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Title: Handbook of Alabama Archaeology: Part I Point Types
Author: Hulse, David C., Cambron, James W.
Language: English
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  HANDBOOK

  OF

  ALABAMA

  ARCHAEOLOGY

  PART I POINT TYPES

  by

  JAMES W. CAMBRON
  DAVID C. HULSE


  Edited by
  DAVID L. DEJARNETTE


  SPONSORED by

  James H. McCary III      E. Milton Harris

  Philip C. Jackson, Jr.     Brittain Thompson


  PUBLISHED BY
  The Archaeological Research Association of Alabama Inc.



Contents


                                                  Page
  Preface by David L. DeJarnette                    xi

  Acknowledgments                                 xiii

  Introduction                                      xv

  Point shapes and features                        xvi

  Alphabetical index                             xxiii

  Point types                                        1

  Provisional types                                129

  Distribution Chart                               136

  Glossary                                         142

  Bibliography                                     149



[Illustration: Turkey Tail]



  HANDBOOK

  OF

  ALABAMA

  ARCHAEOLOGY

  Part I
  Point Types

  FIRST PRINTING
  NOVEMBER 1964

  SECOND PRINTING
  AUGUST 1965

  THIRD PRINTING
  OCTOBER 1969

  REVISED
  NOVEMBER 1975



PREFACE


For many years there has been a need in the Southeast for a workable
system of projectile point classification. Any number of people working
in archaeology have attempted various taxonomic schemes from time to
time in response to this long felt need. In the past, most of these
systems of classification have been based on certain look-alike
characteristics, with an utter disregard for the cultural provenience of
the objects being classified. Archaeology has been reasonably successful
in its classification of pottery. Great progress has been made during
the past three decades in unravelling the prehistory of the various
ceramic cultures in our area. During this same period, however, very
little has been ascertained about the several thousand years of
pre-ceramic occupations of which the major cultural determinants and
diagnostic traits are stone implements, chiefly projectile points of
flint.

Tom and Madeline Kneberg Lewis, with the help of interested amateurs
within the Tennessee Valley, took the first steps in the ordering of
projectile points and other flint artifacts and made plans for the
publication of a point type handbook. The retirement in 1961 of Tom and
Madeline Lewis halted this project. James W. Cambron, a collaborator and
chief contributor to the Lewises' proposed publication, continued his
interest and undertook, with the help of David Hulse, the job of
producing this handbook.

We have had the pleasure during the past of working very closely with
Cambron and Hulse. We have observed how painstaking and careful they are
in their evaluations and how they have often refused to place a specimen
in a type if all the type attributes were not present. We have also
observed in the course of field investigation that, as a result of this
taxonomic system, the occurrence of certain types in certain cultural
contexts could be predicted with a high degree of accuracy. In other
words, this taxonomic system not only allows communication between
workers by supplying names for certain classes of artifacts, but it also
enables the prehistorian to establish event which took place in time and
space. This, after all, is the real test of any artifact taxonomy.

In all systems of taxonomy, whether it is the naming and classifying of
cave beetles, land snails, snakes, or arrowheads, there are two schools
of thought. These can be termed the "splitters" and the "lumpers," and
if we might classify ourself without splitting or lumping we would type
ourself as a "lumper." However, we are thankful that the authors would
be typed as "splitters," because without meticulous splitting, lumping
or meaningful generalization would be impossible. This is the reason we
have been tolerant of the fine divisions and the hairline cases which
have often made variants of what looked like to us one and the same
type. Like all such systems, this one has its limitations. We do feel,
however, that it is a practical classification system which has already
demonstrated its usefulness in archaeological interpretations.

The senior author, James Cambron, began his interest in archaeology
years ago. He is a native of North Carolina and made his first
collections in that state. He is a printer by profession and has been
connected with the Decatur Daily for over ten years. Most of his
fruitful years as a "part time" archaeologist have been spent in the
Tennessee Valley near Decatur, Alabama. He has contributed articles to
the publications of both the Alabama Archaeological Society and the
Tennessee Archaeological Society. He is recognized by both professionals
and amateurs for his specialty in the classification of flint
artifacts.

David Hulse, junior author, is a native of Decatur, and his interest in
archaeology is as longstanding as Cambron's. By vocation he is an
illustrator. His best known illustrations are the colored paintings of
the water fowl in Birds of Alabama. His work in the illustration of wild
life has kept him much of the time on Wheeler Lake near his home in
Decatur, and his "part time" archaeological ventures have been in
surface collecting on the mud flats which are exposed when the lake
level is lowered. Not only has he provided the excellent illustrations
in this publication, but he has also collaborated in all other aspects
of the handbook.

It has been our satisfaction as editor during the past twelve years to
see the efforts of these two authors come to fruition as descriptions of
point type after point type came into our hands for the comparatively
small job of editing. We think you are going to find this handbook a
tremendous tool for extracting a great deal of information and pleasure
from your collections. Since some readers may want to consult primary
sources to find out more about specific types, each point type is given
with the name of the classifier and the name of the publication in which
the type was first described and classified. In the text concerning each
type, other bibliographic references are cited.

A word of caution--do not try to fit everything into this system. The
authors themselves, in classifying our material from summer excavations,
would class only about 25 per cent. Read the full description of the
point type and do not rely entirely on the illustration for comparison
since certain diagnostic characteristics do not lend themselves to
illustration. Since it would have been impractical to show the full
range of each type, you will see in each illustration a classic example
which usually falls in the middle of the range.

  David L. DeJarnette, Editor
  Mound State Monument
  Moundville, AL 35474

       *       *       *       *       *

For additional copies of this book and information on other publications
of the Archaeological Research Association of Alabama, Inc., contact
Editor at the above address.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The preparation of the material presented in this book was made possible
by many individuals and institutions. To them the authors express their
gratitude with particular thanks to those listed.

Mrs. T. M. N. (Madeline Kneberg) Lewis is responsible for the basic
methods of procedure in classification of these point types, many of
which the authors identified by working with the Lewises before their
retirement from the University of Tennessee.

The principal job of editing the original manuscript was done by David
L. DeJarnette with the help of Mrs. Eleanor Smith Brock and Mrs. Valerie
Scarritt, all the University of Alabama. This current revision was
edited by David L. DeJarnette with the assistance of Mrs. Valerie
Scarritt and Mrs. Judith Nielsen. The University made available to the
authors projectile points from the Tennessee Valley shell mound
excavations which were classified and used as a chronological control
for the original compilation of this manuscript.

Dr. James B. Griffin of the University of Michigan and Dr. Joffre Coe of
the University of North Carolina furnished materials from their areas
and contributed information for this study.

Mr. and Mrs. E. Milton Harris, Philip C. Jackson, Jr., James H. McCary
III and Brittain Thompson of Birmingham sponsored the original printing
of the manuscript. The Archaeological Research Association of Alabama,
Inc. has continued the sponsorship through two additional printings and
this revision. Brittain Thompson also accepted the tasks of design,
preparation and production of all three printings of the original
manuscript and this revision. The Harrises compiled the information for
the distributional chart which appeared in the first three printings.

This study has drawn heavily upon "A Survey of Paleo-Indian Sites and
Artifacts in the Tennessee River Valley," an unpublished report on three
years of field work by Dr. Frank J. Soday and James W. Cambron.

H. B. Dowell, Mrs. James W. Cambron, Rodger Schaefer and Mrs. Don
Mayhall, all of Decatur, Alabama, were most helpful in reading, typing,
and duplicating manuscript copy.

Many members of the Alabama Archaeological Society and other individuals
loaned their collections, from over the state of Alabama, for
classification. This material helped establish point type and provided
information on the distribution of types.

  James W. Cambron

  David C. Hulse



INTRODUCTION


The purpose of this book is to fill a need for the identification of
artifacts and to contribute to a unified nomenclature, especially
concerning projectile point types in Alabama and adjoining areas.

Considerable material was classified and used to determine types. This
includes approximately: 150,000 catalogued artifacts in the collections
of the authors from 400 sites, mostly from the Tennessee Valley; about
5,000 Paleo, Transitional Paleo, and early Archaic artifacts from 281
sites classified in "A survey of Paleo-Indian Sites and Artifacts in the
Tennessee River Valley;" and artifacts from over 250 sites in 27 Alabama
counties, 7 Tennessee counties, 1 North Carolina county, 3 Georgia
counties and 1 New York county (see distribution tables of state survey)
loaned by Alabama Archaeological Society members and others.

Names and code numbers were assigned to each type of artifact.
Combinations of characteristics both cultural and physical, including
measurements, shapes, flaking, and materials, were taken from a series
of each type and were used to determine each new type. Typical examples
were selected to be illustrated and the illustrations were drawn with
great accuracy and are considered superior to photographs, and all named
points are drawn actual size. Cultural associations were determined by
artifacts from excavated control sites. These control sites include
Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter, Quad Site, University of Alabama Site Ms
201 (Rock House), Flint Creek Rock Shelter, Little Bear Creek Site Ct 8,
and Flint River Mound Ma 48. All artifacts from these sites used in this
paper were classified by the authors; thus a uniform interpretation of
types was assured. Surface collections from more or less culturally
isolated sites were also of value in determining cultural associations.

Some projectile points are not distinctive enough to be defined as a
type. Provisional types of categories were set up and assigned code
numbers in order to place these points in separated groups. Points are
not "pushed" into a named type; if the type could not accurately be
determined the point was placed in a provisional type. In classifying
point types it is well to consider that broken points, points with
missing parts, and reworked points can be misleading and can make the
example appear to be of another type. Differences in patination and
flaking technique of the reworked area of a point are helpful in
determining the extent of reworking. In classifying reworked points if
the original type can be identified the point is placed in that type. If
a point is reworked into a tool it is still classified as a point.

The hafting method and flaking can be helpful in determining point type
associations in general as the hafting method nearly always determines
the shape of the projectile point. Most Paleo Indian types, including
fluted points, are auriculate. With exceptions, Transitional Paleo types
were still hafted in much the same way. Side notching and beveling of
the blade apparently started in this period. Notching and beveling seems
to reach a climax on larger points in the early Archaic period. Stemmed
points also became important in this period and persisted in importance
through Shellmound Archaic and Woodland periods. Auriculate and notched
types reappear in the Woodland period. Pentagonal and triangular types
persist through all cultural periods. Small triangular points become
important in the Mississippian period.

[Illustration: BASIC POINT SHAPES AND FEATURES]

[Illustration: HAFTING AREA TYPES]

[Illustration: STEM EDGE NOMENCLATURE]

[Illustration: FLAKING TYPES]


Explanation of Code Numbers

Code numbers were assigned each point type as they were defined for the
purpose of convenience in classification and to eventually be used to
computerize types for distribution purposes.


Projectile points are divided into two parts: hafting area and blade.
The following outline was used in describing each point type:

I Name--=Named by= (described by, and date)

II General Description: Size, type according to hafting
area--auriculate, stemmed, notched, lanceolate, triangular,
pentagonal--diagnostic features.

III Measurements

IV Form: Cross section, shoulders, blade type, blade edge features,
distal end; hafting area (type and features).

V Flaking: Type and materials.

VI Comments: Derivation of name, location of specimens, cultural
associations, etc.



INDEX


  Abbey                                            1
  Adena                                            2
  Adena Narrow Stemmed                             3
  Afton                                            4
  Angostura                                        5
  Appalachian                                      6
  Autauga                                          7
  Bakers Creek                                     8
  Beacon Island                                    9
  Beaver Lake                                     10
  Benjamin                                        11
  Benton Broad Stemmed                            12
  Benton Stemmed                                  13
  Big Sandy                                       14
  Big Sandy Auriculate                            15
  Big Sandy Broad Base                            16
  Big Sandy Contracted Base                       17
  Big Slough                                      18
  Bradley Spike                                   19
  Brewerton, Eared-Notched                        20
  Buzzard Roost Creek                             21
  Camp Creek                                      22
  Candy Creek                                     23
  Cave Spring                                     24
  Clovis                                          25
  Clovis, Unfluted                                27
  Conerly                                         28
  Coosa                                           29
  Coosa, Notched                                  30
  Copena                                          31
  Copena Triangular                               32
  Cotaco Creek                                    33
  Crawford Creek                                  35
  Cumberland                                      36
  Dalton, Colbert                                 37
  Dalton, Greenbrier                              38
  Damron                                          40
  Decatur                                         41
  Ebenezer                                        42
  Ecusta                                          43
  Elk River                                       44
  Elora                                           46
  Eva                                             48
  Evans                                           49
  Fairland                                        50
  Flint Creek                                     51
  Flint River Spike                               53
  Fort Ancient                                    54
  Frazier                                         55
  Garth Slough                                    56
  Gary                                            57
  Greenbrier                                      58
  Greeneville                                     59
  Guilford                                        60
  Guilford Rounded Base                           61
  Guntersville                                    62
  Halifax                                         63
  Hamilton                                        64
  Hamilton Stemmed                                65
  Hardaway                                        66
  Harpeth River                                   67
  Jacks Reef Corner Notched                       68
  Jacks Reef Pentagonal                           69
  Jeff                                            70
  Jude                                            71
  Kays                                            72
  Kirk Corner Notched                             73
  Kirk Serrated                                   74
  Knight Island                                   76
  LeCroy                                          77
  Ledbetter                                       78
  Lerma Pointed Base                              79
  Lerma Rounded Base                              80
  Limestone                                       81
  Little Bear Creek                               82
  Lost Lake                                       83
  Madison                                         84
  Maples                                          85
  McIntire                                        86
  McKean                                          87
  Montgomery                                      88
  Morrow Mountain                                 89
  Morrow Mountain Rounded Base                    90
  Morrow Mountain Straight Base                   91
  Motley                                          92
  Mountain Fork                                   93
  Mud Creek                                       94
  Mulberry Creek                                  95
  New Market                                      96
  Nodena                                          97
  Nolichucky                                      98
  Osceola                                         99
  Paint Rock Valley                              100
  Palmer                                         101
  Pedernalis                                     102
  Pickwick                                       103
  Pine Tree                                      104
  Pine Tree Corner Notched                       105
  Plevna                                         106
  Quad                                           107
  Redstone                                       108
  Rheems Creek                                   110
  Russell Cave                                   111
  Sand Mountain                                  112
  Savage Cave                                    113
  Savannah River                                 114
  Smithsonia                                     115
  South Prong Creek                              116
  Stanfield                                      117
  Stanley                                        118
  Sublet Ferry                                   119
  Swan Lake                                      120
  Turkey Tail                                    121
  Wade                                           122
  Washington                                     123
  Washita                                        124
  Wheeler Excurvate                              125
  Wheeler Recurvate                              126
  Wheeler Triangular                             127
  White Springs                                  128
  Provisional Type 1--Stemmed                    129
  Provisional Type 2--Expanded Stem              130
  Provisional Type 4--Stemmed Barbed             130
  Provisional Type 5--Stemmed and Serrated       131
  Provisional Type 6--Unfinished Base            131
  Provisional Type 8--Corner Notched             132
  Provisional Type 9--Side Notched               132
  Provisional Type 10--Eccentric Notched         133
  Provisional Type 11--Triangular                133
  Provisional Type 12--Rounded Base              134
  Provisional Type 13--Notched Convex Stem       134



ABBEY, =Hulse= (This paper): A-122

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium sized, stemmed point with
incurvate blade edges that are beveled on each side of both faces.

MEASUREMENTS: Measurements of 12 cotypes (including the illustrated
example) from which features were taken ranged as follows:
length--maximum, 51 mm.; minimum, 38 mm.; average, 42 mm.: width
at shoulders--maximum, 49 mm.; minimum, 32 mm.; average, 41 mm.:
stem width--maximum, 21 mm.; minimum, 14 mm.; average, 18 mm.:
stem, length--maximum 12 mm.; minimum 7 mm.; average, 9 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 6 mm.; average, 7 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is flattened. The shoulders are expanded and are
usually horizontal, but may be inversely tapered. The blade is
incurvate, beveled on each side of both faces, and is in rare instances
serrated. The distal end is acute. The stem is usually straight but may
be expanded. The basal edge may be either slightly excurvate or straight
and is usually thinned.

[Illustration]

FLAKING: This type displays well controlled, broad, shallow, random
flaking. The blade and stem edges were retouched by shallow, regular,
pressure flaking. Good local materials were used. All examples are
patinated.

COMMENTS: The type was named from sites near Abbey Creek in Henry and
Houston counties, Alabama. They were associated with Elora and Maples
points and probably were used during the Archaic period.


ADENA, =Bell= (Bell, 1958): A-1

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large point with a long, very
broad, sometimes rounded stem.

MEASUREMENTS: The measurements of seven homotypes from which traits and
measurements were taken are: length--maximum, 65 mm.; minimum, 50 mm.;
average, 56 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 35 mm.; minimum, 32 mm.;
average, 34 mm.: stem width--maximum, 27 mm.; minimum, 18 mm.; average,
24 mm.: stem length--maximum, 30 mm.; minimum, 15 mm.; average, 21 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 8 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex with wide proportions. The shoulders
may be horizontal or tapered, with an occasional weak barb. The blade
shape is excurvate. The distal end is usually acute. The stem may be
straight, contracted or slightly expanded. Some examples can be
described as having a rounded stem. The stem base is either straight or
excurvate. The basal edges may be lightly ground.

FLAKING: The blade and stem are shaped with strong random flaking, with
some retouch along most edges.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The name Adena is derived from the point's association with
the Adena culture. The illustrated specimen is from Cambron Site 48,
Lincoln County, Tennessee. The measured examples are from this site and
Cambron Site 50, Limestone County, Alabama. Most examples are made from
local materials. The type is associated with early Woodland in the
eastern United States. Kneberg (1956) indicates an Archaic association
in Tennessee. In Alabama, the Adena point seems to appear on both
Archaic and Woodland sites. One example was found in Level 1, Zone A,
and one example in Zone C at the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter
(DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962). One example was found in
Stratum II (Archaic) at the Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and
Waters, 1961). Scattered examples are known from most of North Alabama.
The Alabama points closely resemble examples from Ohio, illustrated by
Bell (1958) and Webb and Baby (1957), as well as some examples from an
Adena mound at Natrium, West Virginia (Solecki, 1953). Examples from New
York with unground bases are described by Ritchie (1961). Radiocarbon
dates from Adena sites in Ohio and Kentucky (Webb and Baby, 1957)
suggest an age of from 800 B.C. to 800 A.D.


ADENA NARROW STEMMED, =Cambron= (This Paper): A-1-a

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large point with a long,
rounded stem and a long, excurvate blade.

MEASUREMENTS: The illustrated example measures 92 mm. in length, 32 mm.
in width, 19 mm. in stem width, 21 mm. in stem length, 9 mm. in
thickness.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. The shoulders may be horizontal or
slightly tapered. The blade shape is excurvate but may be almost
straight with an acute distal end. The stem is long and is usually
rounded, but it may have straight side edges with an excurvate basal
edge. A slightly expanded stem occurs rarely.

FLAKING: The blade and stem were produced by broad percussion flaking,
which results in rather uniform flake scars. The technique may be
described as random flaking, but may approach collateral flaking on some
examples. The blade edges are finished by secondary flaking with some
fine retouching. The stem edges were treated in a manner similar to that
of the blade.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type is described as a variant of the classic Adena point.
The illustrated example is from Cambron Site 76 (Pine Tree). Some sites
have produced only one of the two Adena variants, which may simply
indicate a high degree of variation of the Adena point or may, upon
further investigation, prove to be an indication that the two types are
associated with somewhat different cultures. Several good examples from
Natrium Mound in West Virginia are illustrated by Solecki (1953). Some
of his points shown in Plate 28, Figures R, T, and U, were found
arranged in association with a burial. Classic Adena points (Figures V
and W, Plate 28) and other artifacts were also found with this burial.
Closely associated with another burial and accompanying artifacts were
points illustrated as Figures X and Y, Plate 28. At this site, the types
were contemporaneous.

An Adena Narrow Stemmed point was recovered from a feature pit in
Stratum I at the Danley Site (Cambron, Dowell and O'Mahoney, 1962) along
with a Wheeler Punctate sherd, a Cotaco Creek point, one polished and
three flaked flint celts, and other artifacts. The Flint Creek Rock
Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961) and Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter
(DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962) produced classic Adena but no
Adena Narrow Stemmed points. The narrow, stemmed type is probably coeval
with the classic Adena type on most Alabama sites.


AFTON, (Sub-Variety), =Bell and Hall= (Bell, 1958): A-2

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Afton point is a medium to large, stemmed point
with an angular blade outline.

MEASUREMENTS: The illustrated example (plesiotype) measures 45 mm. in
length, 25 mm. in shoulder width, 15 mm. in stem width, 12 mm. in stem
length, 6 mm. in maximum thickness.

FORM: The cross-section is flattened. The shoulders are tapered. The
blade is parallel angular; the distal end, apiculate. The stem is
straight.

FLAKING: The faces of the blade and stem are shaped by broad percussion
flaking with some fine retouch along the edges.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from specimens found near Afton, Oklahoma.
The illustrated example is from Cambron Site 43 in Madison County,
Alabama. Another example of the same size and material and comparable
characteristics was found on Cambron Site 48 across a small mountain
pass in Lincoln County, Tennessee. To date (September, 1975) these are
the only examples classified from Alabama and adjacent areas. Both of
these examples fall into a category described by Bell (1958) as a
sub-variety, since they have straight--rather than expanded--stems and
no shoulder barbs.

Bell gives the general distribution as throughout northeastern Oklahoma
and the adjacent regions of Arkansas, Kansas and Missouri, as well as
various sections of the Ohio Valley, particularly Ohio. He also
indicates a pre-pottery cultural association.


ANGOSTURA, =Suhm= and =Krieger= (Suhm, Krieger and Jelks, 1954): A-4

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Angostura point is a medium to large,
auriculate point with an excurvate blade.

MEASUREMENTS: Twelve specimens from nine Tennessee Valley sites (Soday
and Cambron, n. d.) average 76 mm. in length, 28 mm. in width, and 8 mm.
in thickness. The longest point (Quad Site, Limestone County, Alabama)
measures 101 mm. and the shortest point (Sweiger 1, Meigs County,
Tennessee) measures 54 mm. The illustrated example measures 67 mm. long,
30 mm. wide, 9 mm. thick.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Some examples have a faint shoulder
at the terminal end of the hafting area. The blade shape is excurvate;
the distal end, acute. Several local examples are beveled on one edge of
each face. Most examples have auriculated bases with contracted,
pointed, or rounded basal edges. Although an incurvate base is one of
the distinguishing characteristics of the type, some bases may be
straight or even slightly excurvate. The base is usually thinned and may
be ground.

FLAKING: The blade may be shaped by broad random flaking, crude
collateral flaking or, in some examples from the west, fine oblique
transverse flaking. Random flaking is by far the predominant type. Most
blades are finished by secondary flaking, which appears in some examples
to have been done by the percussion method. As a final finishing step,
fine retouch, carried out in order to remove irregularities from the
blade edges, is present.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was first described by Hughes (1949) as Long points
from the Long Site in Angostura Reservoir, South Dakota. Hughes accepted
all of Suhm's illustrated examples (Suhm, Krieger and Jelks, 1954)
except the beveled ones. Several beveled examples were illustrated by
Suhm, Krieger and Jelks, 1954. The example shown here is from Cambron
Site 116, Limestone County, Alabama. Suhm, Krieger and Jelks (1954)
estimate the age between 6000 B.C. and 4000 B.C. or later. An
Angostura point was recovered from the lower levels at Stanfield-Worley
Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962), and what appears
to be an Angostura point was associated, along with a pointed-base Lerma
and a biface knife, with the second mammoth found at Santa Isabel
Iztapan, Mexico (Wormington, 1957). This example resembles some
Tennessee Valley specimens which may be late Paleo or early Archaic
(Cambron and Hulse, 1960b).


APPALACHIAN, =Kneberg= (Kneberg, 1957): A-5

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Appalachian point is a medium to large, stemmed
point with concave base, made of quartzite.

MEASUREMENTS: The illustrated example measures 85 mm. in length, 38 mm.
in shoulder width, 27 mm. in stem width, 16 mm. in stem length, and 16
mm. in thickness. The length for the type ranges from 60 mm. to 110 mm.
(Harwood, 1959).

FORM: The cross-section is usually flattened. The shoulders are usually
tapered and narrow. The blade is usually excurvate, but may be straight
with an acute distal end. The stem is broad and may be straight,
slightly contracted, or expanded, with an incurvate basal edge that may
be thinned. The hafting area is usually ground along the edges.

FLAKING: This point displays well-controlled percussion flaking with
some retouch along the edges.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The point is named for the Southern Appalachian region, where
the type is widely distributed (Kneberg, 1957). Several examples were
recovered at the Camp Creek Site, where they may be associated with
Early Woodland (Kneberg, 1957). The illustrated example is from Harwood
Site 6A on Hominy Creek in Buncombe County, North Carolina. The part of
the site designated 6A by Harwood (1959) is pre-ceramic. Large, biface,
quartzite tools are in association with the points, which are all made
from quartzite. Examples from Cowee Creek, Macon County, North Carolina,
were recovered below the ceramic zone. This type is associated with
Savannah River points on several sites. It appears that the point is
associated with the middle to late Archaic and early Woodland cultures.


AUTAUGA, =Cambron= (This paper): A-123

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Autauga is a small, corner-notched, serrated
point with straight blade and base.

MEASUREMENTS: Twelve cotypes, including the illustrated example, from
sites in Autauga County, Alabama, provided traits and the following
measurements: length--maximum, 38 mm.; minimum, 23 mm.; average, 32 mm.:
shoulder width--maximum, 21 mm.; minimum, 15 mm.; average, 19 mm.:
stem width--maximum, 21 mm.; minimum, 16 mm.; average, 18 mm.:
stem length--maximum, 7 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average, 6 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 8 mm.; minimum, 6 mm.; average, 7 mm.

FORM: The cross-section may be either rhomboid or biconvex. The
shoulders are usually either horizontal or inversely tapered. The blade
is straight. Blade edges are usually serrated and are steeply beveled on
half of the examples. The distal end is acute. The corner notches are
usually ground and range in width from 2 mm. to 4 mm. and in depth from
5 mm. to 7 mm. The expanded stem has straight or incurvate side edges.
The base is straight and thinned. It is lightly ground on nearly all
examples.

[Illustration]

FLAKING: Narrow, shallow, random flaking was used to form the blade and
stem. Notching, to form the expanded stem, was accomplished by removal
of fairly deep flakes and finished by light grinding.

COMMENTS: The type was named for Autauga County, Alabama, where the
examples, used in this paper, were recovered. All of these points are
made of vein quartz. This type is found in surface collections with
Dalton, Big Sandy, Kirk Corner Notched, and Crawford Creek points. This
association and the fact that the type has features similar to Decatur,
Big Sandy, Palmer, and Crawford Creek points indicates an Early Archaic
or Transitional Paleo-Indian provenience.


BAKERS CREEK, =Cambron= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962): A-6

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium-sized, expanded-stem point.

MEASUREMENTS: Eleven cotypes, including the illustrated example, provide
traits and the following measurements: length--maximum, 78 mm.; minimum,
43 mm.; average, 55 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 28 mm.; minimum, 23
mm.; average, 26 mm.: stem width--maximum, 27 mm.; minimum, 21 mm.;
average, 23 mm.: stem length--maximum, 18 mm.; minimum, 12 mm.; average,
16 mm.: thickness--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 8 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. The shoulders are narrow and may be
horizontal or tapered. The blade is usually straight but may be
excurvate. The distal end is usually sharply acute, but may approach an
acuminate type. The hafting area consists of an expanded stem formed by
notching into the blade about one-third of the way from the base to the
distal end. This diagonal notch tapers from the basal edge, which is
usually unmodified in width. The basal edge is thinned and usually
straight, but it may be excurvate and lightly ground. Many examples are
patinated.

FLAKING: The blade and stem are shaped by broad, random, percussion
flaking. Flake scars indicate a strong percussion method was used to
notch the hafting area to form the expanded stem. All edges appear to
have been retouched as a final step in shaping the point.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The illustrated specimen is from Cambron Site 53, the type
site, at the mouth of Bakers Creek in Morgan County, Alabama. This type
is described by Cambron (1958a) as Stemmed Copena. It appears in surface
collections along with Copena and triangular Copena points. Two examples
were recovered from the lower two-thirds of Stratum I (Woodland) at
Flint Creek Rock Shelter and were illustrated as Bakers Creek points
(Cambron and Waters, 1961). One example was recovered from Level 7, Zone
A, at the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and
Cambron, 1962). One example was recovered from the 2-foot level at
Little Bear Creek, Ct 8 (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948b). At this site
Copena points were also recovered from Zone C. This evidence indicates
an early to middle Woodland cultural association and an estimated age of
somewhere between 1500 B.C. and early centuries A.D.


BEACON ISLAND, =Allen and Hulse= (This Paper): A-131

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium-sized point with expanded-rounded
stem, straight blade edges and weak to strong shoulder barbs.

MEASUREMENTS: Seven cotypes, two from Franklin County, Alabama, three
from Beacon Island and two from Bear Creek along the Tennessee River
below Florence, Alabama, provided the following measurements:
length--maximum, 73 mm.; minimum, 48 mm.; average, 61 mm.: shoulder
width--maximum, 28 mm.; minimum, 22 mm.; average, 24 mm.: stem width at
shoulder--maximum, 14 mm.; minimum, 12 mm.; average, 13 mm.: stem width
at widest point--maximum, 19 mm.; minimum, 15 mm.; average, 17 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 18 mm.; minimum, 12 mm.; average, 15 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 7 mm.; minimum, 6 mm.; average, 7 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders may be barbed or
inversely tapered. Blade edges are straight and may be finely serrated.
The stem is expanded-rounded with diagonal notches at the shoulders. The
distal end is acute.

[Illustration]

FLAKING: Shallow random flaking was employed to shape the faces of the
blade and stem. Careful pressure flaking was used to finish the blade
edges and to thin the base.

COMMENTS: The type was named from Ralph Allen Site 41 on Beacon Island
and was associated with Cotaco Creek, Flint Creek and Wade points on
this site. Several examples are illustrated as Type 8, Plate 159 (Webb
and DeJarnette, 1952). A suggested placement is in late Archaic and
early Woodland times.


BEAVER LAKE, =Cambron and Hulse= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron,
1962): A-7

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium-sized, auriculate point with
recurvate blade edges.

MEASUREMENTS: The lengths of 23 points from 23 sites in the Tennessee
Valley range from a maximum of 86 mm. to a minimum of 47 mm. (average
length, 64 mm.). The average width of these points is 24 mm. and the
average thickness is 8 mm. (Soday and Cambron, n. d.). The measurements
of the illustrated (autotype) specimen are: length, 61 mm.; width of
blade, 26 mm.; width at base, 25 mm.; width of hafting constriction, 21
mm.; thickness, 9 mm.; basal concavity, 3 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex, but one or both faces may
be median ridged. The blade is recurvate--constricted in the hafting
area above the auricles. The distal end is usually acute. The
auriculated hafting area is expanded-rounded. The basal edge is usually
thinned and incurvate, but may be straight. The hafting constriction and
basal edge are usually ground.

FLAKING: The shallow random flaking usually employed to shape the faces
sometimes produces a median ridge. Secondary retouch flake scars are
usually long, evenly spaced, and struck off on alternate faces,
resulting in an irregular pattern along the blade edges. This retouch
appears to have been accomplished with indirect percussion or pressure
flaking.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named for the Beaver Lake area in Limestone
County, Alabama, where many examples, including the illustrated specimen
from Cambron (Pine Tree Site 76), were recovered. Most examples from
this area are made from Ft. Payne chert, which is usually patinated to a
chocolate brown color. The type has been called unfluted Cumberland in
several papers, especially Soday and Cambron (n. d.). Beaver Lake points
are found only on sites that produce early-man materials. An example was
recovered from the bottom of Stratum III (pre-Archaic) at Flint Creek
Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961). Examples were recovered from
the lowest culture-bearing stratum at Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter
(DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962). All evidence indicates the type
dates from 10,000 B.P. to an unknown earlier time. It is considered to
be a transitional Paleo-Indian type.


BENJAMIN =Cambron= (This paper): A-118

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Benjamin is a large to medium sized lanceolate
point with straight or excurvate base and excurvate blade.

MEASUREMENTS: Nine cotypes, including the illustrated example, ranged in
measurements as follows: length--maximum, 100 mm.; minimum, 54 mm.;
average, 66 mm.: width--maximum, 32 mm.; minimum, 22 mm.; average, 26
mm.: thickness--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum, 9 mm.; average, 11 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. The blade is excurvate. The widest
point may be either at the base or somewhat below the midsection, making
the hafting area difficult to define. The distal end is acute. The basal
edge is usually excurvate, but may be straight, and is usually thinned.

FLAKING: Broad, deep, random flaking appears on the faces, with some
fine secondary flaking along the blade edges and sides of the hafting
area. Short random flaking was used to thin the basal edge. Local
materials were used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after the Benjamin site (Cambron Site 333)
in Lawrence County, Alabama, where it was first recognized and appears
in association with Woodland artifacts. The illustrated example is from
Cambron Site 19 in Morgan County, Alabama. At Cactus Rock Site Dk-101 in
DeKalb County, Alabama, one example was recovered from Level 1 in
association with Woodland point types and one example from Level 4 in
association with Woodland and Archaic point types. At University of
Alabama Site Dk-57 in DeKalb County, Alabama, the type was associated
with Copena and Madison points. At University of Alabama Sites Lo-23 in
Lowndes County, Alabama, and Lr-20 in Lamar County, Alabama, Benjamin
points appear in Woodland strata. The association of Benjamin points at
these sites seems to place the type within the Woodland period.


BENTON BROAD STEMMED, =Cambron= (This Paper): A-9-a

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, broad-stemmed point with
steeply beveled stem edges.

MEASUREMENTS: The measurements of the illustrated example are: length,
66 mm.; shoulder width, 32 mm.; stem width, 28 mm.; stem length, 11 mm.;
thickness, 9 mm.

FORM: The cross-section may be flattened or biconvex. The shoulders are
narrow and may be horizontal or tapered. The blade is usually excurvate,
the distal end acute. The stem is usually slightly expanded, but may be
straight. It is very broad and short. The stem side edges are usually
incurvate or straight and beveled. The beveled basal edge is usually
straight but may be slightly incurvate or excurvate.

FLAKING: The blade and stem display broad, shallow, random flaking. Some
broad retouching was used to finish the blade and stem edges. The stem
appears to have been formed by the removal of the corners of the
original basal edge.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type name was derived from the Benton Stemmed point, to
which it seems to be closely associated both typologically and
culturally. The outstanding differences between the two are the
exceptionally broad stem and broader, shorter blade of the Benton Broad
Stem point. The type does not appear as frequently or in as great
numbers as Benton Stemmed. The illustrated example is from Cambron Site
48, Lincoln County, Tennessee. Due to its association with Benton
Stemmed and Buzzard Roost Creek points, it is considered to be an
Archaic point and is probably coeval with these types, dating from about
4000 B.C. to 2000 B.C.


BENTON STEMMED, =Kneberg= (Kneberg, 1956): A-9

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, stemmed point with
steeply beveled stem edges.

MEASUREMENTS: The measurements of five cotypes from which measurements
and traits were taken are: length--maximum, 97 mm.; minimum, 45 mm.;
average, 65 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 30 mm.; minimum, 25 mm.;
average, 29 mm.: stem width--maximum, 20 mm.; minimum, 16 mm.; average,
17 mm.: stem length--maximum, 11 mm.; minimum, 8 mm.; average, 9 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average, 7 mm. Measurements
of the illustrated example are: length, 53 mm.; shoulder width, 28 mm.;
stem width, 19 mm.; stem length, 9 mm.; thickness, 8 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex to flattened. The shoulders are
narrow and, rarely, barbed. They may be horizontal or slightly tapered.
The blade is usually recurvate, but may be excurvate with an acute
distal end. The stem is relatively broad and short with straight,
beveled side edges. It may be tapered or expanded. The steeply beveled
basal edge may be straight or incurvate.

FLAKING: The random, primary flaking used to shape the face of the blade
and stem is broad and shallow. Some areas seem to be only slightly
modified and exhibit some blade scars. The retouching along the blade
edges is broad and shallow. Short, broad flakes are used to shape the
stem and bevel the stem edges. These appear to be the result of indirect
percussion.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named for Benton County, Tennessee. The
illustrated example is from Hulse Site 17, Limestone County, Alabama.
The type is found in the Tennessee River Valley and in western Tennessee
along the Mississippi River (Bell, 1960). At the Eva Site, in Benton
County, Tennessee, the cultural association is with the early Big Sandy
component (Lewis and Lewis, 1961). Practically all the types recovered
from Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter were from Zone A, where the first
ten levels contained examples. The more frequent occurrence of the type
in Levels 4 through 9, Zone A, is an indication of Archaic association
(DeJarnette, Kurjack, Cambron, 1962). At Rock House Shelter, University
of Alabama Site Ms 201, in Marshall County, Levels 5, 7, 8 and 11
produced one point each. This indicates an early Archaic association at
this site. At Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961), all
examples were in middle- and upper-stratum II (Archaic). At Little Bear
Creek, Ct 8 (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948b), examples were recovered from
the two-foot level through the eight-foot level, most examples being
from the lower three levels. The type appeared in Zones A, B, C and D at
Flint River, Mound Ma 48 (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a); it was most
frequent in Zone C. A strict Archaic association dating from about 4000
B.C. to 2000 B.C. is suggested.


BIG SANDY, =Lewis and Kneberg= (Cambron and Hulse, 1960a): A-10 A-11

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium, side-notched point. The
basal edges and/or notches are usually ground. The blade edges may be
serrated and/or beveled.

MEASUREMENTS: The range of measurements of 14 examples from an
excavation on the Quad Site (Cambron and Hulse, 1960a) are: length,
35-56 mm.; width, 18-20 mm.; thickness, 6-8 mm. Measurements of the
illustrated example are: length, 41 mm.; shoulder width, 20 mm.; width
at base, 21 mm.; notch depth, 4 mm.; notch width, 6mm.; thickness, 6mm.
Later unground examples from the Big Sandy Site in Henry County,
Tennessee, range in length from 44 mm. to 89 mm. and average near 64 mm.
(Bell, 1960).

FLAKING: The flaking is variable, but usually is good. Random flaking is
usually employed to shape the faces of the blade and hafting area;
retouch is evident along the edges. The side notches appear to have been
made by broad percussion flaking. Rare examples show oblique flaking
(Kneberg, 1956).

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex but may be rhomboid,
plano-convex, or median ridged. The blade may be excurvate or straight.
Of the 22 whole and broken examples recovered, 62% are beveled on one
side of each blade face and 8% are serrated. The distal end is acute.
The hafting area is side-notched. The notches average about 5 mm. deep
and 7 mm. wide, and are nearly always ground. Of the 22 measured
examples, 43% have incurvate bases, 32% have slightly excurvate bases,
and 25% have straight bases. The bases are usually thinned, and 50% of
the 22 examples have ground bases. The part of the hafting area between
the notches and the base may be straight or auriculated. Rarely, the
basal edge is parallel pointed.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The point is named for the Big Sandy I phase of the Archaic
period (Lewis and Kneberg, 1959). The illustrated example is from Hulse
Site 38 (Pine Tree), Limestone County, Alabama. Examples were found in
association with a fluted midsection, Wheeler, Dalton, and Quad points
on the Quad Site (Cambron and Hulse, 1960a). Ritchie, in New York
(1961), described the type as the Otter Creek point. The type was dated
at Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter by radiocarbon method at near 10,000
B.P. (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962). Similar examples from
Danger Cave, Utah, were listed by Jennings (1957) as types W4, W25, and
W26. Type W4 was recovered only from Level II, where the radiocarbon
dates were 9789 ±630 B.P. and 8960 ±340 B.P. This type was described in
earlier editions of this book as Big Sandy I. An unground variant, also
described in earlier editions of this book as Big Sandy II, Code, No.
A-11, were numerous in the Three Mile Phase at the Eva Site (Lewis and
Lewis, 1961). Kneberg suggests a date of from 3500 B.C. to 1000 B.C. for
this variant (1959).


BIG SANDY AURICULATE, =Cambron= (This Paper): A-133

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium sized, side-notched point
with auriculate, incurvate base and excurvate blade edges. The basal
edges and/or notches are nearly always ground.

MEASUREMENTS: Eight examples from Cave Spring (Moebes, 1974) provided
the following measurements: length, 30-45 mm.; average, 39 mm.; shoulder
width, 16-26 mm.; average, 22 mm.: stem width, 18-23 mm.; average, 21
mm.: stem length, 10-13 mm.; average, 11 mm.: thickness, 6-9 mm.;
average, 8 mm.: basal concavity, 1-3 mm.; average, 2 mm.: width in
notches, 10-17 mm.; average, 14 mm.: notch width, 6-10 mm.; average, 8
mm.: notch depth, 3-7 mm.; average, 4 mm.: stem length below notches,
4-6 mm.; average, 5 mm.

FLAKING: Fifty percent show collateral flaking and 50% show random
flaking.

FORM: Seventy-four percent of the cross-sections are biconvex, 13% are
plano-convex and 13% are median ridged. All blade edges are excurvate.
All bases are incurvate. All bases and notches are ground and 75% of the
stem edges are ground. Fifty percent have shoulder barbs and all
examples are patinated. Thirteen percent have acuminate distal ends and
87% have acute distal ends.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The provenience of 9 examples, used to define this type of Big
Sandy point is as follows: Stratum I; Level 3, 1 (probably out of
context); Stratum II: Level 7, 2; Level 8, 2; Stratum III: Level 7, 1;
Level 10, 1; Level 12, 2. Five examples of similar type (W4) from Level
II at Danger Cave (Jennings, 1957) were dated by radiocarbon samples at
9789 ±630 B.P. and 8960 ±340 B.P. One example was recovered from Stratum
II at Flint Creek Rock Shelter, Fig. 55 (Cambron and Waters, 1958).


BIG SANDY BROAD BASE, =Cambron= (This Paper): A-134

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium sized, side-notched, trianguloid
point with blade edges that are usually excurvate but may be straight or
recurvate. Most examples are serrated. The basal edges and/or notches
are usually ground.

MEASUREMENTS: Eleven examples from DeKalb County, Tennessee, 1 example
from Warren County, Tennessee, and 3 examples from Cave Spring (Moebes,
1974) provided the following features and measurements: length, 37-53
mm.; average, 44 mm.: shoulder width, 21-38 mm.; average, 25 mm.: stem
width, 23-32 mm.; average, 29 mm.: stem length, 11-17 mm.; average, 15
mm.: thickness, 5-10 mm.; average, 7 mm.: basal concavity, 1-4 mm.;
average, 2 mm.: width in notches, 17-23 mm.; average, 19 mm.: notch
width, 6-9 mm.; average, 7 mm.: notch depth, 3-5 mm.; average, 4 mm.:
stem length below notches, 6-10 mm.; average, 8 mm.

FLAKING: Random flaking was employed in shaping the blade and hafting
area. The notches were formed by well controlled pressure flaking.

FORM: Thirty percent of the cross-sections are biconvex, 50% are
flattened, 5% are plano-convex and 15% are rhomboid. Eighty percent of
the blade edges are excurvate, 10% are straight, 10% are asymmetrical,
54% are serrated, 18% are beveled on one edge of each face, 41% have
incurvate bases, 59% have straight bases. The basal edges and notches
are usually ground and thinned. All examples are patinated. Eighty-four
percent of the distal ends are acute and 16 are acuminate.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The three examples from Cave Spring were randomly flaked, and
rhomboid in cross-section. All three had blade edges that were serrated
and beveled on one edge of each face. They were ground in the notches as
well as on the base and stem edges. The distal ends were acute. Three
other examples from Cave Spring were either broken or reworked and could
be not meaningfully measured but the provenience of all six examples is:
Stratum II; Level 5, 1; Stratum III; Level 7, 1; Level 8, 1; Level 9, 1;
Level 10, 2. An early Archaic or Transitional Paleo placement is
suggested.


BIG SANDY CONTRACTED BASE, =Cambron= (This Paper): A-132

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium sized, side-notched point
with a contracting stem and an incurvate base. Most examples show
collateral flaking and shallow serrations along the blade edges.

MEASUREMENTS: Seven cotypes supplied the following features: length,
35-60 mm.; average, 45 mm.; shoulder width, 20-26 mm.; average, 23 mm.:
stem width, 20-25 mm.; average, 23 mm.: stem length, 12-16 mm.; average,
14 mm.: thickness, 5-8 mm.; average, 7 mm.: basal concavity, 3-6 mm.;
average, 5 mm.: width in notches, 13-16 mm.; average, 15 mm.: notch
width, 3-5 mm.; average, 4 mm.: notch depth, 3-5 mm.; average, 4 mm.:
stem length below notches, 8-13 mm.: average, 11 mm.

FLAKING: Shallow pressure flaking was used to thin the basal edge. Well
controlled pressure flaking was employed to shape the side notches. All
blade surfaces exhibit collateral flaking.

FORM: Seventy percent of the cross-sections are median ridged; 15% are
biconvex; and 15% are plano-convex. Fifty-seven percent of the blade
edges are straight and 43% are excurvate. Eighty-four percent have
shallow serrations along the blade edges. Bases are usually thinned and
all of them are ground. Eighty-four percent of the stem edges and all
notches are ground. All examples are patinated. Forty percent have acute
distal ends and 60% of the distal ends are acuminate.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The provenience of seven examples, from the Cave Spring Site,
(Moebes, 1974) used to define this type of Big Sandy point is as
follows: Level 5, 2; Level 7, 1; Level 8, 1; Stratum II. Level 7, 1;
Level 8, 1; Level 9, 1; Level 10, 2; Level 11, 1; Stratum III. A similar
type was described by Jennings (1957) from Danger Cave, Utah is listed
as Type W 17 where dates of 9787 plus or minus 630 B.P. and 8960 plus or
minus 340 B.P. were secured from levels containing this type. Two
examples were classified from the collection of Steve Maloney Site DK 2
in DeKalb County, Tennessee.


BIG SLOUGH, =Hulse= (Cambron and Hulse, 1960b): A-12

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large point with a broad
expanded stem.

MEASUREMENTS: The range of measurements of 11 cotypes from Morgan and
Limestone Counties near Decatur, Alabama are: length--maximum, 85 mm.;
minimum, 49 mm.; average, 62 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 42 mm.;
minimum, 29 mm.; average, 34 mm.: stem width--maximum, 28 mm.; minimum,
20 mm.; average, 25 mm.: stem length--maximum, 17 mm.; minimum, 14 mm.;
average, 15 mm.: thickness--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 8
mm. Measurements of the illustrated example are: length, 85 mm.;
shoulder width, 38 mm.; stem width, 28 mm.; stem length, 14 mm.;
thickness, 9 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. The shoulders are inversely tapered
with narrow barbs that may be expanded, especially on examples with
recurvate blade edges. The blade may be excurvate or recurvate; rarely,
excurvate-recurvate. One example of the cotypes has one straight and one
recurvate blade edge. About half the blade edges are asymmetrical. The
distal end is usually acute but may be apiculate. The stem is broad and
long and expanded by shallow diagonal notches. The stem side edges may
be slightly incurvate, slightly excurvate, or straight. The basal edge
is excurvate, thin, and usually ground.

FLAKING: Most examples are made by broad, shallow, random flaking, but a
considerable number show collateral flaking. Several have random flaking
on one face and collateral on the other. The blade edges usually show
rather broad retouching with some fine flaking along the retouched edges
that gives a somewhat crushed effect, as does the baton method of
percussion flaking. The notches appear to have been formed by indirect
percussion flaking with some retouch. The basal edge is thinned by
removal of broad, shallow flakes. The stem is usually finely retouched
on all edges.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The point is named for the Big Slough area in Limestone
County, Alabama, where many examples are found on the surface with early
Archaic types. The illustrated example is from Hulse Site 18, Limestone
County, Alabama. At Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack
and Cambron, 1962), one example each was recovered from Levels 1, 5, 6,
8 and 9 of Zone A. At University of Alabama Site Ms 201, Rock House
Shelter, in Marshall County, Alabama, Levels 4 and 5 produced one
example each. One example was recovered from Zone C (Archaic) at Ma 48,
Flint River Mound (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a). This evidence suggests a
cultural association of from early Archaic to middle Archaic times, with
a probable age range of about 5000 B.C. to 2000 B.C.


BRADLEY SPIKE, =Kneberg= (Kneberg, 1956): A-14

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Bradley Spike is a small to medium-sized,
spike-shaped, stemmed point.

MEASUREMENTS: The measurements of the 13 plesiotypes upon which
description of form was based (included is the illustrated specimen from
Ma 48, Flint River Site, Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a) are:
length--maximum, 65 mm.; minimum, 40 mm.; average, 51 mm.: shoulder
width--maximum, 17 mm.; minimum, 10 mm.; average, 15 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum, 8 mm.; average, 11 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 15 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 11 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 14 mm.; minimum, 6 mm.; average, 10 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually median ridged but may, rarely, be
plano-convex or biconvex. The shoulders are usually tapered and may be
asymmetrical. The blade may be straight or slightly convex; the distal
end is sharply acute. The hafting area is stemmed and the stem is
usually straight but may be tapered. Stem side edges are straight; the
basal edge of the stem is usually excurvate but may be straight and may
exhibit some of the patinated rind of the parent material from which the
point was made.

FLAKING: Some examples are almost as thick as they are broad. The steep,
percussion, random flaking used to shape the point may be struck from
alternate faces to produce an irregular blade edge outline. Occasional
retouch, that appears to have been done by percussion flaking, is
evident; but no regular pressure retouch is present.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named for Bradley County, Tennessee, where it was
first recognized. The illustrated specimen is from Ma 48 (Webb and
DeJarnette, 1948a). Ten examples were recovered from Zone A at the
Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962),
eight specimens from the upper four levels and one each from Levels 7
and 9. One example was recovered from Level 5 at University of Alabama
Site Ms 201 (Rock House). Of the 34 examples from Flint River Mound Ma
48 (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a), 18 were from Zone A and 16 from Zone B.
The evidence supports Kneberg's (1956) analysis of early Woodland
cultural association since examples are found in early Woodland
association at these sites. However, most of the points were found in
the upper Woodland stratum, indicating a later Woodland association in
the North Alabama area, possibly dating from about 2000 B.C. to sometime
A.D.


BREWERTON, EARED-NOTCHED, =Ritchie= (Ritchie, 1961): A-127

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small trianguloid point with shallow side
notches.

MEASUREMENTS: The measurements of four plesiotypes (including the
illustrated example) from which descriptions were taken are: maximum, 40
mm.; minimum, 27 mm.; average, 33 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 18 mm.;
minimum, 14 mm.; average, 16 mm.: stem length--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum,
6 mm.; average, 7 mm.: stem width--maximum, 20 mm.; minimum, 16 mm.;
average, 18 mm.: thickness--maximum, 6 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average 6
mm.

FORM: The blade edges may be straight or excurvate. The cross-section is
biconvex. The base may be straight or excurvate. The hafting area is
shallowly side notched forming weak auricles.

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area display broad, shallow random
flaking. Some broad retouching was used to finish the blade and hafting
area edges. The notches were formed by shallow pressure flaking after
the blade was finished, thus forming the auricles.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: Brewerton Eared-Notched is one of four Brewerton types
described by Ritchie (Ritchie, 1961). The other three types were listed
as Brewerton Eared-Triangular, Brewerton Corner-Notched and Brewerton
Side-Notched. Ritchie (Ritchie, 1961) considers the Brewerton complex to
be a part of the upper middle and late Archaic horizons in New York and
New England. The examples that provided the type description, including
the illustrated example, are from the Etowah River Site, Bartow County,
Georgia. They were excavated by James Chapman and others and were
associated with ceramics at this site. One example was recovered from
Level 6, Stratum I at Cave Spring in Morgan County, Alabama (Moebes,
1974).


BUZZARD ROOST CREEK, =Cambron= (Cambron, 1958a): A-89

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, bifurcated-stemmed
point.

MEASUREMENTS: The measurements of nine cotypes (including the
illustrated example) from which features were taken are:
length--maximum, 104 mm.; minimum, 61 mm.; average, 82 mm.: shoulder
width--maximum, 36 mm.; minimum, 27 mm.; average, 30 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 23 mm.; minimum, 17 mm.; average, 19 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum, 10 mm.; average, 11 mm.:
thickness--eight examples measured 8 mm. and one example measured 7 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. The shoulders are usually inversely
tapered and the barbs usually expanded. The blade is recurvate with an
acute distal end. The stem is usually straight but may be expanded, with
straight or incurvate side edges. The basal edge of the stem is usually
bifurcated but may be auriculate. Usually all of the stem edges are
beveled. Points made of adaptable material are usually patinated.

FLAKING: The flaking used to shape the blade and stem is usually random,
broad, and thin; rarely, it is collateral. The secondary flaking along
the edges of the blade is long and shallow. The short deep scars left by
flaking used to bevel the stem edges may be the result of indirect
percussion, possibly with some pressure flaking. The flaking used to
bifurcate the stem appears to be of the same type as that used to bevel
the stem edges.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named for Buzzard Roost Creek Site (Cambron Site
158), in Colbert County, Alabama, where the illustrated example was
recovered. The original description has been revised to exclude those
examples with straight or slightly incurvate stem bases, since these
examples are classified as Benton Stemmed--to which Buzzard Roost Creek
is culturally and typologically related. Examples at Stanfield-Worley
Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962) appeared in Zone
A, Levels 2 through 8, with concentrations in Levels 6 and 7. Three
examples were recovered from the middle and upper parts of Stratum II at
Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961). At Little Bear
Creek (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948b) examples were recovered from
four-foot through eight-foot levels, with most examples from the
six-foot level. This appears to be an early to middle Archaic type found
in northern Alabama and southern Tennessee.


CAMP CREEK, =Kneberg= (Kneberg, 1956): A-16

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium, triangular point with
incurvate base.

MEASUREMENTS: The measurements of the illustrated example are: length,
35 mm.; width at base, 16 mm.; thickness, 7 mm.; depth of basal
concavity, 2 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex. The blade is usually
straight; rarely, incurvate or excurvate. The distal end is acute. The
base is incurvate and usually thinned with some fine retouch.

FLAKING: The flaking used to shape the blade and hafting area is random
and fairly well executed. Some fine retouch is in evidence along the
blade edges. Much of the flint and quartzite used at the Camp Creek Site
has poor flaking qualities, resulting in a poorly manufactured point.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from the Camp Creek Site (Cambron Site 284)
on the Nolichucky River in Greene County, Tennessee. The illustrated
specimen is from Zone A of the Camp Creek Site (Lewis and Kneberg,
1957). This example was selected by Cambron from his collection from
Camp Creek (Site 284) as typical of the type. Although a minority type
in all levels at this site, it is found with burials more frequently
than are other types. It comprises about 15% of the stemless points in
Level D, but in other levels does not exceed 6% (Lewis and Kneberg,
1957). The type appears to be a part of the Greeneville complex, found
along the western edge of the Appalachians southwest from the
Greeneville, Tennessee, area into south-central Alabama. It is usually
associated with the early to middle Woodland period. Some other points
that appear in this complex are Greeneville, Nolichucky, Triangular
Copena, Coosa, and possibly Ebenezer. At the Stanfield-Worley Bluff
Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962) Zone A, four examples
were found in Level 1, five in Level 2, one in Level 3 and three in
Level 4. This indicates a Woodland association at this site. Most of the
examples recovered from Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters,
1961) were in the lower three-quarters of Stratum I (Woodland). One
example was recovered from Level 1 and one from Level 2 at Rock House
Shelter in Marshall County, Alabama (University of Alabama Site Ms 201).
Ten examples were recovered from Zones A and B (Woodland) and two from
Zone D (Archaic) at Flint River Mound (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a).
Kneberg suggests a date of from about 1000 B.C. to 500 A.D.


CANDY CREEK, =Kneberg= (Kneberg, 1956): A-17

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium-sized, auriculate point with
recurvate edges and incurvate base.

MEASUREMENTS: The illustrated example measures 50 mm. long, 22 mm. wide
at widest point of blade, 25 mm. wide at base, 21 mm. wide across
hafting constriction, 9 mm. thick, 3 mm. deep at basal concavity.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. The blade is recurvate; the distal
end, acute. The auriculated hafting area is usually expanded-rounded
with an incurvate basal edge. The base is occasionally fluted or
thinned. The hafting area edges may be lightly ground, as are most
Copena and Copena Triangular points, with which they are frequently
associated.

FLAKING: The flaking used to shape the blade and hafting area is usually
shallow and random. Fine retouching employed to finish the blade and
hafting area edges is usually evident. Although there appears to be no
connection between this type and Paleo fluted types, the hafting method
must have been very similar. The flutes, when present, appear to be
nothing more than results of attempts to thin the base, as they are
usually broad and shallow. Copena and Copena Triangular types were
probably hafted in about the same manner as Candy Creek points.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The name is derived from Candy Creek Site in Bradley County,
Tennessee. The illustrated specimen is a plesiotype from Cambron 53,
Morgan County, Alabama. Of 1552 points at Camp Creek, 9 were classified
as Candy Creek (Lewis and Kneberg, 1957). One example was recovered from
Zone A, Level 1 at the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette,
Kurjack and Cambron, 1962). Two examples, one from Level 2 and one from
Level 3, were recovered from Rock House Shelter in Marshall County,
Alabama (University of Alabama Site Ms 201). Twenty-three examples from
Cambron Site 53 at Bakers Creek in Morgan County, Alabama, were
associated with other Woodland types. Kneberg (1956) suggests an age of
from 1000 B.C. to 500 A.D.


CAVE SPRING, =Cambron= (This Paper): A-126

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Cave Spring is a small to medium sized,
bifurcated point with an expanded stem.

MEASUREMENTS: Seven cotypes from Strata II and III of the Cave Spring
type site (Moebes, 1974) provided the following traits and measurements:
length, 50-32 mm.; average, 40 mm.: shoulder width, 25-17 mm.; average,
20 mm.: stem width, 17-11 mm.; average, 15 mm.: stem length, 17-10 mm.;
average, 13 mm.: thickness, 6-5 mm.; average 6 mm. The illustrated
example, from Stratum III, measures 50 mm. in length, 20 mm. in shoulder
width, 14 mm. in stem width, 16 mm. in stem length and 6 mm. in
thickness. Stratum III points averaged longer and slightly narrower than
points from Stratum II.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex but may be plano-convex or
rarely median ridged. Shoulders are usually tapered but may be barbed or
rarely horizontal. Blade edges are nearly always straight, rarely
excurvate. The distal end is usually acute; rarely broad. The hafting
area consists of an expanded stem that is shallowly bifurcated. Stem
width usually exceeds the stem length.

FLAKING: Broad, shallow, random flaking is in evidence on the stem and
blade. Collateral flaking was used to finish the blades of most
examples. Fine retouch is present along most blade edges. Long shallow
flakes were removed to thin the base in the basal concavity. One example
from Level 5, Stratum II, had diagonal flakes struck from the base in
the same tradition as Decatur points. One large flake was struck from
each side of each face of the stem forming a shallow notch where the
stem joins the blade. These notches and all other stem edges are usually
ground. All examples were made of local material and all were patinated.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after the Cave Spring Site in Morgan
County, Alabama, where examples were recognized during excavation. The
illustrated example is from Level 8, Stratum III. Except for the
bifurcated stem some examples are similar to some of the Jude points
recovered in this excavation. Some of the blades of Cave Spring points
are similar to blades of some Big Sandy points recovered at this site.
The provenience and associations at this site strongly suggest a late
Transitional Paleo-Indian affiliation as well as early Archaic. One
example from the Big Sandy Site in Tennessee is shown in Fig. E, Plate 4
(Bell, 1960). One example is illustrated from the Packard Site, Mays
County, Oklahoma, Plate VIII, Fig. 3 (Wyckoff, 1964).


CLOVIS, =(Suhm, Krieger and Jelks, 1954)=: A-19

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, auriculate, fluted point
with incurvate base.

MEASUREMENTS: The maximum measurements, in mm., of 59 examples from 44
sites in the Tennessee River valley (Soday and Cambron, n. d.) average:
length, 66; width, 27; thickness, 7. The length of the longest example
is 154; of the shortest, 35. The weight of the largest is 60 grams; of
the shortest, 5 grams. Maximum measurements of fourteen examples of
"Fine Clovis" from 13 sites average 59 mm. long, 25 mm. wide, 6 mm.
thick. The length of the longest is 109 mm.; of the shortest, 29 mm. The
weight of the longest is 27 grams, of the shortest, 3 grams. Texas
examples (Suhm, Krieger and Jelks, 1954) range from 69 mm. to 140 mm. in
length and 20 mm. to 40 mm. in width. The range of 66 examples from New
York State (Ritchie, 1961) is: length, about 25 mm. to about 127 mm.;
thickness, 3 mm. to 10 mm. The illustrated example measures 110 mm.
long, 31 mm. wide at widest point, 28 mm. wide at base, 27 mm. wide
across basal constriction, 9 mm. thick. The longest flute measures 29
mm.; the shortest flute, 28. Flute width is 19 mm.

FORM: The cross-section in the fluted area of the blade is fluted; in
the unfluted area, biconvex. The blade is usually excurvate but may be
slightly recurvate; the distal end is usually acute but may be broad.
The hafting area is auriculate and may be pointed or rounded. It is
usually parallel, but on a few examples may be expanded or contracted.
The basal edge is incurvate. The hafting area is usually fluted on both
faces; rarely, on one. Either single or multiple flutes may be present.
Most examples are fluted about one-third of the total length, but some
may be fluted to near the distal end. Most examples have ground basal
edges, which may determine the hafting area.

[Illustration]

FLAKING: The flaking is usually random but may be somewhat collateral,
leaving a low median ridge. All examples are retouched along the edges;
many are very finely pressure flaked. Flutes appear to have been struck
by indirect percussion after preparation of a "striking platform" at the
base. On the multiple fluted examples, two or more primary flutes appear
to have been removed leaving a striking area near the center of the base
from which the main flute was struck. After one face was fluted the base
was beveled to facilitate striking flutes from the opposite face. This
resulted in a basal concavity (Cambron and Hulse, 1961a).

COMMENTS: The point is named for the Clovis, New Mexico, area, where
examples were found in association with mammoth remains. The illustrated
example from Hulse Site 54, in Limestone County, Alabama, was selected
for its similarity to the type specimens from New Mexico. A date of over
37,000 B.P. was taken from a hearth containing a Clovis point at
Lewisville, Texas (Crook and Harris, 1958), but the association has been
questioned. The date from the Naco mammoth find in Arizona is 9250 ±300
B.P. Many early-man authorities suggest a date of about 15,000 years
ago. This range of dates may indicate long use of the type. The type is
distributed over most of North America. Alabama examples are found on
early sites with blade tools.


CLOVIS, UNFLUTED, =Soday and Cambron= (This Paper): A-19-a

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Unfluted Clovis point is a medium to large,
auriculate point with incurvate base.

MEASUREMENTS: The average measurements of samples from seven sites
(Soday and Cambron, n. d.) in the Tennessee River Valley are: length, 61
mm.; width, 25 mm.; thickness, 6 mm. Length and weight range as follows:
longest, 179 mm.; weight 18 grams: shortest, 46 mm.; weight 4 grams. The
detailed measurements of the illustrated example (one of the cotypes)
are: length, 59 mm.; width at widest point, 24 mm.; width at base, 21
mm.; maximum thickness, 6 mm.; depth of basal concavity, 4 mm.; length
of ground hafting area, 29 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. The blade is excurvate and
terminates in an acute, or, sometimes, broad distal end. The auriculate
hafting area is usually either parallel-pointed or parallel-rounded;
rarely, it is expanded with an incurvate basal edge which is usually
well thinned. All basal edges are usually ground--sometimes for almost
half the length of the point. The shape is similar to, but usually
thinner than, that of the Clovis point.

FLAKING: The flaking used to shape the blade and hafting area may be
transverse-oblique, random, or collateral with fine retouch along the
blade edges. Usually several broad, shallow flakes were removed to thin
the basal edge of the hafting area.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named Unfluted Clovis because of its similarity
to the fluted Clovis type. The illustrated example was found weathered
out of an early stratum along with a fluted Quad point on Cambron Site
20 in Morgan County, Alabama. Suhm, Krieger and Jelks (1954) suggest the
possibility that some Clovis points have no flutes, and that it would be
difficult to distinguish these examples from Plainview points.
Concerning the fluting on some of the Clovis points at the Naco, Arizona
Site, Wormington (1957) says, "In some instances the grooves had been
formed by the removal of several smaller flakes." At least one
illustrated example appears to be only basally thinned. The Naco find
dates between 10,000 and 11,000 years ago. At the Silver Springs Site in
Florida, fluted and unfluted Clovis-like points (Neill, 1958) were
recovered together from the lowest levels of the site. Alabama examples
usually are recovered from fluted point sites. It is suggested that this
type may be contemporaneous with Clovis or may have appeared later.


CONERLY, =Lively= (This Paper): A-135

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Conerly is a medium to large point with an
incurvate base that is thinned. The stem is contracted.

MEASUREMENTS: Nine cotypes from Lively Sites 1, 2, and 4 in the Sardis
area of Burke County, Georgia, provided the following measurements and
traits: length--maximum, 105 mm.; minimum, 57 mm.; average, 77 mm.:
shoulder width--maximum, 31 mm.; minimum. 21 mm.; average, 27 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 21 mm.; minimum, 16 mm.; average, 18 mm.: stem
length--maximum 20 mm.; minimum, 17 mm.; average, 18 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum, 9 mm.; average, 11 mm.: basal
concavity--maximum, 4 mm.; minimum, 2 mm.; average, 3 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex, rarely flattened. The shoulders are
narrow or lacking. Blade edges may be excurvate or straight and most
examples exhibit shallow serrations. The distal end is acute. The stems
are contracted with an incurvate and thinned basal edge.

FLAKING: Mostly broad, shallow, random flaking was employed to shape the
blade and stem. Two examples exhibited oblique transverse flaking on the
blades. Short, deep random flaking used to finish the blade edges often
resulted in fine serrations. A minimum of flaking was used to finish the
sides of the stem. The basal edge of the stem was flaked to form a
concavity and then thinned. Local materials were used and all points
were patinated.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from the Conerly Site near Sardis in Burke
County, Georgia. The examples used are from the collection of Matthew
Lively of Birmingham, Alabama. Associated artifacts seem to place the
type somewhere in the Archaic period. Physical appearance of the Conerly
points indicate a similarity to Savannah River points (Bullen, 1968) as
well as Guilford points (Coe, 1959) and Arredondo points (Bullen, 1968).
A suggested date is somewhere between 7000 and 4000 years B.P.


COOSA, =DeJarnette= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Keel, 1973): A-22

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium-sized, usually thick,
point with a short stem.

MEASUREMENTS: The measurements of ten plesiotypes, including the
illustrated example, follow (these plesiotypes also served as a basis
for description of features): length--maximum, 43 mm.; minimum, 31 mm.;
average, 37 mm.: width at shoulder--maximum, 23 mm.; minimum, 18 mm.;
average, 20 mm.: stem width--maximum, 13 mm.; minimum, 10 mm.; average,
12 mm.: stem length--maximum, 7 mm.; minimum, 4 mm.; average, 6 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 8 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average, 7 mm.

FLAKING: Flaking used to shape the blade and stem is usually of a random
nature; rarely, it is transverse oblique. On most examples some or all
blade edges may be crudely beveled for about one-fourth the width of the
blade. The retouch that produces the beveling also produces fine
serrations on some examples. Points are usually made of a poor grade
local flint in the Coosa River area.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex but may be plano-convex or
flattened. The shoulders are usually horizontal or inversely tapered.
The blade is excurvate and very finely serrated by secondary flaking;
the distal end is acute. The two examples with plano-convex
cross-sections were unmodified on the plano face except for retouch
along the edges. The stem is straight or displays straight side edges
and excurvate stem base edge. The stem base edge is usually crudely
thinned.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named for the Coosa River area, where sites
produced the first examples to be recognized as a type. The illustrated
and measured examples came from University of Alabama Site Ce 200 (Coker
Ford Site), Cherokee County, Alabama. The main association at this
excavated site was with fabric-marked, limestone-tempered sherds and
simple-stamped, sand-tempered sherds (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Keel,
1973). Two occurrences of association in a stone mound with plain or
brushed limestone-tempered sherds were also noted. One example was
recovered from B Zone (Woodland) at Ma 48, Flint River Mound (Webb and
DeJarnette, 1948a). Nine examples recovered from the Camp Creek Site in
Greene County, Tennessee, were listed as "straight short stemmed" (Lewis
and Kneberg, 1957). A date at this homogeneous site of 2050 ±250 years
B.P. was obtained. This evidence suggests a middle Woodland association
in Alabama; the type may be a part of the Greeneville complex. This type
was associated with Coosa Notched points at the Coosa River sites.


COOSA NOTCHED, =DeJarnette= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Keel, 1973): A-23

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium-sized point, usually
thick, with a shallow side notch.

MEASUREMENTS: The four plesiotypes from which this description was drawn
range in measurements as follows: length--maximum, 41 mm.; minimum, 36
mm.; average, 39 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 23 mm.; minimum, 20 mm.;
average, 22 mm.: stem width--maximum, 15 mm.; minimum, 11 mm.; average,
13 mm.: stem length--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 6 mm.; average, 7 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 8 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 7 mm. The
illustrated examples average 35 mm. in length, 17 mm. in shoulder width,
14 mm. in stem width, 7 mm. in stem length and 7 mm. in thickness.

FORM: The cross-section is usually plano-convex but may be biconvex. In
most plano-convex examples, the plane face is unmodified except for
retouch. The shoulders are inversely tapered. The blade may be excurvate
or straight; the blade edges are usually finely serrated. The distal end
is acute. Expanded stems are present as a result of shallow side
notching on the hafting area. The basal edge is usually excurvate but
may be incurvate; it is usually thinned.

FLAKING: Flaking used to shape the blade and hafting area is usually
random. Blade edges may be beveled on one or both sides of each face for
about one-fourth the width of the blade. This retouch often results in
fine serrations along the blade edges. Notches appear to have been
formed by removal of short flakes. The points are made of a poor grade
flint in the Coosa River area.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named as a variant of the Coosa point, which was
named for the Coosa River in Alabama, where many examples are found. The
measured and illustrated examples are from University of Alabama Coker
Ford Site, Ce 200, Cherokee County, Alabama. The type is associated
mostly with fabric-marked, limestone-tempered sherds at this site but
also with simple-stamped, sand-tempered ware (DeJarnette, Kurjack and
Keel, 1973). The type appears to be coeval with Coosa, nine examples of
which were recovered from the homogeneous Camp Creek Site and listed by
Lewis and Kneberg (1957) as straight short stemmed. A radiocarbon date
of 2050 ±250 B.P. was obtained from this site. Scattered finds are made
on Woodland sites in the Tennessee Valley. This evidence suggests a
middle Woodland association in Alabama.


COPENA, =Webb and DeJarnette= (Kneberg, 1956): A-20

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, trianguloid point with
recurvate edges.

MEASUREMENTS: The illustrated example is, perhaps, slightly shorter than
average. It measures 80 mm. long, 22 mm. wide at the widest point of the
blade, 22 mm. wide at the base, 21 mm. wide across hafting constriction
and 7 mm. thick.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. The blade is recurvate as a result
of the hafting constriction. The distal end is usually acute but may be
acuminate. The hafting area is expanded at the base. The basal edge is
usually straight but may be excurvate or occasionally incurvate. It is
usually thinned. Light grinding is usually present on the hafting area
edges.

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area are shaped by broad, shallow, random
or collateral flaking. The removal of these flakes occasionally resulted
in a low median ridge. The edges are finely retouched as from pressure
flaking. Copena points are usually made of local flint.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after the Copena burial mound culture of
North Alabama. The term "Copena" is derived from the first three letters
of copper and the last three of galena, since copper and galena
artifacts are often associated with the burials. The illustrated example
is from Hulse Site 17 in Limestone County, Alabama. This type was
illustrated by Webb and DeJarnette (1942). Copena is often called
Southern Hopewell. It is a Woodland point, usually found in burial
mounds, but occasionally on late Archaic sites in the Tennessee area
(Kneberg, 1956). Copena points appeared in the lower levels of the
Woodland stratum at Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961)
and two examples were recovered from Level 3 (pottery) at University of
Alabama Site Ms 201, Rock House Shelter, in Marshall County, Alabama, as
well as in the Woodland zone at Ma 48, Flint River Mound, in Madison
County, Alabama (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a). One example was recovered
from Level 1 at the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack
and Cambron, 1962). The type is found eroding out of several
predominately Woodland shell middens in the Wheeler Basin of the
Tennessee River. A suggested age is from about 500 B.C. to A.D.


COPENA TRIANGULAR, =Webb and DeJarnette= (Cambron, 1958b): A-20-a

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, trianguloid point. The
sides of the hafting area are usually parallel.

MEASUREMENTS: The 16 autotypes (including the illustrated example from
the type site) which provided the features described below range in
measurements as follows: length--maximum, 74 mm.; minimum, 43 mm.;
average, 56 mm.: width at distal end of hafting area--maximum, 31 mm.;
minimum, 20 mm.; average, 24 mm.: width at base--maximum, 31 mm.;
minimum, 19 mm.; average, 25 mm.: thickness--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum, 7
mm.; average, 8 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is nearly always biconvex; rarely, it is
plano-convex. Beyond the hafting area, the blade is usually excurvate
but may be straight. Some examples may have one excurvate and one
straight blade edge. The distal end is usually acute; rarely, acuminate.
The sides of the hafting area are usually parallel but may taper from
the base; rarely, they are slightly incurvate. The basal edge may be
either straight or incurvate to a depth of about 2 mm. All bases are
thinned. The hafting area edges of most examples with incurvate bases
are lightly ground. Straight-based examples may be ground along the
hafting area edges.

FLAKING: Faces display random flaking. Secondary flaking of short, broad
nature appears, followed by fine retouch, as from pressure flaking,
along the edges. The basal thinning is usually short, broad and shallow,
but in rare examples it may extend approximately the length of the
hafting area. Examples are usually made of local materials.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type site is Cambron 53 in Morgan County, Alabama, where
examples were found eroding out of a shell midden along with Copena
points. The illustrated example is from this site. Examples were first
illustrated (Webb and DeJarnette, 1942) as Copena types. At the
Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962)
three examples were recovered from Level 1, one example from Level 2 and
two examples from Level 6 in Zone A. This is an indication of Woodland
and possibly Archaic association. Examples appeared in Woodland strata
at Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961). One example was
recovered from Level 3 (Woodland) at University of Alabama Site Ms 201,
Rock House Shelter, in Marshall County, Alabama. At Flint River Mound
(Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a) examples were recovered from both Woodland
and Archaic strata. These associations indicate that the type originated
in Archaic times and continued into the Woodland period.


COTACO CREEK, =Cambron= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962): A-24

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, straight-stemmed point
with rounded shoulders and straight blade edges.

MEASUREMENTS: Measurements of nine cotypes (including the illustrated
example) from which features were taken ranged as follows:
length--maximum, 83 mm.; minimum, 47 mm.; average, 64 mm.: width at
shoulders--maximum, 45 mm.; minimum, 33 mm.; average, 40 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 19 mm.; minimum, 14 mm.; average, 16 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 14 mm.; minimum, 6 mm.; average, 10 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum, 6 mm.; average, 7 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually flattened but may be rhomboid.
Shoulders may be straight or inversely tapered with weak barbs and are
usually rounded. The blade is usually straight, but may be excurvate,
finely serrated and, sometimes, beveled on the right side (looking
toward the distal end) of one or both faces. One example is smoothed, as
from use, on the edges adjacent to the distal end. The distal end is
usually apiculate or obtuse; rarely acute. The stem is usually straight;
rarely, expanded with straight side edges. The basal edge may be
straight or excurvate. Most basal edges are thinned. About half the
examples are ground on the basal edge. Occasionally, the side edges of
the stem are ground.

FLAKING: This type displays well-controlled, broad, shallow, random
flaking. Edge retouch consisting of the removal of fine, short, regular
flakes from alternate face edges appears as fine serrations. Sometimes
longer, more even flakes were removed in beveling one edge of each face.
Some examples were beveled and then serrated. Points were made from Ft.
Payne chert, Bangor nodular flint, jasper or other local materials. Some
examples made of Ft. Payne chert show considerable patination.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named for Cotaco Creek in Morgan County, Alabama,
where many examples have been recovered. The illustrated example is from
Cambron Site 156 (Stone Pipe) in Limestone County, Alabama. At the
Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962)
10 examples were recovered from Level 2, 4 from Level 3, 2 from Level 4,
2 from Level 5, 4 from Level 6, 2 from Level 7, 1 from Level 9 and 1
from Level 10. These levels--all in Zone A--are Woodland and Archaic. At
the University of Alabama Site Ms 201 in Marshall County, Alabama, one
example was recovered from Level 3 (Woodland). Flint Creek Rock Shelter
(Cambron and Waters, 1961) produced one example from Stratum I
(Woodland) and five examples from middle and upper Stratum II (Archaic).
Flint River Mound, University of Alabama Site Ma 48 (Webb and
DeJarnette, 1948a) produced three examples from Zones A and B (Woodland)
and 18 examples from the upper part of zones C and D (Archaic). This
evidence suggests a strong late Archaic occurrence on the Tennessee
River and continued use in Woodland times, especially at
Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter. A variation of the type called Cotaco
Creek Variant differs from Cotaco Creek in that it is usually smaller,
cruder, often narrower and has an acute distal end. The blade of the
variant is more apt to be excurvate.


CRAWFORD CREEK, =Cambron and Hulse= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron,
1962): A-25

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium-sized, stemmed point with a blade
that is usually straight. Blade edges are usually finely serrated.

MEASUREMENTS: The 13 cotypes (including the illustrated example) from
which features were obtained ranged in measurements as follows:
length--maximum, 46 mm.; minimum, 27 mm.; average, 36 mm.: shoulder
width--maximum, 30 mm.; minimum, 20 mm.; average, 25 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 20 mm.; minimum, 13 mm.; average, 16 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 6 mm.; average, 8 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average, 7 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders may be horizontal,
slightly tapered or slightly inversely tapered. The blade is usually
straight, but several examples have one excurvate edge. The blade edges
of nearly all examples are finely serrated. Distal ends are usually
acute. The stem is usually straight but several examples have expanded
stems. Stem sides may be straight or incurvate. The basal edge of the
stem, strongly thinned on most examples, is usually straight but may be
excurvate; rarely, it is incurvate. At Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron
and Waters, 1961) expanded-stemmed examples appear to pre-date
straight-stemmed examples.

FLAKING: Irregular, random flaking shapes the blade and hafting area.
Some large flake or blade scars may be evident on one or both faces.
Flakes removed to form the stem were usually fairly deep and broad while
the flakes removed to thin the base were broad and shallow. Fine, often
steep, retouch along the blade edges appears to have been accomplished
by pressure flaking. Fine serrations were formed by the removal of small
flakes, opposite each other, from each face. The point is usually made
of local materials.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named for Crawford Creek in Morgan County,
Alabama. This creek is near the Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and
Waters, 1961) where the type was first found and called Provisional Type
Three, small, stemmed, serrated. The illustrated example is from Flint
Creek Rock Shelter, Cambron Site 287. The name Crawford Creek was used
by Cambron and Hulse (1960b). One example (plate 13e) from the Eva Site
is illustrated by Lewis and Lewis (1961) as a unique point. One example
was found among other artifacts in association with a Morrow Mountain
burial at the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and
Cambron, 1962). Zone A (Woodland and Archaic) at the Stanfield-Worley
Bluff Shelter also yielded two examples from Level 6, two from Level 8
and one from Level 9. At University of Alabama Site Ms 201, in Marshall
County, Alabama, one example was recovered from Level 5, one from Level
7 and one from Level 10. Of the 20 examples from Flint Creek Rock
Shelter, two were recovered from Stratum I (Woodland) and the other 18
from Stratum II (Archaic), particularly from the lower half. Surface
finds are usually made on early Archaic sites. All of the above evidence
indicates an early Archaic association which lasted into later Archaic.
A suggested date is sometime before 5000 B.C.


CUMBERLAND, =Kneberg= (Kneberg, 1956): A-26

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, auriculate, fluted point
displaying hafting constriction.

MEASUREMENTS: Thirty-one plesiotypes from 28 sites in the Tennessee
River Valley (Soday and Cambron, n. d.) ranged in measurements as
follows: longest example, 101 mm.; shortest; 37 mm.; average length, 69
mm.; average width, 23 mm.; average thickness, 8 mm. The illustrated
example measures 77 mm. long, 24 mm. across the blade, 19 mm. wide at
base, 16 mm. wide at hafting constriction, 7 mm. thick, 2 mm. deep at
basal concavity. Length of flutes measured from basal concavity: 1st
flute, after flaking of striking platform for 2nd flute, 47 mm.; 2nd
flute, 53 mm.

FORM: Cross-section is usually fluted or median ridged on unfluted
faces. The blade is recurvate; the distal ends, acute. The auriculate
hafting area is usually expanded-rounded with an incurvate basal edge.
There is no sharp break between the blade edges and the ground edges of
the hafting area. The base may be multiple fluted or single fluted on
one or both faces. The main flute or flutes may extend to near the
distal end.

FLAKING: Collateral flaking was usually employed to shape the median
ridges on the faces. The hafting constriction was sometimes partially
worked out before fluting. For multiple fluting, two short primary
flutes were removed down each side of the median ridge after the basal
edge had been flaked to the proper degree of pitch to form a striking
platform. This resulted in the formation of a striking nipple in the
center of the basal edge from which the main flute was struck by
indirect percussion. The basal edge was then reflaked to the desired
pitch or level to facilitate repeating the fluting procedure on the
other face. Flaking of the basal edge was sometimes accomplished after
the second main flute had been struck. Fine retouch was occasionally
carried out on all side edges. Finally, the hafting constriction was
completed (Cambron and Hulse, 1961).

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named for the Cumberland River Valley in
Tennessee where many examples were collected on the surface. The
illustrated example is from Holland Site 270 in Colbert County, Alabama.
Three examples of Cumberland points were recovered from University of
Alabama Site Ms 201, in Marshall County, Alabama, in the irregular,
rocky, lower part of the lower levels with Big Sandy I, Dalton and other
early types. They are found with Clovis points in many surface
collections. A Paleo-Indian association, sometime before 10,000 years
ago, is suggested.


DALTON, COLBERT, =Kneberg= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962): A-28

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium-sized, auriculate point with a
rectangular hafting area.

MEASUREMENTS: Eleven cotypes from 11 sites in the Tennessee River Valley
(Soday and Cambron, n. d.) range in measurements as follows: longest, 54
mm.; shortest, 33 mm.; average length, 45 mm.; average width, 18 mm.;
average thickness, 6 mm. The illustrated example measures 51 mm. long,
15 mm. wide across blade at junction of hafting area, 18 mm. wide at
terminal end of hafting area, 19 mm. wide at base, 16 mm. wide across
basal constriction, 6 mm. thick. The hafting area is 19 mm. long.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex but may be somewhat
rhomboid. Blade edges are usually straight but may be excurvate and may
be beveled on one edge and/or serrated. The distal end is acute. The
hafting area is more or less rectangular with slightly incurvate,
heavily ground side and basal edges. The base is thinned.

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area are shaped by shallow, random
flaking. Short, sharp, regular serrations on the blade edges are the
result of the well-controlled removal, one at a time on alternate faces,
of deep, short, flakes. Retouch was accomplished by the removal of
broad, shallow flakes followed by very fine flaking which helped form
smooth edges. Most examples are made of Ft. Payne chert but other local
materials were also used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named for Colbert County, Alabama, where examples
were recovered from Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack
and Cambron, 1962). The illustrated example is from the Pine Tree Site,
Cambron 76, Limestone County, Alabama. The type has been referred to
locally as "Square Based Dalton" for some years (Soday and Cambron, n.
d.) and was illustrated by Cambron and Hulse (1960a). In the survey of
the Tennessee River Valley by Soday and Cambron only eleven examples
were noted. Forty-three examples, excluding those from the 100-foot
trench, were recovered from Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter. At this
site, in the other trenches, examples appeared mostly from Level 7
through Level 14. In the blocks two examples were recovered from Zone B,
three from Zone C and ten from Zone D. A radiocarbon date from Zone D
(1960) gave an age of 9640 ±450 B.P. This appears to be a transitional
Paleo-Indian type. Excavations in 1965 at the Tensaw Creek Site (1 Lo 9)
in Lowndes County revealed Colbert Daltons and Greenbrier Daltons in a
stratigraphic sequence (Chase, 1966).


DALTON, GREENBRIER, =Kneberg= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962):
A-29

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Greenbrier Dalton is a medium-sized, auriculate
point with expanded auricles and well-defined hafting area.

MEASUREMENTS: One hundred fifty-three plesiotypes which may include some
Nuckolls Dalton points, since the types had not been separated when the
survey was made (Soday and Cambron, n. d.), from 62 sites in the
Tennessee River Valley ranged from maximum length of 69 mm. to a minimum
length of 28 mm. The average length was 47 mm.; the average width, 21
mm.; average thickness, 6 mm. The illustrated example measured in
length, 48 mm.; in width of blade at junction of hafting area, 18 mm.;
in width at terminal end of hafting area, 19 mm.; in width at base, 21
mm.; in length of hafting area, 16 mm.; in width of basal constriction,
18 mm.; in thickness 6 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex but may be rhomboid. The
blade is usually excurvate but may be straight. Blade edges may be
beveled on one edge and/or serrated. The distal end is acute. The
hafting area, usually well defined by a sharp change in the contour of
the edge of the point at the junction of the blade, is auriculated with
expanded-rounded, rarely expanded-pointed auricles. Side and basal edges
of the hafting area are usually incurvate and ground. The basal edge is
thinned, sometimes fluted.

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area are shaped by broad, shallow, random
flaking. Retouch along the blade edges often resulted in serrations
and/or beveling. Retouch along the hafting area edges was more limited,
and usually finer, which helped to smooth the hafting area edges. Most
examples are made of local materials.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named for the Greenbrier area of Kentucky Lake.
The illustrated example is from the Quad Site, Cambron 84, Limestone
County, Alabama. Forty-one examples were recovered from the
Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962)
excluding those found in the 100-foot trench. Most of the examples came
from the trenches, and were present in Levels 7 through 15. Zone C
produced two examples. One example was found in each of the following
levels of Zone D: 1, 2, 5, 6, 12. At University of Alabama Site Ms 201,
in Marshall County, Alabama, one example was recovered from Level 10 and
two from Level 11. A radiocarbon date of 9640 ±450 years B.P. from
Zone D material at the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter suggests a
Transitional Paleo-Indian association, as do associations of surface
finds in Alabama with other early materials. An example was found in
association with Quad, Wheeler, Big Sandy I and Stanfield Triangular
points, a fluted midsection and uniface tools at the Quad Site (Cambron
and Hulse, 1960a). A variant of the type called Nuckolls Dalton (by
Kneberg, for the Nuckolls Site in Kentucky Lake, Tennessee) differs from
Greenbrier Dalton in that it has either parallel-rounded or, rarely,
parallel-pointed auricles. Forty-six examples of this variant were
recovered from the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter. No significant
difference in distribution by levels was noted between any of the Dalton
types at this site. Examples with straight hafting area sides are
similar to Meserve points (Suhm, Krieger and Jelks, 1954).


DAMRON, =Cambron= (This Paper): A-83

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Damron point is a medium-sized point with
shallow side notches.

MEASUREMENTS: Eleven cotypes, including the illustrated example,
provided traits and the following measurements: length--maximum, 72 mm.;
minimum, 37 mm.; average, 49 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 32 mm.;
minimum, 24 mm.; average, 27 mm.: stem width--maximum, 29 mm.; minimum,
19 mm.; average, 24 mm.: stem length--maximum, 11 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.;
average, 9 mm.: thickness--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 8
mm.: notch width--maximum, 8 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 7 mm.: notch
depth--maximum, 5 mm.; minimum, 2 mm.; average, 3 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex but may be flattened or,
rarely, plano-convex. Shoulders are tapered. The blade may be excurvate
or straight. Some examples have one excurvate and one straight blade
edge. Blade edges may be finely serrated. The steepness of some blade
edges gives a near-beveled appearance. The distal end is acute. The
hafting area is notched with shallow, narrow, side notches situated near
the basal edge. Sides of the expanded stem are incurvate. The basal edge
is usually excurvate but may be straight. Rarely, it is ground; usually
it is beveled on one or both faces.

FLAKING: Fairly deep random flaking shapes the faces of the blade and
hafting area. Fine, regular retouch finishes the blade edges, often
resulting in fine serrations. Notches, formed by the removal of one or
more flakes, are found near the basal edge. Short, deep flakes were
removed in order to bevel the basal edge. Unbeveled faces are thinned.
Local materials were used and all examples are patinated.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from the Damron Site (Cambron Site 47),
Lincoln County, Tennessee, where many examples were recovered. The
illustrated example is from the Quad Site (Cambron Site 84) in Limestone
County, Alabama. The type has been previously classified locally as
Upper Valley Side Notched. One example was recovered from Level 8 of
Zone A (an Archaic level) at the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter
(DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962). At Flint Creek Rock Shelter
(Cambron and Waters, 1961) three examples were recovered from the middle
Archaic Stratum and one from the upper Woodland Stratum. One example was
recovered from Zone B (a Woodland level) at the Flint River Mound (Webb
and DeJarnette, 1948a). The appearance of the type in surface
collections from pre-shellmound sites in the Wheeler Basin of the
Tennessee River indicates an early Archaic association. An association
with some part of the Archaic period is suggested.


DECATUR, =Cambron= (Cambron, 1957): A-31

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium-sized point that is
corner-notched and beveled with diagonal flakes struck from the base and
basal sides of the stem forming an incurvate base.

MEASUREMENTS: Sixteen autotypes from sites near Decatur, Alabama,
provided both measurements and features. Measurements ranged as follows:
length--maximum, 54 mm.; minimum, 29 mm.; average 42 mm.: shoulder
width--maximum, 38 mm.; minimum, 22 mm.; average, 28 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 25 mm.; minimum, 13 mm.; average, 19 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum, 4 mm.; average, 7 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 7 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average, 6 mm. The
illustrated example measures in length, 40 mm.; in shoulder width, 23
mm.; in stem width, 17 mm.; in stem length, 5 mm.; in thickness, 5 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually rhomboid; rarely, biconvex. The
shoulders are usually tapered with expanded barbs but, rarely, may be
straight, with or without expanded barbs. The blade may be straight or
incurvate; rarely, recurvate. Blade edges are usually beveled on one
edge and serrated. The distal end is acute. The corner notches range in
width from about 3 mm. to 7 mm. and in depth from about 4 mm. to 7 mm.
The expanded stem usually has straight side edges; the basal edge is
usually incurvate but may be straight. Rarely, it is excurvate. It is
usually thinned and nearly always ground.

FLAKING: Most examples exhibit broad, shallow flaking on the faces.
Blade edges are serrated, either as a result of retouch accomplished by
alternate removal of deeper flakes from opposite faces or as a result of
beveling. The bevel angle varies from steep to a bevel that extends to
near the center of the blade and may overlap from near halfway the blade
length to the distal end. Most examples have one or more flakes struck
from the basal corners of the stem to near the center of the basal edge.
On many examples, the same type of flake may be struck from the basal
corners of the stem up the sides of the stem towards the shoulders. This
flaking tends to flatten the base and sides of the stem. Stem edges are
finished by grinding.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named for the Decatur, Alabama, area where it was
first recognized. The illustrated example is from Hulse Site 32 (Stone
Pipe) Limestone County, Alabama. The type was described by Bell (1960).
Two examples were recovered, one from upper half of Stratum II and one
from the center third of Stratum II (Archaic) at Flint Creek Rock
Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961). The type was not found in
excavations in other early strata away from the Tennessee River. Local
examples are found near the river on pre-shellmound sites. This evidence
suggests an early Archaic association.


EBENEZER, =Kneberg= (This Paper): A-107

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Ebenezer is a small, short-stemmed, point with
rounded stem and excurvate blade edges.

MEASUREMENTS: The illustrated example, which provided the features, is
38 mm. long, 19 mm. in shoulder width, 15 mm. in stem width, 6 mm. in
stem length and 7 mm. thick.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are narrow and are
usually tapered but may be straight. The blade is usually excurvate with
an acute distal end. The stem is short and rounded.

FLAKING: The blade and stem are shaped by broad, shallow or deep, random
flaking. Short, regular retouch finishes the blade edges. Use of a
rather poor grade of local flint at the Camp Creek Site (Lewis and
Kneberg, 1957) may account for the relatively crude flaking on examples
from this site.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The Ebenezer type was illustrated as Rudimentary Stemmed at
Camp Creek in Greene County, Tennessee (Lewis and Kneberg, 1957) where
the illustrated example was recovered (Cambron Site 284). Fifty-eight
examples were recovered scattered through the midden. The type was
described as being "associated with early Woodland artifacts on other
upper eastern Tennessee sites". A radiocarbon date of 2050 ±250 B.P.
was obtained from the homogeneous midden at Camp Creek. One example was
recovered from the middle of Stratum I (Woodland) at Flint Creek Rock
Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961). At Flint River Mound Ma 48 (Webb and
DeJarnette, 1948a) in the Woodland zone, one example was recovered from
Zone A and one from Zone B. The Ebenezer point was dominant at the
Rankin Site on French Broad River (headwaters of Tennessee River) where
most of the ceramics were sand-tempered. This evidence would place the
type in early to late Woodland association with a suggested date of from
about 2000 years ago to possibly 1500 years ago or some part thereof.
The type is similar to some illustrated examples of Cliffton points from
Texas (Suhm, Krieger and Jelks, 1954), which are estimated to be near
the same age.


ECUSTA, =Harwood and Osborne= (Harwood, 1958): A-32

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Ecusta is a small, triangular, side-notched
point with serrated and beveled blade edges.

MEASUREMENTS: The illustrated example measures 37 mm. long, 24 mm. wide
at the base, and 7 mm. thick.

FORM: The cross-section is rhomboid. The shoulder barbs are weak, and
are usually the result of beveling of the blade. The blade is straight,
and beveled on one side of each face and, usually, serrated. The distal
end is acute. The sides of the hafting area display shallow side
notches. The base of the hafting area is usually broad and rounded but
may be straight or incurvate. Striking of diagonal flakes from the basal
edge on some examples results in flattening of the base.

FLAKING: This is a well-made point, shaped by random, percussion flaking
and retouched with serrations along the blade edges.

[Illustration]

COMMENT: The point was named "Ecusta" since this is the Cherokee Indian
name for Davidson River, where the type was first recognized at the
Osborne Site in Transylvania County, North Carolina (Harwood, 1958). The
illustrated homotype is from Kyle Hardin's Baker 1 Site in Blount
County, Alabama, where it was recovered along with four other examples.
One example (No. 1, p. 42) was illustrated by Lewis (1961) from
Guntersville Basin in North Alabama. Other examples were found on the
surface in North Alabama, Kentucky Lake in Tennessee, and Madison
County, North Carolina. The Ecusta is similar to Decatur and Plevna
points inasmuch as all of these types are notched, beveled and may have
diagonal flakes struck from the base. Plevna and Decatur points from
Kyle Hardin's Baker 1 Site were very similar in workmanship to Ecusta
points from this site. All examples are found with early Archaic
materials. An Alabama pre-shellmound association is suggested, with a
probable date prior to 5000 years ago.


ELK RIVER, =Cambron= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962): A-33

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, stemmed point with
oblique-horizontal flaking on the blade faces.

MEASUREMENTS: Measurements of the 15 paratypes (specimens of the
original series including the holotype) range as follows:
length--maximum, 92 mm.; minimum, 48 mm.; average, 72 mm.: shoulder
width--maximum, 38 mm.; minimum, 30 mm.; average, 31 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 19 mm.; minimum, 15 mm.; average, 17 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 17 mm.; minimum, 11 mm.; average, 14 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 11 mm.; minimum, 8 mm.; average, 9 mm. The
illustrated example measures 128 mm. in length; 27 mm. in shoulder
width; 20 mm. in stem width; 14 mm. in stem length; 9 mm. in thickness.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex; rarely, plano-convex. The
shoulders are usually tapered and may be expanded. The blade is
excurvate; the distal end, acute. The hafting area is usually
straight-stemmed but the stem may be expanded or contracted with a
straight or, rarely, excurvate basal edge. One example could be
described as having shallow side notches. About one-fourth of the
original series have lightly ground bases.

FLAKING: One or (usually) both faces are shaped by oblique-transverse
flaking. Retouch is minimized since the oblique flaking, in most cases,
carries from the blade edges to near the center of the face and
occasionally almost forms a median ridge. The transverse-oblique flaking
is similar to that seen on the faces of some Angostura, Scotts-bluff and
Brown Valley points and Cape Denbigh artifacts illustrated by Wormington
(1957). This flaking technique was also used on some late neolithic
Danish daggers (Bordaz, 1959).

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The point was named for the Elk River Site on Elk River in
Limestone County, Alabama. The illustrated example is from Hulse 38E
(Quad Site), Limestone County, Alabama. The type was listed in the depth
distribution charts at Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters,
1961) in the middle-Archaic stratum (10 examples) and Woodland stratum
(two examples). An illustration was listed as Provisional Type 2,
expanded stem. Two examples of Elk River points from Perry Site, Lu 25,
on Seven Mile Island in Lauderdale County, Alabama, were used to
illustrate the high art of flint flaking (Webb and DeJarnette, 1942).
Examples from Levels 8 and 9, Zone A, at Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter
(DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962) indicate a late Archaic
association. Examples were recovered from Zones A, B, C, and D at Flint
River Mound, Ma 48 (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a). At Little Bear Creek,
Ct 8 (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948b) six examples were recovered from the
five-foot level and one from the six-foot level. This again indicates a
middle- to late-Archaic type. Since most of the associations in the
North Alabama--South Tennessee area are within the shellmound period,
this type very likely appeared before 5000 years ago. It is probably not
associated with the western point types with similar flaking.


ELORA, =Cambron= (Cambron and Hulse, 1960b): A-34

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Elora is a medium to large, thick, broad,
stemmed point with unfinished base.

MEASUREMENTS: The 12 cotypes (including the illustrated example) which
provided the features range in measurements as follows: length--maximum,
71 mm.; minimum, 53 mm.; average, 61 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 57
mm.; minimum, 35 mm.; average, 43 mm.: stem width--maximum, 22 mm.;
minimum, 20 mm.; average, 20 mm.: stem length--maximum, 15 mm.; minimum,
8 mm.; average, 12 mm.: thickness--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.;
average, 10 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are usually rounded and
tapered but may be horizontal or, rarely, expanded. The blade is usually
straight; rarely, excurvate or incurvate. Some examples are finely
serrated as a result of retouching along the blade edges. The distal end
is usually acute; rarely, broad. The hafting area consists of a thick,
contracted stem with side edges that are straight or incurvate and a
basal edge that is usually straight but may be excurvate. The crudely
finished stem base found on most examples often has an intentionally
broken appearance. Removal of one or more flakes usually results in a
relatively broad, flattened basal edge.

FLAKING: The flaking used to form the blade and hafting area is broad,
shallow or deep, and random. Fine, sometimes steep, regular retouching
along the blade edges accomplished by removal of alternate flakes from
each face sometimes results in fine serrations. The shoulder and side
edges of the stem may show some secondary flaking. The basal edge is
usually unfinished but may show a little retouch as broad flakes were
struck off or perhaps intentionally broken off to form a more or less
flat stem base edge.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from the Elora area of Lincoln County,
Tennessee, where several sites have produced many examples of the type.
The illustrated example as well as the cotypes are from Cambron Site 48
in this area. A variant classified locally as Elora Serrated is slightly
larger than Elora and is strongly serrated by the alternate removal of
flakes from opposite faces of the point. The Elora point was categorized
Provisional Type 7, large, thick, stemmed, by Cambron and Waters (1961).
In Zone A at the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and
Cambron, 1962) 2 examples were recovered from Level 1, 1 from Level 2, 2
from Level 3, 1 from Level 6, 1 from Level 9. One example of Elora
Serrated was recovered from Level 1 in Zone A and one from Level 1 in
Zone D at the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter. A serrated example was
also recovered from Level 8 at University of Alabama Site Ms 201 in
Marshall County, Alabama. At Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and
Waters, 1961) two examples of Elora were recovered from Stratum I
(Woodland) and 3 examples from upper Stratum II (Archaic). At Little
Bear Creek, Site Ct 8 (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948b) two examples were
recovered from the 4-foot level, one from the 5-foot level and one from
Zone B, about the 4-foot level (Archaic). At Flint River, Mound Ma 48
(Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a) two examples were recovered from Zone D
(Archaic). This evidence suggests a middle-to-late, shellmound Archaic
and possibly a very early Woodland association. Elora Serrated may be
slightly older than Elora. A date of 5000 to 3000 years ago, or some
part thereof, is suggested. Hulse suggests that Elora Serrated may be a
type distinct from Elora.


EVA, =Kneberg= (Kneberg, 1956): A-35

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Eva is a medium to large, basally notched point
with an excurvate or recurvate blade.

MEASUREMENTS: The 10 plesiotypes which supplied the features (the
illustrated example is included) range in measurements as follows:
length--maximum, 96 mm.; minimum, 48 mm.; average, 61 mm.: shoulder
width--maximum, 39 mm.; minimum, 25 mm.; average, 33 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 26 mm.; minimum, 11 mm.; average, 18 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 7 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average, 6 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum, 8 mm.; average, 9 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are simple-barbed and
inversely tapered. The blade is usually excurvate but may be recurvate.
The distal end is acute. Basal notches range from 1 to 7 mm. deep and
average 4 mm. deep. The notch width range is from 3 to 9 mm.; notch
width average is 6 mm. Retouching often leaves the stem longer than the
barbs. The stem is either straight or contracted. Stem side edges may be
straight or excurvate. The stem base is usually straight but may be
excurvate; it is usually thinned by retouching and may be lightly
ground.

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area are shaped by strong, broad,
shallow, random flaking. The blade face is thinned from edge to center
by broad secondary flaking. Some fine retouch appears along the blade
and hafting area edges. The basal notches are formed perpendicular to
the base by removal of one broad flake from opposite faces on each side
of the stem. Retouching often shortened the barbs; in some cases a barb
was almost completely worked away. No retouch was noted in the notches.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The point is named after the Eva Site in Benton County,
Tennessee. The illustrated example is among the 10 measured plesiotypes
from the Plevna Site, Cambron 79, in Madison County, Alabama. Lewis and
Lewis (1961) describe most examples from the Eva Site as having
recurvate blade edges and sometimes displaying barbs longer than the
stems. Examples of the type were in association at the Eva Site with
materials dated by radiocarbon method at 7200 B.P. Lewis and Lewis
(1961) also describe a smaller, narrower variant found at later levels
as Eva II. Four examples of the Eva type were recovered from Zone A--one
each from Levels 3, 7, 9 and 11--at Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter in
Colbert County, Alabama (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962). Four
examples were recovered from the bottom of Stratum II (Archaic) at Flint
Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961). At Little Bear Creek Site
in Colbert County, Alabama (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948b), one example was
recovered from the 8-foot level (below the shellmidden). Numerous
surface finds in North Alabama also indicate an early Archaic
association. The 7200 B.P. date at Eva Site appears acceptable.


EVANS, =Ford and Webb= (Ford and Webb, 1956): A-36

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium-sized point which usually displays
an expanded stem and a notch flaked into each blade edge above the
shoulders.

MEASUREMENTS: The illustrated example measures 60 mm. in length, 33 mm.
in width, 20 mm. in stem width, 11 mm. in stem length, 11 mm. in
thickness.

FORM: (The following description is taken from the illustrated example,
an example from Cambron Site 14, Limestone County, Alabama, and from
illustrations and description by Bell, 1958): The cross-section is
biconvex. Shoulders may be horizontal, inversely tapered, or tapered.
The blade is usually excurvate but may be straight; blade edges are
deeply notched from the shoulders to about one-third to nearly one-half
the length of the blade. The distal end may be acute or broad. The
hafting area may include the notched portion of the blade as well as the
stem. The stem is usually expanded but may be straight or, rarely,
contracted. The side edges of the stem may be straight or incurvate and
the basal edge, straight or excurvate. The excurvate stem base edge is
ground on the Alabama example.

FLAKING: Broad, irregular, random flaking appears on the blade and stem.
Some retouch accomplished by the removal of small, fairly deep flakes is
found along the blade edges. Deep side notches are the result of removal
of a broad, deep flake from the edges of opposite faces of the blade.
Occasionally, limited retouch was employed to broaden the notches after
the main notching flake had been struck.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The point was named after examples found at Poverty Point Site
in Louisiana. The illustrated example is from Holland Site 123 in
Franklin Parish, Louisiana. Bell (1958) gives the distribution as the
northern half of Louisiana, the adjacent portions of eastern Texas,
southern Arkansas and western Mississippi. On the basis of radiocarbon
dates from Poverty Point and the Jaketown Site, Ford and Webb (1956)
suggest an age of around 2600 to 2800 years ago. Points of similar
workmanship but with three or more notches along each blade edge are
found in North Alabama and classified as Provisional Type 10, eccentric
notched (Cambron and Waters, 1961; Cambron and Hulse, 1960b). These
points may or may not be related to the Evans type.


FAIRLAND, =Kelley= (Suhm, Krieger and Jelks, 1954): A-137

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium-sized point with an
expanded stem, incurvate base and random flaking.

MEASUREMENTS: Eight cotypes from sites in South Calhoun County and North
Talladega County, Alabama provided traits and the following
measurements: length--maximum, 52 mm.; minimum, 41 mm.; average, 45 mm.:
shoulder width--maximum, 31 mm.; minimum, 26 mm.; average, 28 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 28 mm.; minimum, 21 mm.; average, 26 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 13 mm.; minimum, 10 mm.; average, 12 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 13 mm.; minimum, 8 mm.; average, 9 mm. The
illustrated example measures 46 mm. long, 31 mm. wide at the shoulders,
27 mm. wide across the stem, 12 mm. in stem length, and 9 mm. thick.

FORM: The cross-section is usually flattened but may be biconvex.
Shoulders are inversely tapered. The blade may be excurvate or straight.
The distal end is usually acute but may be broad. The stem is expanded
and the side edges may be ground. The basal edge is incurvate and
thinned.

FLAKING: Because of the poor grade of material used, the shallow, random
flaking which shapes the blade and stem is, in most cases, poor. Some
blade edges may be finely serrated.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from the Lehmann Rock Shelter in Texas by
J. Charles Kelley (1947b) and was described by Suhm and Krieger who also
give an estimated age of about 1000 B.C. to 500 A.D. or part thereof
(Suhm, Krieger and Jelks, 1954). Suhm and Krieger list the Fairland type
as characteristic of Central Texas. Occasional examples appear in
collections throughout Oklahoma and elsewhere (Bell, 1960). Four of the
eight measured examples are made of quartzite and four are made of a
poor grade of flint The illustrated example is made of quartzite. All
examples, including 39 that were broken and not measured, are from the
collection of Eugene L. Grace of Anniston, Alabama. They were recovered
from late Archaic and early Woodland sites.


FLINT CREEK, =Cambron= (Cambron, 1958b): A-37

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Flint Creek is a medium to large, finely
serrated, stemmed point.

MEASUREMENTS: Examples which provided the features (including the
illustrated example) ranged in measurements as follows: length--maximum,
76 mm.; minimum, 39 mm.; average, 55 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 29
mm.; minimum, 18 mm.; average, 23 mm.: stem width--maximum, 19 mm.;
minimum, 13 mm.; average, 16 mm.: stem length--maximum, 15 mm.; minimum,
7 mm.; average, 11 mm.: thickness--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.;
average, 10 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are usually inversely
tapered but may be tapered or, occasionally, horizontal. The blade is
excurvate and is usually finely serrated; the distal end is acute. The
stem, usually formed by corner or side notching, is expanded. The side
edges of the stem are usually excurvate; rarely, straight. The stem base
edge is usually excurvate but may, on rare examples, be straight. It may
be thinned or unfinished with rind still in evidence. Several examples
were lightly ground on the stem base edge.

FLAKING: The thick blade is shaped by broad, random flaking. Deep,
narrow, and often long flakes were removed from the blade edges to shape
and finish the blade and to form fine regular serrations. These flakes
were removed alternately from opposite faces, making the serration
projections rather sharp. Broad, deep flakes, struck from the basal
corners or sometimes the sides of the hafting area, shape the stem. Some
of the straighter stemmed examples are reworked along the stem side
edges, but usually no retouch is noted in the notches. Basal edges are
often slightly thinned by broad shallow flaking.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from Cambron Site 78 on Flint Creek in
Morgan County, Alabama, where numerous examples were first collected.
The illustrated example is one of several from the predominantly Copena
site, Cambron Site 53, in Morgan County, Alabama. At the
Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962),
69 examples were recovered from Zone A, Levels 1 through 8. Of these 69
examples, 40 per cent were from Levels 3 and 4, indicating a climax in
the late Archaic--early Woodland times. One example each was recovered
from Levels 4, 5 and 7 at University of Alabama Site Ms 201 in Marshall
County, Alabama. At Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961),
ten examples were recovered from Stratum I (Woodland) and one from
Stratum II (Archaic). The Flint Creek type was important at Flint River
Mound (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a), where most examples were found in
upper Zone C (Archaic) and lower Zone B (Woodland). This is a late
Archaic to early Woodland type. The type appears to be related to
Dustin points illustrated by Ritchie (1961). Similar examples may be
recognized among points illustrated as Palmillos by Suhm, Krieger and
Jelks (1954), who give the distribution as from East Texas across the
state to the Trans-Pecos area, and from the upper Brazos and Trinity
valleys to the central and eastern coastal plain. The distribution
extends southward in Mexico to southern Tamaulipas. The type is
associated with late Archaic and early Woodland cultures. The Dustin
points are from Michigan and from the Lamoka Lake Site, Schuyler County,
New York.


FLINT RIVER SPIKE, =Cambron= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962):
A-38

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium, narrow, lanceolate
point.

MEASUREMENTS: Fifteen cotypes (including the illustrated example) from
University of Alabama Site Ma 48 (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a) range in
measurements as follows: length--maximum, 58 mm.; minimum, 39 mm.;
average, 50 mm.: width--maximum, 21 mm.; minimum, 12 mm.; average, 16
mm.: thickness--maximum, 11 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 9 mm.

FORM: The cross-section may be median ridged or biconvex. The blade is
usually excurvate, but may be straight with an acute distal end. The
base is usually rounded, but an occasional example may display a
straight, unfinished basal edge. The hafting area includes the basal
area from the base to the widest point of the blade, which is usually
less than half way from base to distal end. The base is usually thinned.

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area were shaped by random percussion
flaking. Many of the flakes are rather deep. Some retouch appears along
the edges, especially along the blade edges, of about half the examples.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after Flint River Mound at the mouth of
Flint River in Madison County, Alabama (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a),
where the illustrated example was recovered. Of the 41 examples from
this site, 24 were from upper Zone A (Woodland), 14 from lower Zone A
and Zone B (Woodland) and three from upper Zone C (Archaic). Two
examples were recovered from Level 3 (Woodland) at University of Alabama
Site Ms 201 in Marshall County, Alabama. Six examples (excluding
material from the 100-foot trench) were recovered at the
Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962):
two examples were recovered from Level 1, Zone A, one each from Levels
2, 3 and 6, Zone A, and one from Level 1 of Zone B. Flint River Spike
and Bradley Spike appear to be of late Woodland cultural association and
may be typologically related. Unlike Bradley Spike, however, Flint River
Spike has no stem and may be retouched along the blade edges. A late
Woodland association is suggested for Flint River Spike in North
Alabama.


FORT ANCIENT, =Bell= (Bell, 1960): A-39

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium, thick, triangular point
that may be serrated.

MEASUREMENTS: Bell (1960) lists the length as from about 30 mm. to 50
mm. and the width as about 15 mm. or less. The illustrated example
measures 32 mm. long, 14 mm. wide, and 6 mm. thick.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex. The blade is usually
straight but may be slightly incurvate near the distal end or, rarely,
excurvate. Blade edges may be serrated. (Serrated examples are more
readily identified.) The distal end may be keenly acute or acuminate.
The base may be straight or excurvate. It is usually thinned and may be
slightly expanded.

FLAKING: The point displays random flaking which is usually broad and
fairly deep, with some fine retouch near the distal end. The serrations
on the serrated examples are the result of the removal of broad regular
flakes from the edge of alternate faces, leaving an irregular pattern
along the blade edges. Occasionally the basal edge was retouched as well
as thinned by removal of broad flakes.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: "The Fort Ancient points are associated with the Feurt Focus
of the Fort Ancient aspect of the Ohio Valley. The Fort Ancient point
has been recognized among archaeologists, both amateur and professional,
in the Ohio region for a number of years." (Bell, 1960). The illustrated
example is from Cambron Site 27, Limestone County, Alabama. This
Woodland-Mississippian site has produced Fort Ancient, Madison, Jacks
Reef Corner Notched, Knight Island, Swan Lake and Copena points. One
Fort Ancient point was recovered from Level 1 at University of Alabama
Site Ms 201 in Marshall County, Alabama. Bell (1960) dates the type at
some time from about 1200 A.D. to 1600 A.D. Morgan (1952), in
summarizing the prehistoric Indian cultures of the Ohio region, says of
the Fort Ancient aspect of the Mississippian period: "Their trait
assemblage is indicative of a people with a mixed cultural background,
both Woodland and Mississippi elements being involved. White trade goods
at one site show that some of these people were probably still in
existence as late as the last quarter of the seventeenth century."


FRAZIER, =Kneberg= (Kneberg, 1956): A-40

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium-sized, narrow, triangular point
with a well thinned basal edge.

MEASUREMENTS: "In size these points range from 2 to 2-3/4 inches."
(Bell, 1960.) Alabama examples are slightly shorter. Measurements of 4
plesiotypes, including the illustrated example, are: length--maximum, 51
mm.; minimum, 45 mm.; average, 49 mm.: width at base--maximum, 25 mm.;
minimum, 21 mm.; average, 23 mm.: thickness--maximum, 8 mm.; minimum, 6
mm.; average, 7 mm. Basal depth on one incurvate base example was 1 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is flattened. The blade is excurvate. A slightly
serrated appearance is found on some examples as the result of
retouching along the blade edge. The distal end is acute. The hafting
area includes an undetermined basal portion of the blade which is more
or less parallel along the basal edges. The basal edge is usually
straight but may be slightly incurvate; it is thinned and, rarely,
ground.

FLAKING: Large shallow flakes, removed to shape the faces, were followed
by shorter deeper flaking along all edges. The secondary flaking along
the basal edge is usually broader and longer than that used along the
blade and hafting area edges. Some retouching along the blade edges
results in a finely serrated appearance.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: This point is named after the Frazier Site in Benton County,
Tennessee. The illustrated example is from Cambron Site 389 in Limestone
County, Alabama. No examples were recovered from control sites in the
Tennessee Valley. The type is comparatively rare in Alabama and the
cultural association is not known, but it usually appears in surface
collections from early Archaic sites. Kneberg (1956) suggests a late
Archaic association in Tennessee and a "probable time period from about
1500 B.C. to early centuries A.D." The point is similar to Paint Rock
Valley points but is narrower. The base is not as incurvate and the
flaking is usually better controlled.


GARTH SLOUGH, =Cambron= (This Paper): (Formerly classified as Catahoula)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium, expanded-barb point.
Barbs are prominent and usually obtuse.

MEASUREMENTS: The measurements of eight plesiotypes (including the
illustrated example) from which descriptions were drawn are:
length--maximum, 47 mm.; minimum, 33 mm.; average, 40 mm.: shoulder
width--maximum, 33 mm.; minimum, 26 mm.; average, 29 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 13 mm.; minimum, 8 mm.; average, 11 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 7 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average, 5 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 7 mm.; minimum, 4 mm.; average, 6 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. The shoulder barbs are usually
expanded and broad; the barb ends may be obtuse or straight. The blade
is usually incurvate; rarely, recurvate or straight. Most examples are
finely serrated with an acute distal end. The stemmed hafting area is
formed by diagonal notches. The stems of the measured examples are
straight. The base may be straight or excurvate, thinned, and may be
ground on some examples.

FLAKING: Remnants of blade scars may be evident on the faces. Random,
secondary flaking may leave a median ridge on some examples. This
flaking, along with some fine retouch produced fine serrations along the
blade edges. Broad flakes were removed to form the basal notches.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from examples from surface sites in the
Garth Slough area in Morgan County, Alabama. The illustrated example is
from Cambron Site 76 (Pine Tree) in Limestone County, Alabama. The type
is found on Transitional Paleo and Early Archaic sites in North Alabama.
One example was recovered from the bottom of Stratum II (Early Archaic)
at Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961). What appears to
be a smaller variant of the type was recovered from level V at Danger
Cave, Utah (Jennings, 1957) and listed as type W37. Radiocarbon dates
from this level range from 6863 ±500 B.P. at the base of the level to
3893 ±240 B.P. in the topmost part of the level. One example was
recovered from Cave Spring, Level 9, Stratum III, in association with
Big Sandy, Cave Spring, Colbert Dalton, Decatur, Frazier, Greenbrier
Dalton, Jude, Lerma Rounded Base, Paint Rock Valley, and Stanfield
points. The Garth Slough point was formerly but incorrectly, classified
as Catahoula.


GARY, =Newell and Krieger= (Suhm, Krieger and Jelks, 1954): A-41

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium sized point with contracted stem.

MEASUREMENTS: Bell (1958) gives the size range as about 40 mm. to 80 mm.
Suhm, Krieger and Jelks (1954) note that the stem length is more
consistent than the length of the blade. The illustrated example
measures 57 mm. in length, 26 mm. in shoulder width, 18 mm. in stem
width, 14 mm in stem length and 9 mm. in thickness.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders may be horizontal or
tapered and are occasionally rounded or expanded barbed. The blade is
usually straight to excurvate, but may be incurvate or recurvate (Suhm,
Krieger and Jelks, 1954). The distal end is acute. The stem is usually
contracted, with straight or excurvate side edges and a rounded to
pointed basal edge.

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area are shaped by broad random flaking.
The blade edges are retouched by the removal of deep short flakes. The
stem may be retouched.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after points found in Texas and was
formerly called Gary Contracting Stem. The illustrated specimen is from
Cambron Site 76 in Limestone County, Alabama. There is considerable
variation within the Gary type, and further study may lead to
classification into separate types (Bell, 1958, quoting Baerreis,
Freeman and Wright, 1958). Several Gary points were recovered from the
Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962).
Most of the examples were in the upper half of Zone A, which would
indicate a late Archaic to Woodland association. Flint Creek Rock
Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961) and Flint River Mound (Webb and
DeJarnette, 1948a) also produced Gary points from both Woodland and
Archaic strata. Jenkins (1975) has demonstrated Gary as the dominant
projectile point type for Middle Woodland in the Central Tombigbee area
(Miller I and II).


GREENBRIER, =Kneberg= (Lewis and Kneberg, 1960): A-42

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Greenbrier is a medium to large point with
expanded auricles and shallow ground side notches.

MEASUREMENTS: The illustrated example measures in length, 63 mm.; in
shoulder width, 25 mm.; in stem width, 25 mm.; in stem length, 12 mm.;
in thickness, 6 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually flattened but may be biconvex.
Shoulders are tapered and may be weakly barbed. The blade is usually
parallel, with fine serrations, and may be beveled on each side of both
faces. The distal end is acute. The hafting area displays broad side
notches, created as the shoulder tapers in to the expanded stem. Notches
on the illustrated example are 4 mm. deep and 14 mm. wide. Side edges of
the hafting area are usually heavily ground. The base is incurvate,
thinned and lightly ground.

FLAKING: Flaking used to shape the blade and hafting area is broad and
thin. The short flaking which was used to bevel the blade edges and
create fine serrations may occasionally appear on the shoulder edges of
the hafting area. The notches were formed by the removal of one or more
fairly large flakes, followed by secondary flaking. Most Alabama
examples were made of Ft. Payne chert or other good material.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was briefly described by Lewis and Kneberg (1960),
who point out that several examples were illustrated from the Nuckolls
Site (Lewis and Kneberg, 1958). Good examples illustrated in that paper
are Figs. 24-30, 37, and 48-49. The illustrated example is from Hulse
Site 53, Limestone County, Alabama. Its general appearance is somewhat
similar to that of the Pine Tree point and it often appears on the same
sites. At the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and
Cambron, 1962) one example was recovered from Level 11 of R-4 trench,
one from Zone C, one from Level 1, Zone D, and two from Level 2, Zone D.
At Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961) one example was
recovered from the center of Stratum II (Archaic). One example was
recovered from upper Zone C (Archaic) at Flint River Mound (Webb and
DeJarnette, 1948a). This evidence indicates a shellmound Archaic
association at Flint River, early Archaic at Flint Creek and early
Archaic to transitional Paleo-Indian at Stanfield-Worley. A suggested
age is from 5000 years ago to about 9000 years ago.


GREENEVILLE, =Kneberg= (Kneberg, 1957): A-43

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium sized trianguloid point with
parallel to excurvate basal edges.

MEASUREMENTS: Kneberg (1957) lists the range as 1.5 inches to 2.5
inches. The nine plesiotypes, including the illustrated example (Lewis
and Kneberg, 1957), from Cambron Site 284 (Camp Creek Site) are:
length--maximum, 40 mm.; minimum, 29 mm.; average, 33 mm.:
width--maximum, 25 mm.; minimum, 18 mm.; average, 20 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 6 mm.; average, 8 mm.: width at
base--maximum, 25 mm.; minimum, 16 mm.; average, 19 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. The blade is excurvate or straight
above the hafting area. The distal end is acute. The hafting area
usually has parallel sides but may taper slightly towards the blade. Of
the nine measured examples, seven have a basal concavity 1.0 mm. deep
and two examples have a straight basal edge. The basal edge is usually
thinned.

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area were shaped by random flaking. Most
examples show some secondary flaking along the blade edges. This flaking
ranges from narrow to broad, but usually fairly deep flake scars are
exhibited. Points that have secondary flaking may not be flaked on all
blade edges. Basal thinning appears, accomplished by broad flaking along
the basal edge which is often followed by some secondary flaking. Of the
nine measured examples, seven are made of black to gray local flint, one
is quartzite and one chalcedony.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named (Lewis and Kneberg, 1957) after the Camp
Creek Site (Cambron Site 284), which is near Greeneville, Tennessee.
While the illustrated example is from the plough level of this site,
examples were recovered from all levels. A radiocarbon date of 2050 ±250
B.P. was secured at this site. At the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter
(DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962) Level 1 produced five examples;
Levels 2 and 3, two each; Levels 4, 5 and 8, one each. All were from
Zone A. Four examples, one from Level 1, two from Level 2, and one from
Level 5 were recovered at University of Alabama Site Ms 201, in Marshall
County, Alabama. Three examples were recovered from upper Stratum I
(Woodland) at Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961). At
Flint River Mound (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a) 19 examples were
recovered from Zones A and B (Woodland) and three from Zone C (upper
Archaic). This Woodland point is scattered along the western edge of the
Appalachians from Greeneville, Tennessee, to South Alabama as well as in
the Tennessee River Valley and other areas.


GUILFORD, =Coe= (Coe, 1952): A-44

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, lanceolate point with
incurvate base.

MEASUREMENTS: Bell (1960) gives the range of the length from about 60
mm. to 135 mm. Measurements listed by Coe (1959) range as follows:
length--maximum, 120 mm.; minimum, 50 mm.; average, 90 mm.:
width--maximum, 35 mm.; minimum, 20 mm.; average, 30 mm. The illustrated
plesiotype measures 84 mm. long, 24 mm. in width, 11 mm. wide at the
base, 12 mm. thick, 1 mm. deep in basal concavity.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex and thick but may approach
median ridged. The blade is usually excurvate but may be nearly
straight. The distal end may be acute or apiculate. The hafting area is
contracted with short, rounded auricles, incurvate base and some basal
thinning. Side edges of the hafting area are usually lightly ground. The
hafting area may be defined by a break in the contour of the side edges
or may be described as extending to somewhere near the widest part of
the blade.

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area are usually shaped by well
controlled, random flaking. Coe (1952) describes some flaking as being
transverse-oblique. Careful secondary flaking in the form of short,
often deep, flaking appears along the side edges. The basal concavity is
formed by the removal of broad flakes. A variety of local materials
including quartz, quartzite, porphyritic rhyolite, andesite and
varieties of argillite or novaculite were used (Coe, 1959).

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after the Guilford focus of the Carolina
Piedmont. The illustrated example is from Cambron 326, Buncombe County,
North Carolina. The type was described by Bell (1960). At the Doerschuk
Site Coe (1959) recovered Guilford points above Morrow Mountain and
below Halifax types. He suggests a date of around 6000 years ago in the
Carolina Piedmont area. He gives the distribution as widespread
throughout the Piedmont of North Carolina but points out that they "do
not have a distribution much north of Virginia or south of Piedmont,
Georgia." Examples appear on several sites in western North Carolina.
Examples were illustrated by Miller (1962) from Sites 44Mc66 and 44Mc75,
Mecklenburg County, Virginia (Plate 39 W and X, Plate 40 N, Plate 44 P,
T and V, Plate 45B). An early Archaic association prior to 5000 years
ago is suggested. Recent evidence from Randolph County indicates that
the Archaic Guilford complex may extend into the Alabama Piedmont
(O'Hear and Knight, 1975).


GUILFORD ROUNDED BASE, =Cambron= (This Paper): A-44-a

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium sized lanceolate point with a
rounded base.

MEASUREMENTS: Ten plesiotypes from Cambron 326 (Harwood 98), Buncombe
County, North Carolina ranged in measurement as follows:
length--maximum, 72 mm.; minimum, 53 mm.; average, 61 mm.:
width--maximum, 28 mm.; minimum, 17 mm.; average, 23 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 13 mm.; minimum, 8 mm.; average, 10 mm. The length
from base to widest point of blade ranges from 21 mm. to 35 mm. and
averages 28 mm. The illustrated example measures about 63 mm. long, 23
mm. wide, 14 mm. thick and 25 mm. from base to widest point of blade.
Coe (1959) illustrated an example 30 mm. long.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. The blade is excurvate with widest
point less than halfway from the base to the distal end. This point of
maximum width may mark the termination of the hafting area. Some
examples are beveled on one side of each face. Side edges of the hafting
area are tapered. The basal edge is rounded. Basal edges may be lightly
ground.

FLAKING: The measured examples (all made of quartzite) are shaped by
well controlled random flaking. Secondary flaking of a deeper shorter
nature appears on all edges. This flaking may have been accomplished by
a percussion.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after examples illustrated by Coe (1959)
along with Guilford points (Bell, 1960). The illustrated example is from
Cambron Site 326, Buncombe County, North Carolina. At the Doerschuk
Site, Coe (1959) recovered examples with Guilford points above Morrow
Mt. and below Halifax types. He suggests a date of around 6000 years ago
in the Carolina Piedmont area. He gives the distribution as Carolina
Piedmont and not much north of Virginia or south of Piedmont, Georgia.
Examples appear on several sites in western North Carolina. Miller
(1962) illustrated examples from Roanoke River drainage area in
Mecklenburg County, Virginia, as follows: Site 44Mc75 (Plate 29, Fig. F,
Plate 45, Fig. L); Site 44Mc66 (Plate 40, Figs. G, H, M; Plate 41, Figs.
I, J); Site 44Mc73 (Plate 42, Fig. D); Bluestone Creek drainage area
(Plate 48, Figs. 1, 2a). The similarity of the type to Lerma Rounded
Base points may be an indication that they are coeval. An early Archaic
association prior to 5000 years ago is suggested.


GUNTERSVILLE, =Cambron= (This Paper): A-59

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium-sized, lanceolate point
with straight base and excurvate blade.

MEASUREMENTS: Seven cotypes, including the illustrated example, ranged
in measurements as follows: length--maximum, 50 mm.; minimum, 33 mm.;
average, 35 mm.: width at base--maximum, 18 mm.; minimum, 10 mm.;
average, 14 mm.: thickness--maximum, 6 mm.; minimum, 4 mm.; average, 5
mm. The blade width of four examples ranged from a maximum of 21 mm. to
a minimum of 13 mm. and averaged 16 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually flattened but may be biconvex. The
blade is excurvate. The widest point may be at the base or somewhat
below the midsection. The distal end is acute. Side edges of the hafting
area may be parallel or slightly contracted. (It is difficult to define
the extent of the hafting area on examples with contracted side edges.)
The basal edge is straight and thinned.

FLAKING: Broad, shallow, random, flaking appears on the faces with fine
secondary flaking along the blade edges and sides of the hafting area.
Fairly long, often broad, flakes were removed in order to thin the basal
edge. Local materials were used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after sites in Guntersville Basin of the
Tennessee River where many examples are found. The illustrated example
is from Cambron Site 12, Limestone County, Alabama. Six examples in
association with Madison points, a stone disc and other artifacts were
taken from Burial 6, Site Lu 92, Lauderdale County, Alabama (Webb and
DeJarnette, 1942). Examples illustrated along with Madison and Ft.
Ancient points, were described as Dallas component triangular points by
Lewis and Kneberg (1946). Both Guntersville Lanceolate and Madison
points were illustrated and described by Kneberg (1956) as Late
Mississippi Triangular. She states, "In eastern Tennessee it is equally
numerous in the Mouse Creek and Dallas Cultures, and occurs in smaller
numbers in historic Cherokee sites" (1956). The type was classified as
Type W in the Guntersville Basin where it appeared in association with
trade goods in several historic burials. A burial at Lewis Bluff in
Wheeler Basin of Tennessee River (Cambron and Waters, 1959a) yielded
examples in association with Madison points, complicated-stamped sherds
and plain, shell-tempered ware, an elbow-clay pipe and other artifacts.
Two examples were recovered from the middle section of Stratum I and
upper half of Stratum I (Woodland and Mississippian) at Flint Creek Rock
Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961). Guntersville Lanceolate appears to
be associated with late Mississippian and historic cultures in the
Tennessee Valley. Kneberg (1956) suggests a probable date of 1300 A.D.
to 1800 A.D.


HALIFAX, =Coe= (Coe, 1959): A-112

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Halifax is a small to medium-sized,
side-notched point usually made of vein quartz or, occasionally,
quartzite.

MEASUREMENTS: Coe (1959) lists a range of length from 56 mm. to 29 mm.
with an average length of 44 mm. and a range of width from 25 mm. to 17
mm. with an average width of 20 mm. Measurements of the illustrated
example are: length, 30 mm.; shoulder width, 21 mm.; stem width, 18 mm.;
stem length, 9 mm.; thickness, 8 mm.; depth of notch, 3 mm.; width of
notch, 10 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex. Shoulders are tapered. The
blade is usually straight but may be excurvate. The distal end is acute.
The stem is expanded with straight or incurvate side edges and straight
or excurvate basal edge. The stem base edge and side notches of the
hafting area are usually ground.

FLAKING: The blade and stem are shaped by broad, often deep, random
flaking. Some examples show good secondary flaking along the blade
edges. The notches were worked out by the removal of several flakes.
Some points are asymmetrical due to variation in depth and location of
notches. According to Coe (1959) "The typical specimen was relatively
thick and worked from a core. These cores, however, frequently
originated as thick spalls struck from quartz or quartzite boulders
common to this area of the Roanoke River."

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after Halifax County, North Carolina, where
examples were recovered from the Gaston Site on the Roanoke River. The
illustrated example is from Cambron Site 94, Buncombe County, North
Carolina. A radiocarbon date of 5440 ±300 B.P. was secured for the type
at the Gaston Site, where it appeared above Guilford and below Savannah
River points. Coe (1959) suggests "a relationship to Lamoka points of
the New York area." This, in turn, indicates that the type is ancestral
to Lamoka points, similar to Swan Lake points, of Alabama and Tennessee
Valley area. In Alabama Swan Lake is associated with the Woodland
culture. Halifax points are found on several sites in Buncombe County,
North Carolina. Miller (1962) illustrated examples (Plate 42, Figs. J,
K, M and U) from Site 44Mc73, which is described as a pre-pottery site.
Swan Lake points from Site 44Ha7 (Plate 52, Figs. F, N, T, V and DD) are
described by Miller (1962) as "typical Woodland types." Thus both
Halifax and Swan Lake points appear in the John H. Kerr Basin of the
Roanoke River, Virginia and North Carolina. A type resembling Halifax
has been isolated in Randolph County in an Archaic context (O'Hear and
Knight, 1975).


HAMILTON, =Lewis= (Lewis, 1955): A-45

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Hamilton is a small, triangular point with
incurvate blade and incurvate base.

MEASUREMENTS: Bell (1960) lists the length range as 22 mm. to 45 mm.;
the length mode, 40 mm. The illustrated plesiotype measures 37 mm. long,
18 mm. wide at base, 4 mm. thick, 3 mm. deep in basal concavity.

FORM: The cross-section is flattened. The blade ranges in shape from
near straight to deeply incurvate but is usually slightly incurvate.
Fine serrations along the blade edges are rare. The distal end is acute.
The base is usually incurvate but may be straight and is always thinned.

FLAKING: According to Kneberg (1956) "Exceptionally fine pressure
chipping characterizes this type." The faces are worked by broad,
shallow flaking with fine retouch along the blade edges. The basal edge
is thinned by the removal of broad shallow flakes and is rarely
retouched except near the junction of the basal edge with the side
edges.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: "The Hamilton Incurvate point and Hamilton culture are named
from Hamilton County, Tennessee, where they were first identified."
(Kneberg, 1956). The illustrated example is from Cambron Site 27,
Limestone County, Alabama. According to Kneberg (1956) the Hamilton is
"a late Woodland type associated with the Hamilton culture. This is the
culture characterized by dome-shaped burial mounds in eastern Tennessee.
It is also found in middle Tennessee with the Decatur and Harmon's Creek
Woodland cultures." An example was recovered from Level 1 at the
Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962).
At University of Alabama Site Ms 201, Marshall County, Alabama, two
examples were recovered from Level 1 and one from Level 5. At the Flint
River Site (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a) one example was recovered from
each zone: Zones A and A-B (both Woodland), Zone C, and Zone D
(Archaic). This evidence indicates a Woodland or possibly late Archaic
association at Flint River. Examples are found on Woodland and
Mississippian sites in North Alabama. Kneberg (1956) suggests a probable
age of about 500 A.D. to 1000 A.D. Bell (1960) suggests a date of
about 300 A.D. to 800 A.D.


HAMILTON STEMMED, =Cambron= (This Paper): A-108

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium-sized, expanded-stem point with an
excurvate blade.

MEASUREMENTS: Lewis and Kneberg (1946), Plate 65, illustrate two
examples of Hamilton Stemmed points. These two are 72 mm. and 76 mm.
long respectively. The illustrated example measures 75 mm. long, 30 mm.
in shoulder width, 18 mm. in stem width, 12 mm. in stem length, and 9
mm. thick.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are inversely tapered,
forming short sharp barbs. The blade is excurvate. The rather
sharply-acute distal end gives the blade edge a near-recurvate
appearance. The stem is expanded with straight side edges; the stem
base, thinned and either straight or slightly excurvate.

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area are shaped by broad, shallow-to-deep
random flaking. One or all blade edges may be secondarily flaked by the
removal of fine, shallow flakes or rather crude deep flakes. The corner
notches are formed by strong, broad flaking (usually by removal of one
flake from each side of each notch). Stem edges may be retouched, with
fine flaking having been employed to thin the base of the stem.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type is named after Hamilton County, Tennessee where the
Hamilton culture was first recognized. The illustrated plesiotype is
from Cambron Site 27, Limestone County, Alabama, which has produced
several examples of Hamilton points. It is a late Woodland type
associated with the Hamilton culture. Kneberg states (1956), "This is
the culture characterized by dome-shaped burial mounds in eastern
Tennessee. It is also found in middle Tennessee with the Decatur and
Harmon's Creek Woodland cultures." Local examples have been classified
as Hamilton corner notched. An example was illustrated by Rowe (1947) as
a rare Hamilton culture type from eastern Tennessee.


HARDAWAY, =Coe= (Coe, 1959): A-46

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium-sized, side notched point
with concave base.

MEASUREMENTS: Coe (1959) lists the measurements of examples from the
North Carolina Piedmont as follows: length--maximum, 50 mm.; minimum, 28
mm.; average, 35 mm.: width--maximum, 35 mm.; minimum, 23 mm.; average,
25 mm.: thickness--maximum, 6 mm.; minimum, 3 mm.; average, 4 mm. The
length of samples in the Tennessee Valley ranges from a maximum of 50
mm. to a minimum of 29 mm. The average measurements of 28 examples from
16 sites follow: length, 40 mm.; width, 21 mm.; thickness, 6 mm. (Soday
and Cambron, n. d.). The illustrated example measures 38 mm. long, 23
mm. wide at the distal end of hafting area, 26 mm. wide at base, 6 mm.
thick, 21 mm. wide across hafting constriction, 4 mm. deep in basal
concavity.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. The blade is usually straight but
may be excurvate. Blade edges may be serrated. The distal end is usually
acute. The hafting area is auriculate with expanded-rounded auricles.
Coe (1959) describes the average side notch as about 4 mm. deep and 5
mm. wide. This results in a short hafting constriction. The basal edge
is incurvate and thinned. Both side and basal edges of the hafting area
are usually ground.

[Illustration]

FLAKING: The face is shaped by broad well controlled flaking. A weak
median ridge created by broad, shallow secondary flaking is often seen
near the distal end of the blade face. The basal edge of the hafting
area is thinned by the removal of broad flakes. Most edges of both the
hafting area and the blade are finely retouched.

COMMENTS: The type was named after the Hardaway Site in Stanley County,
North Carolina and has been referred to in the Tennessee Valley as
Corner Notched Dalton. The illustrated example is from Cambron Site 76,
Limestone County, Alabama. Examples were recovered in Zone IV at the
Hardaway Site in association with Dalton, Quad, and Hardaway blade types
(Coe, 1959). At Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and
Cambron, 1962) most examples were recovered from Zone D in association
with Dalton, Big Sandy I and other early types. A radiocarbon date of
9640 ±450 B.P. was secured. A transitional Paleo-Indian association is
suggested.


HARPETH RIVER, =Crabtree= (Cambron, 1970): A-130

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Harpeth River point is a medium to large side
notched point with flattened blade, beveled on both sides of each face
and displays shallow serrations.

MEASUREMENTS: Seventeen cotypes from sites in Cheatham and Dickson
Counties, Tennessee, along the Harpeth River and one example from near
McMinnville, Tennessee, provided the following measurements and traits:
length--maximum, 90 mm.; minimum, 53 mm.; average, 67 mm.: shoulder
width--maximum, 26 mm.; minimum, 20 mm.; average, 23 mm.: width at
base--maximum, 28 mm.; minimum, 20 mm.; average, 25 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 8 mm.: hafting area
length--maximum, 25 mm.; minimum, 11 mm.; average, 16 mm.: width of
hafting area in notches--maximum, 24 mm.; minimum, 16 mm.; average, 21
mm.

FORM: The cross-section is flattened. Shoulders are tapered. The blade
may be excurvate or straight with fine serrations and is beveled on each
side of both faces. The distal end is usually acute but may be
acuminate. The hafting area displays broad, shallow side notches and is
well defined by a sharp change in the contour of the edge of the point
at the junction of the blade and is auriculated with expanded-rounded
auricles. Side edges of the hafting area are incurvate and ground. The
basal edge is straight, usually ground, and is thinned.

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area were shaped by broad, shallow,
random flaking. Blade edges are steeply beveled on each side of both
faces by the removal of deep, short, narrow flakes which resulted in
fine serrations along the blade edges. The shallow notches that form the
hafting area are steeply flaked. This usually leaves expanded shoulder
barbs.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from sites along the Harpeth River in
Cheatham and Dickson Counties, Tennessee, where 60% of the 50 odd
examples were recovered from one site which had also produced Big Sandy,
Dalton, Greenbrier, P-8 Corner Notched, Pine Tree, Cumberland, LeCroy,
and Copena points. These points are in the collection of Wayne Crabtree,
Pegram, Tennessee. In general outline the Harpeth River points may
somewhat resemble Dalton, Russell Cave, Greenbrier or Pine Tree points.
One example has strong basal thinning on one face and what appears to be
a flute struck from a prepared striking platform on the other face. One
example has been recovered from Overton County and one from Humphreys
County, Tennessee. One site along the Harpeth River from which 5
examples were recovered produced Big Sandy, Pine Tree, Turkey Tail and
Cotaco points. The associations of Harpeth River points with other Early
Archaic and Transitional Paleo points, as well as their hafting area and
flaking characteristics, indicate a placement of the type in very Early
Archaic or late Transitional Paleo cultural association. Forty-eight
cotypes of Rockport variety of Harpeth River are described along with
eighteen illustrations in the Tennessee Archaeologist, Vol. XXVI, No. 2
(Adair and Sims, 1970).


JACKS REEF CORNER NOTCHED, =Ritchie= (Ritchie, 1961): A-21

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium-sized, corner notched point with a
thin, flattened, excurvate (or often parallel-angular) blade.

MEASUREMENTS: Nine examples, including the illustrated example from
Limestone County, Alabama, provided traits and the following
measurements: length--maximum, 60 mm.; minimum, 30 mm.; average, 42 mm.:
shoulder width--maximum, 24 mm.; minimum, 15 mm.; average, 18 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 20 mm.; minimum, 13 mm.; average, 16 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 6 mm.; average, 8 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 5 mm.; minimum, 3 mm.; average, 4 mm. Ritchie (1961)
gives the following approximate measurements: length--maximum, 57 mm.;
minimum, 25 mm.; average, 47 mm.: approximate average width--38 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 6 mm. (most examples are under 5 mm.). Alabama
examples tend to be longer than New York examples. Corner notches
average about 7 mm. deep and 5 mm. wide.

FORM: The cross-section is usually flattened, rarely, plano-convex. The
shoulders are tapered with sharp thin barbs. The blade may be excurvate
or parallel-angular. The distal end ranges from narrow to broad-acute.
The hafting area is corner notched. The base of the expanded stem is
usually straight; rarely, incurvate. It is thinned and may be lightly
ground. These features are similar to those of New York points.

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area are formed by broad, shallow, random
flaking. Retouching was done by carefully controlled, broad, shallow
secondary flaking followed by fine retouching along the blade edges.
Broad flakes were struck off to form the notches, which were then finely
retouched. This point is usually made of local materials.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after the Jacks Reef Site in Onondaga
County, New York. Ritchie previously referred to the type as "broad
corner notched" or corner notched with angular edges. The illustrated
example is from Cambron Site 116, Limestone County, Alabama. A
radiocarbon date of 1056 ±250 B.P. was obtained for samples from the
White Site, Norwich, New York (Ritchie, 1961). It is considered to be
late middle Woodland and early late Woodland in New York. It is an
important type in central New York and occurs in Ohio (Ritchie, 1961).
An example from Site Ct 27 was illustrated (Plate 294, No. 1) by Webb
and DeJarnette (1942) as Type 47. For several years, the type has been
referred to in the Tennessee Valley where it is found on late Woodland
sites, as "Corner Notched Woodland". One example was recovered from
Level 3, Zone A at Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack
and Cambron, 1962), six from Zone A (Woodland) at Ma 48 (Webb and
DeJarnette, 1948a) and one example each from Levels 1 and 2 at Ms 201,
Rockhouse Shelter, in Marshall County, Alabama. Examples from P-12 Pit
at Russell Cave in Jackson County, Alabama, were dated by radiocarbon
method at 1500 ±175 B.P. (John W. Griffin, personal communication).


JACKS REEF PENTAGONAL, =Ritchie= (Ritchie, 1961): A-60a

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a thin, small to medium-sized pentagonal
point.

MEASUREMENTS: Fifteen plesiotypes, including the illustrated example
from Cambron Site 27, Limestone County, Alabama, provided the following
traits and measurements: length--maximum, 61 mm.; minimum, 25 mm.;
average, 42 mm.: width--maximum, 31 mm.; minimum, 14 mm.; average, 20
mm.: width at base--maximum, 23 mm.; minimum, 13 mm.; average, 16 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 8 mm.; minimum, 3 mm.; average, 4 mm.: length of
hafting area--maximum, 28 mm.; minimum, 12 mm.; average, 20 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is flattened. The blade is straight; the distal
end, acute. The hafting area consists of one-half to one-third (usually
about two-fifths) of the length of the point. It is contracted, with
straight side edges. The basal edge may be straight or incurvate 1 or 2
mm. and is thinned. There is usually a sharp break between the blade and
the hafting area.

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area are shaped by broad, shallow, random
flaking. Fine retouch was used to finish all edges. The basal edge is
treated in the same manner as the blade and hafting area edges. Local
materials were used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after the late Point Peninsula Jacks Reef
Site in Onondaga County, New York. The illustrated example is from
Cambron Site 27, Limestone County, Alabama. Alabama examples are
narrower and longer than New York examples as described by Ritchie
(1961). The type has been classified locally as "Mississippi
Pentagonal". The type was dated at the White Site near Norwich, Chenango
County, New York, at 1057 ±250 B.P. (Ritchie, 1961). Ritchie also
mentioned a thicker, cruder middle Archaic variant. The type is coeval
with Jacks Reef Corner Notched at Point Peninsula and Owasco sites in
New York. At the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and
Cambron, 1962), two examples were recovered from Level 1 and one from
Level 3. This indicates a late Woodland association at this site. At the
University of Alabama Site Ms 201, in Marshall County, Alabama, one
example was recovered from Level 1, two from Level 2 and one each from
Levels 4 and 5. This occurrence indicates a Woodland association.
Associations in surface collections indicate a late Woodland
association. The larger, broader examples may be derived from Copena
Triangular points, but all examples were made in a manner similar to the
way in which Madison points were made. This indicates a transitional
placement between Copena and Mississippian. The type is probably around
1000 years in age or older in Alabama.


JEFF, =Soday and Cambron= (This Paper): A-47

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Jeff is a medium-sized, broad, auriculate point
with straight basal edge and expanded auricles.

MEASUREMENTS: The range in length of examples from the Tennessee Valley
is from 69 mm. to 28 mm.; the average measurements of 10 examples from
10 sites are as follows: length, 47 mm.; width at base, 25 mm.;
thickness, 7 mm. (Soday and Cambron, n. d.). The illustrated example
measures 49 mm. long, 25 mm. wide at upper end of hafting area, 30 mm.
wide at base, 7 mm. thick, 2 mm. deep in basal concavity.

FORM: The cross-section is flattened. The blade is excurvate and may be
slightly beveled on one side of each face and/or serrated. The distal
end is acute. The hafting area is auriculate (expanded-rounded). The
basal edge is usually straight but may be slightly incurvate and may be
beveled or thinned. Side and basal edges of the hafting area are usually
ground.

FLAKING: The flattened blade is produced by removal of broad, thin
flakes. Secondary flaking along the blade edges is shorter and deeper
and may result in weak serrations. Short flakes were removed along the
side and basal edges of the hafting area. In some cases the angle of the
flaking along the basal edge produced a short bevel.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after the Jeff area of Madison County,
Alabama, where several examples were first recognized. The illustrated
example is from Cambron Site 76, Limestone County, Alabama. Examples are
always found in association with uniface tools and other early point
types and are not found on shellmound Archaic middens. This evidence and
field observations suggest a transitional Paleo association.


JUDE, =Madison-Huntsville Chapter of Alabama Archaeological Society=
(Madison-Huntsville Chapter of Alabama Archaeological Society, 1961):
A-48

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Jude is a small, straight-stemmed point with a
short blade.

MEASUREMENTS: Eight cotypes from the type site area and one example from
Colbert County, Alabama provided the traits and the following
measurements: length--maximum, 29 mm.; minimum, 19 mm.; average, 24 mm.:
shoulder width--maximum, 23 mm.; minimum, 17 mm.; average, 20 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 16 mm.; minimum, 13 mm.; average, 15 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum, 10 mm.; average, 11 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 6 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average, 5 mm. The
illustrated example measures 25 mm. in length, 19 mm. in shoulder width,
15 mm. in stem width, 11 mm. in stem length and 5 mm. in thickness.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex; rarely, plano-convex.
Shoulders are usually horizontal; rarely, tapered or inversely tapered.
Blade edges are nearly always straight; rarely, excurvate. The distal
end is usually acute. The stem is straight or, rarely, slightly
expanded. Stem width exceeds the stem length. Side edges of the stem are
straight. The thinned basal edge is usually slightly incurvate but may
be straight. All stem edges are usually lightly ground.

[Illustration]

FLAKING: Broad, shallow, random flakes shape the blade and stem and are
followed along all edges by similar but somewhat shorter secondary
flaking. All measured examples were made of local material and except
for one made of smoky quartz, all were patinated.

COMMENTS: The type was named after Jude Hollow in Madison County,
Alabama, where examples were first recognized. The illustrated example
is from Brosemer Site 6 in Jude Hollow. Examples from surface
collections have produced a range of cultural material including
Paleo-Indian and Transitional Paleo-Indian, as well as Archaic and
Woodland. The most frequent associations indicate early Archaic or
Transitional Paleo-Indian, as do patination and basal grinding. On at
least one site in Colbert County, Alabama, later Archaic and Woodland
artifacts are absent (Holland, personal communication). Several examples
were recovered from the Cave Springs Site (Moebes, 1974) in association
with and below Big Sandy and Dalton points. This association indicates a
Transitional Paleo-Indian association at this site. The type seems to be
somewhat similar to Elam points of Texas (Suhm and Jelks, 1962).


KAYS, =Kneberg= (Kneberg, 1956): A-49

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Kays point is a medium to large,
straight-stemmed point with excurvate blade.

MEASUREMENTS: Seven plesiotypes from Cambron Site 4, Limestone County,
Alabama, provided traits and the following measurements:
length--maximum, 88 mm.; minimum, 56 mm.; average, 63 mm.: shoulder
width--maximum, 32 mm.; minimum, 26 mm.; average, 30 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 17 mm.; minimum, 16 mm.; average, 17 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 14 mm.; minimum, 13 mm.; average, 14 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 11 mm.; minimum, 9 mm.; average, 9 mm. The
illustrated example measures 59 mm. in length, 30 mm. in shoulder width,
17 mm. in stem width, 14 mm. in stem length, and 9 mm. in thickness.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are usually tapered, but
may be horizontal and may be rounded on some examples. The blade is
excurvate, but may be nearly straight. The distal end is acute to
sharply acute. The stem is straight and is slightly wider than it is
long, with a straight basal edge that may be very slightly incurvate or
excurvate. The edges of the stem are thinned and may be ground.

FLAKING: The blade and stem are shaped by broad, shallow to deep
flaking. While a few examples appear to have been shaped by collateral
flaking, random flaking is usually employed. Short, regular, secondary
flaking was used to finish the blade and hafting area edges. All
examples of the measured group are patinated and are made of local
materials.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after the Kays Landing Site in Henry
County, Tennessee. The illustrated example is from Cambron Site 4,
Limestone County, Alabama. At the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter
(DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962) one example each was recovered
from Levels 1, 8, 9 and 10 in Zone A. This indicates an Archaic
association. Three examples were recovered from Stratum II (Archaic) at
the Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961). At Flint River
Mound (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a) 12 of the 18 examples recovered were
from Zone C (upper Archaic), two from Zone C-D, two from Zone D (lower
shellmound Archaic) and one each from Zones A and B (Woodland). This is
a strong indication of late Archaic association at this site. Kneberg
(1956) suggests a middle Archaic to late Archaic association and a date
of about 3000 B.C. to A.D. Ritchie (1961) notes the marked similarity
of Kays points to Genesee points of New York. The latter have
radiocarbon dates of 4941 ±260 B.P. to 3684 ±250 B.P. Genesee points
average 3 to 3-1/2 inches in length and range to 6 inches or longer,
considerably larger than Kays points. A middle to late Archaic
association is indicated by available evidence, including surface
associations.


KIRK CORNER NOTCHED, =Coe= (Coe, 1959): A-50

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium- to large-sized, corner notched
point with blade edges that are usually serrated.

MEASUREMENTS: Coe (1959) lists the following measurements for the type:
range of length--40 mm. to 100 mm., average length, 60 mm.; range of
width--20 mm. to 45 mm., average width, 30 mm.; range of thickness--6
mm. to 12 mm., average thickness, 8 mm. The measurements of 15
plesiotypes from Cambron Sites 19 and 20 in Morgan County, Alabama,
range as follows: length--69 mm. to 39 mm., average, 51 mm.: shoulder
width--39 mm. to 29 mm., average, 34 mm.: stem width--29 mm. to 23 mm.,
average, 25 mm.: stem length--12 mm. to 9 mm., average, 11 mm.:
thickness--10 mm. to 5 mm., average, 7 mm. Measurements of the
illustrated example are: length, 59 mm.; shoulder width, 36 mm.; stem
width, 25 mm.; stem length, 11 mm.; thickness, 7 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually flattened but may be biconvex.
Shoulders are strongly barbed. The blade is usually excurvate but may be
straight or recurvate. Blade edges are usually serrated and beveled on
both sides of each face. The distal end is acute. The hafting area is
corner notched. The notches average about 11 mm. deep and 5 mm. wide.
Side edges of the expanded stem are straight and the stem base edge
either straight, slightly incurvate or, rarely, excurvate. On Alabama
examples, the stem base is thinned and usually ground, but basal
grinding is rarely found on examples from the North Carolina Piedmont
(Coe, personal communication).

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area are shaped by broad, shallow, random
flaking. The edges are shaped by fine, regular, secondary flaking, which
often resulted in serrations and beveled blade edges. The notches were
formed by the removal of long, broad flakes, one from each side on each
face. The edges of the notches were often retouched. Broad, shallow
flakes were removed to thin the basal edge, which was then finely
retouched. Local materials were used in the manufacture of these points.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type is named after examples excavated in the North
Carolina Piedmont. The illustrated example is from Cambron Site 19,
Morgan County, Alabama. Coe (1959) estimates the age as about 8000 years
ago at the type sites. Seven examples were recovered from Archaic
Stratum II at Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961). At
the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron,
1962) one example each was recovered from Levels 1, 2, 6 and 9 in Zone
A. One example was recovered from Level 6 at the University of Alabama
Site Ms 201, Marshall County, Alabama. Practically all examples from
surface collections are from early Archaic sites. Evidence suggests an
early Archaic association, with ground base examples being earliest.


KIRK SERRATED, =Coe= (Coe, 1959): A-51

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, straight-stemmed point
with deep serrations.

MEASUREMENTS: Measurements of North Carolina Piedmont examples range as
follows: length--maximum, 120 mm.; minimum, 45 mm.; average, 70 mm.:
width--maximum, 35 mm.; minimum, 25 mm.; average, 30 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum, 8 mm.; average, 9 mm. Eleven
plesiotypes from three sites in Morgan and Limestone counties, Alabama,
near the Tennessee River provided the following measurements:
length--maximum, 78 mm.; minimum, 45 mm.; average, 56 mm.: shoulder
width--maximum, 36 mm.; minimum, 24 mm.; average, 29 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 20 mm.; minimum, 15 mm.; average, 17 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 11 mm.; minimum, 8 mm.; average, 10 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 8 mm. Measurements
of the illustrated example are: length, 61 mm.; shoulder width, 26 mm.;
stem width, 15 mm.; stem length, 11 mm.; thickness, 9 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex but may be plano-convex.
Shoulders are usually horizontal but may be inversely tapered. Shoulders
or barbs may be expanded. Most blades display one excurvate and one
recurvate or, rarely, straight edge. Some examples have two excurvate
blade edges. Least common are blades with two recurvate edges. Blade
edges are always serrated. Serration is usually deeper and broader near
the hafting area and becomes finer and more regular nearer the distal
end, which is usually acute. The stem has straight side edges and an
incurvate or straight basal edge. The base is thinned and, rarely,
beveled.

[Illustration]

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area are shaped by broad, shallow, random
flaking followed by deep, short flaking which forms the serrations along
the blade edges. The stem is retouched by short, shallow flaking.

COMMENTS: The type was named after examples from sites in the North
Carolina Piedmont. The illustrated example is from Hulse Site 32 (Stone
Pipe), Limestone County, Alabama. Coe (1959) suggests a date of between
5000 B.C. and 6000 B.C., slightly later than Kirk Corner Notched. At
the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron,
1962) one example was recovered from Level 5, one from Level 6, four
from Level 9 in Zone A; one from Level 1 of Zone B. This indicates an
early Archaic association. One example each was recovered from Levels 1,
7 and 9 at University of Alabama Site Ms 201 in Marshall County,
Alabama. This is also an indication of an early Archaic association.
Nine examples were scattered through Stratum II (Archaic) at Flint
Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961). One example was recovered
from the eight-foot level, which was the lowest level at the Little Bear
Creek Site (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948b). Flint River Mound (Webb and
DeJarnette, 1948a) produced one example from Zone C (upper Archaic) and
one from Zone D (lower Archaic). This evidence indicates an early to
middle Archaic association on some sites.


KNIGHT ISLAND, =Hulse= (This Paper): A-21-a

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium-sized, thin, side notched point.

MEASUREMENTS: Ten cotypes, nine from North Alabama and one from
Washington County, Alabama, provided traits and the following
measurements: length--maximum, 60 mm.; minimum, 40 mm.; average, 49 mm.:
shoulder width--maximum, 20 mm.; minimum, 15 mm.; average, 18 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 20 mm.; minimum, 14 mm.; average, 17 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 11 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average, 9 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 6 mm.; minimum, 3 mm.; average, 5 mm. The
illustrated example measures 55 mm. long, 18 mm. wide at shoulders, 15
mm. wide across stem, 16 mm. in stem length, and 11 mm. thick.

FORM: The cross-section is usually flattened; rarely, plano-convex. The
shoulders are usually straight on narrow-notched examples and inversely
tapered on the broader-notched examples. The blade is usually excurvate,
but may be parallel angular. Blade edges of the Washington County
example are finely serrated. The distal end is acute. The hafting area
is side notched about 3 or 4 mm. from the base. The notches average
about 3 mm. deep and vary from 8 mm. to 3 mm. wide (average width, 5
mm.). The basal edge is straight except on the Washington County
example, where it is slightly incurvate. The basal edge is usually
thinned, and may be lightly ground.

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area are shaped by broad, shallow, random
flaking and retouched by fine, secondary flaking. The notches, formed by
the removal of broad flakes, are usually finely retouched.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named for Knight Island in the Wheeler Reservoir
of the Tennessee River where examples were first recognized. The
illustrated example is from Hulse Site 17, Limestone County, Alabama.
The type may be related to "Upper Valley Side Notched," briefly
described by Kneberg (1956). Ritchie's illustrations of Jacks Reef
Corner Notched (1961, page 79, Figure 8 and possibly Figure 7) appear to
be of the Knight Island type. Both types are usually found on late
Woodland sites in North Alabama. One example was recovered from Hn 1,
Hardin County, Tennessee (Webb and DeJarnette, 1942), below the
three-foot level, which produced Mississippian point types. It is
possible that the radiocarbon date of 1056 ±250 B.P. obtained for Jacks
Reef Corner Notched at the White Site, Norwich, New York, (Ritchie,
1961) applies to Knight Island. A larger variant is also recognized from
Alabama. Reed points (Bell, 1958) are similar to Knight Island except
that Reed blade edges are usually straight.


LECROY, =Kneberg= (Kneberg, 1956): A-52

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium-sized, bifurcated-stemmed point
which is usually serrated.

MEASUREMENTS: Fourteen plesiotypes (including the illustrated example)
from sites in Morgan and Limestone counties, Alabama, provided the
following measurements: length--maximum, 58 mm.; minimum, 33 mm.;
average, 44 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 40 mm.; minimum, 23 mm.;
average, 28 mm.: stem width--maximum, 27 mm.; minimum, 21 mm.; average,
23 mm.: stem length--maximum, 16 mm.; minimum, 10 mm.; average, 13 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 7 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average, 6 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex; rarely, plano-convex or
hexagonal. Shoulders are expanded on serrated examples and may be
horizontal or tapered. The blade is nearly always straight; rarely,
incurvate. Blade edges are usually deeply serrated and occasionally
beveled on both edges of each face. The distal end is acute. The hafting
area consists of a stem that is usually expanded (rarely, straight) and
always deeply bifurcated. The auricles are expanded-rounded and are
usually ground along the edges.

FLAKING: Flaking used to shape the blade and stem is usually broad,
shallow and random, but removal of broad flakes to form serrations along
the blade edges sometimes resulted in flaking of a collateral nature on
the blade faces. Single, broader serrations may be formed by removal of
more than one flake. Broad, deep flakes were removed to notch the stem
below the shoulders and on the basal edge. Some retouch was carried out
in these notches.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after the LeCroy Site on the Tennessee
River in Hamilton County, Tennessee, and was described by Bell (1960).
The illustrated example is from Cambron Site 83, Limestone County,
Alabama. At the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and
Cambron, 1962) one example was recovered from Zone C, Block 2, along
with transitional Paleo and early Archaic points. One example was
recovered from the University of Alabama Site Ms 201 in Marshall County,
Alabama, in Level 10. This indicates early Archaic or transitional
Paleo. Four examples were recovered from Stratum II (Archaic) at Flint
Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961), mostly from lower levels.
Examples from surface collections are usually from pre-shellmound sites
in the Wheeler Basin of the Tennessee River. An early Archaic
association is suggested, and a date of sometime before 5000 years ago
is indicated.


LEDBETTER, =Kneberg= (Kneberg, 1956): A-53

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a large, stemmed point with asymmetrical
blade edges.

MEASUREMENTS: The illustrated plesiotype provided the following
measurements: length, 71 mm.; shoulder width, 36 mm.; stem width, 16
mm.; stem length, 13 mm.; thickness, 10 mm. The type "... varies in
length from 3 to 7 inches and is usually thick (1/2" to 3/4")."
(Kneberg, 1956.)

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are usually asymmetrical,
with one being wider than the other. Shoulders may be tapered or
straight. "The distinctive feature of the blade is its asymmetry. The
side edges are usually recurvate, but the recurvature is reversed on the
two side edges." (Kneberg, 1956.) The distal end is acute. The stem may
be straight or slightly expanded. The basal edge is usually straight;
rarely, excurvate and thinned.

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area are shaped by broad, shallow, random
flaking. Secondary flaking ranges in extent from regular flaking along
the sides to the faces with fine retouch along the blade edges, to
practically non-existent secondary flaking on some examples. Local
materials were generally used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named for the Ledbetter Site in Benton County,
Tennessee. The illustrated example is from Cambron Site 48 in Lincoln
County, Tennessee. One example was recovered from Level 4 at the
University of Alabama Site Ms 201 in Marshall County, Alabama. This
indicates a late Archaic or early Woodland association. At the Eva Site
(Lewis and Lewis, 1961) most examples appear to have originated late in
the Archaic period. Examples were recovered from the Big Sandy component
and Stratum II (top) of the Three Mile component. Examples are found on
Archaic sites in North Alabama. Kneberg (1956) suggests a date of from
about 2000 B.C. to early centuries A.D.


LERMA POINTED BASE, Termed "Lerma" by =MacNeish= (Suhm, Krieger and
Jelks, 1954): A-54

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, lanceolate point with a
pointed base.

MEASUREMENTS: Twenty points from 15 sites in the Tennessee Valley (Soday
and Cambron, n. d.) provided the following measurements;
length--maximum, 104 mm.; minimum, 48 mm.; average, 74 mm.:
width--average, 23 mm.: thickness--average, 10 mm. The illustrated
example is 110 mm. long, 28 mm. wide, and 9 mm. thick.

FORM: The cross-section may be plano-convex or biconvex. The widest part
of the point is usually about one-third of the length of the point from
the base. From its widest part to the distal end, the blade is excurvate
or sometimes nearly straight. The distal end is acute. The base is
pointed and may be broad or acute.

FLAKING: The presence of many hinge fractures on blade faces indicates
much of the flaking used to shape the blade and hafting area may be the
result of the baton method of percussion flaking. Some secondary flaking
appears along the edges. The plane striking area on the basal edge
indicates manufacture from a blade. Many examples in the Tennessee
Valley are made of Ft. Payne chert.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type site is the Canyon Diablo Site of Tamaulipas, Mexico
(Mahan, 1955). An example was found with a mammoth near Mexico City. The
illustrated example is from Hulse Site 32E, Limestone County, Alabama.
Examples are usually found on the same sites as Lerma Rounded Base, but
may be somewhat earlier as is the case with the Mexican examples
although not with Rounded Base Texas examples. At the Quad Site (Cambron
and Hulse, 1960a) an example reworked to a drill was recovered from
Stratum III in association with Big Sandy I, Dalton, Crawford Creek, and
other points. An early Archaic to transitional Paleo association is
suggested.


LERMA ROUNDED BASE, Termed "Lerma" by =MacNeish= (DeJarnette, Kurjack
and Cambron, 1962): A-55

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large sized, lanceolate point
with rounded base.

MEASUREMENTS: Some measurements of 52 examples from 27 sites in the
Tennessee Valley (Soday and Cambron, n. d.) follow: length--maximum, 99
mm.; minimum, 51 mm.; average, 80 mm.: width--average, 28 mm.:
thickness--average, 9 mm. The illustrated example is 90 mm. long, 30 mm.
wide, and 9 mm. thick.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex but may be somewhat
flattened or plano-convex. The blade is usually excurvate but may be
nearly straight beyond the hafting area. Some examples may be beveled on
one side of each face beyond the hafting area. The distal end is acute.
The hafting area may be rounded or broad-pointed. The basal edge is
thinned, except for the striking platform of the basic blade, on many
examples. This leaves a plane area on part of the basal edge.

FLAKING: A combination of broad shallow flakes and short hinged flakes
were used on many examples to shape the blade and hafting area.
Secondary flaking is usually present along the edges. The plane striking
area on the basal edge indicates manufacture from a blade. Local
materials are usually employed. Many North Alabama examples are made of
Ft. Payne chert.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The point was named Lerma Rounded Base by Cambron to
distinguish it from Lerma Pointed Base. The type is a variant of the
Lerma point as defined by MacNeish (E. C. Mahan, 1955). The illustrated
example is from Hulse Site 37E in Limestone County, Alabama. Examples
from Texas are illustrated by Suhm and Jelks (1962) with an estimated
age of 2000 B.C. to 1000 A.D. Others from Texas were described as
Archaic and illustrated by Bell (1958). At the Stanfield-Worley Bluff
Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962) one example was
recovered from Level 1 of Zone D, which is an indication of pre-Archaic
or early Archaic association at this site. The presence of one example
each from Levels 8 and 9 at the University of Alabama Site Ms 201 in
Marshall County, Alabama, indicates an early Archaic association. Three
examples were found in Stratum II at Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron
and Waters, 1961), indicating an early to middle Archaic association.
Evaluation of this evidence and observations indicate a possible
existence of from transitional Paleo to middle Archaic times.


LIMESTONE, =Cambron= (This Paper): A-105

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium sized, incurvate-based
point with tapered shoulders.

MEASUREMENTS: Ten cotypes from Cambron Site 12, Limestone County,
Alabama, provided the following measurements: length--maximum, 52 mm.;
minimum, 38 mm.; average, 48 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 35 mm.;
minimum, 24 mm.; average, 28 mm.: stem width--maximum, 21 mm.; minimum,
14 mm.; average, 17 mm.: stem length--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 6 mm.;
average, 8 mm. Measurements of the illustrated example are: length, 51
mm.; shoulder width, 29 mm.; stem width, 20 mm.; stem length, 14 mm.;
thickness, 9 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are usually tapered or,
rarely, horizontal and are occasionally rounded. The blade is straight
and the distal end acute. The stem may be straight or slightly expanded
with straight or incurvate side edges. The basal edge is always
incurvate and thinned.

FLAKING: The blade and stem are shaped by broad, shallow, random
flaking. Secondary flaking along the blade edge ranges from crude to
fine. Several examples show fine retouch on only one side of each blade
edge, but this does not appear to be an attempt to bevel the blade
edges. Large deep flakes were often removed from the basal corners of
the original blade in order to shape the stem. These "notches" were then
usually retouched as a final measure. After having been thinned, the
basal edge was often finely retouched. Bangor flint appears to have been
the most frequently used material in manufacture of these points.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after examples taken from a shell mound on
the Tennessee River in Limestone County, Alabama. The illustrated
example is from the type site, primarily an Archaic shellmound site,
Cambron Site 12 in Limestone County, Alabama. Surface collections from
sites in this area indicate a late Archaic and/or Woodland association.
At the University of Alabama Site Ms 201 in Marshall County, Alabama,
two examples were recovered from Level 4 and one from Level 7. This is
an indication of late Archaic or early Woodland association at this
site.


LITTLE BEAR CREEK, =DeJarnette= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962):
A-56

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large sized, long-stemmed point
with slightly excurvate blade edges.

MEASUREMENTS: Eleven cotypes from Little Bear Creek, Ct 8 (Webb and
DeJarnette, 1948b), provided the following measurements:
length--maximum, 90 mm.; minimum, 64 mm.; average, 75 mm.: shoulder
width--maximum, 28 mm.; minimum, 22 mm.; average, 24 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 17 mm.; minimum, 15 mm.; average, 16 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 20 mm.; minimum, 16 mm.; average, 18 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 11 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 9 mm. Measurements
of the illustrated example are: length, 80 mm.; shoulder width, 30 mm.;
stem width, 15 mm.; stem length, 16 mm.; thickness, 11 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are horizontal or
tapered. Blade edges are excurvate or, rarely, straight. The distal end
is acute. The hafting area is stemmed. The stem may be straight or
contracted with straight side edges. Stem edges are usually ground. The
stem base edge is straight and may be unfinished.

FLAKING: Deep flake scars and hinge fractures indicate that random
percussion flaking was used to shape the blade and stem. Some secondary
flaking may also be the result of percussion flaking. Local materials
were used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after Little Bear Creek Site Ct 8 (Webb and
DeJarnette, 1948b) where it was the most important type. The illustrated
example is from Hulse Site 17 (Apple Orchard) in Limestone County,
Alabama. Of the 65 recovered examples from the Little Bear Creek Site,
58 were from the upper three feet of the eight-foot midden with about
one-half of these in the upper foot. This indicates an introduction of
the type in late Archaic times and a climax in late Woodland. At
Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962)
three examples were recovered from Level 1, seven from Level 2, three
from Level 3 and one each from Levels 4, 5 and 7. This indicates a
strong late Woodland association at this site with a possible
introduction somewhat earlier. Stratum I (Woodland) at Flint Creek Rock
Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961) produced two examples, one in the
center third and one from the upper fifth of the stratum. At Flint River
Shell Mound (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a) three examples were recovered
from Zones A and B (Woodland) and six examples from Zones C and D
(Archaic). This evidence seems to indicate an introduction in the
shellmound Archaic period of North Alabama and a climax in late Woodland
times, with a suggested date of 4000 years ago to about 1500 years ago.


LOST LAKE, =Cambron and Hulse= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962):
A-27

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, corner-notched point
beveled on one edge of each blade face and is rhomboid in cross-section.

MEASUREMENTS: The measurements of 11 cotypes (including the illustrated
example, from which feature data were taken) range as follows:
length--maximum, 81 mm.; minimum, 49 mm.; average, 63 mm.: shoulder
width--maximum, 48 mm.; minimum, 35 mm.; average, 40 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 32 mm.; minimum, 23 mm.; average, 27 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 15 mm.; minimum, 12 mm.; average, 13 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 8 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 7 mm.

FLAKING: The flaking used on the faces is broad, shallow and random
leaving the faces flat. The regular retouch flaking used to bevel the
blade was removed from one side of each face and often left serrations;
much of this flaking appears to be percussion. One deep, broad flake was
removed on each face to form the terminal end of the notches. Apparently
small flakes were removed for about one-third the length of the finished
notch before the large flakes were struck off. Some retouching was used
to finish the notches. Shallow, relatively broad, flakes were removed in
thinning the base.

FORM: The cross-section is rhomboid. As a result of deep, narrow, corner
notches, the barbs are usually simple, long and may be rounded or acute;
rarely, expanded. The blade is usually straight; rarely, excurvate or
recurvate. The blade edges may or may not be serrated but are always
beveled on one edge of each face. The distal end is usually acute but
may approach broad. The hafting area is usually diagonally corner
notched; rarely, diagonally basal notched. The notches, as measured
along the stern side edge, are usually deep and narrow. The sides of the
expanded stem are straight or incurvate. The stem base is thinned and
may be incurvate, straight or excurvate. It is usually ground except on
some straight-based examples.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after the Lost Lake area in Limestone
County, Alabama, where many examples are found. The illustrated example
is from Hulse Site 14a, Limestone County, Alabama. At the
Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962)
an example from Level 6, Zone A, and one from Level 9, Zone A, were
recovered. Examples from North Alabama are from pre-shellmound sites,
and are usually patinated. This indicates an early Archaic association
prior to 5000 years ago.


MADISON, =Scully= (Scully, 1951): A-60

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small, thin, triangular point.

MEASUREMENTS: Fifteen plesiotypes, including the illustrated example
from Cambron Site 27 in Limestone County, Alabama, provided the
following measurements and traits: length--maximum, 33 mm.; minimum, 17
mm.; average, 26 mm.: width at base--maximum, 21 mm.; minimum, 12 mm.;
average, 16 mm.: thickness--maximum, 6 mm.; minimum, 3 mm.; average, 4
mm.

FORM: The cross-section is flattened. Blade edges are straight, rarely
slightly excurvate. The distal end is acute. There is no way to
distinguish the hafting area from the blade. Some part of the basal
portion of the blade was used as a hafting area. The basal edge may be
straight--or incurvate one or two millimeters--and is thinned.

FLAKING: Broad, shallow, random flaking was used to shape the blade.
Fine secondary flaking was used to thin and shape the side and basal
edges. Local materials were used.

COMMENTS: According to Ritchie (1961) this type was described by Scully
as the Mississippi Triangular point and was later changed by him to the
Madison point (Scully, 1951). Scully gives the association as "Middle
Mississippi" and the distribution as "Middle and Upper Mississippi sites
in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Missouri".

[Illustration]

Kneberg (1956) refers to a similar point as "Late Mississippi
Triangular." She suggests a date of 1300-1800 A.D. The length range, as
given by Scully, and measurements of 100 points from a single
prehistoric Iroquois site in western New York (Ritchie, 1961) compare
favorably with Alabama measurements. The type is associated with the
middle Mississippi culture in Alabama and has been referred to locally
as Mississippi Triangular. At Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter
(DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962), of eleven levels in Zone A,
Levels 1 and 2 produced 167 of the 234 examples recovered. At the
University of Alabama Site Ms 201 in Marshall County, Alabama, 44 of the
52 examples from 13 levels came from Levels 1 and 2. Of the 86 examples
recovered from Stratum I (Woodland and Mississippian) at the Flint Creek
Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961) most examples were in the
uppermost levels. Of 11 examples from Flint River Mound (Webb and
DeJarnette, 1948a) 9 were in Zone A (uppermost zone). The middle
Mississippi culture, with which the points are associated in Alabama, is
considered prehistoric Creek. Jenkins (1975) has confirmed a
pre-Mississippian (Miller III) provenience for this type on the Central
Tombigbee River. The Madison point type was also found on transitional
Late Woodland-Early Mississippian sites (West Jefferson Phase) within
the Warrior drainage (Jenkins and Nielsen, 1974).


MAPLES, =Cambron= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962): A-57

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a large, thin, broad stemmed point with an
excurvate base.

MEASUREMENTS: Seventeen cotypes from the Tennessee River Valley (with
the exception of length, where only 6 examples were used since the
distal ends of the other 11 examples are missing) provided the following
measurements and features: length--maximum, 119 mm.; minimum, 61 mm.;
average, 93 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 72 mm.; minimum, 37 mm.;
average, 52 mm.: stem width--maximum, 50 mm.; minimum, 24 mm.; average,
36 mm.: stem length--maximum, 16 mm.; minimum, 8 mm.; average, 11 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 18 mm.; minimum, 10 mm.; average, 14 mm. The
illustrated example provided the following measurements: length, 104
mm.; shoulder width, 60 mm.; stem width, 35 mm.; stem length, 12 mm.;
thickness, 14 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are tapered. Blade edges
are usually excurvate but may be straight. The distal end is usually
acute. The stem is short and usually contracted-rounded with excurvate
side edges. The basal edge is excurvate or straight, usually thinned,
and may be ground.

FLAKING: Broad, shallow to deep, flaking was used to shape the blade and
stem. A minimum of secondary flaking was used on some examples,
sometimes on only one edge of a face. Other examples show a considerable
amount of retouching along the blade edges. A minimum of secondary
flaking was used on the basal edge and sides of the stem. Local
materials were utilized, especially Ft. Payne chert.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from sites along Elk River near Maples
Bridge in Limestone County, Alabama. The illustrated example is from
Cambron Site 19, Morgan County, Alabama. An example from the Eva Site in
Benton County, Tennessee is illustrated in Plate 4-a, Page 32 (Lewis and
Lewis, 1961) and is described as late Archaic. At Stanfield-Worley Bluff
Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962) an example was recovered
from Level 9 of Zone A. This indicates an Archaic association. Seven
examples from the 3-foot level and one from the 5-foot level at Little
Bear Creek Site Ct 8 (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948b) place the association
as late Archaic at this site. At Flint River Shell Mound (Webb and
DeJarnette, 1948a) one example was recovered from Zone A (Woodland) and
one from Zone C-D (Archaic). An example was recovered from Archaic Level
7 at the University of Alabama Site 1 Ru 28 in Russell County, Alabama,
on the Chattahoochee River. Evidence indicates a middle to late Archaic
association with a probable date of about 4000 years ago or slightly
earlier.


MCINTIRE, =Hulse= (This Paper): A-106

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The McIntire point is a medium sized, expanded stem
point with straight base and excurvate blade edges.

MEASUREMENTS: Eleven cotypes, including the illustrated example,
provided the following measurements and features: length--maximum, 68
mm.; minimum, 50 mm.; average, 57 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 39 mm.;
minimum, 31 mm.; average, 34 mm.: stem width--maximum, 21 mm.; minimum,
18 mm.; average, 20 mm.: stem length--maximum, 13 mm.; minimum, 11 mm.;
average, 13 mm.: thickness--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum, 8 mm.; average, 9
mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are usually horizontal,
but may be tapered or inversely tapered with short barbs. Blade edges
are usually excurvate. Some examples may have one straight blade edge.
The distal end is acute. The hafting area consists of an expanded stem
with incurvate side edges. The basal edge is straight, rarely slightly
incurvate, and thinned.

FLAKING: Broad, shallow, random flaking was employed to shape the blade
and stem with short, sometimes deep, retouch along the blade edges.
Broad deep flakes were removed by indirect percussion to form the stem.
All stem edges were then retouched. Local materials were used and
remnants of patinated rind remain on the base of most examples. This
indicates manufacture from nodular materials, mostly Bangor flint in the
area of the type site.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The point is named for sites near McIntire ditch on the north
bank of the Tennessee River near Decatur in Limestone County, Alabama.
The illustrated example is from Cambron Site 28, one of the shellmound
type sites in Limestone County, Alabama. In North Alabama this type is
associated with Archaic shellmounds along the Tennessee River. Most
expanded stem examples illustrated as Type 7 by Webb and DeJarnette
(1942) from Pickwick Basin are probable McIntire points, especially
Numbers 1, 3 and 5 in the bottom row of top half of Plate 93. At least
one example is included in Type L (Webb and Wilder, 1951) from
Guntersville Basin shellmounds, and a few probable examples are
illustrated from Wheeler Basin (Webb, 1939). The type may be coeval with
Limestone Stemmed points. Associations in surface collections indicate a
middle to late Archaic placement. Before recognition of the type some
examples may have been classified as Provisional Type 2, expanded stem.


McKEAN, =Wheeler= (Wheeler, 1952): A-103

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium sized lanceolate point
with thinned, incurvate base.

MEASUREMENTS: Nine examples from eastern Wyoming, illustrated by Bell
(1958) after Wheeler (1952) provided the following measurements:
length--maximum, 61 mm.; minimum, 35 mm.; average, 51 mm.:
width--maximum, 21 mm.; minimum, 14 mm.; average, 17 mm.: width at
base--maximum, 13 mm.; minimum, 11 mm.; average, 12 mm.: depth of basal
concavity--maximum, 6 mm.; minimum, 2 mm.; average, 4 mm. Measurements
of four points including the illustrated example, are: length--maximum,
60 mm.; minimum, 52 mm.; average, 55 mm.: width--maximum, 29 mm.;
minimum, 17 mm.; average, 24 mm.: thickness--maximum, 8 mm.; minimum, 5
mm.; average, 6 mm.: width at base--maximum, 20 mm.; minimum, 13 mm.;
average, 16 mm.: basal concavity--maximum, 3 mm.; minimum, 2 mm.;
average, 2 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex, but may be flattened. Blade
edges are usually excurvate, but may be straight or recurvate. The
distal end is acute. The auriculate hafting area is usually contracted
rounded, but may be parallel rounded or expanded rounded. The basal edge
is incurvate and thinned.

FLAKING: Flaking used to shape the blade and hafting area is usually
random but may be collateral. The side edges are usually retouched and
the basal edge is well thinned. Some examples from Idaho (Neisler
Collection) exhibit transverse oblique flaking. Alabama examples are
made of local materials.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from examples from sites in Keyhole
Reservoir in northeastern Wyoming (Wheeler, 1952). The illustrated
example is from Hulse Site 55 in Limestone County, Alabama. About 15
examples in the collection of W. E. Neisler, from the Snake River
between Kamima and American Falls, Idaho, were observed and considered
in describing this type (Neisler, personal communication). The Idaho
points more or less parallel the Wheeler points in outline, but all
examples are heavily thinned on the basal edge. One Wheeler point was
observed in the collection but was made of flint and was on a site
separate from the sites that produced McKean points. Most of the sites
consist of "blow-outs" that cover an area of from one to ten acres. Bell
(1958) lists radiocarbon dates from two areas, one from lower levels at
Signal Butte, Nebraska (Wheeler, 1952) of 3500 to 4000 years ago. Other
dates for sites in Angostura Basin, South Dakota, are 3630 ±350 and 4230
±350 B.P. At Danger Cave near Wendover, Utah, examples listed by
Jennings (1957) as Type W6 were found in Levels II, III, IV and V
(uppermost) where radiocarbon dates of from 9789 ±630 to 1930 ±240 B.P.
were secured. More examples were from Level V. As some examples of W8
(Wheeler points?) were recovered from the same levels (some A6s may be
Wheeler points), this suggests that McKean points are derived from
Wheeler points.


MONTGOMERY, =Cambron= (This paper): A-121

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Montgomery is a small broad, rounded base point
with an excurvate blade.

MEASUREMENTS: Fourteen cotypes from Montgomery and Escambia counties,
Alabama, provided the following measurements and traits:
length--maximum, 43 mm.; minimum, 23 mm.; average, 37 mm.:
width--maximum, 22 mm.; minimum, 10 mm.; average, 16 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average, 6 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. The blade is excurvate. The distal
end is acute. The base is rounded and thinned.

[Illustration]

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area were shaped by shallow, random,
percussion flaking with some retouch along the edges, especially near
the distal end.

COMMENTS: The type was named after Montgomery, County, Alabama, where
many points of this type, including the illustrated example, were
recovered. The type is associated with sand and clay-grit tempered
pottery in Montgomery and Escambia counties, indicating a Woodland
association in this area.


MORROW MOUNTAIN, =Coe= (Coe, 1959): A-61

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium sized, rounded stem point with
excurvate blade.

MEASUREMENTS: Eleven plesiotypes from Limestone County, Alabama,
including the illustrated example, provided the following measurements
and traits: length--maximum, 68 mm.; minimum, 36 mm.; average, 50 mm.:
shoulder width--maximum, 28 mm.; minimum, 23 mm.; average, 25 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 20 mm.; minimum, 14 mm.; average, 17 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 11 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 9 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 11 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 9 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are narrow, usually
horizontal but may be inversely tapered and occasionally expanded. Blade
edges are usually excurvate but are recurvate on examples with expanded
shoulders, and about half the examples have serrated blade edges. The
distal end may be acute or mucronate, rarely broad. The hafting area is
composed of a rounded, rarely pointed, stem that is occasionally ground
along the edges.

FLAKING: Rather narrow, shallow, random flaking was used to shape the
blade and stem. Some fine retouch was used to complete the shape of all
edges. Short, fairly deep flakes were removed to form serrations along
the blade edges of serrated examples. These serrations may appear the
full length of the blade near the basal end or near the distal end. A
variety of local flints and cherts were used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from sites near Morrow Mountain in the
Piedmont of North Carolina where many examples, designated by Coe (1959)
as Morrow Mountain I, were recovered. The illustrated example is from
Cambron Site 76 (Pine Tree) in Limestone County, Alabama. The type had
been illustrated as Rounded Stem Gypsum Cave points by Cambron (1958a)
and designated Three Mile by Kneberg (personal communication). Morrow
Mountain was adopted at the suggestion of James B. Griffin (personal
communication). Coe (1959) places the type later than Stanley and
earlier than Guilford points in the Piedmont of North Carolina, where he
suggests a date of about 4500 B.C. He also lists dates in Nevada of
Gypsum Cave points between 6000 and 8000 B.C. Examples were found
associated with two burials at the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter
(DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962) along with Morrow Mountain
Rounded Base and other early Archaic points and artifacts. Other
examples recovered from this site as well as from Flint Creek Rock
Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961) and Little Bear Creek (Webb and
DeJarnette, 1948b) suggest an early Archaic association, as do surface
collections in the Tennessee River Valley.


MORROW MOUNTAIN ROUNDED BASE, =Cambron= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and
Cambron, 1962): A-61-b

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, rounded base point with
an excurvate blade.

MEASUREMENTS: Ten plesiotypes from Limestone County, Alabama, and
Lincoln County, Tennessee, provided the following measurements:
length--maximum, 58 mm.; minimum, 37 mm.; average, 45 mm.:
width--maximum, 41 mm.; minimum, 24 mm.; average, 30 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 8 mm. Larger
examples are known from North Alabama, especially from the
Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962).

FORM: The cross-section may be flattened or biconvex. Blade edges are
excurvate and rarely serrated. The distal end is usually acute but may
be mucronate. The hafting area is rounded and thinned, but rarely
ground.

FLAKING: Variable, random flaking was used to shape the faces. Some
examples were finely retouched along the blade and hafting area edges,
while others were not retouched at all. In general the flaking is cruder
than that of Morrow Mountain or Morrow Mountain Straight Base. Local
flints and cherts were used to make the points.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named because of similarities and associations
with Morrow Mountain points (Coe, 1959) from sites near Morrow Mountain
in the North Carolina Piedmont area. The illustrated example is from
Cambron Site 76 (Pine Tree) in Limestone County, Alabama. The type was
listed as Gypsum Cave by Cambron (1958a). At the Stanfield-Worley Bluff
Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962), four examples were
associated with Burial No. 11 and two examples were found in association
with Burial No. 8 along with Morrow Mountain points and other early
Archaic points and tools--including a drill made from a Morrow Mountain
Rounded Base point. At the University of Alabama Site Ms 201 in Marshall
County, Alabama, one example was recovered from Level 1. In the
Tennessee Valley of North Alabama the type is found on early Archaic
sites. This type is similar to Gypsum Cave points, dated in Nevada at
between 6000 and 8000 B.C. (Coe, 1959). An early Archaic association in
Alabama is suggested.


MORROW MOUNTAIN STRAIGHT BASE, =Cambron= (Cambron and Hulse, 1960b):
A-61-a

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium sized point with contracted stem
and straight base.

MEASUREMENTS: Eleven plesiotypes, including the illustrated example,
provided the following measurements and traits: length--maximum, 51 mm.;
minimum, 37 mm.; average, 42 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 35 mm.;
minimum, 25 mm.; average, 28 mm.: stem width--maximum, 19 mm.; minimum,
16 mm.; average, 17 mm.: width at base of stem--maximum, 13 mm.;
minimum, 8 mm.; average, 11 mm.: stem length--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum,
7 mm.; average, 9 mm.: thickness--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.;
average, 8 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. The narrow shoulders are usually
inversely tapered but may be horizontal. Blade edges are excurvate and
most examples are serrated. As on Morrow Mountain points, the serrations
may be near the basal edge of the blade, near the distal end of the
blade, or along the entire blade edges. Distal ends may be acute or
mucronate. The hafting area consists of a straight sided, contracted
stem with a straight thinned base. Some base and/or side edges may be
ground.

FLAKING: Shallow, narrow-to-broad, random flaking was used to shape the
blade and stem. Some fine retouch was carried out along the blade edges.
Short deep flaking was used to form the serrations. Occasionally the
mucronate distal end appears to be the result of intentional termination
of serrating at the distal end. Other mucronate distal ends were simply
flaked out.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named for its similarity to Morrow Mountain
points (Coe, 1959) from sites near Morrow Mountain in the Piedmont of
North Carolina. The illustrated example is from Cambron Site 76 (Pine
Tree) in Limestone County, Alabama. The type was first listed as
Straight Stemmed Gypsum Cave by Cambron (1958a). The greatest
differences between this type and Morrow Mountain is the greater
frequency of shoulder barbs and the straight base of this type. Also,
Morrow Mountain is more common. Three examples were recovered from Level
10, Zone A at the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack
and Cambron, 1962), which suggests a possibility of greater age than
Morrow Mountain points. This type was not found with the two burials
from this site which were associated with Morrow Mountain and Morrow
Mountain Rounded Base points. At the University of Alabama Site Ms 201
in Marshall County, Alabama, this straight based variant was found below
the other two types. A slightly earlier chronological provenience is
suggested. Based on Coe's (1959) suggested date of about 4500 B.C. as
the earliest appearance of Morrow Mountain points, a date of some time
prior to 5000 years ago seems in order.


MOTLEY, =Haag= (Ford, Phillips and Haag, 1955): A-109

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Motley point is a medium sized, expanded stem
point with broad side or corner notches and straight blade edges.

MEASUREMENTS: Eight examples, including the illustrated specimen, from
North Alabama and the southern part of Tennessee provided the following
measurements and features: length--maximum, 71 mm.; minimum, 50 mm.;
average, 60 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 32 mm.; minimum, 27 mm.;
average, 29 mm.: stem width at base--maximum, 26 mm.; minimum, 18 mm.;
average, 22 mm.: stem width at narrowest point--maximum, 14 mm.;
minimum, 11 mm.; average, 12 mm.: stem length--maximum, 17 mm.; minimum,
14 mm.; average, 15 mm.: thickness--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.;
average, 8 mm.

FORM: The cross-section may be biconvex or flattened. Shoulders may be
horizontal, tapered, or inversely tapered. Blade edges are more apt to
be straight but may be slightly excurvate, or one edge may be straight
and the other excurvate. The distal end is acute. The stem is expanded
and formed by broad deep side or corner notches. Several examples have
one corner notch and one side notch. The side edges of the stem are
incurvate and the base is usually straight. It is usually thinned, but
rarely ground.

FLAKING: Shallow to deep random flaking was used to shape the faces. The
blade edges are usually retouched by removal of short and fairly deep
flakes. Large deep flakes were removed to form the notches, usually
followed by secondary flaking along the stem and shoulder edges. Local
materials were used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The Motley point was named from the Motley Place in
northeastern Louisiana. The illustrated example is from Cambron Site 301
in Limestone County, Alabama. Bell (1958) states, "The type is best
represented from the Poverty Point Culture in the lower Mississippi
Valley" where radiocarbon dates range from about 1300 B.C. up to 200 B.
C. It is also present in the Archaic sites of Kentucky, Alabama, and
Illinois. It is similar to Normanskill points of New York (Ritchie,
1961). The type has been referred to locally as Sugar Creek. At
Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962),
five examples were recovered from the top three levels and one from
Level 6. At the University of Alabama Site Ms 201 in Marshall County,
Alabama, one example each was recovered from Levels 3 and 4. At Flint
River Mound (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a) two examples were taken from
Zone A (Woodland), five from Zone B (Woodland) and one from Zone C
(Archaic). This evidence indicates a strong early Woodland association
with a beginning in Archaic times.


MOUNTAIN FORK, =Cambron= (This Paper): A-114

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small, narrow, thick, stemmed point.

MEASUREMENTS: Eleven cotypes from sites in Madison and Limestone
counties, Alabama, provided the following measurements and traits:
length--maximum, 51 mm.; minimum, 28 mm.; average, 40 mm.: shoulder
width--maximum, 20 mm.; minimum, 13 mm.; average, 15 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 15 mm.; minimum, 9 mm.; average, 11 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 14 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 11 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 8 mm.; minimum, 6 mm.; average, 7 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex but may be somewhat median
ridged. Shoulders are narrow and tapered. Blade edges may be straight or
excurvate. The distal end is acute. Nine of the eleven measured examples
show impact fractures of the distal end. The stem is usually straight
but may be tapered. The basal edge may be straight or excurvate and is
usually unfinished, but may be thinned and is rarely ground.

FLAKING: Short, deep, random flakes were removed in shaping the faces of
the blade and stem. Retouching of the edges was accomplished by removal
of very short deep flakes. Local materials were used, especially Bangor
nodular flint.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from points from sites along Mountain Fork
Creek in Madison County, Alabama, where they were first recognized. The
illustrated example is from Cambron Site 103 in this area. The type
appears in surface collections along with Swan Lake, Flint River Spike,
and Bradley Spike points. At the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter
(DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962), a few examples were recovered
from the upper levels of Zone A. This is an indication of late Woodland
association at this site. This was a prominent type in Zones A and B
(Woodland) at Flint River Mound (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a), especially
in the upper levels. A few examples were recovered from Zones C and D
(Archaic) at this site. Current evidence indicates a middle to late
Woodland association. Impact fractures on the distal ends of eight of
the eleven measured examples indicate use of the type as arrow points.
The type is similar to the stemmed variant of Lamoka, an Archaic type
found in New York and dated by radiocarbon method at 3500 B.C.
(Ritchie, 1961).


MUD CREEK, =Hulse= (Cambron and Hulse, 1960b): A-62

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium sized, expanded stem point with
excurvate blade and acuminate distal end.

MEASUREMENTS: Fourteen cotypes from Limestone County, Alabama, provided
the following measurements and traits: length--maximum, 67 mm.; minimum,
46 mm.; average, 56 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 29 mm.; minimum, 23
mm.; average, 26 mm.: stem width--maximum, 20 mm.; minimum, 14 mm.;
average, 18 mm.: stem length--maximum, 17 mm.; minimum, 12 mm.; average,
14 mm.: thickness--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum, 8 mm.; average, 9 mm.

FLAKING: Broad, shallow, random flaking was used to shape the blade and
hafting area. Small, fairly deep flakes were removed in retouching the
blade and stem edges. Most stem bases have been thinned, but a few are
crudely finished.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are usually tapered but
may be horizontal and are sometimes rounded. Blade edges are excurvate.
The distal end is sharply acute or acuminate. The stem is expanded,
sometimes only slightly. Side edges are usually straight. The basal edge
is usually thinned and straight but may be excurvate. About half of the
examples have ground bases, and several bases retain rind from the
parent material.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: It is named from points found on sites near Mud Creek in
Limestone County, Alabama. The illustrated example is from Hulse Site 50
in Limestone County, Alabama. The type is similar to Lange points (Bell,
1958) in outline, but is narrower in proportion and differs in other
features. At Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and
Cambron, 1962) one example each was recovered from Levels 1, 2, and 3;
two from Level 5; one from Level 7; two from Level 9. This indicates a
late Archaic to Woodland association at this site. At Flint Creek Rock
Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961) two examples were recovered from the
bottom of Stratum I (Woodland) and two from the top of Stratum II
(Archaic). One example appeared in Zone A (early Woodland or late
Archaic) at the Little Bear Creek Mound (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948b). At
Flint River Mound (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a) Zone A (Woodland)
produced one Mud Creek point; Zone B (lower Woodland), two examples;
while the Archaic zones produced 25 examples, 22 from Zone C (upper
Archaic), one from Zone C-D and two from Zone D (bottom Archaic). This
indicates a strong late Archaic association at this site. This evidence
and surface associations suggest a strong late Archaic type that existed
into Woodland times.


MULBERRY CREEK, =DeJarnette= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962):
A-63

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, stemmed point with
pronounced excurvate blade.

MEASUREMENTS: Ten cotypes, from the Little Bear Creek Shell Mound (Webb
and DeJarnette, 1948b) provided the following measurements and traits:
length--maximum, 116 mm.; minimum, 81 mm.; average, 96 mm.: blade
width--maximum, 36 mm.; minimum, 22 mm.; average. 30 mm.: shoulder
width--maximum, 30 mm.; minimum, 20 mm.; average, 25 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 20 mm.; minimum, 12 mm.; average, 17 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 16 mm.; minimum, 12 mm.; average, 15 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum, 9 mm.; average, 10 mm. The
illustrated example provided the following measurements: length, 81 mm.;
blade width, 30 mm.; shoulder width, 28 mm.; stem width, 17 mm.; stem
length, 13 mm.; thickness, 10 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are narrow, usually
tapered, and may be asymmetrical. Blade edges are excurvate, with the
widest point near the midsection, and may be finely serrated. The distal
end is usually acute but may be acuminate. The stem may be tapered or
straight, rarely expanded. The basal edge is usually excurvate, but may
be straight, and is poorly thinned. Stem edges are usually ground.

FLAKING: Broad, shallow, random flaking was used to shape the faces.
Fine retouch was carried out along the blade edges. The stem edges were
usually more crudely retouched. Local materials, especially Ft. Payne
chert, were used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from examples from sites at and near
Mulberry Creek in Colbert County, Alabama. The illustrated example is
from Cambron Site 8 in Morgan County, Alabama. One example was recovered
from Level 1, Zone A at the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette,
Kurjack and Cambron, 1962). At the Little Bear Creek Site in Colbert
County, Alabama (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948b), six of the fourteen
recovered examples were from the 2-foot level, two from the 1-foot
level, two from Zone A (2.75'), two from the 3-foot level and two from
the 6-foot level. This evidence indicates an introduction in middle
Archaic times, a strong association to late Archaic, and survival into
early Woodland at this site. At the Flint River Shell Mound (Webb and
DeJarnette, 1948a) two examples were taken from Zone A (upper Woodland),
one from Zone C (upper Archaic) and one from Zone D (lower Archaic).
Based on this information and surface collection associations, a climax
of the type in late shellmound Archaic is suggested for North Alabama.
Distribution seems to be somewhat limited, although similar examples are
illustrated from early Woodland Roskamp Focus of Illinois (Wray, 1950)
and from Boone Focus (early Woodland) of central Missouri (Chapman,
1948).


NEW MARKET, =Cambron= (This paper): (Formerly classified as Randolph)
A-74

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium sized, narrow, rounded stem point
with expanded shoulders.

MEASUREMENTS: Six plesiotypes, including the illustrated example,
provided the following measurements: length--maximum, 61 mm.; minimum,
45 mm.; average, 51 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 18 mm.; minimum, 15
mm.; average, 17 mm.: stem width--maximum, 13 mm.; minimum, 10 mm.;
average, 12 mm.: stem length--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum, 9 mm.; average,
11 mm.: thickness--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 6 mm.; average, 7 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are narrow and tapered
and may be expanded. Excluding the expanded shoulders, the blade is
usually straight but may be slightly excurvate. The distal end is
sharply acute. The stem is contracted-rounded and thinned on the edges.
Sides of the stem are usually straight. The basal edge is always
excurvate.

FLAKING: Flaking used to shape the faces of the blade and stem is
usually fairly deep, as is most of the fine retouching along the edges.
The expanded shoulder is formed by leaving that area of the blade intact
during finishing of the blade edges. In some cases the lack of retouch
along the basal edge of the blade resulted in an absence of expanded
shoulders. Local materials were used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named for the New Market Site near New Market,
Alabama, where the type was first recognized. The type was described in
previous editions of this book as Randolph, a historic type named by Coe
(1959) from the Doerschuk Site in Piedmont, North Carolina. The New
Market point has been found to differ in flaking as well as culturally
from the Randolph type. The illustrated example is from Cambron Site 76
(Pine Tree) in Limestone County, Alabama. The type is similar in some
respects to Bradley Spike, but differs in that the stem is tapered and
rounded, shoulders may be expanded, and fine retouch is a feature of the
blade. One example was recovered from Level 2 at the University of
Alabama Site Ms 201 in Marshall County, Alabama. One example was
recovered from Zone A and two from Zone A-B at the Flint River Shell
Mound (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a). These proveniences place the type at
these sites in the Woodland period or later. They are found at Flint
River and nearly always in surface collections with Swan Lake, Flint
River Spike, and Bradley Spike points.


NODENA, =Chapman and Anderson= (Bell, 1958): A-110

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Nodena is a small to medium-sized, lanceolate
point with rounded base.

MEASUREMENTS: The illustrated plesiotype measures 46 mm. long, 15 mm.
wide and 7 mm. thick. Bell (1958) gives the range as 1 to 3 inches in
length.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. The blade is excurvate with an
acute distal end. The hafting area or basal edge is usually rounded, but
may be acute.

FLAKING: Broad, shallow, random flaking was used to shape the blade and
hafting area, leaving a low median ridge on some examples. The edges of
the blade and hafting area show fine retouching of a narrow shallow
nature. Local flint was used for the illustrated specimen.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after the Nodena Site in eastern Arkansas,
but has been referred to as the "Willow-leaf" type by numerous writers
and collectors for the past 25 years (Bell, 1958). The illustrated
example is from Baker Site N, Madison County, Alabama. Bell (1958) gives
the distribution as heaviest in eastern Arkansas, along the Mississippi
and St. Francis river valleys and also along the Arkansas River Valley
as far as Dardanelle, Arkansas. He lists the cultural affiliation as
late prehistoric and suggests a date of 1400 to 1600 A.D. The type is
rare in Alabama, and the cultural association of Alabama points is
unknown.


NOLICHUCKY, =Kneberg= (Kneberg, 1957): A-64

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Nolichucky is a small to medium sized point
with incurvate hafting area.

MEASUREMENTS: The illustrated example from the type site provided the
following measurements: length, 37 mm.; blade width, 16 mm.; width of
base, 17 mm.; width of hafting constriction, 15 mm.; thickness, 6 mm.
"The size is usually small, but occasional examples range up to 2 inches
in length. The proportions are usually narrow, rarely broad." (Kneberg,
1957.)

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Blade edges may be straight or
excurvate. The distal end is acute. The hafting area consists of an area
with incurvate side edges that may be ground and may be auriculate with
expanded pointed or rounded auricles. The basal edge is usually
incurvate but may be straight and is usually thinned.

FLAKING: Deep to shallow random flaking was employed to shape the faces.
Retouching on all edges is usually evident.

COMMENTS: The type was named for the Nolichucky River. The type site is
Camp Creek Site at the confluence of Camp Creek with the Nolichucky
River (Lewis and Kneberg, 1957). The illustrated example is from Level A
of this homogenous site.

[Illustration]

"An early Woodland type associated with Greeneville and Camp Creek
types. These three types represent 50% of all points from Camp Creek
Site." (Kneberg, 1957). A radiocarbon date of 2050 ±250 B.P. was
obtained from Level C at this site (Lewis and Kneberg, 1957). One
example was recovered from the upper level of Stratum I (Woodland and
Mississippian) at Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961).
At Flint River Mound one example was taken from Zone A. Greeneville and
Camp Creek points were more numerous at this site. This evidence
indicates a sparse late Woodland association in north Alabama. Three
examples appear in the University of Alabama surface collections from
Guntersville Basin of the Tennessee River.


OSCEOLA, =Ritzenthaler= (Ritzenthaler, 1946 and Bell, 1958): A-65

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a large, parallel sided point with deep,
narrow side notches.

MEASUREMENTS: Bell (1958) gives the size as ranging from 3 inches to 9
inches in length with most examples measuring between 4 inches and 5
inches. The illustrated example provided the following measurements:
length, 97 mm.; width of blade, 32 mm.; width at base, 27 mm.;
thickness, 7 mm.; depth of notches, 7 mm.; width of notches, 5 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is flattened. Blade edges are usually near
parallel for most of the length of the blade, then slope rather abruptly
to an acute distal end. Local examples may be sparsely serrated along
the blade edges. "The hafting area is notched from the side edges near
the base and may be either squared or rounded. The stem base is either
straight or incurvate with the incurvate base being more typical."
(Bell, 1958). The base of the illustrated example is ground.

FLAKING: Bell (1958) describes the flaking as well done, first by rather
large percussion flaking and then by finer flaking along the edges and
base. Long, shallow, random flaking was usually employed. Local
materials were used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named for the Osceola Site in Wisconsin. The
illustrated example is from Cambron Site 19, Morgan County, Alabama. A
somewhat similar type is described by Ritchie (1961) as Otter Creek
points associated with the Archaic cultures of Vermont and New York.
Bell (1958) states that the type is associated with the Old Copper
Culture of Wisconsin where radiocarbon dates suggest an age of 7000 to
5000 years ago. He also lists distribution as Wisconsin, Illinois and
Missouri. Alabama examples usually appear on early Archaic sites. The
type is probably related to the Big Sandy Complex.


PAINT ROCK VALLEY, =Mahan= (Cambron, 1958a): A-66

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Paint Rock Valley point is a medium sized,
broad, triangular point with incurvate base and excurvate blade edges.

MEASUREMENTS: Fourteen plesiotypes, including the illustrated example,
from Cambron Site 48, Lincoln County, Tennessee, provided the following
measurements and traits: length--maximum, 58 mm.; minimum, 35 mm.;
average, 46 mm.: blade width--maximum, 31 mm.; minimum, 25 mm.; average,
28 mm.: width at base--maximum, 30 mm.; minimum, 18 mm.; average, 25
mm.: thickness--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum, 6 mm.; average, 8 mm.: depth
of basal concavity--maximum, 3 mm.; minimum, 1 mm.; average, 2 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Blade edges are usually excurvate,
rarely straight. The distal end is usually acute but may be broad. The
hafting area consists of an indeterminate basal portion of the blade
that is usually slightly contracted. The base is usually incurvate,
rarely straight, and may be thinned or beveled.

FLAKING: Broad, sometimes deep, random flaking was used to shape the
blade and hafting area. Rather long secondary flakes were struck off
along the edges, with a minimum of fine retouch having been carried out.
Short flakes struck from the basal edge often resulted in a beveling of
the basal edge. Local materials were used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: This type was named from points found on sites in the Paint
Rock River Valley in Jackson County, Alabama. The illustrated example is
from Cambron Site 48, Lincoln County, Tennessee. It resembles several
Texas types (Suhm, Krieger and Jelks, 1954): Kinney, with an estimated
age of 4000 years ago, which is shorter and broader; Matamoros with an
estimated age of 500 A.D., which is smaller and usually beveled;
Tortugas, estimated age 6000 years ago, which is beveled and has no
contraction of the base. At the University of Alabama Site Ms 201 in
Marshall County, Alabama, two examples were recovered from Level 11 and
one from Level 9. Other types from these lower levels include
Cumberland, Quad, Dalton, Wheeler and Big Sandy I points. One example
was recovered from Burial 8 at Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter
(DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962) in association with Morrow
Mountain, Crawford Creek, White Springs and possibly Eva points, as well
as bone points and other artifacts. These associations indicate an early
Archaic to transitional Paleo-Indian connection. At the Hardaway Site
(Coe, 1959) points similar to Paint Rock Valley points were recovered
from Stratum IV along with Dalton and Quad points.


PALMER, =Coe= (Coe, 1959): A-67

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Palmer point is a small corner notched point
with a straight, ground base and pronounced serrations (Coe, 1959).

MEASUREMENTS: Coe (1959) lists the following measurements:
length--maximum, 60 mm.; minimum, 28 mm.; average, 35 mm.:
width--maximum, 25 mm.; minimum, 15 mm.; average, 20 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average, 8 mm.: average
width of notches, 3 mm.: length of notches, measured along stem edge, 5
mm. to 7 mm. The illustrated example provided the following
measurements: length, 46 mm.; width at shoulders, 25 mm.; width of stem,
21 mm.; thickness, 7 mm.; width of notches, 3 mm.; depth of notches, 6
mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are barbed. Blade edges
are usually straight, but may be slightly incurvate or excurvate. Most
examples are serrated, some quite deeply. The hafting area is corner
notched. Side edges of the stem are usually incurvate. The basal edge is
usually straight but may be slightly incurvate or excurvate. It is
thinned and ground.

FLAKING: "These points were made by pressure flaking upon a prismatic
flake of the proper proportions. The serrations apparently were made at
the time when the point was finished, since the flake scars produced by
the serrations were long and overlapped toward the center of the blade."
(Coe, 1959). The notches were formed by the removal of deep broad
flakes. Local materials were used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from points recovered from the Hardaway
Site in Piedmont, North Carolina. The illustrated example is from
Cambron Site 92 in Madison County, North Carolina. Concerning the type
at the Hardaway Site, Coe (1959) states, "Following the Hardaway
occupation, the style of projectile points changed to a small
corner-notched serrated variety with extensive grinding along the base.
Along with this the use of the small hafted snub-nosed scraper increased
considerably." He gives distribution as "Camp Creek Site in Tennessee
and northward along the Atlantic Coast into New England." He further
states, "On the basis of excavated data, this type must have an
antiquity of nearly 8000 years." Two examples are listed by Cambron and
Waters (1961) from the bottom of Stratum II (Archaic) at Flint Creek
Rock Shelter. Three Palmer points were classified by Cambron from the
surface collection of the University of Alabama from Guntersville Basin
on the Tennessee River. The type is also found on western North Carolina
sites.


PEDERNALIS, =Kelley= (Suhm, Krieger and Jelks, 1954): A-68

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large point with bifurcated
stem.

MEASUREMENTS: Suhm and Jelks (1962) list some measurements in mm., as
follows: "Length, max. 130, min. 30, av. between 60 and 90; average
width 30 to 50; stem width 15 to 30; stem length 15 to 20." The
illustrated example provided the following measurements: length, 87 mm.;
width of shoulders, 32 mm.; width of stem, 28 mm.; stem length, 25 mm.;
thickness, 6 mm.; depth of basal concavity, 8 mm.

FORM: The cross-section may be biconvex or flattened. Shoulders may be
horizontal or barbed. "Blade edges are usually straight or excurvate,
but occasionally incurvate, recurved, or narrowed to a slim needle-like
tip." (Bell, 1958.) The distal end is usually acute. The stem is usually
straight, but may be slightly contracted with straight or excurvate side
edges. The basal edge is incurvate, usually deeply so, and may be
thinned by removal of large flakes, and may be near beveled on some
examples. Grinding of basal edges is seldom present.

FLAKING: Broad, shallow flakes were removed to shape the blade and stem.
Deeper shorter flaking was used to finish all edges. On many examples
large broad flakes were removed to form the shoulders, especially on
barbed examples. The thinning of the bases of some examples was
accomplished by removal of one or several large thin flakes. Local
materials were generally used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from sites in central Texas where it is
regarded as a diagnostic type of the "Round Rock Focus" (Kelley, 1947a).
The illustrated example is from the Helen Womack collection of Bedford
County, Tennessee. Suhm, Krieger and Jelks (1954) list Pedernalis as
"very common over all of central Texas." It is listed as a common point
found with the Edwards Plateau aspect of the Archaic period with an
estimated age of 4000 B.C. to 500 or 1000 A.D. (Suhm, Krieger and
Jelks, 1954). An example of the type appears in unknown provenience at
Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962).
A broken example from the middle of the Archaic Stratum II at Flint
Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961) appears to have been
reworked on one blade edge to a burin. Two examples were recovered from
Zone C (upper Archaic) at Flint River Shell Mound (Webb and DeJarnette,
1948a). A suggested association for Alabama is late Archaic or early
Woodland.


PICKWICK, =DeJarnette= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962): A-69

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, expanded shoulder point
with recurvate blade edges and tapered stem.

MEASUREMENTS: Twelve cotypes from the Tennessee River Valley of North
Alabama provided the following measurements and traits: length--maximum,
117 mm.; minimum, 71 mm.; average, 85 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 48
mm.; minimum, 37 mm.; average, 44 mm.: stem width--maximum, 24 mm.;
minimum, 15 mm.; average, 19 mm.: stem length--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum,
9 mm.; average, 10 mm. The illustrated example provided the following
measurements: length, 76 mm.; shoulder width, 41 mm.; stem width, 19
mm.; stem length, 13 mm.; thickness, 9 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are usually tapered, but
may be horizontal, and are always expanded. About one-half of the
measured examples had asymmetrical shoulders. Blade edges are recurvate
and may be slightly serrated. The distal end is acute. Stems are thick
and tapered, rarely straight. Side edges of the stem are usually
incurvate and may be ground. The basal edge may be excurvate or straight
and rarely ground.

FLAKING: Broad, shallow flaking was used to shape the blade and stem.
Short, deep, regular flaking was used to finish the blade edges, often
resulting in fine serrations. A minimum of retouch was used along the
stem edges. Local materials were utilized.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from points found on sites in Pickwick
Basin of the Tennessee River Valley. The illustrated example is from
Cambron Site 48 in Lincoln County, Tennessee. It is similar to Ledbetter
Stemmed points (Kneberg, 1956), but both blade edges are recurvate. At
the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron,
1962) five examples were recovered from Zone A, one from Level 2, two
from Level 3 and one each from Levels 4 and 7. At Little Bear Creek
Shell Mound (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948b) examples were recovered from
levels as follows: Levels 1 and 2, 1 each; Level 3, 13; Level 4, 3;
Level 5, 4; Levels 6 and 7, 1 each. Levels 1 and 2 are Woodland, the
other levels contained Archaic materials. At Flint River Shell Mound
(Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a) one each was recovered from Zones A and B
(Woodland), four examples from Zone C, one from Zone C-D and three from
Zone D. Zones C, C-D and D are Archaic. The above evidence indicates a
beginning in middle Archaic and a climax in late Archaic for the type.


PINE TREE, =Cambron= (Cambron, 1956): A-70

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium sized, side notched, serrated
point with expanded shoulders.

MEASUREMENTS: Seven cotypes from Limestone County, Alabama, provided the
following measurements and traits: length--maximum, 66 mm.; minimum, 50
mm.; average, 59 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 29 mm.; minimum, 25 mm.;
average, 27 mm.: stem width--maximum, 29 mm.; minimum, 26 mm.; average,
28 mm.: stem length--maximum, 15 mm.; minimum, 11 mm.; average, 12 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average, 7 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex but may be flattened.
Shoulders are narrow, tapered, and expanded. Blade edges are recurvate
and serrated. The distal end is acute. The hafting area is side notched
with expanded stem. The notches average about 9 mm. wide and 3 mm. deep.
Side edges of the stem are incurvate. The basal edge is thinned and
incurvate.

FLAKING: Broad, shallow flaking was used to shape the blade and stem
faces. Collateral or random flaking was used to retouch the sides of the
blade faces to a near median ridge resulting in serrations. The side
notches were formed by the removal of one large flake or several smaller
flakes. Retouch was carried out along the basal edge. All examples are
patinated and are made of local materials.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from points found on and near Cambron Site
76, the Pine Tree, (Cambron, 1956) in Limestone County, Alabama. The
illustrated example is from Cambron Site 4, Limestone County, Alabama.
An example was illustrated by Webb and DeJarnette (1942) as type 54 from
Colbert County, Alabama, Site Ct 27 (Plate 294). One example, of unknown
provenience, from Site Ms 53A (Webb and Wilder, 1951) in Marshall
County, Alabama, was recovered (Plate 29-C, No. 16). The type is
pre-shellmound in North Alabama and is considered an early Archaic point
type. One example was found on a site on Valley River at Andrews, North
Carolina. Other than this occurrence the known distribution is Alabama
and Southern Tennessee.


PINE TREE CORNER NOTCHED, =Cambron= (This Paper): A-70-a

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium sized, corner notched, serrated
point with expanded shoulders.

MEASUREMENTS: Seven cotypes, including the illustrated example, provided
the following measurements and traits: length--maximum, 72 mm.; minimum,
40 mm.; average, 54 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 32 mm.; minimum, 23
mm.; average, 27 mm.: stem width--maximum, 30 mm.; minimum, 25 mm.;
average, 28 mm.: stem length--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum, 10 mm.; average,
11 mm.: thickness--maximum, 8 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 7 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex, rarely flattened. Shoulders are
usually inversely tapered, rarely horizontal, and the barbs are
expanded. Blade edges are usually incurvate, rarely straight, and
serrated. The distal end is acute. The hafting area is usually corner
notched, rarely side-notched, with expanded stem. Notches measured along
the stem edge average about 11 mm. deep and about 5 mm. wide. Side edges
of the stem are usually straight. The base is thinned and usually
straight, but may be excurvate, rarely incurvate. Light basal grinding
may be present.

FLAKING: Random flaking was first employed to shape the blade and stem
faces. This was followed by collateral, rarely random, flaking, usually
resulting in regular serrations along the blade edges. Blade edges were
worked in to form expanded barbs. The corner notches were formed by the
removal of one or more large flakes, with retouch along the stem edge.
Some retouch was used to finish the basal edge. All examples are
patinated and are usually made of local materials.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from points found on and near the Pine Tree
Site Cambron 76 (Cambron, 1956) in Limestone County, Alabama. The
illustrated example is from Cambron Site 19 in Morgan County, Alabama.
The type was formerly included with the Pine Tree point (Cambron, 1957)
but was later referred to locally as Pine Tree Variant. It is a
pre-shellmound or early Archaic type. Physical characteristics indicate
a greater antiquity for this type than for the Pine Tree type, but
surface collection associations suggest a contemporaneous existence.


PLEVNA, =Cambron= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962): A-72

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Plevna is a medium to large, corner notched
point with excurvate base and beveled on one edge of each face.

MEASUREMENTS: Nine cotypes from North Alabama and Southern Tennessee,
including the illustrated example, provided the following measurements
and traits: length--maximum, 95 mm.; minimum, 46 mm.; average, 65 mm.:
shoulder width--maximum, 35 mm.; minimum, 26 mm.; average, 30 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 31 mm.; minimum, 24 mm.; average, 27 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 17 mm.; minimum, 12 mm.; average, 15 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 8 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is rhomboid. Shoulders are inversely tapered or
horizontal. Where shoulder barbs are present they may be expanded. Blade
edges are usually straight, but may be incurvate or excurvate and may be
serrated. They are always beveled on one edge of each face. Distal ends
are acute. The hafting area is corner notched, with deep narrow notches
that average about 4 mm. wide at the blade edge, 2 or 3 mm. wide at the
bottom of the notch, and about 6 mm. deep along the stem edge. The
expanded stem usually has straight side edges, and the basal edge is
always excurvate, thinned, and ground.

FLAKING: Broad, shallow, random flaking was employed to produce
flattened faces of the blade. Most blades were probably excurvate with a
gentle bevel before one edge of each face was reworked by short, shallow
to deep, flaking which often created serrations. Repeated reworking of
these blade edges resulted in steep beveling and often in incurvate
blade edges. The notches were formed at the widest part of the blade by
the initial removal of one broad deep flake from each side of each face.
The area thus thinned was then notched by removal of short fine flakes.
The hafting area was thinned by broad, shallow flaking followed by the
removal of small, shallow flakes along the basal edge. Local materials
were used, and all examples showed patination.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The point is named from points found on the Plevna Site
(Cambron 79) in Madison County, Alabama, associated with Eva and other
early Archaic types. The illustrated example is from Hulse Site 38,
Limestone County, Alabama. The type is associated with pre-shellmound
materials in North Alabama and is considered an early Archaic type.
Physical characteristics suggest that Plevna points may be ancestral to
the unbeveled, late Archaic to early Woodland St. Charles points (Bell,
1960) found throughout the Ohio Valley and in surrounding states. A date
of sometime before 5000 years ago is suggested for the type in Alabama.


QUAD, =Soday and Cambron= (Cambron and Waters, 1959a): A-73

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Quad is a medium sized, broad, unfluted or
fluted, point with an expanded-rounded, auriculate hafting area.

MEASUREMENTS: Fifty-one examples from thirty-one sites in the Tennessee
River Valley (Soday and Cambron, n. d.) provided the following
measurements: unfluted points--maximum length, 86 mm.; minimum length,
47 mm.; average length, 57 mm.; average width, 23 mm.; average
thickness, 7 mm.: fluted points--maximum length, 79 mm.; minimum length,
39 mm.; average length, 52 mm.; width, 24 mm.; average thickness, 7 mm.
The illustrated example provided the following measurements: length, 60
mm.; width at base, 31 mm.; width of blade above hafting area, 29 mm.;
width of hafting constriction, 28 mm.; depth of basal concavity, 7 mm.

FORM: The cross-section may be flattened or biconvex. Blade edges above
the hafting area are convex. The distal end is acute. The auriculate
hafting area is expanded-rounded with a hafting constriction along the
side edges near the auricles. The base is incurvate and may be thinned
or fluted. Hafting area edges are usually ground, especially the
constriction.

FLAKING: Flaking on the faces is usually random but may be collateral.
Retouch with short, fairly deep flaking, is usual on all edges. Because
of the thinness of these points, fluted examples have short flutes
similar to the Clovis points.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from points found on and near the Quad Site
(Soday, 1954) in Limestone County, Alabama. The illustrated example is
from Cambron Site 76 (Pine Tree) near the Quad Site. The unfluted
variant was described by Bell (1960), and he suggests a date of some
portion of the period from 8000 B.C. to 4000 B.C. He illustrates
examples from Tennessee and Ohio. An unfluted example was found in Level
11 at the University of Alabama Site Ms 201 in Marshall County, Alabama,
in the same stratum as Wheeler, Paint Rock Valley, Cumberland, Dalton,
and other points. An example from Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and
Waters, 1961) was recovered in pre-Archaic Stratum III along with a
Beaver Lake point. A Quad-like point was recovered from the Quad Site in
the same stratum as a fluted midsection, Dalton, and Big Sandy I points
(Cambron and Hulse, 1960a). Coe (1959) found similar points associated
with Daltons on the lower levels of the Hardaway Site in Piedmont, North
Carolina. The above evidence and surface associations indicate a
transitional Paleo association with an age of 10,000 years ago or more.


REDSTONE, =Mahan= (This Paper): A-75

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, triangular, fluted point
with an incurvate base.

MEASUREMENTS: Seven points from seven sites in the Tennessee Valley
(Soday and Cambron, n. d.) range in length as follows: longest, 117 mm.
(from Soday Site 475 in Morgan County, Alabama); shortest, 67 mm. (from
Serio 1, Madison County, Alabama); average, 89 mm. The average width of
the seven points is 37 mm. and the average thickness, 7 mm. The
illustrated specimen measures in length, 110 mm.; width at base, 34 mm.;
thickness, 6 mm.; depth of basal concavity, 9 mm.; longest flute, 70
mm.; shortest flute, 26 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is fluted. The blade is straight with an acute
distal end. Grinding along the basal edge for about one-third of the
length of the point designates the hafting area. The auriculated base is
parallel-rounded and incurvate and may show multiple flutes on one or
both faces. The basal edge is thinned on each side of the flute and
ground.

FLAKING: The flakes removed in order to shape the blade and hafting area
are narrow, shallow and random. The edges were finished by the removal
of alternate flakes along the blade and hafting area edges, leaving a
fine, irregular pattern. The short flute was removed first from a
flattened face, the longer flute from a median ridged face that shows
multiple flute scars (Cambron and Hulse, 1961).

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named after Redstone Arsenal in Madison County,
Alabama, where the illustrated specimen, a classic example, was
recovered from Brosemer Site M-17, a site that has produced other early
points. Several examples have been illustrated in the Tennessee
Archaeologist as follows: Vol. X, No. 1, p. 17, Fig. 45 (Morgan County,
Alabama, Soday, 1954); Vol. X, No. 2, p. 40, Fig. 1, p. 48, Fig. 87, p.
50, Fig. 96 (Madison County, Alabama, Mahan, 1954); Vol. 12, No. 1, p.
36, Figs. 3 and 4 (Chickamauga Lake, Tennessee, Lewis, 1956); Vol. XIII,
No. 2, p. 82, Fig. 7 (Weakley County, Tennessee, Taylor, 1957); Vol. XV,
No. 2, p. 124, Fig. 19 (Limestone County, Alabama), p. 142, Fig. 1,
(Humphreys County, Tennessee, Lewis, 1959); Vol. XVI, No. 1, p. 58,
Figs. 18, 19 (Henry County, Tennessee, Lewis, 1960a). The Redstone type
appears to be a variant of the Clovis and probably was in use at about
the same time as Clovis points. Charcoal from hearths with which a
Clovis point was presumed to have been associated, gave dates in excess
of 37,000 years ago (Crook and Harris, 1958). When dating methods were
improved, dates in excess of 42,000 years ago were obtained at this
site. This means the Redstone, as well as the Clovis, could have been in
use as early as 42,000 years ago, but most archaeologists suggest a date
of about 15,000 years ago.


RHEEMS CREEK, =Cambron= (This Paper): A-113

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium sized stemmed point with
straight blade edges.

MEASUREMENTS: Fifteen cotypes in the Harwood collection from Cambron
Site 326 in Buncombe County, North Carolina, provided the following
measurements: length--maximum, 60 mm.; minimum, 37 mm.; average, 41 mm.:
shoulder width--maximum, 23 mm.; minimum, 18 mm.; average, 21 mm.: stem
width--maximum, 16 mm.; minimum, 11 mm.; average, 15 mm.: stem
length--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 9 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 8 mm. The
illustrated example provided the following measurements: length, 37 mm.;
shoulder width, 19 mm.; stem width, 12 mm.; stem length, 9 mm.;
thickness, 7 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex, rarely plano-convex.
Shoulders are tapered and fairly broad. Blade edges are usually
straight, but may be excurvate, rarely incurvate. The distal end is
acute. The stem is usually straight but may be tapered. The basal edge
is excurvate and usually thick, but may be thinned.

FLAKING: The entire point appears to have been made by short, fairly
deep, random percussion flaking. The lack of retouch along the blade
edges leaves an irregular blade edge outline that somewhat resembles
crude serrations on some examples. All examples from the site are made
of vein quartz.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from the Rheems Creek Site (Cambron Site
326) in Buncombe County, North Carolina. A few examples approach Bradley
Spike in size and flaking, but are broader with a more triangular blade.
The smaller examples somewhat resemble Coosa points, but are not
retouched along the edges and are made of quartzite. The cultural
association of this type is as yet unknown, as the type site has
produced artifacts belonging to transitional Paleo, Archaic and Woodland
components. A category of tool types resembling Rheems Creek has been
identified in Randolph County from Mid-Archaic to Early Woodland (O'Hear
and Knight, 1975).


RUSSELL CAVE, =Cambron= (This paper): A-117

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Russell Cave point is a medium sized, expanded
stem point with shallow serrations and straight blade edges.

MEASUREMENTS: Seven examples, including the illustrated specimen, from
the lower G layer at Russell Cave in North Alabama provided the
following measurements and features: length--maximum, 60 mm.; minimum,
44 mm.; average, 54 mm: shoulder width--maximum, 28 mm.; minimum, 21
mm.; average, 25 mm.: stem width at base--maximum, 24 mm.; minimum, 21
mm.; average, 23 mm.: stem width at narrowest point--maximum, 21 mm.;
minimum, 19 mm.; average, 20 mm.: stem length--maximum, 20 mm.; minimum,
16 mm.; average, 17 mm.: thickness--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.;
average, 8 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are tapered. The blade is
usually straight; rarely excurvate. Blade edges are shallowly serrated.
The distal end is acute. The stem is expanded. The side edges of the
stem are incurvate and usually ground. The basal edge is straight,
usually ground and may be beveled.

FLAKING: Shallow, broad, random flaking was used to shape the blade and
stem. Short, fairly deep flakes were removed to shape and finish the
blade and to form fine regular serrations. These were flaked alternately
from opposite faces, making the short serration projections rather
sharp. The sides of the hafting area are usually steeply flaked to form
an expanded stem. The basal edge is usually thinned by the removal of
broad shallow flakes, but may be rather steeply flaked.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from Russell Cave in Jackson County,
Alabama, where the seven cotypes were recovered from lower G layer. This
was the deepest excavated layer and produced three radiocarbon dates:
Level 17, 7565 ±250 years B.P.; Level 20, 8095 ±275 and 8435 ±275 years
B.P. These dates place the type in early Archaic at this site.
Distribution of the type is not known.


SAND MOUNTAIN, =Cambron= (This paper): A-119

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small, serrated, triangular point with an
incurvate base.

MEASUREMENTS: Six cotypes from the Jones Bluff Reservoir in Lowndes
County, Alabama, provided the following measurements and traits:
length--maximum, 27 mm.; minimum, 21 mm.; average, 24 mm.: width at
base--maximum, 15 mm.; minimum, 13 mm.; average, 14 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 7 mm.; minimum, 3 mm.; average, 5 mm.: basal
concavity--maximum 4 mm.; minimum, 1 mm.; average, 2 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex--rarely, flattened. The
blade is usually straight, but may be slightly incurvate or excurvate.
Blade edges are serrated. The distal end is usually acute but may be
acuminate. The base is incurvate and may be expanded.

FLAKING: The point displays random flaking which is usually broad and
fairly deep. The serrations are the result of the removal of regular
flakes from the edge of alternate faces. The basal edge was thinned by
removal of shallow flakes. Local materials, generally quartzites, were
used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The point is named from sites on Sand Mountain in North
Alabama where the type was first recognized. The illustrated example was
recovered from Hulse site 39 near Decatur, Alabama. No examples were
recognized from the control sites in the Tennessee Valley. Examples from
Sites Lo 32 and Lo 13 in Jones Bluff Reservoir, Lowndes County, Alabama,
were recovered from Levels 1 and 2 in association with Weeden Island
pottery. This suggests an Early Mississippian association at these
sites. In Autauga County, Alabama, examples were found in association
with Autauga Check Stamped, McLeod Check Stamped and Wright Check
Stamped pottery. This suggests a late Woodland association in this area.
At Site Dk-101 in DeKalb County, Alabama, three examples were recovered
from Level 1 and two from Level 3. This suggests a late Woodland and
Mississippian association at this site. The type seems to have appeared
in late Woodland times and lasted into Mississippian times.


SAVAGE CAVE, =Cambron= (Cambron, 1974): A-124

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, side-notched point with
excurvate blade edges, biconvex cross-section, deep side notches and
finely retouched blade edges.

MEASUREMENTS: The range of measurements of 14 examples; 7 from New York,
5 from Savage Cave and 2 from the Pine Tree Site (Cambron, 1956) at
Decatur, Alabama, are: length 44-75 mm.; shoulder width, 23-30 mm.; stem
width, 18-25 mm.; stem length, 9-10 mm., thickness, 6-9 mm.; notch
width, 7-9 mm.; notch depth, 3-5 mm.

FLAKING: Good random flaking was employed to shape the faces of the
blade and hafting area. Fine retouch is evident along the edges. The
deep side notches were finished by the removal of one large flake from
both sides of each notch.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. The blade is excurvate and is
finely serrated. The distal end is acute. The hafting area is deeply
side notched. The basal edge is nearly always straight, but may be
slightly excurvate. Light grinding may be evident on most examples. The
part of the hafting area between the notches and the base is expanded.
All examples were patinated.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: This type is named from Savage Cave, Kentucky, where 8 whole
or broken examples were recovered. One example was recovered from the
surface, two from Level 1, one from Level 2, three from Level 3, one of
which was worked to a drill, and one from Level 4. All examples except
one from the surface were recovered from Stratum II. It appears that the
Savage Cave point overlaps in time with Big Sandy points at this site,
with Savage Cave points appearing later. One example illustrated as an
Otter Creek point in Plate 21, Fig. 2 from Malta, Saratoga County, New
York, (Ritchie, 1971) appears to be a Savage Cave point.


SAVANNAH RIVER, =Coe= (Coe, 1959): A-5a

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A medium to large stemmed point often made of
quartzite.

MEASUREMENTS: Coe (1959) lists some measurements of North Carolina
examples as follows: length--maximum, 170 mm.; minimum, 70 mm.; average,
100 mm.: width--maximum, 70 mm.; minimum, 35 mm.; average, 50 mm. These
measurements exceed those from six examples, including the illustrated
example, from Elmore County, Alabama, and one from Buncombe County,
North Carolina, which are as follows: length--maximum, 70 mm.; minimum,
50 mm.; average, 56 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 40 mm.; minimum, 30
mm.; average, 34 mm.: stem width--maximum, 25 mm.; minimum, 21 mm.;
average, 22 mm.: stem length--maximum, 14 mm.; minimum, 12 mm.; average,
13 mm.: thickness--maximum, 13 mm.; minimum, 10 mm.; average, 11 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex but may be flattened, rarely
plano-convex. Shoulders are usually tapered but may be straight. Blade
edges are excurvate, but may be parallel from the shoulders for
one-third to one-half the length of the blade. The distal end is acute.
The stem may be straight or tapered, with incurvate or straight side
edges and a straight or incurvate basal edge that is usually thinned.

FLAKING: Broad, shallow flaking was employed to shape the blade and stem
faces, with some retouch along all edges. Local materials were used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The point is named from points of the Savannah River Focus of
the Archaic period in Redmont, North Carolina. The illustrated example
is from Amling Site El 4 in Elmore County, Alabama. This type includes
points illustrated in Caldwell (1947) as belonging to the Savannah River
Focus of Georgia. Similar points from Camp Creek were illustrated by
Lewis and Kneberg (1957) as Appalachian Stemmed, but they seem more
acceptable as Savannah River points. One example each was recovered from
Level 3 and 4 (pre-pottery) at the University of Alabama Site 1 Ru 28 in
Russell County, Alabama, on the Chattahoochee River. Coe (1959) found
Savannah River to be late Archaic. Further excavation in the Roanoke
River area revealed Savannah River points in early Woodland association
(Coe, personal communication). Savannah River points overlay the "Old
Quartz" industry in Georgia. The above evidence places Savannah River
points in late Archaic and early Woodland associations.


SMITHSONIA, =Allen and Hulse= (This Paper): A-136

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large sized, straight stemmed
point with finely serrated blade edges.

MEASUREMENTS: Thirteen cotypes from sites at Smithsonia, Beacon Island
and Waterloo along the Tennessee River below Florence, Alabama, provided
the following measurements: length--maximum, 96 mm.; minimum, 61 mm.;
average, 77 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 35 mm.; minimum 28 mm.;
average, 30 mm.: stem width--maximum, 16 mm.; minimum, 13 mm.; average,
14 mm.: stem length--maximum, 15 mm.; minimum, 12 mm.; average, 13 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum, 8 mm.; average, 9 mm. Measurements
of the illustrated example are: length, 82 mm.; shoulder width, 33 mm.;
stem width, 15 mm.; stem length, 13 mm.; thickness, 11 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex but may be flattened.
Shoulders are usually barbed but may be inversely tapered. Blade edges
are serrated and are usually straight or excurvate but some examples may
have one straight and one excurvate blade edge. The basal edge and sides
of the stem are thinned, straight and may be lightly ground. The distal
end is acute. Serrations on the blade edges are finely executed as
opposed to deeper serrations on the Kirk Serrated projectile point. The
shoulders are usually barbed. The stem and base are always straight
whereas the Kirk Serrated base may be incurvate.

FLAKING: The blade and hafting area were formed by broad, shallow,
random flaking. The blade edges were then finely serrated.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from Ralph Allen Site 41 at Smithsonia,
Alabama, where the type was first recognized. The illustrated example is
from this site located on the north side of the Tennessee River in
Lauderdale County, Alabama. Three examples are illustrated in Plate 152
(Webb and DeJarnette, 1942). One is in the top right of the plate and
two are in the upper left of the lower figure on the same plate. These
examples were recovered from the Bluff Creek Site Lu^o 59. This site was
located fourteen miles west of Florence, Alabama, on the banks of the
Tennessee River. These points were associated with burials along with
other artifacts that indicate a late Archaic and early Woodland
placement, as does the formal attributes of this point type.


SOUTH PRONG CREEK, =Lewis= (This Paper): A-138

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The South Prong Creek point is a large, broad,
stemmed, and serrated point.

MEASUREMENTS: Examples which provided the features, including the
illustrated example, ranged in measurements as follows: length--maximum,
101 mm.; minimum, 46 mm.; average, 72 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 59
mm.; minimum, 46 mm.; average, 38 mm.: stem width--maximum, 18 mm.;
minimum, 17 mm.; average, 18 mm.: stem length--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum,
8 mm.; average, 11 mm.: thickness--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum, 8 mm.;
average, 9 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is flattened. The blade edges are usually
straight but may be slightly excurvate or recurvate and are always
serrated with an acute distal end that is devoid of serrations.
Shoulders may be straight or tapered. The stem is short and thinned at
the base and along the side edges. The basal edge may be straight or
excurvate and may exhibit light grinding.

FLAKING: The thin blade is shaped by good, broad, and shallow random
flaking on the faces. The removal of small deep flakes along the blade
edges, starting above the shoulders and ending below the distal end,
produced strong serrations and a beveling effect. The removal of fairly
large flakes at the junction of the stem and shoulders thinned the sides
of the stem as well as the shoulders at this point.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from a surface site on South Prong Creek in
Richmond County, Georgia, near Augusta, in the Red Hills fall line and
approximately 300 feet above mean sea level. Eight examples, including
the illustrated example, were recovered from this site (Lewis Site No.
606). Two examples of unknown origin from the Augusta-Richmond County
Museum helped provide additional measurements and features for the type.
Other artifacts recovered from the type site include: 13 Big Sandy
points, 1 Greenbrier Dalton point, 1 Ecusta point, 1 Plevna point, 26
Morrow Mountain points, 1 Morrow Mountain Straight Base point, 3 Morrow
Mountain Rounded Base points, 3 Guilford Rounded Base points, 1 Guilford
point, 8 Savannah River points, 1 Gary point, 1 Wade point, 1 Yadkin
point, 2 Madison points, 25 P-1 Stemmed points, 1 used scraper, 1 flint
gouge, 7 mortars, 3 manos, 1 hammer-abrader, 7 steatite hammers, and 1
perforater. These artifacts suggest a Transitional Paleo-Early Archaic
and Archaic occupation of the site with a sparse occupation by Woodland
and Mississippian people. An age of 3000 to 4500 years B.P. is
suggested for the type (Michie, personal communication, 1975). The
association of other artifacts from the site indicates an earlier date
for the type (Lewis, personal communication, 1975).


STANFIELD. =Cambron and Hulse= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962):
A-80

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A medium to large sized, narrow, triangular point
with biconvex blade.

MEASUREMENTS: Nine autotypes from North Alabama, including the
illustrated example, provided the following measurements and traits:
length--maximum, 118 mm.; minimum, 54 mm.; average, 73 mm.: width at
base--maximum, 30 mm.; minimum, 18 mm.; average, 22 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 13 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 9 mm.

FORM: The cross-section of the blade is biconvex, and most hafting area
cross-sections are flattened. Blade edges are usually parallel, rarely
excurvate. The distal end is acute. The hafting area includes an
undetermined basal portion of the side edges. It is parallel sided, with
a straight, rarely slightly excurvate, basal edge that is thinned. The
hafting area is usually flattened.

FLAKING: From fairly deep to shallow random flaking was used to shape
the faces. Usually one third to two thirds of the total length from the
distal end is flaked to median ridge, and broader shallower flakes were
removed from the hafting area. Short, broad, and deeper flakes were
removed in retouching the side edges of the blade and all edges of the
hafting area. Local materials were usually employed, and all examples
were patinated.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from examples recovered from the
Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962)
in Colbert County, Alabama. The illustrated example is from the Pine
Tree Site (Cambron Site 76) in Limestone County, Alabama. Examples
recovered at Stanfield-Worley were all in Zone D, two in Level 1 and one
in Level 5. Radiocarbon dates from this zone are 8920 ±400 and 9640 ±450
B.P. Four examples were recovered from Stratum III (Cambron and Hulse,
1960a) at the Quad Site in association with Dalton, Lerma, Big Sandy I,
and other points and were listed as Type P-11. All surface finds are
made from sites that have produced early materials. It is suggested that
this type be placed in the transitional Paleo-Indian cultural stage with
a date of somewhere around 10,000 years ago.


STANLEY, =Coe= (Coe, 1959): A-79

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Stanley is a medium sized point with "a broad
triangular blade, a small squared stem and a shallow notched base."
(Coe, 1959).

MEASUREMENTS: Seven plesiotypes from North Alabama and South Tennessee
provided the following measurements and traits: length--maximum, 47 mm.;
minimum, 42 mm.; average, 46 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 33 mm.;
minimum, 27 mm.; average, 31 mm.: stem width--maximum, 18 mm.; minimum,
14 mm.; average, 16 mm.: stem length--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.;
average, 8 mm.: thickness--maximum, 8 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average, 7
mm.

FORM: The cross-section may be biconvex or plano-convex, rarely
flattened. Shoulders are usually horizontal or tapered, rarely inversely
tapered, and may be expanded. Blade edges may be excurvate, straight, or
recurvate and usually have an angular break in the blade outline near
the distal end. Blade edges may be serrated near the base. The distal
end is usually acute, but may be somewhat apiculate. The stem is usually
straight. Stems of the plesiotypes are shorter and broader than stems of
the cotypes. Thus, the basal edge of the plesiotypes is more incurvate
than notched, as it is in the cotypes.

FLAKING: Blade scars and/or rather long, shallow, random flakes are in
evidence on the faces of the blade and stem. On the serrated examples
the serrations are broader and deeper near the shoulders, and the points
are usually serrated no more than half the length of the blade. Fine
regular retouch was carried out along the blade edges near the distal
end. Fairly long, often broad, flakes were removed in order to thin the
basal edge. Local materials were used, and all points show some
patination.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from points found in Piedmont, North
Carolina, especially at the Doerschuk and Hardaway Sites, where they
were found above Kirk and below Morrow Mountain occupation levels and
are placed somewhere above 5000 B.C. (Coe, 1959). The illustrated
example is from Cambron Site 146 in Limestone County, Alabama. An
example was recovered from Level 11 of Zone A at the Stanfield-Worley
Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962). Also in this
level (145 trench) were Eva and Morrow Mountain points. One example was
recovered from Zone C (upper Archaic) at the Flint River Shell Mound
(Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a).


SUBLET FERRY, =Cambron= (This Paper): A-115

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium sized, serrated,
shallowly side notched point.

MEASUREMENTS: Eleven cotypes, including the illustrated example,
provided the following measurements: length--maximum, 48 mm.; minimum,
28 mm.; average, 42 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 22 mm.; minimum, 16
mm.; average, 19 mm.: stem width--maximum, 22 mm.; minimum, 16 mm.;
average, 19 mm.: stem length--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.; average,
8 mm.: thickness--maximum, 8 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average, 6 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are tapered and narrow.
Blade edges are usually excurvate, but may be parallel-angular, and are
finely serrated. The distal end is acute. The hafting area is shallowly
side notched near the base, with the shoulders and stem usually nearly
the same width. The basal edge is straight and thinned.

FLAKING: Shallow to deep flaking was used to shape the blade and stem
faces. Long, narrow flakes were removed to form serrations along the
blade edges. The hafting notches were formed by the removal of a fairly
large deep flake from each side of each face near the base and were
sometimes finished by the removal of several small flakes in the
notches. Broad, thin flakes were removed in thinning the basal edge.
Local materials were used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from points found on sites near Sublet
Ferry on the Tennessee River in Jackson County, Alabama. The illustrated
example is from W. H. Baker Site 16 in the area. Other artifacts from
this site suggest early Woodland and possibly late Archaic assemblages.
Typologically the Sublet type seems intermediate between Damron Side
Notched and Knights Island. Cultural association of the type is at
present uncertain, but surface collection associations indicate that it
is an early Woodland type.


SWAN LAKE, =Cambron and Hulse= (Cambron and Hulse, 1960b): A-81

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small, thick point with shallow side
notches.

MEASUREMENTS: Fourteen plesiotypes, including the illustrated example,
from Hulse Site 54 in Limestone County, Alabama, provided the following
measurements and traits: length--maximum, 41 mm.; minimum, 30 mm.;
average, 38 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 20 mm.; minimum, 12 mm.;
average, 17 mm.: stem width--maximum, 17 mm.; minimum, 13 mm.; average,
16 mm.: stem length--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum, 9 mm.; average, 11 mm.:
thickness--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average, 7 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex, but is sometimes near
median-ridged. Shoulders are narrow, tapered, and may be expanded. Blade
edges are usually straight but may be incurvate or excurvate. Distal
ends are acuminate. The hafting area is shallowly side notched. Side
edges of the stem are incurvate. The basal edge may be excurvate or
straight. Nearly all examples retain some rind on the base, and many
basal edges are unfinished. A few basal edges are lightly ground.

FLAKING: Short, random flaking was used to shape the faces of the blade
and stem. Flakes removed in retouching the blade and stem edges are
short and fairly deep. Several flakes were usually removed to form the
side notches. Local materials were used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from points recovered from the Swan Lake
area of Limestone County, Alabama. The illustrated example is from Hulse
Site 54 in this area. The type may be related to Trinity points (Suhm
and Jelks, 1962) and Halifax points (Coe, 1959). The side notched
variant of Archaic Lamoka points of New York (Ritchie, 1961) may be an
early variation of the Swan Lake type. Radiocarbon dates from 3500 B.C.
to 2500 B.C. have been obtained for Lamoka points (Ritchie, 1961). At
the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron,
1962) most Swan Lake points were concentrated in the first two levels of
Zone A, but a few examples were found as deep as Levels 7 and 8, with
one from Level 1 in Zone B. This indicates Woodland association at this
site, with possibly an Archaic connection. Four of eight examples from
the University of Alabama Site Ms 201 in Marshall County, Alabama, were
in the two top levels. All six examples from Flint Creek Rock Shelter
(Cambron and Waters, 1961) were from Stratum I (Woodland). At Flint
River Shell Mound (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a) four examples were
recovered from Zone A, one from Zone B (Woodland) and one from Zone C
(Archaic). The Swan Lake point appears to have been introduced in the
Archaic period but reached a climax in the Woodland period.


TURKEY TAIL, =Scully= (Scully, 1951): A-82

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium to large, double pointed
lanceolate point with side notches.

MEASUREMENTS: The type ranges from about 3 inches to 8 inches in length
with an average length of about 6 inches (Bell, 1960). The illustrated
plesiotype provided the following measurements: length, 174 mm.; width
at widest part of blade, 42 mm.; thickness, 8 mm.; length of stem, 17
mm.; width of stem, 18 mm.; notch depth, 3 mm.; notch width, 6 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is flattened. Shoulders may be horizontal or
tapered. Blade edges are excurvate. The distal end may be acute or
broad. The stem is expanded and pointed with an acute or broad basal
edge that is thinned.

FLAKING: Broad, shallow, random flaking was used to shape the blade and
stem. Short deep flakes may be removed to retouch the edges. One or
several flakes were removed from the sides of each face to form shallow
side notches. A good grade, often exotic, material was used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named because of the resemblance of the hafting
area to a turkey's tail. The illustrated example is the shortest of four
Turkey Tail points and one similar unnotched blade 8 inches long which
were recovered from a shellmound burial by Harry Smith from Cambron Site
14 in Limestone County, Alabama. "The type commonly occurs in caches of
several points, ranging from 4 or 5 up to 40 or more." (Bell, 1960.)
This indicates a ceremonial usage. A late Archaic or early Woodland
association with a date range from about 2000 B.C. to 500 B.C. is
suggested by Scully (1951).


WADE, =Hulse= (Cambron and Hulse, 1960b): A-84

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium sized, barbed, straight stemmed
point.

MEASUREMENTS: Fourteen cotypes, including the illustrated example,
provided the following measurements and traits: length--maximum, 70 mm.;
minimum, 39 mm.; average, 51 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 42 mm.;
minimum, 27 mm.; average, 34 mm.: stem width--maximum, 16 mm.; minimum,
10 mm.; average, 14 mm.: stem length--maximum, 12 mm.; minimum, 9 mm.;
average, 11 mm.: thickness--maximum, 9 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average, 7
mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex or flattened. Shoulders are barbed,
with barbs often as long as the stem. Blade edges may be excurvate or
straight. The distal end is acute. The stem is usually straight but may
be slightly expanded. Side edges of the stem are usually straight, and
the basal edge may be straight or slightly incurvate. It is thinned and
may be slightly ground.

FLAKING: Deep to shallow, random flaking was used on the blade and stem
faces. Short, fairly deep, flakes were removed in retouching the blade
and stem edges. One large, broad, deep flake was removed from the basal
corners of each face to form barbs. The resulting notched edges were
usually retouched by the removal of several small flakes. Local
materials were used.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from points from several sites near Wade
Landing on the Tennessee River, Limestone County, Alabama, where they
were first recognized. The illustrated example is from Cambron Site 148
(Ray Site) in Limestone County, Alabama. Three Wade points were found
with pre-ceramic sitting burial No. 66 at the University of Alabama Site
Lu 59 (Webb and DeJarnette, 1942) along with one beaver incisor, three
bone awls, one distal end of a point or knife, one two-hole stone
gorget, and one gorget fragment. At the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter
(DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962), points were more numerous in
late Archaic and early Woodland levels. At the University of Alabama
Site Ms 201 in Marshall County, Alabama, one example was recovered from
Woodland Level 2. One example was recovered from the Woodland stratum at
Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961). At the Little Bear
Creek Site (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948b) one example was recovered from
the Woodland stratum and one from late Archaic. Three examples were
recovered from the Woodland stratum and seven from late Archaic at the
Flint River Shell Mound (Webb and DeJarnette, 1948a). The above evidence
indicates a strong late Archaic association and suggests that the type
continued in use as late as middle Woodland, with a probable date of
2500 B.C. to 1500 B.C.


WASHINGTON, =Cambron= (This Paper): A-13

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small, thick, side notched, serrated
point.

MEASUREMENTS: Nine cotypes, including the illustrated example, provided
the following measurements and traits: length--maximum, 24 mm.; minimum,
16 mm.; average, 20 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 13 mm.; minimum, 9
mm.; average, 10 mm.: stem width--maximum, 11 mm.; minimum, 7 mm.;
average, 9 mm.: stem length--maximum, 8 mm.; minimum, 5 mm.; average, 7
mm.: thickness--maximum, 6 mm.; minimum, 4 mm.; average, 5 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is biconvex. Shoulders are inversely tapered.
Blade edges may be excurvate or straight and are usually serrated. The
distal end may be acute, sharply acute, or broad. The hafting area has
broad, shallow side notches from 1 to 2 mm. deep and about 4 to 5 mm.
wide. The expanded stem base may be excurvate or straight and is usually
thinned.

FLAKING: Most of the points are made of white quartzite but show good
workmanship. The blade and hafting area were formed by shallow, random
flaking. The blade edges were serrated by the removal of broad, deep
flakes. The side notches were formed by the removal of one broad, deep
flake from each side of each face about one-third the length of the
point from the base. Some retouching was carried out, especially near
the distal end.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The point was named for Washington County, Alabama, where the
type was first recognized. Apparently an important type in this area of
the state, it occurs in surface collections from late pottery-producing
sites. The illustrated example is from Slater Site 7, Washington County,
Alabama. The size indicates an arrow point. Perino (personal
communication) reports examples from Woodland sites in Clinton County,
Illinois.


WASHITA, =Bell= (Bell, 1958): A-116

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small, thin, triangular, side notched
point.

MEASUREMENTS: Bell (1958) lists length as 27 mm. to 19 mm. with the
majority averaging slightly less than 25 mm. Suhm and Krieger (1954)
give the width as 20 mm. to 12 mm. and state that the notches are
usually 2 mm. to 3 mm. deep.

FORM: The cross-section appears to be flattened. Blade edges may be
straight or excurvate. The distal end is acute. Side notches forming the
hafting area "are cut in from the edge perhaps 1/4 to 1/3 of the
distance from the base to the tip (distal end)." (Bell, 1958.) The base
is straight or slightly incurvate and thinned.

FLAKING: Fairly broad, shallow, random flaking appears to have been used
to shape the faces, with a minimum of retouch along the edges.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named for the Washita River Focus of Oklahoma.
The illustrated example is after Bell (1958). The Washita was included
in the Harrell type by Suhm, Krieger and Jelks (1954). The only
appreciable difference between the two types is the notched basal edge
of the Harrell points. According to Bell (1958), "the Washita point is
found in Oklahoma, parts of the Great Plains, Mississippi Valley and in
the Southwest. It is commonly associated with the Harrell point, pottery
and agriculture." He estimates the age from 1100 or 1200 A.D. up to
1500 or 1600 A.D. Twenty-one examples were in a cache found with a
burial in a truncated mound in Elmore County, Alabama (Fundaburk and
Foreman, 1957). Also in the cache were points similar to Alba, Bassett,
Harrell, and Scallorn types as described and illustrated by Suhm,
Krieger and Jelks (1954). Along with these were other small points
(Plate 15, p. 36), two of which were made of obsidian. Since the type is
associated with Harrell points, it is probably associated with early
Mississippi Culture of the Mississippi and Missouri Valleys (Bennett,
1948 and Chapman, 1948).


WHEELER EXCURVATE, =Cambron= (Cambron, 1955a and 1957): A-85

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium sized auriculate point
with incurvate base, steeply worked basal edge, and excurvate blade
edges.

MEASUREMENTS: Twenty points from 14 sites in the Tennessee River Valley
(Soday and Cambron, n. d.) provided the following measurements:
length--maximum, 67 mm.; minimum, 27 mm.; average, 48 mm.:
width--average, 21 mm.: thickness--average, 6 mm. The illustrated
example provided the following measurements: length, 46 mm.; width of
blade, 20 mm.; width at base, 17 mm.; thickness, 5 mm.; depth of basal
concavity, 6 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex, but may be plano-convex.
Blade edges are excurvate. Distal ends are acute. The hafting area is
parallel pointed, with deeply incurvate, steeply flaked basal edge. Some
examples are fluted, and an occasional example is ground along the
entire blade and hafting area edges.

FLAKING: Shallow, random flaking was used to shape the faces of the
blade and hafting area. Fairly broad flakes were removed in shaping the
blade edges, followed by very fine secondary retouching along the edges.
Large flakes were often removed in forming the basal concavity, and
several short narrow flakes were removed to form a steeply flaked basal
edge. Local materials were used, especially Ft. Payne chert.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from points found on the Stone Pipe Site
(Cambron, 1955a) in the Wheeler Basin of the Tennessee River, Limestone
County, Alabama. The illustrated example is from this site (Cambron,
1956). A fluted example is illustrated by T. M. N. Lewis (1960b) in
Editor's Notes, page 45, left side of Fig. 3. An example was recovered
from Stratum III in association with transitional Paleo-Indian materials
at the Quad Site (Cambron and Hulse, 1960a). The type is similar to the
McKean point, but appears to be older and, unlike McKean points, the
basal edge is steeply beveled. This type appears with Wheeler Recurvate
and Wheeler Triangular points on pre-shellmound sites in North Alabama.
Evidence indicates a transitional Paleo-Indian association. A reworked
Wheeler point was recovered from Level 11 at the University of Alabama
Site Ms 201 in Marshall County, Alabama. This also indicates an early
provenience for Wheeler points.


WHEELER RECURVATE, =Cambron= (Cambron, 1955a and 1957): A-86

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium sized auriculate point
with incurvate base, steeply worked basal edge, and recurvate side
edges.

MEASUREMENTS: Nine points from six sites in the Tennessee River Valley
provided the following measurements: length--maximum, 68 mm.; minimum,
27 mm.; average, 55 mm.: width--average, 19 mm.: thickness--average, 7
mm. The illustrated example provided the following measurements: length,
45 mm.; width of blade, 20 mm.; width at base, 13 mm.; thickness, 5 mm.;
depth of basal concavity, 4 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex, but may be plano-convex.
Blade edges are excurvate above the hafting area. Distal ends are acute.
The hafting area is expanded pointed, with deeply incurvate, steeply
flaked basal edge.

FLAKING: Shallow, random flaking was used to shape the faces of the
blade and hafting area. Fairly broad flakes were removed in shaping the
blade edges, followed by very fine secondary retouching along the edges.
Large flakes were often removed in forming the basal concavity and
several short narrow flakes were removed to form a steeply flaked basal
edge. Local materials were used, especially Ft. Payne chert.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from points found on the Stone Pipe Site
(Cambron, 1955a) in the Wheeler Basin of the Tennessee River, Limestone
County, Alabama. The illustrated example is from this site (Cambron
156). Two points similar to Wheeler Recurvate were found at the
Scharbauer Site near Midland, Texas (Wendorf, Krieger, Albritton and
Stewart, 1955). One was near human bones in Locality 1 and one was from
Locality 2. Both were in association with early materials, especially
Folsom materials. A radiocarbon date of 20,000 years ago was secured
from fire hearth at the site (Associated Press story in The Nashville
Tennessean, Oct. 14, 1956). The type is similar to McKean points, but
appears to be older and, unlike McKean points, the basal edge is steeply
beveled. This type appears with Wheeler Excurvate and Wheeler Triangular
points on pre-shellmound sites in North Alabama. Evidence indicates a
transitional Paleo-Indian association.


WHEELER TRIANGULAR, =Cambron= (Cambron, 1955a and 1957): A-87

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a small to medium sized auriculate point
with incurvate base, steeply worked basal edge, and straight blade
edges.

MEASUREMENTS: In gathering data for the type, large Wheeler Excurvate
points were included in the measurements; therefore, measurements of a
series are not available. The illustrated example provided the following
measurements: length, 81 mm.; width of blade, 24 mm.; width at base, 21
mm.; thickness, 8 mm.; depth of basal concavity, 8 mm.

FORM: The cross-section is usually biconvex, but may be plano-convex.
Blade edges are straight. Distal ends are acute. The hafting area is
parallel-pointed with deeply incurvate, steeply flaked basal edge.

FLAKING: Shallow, random flaking was used to shape the faces of the
blade and hafting area. Fairly broad flakes were removed in shaping the
blade edges, followed by very fine secondary retouching along the edges.
Large flakes were often removed in forming the basal concavity, and
several short narrow flakes were removed to form a steeply flaked basal
edge. Local materials were used, especially Ft. Payne chert.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from points found on the Stone Pipe Site
(Cambron, 1955) in the Wheeler Basin of the Tennessee River, Limestone
County, Alabama. The illustrated example is from this site, Cambron 156.
At the Quad Site (Cambron and Hulse, 1960a), an example recovered from
Stratum I had probably weathered from Stratum III, where it would have
been in association with transitional Paleo-Indian materials.


WHITE SPRINGS, =Hulse= (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962): A-88

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: This is a medium sized point with short, broad stem
and excurvate blade edges.

MEASUREMENTS: Fourteen paratypes, including the illustrated example,
provided the following measurements: length--maximum, 66 mm.; minimum,
42 mm.; average, 50 mm.: shoulder width--maximum, 36 mm.; minimum, 28
mm.; average, 32 mm.: stem length--maximum, 24 mm.; minimum, 17 mm.;
average, 20 mm.: stem length--maximum, 7 mm.; minimum, 3 mm.; average, 6
mm.: thickness--maximum, 10 mm.; minimum, 3 mm.; average, 9 mm.

FORM: The cross-section may be biconvex or flattened. Shoulders are
horizontal and narrow. Blade edges are slightly excurvate, rarely
incurvate. The distal end is acute. The hafting area is stemmed, with
straight side edges. The basal edge is thinned and usually straight, but
may be incurvate and may be ground.

FLAKING: Shallow, random, rarely transverse oblique, flaking was used to
shape the blade and stem faces. Blade and stem edges were retouched by
removal of short, probably pressure, flakes.

[Illustration]

COMMENTS: The type was named from points found in the White Springs area
on the north side of the Tennessee River in Limestone County, Alabama.
The illustrated holotype is from Hulse Site 17 in Limestone County,
Alabama. Examples appear to be more numerous in the Tennessee River
Valley of North Alabama, where they are found on early Archaic sites.
Three points (l, n, and o, Plate 12, Page 45) listed among examples of
Sykes points from the Eva Site (Lewis and Lewis, 1961) appear to fit
into the White Springs type. Most examples found at Stanfield-Worley
Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962) were from the
lower levels of Zone A (early Archaic), and one example was among the
artifacts associated with Burial 8 at this site. This was an early
Archaic burial featuring Morrow Mountain points. Examples were
illustrated (Webb and DeJarnette, 1942) from sub-mound Burial 88 from
Site Ct 27 in the Pickwick Basin of the Tennessee River. Observed
materials from many North Alabama sites suggest a typological
relationship between White Springs, Benton Stemmed, and Buzzard Roost
Creek points. Benton Stemmed is thought to have been in use later than
White Springs and possibly than Buzzard Roost Creek. An early Archaic
association is suggested, with an estimated date of 5000 B.C. to about
4000 B.C. or later.



PROVISIONAL POINT TYPES


This group includes points that are probably extreme variants of named
types, unfinished points, and points that have not proven distinctive
enough to be recognized as a definite type. As further work is carried
out and more materials become available for observation, some named
types may be separated from these generalized types as has been done
with some of the provisional types originally set up.

Illustrations are oversize to show the flaking more clearly.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: Small to large sized, straight stemmed points that
do not conform with certainty to any of the named type descriptions.

COMMENTS: At Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961)
examples from the Archaic Stratum II were slightly larger than examples
from Woodland and Mississippian Stratum I. At Stanfield-Worley Bluff
Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962) this was the most
numerous provisional type, and most examples appeared in the upper half
of Zone A (Archaic and later).

Provisional Type 1--Stemmed, =Cambron and Waters= (Cambron and Waters,
1961)

[Illustration: A-90]

Provisional Type 2--Expanded Stem, =Cambron and Waters= (Cambron and
Waters, 1961)

[Illustration: A-91]

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: Small to large expanded stem points that do not
conform with certainty to any of the named type descriptions.

COMMENTS: At Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961) the
type was slightly smaller than Provisional Type 1--Stemmed, and examples
from Stratum I (Woodland and Mississippian) were slightly longer than
examples from Stratum II (Archaic). At Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter
(DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962) practically all examples were
recovered from Zone A (Archaic and later), with most examples from the
upper half of this zone.

Provisional Type 3--(See Crawford Creek)

Provisional Type 4--Stemmed Barbed, =Cambron and Waters= (Cambron and
Waters, 1961)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: Usually small to medium sized, stemmed points, with
barbed shoulders, that do not conform to a named type description.

COMMENTS: At Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and Waters, 1961)
examples from Stratum I (Woodland and Mississippian) were slightly
larger than examples from Stratum II (Archaic). Of the few examples
recovered from the Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack
and Cambron, 1962), most were from late Archaic or early Woodland
strata.

[Illustration: A-92]

Provisional Type 5--Stemmed and Serrated, =Cambron and Waters= (Cambron
and Waters, 1961)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: Small to large stemmed points, with serrated blade
edges, that do not conform to a named type description.

COMMENTS: Examples are more likely to occur in Archaic than Woodland
association.

[Illustration: A-93]

[Illustration: A-94]

Provisional Type 6--Unfinished Base, =Cambron and Waters= (Cambron and
Waters, 1961)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: Usually medium sized points with finished blade and
unfinished base that do not conform to any named type description.

COMMENTS: The only two examples recovered from Flint Creek Rock Shelter
(Cambron and Waters, 1961) were from Stratum I (Woodland and
Mississippian). The three examples from Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter
(DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962) were from the upper half of Zone
A (Archaic and later).

Provisional Type 7--(See Elora)

Provisional Type 8--Corner Notched, =Cambron and Waters= (Cambron and
Waters, 1961)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A small to large sized corner notched point that
does not conform to a named type description.

COMMENTS: Basal edges may be ground and blade edges may be serrated or
beveled. Larger examples are usually associated with early Archaic
cultures.

[Illustration: A-95]

[Illustration: A-96]

Provisional Type 9--Side Notched, =Cambron and Waters= (Cambron and
Waters, 1961)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A small to large side notched point that does not
conform to a named type description.

COMMENTS: May appear in association with Archaic or Woodland cultural
materials.

Provisional Type 10--Eccentric Notched, =Cambron and Waters= (Cambron
and Waters, 1961)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A medium sized, stemmed point with several
eccentric notches along the blade edges that does not conform to any
named type description.

COMMENTS: This is a relatively rare point. One example was recovered
from Stratum II (Archaic) at Flint Creek Rock Shelter (Cambron and
Water, 1961). One example of unknown provenience was illustrated as type
51 by Webb and DeJarnette (1942, Plate 294-1) from Ct 27. An example was
illustrated by Travis and Lenser (1960, Fig. 7-G) from the Sugar Creek
area of the Tennessee Valley.

[Illustration: A-97]

[Illustration: A-98]

Provisional Type 11--Triangular, =Cambron and Waters= (Cambron and
Waters, 1961)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A small to large triangular point that does not
conform to a named type description.

COMMENTS: May appear in association with Transitional Paleo and later
cultural materials.

[Illustration: A-99]

Provisional Type 12--Rounded Base, =Cambron and Hulse= (Cambron and
Hulse, 1960b)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: Small to large, rounded base, trianguloid point
that does not conform to the description of a named type.

COMMENTS: Examples were recovered from early Archaic through late
Woodland strata at Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack
and Cambron, 1962).

Provisional Type 13--Notched Convex Stem, =Cambron and Hulse= (Cambron
and Hulse, 1960b)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A medium to large point that usually has a rounded
stem with notches in the stem adjacent to the shoulders and that does
not conform to the description of a named type.

COMMENTS: A comparatively rare point that may prove to be a definite
type, although at present the few examples are too variable to define as
a type. An example was recovered from Level 2 (Woodland) of Zone A at
Stanfield-Worley Bluff Shelter (DeJarnette, Kurjack and Cambron, 1962).

[Illustration: A-100]



ALABAMA COUNTIES


[Illustration: State map]



DISTRIBUTION CHART


                                               n
                        s e         e          o w           a     n
      A a n r     k   n r e n w     n   t h    t a n         i   e i
      M g i u   t c r u e k o a e   r e r u    g h a   s b e b h t l
      A u w o   n o e o b o t t k   u e e c  a n s m   a l r m a t k
      B a d b b u l l h m r l c r y b f b e  s i n l e l a o a w e n
      A t l r b o l t l a e i o a a e f l n  o v e l l l K m c o y a
      L u a a i l u u a h h h h l l l o o o  o o r u a a e l s t a r
      A A B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C  C C C C D D D E E E F F

  A1                                    1                         13 A1
  A1a                                   4                          7 A1a
  A2                                                                 A2
  A4                                                               2 A4
  A5                                  2 1                            A5
  A5a                                                              2 A5a
  A6                                    4                          3 A6
  A7                                                               1 A7
  A9                                   33                        301 A9
  A9a                                                             18 A9a

  A10           1                      11                         11 A10
  A11           1                      14                         17 A11
  A12                                   5                          3 A12
  A13                                                              5 A13
  A14           1                       7                          1 A14
  A16           2                    2 15                         25 A16
  A17                                                                A17
  A18                                   1                            A18
  A19                                   3                          3 A19
  A19a                                                               A19a

  A20                                   2                          4 A20
  A20a                                                            17 A20a
  A21                                   2                          5 A21
  A21a                                  1                            A21a
  A21b                                                               A21b
  A22                                 1 1                          4 A22
  A23                                                                A23
  A24                                 2 8                          6 A24
  A24a                                 18                         21 A24a
  A25           1                     1 4                         13 A25

  A26                                                              2 A26
  A27                                 7 9                          8 A27
  A28                                   2                         12 A28
  A29                                 3 5                          3 A29
  A30                                 6                            1 A30
  A31           3                       2                          9 A31
  A32                                                                A32
  A33                                   8                         67 A33
  A34                                 6 1                         10 A34
  A34a                                  2                          4 A34a

  A35                                  10                         35 A35
  A36                                                                A36
  A37           1                    1 31                        164 A37
  A38                                   1                          1 A38
  A39                                                                A39
  A40                                                              8 A40
  A41                                                                A41
  A42                                   3                          2 A42
  A43           1                    4 14                          9 A43
  A44                                                                A44


                      e                        y
                  n   l     e                  r             r     a
                  o   a e   n           l      e         h   i     g
              n n s   d c   o s   n o   l      m     s   p l a     e
      a e     o o r   r n   t e   o g n a e  e o n   n   l l l y r d
      v n   y t s e r e e   s d n s n o h l  o g a y e   o e C b e a
      e e e r s k f a d r   e n o i e i s i  r t g r k e d s   l t l
      n e l n u c f m u w e m w c d r r r b  n n r r c k n s . e m l
      e r a e o a e a a a e i o a a a a a o  o o o e i i a u t h u a
      G G H H H J J L L L L L L M M M M M M  M M M P P P R R S S S T

  A1                    2  25     8             4                    A1
  A1a                   1  13     1             2                    A1a
  A2                        1     1                                  A2
  A4                        1                                        A4
  A5                       15                                        A5
  A5a                      14                                        A5a
  A6            2          25     2            12                    A6
  A7                       17    16                                  A7
  A9           14      51 319    85            25                    A9
  A9a                  12   3    10                                  A9a

  A10          22       4 697   194            31        1           A10
  A11          10       6  39   193             1                    A11
  A12           1       4  58    15             4                    A12
  A13                                                                A13
  A14           1       4  20    26             4                    A14
  A16          33       2 128    75            21            1       A16
  A17           1          10                   4                    A17
  A18           5          11    24             3                    A18
  A19                   2  19    19             3                    A19
  A19a                      4     2             1                    A19a

  A20           3         134    10            32                    A20
  A20a          5       2 259    14            59                    A20a
  A21           3       2  36    14            27                    A21
  A21a                     10     1             2                    A21a
  A21b                      4                   5                    A21b
  A22           1           5     1             2                    A22
  A23                       1                                        A23
  A24          18       3  69    18            10                    A24
  A24a          1      48  51    20             8                    A24a
  A25           8       5 124    35            11                    A25

  A26           6       1  27     6             1                    A26
  A27           6       2 151    89             1                    A27
  A28                   4  12    18                                  A28
  A29           1       1  46    72             5                    A29
  A30           1          38     3                                  A30
  A31           1       3  54    46                                  A31
  A32                   1                                            A32
  A33           4      19 202    26            16                    A33
  A34           3       3 141    53            12                    A34
  A34a                  1 105     6             3                    A34a

  A35                      42     3             6                    A35
  A36                       3                                        A36
  A37          15      61 292    54            52        1           A37
  A38                      11    14             5                    A38
  A39                      12     3            11                    A39
  A40                      39    23                          1       A40
  A41                   1  28     5            28                    A41
  A42                       9     1             1                    A42
  A43          32       9 145    51            42            1       A43
  A44                       1                                        A44


      a a   n
      s s   o
      o o   t       e       e
      o o   g   n   c n     b
      p l r n x o   n l     m
      a a e i o t . e o e . o
      l c k h c s N r c n C c
      l s l s l n N w n y   n
      a u a a i i E a i a . u
      T T W W W W T L L W N B

  A1                  3       A1
  A1a               1         A1a
  A2                          A2
  A4                          A4
  A5        2              22 A5
  A5a      29              27 A5a
  A6                  1       A6
  A7                          A7
  A9               14 16      A9
  A9a       7       2         A9a

  A10                 12    1 A10
  A11                  9 1    A11
  A12               2 17      A12
  A13      86                 A13
  A14       2          9    1 A14
  A16       1       1  9    5 A16
  A17                         A17
  A18                         A18
  A19                  1      A19
  A19a                        A19a

  A20               1         A20
  A20a                        A20a
  A21                  7 1    A21
  A21a      1                 A21a
  A21b                        A21b
  A22                  3      A22
  A23                         A23
  A24               1  3      A24
  A24a             11 11      A24a
  A25                 27      A25

  A26                         A26
  A27       8       1  1      A27
  A28       1          1      A28
  A29       4          4      A29
  A30       1                 A30
  A31                  4    1 A31
  A32                         A32
  A33              14  8      A33
  A34       5         37      A34
  A34a      3       2         A34a

  A35                 14      A35
  A36                         A36
  A37      12      50 26 45   A37
  A38       3          6      A38
  A39                         A39
  A40                  3      A40
  A41                         A41
  A42                  1      A42
  A43       3       2  3      A43
  A44                      35 A44

                                               n
                        s e         e          o w           a     n
      A a n r     k   n r e n w     n   t h    t a n         i   e i
      M g i u   t c r u e k o a e   r e r u    g h a   s b e b h t l
      A u w o   n o e o b o t t k   u e e c  a n s m   a l r m a t k
      B a d b b u l l h m r l c r y b f b e  s i n l e l a o a w e n
      A t l r b o l t l a e i o a a e f l n  o v e l l l K m c o y a
      L u a a i l u u a h h h h l l l o o o  o o r u a a e l s t a r
      A A B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C  C C C C D D D E E E F F



  A44a                                                               A44a
  A45                                                              9 A45
  A46                                   1                          2 A46
  A47                                   2                            A47
  A48                                   1                          1 A48
  A49                                 1                            1 A49
  A50                                 2 1                          7 A50
  A50a                                  3                         16 A50a
  A51                                 1 6                         17 A51
  A52                                 1 1                         29 A52

  A53                                   1                            A53
  A54                                                                A54
  A55                                   1                            A55
  A56                                  18                         31 A56
  A57                                                              6 A57
  A58                                                                A58
  A59                                 3                              A59
  A59a                                                               A59a
  A60                                 1 33                       160 A60
  A60a                                                               A60a

  A61                                   8                          9 A61
  A61a                                                             2 A61a
  A61b                                  3                         21 A61b
  A62                                   3                            A62
  A63            3                      1                            A63
  A64                                                              1 A64
  A65                                                                A65
  A66                                                                A66
  A67                                                              1 A67
  A68                                                                A68

  A69            1                    7 4                         23 A69
  A70                                   4                         12 A70
  A70a                                6 2                          6 A70a
  A71                                                                A71
  A72                                   1                          4 A72
  A72a                                                               A72a
  A73                                   2                          3 A73
  A73a                                                               A73a
  A74                                   1                            A74
  A75                                                                A75

  A76                                                                A76
  A77                                                                A77
  A78                                                             10 A78
  A79                                                                A79
  A80                                                                A80
  A8l            2                     16                         21 A81
  A82                                                                A82
  A84                                 2 7                         35 A84
  A85                                                                A85
  A86                                                                A86


                      e                        y
                  n   l     e                  r             r     a
                  o   a e   n           l      e         h   i     g
              n n s   d c   o s   n o   l      m     s   p l a     e
      a e     o o r   r n   t e   o g n a e  e o n   n   l l l y r d
      v n   y t s e r e e   s d n s n o h l  o g a y e   o e C b e a
      e e e r s k f a d r   e n o i e i s i  r t g r k e d s   l t l
      n e l n u c f m u w e m w c d r r r b  n n r r c k n s . e m l
      e r a e o a e a a a e i o a a a a a o  o o o e i i a u t h u a
      G G H H H J J L L L L L L M M M M M M  M M M P P P R R S S S T

  A44a                                                               A44a
  A45                      54     6              3                   A45
  A46                   1  14    10              1                   A46
  A47                       1     4                                  A47
  A48                   1  19    16                          1       A48
  A49                   1  46     2              7                   A49
  A50                   1 131    55            156                   A50
  A50a                  4 262    82             22                   A50a
  A51                   5 122    17             19                   A51
  A52                   3  90    60             20                   A52

  A53                      22     2              2                   A53
  A54                       5     1              2                   A54
  A55                   1  46    27              1                   A55
  A56                  23  61    10              6                   A56
  A57                   3  51     4     2        2                   A57
  A58                                                                A58
  A59                      10     1              5                   A59
  A59a                      2     2              1                   A59a
  A60                  19 560    68             60        1  1       A60
  A60a                  4 160     9             20                   A60a

  A61                   3 138    83             16                   A61
  A61a                  1  89     9              6                   A61a
  A61b                  1  97    74              3                   A61b
  A62                     199    14              8                   A62
  A63                      52     2              2                   A63
  A64                       4     2              2                   A64
  A65                       5     5              1                   A65
  A66                      13    13              2                   A66
  A67                      10                    1                   A67
  A68                                            1                   A68

  A69                  13 181    59              8                   A69
  A70                   2 240    39              6                   A70
  A70a                  1  17    13              2                   A70a
  A71                       1                                        A71
  A72                   2  29    47                                  A72
  A72a                     12     1              1                   A72a
  A73                   1  15    13              1                   A73
  A73a                      1                    1                   A73a
  A74                      10    12              1                   A74
  A75                       2                                        A75

  A76                                                                A76
  A77                                                                A77
  A78                   3  28    15              1                   A78
  A79                      16     2                                  A79
  A80                       5     3                                  A80
  A81                  22 155   166             44           1       A81
  A82                                                                A82
  A84                   1 179    25             58                   A84
  A85                      13     3                                  A85
  A86                       3                                        A86


      a a   n
      s s   o
      o o   t       e       e
      o o   g   n   c n     b
      p l r n x o   n l     m
      a a e i o t . e o e . o
      l c k h c s N r c n C c
      l s l s l n N w n y   n
      a u a a i i E a i a . u
      T T W W W W T L L W N B

  A44a                     65 A44a
  A45                 5       A45
  A46                 1       A46
  A47                         A47
  A48                         A48
  A49                 9       A49
  A50       1         7       A50
  A50a      3         1       A50a
  A51                 5       A51
  A52                 7     5 A52

  A53                 1       A53
  A54       1               1 A54
  A55                 1       A55
  A56       6      18 2 3     A56
  A57       5       6 4       A57
  A58                         A58
  A59                         A59
  A59a                        A59a
  A60                 3     4 A60
  A60a                1       A60a
  A61                21    27 A61
  A61a                1       A61a
  A61b              4 12   16 A61b
  A62       1       2  3      A62
  A63              11         A63
  A64                         A64
  A65                         A65
  A66                 16      A66
  A67                         A67
  A68                         A68

  A69      20       8 15 1  3 A69
  A70       2          1      A70
  A70a      1                 A70a
  A71                         A71
  A72                         A72
  A72a                        A72a
  A73                         A73
  A74                         A74
  A75                      29 A75

  A76                         A76
  A77                         A77
  A78                6 1    8 A78
  A80                         A80
  A81                1 1      A81
  A82                         A82
  A84       3        6 10     A84
  A85                         A85
  A86                   1     A86


                                                n
                         s e         e          o w           a
       A a n r     k   n r e n w     n   t h    t a n         i   e
       M g i u   t c r u e k o a e   r e r u    g h a   s b e b h t
       A u w o   n o e o b o t t k   u e e c  a n s m   a l r m a t
       B a d b b u l l h m r l c r y b f b e  s i n l e l a o a w e
       A t l r b o l t l a e i o a a e f l n  o v e l l l k m c o y
       L u a a i l u u a h h h h l l l o o o  o o r u a a e l s t a
       A A B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C  C C C C D D D E E E F


  A87                                                               A87
  A88                                   13                          A88
  A89                                    4                          A89
  A90           23                  88 369                          A90
  A91            4                  17  58                          A91
  A92                                                               A92
  A93                                                               A93
  A94                                                               A94
  A95                                4   6                          A95
  A96            1                   4   3                          A96

  A97                                                               A97
  A98                                9  69                          A98
  A99                                   10                          A99
  A100                                                              A100
  A103                               4                              A103
  A105                                   2                          A105
  A106                                                              A106
  A107                                                              A107
  A108                                                              A108
  A109                                                              A109

  A110                                                              A110
  A111                                                              A111
  A112                                                              A112
  A113                                                              A113
  A114                                                              A114
  A115                                                              A115
  A116                                                      21      A116
  A117                                                              A117
  A118                                                     4        A118
  A119                                                              A119

  A121                                                         4    A121
  A122                                                         6    A122
  A123  12                                                          A123
  A124                                                              A124
  A126                                                              A126
  A127                                                              A127
  A130                                                              A130
  A131                                   5                          A131
  A133                                                              A133
  A134                                                    11        A134

  A135                                                              A135
  A136                                                              A136
  A137                40                                            A137
  A138                                                              A138


                         e                        y
                     n   l     e                  r             r
       n             o   a e   n           l      e         h   i
       i         n n s   d c   o s   n o   l      m     s   p l a
       l a e     o o r   r n   t e   o g n a  e e o n   n   l l l y
       k v n   y t s e r e e   s d n s n o h  l o g a y e   o e C b
       n e e e r s k f a d r   e n o i e i s  i r t g r k e d s   l
       a n e l n u c f m u w e m w c d r r r  b n n r r c k n s . e
       r e r a e o a e a a a e i o a a a a a  o o o o e i i a u t h
       F G G H H H J J L L L L L L M M M M M  M M M M P P P R R S S

  A87                            6                                  A87
  A88                          221 88               2               A88
  A89                          116 48              10               A89
  A90                         3151 2487    6      675       3   8   A90
  A91                          760 539     3      162             1 A91
  A92                           36  6              12               A92
  A93                            1                  1               A93
  A94                            7   1                              A94
  A95                           85 17               1               A95
  A96                           66 30              14               A96

  A97                            4                                  A97
  A98                          464 391            151       1   1   A98
  A99                           87 117             69             2 A99
  A100                           7                  2               A100
  A103                           5                                  A103
  A105                          72   3              5               A105
  A106                         133  6               8               A106
  A107                                              1               A107
  A108                           3                                  A108
  A109                           4   3                              A109

  A110    1                                                         A110
  A111                                                              A111
  A112                                                              A112
  A113                                                              A113
  A114                                                              A114
  A115                                                              A115
  A116                                                              A116
  A117                               7                              A117
  A118 4                 3                                          A118
  A119 4                 3                                          A119

  A121                10                                            A121
  A122                                                              A122
  A123                                                              A123
  A124                   2                                          A124
  A126                   7                                          A126
  A127                   1                                          A127
  A130                                                      30 2048 A130
  A131                                                              A131
  A133                  10                                          A133
  A134                   3                                          A134

  A135                                                              A135
  A136                                                              A136
  A137                                       7                      A137
  A138                   1                                          A138


          a a   n
        a s s   o             s
        g o o   t             y e       e      Y         d
        e o o   g   n   m     e c n     b      K   A     n
      r d p l r n x o   o b   r n l     m    e C   I w   o
      e a a a e i o t . t l n h e o e   o    m U n G o e m
      t l l c k h c s N a a o p r c n . c .  o T a R t k h
      m l l s l s l n N e k x m w n y C n Y  o N g O r r c
      u a a u a a i i E h e i u a i a . u .  r E o E a u i
      S T T T W W W W T C D D H L L W N B N  B K L G B B R

  A87                                                      A87
  A88                          4  50                       A88
  A89                          5   7                       A89
  A90        120             181 115 16 150                A90
  A91         28              26 175  2  11                A91
  A92          2               1   3      2                A92
  A93                                                      A93
  A94                          2                           A94
  A95          2                   6                       A95
  A96          2                  13                       A96

  A97                                                      A97
  A98         12              49 171      2                A98
  A99          2               7  53  2  23                A99
  A100         1                   2                       A100
  A103                                                     A103
  A105                         1                           A105
  A106                             1                       A106
  A107                                                     A107
  A108                                                     A108
  A109                                                     A109

  A110                                                     A110
  A111                                                     A111
  A112                                   18                A112
  A113                                   74                A113
  A114                                                     A114
  A115                                                     A115
  A116                                                     A116
  A117                                                     A117
  A118                                                     A118
  A119                                                     A119

  A121                                                     A121
  A122                                                     A122
  A123                                                     A123
  A124                                       7   8         A124
  A126                                                     A126
  A127                                               4     A127
  A130                 30   2048                           A130
  A131                                                     A131
  A133                                                     A133
  A134                                                     A134

  A135                                                 9   A135
  A136                                                     A136
  A137  7                                                  A137
  A138                                                  10 A138



GLOSSARY


This glossary was compiled from words used in the text and with the
illustrations used to illustrate nomenclature in this paper, and from A
Glossary of Flint Flaking Terms in "A Comparative Study of Some
Unfinished Fluted Points and Channel Flakes from the Tennessee Valley"
(Cambron and Hulse, 1961), "Principles of Stratigraphy" (Grabau, 1960),
and a glossary of archaeological terms by T. M. N. Lewis (1958). Words
defined by Lewis are followed by the initial "L" and those by Grabau by
the initial "G".

     Aborigine (L)--a native inhabitant of a country; in America, the
     Indian.

     Acuminate--See Fig. 28.

     Acute--See Fig. 27.

     Apiculate--See Fig. 31.

     Archaic (L)--The culture which followed the Paleo-Indian period and
     preceded the early Woodland culture in the eastern United States.
     This was a pre-agricultural, pre-pottery culture. Food was obtained
     by hunting and gathering. Earliest date (Rocha-Carbon) in Tennessee
     is about 5000 B.C.

     Arrowhead, Arrowpoint (L)--a weapon point generally regarded to be
     less than 2-1/2 inches in length. Longer points are regarded as
     spearpoints and knives.

     Artifact (L)--an object of human workmanship, especially one of
     prehistoric origin.

     Assemblage--a group of artifacts representing a culture.

     Atlatl (L)--the Aztec word for spear-thrower. The device is a
     wooden stick with a hand grip at one end and a spur or hook at the
     other which fits into the socketed end of a spear shaft. The device
     lengthens the throwing arm and gives greater force to the spear.

     Auricle--applied to the ear-like parts of a projectile point.

     Auriculate--having auricles or ear-like parts. See Fig. 33-38 & 63.

     Autotype (G)--a specimen not belonging to the primary material but
     identified with an already described and named type and selected by
     the nomenclator himself for the purpose of further illustrating his
     type.

     Barb--a barbed shoulder of a point. See Fig. 13-14.

     Base--the proximal end or area of a point nearest the haft. In
     describing point types, the base is assumed to be the lowest part
     of the point, thus the distal end is the uppermost part.

     Basal Constriction--See Hafting Constriction.

     Basal Grinding (L)--the grinding away of the sharp basal edges and
     lateral edges near the base of a projectile point to prevent
     cutting of the lashings.

     Basal Notching--See Fig. 39-41.

     Basal Thinning (L)--produced to remove small, longitudinal flakes
     from the basal edge of a projectile point. See Fig. 68.

     Baton Flaking--removal of flakes from stone by striking blows with
     a baton-like tool. A method of direct percussion flaking.

     Beveled--See Fig. 23, 24, 64 and 69.

     Beveled Base--See Fig. 69.

     Biconvex--See Fig. 1.

     Bifaced (L)--a term applied to flaked stone artifacts that have
     been worked on both faces.

     Bifurcated Stem--See Fig. 61.

     Blade--that part of a projectile point above the hafting area.

     Blade Scar--a uniface scar surface resulting from a blade having
     been struck from a core. As another blade is struck from the core,
     it bears the blade scar of the previous blade.

     Bulb of Percussion--a bulb resulting from a conchoidal fracture of
     stone.

     Bulbar Depression--the depression left from the bulb of percussion
     when a blade or flake is struck from a core.

     Ceramic (L)--pertaining to pottery.

     Chalcedony--a flint-like stone with a waxy appearance. Alabama
     sources are usually nodular.

     Channel Flake (L)--a long flake removed longitudinally from the
     face of a blade to form a flute or channel.

     Chert (L)--an impure variety of flint.

     Chip--See Flake.

     Chronology (L)--the arrangement of events, or the material
     representing them, in the order of their occurrence in time.

     Collateral Flaking--See Fig. 71.

     Concave--See Incurvate.

     Conchoidal (L)--shaped like half of a clam shell; refers to the
     characteristic fractures resulting from pressure and percussion
     flaking of flint.

     Conglomerate (L)--conglomerate rock is composed of rounded pebbles
     and sand cemented together into solid rock.

     Conoidal Theory of Flint Fracture--the theory that ideally a cone
     will be punched out of a piece of flint when it is struck with
     sufficient force.

     Contracted Pointed--See Fig. 54.

     Contracted Rounded--See Fig. 53.

     Contracted Stem--See Fig. 52.

     Core (L)--a stone, usually flint, from which flakes have been
     removed by percussion.

     Corner Notched--See Fig. 40.

     Cotype (G)--an example of the original series when there is no
     holotype, the describer having used a number of examples as of
     equal value.

     Culture (L)--the way of life of a group of people, comprising all
     their activities and beliefs. Archaeologically, a culture is
     represented by the material remains left by a group.

     Cultural Complex (L)--a group of traits whose associations in time
     and space indicate that they were the products of the activities of
     a specific human group.

     Deposit (L)--any accumulation laid down by human occupational
     activities.

     Diagonal Notches--See Fig. 40.

     Direct Percussion--flaking flint by striking it directly with a
     hammerstone or other object.

     Distal (L)--when applied to a bone, it is the end farthest from the
     body.

     Distal End--when applied to a projectile point or other hafted
     artifact, it is the end farthest from the point of attachment.

     Drift--an implement, usually made of antler, used in indirect
     percussion flaking.

     Ear--See Auricle.

     Early Archaic--an early phase of the Archaic culture that may be
     represented by notched projectile points and is considered
     pre-shellmound in North Alabama.

     Excurvate Base--See Fig. 48.

     Excurvate Blade--See Fig. 16.

     Excurvate-Incurvate--See Fig. 21.

     Expanded Barbs--See Fig. 14.

     Expanded-Pointed--See Fig. 34.

     Expanded-Rounded--See Fig. 36.

     Expanded Shoulder--See Fig. 12.

     Expanded Stem--See Fig. 51.

     Expanded Stem Side Edges--See Fig. 57.

     Face--the area of a projectile point or tool between the edges.
     This may include the blade and hafting area.

     Flake--in flint work it is a thin piece split from the parent
     material or core; to remove flakes from parent materials in flint
     work.

     Flake Scar--a scar on the parent material resulting from the
     removal of a flake.

     Flaking--the removing of flakes from a core or artifact in flint
     working.

     Flaking Tool--an implement used in flaking stone tools; it is often
     made from an antler tine.

     Flat Flaking--See Shallow Flaking.

     Flattened--See Fig. 4.

     Flute or Flute Scar--the scar left on the face of a projectile
     point as a result of fluting or removal of a channel flake.

     Fluted Cross-Section--See Fig. 6.

     Ground--areas, especially hafting area edges, that have been
     abraded smooth.

     Haft (L)--a handle (or shaft); to provide with a handle.

     Hafting Area--the area of a point or tool that receives the
     lashings, etc. in hafting procedures; the proximal end of a
     projectile point.

     Hafting Constriction--a hafting area that is constricted along the
     side edges.

     Hammerstone (L)--a hard pebble showing battering from use as a
     hammer.

     Hinge Fracture--when the terminal end of a blade or flake, being
     struck from the parent material, makes a sharp dip into the
     material causing a deep fracture, it is called a hinge fracture. If
     a fracture of this type occurs during the removal of a channel
     flake from a projectile point it usually breaks at the terminal end
     of the channel flake.

     Holotype (G)--among the primary types a holotype is the original
     specimen selected as the type, and from which the original
     description (protolog), or the original illustration (protograph),
     is made.

     Homotype (G)--a homotype is a specimen not used in the literature
     but identified by a specialist, after comparing with the holotype.

     Horizontal Shoulder--See Fig. 7.

     Horizontal Transverse Flaking--See Fig. 72.

     Impact Fracture--a fracture of a projectile point resulting from
     impact during use; a shattering of the distal end of a projectile
     point as a result of impact with a resistant object.

     Incurvate Base--See Fig. 47.

     Incurvate Blade--See Fig. 17.

     Incurvate Stem Side Edges--See Fig. 56.

     Indirect Percussion--flaking flint by striking a drift which has
     been placed against the flint.

     In Situ (L)--in place.

     Inversely Tapered--See Fig. 8.

     Lanceolate--shaped like the head of a lance; of leaves, etc.,
     narrow, and tapered toward the apex, or (sometimes) toward each
     end.

     Lithic (L)--pertaining to stone.

     Main Flute--the central flute struck from the face of a projectile
     point. This is usually the longest flute occurring during multiple
     fluting of a projectile point.

     Median Ridge--a ridge left along the center of the blade of a
     projectile point during manufacture.

     Midden (L)--the deposit of refuse generally present on a village
     site.

     Mississippian Culture (L)--the culture that appeared in the
     Southeast around 1000 years ago. Shows strong Mexican influences
     and is associated with many groups ancestral to the historic
     Muskhogean speaking tribes of the Southeast.

     Mucronate--See Fig. 29.

     Multiple Fluting--multiple fluting is the result of the removal of
     more than one channel flake from one face of a projectile point.
     This is usually accomplished by two primary flutes and a main flute
     being made.

     Notched Blade Edge--See Fig. 26.

     Oblique Transverse Flaking--See Fig. 73.

     Obsidian (L)--a volcanic glass; may be black, brown, or green in
     color.

     Obtuse--See Fig. 30.

     Obverse Face--as a means of identifying the faces of projectile
     points, the obverse face is the one without marks, such as site
     number, etc.

     Paleo-Indian (L)--a name assigned to nomadic groups who were the
     first inhabitants of the new world. Their culture was comparable to
     that of the late Paleolithic of the old world.

     Paleolithic (L)--a term applied to the Stone Age of the old world.
     During this period man had no knowledge of plant and animal
     domestication and no knowledge of pottery and metals.

     Parallel-Angular Blade--See Fig. 19.

     Parallel Blade--See Fig. 18.

     Parallel-Pointed--See Fig. 33.

     Parallel-Rounded--See Fig. 35.

     Patina (L)--an adhesive crust or discoloration produced by
     weathering of an object. It does not necessarily imply great age.

     Percussion Flaking (L)--removal of flakes from stone by striking
     blows with a stone or other hammer.

     Pitch of Striking Platform--the degree of angle resulting from the
     removal of flakes from the base of a point to make a striking
     platform.

     Plano-convex (L)--a term used to describe an object that is flat on
     one face and convex on the other.

     Plesiotype (G)--a plesiotype is a specimen not belonging to the
     primary material but identified with an already described and named
     type and selected by someone else than the original describer for
     the purpose of further illustrating the type.

     Pointed Base--See Fig. 42-45.

     Pointed Stem--See Fig. 62.

     Pressure Flaking (L)--shaping a stone such as an arrowpoint by
     removing flakes from the edges by pressure with a pointed implement
     made of material such as bone or antler.

     Primary Flaking--the first rough series of flakes removed in
     shaping blade or hafting area edges of projectile points or tools.

     Primary Flute--usually one of two short flutes removed from the
     basal face of a point in order to leave a striking nipple.

     Projectile Point (L)--a pointed artifact used on a spear, arrow or
     dart.

     Proximal End--the end of a projectile point to which a haft is
     attached. This is part of the hafting area.

     Quartz (L)--a material frequently used in projectile points and
     other artifacts. When quartz is clear and colorless, it is called
     rock crystal; milky quartz is milky white; smoky quartz is a cloudy
     brown color; rose quartz is a pale red color; sugar quartz is the
     color of brown sugar.

     Quartzite--a granular form of quartz, often quartz fragments
     cemented together.

     Random Flaking--See Fig. 74.

     Recurvate Blade--See Fig. 20.

     Resolved Flaking (L)--the method of striking flakes from a flint
     core by directing the blow inward. A resolved flake struck off in
     this manner is thinner and narrower at the percussion end; the
     flake is thicker and wider at the opposite end, and, when it does
     not extend the full length of the core, it usually ends in a hinge
     fracture.

     Retouch (L)--a term applied to the secondary removal by pressure of
     small flakes from the edge of a flaked stone artifact to produce
     sharpness.

     Reverse Face--the reverse face of a point may be designated as the
     one with the site number, etc., marked on it. This is assumed to be
     the less finished side.

     Reworked--a projectile point or other artifact is said to be
     reworked when the shape has been altered by flaking, grinding,
     etc., either by the manufacturer or other people.

     Rhomboid--See Fig. 2.

     Rind--a deeply weathered area on the outer surface of a nodule or
     chunk of flint or like material.

     Rounded--a term applied to a relatively symmetrical curved area of
     a projectile point.

     Rounded Base--See Fig. 46.

     Rounded Stem--See Fig. 53.

     Secondary Flaking--the removal of small flakes, usually by pressure
     flaking, with a piece of bone or antler. The secondary flaking
     along the edge of the blade of a point is usually designed to
     finish the blade edges.

     Serrated--having intentional toothed projections along an edge.

     Shallow Flaking--the removal of shallow flakes in shaping a
     projectile point or tool.

     Shellmound Archaic--that part of the Archaic period when shellfish
     middens were formed as residue of the gathering economy of the
     people in an area.

     Shoulders--See Fig. 7-12.

     Side Notched--See Fig. 39.

     Spall (L)--waste flake struck from a larger piece of flint.

     Spear Thrower (L)--See Atlatl.

     Stem--a type of hafting area of projectile points. See Fig. 50-54.

     Straight Base--See Fig. 49.

     Straight Blade Edge--See Fig. 15.

     Straight Stem--See Fig. 50.

     Straight Stem Side Edges--See Fig. 55.

     Stratification (L)--formation in strata or layers. When village
     site deposits show more than one stratum formed by successive
     occupations by groups of people, the lowest stratum is the oldest.

     Stratigraphy (L)--the arrangement of strata with respect to
     position in which they were laid down by human occupation or from
     natural causes.

     Striking Nipple--a nipple left near the center of the striking
     platform where a drift may be set to strike the main flute. Usually
     the nipple is formed by the removal of two primary flutes.

     Striking Platform--a prepared basal edge of a projectile point.
     This edge is beveled to a degree of pitch that will allow a drift
     to be set at the proper angle to strike off a channel flake.

     Tapered--See Fig. 9.

     Thinned--See Fig. 68.

     Trait, Culture Trait (L)--any object or other evidence that is the
     result of human behavior or action.

     Transitional--of, pertaining to, characterized by, or involving
     transition; intermediate. In archaeology, usually pertaining to
     evidence of transition from one culture to another.

     Transitional Paleo-Indian--a cultural period intermediate between
     Paleo-Indian and Archaic.

     Typology (L)--a study of arrangement of specimens separated into
     types.

     Unifaced (L)--a term applied to flaked stone artifacts that have
     been worked on one face only.

     Variant--in projectile point typology a variation of the type
     described as of the original series.

     Vein Quartz--a relatively pure type of quartz found in veins in
     igneous areas.

     Woodland Culture (L)--a widespread culture in eastern America which
     appeared in the Southeast about 2000 B.C. The presence of pottery
     differentiates it from the Archaic which preceded it.

     Worked--in projectile point descriptions, describes an area of an
     artifact that has been shaped or altered by man--such as the
     removal of flakes along a blade edge.



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       *       *       *       *       *


TRANSCRIBER NOTES:

    Missing punctuation has been added and obvious punctuation errors
    have been corrected without note.

    Archaic, obsolete and misspelled words have not been changed with
    the exception of those listed below.

    Page numbers have been added to the Contents as an aid to the
    reader. They do not appear in the original.

    Page xiii, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: "member" changed to "members" (many
    members of the Alabama Archaeological Society).

    Page 11: "Archiaic" changed to "Archaic" (Woodland and Archaic point
    types.)

    Page 24: deleted duplicate word "the" (One example from the Big
    Sandy Site in Tennessee).

    Page 30: "suggest" changed to "suggests" (This evidence suggests a
    Woodland association in Alabama.)

    Page 82: "on" changed to "one" (and one each from Level 4, 5 and 7.)

    Page 83: "of" changed to "or" (rarely, excurvate or recurvate.)

    Page 95: "asymetrical" changed to "asymmetrical" (and may be
    asymmetrical.)

    Page 103: "asymetrical" changed to "asymmetrical" (of the measured
    examples had asymmetrical shoulders.)

    Page 106: "shoulders" changed to "shoulder" (Where shoulder barbs
    are present).

    Page 114: "overly" changed to "overlay" (Savannah River points
    overlay the "Old Quartz").

    Page 115: "followin" changed to "following" (provided the following
    measurements).





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