient state of, 204, 296, 513.
    Journey into Southern, 437.
    Present state of, 454.

  _Metallurgy_ of Assyrians, 161.

  _Mirage_, remarkable effect of, 461.

  _Mijwell_, a Bedouin chief, 253.

  _Mirkan_, village of, 208.

  _Milli_ Kurds, 257, 8.

  _Minuas_, name of Armenian king, 327, 336.

  _Mirza_ Agha, a Yezidi chief, 44.

  _Mohammed Emin_, Sheikh, 196, 227.
    His tents, 223, 237, 276.

  _Mokhamour_, ruins of, 185.

  _Monoliths_ at Nimroud, 291, 298.

  _Moses of Chorene_, description of Wan, 322.

  _Mosul_, arrival at, 54.

  _Motassem Billah_, palace of, at Samarrah, 377.

  _Mousa Bey_, a Kurdish chief, 309.

  _Moulds_ for earrings discovered, 482.

  _Mound_, building represented, 96.

  _Moxoene._ _See_ Mukus.

  _Montefik_ Arabs, 454.

  _Mujelibé_, mound of, 390.
    Discoveries in, 411.
    Painted walls and basalt lion, 412.
    Tree on, 413.

  _Mukus_, pass into, 341.
    District of, _ib._

  _Musseiyib_, village of, 385.


  N.

  _Nabathæans_, conquered by Sennacherib, 119.

  _Naghit_, cities of, 124.

  _Nahiri._ _See_ Mesopotamia.

  _Naharwan_, canal, 377.

  _Nahr-el-Kelb_, tablets of Sennacherib at, 176.

  _Nahum_, tomb of, 483, _note_.

  _Narek_, village and church of, 340.

  _Namet Agha_, chief of Zibari, 306.

  _Names_, Assyrian royal, 125.

  _Nasr_, Sheikh, 75.

  _Navkur_, plain of, 305.

  _Nazi_, a Yezidi chief, 47.

  _Nazik_, lake of, 28.

  _Nebbi Unus._ _See_ Jonah.

  _Nebuchadnezzar_, name of, 116, _note_.
    His golden image at Dura, 376.
    Bricks and stones bearing his name, 402, 410.
    Rebuilt Babylon, 425.
    Tablet of, 424.

  _Nedjd_, road to, 279.
    Present state of, 434.

  _Negoub_, tablet from tunnel of, 497.

  _Nergal_, an idol, 432.

  _Nerib_, a city taken by Assyrians, 293.

  _Nestorian_ villages near Akra, 304.
    Families in Gherdi, 309.
    Bishop of Shemisden, 311.
    Patriarch, 346.
    Turkish oppression, 348.
    A bishop, 352.
    A church, _ib._

  _Nimroud_, return to, 85.
    Discoveries at, 104.
    Flood at, 287.
    Small temples at, 288, 297.
    Account of building of north-west palace in inscriptions, 293.
    Restoration of platform, 530.

  _Niebuhr_, remarks on Greek art, 369.

  _Niffer_, first view of, 442.
    Description of, 442.
    Excavations at, 443.
    Coffins discovered, 450.

  _Nimroud Dagh_ mountains, 36.

  _Nineveh_, Roman coins of, 479.
    Its founder, according to Rawlinson, 495.
    Name of, on Egyptian monuments, 505.
    Extent of, 513, 515.
    Described by old English travellers, 539.

  _Ninos_, castle of, on site of Nineveh, 478.

  _Noah_, a temple to, 485, _note_.

  _Nur Ullah Bey_, murderer of Schulz, 314.

  _Nuvaki_, ancient name of Susiana or Elam, 292, 365.


  O.

  _Oannes._ _See_ Dagon.

  _Obelisk_, from Nimroud, by whom raised, 493.
    Name of Jehu on, _ib._

  _Omri_, name of, on inscriptions, 493.

  _Ooroomiyah_, American schools at, 334.

  _Ormuzd_, form of, 490.

  _Orontes_, river mentioned in inscriptions, 295.

  _Oxus_ river, supposed to be mentioned in inscriptions, 498.


  P.

  _Palace_, at Nimroud built, 293.
    Of Nebuchadnezzar, 422.
    Assyrian mode of lighting, 524.
    More than one story, 527.
    Internal decorations, 528.

  _Parasang_, its length, 55.

  _Patriarch_, of Akhtamar, 338.
    Bodies of Chaldæan patriarchs discovered, 233.

  _Pearls_ brought to Babylon, 430.

  _Pedestals_ discovered at Kouyunjik, 477.

  _Persia_, frontiers of, 314.
    Costume of ancient kings of, 358, 363.
    A prince of, 384.
    Conquest of Babylon, 426.
    Relics of, at Kouyunjik, 485.

  _Persian_ Gulf navigated by Babylonians, 429.
    Cylinders, 489.
    Houses compared with Assyrian, 525.

  _Phoenician_ seals, 138.
    Letters on bronze, 159.
    Workers in metal, 161.
    Coast conquered by Assyrians, 192.
    Tribute to Assyrian king, 295.
    Trade with Babylon, 430.
    Cylinders, 489.

  _Pine-apple_ in bas-reliefs, 281.

  _Plaster_ on walls of palaces, 421, 530.

  _Plough_, Armenian, 314.

  _Poetry_ of Bedouins, 266.

  _Poole_, Mr. Stuart, note on denarii, 479.

  _Pottery_ from Babylon, 409.
    From Kouyunjik, 480.

  _Priest_, Assyrian, sacrificing, 191.

  _Protestant_ religion, extension of, in Turkey, 331.

  _Propylæum_ at Khorsabad, 109.

  _Pul_, monuments of, 498.

  _Pyramid_ at Nimroud, excavations in, 104.


  Q.

  _Quarries_ of alabaster, 112.

  _Quintus Curtius_, description of Persian king, 358.


  R.

  _Rafts_ of skins, 194, 373.

  _Rassam_, Mr. Hormuzd, 88.

  _Rathaiyah_, the wife of Suttum, 219.

  _Rawlinson_, Col., 87.
    Sculptures purchased by, 110.
    Discovery of annals of Sennacherib, 117;
      of name of father of Sargon, 291.
    Theory as to Babylon, 407.
    Discoveries, 492, _etc._

  _Records_, chamber of, 286.
    Of early Nimroud king, 298.
    Nature of Assyrian, 511.

  _Rediff_, meaning of term, 236.

  _Redwan_, town of, 44.

  _Reshid_ Pasha, 20.

  _Rich_, Mr., description of Babylon, 396, _note_.
    Sketch of the Birs Nimroud, 404.
    Discoveries at Babel, 408.

  _Rishwan_, an Arab Sheikh, 214.

  _Roads_, Turkish, 18.
    Babylonian, 429.

  _Roman_ relics discovered at Kouyunjik, 479.

  _Ross_, Dr., 380.


  S.

  _Sabaco_, seal of, 134.

  _Sabæan_ letters and dialect on Babylonian bowls, 417.

  _Sahiman_, brother of Suttum, 215, 464.

  _Saladin_, birthplace of, 374.

  _Samarrah_, town of, 377.

  _Samaria_, name in inscriptions, 498.

  _Sand hills_, moving, 439.

  _Sandwith_, Dr., 16, 337.

  _Sardanapalus_, or Ashurakhbal, his tomb, 106.
    Name read by Col. Rawlinson, 291.
    His records, 290.
    Builds a city on the Euphrates, 294.
    Campaigns of, 294.
    Small statue of, 299.
    His records, 492, 494.

  _Sargon_, name of, 127, and _note_.
    Name on glass vase, 164.
    His cotemporary at Wan, 329.
    Monuments of, 498.

  _Sassanian_ ruins, 377.

  _Saulcy_, M. de, investigations of, 492.

  _Saw_ of iron from Nimroud, 163.

  _Scarabs_ on bronzes, 164.
    Egyptian, discovered at Arban, 233.
    At Nineveh, 482.

  _Sceptre_ of ivory found at Nimroud, 164.

  _Schools_, Armenian, at Wan, 331.
    In Turkey, 332.

  _Schulz_ murdered, 314.
    His account of Wan, 322.

  _Seals_, Assyrian, discovered, 132.
    Phoenician and Egyptian, 132.
    Of king of Egypt, 134.
    Importance of, in East, 490, _note_.

  _Seleucia_, ruins of, 461.

  _Seleucus_ founded Seleucia, 427.

  _Seleucidæ_, remains of period of, at Kouyunjik, 480.

  _Semiramis_ founded Wan, 321.

  _Sennacherib_ superintending transport of colossi, 95.
    His annals discovered, 117.
    Name of, 126.
    His Signet, 135.
    His sculptures at Bavian, 173.
    His buildings at Shomamok, 186.
    Name at Shereef-Khan, 484.
    Date of accession, 494.
    His monuments, 528.

  _Sert_, river of, 38.

  _Seven_ Sleepers, the cave of, 173.

  _Shabbak_, sect of, 181.

  _Shahan_ Bey, 22.

  _Shaheen_, a falcon, 386.

  _Shammar_, Gebel, present state of, 434.

  _Shalmaneser_, name of, 127, and _note_.
    Name on Monuments, 499.

  _Shat-el-Arab._ _See_ Euphrates.

  _Shell_, engraved, from Wurka, 453.

  _Shedadi_, mound of, 247.

  _Sheikh_-Adi, 72.
    Ceremonies at, 74.

  _Sheikh_ Tahar, 310.

  _Shepherds' Gate_, tradition of, at Wan, 327.

  _Shereef-Khan_, excavations at, 484.

  _Sharutinian_, the, 295.
    The Shairetana of the Egyptians, _ib._ _note_.

  _Shomamok_, plain of, 146.
    Excavations in, 186.
    The Kasr, 187.
    The Gla, 188.

  _Shushan_, city of, represented, 366.
    Name of, in inscriptions, 367.

  _Sidon_, name of, in inscriptions, 120, 296.
    Mariners of, employed by Sennacherib, 124.
    Workers in metal of, 161.

  _Singara_, coin of, 207.
    _See_ Sinjar.

  _Suidones_, 431.

  _Sinjar_, the, 205, 207, 269.

  _Skins_ used for rafts, and to cross rivers, 373.

  _Snake-charmer_, a, 212.

  _Sockets_ of gates of palace, 137.

  _Solomon_, bronze vessels of, 161.
    Jewish kingdom under, 510.
    His buildings compared with Assyrian, 517.
    Form of his house, 518.

  _Statue_, an entire, discovered, 299.

  _Steamer_, English, on Tigris, 381.

  _Stewart_, Mr., Babylonian bowls from his collection, 414.

  _Storms_, 201, 245, 301.

  _Studs_, in mother of pearl and ivory, 151.

  _Subhan_ mountain, 316.

  _Suleiman_ Agha, visit to, 252, 257.

  _Summer_, in Assyria, 301.

  _Summaichah_, village of, 465.

  _Susiana_, conquest of, 124.
    Rivers of, 365.
    _See_ Elam.

  _Susubira_, king of Chaldæa, 124, 475.

  _Suttum_, a Bedouin Sheikh, 196, 198, 202.
    His mare, 213.
    His encampment, 215.
    Rathaiyah, his wife, 219.
    Adla, his wife, 244.
    His hawk, 249.
    His honesty, 470.
    His death, _ib._ _note_.

  _Syria_, conquered by Sennacherib, 120.

  _Syriac_ characters on Babylonian bowl, 415.


  T.

  _Tablets_, set up by Sennacherib, 120.
    At Bavian, 174.
    At Nahr-el-Kelb, 176, _note_.
    Of Assyrian Kings, 290.
    At Wan, 322.
    From Wurka, 453.

  _Tai_, tribe of, attack on Nimroud, 142.
    Visit to, 144.

  _Talent_, the Babylonian, 486, and _note_.

  _Talmud_, the, 416.

  _Tekrit_, town of, 378, 468.

  _Tel Ermah_, mound, 202.

  _Tel Kef_, village of, 54.

  _Temple_ of Jerusalem, compared with Assyrian palaces, 518.

  _Tent_, an Arab, 144, 216.

  _Thief_, a Bedouin, 246.
    Tracing, 269.

  _Throne_, a, 128.
    Discovery of, 165.

  _Tiglath Pileser_, monuments of, 498.
    His annals said to be discovered, 498.

  _Tigris_, the river, 47, 200.
    Changes in course of, 71, _note_.
    Sources of Eastern branch, 344.
    Head waters of, 344.
    Description of banks of, 374.
    Navigation of, 378.

  _Timour Mirza_, 384.

  _Tin_, mixed with bronze, 160.

  _Tkhoma_, district of, 354.

  _Tokkari_, conquered by Sennacherib, 124, 193.

  _Tombs_, in the rock, 31.
    At Bavian, 175.
    Mussulman, 967.
    At Wan, 322, 325.
    At Kouyunjik, 480.

  _Tortures_, represented, 367.

  _Tower_ at Nimroud discovered, 104.
    Tomb in, 106.

  _Treasure_ chamber discovered, 150.

  _Trebizond_, 19.

  _Tripod_, stands of bronze, 151.

  _Trumpet_ speaking in bas-reliefs, 94.

  _Tulip_, an Assyrian ornament, 155.

  _Turkey_, reforms in, 22.
    State of frontiers, 317.

  _Turks_, destructive policy of, 145, 374, 381, 454.

  _Turtle_, a, taken in the Khabour, 245.

  _Tyre_, mariners of, employed by Sennacherib, 124.
    Name of, in inscriptions, 296.


  U. V.

  _Vault_ at Nimroud, 138.

  _Venus_, the Assyrian, images of, 388.

  _Verhan-Shehr_, 260.

  _Umjerjeh_, encampment at, 260.

  _Volcano._ _See_ Koukab.


  W.

  _Wali_ Bey, a Turcoman chief, 147.

  _Walls_ represented, 193.
    Of Kouyunjik, 539.

  _Walpole_, Hon. F., 300.

  _Wan_, first view of, 29, 316.
    Jewish families taken there by Tigranes, 316.
    Arrival at, 319.
    History of, 322.
    Inscriptions at, 325.
    List of kings from monuments of, 327.
    Language of inscriptions of, 329.

  _Weights_, Assyrian, discovered at Nimroud, 486.

  _Well_, a, at Kouyunjik, 66.
    At Nimroud, 150.

  _Wine-strainer_ of bronze, 152.

  _Women_, Arab, their dress, 217.
    Of the Milli tribe, 260.
    Singing, represented in bas-reliefs, 367.

  _Wothaiyah_, 435.

  _Wurka_, coffins discovered at, 451.


  X.

  _Xenophon_, retreat of the Ten Thousand, remarks on, 47, 50, 55, _note_,
      188.
    Description of Cyrus, 357.

  _Xerxes_, inscription of, at Wan, 329.
    Destroyed the temples of Babylon, 420.


  Y.

  _Yavan_, the Greek islands, 120.
    Mariners of, employed by Sennacherib, 124.

  _Yedi Klissia_, convent of, 335.
    Cuneiform inscriptions at, 336.

  _Yusuf Cawal_, 17, 40, 171.

  _Yezidis_, state of, 17.
    Reception by, 40, 42.
    Bronze bird of, 46.
    A meeting with, 53.
    Sacred ceremonies of, 74.
    A book of the, 80.
    Customs of, 81.
    A marriage, 171.
    Of the Sinjar, 208.
    Their houses, 209.
    Their dress, 210.
    On Persian frontiers, 317.


  Z.

  _Zab_ river, 146, 183, 209, 345.

  _Zerga_, plain of, 200.

  _Zibari_ Kurds, 307.
    Chiefs of, 308.

  _Zibbliyah_, ruin of, 459.

  _Zidkaha_, king of Sidon, 121.

  _Zobeide_, tomb of, 379.
    Tribe of, 390.



FOOTNOTES:

[1] The most unobservant and hasty traveller in Turkey would soon become
acquainted with this fact, could he read the modest and pious inscription,
carved in relief on a small marble tablet of the purest white, adorning
almost every half-ruined fountain at which he stops to refresh himself by
the wayside.

[2] Anabasis, lib. iv. c. 5.

[3] The small building which sometimes covers a Mohammedan tomb is so
called.

[4] Shah Armen, _i. e._, King of Armenia, was a title assumed by a
dynasty, reigning at Akhlat, founded by Sokman Kothby, a slave of the
Seljuk Prince, Kothbedin Ismail, who established an independent
principality at Akhlat in A. D. 1100, which lasted eighty years.

[5] The lowest order of the Yezidi priesthood.

[6] A large drum beaten at both ends, and a kind of oboe or pipe.

[7] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. i. p. 245.

[8] Anab. book iv. c. 3.

[9] It was at the foot of this steep descent that Xenophon was compelled
to turn off, as caravans still are, from the river, and to brave the
difficulties of a mountain pass, defended by the warlike Carduchi or
Kurds.

[10] The custom of assembling and transacting business in the gate is
continually referred to in the Bible. See 2 Sam. xix. 8., where king David
is represented as sitting in the gate; comp. 2 Chron. xviii. 9., and Dan.
ii. 49. The gates of Jewish houses were probably similar to that described
in the text. Such entrances are also found in Persia. Frequently in the
gates of cities, as at Mosul, these recesses are used as shops for the
sale of wheat and barley, bread and grocery. Elisha prophesies that a
measure of fine flour shall be sold for a shekel, and two measures of
barley for a shekel, _in the gate_ of Samaria. 2 Kings, vii. 1. and 18.

[11] Mr. Ainsworth would take the Greeks up to the modern ferry, where
there could never have been a ford, and which would have been some miles
out of their route. (Travels in the Track of the Ten Thousand.)

[12] In Chapter X. will be found some farther remarks on this subject.

[13] He probably took the more difficult road over the pass, and not that
round the spur, in order to cross the Khabour by a bridge or ferry. It
must be remembered that it was winter, and that the rivers were
consequently swollen.

[14] This halt, after so short a day's march, may have been occasioned by
the Hazel. The distance corresponds with sufficient accuracy.

[15] It is a matter of surprise that Cyrus should have chosen the very
middle of summer for his expedition into Babylonia, and still more
wonderful that the Greeks, unused to the intense heats of Mesopotamia, and
encumbered with their heavy arms and armour, should have been able to
brave the climate. No Turkish or Persian commander would in these days
venture to undertake a campaign against the Arabs in this season of the
year; for, besides the heat, the want of water would be almost an
insurmountable obstacle. During their retreat, the Greeks had to encounter
all the rigor of an Armenian winter; so that, during the few months they
were under arms, they went through the most trying extremes of climate.
The expedition of Alexander was also undertaken in the middle of summer.
It must, however, be borne in mind, that Mesopotamia was probably then
thickly peopled and well cultivated, and that canals and wells of water
must have abounded.

[16] Had he seen this large inland sea, he would probably have mentioned
it.

[17] In no way, however, would a _direct_ line of march between these two
rivers, nor between any other two rivers which can possibly answer to his
description, tally with the distances given by Xenophon.

[18] See Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 112.

[19] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 107.

[20] The long lines of variously armed troops, described in my former work
(vol. ii. p. 107), as covering several slabs from top to bottom, form the
army of the king marching to this campaign.

[21] It is still the custom in Persia, and was so until lately in Turkey,
for soldiers to bring the heads of the slain to their officers after a
battle, and to claim a small pecuniary reward.

[22] For an account of these mounds represented in the Assyrian
sculptures, and the manner in which they illustrate various passages in
Scripture see my Nineveh and its Remains, vol ii. p. 281 and _note_.

[23] Such is the costume of the women in ships in a bas-relief discovered
during my former researches (see Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p.
116), and which, I have conjectured, may represent the capture of Tyre and
Sidon.

[24] See Nineveh and its Remains, vol. i. p. 131, for a description of the
discoveries previously made in this mound.

[25] "The little sheep." Kouyunjik is, however, generally known to the
Arabs by the name of Armousheeyah.

[26] The river Tigris flows in this part of its course, and until it
reaches Saimarrah, on the confines of Babylonia, through a valley varying
from one to two miles in width, bounded on both sides by low limestone and
conglomerate hills. Its bed has been undergoing a continual and regular
change. When it reaches the hills on one side, it is thrown back by this
barrier, and creeps gradually to the opposite side, leaving a rich
alluvial soil quickly covered with jungle. This process it has been
repeating, backwards and forwards, for countless ages, and will continue
to repeat as long as it drains the great highlands of Armenia. At Nimroud
it is now gradually returning to the base of the mound, which it deserted
some three thousand years ago; but centuries must elapse before it can
work its way that far.

[27] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. i. ch. ix.

[28] A mixture of bruised wheat, chopped meat, milk and curds, boiled into
a thick pulpy mass, over which melted butter is poured. It is a favorite
dish in Syria and Mesopotamia, and is cooked by families on great
festivals, or on certain days of the year, in consequence of vows made
during sickness or in travel.

[29] For a translation of this singular poem, see the larger work, of
which the present volume is an abridgment.

[30] This reminds me of the Bedouins, who, when they come into a town in a
party, send one of their number to the mosque to pray for his companions
as well as himself.

[31] At Mosul, a bullock, very small certainly when compared with our
high-fed cattle, is sold for forty or fifty piastres, 8_s._ or 10_s._; a
fat sheep for about 4_s._; a lamb for 2_s._ or 2_s._ 6_d._ Other articles
of food are proportionably cheap. The camel-load of barley was selling at
my departure for ten or twelve piastres (2_s._ or 2_s._ 6_d._). A common
horse is worth from 3_l._ to 5_l._; a donkey about 10_s._; a camel about
the same as a horse.

[32] See p. 64.

[33] It will be borne in mind that it was necessary to carry tunnels round
the chambers, and along the walls, leaving the centre buried in earth and
rubbish, a very laborious and tedious operation with no more means at
command than those afforded by the country.

[34] All these entrances were formed in the same way as that in the
south-eastern side, described p. 66., namely, by a pair of human-headed
bulls, flanked on each side by a winged giant, and two smaller figures one
above the other.

[35] P. 67.

[36] P. 66. I assume the building to be due north and south, although it
is not so. It faces nearly north-east and south-west.

[37] In my former work I had stated that _all_ the Assyrian sculptures
were carved in their places against the walls of the building.

[38] I have described the mode of irrigation now generally employed by the
Mesopotamian Arabs, in my "Nineveh and its Remains," vol. ii. p. 321.

[39] It may be remarked, that precisely the same framework was used for
moving the great sculptures in the British Museum.

[40] See woodcut, p. 92.

[41] Although in these bas-reliefs, as in other Assyrian sculptures, no
regard is paid to perspective, the proportions are very well kept.

[42] 1 Kings, vi. 23. I shall hereafter compare the edifices built by
Solomon with the Assyrian palaces, and point out the remarkable
illustrations of the Jewish temple afforded by the latter.

[43] A peculiar deity is mentioned who probably presided over the earth,
but his name is as yet unknown; it is here denoted by a monogram.

[44] Nahum, iii. 13.

[45] Anab. lib. iii. c. 4.

[46] Col. Rawlinson remarks in his memoir on the "Outlines of Assyrian
History" (published by the Royal Asiatic Society in 1842), that "the great
pyramid at Nimroud was erected by the son of the builder of the north-west
palace;" and as the Greeks name that monument the tomb of Sardanapalus, he
believes that "a shaft sunk in the centre of the mound, and carried down
to the foundations, would lay bare the original sepulchre. The
difficulties (he adds) of such an operation have hitherto prevented its
execution, but the idea is not altogether abandoned." He appears thus,
curiously enough, to be ignorant of the excavations in that ruin described
in the text, although he had just visited Nimroud. The only likely place
not yet examined would be _beneath_ the very foundations.

[47] Palaces of Nineveh and Persepolis restored, p. 223.

[48] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii.--plan of Kouyunjik.

[49] I had also shown the probability that the palace of Khorsabad owed
its erection to a monarch of this dynasty, in a series of letters
published in the Malta Times, as far back as 1843.

[50] Vol. xxii. p. 34. I take this opportunity of attributing to their
proper source the discoveries of the names of Nebuchadnezzar and Babylon,
inadvertently assigned to others in my "Nineveh and its Remains." We owe
these, with many others of scarcely less importance, to the ingenuity and
learning of Dr. Hincks. (Literary Gazette, June 27, 1846.)

[51] Isaiah, xxxix. 1, and 2 Kings, xx. 12, where the name is written
Berodach.

[52] Col. Rawlinson reads Bel-adon. This Belib is the Belibus of Ptolemy's
Canon. The mention of his name led Dr. Hincks to determine the accession
of Sennacherib to be in 703 B. C.

[53] Col. Rawlinson gives 11,180 head of cattle, 5230 camels, 1,020,100
sheep, and 800,300 goats. He has also pointed out that both Abydenus and
Polyhistor mention this campaign against Babylon.

[54] Joseph. 1. ix. c. 14., and see Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p.
306, where I had long before the deciphering of the inscriptions
endeavoured to point out the representation of this event, in some
bas-reliefs at Kouyunjik.

[55] Isaiah, xxxvii. 2 Kings, xix. 9.

[56] 2 Kings, xviii. 13.; and compare Isaiah, xxxvi. 1.

[57] "And the king of Assyria appointed unto Hezekiah, king of Judah, 300
talents of silver and 30 talents of gold." (2 Kings, xviii. 14.)

[58] Shalmaneser, who made war against Hosea, and who is generally
supposed to have carried away the ten tribes from Samaria, although the
sacred historian does not distinctly say so (2 Kings, xvii.), is
identified by general consent with Sargon, who sent his general against
Ashdod (Isaiah, xx.).

[59] Chap. VIII.

[60] Xenophon Cyrop. lvii. c. 3. Quintus Curtius, liii. c. 3.

[61] Botta's Monumens de Ninive, Plate 146.

[62] 2 Kings, xviii. 14. Isaiah xxxvi. 2. From 2 Kings, xix. 8., and
Isaiah, xxxvii. 8., we may infer that the city soon yielded.

[63] Isaiah, iii. 18--24. &c. (See translation by the Rev. J. Jones.) This
description of the various articles of dress worn by the Jewish women is
exceedingly interesting. Most of the ornaments enumerated, probably indeed
the whole of them, if we were acquainted with the exact meaning of the
Hebrew words, are still to be traced in the costumes of Eastern women
inhabiting the same country. Many appear to be mentioned in the Assyrian
inscriptions amongst objects of tribute and of spoil brought to the king.
See also Ezekiel xvi. 10--14. for an account of the dress of the Jewish
women.

[64] M. Botta also found, at Khorsabad, the ashes of string in lumps of
clay impressed with a seal, without being aware of their origin.

[65] The impressions of the signets of the Egyptian and Assyrian kings,
besides a large collection of seals found in Kouyunjik, are now in the
British Museum.

[66] The sockets, which are now in the British Museum, weigh 6 lb. 3-3/4
oz.; the diameter of the ring is about five inches. The hinges and frames
of the brass gates at Babylon were also of brass (Herod. i. 178).

[67] "Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh." (Gen. x.
11.)

[68] On Egyptian monuments captives are portrayed with similar feathers
attached to their heads; but they appear to be of a negro race, whilst
those on the Nimroud bricks bear no traces of negro color or physiognomy.
(Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians, vol. 1. plate, p. 385.)

[69] That is, as will be hereafter shown, to Pul, or Tiglath Pileser.

[70] The canvass of such tents is divided into strips, which, packed
separately on the camels during a march, are easily united again by coarse
thread, or by small wooden pins.

[71] The reader may remember a well-known anecdote of this celebrated
Sheikh, still current in the desert. He was the owner of a matchless mare
whose fame had even reached the Greek Emperor. Ambassadors were sent from
Constantinople to ask the animal of the chief, and to offer any amount of
gold in return. When they announced, after dining, the object of their
embassy, it was found, that the tribe suffering from a grievous famine,
and having nothing to offer to their guests, the generous Hatem had slain
his own priceless mare to entertain them.

[72] It was parallel to, and to the south of, the chamber marked A A, in
the plan of the north-west palace. (Nineveh and its Remains, vol. i. Plan
III.)

[73] Few wells in the plains bordering on the Tigris yield sweet water.

[74] The caldrons contained about eighty bells. The largest are 3-1/4
inches high, and 2-1/4 inches in diameter, the smallest 1-3/4 inch high,
and 1-1/4 inch in diameter. With the rest of the relics they are now in
the British Museum.

[75] 2 Chron. iv. 2. The dimensions, however, of this vessel were far
greater. It is singular that in some of the bas-reliefs large metal
caldrons supported on brazen oxen are represented.

[76] They were dedicated to the gods in temples. Coloeus dedicated a large
vessel of brass, _adorned with griffins_, to Heré. Herod. iv. 152.

[77] The Egyptian goddess Athor is represented with similar ears and hair.

[78] 1 Kings, vii. 13, 14. 2 Chron. iv.

[79] 2 Kings, xxiv. 14, 16. Jeremiah xxiv. 1.; xxix. 2.

[80] In ancient history, embossed or inlaid goblets are continually
mentioned amongst the offerings to celebrated shrines. Gyges dedicated
goblets, Alyattes, a silver cup, and _an inlaid iron saucer_ (the art of
inlaying having been invented, according to Herodotus, by Glaucus), and
Croesus similar vessels, in the temple of Delphi. (Herod. i. 14. and 25.
Pausanias, l, x.) They were also given as acceptable presents to kings and
distinguished men, as we see in 2 Sam. viii. 10. and 3 Chron. ix. 23, 24.
The Lacedæmonians prepared for Croesus a brazen _vessel ornamented with
forms of animals round the rim_ (Herod. i. 70.), like some of the bowls
described in the text. The embossings on the Nimroud bronzes may furnish
us with a very just idea of the figures and ornaments of the celebrated
shield of Achilles, which were probably much the same in treatment and
execution.

[81] Such may have been "the bosses of the bucklers" mentioned in Job, xv.
26.

[82] 1 Kings, x. 16, 17.; xiv. 25, 26.

[83] Jer. li. 11. Ezek. xxi. 21., and compare Isaiah, xlix. 2., where a
polished _shaft_ is mentioned.

[84] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 319.

[85] Ezek. xxvii. 15. Ivory was amongst the objects brought to Solomon by
the navy of Tharshish (1 Kings x. 22).

[86] The height of the glass vase is 3-1/4 inches; of the alabaster, 7
inches.

[87] See p. 129.

[88] 1 Kings, x. 18. This is a highly interesting illustration of the work
in Solomon's palaces. The earliest use of metal amongst the Greeks appears
also to have been as a casing to wooden objects.

[89] Herod, i. 14.

[90] Both sculptures have, however, been completely restored in the
British Museum.

[91] No tradition is more generally current in the East than the well
known story of the Seven Sleepers and their Dog. There is scarcely a
district without the original cave in which the youths were concealed
during their miraculous slumber.

[92] They were first visited by the late M. Rouet, French consul at Mosul.
In my Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 114 note, will be found a short
description of the sculptures by my friend Mr. Ross. These are the
rock-tablets which have been recently described in the French papers, as a
new discovery by M. Place, and as containing a series of portraits of the
Assyrian kings!

[93] These tombs are not of the Assyrian epoch. The Jews, as well as other
nations of antiquity, were, however, accustomed to make such rock-chambers
for their dead, as we learn from Isaiah, xxii. 16. "What hast thou here?
and whom hast thou here, that thou hast hewed thee out a sepulchre here,
as _he that heweth him out a sepulchre on high_, and that graveth an
habitation for himself in a rock?"

[94] I examined the remarkable tablets at the Nahr-el-Kelb, on my return
to Europe in 1851. They were sculptured, as I stated in my first work, by
Sennacherib, the king of the Bavian monuments.

[95] See p. 117.

[96] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. chap. 12.

[97] The names of the principal are Tel-el-Barour, Abbas, Kadreeyah,
Abd-ul-Azeez, Baghurtha, Elias Tuppeh, Tarkheena, and Doghan.

[98] Anab. b. ii. c. 4.

[99] See p. 56.

[100] Isaiah, xxxvi. 18, 19.

[101] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 104.

[102] See p. 124.

[103] 2 Kings, xviii. 11. Ezek. i. 2.

[104] 2 Chron. xxxv. 20.

[105] I use the word "dromedary" for a swift riding camel, the _Deloul_ of
the Arabs, and _Hejin_ of the Turks: it is so applied generally, although
incorrectly, by Europeans in the East.

[106] Burckhardt, the English traveller best acquainted with the Bedouin
character, and admirably correct in describing it, makes the following
remarks: "With all their faults, the Bedouins are one of the noblest
nations with which I ever had an opportunity of becoming acquainted....
The sociable character of a Bedouin, when there is no question of profit
or interest, may be described as truly amiable. His cheerfulness, wit,
softness of temper, good nature and sagacity, which enable him to make
shrewd remarks on all subjects, render him a pleasing, and often a
valuable companion. His equality of temper is never ruffled by fatigue or
suffering." (Notes on the Bedouins, pp. 203, 208.) Unfortunately, since
Burckhardt's time, closer intercourse with the Turks and with Europeans,
has much tended to destroy many good features in the Arab character.

[107] See p. 187.

[108] The following are the names of the principal mounds seen during this
day's march: Ermah, Shibbit, Duroge, Addiyah, Abou-Kubbah, and Kharala,
each name being preceded by the Arabic word Tel, _i. e._ mound. They are
laid down in the map accompanying this volume, their positions having been
fixed by careful bearings, and in some instances by the sextant.

[109] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. i. p. 258.

[110] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. i. p. 259.

[111] The traveller who has looked down from Mardin, for the first time,
upon the plains of Mesopotamia, can never forget the impression which that
singular scene must have made upon him. The view from the Sinjar hill is
far more beautiful and varied.

[112] In the spring months, when the pastures are good, the sheep and
camels of the Bedouins require but little water, and the tents are seldom
pitched near a well or stream; frequently as much as half a day's journey
distant. Suttum assured me that at this time of the year the camels need
not be watered for two months, such is the richness of the grass of the
Desert.

[113] It is an error to suppose that the Bedouins never ride horses; for
several reasons, however, they seldom do so.

[114] It is considered exceedingly inhospitable amongst the Shammar to
place a hot dish before guests, as they are obliged to eat quickly out of
consideration for others, who are awaiting their turn, which they cannot
do, unless the mess be cool, without burning their mouths, or wasting half
their time picking out the colder bits. On one occasion, Ferhan, the great
chief of the Shammar, and a large number of horsemen having alighted at my
tent, I prepared a dinner for them. The Sheikh was afterwards heard to say
that the Bey's feast was sumptuous, but that he had not treated his guests
with proper hospitality, as the dishes were so hot nobody could eat his
fill.

[115] These are "the rings and nose jewels," which Isaiah (iii. 21.)
describes as worn by the Jewish women. It is curious that no
representation of them has hitherto been found in the Assyrian sculptures.
I take this opportunity of mentioning, that I saw a finger-ring sculptured
on a fragment at Khorsabad.

[116] As this was known to be a mere matter of form with me, as I made it
a rule never to accept presents of this kind, Suttum might have offered me
his bay colt, the most valuable horse amongst the Shammar, to increase the
display of hospitality. The reason he did not was this, that although he
knew I would have returned the horse, I might have expressed a wish to buy
it, and have offered a price. An offer of this kind would have at once
injured the value of the animal in the eyes of the Bedouins, and its owner
might have been ultimately compelled to sell it. On one occasion, when I
was amongst the Shammar, at Al Hather, an Arab rode into my encampment on
a beautiful grey colt. I was so much struck with the animal, that I at
once expressed a wish to its rider to purchase it. He merely intimated
that the sum I named was beneath the value. I increased it, but he only
shook his head, and rode off. Nevertheless, the report spread amongst the
tribes that he had bargained for the sale of his horse. Although of the
best blood, the animal was looked upon with suspicion by the Bedouins, and
the owner was, some months after, obliged to sell him at a lower price
than I had bid, to a horse-dealer of Mosul! A knowledge of such little
prejudices and customs is very necessary in dealing with the Arabs of the
Desert, who are extremely sensitive, and easily offended.

[117] Its note resembles the cry of the camel-driver, when leading the
herds home at night, for which it is frequently mistaken.

[118] Literally, "strength-money:" the small tribes, who wander in the
Desert, and who inhabit the villages upon its edge, are obliged to place
themselves under the protection of some powerful tribe to avoid being
utterly destroyed. Each great division of the Shammar receives a present
of money, sheep, camels, corn, or barley, from some tribe or another for
this protection, which is always respected by the other branches of the
tribe. Thus the Jehesh paid _kowee_ to the Boraij, the Jebours of the
Khabour to Ferhan (the hereditary chief of all the Shammar), the people of
Tel Afer to the Assaiyah. Should another branch of the Shammar plunder, or
injure, tribes thus paying kowee, their protectors are bound to make good,
or revenge, their losses.

[119] Cawal Yusuf actually became the farmer of the revenues for a sum
scarcely exceeding 350_l._ The inhabitants of the Sinjar were greatly
pleased by this concession to one of their own faith, and were encouraged
to cultivate the soil, and to abstain from mutual aggressions.

[120] These relics are now in the British Museum.

[121] The height of this fragment was 5 ft. 8 in.

[122] A lion very similar to that discovered at Arban, though more
colossal in its dimensions, exists near Serong. (Chesney's Expedition,
vol. i. p. 114.)

[123] 2 Kings, xvii. 6. Ezek. i. 1. In the Hebrew text the name of this
river is spelt in two different ways. In Kings we have [Hebrew], Khabour,
answering exactly to the Chaboras of the Greeks and Romans, and the
Khabour of the Arabs. In Ezekiel it is written [Hebrew], Kebar. There is
no reason, however, to doubt that the same river is meant.

[124] The name occurs in Ezekiel, iii. 15. "Then I came to them of the
captivity at _Tel-Abib_, that dwelt by the river of Chebar." In the
Theodosian tables we find _Thallaba_ on the Khabour, with which it may
possibly be identified. (Illustrated Commentary on the Old and New
Testaments, published by Charles Knight, a very useful and well-digested
summary, in note to word.) It is possible that Arbonad, a name apparently
given to the Khabour in Judith, ii. 24., may be connected with Arban:
however, it is not quite clear what river is really meant, as there
appears to be some confusion in the geographical details. The cities on
the Khabour, mentioned by the Arab geographers, are Karkisia (Circesium,
at the junction of the river with the Euphrates), Makeseen (of which I
could find no trace), Arban, and Khabour. I have not been able to discover
the site of any ruin of the same name as the river. Karkisia, when visited
in the twelfth century by Benjamin of Tudela, contained about 500 Jewish
inhabitants, under two Rabbis. According to Ibn Haukal, it was surrounded
by gardens and cultivated lands. The spot is now inhabited by a tribe of
Arabs.

[125] In speaking of the Bedouins I mean the Aneyza, Shamma, Al Dhefyr,
and other great tribes inhabiting Mesopotamia and the Desert to the north
of the Gebel Shammar. With the Arabs of the Hedjaz and Central Arabia I am
unacquainted.

[126] Polygamy, it may be here mentioned, is very common amongst the
Bedouins.

[127] The title of haraymi (thief), so far from being one of disgrace, is
considered evidence of great prowess and capacity in a young man. Like the
Spartans of old, he only suffers if caught in the act. There was a man of
the Assaiyah tribe, who had established an immense renown by stealing no
less than ninety horses, amongst which was the celebrated mare given by
Sofuk to Beder Khan Bey.

[128] Easterns never hawk, if they can avoid it, when the sun is high, as
the bird of prey described in the text then appears in search of food.

[129] One of the principal objects of the Bedouins in battle being to
carry off their adversaries' mares, they never wound them if they can
avoid it, but endeavour to kill or unhorse the riders.

[130] Burckhardt has thus defined the terms of this law: "The Thar rests
with the khomse, or fifth generation, those only having the right to
revenge a slain parent, whose fourth lineal ascendant is, at the same
time, the fourth lineal ascendant of the person slain; and, on the other
side, only those male kindred of the homicide are liable to pay with their
own for the blood shed, whose fourth lineal ascendant is at the same time
the fourth lineal ascendant of the homicide. The present generation is
thus comprised within the number of the khomse. The lineal descendants of
all those who are entitled to revenge at the moment of the manslaughter
inherit the right from their parents. The right to blood-revenge is never
lost; it descends on both sides to the latest generation." (Notes on
Arabs, p. 85.)

[131] _I. e._ The ancient ruined city, a name very generally given by the
Turks to ruins.

[132] The form of salutation used by the Turks, consisting of raising the
hand from the breast, or sometimes from the ground, to the forehead.

[133] Burckhardt remarks that "Bedouins are, perhaps, the only people of
the East that can be entitled true lovers." (Notes on Bedouins, p. 155.)

[134] In the winter of the year my residence in Babylonia, after an
engagement near Baghdad, between the Boraij and the Turkish regular
troops, in which the latter were defeated, a flying soldier was caught
within sight of an encampment. His captors were going to put him to death,
when he stretched his hands towards the nearest tent, claiming the Dakheel
of its owner, who chanced to be Sahiman, Mijwell's eldest brother. The
Sheikh was absent from home, but his beautiful wife Noura answered to the
appeal, and seizing a tent-pole beat off his pursuers, and saved his life.
This conduct was much applauded by the Bedouins.

[135] The manner in which reports are spread and exaggerated in the Desert
is frequently highly amusing. In all encampments there are idle vagabonds
who live by carrying news from tribe to tribe, thereby earning a dinner
and spending their leisure hours. As soon as a stranger arrives, and
relates anything of interest to the Arabs, some such fellow will mount his
ready-saddled deloul, and make the best of his way to retail the news in a
neighbouring tent, from whence it is carried, in the same way, to others.
It is extraordinary how rapidly a report spreads in this manner over a
very great distance. Sofuk sent to inform the British resident at Baghdad,
of the siege and fall of Acre, many days before the special messenger
dispatched to announce that event reached the city; and I have frequently
rejected intelligence received from Bedouins, on account of the apparent
impossibility of its coming to me through such a source, which has
afterwards proved to be true.

[136] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. i. p. 93.

[137] I have elsewhere described the ruins and springs of Abou Maria.
(Nineveh and its Remains, vol. i. p. 257.)

[138] The Tigris this year had risen much higher than usual. I have
already mentioned that the plain of Nimroud was completely under water;
opposite Mosul the flood nearly reached the mounds of Kouyunjik and Nebbi
Yunus.

[139] Burckhardt (Notes on the Bedouins, p. 269) gives the following
account of the mode of preparing them:--"The Arabs in preparing locusts as
an article of food, throw them alive into boiling water, with which a good
deal of salt has been mixed: after a few minutes they are taken out and
dried in the sun. The head, feet, and wings are then torn off; the bodies
are cleansed from the salt and perfectly dried; after which process whole
sacks are filled with them by the Bedouins. They are sometimes eaten
broiled in butter; and they often constitute materials for a breakfast
when spread over unleavened bread mixed with butter." It has been
conjectured that the locust eaten by John the Baptist in the wilderness
was the fruit of a tree; but it is more probable that the prophet used a
common article of food, abounding even in the Desert.

[140] Cory's Fragments, page 30.

[141] The authorities respecting this god are collected in Selden, "De Dis
Syris," and in Beyer's commentary. Abarbanel, in his commentary on Samuel,
says that Dagon had the form of a fish, from the middle downwards, with
the feet and hands of a man.

[142] 1 Sam. v. 4.

[143] Judges, xvi. 23.

[144] Joshua, xv. 41. From the connection of this verse with the 33rd, it
would appear that the town was in a valley.

[145] Joshua, xix. 27. 1 Mac. x. 83.

[146] Ezra, vi. 1.

[147] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 147.

[148] Page 125.

[149] This is evident from Lucian's "De Deâ Syrâ," c. 4.; and see
Gesenius's "Thesaurus" in voce "Ashtoreth." (1 Kings, xi. 5. 33. 2 Kings,
xxiii. 13.) Quære, whether the bull's horns placed on the head of this
divinity, were not originally the horns of the moon's crescent?

[150] This city, one apparently of considerable size and importance, must
have stood somewhere near Antioch, or between Antioch and Aleppo. The
Sharutinians may probably be identified with the Shairetana of the
Egyptian monuments, at one time the allies, and at another the enemies, of
Egypt. Few travellers are aware that, above the city of Antioch, carved in
the rock, are colossal figures of an Egyptian sphinx and two priests. I
have been informed that there are other similar monuments in the
neighbouring mountains.

[151] This barbarous practice, frequently represented in the bas-reliefs,
seems, therefore, to have prevailed from the earliest times in the East.
Darius impaled 3000 Babylonians when he took their city. (Herod. iii.
159.) The last instance with which I am acquainted of this punishment
having been inflicted in Turkey, was at Baghdad, where, about ten years
ago, Nejib Pasha impaled four rebel Arab Sheikhs, one at each corner of
the bridge. They survived for many hours. It is said that, unless they
drink water, when they instantly die, persons so treated will live even
for two or three days.

[152] Might this word, translated conjecturally pearls, mean the shell
fish from which the Tyrian dye was extracted?

[153] The whole of the last passage is very obscure; the translation is
partly conjectural.

[154] Isaiah, xv. 6. Translation by the Rev. John Jones.

[155] For this valley I received three different names, Hassanawa,
Hassanmaima, and Nahala, the latter from the Zibari chief. The difficulty
of getting a correct name either of a place or a person from a Kurd is
very great, and travellers in Kurdistan can scarcely avoid falling into
frequent errors in this respect. The same name is pronounced in a variety
of ways, and is subject to all manner of additions and contractions. If it
have any meaning, the difficulty is, of course, less.

[156] Khan-i-resh is, by observation, 4372 feet above the level of the
sea.

[157] It was this chief, or one of his dependants, I believe, who
plundered and was about to murder two American missionaries, who attempted
to cross the mountains the year after my visit.

[158] As I have used the word convent, it may be necessary to remind the
reader that the Nestorians have no establishments answering to Roman
Catholic places of retirement, and that monastic vows are not taken by
them.

[159] The height of the convent above the level of the sea is, by
observation, 6625 feet.

[160] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. i. p. 141.

[161] The place of our encampment at Bash-Kalah was, by observation, 7818
feet above the level of the sea.

[162] The Jewish encampment was 9076 feet above the level of the sea.

[163] Amongst the Jewish population scattered widely over this part of
ancient Media, might be sought the descendants of the ten tribes, with
more probability than in the various lands which ingenious speculation has
pointed out as dwelling-places of the remnant of Israel.

[164] I must not omit to mention the name of Dr. Bimerstein, a German
gentleman at the head of the quarantine establishment, from whom I
received much civility and assistance during my stay at Wan, and who, by
the influence he had obtained over the Pasha, and by his integrity and
good sense, had contributed considerably towards the improvement in the
condition of the Christians, and the general prosperity of the pashalic.
He was a pleasing exception in a class made up of the refuse and outcasts
of Europe, who have done more than is generally known to corrupt the
Turkish character, and to bring an European and a Christian into contempt.
I am proud to say that an Englishman is not, I believe, to be found
amongst them.

[165] Wan is about 5600 feet above the level of the sea.

[166] This inscription was copied, with a strong telescope, by Schulz, and
is published with the rest of his transcripts.

[167] The Mussulmans have only two great annual feasts in which labor
gives way to rejoicings and festivities; the Christians of all sects have
little else but fasts and festivals throughout the year. A lazy Christian
will add to his own holidays the Friday of the Mohammedans, and the
Saturday of the Jews.

[168] The desire of a large number of the Armenians to improve their
institutions, and to adopt the manners of Europe, is a highly interesting,
and indeed important, fact. I was amused, after having contributed a
trifle to the funds of the school, at having presented to me a neatly
printed and ornamented receipt, with the amount of my donation duly filled
up in the blank space left for the purpose, the document being signed by
the head of the school.

[169] I cannot refrain from recording the names of the Rev. Messrs.
Goddall, Dwight, Holmes, Hamlin, and Schauffler, of the Constantinople
missionary station; the late excellent and enterprising Dr. Smith, who,
like the estimable Dr. Grant, his fellow-laborer in the same field, and
many others of his countrymen, has recently fallen a victim to his zeal
and devotion; the Rev. Eli Smith of Beyrout, and Perkins of Ooroomiyah;
men who will ever be connected with the first spread of knowledge and
truth amongst the Christians of the East, and of whom their country may
justly be proud. Personally I must express my gratitude to them for many
acts of kindness and friendship. The American mission has now
establishments in Smyrna, Brousa, Trebizond, Erzeroom, Diarbekir, Mosul,
Aintab, Aleppo, and many other cities in Asia Minor, together with native
agents all over Turkey.

[170] The several streams forming the headwaters of the eastern branch of
the Tigris mentioned in this Chapter were not before known, I believe, to
geographers.

[171] The encampment at Billi was 8612 feet above the level of the sea.

[172] The bearing I obtained of Mount Ararat (N. 15°. 30" E.), corresponds
correctly with its position on the best maps. Our distance was about 145
miles.

[173] Those who wish to have a painful picture of the nature of the
interference amongst the Nestorians, to which I allude, may read Mr.
Badger's Nestorians and their Rituals, and Mr. Fletcher's Travels in
Assyria. Although Mr. Badger naturally gives his own version of these
transactions, the impartial reader will have no difficulty in seeing the
misfortunes to which the unfortunate opposition to the American missions
naturally led.

[174] Consuls are so called in Southern Turkey and Persia, and all
European strangers are supposed to be consuls.

[175] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. i. p. 180.

[176] On my return to Mosul I sent to Constantinople a report of the
exactions and cruelties to which the Nestorians had been subjected by
their Turkish rulers; but nothing, I fear, has been done to amend their
condition.

[177] This bas-relief is now in the British Museum.

[178] Cyrop. lib. viii. c. 3.

[179] Quint. Curt. lib. iii. c. 3. I have quoted this description in my
Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 279. The Persian king, although
represented on the walls of Persepolis with a crown, also wore a high cap
or upright turban, as we learn from Xenophon (Anab. lib. ii. c. 5).

[180] 2 Kings, xvii. 6.

[181] Cyrus covered his chariot-horses, all but the eyes, with armour.
(Xenophon, Inst. 1. vi.)

[182] Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians, vol. ii. p. 109.

[183] So many characters are unfortunately wanting in this epigraph, that
the inscription cannot be satisfactorily translated. It commences, it
would appear, with the name of the Susianian king, although written
without the first character found on the other slabs. The captive,
however, was not the monarch himself, who was slain, as it has been seen,
in the battle. The name of Shushan, written, as in the book of Daniel, for
Susa, is highly interesting. It places beyond a doubt the identification
of the site of the campaign.

[184] 1 Sam. xviii. 6.

[185] Isaiah, v. 12. In Daniel, iii. 5., we have mention of the "cornet,
flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and dulcimer;" but it is scarcely possible
to determine what these instruments really were: they probably resembled
those represented in the bas-reliefs described in the text. The instrument
of ten strings mentioned in Psalm xxxiii. 2., xlii. 3., and cxliv. 9., may
have been the harp of the sculptures, and the psaltery the smaller
stringed instrument.

[186] Niebuhr's Thirty-fourth Lecture on Ancient History.

[187] See especially Narrative of a Residence in Koordistan, &c., by the
late C. J. Rich, Esq,. vol. ii. chap, xviii.

[188] Daniel, iii.

[189] The white ass of Baghdad is much esteemed in the East. Some are of
considerable size, and, when fancifully dyed with henna, their tails and
ears bright red, and their bodies spotted, like an heraldic talbot, with
the same color, they bear the chief priests and the men of the law, as
they appear to have done from the earliest times. (Judges, v. 10.)

[190] Baghdad contained, before the great plague of 1830, 110,000
inhabitants, but can now scarcely hold many more than 50,000. It is
divided into two parts by the Tigris, the smaller quarters forming suburbs
on the western bank.

[191] Jeremiah, 1. 38.

[192] This is the Kasr of Rich and subsequent travellers.

[193] Isaiah, xiii. 19-22., and compare Jeremiah, 1. 39.: "therefore the
wild beasts of the desert with the wild beasts of the island shall dwell
there, and the _owls_ shall dwell therein." A large grey owl is found in
great numbers, frequently in flocks of nearly a hundred, in the low shrubs
among the ruins of Babylon.

[194] From this tribe was the celebrated lady of Haroun-al-Reshid, "the
Zobeide," as she was called from her origin.

[195] The generous hospitality frequently shown by men living, like Zaid,
upon the smallest means, is one of the most interesting features of Arab
character.

[196] The most accurate and careful description is that by Mr. Rich, to
whom I shall have frequent occasion to refer, and whose valuable memoirs
on the site of the city were my text-books during my researches at
Babylon. In the preface, by his widow, to the collected edition of his
memoirs, will be found an interesting summary of the researches and
discoveries of previous travellers. Ker Porter, Mr. Buckingham, and
several other travellers, have given accounts more or less full of the
ruins.

[197] Abydenus states (ap. Euseb. Præp. Evang. l. ix. c. 41.) that the
first wall of Babylon, built by Belus, had disappeared, and was rebuilt by
Nebuchadnezzar. It must be borne in mind how much ancient authors copied
from one another. Nearly all the descriptions which have reached us of
Babylon appear to have been founded on the account of Herodotus and the
uncertain statements of Ctesias.

[198] I had visited it on several occasions during previous journeys. For
the first time in 1840, with Mr. Mitford.

[199] These dimensions are from Rich. I was unable to take any
measurements during my hurried visit.

[200] See Chap. XI.

[201] Lib. ii. c. 8.

[202] Lib. ii. c. 10. Such is the form that Calmet and other antiquaries
have given to the hanging gardens of Babylon in their restored plans of
the city.

[203] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 139.

[204] Isaiah, xiv. 23.

[205] On the Tigris, near its junction with the Euphrates, is the
traditionary tomb of Ezra. The Jews, from the first centuries of the
Christian era, also appear to have visited this spot as the place of
sepulture of the prophet. Benjamin of Tudela says of it, "The sepulture of
Ezra, the priest and scribe, is in this place (name lost), where he died
on his journey from Jerusalem to King Artaxerxes." In the early part of
the 13th century, a celebrated Jewish poet, named Jehuda Charisi ben
Salomo, described both tombs in verse. (Dr. Zunz's Essay in 2d volume of
Asher's ed. of Benjamin of Tudela.)

[206] For an interesting account of those singular relics, and for
translations of the inscriptions on the bowls, see the larger work in 8vo.

[207] Josephus against Appian, l. i. cviii. The Jewish historian quotes
from Hecatæus, who gives a characteristic account of the attachment of the
Jews to their faith.

[208] Benjamin of Tudela's Travels; and see Milman's History of the Jews,
book xix. &c.

[209] The form of the letters certainly approach the cuneiform character
when written with simple lines, as it is sometimes seen on Assyrian relics
and monuments. (See Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 143.) I am not,
however, at present ready to admit that the early Chaldee square letters
were derived from this source.

[210] See Book of Enoch translated by Archbishop Lawrence, particularly
chap. vii. sect. 2. and chap. lxviii. Among the names of the angels who
came down to the daughters of men and instructed them in sorcery and the
magic arts, we find Tamiel, Agheel, Azael, and Ramiel.

[211] Strabo, lib. xvi. p. 1049. Oxf. ed. Arrian, lib. vii. 17.

[212] Isaiah, xxi. 9.

[213] Daniel, v. 5.

[214] Esther i. 6.

[215] This inscription was obtained from some ruins near Baghdad by Sir
Harford Jones, and is now in the Museum of the East India Company. A
facsimile of it has been published.

[216] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. 2d part, chap. ii.

[217] The usual dimensions of the Babylonian bricks are as nearly as
possible one foot square, by three and a half inches thick. Rich says
thirteen inches square. Mr. Birch has conjectured that they may represent
multiples of some Babylonian measure, perhaps the cubit.

[218] Mr. Birch has found more than one notice of Babylon on Egyptian
monuments of the time of Thothmes III.

[219] Ezekiel, xvii. 4.

[220] Daniel, v. 30, 31. This event took place B. C. 538. Whether the
Darius of the book of Daniel be Cyrus himself, or a Median who commanded
the armies of that monarch, and was afterwards appointed viceroy of
Babylon, is one of the many disputed points of ancient history.

[221] Arrian, Exp. Alex. 1. vii. c. 17. See Jeremy's Epistle in the
Apocryphal hook of Baruch, vi. 10, 11, and 28, for instances of the
cupidity of the Babylonian priests. They had even stripped the idols of
their robes and ornaments to adorn their wives and children. This epistle
contains a very curious account of the idol worship of the Babylonians.

[222] Isaiah, xiv. 23. Jeremiah, li. 42.

[223] See an interesting Memoir on Babylon, by M. de St. Croix, in the
48th vol. of the Transactions of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles
Lettres, in which all the authorities on the subject of the gradual decay
of the city are collected.

[224] Isaiah, xliii. 14.

[225] Ezekiel, xxvii. 15.

[226] Of the early reputation of the looms of Babylon we may form an idea
from the fact of "a goodly Babylonish garment" (_i. e._ garment of Shinar)
being mentioned in the book of Joshua (vii. 21) amongst the objects buried
by Achan in his tent. In a curious decree of the time of Diocletian,
regulating the maximum value of articles of clothing and food throughout
the Roman empire, several objects from Babylon are specified. Babylonian
skins of the first quality are rated at 500 denarii; of the second quality
at 40; Babylonian shoes, called mullai, at 120 denarii per pair; and a
Babylonian girdle at 100. Plain Babylonian socks are also mentioned, but
the amount at which they were valued is wanting. This decree was
discovered at Eski Hissar, the ancient Stratoniceia, in Asia Minor. (See
Leake's Asia Minor.)

[227] "And the men of Cuth made Nergal," in Samaria, where they had been
transplanted after the first captivity. (2 Kings, xvii. 30.) The country
of the Cuthites was probably in the neighbourhood of Babylon, though the
commentators have not agreed upon its exact site. Josephus says that it
was in Persia (Antiq. ix. 14.)

[228] xviii 2.

[229] The common notion amongst ignorant Mohammedans is, that an eclipse
is caused by some evil spirit catching hold of the sun or moon. On such
occasions, in Eastern towns, the whole population assembles with pots,
pans, and other equally rude instruments of music, and, with the aid of
their lungs, make a din and turmoil which might suffice to drive away a
whole army of evil spirits, even at so great a distance.

[230] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 139, note.

[231] Isaiah, xxi. 1.

[232] I have lately learnt, to my great grief, that poor Suttum has been
killed in some affray with the Aneyza.

[233] Of the same size and form as that containing the records of
Essarhaddon, given by me to the British Museum. It has been only partly
restored, and the inscription, which appears to be historical, has not yet
been deciphered.

[234] See Chapter 20.

[235] Isaiah, xxxvii. 18, 19.

[236] 1 Kings, vii. 23-25. The brazen sea of Solomon stood upon twelve
oxen, three facing each cardinal point. It must be borne in mind that the
Assyrian sculptor frequently represented only one figure to signify many,
and that more than one ox probably supported the vessel portrayed in this
bas-relief.

[237] These measurements merely include that part of the palace actually
excavated.

[238] Since my departure a fine entire bas-relief has, I understand, been
found near the ruined tomb in the centre of the mound.

[239] The distance from centre to centre of the pedestals facing each
other was 9 feet three inches; their diameter, 11-1/2 inches in the
broadest part. The second pair found were about 84 feet distant from the
first. There were the remains of a wall of sundried bricks, 6 feet 3
inches from the centre of one of the pedestals.

[240] Tacit. Ann. lib. xii. c. 13., and Ammianus Marcell. 1. xxiii. c. 20.
The latter author especially mentions that the town had belonged to the
Persians.

[241] In the same shape as the Egyptian. (See Wilkinson's Ancient
Egyptians, vol. ii. p. 112.)

[242] See Nineveh and its Remains, vol. i. Introduction, p. xiv. Benjamin
of Tudela places the tomb of Nahum at Ain Japhata, to the south of
Babylon.

[243] According to Col. Rawlinson (Outlines of Assyrian History, p. xx.),
to Neptune or Noah!

[244] The actual weight of the large ducks in the British Museum being 480
oz. troy, the mana would be equal to 16 oz., with a small fraction over.
The Attic mana has been computed to be 14 oz., with a small fraction. It
would consequently be to the Babylonian talent as 7 to 8. According to
Herodotus (lib. iii. c. 89.) the Euboean talent was to the Babylonian as 6
to 7. If this statement be correct, the Euboean would be to the Attic as
48 to 49. (Dr. Hincks.)

[245] One cylinder bears his name.

[246] Lib. i. c. 195. As a written signature is of no value, except in
particular cases, in the East, and as all documents to be valid must be
sealed with seals bearing the names of the parties to them, the engraved
signet is of great importance, and the trade of an engraver one of
considerable responsibility. The punishment for forging seals is very
severe, and there are many regulations enforced for securing their
authenticity.

[247] Compare Job, xxxviii. 14. "It is turned as clay to the seal."

[248] Compare 1 Kings, xix. 16. and 2 Kings, ix. 2.

[249] Sargon is called on the monuments of Khorsabad, "the conqueror of
Samaria and of the circuit of Beth Khumri." (Dr. Hincks, Trans, of the R.
Irish Acad. vol. xx.)

[250] 1 Kings, xix. 15.

[251] Colonel Rawlinson suggests about 930 B. C.

[252] Especially if, as Egyptian scholars still maintain, the name is
found on Egyptian monuments of the 18th dynasty.

[253] See my Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 155, where this
genealogy was first pointed out.

[254] Discovered during the first expedition. (Nineveh and its Remains,
vol. i. p. 83.)

[255] This interesting discovery was first announced in the Athenæum of
Jan. 3, 1852.

[256] These three kings came against Israel (2 Kings, xv. 19, and 29, and
1 Chron. v. 26); but Pul is particularly mentioned as receiving tribute
from Menahem, and Tiglath Pileser, as carrying away Israelites into
captivity in the time of Pekah, between whose reign and that of Menahem
only two years elapsed. (2 Kings, xv. 23.)

[257] See an interesting note on this subject in Rich's Narrative, vol.
ii. p. 123.

[258] 2 Chron. xxxiii.

[259] We have a curious illustration of the magnificent suicide of
Sardanapalus in the history of Zimri, king of Israel. "And it came to
pass, when Zimri saw that the city was taken, that he went into the palace
of the king's house, and burnt the king's house over him with fire and
died." 1 Kings xvii. 18. There is nothing, therefore, improbable in the
romantic history of the Assyrian king.

[260] The reading according to Col. Rawlinson is marked R--that according
to Dr. Hincks, H.

[261] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 185.

[262] It was not necessary to the effect of his preaching that Jonah
should be of the religion of the people of Nineveh. I have known a
Christian priest frighten a whole Mussulman town to tents and repentance
by publicly proclaiming that he had received a divine mission to announce
a coming earthquake or plague.

[263] 2 Kings, xx. 19.

[264] 2 Kings, xxv. 19.

[265] Driving away the cattle and sheep of a conquered people, and
accounting them amongst the principal spoil, has ever been the custom of
Eastern nations who have not altogether renounced a nomadic life, and
whose chief wealth consequently consisted in these animals. When Asa
defeated the Ethiopians, "he carried away sheep and camels in abundance;
and returned to Jerusalem." (2 Chron. xiv. 15.)

[266] The same thing may, indeed, be inferred from several passages in
Chronicles and Kings. See particularly 2 Kings, xvi. 7, xvii. 4.

[267] 1 Kings, iv. 21, and 24. "_He reigned over all the kings_ from the
river even unto the land of the Philistines and to the border of Egypt;"
and the kings "brought him every man his present, vessels of silver, and
vessels of gold, and raiment, harness, and spices, horses and mules, a
rate year by year." (2 Chron. ix. 24, 26.) Such were probably the very
articles brought yearly to the Assyrian king, and enumerated in his
records.

[268] 2 Chron. v. 62.

[269] 1 Chron. v. 6 and 26.

[270] 2 Kings, xvii. 6, xviii. 11.

[271] 2 Kings, xvii. 29.

[272] See woodcuts, Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 340.

[273] Ch. iii. 12-14.

[274] From this propylæum came the two colossal bulls in the British
Museum; it was part of the royal palace.

[275] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. part ii. ch. 2. A recent
trigonometrical survey of the country by Captain Jones proves, I am
informed, that the great ruins of Kouyunjik, Nimroud, Karamless, and
Khorsabad, form very nearly a perfect parallelogram, corresponding with
the conjecture I ventured to make in my former work. A recent writer
(Bonomi, Nineveh and its Palaces, p. 94), adopting the theory of the
greater extent of Nineveh, has endeavored to prove that the Gebel Makloub
is the remains of its eastern walls, stating that he "has the testimony of
a _recent observant_ traveller, Mr. Barker, who has no doubt that the
so-called 'mountain' is entirely the work of man." Unfortunately it
happens that the Gebel Makloub is somewhat higher, and far more
precipitous and rocky than the Malvern hills. It would, indeed, have
required Titans to raise such a heaven-reaching wall! Scarcely less
extravagant are the conjectures that the mound is called Kouyumjik, not
Kouyunjik, because silver ornaments may have been found there, and that
Yaroumjeh, a mere Turkish name meaning "half-way village," is "roum,"
"signifying the territory and inhabitants of the Roman empire," and,
consequently, a part of Nineveh, "Roman and ancient being synonymous
terms!" The line, too, indicated in Mr. Bonomi's diagram for the former
bed of the Tigris, in order to complete the parallelogram, would take the
river over a range of steep limestone hills. I may here observe that the
name of "Niniouah" is not known in the country as applied either to the
mound of Nebbi Yunus, or any other ruin in the country. Before founding
theories upon such grounds, it would be as well to have some little
acquaintance with the localities and with the languages spoken by the
people of the country.

[276] 1 Kings, v. 15.

[277] The Jewish cubit appears to have been about eighteen inches.

[278] The height, according to 2 Chron. iii. 4, was 120 cubits, which
would appear to be an error slipt into the text, although Josephus gives
the same dimensions, adding an upper story or structure.

[279] Mr. Fergusson has pointed out, from the account of Josephus, the
probability of the temple having had two stories. (The Palaces of Nineveh
restored, p. 222.)

[280] See Calmet's Dictionary of the Bible.

[281] See frontispiece to Fergusson's Palaces of Nineveh restored.

[282] Josephus, b. viii. c. 2. Fergusson's Palaces of Nineveh, p. 229.

[283] It will be remembered that the annals on the bulls of Kouyunjik
include six years of his reign, and must consequently have been inscribed
on them in the seventh year.

[284] 1 Kings, v. 8.

[285] See Frontispiece to this volume.

[286] Such also appears to have been the case at Nimroud.

[287] 1 Kings, vii. 2. It is only by supposing it to have been one great
hall that we can at all understand the proportions and form of the
building as subsequently given. The Hebrew word, as its Arabic equivalent
still does, will bear both meanings. Pharaoh's daughter's house, which was
"_like unto the porch_," was probably the harem or private apartment.

[288] Palaces of Nineveh restored, p. 181. That the Assyrians were,
however, acquainted with slanting roofs may be inferred from a bas-relief
discovered at Khorsabad. (Botta, Plate 141.)

[289] Jerem. xix. 13.

[290] Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. part ii. ch. 2.

[291] Daniel, v. 5.

[292] 1 Kings, vi. 28. I cannot, however, but express my conviction that
much of the metal called gold both in the sacred writings and in the
profane authors of antiquity, was really copper, alloyed with other
metals, the aurichalcum, or orichalcum, of the Greeks, such as was used in
the bowls and plates discovered at Nimroud.

[293] Rich estimates the entire length of the inclosure at about four
miles, and its greatest breadth at nearly two. This appears to me rather
above the actual extent of the ruins. It must also be remembered that they
narrow off from the northern side to a few hundred yards at the southern.
I have not hitherto had time to lay down my survey of Nimroud. The general
plan of the mound in my first work must be considered as a mere rough
sketch.

[294] Rich's Narrative, vol. ii. p. 60.

[295] It will be borne in mind that the Tigris has now changed its course.

[296] According to Mr. Rich, the distance from the inside of the inner
wall to the inside of the outer was 2007 feet. Allowing 200 feet for the
outer the breadth of the whole fortifications would be about 2200 feet, or
not far from half a mile.

[297] If the city, or this part of it, were ever taken by the river having
been turned upon the walls, as some ancient authors have declared, the
breach must have been made at the north-western corner. There are no
traces of it.

[298] Sir Anthony Shirley's Travels in Persia. Purchas, vol. ii. p. 1387.

[299] Narrative of a Residence in Kurdistan, vol. i. pp. 40, 51.



Transcriber's Notes:

Passages in italics are indicated by _italics_.

The original text contains one letter with a diacritical mark that is not
represented in this text version.

The original text includes Greek characters. For this text version these
letters have been replaced with transliterations.

The original text includes Hebrew characters. For this text version these
letters have been replaced with [Hebrew].





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Discoveries among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home